OpenPowerNet User Manual

OpenPowerNet User Manual
OpenPowerNet
User Manual
Institut für Bahntechnik GmbH
Branch Office Dresden
Document No. OPN/51/1.7.1
l:\opn\10_documents\20_program_documentation\20_user_manual\um_opn_51_01.07.01.docx
Author
Review
Release
_____________________
_____________________
_____________________
Date
Date
Date
Martin Jacob
Harald Scheiner
Dr. Jörg von Lingen
Revision Record
Issue
Date
Change Reason
1.7.1 2017-08-04 Fix bookmarks in PDF export, tiny changes
1.7.0 2017-06-22 Fix turnout model in tutorial chapter 5.8.4
Added power at autotransformer to FAQ
Added Network Model Microscopic Viewer
Update various figures, in particulare *.opnengine-Editor and
replace PSC Viewer figures by NMMV figures.
1.6.0 2016-09-30 All chapters, update to 1.6.0 handling and layout
Chapter 6.5 model Earth Conductor: Formula updated
1.5.9 2016-02-04 Chapter 4.4.4 OpenTrack: adding description of train
acceleration delay behaviour for moving block courses.
1.5.8 2015-11-23 Chapter 4.6.3.1 Lines: Add the feature to define time base and
average function for line charts generated by the analysis tool.
Chapter 4.4.3 Naming Conventions: Add note regarding not
allowed characters.
Add chapter 5.7.12 Electric + Diesel hauled trains Tutorial.
1.5.7 2015-07-27 Chapter 4.4.4 OpenTrack: remove 1m edge model constraint
Chapter
4.4.7.4
Power
Supply
Models:
Add
TwoWindingTransformer
parameter
secondaryVoltagePhaseShift_degree
Chapter 4.4.7.5 Rectifier: added including the new loss
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1.5.6
2015-04-27
1.5.3
2014-11-05
1.5.2
2014-05-08
1.5.1
2014-02-10
1.5.0
2013-10-11
1.4.4
1.4.2
1.4.0
2013-07-19
2013-02-12
2012-05-07
1.3.2
2011-06-29
1.3.1
1.3.0
2010-05-17
2010-03-31
1.2.1
1.2.0
1.1.0
1.1
1.0
2010-01-07
2009-09-22
2009-06-26
2008-11-24
2006-04-10
User Manual
Issue 2017-08-04
parameter
Chapter 4.3.9 PSC Viewer: add description of new horizontal
offset behaviour
Chapter 4.4.4 OpenTrack: remove positive chainage constraint
Chapter 4.4.5 Engine-File: add column “unit” to tables
Add some chapters to FAQ, e.g. modelling of running rails. Also
updated some chapters of the Tutorial section to new software
versions.
Add some FAQ, sub chapters to Configuration of
OpenPowerNet.
Add acceleration delay distribution, modify analysis chapter due
to Selection Editor modification.
New auxiliary model, VLD & booster transformer & engine
energy storage tutorial, change structure, add Selection-File
New Feature of Analysis Tool Inline Measurement described.
Update versions and OpenTrack model constraints.
Add simulation time window per network , merge networks,
booster transformer, remove attribute “recordComputation2DB”,
remove example files and refer to Tutorial, update Project-File
description, add VLD model.
Update chapters 4.2.3.3, 4.3, 6.2.3.2, 7.6, 7.12 because of new
min recovery braking speed, new message recording, new
constant voltage engine instead of shortCircuit Engine and
matrix conditional number.
Add Dongle ID configuration
Adding engine energy storage and overview of physical
variables, update Analysis.
Adding chapters 4.2.2, 7.10.
Adding tutorials and update to version 1.2.0.
Update to OpenPowerNet version 1.1.0.
Reworked.
Created.
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Table of Contents
1
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
2
2.1
Introduction ................................................................................................. 7
Overview ..................................................................................................... 7
Versions ...................................................................................................... 7
Acronyms and abbreviations ...................................................................... 7
How to read this Document ........................................................................ 8
Simulation Philosophy ................................................................................ 9
Model Specifics......................................................................................... 10
2.2
3
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
3.6
3.7
Overview of physical variables.................................................................. 10
Application structure ................................................................................. 11
Graphical User Interface ........................................................................... 12
XML Editor ................................................................................................ 13
PSC Viewer .............................................................................................. 15
Network Model Microscopic Viewer .......................................................... 21
ODBC ....................................................................................................... 26
Database .................................................................................................. 27
Database tasks ......................................................................................... 27
3.8
3.9
3.10
3.11
3.12
4
4.1
4.2
4.3
Working directory ...................................................................................... 28
APserver ................................................................................................... 28
Advanced Train Model (ATM) ................................................................... 28
Power Supply Calculation (PSC) .............................................................. 33
Analysis Tool ............................................................................................ 35
OpenPowerNet handling ........................................................................... 36
Folder structure......................................................................................... 36
Configuration of OpenTrack ...................................................................... 36
Configuration of OpenPowerNet ............................................................... 37
4.3.1
4.3.2
4.3.3
4.3.4
4.3.5
4.3.6
4.3.7
4.3.8
4.3.9
4.4
General ..................................................................................................... 37
Analysis .................................................................................................... 39
Debug ....................................................................................................... 44
Message ................................................................................................... 45
Network Model Microscopic Viewer .......................................................... 46
Notification ................................................................................................ 52
OpenTrack ................................................................................................ 53
Server ....................................................................................................... 54
PSC Viewer .............................................................................................. 55
Modelling .................................................................................................. 58
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4.4.1
4.4.2
4.4.3
4.4.4
4.4.5
4.4.6
4.4.7
4.4.8
4.5
Required technical data ............................................................................ 59
Model constraints...................................................................................... 60
Naming Conventions ................................................................................ 61
OpenTrack ................................................................................................ 62
*.opnengine File ........................................................................................ 65
TypeDefs-File ........................................................................................... 71
Project-File ............................................................................................... 72
Switch-File ................................................................................................ 98
Simulation ................................................................................................. 98
4.6
4.6.1
4.6.2
4.6.3
5
5.0
5.1
5.1.1
5.1.2
Visualisation............................................................................................ 100
Prepared Excel files ................................................................................ 100
User defined Excel Filesfiles ................................................................... 101
Automatic Analysis ................................................................................. 107
Tutorials .................................................................................................. 134
General ................................................................................................... 134
AC Network Tutorial................................................................................ 135
Configuration .......................................................................................... 135
Simulation ............................................................................................... 145
5.1.3
5.2
5.2.1
5.2.2
5.2.3
5.3
5.3.1
5.3.2
5.3.3
Analysis .................................................................................................. 146
AC Network with Booster Transformer Tutorial ...................................... 161
Configuration .......................................................................................... 161
Simulation ............................................................................................... 163
Analysis .................................................................................................. 164
2AC Network Tutorial.............................................................................. 166
Configuration .......................................................................................... 166
Simulation ............................................................................................... 168
Analysis .................................................................................................. 169
5.4
5.4.1
5.4.2
5.4.3
5.5
5.5.1
5.5.2
5.5.3
5.6
5.6.1
DC Network Tutorial ............................................................................... 177
Configuration .......................................................................................... 177
Simulation ............................................................................................... 180
Analysis .................................................................................................. 181
DC Network with Energy Storage Tutorial .............................................. 186
Configuration .......................................................................................... 186
Simulation ............................................................................................... 187
Analysis .................................................................................................. 188
DC Network with Voltage Limiting Device Tutorial .................................. 191
Configuration .......................................................................................... 191
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5.6.2
5.6.3
5.7
5.7.1
5.7.2
5.7.3
5.7.4
5.7.5
5.7.6
Simulation ............................................................................................... 192
Analysis .................................................................................................. 192
Engine Model Tutorials ........................................................................... 195
Power Factor Tutorial ............................................................................. 195
Tractive Effort Tutorial ............................................................................ 199
Tractive Current Limitation Tutorial ......................................................... 203
Regenerative Braking Tutorial ................................................................ 204
Brake Current Limitation Tutorial ............................................................ 207
Auxiliary Power Tutorial .......................................................................... 211
5.7.7
5.7.8
5.7.9
5.7.10
5.7.11
5.7.12
5.8
5.8.1
5.8.2
Eddy Current Brake Tutorial ................................................................... 219
Mean Efficiency Model Tutorial ............................................................... 223
Efficiency Table Model Tutorial ............................................................... 223
Single Component Model Tutorial........................................................... 226
Engine Energy Storage Tutorial .............................................................. 231
Electric + Diesel hauled trains Tutorial.................................................... 235
Network Model Tutorials ......................................................................... 239
Substations Tutorial ................................................................................ 239
Neutral Zone Tutorial .............................................................................. 248
5.8.3
5.8.4
5.8.5
6
6.1
6.1.1
6.1.2
6.2
6.3
AC-DC Networks Tutorial ....................................................................... 255
Network with Multiple Lines, Points and Crossings Tutorial .................... 262
Turning Loops Tutorial ............................................................................ 273
FAQ ........................................................................................................ 286
How to deal with broken chainage? ........................................................ 286
Positive broken chainage ........................................................................ 286
Negative broken chainage ...................................................................... 287
How to organise the files and folders? .................................................... 288
How to calculate the equivalent radius? ................................................. 288
6.4
How to model running rails in AC simulation? ........................................ 288
6.5
How to model the Earth Conductor? ....................................................... 291
6.6
How to model a Conductor Switch or an Isolator? .................................. 291
6.7
How to model uncommon power supply systems? ................................. 292
6.8
How to draw a constant current? ............................................................ 292
6.9
How to simulate short circuits? ............................................................... 292
6.10
How to prevent the consideration of the achieved effort in OpenTrack
while using OpenPowerNet? ................................................................................... 293
6.11
How to calculate only a part of the operational infrastructure of OpenTrack
as electrical network in OpenPowerNet? ................................................................. 293
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6.12
6.13
6.14
6.15
6.16
6.17
6.18
6.19
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Where are the XML schemas? ............................................................... 293
Which XML schema is applicable for which XML file? ............................ 293
How to specify a specific license? .......................................................... 294
What is the reciprocal condition? ............................................................ 294
What is the Time-Rated Load Periods Curve (TRLPC)? ........................ 294
What is the mean voltage at the pantograph (Umean useful)? ..................... 294
What are equivalent (SE) and rated power (SN) at the autotransformer? 294
Any other questions? .............................................................................. 295
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1
1.1
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Introduction
Overview
The purpose of this document is to describe the usage of the OpenPowerNet software. It
explains how to configure the software, build the model, run and analyse simulations. This
document corresponds to OpenPowerNet release 1.7.1.
Some of the used package names are brand names registered by companies other than IFB.
Please refer to the license descriptions coming with that software packages.
1.2
Versions
OpenPowerNet requires the following versions of associated applications. Additionally, the
OpenPowerNet software and documentation have their own version.
Applications / Documents
Analysis Tool
Installation Instruction
MariaDB
MySQL ODBC driver
OpenPowerNet
OpenTrack
OPN Database
1.3
Version
1.7.1
1.7.1
5.5.30
5.2.5
1.7.1
1.8.4 (2017-06-06)
20
Acronyms and abbreviations
The following abbreviations are used within this document:
Abbreviation
ATM
CD
CDF
DSN
GUI
HTML
NMMV
OCS
ODBC
OPN
PSC
RailML
RMS
TRLPC
VLD
XML
Description
Advanced Train Model
Compact Disk
Cumulative Distribution Function
Data Source Name
Graphical User Interface
Hyper Text Markup Language
Network Model Microscopic Viewer
Overhead Catenary System
Open Database Connection
OpenPowerNet
Power Supply Calculation
Railway Markup Language
Root Mean Square
Time-Rated Load Periods Curve (see chapter 6.16)
Voltage Limiting Device
Extensible Markup Language
Table 1 Abbreviations
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How to read this Document
This document uses snippets of XML. The XML is highlighted by the following text format
code:
XML marked in green has to correspond with data in OpenTrack.
XML marked in red is required by OpenPowerNet.
XML marked in light orange is optional.
XML marked in dark green is an id/reference between the TypeDefs- and Project-File.
XML evaluated by OpenPowerNet is marked in bold and may be mixed with the colours above.
The blue attributes are not required by OpenPowerNet but by the corresponding schema and have
no effect on the simulation.
Any other XML is just black.
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Simulation Philosophy
position,
effort, speed
effort
PSC
ATM
current
voltage, effort
OpenPowerNet
Figure 1 Overview of co-simulation.
The OpenTrack railway operation simulation is realised by a constant time step calculation.
OpenTrack and OpenPowerNet work together in a so called co-simulation. This means that
both programs are communicating and interacting with each other during the simulation.
Each program respectively module has a clearly delimited task. OpenTrack simulates the
course operation control and the driving dynamics. The OpenPowerNet PSC module
simulates voltages of the electrical network in respect of the course current consumption and
position. The OpenPowerNet engine simulation module (ATM) simulates the requested
current and achieved effort in respect of the available line voltage at course position.
The sequence of simulation starts in OpenTrack. First, a start request is sent to the other
modules and some initial tasks are organised. A matrix representing the electrical network is
set up and the voltages of the electrical network without load are calculated. After
initialisation, the first requested tractive or braking effort of a course is sent from OpenTrack
to the PSC at time step 0. The line voltage of the course corresponding to the course position
calculated in the initial phase is sent to ATM where the achieved effort is calculated and
returned to OpenTrack. If there is more than one course, the calculation of the other course
efforts follows the same principle.
The sequence for the time step 1 follows. The first effort request at time step 1 starts the
network calculation with all known courses from time step 0. Next, the line voltage at course
position is forwarded to ATM and the achieved effort is calculated and sent to OpenTrack. All
other courses follow the same procedure as course 1 but no network calculation will take
place.
In general, at the beginning of each time step, the voltages of the electrical network with the
known course positions and requested efforts of the previous time step are calculated.
Iteration between ATM and PSC takes place and is terminated in case each node voltage
changes less than a configured threshold, e.g. 1V. ATM calculates the current according to
the line voltage simulated by PSC and PSC calculates the line voltage considering the
currents used by the courses. Each course is handled as a current source in the electrical
network.
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Model Specifics
The following model specifics shall be considered during model configuration and analysis.
• The electromagnetic coupling for AC systems is calculated by the software
• Distributed engines within trains are modelled according to the train configuration in
OpenTrack, minimum OpenTrack version is 1.6.5 (2011-05-24).
• In case of two modelled rails for one track, both rails will have the same voltage at each
engine. This represents the electrical connection of both rails via the engine axles.
2.2
Overview of physical variables
The constant time step simulation of driving dynamics and electrical network components
depends on a set of physical variables. These variables and their time of validity during the
calculation in OpenPowerNet are introduced in the table below.
Item
t
s
Description
time step
position on considered line and track
Unit
s
m
v
a
m
F
U
I
Z
P
E
ELoad
ξ
η
vehicle speed
vehicle acceleration
vehicle weight
vehicle effort
electrical voltage
electrical current
electrical impedance
mechanical and electrical power
mechanical and electrical energy
energy storage load
ratio
efficiency
m/s
m/s²
kg
N
V
A
Ω
W
kWh
kWh
%
%
Time of validity
according to time step width
beginning of time step (vehicles)
constant (infrastructure)
beginning of time step
during time step
constant
during time step
during time step
during time step
during time step
during time step
end of time step
beginning of time step
during time step
during time step
Table 2 Overview of physical variables
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Application structure
OpenPowerNet is divided into three logical modules for simulation. The module “Power
Supply Calculation” realises the electrical network calculation, the “Advanced Train Model” is
responsible for the engine calculation and the “APserver” is the communication interface
among the OpenPowerNet modules themselves and to OpenTrack. All three logical modules
are combined in opncore64.exe
The configuration of OpenPowerNet is done within the Graphical User Interface (GUI). The
simulation specific configuration data is stored in XML files and read at the beginning of a
simulation.
The GUI is used to edit the files, to control the simulation, to provide access to the analysis
tools, and to do tasks related to the database. It also provides the Network Model
Microscopic Viewer (NMMV), a tool to create a graphical representation of the electrical
network.
The resulting data of a simulation is stored in a database. The visualisation and analysis of
simulation results use the data from the database in post processing.
Figure 2 OpenPowerNet workflow and application structure.
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Graphical User Interface
OpenPowerNet has a Graphical User Interface (GUI) to provide an easy to use interface to
the user. It provides a project explorer as a tree with folders and files. The user can start and
stop OpenPowerNet, do database tasks and start the analysis tools.
Furthermore, the GUI provides the NMMV. The NMMV creates a graphical representation of
the electrical network configured in the Project-File.
All descriptions related to the GUI are available in the Help System. The Help System is
available in the menu Help > Help Contents and contains GUI specific help topics under
Workbench User Guide.
Via the integrated update system available in the menu Help > Software Updates …
new OpenPowerNet versions and additional plugins can be installed into the GUI. Please
see the integrated Help System for detailed information: Workbench User Guide >
Tasks Updating and installing software.
The GUI includes an XML editor to edit the configuration files.
Figure 3 The Simulation perspective of the GUI.
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Figure 4 The XML perspective of the GUI.
3.2
XML Editor
The XML editor included in OpenPowerNet supports the editing of the Project-File. To use
the editing support, the XML schema definition needs to be specified in the XML file. All
OpenPowerNet schema files are available in an XML Catalogue. To create a new XML file,
select a folder in the Project Explorer and choose New -> Other... from the context
menu. In the new wizard that will be opened, select XML -> XML File, click “Next” and
specify a file name, see Figure 5.
Figure 5 Wizard to create a new XML file, step one and two.
Then click “Next” and choose “Create XML file from an XML schema file”, ”Next”, choose
“Select XML Catalogue entry”, and select a schema depending on the file you want to create
(see chapter 6.13 for an overview listing of XML files and corresponding XML Schemas).
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Figure 6 Wizard to create a new XML file, step three and four.
Click ”Next”, select the root element and if multiple namespace information is listed, delete all
without a location hint, and click ”Finish”, see Figure 7.
Figure 7 Wizard to create a new XML file, last step.
The XML editor shows a tooltip when placing the mouse over an element or attribute and
shows a description and enumeration values if applicable. When editing an attribute with
enumeration, the editor shows all available values in a context menu. The context menu
opens when pressing Ctrl+Space, see Figure 8. The editing support also helps to add
attributes by pressing Ctrl+Space.
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Figure 8 The OpenPowerNet included XML editor with editing support.
3.3
PSC Viewer
The PSC Viewer is a tool to display the electrical networks of OpenPowerNet Project-Files in
a graphical way. This tool is not able to edit Project-Files. It is replaced by the NMMV, see
chapter 3.4 on page 21, and will be removed in OpenPowerNet version 1.8.0.
Icon
Record data
Description
voltage
none
node, a node connects conductors and connectors
current & voltage
none
current & voltage
conductor between two nodes
no power supply is available at this conductor
between two nodes
current & voltage conductor isolator between two nodes
current & voltage
standard close conductor switch with actual state
close
current
standard open conductor switch with actual state
close
current & voltage standard open conductor switch with actual state
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Icon
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Description
open
current
current & voltage
voltage
standard close conductor switch with actual state
open
connectors between two nodes
current & voltage
no power supply is available at this connector
between two nodes
current & voltage
standard close connector switch with actual state
close
none
standard close connector switch with actual state
open
current & voltage
standard open connector switch with actual state
open
none
standard open connector switch with actual state
close
current & voltage
substation with name "TSS_01" and nodes from
power supply
Table 3 PSC Viewer icon description.
The diagram generation is a multiple step process.
1 Select a OpenPowerNet Project-File in the "Project Explorer".
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2 Click the right mouse button and select "Convert OPN Project-File for Viewer to
*.ui"
3 The Wizard opens, change the container and file name if necessary. If you have
configured a Switch-File, it might be interesting to choose a specific simulation
time step. Click "Finish" to start the generation of the ui-file.
4 A progress dialog with progress bar opens and more detailed information will be
displayed in a console view.
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The information at the console will look something like this:
==== generate XMI for Viewer ====
input: D:\OPN\OPN_Projects\examples\Sample1\Sample_Network.xml
output:
D:\OPN\OPN_Projects\examples\Sample1\Sample_Network.xml.ui
working directory: D:\OPN_WorkingDir_Eclipse/
load PSC project file
"D:\OPN\OPN_Projects\examples\Sample1\Sample_Network.xml".
generate XML elements:
Network...
done 2
Substation...
done 5
Node...
done 562
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Switch...
done 20
Line...
done 2
Slice...
done 314
Conductor...
done 491
Track...
done 4
Connector...
done 410
generate references:
Line...
done
Slice...
done
Conductor...
done
Track...
done
Node...
done
Connector...
done
normalise: 3127 nodes skipped (84%)
======= done generate XMI =======
generating done in 3.391s
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5 Select the just generated ui-file click the right mouse button and select "Initialize
ui_diagram diagram file".
6 The dialog in the picture below will open, change the file name of the ui_diagramfile if necessary and click "Next =>".
7 Select the network which you want to display in the diagram and click " Finish".
In case you want to see the other network as well, repeat the previous steps, use
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another file name, and select another network here.
8 This is the last step. After a moment, the diagram will open in the editor view and
the ui_diagram file will appear in the Project Explorer.
3.4
Network Model Microscopic Viewer
The Network Model Microscopic Viewer (NMMV) creates a graphical, microscopic
representation of the electrical network configured in the Project-File. Some graphical
elements of the network are explained in Table 4 and Table 5. The preferences of the Viewer
are explained in chapter 4.3.5.
Icon
Record data
voltage
none
Description
node, a node connects conductors and
connectors
current & voltage
none
current & voltage
current & voltage
current & voltage
current
current
current & voltage
conductor between two nodes
no power supply is available at this conductor
between two nodes
conductor isolator between two nodes
standard closed conductor switch with actual
state closed
standard closed conductor switch with actual
state opened
standard opened conductor switch with actual
state closed
standard opened conductor switch with actual
state opened
Table 4 Network Model Microscopic Viewer, Conductor icon description.
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Description
current & voltage
connectors between two nodes
voltage
current & voltage
No power supply is available at this connector
between two nodes
current & voltage
standard closed connector switch with actual
state closed
none
standard closed connector switch with actual
state opened
current & voltage
standard opened connector switch with actual
state opened
none
standard opened connector switch with actual
state closed
Table 5 Network Model Microscopic Viewer, Connector icon description.
Figure 9 Substation icon description
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1 Each substation has a unique name. In the example in Figure 9, the name is
“TSS_05”.
2 There may be one or more devices. Each device has its own name and a picture
of the type (in this case two transformers).
3 Each connector can have a switch with different states.
4 This connector links a device with a busbar.
5 There may be one or more busbars within a substation.
6 Single busbars can be related by connectors.
7 The lower connection of a busbar is named “Feeder” and connects a busbar with
line conductors.
To open the viewer, follow the steps described below.
1 Select a OpenPowerNet Project-File in the "Project Explorer".
Figure 10 View of the Projekt Explorer
2 Click the right mouse button, select "Open with" and in the next selection
“NMMV”.
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Figure 11 Menu selection to open NMMV
3 A wizard opens. Click on “Load Model”. After loading of the model is finished, click
“Next”.
Figure 12 Wizard for loading a Project-File.
4 Change the network if necessary. When settings are finished, press “Next”.
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Figure 13 Wizard for changing the network.
5 Change the time selection if necessary, after that press “Finish”. Now the model
opens automatically.
Figure 14 Wizard to change the time selection.
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6 After the NMMV is opened, the toolbar and menubar will show the following
special icons.
Show or
hide conductor names.
Selection of the zoom factor for the model.
Selection of the desired network.
Figure 15 Menubar of the NMMV to show the conductor names.
Figure 16 Menubar of the NMMV to hide the conductor names.
Within the menubar, there is also the selection between
1 showing or
2 hiding the conductor name.
3.5
ODBC
OpenPowerNet uses Open Database Connection (ODBC) to connect to the database. Within
the ODBC Data Source Administrator, the Data Source Names (DSN) are defined by the
system administrator or user. In any case, the DSN connects to a specific computer and also
to a specific schema if defined, see Figure 17. The DSN “pscresults” always defines a
schema because this DSN is used by the prepared Excel files (In Excel it is not possible to
select a certain database schema, only a DSN). There is no need to define other DSN
because the schema is defined either in the Project-File or the Selection-File.
The ODBC Data Source Administrator is started via the GUI menu
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Figure 17 The usage of ODBC by OpenPowerNet.
3.6
Database
A database is used to store the simulation results for later visualisation and analysis. The
detailed database documentation can be found in the Help System under OpenPowerNet
User Guide > Database.
3.7
Database tasks
All simulation results are stored in a database. This database needs to be maintained by the
user. The following tasks are available via the GUI:
•
Create new database schema,
•
Export data from database (only from local host),
•
Import data into database,
•
Rename database,
•
Drop database, and
•
Drop simulation from a database.
The dialog for all database tasks is similar. The required parameters are the host address,
the port number and the user name, see Figure 18.
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Figure 18 Create new database dialog.
3.8
Working directory
The folders and files in the working directory are created by OpenPowerNet during
simulation. Only the working directory itself needs to be created manually and specified in
the OpenPowerNet preferences (Window > Preferences > OpenPowerNet).
The working directory structure looks like this:
.../OPN_WorkingDir
+- Project_Name
+- Network_NetworkName (Containing network matrices and model text
files)
* ...
3.9
APserver
The APserver is the communication server of OpenPowerNet. This server is the interface to
railway simulation programs like OpenTrack, since ATM and PSC do not communicate
directly with other programs. The APserver manages the iteration of electrical network and
engine simulation as well as the actual status of each course. It is also responsible for writing
the courses’ data into the database and for calculating their energy consumption.
3.10 Advanced Train Model (ATM)
The Advanced Train Model simulates the propulsion system of the engines. The
configuration data is stored in the *.opnengine file and is described in chapter 4.4.1. It maybe
act as a library for all simulations similar to the rolling stock depot of OpenTrack and. The
model type and other choices used by the simulation will be set in the Project-File, described
in chapter 4.4.7.
The efficiency model of the electrical propulsion system of an engine consists of the following
main components:
• Transformer,
• Four quadrant chopper,
• Inverter,
• Motor, and
• Gearbox.
Power consumers are:
• Auxiliaries of engine and trailers,
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• Eddy current brake,
• Engine energy storage, and
• Traction power.
An engine can be modelled in different ways, in particular because the efficiency depends on
the chosen model type, see Figure 19 to Figure 21.
Figure 19 Single component engine model with power flow and configuration options.
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Figure 20 Mean efficiency engine model with power flow and configuration options.
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Figure 21 Efficiency table engine model with power flow and configuration options.
Each component of the single component engine model is modelled with an accurate
efficiency value with dependencies. If one or more components do not exist in a specific
propulsion structure, the efficiency of these components can be set to 100% respectively the
model type in the Project-File can be set to none. In this case, the component does not have
any effect while calculating the total efficiency. In this way, engines can be modelled
deviating from the model structure of the ATM.
Braking energy is recovered if the demand of the auxiliary and eddy current brake power
consumption is exceeded. While braking, OpenPowerNet only calculates the braking effort
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achieved through energy recovery braking of the propulsion system only, but not eddy
current brake and not including brake effort consumed by brake resistor. If the achieved
braking effort of the propulsion system is less than the requested effort, OpenTrack implies
that the overall braking system is able to achieve the remaining brake effort and calculates
the driving dynamics using the total braking requested effort.
A current limitation can be configured for each propulsion system. The tractive current
limitation reduces the power consumption and the achievable effort which affects the driving
dynamics. The braking current limitation only limits the regenerated current into the electrical
network. Additionally, a maximum recovery voltage has to be configured which limits the
energy output while braking to respect this voltage.
In case during braking the recovered power exceeds the energy consumption of the course,
the excessive energy is resupplied into the electrical network, see Figure 22. The consumed
power has the positive sign and the recovered power has the negative sign.
Vehicle P = f(v), Tutorial Regenerative Brake
A-C, Course ABCl_01, Engine 1/1, 01:00:01 - 01:48:53
2,000
0
Active Power [kW]
-2,000
-4,000
-6,000
-8,000
-10,000
0.0
22.5
45.0
67.5
90.0
112.5
135.0
157.5
180.0
202.5
225.0
Speed [km/h]
P_Panto
P_mech
P_AUX
Figure 22 Brake power calculation deducts power used by auxiliary systems from recovered power.
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3.11 Power Supply Calculation (PSC)
The PSC calculates the load flows within the electrical network including voltages and
currents. The network calculation uses the current required by a course to model this course
as a current source. During simulation, this current source is inserted at discrete positions
while driving along the line. These discrete positions are called slices, see Figure 23.
Slice 1
Slice 0
Slice 2
Node
Negative Feeder
OCS
Conductor
Rail
Earth
Connector
Section
Position
x0
x1
x2
Figure 23 Abstract electrical network model of PSC.
A reasonable slice distance should be about 50m up to 400m depending on the size of the
network, the length and number of conductors, and the typical speed of the courses. If the
applied slice distance is too large the network model gets inexact and if it is too small the
number of recorded data is high and demands long time for simulation and visualisation. One
possibility of keeping the network size low is to separate the network into several parts if
possible for the particular network structure. The structures of these smaller networks can be
calculated faster. During simulation, all network parts can be used at the same time. Note
that the simulation does not have any retroactive effect between the networks!
PSC is designed to calculate 1AC, see Figure 24, as well as the 2AC, see Figure 25, and DC
power supply systems, see Figure 26.
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substation
sw
sw
Y
Y
ocs
Y
Y
rails
Figure 24 The 1AC power supply system.
substation
sw
sw
autotransformer
autotransformer
autotransformer
AT1
AT2
AT3
sw
sw
sw
sw
sw
sw
sw
sw
Y
sw
sw
Y
ocs
Y
rails
Y
Y
Y
negative
feeder
train NOT in section
train in section
Figure 25 The 2AC power supply system.
rectifier substation
rectifier substation
sw
sw
sw
sw
sw
sw
Y
Y
ocs
Y
Y
rails
Figure 26 The DC power supply system.
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The configuration data of an electrical network (see Figure 27) contains information about:
• Substations including
o
Transformers or rectifiers,
o
Busbars, and
o
Switches,
• Conductors like rails, contact wire, messenger wire,
• Connectors connecting the conductors, e.g. the left and right rail,
• Section isolators within a conductor, and
• Switches within conductors and connectors.
The conductors are described by their resistance at 20°C, their temperature coefficient, their
actual temperature, their cross section layout, and their equivalent radius. The impedances
of the conductors within a line resulting from electromagnetic coupling are calculated by the
PSC using the cross section layout and the equivalent radius of the conductors. Note that all
conductors of a line are coupled, but no coupling is calculated between different lines and
networks!
Transformer Substation
Three Winding Transformer 1
Isource
Isource
Three Winding Transformer 2
Ytr_source
Ytr_source
Ytr_source
Ytr_source
swtr_ocs
swtr_rails
swtr_negative
swtr_negative
negative feeder
Y
Y
OCS
rails
sw
feeder ocs
sw
feeder rails
sw
bus bars
sw
feeder ocs
sw
feeder rails
negative feeder
sw
Y
sw
Y
Y
Isource
swtr_ocs
swtr_rails
bus bar connectors
with switches
bus bars
Isource
Y
sw
Y
sw
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
negativeFeeder
Figure 27 Components of the electrical network.
At simulation start, the network structure will be analysed and mapped to a matrix. Each
configuration of switch states during the simulation requires a separate matrix. Afterwards,
the matrices are compressed and saved to the system. During simulation, these compressed
matrices are used for the corresponding simulation time step.
3.12 Analysis Tool
OpenPowerNet has a comprehensive analysis tool to create Excel diagrams in an easy,
standardised and efficient way. This tool provides the automatic analysis of voltages as well
as currents and calculates the magnetic field as main functionality. A detailed description is
available in chapter 4.6.3.
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OpenPowerNet handling
The configuration of the runtime environment usually has to be done once using the GUI, see
the following chapter for details. The general usage of OpenPowerNet consists of three main
tasks: modelling, simulation, and visualisation, see Figure 2. First, the modelling files for the
electrical network, engines and switch states have to be prepared in correspondence with the
operational files of OpenTrack. This is probably the most extensive job. The second task is
running the simulation in co-simulation with OpenTrack. The third task is the visualisation
and analysis of the resulting simulation data.
4.1
Folder structure
It is advised to use always the same folder structure for all simulations as it helps to keep
order. In principle, each simulation has two kinds of data. One kind is the input data and the
other kind the output data.
The input and analysis data structure preferably looks like this:
.../Project_Name
+- OPNData (OpenPowerNet configuration data)
... +- link to Analysis output directory, one link per simulation
......* Analysis.sel
* Engine.opnengine
* TypeDefs-File.xml
* Project-File.xml
+- OTData (OpenTrack configuration data)
* Project_Name.depot
* Project_Name.courses
* Project_Name.dest
* Project_Name.stations
* Project_Name.timetable
* Project_Name.trains
+- OTDocuments (OpenTrack infrastructure)
* Project_Name.opentrack
+- OTOutput (OpenTrack output directory)
* ...
The folder and file structure above has to be prepared manually. For the output data
structure refer to chapter 3.8.
4.2
Configuration of OpenTrack
OpenTrack is the railway operation simulation program. It handles the driving dynamics
respecting the track alignment, the train characteristics, the signalling system, and the
operation program. For the handling of OpenTrack please check the documentation
delivered with the program. For inter-process communication, it is necessary to set some
special configurations in OpenTrack, see Figure 28.
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Figure 28 OpenPowerNet configuration dialog in OpenTrack (Menu: Info > OpenPowerNet Settings).
The dialog OpenPowerNet Settings is available at menu item Info if OpenTrack.exe
is started with parameter -opn. The following properties have to be set:
• OpenTrack Server Port, 9002 (default),
• OPN Server Port, 9004 (default),
• OPN Host, network IPv4 of the computer running OpenPowerNet, e.g. 127.0.0.1 for
localhost for the same computer (do not use the string “localhost”). In case OpenTrack
and OpenPowerNet are running on different computers, the full IPv4 address has to be
set, e.g. 192.168.178.21.
• Timeout in seconds, recommended 1800,
• Use OpenPowerNet (OPN), checked,
• Keep Connection, checked.
Increase the timeout if there appear connection problems with OpenPowerNet during
simulations with a large amount of iteration steps, primarily for large networks.
To be able to run OpenTrack and OpenPowerNet together it is necessary to respect the
constraints described in chapter 4.4.2 besides the OpenPowerNet model constraints
described in chapter 4.3.1.
4.3
Configuration of OpenPowerNet
The configuration of OpenPowerNet is divided into two configuration tasks. One is the
general configuration done via the GUI Preferences (see chapter 4.3.1) and the other the
simulation specific configuration done via the Project-Files, *.opnengine Files, Switch-Files
and TypeDefs-Files (see chapter 4.4).
4.3.1 General
The general configuration is accessible via the GUI menu Window > Preferences.
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Figure 29 OpenPowerNet preferences, general configuration page.
1 Choose the GUI language, either English or Portuguese or Traditional Chinese.
This option is only editable if licensed.
2 Specify the maximum number of lines in the message console.
3 Select the working directory used during the simulation and analysis to store
temporary files.
4 Define a specific dongle to be used by this OpenPowerNet installation. If blank
any suitable key found in the network is used.
5 Check when the modules (opncore64.exe) shall shutdown after the simulation.
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4.3.2 Analysis
Figure 30 Analysis preferences, general configuration page.
1 Define the Excel executable to be used to open the prepared Excel tools for
2
3
4
5
6
analysis.
Select the preset file to be used during the automatic analysis. If blank the default
preset is used.
Select the language of the default preset, either English or Portuguese or
Traditional Chinese. This option is only editable if licensed.
Choose a company logo file to be embedded into the right footer of the generated
diagrams of size 150px x 60px as GIF- or EMF-file.
Specify the copyright string, placed in lower right corner of the generated
diagrams.
Select the output directory of the automatic analysis. All generated files will be
saved in subfolders of the defined directory.
7 Check if existing output files shall be overwritten without prompting. If unchecked,
the generated files will append a time step string to all files with a default name
which already exist.
8 Select the storage type where the database data directory is saved. The data
directory is defined in the database configuration file (MariaDB > my.ini) by
parameter datadir. The Analysis is optimised for data storage on a hard disc
drive (HDD) respectively on a solid-state disc (SSD) to speed up the analysis
process.
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Figure 31 Analysis Selection Editor preferences, general configuration page.
These preferences define the default behaviour of the Selection-File editor, see also chapter
4.6.3.
1 Check to show the earth conductor in the selection editor. Usually, the earth
conductor is far away from the other conductors and not interesting when
analysing the magnetic field.
2 Check to show the track name.
3 Check to show a line between the track name and each conductor belonging to
the track.
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Figure 32 Selection Editor settings, preferences of the course overview types.
These preferences define the course overview types to be chosen at the “Vehicles” page of
the Selection Editor.
1 This listing shows the default vehicle overview type configuration. New types can
be added by clicking on Add, deletion is done by selecting one list entry and
clicking on Delete. Details of the selected overview type are editable in the table
at the right hand side. The table is the same as described in chapter 4.6.3.8.
2 By clicking on Restore Defaults, the default overview types will be added to
the list of already existing types.
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Figure 33 Selection Editor settings, preferences of the Vehicle Chart Type “All Engines”.
These preferences define the vehicle chart type for all engines to be chosen at the “Vehicles”
page of the Selection Editor.
1 This listing shows the default vehicle chart type for all engine diagram
configuration. New types can be added by clicking on Add, deletion is done by
selecting one list entry and clicking on Delete. Details of the selected overview
type are editable in the table at the right-hand side. The table is the same as
described in chapter 4.6.3.8.
2 By clicking on Restore Defaults, the default overview types will be added to
the list of already existing types.
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Figure 34 Selection Editor settings, preferences of the Vehicle Chart Type “Single Engine”.
These preferences define the vehicle chart type for single engine to be chosen at the
“Vehicles” page of the Selection Editor.
1 This listing shows the default vehicle chart type for single engine diagram
configuration. New types can be added by clicking on Add, deletion is done by
selecting one list entry and clicking on Delete. Details of the selected overview
type are editable in the table at the right hand side. The table is the same as
described in chapter 4.6.3.8.
2 By clicking on Restore Defaults, the default overview types will be added to
the list of already existing types.
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Debug
Figure 35 General configuration, Debug preferences page.
1 Check to use debug message logging. This should not be used for simulations as
it slows down the simulation significantly. However, it may be used when
requested by the OpenPowerNet support to solve questions. The following
options are only enabled in case this checkbox is checked.
2 Choose the level of debug messages to be saved to the debug files.
3 Choose the file format of the debug file.
4 Check to display the debug messages also to the message console. The debug
file is written in any case.
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4.3.4 Message
Figure 36 General configuration, Message display and recording preferences page.
In this preference page, messages can be configured to be ignored during simulation.
Ignored messages will not be displayed at the consoles and are not recorded into the
database.
1 Check to ignore the messages specified below.
2 The list of message IDs to be ignored.
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4.3.5 Network Model Microscopic Viewer
Figure 37 NMMV default layout configuration.
1 Specifiy the node size in pixel.
The following properties set the colour definition of the conductors and
connectors according their resistance. Colors for resistances between the
minimum and maximum resistances are interpolated.
2 Specifiy the minimum resistance at 20°C in mOhm/km of conductors. All lower
resistances will be coloured with the colour set in 3.
3 Specifiy the colour of the property set in 2.
4 Specifiy the maximum resistance at 20°C in mOhm/km of conductors. All higher
resistances will be coloured with the colour set in 5.
5 Specifiy the colour of the property set in 4.
6 Specifiy the minimum resistance in mOhm of connectors. All lower resistances will
be coloured with the colour set in 7.
7 Select the colour of the property set in 6.
8 Specify the maximum resistance in mOhm of connectors. All higher resistances
will be coloured with the colour set in 9.
9 Select the colour of the property set in 8.
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10 Specify the conductor line strength (default: 2).
11 Specify the connector line strength (default: 2).
12 Set the minimal row distance between the horizontal connector parts. This setting
also defines the spacing between the devices and the busbars and between the
busbars and the nodes. See also Figure 38.
13 Specify the column width, i.e. a distance between the vertical connector parts,
see also Figure 38.
14 Specifiy the display length of a switch element, see also Figure 38.
15 Defines the space before and after a string, for example within a busbar.
Some preferences are further explained in Figure 39.
Figure 38 NMMV, Example for Layout settings
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Figure 39 NMMV default layout configuration.
1 Choose the horizontal offset in pixel of the upper left corner of the diagram. When
setting the Default Layout preferences value of horizontal offset to 0, the first slice
is set to the horizontal pixel position equal to the slice chainage in meter
multiplied with the x-scale factor. If the value is not 0, the line will start at the
defined value. See also Figure 40.
2 Choose the vertical offset in pixel of the upper left corner of the diagram, see also
Figure 40.
3 Choose the horizontal scale with which the horizontal distance between the nodes
is calculated, based on the chainage positions of the slices (in km) to which the
nodes belong.
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4 Specify a minimum distance between the nodes. This is useful for cases when the
distance between two nodes calculated by the algorithm described in 3 is too
close. See also Figure 40.
5 Specify the distance between two conductors of the same track, see also Figure
40.
6 Specify the distance between two tracks of the same line, see also Figure 40.
7 Specify the distance between two lines, see also Figure 40.
8 Set order of the conductors. The buttons “Up” and “Down” on the right side of the
table move the selected conductor type. The vertical position of conductors is
calculated using this order. In case some conductor types are not used in a
Project-File, the distance between two displayed nodes will be more than
specified in 5. E.g. if no NegativeFeeder is available, the distance between the
feeder and the next conductor below (MessengerWire) will be 160 pixel.
9 Specifiy the distance between a substation and the uppermost node connected
with an infeed of this substation, see also Figure 41.
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Figure 40 NMMV, Example for Layout settings
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Figure 41 NMMV, Example for Substation Layout setting 9
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4.3.6 Notification
Figure 42 General configuration Notification preferences page.
The notification preference page allows you to get an email from a running simulation.
1
2
3
4
Check to send an email notification.
Check to enable sending INFO messages (black messages in the console).
Check to enable sending WARNING messages (blue messages in the console).
Check to enable sending ERROR messages (red messages in the console).
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
Specify the maximum number of messages included in one email.
Specify the maximum number of WARNING messages included in one email.
Specify the maximum number of ERROR messages included in one email.
Specifiy the SMTP host of the email account used to send emails.
Specify the SMTP port of the email account.
Set the maximum time to try to connect to the SMTP server.
Set the maximum time to wait for response from the SMTP server.
Check if the SMTP server needs an authentication.
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13 Specify the SMTP server (email account) user name (only enabled if 12. is
selected).
14 Specify the SMTP server password (only enabled if 12. is selected).
15 Specify the email address.
16 Specify the recipient’s email address, multiple emails must be separated by ";".
17 Sends a test email. Make sure to hit the “Apply” button after changing any
parameter before sending the test email.
4.3.7 OpenTrack
Figure 43 General configuration, OpenTrack preferences page.
1 Specifiy the OpenTrack IPv4 host. In case OpenTrack and OpenPowerNet are
running on different computers, the full IP address has to be set, e.g.
192.168.178.22.
2 Specify the port at which OpenTrack is listening for requests.
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Server
Figure 44 General configuration, Server preferences page.
1 Specify the OPN Server’s IPv4 host address. In OpenTrack, this IP needs to be
configured as OPN server, see Figure 28. In case OpenTrack and OpenPowerNet
are running on different computers, the full IP address has to be set, e.g.
192.168.178.21.
2 Specify the port at which the Server is listening for requests from OpenTrack. In
OpenTrack, this port needs to be configured as OPN port, see Figure 28.
3 Specify the maximum queue size for requests. Usually this value does not need
to be changed.
4 Specify the maximum number of requests from OpenTrack before the connection
is closed and reconnected. Temporary allocated memory is released once the
5
6
7
8
connection is closed. If the memory demand of the Server is too high reduce this
number.
Specify the timeout for receiving a request from OpenTrack.
Specify the timeout for sending an answer to OpenTrack.
Specify the debug file name.
Specify the maximum RAM allocation of the OpenPowerNet server application.
The limit is used to control the RAM allocation by a buffer to store the calculated
data before recording to the database. A large buffer may speed up the
simulation. A value of 0 means no limit, 1000 MB is recommended and the default
is 25 % of the total RAM.
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4.3.9 PSC Viewer
Figure 45 General configuration of the PSC Viewer.
1 Choose the path to the PSC executable. Click the "Browse..." button and select
the "psc.exe" from the installation directory. The "psc.exe" will be used to
generate the ui-file.
2 Choose the PSC working directory. This directory is used by the application to
save several files.
3 Check to force showing the console output while generating the ui file. In any
case, some information will be sent to the console with the name "OPN".
4 Check if the xmi generation (ui-file) shall be normalised. A normalised file contains
only relevant nodes, e.g. a changed property of a conductor or a node with a
connector. A non-normalised ui-file will contain all nodes and this will slow down
the handling of the diagram.
The PSC Viewer default layout is used to lay out the nodes of a network in the diagram.
These values are necessary because the OpenPowerNet Project-File contains no
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information about the graphical layout. The details of each property are described below in
Figure 46.
Figure 46 PSC Viewer, default layout configuration.
1 Specify the horizontal offset of the upper left corner of the diagram in pixel. When
setting the Default Layout preferences value of horizontal offset to 0, the first slice
is set to the horizontal pixel position equal to the slice chainage in meter
multiplied with the x scale factor. If the value is other than 0, the line will start at
the defined value.
2 Specify the vertical offset of the upper left corner of the diagram in pixel.
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3 Choose the horizontal scale with which the horizontal distance between the nodes
is calculated, based on the chainage positions of the slices (in km) to which the
nodes belong.
4 Specifiy a minimum distance between the nodes. This is useful for cases when
the distance between two nodes calculated by using 3 is too close.
5 Specifiy the distance between two conductors of the same track.
6 Specify the distance between two tracks of the same line.
7 Specify the distance between two lines.
8 Specifiy the distance between a substation and the uppermost node connected
with an infeed of this substation
9 Choose the order of the conductors. The buttons "Up" and "Down" on the right
side of the table move the selected conductor type. The vertical position of
conductors is calculated using this order. In case some conductor types are not
used in a Project-File, the distance between two displayed nodes will be more
than specified in 5., e.g. if no NegativeFeeder is available the distance between
Feeder and the next Conductor below (MessengerWire) will be 160 pixel.
The following properties set the colour definition of the conductors and connectors
according their resistance. Resistance colours between the minimum and maximum
values are interpolated between the specified values.
10 Specifiy the minimum resistance at 20°C in mOhm/km of conductors. All lower
resistances will be coloured with the colour set in 14.
11 Specifiy the maximum resistance at 20°C in mOhm/km of conductors. All higher
resistances will be coloured with the colour set in 15.
12 Specifiy the minimum resistance in mOhm of connectors. All lower resistances will
be coloured with the colour set in 16.
13 Specifiy the maximum resistance in mOhm of connectors. All higher resistances
14
15
16
17
will be coloured with the colour set in 17.
Choose the colour of the property set in 10.
Choose the colour of the property set in 11.
Choose the colour of the property set in 12.
Choose the colour of the property set in 13.
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Example:
The picture below shows an example layout. The red numbers correspond to the numbers of
the properties described above.
Figure 47 PSC Viewer, example layout.
4.4
Modelling
XML files are used for modelling. Each such file belongs to a schema. A schema describes
the structure of an XML file. The schema is specified in each XML file at the root element
using the attribute xsi:noNamespaceSchemaLocation or xmlns. See the example XML
snippet below:
<XML-Root-Elemen xsi:noNamespaceSchemaLocation="/the/xml/schema.xsd">
</XML-Root-Elemen>
See chapter 3.2 for a detailed description on how to create a new XML file.
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The project specific modelling files describe the engines and the used engine model.
Moreover, the power supply, the electrical network, and optionally the switch states of the
electrical network are defined.
The project specific files that are used for simulation are configured in the root element of the
Project-File. The Project-File and these referenced files are read every time a simulation has
started. Hence, it is not necessary to restart OpenPowerNet after changing the name or
content of a project specific file.
4.4.1 Required technical data
Track alignment and signalling:
• Track layout,
• Chainage,
• Longitudinal declination (begin, end, gradient, sign),
• Begin and end of single or multiple track sections,
• Position of switches, crossings and junctions,
• Begin, end and radius of bending / curves,
• Begin and end of tunnels,
• Begin and end of different track types and rail profiles,
• Position and kind of signals and signalling sections.
Operational data:
• Position of passenger stations and signal-related stopping points,
• Permissible speed profiles,
• Stopping times at stations, turning times at termini,
• Time-table of all line sections (including internal rides),
• Train types, train configuration and loading grade per section,
• Operation concept, incl. special operational scenarios.
Vehicle data:
• Vehicle or train mass (empty, laden),
• Adhesion mass,
• Maximum speed,
• Driving resistance formula,
• Factor for rotating mass,
• Engine energy storage characteristic,
• Propulsion characteristics as follows:
• Traction force and braking force characteristics related to running speed;
• Information about voltage-related current or power limitation of the propulsion control,
• Maximum / average power consumption of the auxiliary systems (lighting, air condition,
heating),
• Maximum recuperation voltage.
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Power supply system and conductor data:
• Type of substation,
• Nominal voltage,
• Position of substations (connection points to the power grid),
• Feeding scheme (sectioning inclusive chainage),
• Busbar voltage of the substations (line-side, no-load and nominal load),
• Number, length and cross section of feeding and return current cables (from substation
to track or connections from track to track),
• Position of feeding points and return current cable connection points to the power rails,
• Type of catenary (number and cross section of single conductors),
• Additional feeding conductors (connection points and cross section),
• Switch state of the power rail system,
• Position and cross section of rail and track bonds.
4.4.2 Model constraints
Besides the constraints derived from the OpenTrack model mentioned in chapter 4.4.4, the
model has to fulfil further constraints. Otherwise, the simulation is not possible or the results
will be wrong!
The following constraints have to be fulfilled:
Auto-, Two Winding-, Three Winding and Booster Transformer:
•
0  relativeShortCircuitVoltage2  nomPower2  noLoadLosses2
0  nomPrimaryVoltage2  noLoadCurrent 2  noLoadLosses2
•
For AC networks, the sums of all conductor currents of each section between two slices
within a line have to be 0. This means:
• It is not allowed to add connectors parallel to conductors,
• Feeder and return feeder from a substation to the line have to be connected at the
same slice, and
• Lines shall not be connected in a triangular manner.
Furthermore:
• There has to be exactly one contact wire per track.
• There have to be exactly one or two rails per track. In case of two rails these two rails
will be shorted at engine position during the simulation.
• It is not possible to add a switch between the positive busbar and a rectifier as the
model already uses one that cannot be manipulated by the user. But you can still use a
switch in the feeder cable to the line or from the negative busbar to the rectifier.
The occurrence of engines inside the electrical network has to be realistic as each course
inside the network consumes at least its auxiliary power. If a course is created at the wrong
time step or behaves unrealistically, this has an effect inside the electrical network although
the operational simulation may not be affected. All courses that turn up inside the electrical
network during the target simulation time have to be modelled, even if they only stand on a
station track (powered on). It is advised to check this in the train diagrams.
If parts of other lines are connected to the main line (e.g. powered by the same substations)
and the entire electrical situation shall be analysed, these parts and its course operations
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also have to be modelled. This can be only omitted when there is no load on the connected
parts.
If there are engines with the same OpenTrack input data but different electrical parameters
for the same catenary system, these engines have to be handled separately. A multi-system
traction unit can be handled as a single engine though.
To keep the number of nodes in the electrical network low, track arrangements should be
kept simple. Example: For a double track line, the junction in track “Up” is located 2 m before
the junction in track “Down”. In such a case, both junctions should get the same position to
save one slice (and nodes on each conductor).
Configuration data has to use UTF-8 characters. However, note the restrictions in OpenTrack
especially for line ID, track ID and engine ID as they have to use ASCII. Leading or trailing
spaces in named elements should be avoided.
It is recommended to use 1 s simulation time step size. Using e.g. 2 s simulation time step
size may lead to time glitches. OpenTrack uses equidistant time steps per course but
OpenPowerNet needs global equidistant time steps. The glitch occurs when a departure time
is not in the 2 s time step raster, e.g. when a departure time is at 01:00:01. It is also not
recommended, but possible, to use time steps smaller than 1s.
