User Guide - PROFIBER Networking

User Guide - PROFIBER Networking
User Guide
HIGH-SPEED MULTISERVICE TEST MODULE
Power Blazer
88000 Series
Copyright © 2014–2016 EXFO Inc. All rights reserved. No part of this
publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted
in any form, be it electronically, mechanically, or by any other means such
as photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior written
permission of EXFO Inc. (EXFO).
Information provided by EXFO is believed to be accurate and reliable.
However, no responsibility is assumed by EXFO for its use nor for any
infringements of patents or other rights of third parties that may result from
its use. No license is granted by implication or otherwise under any patent
rights of EXFO.
EXFO’s Commerce And Government Entities (CAGE) code under the North
Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) is 0L8C3.
The information contained in this publication is subject to change without
notice.
Trademarks
EXFO’s trademarks have been identified as such. However, the presence
or absence of such identification does not affect the legal status of any
trademark.
Units of Measurement
Units of measurement in this publication conform to SI standards and
practices.
Patents
EXFO CFP-to-CFP2 adapter is protected by patent appl. US 2015/0092363 A1
and equivalents in other countries.
Dual Test Set/Bi-Directional testing is protected by US patent 9,432,206 and
equivalents in other countries.
November 4, 2016
Document version: 14.0.0.2
ii
88000 Series
Contents
Certification Information ........................................................................................................ x
1 Introducing the High-Speed Multiservice Test Module .............................. 1
Features ..................................................................................................................................1
Technical Specifications ...........................................................................................................1
Conventions ............................................................................................................................2
2 Safety Information ....................................................................................... 3
Additional Laser Safety Information .......................................................................................4
Installation Instruction Warnings ............................................................................................5
3 Getting Started ............................................................................................ 7
Equipment Rules for 88100NGE/88100G ................................................................................7
Inserting and Removing Test Modules ...................................................................................8
Turning On the Unit ................................................................................................................9
Starting the Power Blazer Series Application ..........................................................................9
4 Physical Interfaces and LEDs ..................................................................... 11
Port Availability on the 88000 Series ...................................................................................15
CFP Interface ........................................................................................................................19
CFP4 and QSFP Interfaces ....................................................................................................21
SFP/SFP+ (PORT #1/#2) / SFP+ (P1/P2) .................................................................................22
XFP .......................................................................................................................................23
RJ45 .....................................................................................................................................23
BNC (TX/RX2 and RX on 8870/8880 / PORT #1 on 8805) ......................................................24
BNC (EXT CLK) .......................................................................................................................24
AUX (PORT #2 on 8805) .......................................................................................................24
RJ48C (PORT #1 on 8805) ...................................................................................................25
BANTAM (PORT #1 on 8805) ................................................................................................25
Fibre Cables Connection .......................................................................................................25
EXT CLK ................................................................................................................................25
REF OUT ................................................................................................................................26
LEDs .....................................................................................................................................26
Power Blazer
iii
5 Graphical User Interface Overview ............................................................27
Main Application Window ...................................................................................................27
Main Window .......................................................................................................................27
Navigation Buttons ...............................................................................................................28
Status Bar ...........................................................................................................................28
Title Bar ...............................................................................................................................30
Global Indicator ....................................................................................................................31
Test Control .........................................................................................................................33
Test Menu ............................................................................................................................33
Application Buttons .............................................................................................................34
Zoomed-In/Zoomed-Out Views .............................................................................................37
Arrow Buttons .....................................................................................................................37
Keyboard Usage ...................................................................................................................38
6 Test Setup - Test Applications ....................................................................41
iOptics ..................................................................................................................................42
iSAM .....................................................................................................................................43
Multi-Channel OTN ...............................................................................................................44
OTN BERT ..............................................................................................................................45
OTN-SONET/SDH BERT ..........................................................................................................49
SONET/SDH BERT ..................................................................................................................53
DSn/PDH BERT ......................................................................................................................56
SONET/SDH - DSn/PDH BERT ................................................................................................58
NI/CSU Emulation ................................................................................................................61
EtherSAM (Y.1564) ................................................................................................................62
RFC 2544 ..............................................................................................................................64
RFC 6349 ..............................................................................................................................66
EtherBERT .............................................................................................................................67
Traffic Gen & Mon ................................................................................................................69
Smart Loopback ....................................................................................................................71
Through Mode ......................................................................................................................73
TCP Throughput ....................................................................................................................74
Carrier Ethernet OAM ..........................................................................................................75
Cable Test .............................................................................................................................77
1588 PTP ...............................................................................................................................78
SyncE ....................................................................................................................................79
FC BERT ................................................................................................................................80
CPRI/OBSAI BERT ..................................................................................................................81
iv
88000 Series
7 Selecting and Starting a Test ..................................................................... 83
Intelligent Apps ....................................................................................................................83
Transport Test Applications ...................................................................................................87
Ethernet Test Applications ....................................................................................................89
Packet Sync Test Applications ................................................................................................91
Fibre Channel Test Application ..............................................................................................93
Wireless Test Application ......................................................................................................95
8 Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System .................................. 97
Test Configurator Overview .................................................................................................102
Modify Structure Button ....................................................................................................108
Signal Auto-Detect ............................................................................................................132
1588 PTP ............................................................................................................................133
BERT and Unframed BERT ...................................................................................................140
Cable Test ..........................................................................................................................146
CFP/CFP2/CFP4/QSFP/XFP/SFP/SFP+ ....................................................................................149
Clock ..................................................................................................................................150
EtherBERT, FC BERT, BERT (CPRI), and Unframed BERT .......................................................155
EtherSAM - Burst ...............................................................................................................163
EtherSAM - Global .............................................................................................................165
EtherSAM - Ramp ..............................................................................................................169
Fibre Channel .....................................................................................................................171
Frequency ...........................................................................................................................174
FTFL/PT and PT ...................................................................................................................176
GFP-F/GFP-T ........................................................................................................................180
Interface (Ethernet, Packet Sync, Fibre Channel, and Wireless) ..........................................181
Labels ................................................................................................................................192
Link OAM ...........................................................................................................................194
Local Details (iSAM) ...........................................................................................................196
MAC/IP/UDP .......................................................................................................................200
Network .............................................................................................................................215
Network Details (iSAM) ......................................................................................................221
ODU Channels - Global ......................................................................................................232
Optical Device Under Test (iOptics) ....................................................................................238
Remote Details (iSAM) .......................................................................................................241
RFC 2544 - Global ..............................................................................................................245
RFC 2544 - Subtests ...........................................................................................................248
RFC 6349 ...........................................................................................................................257
S-OAM and MPLS-TP OAM .................................................................................................260
Services - Global ................................................................................................................270
Services - Profile .................................................................................................................273
Signal (Transport) ..............................................................................................................280
Power Blazer
v
Signal - Signal Configuration (DSn/PDH) ............................................................................287
Signal - Signal Configuration (OTN) ...................................................................................296
Signal - Signal Configuration (SONET/SDH) ........................................................................301
Smart Loopback .................................................................................................................306
Streams - Global ................................................................................................................308
Streams - Profile ................................................................................................................310
SyncE .................................................................................................................................318
System ...............................................................................................................................320
TCP Throughput .................................................................................................................321
Test Sequence (iOptics) .......................................................................................................323
Timer .................................................................................................................................324
Traces (OTN) ......................................................................................................................326
Traces (SONET/SDH) ...........................................................................................................330
9 Test Results ................................................................................................333
Alarms/Errors Overview .......................................................................................................336
Alarms/Errors .....................................................................................................................338
FTFL/PT and PT ...................................................................................................................412
GFP-F/GFP-T ........................................................................................................................414
Graph (RFC 2544) ..............................................................................................................417
Labels ................................................................................................................................418
Link OAM ...........................................................................................................................419
Logger ...............................................................................................................................423
MPLS .................................................................................................................................425
OTL-SDT ..............................................................................................................................426
Performance Monitoring ....................................................................................................428
PTP Stats ............................................................................................................................435
Quality Level (1588 PTP) ....................................................................................................437
Quality Level (SyncE) ..........................................................................................................440
S-OAM and MPLS-TP OAM .................................................................................................443
SDT (Multi-Channel OTN) ...................................................................................................448
Service Configuration - Burst .............................................................................................450
Service Configuration - Ramp ............................................................................................451
Service Performance ..........................................................................................................453
Streams - Frame Loss / Out-of-Sequence ............................................................................455
Streams - Jitter ...................................................................................................................455
Streams - Latency ..............................................................................................................456
Streams - Throughput ........................................................................................................457
Summary ...........................................................................................................................458
Summary (1588 PTP) .........................................................................................................464
Summary (Cable Test) ........................................................................................................469
Summary (EtherSAM) ........................................................................................................475
vi
88000 Series
Summary (FC BERT) ............................................................................................................478
Summary (iOptics) .............................................................................................................481
Summary (iSAM) ................................................................................................................483
Summary (Link OAM) .........................................................................................................487
Summary (Multi-Channel OTN) ..........................................................................................489
Summary (NI/CSU Emulation) ............................................................................................491
Summary (RFC 2544) .........................................................................................................492
Summary (RFC 6349) .........................................................................................................495
Summary (S-OAM and MPLS-TP OAM) ...............................................................................498
Summary (SyncE) ...............................................................................................................503
Summary (TCP Throughput) ...............................................................................................506
Summary (Traffic Gen & Mon) ...........................................................................................509
Traces - OTN .......................................................................................................................511
Traces - SONET/SDH ...........................................................................................................513
Traffic - Ethernet ................................................................................................................514
Traffic - Flow Control .........................................................................................................517
Traffic - Graph ....................................................................................................................519
Traffic - OAM, S-OAM, and MPLS-TP OAM .........................................................................520
Window Sweep ..................................................................................................................522
WIS ....................................................................................................................................523
10 Test Functions ........................................................................................... 525
40/100G Advanced - CFP/CFP2/CFP4/QSFP Control .............................................................528
40/100G Advanced - Lanes Mapping & Skew ....................................................................532
40/100G Advanced - Pre-Emphasis ....................................................................................537
APS ....................................................................................................................................539
Client Offset ......................................................................................................................542
FDL - Bit-Oriented Message ................................................................................................545
FDL - Performance Report Message ...................................................................................549
FEAC ..................................................................................................................................552
Filters .................................................................................................................................556
Packet Capture ...................................................................................................................560
GMP ..................................................................................................................................566
OH - GFP-F/GFP-T ................................................................................................................567
OH - OTN ...........................................................................................................................572
OH - SONET/SDH ................................................................................................................578
Ping & Trace Route .............................................................................................................593
Pointer Adjustment ............................................................................................................598
RTD ....................................................................................................................................608
RTD (CPRI Framed L2) ........................................................................................................611
S-OAM Link Trace ...............................................................................................................613
Signaling Bits .....................................................................................................................615
Power Blazer
vii
Spare Bits ...........................................................................................................................616
Traffic Scan ........................................................................................................................618
11 Test Control ..............................................................................................621
Discover Remote Button ....................................................................................................622
Inject Button .......................................................................................................................625
Laser Button .......................................................................................................................625
Lpbk Tool Button (Loopback Tool) ......................................................................................626
Report Button ....................................................................................................................633
Reset Button .......................................................................................................................638
Save/Load Button ...............................................................................................................639
Start/Stop|TX Button ..........................................................................................................643
12 Power Failure Recovery ............................................................................645
Enabling Power Failure Recovery .........................................................................................646
When Using the Test Timer .................................................................................................647
13 Suspend and Resume ................................................................................649
Suspend Mode ....................................................................................................................649
Resume Operation ..............................................................................................................650
14 Maintenance ..............................................................................................651
Cleaning LC/SC/MPO-24 Connectors ...................................................................................652
Recalibrating the Unit .........................................................................................................653
Recycling and Disposal (Applies to European Union Only) ..................................................654
15 Troubleshooting ........................................................................................655
Solving Common Problems .................................................................................................655
Contacting the Technical Support Group ............................................................................656
Transportation ....................................................................................................................656
16 Warranty ....................................................................................................657
General Information ...........................................................................................................657
Liability ...............................................................................................................................658
Exclusions ...........................................................................................................................658
Certification ........................................................................................................................658
Service and Repairs .............................................................................................................659
EXFO Service Centers Worldwide ........................................................................................660
A Specifications ............................................................................................661
General Specifications ........................................................................................................662
40G/100G Pluggable Transceivers (CFP) ..............................................................................663
100G Pluggable Transceivers (CFP2) ...................................................................................663
viii
88000 Series
B Glossary .................................................................................................... 665
Acronym List .......................................................................................................................665
10G Ethernet Client ............................................................................................................681
1588 PTP .............................................................................................................................684
CPRI ...................................................................................................................................690
Ethernet Cables .................................................................................................................695
G.709 Optical Transport Network (OTN) ............................................................................697
Generic Framing Procedure (GFP) ......................................................................................714
MPLS Labels ........................................................................................................................726
SONET/DSn/SDH/PDH ..........................................................................................................727
SyncE ..................................................................................................................................737
Unicast/Multicast Addresses for Ethernet OAM ..................................................................739
VLAN ID and Priority ...........................................................................................................740
C Remote ToolBox ...................................................................................... 741
Overview .............................................................................................................................741
Remote ToolBox Installation ................................................................................................743
Starting and Using the Remote ToolBox Application ..........................................................744
Applications for... ...............................................................................................................746
Index .............................................................................................................. 747
Power Blazer
ix
Certification Information
Certification Information
North America Regulatory Statement
This unit was certified by an agency approved in both Canada and the
United States of America. It has been evaluated according to applicable
North American approved standards for product safety for use in Canada
and the United States.
Electronic test and measurement equipment is exempt from FCC part 15,
subpart B compliance in the United States of America and from ICES-003
compliance in Canada. However, EXFO Inc. makes reasonable efforts to
ensure compliance to the applicable standards.
The limits set by these standards are designed to provide reasonable
protection against harmful interference when the equipment is operated in
a commercial environment. This equipment generates, uses, and can
radiate radio frequency energy and, if not installed and used in accordance
with the user guide, may cause harmful interference to radio
communications. Operation of this equipment in a residential area is likely
to cause harmful interference in which case the user will be required to
correct the interference at his own expense.
Modifications not expressly approved by the manufacturer could void the
user's authority to operate the equipment.
x
88000 Series
Certification Information
European Community Declaration of Conformity
Warning: This is a class A product. In a domestic environment, this product
may cause radio interference in which case the user may be required to
take adequate measures.
An electronic version of the declaration of conformity for your product is
available on our website at www.exfo.com/library.
Laser
Your instrument is a Class 1 laser product in compliance
with standards IEC 60825-1: 2007 and 21 CFR 1040.10,
except for deviations pursuant to Laser Notice No. 50,
dated June 24, 2007.
Power Blazer
xi
1
Introducing the High-Speed
Multiservice Test Module
Turnkey field-test solution for deploying, validating, and troubleshooting
networks up to 100G.
Features
Model
Features
88200NGE 88100G 88100NGE
8870
8830NGE
8805
8880 8830NGE-16X
iOptics
X
X
X
X
X
-
iSAM
X
X
X
X
X
-
Multi-Channel OTN
X
-
-
-
-
-
OTN
X
X
X
X
X
-
SONET/SDH
X
X
X
X
X
X
OTN-SONET/SDH
X
X
X
X
-
-
DSn/PDH
-
-
-
X
-
X
SONET/SDH - DSn/PDH BERT
-
-
-
X
-
-
NI/CSU
-
-
-
X
-
X
Ethernet
X
X
X
X
X
-
Packet Sync
X
-
X
X
X
-
Fibre Channel
X
-
X
X
X
-
Wireless
X
-
X
X
X
-
Technical Specifications
To obtain this product’s technical specifications, visit the EXFO Web site at
www.exfo.com.
Power Blazer
1
Introducing the High-Speed Multiservice Test Module
Conventions
Conventions
Before using the product described in this guide, you should understand
the following conventions:
WARNING
Indicates a potentially hazardous situation which, if not avoided,
could result in death or serious injury. Do not proceed unless you
understand and meet the required conditions.
CAUTION
Indicates a potentially hazardous situation which, if not avoided,
may result in minor or moderate injury. Do not proceed unless you
understand and meet the required conditions.
CAUTION
Indicates a potentially hazardous situation which, if not avoided,
may result in component damage. Do not proceed unless you
understand and meet the required conditions.
IMPORTANT
Refers to information about this product you should not overlook.
2
88000 Series
2
Safety Information
WARNING
Do not install or terminate fibers while a light source is active.
Never look directly into a live fiber and ensure that your eyes are
protected at all times.
WARNING
The use of controls, adjustments and procedures, namely for
operation and maintenance, other than those specified herein may
result in hazardous radiation exposure or impair the protection
provided by this unit.
IMPORTANT
When you see the following symbol on your unit
, make sure
that you refer to the instructions provided in your user
documentation. Ensure that you understand and meet the required
conditions before using your product.
IMPORTANT
Other safety instructions relevant for your product are located
throughout this documentation, depending on the action to
perform. Make sure to read them carefully when they apply to your
situation.
Power Blazer
3
Safety Information
Additional Laser Safety Information
Additional Laser Safety Information
This product employs Class 1 Laser transceivers.
WARNING
When the LASER LED is on or flashing, the 88000 Series is
transmitting an optical signal on the SFP/SFP+, CXP, CFP, CFP2,
CFP4, or QSFP transceiver ports.
Note: Refer to the platform’s user guide for additional test equipment safety
information and ratings.
4
88000 Series
Safety Information
Installation Instruction Warnings
Installation Instruction Warnings
CAUTION
For IQS platforms, keep all ventilation openings clear and
unobstructed.
CAUTION
When you use the unit outdoors, ensure that it is protected from
liquids, dust, direct sunlight, precipitation, and full wind pressure.
CAUTION
Except for the dual Bantam connector and the RJ-48C port, all
telecom (electrical) interfaces are SELV (Safety Extra Low Voltage)
circuitry intended for intra-building use only.
CAUTION
For the dual Bantam connector and the RJ-48C ports, use only No.
26 AWG or larger telecommunication line cord to reduce the risk of
fire.
CAUTION
No user serviceable parts are contained inside. Contact the
manufacturer regarding service of this equipment.
IMPORTANT
All wiring and installation must be in accordance with local building
and electrical codes acceptable to the authorities in the countries
where the equipment is installed and used.
Power Blazer
5
Safety Information
Installation Instruction Warnings
WARNING
Use only accessories designed for your unit and approved by EXFO.
CAUTION
Electrostatic Discharge (ESD) Sensitive Equipment:
Plug-in modules can be damaged by static electrical discharge. To
minimize the risk of damage, dissipate static electricity by touching
a grounded unpainted metal object
 before removing, inserting, or handling the module.
 before connecting or disconnecting cables to/from the Power Blazer.
 before inserting or removing SFP/SFP+, CXP, CFP, CFP2, CFP4, or
QSFP transceiver to/from the Power Blazer.
6
88000 Series
3
Getting Started
If the Power Blazer Series has been purchased at the same time as the
platform, the 88000 Series module is pre-installed with the appropriate
software version.
Equipment Rules for 88100NGE/88100G
There is a limitation on the number of 88100NGE/88100G modules and
Transport and Datacom modules that can run simultaneously on an
FTB-500 and IQS-600 platforms due to 40G/100G CFP power consumption,
the following equipping rules are mandatory. For example with a 8-slot
FTB-500 platform, two 88xx modules can run simultaneously with either
three 8105, one 8510B, or one 8510G.
Platform
Qtya
Run simultaneously with either...b
88100NGE 8105 8120NGE 8130NGE 8140 8525 8535 8510B 8510G 85100G 8830NGE
88100G
8805
8830NGE16X
FTB-500
(4 slots)
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
FTB-500
(8 slots)
1
6
3
2
1
3
2
5
4
1
3
2
3
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
0
0
IQS-605P-HS
1
3
2
1
0
1
1
3
3
0
2
2
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
8
4
4
1
4
4
8
6
1
5
2
6
3
3
1
3
3
6
4
1
3
3
4
2
1
0
2
1
4
2
0
2
4
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
IQS-610P-HS
a.
b.
Number of 88100NGE/88100G that can run simultaneously.
Each number represents the quantity of this module that can run simultaneously with the specified
number of 88100NGE/88100G module without any other module. However these maximum numbers are
affected when mixing different modules.
Note: For any other configuration please contact EXFO technical support (refer to
Contacting the Technical Support Group on page 656).
Power Blazer
7
Getting Started
Inserting and Removing Test Modules
Number of Dedicated Modules per Platform
The following table lists the maximum number of dedicated modules that
can run simultaneously on each platform.
Platform
FTB-2
88200NGE 88100NGE 88100G
8830NGE
8870
8805
8830NGE-16X 8880
NA
NA
NA
1
2
2
1
1
2
2
2
FTB-500 (4 slots)
NA
1
1
2
NA
4
FTB-500 (8 slots)
NA
2
2
4
NA
8
NA
FTB-2 Pro
LTB-8
2
8
NA
NA
NA
8
IQS-605P-HS
NA
2
2
4
NA
5
IQS-610P-HS
NA
4
4
6
NA
10
Inserting and Removing Test Modules
LTB-8 Platform
CAUTION
There is no need to turn off your unit before inserting or removing
test modules.
However, removing modules without following the instructions
provided in the LTB-8 user documentation could result in the
following consequences, depending on the operation underway
when the modules are removed:
 unexpected behavior of the test applications,
 instability of the system,
 or cause irreparable damage to your modules.
Note: Refer to the LTB-8 user guide for more information on how to insert a
module into the LTB-8 or to remove a module from the LTB-8.
8
88000 Series
Getting Started
Turning On the Unit
FTB and IQS Platforms
CAUTION
Never insert or remove a module while the platform and its
expansion units (IQS-600) are turned on. This will result in
immediate and irreparable damage to both the module and
platform.
WARNING
When the laser safety light (
) is flashing on the platform, at
least one of your modules is emitting an optical signal. Please check
all modules, as it might not be the one you are currently using.
Note: Refer to the platform user guide for more information on how to insert a
module into the platform or to remove a module from the platform.
Turning On the Unit
Turn on the platform. Refer to the platform user guide for more
information.
Starting the Power Blazer Series Application
The module can be configured and controlled by starting the Power Blazer
Series application.
From ToolBox X (LTB-8, FTB-2 and FTB-2 Pro), ToolBox (FTB-500), or IQS
Manager (IQS-600), tap the Power Blazer Series button to start the
application.
Power Blazer
9
4
Physical Interfaces and LEDs
This section describes all connectors (ports) and LEDs available on the
88000 Series.
CAUTION
To prevent exceeding the maximum input/output power level,
please refer to this product’s technical specifications at
www.exfo.com.
FTB-88100NGE/88100G/8830NGE/8830NGE-16X
Note: The FTB-88100NGE is shown below as an example for connector location
purposes.
SFP/SFP+1
Port #2
XFP1 Port #1
SFP/SFP+1
Port #1
RJ45 Port #1
Reference Output
External Clock
CFP1 Port #2
1. Laser radiation emitted from this port when LASER LED is on.
Power Blazer
11
Physical Interfaces and LEDs
IQS-88100NGE/88100G/8830NGE/8830NGE-16X
Note: The IQS-88100NGE is shown below as an example for connector location
purposes.
CFP1 Port #2
External Clock
Reference Output
SFP/SFP+1 Port #2
XFP1 Port #1
SFP/SFP+1 Port #1
RJ45 Port #1
1. Laser radiation emitted from this port when LASER LED is on.
12
88000 Series
Physical Interfaces and LEDs
FTB-8805/IQS-8805
BNC
Port #1
RJ48C
Port #1
BANTAM
Port #1
Auxiliary
Port #2
BNC
Port #1
RJ48C
Port #1
BANTAM
Port #1
Auxiliary
Port #2
Power Blazer
13
Physical Interfaces and LEDs
FTBx-88200NGE
SFP+1
CFP41
QSFP1
REF OUT
EXT LCK
1. Laser radiation emitted from this port when LASER LED is on.
FTBx-8870/8880
LINK/ACT
BNC
EXT CLK
LASER
DUPLEX
LINK/RX
RJ45
P1
SFP+1
P1
SFP+1
P2
RJ48C
BANTAM
BNC
TX/RX2
BNC
RX
1. Laser radiation emitted from this port when LASER LED is on.
14
88000 Series
Physical Interfaces and LEDs
Port Availability on the 88000 Series
Port Availability on the 88000 Series
88100NGE/88100G/8830NGE/8830NGE-16X
The following table shows the list of available ports as well as a description
and signals supported for each module.
Port
Labelled
Description
Supported Signal(s)
Module
SFP/SFP+
PORT #1
Optical IN/OUT port
SFP/SFP+ transceiver
Ethernet 100/1000 Mbit/s, 10 Gbit/s
Fibre Channel 1X, 2X, 4X, 8X, 10X
CPRI 1.2, 2.4, 3.1, 4.9, 6.1, 9.8 Gbit/s; OBSAI 3.1 Gbit/s
OC-1/STM-0, OC-3/STM-1, OC-12/STM-4, OC-48/STM-16,
OTU1, OC-192/STM-64, OTU2, OTU1e, OTU2e, OTU1f,
OTU2f.
88100NGE
8830NGE
8830NGE-16X
SFP/SFP+
PORT #2
Optical IN/OUT port
SFP/SFP+ transceiver
Ethernet 100/1000 Mbit/s, 10 Gbit/s
Ethernet 10/100/1000 Mbit/s electrical (using active
copper SFP)
Fibre Channel 1X, 2X, 4X, 8X, 10X
CPRI 1.2, 2.4, 3.1, 4.9, 6.1, 9.8 Gbit/s; OBSAI 3.1 Gbit/s
88100NGE
8830NGE
8830NGE-16X
Fibre Channel 16X
8830NGE-16X
XFP
Optical IN/OUT port
XFP transceiver
88100NGE
Ethernet 10 Gbit/s
8830NGE
Fibre Channel 10X
OC-192/STM-64, OTU2, OTU1e, OTU2e, OTU1f, and OTU2f 8830NGE-16X
RJ45
Electrical port RJ-45
Ethernet 10/100/1000 Mbit/s
88100NGE
8830NGE
8830NGE-16X
CFP
Optical IN/OUT port
CFP transceiver
Ethernet 40/100 Gbit/s
OC-768/STM-256, OTU4, OTU3e2, OTU3e1, OTU3
88100NGE
88100G
REF OUT
Electrical port SMA
for eye diagram clock
signal generation
EXT CLK
Electrical port SMB
for external clock
synchronization
a.
All
DS1/1.5M, E1/2M, 2MHz, 1PPSa
All
Available for Dual Test Set - One-Way Latency measurement mode on 88100NGE, 8830NGE, and
8830NGE-16X modules.
Power Blazer
15
Physical Interfaces and LEDs
Port Availability on the 88000 Series
88200NGE
The following table shows the list of available ports as well as a description
and signals supported on the module.
Port
Labelled
Description
Supported Signal(s)
SFP+
Optical IN/OUT port SFP/SFP+ Ethernet 100/1000 Mbit/s, 10 Gbit/s optical
transceiver
Ethernet 10/100/1000 Mbit/s electrical (using active copper SFP)
Fibre Channel 1X, 2X, 4X, 8X, 10X, 16X
CPRI 1.2, 2.4, 3.1, 4.9, 6.1, 9.8 Gbit/s
OBSAI 3.1 Gbit/s
OC-1/STM-0, OC-3/STM-1, OC-12/STM-4, OC-48/STM-16,
OC-192/STM-64
OTU1, OTU2, OTU1e, OTU2e, OTU1f, OTU2f.
CFP4
Optical IN/OUT port CFP4
transceivera
Ethernet 100 Gbit/s
OTU4
QSFP
Optical IN/OUT port QSFP+
transceiverb
Ethernet 40 Gbit/s
OTU3e2, OTU3e1, OTU3
Optical IN/OUT port QSFP28
transceivera
Ethernet 100 Gbit/s
OTU4
REF OUT
Electrical port SMA for eye
diagram clock signal
generation
EXT CLK
Electrical port SMB for
DS1/1.5M, E1/2M, 2MHz, 1PPSc
external clock synchronization
a.
b.
c.
16
Only OTU4 (4 Lanes) and 100GE (4 Lanes) are supported.
Only parallel interfaces are supported.
Available for Dual Test Set - One-Way Latency measurement mode.
88000 Series
Physical Interfaces and LEDs
Port Availability on the 88000 Series
8805
The following table shows the list of available ports as well as a description
and signals supported on the module.
Port
Labelled
Description
Supported Signal(s)
BNC
PORT #1
Electrical IN and OUT ports BNC
E1/2M, E3/34M, DS3/45M, STS-1e/STM-0e/52M, E4/140M,
STS-3e/STM-1e/155M
RJ48C
PORT #1
Electrical IN/OUT port RJ48C
DS1/1.5M, E1/2M
BANTAM
PORT #1
Electrical IN/OUT port BANTAM
DS1/1.5M, E1/2M
AUX
PORT #2
DS1/1.5M, E1/2M, 2MHz IN/OUT clock
Electrical Auxiliary port BNC for
external clock synchronization or or
DS1, DS3 IN (dual RX)
for DS1/DS3 dual RX
Power Blazer
17
Physical Interfaces and LEDs
Port Availability on the 88000 Series
8870/8880
The following table shows the list of available ports as well as a description
and signals supported for each module.
Connector Labelled
Description and supported signal(s)
Bantam
BANTAM
TX/RX2
RX
TX and RX: DS1/1.5M, E1/2M
RX2: DS1/1.5M
BNC
BNC
TX/RX2
TX: E1/2M, E3/34M, DS3/45M, STS-1e/STM-0e/52M, E4/140M,
STS-3e/STM-1e/155M
RX2: DS3
Module
8870
8880
-
X
-
X
-
X
Clock IN/OUT: DS1/1.5M, E1/2M, 2MHz
Clock OUT: DS1/1.5M, E1/2M, 2MHz
BNC
RX
E1/2M, E3/34M, DS3/45M, STS-1e/STM-0e/52M, E4/140M,
STS-3e/STM-1e/155M
Clock IN: DS1/1.5M, E1/2M, 2MHz, 1 PPS
BNC
EXT CLK
Clock IN: DS1/1.5M, E1/2M, 2MHz, 1 PPS
X
-
RJ45
RJ45 P1
Ethernet 10/100/1000 Mbit/s electrical
X
X
RJ48C
RJ48C
DS1/1.5M, E1/2M
X
X
Clock IN: DS1/1.5M, E1/2M, 2MHz
-
Clock OUT: DS1/1.5M, E1/2M, 2MHz
SFP/SFP+
SFP+ P1
or
Ethernet 100 Mbit/s, 1000 Mbit/s,10 Gbit/s LAN/WAN optical
CPRI 1.2, 2.4, 3.1, 4.9, 6.1, 9.8 Gbit/s
OBSAI 3.1 Gbit/s
Fibre Channel 1X/2X/4X/8X/10X
X
X
SFP+ P1
OC-1/STM-0, OC-3/STM-1, OC-12/STM-4, OC-48/STM-16,
OC-192/STM-64a
OTU1, OTU2, OTU1e, OTU2e, OTU1f, OTU2f
X
X
SFP+ P2
Ethernet 10/100/1000 Mbit/s electrical (using active copper SFP)
X
X
SFP+ P2
a.
18
X
Port SFP+ P2 is used with OC-192/STM-64 in Decoupled (TX≠RX) mode.
88000 Series
Physical Interfaces and LEDs
CFP Interface
CFP Interface
The 88000 Series provides a CFP interface slot that can be used with a CFP
transceiver, or an EXFO’s CFP to CFP2 adapter module.
CAUTION
Before inserting an optical module into the CFP interface slot,
inspect the slot to make sure nothing is inside.
Note: Do not replace the transceiver while the test is running to avoid distorting
results. First stop the test, replace the transceiver, select the connector type
(refer to Modify Structure Button on page 108), and then restart the test.
Note: To ensure proper optical module detection/validation, make sure that the
CFP screws are fully secured.
Power Blazer
19
Physical Interfaces and LEDs
CFP Interface
CFP Transceiver
WARNING
Use only EXFO supported CFP transceivers. Refer to this product’s
technical specifications at www.exfo.com for the list of supported
transceivers. Using non-supported transceivers can affect the
performance and accuracy of the test.
EXFO CFP-to-CFP2 Adapter
The EXFO CFP-to-CFP2 adapter (FTB-85970) offers 100G testing
capabilities using CFP2 transceivers.
WARNING
Use only EXFO supported CFP2 transceivers. Refer to this product’s
technical specifications at www.exfo.com for the list of supported
transceivers. Using non-supported transceivers can affect the
performance and accuracy of the test.
20
88000 Series
Physical Interfaces and LEDs
CFP4 and QSFP Interfaces
CFP4 and QSFP Interfaces
The 88200NGE provides one CFP4 and one QSFP interface slot that can be
used with respectively CFP4 and QSFP (QSFP+ or QSFP28) transceivers.
CAUTION
Before inserting an optical module into the CFP4 or QSFP interface
slot, inspect the slot to make sure nothing is inside.
Note: Do not replace the transceiver while the test is running to avoid distorting
results. First stop the test, replace the transceiver, select the connector type
(refer to Modify Structure Button on page 108), and then restart the test.
WARNING
Use only EXFO supported CFP4/QSFP transceivers. Refer to this
product’s technical specifications at www.exfo.com for the list of
supported transceivers. Using non-supported transceivers can
affect the performance and accuracy of the test.
Power Blazer
21
Physical Interfaces and LEDs
SFP/SFP+ (PORT #1/#2) / SFP+ (P1/P2)
SFP/SFP+ (PORT #1/#2) / SFP+ (P1/P2)
These ports can be used for the following test applications and rates:
Application
PORT
Rates
#1
Transport
OC-1/STM-0, OC-3/STM-1, OC-12/STM-4, OC-48/STM-16,
OTU1, OC-192/STM-64a, OTU2, OTU1e, OTU2e, OTU1f,
OTU2f
X
Ethernet
100 Mbit/s, 1000 Mbit/s, 10 Gbit/s LAN/WAN
X
Packet Sync
X
Xc
10/100/1000 Mbit/s electrical (using active copper SFP)
X
100 Mbit/s, 1000 Mbit/s, 10 Gbit/s LAN
X
X
10/100/1000 Mbit/s electrical (using active copper SFP)
Xb
-
X
X
X
X
d
Fibre Channel
1X, 2X, 4X, 8X, 10X, 16X
Wireless
CPRI 1.2, 2.4, 3.1, 4.9, 6.1, 9.8 Gbit/s;
OBSAI 3.1 Gbit/s.
a.
b.
c.
d.
b
#2
Port 2 is used with OC-192/STM-64 in Decoupled (TX≠RX) mode.
Only available on 88200NGE.
Available as a second port when the test application requires two ports.
16X is only available on 8830NGE-16X port #2 and on 88200NGE port #1.
Plug the SFP/SFP+ transceiver into the PORT #1/PORT #2 or P1/P2 slot.
WARNING
Use only EXFO supported transceivers. Refer to this product’s
technical specifications at www.exfo.com for the list of supported
transceivers. Using non-supported transceivers can affect the
performance and accuracy of the test.
Note: Do not replace the SFP/SFP+ while the test is running to avoid distorting
statistics. First stop the test case, replace the SFP/SFP+ and then restart the
test.
22
88000 Series
Physical Interfaces and LEDs
XFP
XFP
XFP PORT #1 can be used for the following test application and optical
rates:
Application
Rates
Transport
OC-192/STM-64, OTU2, OTU1e, OTU2e, OTU1f, OTU2f
Ethernet
10 Gbit/s LAN, 10 Gbit/s WAN
Packet Sync
10 Gbit/s LAN
Fibre Channel
10X
Plug the XFP transceiver into the XFP PORT #1 slot.
WARNING
Use only EXFO supported transceivers. Refer to this product’s
technical specifications at www.exfo.com for the list of supported
transceivers. Using non-supported transceivers can affect the
performance and accuracy of the test.
Note: Do not replace an XFP while the test is running to avoid distorting statistics.
First stop the test case, replace the XFP and then restart the test.
RJ45
This port can be used for electrical Intelligent Apps, Ethernet, or
Packet Sync test applications.
Supported electrical rates are 10Mbits/s, 100 Mbit/s, and 1000 Mbit/s.
10 Mbits/s is not supported for SyncE. Plug the 10/100/1000 electrical
interface or the cable to be tested to the RJ45 PORT #1 / P1 connector. The
electrical ports is RJ45 for category 5 unshielded twisted pair (UTP). Refer
to Ethernet Cables on page 695 for cable specifications.
Power Blazer
23
Physical Interfaces and LEDs
BNC (TX/RX2 and RX on 8870/8880 / PORT #1 on 8805)
BNC (TX/RX2 and RX on 8870/8880 /
PORT #1 on 8805)
This port can be used for electrical Transport test applications, DS1/DS3
dual RX, or clock synchronization.
Supported electrical signal are E1/2M, E3/34M, DS3/45M,
STS-1e/STM-0e/52M, E4/140M, and STS-3e/STM-1e/155M for TX/RX test
application; DS1/DS3 for dual RX test application; DS1/1.5M, E1/2M, 2MHz
for clock output; DS1/1.5M, E1/2M, 2MHz, 1PPS1 for clock input. Plug the
signal to be tested to the BNC IN and OUT or TX/RX2 and RX ports; RX2 is
used as the second input port for DS1/DS3 dual RX test. Connector type is
BNC for coaxial 75-ohm cable connection.
BNC (EXT CLK)
This port can be used for external input clock synchronization: DS1 (1.5M),
E1 (2M), 2MHz, or 1PPS signal. Connector type is BNC for coaxial 75-ohm
cable connection. An adapter cable (BNC to Bantam) is required for
Bantam connection (not supplied).
AUX (PORT #2 on 8805)
This port can be used for electrical DS1/DS3 dual RX Transport test
application or for clock synchronization.
DS1/DS3 dual RX: Supported electrical signal are DS1 or DS3 for Dual RX
testing capability. Plug the signal to be tested to the BNC port. Connector
type is BNC for coaxial 75-ohm cable connection.
Clock synchronization: Supported electrical synchronization signals are
DS1 (1.5M), E1 (2M), or 2MHz. Connector type is BNC for coaxial 75-ohm
cable connection. An adapter cable (BNC to Bantam) is required for
Bantam connection (not supplied).
1. 1PPS is available for Dual Test Set in One-Way Latency measurement mode.
24
88000 Series
Physical Interfaces and LEDs
RJ48C (PORT #1 on 8805)
RJ48C (PORT #1 on 8805)
This port can be used for electrical Transport test applications or for clock
IN/OUT synchronization.
Supported electrical signal are DS1/1.5M and E1/2M for TX/RX test
application; DS1/1.5M, E1/2M, 2MHz for clock IN/OUT on 8880. Plug the
signal to be tested to RJ48C port.
BANTAM (PORT #1 on 8805)
This port can be used for electrical Transport test application.
Supported signal are DS1/1.5M and E1/2M. Plug the signal to be tested to
the BANTAM IN and OUT ports.
Fibre Cables Connection
Carefully connect optical fibre cables to the CFP/CFP2/XFP/SFP/SFP+’s IN
and OUT ports. To ensure good signal quality, make sure that the optical
fibre connector is fully inserted into the optical connector port.
CAUTION
To prevent exceeding the maximum input power level please use an
attenuator when a loopback configuration is used.
EXT CLK
The 88000 Series provides one connector, labeled EXT CLK that can be
used either for input/output external clock DS1 (1.5M), E1 (2M), 2MHz, or
1PPS (input only) synchronization signal. 1PPS is available for Dual Test
Set in One-Way Latency measurement mode. The connector type is SMB
for coaxial 75-ohm cable connection. An adapter cable (SMB to Bantam) is
required for Bantam connection (not supplied).
Power Blazer
25
Physical Interfaces and LEDs
REF OUT
REF OUT
The 88000 Series provides a connector, labelled REF OUT, for eye diagram
clock signal generation that can be used by another equipment. The clock
connector type is SMA.
LEDs
26

LASER red LED is on when the 88000 Series is emitting an optical laser
signal.

LINK/RX and LINK green LED is on when the link is up, off when the
link is down, and flashing when frames are transmitted and/or
received.

DUPLEX green LED is on for Full Duplex mode, off for Half Duplex
mode, and flashing when collisions are detected.

Port blue LED is on when this port is selected for the test, and flashing
(available on 8870/8880/88200NGE) when this port is selected for clock
input.
88000 Series
5
Graphical User Interface
Overview
This chapter describes the Power Blazer Series graphical user interface.
Main Application Window
The following main application window is displayed when the Power
Blazer application is started.
Title Bar
Global
Indicator
Test
Control
Main
Window
Test Menu
Application
Buttons
Status Bar
Main Window
The main window allows to setup a test and to view the test status and
results.
Power Blazer
27
Graphical User Interface Overview
Navigation Buttons
Navigation Buttons
Navigation buttons appear when there is not enough room on one page to
display all available test applications. The left and right arrow buttons allow
to respectively access the previous or next window. The buttons in
between the left and right arrow buttons allow to directly select the
window for the type of test application listed.
Status Bar
The status bar displays the following information.
Icon
and/or text
Description
Test Application
Test icon
Icon representing the active test application.
All
P1, P2
Port number (Port 1 or Port 2)
All
TX/RX, TX, RX Indicates the direction of the signal per port.
Transport
Interface/
Signal
The interface or signal rate per port: 1GE Optical, 40G, OTU1,
OTU2, OTU3, etc.
All
(BTS) or
(RRH)
BTS: Emulation mode is Base Station
RRH: Emulation mode is Remote Radio Head
CPRI/OBSAI BERT
LINK
Green arrow: Link up.
Red arrow: Link down.
Gray arrow: Awaiting incoming data to provide a status.
All l
CPRI/OBSAI BERT
PTP
For G.8265.1:
1588 PTP
Green arrow: Signaling requests granted.
Red arrow: Request denied, session canceled, or no reply.
Gray arrow: Pending, inactive, or link down.
Refer to Negotiation Status on page 465 for more information.
For G.8275.1:
Green arrow: Announce, Sync, and Follow-up are received according
with their respective interval.
Red arrow: Announce, Sync, or Follow-up are not received.
Gray arrow: Pending.
28
88000 Series
Graphical User Interface Overview
Status Bar
Icon
and/or text
Description
Test Application
ESMC
Green arrow: ESMC valid information frame received.
Red arrow: No ESMC valid information frames received.
Gray arrow: Pending state.
Refer to ESMC Monitoring on page 318 for more information.
SyncE
Power level
The received optical signal status:
Green with “Power”: Power level in rangea.
Yellow: Power level out-of-rangeb.
Red with “LOS”: Loss of signalb.
Red with “Power”: Power level is close to damage.
Gray: The operational range value is either not available or not
supplied by the transceiver.
All except Cable Test
Laser ONb. The laser icon is not displayed when the laser is offa. The
All
laser icon is only displayed for optical interfaces. The laser is ON by
default when the test is created. The laser control is not affected when
turning off the laser by generating a LOS for example. Refer to Laser
Button on page 625.
The status of the received signal pattern per port:
Green: Pattern is synchronized.
Red: Loss of pattern.
Gray: Test is not running (EtherBERT test or EoOTN client) or the No
Pattern Analysis (Live) check box is selected.
Transport
EtherBERT
Fibre Channel
Wireless
Connection established between two testing units in Dual Test Set
(DTS), EXFO|Worx Interop, or in Loop Up mode.
Ethernet
Connection not established between two testing units in Dual Test Set Ethernet
(DTS), EXFO|Worx Interop, or in Loop Up mode.
Remote unit is busy (locked) in EXFO|Worx Interop operation mode.
Ethernet
Loopback Tool enabled on the port unused by the main test
application.
Ethernet
Clock synchronization signal clock. The clock icon is followed by the
clock mode: INT for Internal, EXT for External RCV for Recovered,
or BKP for Backplane. AUTO is displayed for dual port test when a
different clock is used on each port.
Green: Clock Synchronized.
Red: Loss of clock.
Transport
Ethernet
Fibre Channel
Wireless
Indicates a manual change in the OH bytes transmitted. Not displayed Transport
when using the default OH values.
Power Blazer
29
Graphical User Interface Overview
Title Bar
Icon
and/or text
a.
b.
Description
Test Application
Remote PC connection established with the Power Blazer.
N/A
The test is in loopback mode. Not displayed when not in loopback
mode.
NI-CSU Emulation
Alarm/error is currently injected. Not displayed when there is no
alarm/error injection.
Transport
EtherBERT
Carrier Ethernet OAM
Fibre Channel
Wireless
For all lanes for parallel interface.
For at least one lane for parallel interface.
The following status are also displayed:

Battery/AC icons, available on FTB platforms, indicate the battery level
and if the platform is connected to an AC power source. Refer to the
platform user guide for more information.

Date and Time indicate the current date and time.
Title Bar
The Title Bar displays the module’s slot number in brackets, the software
application name and the minimize, maximize, and close buttons.
30
88000 Series
Graphical User Interface Overview
Global Indicator
Global Indicator
The global indicator area displays the global pass/fail verdict, global alarm,
and the test duration.
Global indicator area
Global
Verdict
Current
Global
Alarm
History
Test Timer
Timer
The global indicator area can be maximized for distant viewing. Tap
anywhere within the global indicator area to display a maximized view. Tap
again to exit the maximized view.
Power Blazer
31
Graphical User Interface Overview
Global Indicator
Global Verdict
Reports the global test verdict status when supported by the test
application and enabled (when applicable).
Verdict
Description
PASS
PASS is displayed with a green background when all result values meet the configured threshold
criteria.
FAIL
FAIL is displayed with a red background when any result value does not meet the configured
threshold criteria or when a specific alarm is detected (refer to each test application for additional
information).
“--”
“--” is displayed with a gray background when at least one of the following conditions is met:
- Pass/Fail verdict is not enabled
- there is no defined criterion
- the test has not run yet.
Global Alarm
Indicates the current and history alarm/error status of the test.
Background Alarm/
color
Error
Gray
Text displayed
Current --
Description
No test result available.
History
Green
Red
Current No Alarm
No alarm/error has occurred in the last second.
History
No alarm/error has occurred during the test.
Current Alarms or the name of the alarm. An alarm/error occurred in the last second.
History
Amber
32
History
No current alarm/error but at least one
alarm/error has occurred during the test.
88000 Series
Graphical User Interface Overview
Test Control
Test Timer
The test timer without the timer icon indicates the time elapsed since the
beginning of the test. No timer action is active. The test timer format is
“day hour:minute:second”.
Timer
The timer icon with Armed indicates that a start time is active.
The timer icon with the Test Timer indicates that a duration and/or a stop
time is active.
Test Control
Note: Refer to Test Control on page 621 for more information.
Test Menu
The test menu displays the following buttons:
Power Blazer

Setup allows to configure the selected test. Refer to Test Setup - Test
Configurator, Timer, and System on page 97 for more information.

Results allows to view test results. Refer to Test Results on page 333 for
more information.

Functions allows to configure additional test functions (refer to Test
Functions on page 525).
33
Graphical User Interface Overview
Application Buttons
Application Buttons

Help (?) displays the help information related to the content of the
active main window. It is also possible to navigate through the
remainder of the help information.

Exit (x) closes the application.