4.4.3 Naming Conventions
Note: All names and also any other string shall not use the following characters:
• ‘
• “
• No space character at the beginning and end of the names.
Note:
• The maximum name length is 50 characters!
Names used for model elements need to be unique within a specific scope. The table below
gives the overview of naming scopes.
Model element
2 winding transformer
3 winding transformer
Additional load in
substation
Autotransformer
Boostertransformer
Busbar
Unique Name
Scope
Substation
Substation
none
Substation
Substation
Substation
Converter
Engine name
Substation
Project
Engine energy storage
Engine
Conductor
Connector
Track
none
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XML Element
TwoWindingTransformer
TreeWindingTransformer
AdditionalLoad
Autotransformer
Boostertransformer
OCSBB, RailsBB,
NegativeFeederBB
Converter
*.opnengine: vehicle
Project-File: Vehicle
*.opnengine: storage
Project-File: Storage
StartPosition
Connector
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XML
Attribute
name
name
name
name
name
bbName
name
vehicleID
engineID
name
name
condName
name
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Model element
Connector between
negative feeder busbars
Connector between OCS
busbars
Connector between rails
busbars
Leakage
Line
Network
Rectifier
Slice
Storage
Substation
Switch
VLD
VLD Type
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Unique Name
Scope
none
XML Element
NegativeFeederBBConnector
XML
Attribute
name
none
OCSBBConnector
name
none
RailsBBConnector
name
none
Network
Project
Substation
none
Substation
Network
Project
Substation
VLDTypes
none
Distribution
Leakage
Line
Network
Rectifier
ConnectorSlice
Storage
Substation
Switch
Project-File: VLD
TypeDefs-File: VLDType
Merger
PiecewiseLinearDistribution
name
name
name
name
name
name
name
name
name
name
name
name
Table 6 Naming conventions of the model elements versus scope.
4.4.4 OpenTrack
During creation of the OpenTrack project the following constraints need to be considered:
• Direction of edges have to be continuous from lower to higher km point,
• Set km point of each double vertex,
• Set length of all edges matching the km points of the vertices,
• Set line ID of all edges,
• Set track ID of all edges,
• Specify power supply areas matching the electrical networks (not needed if there is
only one power supply system).
It is helpful to prevent unnecessary changes in chainage or line and track IDs during creation
of the OpenTrack model to simplify the electrical network model.
If there are engines with the same OpenTrack input data but different electrical parameters
for the same catenary system, these engines have to be handled separately. A multi-system
traction unit can be handled as a single engine though.
Phase insulation gaps or voltage-free areas should get “power off” and “power on” signals in
OpenTrack.
Note: The use of moving block is not recommended when running OpenTrack with
OpenPowerNet. A course following a slower course, requests alternating maximum brake
effort and maximum tractive effort over time and this spoils the load flow simulation. If
courses do not interfere each other, the use of moving block is possible but the user needs to
carefully analyse the effort requests for each course! A warning message (APS-W-005) is
generated whenever alternating effort requests are detected. This may give the user a hint to
look for a course following a slower course.
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To overcome the above mentioned alternating effort requests it is possible to specify an
acceleration delay for a train defined in OpenTrack, see Figure 48. A faster train following a
slower train will try to accelerate only in intervals defined with the acceleration delay, see
Figure 49 to Figure 51.
Figure 48 OpenTrack train parameters with acceleration delay.
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s = f(t)
12.000
10.000
34s
s [km]
8.000
34s
6.000
4.000
2.000
37s
0.000
00 00:00:00
00 00:00:43
00 00:01:26
00 00:02:10
00 00:02:53
00 00:03:36
1st Course
00 00:04:19
00 00:05:02
00 00:05:46
00 00:06:29
00 00:07:12
2nd Course
Figure 49 Train diagram with moving block and acceleration delay.
v = f(s)
140
120
100
v [km/h]
80
60
40
20
0
0+000
1+000
2+000
3+000
4+000
1st Course
5+000
s [km]
6+000
7+000
8+000
9+000
10+000
2nd Course
Figure 50 Speed versus distance with moving block and acceleration delay.
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F = f(s)
400.0
300.0
200.0
F [kN]
100.0
0.0
-100.0
-200.0
-300.0
-400.0
0+000
1+000
2+000
3+000
4+000
F_requested [kN] (1st Course)
5+000
s [km]
6+000
7+000
8+000
9+000
10+000
F_requested [kN] (2nd Course)
Figure 51 Requested effort versus distance with moving block and acceleration delay.
Note: Check Use Curve Resistance in OpenTrack preferences to respect each curve in
your track layout. If this option is not set OpenTrack uses a mean radius to calculate driving
resistance.
4.4.5 *.opnengine File
This file contains a library of engines and includes all information for a simulation. The
information has to correspond with the OpenTrack engine data. The OpenTrack Engine
Name and OpenPowerNet Vehicle ID are used for mapping the engine data between both
programs. The XML file observes the XML Schema provided in the XML Catalogue with the
key http://www.openpowernet.de/schemas/opnengine.xsd. The *.opnengine file is
edited by the Engine Editor by default but if desired it can also be edited by the XML Editor
(not recommended).
4.4.5.1 Engine Editor
The *.opnengine file is created by selecting a folder at the Project Explorer, selecting
”New“ at the context menu and then ”Engine File“, see Figure 52. The file is created
and the Engine Editor opens, showing the first Vehicle.
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Figure 52 Create new Engine-File.
The Engine Editor consists of a tree on the left side and a detail view on the right side. A new
Engine is created by right clicking into the tree area on the left and selecting New Sibling
> Vehicle, see Figure 53.
Figure 53 Engine Editor, creating a new Vehicle.
First of all the Vehicle ID needs to be set, select the tree node “Vehicle” and enter the
Vehicle ID in the detail view.
Figure 54 Engine Editor, set the Vehicle ID.
At the Engine element, a New Child > Propulsion element needs to be added to the
tree to be able to set the propulsion parameter in the detail view, see Figure 55. This view is
sufficient to define a very simple engine. If desired, a storage may be added as a child of the
Engine element as well.
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Figure 55 Engine Editor, new propulsion.
To add details of the propulsion systems, further components may be added as child of each
“propulsion” element, see Figure 56. These details are transformer, four quadrant chopper,
inverter, motor and gear, which are modelled as efficiencies. Furthermore, a traction and
brake efficiency versus speed diagram can be defined. A tractive and brake current limitation
is available and lastly the tractive and brake effort versus speed. For an overview of available
parameters please see Figure 19 at page 29.
Figure 56 Engine Editor, new tractive effort.
Details are entered, depending on the parameter, as a 2D or 3D table (1) and displayed in a
diagram. The units of the axis (2) need to be set and a name of the axis (3) may be given,
see Figure 57.
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Figure 57 Engine Editor, tractive effort curve.
An example for a 3D table is shown in Figure 58. To switch from a 3D table to a 2D table,
only one column is allowed. In case there exist more than one column, the 2D/3D radio
buttons are disabled.
Figure 58 Engine Editor, tractive current limit.
In each engine, the option to configure multiple energy storages is offered. The load and
unload models are configured in the Project-File. Figure 59 shows a typical engine energy
storage configuration in the *.opnengine file.
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Figure 59 Typical engine energy storage configuration.
4.4.5.2 Auxiliary Power
The modelling of the electrical auxiliary power is available in OpenTrack as well as in
OpenPowerNet. In total, there exist 9 different possibilities. These auxiliary power models are
defined in:
• OpenTrack engine as:
o A constant factor of the mechanical power of a speed range,
o A constant value of a defined speed range,
• OpenTrack train as:
o A constant factor in kW/t (delta load factor) applied to the delta between the
current train mass and the weight of the train model,
o A constant power per trailer,
• OpenPowerNet *.opnengine file:
o Constant power,
o Constant power while braking,
o Constant resistance,
o Constant resistance while braking, and
o Eddy current brake power consumption.
To model the engine auxiliary in OpenTrack, open the Engines dialog (Tools
Engines...) and then edit the loss function, see Figure 60.
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Figure 60 OpenTrack engine loss function definition.
The definition of the OpenTrack train contains the delta load factor (𝑎𝑑𝑒𝑙𝑡𝑎 𝑙𝑜𝑎𝑑 in column
“P Loss Fac. [kW/t]”) definition and a constant auxiliary (“P Loss [kW]”) of the trailer. Each
trailer can be configured with a different constant auxiliary but only one delta load factor can
be defined per train. Even the editing is possible for each trailer, see Figure 61.
Figure 61 The OpenTrack train auxiliary definition.
The calculation of the delta load auxiliary is according to the following formula:
𝑃𝑎𝑢𝑥 = 𝑎𝑑𝑒𝑙𝑡𝑎 𝑙𝑜𝑎𝑑 × (𝑚𝑐𝑢𝑟𝑟𝑒𝑛𝑡 − 𝑚𝑡𝑟𝑎𝑖𝑛 𝑚𝑜𝑑𝑒𝑙 )
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The current train mass (𝑚𝑐𝑢𝑟𝑟𝑒𝑛𝑡 ) can be modified at each stop in the OpenTrack timetable
definition, see Figure 62. The delta load value always changes 𝑚𝑐𝑢𝑟𝑟𝑒𝑛𝑡 based on the current
value. For instance, the course in Figure 62 has a total mass (𝑚𝑡𝑟𝑎𝑖𝑛 𝑚𝑜𝑑𝑒𝑙 ) of 100 t. In station
A, the current mass changes to 120 t (+20 t) and in station B to 110 t (-10 t). Thus, the
current mass is 120 t from station A to B and 110 t from station B to station C.
Figure 62 OpenTrack delta load configuration at timetable.
The auxiliary power defined for a whole train (OpenTrack train) is equally distributed to all
engines of the train.
At each simulation time step, the calculated auxiliary values are recorded into the database
table engine_auxiliary_data. These values are related to an engine and auxiliary
model type (database table auxiliary_type).
4.4.6 TypeDefs-File
The TypeDefs-File is an XML file and defines model types, see Figure 63. The Project-File
will reference these types by an identifier. The TypeDefs-File complies with the schema
provided
in
the
XML
Catalogue
with
the
key
http://www.openpowernet.de/schemas/TypeDefs.xsd. The schema specification
documentation is available at Help > Help Contents > OpenPowerNet User
Guide.
The definition of the models in the TypeDefs-File is described in the chapters referencing the
models.
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Figure 63 The main elements of the TypeDefs-File schema.
4.4.7 Project-File
The project specific file is an XML file. It has to correspond with the OpenTrack infrastructure
data. The Project-File corresponds to the schema provided in the XML Catalogue with the
key http://www.openpowernet.de/schemas/OpenPowerNet.xsd. The schema
specification documentation is available at Help > Help Contents > OpenPowerNet
User Guide.
Sample XML files are available in the Tutorial, see chapter 5 at page 134 on how to get
these files.
The Project-File has four main parts:
• ATM configuration,
• PSC configuration,
• Distributions, and
• Relations of courses to a Train Operating Company, see Figure 64.
Figure 64 The main branches of the Project-File in schema view.
Figure 65 to Figure 89 show an example of a Project-File.
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Figure 65 OpenPowerNet Project-File, general configuration.
4.4.7.1 Engine Model
Figure 66 Project-File in XML Editor design view, example ATM configuration of one engine.
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In this example, a very detailed calculation model with all propulsion components as
efficiency curves is used for the AC 25kV 50Hz propulsion system. The propulsion system for
AC 15kV 16 2/3Hz is configured with a minimum recovery braking speed of 5 km/h. The
example engine also has an energy storage configured, see Figure 66.
It is possible to delay the acceleration of engines after energization, e.g. when line power
resumes after a failure, by a delay distribution to model the individual driver behaviour. The
delay is only active for engines with their main switch on. The main switch is operated by
OpenTrack Power Signals. The delay duration is defined by a distribution, see chapter
4.4.7.13. The delay is enabled if the attribute accelerationDelayAfterEnergization
is defined at the element OpenPowerNet. The delay distribution of a simulation is visualized
by the prepared Excel file “EngineDelay.xlsx”.
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4.4.7.2 Engine Energy Storage
Each engine can be configured with multiple energy storages.
The engine energy storage has two models for loading:
• saver (see Figure 67):
regenerated energy utilisation
energy storage saver model
10
P [kW]
8
6
resistor
4
catenary (max 4kW)
energy storage (max 2kW)
2
auxiliary (1kW)
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Precovery [kW]
Figure 67 Utilisation of the regenerated energy when using the 'saver' model of the engine energy storage.
• recovery (see Figure 68):
regenerated energy utilisation
energy storage recovery model
10
P [kW]
8
6
resistor
4
energy storage (max 2kW)
catenary (max 4kW)
2
auxiliary (1kW)
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Precovery [kW]
Figure 68 Utilisation of the regenerated energy when using the 'recovery' model of the engine energy storage.
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The engine energy storage can be configured with one of five unloading models:
• panto_I_max (see Figure 69):
energy storage utilisation
panto_I_max model
120
100
I [A]
80
60
I_storage [A]
40
I_panto [A] (max 70 A)
20
0
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
I_demand [A]
Figure 69 While using unload model 'panto_I_max' the energy storage is unloaded only when the maximum
allowed pantograph current is exceeded.
• storage_P_max (see Figure 70):
energy storage utilisation
storage_P_max model
120
P [kW]
100
80
60
P_panto [kW]
40
P_storage [kW] (max 60 kW)
20
0
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
P_engine [kW]
Figure 70 While using unload model 'storage_P_max' the energy storage is unloaded as soon as the recovered
energy is lower as the auxiliary power. If the power demand of the engine whether for auxiliary or traction is
higher than the maximum unload power of the energy storage, the remaining power will be provided from the
catenary.
• storage_P_aux Figure 71:
energy storage utilisation
storage_P_aux model
P_engine [kW]
200
150
P_aux_panto [kW]
100
P_storage [kW] (max 60 kW)
50
P_traction [kW] (50kW)
0
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
P_aux [kW]
Figure 71 While using unload model 'storage_P_aux' the energy storage is unloaded as soon as the recovered
energy is lower as the auxiliary power. The provided power corresponds always with the auxiliary power demand
unless the auxiliary power demand is higher than the maximum energy storage unload power.
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• storage_P_traction Figure 72:
P_engine [kW]
energy storage utilisation
storage_P_traction model
140
120
100
80
60
40
20
0
P_traction_panto [kW]
P_storage [kW] (max 60 kW)
P_aux [kW] (20kW)
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
P_traction [kW]
Figure 72 While using unload model 'storage_P_traction' the energy storage is unloaded as soon as the engine
consumes traction power until the maximum unload power of the energy storage is exceeded.
• storage_P_traction_ratio Figure 73:
P_engine [kW]
energy storage utilisation
storage_P_traction_ratio model
140
120
100
80
60
40
20
0
P_traction_panto [kW]
P_storage [kW] (70%
P_traction, max 56kW)
P_aux [kW] (20kW)
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
P_traction [kW]
Figure 73 While using unload model 'storage_P_traction_ratio' the energy storage is unloaded with the specified
fraction of the traction power as soon as the engine consumes traction power until the maximum unload power of
the energy storage is exceeded.
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4.4.7.3 Network Model
Figure 74 Example project configuration of TestNetwork 1 including Lines, Substations, Times, Earth node as well
as configuration of TestNetwork 2 which includes also the “Mergers” element, and general PSC options.
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Type
contact
wire
messenger
wire
feeder
User Manual
Name
Ri150
Ri120
Cu150
Cu120
Al 625
Al/St260/23
Rail (AC,
see chapter
6.4)
UIC60
third rail
Al 5100
Fe 7600
Description
150mm²
120mm²
150mm²
120mm²
625mm²
260mm² Al &
23mm² steel
UIC54
Al 5100mm²
7600mm² steel
Issue 2017-08-04
R20
[Ohm/km]
0,1185
0,1481
0,1185
0,1481
0,0459
0,1068
equivalent
radius [m]
0,0054
0,0048
0,00531
0,00468
0,01092
0,00733
temperature
coefficient
0,00393
0,00393
0,004
0,004
0,004
0,004
0,0306
(DC only)
0,0339
(DC only)
0,0064
0,0159
(see chapter
6.4)
(see chapter
6.4)
0,0314
0,0383
0,004
0,004
0,00382
0,005
Table 7 Typical conductor configuration values.
4.4.7.4 Power Supply models
Following power supply models are available:
• Two winding transformer (AC),
• Three winding transformer (2AC, symmetric),
• Converter (AC / 2AC)
• Autotransformer (2AC, symmetric),
• Booster transformer (AC / 2AC),
• Rectifier/Inverter (DC) and
• Stationary energy storage (DC).
All power supply models are configured in a child element of “Substation” (XPath:
/OpenPowerNet/PSC/Network/Substations/Substation).
The power supply models need to be connected to a busbar.
Two winding transformer, converter, rectifier, and storage are connected to the busbars via
child elements “OCSBB” and “RailsBB”, see Figure 75.
Figure 75 Rectifier with busbar child elements.
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Three winding transformers and auto transformers are connected to the busbars via child
elements “OCSBB”, “RailsBB” and “NegativeFeederBB”, see Figure 76.
Figure 76 Three winding transformer with child elements.
The booster transformer is connected to 4 busbars. The primary busbars are typically
connected to the catenary in parallel to an isolated section and the secondary busbars are
connected to the return wire.
Figure 77 Booster transformer with child elements.
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Figure 78 Substation element of example network configuration with transformer, busbars, and feeder with switch.
The tables below list some typical configuration data for power supplies.
Two Winding Transformer
nomPower_MVA
10
nomPrimaryVoltage_kV
115
nomSecondaryVoltage_kV
16.25
noLoadLosses_kW
6.5
loadLosses_kW
230
relativeShortCircuitVoltage_percent
10.7
noLoadCurrent_A
0.06
secondaryVoltagePhaseShift_degree
0 (optional, -120° … +120°)
Table 8 Typical two winding transformer configuration.
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Three Winding Transformer
nomPower_MVA
85
nomPrimaryVoltage_kV
150
nomSecondaryVoltage_kV
53.8
noLoadLosses_kW
38
loadLosses_kW
136
relativeShortCircuitVoltage_percent
8.6
noLoadCurrent_A
1.43
Table 9 Typical three winding transformer configuration.
Auto Transformer
nomPower_MVA
20
nomPrimaryVoltage_kV
55
nomSecondaryVoltage_kV
27.5
noLoadLosses_kW
8
loadLosses_kW
17
relativeShortCircuitVoltage_percent
1.76
noLoadCurrent_A
0.33
Table 10 Typical auto transformer configuration.
Booster Transformer
nomPower_MVA
0.158
nomPrimaryVoltage_kV
0.316
nomSecondaryVoltage_kV
0.316
noLoadLosses_kW
0.6
loadLosses_kW
2
relativeShortCircuitVoltage_percent
11
noLoadCurrent_A
7
Table 11 Example configuration of a booster transformer.
4.4.7.5 Static Frequency Converter
A generic Static Frequency Converter (SFC) model is available, see Figure 79.
railway grid
3-phase
public grid
I
3-AC
DC
U0
1-AC
DC
transformer
rectifier
inverter
transformer
busbar
Figure 79 Schematic static frequency converter.
The SFC model is defined in the TypeDefs-File and the Project-File references to the SFC
model type definition only by the SFC type name.
The SFC model offers three control strategies:
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• RADIAL: Shall be used if only one power supply is feeding the feeding section. In this
strategy, the active power will not be limited as there is only one power supply in the
system. However, the model is still able to limit the current.
• ISLAND: Shall be used in case of multiple power supplies, respectively other SFC or
transformer. The active power will be limited to the maximum (supply) and minimum
(recovery) values defined in the PfAngle curve.
L1
L2
L3
SFC
Substation 1
SFC
Substation 2
SFC
Substation 3
Contact Line
Track
• SYNCHRONOUS: Can be used same as ISLAND in case the SFC voltage angle shall
be identical to the voltage angle at another substation busbar. The other substation can
be configured with an SFC or a transformer.
L1
L2
L3
SFC
Substation 1
SFC
Substation 2
SFC
Substation 3
Contact Line
Track
substation 1 refers to voltage
angle at substation 2
Parameters in the TypeDefs-File:
The parameters are set as default values at the “Inverter” element and get superseded by
the parameters defined at a specific strategy, see example below for currentMaxSupply_A
where 550 A will be used during the simulation.
<ConverterType name="sfc">
<Losses>
<Detailed>
<RectifierInverter efficiency_percent="" />
<Transformer1AC>
<Impedance z_real_Ohm="0.1" z_imag_Ohm="5" />
</Transformer1AC>
</Detailed>
</Losses>
<Inverter
noLoadVoltage_kV="27.5"
noLoadVoltageMax_kV="30"
currentMaxSupply_A="600"
currentMaxRecovery_A="500"
currentMaxRecoveryMode="messages_only"
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currentMaxSupplyMode="messages_only">
<Strategy>
<Radial name="radial" currentMaxSupply_A="550"> Supersedes 600A defined above.
<QfU xValueName="U" xValueUnit="kV" yValueName="Q" yValueUnit="Mvar">
<valueLine xValue="25.0">
<values yValue="20" />
</valueLine>
<valueLine xValue="30.0">
<values yValue="-20" />
</valueLine>
</QfU>
<PfAngle xValueName="angle" xValueUnit="Deg" yValueName="P" yValueUnit="MW">
<valueLine xValue="-5">
<values yValue="15" />
</valueLine>
<valueLine xValue="5">
<values yValue="-15" />
</valueLine>
</PfAngle>
</Radial>
</Strategy>
</Inverter>
</ConverterType>
The no load voltage U0 (@noLoadVoltage_kV), see Figure 79, shall be the same as Q=f(U)
curve where Q is zero. The maximum no load voltage, respectively the maximum inverter no
load output voltage, is defined at @noLoadVoltageMax_kV.
The current limitation can be defined separately for supply (currentMaxSupply_A) and
recovery (currentMaxRecovery_A).
Beside the limit value a mode has to be defined. These modes are:
• off: The current is not limited.
• messages_only: In this mode the SFC does not try to limit the current, but reports a
warning message (PSC-W-012 or PSC-W-013) per each time step in which the current
is exceeded.
• try_to_limit_current: The SFC tries to limit the current. At supply, the SFC voltage is
reduced until the current is at its limit. This works only in case the engines are modelled
with a traction current limit which reduces the current for lower voltages. At recovery,
the SFC voltage is increased until the current is at its limit.
There are two different SFC loss models available, either detailed or combined. The values
of the models are defined at the TypeDefs-File and the choice of the model is done at the
Project-File. The detailed model is divided into a combined loss model of inverter and rectifier
and also 3 phase transformer and a separate loss model of the 1 phase transformer. Each
loss model has multiple descriptions, for details see Figure 80 as well as Table 12.
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railway grid
3-phase
public grid
I
3-AC
DC
U0
1-AC
DC
transformer
rectifier
inverter
transformer
busbar
transformer1AcLossModel
rectifierInverterLossModel
Figure 80 Converter detailed loss model.
Project-File
X-Path:
Converter/LossModel/Detailed
@rectifierInverterLossModel
@rectifierInverterLossModel
none
mean
@rectifierInverterLossModel
eta=f(P)
@transformer1AcLossModel
@transformer1AcLossModel
none
impedance
@transformer1AcLossModel
transformer
Parameter
choice
TypeDefs-File parameter
X-Path:
ConverterType/Losses/Detailed/
n/a
RectifierInverter/
@efficiency_percent
RectifierInverter/Efficiency
@xValueUnit=”kW”
@ yValueUnit=”%”
n/a
Transformer1AC/Impedance/
@z_imag_Ohm
@z_real_Ohm
/Transformer/
@nomSecondaryVoltage_kV
@relativeShortCircuitVoltage_percent
@nomPower_MVA
@loadLosses_kW
Table 12 Converter detail loss model parameter.
The combined loss model combines all SFC components and transformer in a parameter set
defined as η=f(P), see Figure 81 and Table 13.
railway grid
3-phase
public grid
I
3-AC
DC
U0
1-AC
DC
transformer
rectifier
inverter
transformer
busbar
combined
Figure 81 Converter combined loss model.
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Project-File
X-Path:
Converter/LossModel
Combined
User Manual
choice
n/a
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TypeDefs-File parameter
X-Path: ConverterType/Losses/
Combined /
@xValueUnit=”kW”
@ yValueUnit=”%”
Table 13 Converter combined loss model parameter.
An example of the SFC referenced at the Project-File can be found below. This example
references to the Convert Type defined above in this chapter, using a detailed loss model
with transformer impedance and rectifier/inverter mean efficiency.
Parameters in the Project-File:
<Converter name="SFC" typeRef="sfc" defaultStrategy="radial">
<LossModel>
<Detailed rectifierInverterLossModel="mean" transformer1AcLossModel="impedance" />
</LossModel>
<OCSBB bbName="ocsbb" z_real_Ohm="0.001" z_imag_Ohm="0.000"/>
<RailsBB bbName="railsbb" z_real_Ohm="0.001" z_imag_Ohm="0.000" />
</Converter>
The following example is using the SYNCHRONOUS strategy which shall be in sync with the
voltage between busbars “railsbb” and “ocsbb” at substation “TSS2”. Its definition at the
Project-File is shown below:
<Converter name="SFC" typeRef="sfc" defaultStrategy="synchronous">
<LossModel>
<Detailed rectifierInverterLossModel="mean" transformer1AcLossModel="impedance" />
</LossModel>
<Strategy>
<Synchronous substation="TSS2" nameRef="sync">
<ReferenceBusbar bbName="railsbb" />
<MeasuringBusbar bbName="ocsbb" />
</Synchronous>
</Strategy>
<OCSBB bbName="ocsbb" z_real_Ohm="0.001" z_imag_Ohm="0.000"/>
<RailsBB bbName="railsbb" z_real_Ohm="0.001" z_imag_Ohm="0.000" />
</Converter>
4.4.7.6 Rectifier
The rectifier model is used for DC power supply systems only.
The model is either only a rectifier (energyRecovery=”false”) or can be configured as inverter
(energyRecovery=”true”) in case that energy recovery to the transmission network shall be
possible.
The model is configured by defining the no load feeding voltage (nomVoltage_kV) and
voltage drop (internalResistance_Ohm) to define the clamp behaviour.
In case the losses shall be analysed, optional parameters have to be defined. A constant
voltage drop cause by the valves (lossVoltageDrop_kV) and/or copper losses of the
transformer and other components (lossResistance_Ohm) may be defined.
internalResistance_Ohm
nomVoltage_kV
energyRecovery
lossVoltageDrop_kV
lossResistance_Ohm
Rectifier
0.015
0.750
false
0.012
0.0015
Table 14 Typical rectifier configuration.
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4.4.7.7 Station Energy Storage
The model for the station energy storage (voltage stabilisation and energy saving) has two
models which are used depending on the conditions during the simulation. If the current is
maximal, the left model is used, otherwise the right model. Ri is the parameter
internalResistance_Ohm, Unom is nomVoltage_kV, Imax is unloadImax_A respective
loadImax_A and Zbb_conn the connectors to the busbars.
Figure 82 Energy Storage models
nomVoltage_kV
internalResistance_Ohm
loadImax_A
unloadImax_A
maxLoad_kWh
initialLoad_kWh
lossPower_kW
efficiencyLoad_percent
efficiencyUnload_percent
Station Energy Storage
0.580
0.015
100
300
10
5
0.1
90
90
Table 15 Typical voltage stabilisation station energy storage configuration for DC 600 V with 600 V no load
voltage at the rectifier.
nomVoltage_kV
internalResistance_Ohm
loadImax_A
unloadImax_A
maxLoad_kWh
initialLoad_kWh
lossPower_kW
efficiencyLoad_percent
efficiencyUnload_percent
Station Energy Storage
0.600
0.015
300
300
10
5
0.1
90
90
Table 16 Typical energy saving station energy storage configuration for DC 600 V with 600 V no load voltage at
the rectifier.
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4.4.7.8 Voltage Limiting Devices
According to EN 50526-2:2012, a Voltage Limiting Device (VLD) operates in a way as to
connect the track return circuit of DC railway systems to the earthing system or to conductive
parts within the overhead contact line zone or current collector zone, in order to:
1 Prevent impermissible touch voltage caused by train traffic or short circuit; and/or
2 Prevent impermissible touch voltages by reducing the fault circuit impedance and
thus causing the tripping of the circuit breaker by over current.
The VLD model is not limited to DC only but can be used for AC railway power supply
systems as well.
Note: The DC model respects the current direction while the AC model uses the absolute
values. If the voltage shall be limited in any case for DC systems, e.g. touch voltage between
rail and earth, two VLD models need to be added to the network model. For one VLD, the
reference shall be the rail busbar and for the other VLD the reference shall be the earth
busbar.
The model is a recoverable VLD that recovers after triggering, depending of the defined
“Open Model”.
The VLD model is defined in the TypeDefs-File (see Figure 83). The Project-File (see Figure
84) references to the VLD model definition only by its type name.
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Figure 83 Elements and attributes of the VLD model definition in the TypeDefs-File.
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Figure 84 Elements and attributes of the VLD model definition in the Project-File.
Defining the Model:
The VLD model is defined by a “Close Model” which describes the conditions for closing the
VLD and an “Open Model” which describes the conditions for opening. The VLD corresponds
to a resistance between the reference and measuring busbar which depends on the VLD’s
state.
The following “Close Models” are available:
• Voltage: The VLD closes as soon as the defined voltage is exceeded.
• VoltageDuration: The VLD closes when the defined voltage level is exceeded for a
defined time interval.
The following “Open Models” are available:
• Timer: The VLD opens after a specific time period. If the close condition is still valid,
one time step with open VLD occurs in the simulation results. Thus, there will be one
time step with exceeding voltage.
• Voltage: The VLD opens as soon as the voltage at the closed VLD is less than
specified.
• VoltageDuration: The VLD opens when the actual voltage level is below the defined
value for a defined time interval.
• Current: The VLD opens as soon as the current level is lower than the defined value.
• CurrentDuration: The VLD opens when the current level was continuously lower than a
defined value for a defined time interval.
Exactly one “Open Model” and one “Close Model” need to be defined.
The VLD has four different states:
• OPEN: This is the default state. The resistance defined in the attribute r_open_ohm is
used.
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• CLOSE: The VLD is closed. This state is modelled with the resistance defined in the
attribute r_close_ohm.
• WAIT_CLOSE: This occurs only for the Close Model “VoltageDuration” in case the
voltage level is exceeded but the defined duration is not exceeded. During this state,
the resistance defined in the attribute r_open_ohm is used.
• WAIT_OPEN: This occurs only for the Open Model “CurrentDuration” and
“VoltageDuration” when the current/voltage is lower than the defined threshold but the
defined duration is not exceeded. During this state, the resistance defined in the
attribute r_close_ohm is used.
Here, an example of a VLD (see Table 17) as an XML snippet of the TypeDefs-File is shown:
<VLDTypes>
<VLDType name="U/I" r_close_Ohm="0.001" r_open_Ohm="10000">
<CloseModels>
<Voltage voltage_V="120"/>
</CloseModels>
<OpenModels>
<Current current_A="0"/>
</OpenModels>
</VLDType>
</VLDTypes>
Using the Model:
The VLD is used within the Project-File at the substation. The VLD has to be connected
between two busbars. There is no constraint to use a specific busbar type. The VLD model is
defined in the TypeDefs-File and referenced in the Project-File by the attribute type.
The following XML snippet of a Project-File corresponds with the example above:
<Substation name="16+000">
<VLD name="+" condSort="U/I" comment="for positive exceeding voltage">
<MeasuringBusbar bbName="E"/>
<ReferenceBusbar bbName="R"/>
</VLD>
<VLD name="-" condSort="U/I" comment="for negative exceeding voltage">
<MeasuringBusbar bbName="R"/>
<ReferenceBusbar bbName="E"/>
</VLD>
<Busbars>
<RailsBB bbName="E">
<Connector z_real_Ohm="0.001" z_imag_Ohm="0.000"> The connector to earth conductor.
<Position km="16.000" trackID="h" condName="E" lineID="Linie 01"/>
</Connector>
</RailsBB>
<RailsBB bbName="R">
<Connector z_real_Ohm="0.001" z_imag_Ohm="0.000"> The connector to a rail conductor.
<Position km="16.000" trackID="h" condName="RL" lineID="Linie 01"/>
</Connector>
</RailsBB>
</Busbars>
</Substation>
Voltage Limiting Device
r_close_Ohm
0.001
r_open_Ohm
10000
Close Model: Voltage (voltage_V)
120
Open Model: Current (current_A)
0
Table 17 Typical values for a voltage limiting device used to limit the touch voltage to maximum 120 V by a
thyristor (opens when current is below 0 A).
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4.4.7.9 Simulation Time window
Figure 85 Example configuration of two simulation time windows for the network from 00:00:00 to 00:10:00 and
from 00:20:00 to 00:30:00.
The simulation time window enables the user to specify the times the network that shall be
used during the simulation. For instance, the Project-File has multiple networks along a very
long route. The simulation runs five trains following each other. To minimize the calculation
time and amount of data, each network should only be enabled if at least one train is in the
network, see the example in Figure 86.
Note: In case the network contains energy storages it is advised to use the network for the
whole simulation due to changing energy storage state of charge.
Figure 86 Example of reasonable simulation time windows per network. The red rectangles indicate the feeding
section per network and the simulation time window.
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Network Merge
Figure 87 This example shows how to merge two networks into one network.
The merge parameters provide the functionality to merge two networks of the same ProjectFile into one network. This merged network will be used during the whole simulation. This is
for example useful for simulation of failure scenarios, e.g. when “Transformer1” in “TSS1” of
Network “TestNetwork 1” needs to supply also the neighbour section in Network
“TestNetwork 2” due to a switched off “Transformer2” in “TSS1”.
The example configuration in Figure 87 adds the following to network “TestNetwork 1”:
• the connection between “line1” and “line2”,
• the “line2”,
• the OCS busbar connection in “TSS1”,
• the substation “TSS2”,
• a concatenation of the merger name to the original network name  network name
used for simulation and analysis is “TestNetwork 1 + merge_nw2”, and
• the network configuration of network “TestNetwork 2”.
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Figure 88 visualises the merged networks.
Figure 88 The merged “TestNetwork 1” and “TestNetwork 2”.
4.4.7.11
Train Operating Companies
Figure 89 Example configuration of Train Operating Companies.
For the accumulation of energy consumption, several courses can be grouped to so-called
Train Operating Companies. This feature can be used to attribute a portion of energy to
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different operators, types of trains, or any arbitrary selection by using the courses specified in
the Project-File, see Figure 89. The attribute courseID corresponds with the course ID in
OpenTrack. The consumed energy of not specified courses is summarised for a Train
Operating Company with the name unknown. Therefore, it is not advised to name a Train
Operating Company unknown!
4.4.7.12
Data Recording
Besides the configuration of the engine model, network, and operating company, it is
necessary to define the recording of the simulation results. To record data to the database,
the connection properties need to be set. The configuration of recording is structured
hierarchically. The attributes in element OpenPowerNet are at the highest level and define
the general recording behaviour, see XML snippet below.
<OpenPowerNet
xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
xsi:noNamespaceSchemaLocation="http://www.openpowernet.de/schemas/OpenPowerNet.xsd"
name="Tutorial AC Network"
comment="failure scenario"
maxIterations="1000"
maxFailedIterations="100"
dbUser="opndbusr" (The database’s user name)
dbPasswd="xxxx" (The database’s user password if required)
odbcDsn="pscresults" (The DSN name, this is the name specified as ODBC data source name.)
record2DB="true" (Set "true" to record data to the database, default is "false".)
rstFile="Engine.opnengine" (The path to the referenced file, may be absolute or relative.)
switchStateFile="Switch-File.xml">
To record engine data, set the attribute /OpenPowerNet/ATM/Options/@record2DB to
"true".
The recording of currents and voltages for electrical networks is configured according to the
element hierarchy of the Project-File beginning at element /OpenPowerNet/PSC/Network
using the attributes recordCurrent and recordVoltage. These two attributes have three
allowed values:
- true: Record data of this element if in a higher hierarchy element this attribute is
not set to false+sub.
- true+sub: Record data of this and all lower hierarchy elements. This cannot be
overridden in lower hierarchy elements.
- false+sub: Do not record data of this and all lower hierarchy elements. This
cannot be overridden in lower hierarchy elements.
An example XML snippet with recording attributes is shown below:
<Network
name="A"
frequency_Hz="0"
voltage_kV="0.6"
recordCurrent="true" Record currents for this network.
recordVoltage="true"> Record voltages for this network.
<Lines> No recording attributes set therefore the default value (true) will be applied.
<Line
name="A"
recordCurrent="false+sub" Do not record currents for this line and all subordinate elements.
recordVoltage="false+sub"> Do not record voltages for this line and all subordinate elements.
...
</Line>
</Lines>
<Substations
recordCurrent="true" Record currents for all substations if not contrarily defined for a
specific substation.
recordVoltage="true"> Record voltages for all substations if not contrarily defined for a
specific substation.
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<Substation
name="TSS_A"
recordCurrent="true" Record currents for this substation.
recordVoltage="true"> Record voltages for this substation.
...
</Substation>
<Substation
name="BC"
recordCurrent="false+sub" Do not record currents for this substation.
recordVoltage="false+sub"> Do not record voltages for this substation.
...
</Substation>
</Substations>
<Earth lineID="A" trackID="up" km="0" condName="E"/>
</Network>
Please note that recording line voltages and currents increases the amount of written data
significantly and slows down the analysis. It is advised to record values only if necessary for
the desired visualisation.
4.4.7.13
Distribution
Distributions are defined either by a distribution histogram or by a cumulative distribution
function (CDF).
distribution
100%
90%
80%
70%
60%
Histogram
50%
CDF
40%
30%
FirstBin
20%
10%
0%
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
Figure 90 A distribution defined by a histogram and cumulative distribution function.
All distributions are defined as children of the element /OpenPowerNet/Distributions.
The piecewise linear distribution can be defined either by a histogram or by a cumulative
distribution function. Below are the example definitions of both types.
Histogram definition:
<Histogram>
<FirstBin begin="25" width="5" probability="10" />
<Bin width="20" probability="80" />
<Bin width="10" probability="10" />
</Histogram>
Cumulative Distribution Function definition:
<CDF xValueName="delay" xValueUnit="s" yValueName="cumulated distribution" yValueUnit="%">
<valueLine xValue="0">
<values yValue="0" />
</valueLine>
<valueLine xValue="25">
<values yValue="0" />
</valueLine>
<valueLine xValue="30">
<values yValue="10" />
</valueLine>
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<valueLine xValue="50">
<values yValue="90" />
</valueLine>
<valueLine xValue="60">
<values yValue="100" />
</valueLine>
</CDF>
To simulate different delay scenarios, the attribute scenario of the element
PiecewiseLinearDistribution should be altered. The simulations with the same
scenario are repeatable and produce the same delays.
4.4.7.14
Options
There are several options to be set which control the calculation. These are:
• tolerance_A: The maximum allowed current tolerance between ATM-PSC iteration
steps. A recommended value is 1 A.
• tolerance_V: The maximum allowed voltage tolerance between ATM-PSC iteration
steps. A recommended value is 1 V.
• tolerance_grad: The maximum allowed voltage angle tolerance between ATM-PSC
iteration steps. A recommended value is 0.001°.
• maxCurrentAngleIteration: The maximum allowed iterations per ATM-PSC iteration
step in PSC to find the correct voltage angle. A recommended value is 1000.
• maxIncreaseCount: The maximum allowed number of increasing voltage tolerance
between ATM-PSC iteration steps. Usually, the tolerance is decreasing between the
iteration steps. However, for overburden networks and SFCs, the tolerance increases
sometimes. With this option, overburden simulation time steps can be detected earlier
before the value specified in OpenPowerNet/@maxIterations is reached. If you are not
sure what you are doing, set this value higher than the value defined at
OpenPowerNet/@maxIterations.
• discreteEngine: Specifies whether engine shall be inserted continuously between
slices at their accurate position ('false') or discreetly only at slices ('true', default). If
'false', the engine current is split according to the distance of the engine to the adjacent
slices. For 'true', the engine current is inserted only at the closest slice. This option is
only applicable to DC networks!
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4.4.8 Switch-File
The optional switch state file is an XML file. The Switch-File complies to the schema provided
in the XML Catalogue with the key http://www.openpowernet.de/schemas/ADE.xsd.
The schema specific documentation is available at Help > Help Contents >
OpenPowerNet User Guide.
In the Switch-File, the state changes for each switch in the power supply network during the
simulation time are configured. The default state of the switch is configured in the ProjectFile. The Switch-File is only needed if switch states shall be changed during the simulation.
Figure 91 Switch configuration for network calculation. The switches are open for 10 minutes beginning at
10:00:00.
4.5
Simulation
The OpenPowerNet GUI handles the start and stop of the server, waiting for requests from
OpenTrack.
To start the server,
has to be selected from the context menu of the particular ProjectFile, see Figure 92.
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Figure 92 Start OpenPowerNet server by selecting the Project-File and click "Start OpenPowerNet" from context
menu.
The OpenPowerNet settings in OpenTrack have to be configured to run co-simulations, see
chapter 4.2. The simulation can be started as usual with the OpenTrack simulation panel
after the OPN server is started. The OPN server is ready for requests once you can read the
license information at the console, see example below.
OpenPowerNet Core 1.6.0 64 Bit | built Sep 30 2016, 07:00:00
Institut fuer Bahntechnik GmbH
Full license
To shut down the server select
from menu.
During the simulation, a number of messages will be displayed. These messages are
categorised in INFO, WARNING and ERROR. At the end of the simulation, the number of
WARNING and ERROR messages is displayed if any occurred. All messages are saved to
the database and can be read after the simulation by using the Excel file “Message”
(OpenPowerNet > Excel Tools > Messages).
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Visualisation
4.6.1 Prepared Excel files
A number of prepared Excel files for a quick analysis of the simulation data is available via
the GUI (OpenPowerNet > Excel tools). These files are opened in a write protected
mode to avoid unintended overwrites but may be saved with a different name.
The prepared Excel files utilise the ODBC DSN “pscresults” to connect to a database. The
ODBC DSN is like an arrow pointing to a database schema. Via the configuration of the
“pscresults” DSN, any desired database schema may be selected and analysed in Excel, see
chapter 3.4 as well as Figure 93 and Figure 94.
Figure 93 The ODBC data source administrator.
To retrieve the data from the database, select “update all” from the Excel “Data” ribbon or
press Ctrl+Alt+F5. Update multiple times to get the data for the selection and the data to be
displayed in the prepared diagrams.
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Figure 94 DSN configuration.
4.6.2 User defined Excel Filesfiles
All simulation results are stored in a database. For visualisation, the data can be transferred
into a custom Excel table sheet via external data exchange, see and follow the instructions
below from Figure 95 to Figure 103.
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Figure 95 Create a new external data query.
Figure 96 Select pscresults* as external data source.
If no such DSN is available, see document “Installation Instruction” to create a new DSN.
You can find the installation instruction in the Help System OpenPowerNet User Guide >
PDF-Documents.
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Figure 97 For this example, select table sim, add the columns shown on the right to the query and click “next”.
Figure 98 Click “next” in order to refrain from filtering any data.
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Figure 99 Select id in the upper combo box to sort the data by the column id of table sim.
Figure 100 Select the centre radio button to edit and view the data in Microsoft Query and click “finish”.
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Figure 101 The results of the query are listed in the table. Select Return Data to Microsoft Excel from
file menu to insert the data into an Excel table. Please see the Excel documentation for further questions.
Figure 102 Click “OK” and the data will be inserted to the table at position $A$1.
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„Table Tools“ menu
Figure 103 Now the data in the table retrieved from database is ready for further evaluation and visualisation. For
easy handling of the external data source query, it is recommended to use the “Table Tools” menu.
OpenPowerNet comes with Excel files already prepared for data analysis. These files are
accessible from the GUI at OpenPowerNet > Excel Tools.
For example, the Energy consumption by Train Operating Company visualises the
energy consumption of all courses in all networks of the simulation summarised by the Train
Operating Company (see example configuration in Figure 89) expressed as a percentage of
the total energy consumption of all courses, see Figure 104.
Figure 104 Proportional portioned energy consumption of Train Operating Companies (in this example named
0.1m/s^2, 0.3m/s^2 and 3m/s^2) expressed in percent of the total energy consumptions of all Train Operating
Companies.
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4.6.3 Automatic Analysis
The Automatic Analysis tool may be used to produce nicely visualised output from the
simulation results, which is typically needed when carrying out electrical network studies.
Most output is created using Microsoft Excel, which allows easy modification by the user later
if needed.
The visualisation is configured in the Selection-File for a specific simulation. This file uses the
file extension “sel”. General configuration is done via preferences, see chapter 4.3.1.
To create a new Selection-File, use the context menu in the Project Explorer, select New >
Analysis Selection File and follow the wizard.
Figure 105 Create new Selection-File from context menu.
The Selection-File can be edited in offline and online mode:
• The offline mode uses a Project-File to make the output selections. For this, select a
Project-File via the Browse... button in the offline mode group.
• The online mode uses an existing simulation in the database to make the output
selections. To choose a simulation, change the editing mode from offline to online,
select an ODBC DSN, the database Schema name and the Simulation.
Figure 106 A new empty Selection-File after creation. Each page name includes the number of selected items in
brackets.
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Once the model source is defined, click on the Load button to create the model in the
background and to enable the selection pages. While loading the model, messages are
displayed on the OPN console.
The analysis group defines the general visualisation configuration. Start and end time define
the visualisation time window. If the project utilises multiple simulation time windows as
described in chapter 4.4.7.9, the checkboxes below the times will be enabled. They define
whether the output shall be created for the global time window and/or for each individual time
window, if applicable. In the area below the analysis group, the generation of the individual
page settings can be enabled or disabled. Only enabled selections will be generated.
The style group defines some style specific settings. The designation is used in the titles of
the generated files and should be an applicable description of the simulation (e.g. to fit a
report). The default is taken from the project name and comment defined in the Project-File.
The project ID and report ID comes from the Project-File but may be altered if required, the
default button fills in the value specified at the Project-File. The Footer logo and copyright
mark are configured in the preferences and may be enabled here. The Watermark is the
OpenPowerNet logo and will be applied on each diagram or table if selected. The Preset-File
currently selected in the preferences is displayed for information only here.
The output group offers some settings regarding the produced files types and hidden data
sheets: Data sheets, which are the basis for all charts, are typically unwanted in PDF output,
but might be of interest when looking into the original Excel file.
Selection details are defined on the pages “Corridors”, “Lines”, “Connectors”, “Substations”,
“Magnetic Field”, “Currents”, “Voltages”, and “Vehicles”. The description of these pages
follows in the next chapters.
After making the selections, the output creation may be started by clicking the button Start
Analysis on the general page. This will also create a linked folder for the generated files in
the workspace. The analysis may be cancelled at any time by stopping the task from the
Progress View using the button with the red square near the lower right window corner, see
Figure 107.
Figure 107 Progress View with active running analysis.
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Note: The generation of output files is done using Microsoft Excel. Although this is done as a
background process without user interaction, it is possible that this process interferes with
other Excel sessions. Therefore it is advised to not open any new Excel instance during
generation of output files!
Setup separators: The decimal and thousands separators to be displayed in the output files
and used for the inter-process communication depend on a setting in Microsoft Excel. As this
setting affects the display of all Excel files for the user logged on, it is not adjusted
automatically by OpenPowerNet. It is necessary to change the setting Excel Options >
Advanced > Use system separators to “disabled” and define e.g. a “.” (dot) as
Decimal separator and a “,” (comma) as Thousands separator. It is possible to use
alternative settings by modifying the preset file, see chapter 4.6.3.10.
Setup paper size: The paper size to be used by Microsoft Excel to create the output files
has to be configured for an available printer. It is recommended to set the paper size of
“Microsoft XPS Document Writer” to “A4” under Windows > Control Panel >
Printers > [Printername context menu] > Printing preferences >
Advanced. It is possible to use another printer or paper size by modifying the preset file, see
chapter 4.6.3.10.
4.6.3.1 Corridors
The “Corridors” page is used to define corridors along lines and tracks of the selected
simulation. These corridor definitions will be used to make the selections on the “Vehicles”
page.
An example corridor definition from the AC-DC Networks Tutorial in chapter 5.8.3 is shown in
Figure 108. It combines the AC and DC electrical model as a single corridor from passenger
station A to C.
Figure 108 Selection Editor, “Corridors” page, AC-DC Networks Tutorial example.
4.6.3.2 Lines
The “Lines” page provides selections for charts along the line. These charts shall help to find
the minimum or maximum values e.g. for pantograph voltage, rail-earth potential, or currents
in the catenary system. They include markers e.g. for voltage limits or infeed positions.
Additionally, all stations defined in OpenTrack are displayed in the Line Diagrams, see Figure
138. (Hint: Stations may be hidden by beginning their name with an exclamation mark “!”.)
The selection dialog provides the following columns:
• Designation:
If set, the default chart title will be replaced with the given text. The designation will be
added to the title. The original subtitle with the names of the line and the tracks will still
be used.
• Type:
Select the chart type (see below).
• Infra:
Select the infrastructure items to be displayed in the chart. It is also possible to select
the substations to be shown depending on the type of device.
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The option “Feeder Label: SS name” may be used to define which label is put
next to the feeder position: “Enabled” (default) will display the substation
name, while “disabled” will show either the feeder name from the Project-File
(if defined) or an automatically created name (Line/Track/km).
Chainage:
These columns may be used to limit the chainage axis to values between ≥ and ≤.
Function, Time base:
Define the duration to be used to calculate average values.
o 1.0s:
Select output of the instantaneous value with the simulation time step length
as the time base.
o ∞:
Select output of the overall average with the complete analysis time window
length as the time base.
o Values [s]:
Define multiple comma separated time base values in seconds. All values
have to be larger than the simulation time step. For each value, a separate
chart series will be created.
Function, Average:
Select the algorithm to be used to calculate the average values.
o Ø of |x|: Calculate the mean average of the absolute values at each position.
o rms of |x|: Calculate the rms average of the absolute values at each position.
Line xyz:
Shows the line name of a group of tracks.
Track xyz:
Shows the track name of a group of conductors.
Panto:
This item selection column represents the chart series for all vehicle pantographs that
appeared on the particular line and track during the simulation.
Conductor Name xyz:
This item selection column represents the chart series for the particular conductor.
Partially defined conductors (e.g. for turnout tracks) are shown only once.
o
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Figure 109 The dialog to configure the charts versus the line position.
The item columns visible on the right side depend on the selection in the tree on the left. For
a project consisting of multiple lines and tracks, this function may be used to focus on the
items needed. In the example shown in Figure 109, all conductors for line A in Network A-B
are displayed.
Each row of the table defines a single output chart of the selected type containing a chart
series for each selected item and time base. Selectable chart types are:
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• U_Panto = f(s): Visualise the pantograph voltage of all courses along the line. If
selected, the voltage of conductors of the type “ContactWire” with reference to
conductors of the type “Rail” will be shown as well. Note: Due to the relatively low
number of values for pantograph voltages that are furthermore not bound to a particular
position, it is not possible to apply an average function for “Panto”. Only instantaneous
values of the pantograph voltages will be shown. Substation infeed positions will be
marked along the line.
• U_Rail-Earth = f(s): Visualise the rail-earth potential, i.e. the voltage between the
selected conductors of type “Rail” and the conductor of type “Earth”. Substation return
feeder positions will be marked along the line.
• U_Conductors = f(s): Visualise the voltage between any conductor and a reference
conductor. There should be either a single reference selection per line or one for each
track. All substation feeder positions will be marked along the line.
• I_Conductors = f(s): Visualise the current in the selected conductors. All substation
feeder positions will be marked along the line.
• I_sum = f(s): Visualise the current sum of all selected conductors. The sum will be
calculated separately for the minimum and maximum selections. It is advised to choose
a meaningful custom designation for this chart type for better identification. All
substation feeder positions will be marked along the line.
• I_Leakage = f(s): The current between any conductors and a reference in mA/m. There
should be either a single reference selection per line or one for each track. All
substation feeder positions will be marked along the line.
The table below shows the selections possible for each item cell:
•
↑ : Find the maximum value at each position.
•
↓
: Find the minimum value at each position.
•
↑ ↓ : Find the minimum and maximum values at each position as separate chart
series.