About (i) mainly displays the product version details and technical
support information.
Module Details button displays the Power Blazer details such as its ID,
Serial Number, Software Product Version, etc.
View Licence Agreement button displays the details of the product
licence agreement.
Software Options button displays the list of software options.
Note: For information on how to install and activate software options, refer to the
platform User Guide. The Power Blazer application must be restarted once
a new software option is installed in order to activate it.
Software Option
100GE
Description
Ethernet 100G
40GE
Ethernet 40G
10G_LAN
Ethernet 10G LAN optical interface
10G_WAN
Ethernet 10G WAN optical interface
GigE_Electrical
Ethernet 1000Base-T (Electrical) interface
GigE_Optical
Ethernet 1000Base-X (Optical) interface
100electrical
Ethernet 100Base-TX (Electrical) interface
100optical
Ethernet 100Base-FX (Optical) interface
10electrical
Ethernet 10Base-T (Electrical) interface
OTU4
Optical Transport Unit-4 (111.81 Gbit/s)
OTU3-e1-e2
Optical Transport Unit-3 Overclocked (44.571/44.583 Gbit/s)
OTU3
Optical Transport Unit-3 (43.018 Gbit/s)
OTU2-1f-2f
Optical Transport Unit-2 Overclocked (11.270/11.317 Gbit/s)
OTU2-1e-2e
Optical Transport Unit-2 Overclocked (11.049/11.096 Gbit/s)
34
88000 Series
Graphical User Interface Overview
Application Buttons
Software Option
Description
OTU2
Optical Transport Unit-2 (10.7 Gbit/s)
OTU1
Optical Transport Unit-1 (2.7 Gbit/s)
40G
39.81312 Gbit/s (SONET/SDH)
9953M
9.953 Gbit/s (SONET/SDH)
2488M
2.488 Gbit/s (SONET/SDH)
622M
622 Mbit/s (SONET/SDH)
155M
155 Mbit/s (SONET/SDH)
52M
52 Mbit/s (SONET/SDH)
FC-1X
Fibre Channel 1X
FC-2X
Fibre Channel 2X
FC-4X
Fibre Channel 4X
FC-8X
Fibre Channel 8X
FC-10X
Fibre Channel 10X
FC-16X
Fibre Channel 16X
CPRI-1.2G
CPRI 1.2288 Gbit/s
CPRI
CPRI 2.4576 Gbit/s and 3.072 Gbit/s
CPRI-4.9G
CPRI 4.9152 Gbit/s
CPRI-6.1G
CPRI 6.144 Gbit/s
CPRI-9.8G
CPRI 9.8304 Gbit/s
DP-CPRI
Dual Port CPRI
OBSAI
OBSAI 3.072 Gbit/s
ETH-CAPTURE
Ethernet Frame Capture
ETH-OAM
Carrier Ethernet OAM test application
TRAFFIC-SCAN
Traffic Scan
LINK-OAM
Link OAM
TST-OAM
Test Over Service OAM
DUAL-PORT
Dual Port Test
RFC6349
RFC 6349 test application (10GE and less)
RFC6349_40-100GE
RFC 6349 test application (40/100GE)
RFC6349-EXFOWorx
EXFO|Worx Interop Operation Mode
ADV-FILTERS
Advanced filtering
MPLS
MPLS Encapsulation (10GE and less)
MPLS_40-100GE
MPLS Encapsulation (40/100GE)
EoE
Ethernet over Ethernet Encapsulation (10GE)
EoE_40-100GE
Ethernet over Ethernet Encapsulation (40/100GE)
Power Blazer
35
Graphical User Interface Overview
Application Buttons
Software Option
PBBTE
Description
Provider Backbone Bridge Encapsulation (10GE)
PBBTE_40-100GE
Provider Backbone Bridge Encapsulation (40/100GE)
IPv6
Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6) (10GE and less)
IPv6_40-100GE
Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6) (40/100GE)
ODU0
OTN ODU0
ODUMUX
ODU Multiplexing Payload Type 20 and 21
EoOTN
Ethernet over Optical Transport Network
ODUflex
OTN ODUflex
SONET
Synchronous Optical Network
SDH
Synchronous Digital Hierarchy
OTN-INTR-THRU
OTN Intrusive Through Mode
SONETSDH-INTR-THRU
SONET/SDH Intrusive Through Mode
MULTI-CH-OTN
Multi-Channel OTN Test Application
TCM
Tandem Connection Monitoring STS/AU and VT/TU (SONET/SDH)
ETH-THRU
Through Mode Test Application
iOptics
Intelligent Pluggable Optic Test Application
iSAM
Intelligent Service Activation Methodology
CABLE_TEST
Cable Test Application
1588PTP
1588 Precision Time Protocol Test Application
G82751
ITU-T G.8275.1 Profile
SyncE
Synchronous Ethernet Test Application
TCP-THPUT
TCP Throughput Test Application
DSn
Digital Signal
DS1-FDL
DS1/1.5M Facility Data Link
DS3-FEAC
DS3/45M Far-End Alarm and Control
DUALRX
Dual RX
DS3-G747
ITU-T Recommendation G.747
PDH
Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy
NI-CSU
NI/CSU Emulation
36
88000 Series
Graphical User Interface Overview
Zoomed-In/Zoomed-Out Views
Zoomed-In/Zoomed-Out Views
Some configuration and result blocks give access to zoomed views
allowing more detailed configurations/results.
The block title contains the magnifier (+) icon when a zoomed view is
available.
To zoom-in, tap the magnifier (+) icon or anywhere on the block.
To zoom-out, tap on the magnifier (-) icon or anywhere on the block title.
Arrow Buttons
Moves to the top of the list.
Moves one page up.
Moves one line up.
Moves one line down.
Moves one page down.
Moves to the end of the list.
Power Blazer
37
Graphical User Interface Overview
Keyboard Usage
Keyboard Usage
The GUI pops up different keyboards to modify data. Following are the
usual keyboard keys:

Left arrow moves the cursor one position to the left.

Right arrow moves the cursor one position to the right.

Up arrow increases the value by one.

Down arrow decreases the value by one.

Del deletes the value at the cursor position.

Back deletes the value preceding the cursor position.

OK completes data entry.

Cancel closes the keyboard and discards the keyboard entry.

Previous... allows the selection of previously configured values. This
button is only available for certain fields like IP Address, MAC Address,
etc.
Note: For certain text fields, the GUI pops up or uses the unit’s on-screen
keyboard. Refer to the platform user guide for more information on how to
use it.
For full keyboard, the Back, Del, Shift, and Space bar keys have the same
functionality as a regular PC keyboard.
38
88000 Series
Graphical User Interface Overview
Keyboard Usage
For multiplexing keyboard, tap on all mapped signals that have to be
added/removed to/from the test path.
A mapped signal with an orange background color is part of the test
path.
A mapped signal with a gray background color is not part of the test
path.
Power Blazer
39
Graphical User Interface Overview
Keyboard Usage
The Trace message keyboard allows entering alphanumerical characters
(ITU T.50) required for J0/J1/J2/TTI Trace fields. Tap the Control
Characters button to access these characters.
ITU T.50 Characters
b7 to b1 Character
Description
b7 to b1 Character
Description
000 0000
NUL
Null
001 0000
DLE
Data Link Escape
000 0001
SOH
Start Of Heading
001 0001
DC1
Device Control 1
000 0010
STX
Start of Text
001 0010
DC2
Device Control 2
000 0011
ETX
End of Text
001 0011
DC3
Device Control 3
000 0100
EOT
End Of Transmission
001 0100
DC4
Device Control 4
000 0101
ENQ
Enquiry
001 0101
NAK
Negative Acknowledge
000 0110
ACK
Acknowledge
001 0110
SYN
Synchronous idle
000 0111
BEL
Bell
001 0111
ETB
End of Transmission Block
000 1000
BS
Backspace
001 1000
CAN
Cancel
000 1001
HT
Horizontal Tabulation
001 1001
EM
End of Medium
000 1010
LF
Line Feed
001 1010
SUB
Substitute character
000 1011
VT
Vertical Tabulation
001 1011
ESC
Escape
000 1100
FF
Form Feed
001 1100
IS4
Information Separator 4
000 1101
CR
Carriage Return
001 1101
IS3
Information Separator 3
000 1110
SO
Shift-Out
001 1110
IS2
Information Separator 2
000 1111
SI
Shift-In
001 1111
IS1
Information Separator 1
40
88000 Series
6
Test Setup - Test Applications
The Power Blazer offers the following test applications.
Available on
Type
Application
8805
Page
8830NGE
8870
88100G 88100NGE 88200NGE
8830NGE-16X 8880
Intelligent iOptics
Apps
iSAM
-
X
X
X
X
X
42
-
X
X
X
X
X
43
Transport
OTN BERT
-
X
X
X
X
X
45
Multi-Channel OTN
-
-
-
-
-
X
44
SONET/SDH BERT
X
X
X
X
X
X
53
OTN-SONET/SDH BERT
-
-
X
X
X
X
49
DSn/PDH BERT
X
-
X
-
-
-
56
SONET/SDH - DSn/PDH
BERT
-
-
X
-
-
-
58
NI/CSU Emulation
X
-
X
-
-
-
61
EtherSAM (Y.1564)
-
X
X
X
X
X
62
RFC 6349
-
X
X
X
X
X
66
RFC 2544
-
X
X
X
X
X
64
EtherBERT
-
X
X
X
X
X
67
Traffic Gen & Mon
-
X
X
X
X
X
69
Smart Loopback
-
X
X
X
X
X
71
Through Mode
-
X
X
-
X
X
73
TCP Throughput
-
X
X
-
X
X
74
Carrier Ethernet OAM
-
X
X
-
X
X
75
Cable Test
-
X
X
-
X
-
77
Packet
Sync
1588 PTP
-
X
X
-
X
X
78
SyncE
-
X
X
-
X
X
79
Fibre
Channel
FC BERT
-
X
X
-
X
X
80
Wireless
CPRI/OBSAI BERT
-
X
X
-
X
X
81
Ethernet
Power Blazer
41
Test Setup - Test Applications
iOptics
iOptics
iOptics test application provides a quick assessment of the proper
operation of an optical transceiver before using it in a network or test
environment. The validation is done by running sub-tests in addition to
monitoring transceiver power consumption and temperature. Result and
verdict are reported for each sub-test and monitoring task. Transceiver’s
manufacturing information is also automatically collected.
A fiber loopback patch cord is required to perform the test with applicable
attenuation included to protect the optical device. Bidirectional (single
fiber) transceivers are not supported since the iOptics test requires a
loopback.

Typical iOptics test application:
88000 Series

42
Supported Interfaces/Rates: 40G/100G/OTU3/OTU3e1/OTU3e2/OTU4
parallel interfaces and all serial interfaces up to 10G/OTU2f (refer to
Rate on page 238 for more information).
88000 Series
Test Setup - Test Applications
iSAM
iSAM
iSAM is a simplified version of EtherSAM that is centered around addressing
turn-up of E-Line circuits (EVC). The objective of the test is to validate
Carrier Ethernet-based services key performance indicators defined in
MEF: Frame Delay (FD), Inter-Frame Delay Variation (IFDV), and Frame
Loss Ratio (FLR). In addition the RFC 6349 subtest can be enabled to
validate that the Ethernet service is able to properly carry TCP traffic.
The iSAM test has to be executed in conjunction with a remote module or
in Internal Loopback mode. The remote module can be either in
loopback configuration for unidirectional testing or in EtherSAM Dual Test
Set mode for bidirectional testing.
The Dual Test Set test allows bi-directional test between two compatible
modules providing independent results for each test direction. The results
from local-to-remote and remote-to-local are available on the local testing
unit.

Typical iSAM test applications:
88000 Series
Local Unit
88000 Series
Network
under test
(EVC)
88000 Series
Local Unit

Power Blazer
Manual or
Remote
Loopback
Remote Unit
88000 Series
Network
under test
(EVC)
EtherSAM
(DTS)
Remote Unit
Supported Interfaces/Rates: 10M to 100G.
43
Test Setup - Test Applications
Multi-Channel OTN
Multi-Channel OTN
The Multi-Channel OTN test application validates individual channel
connectivity with a device under test by allowing concurrent generation
and monitoring of all channels of a single stage ODUmux test structure.

Typical Multi-Channel OTN test applications:
88000 Series
Network
under test
Testing Unit
DUT Loopback
88000 Series
88000 Series
Network
under test
Testing Unit

Testing Unit
Path/Mapping
The Multi-Channel OTN test application offers the following
path/mapping structures depending on the inserted CFP4/QSFP
transceivers and enabled options.
44
88000 Series
Test Setup - Test Applications
OTN BERT
OTN BERT
Allows OTN (framed and unframed), OTN multiplexing, and EoOTN traffic
generation with specific test pattern for Bit Error Rate analysis.

Typical OTN BERT test applications:
88000 Series
Network
under test
Testing Unit
DUT Loopback
88000 Series
88000 Series
Network
under test
Testing Unit
Testing Unit
88000 Series
Network
under test
Network
under test
Testing Unit
Power Blazer
45
Test Setup - Test Applications
OTN BERT

Path/Mapping
The OTN BERT test application offers the following path/mapping
structures depending on the inserted transceiver and enabled options.

46
For 88100NGE (up to OTU4) and 88100G (OTU3 to OTU4)
88000 Series
Test Setup - Test Applications
OTN BERT

Power Blazer
For 88200NGE (up to OTU4) and 8870/8880 (up to OTU2f)
47
Test Setup - Test Applications
OTN BERT

48
For 8830NGE/8830NGE-16X
88000 Series
Test Setup - Test Applications
OTN-SONET/SDH BERT
OTN-SONET/SDH BERT
Allows the validation of the SONET/SDH embedded in OTN transport
protocol by performing a BERT test to check the traffic or payload stability
over a network facility.

Typical OTN-SONET/SDH BERT test applications:
88000 Series
Network
under test
Testing Unit
DUT Loopback
88000 Series
88000 Series
Network
under test
Testing Unit
Testing Unit
88000 Series
Network
under test
Network
under test
Testing Unit
Power Blazer
49
Test Setup - Test Applications
OTN-SONET/SDH BERT

Path/Mapping
The OTN-SONET/SDH BERT test application offers the following
path/mapping structures depending on the inserted transceiver and
enabled options.
For OTN-SONET BERT

50
For 88200NGE (up to OTU4) and 8870/8880 (up to OTU2)
88000 Series
Test Setup - Test Applications
OTN-SONET/SDH BERT

Power Blazer
For 88100NGE/88100G
51
Test Setup - Test Applications
OTN-SONET/SDH BERT
For OTN-SDH BERT
52

For 88200NGE (up to OTU4) and 8870/8880 (up to OTU2)

For 88100NGE/88100G
88000 Series
Test Setup - Test Applications
SONET/SDH BERT
SONET/SDH BERT
Allows the validation of the SONET or SDH transport protocol by
performing a BERT test to check the traffic or payload stability over a
network facility.

Typical SONET/SDH BERT test applications:
88000 Series
Network
under test
Testing Unit
DUT Loopback
88000 Series
88000 Series
Network
under test
Testing Unit
Testing Unit
88000 Series
Network
under test
Network
under test
Testing Unit
Power Blazer
53
Test Setup - Test Applications
SONET/SDH BERT

Path/Mapping
The SONET/SDH BERT test application offers the following
path/mapping structures depending on the inserted CFP module
or XFP/SFP/SFP+ transceiver and enabled options.
For SONET BERT
54
88000 Series
Test Setup - Test Applications
SONET/SDH BERT
For SDH BERT
Power Blazer
55
Test Setup - Test Applications
DSn/PDH BERT
DSn/PDH BERT
Allows validation of the DSn or PDH transport protocol by performing a
BERT test to check the traffic or payload stability over a network facility.

Typical DSn/PDH BERT test applications:
88000 Series
Network
under test
Testing Unit
DUT Loopback
88000 Series
88000 Series
Network
under test
Testing Unit
56
Testing Unit
88000 Series
Test Setup - Test Applications
DSn/PDH BERT

Path/Mapping
The DSn/PDH BERT test application offers the following path/mapping
structures depending on model and enabled options.
For DSn:
For PDH:
Power Blazer
57
Test Setup - Test Applications
SONET/SDH - DSn/PDH BERT
SONET/SDH - DSn/PDH BERT
Allows validation of the DSn or PDH embedded in SONET or SDH transport
protocol by performing a BERT test to check the traffic or payload stability
over a network facility.

Typical SONET/SDH - DSn/PDH BERT test applications:
88000 Series
Network
under test
Testing Unit
DUT Loopback
88000 Series
88000 Series
Network
under test
Testing Unit
Testing Unit
88000 Series
Network
under test
Network
under test
Testing Unit
58
88000 Series
Test Setup - Test Applications
SONET/SDH - DSn/PDH BERT

Path/Mapping
The SONET/SDH - DSn/PDH BERT test application offers the following
path/mapping structures depending on the model and enabled
options.
For SONET:
Power Blazer
59
Test Setup - Test Applications
SONET/SDH - DSn/PDH BERT
For SDH:
60
88000 Series
Test Setup - Test Applications
NI/CSU Emulation
NI/CSU Emulation
Allows DS1 testing in NI/CSU (Network Interface/Customer Service Unit)
emulation mode.
Typical NI/CSU Emulation test applications:
88000 Series
Network
under test
Test Head
NI/CSU Emulation
88000 Series
DSn/PDH BERT
Testing Unit
Power Blazer
88000 Series
Network
under test
NI/CSU Emulation
61
Test Setup - Test Applications
EtherSAM (Y.1564)
EtherSAM (Y.1564)
EtherSAM can simulate all types of services that will run on the network
and simultaneously qualify all key SLA parameters for each of these
services. Moreover, it validates the QoS mechanisms provisioned in the
network to prioritize the different service types, resulting in more accurate
validation and much faster deployment and troubleshooting.
The EtherSAM (Y.1564) test, in single port configuration, has to be
executed in conjunction with a remote module or in Internal Loopback
mode. The remote module can be either in loopback configuration for
unidirectional testing or in EtherSAM Dual Test Set mode for bidirectional
testing.
The Dual Test Set test allows bi-directional test between two compatible
modules providing independent results for each test direction. The results
from local-to-remote and remote-to-local are available on the local testing
unit.
The Dual Port topology allows simultaneous and bidirectional traffic
generation and analysis at 100 percent wire-speed at any packet size. Dual
Port topology is only available for rates up to 10G WAN.
62
88000 Series
Test Setup - Test Applications
EtherSAM (Y.1564)

Typical EtherSAM (Y.1564) test applications:
88000 Series
88000 Series
Network
under test
Testing Unit
Loopback Unit
88000 Series
88000 Series
Network
under test
Testing Unit
Remote Unit
88000 Series
Network
under test
Testing Unit

Power Blazer
Supported Interfaces/Rates: 10M to 100G.
63
Test Setup - Test Applications
RFC 2544
RFC 2544
RFC 2544 allows Ethernet Throughput, Back-to-Back, Frame Loss, and
Latency performance testing in accordance with RFC 2544 specifications.
The RFC 2544 test, in single port configuration, has to be executed in
conjunction with a remote module or in Internal Loopback mode. The
remote module can be either in loopback configuration for unidirectional
testing or in RFC 2544 Dual Test Set mode for bidirectional testing.
The Dual Test Set test allows bi-directional test between two compatible
modules providing independent results for each test direction. The results
from local-to-remote and remote-to-local are available on the local testing
unit.
The Dual Port topology allows simultaneous and bidirectional traffic
generation and analysis at 100 percent wire-speed at any packet size. Dual
Port topology is only available for rates up to 10G WAN.
64
88000 Series
Test Setup - Test Applications
RFC 2544

Typical RFC 2544 test applications:
88000 Series
88000 Series
Network
under test
Testing Unit
Loopback Unit
88000 Series
88000 Series
Network
under test
Testing Unit
Remote Unit
88000 Series
Network
under test
Testing Unit

Power Blazer
Supported Interfaces/Rates: 10M to 100G.
65
Test Setup - Test Applications
RFC 6349
RFC 6349
RFC 6349 is used to confirm that the Ethernet service is able to properly
carry TCP traffic.
The RFC 6349 test has to be executed in conjunction with a remote
compatible module in RFC 6349 Dual Test Set or EXFO|Worx Interop
operation mode allowing bidirectional testing. The test provides
independent results for each test direction. The results from
local-to-remote and remote-to-local are available on the local testing unit.

Typical RFC 6349 test application:
88000 Series
or BV Units
88000 Series
EVC
Testing Unit

66
Remote Unit
Supported Interfaces/Rates: 10M to 10G LAN, 40G and 100G.
88000 Series
Test Setup - Test Applications
EtherBERT
EtherBERT
Allows Ethernet Layer 1 up to Layer 4 and Unframed Layer 1 traffic
generation with specific test pattern for Bit Error Rate analysis.

Typical EtherBERT test applications:
88000 Series
88000 Series
Network
under test
Testing Unit
Loopback Unit
88000 Series
88000 Series
Network
under test
Testing Unit
Testing Unit
88000 Series
Network
under test
Testing Unit
88000 Series
88000 Series
Network
under test
Testing Unit
Testing Units
Power Blazer
67
Test Setup - Test Applications
EtherBERT
88000 Series
88000 Series
Network
under test
Testing Unit
Loopback Units

68
Supported Interfaces/Rates: 10M to 100G. Dual Port topology is only
available for rates up to 10G WAN.
88000 Series
Test Setup - Test Applications
Traffic Gen & Mon
Traffic Gen & Mon
Allows Ethernet traffic generation and analysis of up to 16 streams (up to
10 streams for Dual Port topology on 88100NGE, 8830NGE-16X, and
8830NGE).

Typical Traffic Gen & Mon test applications:
88000 Series
88000 Series
Network
under test
Testing Unit
Loopback Unit
88000 Series
88000 Series
Network
under test
Testing Unit
Testing Unit
88000 Series
Network
under test
Testing Unit
88000 Series
88000 Series
Network
under test
Testing Unit
Testing Units
Power Blazer
69
Test Setup - Test Applications
Traffic Gen & Mon
88000 Series
88000 Series
Network
under test
Testing Unit
Loopback Units

70
Supported Interfaces/Rates: 10M to 100G. Dual Port topology is only
available for rates up to 10G WAN.
88000 Series
Test Setup - Test Applications
Smart Loopback
Smart Loopback
Allows transmitting back the received Ethernet stream of data while
interchanging the source and destination MAC addresses, IP addresses,
and/or UDP/TCP ports. However in Transparent (Pseudo-Physical) mode
the Smart Loopback operates as a physical loopback by transmitting all
received frames unaltered and without discrimination.
The Smart Loopback test can be created locally (refer to Ethernet Test
Applications on page 89) or remotely using an EXFO unit (refer to Discover
Remote Button on page 622) or a Third-Party device (see Third-Party
Remote Loopback on page 72).

Typical Smart Loopback test application:
88000 Series
88000 Series
Network
under test
Testing Unit

Power Blazer
Smart Loopback Unit
Supported Interfaces/Rates: 10M to 100G.
71
Test Setup - Test Applications
Smart Loopback
Third-Party Remote Loopback
The Third-party Remote Loopback feature provides the capability to be
discovered and react to loop-up and loop-down commands from a third
party device. This feature is used for unidirectional testing, where the test
stream is transmitted from the third party device to a remote EXFO device.
The looped back test stream is received and analyzed by the third-party
device.
The third-party loopback supports three level of messages:

Layer 2: Only MAC addresses are swapped.

Layer 3: MAC and IP addresses are swapped.

Layer 4: MAC and IP addresses are swapped along with the UDP port.
To emulate a third-party remote device, the loopback mode is set in the
function of the layer of loop messages received. The loop messages are:

Layer 2: Ethernet

Layer 3: IP

Layer 4: UDP/TCP
On receipt of the third-party loop-up command as per requested layer, the
loopback mode is set and initiated on the module.
72
88000 Series
Test Setup - Test Applications
Through Mode
Through Mode
The Through Mode test application allows traffic to pass through the 88000
Series unit using two electrical or optical ports for in-service
troubleshooting of live traffic between the carrier/service provider network
and the customer’s network.

Typical Through Mode test application:
88000 Series
Network Ethernet

Power Blazer
Testing Unit
in Through Mode
Network Ethernet
Supported Interfaces/Rates: 10M to 10GE LAN, and 100GE;
10/100/1000M electrical is supported when using an active copper SFP
and the RJ45 port.
73
Test Setup - Test Applications
TCP Throughput
TCP Throughput
The objective of this test is to find the TCP throughput based on the
successfully transported bytes over the test time. Two units running a TCP
Throughput test are required. One unit will act as the source (Local) and
the other one as the destination (Remote).
The local unit starts sending TCP segments using the Initial Window Size
defined. The window size is adjusted following the TCP algorithm. The
window size is incremented until the Maximum Window Size or
congestion is reached. However, the window size will be reduced when
congestion occurs, then incremented again as described above when the
congestion is cleared. TCP Throughput and windows size statistics will be
gathered throughout the test.

Typical TCP Throughput test application:
88000 Series
88000 Series
Network
under test
Local Testing Unit

74
Remote Unit
Supported Interfaces/Rates: 10M to 1G.
88000 Series
Test Setup - Test Applications
Carrier Ethernet OAM
Carrier Ethernet OAM
The Carrier Ethernet OAM test application supports the following tests:
Ethernet OAM (S-OAM), MPLS-TP OAM, and Link OAM.
Ethernet OAM and MPLS TP OAM
The Ethernet Service OAM tests are divided into two main categories:

Performance Monitoring measures parameters such as frame delay,
frame loss, and synthetic loss (Y.1731/MEF).

Connectivity Fault Management provides the capability for detecting,
verifying, and isolating connectivity failure (Y.1731/802.1ag/MEF).

Typical Ethernet OAM and MPLS TP OAM test applications:
88000 Series
MIP
Peer MEP
MIP
88000 Series
Local MEP
88000 Series
Local MEP

Power Blazer
Smart Loopback with
S-OAM Responder enabled.
Supported Interfaces/Rates: 10M to 10G LAN/WAN.
75
Test Setup - Test Applications
Carrier Ethernet OAM
Link OAM
The Link OAM test validates the Link OAM protocol capabilities and the
Ethernet link connection of a remote equipment.

Typical Link OAM test application:
88000 Series
NID/Switch
Testing Equipment

76
Supported Interfaces/Rates: 10M to 10G LAN/WAN.
88000 Series
Test Setup - Test Applications
Cable Test
Cable Test
The cable test application is used to diagnose un-shielded twisted pairs
(UTP) cables (up to Category 6e/Class E).
Cable test can be performed everywhere in the network where an
electrical 10/100/1000 Mbit/s Ethernet interface is available for testing. Only
the pairs used by the Ethernet signal will be tested. For 10 Base-T, and
100 Base-TX, pair 2 and 3 will be tested; for 1000 Base-T, all pairs will be
tested. However, if the Ethernet signal is unknown, all four pairs will be
tested.
Even if a link up is not required when testing with a far end equipment, it is
preferable to have the far end equipment powered up to maximize the
cable test results.
Supported Ethernet cable categories are: Category 3/Class C, Category 4,
Category 5, Category 5e/Class D, and Category 6e/Class E.
Note: Cable test result is reliable for cable length of 10 meters to 120 meters
(32.81 feet to 393.7 feet).

Typical Cable Test applications:
88000 Series
UTP cable
Testing Unit
Far end equipment
88000 Series
UTP cable
Testing Unit

Power Blazer
Unplugged cable
Supported Interfaces/Rates: 10M to 1000M Electrical.
77
Test Setup - Test Applications
1588 PTP
1588 PTP
The 1588 PTP (Precision Time Protocol) test application handles the
1588 PTP communication with the Grand Master (GM) clock, collects
statistics related to packets, and monitors the clock Quality Level.

Typical 1588 PTP test application:
88000 Series
Grand Master Clock Source
Network
under test
Testing Unit

78
GM Clock
Supported Interfaces/Rates: 10M to 10G LAN.
88000 Series
Test Setup - Test Applications
SyncE
SyncE
The Synchronous Ethernet (SyncE) test application provides elementary
test primitives to interactively validate the clock management functions of
a SyncE capable network equipment.

Typical SyncE test applications:
88000 Series
EEC
Network
under test
Testing Unit
Network Equipment
88000 Series
88000 Series
Network
under test
Testing Unit

Power Blazer
Testing Unit
Supported Interfaces/Rates: 100M to 10G LAN.
79
Test Setup - Test Applications
FC BERT
FC BERT
The FC BERT (Fibre Channel BERT) application provides full wire-speed
traffic generation at the FC-2 layer allowing BER testing for link integrity
measurements, latency, buffer-to-buffer credit measurements for
optimization as well as login capabilities.

Typical Fibre Channel BERT test applications:
88000 Series
Network
under test
Testing Unit
DUT Loopback
88000 Series
88000 Series
Network
under test
Testing Unit

80
Testing Unit
Supported Interfaces/Rates: 1X, 2X, 4X, 8X, 10X, 16X.
88000 Series
Test Setup - Test Applications
CPRI/OBSAI BERT
CPRI/OBSAI BERT
The CPRI/OBSAI BERT test application offers the capability to test the
fronthaul and dark fiber for CPRI/OBSAI and in addition supports detailed
CPRI L2 protocol testing, round trip delay, and Service Disruption Time
measurements.
The Common Public Radio Interface (CPRI) is an industry cooperation
aimed at defining a publicly available specification for the key internal
interface of radio base stations between the Radio Equipment Control
(REC) and the Radio Equipment (RE). In the industry the CPRI REC and RE
are mainly known as Base Station (BTS) and Remote Radio Head (RRH)
respectively.
The Open Base Station Architecture Initiative (OBSAI) is a standard that
defines the internal modular structure and interface for base stations.
Power Blazer
81
Test Setup - Test Applications
CPRI/OBSAI BERT

Typical CPRI/OBSAI BERT test applications:
88000 Series
CPRI/OBSAI
Unframed,
CPRI Framed L2
88000 Series
Network
under test
Testing Unit
Testing Unit
88000 Series
CPRI/OBSAI
Unframed
Network
under test
Testing Unit
Physical Loopback
88000 Series
RRH1 or
88000 Series
CPRI Framed L2
Network
under test
Base Station (BTS)
1 Note that a RRH is typically not capable to perform a loopback of the traffic so BERT test monitoring is not applicable.
The BERT test is more common when testing between two test units.
88000 Series
88000 Series
Network
under test
Testing Unit
Testing Units

82
Supported Interfaces/Rates:
CPRI: 1.2, 2.4, 3.1, 4.9, 6.1, and 9.8 Gbit/s
OBSAI: 3.1 Gbit/s.
88000 Series
7
Selecting and Starting a Test
A test can be created either by selecting the test from the Test Applications
tab or by loading a previously saved configuration (refer to Save/Load
Button on page 639 for more information).
Intelligent Apps
iOptics
To select, configure, and start iOptics:
1. From the test menu, tap Setup.
2. From the Test Applications tab, under Intelligent Apps, tap the
iOptics icon.
3. From the Test Configurator tab select the interface/port and its rate.
Optical Device
Under Test Block
Test Sequence
Block
3a. From the Optical Device Under Test block, tap the desired port
icon.
3b. Once the transceiver is correctly detected
, select its rate.
3c. From the Test Sequence block, select the test parameters and
thresholds (refer to Test Sequence (iOptics) on page 323).
Note: The iOptics test application uses Internal timing for clock synchronization.
Power Blazer
83
Selecting and Starting a Test
Intelligent Apps
4. Ensure the laser is ON and tap the Start button from the right
navigation bar to start the test (refer to Start/Stop|TX Button on
page 643). The Summary result page will be automatically displayed
when the test is started. For additional results refer to Test Results on
page 333. The test automatically stops when the transceiver is invalid
or missing.
5. When the test ends automatically or is manually stopped, the generate
report pop-up is displayed by default. If required, tap Yes to generate a
report of the test results and statistics (refer to Report Button on
page 633 for more information).
84
88000 Series
Selecting and Starting a Test
Intelligent Apps
iSAM
To select, configure, and start iSAM:
1. From the test menu, tap Setup.
2. From the Test Applications tab, under Intelligent Apps, tap the iSAM
icon.
3. From the Test Configurator tab configure the interface structure and
its parameters.
Network Block
Remote
Operation Mode
Local Block
Remote Block
3a. From the Local block, either select the basic port parameters or
click on More for all settings (refer to Local Details (iSAM) on
page 196). Ensure that the link is up and the power level for
optical interface (when supported) is adequate in the status bar
before proceeding to the next step (refer to Status Bar on
page 28).
For CFP/QSFP interface rates, check for the optical validation
check mark
indicating that the CFP/QSFP matches the
configured interface/rate (refer to Physical Interface Port - Test
Configurator Overview on page 102).
Power Blazer
85
Selecting and Starting a Test
Intelligent Apps
3b. From the Network block, either select the basic test parameters
or click on More for all settings (refer to Network Details (iSAM)
on page 221). The total bandwidth and the estimated test duration
are displayed.
3c. Select the remote operation mode; DTS is automatically selected
when the RFC 6349 Test is enabled:
DTS (Dual Test Set)
The remote device is automatically set in EtherSAM when the
connection/overtake is successfully established.
Remote Loopback
The remote device is automatically set in Smart Loopback when the
connection/overtake is successfully established.
Manual Loopback
The remote device is a physical loopback or has to be manually set in
loopback.
3d. From the Remote block, either select the basic remote
parameters or click on More for all settings (refer to Remote
Details (iSAM) on page 241).
Note: The iSAM test application uses Internal timing for clock synchronization.
4. Tap the Start button from the right navigation bar to start the test (refer
to Start/Stop|TX Button on page 643). If the connection with the
remote module is not established with either DTS or Remote
Loopback mode, the automatic remote connection process is
performed before starting the test. The Summary result page will be
automatically displayed when the test is started from any Setup
configuration page. For additional results refer to Test Results on
page 333.
5. When the test ends automatically or is manually stopped, the generate
report pop-up is displayed by default. If required, tap Yes to generate a
report of the test results and statistics (refer to Report Button on
page 633 for more information).
86
88000 Series
Selecting and Starting a Test
Transport Test Applications
Transport Test Applications
To select, configure, and start a Transport test:
1. From the test menu, tap Setup.
2. From the Test Applications tab, under Transport, tap a test icon.
3. From the Test Configurator tab configure the signal structure and its
parameters.
Modify Structure
Interface Block
Protocol Block
Physical
Interface Port
Test Block
Clock Block
3a. Tap the Modify Structure button to set the basic structure of the
test such as the interface/rate, connector, etc. (refer to Modify
Structure Button on page 108).
3b. For CFP/QSFP interface, check for the optical validation check
mark
indicating that the CFP/QSFP matches the configured
interface/rate (refer to Physical Interface Port - Test Configurator
Overview on page 102).
3c. Tap the interface block to configure the signal parameters (refer
to page 97).
3d. For an embedded signal, tap the protocol block to configure the
signal (refer to page 97).
Power Blazer
87
Selecting and Starting a Test
Transport Test Applications
3e. Tap the test block to configure the specific test settings (refer to
page 97). Not available with NI/CSU Emulation test application.
3f. Tap the clock block to configure the clock synchronization (refer
to Clock on page 150).
4. Tap the Timer tab to automatically start and/or stop the test at a given
time or for a specific duration (refer to Timer on page 324).
5. For additional test configurations refer to Test Functions on page 525.
6. Tap the Start button from the right navigation bar to start the test. (refer
to Start/Stop|TX Button on page 643). The Summary result page will
be automatically displayed when the test is started from any Setup
configuration page. For additional results, refer to Test Results on
page 333.
7. Tap the Stop button to stop the test. By default the generate report
pop-up is displayed. If required, tap Yes to generate a report of the test
results and statistics (refer to Report Button on page 633).
88
88000 Series
Selecting and Starting a Test
Ethernet Test Applications
Ethernet Test Applications
To select, configure, and start an Ethernet test:
1. From the test menu, tap Setup.
2. From the Test Applications tab, under Ethernet, tap a test icon.
3. From the Test Configurator tab configure the interface structure and
its parameters.
Modify Structure
Interface Block
Protocol Block
Physical
Interface Port
Test Block
Clock Block
3a. Tap the Modify Structure button to set the basic structure of the
test such as the interface/rate, connector, etc. (refer to Modify
Structure Button on page 108).
3b. For CFP/QSFP interface, check for the optical validation check
mark
indicating that the CFP/QSFP matches the configured
interface/rate (refer to Physical Interface Port - Test Configurator
Overview on page 102).
3c. Tap the interface block to configure the interface parameters
(refer to page 97). For Dual Port topology, there is an interface
block for each port. Ensure that the link is up and the power level
(when supported) is present in the status bar before proceeding
to the next step (refer to Status Bar on page 28).
Power Blazer
89
Selecting and Starting a Test
Ethernet Test Applications
3d. Tap the protocol block1 to configure the frame structure and its
parameters (refer to page 99). For RFC 2544, EtherBERT, and
Traffic Gen & Mon in Dual Port topology, there is a protocol block
for each port.
3e. Tap the test block2 to configure the specific test settings (refer to
page 99).
3f. Tap the clock block3 to configure the clock synchronization (refer
to Clock on page 150).
4. Tap the Timer tab to automatically start and/or stop the test at a given
time or for a specific duration (refer to Timer on page 324).
5. For additional test configurations refer to Test Functions on page 525.
6. Tap the Start button from the right navigation bar to start the test (refer
to Start/Stop|TX Button on page 643). The Summary result page will
be automatically displayed when the test is started from any Setup
configuration page. For additional results refer to Test Results on
page 333.
7. Depending on the test, when the test ends automatically or is manually
stopped, the generate report pop-up is displayed by default. If required,
tap Yes to generate a report of the test results and statistics (refer to
Report Button on page 633 for more information).
1. Not available with Smart Loopback, Through Mode, TCP Throughput, Carrier Ethernet OAM, and Cable Test.
2. Not available with Traffic Gen & Mon and Through Mode.
3. Not available in Dual Port topology and when using an active copper SFP. However the clock is either set to Internal
or Auto (1GE electrical).
90
88000 Series
Selecting and Starting a Test
Packet Sync Test Applications
Packet Sync Test Applications
To select, configure, and start a Packet Sync test:
1. From the test menu, tap Setup.
2. From the Test Applications tab, under Packet Sync, tap a test icon.
3. From the Test Configurator tab configure the interface structure and
its parameters.
Modify Structure
Interface Block
Test Block
Physical
Interface Port
3a. Tap the Modify Structure button to set the basic structure of the
test such as the interface/rate, connector, etc. (refer to Modify
Structure Button on page 108).
3b. Tap the interface block to configure the interface parameters
(refer to page 97). Ensure that the link is up and the power level
(when supported) is present in the status bar before proceeding
to the next step (refer to Status Bar on page 28).
3c. Tap the test block to configure the specific test settings (refer to
page 100).
Power Blazer
91
Selecting and Starting a Test
Packet Sync Test Applications
4. Tap the Timer tab to automatically start and/or stop the test at a given
time or for a specific duration (refer to Timer on page 324).
5. For additional test configurations refer to Test Functions on page 525.
6. Tap the Start button from the right navigation bar to start the test (refer
to Start/Stop|TX Button on page 643). The Summary result page will
be automatically displayed when the test is started from any Setup
configuration page. For additional results refer to Test Results on
page 333.
7. Depending on the test, when the test ends automatically or manually
stopped, the generate report pop-up is displayed by default. If required,
tap Yes to generate a report of the test results and statistics (refer to
Report Button on page 633 for more information).
92
88000 Series
Selecting and Starting a Test
Fibre Channel Test Application
Fibre Channel Test Application
To select, configure, and start a Fibre Channel test:
1. From the test menu, tap Setup.
2. From the Test Applications tab, under Fibre Channel, tap the
FC BERT test icon.
3. From the Test Configurator tab configure the interface structure and
its parameters.
Modify Structure
Interface Block
Protocol Block
Physical
Interface Port
Test Block
Clock Block
3a. Tap the Modify Structure button to set the basic structure of the
test such as the interface/rate and connector. (refer to Modify
Structure Button on page 108).
3b. Tap the interface block to configure the interface parameters
(refer to page 181). Ensure that the link is up and the power level
(when supported) is present in the status bar before proceeding
to the next step (refer to Status Bar on page 28).
3c. Tap the protocol block to configure the frame structure and its
parameters (refer to page 171).
Power Blazer
93
Selecting and Starting a Test
Fibre Channel Test Application
3d. Tap the test block to configure the specific test settings (refer to
page 155).
3e. Tap the clock block to configure the clock synchronization (refer
to Clock on page 150).
4. Tap the Timer tab to automatically start and/or stop the test at a given
time or for a specific duration (refer to Timer on page 324).
5. Tap the Start button from the right navigation bar to start the test (refer
to Start/Stop|TX Button on page 643). The Summary result page will
be automatically displayed when the test is started from any Setup
configuration page. For additional results refer to Test Results on
page 333.
6. When the test ends automatically or is manually stopped, the generate
report pop-up is displayed by default. If required, tap Yes to generate a
report of the test results and statistics (refer to Report Button on
page 633 for more information).
94
88000 Series
Selecting and Starting a Test
Wireless Test Application
Wireless Test Application
To select, configure, and start a Wireless test:
1. From the test menu, tap Setup.
2. From the Test Applications tab, under Wireless, tap the CPRI/OBSAI
BERT test icon.
3. From the Test Configurator tab configure the interface structure and
its parameters.
Modify Structure
Interface Block
Physical
Interface Port
Test Block
Clock Block
3a. Tap the Modify Structure button to set the basic structure of the
test such as the interface/rate, connector, etc. (refer to Modify
Structure Button on page 108).
3b. Tap the interface block to configure the interface parameters
(refer to page 181). For Dual Port topology, there is an interface
block for each port. Ensure that the power level is present in the
status bar before proceeding to the next step (refer to Status Bar
on page 28).
Power Blazer
95
Selecting and Starting a Test
Wireless Test Application
3c. Tap the test block to configure the specific test settings (refer to
page 155). For Dual Port topology, there is a test block for each
port.
3d. For Framed L2 in Base Station emulation mode, tap the clock
block1 to configure the clock synchronization (refer to Clock on
page 150). The clock is automatically set to Recovered for
Remote Radio Head emulation mode.
Note: For Unframed, the clock is set to Internal.
4. Refer to Test Functions on page 525 for additional test configurations.
5. Tap the Timer tab to automatically start and/or stop the test at a given
time or for a specific duration (refer to Timer on page 324).
6. Tap the Start button from the right navigation bar to start the test (refer
to Start/Stop|TX Button on page 643). The Summary result page will
be automatically displayed when the test is started from any Setup
configuration page. For additional results refer to Test Results on
page 333.
7. When the test ends automatically or is manually stopped, the generate
report pop-up is displayed by default. If required, tap Yes to generate a
report of the test results and statistics (refer to Report Button on
page 633 for more information).
1. Not available in Dual Port topology. However the clock is automatically set to Internal for the Base Station and
Recovered for the Remote Radio Head.
96
88000 Series
8
Test Setup - Test Configurator,
Timer, and System
The Setup menu offers the following structure:

Test Configurator for Intelligent Apps test application.
Test Application
iOptics
iSAM
Power Blazer
Block
Subtab or Pop Up
Page
Optical Device Under Test
Optical Device Under Test
Details
238
Test Sequence
-
323
Local
Local Details
196
CFP/CFP2/CFP4/QSFP/SFP+
149
Network
Network Details
221
Remote
Remote Details
241
97
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System

Test Configurator for Transport test applications.
Available with
Subtab or
Pop Up
Block
Button
Modify Structure
Signal Auto-Detect
a.
b.
c.
98
X
X
X
X
X
X
108
-
-
-
-
X
-
X
132
X
X
X
-
X
-
149
Frequencya
X
X
X
-
-
-
-
174
FTFL/PT and PT
X
X
X
-
-
-
-
176
Labels
-
-
-
X
-
X
-
192
Signal
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
280
Traces
326
326
326
330
-
330
-
<---
X
-
-
-
-
-
-
180
Labels
-
-
X
-
-
-
-
192
Signal
-
-
X
-
-
X
-
301
Protocol GFP-F/GFP-T
Clock
X
X
Interface CFP/CFP2/CFP4/QS
FP/XFP/SFP/SFP+
Test
SONET/
OTNMultiSONET/ DSn/ SDH Page
OTN
SONET/
NI/CSU
Channel
SDH PDH DSn/
BERT
SDH
Emulation
OTN
BERT BERT PDH
BERT
BERT
Traces
-
-
X
-
-
-
-
330
BERT and
Unframed BERT
X
-
Xb
Xb
X
X
-
140
EtherBERT and
Unframed BERT
Xc
-
-
-
-
-
-
155
Global
-
X
-
-
-
-
-
232
PT
-
X
-
-
-
-
-
176
Traces
-
X
-
-
-
-
-
326
Clock
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
150
Available with parallel interface only.
Only framed test is supported.
Available with EoOTN client only.
88000 Series
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System

Block
Button
Test Configurator for Ethernet test applications.
Subtab or Pop Up
Modify Structure
Interface CFP/CFP2/CFP4/QSFP/XFP/SFP/SFP+
Frequency
Clock
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.
h.
i.
j.
b
c
d
e
f
g
h
i
j
Page
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
108
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
-
149
X
-
X
X
X
X
X
-
-
-
174
Interface
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
181
Network
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
215
Protocol MAC/IP/UDP
Test
Test Application
a
X
-
X
X
X
-
-
-
-
-
200
Services - Global
X
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
270
Services - Profile
X
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
273
Streams - Global
-
-
-
-
X
-
-
-
-
-
308
Streams - Profile
-
-
-
-
X
-
-
-
-
-
310
Cable Test
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
X
146
EtherBERT and Unframed BERT
-
-
-
X
-
-
-
-
-
-
155
EtherSAM - Burst
X
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
163
EtherSAM - Global
X
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
165
EtherSAM - Ramp
X
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
169
Link OAM
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
X
-
194
RFC 2544 - Global
-
-
X
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
245
RFC 2544 - Subtests
-
-
X
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
248
RFC 6349
-
X
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
257
S-OAM / MPLS-TP OAM
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
X
-
260
Smart Loopback
-
-
-
-
-
X
-
-
-
-
306
TCP Throughput
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
X
-
-
321
Clock
X
-
X
X
X
X
-
X
X
-
150
EtherSAM
RFC 6349
RFC 2544
EtherBERT
Traffic Gen & Mon
Smart Loopback
Through Mode
TCP Throughput
Carrier Ethernet OAM
Cable Test
Power Blazer
99
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
Test Configurator for Packet Sync test applications.

Block
Subtab or Pop Up
Page
1588 PTP
SyncE
X
X
108
Interface Interface
X
X
181
Network
X
X
215
XFP/SFP/SFP+
X
X
149
1588 PTP
X
-
133
SyncE
-
X
318
Button
Test

Modify Structure
Test Configurator for Fibre Channel test application.
Block
Button
Subtab or Pop Up
Modify Structure
Test Application
FC BERT
Page
X
108
X
181
XFP/SFP/SFP+
X
149
Protocol Fibre Channel
X
171
Test
X
155
Interface Interface
100
Test Application
FC BERT
88000 Series
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System

Test Configurator for Wireless test application.
Block
Button
Subtab or Pop Up
Modify Structure
Power Blazer
CPRI/OBSAI BERT
Page
X
108
X
181
XFP/SFP/SFP+
X
149
BERT and
Unframed BERT
X
155
Interface Interface
Test
Test Application

Timer, see page 324.

System, see page 320.
101
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
Test Configurator Overview
Test Configurator Overview
The Test Configurator tab displays the interconnected blocks composing
the test structure. Each block of the test structure gives an overview of its
configuration/status. Availability of each block depends on the selected test
application and its structure. Arrows are used to indicate the
interconnection between blocks as well as the direction of the clock and
data flow. Tap on a block or the More button for Intelligent Apps, to
change the configuration parameters of this block.
From the Test menu, tap Setup, and the Test Configurator tab.

Intelligent Apps:
iOptics:
Optical Device
Under Test Block
102
Test Sequence
Block

Optical Device Under Test block displays and allows to change
basic interface/port settings. Tap on the More button to access
more information and settings.

Test Sequence block allows to change basic test settings.
88000 Series
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
Test Configurator Overview
iSAM:
Network Block
Remote
Operation
Mode
Local Block
Remote Block
The block arrangement represents the network under test. From any
block, either select the basic parameters or click on More for all
settings.
Power Blazer

Local block displays and allows to change basic interface settings.
Tap on the More button to access all settings.

Network block displays and allows to change basic test settings.
Tap on the More button to access all settings.

Remote operation mode allows to select the remote operation
mode. Tap on the button to change the remote operation mode.

Remote block displays and allows to change basic remote settings.
Tap on the More button to access all settings.
103
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
Test Configurator Overview

Transport Test Applications:
Modify Structure
Test Application
Topology
Interface Block
Protocol Block
Physical
Interface Port
Test Block
Arrows
Clock Block
Physical Clock Port

Test Application
Ethernet Test Applications:
Modify Structure
Interface Block
Protocol Block
Physical
Interface Port
Arrows
Physical Clock Port
104
Test Block
Clock Block
88000 Series
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
Test Configurator Overview

Packet Sync Test Applications:
Modify Structure
Test Application
Interface Block
Test Block
Physical
Interface Port
Arrows

Fibre Channel Test Application:
Modify Structure
Test Application
Interface Block
Protocol Block
Physical
Interface Port
Test Block
Arrows

Test Application
Clock Block
Wireless Test Application:
Modify Structure
Interface Block
Test Block
Physical
Interface Port
Arrows
Power Blazer
Clock Block
105
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
Test Configurator Overview

Test Application indicates the selected test application.

Topology, for Transport Test Applications, indicates the selected
test topology.

Modify Structure button, allows the configuration of the physical
port and the signal interface structure.

Physical Interface Port indicates the physical interface port. For
Dual Port topology, there is a physical interface for each port.
For CFP/CFP2 interface: To ensure proper optical module
detection/validation, make sure that the CFP/CFP2 screws are fully
secured.
The status for a physical CFP/CFP2/CFP4/QSFP interface and the
compatibility with the selected signal/interface is indicated as
follows. The icon and its description are also displayed just below
the test application name when validating or if there is a problem.
Validating CFP/CFP2/CFP4/QSFP
Missing CFP/CFP2/CFP4/QSFP
Invalid CFP/CFP2/CFP4/QSFP or mismatch with the selected
signal/interface.
Valid CFP/CFP2/CFP4/QSFP matching the selected interface/rate.
For serial CFP interface, an interlink fault status indicates a
problem at the interconnect between the serial CFP and the
module. No icon is displayed when there is no interlink fault. The
icon and its description is also displayed just below the test
application name when there is a problem.
Fault detected on either TX, RX, or TX/RX interlink. If an interlink fault is
reported we recommend to try the following to fix the issue: Fully remove
the CFP, wait 30 seconds then fully re-insert and secure the CFP with its
screws.
106
88000 Series
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
Test Configurator Overview

Arrows are used to indicate the interconnection between blocks as
well as the direction of the clock and data flow.
A line with an arrow on both ends indicates a bidirectional
communication (TX/RX).
A line with a single arrow indicates a unidirectional
communication, either TX when going out of a block or RX when
going into a block.
A line going out of a block returning back to the same block,
indicates a loopback communication.
Power Blazer

Physical Clock Port indicates the direction, TX or RX, of the
selected clock. The arrow next to the physical clock image
indicates if a clock is generated (TX, arrow pointing to the left) or
received (RX, arrow pointing to the right) at/from the physical EXT
CLK port.