•
0 : Select the reference conductor.
•
n/a respectively blank: The item is not selected.
The button Delete Rows deletes the selected rows.
The button Autofill Rows suggests a selection for the visible items of the selected rows
according to its chart type. The first suitable reference item of the track or line will be
preselected.
4.6.3.3 Connectors
The Connectors group provides charts for connectors specified in the Project-File in the XML
element /OpenPowerNet/PSC/Network/Connectors.
Selectable chart types are:
• U,I = f(t):
Visualise the voltage between both ends of the connector and the current through the
connector versus time.
• U, I, I_sum = f(t):
Same as “U,I = f(t)” plus the current sum of all selected connectors.
• I = TRLPC:
Visualise the current through the connector as Time-Rated Load Periods Curve
(see chapter 6.16).
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• P = f(t):
the active power consumed by the connector versus time.
• P, P_sum = f(t):
Same as “P = f(t)” plus the sum of all selected connectors.
• P = TRLPC:
Visualise the active power consumed by the connector as Time-Rated Load Periods
Curve.
Figure 110 The dialog to select connectors and to define different charts. The numbers in brackets in the tree on
the left side represent the number of connectors.
The item columns displayed on the right side depend on the selection in the tree on the left
side.
4.6.3.4 Substations
The Substations page provides charts related to substations, see Figure 111.
Figure 111 The dialog to select the substations and the charts to be generated.
The tree view on the left side shows all substations available for selection. On the upper right
side, the file production mode can be specified as well as settings related to feeder and
device calculation algorithms. Underneath, the table with the substation chart type selections
is displayed.
The file production mode controls the number of files and their content. This is useful for
large simulations to reduce the file size of a single file. The following modes are available:
• single: Create single file per substation containing all charts.
• busbar & device & overview: Create separate files for busbar and feeder charts, device
charts and overview tables per substation.
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• by item: Create a separate file for each substation element (feeder, busbar, device,
device aggregation, overview).
Feeder settings allow the selection of the average function to be used for calculation of
current versus time and TRLPC. The device settings allow the same for voltage, current and
power related charts for the substation devices.
The chart types to be generated may be selected for each substation using the checkboxes
on the lower right. The rows are categorised hierarchically from project (blue row) via
network (green row) to individual substations. Clicking on a project or network checkbox will
select or unselect all the particular substations of the column.
The following chart types are available:
• Feeder:
o I = f(t):
Visualise the current in the feeder cables versus time, one chart per busbar.
o I = TRLPC:
Visualise the current in the feeder cables as Time-Rated Load Periods Curve
(see chapter 6.16), one chart per busbar.
• Device:
o U,I = f(t):
Visualise the device voltage and current versus time, one chart per device.
o U,I = TRLPC:
Visualise the device voltage and current as Time-Rated Load Periods Curve,
one chart per device.
o P = f(t):
Visualise the device power (S, P and Q) versus time, one chart per device.
o P = TRLPC:
Visualise the device power (S and P) as Time-Rated Load Periods Curve, one
chart per device. If applicable, separate charts will be created showing the
resulting TRLPC curves only for timesteps with power output (feeding the
railway network) or input (recovering power from the railway network).
o If any of the above device charts is selected, the device specific output such
as energy storage load or VLD statistics will be created.
• Overview:
o Create overview tables for maximum and RMS values of current and power as
well as energies and losses at feeders and devices. Also create device
specific overview tables if applicable.
• Aggregation:
o Chart:
Visualise the aggregated power of the selected substations. Additionally, a
VLD specific statistic is generated.
o Overview:
Create an aggregated overview of the selected substations.
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4.6.3.5 Magnetic Field
The Magnetic Field page provides the selection regarding the visualisation of the flux density
(B-field) or the field strength (H-field) at the selected position as one of the following:
• One image file per time step showing the current field values,
• The maximum value over the defined time period at each field position as a single
image file,
• The average value (arithmetic mean) over a time period at each field position as a
single image file, or
• A movie file containing all timesteps over a time period.
The Magnetic Field page shows a tree structure including “project”, “network” and “line”
levels on the left. At “line” level, a chart definition has to be added by selecting a line and
choosing Add chart definition from the context menu. At the chart definition, one or
multiple locations are created by selecting a chart definition and choosing Add chart
location and time.
Figure 112 Creating chart definition and location for Magnetic Field.
Figure 113 Magnetic field chart definition details.
The chart definition contains general settings of the diagram:
• Name: Specifiy an identifier to distinguish multiple chart definitions in the Selection
Editor, it is not displayed in the generated output,
• Style: Select from the following output styles:
o ISO: Show lines to mark particular values (can be changed in preset, see
chapter 4.6.3.10), areas in-between will be of the same colour, see Figure 116
o shading: Let the colour vary continuously rather than in steps, see Figure 115
• Value Limit (only applicable for the “shading” style): Define the maximum legend colour
value,
• Colourmap: Select from different colour presets to display the field values,
• Field Type:
o B-Field: magnetic field flux density in µT,
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o H-Field magnetic field strength in A/m,
• Factor: a factor to manipulate the calculated values, e.g. the timetable has first hour
with traffic and second hour without traffic  only the first hour is simulated  the
average shall be for two hours  the factor is 0.5,
• Grid [m]: Specify the grid size in meters. A smaller grid size generates a smoother and
more detailed image, but increases the calculation time,
• x/y min/max [m]: Specify the image size (scope) in meters.
Figure 114 Magnetic Field location definition.
The location and time definition specifies details of the diagram by:
• Designation: If empty, the designation from the General page is used for the output,
• Position between slices [km]: Select the chainage position used for the diagram (only
available in the middle between two slices),
• Time Start/End: Select the time window,
• Image settings as:
o Mean Values: Select to generate a single image of mean values at each field
position for the defined time window,
o Max Values: Select to generate a single image of the maximum values at
each field position for the defined time window,
o Images per timestep: Select to generate one image showing the current field
values for each simulation time step for the defined time window,
• File Format (for single images):
o PDF: Select to generate images in the Portable Document Format
o EMF: Select to generate images as Enhanced Metafiles
Note: The “ISO” style setting will usually create scalable vector graphics while the
“shading” style setting has to be created as bitmap graphics.
• Video: Select to create a video (as an uncompressed bitmap avi file) for all time steps
of the defined time window.
The lower part of the location and time definition is only an informative representation of the
specified image scope, it has no influence on the generated diagram.
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The generated diagrams consist of two plots: The upper plot is the magnetic field and the
lower plot indicates the measuring point and engines within the selected line. The lower plot
is shown by default but can be turned off in the AnalysisPreset-File, see chapter 4.6.3.10 for
details.
Figure 115 Example preview image of the flux density using "shading" style and color map “jet”.
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Figure 116 Example preview image of the flux density using "iso" style.
4.6.3.6 Currents
On the “Currents” page, the selections for the output of conductor currents are made. The
charts are defined per location. A location is added as shown in Figure 117.
Figure 117 Add a chart location at Currents page.
The chart location defines the position, chart type and selected conductors. The conductor
selection is supported by type specific selection via buttons above the table.
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Figure 118 The “Currents” page selection details.
Available chart types are:
• I = f(t): Visualise current versus time, see Figure 119,
• I,I_sum = f(t): Visualise current and total current versus time,
• I_sum = f(t): Visualise total current versus time,
• I = TRLPC: Visualise current as Time-Rated Load Periods Curve (see chapter 6.16,
Figure 120),
• I,I_sum = TRLPC: Visualise current and total current as Time-Rated Load Periods
Curve,
• I_sum = TRLPC: Visualise total current as Time-Rated Load Periods Curve.
The total current is grouped by conductor type:
• OCS: ContactWire, MessengerWire, Feeder,
• Rails: Rails, ReturnFeeder,
• other: all other conductor types.
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Conductor Current, Tutorial AC & DC Networks
Line A, km 6+125, 01:00:00 - 01:48:57
1,000
900
800
700
Current [A]
600
500
400
300
200
100
0
01:00:00
01:05:00
01:10:00
01:15:00
01:20:00
01:25:00
01:30:00
01:35:00
01:40:00
01:45:00
Time
|I_1_CW|
|I_1_LF|
|I_1_MW|
Figure 119 Example output of the selected conductors’ currents versus time.
Conductor Current Load, Tutorial AC & DC Networks
Line A, km 6+125, 01:00:00 - 01:48:57
1,000
900
800
700
Current [A]
600
500
400
300
200
100
0
1
10
100
1,000
10,000
Duration [s]
I_1_CW_max_rms
I_1_LF_max_rms
I_1_MW_max_rms
Figure 120 Example output of the selected conductors’ currents as Time-Rated Load Periods Curve.
4.6.3.7 Voltages
On the “Voltages” page, the selections for voltage charts at a specific location are made. A
location is added in the same way as at the “Currents” page, see Figure 117.
The chart location defines the position, chart type and selected conductors. The conductor
selection is supported by type specific selection via buttons above the table.
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Figure 121 The Voltages selection details.
The voltage is calculated between a reference conductor ( 0 ) and a selected conductor
( x ).
Available chart types are:
• U = f(t): Visualise voltage versus time, see Figure 122
• U = TRLPC_min: Visualise minimum voltage as Time-Rated Load Periods Curve (see
chapter 6.16, see Figure 123)
• U = TRLPC_max: Visualise maximum voltage as Time-Rated Load Periods Curve
Conductor Voltage, Tutorial AC & DC Networks
Line A, km 10+000, 01:00:00 - 01:48:57
75.0
67.5
60.0
52.5
Voltage [V]
45.0
37.5
30.0
22.5
15.0
7.5
0.0
01:00:00
01:05:00
01:10:00
01:15:00
01:20:00
01:25:00
01:30:00
01:35:00
01:40:00
01:45:00
Time
|U_2_RL-1_E|
Figure 122 Example output of the touch voltage versus time.
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Conductor Voltage TRLPC, Tutorial AC & DC Networks
Line A, km 10+000, 01:00:00 - 01:48:57
75.0
67.5
60.0
52.5
Voltage [V]
45.0
37.5
30.0
22.5
15.0
7.5
0.0
1
10
100
1,000
10,000
Duration [s]
U_2_RL-1_E_max_rms
Figure 123 Example output of the touch voltage as Time-Rated Load Periods Curve.
4.6.3.8 Vehicles
The creation of vehicle output is based on the combination of corridor definitions (see
chapter 4.6.3.1), chart type definitions for all engines as well as single engines and overview
types. The individual types and the selections are shown in a tree structure on the left side
whereas the right side of the editor is used to show details.
The steps to select the vehicle output are:
• Define corridor (see chapter 4.6.3.1),
• Define chart type for all engines and/or single engine,
• Define overview type, and
• Make the “Vehicle & Corridor Selection”.
The chart and overview types are also predefined in the preferences, see chapter 4.3.2 on
page 39. Customised sets can be added to the preferences in the same manner under
Analysis > Selection Editor, so that they are available across multiple simulations.
The following figures show the creation of a new empty chart type definition (Figure 124), the
import of a predefined chart type definition (Figure 125), and the import of a customised set
of chart type definition from the preferences (Figure 126).
Figure 124 Selection Editor, “Vehicles page”, add “empty” All Engines chart type set.
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Figure 125 Selection Editor, Vehicles page, add “predefined” All Engines chart type set.
Figure 126 Selection Editor, Vehicles page, add "self defined" All Engines chart type set.
Chart Types:
When adding a new set of chart types, a new element will show up in the tree. After selecting
this element, a table will be shown on the right side of the editor, see Figure 127.
Figure 127 Selection Editor, “Vehicles” page, an empty chart type definition.
The table is grouped into five main categories: the x-axis, the first and second primary y-axis
and the first and second secondary y-axis. The x-axis is the horizontal axis, the primary yaxis is on the left side and the secondary y-axis on the right side of the diagram. Each y-axis
may have up to two value types.
A row defines a chart. The x-axis and the first primary y-axis have to be defined in any case
by at least selecting the value to plot.
x-axis:
• Value:
Select the value of the x-axis, e.g. Time, Position, v (speed), U (voltage), TRLPC
• Infra:
Select the infrastructure elements to be shown in the diagram (e.g. feeder, isolator and
station positions, whereas the “All Engines” output is only available versus the position)
• H-Lines:
Select to show horizontal lines if applicable (e.g. nominal voltage, as defined in the
AnalysisPreset-File).
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y-axis:
• Value:
Select the value of the y-axis, e.g. v (speed), η (efficiency), ξ (ratio)
• Item:
Select the items to be shown, e.g. Panto, the availability depends on the Value
selection
• Average:
Configure the average calculation, e.g. |x|, ±|x| (|x| with sign), the availability depends
on the Value selection
• ↑ ↓:
Select whether to find the minimum (↓) or maximum (↑) of the values, the availability
depends on the Value selection
The example chart type set, see Figure 128, defines only one chart, containing the absolute
(1) Pantograph (2) voltage (3) on the primary y-axis (4) versus the corridor position (5), and
shows horizontal lines (6) as well as infrastructure items (7).
Figure 128 Selection Editor, Vehicles page, chart type example.
Once a chart type set is defined, the “Vehicle & Corridor Selection” has to be done. A new
Selection has to be added by right clicking on Vehicle & Corridor Selections in the
tree. As visible in Figure 129, each selection should get a name (1) as this name will be part
of the generated diagram title. A corridor has to be selected (2) and at least one chart type
(3) or overview type (4). In editing mode online, a table will show the selected courses (5).
These courses depend on the selected simulation, time window, corridor, and the course
filter (6). The Course filter may define multiple filters as regular expressions, which will
be applied one after the other. Changes to the filter will affect the “Course ID” list
immediately.
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Figure 129 Selection Editor, “Vehicles” page, Selection example.
The example definitions shown in Figure 128 and Figure 129 will create a chart similar to the
one shown in Figure 130.
Figure 130 Selection Editor, “Vehicles” page, example chart with all engines chart type U=f(position). The red
numbers indicate the settings of the chart type and the blue numbers the settings of the selection. At the top edge
of the chart, the line name of the defined corridor is indicated as solid tick line. Start and end positions of the
projected chainage are shown by the markers, while the x-axis shows the resulting chainage of the corridor.
The same procedure applies for single engine chart types. The available chart settings differ
slightly between all engines chart types and single engine chart types. See the example
result for a single engine in Figure 131.
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Vehicle U = f(s), Tutorial AC & DC Networks
AC, Course ABCl_01, Engine 1/1, 01:24:41 - 01:48:56
A/1
85+400
TSS_45
10+257
31,000
29,500
28,000
26,500
Voltage [V]
25,000
23,500
22,000
20,500
19,000
16,000
0.507
Station C
17,500
10.507
20.507
30.507
40.507
50.507
60.507
70.507
Corridor Position [km]
|U_Panto|
U_nom
U_tol (EN 50163)
Infeed
Figure 131 Selection Editor, “Vehicles” page, diagram example with single engine chart “U=f(position)”.
Overview Types:
Similar to the definition of chart types, the overview types need to be defined or imported
from the preferences into the Selection-File. A table on the right side of the editor defines the
detail of the overview, see Figure 132.
Figure 132 Selection Editor, “Vehicles” page, overview type example.
An Overview Type definition defines one overview sheet and each row defines an item of this
overview. These items may be presented in vertical manner (rows) or horizontally (columns)
according to the selection on the Vehicle & Corridor Selections page. Depending
on the particular value item, cells are available for selection or not. The meaning of the
columns is as follows:
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• Value:
Select the value to be displayed, e.g. t (time), E (energy)
• ↑ ↓:
Find the minimum (↓) or maximum (↑) values, availability depends on the Value
selection
• Item:
Select the source item of which the Value shall be calculated, availability depends on
the Value selection
• Subscript:
Replace the standard subscript by the specified value (optional)
• Time base:
Define the duration to be used to calculate average values.
o 1.0s:
Select output of the instantaneous value with the simulation time step length
as the time base.
o ∞:
Select output of the overall average with the complete analysis time window
length as the time base.
o Values [s]:
Define multiple comma separated time base values in seconds. All values
have to be larger than the simulation time step. For each value, a separate
chart series will be created.
• Average:
Select the algorithm to be used to calculate the average values.
o Ø of |x|: Calculate the mean average of the absolute values.
o rms of |x|: Calculate the rms average of the absolute values.
• Limit:
Set a limit for an item defintion if applicable, the availability depends on the Value and
Item selection
The example definitions shown in Figure 132 will create an overview similar to Figure 133.
Vehicles Overview, Tutorial Regenerative Brake, maxPower, maxEffort
A-C, Aggregation Course, 01:00:00 - 01:48:54
Course
Total
Maximum
Minimum
ABCl_01
CBAl_01
Formation Engines
Train long
Train long
2
1
1
1
1
TKT
tkm
60,378
30,191
30,188
30,188
30,191
Δt
tU<Umin1 Espec
Econ Embr_ach Embr_req
hh:mm:ss
s
Wh/tkm kWh
kWh
kWh
01:22:48
74
4,645
271
314
00:48:53
0
76
2,388
138
159
00:33:55
0
71
2,257
133
155
00:48:53
0
76
2,388
133
155
00:33:55
0
71
2,257
138
159
EAUX
kWh
718
424
294
424
294
Eloss
Umu
|UPanto |2min
kWh
V
V
423.8 27,029
212.2 26,977
26,743
211.6 26,907
26,695
211.6 26,977
26,695
212.2 26,907
26,743
Figure 133 Example Vehicle Overview table.
4.6.3.9 Energy Overview
Although the Energy Overview does not have a separate selection page, there are still a few
settings that may be changed using a customised presets file, see chapter 4.6.3.10.
Specifically, the following output values are disabled by default, but may be enabled by
setting the attribute use to true for the corresponding row item in the preset:
• EBrRes (Energy consumed by vehicle brake resistors),
• Emtr (Mechanical energy used for traction),
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• Embr_req (Mechanical energy used to brake the course), and
• Embr_ach (Mechanical energy achieved through regenerative braking).
Apart from those values, some output rows will be generated only if applicable (e.g. values
for energy storage will be put out only if there are storages in the simulation).
Energy Overview, Tutorial AC Network, default
Network A-C, 01:00:00 - 01:48:54
Total energy at traction power supplies
Energy from traction power supplies to catenary system
Energy from catenary system to traction power supplies
Losses in traction power supplies
Total energy at national power grid
4,738 kWh
4,738 kWh
0 kWh
40 kWh
4,777 kWh
Total energy at vehicle pantographs
Energy from catenary system to vehicle pantographs
Energy from vehicle pantographs to catenary system
4,684 kWh
4,684 kWh
0 kWh
Total losses in catenary system
Losses in substation feeder cables
Losses in ContactWire
Losses in MessengerWire
Losses in Rail
Losses in Earth
Losses in connectors
53 kWh
0 kWh
22 kWh
23 kWh
3 kWh
3 kWh
2 kWh
Figure 134 Example Energy Overview table.
4.6.3.10
AnalysisPresets-File
The XML based AnalysisPresets-File contains the definitions of the chart, table, and image
types as well as some general text elements and configuration data. A customisable example
file is available for download via GUI at Help > Help Contents > OpenPowerNet
Analysis User Guide > AnalysisPresets.xml. The corresponding XML schema
documentation can be found at Help > Help Contents > OpenPowerNet Analysis
User Guide > AnalysisPresets-Schema.
The built-in default preset file will be used if no alternative is defined, see Figure 30. The
preset file may be modified by the user to adapt the layout or naming as desired. In case the
user wants to use his own file, he needs to set the property “Preset file” at the analysis setup
(see chapter 4.3.2 on page 39).
The file enables the user to modify properties of the following items:
• ChartTypes: chart layout (e.g. min/max axis values, curve colour/weight/style, etc.),
• TableTypes: layout of overview tables,
• ImageTypes: layout of magnetic field images
• Strings: Translation strings like substation, transformer etc.
• Settings: General settings for Excel etc.
In Figure 135, the main elements of the file are shown.
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Figure 135 The AnalysisPresets-File schema, main elements.
A “ChartType” may be defined specifically per system, e.g. 25kV 50Hz, including the title and
scaling of x-axis, y-axis, secondary y-axis, and horizontal lines. Furthermore, the “ChartType”
preset includes the definition of the items, e.g. chart series or infeed and station markers.
Shared properties, which are equal for all systems, may be defined under the element
“Common”.
Figure 136 Elements of ChartType definition.
The XML snippet below shows an example defining the U_Panto = f(s) chart type for the
25kV 50Hz power supply system as seen in Figure 137.
<ChartType name="U_Panto = f(s)" title="Pantograph Voltage">
<Common>
<xAxis variable="Position" unit="km" title="Position" logarithmic="false"
numberFormat="0+000"/>
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<yAxis variable="Voltage" unit="V" title="Voltage" logarithmic="false"/>
</Common>
<System supply="AC 25kV 50Hz">
<yAxis scaleMin="16000" scaleMax="31000" scaleStep="1500" autoScale="false"/>
<hLine title="U_nom" yValue="25000" style="lineDash" weight="1" transparency="0.4"
legend="true" label="false"> The definition of the horizontal lines of the nominal voltage.
<Color name="dark_green"/>
</hLine>
<hLine title="U_tol (EN 50163)" yValue="17500" style="lineDash" weight="1"
transparency="0.4" legend="true" label="false"> The definition of one of a tolerance value as
defined in EN 50163.
<Color name="red"/>
</hLine>
<hLine title="U_tol (EN 50163)" yValue="19000" style="lineDash" weight="1"
transparency="0.4" legend="false" label="false"> The definition of another tolerance value
defined in EN 50163, note the attribute legend is false to prevent a duplicate entry for
“U_tol (EN 50163)”.
<Color name="red"/>
</hLine>
<hLine title="U_tol (EN 50163)" yValue="27500" style="lineDash" weight="1"
transparency="0.4" legend="false" label="false">
<Color name="red"/>
</hLine>
<hLine title="U_tol (EN 50163)" yValue="29000" style="lineDash" weight="1"
transparency="0.4" legend="false" label="false">
<Color name="red"/>
</hLine>
</System>
<Item name="U_Panto" title="U%_lineID%%_trackID%_Panto" style="line" weight="1"
legend="true" label="false"> The curve representing the pantograph voltage, e.g. minimum,
maximum or average.
<Color name="blue"/>
<Color name="dark_blue"/>
</Item>
<Item name="U_Conductor" title="U%_lineID%%_trackID%%_itemID%" style="line" weight="1"
legend="true" label="false"> The curve representing the conductor voltage, e.g. minimum,
maximum or average.
<Color name="red"/>
<Color name="dark_red"/>
</Item>
<ItemRef name="ChainageItems"/> Import isolator, switch and station marker defintions from
the Common element.
<ItemRef name="ChainageInfeed"/> Import substation infeed position marker definitions from
the Common element.
</ChartType>
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Pantograph Voltage (min), Tutorial AC Network, default
Line A, km 0+000 to 85+400, 01:00:00 - 01:48:54
TSS_80
TSS_5
31,000
29,500
28,000
26,500
Voltage [V]
25,000
23,500
22,000
20,500
16,000
0+000
10+000
Station C
Station B
17,500
Station A
19,000
20+000
30+000
40+000
50+000
60+000
70+000
80+000
Position [km]
|U_1_CW|
|U_1_Panto|
|U_2_CW|
|U_2_Panto|
U_nom
U_tol (EN 50163)
Infeed
Figure 137 Example output for chart type U_Panto = f(s) as defined in the XML snippet above.
Figure 138 The elements of the ImageType definition.
The following XML snippet is taken from the layout definition of the magnetic field images in
Figure 115 on page 116.
<MagneticField>
<ImageType name="B_shading = f(t)" title="Magnetic Flux Density, %_designation%"
titleFontSize="12" fontSize="10" subtitle="Line %_lineID%, km %_position%, %_time%"
style="normal" labelFontSize="6" label="%_complexCurrent%">
<xAxis variable="Width" unit="m" title="Lateral Distance" logarithmic="false"
numberFormat="0" scaleMin="-15" scaleMax="15" gridMajor="true" gridMinor="false"/>
<yAxis variable="Height" unit="m" title="Height" logarithmic="false" numberFormat="0"
scaleMin="-2" scaleMax="13" gridMajor="true" gridMinor="false"/>
<zAxis variable="MagneticFluxDensity" unit="µT" title="B_rms" numberFormat="0"
scaleMin="0" scaleMax="200" scaleStep="0.1" autoScale="false"/>
<PageSetup paperSize="A4" orientation="landscape"/>
<Chart2 use="true">
<xAxis variable="Position" unit="km" title="Position" logarithmic="false"
numberFormat="0" gridMajor="true"/>
<yAxis variable="Current" unit="A" title="Current" logarithmic="false" numberFormat="0"
scaleMin="0" scaleMax="100" gridMajor="true"/>
<Item name="Measuring_Point" title="Measuring point" use="true" style="line" weight="3"
legend="true" label="false">
<Color name="blue"/>
</Item>
<Item name="Engine_consuming" title="Consuming engine" use="true" style="line"
weight="2" legend="true" label="false">
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<Color name="red"/>
<MarkerStyle name="^"/>
</Item>
<Item name="Engine_recovering" title="Recovering engine" use="true" style="line"
weight="2" legend="true" label="false">
<Color name="dark_green"/>
<MarkerStyle name="o"/>
</Item>
</Chart2>
</ImageType>
<MagneticField>
The definitions of the attributes:
• title,
• subtitle,
• description,
• remarks,
• label, and
• emptyValueString.
may use the following place holders (where applicable) to customise the dynamic item titles:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
%/_%,
%\n%,
%^%,
%_%,
%_BusbarMeasuringID%,
%_BusbarReferenceID%,
%_busbarType%,
%_complexCurrent%,
%_designation%,
%_DeviceID%,
%_itemID%,
%_lineID%,
%_maxCurrent%,
%_position%,
%_refItemID%,
%_refLineID%,
%_refTrackID%,
%_rmsCurrent%,
%_separator%,
%_subDeviceID%,
%_SubstationID%,
%_time%,
%_timeEnd%,
%_timeStart%,
%_trackID%,
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• %_VLDID%,
• %condType%,
• %fctPrefix%,
• %fctSuffix%,
• %fctX%,
• %fctY%,
• %function%,
• %limit%,
• %Section%,
• %time_s%,
• %unit2%.
Depending on the context, the place holders will be replaced with applicable values.
Note: If a place holder is defined but not suitable for the context, the place holder will not be
replaced but will appear in the generated chart. All suitable place holders are used in the
default preset file at the corresponding attributes. Best practise is to take this as an example.
The preset file allows the translation of some key words, e.g. “Substation”, “Line”, to a local
language or customer specific expression through an element string, see Figure 139 below.
Figure 139 The AnalysisPresets-File with highlighted “String” element to define key word translation.
By default, all charts versus time are split every 3 hours. This can be changed for individual
chart types at the particular xAxis element, attribute valueMax, or globally under element
Settings, attribute defaultTimeScaleMax.
The definition of decimal and thousands separator for the charts is done at the element
“Excel”, see Figure 140 below. The setting will be compared to the Excel setting at runtime.
In case of contradiction between the two settings, an ERROR message will appear at the
console informing about the mismatch. The desired printer name and paper size are also
configured at this element. In case of contradiction, a warning will be displayed at runtime.
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Figure 140 The AnalysisPresets-File with highlighted “Excel” element.
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5
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Tutorials
5.0
General
These tutorials shall be understood as a step by step description how to use OpenPowerNet.
Its handling is shown by means of a simple operational and electrical infrastructure. Each
chapter starts with the configuration tasks to be done, continues with the simulation itself and
shows some example output from the analysis. Please refer to chapter 4.1 for the preferred
folder structure!
If you would like to skip creation of the configuration files or the simulation, please head to
OpenPowerNet User Guide > PDF documents to download them and the database
backup from the Help System as zip-files. Please read chapter 3.7 for the description of the
database import.
Another option is to use the default workspace. This workspace contains all the modelling
files as well as some results from the tutorials.
To be able to use the Tutorials AC, 2AC and DC with the ACADEMIC license, the slice
distance is 1 km. This results in curves with steps instead of smooth curves compared to if
200 m slice distance is used. But in principle the results are the same with 200 m and 1 km
slice distance.
To achieve a correct simulation result it is necessary to have sufficient information about the
railway, the electrical network, and the engines. For a detailed list of required technical
information please see chapter 4.4.1. The following list is a minimum of necessary
information to create the configuration data.
OpenTrack:
• Track layout (length, curves, gradients, points, crossings)
• Timetable
• Engine (effort-speed-diagram, weight, resistance formula values, auxiliary power)
• Signalling system
OpenPowerNet:
•
•
•
•
Electrical network (layout, conductor and connector characteristic)
Power supply (transformer or rectifier data, feeder cable characteristic)
Switch (position and default state)
Engine (effort-speed-diagram or maximum power & maximum effort, efficiency,
auxiliary power)
The XML editor included in OpenPowerNet is recommended for editing the XML files, see
chapter 3.2. Any other text editor can be used as well, but for convenience it should be an
XML editor that can use an XML schema to evaluate the XML file and gives editing support.
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AC Network Tutorial
In this tutorial, we will create the models of a single line to learn how to set up a simple
OpenTrack and OpenPowerNet co-simulation. These models will also be the basis for most
of the other tutorials.
The line will have three stations and a 25kV 50Hz AC power supply system with two
substations. We will have two kinds of trains and a very simple timetable with four courses.
We will have an interesting simulation with OpenPowerNet and we will compare the normal
operation with a failure scenario.
5.1.1 Configuration
5.1.1.1 OpenTrack
The first step in OpenTrack is to create a new set of preferences. To do so, first save the set
with a new name and then set the path and file names, see Figure 141 for details.
Figure 141 OpenTrack preferences
The next step is to create the track layout, signals, stations and power supply area.
The detailed track data is as follows:
•
•
•
•
•
•
Start at km 0 with home signal
Station A at km 0+200
Exit signal at km 0+400
Gradient of 10‰ from km 1+400 to km 2+400
Gradient of 0‰ from km 2+400 to km 6+750
Gradient of -5‰ from km 6+750 to km 8+750
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•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Gradient of 0‰ from km 8+750 to the end of the line
Home signal at km 9+650
Turnout at km 9+750
Exit signals on both tracks at km 9+800
Station B at km 10+000 with two tracks
Exit signals on both tracks at km 10+200
Turnout at km 10+250
Home signal at km 10+350, set sight distance to 10,000 m to prevent braking of
courses while approaching the signal
• Place vertexes every 10 km to see the train moving during the animation
• Exit signal at km 85+000
• Station C at km 85+200
• End of line and exit signal at km 85+400
• Line speed is 75 km/h from km 0+000 to km 10+350 and 200 km/h until km 84+400
• Power supply area of AC 25kV 50 Hz
The line name is “A” and the track name is “1”. Only the siding in Station B has the track
name “2” but the same line name.
Group the station areas and create all routes, paths (e.g. P:A-B1-C for path from station A
via track 1 in station B to C), and itineraries (e.g. I:A-B1-C for itinerary from station A via track
1 in station B to C). The courses shall run from Station A via track “2” in Station B to Station
C and from Station C via track “1” in Station B to Station A.
Figure 142 The OpenTrack infrastructure including tracks, signals, stations and power supply area.
After the infrastructure is built, we need to define an engine and trains before we can
configure the courses and a timetable.
Engine data:
• Name is “Engine1”
• Max effort is 250 kN
• Max power is 5.56 MW, => constant power is in the speed range from 80 km/h with
250 kN to 250 km/h with 80 kN
• Propulsion system is AC 25 kV 50 Hz
• For further details see Figure 143
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Figure 143 The properties of the engine "Engine1" in OpenTrack.
Now we can define trains. We will use two types of trains, a short and a long train. The short
train only has one trailer and the long train has 14 trailers. Each trailer has 20 t load, 25 m
length and 30 kW auxiliary power, see Figure 144.
Figure 144 The configuration data of train "Train short" in OpenTrack with one engine and one trailer.
Since we now have trains, we can define courses and their timetable. We will use four
courses, two from Station A to Station C and two from Station C to Station A.
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The course and timetable details are as follows:
• course “ABCl_01”1: from Station A to Station C via track 2 in Station B with 60s wait
time, departure is 01:00:00 in A and 01:09:00 in B, Train long
• course “ABCs_02”: from Station A to Station C via track 2 in Station B with 60s wait
time, departure is 02:00:00 in A and 02:09:00 in B, Train short
• course “CBAl_01”: from Station C to Station A via track 1 in Station B with 60s wait
time, departure is 01:00:00 in C and 01:25:00 in B, Train long
• course “CBAs_02”: from Station C to Station A via track 1 in Station B with 60s wait
time, departure is 02:00:00 in C and 02:25:00 in B, Train short
To get the departure and arrival times, run the simulation and adjust the planned to the
actual data. After you have done so, the train diagram should look like in Figure 145.
Figure 145 The train diagram for all four trains between Station A and Station C.
5.1.1.2 OpenPowerNet
As described before, we need to set the properties in the GUI to configure the
OpenPowerNet server, for details see chapter 4.3.8. In our Tutorial, we use the default
properties and do not need to change anything if our network address is 127.0.0.1
(localhost). Otherwise the property for the Server needs to be adapted (Window >
Preferences > OpenPowerNet > Server > Host:).
The following chapters describe in detail the configuration of the *.opnengine file, Project-File
and the Switch-File. In this Tutorial, we do not need to configure a TypeDefs-File.
1
Related to long (“l”) and short (“s”) version of trains
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5.1.1.2.1 *.opnengine File
First of all, we need to create the file Engine-File.opnengine, see chapter 4.4.5.1.
Now we need to configure the engine according to our needs and corresponding to
OpenTrack, see chapter 5.1.1.1. In addition to OpenTrack, we need to configure the tractive
and braking efficiency as well as the engine auxiliary power.
At first, the vehicle ID needs to be set to Engine1. This can be done by selecting the
“Vehicle” node at the tree on the left side of the editor. Then, the other settings according to
Figure 146 have to be set, for this add a “Propulsion” node to “Engine” and select this node.
Figure 146 Tutorial AC Network, Engine configuration.
As we have a very simple model of the engine, only few settings are required.
5.1.1.2.2 Project-File
The Project-File of our example is a bit more complex than the *.opnengine file. As for any
Project-File, we will configure the *.opnengine- and Switch-File to be used, the “Engine”
model and the electrical model.
At the beginning, we will configure the general simulation data.
<OpenPowerNet
xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
xsi:noNamespaceSchemaLocation="http://www.openpowernet.de/schemas/OpenPowerNet.xsd"
name="Tutorial AC Network"
comment="This is a comment for a specific simulation."
maxIterations="1000"
maxFailedIterations="100"
odbcDsn="pscresults"
record2DB="true"
simulationStart_s="3600"
rstFile="Engine-File.opnengine">
Besides the name of the project and a comment, set the allowed maximum iterations to
1,000 and the allowed failed iterations to 100 so that the simulation will not abort in case the
iterations for some time steps fail. Time steps fail in case a network is overburden. As we
want to write the simulation data into the database, we need to set a ODBC DSN. The
recording of the simulation results shall start with the first course at 01:00 h, therefore we set
the simulation start time to 3,600 seconds. Furthermore, we need to set the path to the
*.opnengine file configured just in the previous chapter.
The next step is to configure the engine model.
<ATM>
<Vehicles>
<Vehicle eddyCurrentBrake="false" engineID="Engine1">
<Propulsion
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supply="AC 25kV 50Hz"
engine="electric"
tractiveCurrentLimitation="none"
brakeCurrentLimitation="none"
useAuxPower="true"
fourQuadrantChopperPhi="none"
regenerativeBrake="none"
tractiveEffort="maxPower/maxTractEffort">
<MeanEfficiency/>
</Propulsion>
</Vehicle>
</Vehicles>
<Options tolerance_A="1" maxIterations="1000" record2DB="true"/>
</ATM>
Please note that the green data has to correspond to OpenTrack and the *.opnengine file.
Our engine will not use eddy current brake, has no tractive or brake current limitation, uses
auxiliary power, and has no model for the power factor as the respective attribute
fourQuadrantChopperPhi is set to none. The engine also has no regenerative bake and
the tractive effort model is defined by maximum power and maximum tractive effort. The
efficiency of the engine shall be modelled as mean efficiency. As we want to record data to
the database, set the simulation option for module ATM. For the internal ATM iteration we
need to define the maximum allowed current tolerance between the iteration steps and a
maximum number of allowed iterations.
After the definition of engines, we will define the electrical network. The electrical network
shall have two substations, one is situated at km 5+00 and the other at km 80+000. Each
substation has one transformer, one feeder from busbar to the contact wire, and one feeder
to the rails for the return current. We will define a messenger wire, a contact wire and two
rails for each track. The model shall also contain the connectors between the messenger
wire and contact wire as well as between the rails. Furthermore, we will define a conductor
modelling the earth. The origin of the cross-section ordinates is defined in the middle of track
“1” at the same height as the rails.
Let us start to define the network model step by step. First the network parameters:
<Network
name="A-C"
use="true"
voltage_kV="25"
frequency_Hz="50"
recordVoltage="true"
recordCurrent="true">
We must set a network name and tell OpenPowerNet that we want to use this network in the
simulation. As we want to record voltages and currents, we should set the last two attributes
of the above XML snippet to true.
Next follows the definition of a line. Explanations are added as black bold text into the XML
snippet:
<Lines>
<Line name="A" maxSliceDistance_km="1">
The line name has to correspond with our OpenTrack infrastructure and the maximum slice
distance shall be 1000 m. While defining the electrical network, consider that the magnetic
coupling is always calculated only between conductors of the same line!
<Conductors>
Now conductors for track “1” follow.
<Conductor condSort="MessengerWire">
<StartPosition condName="MW" trackID="1" km="0"/> This conductor starts at km 0+000.
<ToProperty toPos_km="85.4" equivalentRadius_mm="3.45" r20_Ohm_km="0.2311"
temperature_DegreeCentigrade="20" temperatureCoefficient="0.004" x_m="0" y_m="6.9"/>
The end of the conductor is at the end of the track at km 85+400. The equivalent radius,
resistance at 20°C and temperature coefficient shall be as defined. The messenger wire is
located in the middle of track “1” in a height of 6.9 m.
</Conductor>
<Conductor condSort="ContactWire">
<StartPosition condName="CW" trackID="1" km="0"/>
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<ToProperty toPos_km="85.4" equivalentRadius_mm="3.45" r20_Ohm_km="0.1852"
temperature_DegreeCentigrade="20" temperatureCoefficient="0.00385" x_m="0" y_m="5.3"/>
Defined in the same way as above, except that the height of the contact wire is set to 5.3 m
so that we have a system height of 1.6 m.
</Conductor>
<Conductor condSort="Rail">
<StartPosition condName="RL" trackID="1" km="0"/> The left rail.
<ToProperty toPos_km="85.4" equivalentRadius_mm="38.52" r20_Ohm_km="0.0306"
temperature_DegreeCentigrade="20" temperatureCoefficient="0.004" x_m="-0.75" y_m="0"/>
Note the horizontal (x) position and the equivalent radius of the rail.
</Conductor>
<Conductor condSort="Rail">
<StartPosition condName="RR" trackID="1" km="0"/> The right rail.
<ToProperty toPos_km="85.4" equivalentRadius_mm="38.52" r20_Ohm_km="0.0306"
temperature_DegreeCentigrade="20" temperatureCoefficient="0.004" x_m="0.75" y_m="0"/>
</Conductor>
Now conductors for track “2” follow.
<Conductor condSort="MessengerWire">
<StartPosition condName="MW" trackID="2" km="9.750"/>
<ToProperty toPos_km="10.250" equivalentRadius_mm="3.45" r20_Ohm_km="0.2311"
temperature_DegreeCentigrade="20" temperatureCoefficient="0.004" x_m="10" y_m="6.9"/>
Note the start and end of the wire.
</Conductor>
<Conductor condSort="ContactWire">
<StartPosition condName="CW" trackID="2" km="9.750"/>
<ToProperty toPos_km="10.250" equivalentRadius_mm="3.45" r20_Ohm_km="0.1852"
temperature_DegreeCentigrade="20" temperatureCoefficient="0.00385" x_m="10" y_m="5.3"/>
</Conductor>
<Conductor condSort="Rail">
<StartPosition condName="RL" trackID="2" km="9.750"/>
<ToProperty toPos_km="10.250" equivalentRadius_mm="38.52" r20_Ohm_km="0.0306"
temperature_DegreeCentigrade="20" temperatureCoefficient="0.004" x_m="9.25" y_m="0"/>
</Conductor>
<Conductor condSort="Rail">
<StartPosition condName="RR" trackID="2" km="9.750"/>
<ToProperty toPos_km="10.250" equivalentRadius_mm="38.52" r20_Ohm_km="0.0306"
temperature_DegreeCentigrade="20" temperatureCoefficient="0.004" x_m="10.75" y_m="0"/>
</Conductor>
<Conductor condSort="Earth">
The earth is modelled as a virtual conductor far away from the tracks along the whole line.
<StartPosition condName="E" trackID="1" km="0"/>
<ToProperty toPos_km="85.4" equivalentRadius_mm="465000" r20_Ohm_km="0.0494"
temperature_DegreeCentigrade="20" temperatureCoefficient="0" x_m="0" y_m="-465.0"/>
</Conductor>
</Conductors>
Now we define all the connectors of the slices.
<ConnectorSlices>
<ConnectorSlice name="rail connector, track 1" firstPos_km="0" lastPos_km="85.4"
maxDistance_km="1"> As the rails are connected, we define a slice with connectors between both
rails of track “1” every 1000m along the whole track.
<Connector z_real_Ohm="0.00001" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="RL" trackID="1"/>
<ConductorTo condName="RR" trackID="1"/>
</Connector>
</ConnectorSlice>
<ConnectorSlice name="rail connector, track 2" firstPos_km="9.750" lastPos_km="10.250"
maxDistance_km="0.5"> The same as above for track “2”.
<Connector z_real_Ohm="0.00001" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="RL" trackID="2"/>
<ConductorTo condName="RR" trackID="2"/>
</Connector>
</ConnectorSlice>
</ConnectorSlices>
<Leakages>
The connectors forming the electrical connection between the messenger and contact wire
is modelled as a leakage for track “1”.
<Leakage firstPos_km="0" lastPos_km="85.4" yReal_S_km="1000" yImag_S_km="0">
<ConductorFrom trackID="1" condName="CW" />
<ConductorTo trackID="1" condName="MW" />
</Leakage>
Defines the same as above but for track “2”.
<Leakage firstPos_km="9.750" lastPos_km="10.250" yReal_S_km="1000" yImag_S_km="0">
<ConductorFrom trackID="2" condName="CW" />
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<ConductorTo trackID="2" condName="MW" />
</Leakage>
Now we have to define the leakage of the rails to earth.
<Leakage firstPos_km="0" lastPos_km="85.4" yReal_S_km="0.4" yImag_S_km="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="RL" trackID="1"/>
<ConductorTo condName="E" trackID="1"/>
</Leakage>
<Leakage firstPos_km="0" lastPos_km="85.4" yReal_S_km="0.4" yImag_S_km="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="RR" trackID="1"/>
<ConductorTo condName="E" trackID="1"/>
</Leakage>
<Leakage firstPos_km="9.750" lastPos_km="10.250" yReal_S_km="0.4" yImag_S_km="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="RL" trackID="2"/>
<ConductorTo condName="E" trackID="1"/>
</Leakage>
<Leakage firstPos_km="9.750" lastPos_km="10.250" yReal_S_km="0.4" yImag_S_km="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="RR" trackID="2"/>
<ConductorTo condName="E" trackID="1"/>
</Leakage>
</Leakages>
</Line>
</Lines>
To model the electrical connection between the two tracks, we have two ways to do so.
Either we can define a slice or we can define connectors between different lines or the same
line. In our example we will use the second way. The electrical model will be the same.
These are just two different ways to define the same connectors.
The following XML snippet defines the electrical connection between track “1” and “2”:
<Connectors>
The four connectors for messenger wire, contact wire and both rails at the BEGINNING of track
“2” are defined below.
<Connector name="MW track 1-2, km 9+750" z_real_Ohm="0.000010" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="MW" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="9.750"/>
<ConductorTo condName="MW" lineID="A" trackID="2" km="9.750"/>
</Connector>
<Connector name="CW track 1-2, km 9+750" z_real_Ohm="0.000010" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="CW" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="9.750"/>
<ConductorTo condName="CW" lineID="A" trackID="2" km="9.750"/>
</Connector>
<Connector name="RL track 1-2, km 9+750" z_real_Ohm="0.000010" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="RL" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="9.750"/>
<ConductorTo condName="RL" lineID="A" trackID="2" km="9.750"/>
</Connector>
<Connector name="RR track 1-2, km 9+750" z_real_Ohm="0.000010" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="RR" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="9.750"/>
<ConductorTo condName="RR" lineID="A" trackID="2" km="9.750"/>
</Connector>
The four connectors for messenger wire, contact wire and both rails at the END of track “2”
are defined below.
<Connector name="MW track 1-2, km 10+250" z_real_Ohm="0.000010" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="MW" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="10.250"/>
<ConductorTo condName="MW" lineID="A" trackID="2" km="10.250"/>
</Connector>
<Connector name="CW track 1-2, km 10+250" z_real_Ohm="0.000010" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="CW" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="10.250"/>
<ConductorTo condName="CW" lineID="A" trackID="2" km="10.250"/>
</Connector>
<Connector name="RL track 1-2, km 10+250" z_real_Ohm="0.000010" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="RL" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="10.250"/>
<ConductorTo condName="RL" lineID="A" trackID="2" km="10.250"/>
</Connector>
<Connector name="RR track 1-2, km 10+250" z_real_Ohm="0.000010" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="RR" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="10.250"/>
<ConductorTo condName="RR" lineID="A" trackID="2" km="10.250"/>
</Connector>
</Connectors>
Now we have already defined the electrical network along the line. In the next step we have
to define the substations, one at km 5+000 and one far away at km 80+000.
<Substations>
This is the substation at km 5+000.
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<Substation name="TSS_05">
<TwoWindingTransformer The characteristic of the two winding transformer shall be as
defined by the attributes.
name="T1"
nomPower_MVA="10"
nomPrimaryVoltage_kV="115"
nomSecondaryVoltage_kV="27.5" This is in fact the no load voltage at the busbar.
noLoadLosses_kW="6.5"
loadLosses_kW="230"
relativeShortCircuitVoltage_percent="10.7"
noLoadCurrent_A="0.06">
<OCSBB bbName="OCS_BB" z_real_Ohm="0.001" z_imag_Ohm="0"> The connection from the
transformer to the OSC busbar is defined with this element.
<Switch name="TSS_05_T1_OCS" defaultState="close"/> This connection shall have a
switch to enable us to disconnect the transformer during the failure scenario.
</OCSBB>
<RailsBB bbName="Rails_BB" z_real_Ohm="0.001" z_imag_Ohm="0"> The connection to the rail
busbar including switch.
<Switch name="TSS_05_T1_Rails" defaultState="close"/>
</RailsBB>
</TwoWindingTransformer>
Below is the definition of the busbars and the feeder cables from the busbars to the line.
<Busbars>
<OCSBB bbName="OCS_BB">
<Connector name="TSS_05_OCS_Feeder" z_real_Ohm="0.001" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<Position condName="CW" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="5"/>
</Connector>
</OCSBB>
<RailsBB bbName="Rails_BB">
<Connector name="TSS_05_Rails_Feeder" z_real_Ohm="0.001" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<Position condName="RR" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="5"/>
</Connector>
</RailsBB>
</Busbars>
</Substation>
Below is the substation at km 80+000, it is defined in the same way as the one at km 5+000.
<Substation name="TSS_80">
<TwoWindingTransformer name="T1" nomPower_MVA="10" nomPrimaryVoltage_kV="115"
nomSecondaryVoltage_kV="27.5" noLoadLosses_kW="6.5" loadLosses_kW="230"
relativeShortCircuitVoltage_percent="10.7" noLoadCurrent_A="0.06">
<OCSBB bbName="OCS_BB" z_real_Ohm="0.001" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<Switch name="TSS_80_T1_OCS" defaultState="close"/>
</OCSBB>
<RailsBB bbName="Rails_BB" z_real_Ohm="0.001" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<Switch name="TSS_80_T1_Rails" defaultState="close"/>
</RailsBB>
</TwoWindingTransformer>
<Busbars>
<OCSBB bbName="OCS_BB">
<Connector name="TSS_80_OCS_Feeder" z_real_Ohm="0.001" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<Position condName="CW" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="80"/>
</Connector>
</OCSBB>
<RailsBB bbName="Rails_BB">
<Connector name="TSS_80_Rails_Feeder" z_real_Ohm="0.001" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<Position condName="RR" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="80"/>
</Connector>
</RailsBB>
</Busbars>
</Substation>
</Substations>
Now only two things are left before we have completed the Project-File. One is to define the
earthing point respectively ground respectively reference point and the other is to set some
options for the PSC.
The definition of the earthing point is very simple:
<Earth condName="E" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="0"/>
And the options for module PSC are as well very simple:
<Options
tolerance_grad="0.001" Specify the maximum allowed tolerance of the engine current angle
between the iteration inside the PSC.
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maxCurrentAngleIteration="1000" Specify the maximum allowed number of iterations to achieve
the value specified above.
tolerance_V="1" Specify the maximum allowed tolerance of the node voltage between the
iteration of ATM and PSC.
tolerance_A="1" Specify the maximum allowed tolerance of the source currents between the
iteration of ATM and PSC.
maxIncreaseCount="10000" Specify the maximum allowed number of events of increasing voltage
difference between ATM and PSC iteration steps.
discreteEngine="true"/> Sets that the engine shall be inserted only at the slices and the
current shall not be distributed to both neighbouring slices.
Now we have done the configuration of the Project-File. To check for mistakes and to
visualise what we have done, we will use the NMMV, see chapter 3.4. The NMMV creates a
graphical representation of the electrical network using nodes, conductors, connectors and
substations. A diagram snippet is shown in Figure 147.
Figure 147 A snippet of the electrical network at Station B with siding in the NMMV.
5.1.1.2.3 Switch-File
As we later also want to simulate a failure scenario besides the default configuration, we
have to prepare a Switch-File. This file enables us to disconnect a transformer at a specific
time by opening the switches between the transformer and the busbar.
For this example, we define to disconnect the transformer in substation at km 80+000 from
01:05:00 h until 01:22:00 h.
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<ADE xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
xsi:noNamespaceSchemaLocation="http://www.openpowernet.de/schemas/ADE.xsd">
<TPD>
<SwitchSetting>
<Switch state="open" time="01:05:00" name="TSS_80_T1_OCS"/>
<Switch state="open" time="01:05:00" name="TSS_80_T1_Rails"/>
<Switch state="close" time="01:22:00" name="TSS_80_T1_OCS"/>
<Switch state="close" time="01:22:00" name="TSS_80_T1_Rails"/>
</SwitchSetting>
</TPD>
</ADE>
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5.1.2 Simulation
For the simulation, it is advised to backup the database in case you want to keep old
simulation data. To create a new empty database via the GUI, just select create new
database from the OpenPowerNet menu.
Subsequently, the OpenPowerNet modules are started via the GUI. Select the Project-File
and then Start OpenPowerNet from the context menu, see Figure 148.
Figure 148 Start OpenPowerNet by selecting the Project-File and using the context menu.
When using the GUI, Simulation Perspective should be used to run the simulation as
the views are arranged in a comfortable layout to start and observe the simulation run. All
views may be re-arranged as needed. To restore the default arrangement, simply right-click
on the perspective
button, found at the top right corner of the GUI and select Reset.
For the default configuration, we run the simulation using the files as described above. Start
the server via the GUI, make sure the option to use OpenPowerNet is set in OpenTrack and
start the simulation with courses ABCl_01 and CBAl_01.
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Figure 149 OpenTrack simulation panel settings.
Note: When not using the FULL license, set the time step in OpenTrack to 4 seconds.
5.1.3 Analysis
5.1.3.1 Default configuration
We will define a Selection-File to generate some diagrams. These diagrams shall be defined
at the following selection pages:
• General: see Figure 150,
• Lines:
o U_Panto: see Figure 151,
• Substations: see Figure 152,
• Corridors: see Figure 153 and
• Vehicles: see Figure 154 to Figure 156.
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Figure 150 AC Network Tutorial, Analysis, General page settings.
Figure 151 AC Network Tutorial, Analysis, Lines page settings.