Interface Block displays an overview of the interface settings and
status. Tap on the interface block to change the settings and to see
detailed status. For Dual Port topology, there is an interface block
for each port.

Protocol Block displays an overview of either the frame structure
and its parameters for Ethernet test applications or the embedded
signal for Transport test applications. This block is not present for
all tests. Tap on the protocol block to change the settings and to
see detailed status. For RFC 2544, EtherBERT, and Traffic Gen &
Mon in Dual Port topology, there is a protocol block for each port.

Test Block displays an overview of the test settings and status. Tap
on the test block to change the settings and to see detailed status.

Clock Block displays an overview of the clock settings and status.
Tap on the clock area to change the settings and to see detailed
status. For Dual Port topology, the clock block is not present but
the clock is set to Internal.
107
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
Modify Structure Button
Modify Structure Button
From the Test menu, tap Setup, Test Configurator, and the Modify
Structure button.
For Transport Test Applications
TX/RX allows the configuration of the following parameters for either
TX/RX, TX1/RX1 and RX2, TX, or RX depending on the selected topology.

Interface/Rate: Select the desired interface rate. Choices depend on
the selected test and the rates available on the Power Blazer.
Test
108
Interface/Rate
OTN (Parallel)
OTU4 (10 Lanes) [111.81 Gbit/s]
OTU4 (4 Lanes) [111.81 Gbit/s]
OTU3e2 (4 Lanes) [44.583 Gbit/s]
OTU3e1 (4 Lanes) [44.571 Gbit/s]
OTU3 (4 Lanes) [43.018 Gbit/s]
OTN (Serial)
OTU3 [43.018 Gbit/s]
OTU3e1 [44.571 Gbit/s]
OTU3e2 [44.583 Gbit/s]
OTU2 [10.709 Gbit/s]
OTU1e [11.049 Gbit/s]
OTU2e [11.096 Gbit/s]
OTU1f [11.270 Gbit/s]
OTU2f [11.318 Gbit/s]
OTU1 [2.666 Gbit/s]
SONET (Serial)
OC-768 [39.813 Gbit/s]
OC-192 [9.953 Gbit/s]
OC-48 [2.488 Gbit/s]
OC-12 [622.08 Mbit/s]
OC-3 [155.520 Mbit/s]
OC-1 [51.840 Mbit/s]
STS-3e [155.520 Mbit/s]
STS-1e [51.840 Mbit/s]
88000 Series
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
Modify Structure Button
Test

Interface/Rate
SDH (Serial)
STM-256 [39.813 Gbit/s]
STM-64 [9.953 Gbit/s]
STM-16 [2.488 Gbit/s]
STM-4 [622.080 Mbit/s]
STM-1 [155.520 Mbit/s]
STM-0 [51.840 Mbit/s]
STM-1e [155.520 Mbit/s]
STM-0e [51.840 Mbit/s]
DSn
DS1 [1.544 Mbit/s]
DS3 [44.736 Mbit/s]
PDH
E1 [2.048 Mbit/s]
E3 [34.368 Mbit/s]
E4 [139.264 Mbit/s]
NI/CSU Emulation
DS1
Connector allows the selection of the Power Blazer’s port.
Connectora
Interface/Rate
8870/8880
OTU4 (10 Lanes) [111.81 Gbit/s]
-
OTU4 (4 Lanes) [111.81 Gbit/s]
-
OTU3e2 (4 Lanes) [44.583 Gbit/s] OTU3e1 (4 Lanes) [44.571 Gbit/s]
OTU3 (4 Lanes) [43.018 Gbit/s]
OTU3 [43.018 Gbit/s]
OTU3e1 [44.571 Gbit/s]
OTU3e2 [44.583 Gbit/s]
OC-768 [39.813 Gbit/s]
STM-256 [39.813 Gbit/s]
Power Blazer
-
88100NGE/88100G
8830NGE/8830NGE-16X
8805
Port 2 - CFP
Port 2 - CFP2 (OTU4 only)
Port 2 - Internal Loopback
88200NGE
Port 1 - CFP4
Port 2 - QSFP
Port 2 - QSFP
-
109
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
Modify Structure Button
Connectora
Interface/Rate
OTU2 [10.709 Gbit/s]
OTU1e [11.049 Gbit/s]
OTU2e [11.096 Gbit/s]
OTU1f [11.270 Gbit/s]
OTU2f [11.318 Gbit/s]
OC-192 [9.953 Gbit/s]
STM-64 [9.953 Gbit/s]
8870/8880
Port 1 - SFP+b
88100NGE/88100G
8830NGE/8830NGE-16X
8805
Port 1 - XFP
88200NGE
Port 1 - SFP+
Port 1 - SFP/SFP+
Port 1 - SFP/SFP+
OTU1 [2.666 Gbit/s]
OC-48 [2.488 Gbit/s]
OC-12 [622.08 Mbit/s]
OC-3 [155.520 Mbit/s]
OC-1 [51.840 Mbit/s]
STM-16 [2.488 Gbit/s]
STM-4 [622.080 Mbit/s]
STM-1 [155.520 Mbit/s]
STM-0 [51.840 Mbit/s]
STS-3e [155.520 Mbit/s]
STS-1e [51.840 Mbit/s]
STM-1e [155.520 Mbit/s]
STM-0e [51.840 Mbit/s]
BNC
Port 1 - BNC
-
DS1 [1.544 Mbit/s]
Bantam
RJ48C
Port 1 - Bantam
Port 1 - RJ48C
-
E1 [2.048 Mbit/s]
Bantam
BNC
RJ48C
Port 1 - Bantam
Port 1 - BNC
Port 1 - RJ48C
-
DS3 [44.736 Mbit/s]
E3 [34.368 Mbit/s]
E4 [139.264 Mbit/s]
BNC
Port 1 - BNC
-
a.
b.
110
Availability of connectors depend on the model.
Port 2 is used with OC-192/STM-64 in Decoupled (TX≠RX) mode.
88000 Series
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
Modify Structure Button

CFP: Use this configuration when an optical CFP transceiver
module is inserted in the CFP slot of the 88000 Series module.

CFP2: Use this configuration when an EXFO CFP to CFP2 adapter is
inserted in the CFP slot of the 88000 Series module.

CFP4: Use this configuration when a CFP4 transceiver module is
inserted in the CFP4 slot of the 88200NGE module.

QSFP: Use this configuration when a QSFP+ or a QSFP28
transceiver module is inserted in the QSFP slot of the 88200NGE
module.

Internal Loopback: Use this configuration to perform a loopback
before the CFP connector without interfacing with the optical
transceiver. The loopback is performed on each physical lane for
parallel interface.
88000 Series
Internal Loopback
Testing Unit
Note: The Internal Loopback connector selection allows the isolation of the
platform module CFP slot electrical interface from the CFP device. This can
be useful in isolating a problem to a faulty CFP device.
Power Blazer
111
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
Modify Structure Button

Framing
Note: For OTN BERT, and SONET/SDH BERT test applications for rates up to 10G,
the framing is set to Framed.
For OTN BERT test application, parallel interfaces, allows the selection
of the test framing type. For serial interfaces, Multi-Channel OTN, OTN
BERT, and SONET/SDH BERT test applications, the Framing is set to
Framed. For OTN - SONET/SDH BERT test application, the test is
framed.
112

Framed (default): Same Pattern or Ethernet client in each physical
lane.

20 Unframed Logical Lanes: Independent test pattern in each
logical lane. Available with:
OTU4 (4 and 10 Lanes [111.81 Gbit/s].
88000 Series
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
Modify Structure Button
Power Blazer

10 Unframed Physical Lanes: Independent test pattern in each
physical lane. Available with:
OTU4 (10 Lanes [111.81 Gbit/s].

4 Unframed Physical Lanes: Independent test pattern in each
physical lane. Available with:
OTU3 (4 Lanes) [430.018 Gbit/s],
OTU3e1 (4 Lanes) [44.571 Gbit/s], and
OTU3e2 (4 Lanes) [44.583 Gbit/s].
113
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
Modify Structure Button

OTN Multiplexing - Config Mux button allows the selection of the OTN
test mapping including the selection of the payload type (PT20 or
PT21) when applicable. Refer to Multi-Channel OTN on page 44, OTN
BERT on page 45 and OTN-SONET/SDH BERT on page 49 for supported
path/mapping.
Interface/Rate
OTN Multiplexing
OTU1 [2.666 Gbit/s]
ODU1
ODU1/ODU0a
OTU2 [10.709 Gbit/s]
ODU2
ODU2/ODU1
ODU2/ODU1/ODU0a
ODU2/ODU0a
ODU2/ODUflexa
OTU1e [11.049 Gbit/s]
ODU1e
OTU2e [11.096 Gbit/s]
ODU2e
OTU1f [11.270 Gbit/s]
ODU1f
OTU2f [11.318 Gbit/s]
ODU2f
OTU3 (4 Lanes) [43.018 Gbit/s]b
ODU3
ODU3/ODU2
ODU3/ODU2/ODU1
ODU3/ODU2/ODU1/ODU0
ODU3/ODU1
ODU3/ODU1/ODU0
ODU3/ODU0
ODU3/ODUflex
OTU3 [43.018 Gbit/s]c
OTU3e1 (4 Lanes) [44.571 Gbit/s]b
ODU3e1
OTU3e1 [44.571 Gbit/s]c
OTU3e2 (4 Lanes) [44.583 Gbit/s]b
ODU3e2
c
OTU3e2 [44.583 Gbit/s]
114
88000 Series
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
Modify Structure Button
Interface/Rate
OTU4 (4 Lanes) [111.81 Gbit/s]b
OTU4 (10 Lanes) [111.81 Gbit/s]b
a.
b.
c.
d.
Power Blazer
OTN Multiplexing
ODU4 (default)
ODU4/ODU3
ODU4/ODU3/ODU2d
ODU4/ODU3/ODU2/ODU1d
ODU4/ODU3/ODU2/ODU1/ODU0d
ODU4/ODU3/ODU1d
ODU4/ODU3/ODU0d
ODU4/ODU2
ODU4/ODU2/ODU1/ODU0d
ODU4/ODU2/ODU1d
ODU4/ODU2/ODU0d
ODU4/ODU2/ODUflexd
ODU4/ODU1
ODU4/ODU1/ODU0d
ODU4/ODU0
ODU4/ODU2ed
ODU4/ODU1ed
ODU4/ODUflexd
Only available on 88200NGE/8870/8880.
Parallel interface.
Serial Interface.
Only available on 88200NGE.
115
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
Modify Structure Button

Embedded SONET/SDH, only available with OTN-SONET/SDH BERT
test application, allows the selection of the embedded SONET/SDH
signal.
OTN Multiplexing
ODU4/ODU3a
Embedded SONET/SDH
OC-768, STM-256
ODU3
ODU4/ODU3/ODU2a
ODU4/ODU2a
ODU3/ODU2
ODU2b
OC-192, STM-64
ODU4/ODU3/ODU2/ODU1a
ODU4/ODU3/ODU1a
ODU4/ODU2/ODU1a
ODU4/ODU1a
ODU3/ODU2/ODU1
ODU3/ODU1
ODU2/ODU1b
ODU1b
OC-48, STM-16
ODU4/ODU3/ODU2/ODU1/ODU0a
ODU4/ODU3/ODU0a
ODU4/ODU2/ODU1/ODU0a
ODU4/ODU2/ODU0a
ODU4/ODU1/ODU0a
ODU4/ODU0a
ODU3/ODU2/ODU1/ODU0
ODU3/ODU1/ODU0
ODU3/ODU0
ODU2/ODU1/ODU0b
ODU2/ODU0b
ODU1/ODU0b
OC-3, OC-12, STM-1, STM-4
a.
b.
116
Only available on 88200NGE.
Only available on 88200NGE/8870/8880.
88000 Series
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
Modify Structure Button

SONET/SDH Multiplexing - Config Mux button allows the selection of
SONET/SDH multiplexing. Available with OTN-SONET/SDH and
SONET/SDH BERT test applications.
Interface/Rate
or Embedded
SONET/SDH
OC-768
Power Blazer
SONET/SDH Multiplexing
STS-768c, STS-192c, STS-48c, STS-12c, STS-3c, STS-1
STM-256
AU-4-256c, AU-4-64c, AU-4-16c, AU-4-4c, AU-4, AU-3
OC-192
STS-192c, STS-48c, STS-12c, STS-3c, STS-1, STS-1/VT2,
STS-1/VT1.5
STM-64
AU-4-64c, AU-4-16c, AU-4-4c, AU-4, AU-4/TU-3, AU-4/TU-12,
AU-4/TU-11, AU-3, AU-3/TU-12, AU-3/TU-11
OC-48
STS-48c, STS-12c, STS-3c, STS-1, STS-1/VT2, STS-1/VT1.5
STM-16
AU-4-16c, AU-4-4c, AU-4, AU-4/TU-3, AU-4/TU-12, AU-4/TU-11,
AU-3, AU-3/TU-12, AU-3/TU-11
OC-12
STS-12c, STS-3c, STS-1, STS-1/VT2, STS-1/VT1.5
STM-4
AU-4-4c, AU-4, AU-4/TU-3, AU-4/TU-12, AU-4/TU-11, AU-3,
AU-3/TU-12, AU-3/TU-11
OC-3
STS-3c, STS-1, STS-1/VT2, STS-1/VT1.5
STM-1
AU-4, AU-4/TU-3, AU-4/TU-12, AU-4/TU-11, AU-3, AU-3/TU-12,
AU-3/TU-11
OC-1
STS-1, STS-1/VT2, STS-1/VT1.5
STS-3e
STS-3c, STS-1, STS-1/VT2, STS-1/VT1.5
STS-1e
STS-1, STS-1/VT2, STS-1/VT1.5
STM-0
AU-3, AU-3/TU-12, AU-3/TU-11
STM-1e
AU-4, AU-4/TU-3, AU-4/TU-12, AU-4/TU-11, AU-3, AU-3/TU-12,
AU-3/TU-11
STM-0e
AU-3, AU-3/TU-12, AU-3/TU-11
117
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
Modify Structure Button

DSn/PDH Multiplexing, available with DSn/PDH test application,
allows the selection of the DSn/PDH multiplexing.
Interface/Rate

118
DSn/PDH Multiplexing
DS3
None (default), DS1, E1
DS1
None
E4
None (default), E3, E3/E2/E1
E3
None (default), E2/E1
E1
None
Client allows the selection of either Pattern (default) or an EoOTN
(1 GbE, 10 GbE, 40 GbE, 100 GbE, or Ethernet (flex/GFP-F)) client.
The client is set to Pattern for OTU1f, OTU2f, OTU3e1, and OTU3e2
parallel interfaces/rates, as well as for Multi-Channel OTN,
OTN-SONET/SDH BERT and SONET/SDH test applications.
88000 Series
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
Modify Structure Button

Power Blazer
Topology allows the selection of the network test topology. Only
Coupled (TX=RX) is available with Multi-Channel OTN.

Coupled (TX=RX) uses the same settings for both the TX and RX
signals.

Decoupled (TX≠RX), supported with SONET/SDH BERT on
8870/8880 module, DSn/PDH BERT, and SONET/SDH - DSn/PDH
test applications, uses independent settings for TX and RX signals.
However, the pattern and some other parameters are always
coupled.

Through loops the RX signal to the TX port without TX overwrite
capabilities.
119
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
Modify Structure Button
120

Through Intrusive loops the RX signal to the TX port with TX
overwrite capabilities. Only available with OC-768/STM-256 and
OTN rates.

Through Intrusive with Block & Replace, available with
SONET/SDH BERT test application, loops the RX signal to the TX
port with TX overwrite capabilities including test pattern
generation. Only available with OC-768/STM-256.

Dual RX uses two DS1 or DS3 signals at the same time. Both RX
ports are coupled at the exception of the termination mode. Only
available with DS1 and DS3 signal rates.
88000 Series
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
Modify Structure Button
For Ethernet Test Applications

Port 1 and Port 2 are only displayed when Dual Port topology is
selected and allows to configure each port individually.

Interface/Rate choices depend on the selected test and the rates
available on the Power Blazer. Only rates up to 10G WAN are supported
with Dual Port topology.
Test
100GE (10 Lanes) [103.125 Gbit/s]
100GE (4 Lanes) [103.125 Gbit/s]
40GE (4 Lanes) [41.25 Gbit/s]
10GE WANa
10GE LAN
1GE Optical
100M Optical
10/100/1000M Electricalb
Carrier Ethernet OAM
10GE WAN
10GE LAN
1GE Optical
100M Optical
10/100/1000M Electrical
Through Mode
100GE (4 Lanes) [103.125 Gbit/s]c
10GE LAN
1GE Optical
100M Optical
10/100/1000M Electricald
TCP Throughput
1GE Optical
100M Optical
10/100/1000M Electrical
Cable Test
10/100/1000M Electrical
a.
b.
c.
d.
Power Blazer
Interface/Rate
EtherSAM
RFC 2544
RFC 6349
EtherBERT
Traffic Gen & Mon
Smart Loopback
Not available with RFC 6349 test application.
Also available as a second port when the test application requires two ports;
Ethernet 10/100/1000 Mbit/s electrical is supported when using an active copper
SFP.
Only supported on the 88200NGE.
Ethernet 10/100/1000 Mbit/s electrical is supported when using an active copper
SFP and the RJ45 port.
121
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
Modify Structure Button

SR4 check box when selected (cleared by default) defines the PHY
type as SR4 and allows to enable RS-FEC (see page 181) when using a
100GBASE-SR4 transceiver. Ensure both ends of the circuit have the
FEC enabled. Only available with Ethernet framed test applications
on 88200NGE.

Primary Port / Secondary Port, available with Through Mode test
application, allows to select the Power Blazer’s ports that are
respectively used as primary (Port 1) and secondary (Port 2) port. The
configuration of the network configuration parameters will be available
on the Primary Port only.

Connector allows the selection of the Power Blazer’s port.
Connectora
Interface/Rate
8870/8880
100GE (10 Lanes)
[103.125 Gbit/s]
-
100GE (4 Lanes)
[103.125 Gbit/s]
-
40GE (4 Lanes)
[41.25 Gbit/s]
-
10GE WAN
10GE LAN
Port 1 - SFP+
Port 2 - SFP+
88100NGE/88100G
8830NGE/8830NGE-16X
Port 2 - CFP
Port 2 - CFP2 (100GE only)
Port 2 - Internal Loopback
88200NGE
Port 1- CFP4
Port 2 - QSFP
Port 2 - QSFP
Port 1 - XFP
Port 1 - SFP+
Port 1 - SFP/SFP+
Port 2 - SFP/SFP+
1GE Optical
100M Optical
10/100/1000M Electrical
a.
b.
c.
122
Port 1 - SFP/SFP+
Port 2 - SFP/SFP+
Port 1 - RJ45
Port 1 - RJ45
Port 2 - SFP+ (RJ45)b, c Port 2 - SFP/SFP+ (RJ45)b, c
Port 1 - SFP+ (RJ45)c
Availability of connectors depend on the model.
Only available as a second port when the test application requires two ports.
Ethernet 10/100/1000M electrical is supported when using an active copper SFP.
88000 Series
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
Modify Structure Button

CFP: Use this configuration when an optical CFP transceiver
module is inserted in the CFP slot of the 88000 Series module.

CFP2: Use this configuration when an EXFO CFP to CFP2 adapter is
inserted in the CFP slot of the 88000 Series module.

CFP4: Use this configuration when a CFP4 transceiver module is
inserted in the CFP4 slot of the 88200NGE module.

QSFP: Use this configuration when a QSFP+ or a QSFP28
transceiver module is inserted in the QSFP slot of the 88200NGE
module.

Internal Loopback: Use this configuration to perform a loopback
before the CFP connector of each physical lane without interfacing
with the optical transceiver.
88000 Series
Internal Loopback
Testing Unit
Note: The Internal Loopback connector selection allows the isolation of the
module CFP slot electrical interface from the CFP device. This can be useful
in isolating a problem to a faulty CFP device.
Power Blazer
123
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
Modify Structure Button

Framing, available for EtherBERT test application, allows the selection
of the test framing type; otherwise the framing is set to Framed Layer 2.
See Network on page 215 for more information on frame format.

Framed Layer 1: Frame of x bytes that allows connection to any
interface that complies with 802.3 Ethernet PHY or DWDM fibre.
Available with rate up to 10G WAN.

Framed Layer 2: Frames of x1 bytes without network layer (None)
that complies with IEEE 802a Ethernet II standard.

Framed Layer 3/4 (default): Frames of x1 bytes with UDP (default)
or TCP network layer that complies with IEEE 802a Ethernet II
standard.
1. To set the frame length, see Frame Size on page 161 for EtherBERT (Ethernet and EoOTN), and page 247 for
RFC 2544.
124
88000 Series
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
Modify Structure Button

Unframed (Interop) is only available with optical interface up to
10G LAN:
For Seed A and Seed B, only available for 10G LAN, the pattern is
generated by the PCS scrambler from a specific seed. The pattern
is not encoded.
For PRBS31 Unscrambled, only available for 10G LAN, the pattern
is generated at the PCS layer. The pattern is not encoded and not
scrambled.
For PRBS and User Pattern: Pattern generated by the PCS
scrambler. The pattern is encoded.

Unframed is only available with optical interface up to 10G LAN:
Encoded pattern generated by the PCS scrambler.

Power Blazer
Unframed with Sync is only available with optical interface up to
10G LAN: Pattern of a length corresponding to the number of bytes
transmitted in 1 second.
125
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
Modify Structure Button
126

20 Unframed PCS: Independent infinite length test pattern in each
PCS lane (no blocks and no lane markers). Available with 100GE
(4 and 10 Lanes).

10 Unframed CAUI: Independent infinite length test pattern in
each CAUI lane (no blocks). Available with 100GE (10 Lanes).

4 Unframed XLAUI: Independent infinite length test pattern in
each XLAUI lane (no blocks). Available with 40GE (4 Lanes).
88000 Series
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
Modify Structure Button

Loopback Mode
Note: Only available for Smart Loopback Ethernet test application.
Transparent (Pseudo-Physical) check box when selected (cleared by
default), determines that the Smart Loopback operates as a physical
loopback by transmitting all received frames unaltered and without
discrimination. When the check box is cleared, the Loopback mode is
selectable from Loopback on page 306.
In transparent mode, the Network tab and the Ping & Trace Route
functions are not available.
Note: The Transparent mode is intended to be used for point-to-point topology,
not for switched or routed networks. Use the Transparent mode with
caution because all received frames are looped back without
discrimination.

Topology allows the selection of the network test topology:
Single Port (default) or Dual Port. Dual Port is only available with
EtherSAM, RFC 2544, Ether/BERT, and Traffic Gen & Mon for rates up to
10G WAN; not available on 88200NGE.

OAM Type
Note: Only available for Carrier Ethernet OAM test application.
Selects the type of Carrier OAM network: Ethernet OAM (S-OAM;
default), MPLS-TP OAM, or Link OAM.

Power Blazer
S-OAM check box when selected, enables S-OAM on all services.
Available for rates up to 10G WAN.
127
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
Modify Structure Button
For Packet Sync Test Applications
Interface/Rate: Select the desired interface rate. Choices depend on
the selected test and the rates available on the Power Blazer.

Test
1588 PTP
SyncE
a.
Interface/Rate
10GE LAN
1GE Optical
100M Optical
10/100/1000M Electricala
The 10M rate is not available for SyncE test application.
Connector: Allows the selection of the Power Blazer’s port available
for the selected interface/rate.

Connectora
Interface/Rate
10GE LAN
1GE Optical
100M Optical
8870/8880
88100NGE
8830NGE
8830NGE-16X
Port 1 - SFP+ Port 1 - XFP
Port 2 - SFP+ Port 1 - SFP/SFP+
Port 2 - SFP/SFP+
128
Port 1 - SFP+
Port 1 - SFP/SFP+
Port 2 - SFP/SFP+
10/100/1000M Electrical Port 1 - RJ45 Port 1 - RJ45
a.
b.
88200NGE
Port 1 - SFP+ (RJ45)b
Availability of connectors depend on the model.
Ethernet 10/100/1000 Mbit/s electrical is supported when using an active copper SFP.
88000 Series
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
Modify Structure Button
For Fibre Channel Test Application

Interface/Rate choices depend on the rates available on the Power
Blazer.
Interface/Rate

Model
1X
2X
4X
8X
10X
88100NGE
8830NGE
8830NGE-16X
88200NGE
16X
8830NGE-16X
88200NGE
Connector: Allows the selection of the Power Blazer’s port available
for the selected interface/rate.
Connectora
Interface/Rate
1X
2X
4X
8X
8870-8880
Port 1 - SFP+
Port 2 - SFP+
10X
16X
a.
Power Blazer
88100NGE
88200NGE
8830NGE/8830NGE-16X
Port 1 - SFP/SFP+
Port 2 - SFP/SFP+
Port 1 SFP+
Port 1 - XFP
Port 1 - SFP/SFP+
Port 2 - SFP/SFP+
-
Port 2 - SFP/SFP+
Availability of connectors depend on the model.
129
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
Modify Structure Button
For Wireless Test Application

Port 1 and Port 2 are only displayed when Dual Port topology is
selected and allows to configure each port individually.

Interface/Rate allows the selection of the interface rate.
Connectora
Interface Rate
CPRI - 1.2G
CPRI - 2.4G
CPRI - 3.1G
OBSAI - 3.1G
CPRI - 4.9G
CPRI - 6.1G
CPRI - 9.8G
a.
8870/8880
Port 1 - SFP+
Port 2 - SFP+
88100NGE
8830NGE/8830NGE-16X
Port 1 - SFP/SFP+
Port 2 - SFP/SFP+
88200NGE
Port 1 - SFP+
Availability of connectors depend on the model.

Connector is the Power Blazer’s port available for the selected
interface/rate (see table above).

Framing
Note: Dual Port topology is only supported for Framed L2.
130

Framed L2 (default) is mainly used to validate connectivity with
the base station (REC) or remote radio head (RE) over the fiber
interface.

Unframed is mainly used to validate the continuity of the dark fiber
at CPRI or OBSAI rate.
88000 Series
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
Modify Structure Button


Power Blazer
Emulation Mode, available with Framed L2, determine the CPRI
Start-Up Sequence operation and synchronization operation.

Base Station (default) is used to validate the connectivity with the
RRH. It initiates the start-up sequence and provides
synchronization to the RRH.

Remote Radio Head is used to validate the communication with a
base station. It begins its start-up sequence when it detects a valid
signal from the base station.
Topology allows the selection of the network test topology:
Single Port (default) or Dual Port. Dual Port is only available with CPRI
Framed L2; not available on 88200NGE.
131
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
Signal Auto-Detect
Signal Auto-Detect
The Signal Auto-Detect allows the detection of the DS1/DS3 interface
Line Coding (DS1), Framing, and Test Pattern.
Signal Auto-Detect is only available:

with DS1 and DS3 interfaces.

when the test is stopped.

when Loopback is not activated for NI/CSU Emulation test.
Note: Test Pattern is not detected with NI/CSU Emulation test application.
During the detection process, the following messages may be displayed:
Detecting, Successful, and/or Failed.
When the auto-detection is successful, the detected parameters are
automatically applied as the test interface configuration.
Upon detection of specific alarms, the detection may not be possible, tap
Retry to invoke the detection again.
132
88000 Series
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
1588 PTP
1588 PTP
From the Test menu, tap Setup, Test Configurator, and the 1588 PTP test
block.
PTP
Note: Refer to Status Bar on page 28 for PTP link status.


ITU G.8265.1 (default), also called Telecom Profile, is for
frequency synchronization.

ITU G.8275.1, also called Telecom Profile with full timing support
from the network, is for very accurate phase/time synchronization
required by new mobile applications.

Domain is the PTP domain parameter used by the 1588 PTP function to
communicate with the Grand Master clock: 0 to 255. However, the
standard values are: 4 (default) to 23 for G.8265.1 and 24 (default) to
43 for G.8275.1.

Framing is not selectable and is set to UDP/IPv4 for G.8265.1 and
Ethernet for G.8275.1.

Mode is not configurable and is set to Unicast for G.8265.1 and
Multicast for G.8275.1.

Power Blazer
Profile

Unicast implies a dedicated communication link between the
master and the slave clock.

Multicast implies that a master clock send its Sync/Follow Up and
Delay Response in a multicast mode.
Multicast MAC, available with ITU G.8275.1, is the multicast address
used to send the delay request: 01-1B-19-00-00-00 (forwardable;
default), 01-80-C2-00-00-0E (non-forwardable), or User Defined
(default User Defined address is 01:1B:19:00:00:01).
133
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
1588 PTP

GM IP Address1 is the IP address of the Grand Master Clock used by
the 1588 PTP function to communicate with it.

Quick Ping1 button allows to test if the Grand Master IP address can be
reached. A message is returned indicating if the ping attempt was
Successful or Failed.

IP TOS/DS1 allows to enter the Type of Service: 0x00 (default) to 0xFF.

Mechanism is not selectable and is set to Delay Req-Resp (Delay
Request-Response) which specifies the mechanism used by the
1588 PTP function to communicate with the Grand Master clock. Refer
to Delay Request-Response on page 684 for more information.

Delay Mode is not selectable and is set to Two-way which uses
Sync/Follow Up, Delay Request, and Delay Response messages.


Connect1 button is used to initiate the Grand Master Connection
process. This process is also automatically initiated when starting the
test if not already initiated. The process automatically ends when
stopping the test.
Negotiation Status1 is displayed during the Unicast negotiation
process which is initiated when either the test is started or the Connect
button is activated. See Negotiation Status on page 465 for more
information.
1. Only available with Unicast mode.
134
88000 Series
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
1588 PTP

Message Rate

Announce determines the transmission interval of the Announce
messages:
Configurable for G.8265.1: 1 msg/16s, 1 msg/8s, 1 msg/4s,
1 msg/2s (default), 1 msg/s, 2 msg/s, 4 msg/s, or 8 msg/s.
For G.8275.1, indicates the announce rate log message interval.

Sync determines the transmission interval of the Sync messages:
Configurable for G.8265.1: 1 msg/16s, 1 msg/8s, 1 msg/4s,
1 msg/2s (default), 1 msg/s, 2 msg/s, 4 msg/s, or 8 msg/s.
16 msg/s, 32 msg/s (default), 64 msg/s, or 128 msg/s
For G.8275.1, indicates the sync rate log message interval.


Power Blazer
Delay-Request determines the transmission interval of the Delay
Request messages: 1 msg/16s, 1 msg/8s, 1 msg/4s, 1 msg/2s
(default), 1 msg/s, 2 msg/s, 4 msg/s, or 8 msg/s. 16 msg/s (default
for G.8275.1), 32 msg/s (default for G.8265.1), 64 msg/s, or
128 msg/s. The Delay-Request message rate is limited by the Sync
rate selection; the Delay-Request message rate is automatically
updated to be smaller than or equal to the Sync message rate.
Service Duration (only available with Unicast mode)

Lease Duration is not configurable and is set to 300 seconds
which determines the Lease Duration used between the 1588 PTP
function and the Grand Master clock.

Renewal Interval is not configurable and is set to 150 seconds
which determines the interval used by the 1588 PTP function to
initiate the renewal of its lease with the Grand Master clock.
135
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
1588 PTP

GM Info
Note: Only available when Grand Master clock information is available.
The Grand Master Information window displays the decoded clock
information.
For G.8265.1 only:

Identity reports the 8-byte identification code of the Grand Master
Clock.
For G.8275.1 only:
136

Port Identity reports the identity type of the PTP port.

GM Identity reports the clock identity of the Grand Master Clock.

Priority 1 reports the priority 1 attribute of the Grand Master Cock.

Priority 2 reports the priority 2 attribute of the Grand Master Clock.

Steps Removed reports the number of communication paths
crossed between the local clock and the Grand master Clock.

Log Message Interval (Announce) reports the mean time interval
between successive Announce messages.

Log Message interval (Sync) reports the mean time interval
between successive Sync messages.
88000 Series
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
1588 PTP
For both G.8265.1 and G.8275.1:

Clock Class reports the description and code of the Grand Master
Clock Class.
Code
Description
0-5, 8-12, 15-51, 53-57, 59-67, 123-132, 171-186, 188-192, 194-215, Reserved
233-247, 249-254
6
Sync to primary reference
7, 14
Holdover
13
Sync to application-specific reference
52, 58, 187, 193
Degraded
68 to 79, 81-109 (odd values), 11-122, 133-170, 216-232
a
Alternate PTP profiles
80-110 (even values)
Quality Level (QL-xxxa)
248
Default
255
Slave only
a.
Refer to QL table on page 438 for the list of Quality Level values that will be used as the description.
Power Blazer

Clock Mode reports the description of the Grand Master Clock
Mode: Two-step or One-step.

Clock Accuracy reports the accuracy of the clock.

Time Source reports the source of time used by the Grand Master
Clock.
137
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
1588 PTP
Alarm Timeout/Threshold
Note: The following parameters are also used to declare the Pass/Fail verdict.

Receipt Timeout defines the threshold used to declare a Loss
Announce or Loss Sync message alarm: 2 to 255 messages (default is
3 messages). A message is considered lost if not received within its
expected arrival time and a loss alarm is declared when the number of
consecutive lost messages is greater than or equal to the defined
Receipt Timeout.

IPDV Threshold defines the inter packet delay variation threshold
used to raise the Unusable message alarm. The alarm is raised when
IPDV is not within the configured IPDV Threshold: 0.001 to 1000ms
(default is 2ms). The minimum value of 0.001 is adjusted when the
Sync or Delay Req is set to 4 messages/s or less.
Quality Level
The quality level characterizes the clock quality in terms of network
synchronization.
138

QL Mismatch Monitoring when selected (default) enables the Quality
Level mismatch monitoring.

Expected QL allows, when QL Mismatch Monitoring check box is
selected, the selection of the Expected Quality Level value: default
value is QL-EEC2/ST3 for G.8265.1 and QL-SSU-B/ST3E for G.8275.1.
Refer to page 438 for more information.
88000 Series
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
1588 PTP
Pass/Fail Verdict
Pass/Fail Verdict check box when selected (default) enables the use of the
pass/fail verdict. The global pass/fail verdict is based on the following
criteria: alarms (Link Down, Loss Sync, Loss Announce, Unusable
(G.8265.1), and/or QL Mismatch (when QL Mismatch Monitoring is
enabled)), or the test is automatically aborted (service request denied,
session canceled, or no reply for G.8265.1; sync message rate changed for
G.8275.1).
Restore 1588 PTP Defaults
Reverts the 1588 PTP test application to its default factory settings.
Power Blazer
139
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
BERT and Unframed BERT
BERT and Unframed BERT
Note: Available with Pattern client.
From the Test menu, tap Setup, Test Configurator, and tap on the BERT or
Unframed BERT block.
Pattern
The icon next to the Pattern label indicates the status of the received
pattern signal. Refer to Status Bar on page 28 for more information.

TX Rate, available with ODUflex mapped to pattern, allows the
selection of the transmission rate. Unit choices are %, Kbit/s, Mbit/s,
and Gbit/s (default).

Block & Replace check box when selected allows to overwrite the
pattern that will be generated. This check box is only available with
SONET/SDH test applications in Through Intrusive with Block &
Replace topology.

Coupled RX to TX check box, when selected (default), allows
coupling both the TX and RX signal with the same test pattern.
For a framed test, the Coupled RX to TX check box is selected and
cannot be cleared.
For an unframed test, the Coupled RX to TX check box is selectable
(selected by default) when All Lanes is selected.

140
No Pattern Analysis (Live) check box when cleared (default),
monitors the received traffic pattern. For live traffic, the No Pattern
Analysis (Live) check box should be selected as the traffic is a live
pattern thus there is no analysis of pattern loss, bit error, and no traffic
indications. Only available with a framed test.
88000 Series
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
BERT and Unframed BERT
TX Pattern/RX Pattern sets respectively the TX and RX test pattern.

OTN and SONET/SDH Interfaces:
Test
OTN BERT - frameda
PRBS9, PRBS15, PRBS20, PRBS23, PRBS31 (default), Null Client, and User Pattern.
OTN BERT - unframed PRBS9, PRBS11, PRBS15, PRBS20, PRBS23, PRBS31 (default),
Square Wave 1 zero/one, Square Wave 2 zeros/ones, Square Wave 4 zeros/ones,
Square Wave 8 zeros/ones, and Square Wave 16 zeros/onesb.
OTN-SONET/SDH BERT, PRBS9, PRBS11, PRBS15, PRBS20, PRBS23, PRBS31, 1111, 1100, 1010, 0000, 1in8,
SONET/SDH BERT
1in16, 2in8, and User Pattern.
a.
b.
Only PRBS31 is available with ODU0/1/2/3 multiplex in OTU4.
Square Wave patterns are only available when the All Lanes check box is selected. Not available with 20
Unframed Physical Lanes.
DSn/PDH Interfaces:
DS0, E0
DS1
DS3, E1
0000, 1010, 1100, 1111, 1in8, 1in16, 2in8
Pattern
X
X
X
X
3in24
X
X
X
X (E3 only)
T1 DALY, 55 OCTET, Multi-Pattern
-
X
-
-
PRBS9
X
X
X
X
PRBS11
Xa
X
X
X
X
Xa
X
PRBS15
E3, E4
PRBS20, User Pattern
X
X
X
X
PRBS23
-
X
X
Xa
PRBS31
-
X
X
X
QRSS
-
Xa
-
-
Null Client
-
-
-
-
a.
Default value.
For Multi-Pattern, see Multi-Pattern Configuration on page 145.
When User Pattern is selected, enter the payload pattern hexadecimal
value.
Power Blazer
141
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
BERT and Unframed BERT

Invert check box, when selected (cleared by default), inverts the test
pattern meaning that every 0 will be changed for 1 and every 1 for 0.
For example, the pattern 1100 will be sent as 0011. Not available when
pattern is Multi-Pattern.

All Lanes check box is available with an unframed test with parallel
interface. When selected, it allows to set the same TX and/or RX test
pattern for all lanes. When All Lanes check box is cleared (default), a
different test pattern may be set for each lane.
When the All Lanes check box is cleared, for an unframed test, the
following pattern settings are available for each lane.

TX Pattern/RX Pattern: Select the test pattern from the list for each
lane and direction (TX and RX). Choices are PRBS9, PRBS11, PRBS15,
PRBS20, PRBS23, and PRBS31 (default).

Invert check box, when selected (cleared by default), inverts the test
pattern meaning that every 0 will be changed for 1 and every 1 for 0.
For example, the pattern 1100 will be sent as 0011.

Pattern Sync icon indicates the status of the received signal pattern.
Refer to Status Bar on page 28 for more information.
Bit Error

Pass/Fail Verdict allows to enable bit-error-rate pass/fail verdict by
selecting either Bit Error Count or Bit Error Rate. The default value is
Disabled.

BER Threshold allows to enter the threshold Count or Rate value that
will be used to declare the pass/fail verdict. The BER Threshold
applies to individual pattern for Multi-Pattern.
For Count, enter the maximum bit error count allowed before
declaring a fail verdict: 0 (default) to 999999.
For Rate, enter the maximum bit error rate allowed before declaring a
fail verdict: 1.0E-14 to 1.9E-01. The default value is 1.0E-12.
142
88000 Series
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
BERT and Unframed BERT
Service Disruption
The Service Disruption Time (SDT) corresponds to the duration associated
to a defect that occurred in the network. For example a disruption that
occurs during a network switching from the active channels to the backup
channels or vice versa.
Note: The service disruption measurements are cleared when changing the
criteria. Service Disruption is not available for Multi-Pattern.

Defect allows to choose on which layer and defect the service
disruption time test will be performed. Choices depend on the
selected test path.
Layer
Defect
LOSa
Interface
OTN/SONET/SDH:
DSn: LOS, BPV, EXZ
PDH: LOS, CV
Section/RS
LOF-S/RS-LOF, B1
Line/MS
AIS-L/MS-AIS, RDI-L/MS-RDI, REI-L/MS-REI, B2
STS/AU Path AIS-P/AU-AIS, LOP-P/AU-LOP, RDI-P/HP-RDI, REI-P/HP-REI, B3, UNEQ-P/HP-UNEQ,
PDI-P (SONET)
VT/TU Path
AIS-V/TU-AIS, LOP-V/TU-LOP, UNEQ-V/LP-UNEQ, RDI-V/LP-RDI, REI-V/LP-REI, BIP-2
DS1
AIS, OOF, RAI, Framing Bit, CRC-6
DS3
AIS, OOF, Idle, RDI, F-Bit, C-Bit, P-Bit, FEBE
E1
AIS, CRC-4, E-Bit, LOMF, TS16 AIS, LOF, FAS, RAI, RAI MF
E4, E3, E2
AIS, LOF, FAS, RAI
OTLb
LOF, OOF, LOL, LOR, OOR, Inv. Marker, FAS
FEC
FEC CORR, FEC UNCORR
OTUkc
AIS, LOF, OOF, LOM, OOM, BDI, IAE, BIAE, BIP-8, BEI, FAS, MFAS
ODUkc
AIS, OCI, LCK, BDI, BIP-8, BEI, FSF, BSF, FSD, BSD
Power Blazer
143
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
BERT and Unframed BERT
Layer
Defect
OPUkc
AIS, CSF, PLMd, MSIMe, LOOMFIef, OOMFIef, OMFIef
BERg
Pattern Loss, Bit Error (default)
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.
Not available with QSFP transceivers.
The service disruption time measurement is available per lane for OTL defects at the exception of LOL
which is global for all lanes. Refer to OTL-SDT on page 426 for results per lanes.
Only available on the top layer.
Available when the PLM check box is selected (refer to page 179 for more information).
Available with multiplex test only.
Available with OPU4 only.
Available when the No Pattern Analysis (Live) check box (see page 140) is cleared.
Note: The Service Disruption Time measurement supports a parent defect
approach where the SDT measurement is triggered when the selected
defect or a higher defect in the signal structure hierarchy is detected. For
example, if Bit Error is selected, an OPU AIS error will trigger an SDT event.

No Defect Time (ms) represents the period without any defects before
stopping SDT measurement: 0.005 ms to 2000 ms (default is 300 ms).

Disruption Monitoring check box when selected (disabled by
default) enables the disruption time measurements. However, the
measurement will only start if the test is already started, or when the
test will be started.
Note: Clearing the Disruption Monitoring check box will stop the measurement
without clearing the results. The disruption monitoring is automatically
stopped without clearing results when the test is stopped. However, starting
the test again while the Disruption Monitoring check box is selected will
reset the results before restarting.

144
Pass/Fail Verdict check box when selected (cleared by default)
enables service disruption pass/fail verdict and allows to set the
threshold value.
88000 Series
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
BERT and Unframed BERT

SDT Threshold (ms) allows to enter the SDT threshold value that will
be used to declare the pass/fail verdict: 0.001 to 299999.999 ms
(default is 50 ms). For EtherBERT, the minimum value is adjusted with
respect to the No Traffic Time.
Multi-Pattern Configuration
Note: Only available for DSN/PDH BERT test application with DS1 signal (DS0
disabled) and when the pattern is Multi-Pattern.
This feature allows sending each pattern for a specific duration,
sequentially and continuously.

Pattern represents a sequence of patterns that will be generated: 1111,
1in8, 2in8, 3in24, and QRSS.

Enable allows enabling the generation of each pattern individually in
the pattern sequence. All patterns are enabled by default. All 1’s (1111)
is disabled for Unframed test.

Individual Pattern Duration specifies the transmission duration of
each pattern: 15 s, 30 s, 45 s, 1 min, 2 min, 3 min (default),... up to
15 min.
Restore < Test Application > Defaults
Reverts the current test application to its default factory settings.
Power Blazer
145
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
Cable Test
Cable Test
From the Test menu, tap Setup, Test Configurator, and the test block.
Global Options
146

Wiring Standard is the pin-to-pair assignment corresponding to the
UTP cable used: T568A (default) or T568B.

Length Unit is the unit used for cable length and distance to fault
results: Meter (default) or Feet.

PoE check box when selected (cleared by default) allows to verify that
the Power Sourcing Equipment (PSE) is capable to deliver appropriate
power (PoE) to the Powered Device (PD). The PoE test is performed
after the cable test is executed confirming that the cable is ready to
carry data and power: either the Wire Map test reported No fault,
Straight pair, Crossed Pair, or Noise (link up). Only available on
8870/8880.
88000 Series
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
Cable Test

Power Class, available when PoE is enabled, selects the power class of
the simulated powered device:
Power Class
Class 0 (13.0W) - (default)
Power Device
Type 1
Class 1 (3.8W)
Class 2 (6.5W)
Class 3 (13.0W)
Class 4 (25.5W)
Type 2
Pass/Fail Verdict

Pass/Fail Verdict check box when selected (default) enables the cable
test pass/fail verdict and allows to set the threshold values.

Power Blazer
Prop. Delay Threshold (ns) is the maximum time for a pulse to
reach the far end: 0 to 1000 ns (default is 1000 ns for 10 Mbit/s,
556 ns for 100 Mbit/s, and 570 ns for 1 Gbit/s).
147
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
Cable Test

Delay Skew Threshold (ns) is the maximum time between the
fastest and slowest pairs of a 1000 Base-T signal: 0 to 120 ns
(default is 50 ns).


Length Threshold (m) is the maximum acceptable cable length:
0 to 120 m (0 to 394 feet) (default is 100 m (328 ft)).

PoE Loaded Voltage Thresholds (V), available when the PoE
check box is selected, allows the configuration of the acceptable
voltage range when a load is applied: minimum value is either 37
(default) for Class 0 to 3 or 42.5 (default) for Class 4; maximum
value is  (default). A Pass vedict is declared when the measured
voltage is within the defined range.
Restore Cable Test Defaults
Reverts the configured parameters to their default values.
148
88000 Series
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
CFP/CFP2/CFP4/QSFP/XFP/SFP/SFP+
CFP/CFP2/CFP4/QSFP/XFP/SFP/SFP+
This tab gives hardware information related to the inserted transceiver
module.
From the Test menu, tap Setup, Test Configurator, tap on the interface
block or on the Local block for iSAM, and on the
CFP/CFP2/CFP4/QSFP/XFP/SFP/SFP+ tab.
Power Blazer
149
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
Clock
Clock
Allows the configuration of the clock synchronization.
From the Test menu, tap Setup, Test Configurator, and tap on the clock
block.
Clock Synchronization
Clock Mode allows to select the source clock that will be used for
transmission (TX). The clock mode is forced to Recovered for 1GE
electrical interface using Slave local clock (see Local Clock on page 183).
The clock mode is forced to Internal for Multi-Channel OTN. For CPRI
single port topology, the clock is configurable to Internal or External; for
dual port topology, the clock block is not displayed and the clock mode is
automatically set to Internal for the Base Station and Recovered for the
Remote Radio Head.
150

Internal: Internal clock of the unit (STRATUM 3).

Recovered: Line clock from the input port signal involved in the
test. Available with Transport test applications and Ethernet
applications using 10G WAN.

External: Clock signal from the EXT CLK port.

Backplane: Clock from another module on the platform (FTB or
IQS; not supported on LTB-8). The other module must support the
backplane clock feature and must be enabled. Not available when
the Backplane Clock check box is selected (see page 154). The
Backplane clock cannot be shared between FTB- and FTBxmodules.
88000 Series
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
Clock
Ext Clock In
Note: Available when the Clock Mode is set to External.
Allows to set the external clock for test synchronization.

Interface Type allows the selection of the clock interface:
DS1 (default), E1, 2MHz, or 1PPS. 1PPS is automatically selected for
Dual Test Set in One-Way Latency measurement mode.
Ext Clock In on a green background indicates that a valid clock is
received.
LOS on a red background indicates that the received clock is not valid.

Connector, available on 8870/8880, either indicates that the BNC
connector type is used for the clock or on 8880 allows the selection of
Bantam or RJ48C when the BNC connector is used by the test
application. The Power Blazer connector blue LED used for Ext Clock
In is flashing.

Termination mode specifies how the Power Blazer is connected to the
synchronization signal. The Termination mode is set to TERM for 2MHz
and configurable for DS1 and E1.
For DS1:
Power Blazer

TERM provides an input that terminates the DS1 signal.

DSX-MON provides high-input impedance and compensation for
resistive loss. This setting is useful for monitoring DS1 signals at
DSX monitor points, which are resistor-isolated.

BRIDGE provides high-input impedance for bridging lines that are
already terminated. This setting is useful for bridging directly
across copper cable pairs.
151
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
Clock
For E1:


TERM provides an input that terminates the E1 signal.

MON provides high-input impedance and compensation for
resistive loss. This setting is useful for monitoring E1 signals at
monitor points, which are resistor-isolated.

BRIDGE provides high-input impedance for bridging lines that are
already terminated. This setting is useful for bridging directly
across copper cable pairs.
Line Coding allows the selection of the interface line coding.
For DS1: AMI and B8ZS (default).
For E1: AMI and HDB3 (default).

Framing: Allows the selection of the interface framing.
For DS1: SF, SLC-96, and ESF (default).
For E1: PCM30 (default), PCM30 CRC-4, PCM31, and PCM31 CRC-4.

Frequency (MHz) displays the frequency of the received signal rate.

Offset (ppm) displays the positive or negative frequency offset
between the standard rate specification and the rate from the received
signal. The background color is used to indicate if the received clock
meets (green) or not (red) the standard rate specification.
Signal
DS1
152
Standard Rate specification
1544000 ± 8 bit/s (± 4.6 ppm)
E1
2048000 ± 10 bit/s (± 4.6 ppm)
2MHz
2048000 ± 10 bit/s (± 4.6 ppm)
88000 Series
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
Clock
Ext Clock Out
Note: Available when the Clock Mode is set to Internal, Recovered, or
Backplane. Not available on 8870.
Allows to set the clock that will be generated.

Interface Type allows the selection of the clock interface:
DS1 (default), E1, and 2MHz.
Ext Clock Out on a green background indicates that a valid clock is
generated on the clock port.
LOC on a red background indicates that no clock is generated on the
clock port.

Connector, available on 8870/8880, either indicates that the BNC
connector type is used for the clock or on 8880 allows the selection of
Bantam or RJ48C when the BNC connector is used by the test
application.

LBO (Line Build Out), available with DS1 only, allows the selection of
the interface Line Build Out that meets the interface requirements over
the full range of cable lengths: DSX-1 (0-133 ft) (default),
DSX-1 (133-266 ft), DSX-1 (266-399 ft), DSX-1 (399-533 ft), and
DSX-1 (533-655 ft).

Line Coding, available with DS1 and E1, allows the selection of the
interface line coding.
For DS1: AMI and B8ZS (default).
For E1: AMI and HDB3 (default).

Framing, available with DS1 and E1, allows the selection of the
interface framing.
For DS1: SF, SLC-96, and ESF (default).
For E1: PCM30 (default), PCM30 CRC-4, PCM31, and PCM31 CRC-4.
Power Blazer
153
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
Clock
REF OUT
Frequency (MHz) displays the frequency of the generated clock signal on
the REF OUT port based on the test interface/rate.
Clock Out indicates that a clock is generated on the REF OUT port (green)
or not (red).
Note: The Ref Out clock port provides an eye diagram timing reference for 10G
and above optical devices. This clock is provided for basic assessment.
Formal qualification may require specialized external circuitry.
Backplane
Note: Available when the Clock Mode is set to External, Recovered, or Internal.
Backplane Clock check box when selected (cleared by default) makes
available the source clock (Clock Synchronization - Clock Mode) to other
modules on the platform (FTB or IQS; not supported on LTB-8). Other
modules on the platform need to set the Clock Mode as Backplane to use
this clock. The Backplane Clock should be only enabled on one module
on the same platform. The Backplane clock cannot be shared between
FTB- and FTBx- modules.
Backplane indicates that the background clock is generated (green) or
disabled (gray).
LOC on a red background indicates, when the backplane clock is enabled,
that the synchronization is not possible with the selected reference clock.
154
88000 Series
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
EtherBERT, FC BERT, BERT (CPRI), and Unframed BERT
EtherBERT, FC BERT, BERT (CPRI), and Unframed
BERT
From the Test menu, tap Setup, Test Configurator, and tap on the
EtherBERT, FC BERT, BERT, or Unframed BERT block.
LINK
Note: Available with OTN BERT test application with Ethernet client (EoOTN).
A green/red arrow is used to indicate the status of the link at the PCS level:

A green arrow indicates that the link is up.

A red arrow indicates alarms at the PCS level, the link is down.
The Local Fault Detected, Local Fault Received, Remote Fault,
LOA (OTU4), Hi-BER (OTU4), LOBL1027B (OTU3), Hi-BER1027B (OTU3),
and LOAML1027B (OTU3) alarms are displayed. Refer to Ethernet on
page 353, Ethernet - PCS Lanes / PCS on page 356, and Transcoding on
page 399 for more information.
Restore < Test Application > Defaults
Note: Available with OTN BERT test application with Ethernet client (EoOTN).
Reverts the current test application to its default factory settings.
Power Blazer
155
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
EtherBERT, FC BERT, BERT (CPRI), and Unframed BERT
Pattern

Coupled RX to TX check box, when selected (default), couples both
the TX and RX signal with the same test pattern. The Coupled RX to
TX check box is selected and not configurable for Seed A, Seed B, and
PRBS31 Unscrambled patterns as well as for Wireless CPRI/OBSAI
BERT test.

No Pattern Analysis (Live) check box when cleared (default; selected
by default for framed CPRI), monitors the incoming traffic pattern and
Round-Trip Latency. For live traffic, the No Pattern Analysis (Live)
check box should be selected as the traffic is a live pattern and in this
case no monitoring is required. Even if this check box is not available
for FC BERT, the received traffic pattern and Round-Trip Latency are
monitored. See BER on page 342 for more information.

TX Pattern/RX Pattern: Select the test pattern from the list for each
direction (TX and RX) if required. Choices are PRBS9, PRBS11,
PRBS15, PRBS20, PRBS23, PRBS31 (default), Seed A1, Seed B1,
PRBS31 Unscrambled1, CSPAT2, CJTPAT2, CRPAT2, Short CRTPAT2,
Long CRTPAT2, and User Pattern. Pattern is not configurable and set to
PRBS31 for 100 GbE client in OTU4 on 88100G/88100NGE.
When User Pattern is selected, enter the payload pattern hexadecimal
value.

Invert check box, when selected (cleared by default), inverts the
generated/expected test pattern meaning that every 0 will be changed
for 1 and every 1 for 0. For example, the pattern 1100 will be sent as
0011.
1. Only available for 10G LAN with Unframed (Interop) (see Framing on page 124).
2. Only available for 1G optical with Framed Layer 1 (see Framing on page 124).
156
88000 Series
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
EtherBERT, FC BERT, BERT (CPRI), and Unframed BERT
Bit/Pattern Error
The configuration of Bit Error is available with all patterns at the exception
of Seed A and Seed B for which Pattern Error is available.

Pass/Fail Verdict allows to enable and configure bit/pattern error
rate/count threshold prior to run the test. This allows for a simple
pass/fail verdict, leaving no room for misinterpretation of the test
results. To enable the pass/fail verdict, select either
Bit/Pattern Error Count or Bit/Pattern Error Rate (default is
Disabled).

BER Threshold allows to enter the threshold Count or Rate value that
will be used to declare the pass/fail verdict.
For Count, enter the maximum bit/pattern error count allowed before
declaring a fail verdict: 0 (default) to 999999.
For Rate, enter the maximum bit/pattern error rate allowed before
declaring a fail verdict: 1.0E-14 to 1.9E-01. The default value is 1.0E-12.
CPRI
Note: Available with CPRI/OBSAI BERT test application with CPRI Framed L2.
Pass/Fail Verdict check box when selected (default) enables the pass/fail
verdict. A pass verdict is given when the link status is up and no CPRI alarm
and/or error are recorded for the duration of the test.
Restore CPRI/OBSAI Defaults
Note: Available with CPRI/OBSAI BERT test application.
Reverts the current test application to its default factory settings.
Power Blazer
157
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
EtherBERT, FC BERT, BERT (CPRI), and Unframed BERT
Service Disruption
Note: Not available for FC BERT.

No Traffic Time (ms) represents the time between two Ethernet
Frames that is acceptable without raising an alarm including a Service
Disruption event: 0.005 ms to 1000 ms in step of 0.005 ms (default is
50 ms). Only available with EtherBERT.

No Defect Time (ms) represents the period without any defects before
stopping SDT measurement: 0.005 ms to 2000 ms (default is 300 ms).
Only available with CPRI/OBSAI.

Disruption Monitoring check box when selected (disabled by
default) enables the disruption time measurements. However, the
measurement will only start if the test is already started, or when the
test will be started.
Note: Clearing the Disruption Monitoring check box will stop the measurement
without clearing the results. The disruption monitoring is automatically
stopped without clearing results when the test is stopped. However, starting
the test again while the Disruption Monitoring check box is selected will
reset the results before restarting.
158

Pass/Fail Verdict allows to enable and configure the SDT Threshold.

SDT Threshold allows to configure the amount of time with no traffic
that is accepted before failing the test: 0.005 to 299999.995 ms in step
of 0.005 ms (default is 50 ms). The threshold value cannot be less than
the No Traffic Time value.
88000 Series
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
EtherBERT, FC BERT, BERT (CPRI), and Unframed BERT
FC Frame
Note: Only available with FC BERT.
Frame Size (Bytes) allows to enter the frame size (in step of 4 bytes) for FC
BERT test application: 40 to 2148 bytes (default). However the minimum
frame size is 64 bytes when the Latency Tag check box is selected.
Latency Tag Insertion
Note: Only available with FC BERT.
Round trip latency measures the average round trip latency (delay)
between the time the data was transmitted and received.
Power Blazer

Latency Tag check box when selected, enables latency
measurements.

Pass/Fail Verdict check box when selected, enables the pass/fail
verdict and allows to set the Round-Trip Latency Threshold.

Round-Trip Latency Threshold (ms) allows the selection of the round
trip latency: 0.015 (default) to 8000 ms.
159
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
EtherBERT, FC BERT, BERT (CPRI), and Unframed BERT
Shaping
160

TX Rate allows the selection of the transmission rate in percentage of
utilization (100 percent by default), Mbit/s, Gbit/s, Frame/s, or IFG for
Ethernet; Mbit/s, Gbit/s, MB/s, or % for Fibre Channel. For Ethernet, the
maximum percentage is 105 percent depending on the frame size
selected. The TX Rate is not configurable and set to 100 percent for 100
GbE client in OTU4 on 88100G/88100NGE.

Enable TX check box is automatically selected when starting the test
allowing stream generation; automatically cleared when the test stops.
The Enable TX check box may also be selected or cleared while the
test is running. Not available for FC BERT.
88000 Series
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
EtherBERT, FC BERT, BERT (CPRI), and Unframed BERT
Ethernet Frame
Frame Size (Bytes) allows to enter the frame size for Ethernet test
applications. The range is from 641 to 160002.
The following table lists each component that may affect the minimum
frame size values.
Component
Description
VLAN
4 bytes per VLAN (up to 3 VLAN for EtherBERT test
application and only 1 VLAN for EoOTN client)
EoE Header
16 bytes
EoE VLAN
4 bytes
PBB-TE Header
18 bytes
B-VLAN
4 bytes
UDP
8 bytes
TCP
20 bytes
Ethernet Header
14 bytes
LLC and SNAP Headers
8 bytes
IPv4
20 bytes
IPv6
40 bytes
Note: Sending traffic with frame size >1518 in switched network may result in
losing all frames.
1. The minimum frame size will be adjusted according to the frame structure and components selected.
2. The maximum frame size is limited to 10000 for 10/100/1000Mbps electrical interface.
Power Blazer
161
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
EtherBERT, FC BERT, BERT (CPRI), and Unframed BERT
Note: The following frame parameters are only available for OTN BERT test
application with Ethernet client (EoOTN).
162

Source MAC Address is the module default and unique Source Media
Access Control (MAC) address that is automatically given to the
stream. Tap the Source MAC Address field if the stream MAC address
has to be changed and enter the new MAC address.

Destination MAC Address is the destination MAC address for the
stream. The default setting is the MAC address of the port. Tap the
Destination MAC Address field if the stream MAC address has to be
changed and enter the new MAC address.

VLAN ID check box, when selected (cleared by default), allows the
configuration of the following VLAN parameters. Selecting the VLAN
check box affects the Frame Size value.

VLAN ID sets the VLAN ID. Choices are 0 through 4095 (default
is 2). Refer to VLAN ID and Priority on page 740 for more
information.

Priority sets the VLAN user priority. Choices are 0 (default) to 7.
Refer to VLAN ID and Priority on page 740 for more information.

Type indicates the supported VLAN Ethernet type which is 0x8100.
88000 Series
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
EtherSAM - Burst
EtherSAM - Burst
Note: The Burst settings are only available for configuration when the Burst Test
check box is selected (see page 165).
From the Test menu, tap Setup, Test Configurator, tap on the test block,
and on the Burst tab.
Note: The burst configuration parameters are defined globally for all services but
CBS, EBS, and Burst Max Rate parameters are as per each service
configuration.
Burst Sequence
The graphic illustrates the configured burst sequence that contains in
order, from left to right:
Power Blazer

Refill Delay represents the pre-burst recuperation time in percentage
that is equal to the remaining percentage not used by the post-burt
time (Refill Delay Ratio).

Burst Frames represents the burst frame ratio in percentage that is
equal to the substraction of 100 % - Burst/IR Frame Ratio.

Refill Delay represents the post-burst recuperation time in percentage
that is equal to the configured Refill Delay Ratio.

CIR or CIR+EIR Frames represents the percentage of transmission at
CIR or CIR+EIR rate. The CIR or CIR+EIR Frames percentage is equal
to the configured Burst/IR Frame Ratio.

The “. . .” next to the burst sequence indicates that the burst sequence
is repeated the number of times specified in the Number of Burst
Sequence field.
163
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
EtherSAM - Burst
Parameters

Number of Burst Sequence is the number of times, 1 to 100 (default
is 2), the burst sequence will be repeated for the CBS and EBS tests.

Refill Delay Ratio (%) is the percentage of time required to refill the
CBS/EBS token buckets. The refill delay ratio is used for post-burst
delay and the remaining percentage is applied to the pre-burst delay.
The Refill Delay Ratio is configurable from 0 to 100 percent
(50 percent is the default as well as the standard’s minimum
recommended value).

Burst/IR Frame Ratio (%) is the percentage of frames transmitted at
CIR rate for the CBS test and the percentage of frames transmitted at
CIR+EIR rate for the EBS test. The Burst/IR Frame Ratio is
configurable from 10 to 90 percent (90 percent is the default as well as
the standard’s recommended percentage value).
Table
Note: Test time values are only displayed for enabled services.
164

Service No indicates the service number.

Service Name indicates the name of the service.

Direction, available with Dual Test Set or Dual Port topology,
indicates respectively results from local to remote (L->R) and remote
to local (R->L), or P1 to P2 (P1->P2) and P2 to P1 (P2->P1).

CBS Test Time (s) indicates the total time required to perform all burst
sequence iterations of the CBS test for this service.

EBS Test Time (s) indicates the total time required to perform all burst
sequence iterations of the EBS test for this service.

Total Burst Test Time (s) indicates the total time required to perform
all burst sequence iterations of both CBS and EBS tests for this service.
88000 Series
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
EtherSAM - Global
EtherSAM - Global
From the Test menu, tap Setup, Test Configurator, tap on the test block,
and on the Global tab.
Dual Test Set

Dual Test Set (DTS) check box when selected (cleared by default)
enables EtherSAM Dual Test Set. Once Dual Test Set is enabled, use
the Discover Remote button to select a remote unit. Not available in
Dual Port topology.
Note: Alternatively it is possible to use the Discover Remote button to connect to a
remote module and automatically enable the Dual Test Set. For more
details, refer to Discover Remote Button on page 622.

Power Blazer

Disconnected indicates that there is no connection established
with a remote module.

Connected indicates that the connection is established with a
remote module.
Discover Remote button allows to discover remote modules
supporting Remote Loopback and/or Dual Test Set. For more details,
see Discover Remote Button on page 622.
165
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
EtherSAM - Global
Subtests

Service Configuration Test verifies if the network configuration is
correct for each service before starting a long term test (Service
Configuration Test). To test the network configuration, a ramp test
and/or a burst tests is/are generated for each configured service.

Seconds per Service indicates the Service Configuration Test
duration in seconds based on the configured Services, Ramp, and
Burst settings.

Ramp Test check box when selected (default):
In the first stage of the test, when CIR check box is selected (see
SLA Parameters on page 278), the throughput is increased
incrementally in steps until the CIR level is reached. During the first
stage, the maximum Jitter, Latency, Frame Loss, and throughput
are measured and are compared to the SLA thresholds to declare a
pass/fail verdict.
In the second stage of the test, when the CIR+EIR check box is
selected (see SLA Parameters on page 278), the throughput is
increased to the CIR+EIR level to compare against expected
maximum throughput threshold to declare a pass/fail verdict.
In the third stage of the test, when the Traffic Policing check box is
selected (see Test Parameters on page 277), the throughput is
increased one step over the CIR+EIR if selected otherwise over
the CIR to compare against expected maximum throughput
threshold to declare a pass/fail verdict.
The ramp test procedure is generated for each enabled service.
166
88000 Series
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
EtherSAM - Global

Burst Test check box when selected (cleared by default) verifies
that the expected burst size can be transmitted at maximum burst
rate with minimal loss.
CBS (Committed Burst Size) check box when selected (see SLA
Parameters on page 278), verifies the performance of a committed
burst size at CIR’s average TX rate.
EBS (Excess Burst Size) check box when selected (see SLA
Parameters on page 278), verifies the performance of an excess
burst size at CIR+EIR’s average TX rate.
The maximum Jitter, Latency, Frame Loss, and throughput are
measured. For CBS, the Jitter, Latency, and Frame Loss are
compared to the SLA thresholds to declare a pass/fail verdict. For
EBS, the throughput is compared to the SLA thresholds to declare
a pass/fail verdict.
The burst test procedure is generated for each enabled service.

Service Performance Test check box when selected (default) verifies
that the SLA parameters (see SLA Parameters on page 278) are met
over time by running multiple services simultaneously. The maximum
Jitter, Latency, Frame Loss, and average throughput are measured and
compared to the configured thresholds to declare pass/fail verdicts.
The Service Performance Test is only performed for services that have
their CIR check box selected.
Subtest Duration allows to set the duration time, in HH:MM:SS format,
for the Service Performance Test (default is 10 minutes).

Power Blazer
Global Test Duration Estimate indicates the total estimate duration of
the test.
167
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
EtherSAM - Global
Global Options

Per Direction Configuration check box when selected (default)
specifies that the values can be configured independently for each
direction (local to remote and remote to local) for Dual Test Set or for
each port (P1 to P2 and P2 to P1) for Dual Port; for Dual Port using a
different rate on each port, the check box is forced selected. When the
Per Direction Configuration check box is cleared the configuration
will be coupled and the values apply to both directions/ports.
Note: For Dual Test Set the Per Direction Configuration is only available when
the communication with the remote module is established.

Pass/Fail Verdict check box when selected (default) enables the
pass/fail verdict. A global pass/fail verdict is given for the EtherSAM test,
Service Configuration, and Service performance (for each service).
The pass/fail verdict is based on the following criteria: Frame Loss,
Max Jitter, Round-Trip Latency, and Average RX Rate.

Latency Measurement Mode, available with Dual Test Set for rates
from 10M to 10GE, allows the selection of the latency measurement
mode: Round-Trip (default) or One-Way.
Synchronization with an external 1PPS clock is required to perform
One-Way Latency measurement. One-Way Latency is only possible
when both local and remote 1PPS signal clocks are valid. The
following alarms are available with One-Way Latency measurement.
LOPPS-L and LOPPS-R (Loss Of Pulse Per Second - Local/Remote) are
declared when either no pulse is received or when no pulse is
received within 1 second ± 6.6 μs after the previous pulse. LOPPS-R is
only monitored once the DTS connection is established.
Restore EtherSAM Defaults
Reverts the current test application to its default factory settings.
168
88000 Series
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
EtherSAM - Ramp
EtherSAM - Ramp
Note: The Ramp tab is only available for configuration when the Ramp Test
check box is selected (see page 165).
From the Test menu, tap Setup, Test Configurator, tap on the test block,
and on the Ramp tab.
Note: The ramp configuration parameters are defined globally for all services but
the presence of CIR+EIR, and Traffic Policing steps are as per each service
configuration. CIR, CIR+EIR, and Traffic Policing steps are part of the step
list as soon as they are enabled for at least one service even if that service is
not enabled.
Dynamic Ramp
The graphic displays the percentage of each CIR level step in time.
Step Time
The step time is the test duration for each ramp step: 5 (default) to
60 seconds.
Ramp Duration
The ramp duration indicates the total time required to perform all the ramp
steps for each service.
Add Step
Allows to add a new ramp step. Enter the CIR percentage from 1 to 99.
A maximum of 7 pre CIR steps can be added in the ramp configuration.
Power Blazer
169
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
EtherSAM - Ramp
Delete Step
Allows to delete a step from the ramp. Select the step from the list and tap
on Delete.
Defaults
Reverts the ramp configuration to its default factory settings.
170
88000 Series
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
Fibre Channel
Fibre Channel
From the Test menu, tap Setup, Test Configurator, and the Fibre Channel
block.
World Wide Name (WWN)
The following WWN settings are only available when the Login - Enable
check box is selected (see page 172).

Source allows to set the 64-bit WWN address of the local fibre channel
port: 00-00-00-00-00-00-00-00 to FF-FF-FF-FF-FF-FF-FF-FF (default is
20-00-00-03-01[IEEE-MAC lsb (bits 23..0)).

Destination allows to set the 64-bit WWN address of the remote fibre
channel port: 00-00-00-00-00-00-00-00 (default) to
FF-FF-FF-FF-FF-FF-FF-FF. The destination WWN address is displayed
and grayed-out for Point-to-Point topology after a successful login.
Buffer to Buffer Flow Control
Buffer to Buffer (BB) Flow Control, also called Flow Control Management,
manages the control of data traffic between the local and remote fibre
channel ports based on the network, distance, and traffic congestion.
Each remote port advertises the buffer size (BB_Credit) during the login.
Power Blazer

Enable check box when selected allows to set or use buffers to receive
frames. The Enable check box is force selected when the Login Enable check box is selected (see page 172).

Available BB_Credit is the number of frame buffers that the remote
port has available to receive frames from the local port: 1 to 65535
(default is 10). The Available BB_Credit is not editable when the
Login - Enable check box is selected but its value received from the
remote interface through the login process is displayed. If the login
fails, the Available BB_Credit displays “–”.
171
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
Fibre Channel
Login
After a link is established, it is possible to login to the Fibre Channel
Network to send and receive data between a local and remote fibre
channel port.

Enable check box when selected (default) allows to press the Login
button to start the login process.

Advertised BB_Credit is the number of frame buffers the local port has
available to receive frames from the remote port: 1 to 65535 (default is
10). Advertised BB_Credit is advertised to the remote port through the
Login process. Changing the Advertised BB_Credit requires to
manually re-send a login using the Login button.

Login/Re-Login button allows the initiation of the Login process with
the selected Advertised BB_Credit. Available when the Login Enable check box is selected. The Login button initiates a log-in when
not logged-in while the Re-Login re-initiates a log-in after changing the
BB_Credit and/or WWN when already logged-in. The capability to login
is available only with Framed Layer 2 (FC-2) when a successful link has
been established. There are two Login processes supported by Fibre
Channel: Port Login (PLOGI) and Fabric Login (FLOGI).
It is possible to skip the Login procedure and use the BB_Credit value.
This is called Implicit Login and is only applicable for Point-to-Point
topology. For Point-to-Point topology using implicit login, you must
manually configure the Available BB_Credit value for the remote port.

Discovered Topology indicates the discovered topology.
Fabric: Ports are interconnected to a fabric switching network.
A Fabric and Port login are required, and the BB_Credit value is set
based on the buffer capacity of the fabric switch.
Point To Point: Direct link between two ports.
172
88000 Series
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
Fibre Channel


Power Blazer
Fabric Status indicates the status of the Fabric switching network. The
status is not available when the discovered topology is Point-to-Point.

Logged-in indicates that the login process has completed
successfully.

Failed indicates that the login process is not completed
successfully or an error has been detected.

In Progress indicates that the login process is running (not
completed yet).

Logged-out (default) indicates that the system has not logged in
yet or has received a valid Logout command from the remote port.
Port Status indicates the state of the port login process.

Logged-in indicates that the login process has completed
successfully.

Failed indicates that the login process is not completed
successfully or an error has been detected.

In Progress indicates that the login process is running (not
completed yet).

Logged-out (default) indicates that the system has not logged in
yet, has received a valid Logout command from the remote port, or
the Fabric status is either Failed, In Progress, or Logged-out.
173
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
Frequency
Frequency
From the Test menu, tap Setup, Test Configurator, tap on the interface
block, and on the Frequency tab.
TX Frequency

TX Frequency (GHz) indicates the frequency (actual frequency +
Frequency offset) used for transmission.
Note: Frequency offset is not available for Multi-Channel OTN test application.

Offset (ppm) check box, when selected (cleared by default), allows to
set the frequency offset that will be generated. Use the “+” or “-”
button to respectively increment or decrement the frequency offset
value based on the defined Increment/Decrement Size, or directly
type the frequency offset value in the field. The range is ±120 ppm for
Ethernet test applications, and ±50 ppm for Transport Framed, and
±120 ppm for Transport Unframed test applications.
Interface
OTU3
OTU3e1
Frequency Offseta
± 50 ppm (Framed)
± 120 ppm (Unframed)
Nominal Frequency
43018413559 bit/s
44571000000 bit/s
OTU3e2
44583000000 bit/s
OTU4
111810000000 bit/s
a.
The frequency offset range is guaranteed for a source signal at 0 ppm. In the event
that the source signal already has an offset, then the output signal may exhibit an
offset larger than the range specified.
Step Size (ppm) allows to set the increment/decrement value (from
0.1 to either 50 or 120 depending on the test configuration) that will be
used when changing the frequency offset with the “+” or “-” button.
174
88000 Series
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
Frequency
Note: The following frequency statistics are available for each lane.
RX Frequency

Frequency (GHz) indicates the frequency of the input signal.

Offset (ppm) indicates the frequency offset between the standard rate
specification and the rate at the input signal.
Note: For both Frequency and Offset the following background colors are used.
Background color
Description
Green
The frequency is in range.
Red
The frequency is out-of-range or LOC Lane. LOC is also
displayed.
Gray
Pending state.

Max. Negative Offset (ppm) indicates the maximum negative
frequency offset between the standard rate specification and the rate
from the received signal.

Max. Positive Offset (ppm) indicates the maximum positive
frequency offset between the standard rate specification and the rate
from the received signal.
Note: Refer to Interface on page 366 for more information on standard rate
specifications.
Power Blazer
175
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
FTFL/PT and PT
FTFL/PT and PT
For OTN BERT and OTN-SONET/SDH BERT: From the Test menu tap Setup,
Test Configurator, tap on the interface block, and on the FTFL/PT tab.
For Multi-Channel OTN: From the Test menu, tap Setup, Test
Configurator, tap on either:

the interface block, and on the PT tab to configure the higher ODU
layer.

the test block (ODU Channels), and on the PT tab to configure the
lower ODU layer.
ODUx Buttons
Tap on an ODUx button to select the multiplexed level. Not available with
Multi-Channel OTN lower ODU level.
176
88000 Series
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
FTFL/PT and PT
FTFL
Allows the configuration of the Forward and Backward ODU Fault Type
Fault Location (FTFL) to be generated. Not available with Multi-Channel
OTN.


Overwrite1 check box when selected generates the defined FTFL.
Fault Indication and Fault Indication Code allow the selection of the
FTFL fault indicator message/code (byte 0 for forward, byte 128 for
backward) to be generated.
Fault Indication
Fault Indication Code (Hex)
No fault
00 (default)
Signal fail
01
Signal Degrade
02
Reserved
03a
a.
Selecting Reserved will use the hexadecimal code 03 but, all codes from 03 to FF
are reserved for future international standardization.
Note: The Fault Indication Code field is automatically updated when the Fault
Indication is changed and vice versa.

Operator Identifier allows editing the Operator Identifier to be
generated (bytes 1 to 9 for forward, bytes 129 to 137 for backward;
9 characters allowed). By default no Operator Identifier is defined.

Operator Specific allows editing the Operator Specific to be
generated (bytes 10 to 127 for forward, bytes 138 to 255 for backward;
118 characters allowed). By default no Operator Specific is defined.
1. Only available with Through Intrusive topology and applies only to the ODU top layer.
Power Blazer
177
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
FTFL/PT and PT
PT / Global PT
Note: Global PT, available with Muti-Channel OTN, indicates that the PT settings
apply to all channels.
Note: Changing the payload type (PT) does not alter the signal structure; it only
modifies the OH value that is generated.

Overwrite1 check box when selected generates the defined PT.

Payload Type and Code
Generated: Allows to select the payload signal type to be generated
either by selecting the payload type from the list or by entering its code
in hexadecimal (00 to FF).
Expected: Allows to select the expected payload signal type.
Note: Codes not listed in the table are reserved for future standardization
(Reserved For International Standardization).
Payload type
Hex Code
MSB
1234
LSB
5678
Reserved for International Standardizationa
00
0000
Experimental mapping
01
0000
0001
Asynchronous CBR mapping
02
0000
0010
Bit Synchronous CBR mapping
03
0000
0011
ATM mapping
04
0000
0100
GFP mapping
05
0000
0101
Virtual Concatenation Signal
06
0000
0110
PCS Codeword Transparent Ethernet
07
0000
0111
0000
FC-1200 into ODU2e
08
0000
1000
GFP mapping into extended OPU2
09
0000
1001
OC-3/STM-1 into ODU0
0A
0000
1010
OC-12/STM-4 into ODU0
0B
0000
1011
FC-100 into ODU0
0C
0000
1100
178
88000 Series
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
FTFL/PT and PT
Payload type
Hex Code
MSB
1234
LSB
5678
FC-200 into ODU1
0D
0000
1101
FC-400 into ODUflex
0E
0000
1110
FC-800 into ODUflex
0F
0000
1111
Bit Stream with Octet Timing mapping
10
0001
0000
Bit Stream Without Octet Timing mapping
11
0001
0001
IB SDR mapping into ODUflex
12
0001
0010
IB DDR mapping into ODUflex
13
0001
0011
IB QDR mapping into ODUflex
14
0001
0100
ODU Multiplex with ODTUjk
20
0010
0000
ODU Multiplex with ODTUk.ts/ODTUjk
21
0010
0001
b
55
0101
0101
Reserved Codes for Proprietary Usec
80
1000
0000
NULL Test Signal mapping
FD
1111
1101
PRBS Test Signal mapping
FE
1111
1110
Not Available
a.
b.
c.
Selecting Reserved for International Standardization will use the hexadecimal code 00 but, all codes
not listed in the previous table at the exception of those covered in notes b and c are reserved for future
standardization.
Selecting Not Available will use the hexadecimal code 55 but, 66 and FF are also Not Available payload
types.
Selecting Reserved Proprietary will use the hexadecimal code 80 but, all codes from 80 to 8F are
reserved proprietary payload types.
Note: The Code field is automatically updated when the Payload Type is
changed and vice versa.

Power Blazer
OPU-PLM, when selected, enables the OPU-PLM alarm analysis.
179
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
GFP-F/GFP-T
GFP-F/GFP-T
Note: Only available with Ethernet 1GbE, 10GbE, or Ethernet (flex/GFP-F) client.
From the Test menu, tap Setup, Test Configurator, and tap on the
GFP-F/GFP-T block.
Note: Refer to Generic Framing Procedure (GFP) on page 714 for more
information on Client Data and Client Management frames.

CDF pFCS (Client Data Frames payload Frame Check Sequence)
enables the presence of the payload FCS for the client frames. This
setting is only available with Ethernet (flex/GFP-F) client.

CMF pFCS (Client Management Frames payload FCS) enables the
presence of the payload FCS for the management frames. The
CMF pFCS check box is automatically cleared when injecting FDI or
RDI alarms.

EXI (Extension Header Identifier) allows the selection of the type of
GFP Extension Header. Choices are Null (0000) - (Default) and
Linear (0001). EXI is only configurable with Ethernet (flex/GFP-F)
client.

CID (Channel IDentifier) selects the communication channel used for
the signal transmission for both Client Data and Client Management
frames. Choices are from 0 (default) through 255. CID is only available
when EXI is set to Linear.
The status Mismatch is displayed next to the CID value when the TX
and RX CID values differ.

180
Delta indicates the GFP state machine synchronization parameter.
Delta is set to 1.
88000 Series
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
Interface (Ethernet, Packet Sync, Fibre Channel, and Wireless)
Interface (Ethernet, Packet Sync, Fibre
Channel, and Wireless)
From the Test menu, tap Setup, Test Configurator, the interface block,
and the Interface tab.
LINK
An arrow is used to indicate the status of the test link (at the PCS level for
parallel interfaces).

A green arrow indicates that the link is up.

A red arrow indicates alarms, the link is down.

A gray arrow indicates awaiting incoming data to provide a status.
The Local Fault Detected, Local Fault Received, Remote Fault,
LOA, and Hi-BER alarm status are displayed. Refer to Ethernet on page 353
and Ethernet - PCS Lanes / PCS on page 356 for more information.
For Ethernet framed test application on 88200NGE:
RS-FEC check box when selected (default), enables the use of the
RS-FEC. The RS-FEC check box must be selected when using a
100GBASE-SR4 transceiver. Ensure both ends of the circuit have the
FEC enabled. Only available with Ethernet framed test applications
on 88200NGE when the SR4 check box is selected (see page 122).
Power Blazer
181
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
Interface (Ethernet, Packet Sync, Fibre Channel, and Wireless)
For Ethernet and Packet Sync test applications:

For optical interfaces, the Local Fault Detected, Local Fault Received,
Remote Fault, LOA, Hi-BER, and/or WIS Link (10GE WAN) alarm
status are displayed. Refer to Ethernet on page 353 and Ethernet - PCS
Lanes / PCS on page 356 for more information.

Auto-Negotiation check box is available with 10/100/1000M Electrical
and 1GE Optical interfaces. When the Auto-Negotiation check box is
selected the test application indicates to the remote port which
parameters to use. The Auto-Negotiation check box is automatically
selected (not configurable) for 1GE Electrical interface and when using
an active copper SFP.
Note: When the Auto-Negotiation check box is selected, the port Speed, Duplex,
Flow Control, and Local Clock parameters can be set. Those settings are
not applied immediately to the port, they are used only when the
negotiation process is started and take effect only when the
auto-negotiation succeeds. However current settings are applied
immediately to the port when the Auto-Negotiation check box is cleared.
182
88000 Series
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
Interface (Ethernet, Packet Sync, Fibre Channel, and Wireless)

Speed, available with 10/100/1000M Electrical interface, allows the
selection of the interface rate: 10M, 100M, 1GE, or Auto1. The
negotiated speed will be displayed next to the Speed field selection.
The 10M speed is not available with SyncE test application.

Duplex choices for 10M and 100M electrical interfaces are
Full Duplex (default), Half Duplex, and Auto1. For other rates the
Duplex is set to Full Duplex. Availability of choices depend on the test
applications. Half Duplex is not available with an active copper SFP.
The negotiated duplex will be displayed next to the Duplex field
selection.

Flow Control choices are TX, RX, RX and TX, None (default), and
Auto1. When the Flow Control is set to None, pause frames received
are ignored. Availability of choices depend on test applications.

Cable Mode is available with 10/100/1000M Electrical interface.
Availability of choices depend on the test application.
Manual mode is selected when the Auto-Negotiation check box is
cleared and allows to select the type of cable: MDI (default) for straight
through cable or MDIX for crossover cable.
Automatic mode is selected when the Auto-Negotiation check box is
selected and allows the 88000 Series to automatically detect the MDI or
MDIX cable type.

Local Clock is only available with 1GE interface and allows to set the
source of the clock: Master (default), or Slave, or Auto1, 2.
1. Auto is only available when the Auto-Negotiation check box is selected.
2. Not available with SyncE test application.
Power Blazer
183
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
Interface (Ethernet, Packet Sync, Fibre Channel, and Wireless)
For Fibre Channel test application:

PSP (Link Protocol) (Primitive Sequence Protocol) check box when
selected (default) allows link management by activating the port.
For CPRI Unframed test application:

Scrambling check box when selected (default) enables the scrambler.
Only available with Unframed CPRI rates 4.9152 Gbit/s and higher.
For CPRI Framed L2 test application:

Sequence indicates the last Startup Sequence State: Standby (A),
L1 Sync (B), Protocol (C), L2 C&M (D), Vendor (E), Operation (F),
or Passive (G).

Protocol defines how the CPRI Startup Sequence negotiates the
protocol version.

Auto can use protocol Version 1 and Version 2 during the
negotiation.

Version 1 negotiates the protocol with Scrambling disabled.
Available with all supported CPRI rates.

Version 2 negotiates the protocol with Scrambling enabled.
Available with CPRI rates: 9.8, 6.1, and 4.9 Gbit/s.
Protocol table indicates either the last received (Version 1 or
Version 2) or negotiated (Auto) protocol version. A light-red
background indicates a Protocol version mismatch between the
received value and the expected generated value.
184
88000 Series
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
Interface (Ethernet, Packet Sync, Fibre Channel, and Wireless)

C&M Channel defines the kind of channel that will be used by the
startup sequence for negotiation.

Auto (default): Overhead byte #Z.66.0 can use any of the HDLC
rates and Overhead byte #Z.194.0 can use any of the Ethernet
Subchannel in the negotiation process.

HDLC: Only overhead byte #Z.66.0 is used with the configured
HDLC Rate during the negotiation process. Ethernet #Z.194.0 byte
is set to rr00 0000 as it is disabled.

Ethernet: Only overhead byte #Z.194.0 is used with the configured
Ethernet Subchannel during the negotiation process. HDLC
#Z.66.0 byte is set to rrrr r000 as it is disabled.

Disabled: Both HDLC Rates and Ethernet Subchannel are disabled
to simulate a Passive Link. Ethernet #Z.194.0 byte is set to rr00 0000
and HDLC #Z.66.0 byte is set to rrrr r000. Only available with Base
Station emulation mode.
C&M table indicates either the received (HDLC or Ethernet) or
negotiated (Auto) C&M for Ethernet subchannel and HDLC rates in
Mbit/s. A red background indicates either a C&M type mismatch or
HDLC Rate/Ethernet subchannel mismatch compared to the generated
C&M channel. An arrow is displayed indicating which C&M Channel
should normally be selected as per the standard rules.

Power Blazer
Subchannel selects the Ethernet Subchannel number: 20 to 63 where
63 is the lowest bit rate and 20 the highest.
185
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
Interface (Ethernet, Packet Sync, Fibre Channel, and Wireless)

Rate (Mbit/s) is available with HDLC and Ethernet C&M Channel.
For HDLC: Allows the selection of the HDLC bit rate. Choices depend
on the selected CPRI interface rate. HDLC Proprietary is used to
exercise a case where the Base Station is aware in advance of the
HDLC rate to use. The proprietary rate are not described in the
standard. If an HDLC Proprietary is received during the negotiation
process while the C&M Channel is set to Auto, the negotiation
completes but no actual bit rate is reported as it is unknown. Similarly,
if an equipment vendor uses an invalid rate (as per the CPRI Standard)
during the negotiation process, this rate is reported as Unspecified
(Code) where Code is a decimal value representing an invalid rate
based on the configured interface rate.
CPRI Rate
(Gbit/s)
HDLC Rate (Mbit/s)
1.2
0.240, 0.480, 0.960 (default), Proprietary
2.4
0.240, 0.480, 0.960, 1.920 (default), Proprietary
3.1
0.240, 0.480, 0.960, 1.920, 2.400 (default), Proprietary
4.9
0.240, 0.480, 0.960, 1.920, 2.400, 3.840 (default), Proprietary
6.1
0.240, 0.480, 0.960, 1.920, 2.400, 4.800 (default), Proprietary
9.8
0.240, 0.480, 0.960, 1.920, 2.400, 7.680 (default), Proprietary
For Ethernet: Indicates the bit rate corresponding to the selected
Subchannel.
186
88000 Series
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
Interface (Ethernet, Packet Sync, Fibre Channel, and Wireless)
WIS Button
Note: WIS is only available for 10GE WAN interface.

J0 Trace allows to set the J0 Trace value in 16 bytes format (default is
EXFO 10GigE).

J1 Trace allows to set the J1 Trace value in 16 bytes format allowing
up to 15 bytes (a CRC-7 byte will be added in front for a total of
16 bytes). Default is EXFO 10GigE.
Note: J0 and J1 values should be 7-bit T.50 suitable characters. The Padding drop
list from the message keyboard allows to select Null or Space to fill up the
J0 Trace and J1 Trace up to15 byte value. The Control Characters button
in the J0 Trace and J1 Trace message keyboard, allows to select the
required character. For more details on Control Characters, see page 40.

Path Signal Label (C2) byte is allocated to indicate the content of the
STS SPE, including the status of the mapped payload.
C2 (Hex.)
00
Description
Unequipped
01
Equipped - Non-Specific
a
1A
10 Gbit/s Ethernet (IEEE 802.3)
FE
Test Signal, ITU-T 0.181
a.
Default value.
Remote Fault Emulation
Remote Fault Emulation check box when selected generates a Remote
Fault ordered sets when a Link Fault is received. Only available with
EtherBERT, 10GE (all framing at the exception of Seed A/B and PRBS31
Unscrambled), and 40GE/100GE (Framed Layer 2 and up; not supported
with Internal Loopback connector).
Power Blazer
187
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
Interface (Ethernet, Packet Sync, Fibre Channel, and Wireless)
Physical Interface
For parallel interface, the following information is displayed for each
optical lane.

Optical Lane indicates the optical lane number.
Optical Interface
Optical Lane Number
40GE (4 Lanes) [41.25 Gbit/s]
100GE (4 Lanes) [103.125 Gbit/s]
0 through 3
100GE (10 Lanes) [103.125 Gbit/s]
0 through 9

Laser indicates the status of the laser: ON with the laser pictogram
(emitting an optical laser signal) or OFF.

TX Power (dBm) indicates, when supported, the transmit power level
of the optical lane/laser in dBm.

Wavelength (nm) indicates the detected wavelength when supported
by the transceiver.

RX Power (dBm) indicates, when supported, the current received
power level of the optical laser/lane in dBm.
Green: Power level in range.
Yellow: Power level out-of-range.
Red: Loss of signal or power level is close to damage.
Gray: The operational range value is either not available or not
supplied by the CFP.
188

Min RX Power (dBm) indicates, when supported, the minimum
received power level of the optical laser/lane in dBm.

Max RX Power (dBm) indicates, when supported, the maximum
received power level of the optical laser/lane in dBm.

Laser ON/OFF button, available with parallel interface, is used to
activate the laser control per optical lane or for all lanes.
88000 Series
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
Interface (Ethernet, Packet Sync, Fibre Channel, and Wireless)
Optical lane numbers are from 0 to 3 or from 0 to 9 depending on the
selected interface/rate.
Power Blazer

All Lanes check box, when selected, applies the change(s) to all
optical lanes at once.

Optical Lane indicates the optical lane numbers and All which
represents the setting for all optical lanes when the All Lanes
check box is selected.

Laser check box, when selected, indicates that the corresponding
optical laser lane is activated and emitting an optical laser signal.

Lasers OFF at Start-Up check box when selected automatically turns
OFF the laser for serial interfaces or all lasers for parallel interfaces
when starting the Power Blazer or when switching from one test
application to another; this applies on both ports for Dual Port
topology. However the laser remains ON, on a remote module
receiving a request for a DTS connection or a loopback command. This
check box is cleared by default.

Power Range (dBm) indicates the transceiver operational RX power
range.
189
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
Interface (Ethernet, Packet Sync, Fibre Channel, and Wireless)
TX Frequency
Note: The following TX Frequency information applies to serial interface only,
refer to TX Frequency on page 174 for parallel interface. Not available
when using an active copper SFP.

TX Frequency (GHz) indicates the frequency (actual frequency +
Frequency offset) used for transmission.
Note: Frequency offset is not available with OBSAI, CPRI in RRH emulation mode,
RFC 6349 test application.
190

Offset (ppm) check box, when selected (cleared by default), allows to
set the frequency offset that will be generated: ±120 ppm. Use the “+”
or “-” button to respectively increment or decrement the frequency
offset value based on the defined Increment/Decrement Size, or
directly type the frequency offset value in the field.

Step Size (ppm) allows to set the increment/decrement value (from
0.1 to the maximum offset) that will be used when changing the
frequency offset with the “+” or “-” button.
88000 Series
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
Interface (Ethernet, Packet Sync, Fibre Channel, and Wireless)
RX Frequency
Note: The following RX Frequency information applies to serial interface only,
refer to RX Frequency on page 175 for parallel interface. Not available
when using an active copper SFP.

Frequency (GHz) indicates the frequency of the input signal.

Offset (ppm) indicates the frequency offset between the standard rate
specification and the rate at the input signal.
Note: For both Frequency and Offset the following background colors are used.
Background color

Description
Green
The frequency is in range.
Red
The frequency is out-of-range or LOC Lane. LOC is also
displayed.
Gray
Pending state.
Max Offset (ppm)
Negative indicates the maximum negative frequency offset between
the standard rate specification and the rate from the received signal.
Positive indicates the maximum positive frequency offset between the
standard rate specification and the rate from the received signal.
Power Blazer
191
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
Labels
Labels
For SONET/SDH BERT, from the Test menu, tap Setup, Test Configurator,
the interface block, and on the Labels tab.
For OTN-SONET/SDH BERT, from the Test menu, tap Setup, Test
Configurator, the protocol block, and on the Labels tab.
Note: Selecting a Label byte to be generated will automatically update the
corresponding OH byte. Refer to OH - SONET/SDH on page 578 for more
information.
Labels

STS/AU Path (C2): The C2 byte is allocated to indicate the content of
the STS SPE / VC, including the status of the mapped payloads.
Generated: Select the C2 byte from the list. Selecting a C2 byte value
will automatically update the OH C2 selection and vice versa. Refer to
C2 on page 587 for more information.

PLM-P/UNEQ-P / HP-PLM/HP-UNEQ: Enables the Payload Mismatch
and STS/AU UNEQ monitoring. This setting is coupled with the
configuration of Traces - SONET/SDH on page 513.
Expected: Select the expected C2 byte from the list. Refer to C2 on
page 587 for more information.
192

VT/TU Path (V5): The V5 byte is allocated to indicate the content of the
VT/TU path, including the status of the mapped payloads.

Generated: Select the V5 byte from the list. Selecting a V5 byte value
will automatically update the OH V5 selection and vice versa. Refer to
V5 on page 590 for more information.
88000 Series
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
Labels
Power Blazer

PLM-V/UNEQ-V / LP-PLM/LP-UNEQ: Enables the Payload Mismatch
and VT/TU UNEQ monitoring. This setting is coupled with the
configuration on the Labels on page 418.

Expected: Select the expected V5 byte from the list. Refer to V5 on
page 590 for more information.
193
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
Link OAM
Link OAM
From the test menu, tap Setup, Test Configurator, and the
Link-OAM (802.3) test block.
OAM Mode
Allows the selection of the OAM mode:

Active (default) initiates the OAM discovery and send OAMPDU
loopback control; doesn’t respond to variable request nor generate
Link Event Notification.

Passive doesn’t initiate OAM discovery nor send OAMPDU loopback
control.
OAMPDU Destination MAC Address
Indicates and allows to change the default multicast OAM PDU destination
MAC address: 01:80:C2:00:00:02.
Default check box when cleared (default is selected), allows the
configuration of the OAM PDU destination MAC address:
00:00:00:00:00:00 to FF:FF:FF:FF:FF:FF.
Pass/Fail Verdict
Pass/Fail Verdict check box when selected (default) enables the use of the
pass/fail verdict. A global fail verdict is declared when any of the following
condition is met: Link Down, any Link OAM alarm, Remote Alarms (if
enabled), or Remote Loopback (if enabled).
194

Remote Alarms check box when selected (default) considers the
following alarms to declare the pass/fail verdict: Critical Event, Dying
Gasp, and Link Fault.

Remote Loopback check box when selected (default) considers
successful/unsuccessful remote loopback request to declare the
pass/fail verdict.
88000 Series
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
Link OAM
OAM Discovery Status

Local reports the local OAM discovery status as follows:
Status
Description
Evaluating
OAM discovery is started.
Stable
OAM discovery is completed. Local OAM is satisfied with the remote
OAM settings.
Unsatisfied
OAM discovery cannot complete successfully.
Local OAM equipment is unsatisfied with the remote OAM settings.

Remote reports the remote OAM discovery status as follows:
Status
Description
Evaluating
OAM discovery is started.
Stable
OAM discovery is completed. Remote OAM is satisfied with the local
OAM settings.
Unsatisfied
OAM discovery cannot complete successfully.
Remote OAM equipment is unsatisfied with the local OAM settings.
Loopback

Power Blazer
Local and Remote

Status indicates the status of the local and remote loopback:
Enabled represents a Looped-Up condition and Disabled a
Looped-Down condition.

Enable/Disable button allows to respectively Loop-Up (Enable) or
Loop-Down (Disable).
195
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
Local Details (iSAM)
Local Details (iSAM)
From the Test menu, tap Setup, Test Configurator, and the More button
from the Local block.
LINK


An arrow is used to indicate the status of the test link (at the PCS level
for parallel interfaces).

A green arrow indicates that the link is up.

A red arrow indicates that the link is down.

A gray arrow indicates awaiting incoming data to provide a status.
Interface/Rate or Port choices depend on the rates available on the
module.
Interface/Rate
100GE (10 Lanes) [103.125 Gbit/s]
100GE (4 Lanes) [103.125 Gbit/s]
40GE (4 Lanes) [41.25 Gbit/s]
10GE WAN
10GE LAN
1GE Optical
100M Optical
10/100/1000M Electricala
a.
For 88200NGE, Ethernet 10/100/1000M electrical is possible when using an active copper SFP.
For 10GE WAN, the test uses the WIS default values for J0, J1, and C2 as
defined in WIS Button on page 187.