Figure 152 AC Network Tutorial, Analysis, Substations page settings.
Figure 153 AC Network Tutorial, Analysis, Corridors page settings.
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Figure 154 AC Network Tutorial, Analysis, Vehicles page settings, all Engines chart type.
Figure 155 AC Network Tutorial, Analysis, Vehicles page settings, single Engines chart type.
Figure 156 AC Network Tutorial, Analysis, Vehicles page settings, selection.
After setting all options as seen at the figures above, start the analysis at the general page.
You can find the generated files at the automatically created linked folder parallel to the
Selection-File, see Figure 157.
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Figure 157 AC Network Tutorial, Analysis output file structure.
At the file Corridors/1_A_C/AllEngines.xlsx you can see the line voltage and pantograph
current versus the time, also shown in Figure 158. We see that the no load voltage is 27.5 kV
and the minimum line voltage at pantograph position is about 26.4 kV at 01:26:00 h.
Furthermore, we see that the pantograph current does not exceed 250 A.
31,000
275.0
29,500
247.5
28,000
220.0
26,500
192.5
25,000
165.0
23,500
137.5
22,000
110.0
20,500
82.5
19,000
55.0
17,500
27.5
16,000
01:00:00
Current [A]
Voltage [V]
Vehicle U,I = f(t), Tutorial AC Network, default
A-C, Aggregation Engine, 01:00:00 - 01:48:54
0.0
01:05:00
01:10:00
01:15:00
01:20:00
01:25:00
01:30:00
01:35:00
01:40:00
01:45:00
Time
|U_Panto|
U_nom
U_tol (EN 50163)
I_Panto
Figure 158 The line voltage and pantograph current versus time for all courses.
To see the location of the minimum line voltage at pantograph position, we use the diagram
in sheet 2|U_pos, see Figure 159. This diagram shows the minimum voltages at km 12+500
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and also very well the location of substation TSS_80 by the local voltage maxima which
occur at km 80+000.
Vehicle U = f(s), Tutorial AC Network, default
A-C, Aggregation Engine, 01:00:00 - 01:48:54
85+400
TSS_80
A
TSS_05
0+000
31,000
29,500
28,000
26,500
Voltage [V]
25,000
23,500
22,000
20,500
19,000
16,000
0.000
Station C
Station B
Station A
17,500
10.000
20.000
30.000
40.000
50.000
60.000
70.000
80.000
Corridor Position [km]
|U_Panto|
U_nom
U_tol (EN 50163)
Infeed
Figure 159 The line voltage at pantograph versus position for all courses.
The file Corridors/1_A_C/Course_ABCl_01.xlsx provides diagrams of the the effort and
power versus the position. As an example we will use the course ABCl_01 and sheet
1|F_pos, see Figure 160.
Vehicle F = f(s), Tutorial AC Network, default
A-C, Course ABCl_01, Engine 1/1, 01:00:01 - 01:48:53
TSS_80
A/1
85+400
9+746
10+246
A/2
9+767
10+254
A/1
TSS_05
0+400
375
300
225
Tractive Effort [kN]
150
75
0
-75
-150
-375
0.400
10.400
Station C
-300
Station B
-225
20.400
30.400
40.400
50.400
60.400
70.400
80.400
Corridor Position [km]
F_requested
F_achieved
Infeed
Figure 160 The requested and achieved effort of course ABCl_01 for the default configuration.
The achieved effort corresponds to the requested effort for positive effort requests. The
achieved effort while braking is 0.0 kN because our engine model has no recovery braking.
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We also see the changes in effort requests caused be the varying gradients. From km 1+400
to km 2+400 the gradient is 10 ‰ which causes a raising effort and from km 6+750 to
km 8+750 we have the adverse effect for a gradient of -5 ‰.
Furthermore, we may have a look at the mechanical and electrical power of the course
ABCl_01 at sheet 2|P_pos, shown in Figure 161.
Vehicle P = f(t), Tutorial AC Network, default
A-C, Course ABCl_01, Engine 1/1, 01:00:01 - 01:48:53
85+400
A/1
10+246
10+254
A/2
TSS_80
9+746
9+767
A/1
TSS_05
0+400
10,000
8,000
6,000
Active Power [kW]
4,000
2,000
0
-2,000
-4,000
-6,000
-10,000
01:00:01
01:05:01
Station C
Station B
-8,000
01:10:01
01:15:01
01:20:01
01:25:01
01:30:01
01:35:01
01:40:01
01:45:01
Time
P_Panto
P_mech
Infeed
Figure 161 The mechanical and electrical power of the course ABCl_01.
In this diagram, the effect of the gradients can be seen again between 01:01:00 h and
01:07:00 h.
The course is waiting for about 15 min in Station B. We can see this in the diagram where
the mechanical power is 0 kN respectively when the engine is at A/2. Now, we have only the
auxiliary power demand of 520 kW.
In addition to the courses, the substations are very interesting to analyse. For this we use the
file Networks/Substations/001_TSS_05.xlsx. At the sheet “D1_U_I_Dev_t”, we can see the
diagram shown in Figure 162.
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31,000
400
29,500
360
28,000
320
26,500
280
25,000
240
23,500
200
22,000
160
20,500
120
19,000
80
17,500
40
16,000
01:00:00
Current [A]
Voltage [V]
Busbar Voltage and Current, Tutorial AC Network, default
Substation TSS_05, Two Winding Transformer T1, 01:00:00 - 01:48:54
0
01:05:00
01:10:00
01:15:00
01:20:00
01:25:00
01:30:00
01:35:00
01:40:00
01:45:00
Time
|U_OCS-Rails|
U_OCS-Rails_0
U_nom
U_tol (EN 50163)
|I_OCS|
Figure 162 The voltage between OCS and Rails busbar and the current from transformer T1 to the OCS busbar at
TSS_05.
In the diagram, we see the voltage between the OCS and Rails busbar. We see very well the
no load voltage of 27.5 kV and the voltage drops to about 26.58 kV. This is still above the
nominal voltage of 25 kV. Furthermore, we see that the current does not exceed 400 A.
12,500
11,250
11,250
10,000
10,000
8,750
8,750
7,500
7,500
6,250
6,250
5,000
5,000
3,750
3,750
2,500
2,500
1,250
1,250
0
0
01:00:00
Reactive Power [kvar]
Apparent Power [kVA]
Active Power [kW]
Busbar Power, Tutorial AC Network, default
Substation TSS_05, Two Winding Transformer T1, 01:00:00 - 01:48:54
-1,250
01:05:00
01:10:00
01:15:00
01:20:00
01:25:00
01:30:00
01:35:00
01:40:00
01:45:00
Time
|S|
P
Q
Figure 163 Power demand of the transformer in substation TSS_05.
In Figure 163, the diagram from the sheet “D1_P_Dev_t” is shown. The curves represent the
power of the transformer T1 in the substation TSS_05 at km 5+000.
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The energy overview file at Networks/A-C/Energy/Energy-overview.xlsx, see Figure 164,
shows clearly that there is no recovery as the "energy from catenary system to traction power
supplies" is 0 kWh.
Energy Overview, Tutorial AC Network, default
Network A-C, 01:00:00 - 01:48:54
Total energy at traction power supplies
Energy from traction power supplies to catenary system
Energy from catenary system to traction power supplies
Losses in traction power supplies
Total energy at national power grid
4,738 kWh
4,738 kWh
0 kWh
40 kWh
4,777 kWh
Total energy at vehicle pantographs
Energy from catenary system to vehicle pantographs
Energy from vehicle pantographs to catenary system
4,684 kWh
4,684 kWh
0 kWh
Total losses in catenary system
Losses in substation feeder cables
Losses in ContactWire
Losses in MessengerWire
Losses in Rail
Losses in Earth
Losses in connectors
53 kWh
0 kWh
22 kWh
23 kWh
3 kWh
3 kWh
2 kWh
Figure 164 Energy overview.
5.1.3.2 Short circuit
To analyse an electrical network, it is interesting to calculate the short circuit currents. In
OpenPowerNet, this is done with a special engine model. To evaluate the results, we will use
the Excel files “ShortCircuitFeeder.xlsx” (OpenPowerNet > Excel Tools > Short
Circuit Current by Station Feeder, I=f(s)) and “ShortCircuit2Feeders.xlsx”
(OpenPowerNet > Excel Tools > Short Circuit Current by two Station
Feeders, I=f(s)).
Figure 165 Short circuit course configuration in OpenTrack.
In the OpenPowerNet Project-File we need to add a new attribute to the engine.
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<Vehicle eddyCurrentBrake="false" engineID="Engine1">
<Propulsion
engine="electric"
supply="AC 25kV 50Hz"
constantVoltage_V="0" The new attribute to simulate short circuits. Other attributes will be
ignored by OpenPowerNet.
brakeCurrentLimitation="none"
tractiveCurrentLimitation="none"
useAuxPower="true"
fourQuadrantChopperPhi="none"
regenerativeBrake="none"
tractiveEffort="maxPower/maxTractEffort">
<MeanEfficiency/>
</Propulsion>
</Vehicle>
In the short circuit simulation, we want to find out the short circuit current at the substation
necessary e.g. for the setup of the substation protection settings. In this tutorial, we use only
TSS_05 and power off TSS_80 by opening the switches at transformer T1 in TSS_80. For
this, we only need to change the default state for the switches TSS_80_T1_OCS and
TSS_80_T1_Rails from close to open.
After we have done all the amendments for the short circuit simulation in the Project-File, we
run the simulation again only with the course named short circuit.
Note: When not using the FULL license, set the time step in OpenTrack to 4 seconds.
Figure 166 The short circuit current of substation TSS_05 at km 5+000 versus location. The red circle marks the
Station B with siding.
From the diagram in Figure 166 (Excel tool: “Short Circuit Current by Station Feeder, I=f(s)”),
we can see that the minimum short circuit current between the contact wire and the rails of
the substation “TSS_05” is about 670 A compared to a maximum engine current of 250 A
from the default scenario, see Figure 158.
To check the minimum short circuit current, we do the same simulation as before but with
both substations using the Excel tool “Short Circuit Current by two Station Feeders, I=f(s)”.
We need to set the default state for the switches TSS_80_T1_OCS and TSS_80_T1_Rails
to close and run the simulation again. The minimum current is about 2300 A, see Figure
167.
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I = f(s)
4.500
4.000
3.500
3.000
I [kA]
2.500
2.000
1.500
1.000
0.500
0.000
0+000
10+000
20+000
30+000
40+000
50+000
60+000
70+000
80+000
90+000
s [km]
I_connector_1 [kA]
I_connector_2 [kA]
I_total [kA]
I_engine [kA]
Figure 167 The short circuit current with both substations.
5.1.3.3 Constant current
To check the pantograph voltage in a network, we want to position a constant current at each
slice along the whole line. This can be done easily by OpenPowerNet. Just add one course
in OpenTrack, e.g. with the name “constant current”, use the itinerary from Station A via track
“1” in Station B to Station C, and add a timetable. As we have seen in the previous
simulation, the minimum short circuit current is about 2300 A so we will use a lower current
of 2000 A for this simulation. Otherwise, the network is overburden.
Then, add one attribute to the Project-File:
<Vehicle eddyCurrentBrake="false" engineID="Engine1">
<Propulsion
engine="electric"
supply="AC 25kV 50Hz"
constantCurrent_A="2000" This is the new attribute. Other attributes will be ignored by
OpenPowerNet.
brakeCurrentLimitation="none"
tractiveCurrentLimitation="none"
useAuxPower="true"
fourQuadrantChopperPhi="none"
regenerativeBrake="none"
tractiveEffort="maxPower/maxTractEffort">
<MeanEfficiency/>
</Propulsion>
</Vehicle>
and set a proper comment in the Project-File to identify this simulation while analysing the
data.
Note: When not using the FULL license, set the time step in OpenTrack to 4 seconds.
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Figure 168 Selection of the single engine chart type definition, note the deselected H-Line.
Figure 169 The voltage and current along the line for the constant current of 2000 A. The red circle represents the
Station B with siding. The voltage drop in this station is less compared to the open line between the stations with
only one track.
The current is of course constant and has the value specified in the Project-File. The voltage
is calculated according to the electrical network.
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5.1.3.4 Failure scenario
As described in chapter 5.1.1.2.3, we want to disconnect the transformer in TSS_80 from
01:05:00 to 01:22:00. During that time, the whole network shall be supplied only from
TSS_05.
In OpenTrack we will use the courses ABCl_01 and CBAl_01 from the default configuration.
For OpenPowerNet we need to adapt the Project-File slightly. We only need to specify the
Switch-File and to give the simulation a proper comment, see the XML snippet below.
<OpenPowerNet xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
xsi:noNamespaceSchemaLocation="http://www.openpowernet.de/schemas/OpenPowerNet.xsd"
name="Tutorial AC Network"
comment="failure scenario" This is a comment for the failure scenario.
maxIterations="1000"
maxFailedIterations="100"
odbcDsn="pscresults"
record2DB="true"
rstFile="Engine.opnengine"
switchStateFile="Switch-File.xml" The added Switch-File.
simulationStart_s="3600">
Do not forget to change the constant current engine back to the default configuration in the
Project-File!
Note: When not using the FULL license, set the time step in OpenTrack to 4 seconds.
After the simulation has finished, we should check the substation TSS_80 feeder current as
well as the panto voltage and current of the course ABCl_01 versus position. See Figure 170
for the selection of the course related charts.
Figure 170 The settings of the single engine chart definition.
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12,500
11,250
11,250
10,000
10,000
8,750
8,750
7,500
7,500
6,250
6,250
5,000
5,000
3,750
3,750
2,500
2,500
1,250
1,250
0
0
01:00:00
Reactive Power [kvar]
Apparent Power [kVA]
Active Power [kW]
Busbar Power, Tutorial AC Network, failure scenario
Substation TSS_05, Two Winding Transformer T1, 01:00:00 - 01:48:54
-1,250
01:05:00
01:10:00
01:15:00
01:20:00
01:25:00
01:30:00
01:35:00
01:40:00
01:45:00
Time
|S|
P
Q
7,500
6,750
6,750
6,000
6,000
5,250
5,250
4,500
4,500
3,750
3,750
3,000
3,000
2,250
2,250
1,500
1,500
750
750
0
01:00:00
Reactive Power [kvar]
Apparent Power [kVA]
Active Power [kW]
Busbar Power, Tutorial AC Network, failure scenario
Substation TSS_80, Two Winding Transformer T1, 01:00:00 - 01:48:54
0
-750
01:05:00
01:10:00
01:15:00
01:20:00
01:25:00
01:30:00
01:35:00
01:40:00
01:45:00
Time
|S|
P
Q
Figure 171 The diagram compares the power supplies of the transformer in TSS_80 between the default
configuration (top) and the failure scenario (bottom).
In the diagram as shown in Figure 171 we can see that the transformer in TSS_80 had been
switched off from 01:05:00 h to 01:22:00 h as it was defined in the Switch-File.
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Vehicle U = f(s), Tutorial AC Network, default
A-C, Course CBAl_01, Engine 1/1, 01:00:01 - 01:33:55
85+000
TSS_80
A/1
TSS_05
0+000
31,000
29,500
28,000
26,500
Voltage [V]
25,000
23,500
22,000
20,500
Station B
17,500
Station A
19,000
16,000
0.000
10.000
20.000
30.000
40.000
50.000
60.000
70.000
80.000
70.000
80.000
Corridor Position [km]
|U_Panto|
U_nom
U_tol (EN 50163)
Infeed
Vehicle U = f(s), Tutorial AC Network, failure scenario
A-C, Course CBAl_01, Engine 1/1, 01:00:01 - 01:33:55
85+000
TSS_80
A/1
TSS_05
0+000
31,000
29,500
28,000
26,500
Voltage [V]
25,000
23,500
22,000
20,500
16,000
0.000
Station B
17,500
Station A
19,000
10.000
20.000
30.000
40.000
50.000
60.000
Corridor Position [km]
|U_Panto|
U_nom
U_tol (EN 50163)
Infeed
Figure 172 This diagrams compare the line voltage for course CBAl_01 of the default configuration (top) and the
failure scenario (bottom) versus the location.
In the diagram in Figure 172, we can see very well the line voltage drop at the pantograph for
the failure scenario.
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Vehicle I = f(s), Tutorial AC Network, default
A-C, Course CBAl_01, Engine 1/1, 01:00:01 - 01:33:55
85+000
TSS_80
A/1
TSS_05
0+000
275.0
247.5
220.0
192.5
Current [A]
165.0
137.5
110.0
82.5
Station A
27.5
Station B
55.0
0.0
0.000
10.000
20.000
30.000
40.000
50.000
60.000
70.000
80.000
70.000
80.000
Corridor Position [km]
I_Panto
Infeed
Vehicle I = f(s), Tutorial AC Network, failure scenario
A-C, Course CBAl_01, Engine 1/1, 01:00:01 - 01:33:55
85+000
TSS_80
A/1
TSS_05
0+000
275.0
247.5
220.0
192.5
Current [A]
165.0
137.5
110.0
82.5
0.0
0.000
Station B
27.5
Station A
55.0
10.000
20.000
30.000
40.000
50.000
60.000
Corridor Position [km]
I_Panto
Infeed
Figure 173 These diagrams compare the current for course CBAl_01 of the default configuration (top) and the
failure scenario (bottom) versus the location.
The diagram in Figure 173 shows the power off effect of substation TSS_80 for the current
used by course CBAl_01. As the course uses the same power in both simulations, the
current rises with dropping line voltage.
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5.2
User Manual
Issue 2017-08-04
AC Network with Booster Transformer Tutorial
In this tutorial, we will learn how to model booster transformers. The basis shall be the model
from chapter 5.1.
5.2.1 Configuration
5.2.1.1 OpenTrack
We will use the same OpenTrack data as for the AC tutorial described in chapter 5.1.1.1.
5.2.1.2 OpenPowerNet
The Project-File from the AC Network tutorial shall be the basis for this tutorial. The booster
transformer system will have two booster transformers and a return feeder. One booster
transformer shall be positioned at km 72+000 and the other one at km 76+000. The feeder
shall be placed between km 70+000 and TSS_80 and it shall be connected to rails at km
70+000, km 74+000, and km 78+000.
At each booster transformer, an isolator shall be added to the MessengerWire, ContactWire,
and ReturnFeeder conductors. Remember that the current sum of the conductors has to be 0
as a model constraint, see chapter 4.4.2. Therefore, parallel conductors to the isolators have
to be added to the model, these are named CW_BT and RF_BT. The whole configuration of
the booster transformer at km 76+000 is shown in Figure 174.
Figure 174 The booster transformer modelling including necessary isolators and additional conductors.
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5.2.1.2.1 *.opnengine File
We will use the same engine as for the AC Network tutorial and therefore we do not need to
change the *.opnengine file.
5.2.1.2.2 Project-File
At the beginning, we add the additional conductors. First, the 1 m long conductors parallel to
the contact /messenger wire are added as “feeder” type.
<Conductor condSort="Feeder">
<StartPosition condName="CW_BT" trackID="1" km="72.000" />
<ToProperty toPos_km="72.001" equivalentRadius_mm="3.45" r20_Ohm_km="0.1852"
temperature_DegreeCentigrade="20" temperatureCoefficient="0.00385" x_m="-1" y_m="5.3" />
</Conductor>
<Conductor condSort="Feeder">
<StartPosition condName="CW_BT" trackID="1" km="76.000" />
<ToProperty toPos_km="76.001" equivalentRadius_mm="3.45" r20_Ohm_km="0.1852"
temperature_DegreeCentigrade="20" temperatureCoefficient="0.00385" x_m="-1" y_m="5.3" />
</Conductor>
Subsequently, the return feeder and its parallel conductors at the isolator position are added.
<Conductor condSort="ReturnFeeder">
<StartPosition condName="RF" trackID="1" km="70.000" />
<ToProperty toPos_km="80.000" equivalentRadius_mm="3.45" r20_Ohm_km="0.2311"
temperature_DegreeCentigrade="20" temperatureCoefficient="0.004" x_m="-3" y_m="6.1" />
</Conductor>
<Conductor condSort="ReturnFeeder">
<StartPosition condName="RF_BT" trackID="1" km="72.000" />
<ToProperty toPos_km="72.001" equivalentRadius_mm="3.45" r20_Ohm_km="0.2311"
temperature_DegreeCentigrade="20" temperatureCoefficient="0.004" x_m="-4" y_m="6.1" />
</Conductor>
<Conductor condSort="ReturnFeeder">
<StartPosition condName="RF_BT" trackID="1" km="76.000" />
<ToProperty toPos_km="76.001" equivalentRadius_mm="3.45" r20_Ohm_km="0.2311"
temperature_DegreeCentigrade="20" temperatureCoefficient="0.004"
x_m="-4" y_m="6.1" />
</Conductor>
The return feeder has to be connected to the rails between the booster transformers and at
the beginning of the return feeder.
<ConnectorSlice name="bonding from return feeder to rail">
<Connector z_real_Ohm="0.01" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom trackID="1" condName="RF" />
<ConductorTo trackID="1" condName="RL" />
</Connector>
<Position km="78.000" />
<Position km="74.000" />
<Position km="70.000" />
</ConnectorSlice>
Furthermore, the additional conductors parallel to the isolators need to be connected to the
conductors they belong to.
<ConnectorSlice name="feeder connection from BT to CW; RF">
<Connector z_real_Ohm="0.001" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom trackID="1" condName="CW_BT" />
<ConductorTo trackID="1" condName="CW" />
</Connector>
<Connector z_real_Ohm="0.001" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom trackID="1" condName="RF_BT" />
<ConductorTo trackID="1" condName="RF" />
</Connector>
<Position km="72.001" />
<Position km="76.001" />
</ConnectorSlice>
The isolators have to be added as a child of the element of the Line “A”.
<Isolators>
<ConductorIsolator>
<Position km="72" trackID="1" condName="CW" />
</ConductorIsolator>
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<ConductorIsolator>
<Position km="72" trackID="1" condName="MW" />
</ConductorIsolator>
<ConductorIsolator>
<Position km="72" trackID="1" condName="RF" />
</ConductorIsolator>
<ConductorIsolator>
<Position km="76" trackID="1" condName="CW" />
</ConductorIsolator>
<ConductorIsolator>
<Position km="76" trackID="1" condName="MW" />
</ConductorIsolator>
<ConductorIsolator>
<Position km="76" trackID="1" condName="RF" />
</ConductorIsolator>
</Isolators>
We will add a substation for the first booster transformer at km 72+000 as
follows:<Substation name="BT 72+000">
<Boostertransformer name="BT"
loadLosses_kW="2"
noLoadCurrent_A="7.0"
noLoadLosses_kW="0.6"
nomPower_MVA="0.158"
nomPrimaryVoltage_kV="0.316"
nomSecondaryVoltage_kV="0.316"
relativeShortCircuitVoltage_percent="11">
<Primary1BB bbName="CW-" z_real_Ohm="0.001" z_imag_Ohm="0.000" />
<Primary2BB bbName="CW+" z_real_Ohm="0.001" z_imag_Ohm="0.000" />
<Secondary1BB bbName="RF-" z_real_Ohm="0.001" z_imag_Ohm="0.000" />
<Secondary2BB bbName="RF+" z_real_Ohm="0.001" z_imag_Ohm="0.000" />
</Boostertransformer>
<Busbars>
<OCSBB bbName="CW+">
<Connector z_real_Ohm="0.001" z_imag_Ohm="0.001">
<Position km="72.000" trackID="1" condName="CW_BT" lineID="A" />
</Connector>
</OCSBB>
<OCSBB bbName="CW-">
<Connector z_real_Ohm="0.001" z_imag_Ohm="0.001">
<Position km="72.000" trackID="1" condName="CW" lineID="A" />
</Connector>
</OCSBB>
<RailsBB bbName="RF+">
<Connector z_real_Ohm="0.001" z_imag_Ohm="0.001">
<Position km="72.000" trackID="1" condName="RF_BT" lineID="A" />
</Connector>
</RailsBB>
<RailsBB bbName="RF-">
<Connector z_real_Ohm="0.001" z_imag_Ohm="0.001">
<Position km="72.000" trackID="1" condName="RF" lineID="A" />
</Connector>
</RailsBB>
</Busbars>
</Substation>
After that, we copy the substation from above and change the name and the chainages to km
76+000 respectively “76.000”.
As the last step, we have to add an additional connector from the Rails Busbar at TSS_80 to
the return feeder.
<Connector name="TSS_80_ReturnFeader_Feeder" z_real_Ohm="0.001" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<Position condName="RF" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="80" />
</Connector>
5.2.2 Simulation
For the description of the simulation, see the AC network tutorial in chapter 5.1.2.
Note: When not using the FULL license, set the time steps in OpenTrack to 4 seconds.
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5.2.3 Analysis
To see the effect of the booster transformers, we will compare the results of this tutorial with
the results of the AC Network tutorial described in chapter 5.1.
To compare the pantograph voltage, we use the prepared Excel file Compare Two
Engines.
Vehicle U = f(s), Tutorial AC Network, default
A-C, Course CBAl_01, Engine 1/1, 01:00:01 - 01:33:55
85+000
TSS_80
A/1
TSS_05
0+000
31,000
29,500
28,000
26,500
Voltage [V]
25,000
23,500
22,000
20,500
Station B
17,500
Station A
19,000
16,000
0.000
10.000
20.000
30.000
40.000
50.000
60.000
70.000
80.000
Corridor Position [km]
|U_Panto|
U_nom
U_tol (EN 50163)
Infeed
Vehicle U = f(s), Tutorial AC with Booster, default
A-C, Course CBAl_01, Engine 1/1, 01:00:01 - 01:33:55
29,500
85+000
TSS_80
BT 76+000
BT 72+000
A/1
TSS_05
0+000
31,000
28,000
26,500
Voltage [V]
25,000
23,500
22,000
20,500
16,000
0.000
Station B
17,500
Station A
19,000
10.000
20.000
30.000
40.000
50.000
60.000
70.000
80.000
Corridor Position [km]
|U_Panto|
U_nom
U_tol (EN 50163)
Infeed
Isolator
Figure 175 Comparing the pantograph voltage without (top) and with booster transformers (bottom).
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In the diagram in Figure 175, we see the voltages drop at the booster transformer chainages
and then constant from the return feeder – rail connection (km 70+000, km 72+000) to the
booster transformer. The evaluation of the line impedance will show why the voltage behaves
this way with booster transformers.
We will analyse the line impedance with the prepared Excel file Impedance per feeder
current, Z=f(s) after CBAl_01 has terminated at Station A at 01:41:00 h because to
calculate the correct line impedance there may be only one engine in the network. On the
SELECTION sheet, select the Engine ABCl_01, the Substation TSS_80 and filter for time
values greater than 6060 s. The line impedance for the network without a booster
transformer is shown in Figure 176 and can be compared to the line impedance with the two
booster transformers, shown in Figure 177.
Z_abs = f(s)
8.000
7.000
6.000
Z [Ohm]
5.000
4.000
3.000
2.000
1.000
0.000
60+000
65+000
70+000
75+000
s [km]
80+000
85+000
90+000
Figure 176 The line impedance of the AC network configuration without booster transformer, seen from TSS_80.
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Figure 177 The line impedance of the AC network configuration with booster transformers, seen from TSS_80.
5.3
2AC Network Tutorial
In this tutorial, we will use the same OpenTrack infrastructure as for the AC Network tutorial
and change only the existing Project-File for a 2AC electrical network. To keep the file of the
previous tutorial, we create a copy of the Project-File.
5.3.1 Configuration
5.3.1.1 OpenTrack
We will use the same OpenTrack data as for the AC tutorial described in chapter 5.1.1.1.
5.3.1.2 OpenPowerNet
5.3.1.2.1 *.opnengine File
We will use the same engine as for AC and therefore we do not need to change the
*.opnengine file.
5.3.1.2.2 Project-File
For the 2AC system, we change the transformer in TSS_05 to a three winding transformer
and change the substation TSS_80 to an autotransformer station named ATS_80. For the
negative phase we add a negative feeder from km 5+000 to km 80+000.
First, we add the negative feeder:
<Conductor condSort="NegativeFeeder">
<StartPosition condName="NF" trackID="1" km="5"/>
The beginning of the negative feeder at km 5+000 and the name NF.
<ToProperty
toPos_km="80" The end of the negative feeder at km 80+000.
equivalentRadius_mm="8.4" Following the characteristic
r20_Ohm_km="0.1188"
temperature_DegreeCentigrade="20"
temperatureCoefficient="0.004"
x_m="-4" and the cross section position.
y_m="9"/>
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</Conductor>
Secondly, we change the transformer in TSS_05 into a three winding transformer:
<Substation name="TSS_05">
<ThreeWindingTransformer This is the new three winding transformer.
name="T1"
nomPower_MVA="10"
nomPrimaryVoltage_kV="115"
nomSecondaryVoltage_kV="55"
noLoadLosses_kW="6.5"
loadLosses_kW="230"
relativeShortCircuitVoltage_percent="10.7"
noLoadCurrent_A="0.06">
<OCSBB bbName="OCS_BB" z_real_Ohm="0.001" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<Switch name="TSS_05_T1_OCS" defaultState="close"/>
</OCSBB>
<RailsBB bbName="Rails_BB" z_real_Ohm="0.001" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<Switch name="TSS_05_T1_Rails" defaultState="close"/>
</RailsBB>
<NegativeFeederBB bbName="NF_BB" z_real_Ohm="0.001" z_imag_Ohm="0">
The new negative feeder busbar.
<Switch name="TSS_05_T1_NF" defaultState="close"/>
</NegativeFeederBB>
</ThreeWindingTransformer>
<Busbars>
<OCSBB bbName="OCS_BB">
<Connector name="TSS_05_OCS_Feeder" z_real_Ohm="0.001" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<Position condName="CW" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="5"/>
</Connector>
</OCSBB>
<RailsBB bbName="Rails_BB">
<Connector name="TSS_05_Rails_Feeder" z_real_Ohm="0.001" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<Position condName="RR" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="5"/>
</Connector>
</RailsBB>
<NegativeFeederBB bbName="NF_BB">
The new feeder connection for the negative feeder.
<Connector name="TSS_05_NF_Feeder" z_real_Ohm="0.001" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<Position condName="NF" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="5"/>
</Connector>
</NegativeFeederBB>
</Busbars>
</Substation>
Thirdly, we change the substation TSS_80 to ATS_80, equipped with an autotransformer and
busbars for the OCS, the rails, and the negative feeder:
<Substation name="ATS_80">
<Autotransformer This is the autotransformer.
name="T1"
nomPower_MVA="5"
nomPrimaryVoltage_kV="55"
nomSecondaryVoltage_kV="27.5"
noLoadLosses_kW="5"
loadLosses_kW="10"
relativeShortCircuitVoltage_percent="1.8"
noLoadCurrent_A="0.2">
<OCSBB bbName="OCS_BB" z_real_Ohm="0.001" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<Switch name="ATS_80_T1_OCS" defaultState="close"/>
</OCSBB>
<RailsBB bbName="Rails_BB" z_real_Ohm="0.001" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<Switch name="ATS_80_T1_Rails" defaultState="close"/>
</RailsBB>
<NegativeFeederBB bbName="NF_BB" z_real_Ohm="0.001" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<Switch name="ATS_80_T1_NF" defaultState="close"/>
</NegativeFeederBB>
</Autotransformer>
<Busbars>
<OCSBB bbName="OCS_BB">
<Connector name="ATS_80_OCS_Feeder" z_real_Ohm="0.001" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<Position condName="CW" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="80"/>
</Connector>
</OCSBB>
<RailsBB bbName="Rails_BB">
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<Connector name="ATS_80_Rails_Feeder" z_real_Ohm="0.001" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<Position condName="RR" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="80"/>
</Connector>
</RailsBB>
<NegativeFeederBB bbName="NF_BB">
<Connector name="ATS_80_NF_Feeder" z_real_Ohm="0.001" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<Position condName="NF" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="80"/>
</Connector>
</NegativeFeederBB>
</Busbars>
</Substation>
After all these changes, we check the new configuration using NMMV and we will see the
added negative feeder as in Figure 178.
Figure 178 A snippet of the 2AC network with TSS_05 and negative feeder.
5.3.1.2.3 Switch-File
We need to adapt the Switch-File from the failure scenario simulation. First, we change the
switch names and secondly, we add the switches of the negative feeder.
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<ADE xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
xsi:noNamespaceSchemaLocation="http://www.openpowernet.de/schemas/ADE.xsd">
<TPD>
<SwitchSetting>
<Switch state="open" time="01:05:00" name="ATS_80_T1_OCS"/>
<Switch state="open" time="01:05:00" name="ATS_80_T1_Rails"/>
<Switch state="open" time="01:05:00" name="ATS_80_T1_NF"/>
The open time definition of the added negative feeder switch.
<Switch state="close" time="01:22:00" name="ATS_80_T1_OCS"/>
<Switch state="close" time="01:22:00" name="ATS_80_T1_Rails"/>
<Switch state="close" time="01:22:00" name="ATS_80_T1_NF"/>
The close time definition of the added negative feeder switch.
</SwitchSetting>
</TPD>
</ADE>
5.3.2 Simulation
For the description of the simulation, see the AC network tutorial in chapter 5.1.2.
Note: When not using the FULL license, set the time step in OpenTrack to 4 seconds.
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5.3.3 Analysis
In the following chapter we will analyse the same network configuration as we did for the AC
network in chapter 5.1.3 and compare the simulation results.
5.3.3.1 Default configuration
For the default configuration, we want to compare some diagrams to see the difference
between the two systems.
First we want to compare the line voltage at the pantograph, see Figure 179.
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Vehicle U = f(s), Tutorial AC Network, default
A-C, Aggregation Engine, 01:00:00 - 01:48:54
85+400
TSS_80
A
TSS_05
0+000
31,000
29,500
28,000
26,500
Voltage [V]
25,000
23,500
22,000
20,500
16,000
0.000
10.000
Station C
Station B
17,500
Station A
19,000
20.000
30.000
40.000
50.000
60.000
70.000
80.000
70.000
80.000
Corridor Position [km]
|U_Panto|
U_nom
U_tol (EN 50163)
Infeed
Vehicle U = f(s), Tutorial 2AC Network, default
A-C, Aggregation Engine, 01:00:00 - 01:48:54
85+400
ATS_80
A
TSS_05
0+000
31,000
29,500
28,000
26,500
Voltage [V]
25,000
23,500
22,000
20,500
16,000
0.000
10.000
Station C
Station B
17,500
Station A
19,000
20.000
30.000
40.000
50.000
60.000
Corridor Position [km]
|U_Panto|
U_nom
U_tol (EN 50163)
Infeed
Figure 179 The line voltage at pantograph position in AC network (top) and 2AC network (bottom)
We can see that the line voltage at the pantograph is much lower than for the AC network but
still sufficient as the minimum is just below the nominal voltage.
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Vehicle F = f(s), Tutorial AC Network, default
A-C, Course CBAl_01, Engine 1/1, 01:00:01 - 01:33:55
85+000
TSS_80
A/1
TSS_05
0+000
375
300
225
Tractive Effort [kN]
150
75
0
-75
-150
Station B
-300
Station A
-225
-375
0.000
10.000
20.000
30.000
40.000
50.000
60.000
70.000
80.000
70.000
80.000
Corridor Position [km]
F_requested
F_achieved
Infeed
Vehicle F = f(s), Tutorial 2AC Network, default
A-C, Course CBAl_01, Engine 1/1, 01:00:01 - 01:33:55
85+000
ATS_80
A/1
TSS_05
0+000
375
300
225
Tractive Effort [kN]
150
75
0
-75
-150
-375
0.000
Station B
-300
Station A
-225
10.000
20.000
30.000
40.000
50.000
60.000
Corridor Position [km]
F_requested
F_achieved
Infeed
Figure 180 The requested and achieved effort for course ABCl_01 in AC network (top) and 2AC network (bottom).
All curves for our model are the same. Therefore, there is no difference in the operational
simulation in OpenTrack, see Figure 180.
As there is no difference in the effort, we may expect to have the same power demand for
TSS_05 in both configurations.
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12,500
11,250
11,250
10,000
10,000
8,750
8,750
7,500
7,500
6,250
6,250
5,000
5,000
3,750
3,750
2,500
2,500
1,250
1,250
0
0
01:00:00
Reactive Power [kvar]
Apparent Power [kVA]
Active Power [kW]
Busbar Power, Tutorial AC Network, default
Substation TSS_05, Two Winding Transformer T1, 01:00:00 - 01:48:54
-1,250
01:05:00
01:10:00
01:15:00
01:20:00
01:25:00
01:30:00
01:35:00
01:40:00
01:45:00
Time
|S|
P
Q
15,000
13,500
13,500
12,000
12,000
10,500
10,500
9,000
9,000
7,500
7,500
6,000
6,000
4,500
4,500
3,000
3,000
1,500
1,500
0
0
01:00:00
Reactive Power [kvar]
Apparent Power [kVA]
Active Power [kW]
Busbar Power, Tutorial 2AC Network, default
Substation TSS_05, Three Winding Transformer T1, 01:00:00 - 01:48:54
-1,500
01:05:00
01:10:00
01:15:00
01:20:00
01:25:00
01:30:00
01:35:00
01:40:00
01:45:00
Time
|S_OCS-Rails|
P_OCS-Rails
|S_Rails-NF|
P_Rails-NF
Q_OCS-Rails
Q_Rails-NF
Figure 181 The power demand of substation TSS_05 in AC network (top) and 2AC network (bottom).
Now we will compare the power demands for the two networks which are shown in Figure
181. We see that the power demand for the 2AC network is much higher than the one for the
AC network. This is the case because for the AC network we have two substations compared
to only one substation and one auto transformer station in the 2AC network. Therefore,
TSS_05 has to supply the total power and all losses in the 2AC network.
Another comparison can be done for the energy consumption. Figure 182 shows the energy
consumption of the AC network supplied from both substations and for the 2AC network
supplied only from TSS_05.
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Device Overview, Tutorial AC Network, default
Network A-C, 01:00:00 - 01:48:54
Substation Device Type
TSS_05
TSS_05
TSS_05
TSS_80
TSS_80
TSS_80
T1
T1
T1
T1
T1
T1
Two Winding Transformer
Two Winding Transformer
Two Winding Transformer
Two Winding Transformer
Two Winding Transformer
Two Winding Transformer
Signal |I|max
A
total
378
out
378
in
0
total
232
out
232
in
0
Irms I rms15 |S|max
A
A
kVA
118 166 10,052
118 166
0
0
118 152 6,268
118 152
0
0
-
|P|max
kW
10,044
10,044
0
6,267
6,267
0
Prms Prms15 |Q|max E
Eloss
kW
kW
kvar kWh kWh
3,209 4,479
396 2,333 19.9
3,209 4,479
396 2,333 19.9
0
0
10
0
-1)
3,219 4,125
242 2,405 19.9
3,219 4,125
242 2,405 19.9
0
0
7
0
-1)
Device Overview, Tutorial 2AC Network, default
Network A-C, 01:00:00 - 01:48:54
Substation Device Type
ATS_80
ATS_80
ATS_80
TSS_05
TSS_05
TSS_05
T1
T1
T1
T1
T1
T1
Signal
|I|max I rms Irms15 |S|max
A
A
A
kVA
Autotransformer
rated
- 7,119
Autotransformer
OCS-Rails
146 70
89 3,573
Autotransformer
Rails-NF
146 70
89 3,599
Three Winding Transformer total
446 165 196 13,190
Three Winding Transformer out
446 165 196
Three Winding Transformer in
0
0
0
-
|P|max
kW
7,119
3,573
3,599
13,156
13,156
0
Prms Prms15 |Q|max E
kW
kW
kvar kWh
3,622 4,572
423
1,815 2,291
211
1,822 2,302
224
6,139 6,754 1,163 4,807
6,139 6,754 1,163 4,807
0
0
0
0
Eloss
kWh
4.9
91.5
91.5
0.0
Figure 182 Energy supply in AC network (top) and 2AC network (bottom).
The total energy consumption of the original AC network is 4,738 kWh, whereof TSS_05
provided 2,333 kWh and TSS_80 2,405 kWh, compared to 4,807 kWh of the 2AC network
provided solely by TSS_05. The difference of about 1.5 % is caused by the auto transformer
losses and the increased line losses caused by the higher currents due to lower line voltage.
5.3.3.2 Short circuit
For the short circuit simulation, we modify the engine as described in the AC tutorial (Chapter
5.1.3.2), use the course “short circuit” and run the simulation.
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I = f(s)
2.500
2.000
I [kA]
1.500
1.000
0.500
0.000
0+000
10+000
20+000
30+000
40+000
50+000
60+000
70+000
80+000
90+000
s [km]
I_connector_1 [kA]
I_connector_2 [kA]
I_total [kA]
I_engine [kA]
Figure 183 The short circuit current of the 2AC network. The short circuit current is the total of TSS_05 and
ATS_80 current, use Excel tool: “Short Circuit Current by two Station Feeders, I=f(s)”.
5.3.3.3 Constant current
In Figure 183, we can see that the minimum short circuit current is about 1,200 A. Therefore,
we will use a constant current of 1000 A for the constant current simulation. We need to do
the same configuration as for the AC tutorial except that we have to set the current to
1000 A. To be able to compare AC and 2AC configurations, we will also run an additional
constant current simulation with 1000 A for the AC network.
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Vehicle U,I = f(s), Tutorial AC Network, constant current 1000A
A-C, Course constant current, Engine 1/1, 01:00:01 - 01:31:31
31,000
1,125
28,000
1,000
26,500
875
25,000
750
23,500
625
22,000
500
20,500
375
19,000
250
17,500
125
16,000
0.400
Station C
Current [A]
85+400
TSS_80
TSS_05
29,500
Station B
Voltage [V]
0+400
1,250
A/1
0
10.400
20.400
30.400
40.400
50.400
60.400
70.400
80.400
Corridor Position [km]
|U_Panto|
U_nom
U_tol (EN 50163)
Infeed
I_Panto
Vehicle U,I = f(s), Tutorial 2AC Network, constant current 1000A
A-C, Course constant current, Engine 1/1, 01:00:01 - 01:31:31
85+400
ATS_80
A/1
TSS_05
0+400
1,250
30,136
1,125
28,636
27,136
1,000
25,636
875
24,136
750
21,136
625
19,636
18,136
Current [A]
Voltage [V]
22,636
500
16,636
375
15,136
13,636
250
9,136
0.400
Station C
10,636
Station B
12,136
125
0
10.400
20.400
30.400
40.400
50.400
60.400
70.400
80.400
Corridor Position [km]
|U_Panto|
U_nom
U_tol (EN 50163)
Infeed
I_Panto
Figure 184 The constant current with 1000 A causes a voltage drop down to less than 10 kV at the end of the line
in the 2AC network (bottom) and about 22 kV in AC network (top).
As we can see in the diagram shown in Figure 184, the line voltage drops much more for this
2AC configuration as it does for AC.
5.3.3.4 Failure scenario
For the failure scenario, the same configuration tasks as for the AC network have to be done
but we need to specify the Switch-File created in chapter 5.3.1.2.3. The diagrams to be
compared are shown in Figure 185.
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Vehicle U = f(t), Tutorial AC Network, failure scenario
A-C, Course CBAl_01, Engine 1/1, 01:00:01 - 01:33:55
0+000
TSS_05
A/1
TSS_80
85+000
31,000
29,500
28,000
26,500
Voltage [V]
25,000
23,500
22,000
20,500
19,000
16,000
01:00:01
01:05:01
01:10:01
01:15:01
01:20:01
01:25:01
Station A
Station B
17,500
01:30:01
Time
|U_Panto|
U_nom
U_tol (EN 50163)
Infeed
Vehicle U = f(t), Tutorial 2AC Network, failure scenario
A-C, Course CBAl_01, Engine 1/1, 01:00:01 - 01:33:55
0+000
TSS_05
A/1
ATS_80
85+000
31,000
29,500
28,000
26,500
Voltage [V]
25,000
23,500
22,000
20,500
19,000
16,000
01:00:01
01:05:01
01:10:01
01:15:01
01:20:01
01:25:01
Station A
Station B
17,500
01:30:01
Time
|U_Panto|
U_nom
U_tol (EN 50163)
Infeed
Figure 185 The failure scenario line voltage at pantograph for course CBAl_01 in AC (top) and 2AC (bottom)
network.
As expected, we see a voltage drop between 01:05:00 h and 01:22:00 h because the
TSS_80 respectively the ATS_80 was powered off. It is also not surprising to see a lower
voltage for 2AC as we have compared the line voltage for 1000 A constant current in Figure
184 and found lower values for the 2AC network.
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5.4
User Manual
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DC Network Tutorial
In this tutorial, we will change the power supply to a 3 kV DC system with two substations at
the same positions as before, km 5+000 and km 80+000. The negative feeder of the 2AC
network will be used as line feeder and connected with the contact wire of track “1” every
1,000 m.
We will use the same engine with 5.56 MW maximum tractive power as before. The
maximum power for the long train with 30 kW auxiliary power per trailer and 100 kW auxiliary
power of the engine is 6.08 MW. At nominal voltage, the current will be approximately
2,000 A. We can expect that such a high current will cause a high voltage drop. Therefore we
will use the tractive current limitation to stabilise the pantograph voltage. The current
limitation shall be 0 A at 0 V, then rise linearly to 2,000 A at 2.7 kV (90 % of nominal voltage)
and then constant 2,000 A.
5.4.1 Configuration
5.4.1.1 OpenTrack
We will use the same OpenTrack data as for the AC tutorial described in chapter 5.1.1.1.
5.4.1.2 OpenPowerNet
5.4.1.2.1 *.opnengine File
We need to change the power supply system and add the current limitation.
Since the power supply system specified for the infrastructure in OpenTrack is used to
choose the correct tractive-effort-curve of the engine and as we do not want to change this
curve, we do not need to change anything in OpenTrack. However, the supply system of the
engine propulsion system in OpenPowerNet has to be adjusted.
Figure 186 Tutorial DC, engine configuration.
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5.4.1.2.2 Project-File
As the base of this Project-File we will use the Project-File of the AC network (see chapter
5.2.1.2.2) and adapt it. For DC less information is required, e.g. equivalent radius, x and y
positon, and all surplus information should be deleted.
First, we delete all parameters from AC network which are not necessary for a DC network.
These are the following attributes:
• equivalentRadius_mm,
• x_m,
• y_m,
• z_imag_Ohm, and
• yImag_S_km.
To remove the attributes, you can use the replace feature of the XML editor Source view.
Figure 187 Efficiently remove attributes, e.g. equivalentRadius_mm, in the XML editor Source view. To open the
dialog, hit Ctrl+F.
Then, we adapt the engine model by changing the supply and using the tractive current
limitation.
<Propulsion
engine="electric"
supply="DC 3000V" Change the supply system to DC 3000 V.
brakeCurrentLimitation="none"
tractiveCurrentLimitation="I=f(U)" Change this value from none to I=f(U).
useAuxPower="true"
fourQuadrantChopperPhi="none"
regenerativeBrake="none"
tractiveEffort="maxPower/maxTractEffort">
<MeanEfficiency/>
</Propulsion>
Next, we add the line feeder as a conductor with the same characteristics as the negative
feeder of the 2AC tutorial.
<Conductor condSort="Feeder"> Change the type of the conductor
<StartPosition condName="LF" trackID="1" km="5"/> and change the name to LF.
<ToProperty
toPos_km="80"
r20_Ohm_km="0.1188"
temperature_DegreeCentigrade="20"
temperatureCoefficient="0.004"/>
</Conductor>
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For a DC network, the earth model is also different from the one used in AC networks, see
chapter 6.5. Therefore, the Earth Conductor resistance needs to be set to 0.001 Ω.
Then, we need to add the connectors every 1,000 m from the line feeder to the contact wire
of track “1”. The resistance per meter shall be the same as for the line feeder and the length
shall be approximately 5 m. Therefore, the connector resistance is 0.594 mΩ
(0.1188 Ω/km/1000 * 5 m = 0.000594 Ω).
<ConnectorSlice
name="line feeder to CW"
firstPos_km="5"
lastPos_km="80"
maxDistance_km="1.000">
<Connector z_real_Ohm="0.000594" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="LF" trackID="1"/>
<ConductorTo condName="CW" trackID="1"/>
</Connector>
</ConnectorSlice>
Now we configure the substation models with DC rectifiers and we use switches in the
connectors from the busbars to the line. The switches will be used during the failure
scenario.
<Substations>
<Substation name="TSS_05">
<Rectifier
name="R1"
internalResistance_Ohm="0.01" The internal resistance of the rectifier.
lossVoltageDrop_kV="0.010"
lossResistance_Ohm="0.001"
nomVoltage_kV="3.3"
The no load voltage of the rectifier shall be 10 % higher than the system voltage of 3 kV.
energyRecovery="false">
<OCSBB bbName="OCS_BB" z_real_Ohm="0.001"/>
<RailsBB bbName="Rails_BB" z_real_Ohm="0.001/>
</Rectifier>
<Busbars>
<OCSBB bbName="OCS_BB">
<Connector name="TSS_05_OCS_Feeder" z_real_Ohm="0.001">
<Position condName="CW" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="5"/>
</Connector>
<Connector name="TSS_05_LF_Feeder" z_real_Ohm="0.001">
<Position condName="LF" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="5"/>
</Connector>
</OCSBB>
<RailsBB bbName="Rails_BB">
<Connector name="TSS_05_Rails_Feeder" z_real_Ohm="0.001">
<Position condName="RR" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="5"/>
</Connector>
</RailsBB>
</Busbars>
</Substation>
<Substation name="TSS_80">
<Rectifier
name="R1"
internalResistance_Ohm="0.01"
lossVoltageDrop_kV="0.010"
lossResistance_Ohm="0.001"
nomVoltage_kV="3.3"
energyRecovery="false">
<OCSBB bbName="OCS_BB" z_real_Ohm="0.001"/>
<RailsBB bbName="Rails_BB" z_real_Ohm="0.001"/>
</Rectifier>
<Busbars>
<OCSBB bbName="OCS_BB">
<Connector name="TSS_80_OCS_Feeder" z_real_Ohm="0.001">
<Switch defaultState="close" name="TSS_80_OCS"/>
<Position condName="CW" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="80"/>
</Connector>
<Connector name="TSS_80_LF_Feeder" z_real_Ohm="0.001">
<Switch defaultState="close" name="TSS_80_LF"/>
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<Position condName="LF" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="80"/>
</Connector>
</OCSBB>
<RailsBB bbName="Rails_BB">
<Connector name="TSS_80_Rails_Feeder" z_real_Ohm="0.001">
<Position condName="RR" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="80"/>
<Switch defaultState="close" name="TSS_80_Rails"/>
</Connector>
</RailsBB>
</Busbars>
</Substation>
</Substations>
5.4.1.2.3 Switch-File
We need to adapt the Switch-File of the AC tutorial for the failure scenario simulation. First,
we change the switch names and secondly, we add also the switch states of the line feeder
switch.
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<ADE xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
xsi:noNamespaceSchemaLocation="http://www.openpowernet.de/schemas/ADE.xsd">
<TPD>
<SwitchSetting>
<Switch state="open" time="01:05:00" name="TSS_80_OCS"/>
<Switch state="open" time="01:05:00" name="TSS_80_Rails"/>
<Switch state="open" time="01:05:00" name="TSS_80_LF"/>
<Switch state="close" time="01:22:00" name="TSS_80_OCS"/>
<Switch state="close" time="01:22:00" name="TSS_80_Rails"/>
<Switch state="close" time="01:22:00" name="TSS_80_LF"/>
</SwitchSetting>
</TPD>
</ADE>
5.4.2 Simulation
For the description of the simulation, see the AC network tutorial in chapter 5.1.2.
Note: When not using the FULL license, set the time step in OpenTrack to 4 seconds.
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5.4.3 Analysis
5.4.3.1 Default configuration
4,250
2,250
4,000
2,025
3,750
1,800
3,500
1,575
3,250
1,350
3,000
1,125
2,750
900
2,500
675
2,250
450
2,000
225
1,750
01:00:00
Current [A]
Voltage [V]
Vehicle U,I = f(t), Tutorial DC Network, default
A-C, Aggregation Engine, 01:00:00 - 02:01:49
0
01:10:00
01:20:00
01:30:00
01:40:00
01:50:00
02:00:00
Time
|U_Panto|
U_nom
U_tol (EN 50163)
I_Panto
Figure 188 The pantograph line voltage and current versus time for the DC network default configuration.
In the diagram shown in Figure 189, we can see the current limitation where the current
drops as well as the voltage.
Vehicle U = f(s), Tutorial DC Network, default
A-C, Aggregation Engine, 01:00:00 - 02:01:49
85+400
TSS_80
A
TSS_05
0+000
4,250
4,000
3,750
3,500
Voltage [V]
3,250
3,000
2,750
2,500
1,750
0.000
10.000
Station C
Station B
2,000
Station A
2,250
20.000
30.000
40.000
50.000
60.000
70.000
80.000
Corridor Position [km]
|U_Panto|
U_nom
U_tol (EN 50163)
Infeed
Figure 189 The line voltage at pantograph versus chainage.
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As expected, the minimum of the pantograph line voltage is in the middle between the two
substations (see Figure 189).
Vehicle F = f(s), Tutorial DC Network, default
A-C, Course ABCl_01, Engine 1/1, 01:00:01 - 02:01:48
TSS_80
A/1
85+400
9+740
10+246
A/2
9+761
10+254
A/1
TSS_05
0+400
375
300
225
Tractive Effort [kN]
150
75
0
-75
-150
-375
0.400
10.400
Station C
-300
Station B
-225
20.400
30.400
40.400
50.400
60.400
70.400
80.400
Corridor Position [km]
F_requested
F_achieved
F_requested-F_achieved
Infeed
Figure 190 The requested and achieved effort of the course ABCl_01 for the default configuration.
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The diagram in Figure 190 shows the effect of the traction current limitation regarding the
achieved tractive effort very clearly. If we compare the travel time of course ABCl_01 in
Figure 191, we see the effect of the lower achieved effort of this course in the DC network
resulting in 13 minutes longer travel time than that of the same course in the AC network.
Vehicle v = f(t), Tutorial AC Network, default
A-C, Course ABCl_01, Engine 1/1, 01:00:01 - 01:48:53
A/1
85+400
A/2
10+246
10+254
TSS_05
A/1
TSS_80
9+746
9+767
0+400
225.0
202.5
180.0
157.5
Speed [km/h]
135.0
112.5
90.0
67.5
45.0
0.0
01:00:01
01:05:01
Station C
Station B
22.5
01:10:01
01:15:01
01:20:01
01:25:01
01:30:01
01:35:01
01:40:01
01:45:01
Time
v
Infeed
Vehicle v = f(t), Tutorial DC Network, default
A-C, Course ABCl_01, Engine 1/1, 01:00:01 - 02:01:48
85+400
A/1
10+246
10+254
A/2
TSS_80
9+740
9+761
A/1
TSS_05
0+400
225.0
202.5
180.0
157.5
Speed [km/h]
135.0
112.5
90.0
67.5
0.0
01:00:01
Station C
22.5
Station B
45.0
01:10:01
01:20:01
01:30:01
01:40:01
01:50:01
02:00:01
Time
v
Infeed
Figure 191 The speed versus time for course ABCl_01 in the AC network (top) and DC network (bottom).
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5.4.3.2 Short circuit
I = f(s)
4.000
3.500
3.000
I [kA]
2.500
2.000
1.500
1.000
0.500
0.000
0+000
10+000
20+000
30+000
40+000
50+000
60+000
70+000
80+000
90+000
s [km]
I_connector_1 [kA]
I_connector_2 [kA]
I_total [kA]
I_engine [kA]
Figure 192 The short circuit simulation of the DC network.
The simulation is done like for the AC network. Since we are interested in the minimum short
circuit current, the y-axis is limited to 4,000 A as the current at the substation is very high.
5.4.3.3 Constant current
As we can see in Figure 192, the minimum current is above 2,500 A. Therefore, we will do
the constant current simulation with 1,000 A as in the previous tutorials.
Vehicle U,I = f(s), Tutorial DC Network, constant current 1000A
A-C, Course constant current, Engine 1/1, 01:00:01 - 01:31:31
1,125
3,750
1,000
3,500
875
3,250
750
3,000
625
2,750
500
2,500
375
2,250
250
2,000
125
1,750
0.400
Station C
Current [A]
TSS_80
TSS_05
4,000
Station B
Voltage [V]
A/1
85+400
1,250
0+400
4,250
0
10.400
20.400
30.400
40.400
50.400
60.400
70.400
80.400
Corridor Position [km]
|U_Panto|
U_nom
U_tol (EN 50163)
Infeed
I_Panto
Figure 193 The voltage versus chainage at a constant current simulation.
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5.4.3.4 Failure scenario
Check chapter 5.1.3.4 on how to configure the Project-File and how to run the simulation.
Vehicle U = f(s), Tutorial DC Network, default
A-C, Course CBAl_01, Engine 1/1, 01:00:01 - 01:40:13
85+000
TSS_80
A/1
TSS_05
0+000
4,250
4,000
3,750
3,500
Voltage [V]
3,250
3,000
2,750
2,500
Station A
2,000
Station B
2,250
1,750
0.000
10.000
20.000
30.000
40.000
50.000
60.000
70.000
80.000
70.000
80.000
Corridor Position [km]
|U_Panto|
U_nom
U_tol (EN 50163)
Infeed
85+000
TSS_80
A/1
TSS_05
4,082
0+000
Vehicle U = f(s), Tutorial DC Network, failure scenario
A-C, Course CBAl_01, Engine 1/1, 01:00:01 - 01:50:28
3,832
3,582
3,332
3,082
Voltage [V]
2,832
2,582
2,332
2,082
1,832
1,582
832
0.000
Station B
1,082
Station A
1,332
10.000
20.000
30.000
40.000
50.000
60.000
Corridor Position [km]
|U_Panto|
U_nom
U_tol (EN 50163)
Infeed
Figure 194 The line voltage for course CBAl_01 in default configuration (top) and at failure scenario (bottom).
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5.5
User Manual
Issue 2017-08-04
DC Network with Energy Storage Tutorial
In this tutorial, we will add an energy storage to the DC network from the tutorial in chapter
5.4. The DC tutorial analysis shows us a significant line voltage drop. With the storage, we
will support the line voltage at the location with the lowest line voltage (km 45+000, see
Figure 189). Furthermore, we will analyse and compare two configurations of the energy
storage, using the courses with short trains.
5.5.1 Configuration
5.5.1.1 OpenTrack
We will use the same OpenTrack data as for the AC tutorial described in chapter 5.1.1.1.
5.5.1.2 OpenPowerNet
For OpenPowerNet, we need to add a substation with an energy storage at km 45+000 to the
Project-File. The *.opnengine file does not need to be changed.
5.5.1.2.1 *.opnengine File
We will use the same engine as for the DC Network tutorial and therefore we do not need to
change the *.opnengine file.
5.5.1.2.2 Project-File
The base of this Project-File will consist of the Project-File of the DC network from chapter
5.4. We will add a substation with an energy storage at km 45+000.
We will define two kinds of energy storage, one with 400 A and one with 200 A load and
unload current limitation.
The energy storage shall have the following characteristic:
• The Maximum load is 85 kWh,
• The Initial load is 85 kWh,
• The overall losses of the energy storage are 100 W,
• The Internal resistance is 5 mΩ,
• The Maximum load current is limited to 400 A, resp. 200 A,
• The Maximum unload current is limited to 400 A, resp. 200 A, and
• The Nominal Voltage is 2800 V.
See the XML snippet with the substation configuration.
<Substation name="SS_45">
<Storage
name="S1"
internalResistance_Ohm="0.005"
maxLoad_kWh="85"
nomVoltage_kV="2.8"
lossPower_kW="0.1"
initialLoad_kWh="85"
loadImax_A="200"
unloadImax_A="200">
<OCSBB z_real_Ohm="0.001" bbName="OCS_BB" />
<RailsBB z_real_Ohm="0.001" bbName="Rails_BB" />
</Storage>
<Busbars> The definitions of busbars and the connections to the line follow.
<OCSBB bbName="OCS_BB">
<Connector name="SS_45_OCS_Feeder" z_real_Ohm="0.001">
<Position condName="CW" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="45" />
<Switch defaultState="close" name="SS_45_OCS" />
</Connector>
</OCSBB>
<RailsBB bbName="Rails_BB">
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<Connector name="SS_45_Rails_Feeder" z_real_Ohm="0.001">
<Position condName="RR" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="45" />
<Switch defaultState="close" name="SS_45_Rails" />
</Connector>
</RailsBB>
</Busbars>
</Substation>
As we want to run the simulation with the short trains only, we should set the simulation start
time to 2:00 h in the Project-File’s root element OpenPowerNet.
simulationStart_s="7200"
To have a more detailed calculation, we should reduce the slice distance to 250 m, this is
done with an attribute of the element “Line”.
maxSliceDistance_km="0.250"
5.5.2 Simulation
We will run three simulations only with the short train courses ABCs_01 and CBAs_01.
• First the DC network from DC Tutorial in chapter 5.4,
• Then, one simulation shall be with the “Type_200A” energy storage, and
• The last simulation shall include the “Type_400A” energy storage.
It is advised to give each simulation a meaningful comment.
Note: When not using the FULL license, set the time step in OpenTrack to 4 seconds.
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5.5.3 Analysis
First, we will compare the DC network with the energy storage with 200 A current limit to the
DC network without energy storage (see the charts in Figure 195).
Vehicle U = f(s), Tutorial DC Network, default
A-C, Course ABCs_02, Engine 1/1, 02:00:01 - 02:46:57
TSS_80
A/1
85+400
9+748
10+244
A/2
9+769
10+260
A/1
TSS_05
0+400
4,250
4,000
3,750
3,500
Voltage [V]
3,250
3,000
2,750
2,500
2,250
1,750
0.400
10.400
Station C
Station B
2,000
20.400
30.400
40.400
50.400
60.400
70.400
80.400
Corridor Position [km]
|U_Panto|
U_nom
U_tol (EN 50163)
Infeed
Vehicle U = f(s), Tutorial Simple Storage, I_max load & unload 200A, short trains only
A-C, Course ABCs_02, Engine 1/1, 02:00:01 - 02:46:57
85+400
A/1
TSS_80
SS_45
9+748
10+244
A/2
9+769
10+260
A/1
TSS_05
0+400
4,250
4,000
3,750
3,500
Voltage [V]
3,250
3,000
2,750
2,500
1,750
0.400
10.400
Station C
2,000
Station B
2,250
20.400
30.400
40.400
50.400
60.400
70.400
80.400
Corridor Position [km]
|U_Panto|
U_nom
U_tol (EN 50163)
Infeed
Figure 195 The line voltage at the pantograph for the course ABCs_02 in the DC network without (top) and with
(bottom) energy storage (200 A).
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Comparing the two different storage current limitations (Figure 196), we can see the effect to
the pantograph voltage.
Vehicle U = f(s), Tutorial Simple Storage, I_max load & unload 200A, short trains only
A-C, Course ABCs_02, Engine 1/1, 02:00:01 - 02:46:57
85+400
A/1
TSS_80
SS_45
9+748
10+244
A/2
9+769
10+260
A/1
TSS_05
0+400
4,250
4,000
3,750
3,500
Voltage [V]
3,250
3,000
2,750
2,500
2,250
1,750
0.400
10.400
Station C
Station B
2,000
20.400
30.400
40.400
50.400
60.400
70.400
80.400
Corridor Position [km]
|U_Panto|
U_nom
U_tol (EN 50163)
Infeed
Vehicle U = f(s), Tutorial Simple Storage, I_max load & unload 400A, short trains only
A-C, Course ABCs_02, Engine 1/1, 02:00:01 - 02:46:57
85+400
A/1
TSS_80
SS_45
9+749
10+244
A/2
9+770
10+260
A/1
TSS_05
0+400
4,250
4,000
3,750
3,500
Voltage [V]
3,250
3,000
2,750
2,500
1,750
0.400
10.400
Station C
2,000
Station B
2,250
20.400
30.400
40.400
50.400
60.400
70.400
80.400
Corridor Position [km]
|U_Panto|
U_nom
U_tol (EN 50163)
Infeed
Figure 196 The effect to the line voltage of the course ABCs_01 with energy storage current limitation of 200 A
(top) and 400 A (bottom).
Using the Substation diagrams shown in Figure 197, we will compare the effect of the
different maximum load and unload current of the energy storages.
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Energy Storage Voltage and Current, Tutorial Simple Storage, I_max load & unload 200A, short trains
only
Substation SS_45, Storage S1, 02:00:00 - 02:46:58
4,250
225
4,000
180
3,750
135
3,500
90
3,250
45
3,000
0
2,750
-45
2,500
-90
2,250
-135
2,000
Current [A]
Voltage [V]
I_max
-180
I_max
1,750
02:00:00
-225
02:05:00
02:10:00
02:15:00
02:20:00
02:25:00
02:30:00
02:35:00
02:40:00
02:45:00
Time
|U|
I
I_max
Energy Storage Voltage and Current, Tutorial Simple Storage, I_max load & unload 400A, short trains
only
Substation SS_45, Storage S1, 02:00:00 - 02:46:58
4,250
500
I_max
400
3,750
300
3,500
200
3,250
100
3,000
0
2,750
-100
2,500
-200
2,250
-300
2,000
1,750
02:00:00
I_max
Current [A]
Voltage [V]
4,000
-400
-500
02:05:00
02:10:00
02:15:00
02:20:00
02:25:00
02:30:00
02:35:00
02:40:00
02:45:00
Time
|U|
I
I_max
Figure 197 The line voltage at the substation with the storage for both storage current limitations of 200 A (top)
and 400 A (bottom).
For the 200 A current limitation, we see that the voltage cannot be stabilised at 2800 V. The
maximum load current limitation is visible at about 02:23 h and 02:45 h.
The diagrams in Figure 197 clearly show the different current limitations as well as the load
and unload currents respecting their limitations.
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5.6
User Manual
Issue 2017-08-04
DC Network with Voltage Limiting Device Tutorial
In this tutorial, we will add multiple Voltage Limiting Devices (VLD, see chapter 4.4.7.8) to the
DC network of the tutorial in chapter 5.4. We will see the effect of the VLD by comparing two
simulations, one without VLDs and the other with VLDs.
5.6.1 Configuration
5.6.1.1 OpenTrack
We will use the same OpenTrack data as for the AC tutorial described in chapter 5.1.1.1.
5.6.1.2 OpenPowerNet
For OpenPowerNet, we will add 5 substations to the Project-File, each with two VLDs, at
km 8+000, km 9+000, km 10+000, km 11+000, and km 12+000. The engines in the
*.opnengine file will be configured with an ability to recover the braking energy.
5.6.1.2.1 *.opnengine File
As the basis, we will use the same engines as for the DC Network tutorial in chapter 5.4 and
add the energy recovery ability. For this, we need to change the *.opnengine file but not the
OpenTrack configuration.
The following attributes have to be added to the “Propulsion” element:
maxBrakePower="5560" The maximum brake power value is the same as the tractive power.
maxBrakeEffort="250" The maximum brake effort is also the same as the tractive effort.
maxRecoveryVoltage="3600" The maximum recovery voltage needs to be defined as well.
5.6.1.2.2 Project-File
After we have configured the concrete values for recovery braking in the *.opnengine file, we
have to specify the recovery model also at the “Propulsion” element in the Project-File.
The following attributes must be added to the “Propulsion” element:
regenerativeBrake="maxPower/maxEffort"
retryRecovery="true"
We will record all currents and voltages for later analysis. Therefore, we have to remove the
recordCurrent and recordVoltage attributes from elements Lines and Connectors.
This is all we need to do with the Project-File for the first simulation without VLD.
For the second simulation including VLDs, we make a copy of the just edited Project-File and
add the substations with VLDs.
The VLD is defined in the TypeDefs-File, chapter 5.6.1.2.3. This file needs to be referenced
in the Project-File at the root element.
typedefsFile="TypeDefs-File.xml"
The definition of the substation at km 8+000 is as below:
<Substation name="VLD 8+000">
..<VLD name="+" condSort="type 5V"> The type is a reference to VLD defined in the TypeDefsFile.
....<MeasuringBusbar bbName="Rails_BB" /> VLD limiting the voltage from earth to rail.
....<ReferenceBusbar bbName="Earth_BB" />
..</VLD>
..<VLD name="-" condSort="type 5V"> VLD limiting the voltage from rail to earth.
....<MeasuringBusbar bbName="Earth_BB" />
....<ReferenceBusbar bbName="Rails_BB" />
..</VLD>
..<Busbars>
....<RailsBB bbName="Rails_BB">
......<Connector z_real_Ohm="0.001" z_imag_Ohm="0.0">
........<Position km="8" trackID="1" condName="RL" lineID="A" />
......</Connector>
....<RailsBB>
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....<RailsBB bbName="Earth_BB">
......<Connector z_real_Ohm="0.001" z_imag_Ohm="0.0">
........<Position km="8" trackID="1" condName="E" lineID="A" />
......</Connector>
....</RailsBB>
..</Busbars>
</Substation>
Further substations at km 9+000, km 10+000, km 11+000, and km 12+000 are added in the
same way.
Give each Project-File a meaningful name and comment.
5.6.1.2.3 TypeDefs-File
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<OpenPowerNet xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
xsi:noNamespaceSchemaLocation="http://www.openpowernet.de/schemas/TypeDefs.xsd">
<TypeDefs>
<Devices>
<VLDTypes>
<VLDType name="type 5V" r_close_Ohm="0.001" r_open_Ohm="1000000">
<CloseModels>
<Voltage voltage_V="5" /> The VLD shall close if the voltage exceeds 5 V.
</CloseModels>
<OpenModels>
<Current current_A="0" /> The VLD shall open if the current is below 0 A.
</OpenModels>
</VLDType>
</VLDTypes>
</Devices>
</TypeDefs>
</OpenPowerNet>
5.6.2 Simulation
Run two simulations with the long train courses ABCl_01 and CBAl_01.
• First without VLD,
• Then with VLD.
Note: When not using the FULL license, set the time step in OpenTrack to 4 seconds.
5.6.3 Analysis
The objective of using a VLD is to limit the voltage between two conductors. In this tutorial,
the VLD shall limit the Rail-Earth potential. We use the automatic analysis to calculate the
Rail-Earth Potential of both simulations. The results are shown in Figure 198 and Figure 199.
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Rail-Earth Potential, Tutorial VLD, without VLD
Line A, km 0+000 to 85+400, 01:00:00 - 02:01:48
180
TSS_80
TSS_05
200
160
140
Voltage [V]
120
100
80
60
0
0+000
Station C
Station B
20
Station A
40
10+000
20+000
30+000
40+000
50+000
60+000
70+000
80+000
Position [km]
|U_1_RL|_max
|U_1_RL|_max_mean_300s
|U_1_RR|_max
|U_1_RR|_max_mean_300s
|U_2_RL|_max
|U_2_RL|_max_mean_300s
|U_2_RR|_max
|U_2_RR|_max_mean_300s
U_RE_max > 300s (EN 50122-1)
U_RE_max 1s (EN 50122-1)
Return feeder
Figure 198 Rail-Earth Potential without VLD.
Rail-Earth Potential, Tutorial VLD, with VLD
Line A, km 0+000 to 85+400, 01:00:00 - 02:01:35
TSS_80
180
VLD 8+000
VLD 9+000
VLD 10+000
VLD 11+000
VLD 12+000
TSS_05
200
160
140
Voltage [V]
120
100
80
60
0
0+000
10+000
Station C
Station B
20
Station A
40
20+000
30+000
40+000
50+000
60+000
70+000
80+000
Position [km]
|U_1_RL|_max
|U_1_RL|_max_mean_300s
|U_1_RR|_max
|U_1_RR|_max_mean_300s
|U_2_RL|_max
|U_2_RL|_max_mean_300s
|U_2_RR|_max
|U_2_RR|_max_mean_300s
U_RE_max > 300s (EN 50122-1)
U_RE_max 1s (EN 50122-1)
Return feeder
Figure 199 Rail-Earth Potential with VLDs between km 8+000 and km 12+000.
The Automatic Analysis generates an aggregation of all substations (file name 000_Network
A-C.xlsx) and shows how often and how long the VLDs have been closed (see Figure 200).
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VLD Usage, Tutorial VLD, with VLD
Network A-C, Sum VLD, 01:00:00 - 02:01:35
10
9
8
7
Count
6
5
4
3
2
1
1
25
49
73
97
121
145
169
193
217
241
265
289
313
337
361
385
409
433
457
481
505
529
553
577
601
625
649
673
697
721
745
769
793
817
841
865
889
913
937
961
985
1009
1033
1057
1081
1105
1129
1153
1177
1201
1225
1249
1273
1297
1321
1345
1369
1393
1417
1441
1465
1489
1513
1537
1561
1585
1609
1633
1657
1681
1705
1729
1753
0
Duration of closed state [s]
Count_closed
Figure 200 The histogram of the VLDs’ closing.
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5.7
User Manual
Issue 2017-08-04
Engine Model Tutorials
In the following tutorials, we will configure different engine models and analyse the calculated
simulation data. Each of the following chapters describes one aspect of the engine model.
5.7.1 Power Factor Tutorial
In the AC tutorial with the failure scenario, we experienced a significant voltage drop down to
24141 V for course CBAl_01. Now we will configure a capacitive behaviour of the engine in
case of low voltage. Figure 201 describes the detailed behaviour and Figure 202 the values
of the power factor for the engine model.
C
IImag
I = a+jb
-10°
+10°
IReal
I = a-jb
L
Legend:
The behaviour of the engine wether capacitive (C) or inductor (L).
The value of the power factor in the engine model.
The resulting current of the engine at the pantograph while driving.
For braking the currents are turned by 180°.
Figure 201 The engine power factor association between engine behaviour and model parameter.
Figure 202 Power factor versus line voltage.
5.7.1.1 Configuration
5.7.1.1.1 OpenTrack
We will use the same OpenTrack data as for the AC tutorial described in chapter 5.1.1.1.
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5.7.1.1.2 OpenPowerNet
5.7.1.1.2.1 *.opnengine File
As the basis for the *.opnengine file we use the one from the AC tutorial in chapter 5.1. As
we want to have a power factor depending on the line voltage, we need to specify the
detailed curve, see Figure 203.
Figure 203 Definition of power factor versus line voltage.
5.7.1.1.2.2 Project-File
We will amend the Project-File from the AC tutorial in chapter 5.1.1.2.2. The four-quadrant
chopper model has to be defined in the Project-File, see XML snippet below.
<Vehicle eddyCurrentBrake="false" engineID="Engine1">
<Propulsion
engine="electric"
supply="AC 25kV 50Hz"
brakeCurrentLimitation="none"
tractiveCurrentLimitation="none"
useAuxPower="true"
fourQuadrantChopperPhi="Phi=f(u)" This value needs to be set to use the power factor
depending on line voltage.
regenerativeBrake="none"
tractiveEffort="maxPower/maxTractEffort">
<MeanEfficiency />
</Propulsion>
</Vehicle>
Furthermore, we need to set the same Switch-File as for the failure scenario in the AC
tutorial.
switchStateFile="Switch-File.xml"
Set the right *.opnengine file and do not forget to set a meaningful project name and
comment in the Project-File!
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5.7.1.2 Simulation
We will run the simulation only with the long trains to see the effect of the power factor
versus line voltage.
Note: When not using the FULL license, set the time step in OpenTrack to 4 seconds.
5.7.1.3 Analysis
We use the Excel tool “Compare Two Engines”, to check the power factor of the course
CBAl_01 and to compare the pantograph voltage with the one of the failure simulation of the
AC tutorial, see Figure 204 and Figure 205.
Vehicle φ = f(s), Tutorial AC Network, failure scenario
A-C, Course CBAl_01, Engine 1/1, 01:00:01 - 01:33:55
85+000
TSS_80
A/1
TSS_05
0+000
30.0
22.5
15.0
φ [°]
7.5
0.0
-7.5
-15.0
Station B
Station A
-22.5
-30.0
0.000
10.000
20.000
30.000
40.000
50.000
60.000
70.000
80.000
70.000
80.000
Corridor Position [km]
φ_Panto
Infeed
Vehicle φ = f(s), Tutorial Engine Model, Power Factor 0...-5
A-C, Course CBAl_01, Engine 1/1, 01:00:01 - 01:33:55
85+000
TSS_80
A/1
TSS_05
0+000
30.0
22.5
15.0
φ [°]
7.5
0.0
-7.5
-15.0
-30.0
0.000
Station B
Station A
-22.5
10.000
20.000
30.000
40.000
50.000
60.000
Corridor Position [km]
φ_Panto
Infeed
Figure 204 The pantograph current angle of course CBAl_01 versus location without (top) and with (bottom)
power factor model.
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Vehicle U = f(s), Tutorial AC Network, failure scenario
A-C, Course CBAl_01, Engine 1/1, 01:00:01 - 01:33:55
85+000
TSS_80
A/1
TSS_05
0+000
31,000
29,500
28,000
26,500
Voltage [V]
25,000
23,500
22,000
20,500
Station B
17,500
Station A
19,000
16,000
0.000
10.000
20.000
30.000
40.000
50.000
60.000
70.000
80.000
70.000
80.000
Corridor Position [km]
|U_Panto|
U_nom
U_tol (EN 50163)
Infeed
Vehicle U = f(s), Tutorial Engine Model, Power Factor 0...-5
A-C, Course CBAl_01, Engine 1/1, 01:00:01 - 01:33:55
85+000
TSS_80
A/1
TSS_05
0+000
31,000
29,500
28,000
26,500
Voltage [V]
25,000
23,500
22,000
20,500
16,000
0.000
Station B
17,500
Station A
19,000
10.000
20.000
30.000
40.000
50.000
60.000
Corridor Position [km]
|U_Panto|
U_nom
U_tol (EN 50163)
Infeed
Figure 205 The pantograph position of course CBAl_01 with a constant power factor of 0° (top) and with a power
factor depending on line voltage (bottom).
We can see very clearly the line voltage supporting behaviour of the capacitive engine model
used in this simulation.
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5.7.2 Tractive Effort Tutorial
In this tutorial, we want to use a table for the tractive effort characteristic of the engine. In the
AC tutorial, we used maximum power and maximum tractive effort to define the
characteristic. The engine model is more flexible when using the table, see Figure 206.
Figure 206 Possible characteristics of both available tractive effort models.
5.7.2.1 Configuration
5.7.2.1.1 OpenTrack
As the tractive effort, characteristic curve in OpenTrack is always above the characteristic we
defined in OpenPowerNet, we do not need to change the OpenTrack configuration. The used
tractive effort will be limited to the value defined in OpenPowerNet. Therefore, we will use the
same OpenTrack data as for the AC tutorial described in chapter 5.1.1.1.
5.7.2.1.2 OpenPowerNet
5.7.2.1.2.1 *.opnengine File
As a basis we take the *.opnengine file from the AC tutorial in chapter 5.1 and add the
tractive effort versus speed table. See Figure 207 on how to add the tractive effort element.
The tractive effort versus speed is defined in Figure 208 respectively Table 18.
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Figure 207 Adding Tractive Effort definition to “Propulsion”.
Figure 208 The definition of the tractive effort versus speed.
Speed [km/h]
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
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250
247
244
241
238
237
236
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Speed [km/h]
70
80
90
100
110
120
130
140
150
160
170
180
190
200
210
220
230
240
250
Issue 2017-08-04
Tractive Effort [kN]
235
235
202
176
155
139
125
114
104
95
88
82
76
71
61
53
47
41
36
Table 18 Values of the tractive effort versus speed curve.
5.7.2.1.2.2 Project-File
As the basis we take the Project-File file from the AC tutorial in 5.1 and change the tractive
effort attribute as seen below in the XML snippet.
<Vehicle eddyCurrentBrake="false" engineID="Engine1">
<Propulsion
engine="electric"
supply="AC 25kV 50Hz"
brakeCurrentLimitation="none"
tractiveCurrentLimitation="none"
useAuxPower="true"
fourQuadrantChopperPhi="none"
regenerativeBrake="none"
tractiveEffort="F=f(v)"> This value needs to be set to use the table model.
<MeanEfficiency />
</Propulsion>
</Vehicle>
It is advised to set the right *.opnengine file, to do not forget to set a meaningful project name
and comment in the Project-File!
5.7.2.2 Simulation
We need to simulate only the long trains to see effect of the changed tractive effort model of
the engine.
Note: When not using the FULL license, set the time step in OpenTrack to 4 seconds.
5.7.2.3 Analysis
We use “All Engines” Chart Types with “F_ach, F_req=f(v)” to compare of the AC network
default simulation with this simulation.
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Vehicle F = f(v), Tutorial AC Network, default
A-C, Aggregation Engine, 01:00:00 - 01:48:54
375
300
225
Tractive Effort [kN]
150
75
0
-75
-150
-225
-300
-375
0.0
22.5
45.0
67.5
90.0
112.5
135.0
157.5
180.0
202.5
225.0
180.0
202.5
225.0
Speed [km/h]
F_requested
F_achieved
Vehicle F = f(v), Tutorial Tractive Effort, tractive effort table
A-C, Aggregation Engine, 01:00:00 - 01:50:55
375
300
225
Tractive Effort [kN]
150
75
0
-75
-150
-225
-300
-375
0.0
22.5
45.0
67.5
90.0
112.5
135.0
157.5
Speed [km/h]
F_requested
F_achieved
Figure 209 The tractive effort of engines from default AC network simulation (top) and tractive effort table model
simulation (bottom).
When we compare the diagrams in Figure 209 and Figure 206, there seems to be a
contradiction. The tractive effort between 65 km/h and 80 km/h is lower than expected.
This is because of the limited adhesion of the engine. We use the good adhesion used for
the simulation in OpenTrack, see Figure 210. The adhesion type can be set using the
Simulation panel of OpenTrack, see Figure 149.
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Figure 210 Tractive effort versus speed characteristic in OpenTrack engine model.
For the speed below 65 km/h and above 80 km/h we can clearly see the effect of the used
table model compared with the maximum power / maximum effort model of the default AC
network simulation.
5.7.3 Tractive Current Limitation Tutorial
Please see the DC tutorial in chapter 5.4 for an example of tractive current limitation.
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5.7.4 Regenerative Braking Tutorial
In this tutorial, we will learn how to configure the OpenPowerNet engine model to use
regenerative braking. The engine model shall be defined by maximum brake power and
maximum brake effort. The values shall be the same as for traction power respectively
tractive effort.
5.7.4.1 Configuration
5.7.4.1.1 OpenTrack
We will use the OpenTrack model from the AC tutorial described in chapter 5.1 without
changes.
5.7.4.1.2 OpenPowerNet
5.7.4.1.2.1 *.opnengine File
As the basis we use the *.opnengine file from the AC tutorial described in chapter 5.1. We
only have to add the parameters in the group “Brake”, see Figure 211.
Figure 211 Parameters for regenerative braking engines, note the mandatory Max Recovery Voltage setting.
5.7.4.1.2.2 Project-File
As the basis we use the Project-File from the AC tutorial described in chapter 5.1. The
regenerative effort model has to be specified. We want to use the maxPower/maxEffort
model. A table model as described for the tractive effort (see chapter 5.7.2) is also available.
<Vehicle eddyCurrentBrake="false" engineID="Engine1">
<Propulsion
engine="electric"
supply="AC 25kV 50Hz"
brakeCurrentLimitation="none"
tractiveCurrentLimitation="none"
useAuxPower="true"
fourQuadrantChopperPhi="none"
regenerativeBrake="maxPower/maxEffort" This property needs to be set.
tractiveEffort="maxPower/maxTractEffort">
<MeanEfficiency />
</Propulsion>
</Vehicle>
Set the right *.opnengine file and do not forget to set a meaningful project name and
comment in the Project-File!
5.7.4.2 Simulation
We need to simulate only the long trains to see effect of the regenerative brake.
Note: When not using the FULL license, set the time step in OpenTrack to 4 seconds.
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5.7.4.3 Analysis
The regenerative brake will only affect the simulation results during braking. In Figure 212,
we can see the times the vehicle is braking. Figure 213 shows the pantograph voltage of the
course ABCl_01. We can see very well the higher pantograph voltage during the braking
times of the courses ABCl_01 and CBAl_01. In Figure 214, the currents of both courses are
shown.
Vehicle v = f(t), Tutorial Regenerative Brake, maxPower, maxEffort
A-C, Aggregation Engine, 01:00:00 - 01:48:54
225.0
202.5
180.0
157.5
Speed [km/h]
135.0
112.5
90.0
67.5
45.0
22.5
0.0
01:00:00
01:05:00
01:10:00
01:15:00
01:20:00
01:25:00
01:30:00
01:35:00
01:40:00
01:45:00
Time
v
Figure 212 The speed versus time diagram of the courses in the regenerative brake simulation.
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Vehicle U = f(t), Tutorial AC Network, default
A-C, Course ABCl_01, Engine 1/1, 01:00:01 - 01:48:53
85+400
A/1
10+246
10+254
A/2
TSS_80
9+746
9+767
A/1
TSS_05
0+400
31,000
29,500
28,000
26,500
Voltage [V]
25,000
23,500
22,000
20,500
19,000
16,000
01:00:01
01:05:01
Station C
Station B
17,500
01:10:01
01:15:01
01:20:01
01:25:01
01:30:01
01:35:01
01:40:01
01:45:01
Time
|U_Panto|
U_nom
U_tol (EN 50163)
Infeed
Figure 213 The pantograph voltage of the course ABCl_01 for the original AC network (top) and for the
regenerative braking simulation (bottom).
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Vehicle I = f(t), Tutorial Regenerative Brake, maxPower, maxEffort
A-C, Aggregation Engine, 01:00:00 - 01:48:54
285.0
237.5
190.0
142.5
Current [A]
95.0
47.5
0.0
-47.5
-95.0
-142.5
-190.0
01:00:00
01:05:00
01:10:00
01:15:00
01:20:00
01:25:00
01:30:00
01:35:00
01:40:00
01:45:00
Time
I_Panto
Figure 214 The currents of both courses during the regenerative braking simulation
5.7.5 Brake Current Limitation Tutorial
This tutorial describes the configuration of the brake current limitation and shows the effect
on the simulations’ results.
5.7.5.1 Configuration
5.7.5.1.1 OpenTrack
We will use the OpenTrack model from the AC tutorial described in chapter 5.1 without
changes.
5.7.5.1.2 OpenPowerNet
5.7.5.1.2.1 *.opnengine File
We will take the *.opnengine file from the regenerative braking tutorial described in chapter
5.7.4 as the basis. We only need to add the brake current limitation to the engine propulsion
element, see Figure 215.
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Figure 215 Parameter for brake current limitation.
It is possible to configure the propulsion element with a voltage dependent current limitation
function. In this tutorial, the limit shall be 50 A for any line voltage.
5.7.5.1.2.2 Project-File
We will take the Project-File from the regenerative braking tutorial of chapter 5.7.4 as the
basis. Only the attribute brakeCurrentLimitation needs to be changed from none to
I=f(U), see the XML snipped below.
<Vehicle eddyCurrentBrake="false" engineID="Engine1">
<Propulsion
engine="electric"
supply="AC 25kV 50Hz"
brakeCurrentLimitation="I=f(U)" These value need to be set.
tractiveCurrentLimitation="none"
useAuxPower="true"
fourQuadrantChopperPhi="none"
regenerativeBrake="maxPower/maxEffort"
tractiveEffort="maxPower/maxTractEffort">
<MeanEfficiency />
</Propulsion>
</Vehicle>
Set the right *.opnengine file and do not forget to set a meaningful project name and
comment in the Project-File!
5.7.5.2 Simulation
We need to simulate only the long trains to see effect of the brake current limitation.
Note: When not using the FULL license, set the time step in OpenTrack to 4 seconds.
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5.7.5.3 Analysis
We use the Excel tool “Compare Two Engines” to compare the simulation results from the
regenerative braking tutorial (chapter 5.7.4) and this tutorial. The bottom graph in Figure 216
shows the limited brake current to 50 A.
Vehicle I = f(t), Tutorial Regenerative Brake, maxPower, maxEffort
A-C, Course CBAl_01, Engine 1/1, 01:00:01 - 01:33:55
0+000
TSS_05
A/1
TSS_80
85+000
285.0
237.5
190.0
142.5
Current [A]
95.0
47.5
0.0
-47.5
-95.0
-190.0
01:00:01
01:05:01
01:10:01
01:15:01
01:20:01
01:25:01
Station A
Station B
-142.5
01:30:01
Time
I_Panto
Infeed
Vehicle I = f(t), Tutorial Brake Current Limitation, 50A limit
A-C, Course CBAl_01, Engine 1/1, 01:00:01 - 01:33:55
0+000
TSS_05
A/1
TSS_80
85+000
280
245
210
175
Current [A]
140
105
70
35
0
-70
01:00:01
01:05:01
01:10:01
01:15:01
01:20:01
01:25:01
Station A
Station B
-35
01:30:01
Time
I_Panto
Infeed
Figure 216 The current of course CBAl_01 without (top) and with (bottom) brake current limitation of 50 A.
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Vehicle U = f(t), Tutorial Regenerative Brake, maxPower, maxEffort
A-C, Course CBAl_01, Engine 1/1, 01:00:01 - 01:33:55
0+000
TSS_05
A/1
TSS_80
85+000
31,000
29,500
28,000
26,500
Voltage [V]
25,000
23,500
22,000
20,500
19,000
16,000
01:00:01
01:05:01
01:10:01
01:15:01
01:20:01
01:25:01
Station A
Station B
17,500
01:30:01
Time
|U_Panto|
U_nom
U_tol (EN 50163)
Infeed
Vehicle U = f(t), Tutorial Brake Current Limitation, 50A limit
A-C, Course CBAl_01, Engine 1/1, 01:00:01 - 01:33:55
0+000
TSS_05
A/1
TSS_80
85+000
31,000
29,500
28,000
26,500
Voltage [V]
25,000
23,500
22,000
20,500
16,000
01:00:01
Station B
17,500
01:05:01
01:10:01
01:15:01
01:20:01
01:25:01
Station A
19,000
01:30:01
Time
|U_Panto|
U_nom
U_tol (EN 50163)
Infeed
Figure 217 The pantograph voltage of course CBAl_01 without (top) and with (bottom) brake current limitation.
The pantograph voltage of course CBAl_01 is lower during the time of regenerative braking
because of the current limitation to 50 A, see Figure 217.
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5.7.6 Auxiliary Power Tutorial
This tutorial describes the models of the auxiliary power. The values of the auxiliary power
are specified in OpenTrack on the one hand and in OpenPowerNet on the other, see also the
legend in Figure 21.
In OpenTrack, the auxiliary power for each trailer of a train can be specified as a constant
power. This is possible in the “Train” – “Edit” dialog of OpenTrack. The trailer defined in the
AC tutorial comes with 30 kW auxiliary power, which will be added to the definitions in
OpenPowerNet below.
In OpenPowerNet, there are four different auxiliary power models configurable for an engine.
It is possible to combine all four models within one engine. The auxiliary power models are:
• Constant power,
• Constant resistance,
• Constant power during braking, and
• Constant resistance during braking.
As the auxiliary power while braking is only active for regenerative engines, we define the
maximum regenerative brake power and maximum regenerative brake effort with the same
values as for traction.
The value of the auxiliary power shall be 100 kW. The resistance shall produce a power of
100 kW at a pantograph voltage of 27.4 kV and is therefore 7507.4 Ω, see the formulas
below.
U2
R
P
7507.6 
274002V 2
100000W
To be able to compare the different auxiliary models, we do five simulations: the first one
without any auxiliary power configured for the engine and then one by one the different
models will be configured for the engine.
As the trailers of the short trains have less auxiliary power than those of the long trains, we
will use only the short trains to show clearly the effect of the engine auxiliary power model.
5.7.6.1 Configuration
5.7.6.1.1 OpenTrack
We will use the OpenTrack model from the AC tutorial described in chapter 5.1 without
changes.
Select only the course ABCs_02 and CBAs_02 with short trains.
5.7.6.1.2 OpenPowerNet
We will use the Engine-File and the Project-File from the AC tutorial described in chapter 5.1
as the basis.
5.7.6.1.2.1 *.opnengine File
In the *.opnengine file, we need to specify the maximum braking power and effort as well as
the four different available auxiliary models. Each of the different models shall be defined in a
separate file. See Figure 218 on how to add the auxiliary supply element.
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Figure 218 Adding a auxiliary to a propulsion.
5.7.6.1.2.2 Project-File
As we use the short trains only and since they start at 2:00 h, we have to set the simulation
start time to 7200 s.
simulationStart_s="7200"
Then, we need to set the regenerative brake option and set the use of the engine auxiliary to
“false” for the first simulation.
<Vehicle eddyCurrentBrake="false" engineID="Engine1">
<Propulsion
engine="electric"
supply="AC 25kV 50Hz"
brakeCurrentLimitation="none"
tractiveCurrentLimitation="none"
useAuxPower="false" Set this to false in the first simulation and to true for the others.
fourQuadrantChopperPhi="none"
regenerativeBrake="maxPower/maxEffort" Set this to use the regenerative brake.
tractiveEffort="maxPower/maxTractEffort">
<MeanEfficiency />
</Propulsion>
</Vehicle>
Set the right *.opnengine file and do not forget to set a meaningful project name and
comment in the Project-File!
5.7.6.2 Simulation
We will run the simulations including only the short trains.
Run all simulations:
1. Do everything as described above and run the simulation once.
2. In the Project-File, set the attribute useAuxPower, which controls the usage of all
auxiliaries, to true. Give a meaningful comment in the Project-File and run the
simulation again.
3. Use the auxiliary with constant power in the *.opnengine file and delete the
constant resistance auxiliary. Give a meaningful comment in the Project-File and
run the simulation again.
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4. Use the auxiliary with constant resistance in the *.opnengine file and delete the
constant power while braking auxiliary. Give a meaningful comment in the ProjectFile and run the simulation again.
5. Use the auxiliary with constant power while braking in the *.opnengine file and
delete the constant resistance while braking auxiliary. Give a meaningful comment
in the Project-File and run the simulation again.
• Note: When not using the FULL license, set the time step in OpenTrack to 4 seconds.
5.7.6.3 Analysis
We use the Excel tool “Compare Two Engines” to compare the simulations.
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Vehicle P = f(t), Tutorial Auxiliary Power, no engine auxiliary
A-C, Course ABCs_02, Engine 1/1, 02:00:01 - 02:46:50
85+400
A/1
10+244
10+260
A/2
TSS_80
9+749
9+770
A/1
TSS_05
0+400
1.00
0.90
0.80
Active Power [kW]
0.70
0.60
0.50
0.40
0.30
0.20
0.00
02:00:01.0
02:05:01.0
Station C
Station B
0.10
02:10:01.0
02:15:01.0
02:20:01.0
02:25:01.0
02:30:01.0
02:35:01.0
02:40:01.0
02:45:01.0
Time
P_AUX
Infeed
Vehicle P = f(t), Tutorial Auxiliary Power, only constant power 100kW engine auxiliary
A-C, Course ABCs_02, Engine 1/1, 02:00:01 - 02:46:50
85+400
A/1
10+244
10+260
A/2
TSS_80
9+749
9+770
A/1
TSS_05
0+400
150
135
120
Active Power [kW]
105
90
75
60
45
30
0
02:00:01.0
02:05:01.0
Station C
Station B
15
02:10:01.0
02:15:01.0
02:20:01.0
02:25:01.0
02:30:01.0
02:35:01.0
02:40:01.0
02:45:01.0
Time
P_AUX
Infeed
Figure 219 The auxiliary power of course ABCs_02 without auxiliaries (top) and with constant auxiliary power
(bottom).
In the diagram shown in Figure 219, we can see that the auxiliary power of the trailers is
30 kW in addition to the 100 kW auxiliary power of the engine. This is in total 130 kW for the
course ABCs_02.
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Vehicle P = f(t), Tutorial Auxiliary Power, only constant power 100kW engine auxiliary
A-C, Course ABCs_02, Engine 1/1, 02:00:01 - 02:46:50
85+400
A/1
10+244
10+260
A/2
TSS_80
9+749
9+770
A/1
TSS_05
0+400
150
135
120
Active Power [kW]
105
90
75
60
45
30
0
02:00:01.0
02:05:01.0
Station C
Station B
15
02:10:01.0
02:15:01.0
02:20:01.0
02:25:01.0
02:30:01.0
02:35:01.0
02:40:01.0
02:45:01.0
Time
P_AUX
Infeed
Vehicle P = f(t), Tutorial Auxiliary Power, only constant resistance 7507.6 Ohm engine auxiliary
A-C, Course ABCs_02, Engine 1/1, 02:00:01 - 02:46:50
85+400
A/1
10+244
10+260
A/2
TSS_80
9+749
9+770
A/1
TSS_05
0+400
150
135
120
Active Power [kW]
105
90
75
60
45
30
0
02:00:01.0
02:05:01.0
Station C
Station B
15
02:10:01.0
02:15:01.0
02:20:01.0
02:25:01.0
02:30:01.0
02:35:01.0
02:40:01.0
02:45:01.0
Time
P_AUX
Infeed
Figure 220 The auxiliary power of course ABCs_02 with constant engine auxiliary power (top) and constant
auxiliary resistance (bottom).
In Figure 220, we see that the constant power auxiliary and the constant resistance auxiliary
have about the same values. However, the auxiliary power of the constant resistance
auxiliary is a function of the pantograph voltage, which is shown in Figure 221.
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Vehicle U = f(t), Tutorial Auxiliary Power, only constant power 100kW engine auxiliary
A-C, Course ABCs_02, Engine 1/1, 02:00:01 - 02:46:50
85+400
A/1
10+244
10+260
A/2
TSS_80
9+749
9+770
A/1
TSS_05
0+400
31,000
29,500
28,000
26,500
Voltage [V]
25,000
23,500
22,000
20,500
19,000
16,000
02:00:01.0
02:05:01.0
Station C
Station B
17,500
02:10:01.0
02:15:01.0
02:20:01.0
02:25:01.0
02:30:01.0
02:35:01.0
02:40:01.0
02:45:01.0
Time
|U_Panto|
U_nom
U_tol (EN 50163)
Infeed
Vehicle U = f(t), Tutorial Auxiliary Power, only constant resistance 7507.6 Ohm engine auxiliary
A-C, Course ABCs_02, Engine 1/1, 02:00:01 - 02:46:50
85+400
A/1
10+244
10+260
A/2
TSS_80
9+749
9+770
A/1
TSS_05
0+400
31,000
29,500
28,000
26,500
Voltage [V]
25,000
23,500
22,000
20,500
19,000
16,000
02:00:01.0
02:05:01.0
Station C
Station B
17,500
02:10:01.0
02:15:01.0
02:20:01.0
02:25:01.0
02:30:01.0
02:35:01.0
02:40:01.0
02:45:01.0
Time
|U_Panto|
U_nom
U_tol (EN 50163)
Infeed
Figure 221 The pantograph voltage of course ABCs_02 with constant engine auxiliary power (top) and constant
auxiliary resistance (bottom).
The pantograph voltages shown in Figure 221 are the same for both auxiliary models as the
auxiliary power is about the same in both simulations.
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Vehicle P = f(t), Tutorial Auxiliary Power, only constant power 100kW while braking engine auxiliary
A-C, Course ABCs_02, Engine 1/1, 02:00:01 - 02:46:50
85+400
A/1
10+244
10+260
A/2
TSS_80
9+749
9+770
A/1
TSS_05
0+400
150
135
120
Active Power [kW]
105
90
75
60
45
30
0
02:00:01.0
02:05:01.0
Station C
Station B
15
02:10:01.0
02:15:01.0
02:20:01.0
02:25:01.0
02:30:01.0
02:35:01.0
02:40:01.0
02:45:01.0
Time
P_AUX
Infeed
Figure 222 The auxiliary power of course ABCs_02 with constant auxiliary power while braking.
In the 4th simulation, the model with constant auxiliary power while braking is used. We can
identify the two time periods while braking and see the 100 kW engine auxiliary power adding
up to the 30 kW trailer auxiliary power (see Figure 222).
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Vehicle P = f(t), Tutorial Auxiliary Power, only constant resistance 7507.6 Ohm engine auxiliary
A-C, Course ABCs_02, Engine 1/1, 02:00:01 - 02:46:50
85+400
A/1
10+244
10+260
A/2
TSS_80
9+749
9+770
A/1
TSS_05
0+400
150
135
120
Active Power [kW]
105
90
75
60
45
30
0
02:00:01.0
02:05:01.0
Station C
Station B
15
02:10:01.0
02:15:01.0
02:20:01.0
02:25:01.0
02:30:01.0
02:35:01.0
02:40:01.0
02:45:01.0
Time
P_AUX
Infeed
Vehicle P = f(t), Tutorial Auxiliary Power, only constant resistance 7507.6 Ohm while braking engine
auxiliary
A-C, Course ABCs_02, Engine 1/1, 02:00:01 - 02:46:50
85+400
A/1
10+244
10+260
A/2
TSS_80
9+749
9+770
A/1
TSS_05
0+400
150
135
120
Active Power [kW]
105
90
75
60
45
30
0
02:00:01.0
02:05:01.0
Station C
Station B
15
02:10:01.0
02:15:01.0
02:20:01.0
02:25:01.0
02:30:01.0
02:35:01.0
02:40:01.0
02:45:01.0
Time
P_AUX
Infeed
Figure 223 The auxiliary power of course ABCs_02 with constant engine auxiliary resistance (top) and with
constant auxiliary resistance while braking (bottom).
In Figure 223, we see the two resistance auxiliary models used for the simulations. During
braking, both curves are the same but during driving they are different.
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5.7.7 Eddy Current Brake Tutorial
In this tutorial, we use the eddy current brake together with recovery braking.
We define
• the maximum regenerative brake power of 400 kW and
• maximum regenerative brake effort of 30 kN.
The parameters for the eddy current brake shall be
• 30 kN maximum effort,
• 300 kW maximum power, and
• 10 km/h minimum speed.
As the trailers of the short trains have less auxiliary power than those of the long trains, we
will use only the short trains to show the effect of the eddy current brake.
To see the effect of the eddy current brake, we do two simulations, one without and one with
eddy current brake.
5.7.7.1 Configuration
5.7.7.1.1 OpenTrack
We will use the OpenTrack model from the AC tutorial described in chapter 5.1 without
changes.
Select only the courses ABCs_02 and CBAs_02 operated with short trains.
5.7.7.1.2 OpenPowerNet
We will use the Engine-File and Project-File from the AC tutorial described in chapter 5.1 as
the basis.
5.7.7.1.2.1 *.opnengine File
In the *.opnengine file, we need to specify the maximum braking power and effort as well as
the eddy current brake parameters, see Figure 224.
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Figure 224 Eddy current brake power and brake parameter definition.
5.7.7.1.2.2 Project-File
As we use short trains only and as they start at 2:00 h, we have to set the simulation start
time to 7200 s.
simulationStart_s="7200"
Then, we need to set the regenerative brake option and set the use of the eddy current brake
to “true” for the second simulation.
<Vehicle
eddyCurrentBrake="false" This needs to be set to false for the first and to true for the
second simulation.
engineID="Engine1">
<Propulsion
engine="electric"
supply="AC 25kV 50Hz"
brakeCurrentLimitation="none"
tractiveCurrentLimitation="none"
useAuxPower="true"
fourQuadrantChopperPhi="none"
regenerativeBrake="maxPower/maxEffort" Set this to use the regenerative brake.
tractiveEffort="maxPower/maxTractEffort">
<MeanEfficiency />
</Propulsion>
</Vehicle>
Set the right *.opnengine file and do not forget to set a meaningful project name and
comment in the Project-File!
5.7.7.2 Simulation
We will run the simulation only with the short trains.
Run both simulations:
1. Do everything as described above and run the simulation once.
2. Change the attribute eddyCurrentBrake in the Project-File to true, give a
meaningful comment in the Project-File and run the simulation again.
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Note: When not using the FULL license, set the time step in OpenTrack to 4 seconds.
5.7.7.3 Analysis
As we are only interested in the values while braking, we modify the y-axis maximum value
to 0 in Excel.