196
SR4 check box when selected (cleared by default) defines the PHY
type as SR4 enabling RS-FEC which is required when using a
100GBASE-SR4 transceiver. Ensure both ends of the circuit have the
FEC enabled. Only available with Ethernet framed test applications on
88200NGE.
88000 Series
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
Local Details (iSAM)

Connector allows the selection of the module’s port.
Connectora
Interface/Rate
8870/8880
8830/88100 Series
88200NGE
100GE (4 Lanes) [103.125 Gbit/s]
-
Port 2 - CFP
Port 2 - CFP2 (100GE only)
Port 2 - Internal Loopback Port 1- CFP4
Port 2 - QSFP
40GE (4 Lanes) [41.25 Gbit/s]
-
Port 2 - QSFP
10GE WAN
10GE LAN
Port 1 - SFP+
Port 2 - SFP+
100GE (10 Lanes) [103.125 Gbit/s] -
Port 1 - XFP
Port 1 - SFP+
Port 1 - SFP/SFP+
Port 2 - SFP/SFP+
1GE Optical
100M Optical
Port 1 - SFP/SFP+
Port 2 - SFP/SFP+
10/100/1000M Electrical
a.
b.
Port 1 - RJ45
Port 1 - RJ45
Port 1 - SFP+ (RJ45)b
Availability of connectors depend on the model.
Ethernet 10/100/1000M electrical is supported when using an active copper SFP.

Auto-Negotiation check box when selected (default), indicates to the
remote port which parameters to use. Only available with
10/100/1000M Electrical and 1GE Optical interfaces. For 1GE
Electrical interface, the Auto-Negotiation check box is automatically
selected and is not configurable.
Note: When the Auto-Negotiation check box is selected, the port Speed can be
set. This setting is not applied immediately to the port, it is used only when
the negotiation process is started, and takes effect only when the
auto-negotiation succeeds. However, the current setting is applied
immediately to the port when the Auto-Negotiation check box is cleared.
Power Blazer
197
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
Local Details (iSAM)

Speed, available with 10/100/1000M Electrical interface, allows the
selection of the interface rate: 10M, 100M, 1GE, or Auto; Auto is only
available when the Auto-Negotiation check box is selected. The
negotiated speed will be displayed next to the Speed field selection.
Note: Full Duplex is used and there is no Flow Control (pause frames received
are ignored).

Lasers OFF at Start-Up allows to automatically turn off all lasers when
starting the module or when switching from one test application of the
same group (Ethernet or Transport) to another. This check box is
cleared by default.
MAC

Address indicates the default and unique Media Access Control (MAC)
address given to the Ethernet port.

VLAN ID/Priority check box when selected, cleared by default,
enables C-VLAN with VLAN Ethernet type of 8100 and allows to set
both VLAN ID and priority.
VLAN ID choices are 0 through 4095; default is 2; refer to VLAN ID and
Priority on page 740 for more information.
Priority choices are 0 (default) to 7. Refer to VLAN ID and Priority on
page 740 for more information.
198
88000 Series
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
Local Details (iSAM)
IP

IP Version is set to IPv4.

Automatic IP (DHCP) check box, when selected (cleared by default),
allows to dynamically obtain an IP address from a DHCP (Dynamic
Host Configuration Protocol) server.
Note: IP Address, Subnet Mask, and Default Gateway are not available when
the Automatic IP (DHCP) check box is selected.

IP Address allows to enter the source IP address for the stream. The
default setting is 10.10.x.y, where x and y are respectively the two least
significant bytes of the port default MAC address.

Subnet Mask allows to enter the Subnet Mask for the stream. The
default setting is 255.255.0.0.

Default Gateway check box, when selected (cleared by default),
allows to enter a default Gateway IP address. When the Default
Gateway check box is selected, its default address is 0.0.0.0.
Remote Discovery ID
Remote Discovery ID is used to easily identify this module in case another
module is performing a discovery scan. Up to 16 alpha-numeric characters
are allowed.
Power Blazer
199
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
MAC/IP/UDP
MAC/IP/UDP
Note: Only available with Framed Layer 2 (see Framing from the Modify Frame
Structure). For Traffic Gen & Mon all parameters are configurable per
stream. For EtherSAM all parameters are configured per service.
From the Test menu, tap Setup, Test Configurator, and...

For RFC 2544 and EtherBERT, tap on the protocol block.

For EtherSAM, and Traffic Gen & Mon, tap on the protocol block, and
on the MAC/IP/UDP tab.
Stream Selection (Traffic Gen & Mon)
The Traffic Gen & Mon test application supports the configuration of up to
16 different streams. Select the stream to be configured by either using the
left/right arrow or by tapping over the stream numbers area then tapping
on a specific stream number.
Service Selection (EtherSAM)
The EtherSAM test application supports the configuration of up to 10
different services. Select the service to be configured by either using the
left/right arrow or by tapping over the service numbers area then tapping
on a specific service number.
Couple with Interface
The Frame Format, Network Layer, and all IP and VLAN settings are
coupled with the interface (see Network on page 215) when the Couple
with Interface check box is selected (default). The Source MAC Address
is always coupled. Not available when using Provider Encapsulation.
200
88000 Series
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
MAC/IP/UDP
Modify Frame Structure
Allows to modify the structure of the frame.

Global Option

S-OAM check box when selected, enables EtherSAM over service
OAM at Layer 2 on all services. The EtherSAM uses LBM and LBR
messages of the S-OAM protocol to perform the test. A device
having the capability to loopback LBM messages (via LBR) is
required at the remote. Only available with EtherSAM for rates up
to 10G WAN. Not available in Dual Test Set and Dual Port topology.

Provider Encapsulation is available with single port EtherBERT
Framed Layer 2 and Traffic Gen & Mon test applications at rates of
10GE, 40GE, and 100GE. Choices are:
None: No encapsulation.
EoE: Ethernet over Ethernet encapsulation.
PBB-TE: Provider Backbone Bridges with Traffic Engineering
encapsulation.


Framing

Power Blazer
IP Version allows to select IPv4 (default) or IPv6 that will be used
for both the interface and all streams/services.
Frame Format (layer 2) allows to select Ethernet II (default) or
802.3 SNAP as the frame format.
201
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
MAC/IP/UDP


Network Layer1 (layer 3) sets the network traffic type:
IPv4 (default)/IPv6, or None.
Transport Layer1 is disabled when the Network Layer is None.
Test Application
EtherSAM
Transport Layer
None, UDP (default), TCPa
RFC 2544
UDP
EtherBERT
UDP (default), TCPa
Traffic Gen & Mon
None, UDP (default), TCPa
a.
Only available for 10M to 10G.

MPLS: The MPLS Label check box, when selected (cleared by
default), enables 1 or 2 MPLS labels allowing management and test
frames to be transmitted and received. Only available with EtherSAM
and Traffic Gen & Mon test applications. Not available when using
Provider Encapsulation. Not available with EtherSAM when the
S-OAM check box is selected.

VLAN: The VLAN Tag check box when selected (cleared by default),
enables up to 3 stacked VLAN; up to 2 staked VLAN when using
Provider Encapsulation.

EoE: The EoE VLAN check box, when selected (cleared by default),
enables the EoE VLAN tag. Available when EoE is selected as Provider
Encapsulation.

PBB-TE: The B-VLAN check box, when selected (cleared by default),
enables the B-VLAN tag. Available when PBB-TE is selected as
Provider Encapsulation.
See VLAN on page 206 for additional VLAN settings.
1. Not available with EtherSAM when the S-OAM check box selected. Not available when using Provider Encapsulation.
202
88000 Series
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
MAC/IP/UDP
Preamble/SFD
Indicates that the frame structure contains the Preamble and SFD.
EoE
Note: Available when EoE is selected as the Provider Encapsulation (see Modify
Frame Structure on page 201).

Source EoE MAC Address indicates and allows to change (when the
Factory Default check box is cleared) the default EoE Media Access
Control (MAC) address: The default setting is 0E:01:00:xx:xx:xx..

Destination EoE MAC Address allows to enter the destination EoE
MAC address for the stream. The default setting is 0E:01:00:00:00:01.

EoE VLAN
Note: Only available when the EoE VLAN is enabled; refer to Modify Frame
Structure on page 201.
Power Blazer

VLAN ID choices are 0 to 4095 (default is 2); refer to VLAN ID and
Priority on page 740 for more information.

Priority, VLAN user priority, choices are 0 (default) to 7. Refer to
VLAN ID and Priority on page 740 for more information.

Type, VLAN Ethernet Type, choices are 0x8100, 0x88A8, 0x9100,
0xA100 (default), 0x9200, and 0x9300.

Drop Eligible:, when set to Yes (DEI = 1), the transmitted frames
will be dropped first on receipt when congestion occurs under test.
Drop Eligible is not available when VLAN type is 0x8100. This
parameter is set to No by default.

TTL (Time To Live) choices are 0 to 255 (default is 64).

ETag (Extended Tag) choices are 0 to 255 (default is 1).
203
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
MAC/IP/UDP
PBB-TE
Note: Available when PBB-TE is selected as the Provider Encapsulation (see
Modify Frame Structure on page 201).

Source B-MAC Address indicates and allows to change (when the
Factory Default check box is cleared) the default source Backbone
MAC address: 00:03:01:xx:xx:xx.

Destination B-MAC Address allows to enter the destination Backbone
MAC address. The default setting is 00:00:00:00:00:00.

B-VLAN (EtherType: 0x88A8) is available when PBB-TE VLAN check
box is selected (see Modify Frame Structure on page 201).

204

VLAN ID choices are 0 through 4095 (default is 2). Rrefer to VLAN
ID and Priority on page 740 for more information.

Priority choices are 0 (default) to 7. Refer to VLAN ID and Priority
on page 740 for more information.

Drop Eligible:, when set to Yes (DEI = 1), the transmitted frames
will be dropped first on receipt when congestion occurs under test.
This parameter is set to No by default.
I-TAG (EtherType: 0x88E7)

SID (Service Instance Identifier) choices are 0 through 16777215
(default is 256).

Priority, the Priority Code Point (PCP), choices are 0 (default) to 7.
Refer to VLAN ID and Priority on page 740 for more information.

Drop Eligible:, when set to Yes (DEI = 1), the transmitted frames
will be dropped first on receipt when congestion occurs under test.
This parameter is set to No by default.
88000 Series
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
MAC/IP/UDP
MAC

Source MAC Address indicates the default and unique Media Access
Control (MAC) address given to the Ethernet port; editable when using
Provider Encapsulation.

Destination MAC Address: Enter the destination MAC address for the
stream. The default setting is the source MAC address. The destination
MAC Address field is not accessible when the Resolve MAC Address
check box is selected.

Resolve MAC Address check box, when selected (default), sends a
request to the network to retrieve the MAC address corresponding to
the selected destination IP address. This setting is coupled with the
Resolve MAC Address check box from IP on page 208. This check box
is not available when the Network Layer is set to None (refer to Modify
Frame Structure on page 201).

OAM Quick Ping button automatically starts the quick Ping utility for
the stream destination MAC address and provides either a successful
or failed result. The quick Ping uses 3 attempts, a delay of 1 second,
and a Timeout of 5 seconds.

EtherType is set to the following values by default and is configurable
from 0x0000 to 0xFFFF when the Network Layer is set to None:
0x0000 when Network Layer is set to None
0x0800 for IPv4
0x86DD for IPv6
0x8847 for MPLS
0x88B7 when Network Layer is set to None with EtherBERT test.
0x8902 for S-OAM (available with EtherSAM)

OUI, available when the frame format 802.3 SNAP is selected, allows
the selection of the Organizationally Unique Identifier (OUI):
RFC1042 (0x000000) - (default)
User Defined, available when Network Layer is set to None, allows to
enter the OUI value: 0x000000 (default) to 0xFFFFFF.
Power Blazer
205
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
MAC/IP/UDP
Note: Source/Destination Flooding and Flood Range are only available with
Traffic Gen & Mon when the Network Layer is set to None (see page 202).

Source Flooding and Destination Flooding check boxes when
selected (cleared by default) allows generation of frames using
source/destination MAC addresses flooding as follows: The first frame
is transmitted starting with the least significant bits of the
source/destination MAC address covered by the range set to 0; each
subsequent frame is transmitted by incrementing the least significant
bits by 1; when the upper limit of the range is reached, the
source/destination MAC address restarts over with the least significant
bits covered by the range set to 0.

Flood Range is the range of the least significant bits used for the
Source Flooding and/or Destination Flooding: 2 (1 bit), 4 (2 bits),
8 (3 bits), 16 (4 bits)... up to 16777216 (24 bits) (default).
VLAN
Note: VLAN is only available when the VLAN Tag is enabled; refer to Modify
Frame Structure on page 201.
For each VLAN tag enabled (C-VLAN/S-VLAN/E-VLAN) the following
parameters are configurable.
206

VLAN ID choices are 0 through 4095; refer to VLAN ID and Priority on
page 740 for more information.

Priority, VLAN user priority, choices are 0 (default) to 7. Refer to VLAN
ID and Priority on page 740 for more information.

Type, VLAN Ethernet Type, choices are 8100 (default for C-VLAN),
88A8 (default for S-VLAN), 9100 (default for E-VLAN), 9200, and 9300.

Drop Eligible:, when set to Yes (DEI = 1), the transmitted frames will
be dropped first on receipt when congestion occurs under test. Drop
Eligible is not available when VLAN type is 8100. This parameter is set
to No by default.
88000 Series
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
MAC/IP/UDP
MPLS
Note: MPLS is only available when the MPLS Label is enabled; refer to Modify
Frame Structure on page 201.

Label allows the selection of the MPLS TX labels: 0 to 1048575 (default
is 16). Refer to for the list of MPLS labels.

COS allows the selection of the Class Of Service.
0 (000 - Low) (default)
1 (001 - Low)
2 (010 - Low)
3 (011 - Low)
4 (100 - High)
5 (101 - High)
6 (110 - High)
7 (111 - High)

TTL allows the selection of the Time to Live value: 0 to 255 (default
is 128).
S-OAM
Note: S-OAM is only available with EtherSAM when the S-OAM check box is
selected; refer to Modify Frame Structure on page 201.
MEG/MD Level allows the selection of the Maintenance Entity Group
Level / Maintenance Domain Level: 0 to 7 (default).
Power Blazer
207
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
MAC/IP/UDP
IP
For IPv4 the following configuration parameters are available.

Automatic IP (DHCP) check box, when selected (cleared by default),
allows to dynamically obtain an IP address from a DHCP (Dynamic
Host Configuration Protocol) server.

Source IP Address allows to enter the source IP address for the
stream. The default setting is 10.10.x.y, where x and y are respectively
the two least significant bytes of the port default MAC address. Not
available when the Automatic IP (DHCP) check box is selected.

Destination IP Address allows to enter the destination IP address for
the stream. The default setting is the source IP address.
For IPv6 the following configuration parameters are displayed: Source
Link-Local IPv6 Address, and Source Global IPv6 Address. Tap on the
IPv6 Config button to access all settings.

Link-Local IPv6 Address (LLA) is used for local communication
between on-link neighbors and for Neighbor Discovery process.

Mode
Stateless Auto (default) allows automatic generation of the IPv6
address based on the MAC address.
Static allows to enter the IP Address.

208
Address, available with Static mode, allows to select the
Link-Local IPv6 Address. The accepted range is from
FE80:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000 to
FE80:0000:0000:0000:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF. The default address
is FE80::[Interface ID], where [Interface ID] is generated from
the source MAC address. When the Address field is selected for
editing using virtual keyboard, the Previous IPs button appears
allowing to select a previously configured IP address.
88000 Series
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
MAC/IP/UDP

Global IPv6 Address (GUA) is used to communicate with on-link
neighbors and for global communication with hosts outside the
subnet.

Mode
None disables the Global IPv6 Address and the Default Gateway
Address.
Stateless Auto (default) allows automatic generation of the IPv6
address based on the Link-Local address interface ID and the
prefix obtained from the router advertisements. If no Interface ID
has been obtained for the Link Local Address, the global address
will not be generated.
Static allows to enter the IP address.

Address, available with Static mode, allows to select the Global
IPv6 Address. The accepted range is from
0000:0000:0000:0000::[Interface ID] to
FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF::[Interface ID]. The default address is
2001:0000:0000:0000::[Interface ID], where [Interface ID] is
generated from the source MAC address. When the Address field
is selected for editing using virtual keyboard, the Previous IPs
button appears allowing to select a previously configured IP
address.

Interface ID Coupled, available when the Source Global IPv6
Address mode is Static, allows to couple the interface ID of the
Global address to the Link-Local source address.
Enabled (default): Only the 64 bit (MSB) prefix ID in the IPv6
address is configurable, and the 64 bit (LSB) Interface ID is not
configurable (read-only).
Disabled: The 64 bit (MSB) Prefix ID and 64 bit (LSB) Interface ID
in the IPv6 address are configurable.
Power Blazer
209
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
MAC/IP/UDP

Prefix Mask, available with Static mode, allows to specify a prefix
that defines the subnet. The accepted range is
0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000 to
FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:0000:0000:0000:0000. For example:
Global Address: 2001:0DB8:0001:0002:02AA:00FF:FE11:1111
Prefix Mask: FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000
Corresponding Prefix: 2001:0DB8:0001.

Default Gateway allows the configuration of the default gateway
address to forward packets outside the subnet.

Mode
Automatic (default) allows automatic selection of the default
gateway.
Static allows entering the default gateway IP address.


210
Address, available with Static mode, allows to enter the IP address
of the Default Gateway. The accepted range is from
0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000 to
FE80:0000:0000:0000:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF. The default address
is FE80:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000.
IPv6 Destination Address allows to select the destination IP address
for the stream that must start with FE80. The accepted range is from
0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0001 to
FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF. The default address is
2001::. When the Address field is selected for editing using virtual
keyboard, the Previous IPs button appears allowing to select a
previously configured IP address.
88000 Series
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
MAC/IP/UDP
The following configuration parameters are available for both IPv4 and
IPv6 unless otherwise specified.

Quick Ping button automatically starts the quick Ping utility for the
stream destination IP address and provides either a successful or failed
result. The quick Ping uses 3 attempts, a Delay of 1 second, a Timeout
of 2 seconds, and a Data Size of 32 Bytes. Refer to Ping & Trace Route
on page 593 for more options.

Resolve MAC Address check box, when selected (default), sends a
request to the network to retrieve the MAC address corresponding to
the selected destination IP address. This setting is coupled with the
Resolve MAC Address check box from MAC on page 205. The Resolve
MAC address status is displayed. Possible status are:
Status
Power Blazer
Description
--
The Resolve MAC address is not enabled.
Resolving
The MAC address is being resolved.
Resolved
The MAC address is resolved.
Failed
The MAC address cannot be resolved.

Source IP Multiplicator check box, when selected (cleared by
default), allows changing the 7 LSB (Least Significant bit) of the source
IP address as specified in the range: 1-128 (default) or 0-127.

Subnet Mask (IPv4) allows to enter the Subnet Mask for the stream.
The default setting is 255.255.0.0. Not available when the Automatic IP
(DHCP) check box is selected.

Default Gateway (IPv4) check box, when selected (cleared by
default), allows to enter a default Gateway IP address. When the
Default Gateway check box is selected, its default address is 0.0.0.0.
The Default Gateway address is not configurable when the Automatic
IP (DHCP) check box is selected.
211
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
MAC/IP/UDP

TTL (IPv4) or HOP Limit TTL (IPv6) sets the Time To Live value: 1 to
255 (default is 128).

Flow Label (IPv6) is a number used to identify a series of related
packets from a source to a destination: 0 (default) to 1048575.

IP TOS/DS (IPv4) or Traffic Class (TOS/DS) - (IPv6) allows to enter
either an hexadecimal value, 00 (default) to FF, or tap on the TOS/DS
Config button to set each TOS or DS parameter individually. Changing
the IP TOS/DS value will affect the TOS/DS Config settings and vice
versa.

TOS/DS Config button allows to set the Type of Service or the
Differentiated Service parameters.
TOS/DS

TOS/DS allows to select either Type Of Service (TOS) or
Differentiated Services (DS).

Binary/Hex allows to display, once this pop-up is closed, the IP
TOS/DOS value either in binary or hexadecimal.
Type Of Service (available when TOS is selected).
212

Precedence value:
000 (Routine) (Default)
001 (Priority)
010 (Immediate)
011 (Flash)
100 (Flash Override)
101 (CRITIC/ECP)
110 (Internet Control)
111 (Network Control)

Delay allows the selection of the delay level: Normal (default) or
Low.

Throughput allows the selection of the throughput level:
Normal (default) or High.
88000 Series
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
MAC/IP/UDP

Reliability allows the selection of the reliability level:
Normal (default) or High.

Monetary Cost allows the selection of the monetary cost level:
Normal (default) or Low.

Reserved Bit allows the selection of the reserved bit value:
0 (default) or 1.
Differentiated Services (available when DS is selected).
Power Blazer

DSCP Codepoints:
000000 (CS0) (default), 001000 (CS1), 010000 (CS2),
011000 (CS3), 100000 (CS4), 101000 (CS5), 110000 (CS6),
111000 (CS7), 001010 (AF11), 001100 (AF12), 001110 (AF13),
010010 (AF21), 010100 (AF22), 010110 (AF23), 011010 (AF31),
011100 (AF32), 011110 (AF33), 100010 (AF41), 100100 (AF42),
100110 (AF43), 101110 (EF), 110011 (51), 110110 (54), or
User Defined.

User Defined Codes, available when User Defined has been
selected from the DSCP codepoints, allows to enter a user defined
code from hexadecimal 00 (default) to 3F once the TOS/DS
Config pop-up is closed.

ECN allows the selection of the Explicit Congestion Notification
code: 00 (Not-ECT) (default), 01 (ECT-1), 10 (ECT 0), or 11 (CE).
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Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
MAC/IP/UDP
UDP
Allows the selection of the source and destination UDP port number.

Source Port is configurable from 0 to 65535; the default is 49184.

Destination Port is configurable from 0 to 65535; the default is
7 (echo).
TCP
Allows the selection of the source and destination TCP port number.

Source Port is configurable from 0 to 65535; the default is 49184.

Destination Port is configurable from 0 to 65535; the default is
7 (echo).
Payload
For RFC 2544 and EtherBERT, indicates that the frame structure contains a
Payload.
For Traffic Gen & Mon, allows the selection of both user defined header
and pattern. Payload is not configurable when the QoS Metrics Tags
Insertion check box is selected (see the Global tab).

User Defined Header check box when selected (cleared by default)
allows to define a 16-byte header.

Pattern allows the selection of a pattern: 00 to FF (default is CC).
FCS
Indicates that the frame structure contains an Ethernet FCS.
214
88000 Series
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
Network
Network
From the test menu tap Setup, Test Configurator, the interface block, and
the Network tab.
Note: For Through Mode test application, the Network tab is only available for the
Primary Port but the configured parameters apply to both ports.
MAC
Power Blazer

MAC Address indicates and allows to change, when the Factory
Default check box is cleared, the default and unique Media Access
Control (MAC) address given to the Ethernet port.

Factory Default check box, when selected (default), indicates that the
factory source MAC address is used.

Frame Format (layer 2) allows to select Ethernet II (default) or 802.3
SNAP as the frame format.
215
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
Network
IP
IP Version allows the selection of either IPv4 (default) or IPv6. Only IPv4 is
supported for TCP Throughput and RFC 6349 test applications.
For IPv4 the following configuration parameters are available.




Automatic IP (DHCP) check box, when selected (cleared by default),
allows to dynamically obtain an IP address from a DHCP (Dynamic
Host Configuration Protocol) server.
IP Address1: Enter the IP address of the port. The default setting is
10.10.x.y, where x and y are respectively the two least significant bytes
of the port default MAC address.
Subnet Mask1: Enter the Subnet Mask. The default setting is
255.255.000.000.
Default Gateway1 check box, when selected (cleared by default),
allows to enter a default Gateway IP address. When the Default
Gateway check box is selected, its default address is 0.0.0.0.
1. Not configurable when the Automatic IP (DHCP) check box is selected.
216
88000 Series
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
Network
For IPv6 the following configuration parameters are displayed: Link-Local
IPv6 Address, Global IPv6 Address, and Default Gateway. Tap on the
Config button to access all settings.

Link-Local IPv6 Address (LLA) is used for local communication
between on-link neighbors and for Neighbor Discovery process.

Mode
Stateless Auto (default) allows automatic generation of the IPv6
address based on the MAC address.
Static allows to enter the IP Address.

Power Blazer
Address, available with Static mode, allows to select the
Link-Local IPv6 Address. The accepted range is from
FE80:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000 to
FE80:0000:0000:0000:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF. The default address
is FE80::[Interface ID], where [Interface ID] is generated from
the source MAC address. When the Address field is selected for
editing using virtual keyboard, the Previous IPs button appears
allowing to select a previously configured IP address.
217
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
Network

Global IPv6 Address (GUA) is used to communicate with on-link
neighbors and for global communication with hosts outside the
subnet.

Mode
None disables the Global IPv6 Address and the Default Gateway
Address.
Stateless Auto (default) allows automatic generation of the IPv6
address based on the Link-Local address interface ID and the
prefix obtained from the router advertisements. If no Interface ID
has been obtained for the Link Local Address, the global address
will not be generated.
Static allows to enter the IP address.

Address, available with Static mode, allows to select the Global
IPv6 Address. The accepted range is from
0000:0000:0000:0000::[Interface ID] to
FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF::[Interface ID]. The default address is
2001:0000:0000:0000::[Interface ID], where [Interface ID] is
generated from the source MAC address. When the Address field
is selected for editing using virtual keyboard, the Previous IPs
button appears allowing to select a previously configured IP
address.

Interface ID Coupled, available when the Source Global IPv6
Address mode is Static, allows to couple the interface ID of the
Global address to the Link-Local source address.
Enabled (default): Only the 64 bit (MSB) prefix ID in the IPv6
address is configurable, and the 64 bit (LSB) Interface ID is not
configurable (read-only).
Disabled: The 64 bit (MSB) Prefix ID and 64 bit (LSB) Interface ID
in the IPv6 address are configurable.
218
88000 Series
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
Network

Prefix Mask, available with Static mode, allows to specify a prefix
that defines the subnet. The accepted range is
0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000 to
FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:0000:0000:0000:0000. For example:
Global Address: 2001:0DB8:0001:0002:02AA:00FF:FE11:1111
Prefix Mask: FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000
Corresponding Prefix: 2001:0DB8:0001.

Default Gateway allows the configuration of the default gateway
address to forward packets outside the subnet.

Mode
Automatic (default) allows automatic selection of the default
gateway.
Static allows entering the default gateway IP address.

Power Blazer
Address, available with Static mode, allows to enter the IP address
of the Default Gateway. The accepted range is from
0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000 to
FE80:0000:0000:0000:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF. The default address
is FE80:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000.
219
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
Network
VLAN
VLAN Tag check box, when selected (cleared by default), enables and
allows to set up to 3 stacked VLANs.
For each VLAN tag enabled, C-VLAN / S-VLAN / E-VLAN, the following
parameters are configurable.
220

VLAN ID choices are 0 through 4095; refer to VLAN ID and Priority on
page 740 for more information.

Priority, VLAN user priority, choices are 0 (default) to 7. Refer to VLAN
ID and Priority on page 740 for more information.

Type, VLAN Ethernet Type, choices are 0x8100 (default for C-VLAN),
0x88A8 (default for S-VLAN), 0x9100 (default for E-VLAN), 0x9200,
and 0x9300.

Drop Eligible, when set to Yes (DEI = 1), the transmitted frames will
be dropped first on receipt when congestion occurs under test. Drop
Eligible is not available when VLAN type is 8100. This setting is set to
No by default.
88000 Series
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
Network Details (iSAM)
Network Details (iSAM)
Either select the Layer parameter, the number of services, for each service
the profile and CIR settings, or click on More for all settings. The total
bandwidth (when the Performance Test is enabled) and the estimated
test duration are also displayed.
From the Test menu, tap Setup, Test Configurator, and the More button
from the Network block.
iSAM


Layer is the layer used for all services. The layer is fixed to L3/L4 when
the RFC 6349 Test is enabled.

L2 (default) for Ethernet II.

L3/L4 for Ethernet II, IP (IPv4), and respectively UDP for the
Configuration and Performance subtests, and TCP for RFC-6349
subtest.
Classification defines the traffic classification used in the provider
network: VLAN ID, VLAN Priority, or DSCP (available with layer L3/L4).
Note: At least one check box (Configuration Test, or Performance Test, or
RFC 6349 Test) has to be selected.

Configuration Test check box when selected (default) verifies if the
network configuration is correct for each service before starting a long
term test (Performance Test).
Set the Configuration Test duration in seconds per step enabled (CIR
and CIR+EIR): 5 seconds (default) to 60 seconds.
Power Blazer
221
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
Network Details (iSAM)

Performance Test check box when selected (default) verifies that the
SLA parameters (FD, IFDV, and FLR) are met over time by running
multiple services simultaneously. Results are measured and compared
to the configured thresholds to declare the pass/fail verdicts. The
Performance Test is only performed for services that have their CIR
check box selected.
Set the Performance Test duration in hh:mm format: 1 minute to
24 hours (default is 10 minutes).

RFC 6349 Test on Service 1 check box when selected (cleared by
default) verifies that the Ethernet service is able to properly carry TCP
traffic; Service 1 is used to performed the RFC 6349 test. Enabling the
RFC 6349 Test on Service 1 automatically set the operation mode to
DTS and the layer to L3/L4; direction is bidirectional, max MTU is 1500
bytes, multiple connections as well as Path MTU Discovery are
enabled.
Duration: The field next to the RFC 6349 Test on Service 1 check box
is used to set the duration of the TCP Throughput phase per direction in
hh:mm format: 1 minute (default) to 24 hours.
Threshold (% of ideal) allows to enter the TCP Throughput as a
percentage of the Ideal L4 Throughput that will be used to declare the
pass/fail verdict for both directions: 0 to 100 %; default is  %.
222
88000 Series
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
Network Details (iSAM)
Services
Allows the selection of the number of services: 1 (default) to 4.
The following parameters are configurable individually for each service:

Profile
Two profiles are defined by default as well as User Profile. Profiles are
user definable and up to 25 profiles can be predefined (see
Customizable Profiles on page 228).
Profile
Parameter
Frame Type
Priority
Best Effort
a.
b.
EMIX
Frame Sizes
64, 128, 512, 1024,
and 1518a
VLAN Priority DSCP Performance Criteria
7
CS7b
0
b
CS0
MEF Metro High
MEF Metro Low
The minimum frame size value is adjusted according to the frame structure and components selected as
shown in the table of Frame Size on page 225.
ECN is not present and not configurable but is set to 00 (Not-ECT).
Power Blazer
223
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
Network Details (iSAM)
Note: At least one check box (CIR or CIR+EIR) has to be selected. Thus, clearing
the CIR check box while CIR+EIR check box is cleared, will automatically
select the CIR+EIR check box and vice versa.
Note: For Dual Test Set, the CIR and CIR+EIR values are the same (Symmetric)
for both L->R and R->L directions.

CIR (Mbit/s) (Committed Information Rate) check box when selected
(default) sets the service rate guaranteed by the SLA (default is
1 Mbit/s).

CIR+EIR (Mbit/s) check box when selected (cleared by default) sets
the best effort allowed traffic for the service. The EIR (Excess
Information Rate) value is equal to the CIR+EIR value minus CIR
(default is 1.5 Mbit/s). The threshold value is configurable from the
defined CIR value for this service to the line rate minus the total CIR
from all services.

Frame Type allows the selection of the frame type and frame size(s).

Frame types choices are: Fixed and EMIX.
Fixed allows to set a single frame size.
EMIX allows to set up to 8 EMIX frame sizes. The EMIX frame
sequence is repeated until the test ends. Default are 64, 128, 512,
1024, and 1518.
Quantity, available with EMIX, allows to select the number of EMIX
frame sizes: 2 to 8 frames (default is 5).
224
88000 Series
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
Network Details (iSAM)

Frame Size
Type
Frame Size (bytes)
Fixed (default)
64 (default) to 16000b
EMIX
64a to 16000b
a.
b.
a
The minimum value is adjusted according to the frame structure and
components selected as shown in the following table.
The maximum frame size is limited to 10000 for 10/100/1000Mbps electrical
interface.
The following table lists each component that may affect the
minimum frame size value.
Component
Description
C-VLAN
4 bytes
UDP
8 bytes
Ethernet Header
14 bytes
IPv4
20 bytes
Using DTS
4 bytes
Note: Sending traffic with frame size > 1518 in switched network may results in
losing theses frames.
Power Blazer
225
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
Network Details (iSAM)

Classification
Allows the selection of the value for the selected classification:
Classification
VLAN ID
Value
0 through 4095 (default is 2).
Refer to VLAN ID and Priority on page 740.
VLAN Priority
0 (default) to 7.
Refer to VLAN ID and Priority on page 740.
DSCP
226
000000 (CS0) (default), 001000 (CS1), 010000 (CS2),
011000 (CS3), 100000 (CS4), 101000 (CS5), 110000 (CS6),
111000 (CS7), 001010 (AF11), 001100 (AF12), 001110 (AF13),
010010 (AF21), 010100 (AF22), 010110 (AF23), 011010 (AF31),
011100 (AF32), 011110 (AF33), 100010 (AF41), 100100 (AF42),
100110 (AF43), 101110 (EF), 110011 (51), 110110 (54).
88000 Series
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
Network Details (iSAM)

Performance Criteria
The following performance criteria are available by default:
Name
≤ FD (ms)
≤ IFDV (ms)
≤ FLR (%)
MEF Metro High
10
3
0.01
MEF Metro Med
20
8
0.01
MEF Metro Low
37
Disabled
0.1
MEF Regional High
25
8
0.01
MEF Regional Med
75
40
0.01
MEF Regional Low
125
Disabled
0.1
MEF Continental High
77
10
0.025
MEF Continental Med
115
40
0.025
MEF Continental Low
230
Disabled
0.1
MEF Global High
230
32
0.05
MEF Global Med
250
40
0.05
MEF Global Low
390
Disabled
0.1
User Performance allows the configuration of the following values per
service:

FD (Latency): 0.015 to 8000 ms (default is 15 ms).

IFDV (Jitter): 0.015 to 8000 ms (default is 2 ms).

FLR (Frame Loss): 0 to 5 % (default is 0.1 %).
Note: The Performance Criteria list is user definable and up to 25 Performance
criteria can be created (see Customizable Performance Criteria on
page 230).
Power Blazer
227
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
Network Details (iSAM)
Customizable Profiles
As previously mentioned, 2 profiles are available by default and up to 25
profiles can be predefined by editing the profile’s text file
(iSAMProfilesTemplate.ini) using a word processor like Notepad. The file is
located under ProgramData\EXFO\ProtocolProducts\ or
Documents and Settings\All Users\Application Data\EXFO\ProtocolProducts\ depending on
the operating system.
Example of profile’s text file:
[Priority]
Frame Type = EMIX
Frame Size = 64, 128, 512, 1024, 1518
VLAN Priority = 7
DSCP = CS7
Performance Criteria = MEF Metro High
[Best Effort]
Frame Type = EMIX
Frame Size = 64, 128, 512, 1024, 1518
VLAN Priority = 0
DSCP = CS0
Performance Criteria = MEF Metro Low
228
88000 Series
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
Network Details (iSAM)
Each profile entry has the following parameters.

Profile Name: 1 to 16 characters. All ASCII characters from 32 to 126
decimal are supported.

Frame Type: Enter Fixed or EMIX. When the frame type is missing
from a profile, EMIX is used.

Frame Size (see Frame Size on page 225 for possible values); when
the frame size is missing from a profile, default value(s) is used:
For Fixed: Enter a unique frame size.
For EMIX: Enter 2 to 8 frame sizes with a comma between each entry.

VLAN Priority1 (optional): Enter the priority number.

DSCP1 (optional): Enter either the DSCP name or its binary value.

Performance Criteria1: Enter the name of the performance criteria.
When the Performance Criteria is missing from a profile or is not
available from the user profile file, the User Performance criteria is
used.
When a parameter is missing from a profile, the default value of the
missing parameter is used.
The value of a parameter is validated to ensure it is within the supported
range; otherwise the profile entry is unsupported.
If the profile file contain more than 25 profiles, only the first 25 valid profiles
are retained.
1. See Classification on page 226 for possible values.
Power Blazer
229
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
Network Details (iSAM)
Customizable Performance Criteria
As previously mentioned, factory performance criteria are available and up
to 25 performance criteria can be defined by editing the performance
criteria text file (iSAMPerformanceCriteriaTemplate.ini) using a word
processor application like Notepad. The file is located under
ProgramData\EXFO\ProtocolProducts\ or
Documents and Settings\All Users\Application Data\EXFO\ProtocolProducts\ depending on
the operating system.
Example of performance criteria’s text file:
[MEF Metro High]
FD = 10
IFDV = 3
FLR = 0.01
[MEF Metro Med]
FD = 20
IFDV = 8
FLR = 0.01
[MEF Metro Low]
FD = 37
IFDV =
FLR = 0.1
Each profile entry has the following parameters:
230

Performance Criteria Name: 1 to 16 characters. All ASCII characters
from 32 to 126 decimal are supported.

Frame Delay (FD) Threshold: 0.015 ms to 8000 ms.

Inter-Frame Delay (IFDV) Threshold: 0.015 ms to 8000 ms.

Frame Loss Ratio (FLR) Threshold: 0 % to 5 %.
88000 Series
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
Network Details (iSAM)
If the threshold value for a parameter is not defined, it is considered as
disabled (as in the example above for IFDV =).
RequiredForFormattingThe value of a parameter is validated to ensure it is
within the supported range; otherwise the performance criteria entry is
unsupported.
Power Blazer
231
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
ODU Channels - Global
ODU Channels - Global
From the Test menu, tap Setup, Test Configurator, tap on the test block
(ODU Channels), and on the Global tab.
Note: The ODU channels global configuration applies to all channels.
Pattern
The test pattern icon next to the Pattern label indicates the status of the
received pattern signal. Refer to Status Bar on page 28 for more
information.
232

No Pattern Analysis (Live) check box when cleared (default),
monitors the received traffic pattern. For live traffic, the No Pattern
Analysis (Live) check box should be selected as the traffic is a live
pattern thus there is no analysis of pattern loss and bit error.

Pattern sets the test pattern that will be generated: PRBS31 (default)
or NULL Client (0000).

Invert check box, when selected (cleared by default), inverts the test
pattern meaning that every 0 will be changed for 1 and every 1 for 0.
For example, the pattern 1100 will be sent as 0011.
88000 Series
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
ODU Channels - Global
Bit Error

Pass/Fail Verdict allows to enable bit-error-rate pass/fail verdict by
selecting either Bit Error Count or Bit Error Rate. The default value is
Disabled.

BER Threshold allows to enter the threshold Count or Rate value that
will be used to declare the pass/fail verdict.
For Count, enter the maximum bit error count allowed before
declaring a fail verdict: 0 (default) to 999999.
For Rate, enter the maximum bit error rate allowed before declaring a
fail verdict: 1.0E-14 to 1.9E-01. The default value is 1.0E-12.
Service Disruption
The Service Disruption Time (SDT) corresponds to the duration associated
to a defect that occurred in the network. For example a disruption that
occurs during a network switching from the active channels to the backup
channels or vice versa.

Disruption Monitoring check box when selected (disabled by
default) enables the disruption time measurements. However, the
measurement will only start if the test is already started, or when the
test is started.
Note: Clearing the Disruption Monitoring check box will stop the measurement
without clearing the results. The disruption monitoring is automatically
stopped without clearing results when the test is stopped. However, starting
the test again while the Disruption Monitoring check box is selected will
reset the results before restarting.
Note: The service disruption measurements are cleared when changing the
criteria.
Power Blazer
233
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
ODU Channels - Global

Defect allows to choose on which layer and defect the service
disruption time test will be performed. Choices depend on the
selected test path.
Layer
Defect
ODUk
LOFLOM, AIS, OCI, LCK, BDI, BIP-8, BEI
OPUk
AIS, CSF
Note: The Service Disruption Time measurement supports a parent defect
approach where the SDT measurement is triggered when the selected
defect or a higher defect in the signal structure hierarchy is detected.
234

No Defect Time (ms) represents the period without any defects before
stopping SDT measurement: 0.005 ms to 2000 ms (default is 300 ms).

Pass/Fail Verdict check box when selected (cleared by default)
enables service disruption pass/fail verdict and allows to set the
threshold value.

SDT Threshold (ms) allows to enter the SDT threshold value that will
be used to declare the pass/fail verdict: 0.001 to 299999.999 ms
(default is 50 ms).
88000 Series
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
ODU Channels - Global
Modify Tributary Slots/Ports

ODU4 Channel Number selects a channel number highlighting all
tributary slots composing this channel. Alternatively, selecting a
channel from the table on the right (TX, RX, or TX = RX tab) also
selects a channel number.

RX, TX, or TX = RX tab (table on the right) displays the tributary slot
assignments per channel for either RX, TX, or both RX and TX (TX=RX)
and allows to select tributary slots to be assigned/unassigned; see
Assign/Unassign for more information.

Each tributary slot displays its number (left top corner) and channel
number (middle). The channel number is replaced by U for
Unassigned, or B for Background traffic. Background traffic is only
available with ODU3 and is displayed once both channels have all their
tributary slots assigned meaning that the remaining tributary slots are
used for background traffic.

The following table indicates the number of tributary slots per channel:
For...
Power Blazer
Mapped into...
Tributary slot per channel
ODU3
OPU4
31
ODU2
OPU4
8
ODU1
OPU4
2
ODU0
OPU4
1

TX = RX check box, when selected, allows to used the same tributary
slot configuration for both TX and RX.

Tributary Port indicates the tributary port number associated to the
channel number.

Payload Type indicates the payload type for the mapped OPU level
which is 21.
235
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
ODU Channels - Global

Channels Available displays the status of the tributary slot assignment
for each channel and allows to assign/unassign tributary slots to/from
channels.
The table provides a status for each channel using a visual indication of
missing tributary slots needed to complete the configuration as
follows.
Background
Color
White
Orange
Description
Tributary slot already assigned. All tributary slots must be assigned to
complete the channel configuration.
Tributary slot(s) missing to complete the channel configuration.
This channel is currently selected for assigning additional tributary
slots by selecting each tributary slot in the table on the right.
Gray
Tributary slot(s) missing to complete the channel configuration.
This channel is not currently selected for assigning additional tributary
slots.
To Unassign Tributary Slot:
1. Tap the Unassign button.
2. Tap the tributary slot to be unassigned from the table on the right
an the tributary slot displays U for unassigned and becomes
available in the Channels Available table.
To Assign Tributary Slot:
1. Select a channel number.
2. Tap the tributary slot to be assigned to the selected channel from
the table on the right. It is possible to select an unassigned
tributary slot or a tributary slot from another channel number.
Each channel must have all their tributary slots selected in order
to complete the configuration.
236
88000 Series
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
ODU Channels - Global

Modify Tributary Slots facilitates the tributary slot selection:
Copy RX MSI allows automatic configuration of the Channel to Trib
Slot that matches the system under test configuration
Default returns to default tributary slot assignment.
Clear All unassigns all tributary slots.
Restore Multi-Channel OTN Defaults
Reverts the current test application to its default factory settings.
Power Blazer
237
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
Optical Device Under Test (iOptics)
Optical Device Under Test (iOptics)
From the Test menu, tap Setup, and Test Configurator.

Transceiver selection: Tap on a transceiver icon to select the
interface/port. The selected transceiver is highlighted with an amber
contour. The selected transceiver type and its status are displayed.
Status
Description
Validating the transceiver.
Transceiver correctly detected.
Incompatible transceiver detected.
Missing transceiver/adapter.

Rate: Once the transceiver is correctly detected
, select the
interface rate. Rates depend on the selected port and the inserted
transceiver.
Rate
Transceiver
Transport
Wireless
CFP
OTU4 (10 Lanes) 100GE (10 Lanes) 100GE (4 Lanes)
OTU4 (4 Lanes)
OTU3e2 (4 Lanes) 40GE (4 Lanes)
OTU3e1 (4 Lanes)
OTU3 (4 Lanes)
-
CFP2
OTU4 (10 Lanes) 100GE (10 Lanes) OTU4 (4 Lanes)
100GE (4 Lanes)
-
CFP4, QSFP28 OTU4 (4 Lanes)
238
Fibre
Channel
Ethernet
100GE (4 Lanes)
-
-
88000 Series
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
Optical Device Under Test (iOptics)
Rate
Transceiver

Power Blazer
Transport
Fibre
Channel
Ethernet
QSFP+
OTU3e2 (4 Lanes) 40GE (4 Lanes)
OTU3e1 (4 Lanes)
OTU3 (4 Lanes)
XFP
OTU2
OTU1e
OTU2e
OTU1f
OTU2f
SFP+
SFP/SFP+
(Port 1 only)
OTU2
OTU1e
OTU2e
OTU1f
OTU2f
OTU1
OC-192/STM-64
OC-48/STM-16
OC-12/STM-4
OC-3/STM-1
OC-1/STM-0
Wireless
-
-
10GE WAN
10GE LAN
10X
-
10GE WAN
10GE LAN
1GE Optical
100M Optical
1X
2X
4X
8X
10X
16X
CPRI - 1.2G
CPRI - 2.4G
CPRI - 3.1G
CPRI - 4.9G
CPRI - 6.1G
CPRI - 9.8G
OBSAI - 3.1G
Vendor Name, Part Number, Serial Number, Connector Type, and
Mode are information retrieved from the transceiver (see page 240).
239
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
Optical Device Under Test (iOptics)

More gives additional transceiver information and settings.

Parameters are retrieved from the transceiver:
Parameter

240
SFP
CFP
CFP2 QSFP SFP+
CFP4
XFP
Module ID
X
X
X
X
Vendor Name
X
X
X
X
Part Number
X
X
X
X
Serial Number
X
X
X
X
Hardware Revision
X
X
X
X
Firmware Version
X
X
-
-
Adaptor Revision
-
X
-
-
Revision Compliance
-
-
X
-
Connector Type
X
X
X
X
Speed
X
X
X
X
Type/Compliance Code
X
X
X
X
Wavelength
-
-
-
X
Mode
X
X
X
X
Power Class
X
X
X
X
Lane Ratio Type
X
X
-
X
WDM Type
X
X
-
X
CLEI Code
X
X
X
X
Lasers OFF at Start-Up allows to automatically turn off all lasers
when starting the module or when switching from one test
application to another. This check box is cleared by default.
88000 Series
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
Remote Details (iSAM)
Remote Details (iSAM)
The remote block automatically scan the remote modules for DTS and
Remote Loopback modes and allows the selection of the remote module
that is used to loop back the traffic via Smart Loopback or EtherSAM in
Dual Test Set (DTS) mode for simultaneous bidirectional results. The
number module available for remote connection is displayed. If the
connection with the remote module is not manually established, the
remote connection process is automatically performed when starting the
test.
From the Test menu, tap Setup, Test Configurator, and the More button
from the Remote block.
Note: Not available with Manual Loopback remote operation mode.
For both DTS and Remote Loopback Operation
Modes

Discovered Remotes
The modules are discovered dynamically and listed with their Name,
IP address, Status, Connection, and Preferred information. Name and
Status are only available for remote 88000 Series, and 85100G
modules. Only modules from the same subnet are automatically
discovered. To access a module from a different subnet, use the Add
button.
Power Blazer
241
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
Remote Details (iSAM)

Preferred check box when selected indicates that this module is
part of the preferred module’s list. Preferred remote modules will
be considered first during the automatic connection process as
follows:
Priority
1
Preferred
Status
Available
2
Taken
3
Test in Progress
4

Preferred or not
Non Preferred
Available
5
Taken
6
Test in Progress
Status
Background
Color
Green
Status
Ready
Description
Connected with the local unit
Running


242
Yellow
Taken
Connected with another unit
Red
Test in Progress
Test in progress with another unit
No color
Unreachable
Preferred remote does not reply
Available
Not connected
Connection indicates Connected when the local unit is connected
to a remote module.
Add button is used to add a preferred remote module to the preferred
list. Enter the IP address of the remote module and tap OK. This is
useful to access a module from a different subnet.
88000 Series
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
Remote Details (iSAM)
For Remote Loopback Operation Mode

Loop-Up button establishes the connection with the selected remote
module and sets the remote module into Smart Loopback test
application.
Following a successful loop-up, the IP address of the remote module
will be used as the destination IP address for the test.

Overtake button manually establishes the connection with the remote
module and set the remote module into Smart Loopback test
application. Available when the status is Taken or Test in Progress
with another unit. A confirmation is required to overtake a module.

Loop-Down button ends the connection between the local and the
remote modules.
For DTS Operation Mode

Connect button manually establishes the connection with the selected
remote module and sets the remote module into DTS EtherSAM test
application.
Following a successful connection, the IP address of the remote
module will be used as the destination IP address for the test.

Overtake button manually establishes the connection with the remote
module and set the remote module into DTS EtherSAM test application.
Available when the status is Taken or Test in Progress with another
unit. A confirmation is required to overtake a module.
Following a successful connection, the IP address of the remote
module will be used as the destination IP address for the test.

Power Blazer
Disconnect button, available once the connection with the remote
module is established, terminates the connection with the remote
module. Available when the status is Ready.
243
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
Remote Details (iSAM)
For Manual Loopback Operation Mode

MAC, available with layer L2, allows to enter the destination MAC
address of the remote.