Vehicle F = f(v), Tutorial Eddy Current Brake, no eddy brake
A-C, Course ABCs_02, Engine 1/1, 02:00:01 - 02:46:50
0
Tractive Effort [kN]
-40
-80
-120
0.0
22.5
45.0
67.5
90.0
112.5
135.0
157.5
180.0
202.5
225.0
180.0
202.5
225.0
Speed [km/h]
F_requested
F_achieved
Vehicle F = f(v), Tutorial Eddy Current Brake, with eddy brake
A-C, Course ABCs_02, Engine 1/1, 02:00:01 - 02:46:50
0
Tractive Effort [kN]
-40
-80
-120
0.0
22.5
45.0
67.5
90.0
112.5
135.0
157.5
Speed [km/h]
F_requested
F_achieved
Figure 225 The achieved effort by the engine of course ABCs_02 without (top) and with (bottom) eddy current
brake.
As the achieved effort during braking only reflects the portion that is gained through
regenerative braking, we do not see any difference between both simulations here.
OpenTrack will always use the full requested brake effort for the train movement, the
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remaining portion is assumed to be achieved by mechanical brakes or the eddy current
brake in this case.
Vehicle P = f(v), Tutorial Eddy Current Brake, no eddy brake
A-C, Course ABCs_02, Engine 1/1, 02:00:01 - 02:46:50
6,750
6,000
5,250
Active Power [kW]
4,500
3,750
3,000
2,250
1,500
750
0
-750
0.0
22.5
45.0
67.5
90.0
112.5
135.0
157.5
180.0
202.5
225.0
180.0
202.5
225.0
Speed [km/h]
P_Panto
Vehicle P = f(v), Tutorial Eddy Current Brake, with eddy brake
A-C, Course ABCs_02, Engine 1/1, 02:00:01 - 02:46:50
7,500
6,750
6,000
Active Power [kW]
5,250
4,500
3,750
3,000
2,250
1,500
750
0
0.0
22.5
45.0
67.5
90.0
112.5
135.0
157.5
Speed [km/h]
P_Panto
Figure 226 The electrical power by course ABCs_02 without (top) and with (bottom) eddy current brake.
When looking at the electrical power shown in Figure 226, we can see a difference between
the simulations. The eddy current brake is treated as a special kind of auxiliary supply which
is active during braking. Below 10 km/h the eddy current brake is inactive and the results are
identical between the two simulations. We can see the 130 kW offset of our constant power
auxiliary supply.
Because of the eddy current brake, we can see that the behaviour of the course ABCs_02
changed from regenerating to consuming energy during braking time.
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5.7.8 Mean Efficiency Model Tutorial
The mean efficiency model is used for all previous tutorials. Read the AC tutorial in chapter
5.1 for details.
5.7.9 Efficiency Table Model Tutorial
In this tutorial, we use the efficiency table model of the engine to describe the efficiency
versus speed.
The engine shall use regenerative braking and the efficiencies for driving and braking shall
be the same.
5.7.9.1 Configuration
5.7.9.1.1 OpenTrack
We will use the OpenTrack model from the AC tutorial in chapter 5.1 without changes.
Select only the courses ABCl_01 and CBAl_01 operated with long trains.
5.7.9.1.2 OpenPowerNet
We will use the Engine- and Project-File from the AC tutorial in chapter 5.1 as the basis.
5.7.9.1.2.1 *.opnengine File
We need to add the values for regenerative braking and the efficiency values for traction and
braking to the *.opnengine file, see Figure 227 and Table 19.
Figure 227 Propulsion system brake and efficiency parameter.
Speed [km/h]
0
10
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40
75
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Speed [km/h]
Issue 2017-08-04
Efficiency [%]
30
50
80
150
250
85
88
91
91
88
Table 19 Efficiency versus speed parameter values.
5.7.9.1.2.2 Project-File
In the Project-File, we only need to set the usage of the regenerative brake and specify the
efficiency model.
<Vehicle eddyCurrentBrake="false" engineID="Engine1">
<Propulsion
engine="electric"
supply="AC 25kV 50Hz"
brakeCurrentLimitation="none"
tractiveCurrentLimitation="none"
useAuxPower="true"
fourQuadrantChopperPhi="none"
regenerativeBrake="maxPower/maxEffort" Set this to use regenerative braking.
tractiveEffort="maxPower/maxTractEffort">
<MeanEfficiency /> In the second simulation, replace this element with the element
<EfficiencyTable /> to specify the different efficiency model.
</Propulsion>
</Vehicle>
Set the right *.opnengine file and do not forget to set a meaningful project name and
comment in the Project-File!
5.7.9.2 Simulation
We will do two simulations to be able to compare the mean efficiency model with the table
efficiency model, using the long trains only.
Run both simulations:
1. Do everything as described above and run the simulation once.
2. Replace <MeanEfficiency /> with <EfficiencyTable />, give a meaningful
comment in the Project-File and run the simulation again.
Note: When not using the FULL license, set the time step in OpenTrack to 4 seconds.
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5.7.9.3 Analysis
Vehicle η = f(v), Tutorial Efficiency Table Model, mean
A-C, Course ABCl_01, Engine 1/1, 01:00:01 - 01:48:53
100
90
80
70
Efficiency [%]
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
0.0
22.5
45.0
67.5
90.0
112.5
135.0
157.5
180.0
202.5
225.0
180.0
202.5
225.0
Speed [km/h]
η_Traction
Vehicle η = f(v), Tutorial Efficiency Table Model, table
A-C, Course ABCl_01, Engine 1/1, 01:00:01 - 01:48:53
100
90
80
70
Efficiency [%]
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
0.0
22.5
45.0
67.5
90.0
112.5
135.0
157.5
Speed [km/h]
η_Traction
Figure 228 The efficiencies of the course ABCl_01 with the mean efficiency model (top) and the efficiency table
model (bottom).
As expected, the vehicle efficiency when using the efficiency table model in the 2nd
simulation, shown in Figure 228, is as defined in Figure 227.
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5.7.10 Single Component Model Tutorial
This tutorial describes the handling of the single component model of the engine, see also
Figure 19. The components of the model are:
• Transformer,
• Four quadrant chopper,
• Traction inverter,
• Motor, and
• Gear.
The efficiencies shall be as depicted in Figure 229. Note that the transformer efficiency is
defined versus the current and the others are constant dependent of the speed. To see the
effect of the transformer efficiency, we will run one simulation with a mean transformer
efficiency of 98 % and one simulation with the efficiency as in Figure 229.
We will use the courses operated with long trains.
Figure 229 The efficiencies of the engine components.
5.7.10.1
Configuration
5.7.10.1.1
OpenTrack
We will use the OpenTrack model from the AC tutorial in chapter 5.1 without changes.
Select only the courses ABCl_01 and CBAl_01 operated with long trains.
5.7.10.1.2
OpenPowerNet
We will use the *opnengine- and Project-File from the AC tutorial in chapter 5.1 as the basis.
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5.7.10.1.2.1 *.opnengine File
In the *.opnengine file, we need to define all the efficiencies of each component of the engine
model. See the following tables for the parameter values.
The transformer efficiency shall be defined with a mean efficiency of 98 % and as a table
using the values in Table 20.
Current [A]
Efficiency [1]
0
30
60
105
250
0.4
0.9
0.93
0.98
0.93
Table 20 Transformer efficiency parameters.
Speed [km/h]
Efficiency [1]
0
30
250
0.95
0.97
0.97
Table 21 Four quadrant chopper efficiency parameters.
Speed [km/h]
Efficiency [1]
0
30
60
250
0.88
0.95
0.99
0:98
Table 22 Traction inverter efficiency parameters.
The traction motor efficiency shall be defined as a 3D table, see Figure 230 respectively
Table 23. We want to use the same efficiency for any tractive effort, therefore the values
between 0 kN and 250 kN are the same.
Speed [km/h]
Effort [kN]
250
Efficiency [1]
0.6
0.92
0.95
0.93
0.93
0
0
30
60
105
250
0.6
0.92
0.95
0.93
0.93
Table 23 Traction Motor efficiency parameter.
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Figure 230 The traction motor parameter definition at the engine editor.
The gear ratio shall be 1 and the mean gear efficiency shall be 97.5 %.
5.7.10.1.2.2 Project-File
In the Project-File, we need to change the efficiency model to “Single component”.
<Vehicle eddyCurrentBrake="false" engineID="Engine1">
<Propulsion
engine="electric"
supply="AC 25kV 50Hz"
brakeCurrentLimitation="none"
tractiveCurrentLimitation="none"
useAuxPower="true"
fourQuadrantChopperPhi="none"
regenerativeBrake="none"
tractiveEffort="maxPower/maxTractEffort">
<SingleComponent This element specifies the single component efficiency model.
transformer="meanEfficiency" define a mean efficiency,
fourQuadrantChopperEfficiency="efficiency=f(v)" define the efficiency versus speed,
tractionInverter="efficiency=f(v)" define the efficiency versus speed,
gear="meanEfficiency" define a mean efficiency, and
tractionMotor="efficiency=f(v, F)" /> define the efficiency versus speed and force.
</Propulsion>
</Vehicle>
Set the right *.opnengine file and do not forget to set a meaningful project name and
comment in the Project-File!
5.7.10.2
Simulation
We will do two simulations to be able to compare two transformer efficiency models, using
the long trains only.
Run both simulations:
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1. Do everything as described above and run the simulation once.
2. Change the attribute transformer in the Project-File to efficiency=f(I), give a
meaningful comment in the Project-File and run the simulation.
Note: When not using the FULL license, set the time step in OpenTrack to 4 seconds.
5.7.10.3
Analysis
We will have a look regarding the efficiency versus speed for both simulations, shown in
Figure 231 and Figure 232.
Vehicle η = f(v), Tutorial Single Component Model, trafo 98% , long trains
A-C, Course ABCl_01, Engine 1/1, 01:00:01 - 01:48:53
100
90
80
70
Efficiency [%]
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
0.0
22.5
45.0
67.5
90.0
112.5
135.0
157.5
180.0
202.5
225.0
Speed [km/h]
η_Traction
η_Transformer
Figure 231 The tractive and transformer efficiency of the course ABCl_01 versus speed with a defined
transformer mean efficiency.
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Vehicle η = f(v), Tutorial Single Component Model, trafo f(I), long trains
A-C, Course ABCl_01, Engine 1/1, 01:00:01 - 01:48:53
100
90
80
70
Efficiency [%]
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
0.0
22.5
45.0
67.5
90.0
112.5
135.0
157.5
180.0
202.5
225.0
Speed [km/h]
η_Traction
η_Transformer
Figure 232 The tractive and transformer efficiency of course ABCl_01 versus speed with the transformer
efficiency function η=f(I).
It seems to be surprising that the transformer efficiency is 80 % for all speeds. This is
because of the current amounting to about 24 A for the whole speed range, see Figure 233.
Vehicle I = f(v), Tutorial Single Component Model, trafo f(I), long trains
A-C, Course ABCl_01, Engine 1/1, 01:00:01 - 01:48:53
300
270
240
210
Current [A]
180
150
120
90
60
30
0
0.0
22.5
45.0
67.5
90.0
112.5
135.0
157.5
180.0
202.5
225.0
Speed [km/h]
I_Panto
Figure 233 Pantograph current versus speed.
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5.7.11 Engine Energy Storage Tutorial
This tutorial describes the configuration of an engine energy storage. To use an engine
energy storage, the engine needs to be modelled with regenerative braking because
currently the storage is only charged by the regenerative braking.
5.7.11.1
Configuration
5.7.11.1.1
OpenTrack
We will use the OpenTrack model from the AC tutorial in chapter 5.1 without changes.
Select only the courses ABCl_01 and CBAl_01 operated with long trains.
5.7.11.1.2
OpenPowerNet
We will use the *opnengine- and Project-File from the DC tutorial in chapter 5.4 as the basis.
5.7.11.1.2.1 *.opnengine File
The engine model has to be extended by regeneration and the storage modelling.
Figure 234 Brake power (top) and storage parameter definition (bottom).
5.7.11.1.2.2 Project-File
The Project-File is copied from the DC tutorial and the engine propulsion model is adapted.
The engine energy storage shall be modelled for charging as saver (higher priority of
charging the storage than recovering energy to the network) and discharging as traction
ratio. See chapter 4.4.7.2 on page 75 for the detailed description of engine energy storage.
<OpenPowerNet xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
xsi:noNamespaceSchemaLocation="http://www.openpowernet.de/schemas/OpenPowerNet.xsd"
name="Tutorial Engine Storage" The project name should be changed as well as the
comment="saver 50kW" comment to distinguish this simulation from others.
maxIterations="1000"
maxFailedIterations="100"
odbcDsn="pscresults"
record2DB="true"
rstFile="Engine.opnengine"
simulationStart_s="3600">
<ATM>
<Vehicles>
<Vehicle eddyCurrentBrake="false" engineID="Engine1">
<Propulsion
engine="electric"
supply="DC 3000V"
brakeCurrentLimitation="none"
tractiveCurrentLimitation="I=f(U)"
useAuxPower="true"
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fourQuadrantChopperPhi="none"
regenerativeBrake="maxPower/maxEffort" Change to use the regenerative brake.
tractiveEffort="maxPower/maxTractEffort"
retryRecovery="true" This and
recoveryMode="U_source"> this attribute are added.
<MeanEfficiency />
</Propulsion>
<Storage The storage element is new.
use="true"
name="S" This refers to the storage named “S” in the *.opnengine File.
loadModel="saver"
efficiency="meanEfficiency"
shareLoad_percent="100"
shareUnload_percent="100"
unloadModel="storage_P_traction_ratio"
initialLoad_kWh="0"
tractionRatio="0.1" />
</Vehicle>
</Vehicles>
5.7.11.2
Simulation
We will do one simulation using the long trains only.
Note: When not using the FULL license, set the time step in OpenTrack to 4 seconds.
5.7.11.3
Analysis
We use Excel Tools “Compare two Engines” and “One Engine Energy Storage”. The
simulation is compared to the DC tutorial simulation from chapter 5.4, see Figure 235.
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Vehicle v = f(t), Tutorial DC Network, default
A-C, Course ABCl_01, Engine 1/1, 01:00:01 - 02:01:48
85+400
A/1
10+246
10+254
A/2
TSS_80
9+740
9+761
A/1
TSS_05
0+400
225.0
202.5
180.0
157.5
Speed [km/h]
135.0
112.5
90.0
67.5
45.0
0.0
01:00:01
Station C
Station B
22.5
01:10:01
01:20:01
01:30:01
01:40:01
01:50:01
02:00:01
01:50:01
02:00:01
Time
v
Infeed
Vehicle v = f(t), Tutorial Engine Storage, saver 50kW
A-C, Course ABCl_01, Engine 1/1, 01:00:01 - 02:01:41
85+400
A/1
10+246
10+254
A/2
TSS_80
9+740
9+761
A/1
TSS_05
0+400
225.0
202.5
180.0
157.5
Speed [km/h]
135.0
112.5
90.0
67.5
0.0
01:00:01
Station C
22.5
Station B
45.0
01:10:01
01:20:01
01:30:01
01:40:01
Time
v
Infeed
Figure 235 Comparison of the speed of the courses without (top) and with engine energy storage (bottom).
Between 01:33 h and 01:42 h, the speed of the course with the energy storage is higher
because the limited current due to low voltage is compensated by the energy storage which
is discharged. The actual energy and power of the energy storage are shown in Figure 236.
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Vehicle E = f(t), Tutorial Engine Storage, saver 50kW
A-C, Course ABCl_01, Engine 1/1, 01:00:01 - 02:01:41
85+400
A/1
10+246
10+254
A/2
TSS_80
9+740
9+761
A/1
TSS_05
0+400
75.0
67.5
60.0
52.5
Energy [kWh]
45.0
37.5
30.0
22.5
15.0
0.0
01:00:01
Station C
Station B
7.5
01:10:01
01:20:01
01:30:01
01:40:01
01:50:01
02:00:01
01:50:01
02:00:01
Time
E_Storage
Infeed
Vehicle P = f(t), Tutorial Engine Storage, saver 50kW
A-C, Course ABCl_01, Engine 1/1, 01:00:01 - 02:01:41
85+400
A/1
10+246
10+254
A/2
TSS_80
9+740
9+761
A/1
TSS_05
0+400
3,600
3,200
2,800
2,400
Power [kW]
2,000
1,600
1,200
800
-400
01:00:01
Station C
0
Station B
400
01:10:01
01:20:01
01:30:01
01:40:01
Time
P_Storage
Infeed
Figure 236 The stored energy and the power demand of the energy storage.
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5.7.12 Electric + Diesel hauled trains Tutorial
OpenPowerNet does not have a dedicated diesel engine model. However, it is possible to
model an engine considered in OT but not in OPN. In this tutorial, it is described how to
model a train hauled by a diesel engine coupled with an electric engine.
The diesel engine will be modelled as an engine with 0 A constant current. As the
pantograph voltage for this engine is also recorded, it is suggested to place the diesel engine
close to the electrical engine. This is done by defining the position of the engines in
OpenTrack train configuration. The diesel engine shall be close to the electrical engine as in
the panto voltage diagrams all panto voltages, also from the “work around diesel engine
model”, are used.
5.7.12.1
Configuration
5.7.12.1.1
OpenTrack
The basis is the AC tutorial in chapter 5.1. The diesel engine will be added and the train
configuration needs to be amended as well.
Copy the OTData folder to this tutorial and modify the data as follows.
Create a new engine “Diesel” according Figure 237, the tractive effort is half of the one of
Engine1.
Figure 237 The diesel engine configuration in OpenTrack.
Add the Diesel engine to the train “Train long” and rename it to “E+D Train long”, see Figure
238.
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Figure 238 Train configuration of the electric + diesel hauled train in OpenTrack.
5.7.12.1.2
OpenPowerNet
The diesel engine shall be modelled as a constant current engine with 0 A constant current.
5.7.12.1.2.1 *.opnengine File
Take the *.opnengine file from the AC Tutorial as a basis and add the engine “Diesel” as
shown in Figure 239.
Figure 239 Diesel engine parameters.
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5.7.12.1.2.2 Project-File
Take the Project-File from the AC Tutorial as a basis and add the engine “Diesel” as follows:
<Vehicle engineID="Diesel" eddyCurrentBrake="false">
<Propulsion supply="AC 25kV 50Hz" tractiveCurrentLimitation="none" regenerativeBrake="none"
engine="electric" tractiveEffort="maxPower/maxTractEffort" useAuxPower="false"
brakeCurrentLimitation="none" fourQuadrantChopperPhi="none"
constantCurrent_A="0.0">
<MeanEfficiency />
</Propulsion>
</Vehicle>
Do not forget to change the project name.
5.7.12.1.3
Simulation
Run the simulation as usual, but with the long trains only.
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Analysis
Vehicle F = f(s), Tutorial Electric + Diesel, default
A-C, Course ABCl_01, Engine 1/2, 01:00:01 - 01:48:33
TSS_80
A/1
85+400
9+731
10+248
A/2
9+752
10+257
A/1
TSS_05
0+400
275.0
247.5
220.0
Tractive Effort [kN]
192.5
165.0
137.5
110.0
82.5
55.0
0.0
0.400
10.400
Station C
Station B
27.5
20.400
30.400
40.400
50.400
60.400
70.400
80.400
70.400
80.400
Corridor Position [km]
F_achieved
Infeed
Vehicle F = f(s), Tutorial Electric + Diesel, default
A-C, Course ABCl_01, Engine 2/2, 01:00:01 - 01:48:33
TSS_80
A/1
85+375
9+748
10+242
A/2
9+768
10+253
A/1
TSS_05
0+400
150
120
90
Tractive Effort [kN]
60
30
0
-30
-60
-150
0.400
10.400
Station C
-120
Station B
-90
20.400
30.400
40.400
50.400
60.400
Corridor Position [km]
F_achieved
Infeed
Figure 240 The tractive effort versus distance of an electric (top) and diesel (bottom) hauled train.
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5.8
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Network Model Tutorials
In the following tutorials we will focus on advanced network configuration.
5.8.1 Substations Tutorial
In this tutorial, we will create a substation with two transformers. Each transformer shall have
a busbar and connectors between them. The substation shall be same as in Figure 241 but
with two winding transformers. The infeeds shall be at km 5+000 and km 6+000.
At 1:04:30 h, one transformer shall be disconnected and at 1:05:00 h, the other shall feed the
left and the right section.
Transformer Substation
Three Winding Transformer 1
Isource
Isource
Three Winding Transformer 2
Ytr_source
Ytr_source
Ytr_source
Ytr_source
swtr_ocs
swtr_rails
swtr_negative
swtr_negative
negative feeder
Y
Y
OCS
rails
sw
feeder ocs
sw
feeder rails
sw
bus bars
sw
feeder ocs
sw
feeder rails
negative feeder
sw
Y
sw
Y
Isource
swtr_ocs
swtr_rails
bus bar connectors
with switches
bus bars
Isource
Y
sw
Y
Y
sw
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
negativeFeeder
Figure 241 A substation with two transformers, busbars and busbar connection.
Figure 242 The wrong configuration of the feeder connectors from the substation to the line.
In the configuration shown in Figure 242, the sum of the conductor current will not be zero
because connectors are laid parallel to conductors and allow the current to bypass the
conductor. The correct way is to connect the feeders to one single slice via connectors and
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use parallel conductors to cover the distance to the slices where the real infeed points shall
be situated. This configuration is shown in Figure 243. See also the constraints listed in
chapter 4.3.1.
Figure 243 The correct configuration of the substation with all infeeds at the same slice and parallel conductors to
the infeed slices to be modelled.
To see the effect of the wrong and the correct configuration, we run both simulations and
record all currents and voltages between km 0+000 and km 9+000.
5.8.1.1 Configuration
5.8.1.1.1 OpenTrack
We will use the OpenTrack model from the AC tutorial in chapter 5.1 without changes.
Select only the courses ABCl_01 and CBAl_01 operated with long trains.
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5.8.1.1.2 OpenPowerNet
We will use the Engine-File and Project-File from the AC tutorial in chapter 5.1 as the basis.
5.8.1.1.2.1 *.opnengine File
For this tutorial we do not need to change the *.opnengine file.
5.8.1.1.2.2 Project-File
As there are two different configurations, we will have two Project-Files. One Project-File will
contain the wrong configuration as in Figure 242 and one Project-File will contain the correct
configuration as in Figure 243.
First, we create the Project-File with the wrong configuration. The substation TSS_05 shall
be adapted and the network shall be split at km 5+100 by adding isolators in the messenger
and contact wire.
Firstly, we add the isolators to the line. The XML snippet below is nested in the element
Line.
<Isolators>
<ConductorIsolator>
<Position km="5.1" trackID="1" condName="CW" />
</ConductorIsolator>
<ConductorIsolator>
<Position km="5.1" trackID="1" condName="MW" />
</ConductorIsolator>
</Isolators>
The next step is to add the second transformer to TSS_05 and to add the infeeds.
<Substation name="TSS_05">
<TwoWindingTransformer name="T1" nomPower_MVA="10" nomPrimaryVoltage_kV="115"
nomSecondaryVoltage_kV="27.5" noLoadLosses_kW="6.5" loadLosses_kW="230"
relativeShortCircuitVoltage_percent="10.7" noLoadCurrent_A="0.06">
<OCSBB
bbName="OCS_BB_1" The new busbar name.
z_real_Ohm="0.001"
z_imag_Ohm="0">
<Switch name="TSS_05_T1_OCS" defaultState="close" />
</OCSBB>
<RailsBB
bbName="Rails_BB_1" The new busbar name.
z_real_Ohm="0.001"
z_imag_Ohm="0">
<Switch name="TSS_05_T1_Rails" defaultState="close" />
</RailsBB>
</TwoWindingTransformer> This is the second transformer with the same properties as T1,
except for the busbar names which have to be unique within each substation.
<TwoWindingTransformer name="T2" nomPower_MVA="10" nomPrimaryVoltage_kV="115"
nomSecondaryVoltage_kV="27.5" noLoadLosses_kW="6.5" loadLosses_kW="230"
relativeShortCircuitVoltage_percent="10.7" noLoadCurrent_A="0.06">
<OCSBB bbName="OCS_BB_2" z_real_Ohm="0.001" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<Switch name="TSS_05_T2_OCS" defaultState="close" />
</OCSBB>
<RailsBB bbName="Rails_BB_2" z_real_Ohm="0.001" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<Switch name="TSS_05_T2_Rails" defaultState="close" />
</RailsBB>
</TwoWindingTransformer>
<Busbars>
<OCSBB bbName="OCS_BB_1"> Change the busbar name.
<Connector name="TSS_05_OCS_Feeder" z_real_Ohm="0.001" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<Position condName="CW" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="5" />
<Switch defaultState="close" name="TSS_05_OCS_Feeder_5.0" />
</Connector>
</OCSBB>
<RailsBB bbName="Rails_BB_1"> Change the busbar name.
<Connector name="TSS_05_Rails_Feeder" z_real_Ohm="0.001" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<Position condName="RR" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="5" />
<Switch defaultState="close" name="TSS_05_Rails_Feeder_5.0" />
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</Connector>
</RailsBB>
<OCSBB bbName="OCS_BB_2"> Use a unique busbar name for each busbar.
<Connector name="TSS_05_OCS_Feeder" z_real_Ohm="0.001" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<Position condName="CW" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="6" />
<Switch defaultState="close" name="TSS_05_OCS_Feeder_6.0" ></Switch>
</Connector>
</OCSBB>
<RailsBB bbName="Rails_BB_2"> Use a unique busbar name for each busbar.
<Connector name="TSS_05_Rails_Feeder" z_real_Ohm="0.001" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<Position condName="RR" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="6" />
<Switch defaultState="close" name="TSS_05_Rails_Feeder_6.0" />
</Connector>
</RailsBB>
</Busbars>
Here, define the busbar connectors including switches:
<OCSBBConnector z_imag_Ohm="0.0" z_real_Ohm="0.001">
<BusbarFrom bbName="OCS_BB_1" />
<BusbarTo bbName="OCS_BB_2" />
<Switch defaultState="open" name="TSS_05_OCS_BB" />
</OCSBBConnector>
<RailsBBConnector z_imag_Ohm="0.0" z_real_Ohm="0.001">
<BusbarFrom bbName="Rails_BB_1" />
<BusbarTo bbName="Rails_BB_2" />
<Switch defaultState="open" name="TSS_05_Rails_BB" />
</RailsBBConnector>
</Substation>
To minimise the recorded data, we will record voltages and currents only from km 0+000 to
km 9+000.
<Lines recordCurrent="true" recordVoltage="true"> Set both attributes to true.
<Line name="A" maxSliceDistance_km="1.0">
<Conductors> For each conductor, split the ToProperty at km 9+000 and set the recording to
false until the end of the line.
<Conductor condSort="MessengerWire">
<StartPosition condName="MW" trackID="1" km="0" />
<ToProperty toPos_km="9" equivalentRadius_mm="3.45" r20_Ohm_km="0.2311"
temperature_DegreeCentigrade="20" temperatureCoefficient="0.004" x_m="0" y_m="6.9" />
<ToProperty toPos_km="85.4" recordCurrent="false" recordVoltage="false" />
</Conductor>
<Conductor condSort="ContactWire">
<StartPosition condName="CW" trackID="1" km="0" />
<ToProperty toPos_km="9" equivalentRadius_mm="3.45" r20_Ohm_km="0.1852"
temperature_DegreeCentigrade="20" temperatureCoefficient="0.00385" x_m="0" y_m="5.3" />
<ToProperty toPos_km="85.4" recordCurrent="false" recordVoltage="false" />
</Conductor>
<Conductor condSort="Rail">
<StartPosition condName="RL" trackID="1" km="0" />
<ToProperty toPos_km="9" equivalentRadius_mm="38.52" r20_Ohm_km="0.0306"
temperature_DegreeCentigrade="20" temperatureCoefficient="0.004" x_m="-0.75" y_m="0" />
<ToProperty toPos_km="85.4" recordCurrent="false" recordVoltage="false" />
</Conductor>
<Conductor condSort="Rail">
<StartPosition condName="RR" trackID="1" km="0" />
<ToProperty toPos_km="9" equivalentRadius_mm="38.52" r20_Ohm_km="0.0306"
temperature_DegreeCentigrade="20" temperatureCoefficient="0.004" x_m="0.75" y_m="0" />
<ToProperty toPos_km="85.4" recordCurrent="false" recordVoltage="false" />
</Conductor>
<Conductor condSort="MessengerWire">
<StartPosition condName="MW" trackID="2" km="9.750" />
<ToProperty toPos_km="10.250" equivalentRadius_mm="3.45" r20_Ohm_km="0.2311"
temperature_DegreeCentigrade="20" temperatureCoefficient="0.004" x_m="10" y_m="6.9"
recordCurrent="false" recordVoltage="false" />
</Conductor>
<Conductor condSort="ContactWire">
<StartPosition condName="CW" trackID="2" km="9.750" />
<ToProperty toPos_km="10.250" equivalentRadius_mm="3.45" r20_Ohm_km="0.1852"
temperature_DegreeCentigrade="20" temperatureCoefficient="0.00385" x_m="10" y_m="5.3"
recordCurrent="false" recordVoltage="false" />
</Conductor>
<Conductor condSort="Rail">
<StartPosition condName="RL" trackID="2" km="9.750" />
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<ToProperty toPos_km="10.250" equivalentRadius_mm="38.52" r20_Ohm_km="0.0306"
temperature_DegreeCentigrade="20" temperatureCoefficient="0.004" x_m="9.25" y_m="0"
recordCurrent="false" recordVoltage="false" />
</Conductor>
<Conductor condSort="Rail">
<StartPosition condName="RR" trackID="2" km="9.750" />
<ToProperty toPos_km="10.250" equivalentRadius_mm="38.52" r20_Ohm_km="0.0306"
temperature_DegreeCentigrade="20" temperatureCoefficient="0.004" x_m="10.75" y_m="0"
recordCurrent="false" recordVoltage="false" />
</Conductor>
<Conductor condSort="Earth">
<StartPosition condName="E" trackID="1" km="0" />
<ToProperty toPos_km="9" equivalentRadius_mm="465000" r20_Ohm_km="0.0494"
temperature_DegreeCentigrade="20" temperatureCoefficient="0" x_m="0" y_m="-465.0" />
<ToProperty toPos_km="85.4" recordCurrent="false" recordVoltage="false" />
</Conductor>
</Conductors>
Set the recording option for the connector slices and leakages to “false”.
<ConnectorSlices recordCurrent="false" recordVoltage="false">
...
<Leakages recordCurrent="false" recordVoltage="false">
After we finished the wrong configuration, we will do the right configuration. Copy the ProjectFile just created and add the following:
Add both Feeder and ReturnFeeder conductors to the left and the right of the substation.
<Conductor condSort="Feeder"> The left feeder shall have the same properties as a rail.
<StartPosition condName="LF_l" trackID="1" km="5" />
<ToProperty
toPos_km="5.1"
equivalentRadius_mm="3.45"
r20_Ohm_km="0.2311"
temperature_DegreeCentigrade="20"
temperatureCoefficient="0.004"
x_m="-4" Make sure to set the cross section center position to a unique location for each
conductor.
y_m="0" />
</Conductor>
<Conductor condSort="Feeder"> Define the right feeder,
<StartPosition condName="LF_r" trackID="1" km="5.1" />
<ToProperty toPos_km="6" equivalentRadius_mm="3.45" r20_Ohm_km="0.2311"
temperature_DegreeCentigrade="20" temperatureCoefficient="0.004" x_m="-4.2" y_m="0" />
</Conductor>
<Conductor condSort="ReturnFeeder"> the left return feeder, and
<StartPosition condName="RF_l" trackID="1" km="5" />
<ToProperty toPos_km="5.1" equivalentRadius_mm="38.52" r20_Ohm_km="0.0306"
temperature_DegreeCentigrade="20" temperatureCoefficient="0.004" x_m="-4.1" y_m="0" />
</Conductor>
<Conductor condSort="ReturnFeeder"> the right return feeder.
<StartPosition condName="RF_r" trackID="1" km="5.1" />
<ToProperty toPos_km="6" equivalentRadius_mm="38.52" r20_Ohm_km="0.0306"
temperature_DegreeCentigrade="20" temperatureCoefficient="0.004" x_m="-4.1" y_m="0" />
</Conductor>
Then, we need to connect the new conductors with the contact wire respectively the rail at
km 5+000 respectively km 6+000:
<Connector name="" z_real_Ohm="0.0001" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="LF_l" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="5"
<ConductorTo condName="CW" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="5" />
</Connector>
<Connector name="" z_real_Ohm="0.0001" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="RF_l" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="5"
<ConductorTo condName="RR" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="5" />
</Connector>
<Connector name="" z_real_Ohm="0.0001" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="LF_r" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="6"
<ConductorTo condName="CW" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="6" />
</Connector>
<Connector name="" z_real_Ohm="0.0001" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="RF_r" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="6"
<ConductorTo condName="RR" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="6" />
</Connector>
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/>
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/>
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Finally, all infeeds from the substation need to be connected at km 5+100 to the Feeder and
ReturnFeeder conductors.
<Busbars>
<OCSBB bbName="OCS_BB_1">
<Connector name="TSS_05_OCS_Feeder" z_real_Ohm="0.001" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<Position condName="LF_l" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="5.1" />
<Switch defaultState="close" name="TSS_05_OCS_Feeder_5.0" />
</Connector>
</OCSBB>
<RailsBB bbName="Rails_BB_1">
<Connector name="TSS_05_Rails_Feeder" z_real_Ohm="0.001" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<Position condName="RF_l" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="5.1" />
<Switch defaultState="close" name="TSS_05_Rails_Feeder_5.0" />
</Connector>
</RailsBB>
<OCSBB bbName="OCS_BB_2">
<Connector name="TSS_05_OCS_Feeder" z_real_Ohm="0.001" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<Position condName="LF_r" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="5.1" />
<Switch defaultState="close" name="TSS_05_OCS_Feeder_6.0"></Switch>
</Connector>
</OCSBB>
<RailsBB bbName="Rails_BB_2">
<Connector name="TSS_05_Rails_Feeder" z_real_Ohm="0.001" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<Position condName="RF_r" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="5.1" />
<Switch defaultState="close" name="TSS_05_Rails_Feeder_6.0" />
</Connector>
</RailsBB>
</Busbars>
5.8.1.2 Simulation
We will run the wrong simulation and then the correct simulation, each with the long trains
only. Note the messages displayed in the OPN-PSC console at the beginning of the
simulation. You can also see which number of currents and voltages are recorded to the
database.
Note: When not using the FULL license, set the time step in OpenTrack to 4 seconds.
5.8.1.3 Analysis
For the analysis, we will use the Excel tool “Current, I_total=f(s)” and “Voltage, U=f(s)”. In the
latter please set the option “Use Sign” to “NO”.
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I_total = f(s)
200000.000
180000.000
160000.000
140000.000
I [A]
120000.000
100000.000
80000.000
60000.000
40000.000
20000.000
0.000
0+000
1+000
2+000
3+000
4+000
5+000
6+000
7+000
8+000
9+000
s [km]
I_total_real [A]
I_total_imag [A]
Figure 244 The sum of the conductor current for each section and all time steps with the wrong configuration.
I_total = f(s)
2.000
1.800
1.600
1.400
I [A]
1.200
1.000
0.800
0.600
0.400
0.200
0.000
0+000
1+000
2+000
3+000
4+000
5+000
6+000
7+000
8+000
9+000
s [km]
I_total_real [A]
I_total_imag [A]
Figure 245 The sum of the conductor current for each section and all time steps with the correct configuration.
When we compare both diagrams above, we can see that the wrong configuration results in
a current sum much higher than 0 A as shown in Figure 244. With the correct configuration
Figure 245, the resulting current is almost 0 A. The current is not exactly 0 A due to numeric
rounding differences which occur during calculation and analysis.
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Rail-Earth Potential (max), Network Tutorial Substation, wrong
Line A, Track 1, km 0+000 to 9+000, 01:28:36 - 01:28:37
TSS_05
TSS_05
150
135
120
105
Voltage [V]
90
75
60
45
15
Station A
30
0
0+000
1+000
2+000
3+000
4+000
5+000
6+000
7+000
8+000
9+000
Position [km]
|U_RL|
|U_RR|
U_RE_max > 300s (EN 50122-1)
U_RE_max 1s (EN 50122-1)
Return feeder
Isolator
Figure 246 The touch voltage between the rails and earth due to the wrong configured network at 1:28:36 h.
Rail-Earth Potential (max), Network Tutorial Substation, correct
Line A, Track 1, km 0+000 to 9+000, 01:28:36 - 01:28:37
TSS_05
150
135
120
105
Voltage [V]
90
75
60
45
15
0
0+000
Station A
30
1+000
2+000
3+000
4+000
5+000
6+000
7+000
8+000
9+000
Position [km]
|U_RL|
|U_RR|
U_RE_max > 300s (EN 50122-1)
U_RE_max 1s (EN 50122-1)
Return feeder
Isolator
Figure 247 The touch voltage between the rails and earth in the correct configured network at 1:28:36 h.
Figure 246 and Figure 247 show the resulting voltages of the earth conductor and rails at
1:28:36 h. At this time, the course CBAl_01 is close to the substation TSS_05. The rails RL
and RR have the same voltage because both are connected by very low resistances and
therefore are not distinguishable in the diagram.
The difference between both configurations is significant not only but also for the touch
voltage, as shown in Figure 248.
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Rail-Earth Potential, Network Tutorial Substation, wrong
Line A, Track 1, km 0+000 to 9+000, 01:00:00 - 01:48:54
TSS_05
TSS_05
150
135
120
105
Voltage [V]
90
75
60
45
15
Station A
30
0
0+000
1+000
2+000
3+000
4+000
5+000
6+000
7+000
8+000
9+000
Position [km]
|U_RL|_max
|U_RL|_max_mean_300s
|U_RR|_max
|U_RR|_max_mean_300s
U_RE_max > 300s (EN 50122-1)
U_RE_max 1s (EN 50122-1)
Return feeder
Isolator
Rail-Earth Potential, Network Tutorial Substation, correct
Line A, Track 1, km 0+000 to 9+000, 01:00:00 - 01:48:54
TSS_05
150
135
120
105
Voltage [V]
90
75
60
45
15
0
0+000
Station A
30
1+000
2+000
3+000
4+000
5+000
6+000
7+000
8+000
9+000
Position [km]
|U_RL|_max
|U_RL|_max_mean_300s
|U_RR|_max
|U_RR|_max_mean_300s
U_RE_max > 300s (EN 50122-1)
U_RE_max 1s (EN 50122-1)
Return feeder
Isolator
Figure 248 The maximum touch voltage for the whole simulation is different as well, the wrong (top) configuration
and correct configuration (bottom) is shown.
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5.8.2 Neutral Zone Tutorial
In this tutorial, a 2AC system with a neutral zone will be created. The basic 2AC tutorial as
described in chapter 5.3 was simpler because it did not have a neutral zone.
The neutral zone shall be situated near TSS_05 from km 4+800 to km 5+200 and it shall be
possible to feed one feeding section by the other via the neutral zone. Furthermore, we add
an autotransformer station at km 0+000. The whole configuration is shown in Figure 249.
TSS_5
ATS_0
ATS_80
T2
T1
T1
sw
sw
sw
T1
sw
sw
sw
sw
sw
sw
sw
sw
sw
sw
sw
ocs
neutral zone
rails
sw
sw
80+000
5+300
5+200
4+800
4+700
0+000
negative
feeder
Figure 249 The electrical network model.
To fulfil the constraint that the current sum in each section is always 0 A, the neutral zone
configuration shall look like in Figure 250.
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Figure 250 The configuration of a neutral zone of a 2AC system.
5.8.2.1 Configuration
5.8.2.1.1 OpenTrack
We will use the OpenTrack model from the AC tutorial in chapter 5.1 without changes.
Select only the courses ABCl_01 and CBAl_01 operated with long trains.
5.8.2.1.2 OpenPowerNet
We will use the *opnengine-File and the correct Project-File from the Substation tutorial in
chapter 5.8.1 as the basis.
5.8.2.1.2.1 *.opnengine File
For this tutorial we do not need to change the *.opnengine file.
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5.8.2.1.2.2 Project-File
First of all, we need to add the negative feeder from km 0+000 to km 84+500.
<Conductor condSort="NegativeFeeder">
<StartPosition condName="NF" trackID="1" km="0" />
<ToProperty
toPos_km="9"
equivalentRadius_mm="8.4"
r20_Ohm_km="0.1188"
temperature_DegreeCentigrade="20"
temperatureCoefficient="0.004"
x_m="-4"
y_m="9" />
<ToProperty toPos_km="80" recordCurrent="false" recordVoltage="false" />
</Conductor>
Next, we change the Feeder and ReturnFeeder and add the NegativeFeeder
conductors parallel to the neutral zone.
Note: The parallel conductors shall be laid from km 4+700 to km 5+000 and from km 5+000
to km 5+300.
<Conductor condSort="Feeder">
<StartPosition condName="TSS_05_F_l" trackID="1" km="4.7" />
<ToProperty toPos_km="5" equivalentRadius_mm="8.4" r20_Ohm_km="0.1188"
temperature_DegreeCentigrade="20" temperatureCoefficient="0.004" x_m="-4" y_m="0" />
</Conductor>
<Conductor condSort="Feeder">
<StartPosition condName="TSS_05_F_r" trackID="1" km="5" />
<ToProperty toPos_km="5.3" equivalentRadius_mm="8.4" r20_Ohm_km="0.1188"
temperature_DegreeCentigrade="20" temperatureCoefficient="0.004" x_m="-4" y_m="0" />
</Conductor>
<Conductor condSort="ReturnFeeder">
<StartPosition condName="TSS_05_RF_l" trackID="1" km="4.7" />
<ToProperty toPos_km="5" equivalentRadius_mm="8.4" r20_Ohm_km="0.1188"
temperature_DegreeCentigrade="20" temperatureCoefficient="0.004" x_m="-4.1" y_m="0" />
</Conductor>
<Conductor condSort="ReturnFeeder">
<StartPosition condName="TSS_05_RF_r" trackID="1" km="5" />
<ToProperty toPos_km="5.3" equivalentRadius_mm="8.4" r20_Ohm_km="0.1188"
temperature_DegreeCentigrade="20" temperatureCoefficient="0.004" x_m="-4.1" y_m="0" />
</Conductor>
The two new negative feeder conductors follow.
<Conductor condSort="NegativeFeeder">
<StartPosition condName="TSS_05_NF_l" trackID="1" km="4.7" />
<ToProperty toPos_km="5" equivalentRadius_mm="8.4" r20_Ohm_km="0.1188"
temperature_DegreeCentigrade="20" temperatureCoefficient="0.004" x_m="-4.2" y_m="0" />
</Conductor>
<Conductor condSort="NegativeFeeder">
<StartPosition condName="TSS_05_NF_r" trackID="1" km="5" />
<ToProperty toPos_km="5.3" equivalentRadius_mm="8.4" r20_Ohm_km="0.1188"
temperature_DegreeCentigrade="20" temperatureCoefficient="0.004" x_m="-4.2" y_m="0" />
</Conductor>
The changed and newly added conductors need to be connected to the line. Therefore, we
also need to change connectors and add new ones.
<Connector name="" z_real_Ohm="0.001" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="TSS_05_F_l" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="4.7" />
<ConductorTo condName="CW" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="4.7" />
</Connector>
<Connector name="" z_real_Ohm="0.001" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="TSS_05_F_r" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="5.3" />
<ConductorTo condName="CW" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="5.3" />
</Connector>
<Connector name="" z_real_Ohm="0.001" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="TSS_05_RF_l" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="4.7" />
<ConductorTo condName="RR" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="4.7" />
</Connector>
<Connector name="" z_real_Ohm="0.001" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="TSS_05_RF_r" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="5.3" />
<ConductorTo condName="RR" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="5.3" />
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</Connector>
Define the connectors from the substation to the new negative feeder.
<Connector name="" z_real_Ohm="0.001" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="TSS_05_NF_l" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="4.7" />
<ConductorTo condName="NF" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="4.7" />
</Connector>
<Connector name="" z_real_Ohm="0.001" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="TSS_05_NF_r" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="5.3" />
<ConductorTo condName="NF" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="5.3" />
</Connector>
Instead of isolators we now use conductor switches. Remove the Isolators and add the XMLsnippet below.
<Switches>
<ConductorSwitch>
<Switch defaultState="open" name="TSS_05_4.8_CW"
<Position km="4.8" trackID="1" condName="CW" />
</ConductorSwitch>
<ConductorSwitch>
<Switch defaultState="open" name="TSS_05_4.8_MW"
<Position km="4.8" trackID="1" condName="MW" />
</ConductorSwitch>
<ConductorSwitch>
<Switch defaultState="open" name="TSS_05_4.8_NF"
<Position km="4.8" trackID="1" condName="NF" />
</ConductorSwitch>
<ConductorSwitch>
<Switch defaultState="open" name="TSS_05_5.2_CW"
<Position km="5.2" trackID="1" condName="CW" />
</ConductorSwitch>
<ConductorSwitch>
<Switch defaultState="open" name="TSS_05_5.2_MW"
<Position km="5.2" trackID="1" condName="MW" />
</ConductorSwitch>
<ConductorSwitch>
<Switch defaultState="open" name="TSS_05_5.2_NF"
<Position km="5.2" trackID="1" condName="NF" />
</ConductorSwitch>
</Switches>
/>
/>
/>
/>
/>
/>
After we have done the line configuration, we need to add and adapt the substations.
First, we add the autotransformer station ATS_0 at km 0+000.
<Substation name="ATS_0">
<Autotransformer name="T1" nomPower_MVA="5" nomPrimaryVoltage_kV="55"
nomSecondaryVoltage_kV="27.5" noLoadLosses_kW="5" loadLosses_kW="10"
relativeShortCircuitVoltage_percent="1.8" noLoadCurrent_A="0.2">
<OCSBB bbName="OCS_BB" z_real_Ohm="0.001" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<Switch name="ATS_0_T1_OCS" defaultState="close" />
</OCSBB>
<RailsBB bbName="Rails_BB" z_real_Ohm="0.001" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<Switch name="ATS_0_T1_Rails" defaultState="close" />
</RailsBB>
<NegativeFeederBB bbName="NF_BB" z_real_Ohm="0.001" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<Switch name="ATS_0_T1_NF" defaultState="close" />
</NegativeFeederBB>
</Autotransformer>
<Busbars>
<OCSBB bbName="OCS_BB">
<Connector name="ATS_0_OCS_Feeder" z_real_Ohm="0.001" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<Position condName="CW" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="0" />
</Connector>
</OCSBB>
<RailsBB bbName="Rails_BB">
<Connector name="ATS_0_Rails_Feeder" z_real_Ohm="0.001" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<Position condName="RR" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="0" />
</Connector>
</RailsBB>
<NegativeFeederBB bbName="NF_BB">
<Connector name="ATS_0_NF_Feeder" z_real_Ohm="0.001" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<Position condName="NF" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="0" />
</Connector>
</NegativeFeederBB>
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</Busbars>
</Substation>
The TSS_80 shall be replaced by the ATS_80 with same parameters as ATS_0 but
connected to the line at km 80+000.
Now, the TSS_05 gets two transformers, 6 busbars and 3 busbar connectors, see the XML
snippet below.
<Substation name="TSS_05">
<ThreeWindingTransformer name="T1" nomPower_MVA="10" nomPrimaryVoltage_kV="115"
nomSecondaryVoltage_kV="55" noLoadLosses_kW="6.5" loadLosses_kW="230"
relativeShortCircuitVoltage_percent="10.7" noLoadCurrent_A="0.06">
<OCSBB bbName="OCS_BB_1" z_real_Ohm="0.001" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<Switch name="TSS_05_T1_OCS" defaultState="close" />
</OCSBB>
<RailsBB bbName="Rails_BB_1" z_real_Ohm="0.001" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<Switch name="TSS_05_T1_Rails" defaultState="close" />
</RailsBB>
<NegativeFeederBB bbName="NF_BB_1" z_real_Ohm="0.001" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<Switch name="TSS_05_T1_NF" defaultState="close" />
</NegativeFeederBB>
</ThreeWindingTransformer>
<ThreeWindingTransformer name="T2" nomPower_MVA="10" nomPrimaryVoltage_kV="115"
nomSecondaryVoltage_kV="55" noLoadLosses_kW="6.5" loadLosses_kW="230"
relativeShortCircuitVoltage_percent="10.7" noLoadCurrent_A="0.06">
<OCSBB bbName="OCS_BB_2" z_real_Ohm="0.001" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<Switch name="TSS_05_T2_OCS" defaultState="close" />
</OCSBB>
<RailsBB bbName="Rails_BB_2" z_real_Ohm="0.001" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<Switch name="TSS_05_T2_Rails" defaultState="close" />
</RailsBB>
<NegativeFeederBB bbName="NF_BB_2" z_real_Ohm="0.001" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<Switch name="TSS_05_T2_NF" defaultState="close" />
</NegativeFeederBB>
</ThreeWindingTransformer>
<Busbars>
<OCSBB bbName="OCS_BB_1">
<Connector name="TSS_4.7_OCS_Feeder" z_real_Ohm="0.001" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<Position condName="TSS_05_F_l" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="5" />
</Connector>
</OCSBB>
<OCSBB bbName="OCS_BB_2">
<Connector name="TSS_05.3_OCS_Feeder" z_real_Ohm="0.001" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<Position condName="TSS_05_F_r" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="5" />
</Connector>
</OCSBB>
<RailsBB bbName="Rails_BB_1">
<Connector name="TSS_4.7_Rails_Feeder" z_real_Ohm="0.001" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<Position condName="TSS_05_RF_l" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="5" />
</Connector>
</RailsBB>
<RailsBB bbName="Rails_BB_2">
<Connector name="TSS_05.3_Rails_Feeder" z_real_Ohm="0.001" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<Position condName="TSS_05_RF_r" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="5" />
</Connector>
</RailsBB>
<NegativeFeederBB bbName="NF_BB_1">
<Connector name="TSS_4.7_NF_Feeder" z_real_Ohm="0.001" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<Position condName="TSS_05_NF_l" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="5" />
</Connector>
</NegativeFeederBB>
<NegativeFeederBB bbName="NF_BB_2">
<Connector name="TSS_05.3_NF_Feeder" z_real_Ohm="0.001" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<Position condName="TSS_05_NF_r" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="5" />
</Connector>
</NegativeFeederBB>
</Busbars>
<OCSBBConnector z_imag_Ohm="0.0" z_real_Ohm="0.001">
<BusbarFrom bbName="OCS_BB_1" />
<BusbarTo bbName="OCS_BB_2" />
<Switch defaultState="open" name="TSS_05_OCS_BB" />
</OCSBBConnector>
<RailsBBConnector z_imag_Ohm="0.0" z_real_Ohm="0.001">
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<BusbarFrom bbName="Rails_BB_1" />
<BusbarTo bbName="Rails_BB_2" />
<Switch defaultState="open" name="TSS_05_Rails_BB" />
</RailsBBConnector>
<NegativeFeederBBConnector z_imag_Ohm="0.0" z_real_Ohm="0.001">
<BusbarFrom bbName="NF_BB_1" />
<BusbarTo bbName="NF_BB_2" />
<Switch defaultState="open" name="TSS_05_NF_BB" />
</NegativeFeederBBConnector>
</Substation>
5.8.2.2 Simulation
Run the simulation using the long trains.
Note: When not using the FULL license, set the time step in OpenTrack to 4 seconds.
5.8.2.3 Analysis
After the simulation, we will check the total current sum at each section and for all time steps.
For this we use the Excel tool “Current, I_total=f(s)”. Furthermore, we want to check the
effect of the neutral zone to the speed of a course.
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I_total = f(s)
2.500
2.000
I [A]
1.500
1.000
0.500
0.000
0+000
1+000
2+000
3+000
4+000
5+000
6+000
7+000
8+000
9+000
9+000
10+000
s [km]
I_total_real [A]
I_total_imag [A]
I_total = f(s)
0.700
0.600
0.500
I [A]
0.400
0.300
0.200
0.100
0.000
0+000
1+000
2+000
3+000
4+000
I_total_real [A]
5+000
s [km]
6+000
7+000
8+000
I_total_imag [A]
Figure 251 The sum of the current per section over the whole simulation period.
As we can see in Figure 251 the maximum total current sum is about 2.3 A in the area of the
neutral zone. This may look like a lot but as the simulation runs from 1:00:00 h until 1:49:08 h
in time steps of 1 s, the number of time steps is 2948. To get the average total current sum
per time step we divide 2.3 A by 2948. The result is 0.8 mA and this is very close to 0 A in
the context of railway power supplies. Therefore, the model of the neutral zone is correct.
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Vehicle v = f(s), Network Tutorial Neutral Zone, BB connectors, conductor switches
A-C, Course ABCl_01, Engine 1/1, 01:00:01 - 01:48:53
ATS_80
A/1
85+400
9+735
10+246
A/2
9+756
10+254
A/1
TSS_05
0+400
225.0
202.5
180.0
157.5
Speed [km/h]
135.0
112.5
90.0
67.5
0.0
0.400
10.400
Station C
22.5
Station B
45.0
20.400
30.400
40.400
50.400
60.400
70.400
80.400
Corridor Position [km]
v
Infeed
Switch
Figure 252 The speed versus location of course ABCl_01.
In the diagram shown in Figure 252 we can see that the speed is slightly reduced in the area
of the neutral zone near km 5+000. This is because there is no power supply available in the
neutral zone and the train is coasting.
Usually, the courses are powered off before and powered on after passing the neutral zone.
This may be modelled in OpenTrack using power signals. Please see the OpenTrack
documentation for details.
5.8.3 AC-DC Networks Tutorial
In this tutorial, we will create a Project-File with two independent power supply areas. The
engines shall have two different propulsion systems. One propulsion system shall be for
25 kV 50 Hz and the other for 3 kV DC. The engine and network properties are summarised
in Table 24 and Table 25.
Engine Property
Fmax
Pmax
AC
250 kN
5.56 MW
DC
200 kN
3.89 MW
Table 24 The engine properties of the AC-DC tutorial.
Network Property
Substation
Chainage
Line feeder
AC
km 45+000
track “1” from km 9+750 to
km 85+400
none
DC
km 5+000
track “1” from km 0+000 to
km 9+750 and track “2” from
km 9+750 to km 10+250
yes from km 0+000 to
km 9+750
Table 25 The network properties of the AC-DC tutorial.
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5.8.3.1 Configuration
5.8.3.1.1 OpenTrack
The configuration files from the AC tutorial in chapter 5.1 are the base for this tutorial.
We need to:
• Change the propulsion system of the infrastructure (Figure 253) and
• Add the 3 kV DC propulsion system to “Engine1” (Figure 254).
Figure 253 The OpenTrack infrastructure indicating the AC (blue) and DC (orange) power supply system.
Figure 254 The OpenTrack engine configurationwith two propulsion systems.
5.8.3.1.2 OpenPowerNet
In OpenPowerNet we also need to define both propulsion systems in order to run the same
engine on both traction power systems.
5.8.3.1.2.1 *.opnengine File
The basis shall be the *.opnengine file from the AC tutorial in chapter 5.1. To this EngineFile, we add the DC propulsion system with the properties listed in Table 24, see Figure 255.
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Figure 255 Configuration parameter of the DC propulsion system.
5.8.3.1.2.2 Project-File
As the basis we will use the Project-File from the AC tutorial in chapter 5.1.
First, we add the configuration of the DC propulsion system to the engine.
<Propulsion engine="electric" supply="DC 3000V" brakeCurrentLimitation="none"
tractiveCurrentLimitation="none" useAuxPower="true" fourQuadrantChopperPhi="none"
regenerativeBrake="none" tractiveEffort="maxPower/maxTractEffort">
<MeanEfficiency />
</Propulsion>
It is the same as for AC but the attribute supply has a different value.
The second step is the configuration of the electrical networks.
The DC network is defined like this:
<Network name="A-B" use="true"
voltage_kV="3" Set the nominal voltage and
frequency_Hz="0" the frequency for DC.
recordVoltage="true" recordCurrent="true">
<Lines recordCurrent="false+sub" recordVoltage="false+sub">
<Line name="A" maxSliceDistance_km="0.5">
<Conductors> First, define the conductors for track 1 from km 0+000 to km 9+750.
<Conductor condSort="Feeder">
<StartPosition condName="LF" trackID="1" km="0" />
<ToProperty toPos_km="9.750" equivalentRadius_mm="8.4" r20_Ohm_km="0.1188"
temperature_DegreeCentigrade="20" temperatureCoefficient="0.004" x_m="-4" y_m="9" />
</Conductor>
<Conductor condSort="MessengerWire">
<StartPosition condName="MW" trackID="1" km="0" />
<ToProperty toPos_km="9.750" equivalentRadius_mm="3.45" r20_Ohm_km="0.2311"
temperature_DegreeCentigrade="20" temperatureCoefficient="0.004" x_m="0" y_m="6.9" />
</Conductor>
<Conductor condSort="ContactWire">
<StartPosition condName="CW" trackID="1" km="0" />
<ToProperty toPos_km="9.750" equivalentRadius_mm="3.45" r20_Ohm_km="0.1852"
temperature_DegreeCentigrade="20" temperatureCoefficient="0.00385" x_m="0" y_m="5.3" />
</Conductor>
<Conductor condSort="Rail">
<StartPosition condName="RL" trackID="1" km="0" />
<ToProperty toPos_km="9.750" equivalentRadius_mm="38.52" r20_Ohm_km="0.0306"
temperature_DegreeCentigrade="20" temperatureCoefficient="0.004" x_m="-0.75" y_m="0" />
</Conductor>
<Conductor condSort="Rail">
<StartPosition condName="RR" trackID="1" km="0" />
<ToProperty toPos_km="9.750" equivalentRadius_mm="38.52" r20_Ohm_km="0.0306"
temperature_DegreeCentigrade="20" temperatureCoefficient="0.004" x_m="0.75" y_m="0" />
</Conductor> Then, define the conductors for track 2 from km 9+750 to km 10+250.
<Conductor condSort="MessengerWire">
<StartPosition condName="MW" trackID="2" km="9.750" />
<ToProperty toPos_km="10.250" equivalentRadius_mm="3.45" r20_Ohm_km="0.2311"
temperature_DegreeCentigrade="20" temperatureCoefficient="0.004" x_m="10" y_m="6.9" />
</Conductor>
<Conductor condSort="ContactWire">
<StartPosition condName="CW" trackID="2" km="9.750" />
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<ToProperty toPos_km="10.250" equivalentRadius_mm="3.45" r20_Ohm_km="0.1852"
temperature_DegreeCentigrade="20" temperatureCoefficient="0.00385" x_m="10" y_m="5.3" />
</Conductor>
<Conductor condSort="Rail">
<StartPosition condName="RL" trackID="2" km="9.750" />
<ToProperty toPos_km="10.250" equivalentRadius_mm="38.52" r20_Ohm_km="0.0306"
temperature_DegreeCentigrade="20" temperatureCoefficient="0.004" x_m="9.25" y_m="0" />
</Conductor>
<Conductor condSort="Rail">
<StartPosition condName="RR" trackID="2" km="9.750" />
<ToProperty toPos_km="10.250" equivalentRadius_mm="38.52" r20_Ohm_km="0.0306"
temperature_DegreeCentigrade="20" temperatureCoefficient="0.004" x_m="10.75" y_m="0" />
</Conductor> the earth wire.
<Conductor condSort="Earth">
<StartPosition condName="E" trackID="1" km="0" />
<ToProperty toPos_km="10.250" equivalentRadius_mm="465000" r20_Ohm_km="0.0494"
temperature_DegreeCentigrade="20" temperatureCoefficient="0" x_m="0" y_m="-465.0" />
</Conductor>
</Conductors>
<ConnectorSlices>
<ConnectorSlice name="rail connector, track 1" firstPos_km="0" lastPos_km="9.750"
maxDistance_km="0.25">
<Connector z_real_Ohm="0.00001" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="RL" trackID="1" />
<ConductorTo condName="RR" trackID="1" />
</Connector>
</ConnectorSlice>
<ConnectorSlice name="rail connector, track 2" firstPos_km="9.750" lastPos_km="10.250"
maxDistance_km="0.25">
<Connector z_real_Ohm="0.00001" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="RL" trackID="2" />
<ConductorTo condName="RR" trackID="2" />
</Connector>
</ConnectorSlice> Define the connection between line feeder and contact wire.
<ConnectorSlice name="line feeder to CW" firstPos_km="0" lastPos_km="9.750"
maxDistance_km="0.25">
<Connector z_real_Ohm="0.000594" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="LF" trackID="1" />
<ConductorTo condName="CW" trackID="1" />
</Connector>
</ConnectorSlice>
</ConnectorSlices>
<Leakages> Define the connectors between contact and messenger wire.
<!-- dropper track 1 -->
<Leakage firstPos_km="0" lastPos_km="9.750" yReal_S_km="1000" yImag_S_km="0">
<ConductorFrom trackID="1" condName="CW" />
<ConductorTo trackID="1" condName="MW" />
</Leakage>
<!-- dropper track 2 -->
<Leakage firstPos_km="9.750" lastPos_km="10.250" yReal_S_km="1000" yImag_S_km="0">
<ConductorFrom trackID="2" condName="CW" />
<ConductorTo trackID="2" condName="MW" />
</Leakage> Define the leakages for both tracks.
<Leakage firstPos_km="0" lastPos_km="9.750" yReal_S_km="0.4" yImag_S_km="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="RL" trackID="1" />
<ConductorTo condName="E" trackID="1" />
</Leakage>
<Leakage firstPos_km="0" lastPos_km="9.750" yReal_S_km="0.4" yImag_S_km="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="RR" trackID="1" />
<ConductorTo condName="E" trackID="1" />
</Leakage>
<Leakage firstPos_km="9.750" lastPos_km="10.250" yReal_S_km="0.4" yImag_S_km="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="RL" trackID="2" />
<ConductorTo condName="E" trackID="1" />
</Leakage>
<Leakage firstPos_km="9.750" lastPos_km="10.250" yReal_S_km="0.4" yImag_S_km="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="RR" trackID="2" />
<ConductorTo condName="E" trackID="1" />
</Leakage>
</Leakages>
</Line>
</Lines> Here, define the connectors between the conductors of track 1 and track 2.
<Connectors recordCurrent="false+sub" recordVoltage="false+sub">
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<Connector name="MW track 1-2, km 9+750" z_real_Ohm="0.000010" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="MW" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="9.750" />
<ConductorTo condName="MW" lineID="A" trackID="2" km="9.750" />
</Connector>
<Connector name="CW track 1-2, km 9+750" z_real_Ohm="0.000010" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="CW" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="9.750" />
<ConductorTo condName="CW" lineID="A" trackID="2" km="9.750" />
</Connector>
<Connector name="RL track 1-2, km 9+750" z_real_Ohm="0.000010" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="RL" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="9.750" />
<ConductorTo condName="RL" lineID="A" trackID="2" km="9.750" />
</Connector>
<Connector name="RR track 1-2, km 9+750" z_real_Ohm="0.000010" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="RR" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="9.750" />
<ConductorTo condName="RR" lineID="A" trackID="2" km="9.750" />
</Connector>
</Connectors>
<Substations>
<Substation name="TSS_05"> Specify the substation at km 5+000 with one rectifier.
<Rectifier name="R1" internalResistance_Ohm="0.01" nomVoltage_kV="3.3"
energyRecovery="false">
<OCSBB bbName="OCS_BB" z_real_Ohm="0.001" z_imag_Ohm="0" />
<RailsBB bbName="Rails_BB" z_real_Ohm="0.001" z_imag_Ohm="0" />
</Rectifier>
<Busbars>
<OCSBB bbName="OCS_BB">
<Connector name="TSS_05_OCS_Feeder" z_real_Ohm="0.001" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<Position condName="CW" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="5" />
</Connector>
<Connector name="TSS_05_LF_Feeder" z_real_Ohm="0.001" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<Position condName="LF" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="5" />
</Connector>
</OCSBB>
<RailsBB bbName="Rails_BB">
<Connector name="TSS_05_Rails_Feeder" z_real_Ohm="0.001" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<Position condName="RR" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="5" />
</Connector>
</RailsBB>
</Busbars>
</Substation>
</Substations>
<Earth condName="E" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="0" />
</Network>
The AC network is defined as follows:
<Network name="B-C" use="true"
voltage_kV="25" Set the nominal voltage and
frequency_Hz="50" the frequency for the AC network.
recordVoltage="true" recordCurrent="true">
<Lines recordCurrent="false+sub" recordVoltage="false+sub">
<Line name="A" maxSliceDistance_km="0.5">
<Conductors> Enter the conductors for track 1 from km 9+750 to km 85+400.
<Conductor condSort="MessengerWire">
<StartPosition condName="MW" trackID="1" km="9.750" />
<ToProperty toPos_km="85.4" equivalentRadius_mm="3.45" r20_Ohm_km="0.2311"
temperature_DegreeCentigrade="20" temperatureCoefficient="0.004" x_m="0" y_m="6.9" />
</Conductor>
<Conductor condSort="ContactWire">
<StartPosition condName="CW" trackID="1" km="9.750" />
<ToProperty toPos_km="85.4" equivalentRadius_mm="3.45" r20_Ohm_km="0.1852"
temperature_DegreeCentigrade="20" temperatureCoefficient="0.00385" x_m="0" y_m="5.3" />
</Conductor>
<Conductor condSort="Rail">
<StartPosition condName="RL" trackID="1" km="9.750" />
<ToProperty toPos_km="85.4" equivalentRadius_mm="38.52" r20_Ohm_km="0.0306"
temperature_DegreeCentigrade="20" temperatureCoefficient="0.004" x_m="-0.75" y_m="0" />
</Conductor>
<Conductor condSort="Rail">
<StartPosition condName="RR" trackID="1" km="9.750" />
<ToProperty toPos_km="85.4" equivalentRadius_mm="38.52" r20_Ohm_km="0.0306"
temperature_DegreeCentigrade="20" temperatureCoefficient="0.004" x_m="0.75" y_m="0" />
</Conductor>
<Conductor condSort="Earth">
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<StartPosition condName="E" trackID="1" km="9.750" />
<ToProperty toPos_km="85.4" equivalentRadius_mm="465000" r20_Ohm_km="0.0494"
temperature_DegreeCentigrade="20" temperatureCoefficient="0" x_m="0" y_m="-465.0" />
</Conductor>
</Conductors>
<ConnectorSlices>
<ConnectorSlice name="rail connector, track 1" firstPos_km="9.750" lastPos_km="85.4"
maxDistance_km="0.25">
<Connector z_real_Ohm="0.00001" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="RL" trackID="1" />
<ConductorTo condName="RR" trackID="1" />
</Connector>
</ConnectorSlice>
</ConnectorSlices>
<Leakages> Define the connectors between contact and messenger wire and
<!-- dropper track 1 -->
<Leakage firstPos_km="9.750" lastPos_km="85.400" yReal_S_km="1000" yImag_S_km="0">
<ConductorFrom trackID="1" condName="CW" />
<ConductorTo trackID="1"condName="MW" />
</Leakage> the leakages for the track.
<Leakage firstPos_km="9.750" lastPos_km="85.4" yReal_S_km="0.4" yImag_S_km="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="RL" trackID="1" />
<ConductorTo condName="E" trackID="1" />
</Leakage>
<Leakage firstPos_km="9.750" lastPos_km="85.4" yReal_S_km="0.4" yImag_S_km="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="RR" trackID="1" />
<ConductorTo condName="E" trackID="1" />
</Leakage>
</Leakages>
</Line>
</Lines>
<Substations> Define the substation at km 45+000 with one two winding transformer.
<Substation name="TSS_45">
<TwoWindingTransformer name="T1" nomPower_MVA="10" nomPrimaryVoltage_kV="115"
nomSecondaryVoltage_kV="27.5" noLoadLosses_kW="6.5" loadLosses_kW="230"
relativeShortCircuitVoltage_percent="10.7" noLoadCurrent_A="0.06">
<OCSBB bbName="OCS_BB" z_real_Ohm="0.001" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<Switch name="TSS_45_T1_OCS" defaultState="close" />
</OCSBB>
<RailsBB bbName="Rails_BB" z_real_Ohm="0.001" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<Switch name="TSS_45_T1_Rails" defaultState="close" />
</RailsBB>
</TwoWindingTransformer>
<Busbars>
<OCSBB bbName="OCS_BB">
<Connector name="TSS_45_OCS_Feeder" z_real_Ohm="0.001" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<Position condName="CW" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="45" />
</Connector>
</OCSBB>
<RailsBB bbName="Rails_BB">
<Connector name="TSS_45_Rails_Feeder" z_real_Ohm="0.001" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<Position condName="RR" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="45" />
</Connector>
</RailsBB>
</Busbars>
</Substation>
</Substations>
<Earth condName="E" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="9.750" />
</Network>
5.8.3.2 Simulation
Run the simulation with the long trains only.
Note: When not using the FULL license, set the time step in OpenTrack to 4 seconds.
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5.8.3.3 Analysis
Vehicle F = f(v), Tutorial AC-DC Networks, long trains, TSS_45
AC-DC, Aggregation Engine, 00 01:00:00 - 100 00:00:00
375
300
225
Tractive Effort [kN]
150
75
0
-75
-150
-225
-300
-375
0.0
22.5
45.0
67.5
90.0
112.5
135.0
157.5
180.0
202.5
225.0
Speed [km/h]
F_requested
F_achieved
Figure 256 The effort of the engines in the DC network and in the AC network.
In the diagram shown in Figure 256 we can see the two different effort versus speed
characteristics. The upper curve belongs to the AC propulsion system and the lower one to
the DC propulsion system.
Vehicle U,I = f(s), Tutorial AC-DC Networks, long trains, TSS_45
AC-DC, Course ABCl_01, Engine 1/1, 01:00:01 - 01:49:12
32,500
29,250
1,800
26,000
1,600
22,750
1,400
19,500
1,200
16,250
1,000
13,000
800
9,750
600
6,500
400
3,250
200
0
0.400
Station C
Current [A]
85+400
TSS_45
9+740
10+250
A/2
9+761
10+257
TSS_05
A/1
Station B
Voltage [V]
0+400
2,000
A/1
0
10.400
20.400
30.400
40.400
50.400
60.400
70.400
80.400
Corridor Position [km]
|U_Panto|
Infeed
I_Panto
Figure 257 The line voltage and current at pantograph of course ABCl_01.
In Figure 257, the curves for voltage and current in both electrical networks are shown. The
line voltage of the two systems is significantly different and the location of the system
separation section can be seen.
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5.8.4 Network with Multiple Lines, Points and Crossings Tutorial
In this tutorial, we will create an OpenTrack infrastructure with two lines and multiple switch
points and one crossing. For the simulation of the electrical power supply, we create a
network with also two lines and 3 substations.
Figure 258 The OpenTrack infrastructure with chainage, line and track names.
Property
Signal
Timetable
Value
km 29+600 track 2: set sight distance to 10000m
Course
Station A
Station B
Station C
ABCl_0100
Start
Stop 300s,
Terminate
01:00:00
track 2
CBAl_0100
Terminate
Stop 600s,
Start
track 1
01:00:00
Stop 60s,
DBAl_1000
Terminate
track 3
ABDl_0110
DBAl_1015
Start
01:10:00
Terminate
Stop 60s,
track 2
Stop 60s,
track 2
Station D
Start
01:00:00,
track 1
Terminate,
track 2
Start
01:15:00,
track 1
Table 26 OpenTrack infrastructure properties and timetable.
Property
Substation
Power system
Line A
km 5+000 & km 25+000
25 kV 50 Hz
Line B
km 25+000
Table 27 OpenPowerNet network properties.
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5.8.4.1 Configuration
5.8.4.1.1 OpenTrack
As the basis, we take the data from the AC tutorial described in chapter 5.1. For
simplification, the tracks to be added have no gradient or radius.
Create the tracks and use the information from Figure 258.
Note: The track names of the crossing and the cross-over are the same as for the main line
tracks.
The electrical network model shall be simplified and the catenary for the crossing tracks and
the cross-over tracks shall not be modelled. Only the main tracks shall have a catenary
model. Therefore, the positions within the crossing and cross-over have to be mapped to the
main tracks. A position is always the triplet of line name, track name and chainage.
Create all paths, routes and itineraries to run the trains as listed in Table 26.
Note: The courses drive on the right track by default!
5.8.4.1.2 OpenPowerNet
We will use the Engine-File and the Project-File from the AC tutorial described in chapter 5.1
as the basis.
5.8.4.1.2.1 *.opnengine File
For this tutorial we do not need to change the *.opnengine file.
5.8.4.1.2.2 Project-File
From the AC tutorial described in chapter 5.1 we will reuse the engine model, the substation
configuration, and the properties of the conductors, connectors, and connector slices. We
need to change the beginning and the end of the conductors and slices.
First define the configuration of line A:
<Line name="A" maxSliceDistance_km="0.5">
<Conductors>
Enter the conductor configuration for track 1.
<Conductor condSort="MessengerWire">
<StartPosition condName="MW" trackID="1" km="0" />
<ToProperty toPos_km="30.4" equivalentRadius_mm="3.45" r20_Ohm_km="0.2311"
temperature_DegreeCentigrade="20" temperatureCoefficient="0.004" x_m="0" y_m="6.9" />
</Conductor>
<Conductor condSort="ContactWire">
<StartPosition condName="CW" trackID="1" km="0" />
<ToProperty toPos_km="30.4" equivalentRadius_mm="3.45" r20_Ohm_km="0.1852"
temperature_DegreeCentigrade="20" temperatureCoefficient="0.00385" x_m="0" y_m="5.3" />
</Conductor>
<Conductor condSort="Rail">
<StartPosition condName="RL" trackID="1" km="0" />
<ToProperty toPos_km="30.4" equivalentRadius_mm="38.52" r20_Ohm_km="0.0306"
temperature_DegreeCentigrade="20" temperatureCoefficient="0.004" x_m="-0.75" y_m="0" />
</Conductor>
<Conductor condSort="Rail">
<StartPosition condName="RR" trackID="1" km="0" />
<ToProperty toPos_km="30.4" equivalentRadius_mm="38.52" r20_Ohm_km="0.0306"
temperature_DegreeCentigrade="20" temperatureCoefficient="0.004" x_m="0.75" y_m="0" />
</Conductor>
This defines the conductor configuration for track 2.
<Conductor condSort="MessengerWire">
<StartPosition condName="MW" trackID="2" km="9.750" />
<ToProperty toPos_km="20.000" equivalentRadius_mm="3.45" r20_Ohm_km="0.2311"
temperature_DegreeCentigrade="20" temperatureCoefficient="0.004" x_m="10" y_m="6.9" />
</Conductor>
<Conductor condSort="ContactWire">
<StartPosition condName="CW" trackID="2" km="9.750" />
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<ToProperty toPos_km="20.000" equivalentRadius_mm="3.45" r20_Ohm_km="0.1852"
temperature_DegreeCentigrade="20" temperatureCoefficient="0.00385" x_m="10" y_m="5.3" />
</Conductor>
<Conductor condSort="Rail">
<StartPosition condName="RL" trackID="2" km="9.750" />
<ToProperty toPos_km="20.000" equivalentRadius_mm="38.52" r20_Ohm_km="0.0306"
temperature_DegreeCentigrade="20" temperatureCoefficient="0.004" x_m="9.25" y_m="0" />
</Conductor>
<Conductor condSort="Rail">
<StartPosition condName="RR" trackID="2" km="9.750" />
<ToProperty toPos_km="20.000" equivalentRadius_mm="38.52" r20_Ohm_km="0.0306"
temperature_DegreeCentigrade="20" temperatureCoefficient="0.004" x_m="10.75" y_m="0" />
</Conductor>
This defines the conductor configuration for track 3.
<Conductor condSort="MessengerWire">
<StartPosition condName="MW" trackID="3" km="9.650" />
<ToProperty toPos_km="20.000" equivalentRadius_mm="3.45" r20_Ohm_km="0.2311"
temperature_DegreeCentigrade="20" temperatureCoefficient="0.004" x_m="20" y_m="6.9" />
</Conductor>
<Conductor condSort="ContactWire">
<StartPosition condName="CW" trackID="3" km="9.650" />
<ToProperty toPos_km="20.000" equivalentRadius_mm="3.45" r20_Ohm_km="0.1852"
temperature_DegreeCentigrade="20" temperatureCoefficient="0.00385" x_m="20" y_m="5.3" />
</Conductor>
<Conductor condSort="Rail">
<StartPosition condName="RL" trackID="3" km="9.650" />
<ToProperty toPos_km="20.000" equivalentRadius_mm="38.52" r20_Ohm_km="0.0306"
temperature_DegreeCentigrade="20" temperatureCoefficient="0.004" x_m="19.25" y_m="0" />
</Conductor>
<Conductor condSort="Rail">
<StartPosition condName="RR" trackID="3" km="9.650" />
<ToProperty toPos_km="20.000" equivalentRadius_mm="38.52" r20_Ohm_km="0.0306"
temperature_DegreeCentigrade="20" temperatureCoefficient="0.004" x_m="20.75" y_m="0" />
</Conductor>
Define the earth conductor.
<Conductor condSort="Earth">
<StartPosition condName="E" trackID="1" km="0" />
<ToProperty toPos_km="30.4" equivalentRadius_mm="465000" r20_Ohm_km="0.0494"
temperature_DegreeCentigrade="20" temperatureCoefficient="0" x_m="0" y_m="-465.0" />
</Conductor>
</Conductors>
<ConnectorSlices>
This is the rail connector configuration for track 1.
<ConnectorSlice name="rail connector, track 1" firstPos_km="0" lastPos_km="30.4"
maxDistance_km="0.25">
<Connector z_real_Ohm="0.00001" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="RL" trackID="1" />
<ConductorTo condName="RR" trackID="1" />
</Connector>
</ConnectorSlice>
This is the rail connector configuration for track 2.
<ConnectorSlice name="rail connector, track 2" firstPos_km="9.750" lastPos_km="20.000"
maxDistance_km="0.25">
<Connector z_real_Ohm="0.00001" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="RL" trackID="2" />
<ConductorTo condName="RR" trackID="2" />
</Connector>
</ConnectorSlice>
This is the rail connector configuration for track 3.
<ConnectorSlice name="rail connector, track 3" firstPos_km="9.650" lastPos_km="20.000"
maxDistance_km="0.25">
<Connector z_real_Ohm="0.00001" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="RL" trackID="3" />
<ConductorTo condName="RR" trackID="3" />
</Connector>
</ConnectorSlice>
</ConnectorSlices>
<Leakages>
<!-- dropper track 1 -->
<Leakage firstPos_km="0" lastPos_km="30.4" yReal_S_km="1000" yImag_S_km="0">
<ConductorFrom trackID="1" condName="CW" />
<ConductorTo trackID="1" condName="MW" />
</Leakage>
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<!-- dropper track 2 -->
<Leakage firstPos_km="9.750" lastPos_km="20.0" yReal_S_km="1000" yImag_S_km="0">
<ConductorFrom trackID="2" condName="CW" />
<ConductorTo trackID="2" condName="MW" />
</Leakage>
<!-- dropper track 3 -->
<Leakage firstPos_km="9.650" lastPos_km="20.0" yReal_S_km="1000" yImag_S_km="0">
<ConductorFrom trackID="3" condName="CW" />
<ConductorTo trackID="3" condName="MW" />
</Leakage>
Define the leakage configuration for track 1.
<Leakage firstPos_km="0" lastPos_km="30.4" yReal_S_km="0.4" yImag_S_km="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="RL" trackID="1" />
<ConductorTo condName="E" trackID="1" />
</Leakage>
<Leakage firstPos_km="0" lastPos_km="30.4" yReal_S_km="0.4" yImag_S_km="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="RR" trackID="1" />
<ConductorTo condName="E" trackID="1" />
</Leakage>
Define the leakage configuration for track 2.
<Leakage firstPos_km="9.750" lastPos_km="20.00" yReal_S_km="0.4" yImag_S_km="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="RL" trackID="2" />
<ConductorTo condName="E" trackID="1" />
</Leakage>
<Leakage firstPos_km="9.750" lastPos_km="20.000" yReal_S_km="0.4" yImag_S_km="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="RR" trackID="2" />
<ConductorTo condName="E" trackID="1" />
</Leakage>
Define the leakage configuration for track 3.
<Leakage firstPos_km="9.650" lastPos_km="20.00" yReal_S_km="0.4" yImag_S_km="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="RL" trackID="3" />
<ConductorTo condName="E" trackID="1" />
</Leakage>
<Leakage firstPos_km="9.650" lastPos_km="20.000" yReal_S_km="0.4" yImag_S_km="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="RR" trackID="3" />
<ConductorTo condName="E" trackID="1" />
</Leakage>
</Leakages>
</Line>
The configuration of line B follows:
<Line name="B" maxSliceDistance_km="0.5">
<Conductors>
Set up the conductor configuration for track 1.
<Conductor condSort="MessengerWire">
<StartPosition condName="MW" trackID="1" km="20" />
<ToProperty toPos_km="30.4" equivalentRadius_mm="3.45" r20_Ohm_km="0.2311"
temperature_DegreeCentigrade="20" temperatureCoefficient="0.004" x_m="0" y_m="6.9" />
</Conductor>
<Conductor condSort="ContactWire">
<StartPosition condName="CW" trackID="1" km="20" />
<ToProperty toPos_km="30.4" equivalentRadius_mm="3.45" r20_Ohm_km="0.1852"
temperature_DegreeCentigrade="20" temperatureCoefficient="0.00385" x_m="0" y_m="5.3" />
</Conductor>
<Conductor condSort="Rail">
<StartPosition condName="RL" trackID="1" km="20" />
<ToProperty toPos_km="30.4" equivalentRadius_mm="38.52" r20_Ohm_km="0.0306"
temperature_DegreeCentigrade="20" temperatureCoefficient="0.004" x_m="-0.75" y_m="0" />
</Conductor>
<Conductor condSort="Rail">
<StartPosition condName="RR" trackID="1" km="20" />
<ToProperty toPos_km="30.4" equivalentRadius_mm="38.52" r20_Ohm_km="0.0306"
temperature_DegreeCentigrade="20" temperatureCoefficient="0.004" x_m="0.75" y_m="0" />
</Conductor>
Set up the conductor configuration for track 2.
<Conductor condSort="MessengerWire">
<StartPosition condName="MW" trackID="2" km="20" />
<ToProperty toPos_km="30.4" equivalentRadius_mm="3.45" r20_Ohm_km="0.2311"
temperature_DegreeCentigrade="20" temperatureCoefficient="0.004" x_m="10" y_m="6.9" />
</Conductor>
<Conductor condSort="ContactWire">
<StartPosition condName="CW" trackID="2" km="20" />
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<ToProperty toPos_km="30.4" equivalentRadius_mm="3.45" r20_Ohm_km="0.1852"
temperature_DegreeCentigrade="20" temperatureCoefficient="0.00385" x_m="10" y_m="5.3" />
</Conductor>
<Conductor condSort="Rail">
<StartPosition condName="RL" trackID="2" km="20" />
<ToProperty toPos_km="30.4" equivalentRadius_mm="38.52" r20_Ohm_km="0.0306"
temperature_DegreeCentigrade="20" temperatureCoefficient="0.004" x_m="9.25" y_m="0" />
</Conductor>
<Conductor condSort="Rail">
<StartPosition condName="RR" trackID="2" km="20" />
<ToProperty toPos_km="30.4" equivalentRadius_mm="38.52" r20_Ohm_km="0.0306"
temperature_DegreeCentigrade="20" temperatureCoefficient="0.004" x_m="10.75" y_m="0" />
</Conductor>
Add the earth conductor.
<Conductor condSort="Earth">
<StartPosition condName="E" trackID="1" km="20" />
<ToProperty toPos_km="30.4" equivalentRadius_mm="465000" r20_Ohm_km="0.0494"
temperature_DegreeCentigrade="20" temperatureCoefficient="0" x_m="0" y_m="-465.0" />
</Conductor>
</Conductors>
<ConnectorSlices>
This is the rail connector configuration for track 1.
<ConnectorSlice name="rail connector, track 1" firstPos_km="20" lastPos_km="30.4"
maxDistance_km="0.25">
<Connector z_real_Ohm="0.00001" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="RL" trackID="1" />
<ConductorTo condName="RR" trackID="1" />
</Connector>
</ConnectorSlice>
This is the rail connector configuration for track 2.
<ConnectorSlice name="rail connector, track 2" firstPos_km="20" lastPos_km="30.4"
maxDistance_km="0.25">
<Connector z_real_Ohm="0.00001" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="RL" trackID="2" />
<ConductorTo condName="RR" trackID="2" />
</Connector>
</ConnectorSlice>
</ConnectorSlices>
<Leakages>
<!-- dropper track 1 -->
<Leakage firstPos_km="20" lastPos_km="30.4" yReal_S_km="1000" yImag_S_km="0">
<ConductorFrom trackID="1" condName="CW" />
<ConductorTo trackID="1" condName="MW" />
</Leakage>
<!-- dropper track 2 -->
<Leakage firstPos_km="20" lastPos_km="30.4" yReal_S_km="1000" yImag_S_km="0">
<ConductorFrom trackID="2" condName="CW" />
<ConductorTo trackID="2" condName="MW" />
</Leakage>
This is the leakage configuration for track 1.
<Leakage firstPos_km="20" lastPos_km="30.4" yReal_S_km="0.4" yImag_S_km="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="RL" trackID="1" />
<ConductorTo condName="E" trackID="1" />
</Leakage>
<Leakage firstPos_km="20" lastPos_km="30.4" yReal_S_km="0.4" yImag_S_km="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="RR" trackID="1" />
<ConductorTo condName="E" trackID="1" />
</Leakage>
This is the leakage configuration for track 2.
<Leakage firstPos_km="20" lastPos_km="30.4" yReal_S_km="0.4" yImag_S_km="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="RL" trackID="2" />
<ConductorTo condName="E" trackID="1" />
</Leakage>
<Leakage firstPos_km="20" lastPos_km="30.4" yReal_S_km="0.4" yImag_S_km="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="RR" trackID="2" />
<ConductorTo condName="E" trackID="1" />
</Leakage>
</Leakages>
</Line>
After the configuration of the conductors for both lines and all tracks, the electrical connection
between the lines and tracks must be configured.
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Define the electrical connection of tracks 1 and 3 at km 9+650.
<Connectors>
<Connector name="MW track 1-3, km 9+650" z_real_Ohm="0.000010" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="MW" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="9.650" />
<ConductorTo condName="MW" lineID="A" trackID="3" km="9.650" />
</Connector>
<Connector name="CW track 1-3, km 9+650" z_real_Ohm="0.000010" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="CW" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="9.650" />
<ConductorTo condName="CW" lineID="A" trackID="3" km="9.650" />
</Connector>
<Connector name="RL track 1-3, km 9+650" z_real_Ohm="0.000010" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="RL" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="9.650" />
<ConductorTo condName="RL" lineID="A" trackID="3" km="9.650" />
</Connector>
<Connector name="RR track 1-3, km 9+650" z_real_Ohm="0.000010" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="RR" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="9.650" />
<ConductorTo condName="RR" lineID="A" trackID="3" km="9.650" />
</Connector>
Define the electrical connection of tracks 1 and 2 at km 9+750.
<Connector name="MW track 1-2, km 9+750" z_real_Ohm="0.000010" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="MW" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="9.750" />
<ConductorTo condName="MW" lineID="A" trackID="2" km="9.750" />
</Connector>
<Connector name="CW track 1-2, km 9+750" z_real_Ohm="0.000010" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="CW" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="9.750" />
<ConductorTo condName="CW" lineID="A" trackID="2" km="9.750" />
</Connector>
<Connector name="RL track 1-2, km 9+750" z_real_Ohm="0.000010" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="RL" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="9.750" />
<ConductorTo condName="RL" lineID="A" trackID="2" km="9.750" />
</Connector>
<Connector name="RR track 1-2, km 9+750" z_real_Ohm="0.000010" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="RR" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="9.750" />
<ConductorTo condName="RR" lineID="A" trackID="2" km="9.750" />
</Connector>
<!-- Define the connections of the rails and the OCS at the change over from track 1 to
track 2 of line A. -->
<Connector name="MW track 1-2, km 10+250" z_real_Ohm="0.000010" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="MW" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="10.250" />
<ConductorTo condName="MW" lineID="A" trackID="2" km="10.250" />
</Connector>
<Connector name="CW track 1-2, km 10+250" z_real_Ohm="0.000010" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="CW" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="10.250" />
<ConductorTo condName="CW" lineID="A" trackID="2" km="10.250" />
</Connector>
<Connector name="RL track 1-2, km 10+250" z_real_Ohm="0.000010" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="RL" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="10.250" />
<ConductorTo condName="RL" lineID="A" trackID="2" km="10.250" />
</Connector>
<Connector name="RR track 1-2, km 10+250" z_real_Ohm="0.000010" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="RR" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="10.250" />
<ConductorTo condName="RR" lineID="A" trackID="2" km="10.250" />
</Connector>
<!-- Define the connections of the rails and the OCS at the crossing. -->
<Connector name="MW track 2-3, km 10+450" z_real_Ohm="0.000010" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="MW" lineID="A" trackID="2" km="10.450" />
<ConductorTo condName="MW" lineID="A" trackID="3" km="10.450" />
</Connector>
<Connector name="CW track 2-3, km 10+450" z_real_Ohm="0.000010" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="CW" lineID="A" trackID="2" km="10.450" />
<ConductorTo condName="CW" lineID="A" trackID="3" km="10.450" />
</Connector>
<Connector name="RL track 2-3, km 10+450" z_real_Ohm="0.000010" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="RL" lineID="A" trackID="2" km="10.450" />
<ConductorTo condName="RL" lineID="A" trackID="3" km="10.450" />
</Connector>
<Connector name="RR track 2-3, km 10+450" z_real_Ohm="0.000010" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="RR" lineID="A" trackID="2" km="10.450" />
<ConductorTo condName="RR" lineID="A" trackID="3" km="10.450" />
</Connector>
<!-- Define the connections of the rails and the OCS at the change over from track 1 to
track 2 of line B. -->
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<Connector name="MW track 1-2, km 29+750" z_real_Ohm="0.000010" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="MW" lineID="B" trackID="1" km="29.750" />
<ConductorTo condName="MW" lineID="B" trackID="2" km="29.750" />
</Connector>
<Connector name="CW track 1-2, km 29+750" z_real_Ohm="0.000010" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="CW" lineID="B" trackID="1" km="29.750" />
<ConductorTo condName="CW" lineID="B" trackID="2" km="29.750" />
</Connector>
<Connector name="RL track 1-2, km 29+750" z_real_Ohm="0.000010" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="RL" lineID="B" trackID="1" km="29.750" />
<ConductorTo condName="RL" lineID="B" trackID="2" km="29.750" />
</Connector>
<Connector name="RR track 1-2, km 29+750" z_real_Ohm="0.000010" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="RR" lineID="B" trackID="1" km="29.750" />
<ConductorTo condName="RR" lineID="B" trackID="2" km="29.750" />
</Connector>
<!—- Set up the connection between the lines A and B. -->
<Connector name="MW track A 2 - B 1" z_real_Ohm="0.000010" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="MW" lineID="A" trackID="2" km="20" />
<ConductorTo condName="MW" lineID="B" trackID="1" km="20" />
</Connector>
<Connector name="CW track A 2 - B 1" z_real_Ohm="0.000010" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="CW" lineID="A" trackID="2" km="20" />
<ConductorTo condName="CW" lineID="B" trackID="1" km="20" />
</Connector>
<Connector name="RL track A 2 - B 1" z_real_Ohm="0.000010" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="RL" lineID="A" trackID="2" km="20" />
<ConductorTo condName="RL" lineID="B" trackID="1" km="20" />
</Connector>
<Connector name="RR track A 2 - B 1" z_real_Ohm="0.000010" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="RR" lineID="A" trackID="2" km="20" />
<ConductorTo condName="RR" lineID="B" trackID="1" km="20" />
</Connector>
<Connector name="E track 1, Line A - B" z_real_Ohm="0.000010" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="E" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="20" />
<ConductorTo condName="E" lineID="B" trackID="1" km="20" />
</Connector>
<Connector name="MW track A 3 - B 2" z_real_Ohm="0.000010" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="MW" lineID="A" trackID="3" km="20" />
<ConductorTo condName="MW" lineID="B" trackID="2" km="20" />
</Connector>
<Connector name="CW track A 3 - B 2" z_real_Ohm="0.000010" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="CW" lineID="A" trackID="3" km="20" />
<ConductorTo condName="CW" lineID="B" trackID="2" km="20" />
</Connector>
<Connector name="RL track A 3 - B 2" z_real_Ohm="0.000010" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="RL" lineID="A" trackID="3" km="20" />
<ConductorTo condName="RL" lineID="B" trackID="2" km="20" />
</Connector>
<Connector name="RR track A 3 - B 2" z_real_Ohm="0.000010" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="RR" lineID="A" trackID="3" km="20" />
<ConductorTo condName="RR" lineID="B" trackID="2" km="20" />
</Connector>
</Connectors>
Lastly follows the configuration of the substations TSS_05, TSS_A_25 and TSS_B_25:
<Substations>
<Substation name="TSS_05">
<TwoWindingTransformer name="T1" nomPower_MVA="10" nomPrimaryVoltage_kV="115"
nomSecondaryVoltage_kV="27.5" noLoadLosses_kW="6.5" loadLosses_kW="230"
relativeShortCircuitVoltage_percent="10.7" noLoadCurrent_A="0.06">
<OCSBB bbName="OCS_BB" z_real_Ohm="0.001" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<Switch name="TSS_05_T1_OCS" defaultState="close" />
</OCSBB>
<RailsBB bbName="Rails_BB" z_real_Ohm="0.001" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<Switch name="TSS_05_T1_Rails" defaultState="close" />
</RailsBB>
</TwoWindingTransformer>
<Busbars>
<OCSBB bbName="OCS_BB">
<Connector name="TSS_05_OCS_Feeder" z_real_Ohm="0.001" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<Position condName="CW" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="5" />
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</Connector>
</OCSBB>
<RailsBB bbName="Rails_BB">
<Connector name="TSS_05_Rails_Feeder" z_real_Ohm="0.001" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<Position condName="RR" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="5" />
</Connector>
</RailsBB>
</Busbars>
</Substation>
<Substation name="TSS_A_25">
<TwoWindingTransformer name="T1" nomPower_MVA="10" nomPrimaryVoltage_kV="115"
nomSecondaryVoltage_kV="27.5" noLoadLosses_kW="6.5" loadLosses_kW="230"
relativeShortCircuitVoltage_percent="10.7" noLoadCurrent_A="0.06">
<OCSBB bbName="OCS_BB" z_real_Ohm="0.001" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<Switch name="TSS_A_25_T1_OCS" defaultState="close" />
</OCSBB>
<RailsBB bbName="Rails_BB" z_real_Ohm="0.001" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<Switch name="TSS_A_25_T1_Rails" defaultState="close" />
</RailsBB>
</TwoWindingTransformer>
<Busbars>
<OCSBB bbName="OCS_BB">
<Connector name="TSS_A_25_OCS_Feeder" z_real_Ohm="0.001" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<Position condName="CW" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="25" />
</Connector>
</OCSBB>
<RailsBB bbName="Rails_BB">
<Connector name="TSS_A_25_Rails_Feeder" z_real_Ohm="0.001" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<Position condName="RR" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="25" />
</Connector>
</RailsBB>
</Busbars>
</Substation>
<Substation name="TSS_B_25">
<TwoWindingTransformer name="T1" nomPower_MVA="10" nomPrimaryVoltage_kV="115"
nomSecondaryVoltage_kV="27.5" noLoadLosses_kW="6.5" loadLosses_kW="230"
relativeShortCircuitVoltage_percent="10.7" noLoadCurrent_A="0.06">
<OCSBB bbName="OCS_BB" z_real_Ohm="0.001" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<Switch name="TSS_B_25_T1_OCS" defaultState="close" />
</OCSBB>
<RailsBB bbName="Rails_BB" z_real_Ohm="0.001" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<Switch name="TSS_B_25_T1_Rails" defaultState="close" />
</RailsBB>
</TwoWindingTransformer>
<Busbars>
<OCSBB bbName="OCS_BB">
<Connector name="TSS_B_25_OCS_Feeder" z_real_Ohm="0.001" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<Position condName="CW" lineID="B" trackID="1" km="25" />
</Connector>
</OCSBB>
<RailsBB bbName="Rails_BB">
<Connector name="TSS_B_25_Rails_Feeder" z_real_Ohm="0.001" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<Position condName="RR" lineID="B" trackID="1" km="25" />
</Connector>
</RailsBB>
</Busbars>
</Substation>
</Substations>
5.8.4.2 Simulation
To check the timetable and correct configuration of OpenTrack, the first simulation run shall
be done without using OpenPowerNet. Go in OpenTrack to Info => OpenPowerNet
Settings and deselect “Use OpenPowerNet”.
The train graphs shall look like in Figure 259 and Figure 260.
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Figure 259 The train graph from station A to C.
Figure 260 The train graph from station A to D.
Note: When not using the FULL license, set the time step in OpenTrack to 4 seconds.
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5.8.4.3 Analysis
For the analysis we will use the Selection-File. To analyse the vehicles we have to define
corridors. To analyse the corridor from passenger station A via B to D we have to define a
corridor as see in Figure 261. Note the limitation of the chainage on line A!
Figure 261 The definition of a corridor spanning two lines.
For the definition of the vehicle selection we shall use the above defined corridor. To analyse
only the courses running the whole corridor we add a filter ".*D.*" this filter selects all courses
containing "D", as seen in the right table in Figure 262.
Figure 262 A vehicle selection with filter.
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Vehicle U,I = f(t), Tutorial lines points crossings, 5 long trains, record all U & I
A-D, Course ABDl_1010, Engine 1/1, 01:10:01 - 01:32:13
31,000
29+832
29+858
B/1
30+400
220.0
26,500
192.5
25,000
165.0
23,500
137.5
22,000
110.0
20,500
82.5
19,000
55.0
17,500
27.5
16,000
01:10:01
Station D
Current [A]
247.5
28,000
Station B
Voltage [V]
29,500
B/2
TSS_B_25
20+000
20+000
A/3
10+400
10+416
TSS_05
A/2
9+746
9+767
0+400
275.0
A/1
0.0
01:12:31
01:15:01
01:17:31
01:20:01
01:22:31
01:25:01
U_tol (EN 50163)
Infeed
01:27:31
01:30:01
Time
|U_Panto|
U_nom
I_Panto
Figure 263 The time and chainage of course ABDl_1010 with track change from line A to line B is indicated at the
upper edge of the diagram, see the green ellipse.
In Figure 263, we can see the change of course ABDl_1010 from line A to line B at about
1:27:30 h.
The coupling of the conductors is only calculated for each line and there is no coupling
between different lines. The difference for track 1 can be seen on the conductors of the left
track in Figure 264 and Figure 265. These figures where created using the Automatic
Analysis tool, please refer to chapter 0 for the handling instructions.
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Figure 264 The magnetic field at line A, km 19+950 at 01:17:40 h.
Figure 265 The magnetic field at line A km 20+125 at 01:17:40 h.
5.8.5 Turning Loops Tutorial
In this tutorial, we will compare the effect of a wrong and a correct configuration for turning
loops. Turning loops are typical for tram networks but also for other railway systems. They
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have to be modelled as a virtual double track line. The wrong configuration may run, but will
produce incorrect results for OpenTrack and/or for OpenPowerNet.
We will use the 25 kV 50 Hz power supply system with one substation at km 5+000. The line
shall be about 25km long and it shall have 3 stations.
Two courses shall run as described in Table 28:
Course
ABCl_01
CBAl_01
Station A
Start 01:00:00,
track 1
Terminate track 1
loop via track 2
Station B
Stop 60 s, track 2
Station C
Terminate
Stop 60 s, track 1
Start 01:00:00
Table 28 Timetable of courses in the loops tutorial.
5.8.5.1 Configuration
5.8.5.1.1 OpenTrack
As the basis for the infrastructure, we take the data from the AC tutorial described in chapter
5.1. We need to add the loop and change the chainage according to Figure 266 and Figure
267.
Figure 266 The wrong OpenTrack infrastructure configuration of the loop tracks.
Figure 267 The correct OpenTrack infrastructure configuration of the loop tracks.
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After the configuration of the infrastructure, create new paths, routes, itineraries, and courses
according to Table 28.
5.8.5.1.2 OpenPowerNet
5.8.5.1.2.1 *.opnengine File
The engine file is the same as in the AC tutorial described in chapter 5.1.
5.8.5.1.2.2 Project-File
According to the infrastructure defined in OpenTrack we need to configure the electrical
network in OpenPowerNet.
Figure 268 The wrong OpenPowerNet network configuration.
First, the wrong electrical network shall be configured as follows:
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<OpenPowerNet xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
xsi:noNamespaceSchemaLocation="http://www.openpowernet.de/schemas/OpenPowerNet.xsd"
name="Network Tutorial - Loop"
comment="wrong"
maxIterations="1000"
maxFailedIterations="100"
odbcDsn="pscresults"
record2DB="true"
rstFile="Engine.opnengine"
simulationStart_s="3600">
<ATM>
<Vehicles>
<Vehicle eddyCurrentBrake="false" engineID="Engine1">
<Propulsion engine="electric" supply="AC 25kV 50Hz" brakeCurrentLimitation="none"
tractiveCurrentLimitation="none" useAuxPower="true" fourQuadrantChopperPhi="none"
regenerativeBrake="maxPower/maxEffort" tractiveEffort="maxPower/maxTractEffort">
<MeanEfficiency />
</Propulsion>
</Vehicle>
</Vehicles>
<Options tolerance_A="1" maxIterations="1000" record2DB="true" />
</ATM>
<PSC>
<Network name="A-C" use="true" voltage_kV="25" frequency_Hz="50" recordVoltage="true"
recordCurrent="true">
<Lines>
<Line name="A" maxSliceDistance_km="0.5">
The configuration of the conductors is done as follows:
<Conductors>
Define the conductors for track 1,
<Conductor condSort="MessengerWire">
<StartPosition condName="MW" trackID="1" km="0" />
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<ToProperty toPos_km="25.4" equivalentRadius_mm="3.45" r20_Ohm_km="0.2311"
temperature_DegreeCentigrade="20" temperatureCoefficient="0.004" x_m="0" y_m="6.9" />
</Conductor>
<Conductor condSort="ContactWire">
<StartPosition condName="CW" trackID="1" km="0" />
<ToProperty toPos_km="25.4" equivalentRadius_mm="3.45" r20_Ohm_km="0.1852"
temperature_DegreeCentigrade="20" temperatureCoefficient="0.00385" x_m="0" y_m="5.3" />
</Conductor>
<Conductor condSort="Rail">
<StartPosition condName="RL" trackID="1" km="0" />
<ToProperty toPos_km="25.4" equivalentRadius_mm="38.52" r20_Ohm_km="0.0306"
temperature_DegreeCentigrade="20" temperatureCoefficient="0.004" x_m="-0.75" y_m="0" />
</Conductor>
<Conductor condSort="Rail">
<StartPosition condName="RR" trackID="1" km="0" />
<ToProperty toPos_km="25.4" equivalentRadius_mm="38.52" r20_Ohm_km="0.0306"
temperature_DegreeCentigrade="20" temperatureCoefficient="0.004" x_m="0.75" y_m="0" />
</Conductor>
the conductors for track 2 in station A, and
<Conductor condSort="MessengerWire">
<StartPosition condName="MW" trackID="2" km="0" />
<ToProperty toPos_km="0.250" equivalentRadius_mm="3.45" r20_Ohm_km="0.2311"
temperature_DegreeCentigrade="20" temperatureCoefficient="0.004" x_m="10" y_m="6.9" />
</Conductor>
<Conductor condSort="ContactWire">
<StartPosition condName="CW" trackID="2" km="0" />
<ToProperty toPos_km="0.250" equivalentRadius_mm="3.45" r20_Ohm_km="0.1852"
temperature_DegreeCentigrade="20" temperatureCoefficient="0.00385" x_m="10" y_m="5.3" />
</Conductor>
<Conductor condSort="Rail">
<StartPosition condName="RL" trackID="2" km="0" />
<ToProperty toPos_km="0.250" equivalentRadius_mm="38.52" r20_Ohm_km="0.0306"
temperature_DegreeCentigrade="20" temperatureCoefficient="0.004" x_m="9.25" y_m="0" />
</Conductor>
<Conductor condSort="Rail">
<StartPosition condName="RR" trackID="2" km="0" />
<ToProperty toPos_km="0.250" equivalentRadius_mm="38.52" r20_Ohm_km="0.0306"
temperature_DegreeCentigrade="20" temperatureCoefficient="0.004" x_m="10.75" y_m="0" />
</Conductor>
and the conductors for track 2 in station B.