IP, available with L3/L4, allows to enter the destination IP address of
the remote.

Resolved MAC address status, available with L3/L4, indicates:

244

Resolving when the ARP process is resolving.

Resolved when the ARP process is resolved.

Failed when the ARP process failed.
Quick Ping, available with layer L3/L4, tests if the destination IP
address can be reached. A message displays if the ping attempt is
Successful or Failed.
88000 Series
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
RFC 2544 - Global
RFC 2544 - Global
From the Test menu, tap Setup, Test Configurator, tap on the RFC 2544
block, and on the Global tab.
Dual Test Set

Dual Test Set (DTS) check box when selected (cleared by default)
enables RFC 2544 Dual Test Set. Once Dual Test Set is enabled, use
the Discover Remote button to select a remote unit. Not available in
Dual Port topology.
Note: Alternatively it is possible to use the Discover Remote button to connect to a
remote module and automatically enable the Dual Test Set. For more
details, refer to Discover Remote Button on page 622.

Power Blazer

Disconnected indicates that there is no connection established
with a remote module.

Connected indicates that the connection is established with a
remote module.
Discover Remote button allows to discover remote modules
supporting Remote Loopback and/or Dual Test Set. For more details,
refer to Discover Remote Button on page 622.
245
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
RFC 2544 - Global
Global Options

Flow Direction allows the selection of the traffic direction as follows:

TX to RX for Single Port topology.

Port #1 to Port P2, Port #2 to Port #1, and Bidirectional for
Dual Port topology.

Local to Remote, Remote to Local, and Bidirectional for Dual
Test Set.

Rate Unit determines the unit used to display the rate values: %,
Mbit/s, or Gbit/s.

Pass/Fail Verdict check box when selected (default) enables the use
of the pass/fail verdict.
Subtests and Estimated Time
246

Subtests allows to individually enable the Throughput, Back-to-Back,
Frame Loss, and Latency subtests.

Estimated Time (H:MM) indicates the estimated time required to
complete each subtest at best conditions. The total estimated time to
complete all subtests is also displayed.
88000 Series
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
RFC 2544 - Global
Frame Distribution

Frame Distribution allows to select either RFC 2544 (default) or User
Defined distribution.

Quantity is only available when User Defined is selected and allows to
select the number of frames, from 1 to 7 (default), in the distribution.

Frame Size (Bytes): For RFC 2544 distribution, gives predefined frame
size distribution values. For User Defined distribution, enter up to
seven frame size values.
Distribution
Frame Size
a
RFC 2544
64 ,128, 256, 512, 1024, 1280, and 1518
User Defined
64a to 16000b
a.
b.
The minimum frame size will be adjusted according to the frame structure and
components selected.
The maximum frame size is limited to 10000 for 10/100/1000Mbps electrical
interface.
The following table lists each component that may affect the minimum
size value.
Component
Description
VLAN
4 bytes per VLAN tag (up to 3 VLAN tags)
LLC and SNAP Headers
8 bytes
IPv4
20 bytes
IPv6
40 bytes
Using DTS
4 bytes
Restore RFC 2544 Defaults
Reverts the configured parameters to their default values.
Power Blazer
247
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
RFC 2544 - Subtests
RFC 2544 - Subtests
From the Test menu, tap Setup, Test Configurator, tap on the RFC 2544
block. and on the Subtests tab.
Allows the configuration of each enabled subtest.
Throughput
The objective of this test is to find the throughput of the device under test
for which there is no frame loss. Starting at the specified maximum rate
(Max. Rate), the rate converges towards the highest throughput without
frame loss. The search is done with a halving/doubling method until a final
value is reached. The test performs the number of trials defined (Trials).
The throughput measurement is validated the number of times specified
(Validations) for the predefined duration (Trial Duration). The Accuracy
and Acceptable Errors specify how precise the result must be. The test is
performed for each defined frame size.
248
88000 Series
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
RFC 2544 - Subtests

Max. Rate is the maximum rate the test should begin with, in terms of
a percentage of the line rate (%), Mbit/s, or Gbit/s. For Dual Test Set
Max. Rate is configurable for both local to remote (L->R) and remote
to local (R->L) directions. For Dual Port topology, Max. Rate is
configurable for both P1 to P2 (P1->P2) and P2 to P1 (P2->P1)
directions.
Interface
Speed
10 Mbit/s
%
Mbit/s
0.0050 to 100.0000a 0.00001 to 10.000a
0.0050 to
100.0000a
1000 Mbit/s 0.0050 to
100.0000a
100 Mbit/s
0.0001 to
0.001 to
100.000a
1000.00a
Gbit/s
Not Applicable
Not Applicable
0.000001 to 1.000a
10G LAN
0.0050 to 100.0000a 0.01 to 10000.000a
0.00001 to 10.000a
10G WANb
0.0005 to 92.8571a
0.00001 to 9.28571a
40G
0.0050 to 100.0000a 0.1 to 40000.0a
0.0001 to 40.0000a
100G
0.0050 to 100.0000a 0.1 to 100000.0a
0.0001 to 100.0000a
a.
b.
Power Blazer
Max. Rate
0.01 to 9285.71a
Default value.
The maximum value for 10G WAN may be lower depending on the frame size. The
maximum value will be adjusted for each frame size.

Trial Duration is the time for each trial in minutes:seconds: 1 second
(default) to 30 minutes.

Trials is the number of times the throughput test will be generated:
1 (default) to 50 trials.
249
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
RFC 2544 - Subtests

Accuracy is the accuracy measurement in percentage of the line rate
(%), Mbit/s, or in Gbit/s. The accuracy is not based on the configured
Maximum Rate but on the Ethernet line rate. The accepted values are
as follows:
Interface
Speed
250
Max. Rate
%
Mbit/s
Gbit/s
10 Mbit/s
0.1 to 10.0
(default 1.0)
0.01 to 1.0
(default 0.10)
Not Applicable
100 Mbit/s
0.1 to 10.0
(default 1.0)
0.1 to 10.0
(default 1.0)
Not Applicable
1000 Mbit/s 0.1 to 10.0
(default 1.0)
1 to 100.0
(default 10)
0.001 to 0.100
(default 0.010)
10G LAN
0.1 to 10.0
(default 1.0)
10.0 to 1000.0
(default 100)
0.01 to 1.00
(default 0.10)
10G WAN
0.1 to 10.0
(default 1.0)
10.0 to 1000.0
(default 100.00)
0.01 to 1.00
(default 0.1)
40G
0.1 to 10.0
(default 1.0)
40.0 to 4000.0
(default 400.0)
0.04 to 4.00
(default 0.40)
100G
0.1 to 10.0
(default 1.0)
100.0 to 10000.0
(default 1000.0)
0.10 to 10.00
(default 1.0000)

Acceptable Errors represents the number of acceptable errors for the
test: 0 (default) to 10.

Validations represents the number of times the result should be
validated: 1 (default) to 50 times.
88000 Series
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
RFC 2544 - Subtests
Back-to-Back
The objective of this test is to find the maximum number of frames that can
be sent at maximum throughput without frame loss. A burst of frames
(Burst Time) is sent with minimum inter-frame gaps to the device under
test and the number of forwarded frames is counted. If the count of
transmitted frames is equal to the number of forwarded frames, the length
of the burst is increased and the test is rerun. If the number of forwarded
frames is less than the number of transmitted frames, the length of the
burst is reduced and the test is rerun. The Back-to-Back value is the
number of frames in the longest burst that the Device Under Test (DUT)
can handle without the loss of any frames. The test performs the number of
defined trials (Trials). The Accuracy and Acceptable Errors settings
specify how precise that result must be. The test is performed for each
defined frame size.
Power Blazer

Burst Time is expressed in seconds: 1 (default) to 5 seconds.

Trials represents the number of times the Back-to-Back test will be
generated: 1 (default) to 100 trials.

Accuracy (Frames) is the accuracy measurement value in frames:
1 (default) to 50 frames.

Acceptable Errors represents the number of acceptable errors for the
test: 0 (default) to 10.

Bursts represents the number of burst that will be generated:
1 (default) to 10.
251
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
RFC 2544 - Subtests
Frame Loss Configuration
The objective of this test is to find the percentage of frames that are lost
due to lack of resources. Starting at the specified maximum rate (Max.
Rate), the test is performed for a specific frame size and for the specified
duration (Trial Duration). The test is repeated by decreasing the rate by
the specified granularity (Granularity), then the test is repeated again until
there are two successive trials in which no frames are lost. The test is
performed for the defined number of trials (Trials). The test is performed
for each defined frame size.
252

Max. Rate is the maximum rate the test should begin with, in terms of
a percentage of the line rate (%), Mbit/s, or Gbit/s. The accepted
values are as shown in the Max. Rate table on page 249. For Dual Test
Set, Max. Rate is configurable for both local to remote (L->R) and
remote to local (R->L) directions. For Dual Port topology, Max. Rate is
configurable for both P1 to P2 (P1->P2) and P2 to P1 (P2->P1)
directions.

Trial Duration represents the time value for each trial in
minutes:seconds: 1 second to 30 minutes (default is 00:01).

Trials represents the number of times the test will be generated:
1 (default) to 50 trials.

Granularity corresponds to the percentage interval between each
throughput value used for the test: 1 % to 10 % (RFC) - (default). For
example, 10 % granularity means that the test will be performed for
100 %, 90 %, 80 %... of the rate value.
88000 Series
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
RFC 2544 - Subtests
Latency Configuration
The objective of the test is to measure the time required for the frame to go
through the device under test and return back to source. Starting by
sending a stream of frames for the predefined duration (Trial Duration)
and throughput (Max. Rate) at a particular frame size, an identifying
dependent tag is included in one frame. The time at which this frame is
transmitted is recorded (timestamp A). When the tagged frame comes
back, the time is recorded again (timestamp B) and the Latency result is:
timestamp B - timestamp A. The test is repeated for the defined number
of times (Trials) and the average result is calculated. The test is performed
for each defined frame size.
Power Blazer

Trial Duration represents the time value for each trial in
“minutes:seconds”: 1 second (default) to 2 minutes.

Trials represents the number of times the test will be generated:
1 (default) to 50 trials.

Copy From Throughput check box, when selected (default), uses the
Throughput subtest results max rate value for each corresponding
frame size. When the check box is cleared, it is possible to set the
Max. Rate by tapping on the Config. per Frame Size button.

Margin %, available when Copy From Throughput check box is
selected, decreases the max rate value(s) from the Throughput subtest
by a value corresponding to the percentage of the line rate specified:
0 (default) to 10 percent.
253
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
RFC 2544 - Subtests

Measurement Mode, available with Dual Test Set for rates from 10M
to 10GE, allows the selection of the latency measurement mode:
Round-Trip (default) or One-Way.
Synchronization with an external 1PPS clock is required to perform
One-Way Latency measurement. One-Way Latency is only possible
when both the local and remote 1PPS signal clocks are valid. The
following alarms are available with One-Way Latency measurement
mode.
LOPPS-L and LOPPS-R (Loss Of Pulse Per Second - Local/Remote) are
declared when either no pulse is received or when no pulse is
received within 1 second ± 6.6 μs after the previous pulse. LOPPS-R is
only monitored once the DTS connection is established.

Config. per Frame Size is available when the Copy From Throughput
check box is cleared and allows to set the Max. Rate for each frame
size. For Dual Test Set the Max. Rate is configurable for both local to
remote (L->R) and remote to local (R->L) directions. For Dual Port
topology, Max Rate is configurable for P1 to P2 (P1->P2) and P2 to P1
(P2->P1) directions.
All Frames check box when selected (cleared by default) allows to
enter the maximum rate that will be applied to all frame sizes.
254
88000 Series
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
RFC 2544 - Subtests
Thresholds Button
Note: For Dual Test Set, thresholds are configurable for Local to Remote and
Remote to Local directions at the exception of Round-Trip Latency
Threshold for which the value is unique. For Dual Port topology, thresholds
are configurable for P1 to P2 (P1->P2) and P2 to P1 (P2->P1) directions.

Throughput Threshold sets the threshold1 value used to declare a
pass/fail verdict and it applies to all frame sizes when applicable. The
range is as follows:
Max. Rate
Interface
Speed
Mbit/s
a
10 Mbit/s
0.000 to 100.000
100 Mbit/s
0.000 to 100.000a
0.000 - 10.000
Not Applicable
0.000 - 100.000a
Not Applicable
1000 Mbit/s 0.000 to 100.000
10G LAN
0.000 to 100.000
a
0.000 - 10000.000
10G WANb
0.000 to 92.8571a
0.000 - 9230.769a
100.000a
40G
0.000 to
100G
0.000 to 100.000a
Gbit/s
a
a
a.
b.

%
0.000 -
0.000 -
1000.000a
0.000 - 1.000a
a
40000.000a
0.000 - 100000.000a
0.000 - 10.000a
0.000 - 9.230a
0.000 - 40.000a
0.000 - 100.000a
Defalut value.
The maximum value for 10G WAN may be lower depending on the frame size. The
maximum value will be adjusted for each frame size.
Back-to-Back Threshold sets the threshold1 value in percentage of
frames per burst to declare a pass/fail verdict. The range is from 0.0 to
100.0 (default) percent and it applies to all frames sizes when
applicable.
1. The verdict is PASS when the received/measured value is greater or equal to the threshold value.
Power Blazer
255
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
RFC 2544 - Subtests

Frame Loss Threshold (%) sets the threshold1 value of frame loss.
The range is from 0.000 to 100.000 (default is 0.100) and it applies to
all frame sizes when applicable.

Latency Threshold / Round-Trip Latency Threshold sets the
threshold value as the maximum delay in ms or μs. The range is from
0.5 to 8000.0 ms (default is 125.0 ms) and it applies to all frame sizes
when applicable. For Dual Test Set, only available with Round-Trip
Latency Measurement Mode (see Latency Configuration on
page 253).

One-Way Latency Threshold, available for Dual Test Set with
One-Way Latency Measurement Mode (see Latency Configuration on
page 253), sets the maximum one-way latency value in millisecond,
allowed for all frame sizes: 0.005 to 500 ms (default is 125 ms).

Latency Unit allows to either select ms or μs as the reference unit for
the Latency Threshold.
1. The verdict is PASS when the received/measured value is lower or equal to the threshold value.
256
88000 Series
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
RFC 6349
RFC 6349
From the Test menu, tap Setup, Test Configurator, and the RFC 6349
block.
Connection

Operation Mode allows the selection of the test operation mode: Dual
Test Set (DTS) or EXFO|Worx Interop.
The connection is graphically displayed with its status as follows:
Operation Mode
Dual Test Set
Status
Description
Disconnected No connection established with a remote
module.
Connected
Connection established with a remote module.
EXFO|Worx Interop Disconnected Verifier not detected (not reachable, invalid IP, or
invalid TCP port).
Ready or
Running
Verifier detected, either running (remote unit
locked) or ready to perform a test.
The detection of NAT (Network Address
Translation) router presence is automatically
detected and graphically displayed. The WAN IP
address is also displayed when the FTB is behind
a NAT router.
Busy
Power Blazer
Verifier busy with another client (locked).

Discover Remote button, available with Dual Test Set, allows to
discover remote modules supporting Dual Test Set. For more details,
refer to Discover Remote Button on page 622.

Direction allows the selection of the traffic direction: Local to Remote,
Remote to Local, and Bidirectional (default).
257
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
RFC 6349

Remote IP Address, available with EXFO|Worx Interop, is either the
remote IP address of the verifier or the WAN IP address when the
verifier is behind a NAT router.

TCP Port, available with EXFO|Worx Interop, is the port used by the
server located at the remote side: 1 to 65535, default is 50201.
Parameters

Multiple Connections check box when selected (default) indicates
that the applicable TCP Throughput phases are performed with
multiple connections; otherwise TCP Throughput phases are
performed within a single connection.

TCP Server Port is available with Dual Test Set.
Local TCP Server Port is the port used by the server located at the local
side: 1 to 65535 (excluding 62819 that is used for DTS connection),
default is 50201.
Remote TCP Server Port is the port used by the server located at the
remote side: 1 to 65535 (excluding 62819 that is used for DTS
connection), default is 50201.

CIR
The Local-to-Remote CIR and Remote-to-Local CIR represent the
Committed Information Rate of the Ethernet Service under test:
1.0 Mbit/s to Line Rate. The CIR is not used to actually transmit frames
at this rate but to calculate a Bandwidth Delay Product (BDP) which in
turn is used to set the Max Window Size of the TCP connections.
Rate Unit determines the unit used to display the rate values:
Mbit/s (default) or Gbit/s.

258
TOS/DS (IPv4) allows to enter an hexadecimal value, 00 (default) to
FF. Changing the IP TOS/DS value will affect the TOS/DS Config
settings and vice versa.
88000 Series
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
RFC 6349
MTU

Max MTU (bytes) determines the Maximum Transfer Unit (MTU) to
use when the client is generating TCP traffic toward the server: from
1080 to 1500 bytes (default).

Path MTU Discovery check box when selected (default) allows to
perform a Packetization Layer Path MTU Discovery phase.
Window Sweep

Window Sweep check box when selected (default) allows to perform
the Window Sweep phase.

Duration (per step) is the duration of the Window Sweep phase per
direction and per Window tested: 30 seconds (default) to 5 minutes.
TCP Throughput

Duration is the duration of the TCP Throughput phase per direction:
1 minute (default) to 30 days.

Pass/Fail Verdict check box when selected (default) enables the use
of the pass/fail verdict.

Threshold (% of ideal) allows to enter the TCP Throughput as a
percentage of the Ideal L4 Throughput that will be used to declare the
pass/fail verdict for both directions: 0 to 100 %; default is  %.
Restore RFC 6349 Defaults
Reverts the configured parameters to their default values.
Power Blazer
259
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
S-OAM and MPLS-TP OAM
S-OAM and MPLS-TP OAM
From the test menu, tap Setup, Test Configurator, and the
S-OAM (Y.1731/802.1ag/MEF) or MPLS-TP OAM (G.8113.1) test block.
OAM Mode
Allows the selection of the OAM mode.
OAM Type
S-OAM
OAM Mode
Y.1731 (default) supports both Connectivity Fault Management and
Performance Monitoring which includes all S-OAM functions supported by
this module.
802.1ag supports Connectivity Fault Management including only the
Continuity Check, Loopback, Link Trace, and RDI functions.
MEF supports both Connectivity Fault Management and Performance
Monitoring which includes all S-OAM functions supported by this module.
MPLS-TP OAM G.8113.1 (default) supports both Connectivity Fault Management and
Performance Monitoring which includes all MPLS-TP OAM functions
supported by this module.
260
88000 Series
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
S-OAM and MPLS-TP OAM
S-OAM and MPLS-TP OAM Responder
S-OAM Responder or MPLS-TP OAM Responder check box when
selected (default) allows to respond to LBM, LTM, DMM, LMM, and SLM
valid messages (test running or not). LTM and SLM are only available with
Ethernet OAM. Traffic statistics are also monitored (refer to Responder on
page 521).
For S-OAM: A valid message must have its source MAC address matching
the Peer MEP MAC address, destination MAC address matching either the
unit port Unicast MAC address or a Multicast class 1 address, VLANs
matching the unit port VLANs, and MEG/MD Level matching the local
MEG/MD Level. Refer to Unicast/Multicast Addresses for Ethernet OAM on
page 739 for more information.
For MPLS-TP OAM: A valid message must have its: destination MAC address
matching either the unit MAC address, FF:FF:FF:FF:FF:FF, or
01:00:5E:90:00:00; VLANs matching the unit port VLANs; MPL Labels
matching the local MPLS Label Stack configuration, including GAL; MEG
Level matches the local MEG Level. For the Loopback function, a valid
message must also have its: MEP ID of the target MEP ID TLV matching the
Local MEP ID or ID Sub-Type is 0x00 (Discovery); and MEP ID and MEG ID
of the requesting MEP ID TVL, if present, matching respectively the Peer
MEP ID and the Local MEG ID.
Respond to... message
LBM
LBR
LTMa
LTR
DMM
DMR
LMM
LMR
SLMa
SLR
a.
Power Blazer
Respond with... message
Only available with Ethernet OAM.
261
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
S-OAM and MPLS-TP OAM
Pass/Fail Verdict
Pass/Fail Verdict check box when selected (default) enables the use of the
pass/fail verdict. A global fail verdict is declared when any of the following
condition is met: Link Down alarm, Loss Continuity alarm, or any fail
verdict for Frame Delay, Frame Loss, Synthetic Loss (Only applicable to
Ethernet OAM), Frame Delay Failure, Frame Loss Failure, Synthetic Loss
Failure (Only applicable to Ethernet OAM), Loopback Failure, or Test
Failure.
Thresholds
Available with G.8113.1, Y.1731 and MEF OAM Modes when Pass/Fail verdict
is enabled. The verdict is PASS when the measured value is lower or equal
to the threshold value.
262

Frame Delay Threshold (ms) allows to set the threshold value of
frame delay: 0.001 to 8000 ms (default is 50 ms).

Frame Loss Threshold (%) allows to set the threshold value of frame
loss: 0.001 to 100 % (default is 10 %).

Synthetic Loss Threshold (%), available with Ethernet OAM (Y.1731
and MEF), allows to set the threshold value of Synthetic Loss: 0.001 to
100 % (default is 10 %).
88000 Series
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
S-OAM and MPLS-TP OAM
Next HOP Router (G.8113.1)

MAC Address, available when Resolve MAC check box is cleared,
allows to enter the Next HOP Router MAC address: 00:00:00:00:00:00 to
FF:FF:FF:FF:FF:FF, default is 01:00:5E:90:00:00. The MAC Address
01:00:5E:90:00:00 is reserved for point-to-point link and can be used
when the unicast address is unknown (as per RFC-7213).

Resolve MAC check box, when selected (cleared by default), sends a
request to the network to retrieve the MAC address corresponding to
the selected IP address.

IP Address, available when Resolve MAC check box is selected,
allows to enter the Next HOP Router IP address: 0.0.0.0 to
255.255.255.255 for IPv4; default is the source IP address; ::1 to
FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF for IPv6, default is 2001::.
Local Parameters

MEG ID (Y.1731 and G.8113.1) is the Maintenance Entity Group Level
identification allowing to enter a 13-bytes MEG ID value/message to be
generated (default value is EXFO MEG ID). Values should be ASCII
suitable characters including the ITU T.50 Characters on page 40.
Padding allows the selection of the character (Null or Space) to used
for remaining byte values.

Power Blazer
MAID (802.1ag and MEF) is a 45 bytes Maintenance Association
Identification that is divided into two parameters:

Domain ID is an optional domain identification text field
(0 byte (Domain ID not present), up to 44 bytes minus the
MA Name field length) set to EXFO Domain ID by default.

MA Name (Short MA Name) is a Maintenance Association Name
text field set to EXFO MA Name by default. The length of the MA
Name field is from 1 to either 44 bytes minus the Domain ID field
length when Domain ID is present or 45 bytes when not present.
263
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
S-OAM and MPLS-TP OAM

MEG Level (Y.1731, MEF, and G.8113.1) is the Maintenance Entity
Group Level configurable from 0 to 7 (default).

MD Level (802.1ag) is the Maintenance Domain Level and is
configurable from 0 to 7 (default).

MEP ID is the Maintenance Entity Group End Point Identification
configurable from 0x0001 (default) to 0x1FFF.
Peer MEP Parameters

MAC Address, available with S-OAM Mode, allows to enter the unique
Media Access Control (MAC) address of the peer MEP (default is
00:00:00:00:00:00).

MEP ID is the Maintenance Entity Group End Point Identification
configurable from 0x0001 (default) to 0x1FFF.

OAM Quick Ping verifies the bidirectional connectivity with the peer
MEP. The Successful message is reported when at least one of three
attempts has been successful otherwise Failed is reported.
Continuity Check

CC Function check box when selected (default) allows to transmit and
monitor CCM frames.
The following parameters are only configurable when the CC Function
check box is cleared.
264

Address Type, available with S-OAM Mode, defines the destination
address type of the CCM frames: Unicast or Multicast (default).

Priority, available with S-OAM Mode or when VLAN is enabled (see
VLAN on page 220), allows to select the VLAN user priority: 0 to 7
(default). Refer to VLAN ID and Priority on page 740 for more
information.
88000 Series
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
S-OAM and MPLS-TP OAM

Drop Eligible, available with S-OAM Mode or when VLAN is enabled
(see VLAN on page 220), is set to No (no frames will be dropped when
congestion occurs) and is not configurable.

Period determines the transmission period of the CCM frame: 3.33 ms,
10 ms, 100 ms (default), 1 s, 10 s, 1 min, or 10 min.
MPLS-TP Label Stack (G.8113.1)

MPLS-TP Mode
PW (Pseudo-Wire) (default) provides an emulation of a point-to-point
connection over a packet-switching network. The PW begins and ends
at the LER or PE (Provider Edge).
LSP (Label Switch Path) is a path through a MPLS network, it begins
and ends at LER or LSR.
Section is a segment between two adjacent LER/LSR.
Power Blazer

Label 2 check box when selected enables the MPLS Label 2. The
Label 2 check box is configurable for PW and LSP (cleared by default)
and is forced cleared for Section.

Label 1 check box when selected enables the MPLS Label 1.
The Label 1 check box is forced selected for PW and LSP and forced
cleared for Section.

GAL check box when selected enables the Generic Associated
Channel Label. The GAL check box is forced selected for LSP and
Section and is configurable for PW (selected by default).

Label is configurable for Label 1 and Label 2: 16 to 1048575, default
is 16. Label is not configurable for GAL and is set to 13.

TC sets the Traffic Class: 0 (default) to 7.

TTL sets the Time To Live: 1 to 255, default is 128.
265
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
S-OAM and MPLS-TP OAM
Test Function
Note: Test Function parameters are not configurable when the TX Enable check
box is selected.

266
Function allows the selection of the test function to be performed.

Loopback (default) function is used to verify the bidirectional
connectivity to a peer MEP (Continuous check box cleared) and to
verify its capability to sustain close to line rate traffic (diagnostic
test; Continuous check box selected).

Test function is used to generate a test signal and/or verify the
integrity of received test signal from the peer MEP.

Frame Delay function is used to measure the round trip delay with
the peer MEP.

Frame Loss function is used to measure the frame loss with the
peer MEP in both directions from a single end point.

Synthetic Loss function is used to measure the frame loss with the
peer MEP in both directions from a single end point using synthetic
frames.

TX Enable check box when selected (cleared by default) allows
transmission of frames. However the transmission will only begin
when the test is started or if the test is already running. When the
Continuous check box is cleared, the TX Enable check box is
automatically cleared once all frames have been transmitted.

Address Type, available with S-OAM Mode, defines the destination
address type of the frame: Unicast (default) or Multicast. Availability of
address types depend on selected S-OAM Mode and Test Function.

Continuous check box when selected (default) specifies that the
frame generation is continuous. The Continuous check box is cleared
for Multicast address type.
88000 Series
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
S-OAM and MPLS-TP OAM
Power Blazer

Requesting MEP ID TLV (G.8113.1) check box when selected (default)
determines if the Requesting MEP ID TLV is present in the LBM frame.
The Requesting MEP ID TLV check box is cleared and not selectable
when the Continuous check box is selected.

Priority, available with S-OAM Mode or when VLAN is enabled (see
VLAN on page 220), allows to select the VLAN user priority: 0 (default)
to 7. Refer to VLAN ID and Priority on page 740 for more information.

Drop Eligible, available with S-OAM Mode or when VLAN is enabled
(see VLAN on page 220), when set to Yes (DEI = 1), the transmitted
frames will be dropped first on receipt when congestion occurs under
test. Drop Eligible is only configurable with Unicast address type,
otherwise is set to No (Default). Drop Eligible is set to No for Frame
Delay, Frame Loss, and Synthetic Loss functions.

Period determines the transmission period of frames which is set to
100 ms. Period is not applicable for Multicast address type or when the
Continuous check box is selected.

TX Rate (%) is the transmission rate of the LBM frame: 0.0001 to 95 %
for 10M, 99.5 % for 100M, 99.95 % for 1G, 99.995 % for 10G LAN, and
92.8521 % for 10G WAN. Only available with Loopback test function
when the Continuous check box is selected.
267
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
S-OAM and MPLS-TP OAM

Frame Size allows to enter the frame size. The frame size range for
Ethernet II frame format is as follows:

S-OAM Mode: 64 to 15181. The minimum frame size is adjusted
according to the frame structure and parameters selected. For
Frame Loss function, the frame size is not configurable and set to
the minimum value.

MPLS-TP OAM Mode: Minimum and maximum values are as
follows. The minimum frame size is adjusted according to the
frame structure and parameters selected.
MPLS-TP Mode
Test Function
PW
Loopback
68a
Test
68 to 1522
ab
Frame Delay
68
Frame Lossc
68
a.
b.
c.
to
160001
to 1522
LSP
72 to 16000
Section
1
68 to 1522
b
68 to 160001
64 to 1518
72 to 1522
68b to 1518
68
64
Add 4 bytes when the GAL check box is selected.
Add 2 bytes when Test ID is selected as TLV Type.
The frame size is not configurable and set to the minimum value.
The following table lists each parameter that may affect the minimum
and maximum1 frame size value.
Parameter
Number of bytes to be added
802.3 SNAP
8 bytes
VLAN
4 bytes per VLAN (up to 3 VLAN)
Apply to
Y.1731, MEF,
G.8113.1
1. For the Loopback function the maximum frame size is 16000 bytes for all rates at the exception of 10/100/1000Mbps
electrical interface which is 10000 bytes.
268
88000 Series
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
S-OAM and MPLS-TP OAM
Parameter
Number of bytes to be added
Label 2
4 bytes
Continuous
18 bytes for Data TLV Type
21 bytes for Test TLV Type
Requesting MEP ID TLV
56 bytes
Apply to
G.8113.1
Note: Sending traffic with frame size >1518 in switched network may result in
losing all frames.

Frame Count is the quantity of frames to be transmitted: 1 to 1000 at
the exception of Frame Loss function which is 2 to 1000 (default
is 10); set to 1 for Loopback function with Multicast address type; not
applicable when the Continuous check box is selected at the
exception of Synthetic Loss function.

TLV Type defines the TLV Type included in the frame: Data (Default),
Test (Loopback (Y.1731 and G.8113.1) and Test functions), and Test
ID (Frame Delay function); is set to Test for the Test function; set to
Data for Synthetic Loss function; not available for Frame Loss
function.

Payload, available with Data TLV Type, defines the repeating byte
pattern used to fill the payload of the Data TLV: 0x00 to 0xFF (default is
0xCC).

Test Pattern, available with Test TLV Type, defines the test pattern used
to fill the Test TLV: PRBS31 (default), NULL.

Test ID, available with Test ID TLV or Synthetic Loss function, defines
the test ID: 0x00000000 to 0xFFFFFFFF (default is 0x00000001).
Restore Carrier Ethernet OAM Defaults
Reverts the Carrier Ethernet OAM test application to its default factory
settings.
Power Blazer
269
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
Services - Global
Services - Global
From the Test menu, tap Setup, Test Configurator, tap on the services
block, the Global tab, and on the General button.
General Button
The following parameters are displayed and configurable per service.

Check boxes:

The first check box (top-left) allows to sequentially enable
service(s) within the limit of the link capacity when the Service
Performance Test is enabled or enable all services when the
Service Performance Test is disabled.

The check boxes next to the service numbers allow to enable each
service individually.
When the Service Performance Test is enabled, up to 10 services
can be enabled one after the other, as long as the Total TX Rate
(bandwidth) is not reached (Committed). For example, if the first
service is using the full bandwidth available, then no other service
can be enabled. If the first enabled service uses half bandwidth,
then at least another service can be enabled using up to half
bandwidth. Thus, to enable a second service, first set the CIR value
within the non-used bandwidth (Available), then enable it.
When the Service Performance Test is disabled, up to 10 services
can be enabled one after the other; the total TX rate is not limited.
270

Service Name indicates the name of each service. Tap on the Service
Name button to modify the name of each service. See Services - Profile
on page 273 for more information.

Direction, available with Dual Test Set or Dual Port topology,
indicates respectively results from local to remote (L->R) and remote
to local (R->L), or P1 to P2 (P1->P2) and P2 to P1 (P2->P1).
88000 Series
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
Services - Global

Frame Size indicates the frame size of each service. Tap on the Frame
Size button to modify the frame size of each service.

Framing indicates the framing of each service. Tap on the Framing
button to modify the Frame Format, Network Layer, Transport Layer,
VLAN, S-OAM MEG/MD Level, and MPLS when applicable (see Modify
Frame Structure from the MAC/IP/UDP on page 200).

VLAN (ID/Priority) indicates the ID and Priority of each VLAN level for
each service. Tap on the VLAN button to modify the VLAN settings (see
VLAN from the MAC/IP/UDP on page 200).

Addressing indicates the source and destination IP or MAC addresses
for each services. Tap on the Addressing button to modify the
addressing (see MAC and IP from the MAC/IP/UDP on page 200).
Batch button allows bulk configuration for services addressing. Select
the check box of each configuration parameter that needs to be copied
and set its parameters. From Apply To, select all services the copy
applies to and tap on the Copy From to proceed.
SLA Button
The SLA parameters are displayed and configurable per service. Click on
the desired column button to access the configuration settings.
See General Button on page 270 for more information on check boxes,
Direction, and Service Name.
See SLA Parameters on page 278 for more information on CIR, CIR+EIR,
CBS, EBS, Max Jitter, Max Latency, and Frame Loss Rate.
Power Blazer
271
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
Services - Global
Total TX Rate
Note: Only available when the Service Performance Test check box is selected
(see EtherSAM - Global on page 165). For Dual Test Set, the total TX rates
are displayed for both Local and Remote directions.

Committed displays the total enabled TX rate (bandwidth) that will be
generated by the selected service(s).

Available displays the total TX rate (bandwidth) available for traffic
generation.
Global Options
Rate Unit choices are % (default), Mbit/s, and Gbit/s.
Copy Service Button
Copy Service button allows to copy the services configuration to one or
several services.
272

Copy Service allow to select the services number from which the
configuration will be copied from.

To the following Services allows to select all services that will inherit
the configuration from the selected service. An orange background
represents a selected service. A service that is already enabled cannot
be selected for copy.

Copy allows to confirm the service configuration copy for all selected
services.
88000 Series
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
Services - Profile
Services - Profile
The EtherSAM test application supports the configuration of up to 10
different services individually. All parameters are configurable per service.
From the Test menu, tap Setup, Test Configurator, tap on the services
block, and on the Profile tab.
Service Selection and Activation
Select the service to be configured by either using the left/right arrow or by
tapping over the service numbers area then tapping on a specific service
number. An orange background indicates the selected service while a
green background indicates the services that are enabled.

Service associates a name to the selected service number. Up to 16
characters are allowed. Default service names are Service 1 to
Service 10.

Enable check box when selected (cleared by default) enables the
selected service. However, the service will be generated only when the
test is started. For Dual Test Set, services can only be enabled once the
connection with the remote unit is established.
When the Service Performance Test is enabled, up to 10 services can
be enabled one after the other, as long as the Total TX Rate
(bandwidth) is not reached (Committed). For example, if the first
service is using the full bandwidth available, then no other service can
be enabled. If the first enabled service uses half bandwidth, then at
least another service can be enabled using up to half bandwidth. Thus,
to enable a second service, first set the CIR value within the non-used
bandwidth (Available), then enable it.
When the Service Performance Test is disabled, up to 10 services can
be enabled one after the other; the total TX rate is not limited.
Power Blazer
273
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
Services - Profile
Total TX Rate
Note: Only available when the Service Performance Test check box is selected
(see EtherSAM - Global on page 165).
Indicates the total transmit rate of all services enabled for transmission.
Unit selection is available from the SLA Parameters on page 278.
Profile

Profile button allows to select the emulation profile. The selected
service profile icon, name, and configuration (when applicable) is
displayed next to the Profile button.
Select the emulation profile: Voice, Video, or Data (default).
Voice

Voice Codec choices are VoIP G.711 (default), VoIP G.723.1, and
VoIP G.729.

Number of Calls allows the selection of the equivalent number of
calls that will be generated for the selected stream (default is 1).

CIR indicates the committed information rate in Mbps based on
the number of calls selected.
Video
274

Video Codec choices are SDTV (MPEG-2) - (default),
HDTV (MPEG-2), and HDTV (MPEG-4). Only SDTV (MPEG-2) is
available with the 10 Mbps interface.

Number of Channels is the equivalent number of channels that
will be generated for the selected service (default is 1).

CIR indicates the committed information rate in Mbps based on
the number of channels selected.
88000 Series
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
Services - Profile
Note: The CIR value will be calculated on the basis of the selected service profile
and the value entered in the Number of Calls or Number of Channels
field.

Frame Size (Bytes) indicates the frame size for Voice and Video
profiles and allows to change the frame size for Data profile:
Fixed (default)
Profile and
Codec
Type
Voice Codec:
- VoIP G.711
- VoIP G.723.1
- VoIP G.729
Fixed
Video Codec: All
Fixed
Data
Fixed (default)
Random
EMIX
a.
b.
c.
Power Blazer
Frame Size (bytes)
IPv4
IPv6
138
82
78
158
102
98
1374
1394
64a
(default) to 16000b
64a to 1518c
64a to 16000b
The minimum value is adjusted according to the frame structure and components
selected as shown in the following table.
The maximum frame size is limited to 10000 for 10/100/1000Mbps electrical
interface.
The maximum frame size value is adjusted for each enabled VLAN (+4 bytes per
VLAN).
275
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
Services - Profile
The following table lists each component that may affect the minimum
frame size value.
Component
Description
VLAN
4 bytes per VLAN (up to 2 VLAN)
MPLS
4 bytes per label (up to two labels)
UDP
8 bytes
TCP
20 bytes
Ethernet Header
14 bytes
LLC and SNAP Headers
8 bytes
IPv4
20 bytes
IPv6
40 bytes
Using DTS
4 bytes
Note: Sending traffic with frame size > 1518 in switched network may results in
losing theses frames.

EMIX button is available when EMIX type is selected. The EMIX frame
sequence is repeated until the test ends.
Quantity allows to select from 2 to 8 frames size values (default is 5).
EMIX Frame Sizes allows to set the EMIX frame sizes (default are 64,
128, 512, 1024, and 1518). The minimum frame size value is adjusted
according to the frame structure and components selected as shown
in the above table.
Restore Default button reverts the quantity and EMIX frame sizes to
their default values.
276
88000 Series
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
Services - Profile
Test Parameters
Note: Unit selection is available from the SLA Parameters on page 278.
For Dual Test Set, parameters are configurable for both local to remote
(L->R) and remote to local (R->L) directions.
For Dual Port topology, parameters are configurable for both P1 to P2
(P1->P2) and P2 to P1 (P2->P1).

Traffic Policing check box when selected (default) allows to stress the
rate limiting of the network by sending traffic at higher rate than
committed by the SLA.

Burst Max Rate allows to set the rate that is used for the CBS and EBS
burst tests. Only available when the Burst Test is enabled (see
EtherSAM - Global on page 165).
Note: Changing a criteria value (CIR, CIR+EIR, Ramp Traffic Policing, or Burst
Max Rate) may affect the other criteria values in order to comply to the
following rules:
CIR  CIR+EIR  Ramp Traffic Policing Rate  Line Rate
CIR  CIR+EIR  Burst Max Rate  Line Rate
However, make sure that the criteria values comply to the following rule
with an adequate margin, as per ITU-T Y.1564 standard, for a burst test to
be valid:
CIR  CIR+EIR  Burst Max Rate  Line Rate
Power Blazer
277
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
Services - Profile
SLA Parameters
The Service-Level Agreement (SLA) parameters allow enabling and
defining the pass/fail verdict thresholds for the service.
For Dual Test Set, parameters are configurable for both local to remote
(L->R) and remote to local (R->L) directions at the exception of Max
Round-Trip Latency for which the value is unique.
For Dual Port topology, parameters are configurable for both P1 to P2
(P1->P2) and P2 to P1 (P2->P1).
Information Rate

Unit choices are % (default), Mbit/s, or Gbit/s. This unit is also used for
Total TX Rate and for Test Parameters (Traffic Policing and Burst
Max Rate).
Note: At least one check box (CIR or CIR+EIR) has to be selected. Thus, clearing
the CIR check box while CIR+EIR check box is cleared, will automatically
select the CIR+EIR check box and vice versa.

CIR (Committed Information Rate) check box when selected (default)
sets the service rate guaranteed by the SLA. The threshold value is
configurable from 0.00011 to 100 percent (default is 50 percent). CIR
and preceding steps are not performed for services that have the CIR
check box cleared.

CIR+EIR check box when selected (cleared by default) sets the best
effort allowed traffic for the service. The EIR (Excess Information Rate)
value is equal to the CIR+EIR value minus CIR. The threshold value is
configurable from 0.00011 to 100 percent (default is 75 percent).
Burst Size settings are only available when the Burst Test is enabled (see
EtherSAM - Global on page 165).

Burst Size unit choices are Bytes (default) or ms.
1. The minimum rate is 1Mbit/s when the Frame Size is Random.
278
88000 Series
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
Services - Profile

CBS check box when selected (default) sets the maximum committed
burst size to which services’ frames will be sent and be CIR-compliant
(default is 12144 bytes). The CBS minimum and maximum values are
affected by the CIR, Burst Max Rate, and Frame Size values. CBS is
only available when CIR check box is selected.

EBS check box when selected (cleared by default) sets the maximum
excess burst size to which services’ frames will be sent and be
CIR+EIR compliant (default is 12144 bytes). The EBS minimum and
maximum values are affected by the CIR+EIR, Burst Max Rate, and
Frame Size values. EBS is only available when CIR+EIR check box is
selected.
Performance Criteria

Max Jitter (ms) allows to set the maximum jitter value in millisecond,
allowed for the service: 0.015 to 8000 ms (default is 2 ms).

Max Round-Trip Latency (ms) allows to set the maximum round-trip
latency value in millisecond allowed for the service: 0.015 to 8000 ms
(default is 15 ms). For Dual Test Set, only available with Round-Trip
Latency Measurement Mode (see Global Options on page 168). Not
available in Dual Port topology.

Max Latency, available for Dual Test Set with One-Way Latency
Measurement Mode (see Global Options on page 168) and Dual Port
topology, allows to set the maximum one-way latency value in
millisecond, allowed for the service: 0.015 to 500 ms (default is 15
ms).

Frame Loss Rate allows to set the maximum rate of Frame Loss
allowed for the service: 0.0E00 to 5.0E-02, default is 1.0E-03.
Note: For Dual Test Set, the Frame Loss Rate is changed to percentage when the
remote module does not support exponential notation. In this case a Frame
Loss Rate Threshold lower than 1.0E-06 (0.0001 %) is considered as 0 %; the
configurable range is 0 to 5 percent.
Power Blazer
279
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
Signal (Transport)
Signal (Transport)
From the Test menu, tap Setup, Test Configurator, the interface block,
and the Signal tab.
Physical Interface - Optical
Note: For electrical interface, see Physical Interface - Electrical on page 282.

Optical Lane indicates the optical lane number for parallel interfaces.
Optical Interface




Optical Lane Number
OTU3 (4 Lanes) [43.018 Gbit/s]
OTU3e1 (4 Lanes) [44.571 Gbit/s]
OTU3e2 (4 Lanes) [44.583 Gbit/s]
OTU4 (4 Lanes) [111.81 Gbit/s]
0 through 3
OTU4 (10 Lanes) [111.81 Gbit/s]
0 through 9
Laser1 indicates the status of the laser: ON with the laser pictogram
(emitting an optical laser signal) or OFF.
TX Power (dBm)1 indicates, when supported, the transmit power level
of the optical lane/laser in dBm.
Wavelength (nm)1 indicates, when supported, the detected lane/laser
wavelength.
RX Power (dBm)1 indicates, when supported, the current received
power level of the optical lane/laser in dBm.
Green: Power level in range.
Yellow: Power level out-of-range.
Red: Loss of signal or power level is close to damage.
Gray: The operational range value is either not available or not
supplied by the CFP.
1. Displayed for each optical lane for parallel interfaces.
280
88000 Series
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
Signal (Transport)

Min RX Power (dBm)1 indicates, when supported, the minimum
received power level of the optical lane/laser in dBm.

Max RX Power (dBm)1 indicates, when supported, the maximum
received power level of the optical lane/laser in dBm.

Laser ON/OFF button is used for parallel interface to activate the laser
control per optical lane or for all lanes.
Optical lane numbers are from 0 to 3 or from 0 to 9 depending on the
selected interface/rate.

All Lanes check box, when selected, applies the change(s) to all
optical lanes at once.

Optical Lane indicates the optical lane numbers and All which
represents the setting for all optical lanes when the All Lanes
check box is selected.

Laser check box, when selected, indicates that the corresponding
optical laser lane is activated and emitting an optical laser signal.

Lasers OFF at Start-Up check box when selected automatically turns
OFF the laser for serial interfaces or all lasers for parallel interfaces
when starting the Power Blazer or when switching from one test
application to another. However the laser remains ON, on a remote
module receiving a request for a DTS connection or a loopback
command. This check box is cleared by default.

Power Range (dBm) indicates the transceiver operational RX power
range.
1. Displayed for each optical lane for parallel interfaces.
Power Blazer
281
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
Signal (Transport)
Physical Interface - Electrical
Note: The following settings are available with electrical signal and their
availability depend on the signal itself and its mapping. For optical
interface, see Physical Interface - Optical on page 280.

LBO (Line Build Out): The LBO allows to meet the interface
requirements over the full range of cable lengths.
Signal
LBO
DS1
Preamplification values: DSX-1 (0-133 ft)a, DSX-1 (133-266 ft),
DSX-1 (266-399 ft), DSX-1 (399-533 ft), DSX-1 (533-655 ft),
Cable simulation (CSU Emulation mode) values: CSU (0.0 dB),
CSU (-7.5 dB), CSU (-15.0 dB), CSU (-22.5 dB).
DS3
0 to 225 ft rangea, 225 to 450 ft range, and Cable Simulation
900 ft.
E1/E3/E4
Not available
STS-1e/STM-0e 0 to 225 ft rangea, 225 to 450 ft range, and Cable Simulation
900 ft).
STS-3e/STM-1e 0 to 225 ft range.
a.
282
Default value
88000 Series
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
Signal (Transport)

Line Coding
Signal
DS1
AMI and B8ZSa
DS3
B3ZS
E1
AMI and HDB3a
E3
HDB3
E4
CMI
STS-1e/STM-0e
B3ZS
STS-3e/STM-1e
CMI
a.

Default value.
RX Termination
Signal
Termination
DS1/E1
Terma, Mon, and Bridge.
DS3/E3/E4/STS-1e/STM-0e/STS-3e/STM-1e
Terma, and Mon
a.
Power Blazer
Line Coding
Default value.

Power indicates the received signal level in dBdsx for DSn or dBm for
PDH and SONET/SDH.

Amplitude indicates the received signal amplitude as well as its MIN,
and MAX received values.
283
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
Signal (Transport)
TX Frequency
Note: The following TX Frequency information applies to serial interface only,
refer to TX Frequency on page 174 for parallel interfaces.

TX Frequency (GHz) indicates the frequency (actual frequency +
Frequency offset) used for transmission.

Offset (ppm) check box, when selected (cleared by default), allows to
set the frequency offset that will be generated. Use the “+” or “-”
button to respectively increment or decrement the frequency offset
value based on the defined Increment/Decrement Size, or directly
type the frequency offset value in the field. Possible offsets are:
Interface
Nominal Frequency
DS1
±140 ppm
1544000 bit/s
E1
± 70 ppm
2048000 bit/s
E3
± 50 ppm
34368000 bit/s
DS3
44736000 bit/s
STS-1e/STM-0e
51840000 bit/s
E4
139264000 bit/s
STS-3e/STM-1e
155520000 bit/s
OC-1/STM-0
284
Frequency Offseta
± 50 ppm
51840000 bit/s
OC-3/STM-1
155520000 bit/s
OC-12/STM-4
622080000 bit/s
OC-48/STM-16
2488320000 bit/s
OC-192/STM-64
9953280000 bit/s
OTU1
± 50 ppm
2666057143 bit/s
OTU2
± 50 ppm (Framed)
± 120 ppm (Unframed)
10709225316 bit/s
88000 Series
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
Signal (Transport)
Interface
OTU1e
Frequency Offseta
± 120 ppm
Nominal Frequency
11049107143 bit/s
OTU2e
11095727848 bit/s
OTU1f
11270089286 bit/s
OTU2f
11317642405 bit/s
OTU3
OTU3e1
OTU3e2
a.
± 50 ppm (Framed)
± 120 ppm (Unframed)
43018413559 bit/s
44571000000 bit/s
44583000000 bit/s
The frequency offset range is guaranteed for a source signal at 0 ppm. In the event
that the source signal already has an offset, then the output signal may exhibit an
offset larger than the range specified.
Note: Frequency offset is not available when Through mode is selected.
Step Size (ppm) allows to set the increment/decrement value (from
0.1 to the maximum offset) that will be used when changing the
frequency offset with the “+” or “-” button.
RX Frequency
Note: The following RX Frequency information applies to serial interface only,
refer to RX Frequency on page 175 for parallel interfaces.
Power Blazer

Frequency (GHz) indicates the frequency of the input signal.

Offset (ppm) indicates the frequency offset between the standard rate
specification and the rate at the input signal.
285
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
Signal (Transport)
Note: For both Frequency and Offset the following background colors are used:
Background color
Description
Green
The frequency is in range.
Red
The frequency is out-of-range or LOC Lane. LOC is also
displayed.
Gray
Pending state.

Max. Negative Offset (ppm) indicates the maximum negative
frequency offset between the standard rate specification and the rate
from the received signal.

Max. Positive Offset (ppm) indicates the maximum positive
frequency offset between the standard rate specification and the rate
from the received signal.
Note: Refer to Interface on page 366 for more information on standard rate
specifications.
Signal Configuration
286

For OTN, refer to Signal - Signal Configuration (OTN) on page 296 for
more information.

For SONET/SDH, refer to Signal - Signal Configuration (SONET/SDH) on
page 301 for more information.

For DSn/PDH, refer to Signal - Signal Configuration (DSn/PDH) on
page 287 for more information.
88000 Series
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
Signal - Signal Configuration (DSn/PDH)
Signal - Signal Configuration (DSn/PDH)
For SONET/SDH - DSn/PDH BERT, from the test menu, tap Setup,
Test Configurator, and the protocol block. Only Framing setting and the
Loopback button are available.
For DSn/PDH BERT and NI/CSU Emulation, from the test menu, tap Setup,
Test Configurator, and the interface block.
Framing
Framing allows the selection of the framing that will be used for
transmission.
DS1
Unframed
SF
ESFa
SLC-96
a.
Power Blazer
DS3
Unframed
C-Bit Paritya
M13
E1
Unframed
PCM30a
PCM30 CRC-4
PCM31
PCM31 CRC-4
E3/E4
Unframed
Frameda
Default value
287
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
Signal - Signal Configuration (DSn/PDH)
Background
For multiplex test case, allows the selection of the default timeslot
background traffic: AIS (default) or All Zeros.
The diagram above shows a test case defined with DSn/PDH traffic where
the background traffic is also inserted for the unused timeslots in a test
case data path. The insertion is similar to the low order path SONET/SDH
terminated signal where the background traffic format inserted uses the
same rate as the one defined in the test case data path.
Channel
Channel, for multiplex text case, allows the selection of the channel
number of the mapped signal.
DS0/E0
DS0/E0 check box when selected, cleared by default, activates the DS0/E0
testing. DS0/E0 configuration is not available when the framing is set to
Unframed. Once selected, a summary of the payload content is displayed
indicating the number of timeslot set to Pattern and Idle/Tone. The Modify
DS0/E0 button is also displayed.
288
88000 Series
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
Signal - Signal Configuration (DSn/PDH)
Modify DS0/E0
Modify DS0/E0 button is only available when the DS0/E0 check box is
selected.
Note: For DS0, the framing structure have 23 timeslots. For E0, the framing
structure PCM-30 and PCM30 CRC-4 have 30 channel timeslots while
PCM-31 and PCM-31 CRC-4 have 31 channel timeslots.

DS0/E0 Size sets the channel timeslot data rate for the pattern payload
content to either 56K or 64K (default). A timeslot data rate of 56 Kbit/s
uses 7 bits while 64 Kbit/s uses 8 bits to carry the payload information.

Zero Code Suppression allows the selection of the Zero Code
Suppression (ZCS) method used to replace the all-zero bytes of the Idle
and Tone payload contents. The ZCS mechanism is a global parameter
meaning that all channel timeslots configured with Tone/Idle data, use
the same ZCS method. Choices are:
ZCS
None
Description
Available with
No Zero Code Suppression
DS0 and E0
Jammed Bit 8
Every 8th (LSB) bit is forced to 1.
DS0 and E0
GTE
Bit 8 of an all zero channel byte is replaced by
1, except in signaling frames where bit 7 is
forced to 1.
DS0
Bell
Bit 7 of an all zero channel byte is replaced by
1.
DS0
a.
Power Blazer
a
Default value.
289
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
Signal - Signal Configuration (DSn/PDH)
Note: Bit 8 is the Least-Significant Bit (LSB) and bit 1 is the Most-Significant Bit
(MSB).

Payload Content and Set All
Payload Content allows the selection of the payload content that will
be applied to all TX timeslots when tapping the Set All button: Pattern,
Idle, or Tone.

TX
Select the payload content by tapping once or several times on each
timeslot until the desired content appears: Pattern (default), Idle, or
Tone.
Note: For Pattern, the pattern that will be used is the one selected from Pattern on
page 140.
Tone (Hz) allows the selection of a tone for digital milliwatt testing.
The signal output power, when converted to analog, is 0 dBm. Choices
are 1000 Hz and 1004 Hz (default). The selected Tone applies to all
timeslots set to Tone.
Idle uses the Idle code byte from the Idle field. Choices are 00 to FF.
The selected Idle code applies to all timeslots set to Idle. The default
setting is 7F.
Note: The timeslots set to Idle or Tone can be changed from Idle to Tone and vice
versa even when the test is running; the Idle and Tone values can also be
changed.
Binary allows either displaying the Idle code values in binary (when
selected) or in hexadecimal (default).
290
88000 Series
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
Signal - Signal Configuration (DSn/PDH)

RX
Apply Channel TX to RX, available for decoupled test, allows to apply
the RX payload content based on the TX settings. None will be used
when TX is set to either Idle or Tone.
Note: The RX timeslot selection is only configurable in a Decoupled topology
when the Apply Channel TX to RX check box is cleared. A warning is
displayed when the number of Pattern timeslot does not match between TX
and RX. This is to ensure pattern continuity between the TX and RX
interface in a MUX/DEMUX test even if used through a cross-connect device.
Select the payload content by tapping once or several times on each
timeslot until the desired content appears.
Pattern (default) uses the pattern from the received signal.
None does not use the pattern.
Power Blazer
291
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
Signal - Signal Configuration (DSn/PDH)
Loopback button
The Loopback feature generates a code that is interpreted by the DUT.
The DUT interprets the command and implements the loopback.
Select the type of loopback that will be used to overwrite the traffic that
will be generated. Choices are listed in the following table in addition
with 10 predefined Loop Codes (see Modify Loop Codes button on
page 293).
Command
Loopback Type
292
Loop-Up
Loop-Down
CSU (10000/100)
10000 (default)
100
NIU FAC1 (1100/1110)
1100
1110
NIU FAC2 (11000/11100)
11000
11100
NIU FAC3 (100000/100)
100000
100

Loop-Up injects the selected loop up code. The loop code will be
generated continuously for a maximum of 10 seconds or until the
loopback is confirmed. After 10 seconds, if the loopback has failed,
a Loop-Down command is sent. A pop-up window appears
indicating the loop code injection progress and result. The text box
next to the Loop-Up button indicates the selected loop up code.

Loop-Down injects the selected loop down code. The loop code
will be generated continuously for a maximum of 10 seconds or
until the loopback is confirmed. After 10 seconds, if the loopback
has failed, a Loop-Down command is sent. A pop-up window
appears indicating the loop code injection progress and result. The
text box next to the Loop-Down button indicates the selected loop
down code.
88000 Series
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
Signal - Signal Configuration (DSn/PDH)

Modify Loop Codes button
Allows the configuration of 10 DS1 loop code pairs. Configure each
loop code name, Loop-Up and Loop-Down values.
The name field allows up to 16 characters long. Loop-Up and
Loop-Down range is from 3 to 16 bits (000 to 1111111111111111).
The default DS1 loop codes correspond to the DS1 In-Band loop
codes (Loop-Up=10000, and Loop-Down=100).
Power Blazer
293
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
Signal - Signal Configuration (DSn/PDH)
DS1 Loopback - for NI/CSU Emulation Test
The Loopback feature generates a code that is interpreted by the DUT. The
DUT interprets the command and implements the loopback.

Mode selects the loopback control Mode; Manual or Auto-Response.

Type
For Manual: Select the Type of loopback code that will be applied;
Line, or Payload. Payload is not available when the framing is
Unframed.
For Auto-Response: Select the Type of loopback code on which the
Power Blazer will respond; In-Band or Out-of-Band. Out-of-Band is
only available when the interface framing is set to ESF. The Loop-UP
and Loop-Down values are automatically updated to the In-Band or
Out-of-Band selection (Type).

Status indicates either Loopback Active with a green loopback icon or
No Loopback with a gray loopback icon.

Loop Code selects the type of loopback that will be used to overwrite
the traffic that will be generated.
In-Band loop code
294
Loop-UP Code
Loop-Down Code
CSU (10000/100)
10000
100
NIU FAC1 (1100/1110)
1100
1110
NIU FAC2 (11000/11100)
11000
11100
NIU FAC3 (100000/100)
100000
100
Loop Code 1 to 10
Refer to Modify Loop Codes button on page 293.
88000 Series
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
Signal - Signal Configuration (DSn/PDH)
Out-of-Band loop code

Power Blazer
Loop-UP Code
Loop-Down Code
Line
00001110 11111111
00111000 11111111
Payload
00010100 11111111
00110010 11111111
Reserved For Network Use
00010010 11111111
00100100 11111111
ISDN Line (NT2)
00101110 11111111
00100100 11111111
CI/CSU Line(NT1)
00100000 11111111
00100100 11111111
Force Release / Activate / Release

Force Release button, available with Auto-Response mode,
allows to release a loopback condition initiated from the network.
Only available when a loopback is active.

Activate button, available with Manual mode when no loopback is
active, allows to send a loopback condition.

Release button, available with Manual mode when a loopback is
active, allows to release the loopback condition.

Loop-Up indicates the selected loop up code.

Loop-Down indicates the selected loop down code.

Modify Loop Codes button: See Modify Loop Codes button on
page 293 for more information.
295
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
Signal - Signal Configuration (OTN)
Signal - Signal Configuration (OTN)
Note: The following signal configuration parameters are available from the
interface block.
From the Test menu, tap Setup, Test Configurator, the interface block,
and on the Signal tab.

OTU4, OTU3, OTU3e1, OTU3e2, OTU2, OTU2f, OTU1f, OTU2e,
OTU1e, or OTU1
Note: At least one of the two check boxes, FEC or Scrambler, must be selected in
order to prevent potential alarms caused by a lack of bit transition on the
optical signal. For example to disable FEC, first select the Scrambler check
box then clear the FEC check box.

FEC check box, when selected (default), enables the FEC in TX/RX
and allows to detect, report, and correct up to 8 symbol errors
(Correctable) per codeword. If there are over 8 symbol errors
detected, they are reported as uncorrectable errors.

Scrambler check box, when selected (default), provides enough
“0” and “1” transitions on the optical signal for clock recovery.
Note: When the Scrambler check box is cleared, the receiver circuitry is forced to
operate in a condition which is outside of the specified OTN operating
conditions which may cause alarms/errors. This configuration can be used
for special analysis in a lab environment.
296
88000 Series
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
Signal - Signal Configuration (OTN)

ODU4, ODU3, ODU3e1, ODU3e2, ODU2, ODU2f, ODU1f, ODU2e,
ODU1e,ODU1, ODU0, or ODUflex. Only the higher ODU layer is
available with Multi-Channel OTN.



OPU Tributary Port1, available for each OPU level of a mapped
signal, indicates the OPU tributary port used for the test. Tap the
Modify Trib Slots/Port button to change the OPU tributary port.
OPU Tributary Slots1, available for each OPU level of a mapped
signal, indicates the OPU tributary slots used for the test. Tap the
Modify Trib Slots/Port button to change the OPU tributary slots.
TCM indicates each Tandem Connection enabled; No TCM
indicates that no TCM is enabled. To enable TCM, tap the
Config TCM1 button.
1. Not available with Multi-Channel OTN.
Power Blazer
297
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
Signal - Signal Configuration (OTN)

Background Traffic, available for a multiplex signal, is used to
generate traffic on the timeslots that are not part of the foreground test
traffic. Choices are Unallocated (available with PT21 only), AIS, Null
Client, and PRBS31 (default). The background traffic is configurable
for each mux type when the multiplex signal contains both PT20 and
PT21 mux types. For Multi-Channel OTN, only available with ODU3 is
mapped into ODU4.
Higher Layer
Background Traffica
ODU4
ODU3, ODU2, ODU1, ODU0, ODU2e,
ODU1e, ODUflex
1.25 Gbit/sb or Unallocated
ODU3
ODU2
Fixed structure: ODU2
Non fixed structure: ODU1
ODU1
ODU1
ODU0, ODUflex
1.25 Gbit/sb or Unallocated
ODU1
ODU1
ODU0, ODUflex
1.25 Gbit/sb or Unallocated
ODU0
ODU0
ODU2
ODU1
a.
b.
298
Tributary
Uses the selected AIS, Null Client, or PRBS31 background traffic unless Unallocated
is selected which corresponds to undefined traffic.
Per tributary slot.
88000 Series
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
Signal - Signal Configuration (OTN)

Modify Tributary Slots/Port1
The payload type 20 or 21 is indicated for each mapped OPU level.
For...
Mapped into...
Tributary slot selection
ODU3
OPU4
31
ODU2e
ODU1e
OPU4
8
ODU2
OPU4
OPU3
8
4 (PT20), 8 (PT21)
ODU1
OPU4
OPU3
OPU2
2
1 (PT20), 2 (PT21)
1 (PT20), 2 (PT21)
ODU0
OPU4
OPU3
OPU2
OPU1
1
1
1
1
ODUflex
OPU4
OPU3
OPU2
up to 80
up to 32
up to 8
ODUflex/GFP-F
OPU4
OPU3
OPU2
up to 8
up to 8
up to 8

Fixed Structure check box when selected (default) for OPU3, the
selection of a tributary slot will automatically select four tributary
slots from the same column, which constitute the foreground
traffic. When the Fixed Structure check box is cleared, select the
four tributary slots individually.
1. Not available with Multi-Channel OTN.
Power Blazer
299
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
Signal - Signal Configuration (OTN)

Tributary Port, configurable when the Fixed Structure check box
is cleared, allows to select the Tributary Port number that will be
associated to the selected tributary slots. When the Fixed
Structure check box is selected, the Tributary Port is
automatically assigned to either the selected slot number or for
OPU3 to the first slot number in the column.

Nominal Bit Rate (Gbit/s) available with ODUflex and
ODUflex/GFP-F indicates the TX frequency based on the number of
tributary slots selected. Note that for ODUflex with pattern Client,
the Nominal Bit Rate may be affected by the TX Rate when not set
to 100 % (see TX Rate on page 140).

Number of Trib Slots indicates the number of tributary slots
selected.
Note: Tributary slots must be selected starting with the higher layer down to the
lower and all required tributary slots must be selected to access the next
level. Clear All, Select All, and Default buttons may be used to facilitate
the selection.

Config TCM
Allows to enable each TCM level (1 to 6) individually. All ODUx of a
mapped signal are also available. All TCM check boxes are cleared by
default (disabled). Refer to Traces (OTN) on page 326 for more
information. Not available with Multi-Channel OTN.
300
88000 Series
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
Signal - Signal Configuration (SONET/SDH)
Signal - Signal Configuration (SONET/SDH)
For OTN-SONET/SDH BERT, from the Test menu, tap Setup, Test
Configurator, the protocol block, and the Signal tab.
For SONET/SDH BERT, from the Test menu, tap Setup, Test Configurator,
the interface block, and the Signal tab.
OC/STM Signal

Synchronization Status Message (S1): Bits 5 through 8 of the S1 byte
are used to convey synchronization status of the NE. Not available with
Through and Through Intrusive topologies.
Description
Bits
5 to 8
a
SONET
SDH
0000
Synchronized - Traceability Unknown (STU)
0001
Stratum 1 Traceable (ST1)
Reserved
0010
Reserved
ITU G.811 (PRC)
0011
Reserved
Reserved
Quality Unknown
0100
Transit Node Clock Traceable (TNC)
SSU-A
0101
Reserved
Reserved
0110
Reserved
Reserved
0111
Stratum 2 Traceable (ST2)
Reserved
1000
Reserved
SSU-B
1001
Reserved
Reserved
1010
Stratum 3 Traceable (ST3)
Reserved
1011
Reserved
ITU-T G.813 Option I (SEC)
1100
SONET Minimum Clock Traceable (SMC)
Reserved
1101
Stratum 3E Traceable (ST3E)
Reserved
1110
Provisionable by the Network Operator (PNO)
Reserved
1111
Don’t Use for Synchronization (DUS)
Do not use for synchronization
a.
Default message.
Power Blazer
301
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
Signal - Signal Configuration (SONET/SDH)

REI-L/MS-REI Computation Method (OC-192/STM-64 only): Allows to
select the default method used to calculate the REI-L/MS-REI error for
OC-192 and STM-64 signals. Choices are M1 Only and both M0 and M1.
The default setting is M1 only.
STS/AU and VT/TU Mappings

Timeslot/Number
Timeslot (SONET) allows the selection of the STS timeslot number.
Refer to SONET Numbering Convention on page 731 for more
information.
Number (SDH) allows the selection of the AU channel number. Refer
to SDH Numbering Convention on page 732 for more information.
302

TCM check box when selected (cleared by default) allows Tandem
Connection Monitoring (TCM). Available for rates up to OC-192/STM-64.

TC-UNEQ-P / TC-UNEQ-V / HPTC-UNEQ / LPTC-UNEQ check boxes
when selected (cleared by default) allows the monitoring of the
corresponding Tandem Connection - Unequipped alarm. Only
available when the TCM check box is selected. Available for rates up to
OC-192/STM-64.

Overwrite Fixed Stuff (STS-1 only) check box when selected (default)
fills up the bytes of the STS-1 SPE’s columns 30 and 59 with the
selected pattern from the tab BERT and Unframed BERT on page 140.

Background Traffic allows the selection of the high order path
background traffic: AIS, Equipped (PRBS23) - (default), or
Unequipped.
88000 Series
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
Signal - Signal Configuration (SONET/SDH)
STS/AU Path (SONET/SDH HOP) up to OC-192/STM-64:
The following diagram shows a test case data path that is terminated
right after SONET/SDH high order path. High order background traffic is
automatically adapted to the rate (STS-1, AU-3, or AU-4) signal level for
the paths that are not defined in the test case. In the situation where
the traffic pattern is replaced by GFP the background traffic remains
the same for the STS-1/AU-3/AU-4 that are not involved in the test case
data path. In the situation where contiguous concatenation or virtual
concatenation is used, the background traffic continues to be applied
on the remaining timeslots not involved in the test case data path.
Power Blazer
303
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
Signal - Signal Configuration (SONET/SDH)
For OC-768/STM-256: The following diagrams show test case data paths
that are terminated right after the SONET/SDH high order path using
STS-1, AU-3, and AU-4.
304
88000 Series
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
Signal - Signal Configuration (SONET/SDH)
VT/TU Path (SONET/SDH LOP)
The following diagram shows a test case data path that is terminated at
the SONET/SDH low order path. The remaining STS-1 or AU-3 timeslot
not involved in the test case are filled with background traffic of STS-1
or AU-3 level depending on the interface being SONET or SDH. At the
low order path level, the data path not involved in the data path
defined in the test case are filled with a background traffic equivalent
to the VT Group (VTG) or Tributary Unit Group (TUG) type defined by
the traffic selected in the data path. Further, the remaining VTG or TUG
within the high order path, selected in the test case, are respectively
filled with traffic of equivalent rate for SONET and SDH data paths.
Power Blazer
305
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
Smart Loopback
Smart Loopback
Note: The Smart Loopback block is only displayed when the Transparent
(Pseudo-Physical) check box is cleared (see Loopback Mode on
page 127).
From the Test menu, tap Setup, Test Configurator, and the Smart
Loopback block.
Loopback


306
Mode determines at which layer the Smart Loopback address/port
swapping operation will be.

Ethernet swaps the MAC addresses of received packets having
their Destination MAC address matching the MAC address of the
loopback port.

Ethernet (All Unicast) swaps the MAC addresses of received
packets having Unicast Destination MAC address.

IP, for Ethernet Layer 3 and 4, swaps the MAC and IP addresses of
received packets having their Destination IP address matching the
IP address of the loopback port. For Ethernet Layer 2, swaps the
MAC addresses for packets having their Destination MAC address
matching the MAC address of the loopback port.

UDP/TCP (default), for Ethernet Layer 4, swaps the UDP or TCP
ports and the MAC and IP addresses of received packets having
their Destination IP address matching the IP address of the
loopback port. For Ethernet Layer 3, swaps the MAC and IP
addresses for packets having their Destination IP address
matching the IP address of the loopback port. For Ethernet Layer 2,
swaps the MAC addresses for packets having their Destination
MAC address matching the MAC address of the loopback port.
Matching & Swapping indicates the Loopback parameters that will be
used based on the Loopback Mode selected.
88000 Series
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
Smart Loopback
S-OAM Responder
The S-OAM Responder check box when selected (default) allows to
respond to LBM, LTM, DMM, LMM, and SLM valid messages (test running or
not). Traffic statistics are also monitored (refer to Responder on page 521).
Respond to... message
Power Blazer
Respond with... message
LBM
LBR
LTM
LTR
DMM
DMR
LMM
LMR
SLM
SLR
307
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
Streams - Global
Streams - Global
From the Test menu, tap Setup, Test Configurator, the protocol block, and
the Global tab.
The following parameters are displayed and configurable per stream.

Check boxes:
The first check box (top-left) allows to sequentially enable stream(s)
within the limit of the link capacity.
The check boxes next to the stream numbers allow to enable each
stream individually within the limit of the link capacity.



Stream Name1 indicates the name of each stream. Tap on the Stream
Name button to modify the name of each stream.
Frame Size1 indicates the frame size of each stream. Tap on the Frame
Size button to modify the frame size of each stream.
TX Rate1 indicates the transmission rate for each stream. Tap on the
TX Rate button to modify the transmission rate (see page 314).

Framing indicates the framing of each service. Tap on the Framing
button to modify the Frame Format, Network Layer, Transport Layer,
VLAN, and MPLS when applicable (see Modify Frame Structure from
the MAC/IP/UDP on page 200).

VLAN indicates the ID and Priority of each VLAN level for each stream.
Tap on the VLAN button to modify the VLAN settings (see VLAN from
the MAC/IP/UDP tab).
1. See the Profile tab for more information.
308
88000 Series
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
Streams - Global

Addressing MAC/IP indicates the source and destination MAC/IP
addresses for each stream. Tap on the Addressing MAC/IP button to
modify the customer addressing (see MAC and IP from the
MAC/IP/UDP tab). When using Provider Encapsulation, the source
and destination addresses displayed are respectively EoE MAC for EoE
and B-MAC for PBB-TE.
Batch button allows bulk configuration for stream addressing. Select
the check box of each configuration parameter that needs to be copied
and set its parameters. From Apply To, select all streams the copy
applies to and tap on the Copy From to proceed.
The following parameters are global for all streams.

Total TX Rate indicates the percentage of the total line utilization
which is the TX rate sum of all enabled streams.

Link Capacity indicates the total rate available for traffic generation.

Global Options:


Rate Unit choices are % (default), Mbit/s, Gbit/s, frame/s, and IFG.

QoS Metrics Tags Insertion check box when selected (default)
automatically adds a stream analysis tag containing Jitter, Latency,
Throughput, and sequence tags in all frames that is generated.
Copy Stream button allows to copy the stream configuration to one or
several streams.
Select the stream number the configuration will be copied from.
From To the following Streams, select all streams that will inherit the
configuration from the selected stream. An orange background
represents a selected stream. A stream that is already enabled (Enable
TX) cannot be selected for copy.
Tap Copy to confirm the stream configuration for all selected streams.

Power Blazer
Restore Default button reverts the current test application to its default
factory settings.
309
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
Streams - Profile
Streams - Profile
The Traffic Gen & Mon test application supports the configuration of up to
16 different streams individually.
From the Test menu, tap Setup, Test Configurator, the protocol block, and
the Profile tab.
Note: All parameters are configurable per stream.
Stream Selection and Activation
Select the stream to be configured by either using the left/right arrow or by
tapping over the stream numbers area then tapping on a specific stream
number. An orange background indicates the selected stream while a
green background indicates the streams that are enabled.
310

Stream associates a name to the selected stream number. Default
stream names are Stream 1 to Stream n.

Enable check box when selected (cleared by default) enables the
selected stream. However, the stream will be generated only when the
test is started while the global Enable TX check box is selected from
the Global tab.
88000 Series
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
Streams - Profile
Profile

Profile button allows the selection and configuration of either Voice,
Video, or Data (default) emulation profile. The selected profile icon
and its Codec for Voice and Video are displayed next to the Profile
button. Only Data is available when using Provider Encapsulation.
Voice when selected allows the configuration of the following
parameters.

Voice Codec allows the selection of the codec used by the voice
profile: VoIP G.711 (default), VoIP G.723.1, or VoIP G.729.

Number of Calls allows the selection of the number of calls that
will be generated for the selected stream. The minimum and
default value is 1 for 10M to 1G interface, 5 for 10G, and 10 for 40G
and 100G interfaces.

Rate indicates the rate corresponding to the selected codec and
the number of calls.
Video when selected allows the configuration of the following
parameters.
Power Blazer

Video Codec allows the selection of the codec used by the video
profile: SDTV (MPEG-2) - (default), HDTV (MPEG-2), or
HDTV (MPEG-4).

Number of Channels allows the selection of the number of
channels (1 by default) that will be generated for the selected
stream.

Rate indicates the rate corresponding to the selected coded and
the number of channels.
311
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
Streams - Profile

Frame Size (Bytes) for Data profile is selectable: Fixed (default),
Random, or Sweep. The Frame Size is forced to Fixed for Voice and
Video profiles. Only Fixed frame size is available when using Provider
Encapsulation.

For Fixed type, the frame size is as follow.
Profile
Codec
Frame Size
IPv4
Voice
Video
Data
a.
b.

312
IPv6
VoIP G.711
138
158
VoIP G.723.1
82
102
VoIP G.729
78
98
All codec
1374
-
1394
a
Programmable from 64 to 16000b
The minimum frame size will be adjusted according to the frame structure and
components selected. The following table lists each component that may
affect the minimum frame size value.
The maximum frame size is limited to 10000 for 10/100/1000Mbps electrical
interface.
For Random type, the frame size range is from 64 to 1518 bytes.
However, the minimum frame size will be adjusted according to
the frame structure and components selected. The following table
lists each component that may affect the minimum frame size
value. The maximum frame size value is also adjusted for VLAN
(+4 bytes per VLAN).
88000 Series
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
Streams - Profile

For Sweep type, the first frame is generated starting with the
minimum number of bytes defined then each subsequent frame is
incremented by 1 byte until the maximum number of bytes is
reached and start over with minimum. The frame size range is
from 64 to either 10000 bytes for electrical interfaces or 16000 bytes
for optical interfaces; default is 1518 bytes. However, the minimum
frame size will be adjusted according to the frame structure and
components selected. The following table lists each component
that may affect the minimum frame size value.
The following table lists each component that may affect the minimum
frame size value.
Component
Power Blazer
Description
VLAN
4 bytes per VLAN (up to 2 VLAN)
MPLS
4 bytes per label (up to two labels)
EoE Header
16 bytes
EoE VLAN
4 bytes
PBB-TE Header
18 bytes
B-VLAN
4 bytes
UDP
8 bytes
Ethernet Header
14 bytes
IPv4
20 bytes
IPv6
40 bytes
313
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
Streams - Profile
Shaping

TX Mode allows the selection of the transmission mode for the
selected stream when Data profile is selected. The TX Mode is forced
to Continuous for Voice and Video profiles and when using Provider
Encapsulation.
Continuous (default) transfers the
selected frame continuously according to
the selected percentage of bandwidth.
n-Frame transfers the selected number of
frames.
Burst transfers the selected frame at
maximum bandwidth for the selected
Burst Duty Cycle over the Period.
n-Burst transfers the selected number of
Burst.
Ramp transfers the selected bandwidth in
a stair shape according to the selected
step time, number of steps, and maximum
bandwidth.
n-Ramp transfers the selected number of
Ramp.

TX Rate / Max TX Rate indicates the transmission rate for Voice and
Video profiles, and allows to enter the transmission rate for Data
profile. The available stream transmission rate will be calculated
according to the selected TX Mode. The default setting is 100 percent
for all interfaces at the exception of 10Gig-E WAN which is 92.8571
percent (depending on the frame format).
Unit choices are: % (default), Mbit/s, Gbit/s, frame/s, IFG. However
frame/s and IFG are not available for Random and Sweep frame sizes.
314
88000 Series
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
Streams - Profile

Customer Frame TX Rate, available when using Provider
Encapsulation, indicates the customer frame TX rate based on the TX
Rate defined.

Frame Count is only available with n-Frame Transmit Mode. Enter the
frame count number: 1 (default) to 267857142857.

Shaping button
For Burst and n-Burst TX modes.

Burst Duty Cycle (%) represents the burst duration within the
burst period: 1 to 100 percent (default is 50 percent).

Period represents the burst pattern duration: 1 to 8000
milliseconds (default is 1000 ms).
Unit choices are ms (default) and s.

Burst Count, available with n-Burst TX Mode, represents the
number of times the burst will be repeated: 1 (default) to 255.
For Ramp and n-Ramp TX modes.
Power Blazer

Ramp Nb. of Steps represents the number of steps within the
ramp: 2 to 100 (default is 10).

Step Time represents the duration of each step: 100 to 8000
milliseconds (default is 1000 ms).
Unit choices are ms (default) and s.

Ramp Cycle Count, available with n-Ramp TX mode only,
represents the number of times the ramp will be repeated:
1 (default) to 255.
315
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
Streams - Profile

Total TX Rate indicates the percentage of the total line utilization
which is the sum of all TX rate enabled streams.
Note: The Individual stream can be enabled/disabled even when the test is
started and running. The streams can be enabled one after the other, up to
16, as long as the maximum rate is not reached. For example, if the first
stream is using the full rate available, then no other stream can be enabled.
However, if the first enabled stream uses half rate, then at least another
stream can be enabled using up to half rate. Thus, to enable a second
stream, first set the TX rate value within the non-used rate, then enable it. A
stream cannot be enabled if its MAC address is not valid (it can be either
not resolved or wrongly entered).

Link Capacity indicates the total rate available for traffic generation.
QoS Metrics
Note: QoS Metrics settings apply to all streams.
316

Global Pass/Fail Verdict check box when selected (default) enables
the pass/fail verdict for all streams.

Global Thresholds Type button

Throughput allows to select if the verdict is based on the Current
Throughput (default) or Average Throughput.

Frame Loss allows to select if the verdict is based on a frame loss
Count (default) or Rate.

Out-of-Sequence allows to select if the verdict is based on an
Out-of-Sequence Count (default) or Rate.
88000 Series
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
Streams - Profile

Throughput (%) check box when selected enables the throughput
pass/fail verdict and allows to set the minimum and maximum
threshold values.
Customer Frame Throughput. available when using Provider
Encapsulation, displays the calculated customer frame throughput
minimum and maximum thresholds based on the throughput values.

Frame Loss Count/Rate check box when selected enables the Frame
Loss pass/fail verdict and allows to set threshold of frame that are lost.
For Count, enter the maximum count of frame that are lost before
declaring a fail verdict: 0 (default) to 9999999999.
For Rate, enter the maximum rate of frame that are lost before
declaring a fail verdict: 1.0E-14 (default) to 1.0E00.

Out-of-Sequence Count/Rate check box when selected enables the
Out-of-Sequence pass/fail verdict and allows to set the threshold of
frames that are Out-of-Sequence.
For Count, enter the maximum count of frames that are
Out-of-Sequence before declaring a fail verdict: 0 (default) to
9999999999.
For Rate, enter the maximum rate of frames that are Out-of-Sequence
before declaring a fail verdict: 1.0E-14 (default) to 1.0E00.
Power Blazer

Jitter (ms) check box when selected enables the Jitter verdict and
allows to set the maximum Jitter in ms before declaring a fail verdict.

Latency (ms) check box when selected enables the Latency verdict
and allows to set the maximum Latency in ms before declaring a fail
verdict.
317
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
SyncE
SyncE
From the Test menu, tap Setup, Test Configurator, and the SyncE test
block.
ESMC Monitoring

ESMC (Ethernet Synchronization Message Channel) is a live value
monitored even when the test is not started.
An arrow next to the ESMC label indicates that ESMC valid information
frames are received or not.
318

A green arrow indicates that at least one ESMC valid information
frame, containing a valid FCS, was received within a second in the
last 5-second interval.

A red arrow indicates that no ESMC valid information frames were
received for more than 5 seconds.

A gray arrow indicates awaiting incoming data to provide a status.

Received QL indicates the last Quality Level received. The
Received QL is a live value monitored even when the test is not
started.

QL Mismatch Monitoring check box when selected (default) enables
the Quality Level mismatch monitoring. The quality level characterizes
the clock quality in terms of network synchronization.

Expected QL available when the QL Mismatch Monitoring check box
is selected, allows the selection of the Expected Quality Level value.
See page 440 for more information.
88000 Series
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
SyncE

Pass/Fail Verdict check box when selected (default) enables the use
of the pass/fail verdict. The global pass/fail verdict is based on the
following criteria: ESMC Rate Threshold (when enabled), QL
Mismatch Monitoring (when enabled), ESMC Loss, or Link Down.

ESMC Rate Threshold check box when selected (default) enables the
ESMC rate threshold monitoring which will declare a Fail verdict when
the ESMC frame rate is outside the range of 0.8 to 10.2 frames/s.
ESMC Generation

Generated QL
The Generated QL check box when selected (default) enables the
generation of the selected QL message.
The Generated QL field allows the selection of the QL message that
will be generated. See page 440 for the list of QL message (default is
QL-EEC2/ST3).
Note: For 1GE Electrical interface using Local Clock set to Slave, the Generated
QL is not configurable and is set to QL-DNU/DUS with its check box
selected.

QL Rate (frame/s) defines the frame rate at which the ESMC transmit
the QL message value: 1 (default), 5, or 10 frames per second. For 1GE
Electrical interface using Local Clock set to Slave, the QL Rate is not
configurable and is set to 1 frame/s.
Restore SyncE Defaults
Reverts the SyncE test application to its default factory settings.
Power Blazer
319
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
System
System
From the Test menu, tap Setup, and System.
Factory Default

Restore Default button restores the factory default settings for all test
applications.

Restore Default at Start-Up check box when cleared (default),
reloads the last configuration settings when the application is
launched; when selected, the factory settings are restored.
Remote Control
User Information allows a user to leave a message to other users
connected on the same module. Up to 80 characters are allowed.
Time Zone allows the selection of the time zone source.
320

Local (default) uses and displays the time from the 88000 Series
module or from the PC for a Remote ToolBox session.

Test Equipment, available for a Remote ToolBox session, uses and
displays the time from the 88000 Series module.
88000 Series
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
TCP Throughput
TCP Throughput
From the Test menu, tap Setup, Test Configurator, and tap on the test
block.
TCP Mode
Since two units are required to perform a TCP Throughput test, one unit
must be the source (Local) unit and the other one the destination
(Remote). Set the TCP Mode on both units: Local (default) or Remote.
TCP Connection Configuration
Power Blazer

Remote IP Address, available with Local TCP mode, allows to enter
the IP address of the remote unit.

Quick Ping button automatically starts the quick Ping utility for the
remote IP address and provides either a successful or failed result. The
quick Ping uses 3 attempts, a Delay of 1 second, a Timeout of 2
seconds, and a Data Size of 32 Bytes. Refer to Ping & Trace Route on
page 593 for more options.

Accept Connection from IP, available with Remote TCP mode, allows
to enter the IP address of the local unit. The IP address 0.0.0.0 (default)
listens to any TCP stream.

IP TOS/DS, available with Local TCP mode, is configurable from
0x00 (default) to 0xFF.

TCP Port, available with Local and Remote TCP modes, allows the
selection of the TCP port number: 0 to 65535 (default is 50201). For the
local unit, the specified TCP port will be used for the TCP initialization
algorithm with the remote unit. The following TCP segments sent by
the local unit will use the TCP port number replied by the remote unit.
321
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
TCP Throughput
TCP Throughput Configuration
Note: TCP Throughput Configuration is only available on the local unit.


Initial Window Size1 is the window size that is used when the test is
started: 1024 Bytes to 65536 KBytes (default is 2 KBytes). The Initial
Window Size value must be between the Minimum Window Size and
the Maximum Window Size values.
Minimum Window Size1 is the minimum window size used for the
test: 1024 Bytes to 65536 KBytes (default is 1 KBytes).

Maximum Window Size1 is the maximum window size used for the
test: 1024 Bytes to 65536 KBytes (default is 64 MBytes).

Rate Unit allows to select the unit that will be used to set the
Throughput Pass/Fail Verdict Threshold and throughput results:
% (default) or MBit/s.

Throughput Pass/Fail Verdict check box when selected (default)
enables the throughput verdict.

Threshold allows to set the pass/fail verdict threshold value:
0 to 100 % (default).
Restore TCP Throughput Defaults
Reverts the TCP Throughput test application to its default factory settings.
1. The entered value will be rounded to the closest multiple of 1024 Bytes. Unit choices are Bytes, KBytes (default), and
MBytes.
322
88000 Series
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
Test Sequence (iOptics)
Test Sequence (iOptics)
From the Test menu, tap Setup, and Test Configurator.
Power Blazer

Power Threshold (W) indicates the power consumption threshold
based on the power level/class detected from the selected transceiver
to declare the pass/fail verdict.

Temp. Threshold (oC) allows to select the temperature threshold to
declare the pass/fail verdict: 0 to 75 oC (default is 70 oC).

TX Power Range (dBm) indicates the optical device TX operational
range to declare the pass/fail verdict.

RX Power Range (dBm) indicates the optical device RX operational
range to declare the pass/fail verdict.

BERT Duration is the time duration of the bit error test:
1 minute (default), 2, 3, 4, 5, or 30 minutes.

BERT Threshold indicates the bit error test threshold (set to 0) to
declare the pass/fail verdict.

Skew Threshold (Bits), available with parallel interfaces, indicates the
skew threshold to declare the pass/fail verdict: automatically set to
either 928 or 1856 bits depending on the rate.

Power Consumption Pass/Fail Verdict check box when selected
(default) enables the power consumption pass/fail verdict based on
the Power Threshold (W) value. In the case where a vendor optical
devices overcomes the Power Class they are assigned to, clear this
check box to avoid reporting a fail verdict.
323
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
Timer
Timer
Allows to automatically start and/or stop the test at a given time or for a
specific duration.
From the Test menu, tap Setup, and Timer.
Timer
Note: For RFC 2544 and RFC 6349, only Start Time and the ARM button are
available.

Duration: Selects the test duration based on the test start time. The test
start time can be either the time the user starts the test or the time the
test is automatically started when the start time is enabled. The
Duration check box has to be selected to be included in the test timer.
Choices are 15 minutes (default), 1, 2, 4, 6, 12, 24, 72 hours, 7 days,
and User Defined.
When User Defined is selected, the field next to it becomes available
to enter the test duration using the format: dd:hh:mm:ss.
Note: Duration cannot be enabled while stop time is enabled. When the test is
started while duration is enabled, the stop time is calculated and the Stop
Time field is updated to indicate the time the test will stop.

Start Time selects the time the test will automatically start. The Start
Time check box has to be selected to be included in the test timer.
Note: A valid start time has to be subsequent to the current time.
324
88000 Series
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
Timer

Stop Time selects the time the test will automatically stop. The Stop
Time check box has to be selected to be included in the test timer.
Note: A valid stop time has to be subsequent to the current time or to the start
time, when enabled. The stop time must not exceed 30 days based on the
start time. The stop time cannot be enabled while Duration is enabled.

ARM button, available when the Start Time check box is selected
(cleared by default), enables the start test timer. Not available while
the test is running. It is not possible to start the test case when the start
time is armed.
Note: An icon is displayed in the global test status area indicating that the timer is
enabled. Armed is displayed when the test start time is armed while the
test is not started. Refer to Global Indicator on page 31 for more
information.
Power Blazer
325
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
Traces (OTN)
Traces (OTN)
For OTN BERT and OTN-SONET/SDH BERT: From the Test menu tap Setup,
Test Configurator, tap on the interface block, and on the Traces tab.
For Multi-Channel OTN: From the Test menu, tap Setup, Test
Configurator, tap on either:

the interface block, and on the Traces tab to configure the higher ODU
layer.

the test block (ODU Channels), and on the Traces tab to configure the
lower ODU layer. Traces settings apply to all channels unless otherwise
indicated.
OTUx, ODUx, and TCM Buttons
Tap on either OTUx or an ODUx button. For ODUx when TCM is enabled
(see Modify TCM on page 300), tap on a TCMx button to select a TCM level.
TCM is not available with Multi-Channel OTN.
SM/PM/TCM TTI Traces
Note: The TTI Traces are configurable for SM (OTUx), PM (ODUx), and TCM
(ODUx when TCM is enabled; see Modify TCM on page 300).

Overwrite check box when selected generates the defined messages.
Only available with Through Intrusive topology and applies only to the
OTU and ODU top layers.

Generated Message
Allows editing the SAPI, DAPI and Operator Specific messages to be
generated.
326
88000 Series
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
Traces (OTN)

Expected Message
Allows editing the expected SAPI, and DAPI messages. The expected
message settings are coupled with the Expected Message from
Traces - OTN on page 511. For Multi-Channel OTN lower ODU layer,
expected traces apply to all channels but may be overwritten
individually per channel from Traces - OTN on page 511; In this case
the
icon appears next to the expected message indicating that at
least one channel uses a different message.

SAPI (Source Access Point Identifier) corresponds to the TTI bytes 0
to 15. A maximum of 161 characters is allowed. NULL (all 0’s)
characters are automatically appended to the message for bytes that
are not defined. The expected SAPI message is available when the
SAPI OTU/ODU-TIM check box is selected.
Default Messagea
TTI
Traces
OTN BERT
Multi-Channel OTN
OTN-SONET/SDH BERT
(lower ODU layer)
Multi-Channel OTN (higher ODU layer)
SM
EXFO OTU SAPI
EXFO OTU SAPI
PM
EXFO ODU SAPI
XFO ODU SAPIb
TCM
EXFO TCMi SAPI
a.
b.
The default message contains a NULL (all 0’s) character preceding it. NULL (all 0’s)
characters are automatically appended to the message for bytes that are not
defined.
The channel number is automatically appended to the generated/expected
message.
1. For Multi-Channel OTN lower ODU layer, a maximum of 13 characters are allowed since the channel number is
automatically appended to the message.
Power Blazer
327
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
Traces (OTN)

DAPI (Destination Access point Identifier) corresponds to the TTI bytes
16 to 31. A maximum of 161 characters is allowed. NULL (all 0’s)
characters are automatically appended to the message for bytes that
are not defined. The expected DAPI message is available when the
DAPI OTU/ODU-TIM check box is selected.
Default Messagea
TTI Traces
EXFO OTU DAPI
EXFO OTU DAPI
PM
EXFO ODU DAPI
XFO ODU DAPIb
TCM
EXFO TCMi DAPI
The default message contains a NULL (all 0’s) character preceding it. NULL (all 0’s)
characters are automatically appended to the message for bytes that are not
defined.
The channel number is automatically appended to the message.
b.
Operator Specific corresponds to the TTI bytes 32 to 63. A maximum
of 32 characters are allowed. NULL (all 0’s) characters are
automatically appended to the message for bytes that are not defined.
TTI Traces
Default Messagea
OTN BERT
OTN-SONET/SDH BERT
Multi-Channel OTN
SM
EXFO OTU OPERATOR SPECIFIC
EXFO OTU OPERATOR SPECIFIC
PM
EXFO ODU OPERATOR SPECIFIC
XFO ODU OPERATOR SPECIFIC
TCM
EXFO TCMi OPERATOR SPECIFIC
a.
328
Multi-Channel OTN
SM
a.

OTN BERT
OTN-SONET/SDH BERT
NULL (all 0’s) characters are automatically appended to the message for bytes that
are not defined.
88000 Series
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
Traces (OTN)
Power Blazer

SAPI OTU/ODU/TCM-TIM check box, when selected (cleared by
default), allows editing the expected Source Access Point Identifier
(SAPI) and also enables OTU/ODU/TCM-TIM alarm monitoring.

DAPI OTU/ODU/TCM-TIM check box, when selected (cleared by
default), allows editing the expected Destination Access Point Identifier
(SAPI) and also enables the OTU/ODU/TCM-TIM alarm monitoring.
329
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
Traces (SONET/SDH)
Traces (SONET/SDH)
For SONET/SDH BERT, from the Test menu, tap Setup, Test Configurator,
the interface block, and on the Traces tab.
For OTN-SONET/SDH BERT, from the Test menu, tap Setup, Test
Configurator, the protocol block, and on the Traces tab.
Note: Selecting a Trace byte to be generated will automatically update the
corresponding OH byte. Refer to OH - SONET/SDH on page 578 for more
information.
Traces

Section/RS (J0), STS/AU/TU-3 Path (J1), and VT/TU Path (J2)
Format: Allows the selections of the J0/J1/J2 format: 1 Byte (default),
16 Bytes, or 64 Bytes format.
Generated: When the 16 bytes or 64 bytes format is selected, enter the
J0/J1/J2 trace value/message to be generated.
Default values/messages
Format
(bytes)
Traces
J0/J1/J2
1
01a
J0/J1/J2
16
EXFO SONET/SDH
J0/J1/J2
64
EXFO SONET/SDH Analyzer Section/RS trace test message
J0
EXFO SONET/SDH Analyzer high order path trace test message
J1 (STS/AU)
EXFO SONET/SDH Analyzer low order path trace test message
J1 (TU-3)/J2
a.
330
Hexadecimal value. Refer to OH - SONET/SDH on page 578 to change this value.
88000 Series
Test Setup - Test Configurator, Timer, and System
Traces (SONET/SDH)
Note: 16-bytes selection allows typing up to 15 bytes (a CRC-7 byte will be added
in front for a total of 16 bytes). 64-bytes selection allows typing up to
62-bytes (<CR> and <LF> bytes will be added at the end for a total of
64-bytes). Traces values should be ASCII suitable characters including the
ITU T.50 Characters on page 40.

TIM-S/RS-TIM, TIM-P/HP-TIM, TIM-V/LP-TIM: Enables the
corresponding Trace Identifier Mismatch for the expected message
defined. These settings are coupled with the Result - Traces/Labels
configuration (refer to Traces - SONET/SDH on page 513).
Format: Allows the selection of the expected format:
16 Bytes (default), or 64 Bytes.
Expected: Allows entering the expected J0 trace message for
TIM-S/RS-TIM, J1 for TIM-P/HP-TIM, and J2 for TIM-V/LP-TIM. See
Default values/messages on page 330.
TCM Access Point Identifier
Note: Available when TCM is enabled from the Signal - Signal Configuration
(SONET/SDH) on page 301.

STS/AU Path (N1), and VT/TU Path (Z6 or N1 (TU-3))
Enter the N1/Z6 value/message to be generated.

Power Blazer
TC-TIM-P/HPTC-TIM/TC-TIM-V/LPTC-TIM: Enables the corresponding
TCM Access Point Identifier for the expected message defined. These
settings are coupled with the Traces configuration from Traces SONET/SDH on page 513.
331
9
Test Results
The Test Results menu offers the following structure:
Intelligent Apps test applications
Test Application
Tab
Page
iOptics
iSAM
X
X
423
481
483
<---
Logger
Summary
Transport test applications
Available with
Tab
MultiOTNOTN
SONET/SDH DSn/PDH NI/CSU Page
Channel SONET/SDH
BERT
BERT
BERT Emulation
OTN
BERT
Alarms/Errors
X
-
X
X
X
-
338
FTFL/PT or PT
X
X
X
-
-
-
412
GFP-F/GFP-T
X
-
-
-
-
-
414
Labels
-
-
X
X
-
-
418
Logger
X
X
X
X
X
X
414
OTL-SDT
X
-
X
-
-
-
426
Performance Monitoring
X
-
X
X
X
-
428
SDT
-
X
-
-
-
Summary
458
489
458
458
458
491
<---
Traces
511
511
511 / 513
513
-
-
<---
X
-
-
-
-
-
514
Traffic - Ethernet
Power Blazer
448
333
Test Results
Ethernet test applications
Tab - Subtab
Test Application
a
b
Alarms/Errors
X
Graph
-
j
Page
c
d
e
f
g
h
i
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
-
338
-
X
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
417
419
Link OAM
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
X
-
Logger
X
X
X
X
X
-
X
X
X
-
423
S-OAM / MPLS-TP OAM
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
X
-
443
Service Configuration - Burst
X
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
450
Service Configuration - Ramp
X
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
451
Service Performance
X
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
453
Streams - Frame Loss / Out-of-Sequence
-
-
-
-
X
-
-
-
-
-
455
Streams - Jitter
-
-
-
-
X
-
-
-
-
-
455
Streams - Latency
-
-
-
-
X
-
-
-
-
-
456
Streams - MPLS
-
-
-
-
X
-
-
-
-
-
425
Streams - Throughput
-
-
-
-
X
-
-
-
-
-
457
Summary
475 495 492 458 509 458 458 506 487 469
498
<---
Traffic - Ethernet
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
-
-
514
Traffic - Flow Control
-
X
X
-
X
-
X
X
-
-
517
Traffic - Graph
-
-
-
-
X
-
X
-
-
-
519
Traffic - MPLS
-
-
-
-
-
-
X
-
-
-
425
Traffic - S-OAM / MPLS-TP OAM
-
-
-
-
-
X
-
-
X
-
520
Window Sweep
-
X
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
522
WIS
X
-
X
X
X
X
-
-
X
-
523
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.
h.
i.
j.
334
EtherSAM
RFC 6349
RFC 2544
EtherBERT
Traffic Gen & Mon
Smart Loopback
Through Mode
TCP Throughput
Carrier Ethernet OAM
Cable Test
88000 Series
Test Results
Packet Sync test applications
Tab
Test Application
Page
1588 PTP
SyncE
X
X
Logger
X
X
423
PTP Stats
X
-
435
Quality Level (1588 PTP)
X
-
437
Quality Level (SyncE)
-
X
440
464
503
<---
X
X
514
Alarms/Errors
Summary
Traffic - Ethernet
338
Fibre Channel test application
Tab
Test Application
Fibre Channel BERT
Page
Alarms/Errors
X
338
Logger
X
423
Summary
X
478
Wireless Test Application
Tab
Test Application
CPRI/OBSAI BERT
Page
Alarms/Errors
Xa
338
Logger
X
423
Summary
X
458
a.
Only available for Framed L2.
Power Blazer
335
Test Results
Alarms/Errors Overview
Alarms/Errors Overview
Current and history alarms/errors are displayed using different
background colors as defined in the following table.
Background
color
Gray
Alarm/
Error
Current
Description
No test result available.
History
Green
Red
Current
No alarm/error has occurred in the last second.
History
No alarm/error has occurred during the test.
Current
An alarm/error occurred in the last second.
History
Amber
History
At least one alarm/error has occurred during the test.