<Conductor condSort="MessengerWire">
<StartPosition condName="MW" trackID="2" km="9.750" />
<ToProperty toPos_km="10.250" equivalentRadius_mm="3.45" r20_Ohm_km="0.2311"
temperature_DegreeCentigrade="20" temperatureCoefficient="0.004" x_m="10" y_m="6.9" />
</Conductor>
<Conductor condSort="ContactWire">
<StartPosition condName="CW" trackID="2" km="9.750" />
<ToProperty toPos_km="10.250" equivalentRadius_mm="3.45" r20_Ohm_km="0.1852"
temperature_DegreeCentigrade="20" temperatureCoefficient="0.00385" x_m="10" y_m="5.3" />
</Conductor>
<Conductor condSort="Rail">
<StartPosition condName="RL" trackID="2" km="9.750" />
<ToProperty toPos_km="10.250" equivalentRadius_mm="38.52" r20_Ohm_km="0.0306"
temperature_DegreeCentigrade="20" temperatureCoefficient="0.004" x_m="9.25" y_m="0" />
</Conductor>
<Conductor condSort="Rail">
<StartPosition condName="RR" trackID="2" km="9.750" />
<ToProperty toPos_km="10.250" equivalentRadius_mm="38.52" r20_Ohm_km="0.0306"
temperature_DegreeCentigrade="20" temperatureCoefficient="0.004" x_m="10.75" y_m="0" />
</Conductor>
<Conductor condSort="Earth">
<StartPosition condName="E" trackID="1" km="0" />
<ToProperty toPos_km="25.4" equivalentRadius_mm="465000" r20_Ohm_km="0.0494"
temperature_DegreeCentigrade="20" temperatureCoefficient="0" x_m="0" y_m="-465.0" />
</Conductor>
</Conductors>
<ConnectorSlice name="rail connector, track 1, station A" firstPos_km="0"
lastPos_km="1" maxDistance_km="0.05">
<Connector z_real_Ohm="0.00001" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="RL" trackID="1" />
<ConductorTo condName="RR" trackID="1" />
</Connector>
</ConnectorSlice>
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<ConnectorSlice name="rail connector, track 1, outside station A"
firstPos_km="1.2" lastPos_km="25.4" maxDistance_km="0.2">
<Connector z_real_Ohm="0.00001" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="RL" trackID="1" />
<ConductorTo condName="RR" trackID="1" />
</Connector>
</ConnectorSlice>
<ConnectorSlice name="rail connector, track 2, station A" firstPos_km="0"
lastPos_km="0.250" maxDistance_km="0.05">
<Connector z_real_Ohm="0.00001" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="RL" trackID="2" />
<ConductorTo condName="RR" trackID="2" />
</Connector>
</ConnectorSlice>
<ConnectorSlice name="rail connector, track 2, station B" firstPos_km="9.800"
lastPos_km="10.200" maxDistance_km="0.1">
<Connector z_real_Ohm="0.00001" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="RL" trackID="2" />
<ConductorTo condName="RR" trackID="2" />
</Connector>
</ConnectorSlice>
</ConnectorSlices>
The definition of the leakages follows.
<Leakages>
<!-- dropper track 1 -->
<Leakage firstPos_km="0" lastPos_km="25.4" yReal_S_km="1000">
<ConductorFrom condName="MW" trackID="1" />
<ConductorTo condName="CW" trackID="1" />
</Leakage>
<!-- dropper track 2 -->
<Leakage firstPos_km="0" lastPos_km="0.250" yReal_S_km="1000">
<ConductorFrom condName="MW" trackID="2" />
<ConductorTo condName="CW" trackID="2" />
</Leakage>
<Leakage firstPos_km="9.800" lastPos_km="10.200" yReal_S_km="1000">
<ConductorFrom condName="MW" trackID="2" />
<ConductorTo condName="CW" trackID="2" />
</Leakage>
<Leakage firstPos_km="0" lastPos_km="25.4" yReal_S_km="0.4" yImag_S_km="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="RL" trackID="1" />
<ConductorTo condName="E" trackID="1" />
</Leakage>
<Leakage firstPos_km="0" lastPos_km="25.4" yReal_S_km="0.4" yImag_S_km="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="RR" trackID="1" />
<ConductorTo condName="E" trackID="1" />
</Leakage>
Define the leakages of Track 2 in station A.
<Leakage firstPos_km="0" lastPos_km="0.250" yReal_S_km="0.4" yImag_S_km="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="RL" trackID="2" />
<ConductorTo condName="E" trackID="1" />
</Leakage>
<Leakage firstPos_km="0" lastPos_km="0.250" yReal_S_km="0.4" yImag_S_km="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="RR" trackID="2" />
<ConductorTo condName="E" trackID="1" />
</Leakage>
Define the leakages of Track 2 in station B.
<Leakage firstPos_km="9.750" lastPos_km="10.250" yReal_S_km="0.4" yImag_S_km="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="RL" trackID="2" />
<ConductorTo condName="E" trackID="1" />
</Leakage>
<Leakage firstPos_km="9.750" lastPos_km="10.250" yReal_S_km="0.4" yImag_S_km="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="RR" trackID="2" />
<ConductorTo condName="E" trackID="1" />
</Leakage>
</Leakages>
</Line>
</Lines>
Specify the connectors used to connect the conductors of the tracks.
<Connectors>
<Connector name="MW track 1 km 0+000 to track 2 km 0+000" z_real_Ohm="0.000010"
z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="MW" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="0" />
<ConductorTo condName="MW" lineID="A" trackID="2" km="0" />
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</Connector>
<Connector name="CW track 1 km 0+000 to track 2 km 0+000" z_real_Ohm="0.000010"
z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="CW" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="0" />
<ConductorTo condName="CW" lineID="A" trackID="2" km="0" />
</Connector>
<Connector name="RL track 1 km 0+000 to track 2 km 0+000" z_real_Ohm="0.000010"
z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="RL" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="0" />
<ConductorTo condName="RL" lineID="A" trackID="2" km="0" />
</Connector>
<Connector name="RR track 1 km 0+000 to track 2 km 0+000" z_real_Ohm="0.000010"
z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="RR" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="0" />
<ConductorTo condName="RR" lineID="A" trackID="2" km="0" />
</Connector>
<Connector name="MW track 1 km 0+650 to track 2 km 0+250" z_real_Ohm="0.000010"
z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="MW" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="0.650" />
<ConductorTo condName="MW" lineID="A" trackID="2" km="0.250" />
</Connector>
<Connector name="CW track 1 km 0+650 to track 2 km 0+250" z_real_Ohm="0.000010"
z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="CW" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="0.650" />
<ConductorTo condName="CW" lineID="A" trackID="2" km="0.250" />
</Connector>
<Connector name="RL track 1 km 0+650 to track 2 km 0+250" z_real_Ohm="0.000010"
z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="RL" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="0.650" />
<ConductorTo condName="RL" lineID="A" trackID="2" km="0.250" />
</Connector>
<Connector name="RR track 1 km 0+650 to track 2 km 0+250" z_real_Ohm="0.000010"
z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="RR" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="0.650" />
<ConductorTo condName="RR" lineID="A" trackID="2" km="0.250" />
</Connector>
<Connector name="MW track 1-2, km 9+750" z_real_Ohm="0.000010" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="MW" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="9.750" />
<ConductorTo condName="MW" lineID="A" trackID="2" km="9.750" />
</Connector>
<Connector name="CW track 1-2, km 9+750" z_real_Ohm="0.000010" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="CW" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="9.750" />
<ConductorTo condName="CW" lineID="A" trackID="2" km="9.750" />
</Connector>
<Connector name="RL track 1-2, km 9+750" z_real_Ohm="0.000010" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="RL" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="9.750" />
<ConductorTo condName="RL" lineID="A" trackID="2" km="9.750" />
</Connector>
<Connector name="RR track 1-2, km 9+750" z_real_Ohm="0.000010" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="RR" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="9.750" />
<ConductorTo condName="RR" lineID="A" trackID="2" km="9.750" />
</Connector>
<Connector name="MW track 1-2, km 10+250" z_real_Ohm="0.000010" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="MW" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="10.250" />
<ConductorTo condName="MW" lineID="A" trackID="2" km="10.250" />
</Connector>
<Connector name="CW track 1-2, km 10+250" z_real_Ohm="0.000010" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="CW" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="10.250" />
<ConductorTo condName="CW" lineID="A" trackID="2" km="10.250" />
</Connector>
<Connector name="RL track 1-2, km 10+250" z_real_Ohm="0.000010" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="RL" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="10.250" />
<ConductorTo condName="RL" lineID="A" trackID="2" km="10.250" />
</Connector>
<Connector name="RR track 1-2, km 10+250" z_real_Ohm="0.000010" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="RR" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="10.250" />
<ConductorTo condName="RR" lineID="A" trackID="2" km="10.250" />
</Connector>
</Connectors>
Define the substation at km 5+000.
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<Substations>
<Substation name="TSS_05">
<TwoWindingTransformer name="T1" nomPower_MVA="10" nomPrimaryVoltage_kV="115"
nomSecondaryVoltage_kV="27.5" noLoadLosses_kW="6.5" loadLosses_kW="230"
relativeShortCircuitVoltage_percent="10.7" noLoadCurrent_A="0.06">
<OCSBB bbName="OCS_BB_1" z_real_Ohm="0.001" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<Switch name="TSS_05_T1_OCS" defaultState="close" />
</OCSBB>
<RailsBB bbName="Rails_BB_1" z_real_Ohm="0.001" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<Switch name="TSS_05_T1_Rails" defaultState="close" />
</RailsBB>
</TwoWindingTransformer>
<Busbars>
<OCSBB bbName="OCS_BB_1">
<Connector name="TSS_05_OCS_Feeder" z_real_Ohm="0.001" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<Position condName="CW" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="5" />
<Switch defaultState="close" name="TSS_05_OCS_Feeder_5.0" />
</Connector>
</OCSBB>
<RailsBB bbName="Rails_BB_1">
<Connector name="TSS_05_Rails_Feeder" z_real_Ohm="0.001" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<Position condName="RL" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="5" />
<Switch defaultState="close" name="TSS_05_Rails_Feeder_5.0" />
</Connector>
</RailsBB>
</Busbars>
</Substation>
</Substations>
<Earth condName="E" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="0" />
</Network>
<Options tolerance_grad="0.001" tolerance_V="1" tolerance_A="1" maxIncreaseCount="10000"
discreteEngine="true" maxCurrentAngleIteration="1000" />
</PSC>
</OpenPowerNet>
Figure 269 The correct OpenPowerNet network configuration.
The correct electrical network is shown in Figure 269 and shall be configured as follows:
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<OpenPowerNet
xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
xsi:noNamespaceSchemaLocation="http://www.openpowernet.de/schemas/OpenPowerNet.xsd"
name="Network Tutorial - Loop"
comment="correct"
maxIterations="1000"
maxFailedIterations="100"
odbcDsn="pscresults"
record2DB="true"
rstFile="Engine.opnengine"
simulationStart_s="3600">
<ATM>
<Vehicles>
<Vehicle eddyCurrentBrake="false" engineID="Engine1">
<Propulsion engine="electric" supply="AC 25kV 50Hz" brakeCurrentLimitation="none"
tractiveCurrentLimitation="none" useAuxPower="true" fourQuadrantChopperPhi="none"
regenerativeBrake="maxPower/maxEffort" tractiveEffort="maxPower/maxTractEffort">
<MeanEfficiency />
</Propulsion>
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</Vehicle>
</Vehicles>
<Options tolerance_A="1" maxIterations="1000" record2DB="true" />
</ATM>
<PSC>
<Network name="A-C" use="true" voltage_kV="25" frequency_Hz="50" recordVoltage="true"
recordCurrent="true">
<Lines>
<Line name="A" maxSliceDistance_km="0.5">
The configuration of the conductors follows.
<Conductors>
Define the conductors for track 1.
<Conductor condSort="MessengerWire">
<StartPosition condName="MW" trackID="1" km="0.2" />
<ToProperty toPos_km="25.4" equivalentRadius_mm="3.45" r20_Ohm_km="0.2311"
temperature_DegreeCentigrade="20" temperatureCoefficient="0.004" x_m="0" y_m="6.9" />
</Conductor>
<Conductor condSort="ContactWire">
<StartPosition condName="CW" trackID="1" km="0.2" />
<ToProperty toPos_km="25.4" equivalentRadius_mm="3.45" r20_Ohm_km="0.1852"
temperature_DegreeCentigrade="20" temperatureCoefficient="0.00385" x_m="0" y_m="5.3" />
</Conductor>
<Conductor condSort="Rail">
<StartPosition condName="RL" trackID="1" km="0.2" />
<ToProperty toPos_km="25.4" equivalentRadius_mm="38.52" r20_Ohm_km="0.0306"
temperature_DegreeCentigrade="20" temperatureCoefficient="0.004" x_m="-0.75" y_m="0" />
</Conductor>
<Conductor condSort="Rail">
<StartPosition condName="RR" trackID="1" km="0.2" />
<ToProperty toPos_km="25.4" equivalentRadius_mm="38.52" r20_Ohm_km="0.0306"
temperature_DegreeCentigrade="20" temperatureCoefficient="0.004" x_m="0.75" y_m="0" />
</Conductor>
Define the conductors for track 2 in station A.
<Conductor condSort="MessengerWire">
<StartPosition condName="MW" trackID="2" km="0.2" />
<ToProperty toPos_km="0.650" equivalentRadius_mm="3.45" r20_Ohm_km="0.2311"
temperature_DegreeCentigrade="20" temperatureCoefficient="0.004" x_m="10" y_m="6.9" />
</Conductor>
<Conductor condSort="ContactWire">
<StartPosition condName="CW" trackID="2" km="0.2" />
<ToProperty toPos_km="0.650" equivalentRadius_mm="3.45" r20_Ohm_km="0.1852"
temperature_DegreeCentigrade="20" temperatureCoefficient="0.00385" x_m="10" y_m="5.3" />
</Conductor>
<Conductor condSort="Rail">
<StartPosition condName="RL" trackID="2" km="0.2" />
<ToProperty toPos_km="0.650" equivalentRadius_mm="38.52" r20_Ohm_km="0.0306"
temperature_DegreeCentigrade="20" temperatureCoefficient="0.004" x_m="9.25" y_m="0" />
</Conductor>
<Conductor condSort="Rail">
<StartPosition condName="RR" trackID="2" km="0.2" />
<ToProperty toPos_km="0.650" equivalentRadius_mm="38.52" r20_Ohm_km="0.0306"
temperature_DegreeCentigrade="20" temperatureCoefficient="0.004" x_m="10.75" y_m="0" />
</Conductor>
Define the conductors for track 2 in station B.
<Conductor condSort="MessengerWire">
<StartPosition condName="MW" trackID="2" km="9.750" />
<ToProperty toPos_km="10.250" equivalentRadius_mm="3.45" r20_Ohm_km="0.2311"
temperature_DegreeCentigrade="20" temperatureCoefficient="0.004" x_m="10" y_m="6.9" />
</Conductor>
<Conductor condSort="ContactWire">
<StartPosition condName="CW" trackID="2" km="9.750" />
<ToProperty toPos_km="10.250" equivalentRadius_mm="3.45" r20_Ohm_km="0.1852"
temperature_DegreeCentigrade="20" temperatureCoefficient="0.00385" x_m="10" y_m="5.3" />
</Conductor>
<Conductor condSort="Rail">
<StartPosition condName="RL" trackID="2" km="9.750" />
<ToProperty toPos_km="10.250" equivalentRadius_mm="38.52" r20_Ohm_km="0.0306"
temperature_DegreeCentigrade="20" temperatureCoefficient="0.004" x_m="9.25" y_m="0" />
</Conductor>
<Conductor condSort="Rail">
<StartPosition condName="RR" trackID="2" km="9.750" />
<ToProperty toPos_km="10.250" equivalentRadius_mm="38.52" r20_Ohm_km="0.0306"
temperature_DegreeCentigrade="20" temperatureCoefficient="0.004" x_m="10.75" y_m="0" />
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</Conductor>
<Conductor condSort="Earth">
<StartPosition condName="E" trackID="1" km="0.2" />
<ToProperty toPos_km="25.4" equivalentRadius_mm="465000" r20_Ohm_km="0.0494"
temperature_DegreeCentigrade="20" temperatureCoefficient="0" x_m="0" y_m="-465.0" />
</Conductor>
</Conductors>
<ConnectorSlices>
<ConnectorSlice name="rail connector, track 1, station A" firstPos_km="0.2"
lastPos_km="1" maxDistance_km="0.05">
<Connector z_real_Ohm="0.00001" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="RL" trackID="1" />
<ConductorTo condName="RR" trackID="1" />
</Connector>
</ConnectorSlice>
<ConnectorSlice name="rail connector, track 1, outside station A"
firstPos_km="1.2" lastPos_km="25.4" maxDistance_km="0.2">
<Connector z_real_Ohm="0.00001" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="RL" trackID="1" />
<ConductorTo condName="RR" trackID="1" />
</Connector>
</ConnectorSlice>
<ConnectorSlice name="rail connector, track 2, station A" firstPos_km="0.2"
lastPos_km="0.650" maxDistance_km="0.05">
<Connector z_real_Ohm="0.00001" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="RL" trackID="2" />
<ConductorTo condName="RR" trackID="2" />
</Connector>
</ConnectorSlice>
<ConnectorSlice name="rail connector, track 2, station B" firstPos_km="9.800"
lastPos_km="10.200" maxDistance_km="0.1">
<Connector z_real_Ohm="0.00001" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="RL" trackID="2" />
<ConductorTo condName="RR" trackID="2" />
</Connector>
</ConnectorSlice>
</ConnectorSlices>
Define the configuration of the leakages.
<Leakages>
<!-- dropper track 1 -->
<Leakage firstPos_km="0.2" lastPos_km="25.4" yReal_S_km="1000">
<ConductorFrom condName="MW" trackID="1" />
<ConductorTo condName="CW" trackID="1" />
</Leakage>
<!-- dropper track 2 -->
<Leakage firstPos_km="0.2" lastPos_km="0.650" yReal_S_km="1000">
<ConductorFrom condName="MW" trackID="2" />
<ConductorTo condName="CW" trackID="2" />
</Leakage>
<Leakage firstPos_km="9.800" lastPos_km="10.200" yReal_S_km="1000">
<ConductorFrom condName="MW" trackID="2" />
<ConductorTo condName="CW" trackID="2" />
</Leakage>
Set up the Leakage of track 1 in station A.
<Leakage firstPos_km="0.2" lastPos_km="25.4" yReal_S_km="0.4" yImag_S_km="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="RL" trackID="1" />
<ConductorTo condName="E" trackID="1" />
</Leakage>
<Leakage firstPos_km="0.2" lastPos_km="25.4" yReal_S_km="0.4" yImag_S_km="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="RR" trackID="1" />
<ConductorTo condName="E" trackID="1" />
</Leakage>
Set up the Leakage of track 2 in station A.
<Leakage firstPos_km="0.2" lastPos_km="0.650" yReal_S_km="0.4" yImag_S_km="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="RL" trackID="2" />
<ConductorTo condName="E" trackID="1" />
</Leakage>
<Leakage firstPos_km="0.2" lastPos_km="0.650" yReal_S_km="0.4" yImag_S_km="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="RR" trackID="2" />
<ConductorTo condName="E" trackID="1" />
</Leakage>
Set up the Leakage of track 2 in station B.
<Leakage firstPos_km="9.750" lastPos_km="10.250" yReal_S_km="0.4" yImag_S_km="0">
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<ConductorFrom condName="RL" trackID="2" />
<ConductorTo condName="E" trackID="1" />
</Leakage>
<Leakage firstPos_km="9.750" lastPos_km="10.250" yReal_S_km="0.4" yImag_S_km="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="RR" trackID="2" />
<ConductorTo condName="E" trackID="1" />
</Leakage>
</Leakages>
</Line>
</Lines>
Define the connectors used to connect the conductors of the tracks.
<Connectors>
<Connector name="MW track 1-2, km 0+200" z_real_Ohm="0.000010" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="MW" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="0.200" />
<ConductorTo condName="MW" lineID="A" trackID="2" km="0.200" />
</Connector>
<Connector name="CW track 1-2, km 0+200" z_real_Ohm="0.000010" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="CW" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="0.200" />
<ConductorTo condName="CW" lineID="A" trackID="2" km="0.200" />
</Connector>
<Connector name="RL track 1-2, km 0+200" z_real_Ohm="0.000010" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="RL" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="0.200" />
<ConductorTo condName="RL" lineID="A" trackID="2" km="0.200" />
</Connector>
<Connector name="RR track 1-2, km 0+200" z_real_Ohm="0.000010" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="RR" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="0.200" />
<ConductorTo condName="RR" lineID="A" trackID="2" km="0.200" />
</Connector>
<Connector name="MW track 1-2, km 0+650" z_real_Ohm="0.000010" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="MW" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="0.650" />
<ConductorTo condName="MW" lineID="A" trackID="2" km="0.650" />
</Connector>
<Connector name="CW track 1-2, km 0+650" z_real_Ohm="0.000010" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="CW" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="0.650" />
<ConductorTo condName="CW" lineID="A" trackID="2" km="0.650" />
</Connector>
<Connector name="RL track 1-2, km 0+650" z_real_Ohm="0.000010" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="RL" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="0.650" />
<ConductorTo condName="RL" lineID="A" trackID="2" km="0.650" />
</Connector>
<Connector name="RR track 1-2, km 0+650" z_real_Ohm="0.000010" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="RR" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="0.650" />
<ConductorTo condName="RR" lineID="A" trackID="2" km="0.650" />
</Connector>
<Connector name="MW track 1-2, km 9+750" z_real_Ohm="0.000010" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="MW" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="9.750" />
<ConductorTo condName="MW" lineID="A" trackID="2" km="9.750" />
</Connector>
<Connector name="CW track 1-2, km 9+750" z_real_Ohm="0.000010" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="CW" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="9.750" />
<ConductorTo condName="CW" lineID="A" trackID="2" km="9.750" />
</Connector>
<Connector name="RL track 1-2, km 9+750" z_real_Ohm="0.000010" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="RL" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="9.750" />
<ConductorTo condName="RL" lineID="A" trackID="2" km="9.750" />
</Connector>
<Connector name="RR track 1-2, km 9+750" z_real_Ohm="0.000010" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="RR" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="9.750" />
<ConductorTo condName="RR" lineID="A" trackID="2" km="9.750" />
</Connector>
<Connector name="MW track 1-2, km 10+250" z_real_Ohm="0.000010" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="MW" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="10.250" />
<ConductorTo condName="MW" lineID="A" trackID="2" km="10.250" />
</Connector>
<Connector name="CW track 1-2, km 10+250" z_real_Ohm="0.000010" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="CW" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="10.250" />
<ConductorTo condName="CW" lineID="A" trackID="2" km="10.250" />
</Connector>
<Connector name="RL track 1-2, km 10+250" z_real_Ohm="0.000010" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="RL" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="10.250" />
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<ConductorTo condName="RL" lineID="A" trackID="2" km="10.250" />
</Connector>
<Connector name="RR track 1-2, km 10+250" z_real_Ohm="0.000010" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<ConductorFrom condName="RR" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="10.250" />
<ConductorTo condName="RR" lineID="A" trackID="2" km="10.250" />
</Connector>
</Connectors>
<Substations>
Define the substation at km 5+000.
<Substation name="TSS_05">
<TwoWindingTransformer name="T1" nomPower_MVA="10" nomPrimaryVoltage_kV="115"
nomSecondaryVoltage_kV="27.5" noLoadLosses_kW="6.5" loadLosses_kW="230"
relativeShortCircuitVoltage_percent="10.7" noLoadCurrent_A="0.06">
<OCSBB bbName="OCS_BB_1" z_real_Ohm="0.001" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<Switch name="TSS_05_T1_OCS" defaultState="close" />
</OCSBB>
<RailsBB bbName="Rails_BB_1" z_real_Ohm="0.001" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<Switch name="TSS_05_T1_Rails" defaultState="close" />
</RailsBB>
</TwoWindingTransformer>
<Busbars>
<OCSBB bbName="OCS_BB_1">
<Connector name="TSS_05_OCS_Feeder" z_real_Ohm="0.001" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<Position condName="CW" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="5" />
<Switch defaultState="close" name="TSS_05_OCS_Feeder_5.0" />
</Connector>
</OCSBB>
<RailsBB bbName="Rails_BB_1">
<Connector name="TSS_05_Rails_Feeder" z_real_Ohm="0.001" z_imag_Ohm="0">
<Position condName="RL" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="5" />
<Switch defaultState="close" name="TSS_05_Rails_Feeder_5.0" />
</Connector>
</RailsBB>
</Busbars>
</Substation>
</Substations>
<Earth condName="E" lineID="A" trackID="1" km="0.2" /> Note the beginning of the earth
conductor at km 0+200!
</Network>
<Options tolerance_grad="0.001" tolerance_V="1" tolerance_A="1" maxIncreaseCount="10000"
discreteEngine="true" maxCurrentAngleIteration="1000" />
</PSC>
</OpenPowerNet>
5.8.5.2 Simulation
Run both simulations subsequently.
Note: When not using the FULL license, set the time step in OpenTrack to 4 seconds.
5.8.5.3 Analysis
For the analysis, we will use the Excel tool “One Engine” and “Current, I_total=f(s)” as well as
the Automatic Analysis tool. Please refer to chapter 4.6.3 for the handling instructions.
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Rail-Earth Potential, Network Tutorial Loop, wrong
Line A, km 0+000 to 25+400, 01:00:00 - 01:16:48
TSS_05
150
135
120
105
Voltage [V]
90
75
60
45
0
0+000
5+000
Station C
Station B
15
Station A
30
10+000
15+000
20+000
25+000
Position [km]
|U_1_RL|_max
|U_1_RL|_max_mean_300s
|U_1_RR|_max
|U_1_RR|_max_mean_300s
|U_2_RL|_max
|U_2_RL|_max_mean_300s
|U_2_RR|_max
|U_2_RR|_max_mean_300s
U_RE_max > 300s (EN 50122-1)
U_RE_max 1s (EN 50122-1)
Return feeder
Figure 270 The maximum rail-earth potential of the simulation with the wrong network configuration.
Rail-Earth Potential, Network Tutorial Loop, correct
Line A, km 0+200 to 25+400, 01:00:00 - 01:16:48
TSS_05
150
135
120
105
Voltage [V]
90
75
60
45
0
0+200
5+200
Station C
Station B
15
Station A
30
10+200
15+200
20+200
25+200
Position [km]
|U_1_RL|_max
|U_1_RL|_max_mean_300s
|U_1_RR|_max
|U_1_RR|_max_mean_300s
|U_2_RL|_max
|U_2_RL|_max_mean_300s
|U_2_RR|_max
|U_2_RR|_max_mean_300s
U_RE_max > 300s (EN 50122-1)
U_RE_max 1s (EN 50122-1)
Return feeder
Figure 271 The maximum rail-earth potential of the simulation with the correct network configuration.
Figure 270 and Figure 271 show the maximum rail-earth potential for both simulations. For
the wrong simulation, the rail-earth potential in station A is incorrect.
Figure 272 shows the values of the current sum of all conductors per section for the total
simulation time. Between km 0+405 and km 0+650 the value is not close to 0 A. This means
there is a connector parallel to conductors. This violates the model constraints listed in
chapter 4.3.1.
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I_total_real [A]I_total_imag [A]
s_from [km]
0.638
0.624
0.625
0.550
0.593
4206.592
4206.579
4206.515
4206.532
4206.593
4206.573
4206.550
4206.619
0.455
0.482
0.535
0.572
0.653
0.582
0.649
0.616
7168.771
7168.739
7168.782
7168.726
7168.742
7168.805
7168.744
7168.764
0.481
0.480
0.504
Issue 2017-08-04
s_to [km]
0.000
0.050
0.100
0.150
0.200
0.250
0.300
0.350
0.400
0.450
0.500
0.550
0.600
0.650
0.700
0.750
s_centre [km]
0.050
0.100
0.150
0.200
0.250
0.300
0.350
0.400
0.450
0.500
0.550
0.600
0.650
0.700
0.750
0.800
0+025
0+075
0+125
0+175
0+225
0+275
0+325
0+375
0+425
0+475
0+525
0+575
0+625
0+675
0+725
0+775
Figure 272 The sum of sum currents per section over the total simulation time of the wrong simulation.
lineID
trackID
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
s [km]
I_real [A]
0.808
0.787
0.766
0.745
0.724
0.704
0.683
0.662
0.641
0.620
0.200
0.179
0.158
0.137
0.116
0.095
0.075
0.054
0.033
0.012
36.252
36.263
36.275
36.286
36.292
36.243
36.243
36.244
0.000
0.000
231.147
36.244
36.244
36.244
36.244
36.244
36.245
36.245
36.245
36.245
I_imag [A]
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
U_real [V]
27402.349
27393.655
27384.450
27375.361
27370.424
27409.682
27409.682
27409.405
0.000
0.000
26765.849
27409.115
27408.884
27408.884
27408.685
27408.685
27408.516
27408.516
27408.516
27408.379
U_imag [V]
-381.510
-415.446
-450.202
-484.251
-502.059
-351.381
-351.381
-352.134
0.000
0.000
-2205.243
-352.927
-353.617
-353.617
-354.223
-354.223
-354.744
-354.744
-354.744
-355.178
F_requested [kN]
F_achieved [kN]
v [km/h]
20.455
20.455
20.455
20.455
20.455
20.455
20.455
20.455
20.455
247.000
247.000
20.455
20.455
20.455
20.455
20.455
20.455
20.455
20.455
20.455
20.455
20.455
20.455
20.455
20.455
20.455
20.455
20.455
0.000
0.000
247.000
20.455
20.455
20.455
20.455
20.455
20.455
20.455
20.455
20.455
75.000
75.000
75.000
75.000
75.000
75.000
75.000
75.000
75.000
74.804
74.609
75.000
75.000
75.000
75.000
75.000
75.000
75.000
75.000
75.000
P_aux [kW]
520.000
520.000
520.000
520.000
520.000
520.000
520.000
520.000
0.000
520.000
520.000
520.000
520.000
520.000
520.000
520.000
520.000
520.000
520.000
time
00 01:15:41
00 01:15:42
00 01:15:43
00 01:15:44
00 01:15:45
00 01:15:46
00 01:15:47
00 01:15:48
00 01:15:49
00 01:15:50
00 01:15:51
00 01:15:52
00 01:15:53
00 01:15:54
00 01:15:55
00 01:15:56
00 01:15:57
00 01:15:58
00 01:15:59
00 01:16:00
Figure 273 The simulation values to course CBAl_01 for the wrong simulation with missing data at 1:15:49/50.
In Figure 273, the values of course CBAl_01 are incomplete because the configuration of
OpenTrack infrastructure is not correct, i.e. the OpenTrack chainage positions do not match
with the OpenPowerNet positions. The course CBAl_01 is approaching station A and
changing from track 1 to track 2 at km 0+650. OpenTrack determines the chainage by
counting the distance from the last vertex. Whether the position is counted in the negative or
positive direction depends on the direction of the edge and the direction of the course. In our
case, the course passes the vertex at km 0+650 and moves to track 2. Thus, the actual
position of the course is at the vertex at km 0+650 minus 9 m, this is km 0+641 at track 2.
The solution for this may be to add an additional vertex at the end of track 2 (km 0+450) with
an edge length of 0 m to vertex km 0+650 at track 1. This is a workaround for the described
problem. However, the electrical configuration is still wrong.
This tutorial shows the importance of the constraint to always have a current sum of 0 A for
all conductors in the same section. This means it is not allowed to add connectors parallel to
conductors.
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6
6.1
User Manual
Issue 2017-08-04
FAQ
How to deal with broken chainage?
In general it is advised to avoid broken chainage!
There are two different kinds of broken chainage, a positive and a negative, see Figure 274.
distance
0+000
1+000
2+000
3+000
chainage
0+000
1+000 = 1+100
2+100 = 1+900
2+900
positive
broken chainage
(add 100m)
negative
broken chainage
(go back 200m)
Figure 274 The two kinds of broken chainage.
Each kind of broken chainage has to be handled differently in OpenTrack and
OpenPowerNet, see Figure 275 for the diagram of the solution in OpenPowerNet. The
detailed description follows in the next chapters.
Figure 275 The positive and negative broken chainage modelled in OpenPowerNet.
6.1.1 Positive broken chainage
A positive broken chainage is easier to model than a negative one. In accordance to the
example in Figure 274, we just need to set km 1+000 at one side of the double vertex and
km 1+100 at the other side in OpenTrack.
In OpenPowerNet, we define conductors ending at km 1+000 and start new conductors at km
1+100. Then, we have to connect the conductors between the slices at those chainages
using low resistance connectors, see Figure 275. The XML snippet shows the conductor and
connector configuration of the example.
<Line name="A" maxSliceDistance_km="0.1" recordCurrent="true" recordVoltage="true">
<Conductors>
<Conductor condSort="ContactWire">
<StartPosition km="0" trackID="up" condName="CW" />
<ToProperty x_m="0" y_m="5.3" r20_Ohm_km="0.2138" equivalentRadius_mm="4.4"
toPos_km="1.000" temperatureCoefficient="0.00381" temperature_DegreeCentigrade="40" />
</Conductor>
<Conductor condSort="Rail">
<StartPosition km="0" trackID="up" condName="R" />
<ToProperty x_m="0" y_m="0" r20_Ohm_km="0.0164" equivalentRadius_mm="38.52"
toPos_km="1.000" temperatureCoefficient="0.0047" temperature_DegreeCentigrade="40" />
</Conductor>
<Conductor condSort="ContactWire">
<StartPosition km="1.100" trackID="up" condName="CW" />
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<ToProperty x_m="5" y_m="5.3" r20_Ohm_km="0.2138" equivalentRadius_mm="4.4"
toPos_km="2.100" temperatureCoefficient="0.00381" temperature_DegreeCentigrade="40" />
</Conductor>
<Conductor condSort="Rail">
<StartPosition km="1.100" trackID="up" condName="R" />
<ToProperty x_m="5" y_m="0" r20_Ohm_km="0.0164" equivalentRadius_mm="38.52"
toPos_km="2.100" temperatureCoefficient="0.0047" temperature_DegreeCentigrade="40" />
</Conductor>
</Conductors>
</Line>
<Connectors>
<Connector z_real_Ohm="0.0001" z_imag_Ohm="0.0">
<ConductorFrom km="1.000" trackID="up" condName="CW" lineID="A" />
<ConductorTo km="1.100" trackID="up" condName="CW" lineID="A" />
</Connector>
<Connector z_real_Ohm="0.0001" z_imag_Ohm="0.0">
<ConductorFrom km="1.000" trackID="up" condName="R" lineID="A" />
<ConductorTo km="1.100" trackID="up" condName="R" lineID="A" />
</Connector>
</Connectors>
6.1.2 Negative broken chainage
The model in OpenTrack is the same as for a positive broken chainage. Set km 2+100 at one
side of the double vertex and km 1+900 at the other and define a new line name for the
following edges. Always take care of the edge direction!
In OpenPowerNet, we need to have two lines. In this example, the line “A” goes from km
0+000 to km 2+100 and line “A-“ goes from km 1+900 to km 3+000. Then, we have to
connect the conductors with each other using low resistance connectors, see Figure 275.
The following XML snippet shows the conductor and connector configuration of the example.
<Line name="A" maxSliceDistance_km="0.1" recordCurrent="true" recordVoltage="true">
<Conductors>
<Conductor condSort="ContactWire">
<StartPosition km="1.100" trackID="up" condName="CW" />
<ToProperty x_m="5" y_m="5.3" r20_Ohm_km="0.2138" equivalentRadius_mm="4.4"
toPos_km="2.100" temperatureCoefficient="0.00381" temperature_DegreeCentigrade="40" />
</Conductor>
<Conductor condSort="Rail">
<StartPosition km="1.100" trackID="up" condName="R" />
<ToProperty x_m="5" y_m="0" r20_Ohm_km="0.0164" equivalentRadius_mm="38.52"
toPos_km="2.100" temperatureCoefficient="0.0047" temperature_DegreeCentigrade="40" />
</Conductor>
</Conductors>
</Line>
<Line name="A-" maxSliceDistance_km="0.1" recordCurrent="true" recordVoltage="true">
<Conductors>
<Conductor condSort="ContactWire">
<StartPosition km="1.900" trackID="up" condName="CW" />
<ToProperty x_m="0" y_m="5.3" r20_Ohm_km="0.2138" equivalentRadius_mm="4.4"
toPos_km="3.000" temperatureCoefficient="0.00381" temperature_DegreeCentigrade="40" />
</Conductor>
<Conductor condSort="Rail">
<StartPosition km="1.900" trackID="up" condName="R" />
<ToProperty x_m="0" y_m="0" r20_Ohm_km="0.0164" equivalentRadius_mm="38.52"
toPos_km="3.000" temperatureCoefficient="0.0047" temperature_DegreeCentigrade="40" />
</Conductor>
</Conductors>
</Line>
<Connectors>
<Connector z_real_Ohm="0.0001" z_imag_Ohm="0.0">
<ConductorFrom km="2.100" trackID="up" condName="CW" lineID="A" />
<ConductorTo km="1.900" trackID="up" condName="CW" lineID="A-" />
</Connector>
<Connector z_real_Ohm="0.0001" z_imag_Ohm="0.0">
<ConductorFrom km="2.100" trackID="up" condName="R" lineID="A" />
<ConductorTo km="1.900" trackID="up" condName="R" lineID="A-" />
</Connector>
</Connectors>
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6.2
User Manual
Issue 2017-08-04
How to organise the files and folders?
See chapter 5.0.
6.3
How to calculate the equivalent radius?
First, determine the cross section
radius
A
of the given conductor and convert this value to the
r of a circular cross section with the same area Acircle , see the formula below.
A  Acircle    r 2
r
A

r
Secondly, the radius of the circular cross section needs to be multiplied with the factor
to get the equivalent radius req .
a
req  a  r
a
conductor type
solid cylindrical
0.779
rail
0.7788
Al and Cu cables, 7 cores, 10-50mm²
0.726
Al and Cu cables, 19 cores, 70-120mm²
0.758
Al and Cu cables, 37 cores, 150-185mm²
0.768
Al and Cu cables, 61 cores, 240-500mm²
0.772
Al and Cu cables, 91 cores, 625-1000mm²
0.774
1 layer Al/Fe cables, 16/2.5 – 300/50mm²
0.55
1 layer Al/Fe cables, 44/32 – 120/70mm²
0.7
2 layers Al/Fe cables, 26 cores, 120/20 – 300/50mm²
0.809
2 layers Al/Fe cables, 30 cores, 125/30 – 210/50mm²
0.826
3 layers Al/Fe cables, 54 cores, 380/50 – 680/85mm²
0.810
Table 29 Factors to calculate equivalent radius from circular cross section radius. Source: H. Koettnitz, H. Pundt;
Berechnung Elektrischer Energieversorgungsnetze; Band I; VEB Deutscher Verlag für Grundstoffindustrie (1968);
Page 230.
6.4
How to model running rails in AC simulation?
Due to the relative permeability of running rails, the relationship of the impedance and the
current in AC railway networks is nonlinear. Even in case the fundamental frequencies is
16.7 Hz, 50 Hz, or 60 Hz, the skin effect causes an increase of the running rail resistance
compared to the DC resistance as well as an influence on the impedance. Because of the
commonly unknown B-H-curve of the rail material, the impedance can be estimated by
choosing values dependant on current and frequency for the inner parameters of the rails.
For the description of the current dependent running rail impedance components, two
different data sources are available. The first data source is based on an analytical model.
The model describes the shape of the running rail as a cylinder and then calculates the
resistance and the reactance based on analytic mathematical functions (Bessel). Specific
values of this model are marked with the index S1 in the following figures. The second data
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source is based on measurements. The results are prepared by empirical formulas, which
are published e.g. in the book "Contact Lines for Electrical Railways. Planning, Design,
Implementation”. Specific values of this data source are marked with the index S2 in the
following figures. The values referring to the sources 1 and 2 are shown in dependency of
the current in Figure 276 (16.7 Hz), Figure 277 (50 Hz), respectively Figure 278 (60 Hz).
Figure 276 Impedance components for the inner values of running rails, different models, at 16.7 Hz.
Figure 277 Impedance components for the inner values for running rails, different models, at 50 Hz.
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Figure 278 Impedance components for the inner values for running rails, different models, at 60 Hz.
For the selection of the rail parameters, the following way is suggested. In dependency of the
fundamental frequency the expected current shall be assumed. In case of rating purposes,
the maximum values of the specific parameters shall be selected. In dependency of the
assumed current, the parameters for the specific resistance and reactance can be selected.
The value of the specific resistance can be used as input parameter 𝑅20 for the rails directly.
Based on the selected reactance value the equivalent radius can be calculated as below.
req  1000  e

X'
1000 f   0
For different values of specific reactance and frequency, the equivalent radius is given in
Table 30.
X'
in Ω/km
0.04
0.05
0.06
0.07
0.08
0.09
0.10
0.11
0.12
0.13
0.14
0.15
0.16
0.17
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req in mm,
req in mm,
req in mm,
16.7 Hz
148.67
92.31
57.32
35.59
22.10
13.72
8.52
5.29
3.29
50 Hz
60 Hz
279.92
238.74
203.61
173.65
148.10
126.31
107.73
91.88
78.36
66.83
346.10
303.11
265.46
232.49
203.61
178.32
156.17
136.77
119.78
104.91
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X'
in Ω/km
User Manual
Issue 2017-08-04
req in mm,
req in mm,
req in mm,
16.7 Hz
50 Hz
57.00
48.61
41.46
35.36
30.15
60 Hz
91.88
80.46
70.47
61.72
54.05
47.34
41.46
36.31
0.18
0.19
0.20
0.21
0.22
0.23
0.24
0.25
Table 30 Equivalent radius for a selected specific reactance and frequency.
6.5
How to model the Earth Conductor?
The earth conductor model for DC networks is a very low resistance, e.g. 0.001 Ohm/km.
For AC networks, the earth conductor model depends on the nominal frequency 𝑓(𝐻𝑧) and
the specific earth resistance 𝜌𝐸 (Ω𝑚). The equivalent radius 𝑟𝑒𝑞 (𝑚) and the vertical position
𝑦(𝑚) are calculated as below and example parameters are given in Table 31.
𝑟𝑒𝑞 =
0.738
√𝜇0
1
𝜌𝐸 𝑓
|| 𝜇0 = 4 ∙ 𝜋 ∙ 10−7
𝑁
𝐴2
𝑦 = −𝑟𝑒𝑞
𝑟𝑒𝑞
𝒇 = 𝟏𝟔. 𝟕 𝑯𝒛, 𝝆𝑬 = 𝟐𝟓 𝛀𝒎
805 𝑚
𝒇 = 𝟓𝟎 𝑯𝒛, 𝝆𝑬 = 𝟐𝟓 𝛀𝒎
465 𝑚
−805 𝑚
−465 𝑚
𝑦; if the top of the rails is at
𝑦 =0m
Table 31 Example earth conductor parameters.
The specific earth resistance 𝑅20 (𝛺/𝑘𝑚) can be deduced on formulas and depends on the
fundamental frequency only. Values for the mentioned fundamental frequencies are given in
Table 32.
𝑅20
2
𝒇 = 𝟏𝟔. 𝟕 𝑯𝒛
0.0165 Ω/𝑘𝑚
𝒇 = 𝟓𝟎 𝑯𝒛
0.0494 Ω/𝑘𝑚
𝒇 = 𝟔𝟎 𝑯𝒛
0.059 Ω/𝑘𝑚
Table 32 Specific earth resistance for different fundamental frequencies.
6.6
How to model a Conductor Switch or an Isolator?
Open ConductorSwitch and Isolator elements in OpenPowerNet are basically just conductors
with a fixed resistance of 1 MOhm. Their wire length is 1 m starting at the given position.
Therefore, to create the closest connectors before and after a ConductorSwitch or Isolator,
these connectors have to be placed at the particular position and 1 m behind.
2
Kießling, Puschmann et al.: Contact Lines for Electrical Railways. Planning, Design, Implementation,
Publicis KommunikationsAgentur GmbH GWA, 2001, Munich
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6.7
User Manual
Issue 2017-08-04
How to model uncommon power supply systems?
There are a number of default power supply systems but there may be the need to model
another system. This is possible by modifying 2 files.
*.opnengine File:
Modify the value at /railml/rollingstock/vehicles/vehicle/engine/propulsion/@supply and follow
the structure of the default values.
Project-File:
Modify the value at /OpenPowerNet/ATM/Vehicles/Vehicle/Propulsion/@supply and follow
the structure of the default values. Use the same structure as for the *.opnengine file.
Do not forget to set the voltage and frequency of the network.
AnalysisPreset-File:
It is not necessary to modify the AnalysisPreset-File. But if you want to set preset parameters
for the diagrams and tables, select the value other of the attribute supply. On how to
prepare the AnalysisPreset-File please read chapter 4.6.3.10.
Example: 30Hz 29kV AC
*.opnengine File:
/railml/rollingstock/vehicles/vehicle/engine/propulsion/@supply=”AC 29kV 30Hz”
Project-File:
/OpenPowerNet/ATM/Vehicles/Vehicle/Propulsion/@supply=”AC 29kV 30Hz”
AnalysisPreset-File:
e.g. Pantograph Voltage
/OpenPowerNet/Analysis/ChartTypes/Lines/ChartType/System/@supply=”other"
6.8
How to draw a constant current?
You need to define a course in OpenTrack and use it with an itinerary for the tracks you want
to check. In the OpenPowerNet Project-File, you need to set the attribute
constantCurrent_A to the constant current value you want to use, see the XML snippet
below.
<Propulsion
constantCurrent_A="2000" This attribute defines the constant current for the engine to 2000 A.
You can change the value to whatever reasonable value you need. The following attributes will
be ignored once you set this attribute.
brakeCurrentLimitation="I=f(U)"
engine="electric"
fourQuadrantChopperPhi="none"
regenerativeBrake="maxPower/maxEffort"
supply="DC 600V"
tractiveCurrentLimitation="I=f(U)"
tractiveEffort="maxPower/maxTractEffort"
useAuxPower="true">
<EfficiencyTable/>
</Propulsion>
6.9
How to simulate short circuits?
You need to define a course in OpenTrack and use it with an itinerary for the tracks you want
to check. In the OpenPowerNet Project-File, you need to set the attribute
constantVoltage_V to 0, see the XML snippet below.
<Propulsion
constantVoltage_V="0" This attribute defines the engine as a short circuit between the contact
wire and the rail. The following attributes will be ignored once you set this attribute.
brakeCurrentLimitation="I=f(U)"
engine="electric"
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fourQuadrantChopperPhi="none"
regenerativeBrake="maxPower/maxEffort"
supply="DC 600V"
tractiveCurrentLimitation="I=f(U)"
tractiveEffort="maxPower/maxTractEffort"
useAuxPower="true">
<EfficiencyTable/>
</Propulsion>
By using the Excel file Engine.xlsx, the short circuit current versus time and position is
available for analysis.
6.10 How to prevent the consideration of the achieved effort in OpenTrack
while using OpenPowerNet?
You need to set the attribute returnRequestedEffort to true. The requested effort will
be returned to OpenTrack but the courses using this engine will be calculated in the network
simulation as usually, see the XML snippet below.
<Propulsion
returnRequestedEffort="true" This attribute defines to return the requested effort.
brakeCurrentLimitation="I=f(U)"
engine="electric"
fourQuadrantChopperPhi="none"
regenerativeBrake="maxPower/maxEffort"
supply="DC 600V"
tractiveCurrentLimitation="I=f(U)"
tractiveEffort="maxPower/maxTractEffort"
useAuxPower="true">
<EfficiencyTable/>
</Propulsion>
6.11 How to calculate only a part of the operational infrastructure of OpenTrack
as electrical network in OpenPowerNet?
Usually, if no electrical network can be found for an engine, it will achieve no traction effort
and stop its movement sooner or later. You will get a warning (APS-W-003 “outside of
network”) for those engines and they will be written to the results with zeros for their voltage,
current and achieved effort. This should not occur if the electrical infrastructure in
OpenPowerNet matches the operational infrastructure in OpenTrack.
Only in case it is required or sufficient to use an OpenPowerNet model that does not offer a
Line/Track/km for each position of the courses in the timetable, you can set the global
attribute ignoreTrainsOutside to true. Then, all engines outside of an electrical
network will achieve the full requested effort although they do not put load on any of the
networks, and there will be no warning.
6.12 Where are the XML schemas?
The schemas are available via the catalogue entry of the GUI XML editor, see Window >
Preferences > XML > XML Catalogue. These catalogue entries are used to support
the editing in the XML editor as described in chapter 3.2.
The schema specification documentation is available at Help > Help Contents >
OpenPowerNet User Guide.
6.13 Which XML schema is applicable for which XML file?
An overview is given in Table 33.
XML file
AnalysisPresets-File
Engine-File
Project-File
XML schema
AnalysisPresets.xsd
rollingstock.xsd
OpenPowerNet.xsd
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XML file
Switch-File
TypeDefs-File
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XML schema
ADE.xsd
TypeDefs.xsd
Table 33 XML schemas applicable for the different OpenPowerNet configuration files
6.14 How to specify a specific license?
In case OpenPowerNet is used with different licenses in the same network, it might be
necessary to specify a specific dongle. To find the dongle IDs, insert all dongles to your PC
and
open
the
Sentinel
Admin
Control
Centre
in
your
browser
(http://localhost:1947/_int_/devices.html).
The dongle configuration needs to be done via the OpenPowerNet preferences, see chapter
4.3.1 at page 37.
The following three options are available:
• Any dongle: => do not insert anything,
• One specific dongle: => enter one dongle ID, and
• Multiple dongles => enter multiple IDs separated by “;”.
6.15 What is the reciprocal condition?
The reciprocal condition number describes the quality of the matrix used for the network
calculation in module PSC. This number is calculated for each matrix created and displayed
in the OPN-PSC message console. An error respectively a warning is displayed in case the
condition number is too bad. In general, it is true that the condition number gets better the
less the resistances in an electrical network deviate.
6.16 What is the Time-Rated Load Periods Curve (TRLPC)?
The Time-Rated Load Periods Curve shows the maximum or the minimum of a set of varying
window-size averages, whereas the window time duration is defined by the x-axis value.
6.17 What is the mean voltage at the pantograph (Umean useful)?
The mean voltage at pantograph Umean useful, which may be found in the vehicle overview
output of OpenPowerNet labeled as Umu, is the mean value of all pantograph voltages found
during the simulation as specified in EN 50388:2012. It shall provide an “indication of the
quality of the power supply”. There is a value for a geographical zone, which can be found in
row Total. It is calculated from all pantograph voltages found for the whole network during
the simulation time scope. To calculate the values per train, only time steps with traction load
inside the network and simulation time scope are taken into account (no standing, no
braking).
6.18 What are equivalent (SE) and rated power (SN) at the autotransformer?
The standard EN 50329 defines two power measurements that are of interest at the
autotransformer and that are shown by the Analysis Tool for charts and overviews:
• Equivalent power SE, usually measured between OCS-Rails terminals:
𝑆𝐸 = 𝐼𝑂𝐶𝑆 ×𝑈𝑂𝐶𝑆−𝑅𝑎𝑖𝑙𝑠
• Rated (throughput) power SN:
𝑈𝑂𝐶𝑆−𝑁𝐹
𝑆𝑁 = 𝑆𝐸 ×
𝑈𝑂𝐶𝑆−𝑁𝐹 − 𝑈𝑂𝐶𝑆−𝑅𝑎𝑖𝑙𝑠
In the chart output, the Analysis Tool will show only the rated power and the equivalent
power between the OCS-Rails terminals by default. If the values between the Rails-NF
terminals are needed, this can be achieved by creating a customised preset file as shown in
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chapter 4.6.3.10: The attribute use has to be set to true for the corresponding “Device2”
elements under
ChartTypes/Substations/ChartType[@name=“P_AT = f(t)“]/Item
and
ChartTypes/Substations/ChartType[@name=“P_AT = TRLPC“]/Item
6.19 Any other questions?
For any other question
support@openpowernet.de.
please
contact
the
OpenPowerNet
support
team
via
END OF DOCUMENT
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