Seconds gives the total number of seconds in which one or more
alarm/error occurred.

Count gives the number of occurrences of a specific error. The
count is displayed using integer value; exponential value (for
example: 1.00000E10) is used when the count is bigger than the
field display capacity.

Rate calculates and displays the error rate. The rate is expressed
using the exponential format with two decimal digits (example:
1.23E-04).
Note: Some Alarms/errors groups display a magnifying icon allowing to see more
information on alarm/error like Second, Count, and Rate information.
336
88000 Series
Test Results
Alarms/Errors Overview
Pass/Fail Verdict
Note: The verdict is not displayed when disabled or unavailable.
The Pass/Fail verdict is represented by the following icons:
Icon
Verdict
Description
PASS
Result value meet the configured threshold criterion.
FAIL
Result value does not meet the configured threshold criterion.
Statistic Values

Current indicates the average measurements in the last second.

Last indicates the result of the last measurement.

Minimum indicates the minimum value recorded.

Maximum indicates the maximum value recorded.

Average indicates the average value.
P1 and P2 Buttons
The P1 and P2 buttons, available with Dual Port topology, allow to
respectively display the alarms/errors for port #1 (P1) or port #2 (P2).
Power Blazer
337
Test Results
Alarms/Errors
Alarms/Errors
From the Test menu, tap Results, and the Alarms/Errors tab. Depending
on the test structure, the Alarms/Errors page may be split in different tabs
such as OTN, GFP-T/GFP-F, and Ethernet; tap on the desired tab when
required.
Alarms/errors blocks containing the magnifier (+) icon in its title, opens a
zoomed view giving more details like alarms/errors for each lane (parallel
interface), errors in seconds, count, and rate.
When there is not enough room on the page to display the error in
seconds, count, and rate, the error is displayed in Seconds per default. To
select another unit, tap on the unit’s button and select either Seconds
(default), Count, or Rate.
Total, available with certain errors (parallel interface), indicates the total of
all lanes when Count or Rate unit is selected.
338
88000 Series
Test Results
Alarms/Errors
The following table lists the availability of alarms/errors per layer for
TX and RX.
Layer
Alarms/Errors
TX/RX
BER
Page
RX only
Pattern Loss
No Traffic, Client Frequency
Bit Error, Pattern Error
Mismatch ‘0’, Mismatch ‘1’,
Frame Loss, Out-of-Seq.
CLOCK
-
LOC, LOPPS-L, LOPPS-R
344
CPRI
LOF, R-LOS, R-LOF, RAI, SDI
Link Down
345
FAS
-
DS1
DS3
E1
AIS. OOF, RAI
-
CRC-6, Framing Bit
-
AIS, Idle, OOF, RDI
-
CP-BIT, FEBE, F-Bit, P-Bit
-
AIS, LOF, RAI, LOMF, RAI MF, TS16 AIS
-
FAS
CRC-4, E-Bit
E2
E3
E4
AIS, LOF, RAI
-
FAS
-
Ethernet
Link Down, Remote Fault, Local Faulta
Hi-BER, Local Fault Det.,
Local Fault Rcd.
FCS
Jabber, Oversize, Runt, Undersize
Ethernet PCS Lanes /
PCS
-
LOA, Inv. Mapping, LOBL, LOAML,
Exc. Skew
342
346
347
348
350
351
352
353
356
Block, Inv. Marker, PCS BIP-8
-
FEC
CORR-BIT, CORR-CW, CORR-SYM, STRESS,
UNCORR-CW
CORR, UNCORR
379
Fibre
Channel
-
Link Down, Local Fault Detected,
Local Fault Received, Remote Fault
358
-
Symbol, Block, FCS, Oversize,
Undersize
LFD, DCI, FDI, RDI, LOCS, LOCCS,
User-Defined CMF
EXM, UPM, Reserved CMF
cHEC-CORR, cHEC-UNCORR, tHEC-CORR,
tHEC-UNCORR, eHEC-CORR, eHEC-UNCORR,
SB-CORR (Post), SB-CORR (Pre), SB-UNCORR,
10B_ERR, pFCS
-
GFP
Power Blazer
360
339
Test Results
Alarms/Errors
Layer
Alarms/Errors
TX/RX
GMP
Page
RX only
-
OOS
-
Cm-CRC-8, CnD-CRC-5
Interface
LOS, CV, K30.7
LOC Lane, Int. RX Fault, Frequency,
LOC
366
IP/UDP/TCP
-
IP Chksum, UDP Chksum,
TCP Chksum
370
MPLS-TP
OAM
RDI, AIS, LCK, C-LOS, C-FDI, C-RDI, C-DCIa
Loss Continuity, Mismerge,
Unexp MEG Lvl, Unexp MEP,
Unexp Period
386
ODUx
LOFLOM, AIS, OCI, LCK, BDI, FSF, BSF, FSD,
BSD
TIM
371
BEI, BIP-8
-
ODUx-TCM
365
BDI, BIAE, IAE, LTC
TIM
BEI, BIP-8
-
OPUx
AIS, CSF, LOOMFI, MSIM, OOMFI, OMFI
PLM
376
OTL
LOF, LOL, LOR, OOF, OOR
Exc. Skew
378
374
FAS, Inv. Marker
-
OTUx
AIS, BDI, BIAE, IAE, LOF, LOM, OOF, OOM
TIM
FAS, MFAS, BIP-8, BEI
-
PTP
-
Loss Sync, Loss Announce,
Unusable, Domain Mismatch, QL
Mismatch
383
QoS Metrics
-
Frame Loss, Out-of-Seq.
384
RS-FEC
-
FEC-LOA, FEC-LOAML
385
-
FEC-CORR-CW, FEC-UNCORR-CW,
FEC-SYMB
RDI, AIS, LCK, C-LOS, C-FDI, C-RDI, C-DCIa
Loss Continuity, Mismerge,
Unexp MEG Lvl, Unexp MEP,
Unexp Period
386
TIM-S/RS-TIM
390
S-OAM
Section/Line / LOF-S/RS-LOF, SEF/RS-OOF, AIS-L/MS-AIS,
RS/MS
RDI-L/MS-RDI
FAS-S/RS-FAS, B1, B2, REI-L/MS-REI
340
379
-
88000 Series
Test Results
Alarms/Errors
Layer
Alarms/Errors
TX/RX
Page
RX only
TIM-P/HP-TIM, PLM-P/HP-PLM
STS-x / AU-x
AIS-P/AU-AIS, LOP-P/AU-LOP,
UNEQ-P/HP-UNEQ, PDI-P, RDI-P/HP-RDI,
ERDI-PCD/ERDI-CD, ERDI-PPD/ERDI-PD,
ERDI-PSD/ERDI-SD
B3, REI-P/HP-REI
-
SyncE
-
ESMC, QL Mismatch
395
TCM
(SONET/SDH)
TC-UNEQ-P/HPTC-UNEQ, TC-LTC-P/HPTC-LTC,
TC-IAIS-P/HPTC-IAIS, TC-ODI-P/HPTC-ODI,
TC-RDI-P/HPTC-RDI, TC-UNEQ-V/LPTC-UNEQ,
TC-LTC-V/LPTC-LTC, TC-IAIS-V/LPTC-IAIS,
TC-ODI-V/LPTC-ODI, TC-RDI-V/LPTC-RDI
TC-TIM-P/HPTC-TIM,
TC-TIM-V/LPTC-TIM
396
TC-IEC-P/HPTC-IEC, TC-OEI-P/HPTC-OEI,
TC-REI-P/HPTC-REI, TC-OEI-V/LPTC-OEI,
TC-REI-V/LPTC-REI
TC-VIOL-P/HPTC-VIOL,
TC-VIOL-V/LPTC-VIOL
-
LOBL1027B, Hi-BER1027B,
LOAML1027B
Transcoding
392
399
Inv. Flag, MSEQV, OTN BIP-8, PCS BIP-8 Mask POSV, SEQV
VT/TU
WIS
a.
AIS-V/TU-AIS, LOP-V/TU-LOP, RDI-V/LP-RDI,
RFI-V/LP-RFI, UNEQ-V/LP-UNEQ,
ERDI-VSD/LP-ERDI-SD, ERDI-VCD/LP-ERDI-CD,
ERDI-VPD/LP-ERDI-PD
TIM-V/LP-TIM, PLM-V/LP-PLM
-
BIP-2, REI-V/LP-REI
SEF, LOP, AIS-L, RDI-L, AIS-P, RDI-P, LCD-P,
LOP-P, UNEQ-P, ERDI-PSD, ERDI-PCD,
ERDI-PPD
WIS Link Down, PLM-P
400
403
Available in TX only.
Power Blazer
341
Test Results
Alarms/Errors
BER
Alarms

No Traffic (Available with EtherBERT or OTN BERT with EoOTN client)
RX:
Ethernet: No pattern traffic has been received in the last second.
Fibre Channel: No traffic is being transmitted when Login Management
fails; a pop up displays No Data is being transmitted on Port(s)
<port number>. The Login process has failed.

Pattern Loss
RX:
Ethernet: More than 20 percent of bit errors are received or the
reference sequence can be unambiguously identified as out of phase.
Fibre Channel: bit error is detected on four consecutive words.

Client Frequency (Available for ODUflex with Pattern client)
RX: The received client signal rate doesn’t meet the nominal bit rate
configured ± 100 ppm (refer to Nominal Bit Rate on page 300).
342
88000 Series
Test Results
Alarms/Errors
Errors

Bit Error
RX: There are logic errors in the bit stream (i.e., zeros that should be
ones and vice versa).

Pattern Error
RX: Indicates a block mismatch. Only available with Seed A or Seed B
pattern.

Mismatch ‘0’ (Available with EtherBERT and OTN BERT with EoOTN
client)
RX: There is a bit error on a binary ‘0’ (for example ones that should be
zeros) found in the test pattern only.

Mismatch ‘1’ (Available with EtherBERT and OTN BERT with EoOTN
client)
RX: There is a bit error on a binary ‘1’ (for example zeros that should be
ones) found in the test pattern only.
Power Blazer
343
Test Results
Alarms/Errors
Clock

LOC (Loss Of Clock)
RX: The Power Blazer is unable to synchronize with the selected Clock
Mode. No valid clock is generated/extracted to/from the EXT CLK port.

LOPPS-L and LOPPS-R (Loss Of Pulse Per Second - Local/Remote) is
only available with Dual Test Set in One-Way Latency measurement
mode.
RX: Either no pulse is received or no pulse is received within 1 second
± 6.6 μs after the previous pulse. LOPPS-R is only monitored once the
DTS connection is established.
344
88000 Series
Test Results
Alarms/Errors
CPRI
Note: CPRI alarms/errors are only available for Framed L2.
Alarms

Link Down
RX: Indicates that the start-up sequence is not in F (Operation) or G
(Passive) link state.

LOF (Loss Of Frame)
RX: The hyperframe alignment cannot be achieved or is lost.

R-LOS (Remote - Loss Of Signal)
RX: Bit 3 of the Z.130.0 byte is set to 1.

R-LOF (Remote - Loss Of Frame)
RX: Bit 4 of the Z.130.0 byte is set to 1.

RAI (Remote Alarm Indication)
RX: Bit 1 of the Z.130.0 byte is set to 1.

SDI (Service Access Point Defect Indication)
RX: Bit 2 of the Z.130.0 byte is set to 1.
Errors

FAS (Frame Alignment Signal)
RX: Error detected in the start of hyperframe (byte different of K28.5
while not in LOF).
Power Blazer
345
Test Results
Alarms/Errors
DS1
Alarms

AIS (Alarm Indication Signal)
RX: An unframed all-ones signal is received.

OOF (Out-OF-Frame)
RX: Four consecutive frame bit errors are detected.

RAI (Yellow) (Remote Alarm Indication)
RX:
SF framing: Bit 2 in each timeslot contains “0”.
ESF framing: Eight “ones” followed by eight “zeros” pattern is
received continuously in the data link (FDL).
Errors

Framing Bit
RX: An incorrect value appeared in a bit position reserved for framing.

CRC-6 (Cyclical Redundancy Check) is only available with ESF
framing.
RX: One or more bit errors have been detected in a block of data
through cyclical redundancy check.
346
88000 Series
Test Results
Alarms/Errors
DS3
Alarms

AIS (Alarm Indication Signal)
RX: The M-frame contains zeros (0) for C-bits, ones (1) for X-bits,
1010... repeating sequence with a one (1) immediately following any of
the control bit positions for the information bits.

Idle (DS3 Idle)
RX: Subframe 3 of the M-frame contains zeros (0) for the three C-bits,
ones (1) for X-bits, 1100... repeating sequence with the first two bits
following each control bit set to 11 for the information bits.

OOF (Out-OF-Frame)
RX: Four consecutive frame bit errors are detected.

RDI (Remote Defect Indicator)
RX: Both X-bits of the M-Frame are set to “0”.
Errors

CP-Bit (Control-Bit)
RX: The three C-bits reserved to control bit stuffing are different of
“111” and “000”.

F-Bit (Framing-Bit)
RX: The frame alignment pattern received is different of “1001”.

P-Bit (Parity-Bit)
RX: The P-Bits does not match the parity of all the information bits
following the first X-Bit of the previous DS3 frame.

FEBE (Far-End Block Error)
RX: The three FEBE bits reserved for framing or parity error detection
contain the “000” pattern.
Power Blazer
347
Test Results
Alarms/Errors
E1
Alarms
Note: Only AIS is available when the framing is set to Unframed.

AIS (Alarm Indication Signal)
RX: An unframed all-ones signal is received.

LOF (Loss Of Frame)
RX: Three consecutive incorrect frame alignment signals is received.

RAI (Yellow) (Remote Alarm Indication)
RX: Bit 3 in timeslot 0 is set to “1”.

TS16 AIS (TimeSlot 16 Alarm Indication Signal)
RX: Timeslot 16 is received as all-ones for all frames of two
consecutive multiframes.

LOMF (Loss Of MultiFrame)
RX: Two consecutive multiframes alignment signals (bits 1 through 4 of
TS16 of frame 0) is received with an error.

RAI MF (Remote Alarm Indication Multi-Frame)
RX: Bit 6 of timeslot 16 of frame 0 is set to “1”.
348
88000 Series
Test Results
Alarms/Errors
Errors

FAS (Frame Alignment Signal) is only available with PCM30 CRC-4 or
PCM31 CRC-4 framing.
RX: Bits 2 to 8 of the frame containing the FAS differ from 0011011.

CRC-4 (Cyclical Redundancy Check)
RX: One or more bit errors are detected in a block of data through
cyclical redundancy check.

E-Bit (CRC-4 Error Signal) is only available with PCM30 CRC-4 or
PCM31 CRC-4 framing.
RX: Bit 1 of sub-multiframe (SMF) II in frame 13 and/or 15 is set to 0
indicating a sub-multiframe error.
Power Blazer
349
Test Results
Alarms/Errors
E2
Alarms
Note: Only AIS is available when the framing is set to Unframed.

AIS (Alarm Indication Signal)
RX: An unframed all-ones signal is received.

LOF (Loss Of Frame)
RX: Four consecutive incorrect frame alignment signals is received.

RAI (Remote Alarm Indication)
RX: Bit 11 of a framed E2 is set to “1”.
Errors

FAS (Frame Alignment Signal)
RX: Bits 1 to 10 of the first frame differ from 1111010000.
350
88000 Series
Test Results
Alarms/Errors
E3
Alarms
Note: Only AIS is available when the framing is set to Unframed.

AIS (Alarm Indication Signal)
RX: An unframed all-ones signal is received.

LOF (Loss Of Frame)
RX: Four consecutive incorrect frame alignment signals is received.

RAI (Remote Alarm Indication)
RX: Bit 11 of a framed E3 is set to “1”.
Errors

FAS (Frame Alignment Signal)
RX: Bits 1 to 10 of the first frame differ from 1111010000.
Power Blazer
351
Test Results
Alarms/Errors
E4
Alarms
Note: Only AIS is available when the framing is set to Unframed.

AIS (Alarm Indication Signal)
RX: An unframed all-ones signal is received.

LOF (Loss Of Frame)
RX: Four consecutive incorrect frame alignment signals is received.

RAI (Remote Alarm Indication)
RX: Bit 13 of a framed E4 is set to “1”.
Errors

FAS (Frame Alignment Signal)
RX: Bits 1 to 12 of the first frame differ from 111110100000.
352
88000 Series
Test Results
Alarms/Errors
Ethernet
Note: Available with EtherBERT and OTN BERT with EoOTN client.
Alarms

Link Down
RX: For 40 Gbit/s and 100 Gbit/s: There are alarms at the PCS level. For
10 Mbit/s to 10 Gbit/s: The Ethernet connection is down meaning that
there is a local or a remote fault condition.

Local Fault Det.1 (Local Fault Detected)
RX: At least one of the following events is detected: Loss of bit
synchronization, Loss of Block synchronization, Link down, or High
BER.

Local Fault Rcd.1 (Local Fault Received)
RX: The received data path contains the Local Fault signal.

Remote Fault1
RX: The received data path contains the Remote Fault status.

Hi-BER (High-Bit Error Ratio) - (Available with 40GE/100GE interface,
and EoOTN 100GbE client)
RX: The bit error ratio is > 10-4 on a fixed time period; 1250 μs for 40G,
and 500 μs for 100G.

Client Frequency (available with EoOTN 1GbE client)
RX: The received client signal rate doesn’t meet the standard rate
specification of 1250000000 ± 150000 bps (± 120 ppm).
1. Available with Ethernet 10/40/100 Gbit/s interface, Ethernet (flex/GFP-F) client, and EoOTN 10/40/100 Gbit/s client.
Remote Fault is also available with EoOTN 1GbE client.
Power Blazer
353
Test Results
Alarms/Errors
Errors

Symbol1
RX/TX: Invalid code-group is detected/generated in the code.

Idle1
RX: An error is detected between the end of a frame and the beginning
of the next frame.

False Carrier1
RX: Data is being received with invalid start of frame.

Block (available with Ethernet 10G LAN/WAN interface)
RX: Error block received in frames.

Alignment (available with 10/100 Mbit/s interface)
RX: Frames without an integral number of octets in length are
received.

FCS (Frame Check Sequence)
RX: Frames with an invalid FCS are received.

Jabber
RX: Frames larger than 1518 bytes2 with an invalid FCS are received;
1534 bytes3 for EoE; 1536 bytes4 for PBB-TE.

Oversize (available when the Oversize Monitoring check box is
selected.)
RX: Frames larger than 1518 bytes2 with a valid FCS; 1534 bytes3 for
EoE; 1536 bytes4 for PBB-TE.
1. Available with Ethernet 100/1000 Mbit/s interface, and EoOTN 1GbE client.
2. Add 4 bytes to this value for each VLAN layer enabled.
3. Add 4 bytes to this value for each VLAN layer enabled in the encapsulated Ethernet payload and 4 bytes for EoE
VLAN when enabled.
4. Add 4 bytes to this value for each VLAN layer enabled in the encapsulated Ethernet payload and 4 bytes for B-VLAN
when enabled.
354
88000 Series
Test Results
Alarms/Errors

Runt
RX: Frames smaller than 64 bytes with an invalid FCS; 80 bytes for EoE;
82 bytes for PBB-TE.

Undersize
RX: Frames smaller than 64 bytes with a valid FCS; 80 bytes for EoE; 82
bytes for PBB-TE.

Oversize Monitoring check box, when selected (cleared by default),
allows monitoring the Oversize frame errors.
The following errors are only available with Half Duplex mode (only for
electrical interface at speeds of 10 Mbit/s and 100 Mbit/s).

Collision
RX: Indicates the number of collisions on the link.

Late Coll.
RX: Indicates the number of collisions that have occurred after a 64
bytes transmission.

Exc. Coll.
RX: Indicates the number of frames that were sent 16 times
unsuccessfully due to consecutive collisions.
Power Blazer
355
Test Results
Alarms/Errors
Ethernet - PCS Lanes / PCS
Note: Available with parallel interface only: 40/100 Gbit/s Ethernet and OTN with
40/100GbE Ethernet client. Available under the PCS sub tab for Through
Mode test providing alarms/errors for both ports.

Skew Alarm Threshold (bits), available with Ethernet test application,
allows to set the threshold value that will be used to declare a skew
alarm. The default value is 928 for 100G and 1856 for 40 G.

Default restore the default skew alarm threshold value.
Alarms
Note: Alarms are only available with Ethernet test applications.

LOA (Loss Of Alignment)
RX: Two or more logical lanes have the same logical lane marker
value, or one or more logical lane marker recovery processes are in the
OOR state, or if the differential delay between two logical lanes
exceeds the configured alarm threshold compensable delay.

Inv. Mapping (Invalid Mapping)
RX: Indicates errors in the mapping attributed to either a mapping
value appearing more than once or a non valid mapping value (out of
range).

LOBL (Loss of Block Lock)
RX: In lock mode, 65 invalid sync fields (00 or 11) within a 1024 sync
window are received. A PCS Lane Lock alarm is cleared when
receiving 64 consecutive valid 66b sync field (01 or 10) in a row.
356
88000 Series
Test Results
Alarms/Errors

LOAML (Loss of Alignment Marker Lock)
RX: In lock mode, four consecutive marker values are received that do
not match the alignment marker that the lane is currently locked to.
The LOAML alarm is cleared when the PCS Lane is declared Lock and
two valid alignment markers 16384 blocks (66b) apart are received.

Exc. Skew (Excessive Skew)
RX: The skew exceeds the defined threshold (see Skew Alarm
Threshold (bits) on page 145).
Errors

Block is available with Ethernet test applications and 100GbE over
OTU4. Injection is not available when the RS-FEC check box is
selected.
RX: Invalid 64b/66b block code are received. An invalid 64b/66b block
is declared when the synchronization field has a value of 00 or 11.

Inv. Marker (Invalid Marker): Injection is not available when the
RS-FEC check box is selected.
RX: There are errors in the 66-bit block alignment marker.

PCS BIP-8
RX: There are PCS lane bit-interleave parity error. A routine even-parity
check is performed over all bits of a PCS lane, from and including the
previous alignment marker, but not including the current alignment
marker.

PCS BIP-8 Mask is available with 40GbE over OTU3 test.
RX: At the OTN ingress, the calculated 8-bit error mask contains at least
one bit set to “1”.

OTN BIP-8 is available with 40GbE over OTU3 test
RX: Indicates for each lane that at the OTN egress, the calculated 8-bit
error contains at least one bit set to “1”.
Power Blazer
357
Test Results
Alarms/Errors
Fibre Channel
Alarms

Link Down
RX: The Fibre Channel connection is down meaning that there is a
local or a remote fault condition.

Local Fault Detected (FC 10X)
RX: Indicates that at least one of the following events is detected: LOS,
Loss of bit synchronization, Loss of Block synchronization, Link
down, or High BER (High BER is true when the bit error ratio > 10-4 on
a fixed 125 μs time period).

Local Fault Received (FC 10X)
RX: Indicates that the received data path contains the Local Fault
signal.

Remote Fault (FC 10X)
RX: Indicates that a Remote Fault event is detected.
358
88000 Series
Test Results
Alarms/Errors
Error

Symbol (FC 1X/2X/4X/8X)
RX/TX: Invalid code-group is detected/generated in the code.

Block (FC 10X/16X)
RX: The number of frames received with an errored block condition.

FCS (Frame Check Sequence)
RX: Frames with an invalid FCS are received.

Oversize
RX: The number of received FL-2 frames larger than 2148 bytes with a
valid FCS.

Undersize
RX: FL-2 frames smaller than 36 bytes with a valid FCS.
Power Blazer
359
Test Results
Alarms/Errors
GFP (Generic Framing Procedure)
Note: Available from the GFP-F/GFP-T sub-tab.
Alarms

GFP-LFD (GFP - Loss of Frame Delineation)
RX: Indicates that the GFP engine is out of synchronization.
TX: Generates a sufficient number of cHEC uncorrectable errors to
avoid synchronization.

GFP-EXM (GFP - Extension Header Mismatch)
RX: The EXM alarm is declared when the EXI received is different from
the expected EXI (refer to EXI on page 180) without uncorrectable
cHEC, tHEC, eHEC, and no pFCS errors.

GFP-UPM (GFP - User Payload Mismatch)
RX: The UPM alarm is declared when the UPI received is different from
the expected Client Data UPI without uncorrectable cHEC, tHEC,
eHEC, and no pFCS errors. The GFP-F/GFP-T on page 180 displays the
expected UPI value based on the test structure. Refer to page 721 for
more information on UPI values.

GFP-DCI (GFP - Defect Clear Indication)
RX: The DCI alarm is declared when CMF frame is received with an
UPI set to “0000 0011”.
TX: Generates a client DCI by setting the UPI field to “0000 0011”.
360
88000 Series
Test Results
Alarms/Errors

GFP-FDI (GFP - Forward Defect Indication) is available with GFP-F.
RX: The FDI alarm is declared when CMF frame is received with an UPI
set to “0000 0100”.
TX: Generates a client FDI by setting the UPI field to “0000 0100”. Note
that the configuration of the CMF pFCS check box (see GFP-F/GFP-T on
page 180) is temporarily cleared and the UPI value changed when the
GFP-FDI alarm is selected. The CMF pFCS check box state and the UPI
value returns to their previous state/value when another alarm (other
than GFP-FDI or GFP-RDI) is selected.

GFP-RDI (GFP - Reverse Defect Indication) is available with GFP-F.
RX: The RDI alarm is declared when CMF frame is received with an
UPI set to “0000 0101”.
TX: Generates a client RDI by setting the UPI field to “0000 0101”. Note
that the configuration of the CMF pFCS check box (see GFP-F/GFP-T on
page 180) is temporarily cleared and the UPI value changed when the
GFP-RDI alarm is selected. The CMF pFCS check box state and the UPI
value returns to their previous state/value when another alarm (other
than GFP-FDI or GFP-RDI) is selected.

GFP-LOCS (GFP - CSF-Loss of Client Signal)
RX: LOCS is declared when CMF frame is received while UPI is set to
“0000 0001”.
TX: Generates a LOCS by setting the UPI field to “0000 0001”.

GFP-LOCCS (CSF-Loss of Client Character Synchronization)
RX: LOCCS is declared when CMP frame is received with an UPI set to
“0000 0010”.
TX: Generates a LOCCS by setting the UPI field to “0000 0010”.
Power Blazer
361
Test Results
Alarms/Errors

GFP-Reserved CMF (Client Management Frame) is available when the
Reserved CMF Monitoring check box is selected.
RX: CMF alarms other than the ones described above.
Reserved CMF Monitoring check box, when selected, allows
monitoring the GFP-Reserved CMF alarms.

GFP-UserDefined CMF
TX: Generates a CMF (Client Management Frame) with a user defined
UPI.
Errors

GFP-cHEC-CORR (GFP - core Header Error Check - Correctable)
RX: Indicates that only one bit error has been detected on Core header
(PLI and cHEC).
TX: Generates a “Walking 1” pattern to hit all applicable bits covered
by the cHEC and PLI.

GFP-cHEC-UNCORR (GFP - core Header Error Check - Uncorrectable)
RX: Indicates that two or more bit errors have been detected on Core
header (cHEC and PLI).
TX: Generates a “Walking 11” pattern to hit all consecutive 2 bits
applicable to the bits covered by the cHEC and PLI.

GFP-tHEC-CORR (GFP - type Header Error Check - Correctable)
RX: Indicates that only one bit error has been detected in the Type
header (tHEC, PTI, PFI, EXI, and UPI).
TX (requires client data frame generation): Generates a “Walking 1”
pattern to hit all applicable bits covered by the tHEC, PTI, PFI, EXI, and
UPI.
362
88000 Series
Test Results
Alarms/Errors

GFP-tHEC-UNCORR (GFP - type Header Error Check - Uncorrectable)
RX: Indicates that two or more bit errors have been detected in the
Type header (tHEC, PTI, PFI, EXI, and UPI).
TX (requires client data frame generation): Generates a “Walking 11”
pattern to hit all consecutive 2 bits applicable to the bits covered by the
tHEC, PTI, PFI, EXI and UPI.

GFP-eHEC-CORR (GFP - extension Header Error Check - Correctable)
is only available with GFP-F when EXI is set to Linear.
RX: Indicates that only one bit error has been detected in the Extension
header (eHEC, CID and Spare).
TX (requires client data frame generation): Generates a “Walking 1”
pattern to hit all applicable bits covered by the eHEC, CID and Spare.

GFP-eHEC-UNCORR (GFP - extension Header Error Check Uncorrectable) is only available with GFP-F when EXI is set to Linear.
RX: Indicates that two or more bit errors have been detected in the
Extension header (eHEC, CID and Spare).
TX (requires client data frame generation): Generates a “Walking 11”
pattern to hit all consecutive 2 bits applicable to the bits covered by the
eHEC, CID and Spare.

GFP-SB-CORR (GFP - Superblock Correctable) is available with GFP-T.
RX: Indicates that bit error has been detected in the CRC-16 word of
the superblock. A received SB Correctable (Pre) error counts as one
error while SB Correctable (Post) counts as two errors.
TX:
GFP-SB-CORR (Pre) generates a “Walking 1” pattern to include a
single bit error in the CRC-16 word of the superblock.
GFP-SB-CORR (Post) generates in the payload of the superblock, a
“Walking 1” pattern to include two separate errors in one superblock
separated by 43 bits.
Power Blazer
363
Test Results
Alarms/Errors

GFP-SB-UNCORR (GFP - Superblock Uncorrectable) is available with
GFP-T.
RX: Indicates that two or more bit errors have been detected in the
CRC-16 word of the superblock. Note that if two errors are spaced by
exactly 43 bits, they will not be reported as uncorrectable.
TX: Generates a “Walking 11” pattern to include two consecutive
errors in the CRC-16 word of the superblock.

GFP-10B_ERR (GFP - 10B_Error) is available with GFP-T.
RX: Indicates that a10B_ERR code has been detected in the payload of
the superblock.
TX: Generates a 10B_ERR code over the payload of the superblock as
defined in ITU G.7041.

GFP-pFCS (GFP - payload Frame Check Sequence)
RX: Indicates that at least one bit error has been detected in the
payload.
TX (requires client data frame generation): Generates a “Walking 1”
pattern to hit all 32 bits of the pFCS only. Only available with Ethernet
(flex/GFP-F) client when the CDF pFCS check box is selected (refer to
GFP-F/GFP-T on page 180).
364
88000 Series
Test Results
Alarms/Errors
GMP and ODTU4.1 - GMP (Generic Mapping
Procedure)
Note: GMP is only available with EoOTN client (ODU0 with PT21). GMP is
displayed under ODUx alarms/errors group. GMP is labelled as
ODTU4.1 - GMP with Multi-Channel OTN.
Alarms

OOS (Generic Mapping Procedure - Out Of Synchronization).
RX: Indicates that the GMP RX cannot synchronize with the GMP TX.
Errors

Cm-CRC-8
RX: There is a Cm-CRC-8 mismatch between the received value and
the locally computed value.

CnD-CRC-5
RX: There is a CnD-CRC-5 mismatch between the received value and
the locally computed value.
Power Blazer
365
Test Results
Alarms/Errors
Interface
Alarms

LOS (Loss Of Signal)
RX: Absence of an input signal or an all-zeros pattern is received.
Available for each Optical Lane for parallel interface.
For CPRI Framed L2: Absence of an input signal or at least 16
8B/10B code violations occur in one hyperframe.

LOC Lane (Loss Of Clock Lane) is available for each Physical Lane for
parallel interface
RX: The module is unable to lock on the Physical/CAUI/CAUI-4/XLAUI
link interface.

Int. RX Fault (Interlink RX Fault) is available with serial CFP
RX: Fault detected at the interlink point between the 88000 Series and
the CFP, an unexpected signal is coming out from the CFP.
366
88000 Series
Test Results
Alarms/Errors

Frequency (available for each Physical Lane for parallel interface). Not
available when using an active copper SFP.
RX: The received signal frequency meets the standard specifications
(green) or not (red).
For Ethernet 10/100/1000M Electrical, 100M Optical, 1GE Optical,
10GE LAN/WAN, or Fibre Channel 1X/2X/4X/8X/10X/16X interface/rate,
the frequency range is ± 100 ppm.
For parallel interfaces:
Rate
Power Blazer
Optic Type
Frequency
40GE
4x10G
10.3125 Gbit/s ± 100 ppm
OTU3
4x10G
10.7546 Gbit/s ± 20 ppm
OTU3e1
4x10G
11.1427 Gbit/s ± 20 ppm
OTU3e2
4x10G
11.1458 Gbit/s ± 20 ppm
100GE
10x10G, 4 x 25G
10.3125 Gbit/s ± 100 ppm
OTU4
10x10G, 4 x 25G
11.181 Gbit/s ± 20 ppm
367
Test Results
Alarms/Errors
For serial interfaces:
Interface
368
Standard Rate Specification
DS1
1544000 ±36.6 ppm
E1
2048000 ±54.6 ppm
E3
34368000 ±24.6 ppm
DS3
44736000 ±24.6 ppm
STS-1e/STM-0e, OC-1/STM-0
51840000 ±20 ppm
E4
139264000 ±19.6 ppm
STS-3e/STM-1e, OC-3/STM-1
155520000 ±20 ppm
OC-12/STM-4
622080000 ±20 ppm
OC-48/STM-16
2488320000 ±20 ppm
OTU1
2666057143 ±20 ppm
OC-768/STM-256
39.81312 Gbit/s ± 20 ppm
OC-192/STM-64
9953280000 ±20 ppm
OTU2
10709225316 ±20 ppm
OTU1e
11049107143 ±100 ppm
OTU2e
11095727848 ±100 ppm
OTU1f
11270089286 ±100 ppm
OTU2f
11317642405 ±100 ppm
OTU3
10.7546 Gbit/s ± 20 ppm
OTU3e1
11.1427 Gbit/s ± 20 ppm
OTU3e2
11.1458 Gbit/s ± 20 ppm
88000 Series
Test Results
Alarms/Errors
Error

BPV (Bipolar Violation), available with DS1 and DS3, pulses of the
same consecutive polarity were detected, in violation with the bipolar
signal format.

BPV/CV (Bipolar Violation/Code Violation), available with STS-1e and
STS-3e, pulses of the same consecutive polarity were detected, in
violation with the bipolar signal format.

CV (Code Violation)
For E1, E3, E4, STM-0e, and STM-1e: Pulses of the same consecutive
polarity were detected, in violation with the bipolar signal format.
For CPRI Framed L2: Invalid 10B code word received.

K30.7, for CPRI Framed L2, code word /V/ with Error_Propagation
ordered_set received.

EXZ (Excessive Zeros):
For DS1 with AMI Line Coding, more than 15 consecutive bit periods
with no pulses have been received.
For DS1 with B8ZS Line Coding, more than 7 consecutive bit periods
with no pulses have been received.
For DS3, more than 2 consecutive bit periods with no pulses have been
received.
Power Blazer
369
Test Results
Alarms/Errors
IP/UDP/TCP
Errors

IP Chksum (IP Checksum)
RX: The IP datagrams received have invalid IP header checksum. Only
available for IPv4.

UDP Chksum (UDP Checksum)
RX: The UDP segments received have invalid UDP checksum.

TCP Chksum (TCP Checksum)
RX: The TCP segments received have invalid TCP checksum.
370
88000 Series
Test Results
Alarms/Errors
ODUx
Note: For OPUx alarms see page 376. For GMP alarms/errors see page 365.
Alarms

AIS (Alarm Indication Signal)
RX: The STAT information in the PM byte 3, bits 6 to 8 is “111” for at
least 3 consecutive frames.
TX: Generates an all "1"s pattern in the entire ODUk signal, excluding
the frame alignment overhead (FA OH), OTUk overhead (OTUk OH)
and ODUk FTFL.

BDI (Backward Defect indication)
RX: The BDI bit in the PM overhead field (byte 3, bit 5) is “1” for at least
5 consecutive frames.
TX: Generates a “1” in the BDI (byte 3, bit 5) of the PM overhead field
continuously.

BSD (Backward Signal Degrade)
RX: The FTFL byte 128 is “00000010”.
TX: Generates a “00000010” pattern in the FTFL Byte 128 continuously.

BSF (Backward Signal Fail)
RX: The FTFL byte 128 is “00000001”.
TX: Generates a “00000001” pattern in the FTFL Byte 128 continuously.

FSD (Forward Signal Degrade)
RX: The FTFL byte 0 is “00000010”
TX: Generates a “00000010” pattern in the FTFL Byte 0 continuously.
Power Blazer
371
Test Results
Alarms/Errors

FSF (Forward Signal Fail)
RX: The FTFL byte 0 is “00000001”.
TX: Generates a “00000001” pattern in the FTFL Byte 0 continuously.

LCK (Lock)
RX: STAT information in the PM byte 3, bits 6 to 8 is “101” for at least 3
consecutive frames.
TX: Generates a repeating "01010101" pattern in the entire ODUk signal,
excluding the frame alignment overhead (FA OH) and OTUk overhead
(OTUk OH).

LOFLOM (Loss of Frame Loss Of Multiframe) is only available for
mapped ODU client signal (designated as LO in the standard).
RX: OOF is present for at least 3 ms.
TX: Generates error continuously in FAS and MFAS of a multiplexed
test case.

OCI (Open Connection Indication)
RX: STAT information in the PM byte 3, bits 6 to 8 is “110” for at least 3
consecutive frames.
TX: Generates a repeating "01100110" pattern in the entire ODUk signal,
excluding the frame alignment overhead (FA OH) and OTUk overhead
(OTUk OH).

TIM (Trace Identification Mismatch)
RX: The received SAPI and/or DAPI do not math the expected SAPI
and/or DAPI. This alarm is only available when the SAPI ODU-TIM
and/or DAPI ODU-TIM check boxes are selected from PT / Global PT on
page 178.
372
88000 Series
Test Results
Alarms/Errors
Errors

BIP-8 (Bit Interleave Parity-8)
RX: There is a PM BIP-8 mismatch between the received value and
locally computed value (0 to 8).

BEI (Backward Error Indication)
RX: Interleaved block in error detected by the corresponding ODU path
monitoring sink using the BIP-8 code.
ODU BEI bits
(1234)
Power Blazer
BIP violations
ODU BEI bits
(1234)
BIP violations
0000
0
0101
5
0001
1
0110
6
0010
2
0111
7
0011
3
1000
8
0100
4
1001 to 1111
0
373
Test Results
Alarms/Errors
ODUx-TCM
Alarms

BDI (Backward Defect Indication)
RX: The BDI bit in the TCM overhead field Byte 3, bit 5 is “1” for at least
5 consecutive frames.
TX: Generates a "1" in the BDI bit of the TCM overhead field (byte 3,
bit 5) continuously.

BIAE (Backward Incoming Alignment Error)
RX: The BEI/BIAE bits in the TCM overhead field Byte 3, bits 1 to 4 are
“1011” for at least 3 consecutive frames.
TX: Generates "1011" in the BEI/BIAE bits of the TCM overhead (byte 3,
bits 1 to 4) continuously.

IAE (Incoming Alignment Error)
RX: The STAT information in the TCM is “010” for at least 3 consecutive
frames.
TX: Generates "1" in the IAE bit of the TCM overhead (byte 3, bit 6)
continuously.

LTC (Loss of Tandem Connection)
RX: The STAT information in the TCM Byte 3, bits 6, 7, and 8 are “000”
for at least 3 consecutive frames.
TX: Generates "000" in the STAT field of TCM overhead (byte 3, bits
6 to 8) continuously.

TIM (Trace Identification Mismatch)
RX: The SAPI and/or DAPI do not math the expected SAPI and/or DAPI.
This alarm is only available when the Enable TIM SAPI and/or DAPI
check boxes are selected from PT / Global PT on page 178.
374
88000 Series
Test Results
Alarms/Errors
Errors

BIP-8 (Bit Interleave Parity-8)
RX: There is a TCM BIP-8 mismatch between the received value and
locally computed value (0 to 8).

BEI (Backward Error Indication)
RX: Interleaved block in error detected by the corresponding ODU
tandem connection monitoring sink using the BIP-8 code.
ODU TCM BEI
bits (1234)
Power Blazer
BIP violations
ODU BEI bits
(1234)
BIP violations
0000
0
0101
5
0001
1
0110
6
0010
2
0111
7
0011
3
1000
8
0100
4
1001 to 1111
0
375
Test Results
Alarms/Errors
OPUx
Note: OPUx is displayed under ODUx alarms/errors group.
Alarms

AIS (Alarm Indication Signal) is only available on the OPU client signal
(designated as LO in the standard).
RX: A PRBS11 pattern is received indicating a failure of the client
signal.
TX: Generates a PRBS11 pattern.

CSF (Client Signal Fail) is only available on the OPU client signal
(designated as LO in the standard).
RX: Bit 1 of the OPUk PSI[2] byte is set to “1” indicating a failure of the
client signal mapped into the OPUk of the OTN signal.
TX: Sets the bit 1 of the OPUk PSI[2] byte to “1”.

LOOMFI (Loss of OPU Multi-Frame Identifier) is only available for
OPU4 of a mapped signal.
RX: OOMFI is present for at least 3 ms.

MSIM (Multiplex Structure Identifier Mismatch) is available for the high
oder path of a multiplexed test case only.
RX: The RX Payload Structure Identifier (PSI) information do not match
the expected HO Multiplex Structure Identifier defined.
TX: Corrupts the content of the PSI
For PT20: Bytes 2 and 3 for ODU0 in ODU1, bytes 2 to 5 for ODU1 in
ODU2, and bytes 2 to 17 for ODU2 in ODU3. Not applicable for ODU4.
For PT21: Bytes 2 to 9 for ODU1 in ODU2, bytes 2 to 33 for ODU2 in
ODU3, and bytes 2 to 81 for ODU3 in ODU4. Not applicable for ODU0.
376
88000 Series
Test Results
Alarms/Errors

OOMFI (Out of OPU Multi-Frame Identifier) is only available for OPU4
of a mapped signal.
RX: OPU Multi-frame Identifier number are in error for at least
5 consecutive OTU frames.

PLM (Payload Mismatch) is available when OPU-PLM check box is
selected.
RX: The Payload Structure Identifier (PSI) field does not match the
expected PT for at least 3 consecutive frames.
Errors

OMFI (OPU Multi-Frame Identifier) is only available for OPU4 of a
mapped signal.
RX: Invalid OMFI word sequence detected.
Power Blazer
377
Test Results
Alarms/Errors
OTL
Alarms

LOL (Loss of Lane Alignment)
RX: Multilane alignment process is in the out-of-alignment (OLA) state
for 3 ms.

LOF (Loss of Frame)
RX: OOF is present for at least 3 ms.

OOF (Out-Of-Frame)
RX: Any byte of the FAS (bytes 3, 4, and 5) is in error for at least 5
consecutive frames.

LOR (Loss Of Recovery)
RX: When OOR persists at least 3 ms.

OOR (Out-Of-Recovery)
RX: While in In-recovery (IR) state, in five consecutive 16320 byte
periods each of the received logical lane marker (LLM) is different
from the accepted LLM value.

Exc. Skew (Excessive Skew)
RX: The skew exceeds the defined threshold (see Skew Alarm
Threshold (bits) on page 536).
Errors

FAS (Frame Alignment Signal)
RX: The FAS bits are in error.

Inv. Marker (Invalid Marker)
RX: Errors are detected in the 66-bit block alignment marker.
378
88000 Series
Test Results
Alarms/Errors
OTUx
Note: Available for OTU4, OTU3, OTU3e1, OTU3e2, OTU2, OTU2f, OTU1f, OTU2e,
OTU1e, and OTU1.
Alarms

AIS (Alarm Indication Signal) available with serial interfaces only.
RX: Polynomial number 11 (PN-11) is over all OTU frame bits including
FAS and MFAS for at least 3 consecutive 8192 bit-interval.
TX: Generates polynomial number 11 (PN-11) over all OTU frame bits
including FAS and MFAS continuously.

BDI (Backward Defect Indication)
RX: The BDI bit in the SM overhead field (byte 3, bit 5) is “1” for at least
5 consecutive OTU frames.
TX: Generates “1” for the BDI bit in the SM overhead field (byte 3, bit 5)
continuously.

BIAE (Backward Incoming Alignment Error)
RX: The BEI/BIAE bits in the SM overhead field (byte 3, bits 1 to 4) are
“1011” for at least 3 consecutive frames.
TX: Generates “1011” for the BEI/BIAE bits in the SM overhead field
(byte 3, bits 1 to 4) continuously.

IAE (Incoming Alignment Error)
RX: The IAE bit in the SM overhead field (byte 3, bit 6) is “1” for at least
5 consecutive OTU frames.
TX: Generates “1” for the IAE bit in the SM overhead field (byte 3, bit 6)
continuously.
Power Blazer
379
Test Results
Alarms/Errors

LOF (Loss of Frame)
RX: OOF is present for at least 3 ms.
TX: Generates error in all FAS bits continuously.

LOM (Loss Of Multiframe)
RX: OOM is present for at least 3 ms
TX: Generates error in MFAS bits continuously.

OOF (Out-Of-Frame)
RX: FAS (bytes 3, 4, and 5) are in error for at least 5 consecutive OTU
frames.
TX: Generates error in all FAS bits for 5 consecutive OTU frames.

OOM (Out-Of-Multiframe)
RX: MFAS are in error for at least 5 consecutive OTU frames.
TX: Generates error in multiframe number for 5 consecutive OTU
frames.

TIM (Trace Identifier Mismatch)
RX: Expected SM SAPI and/or SM DAPI do not match the received SM
SAPI and/or DAPI for at least 3 consecutive TTI. This alarm is only
available when the Enable TIM SAPI OTU-TIM and/or DAPI OTU-TIM
check boxes are selected from page 331.
380
88000 Series
Test Results
Alarms/Errors
Errors

BEI (Backward Error Indication)
RX: SM BEI errors are received from the DUT (value 0 to 8).
OTU BEI bits
(1234)

BIP violations
ODUk BEI bits
(1234)
BIP violations
0000
0
0101
5
0001
1
0110
6
0010
2
0111
7
0011
3
1000
8
0100
4
1001 to 1111
0
BIP-8 (Bit Interleave Parity-8)
RX: There is a SM BIP-8 mismatch between the received value and
locally computed value (0 to 8).

FAS (Frame Alignment Signal)
RX: The FAS bits are in error.

FEC-CORR (Forward Error Correction - Correctable)
RX: Statistics on codewords (CW; default), symbols (SYMB), or bits
(BIT) corrected by the FEC.
TX:
FEC-CORR-CW (Forward Error Correction - Correctable Codeword): Generates 8 symbols (bytes) containing 8 bits in error
each, in each codeword.
FEC-CORR-SYM (Forward Error Correction - Correctable Symbol): Generates 1 symbol (byte) containing 8 bits in error.
FEC-CORR-BIT (Forward Error Correction - Correctable - Bit):
Generates 1 symbol (byte) containing 1bit in error.
Power Blazer
381
Test Results
Alarms/Errors

FEC-UNCORR (FEC - Uncorrectable)
RX: Statistics on the detected codewords (CW) having uncorrectable
errors.
TX: FEC-UNCORR-CW (Forward Error Correction - Uncorrectable Codeword) generates 16 symbol (bytes) containing 8 bits in error each,
in each codeword.

FEC-STRESS (Forward Error Correction - Stress)
TX: Generates correctable errors composed of a random number of
symbol errors (less or equal to 8) containing a random number of bits
distributed all over the OTU frame.

MFAS (Multiframe Alignment Signal)
RX: The MFAS bits are in error.
382
88000 Series
Test Results
Alarms/Errors
PTP
Alarms

Loss Sync
RX: The Slave Clock does not receive packet timing signal messages
(Sync, Follow Up, Delay Resp) within their expected arrival time for a
duration exceeding the configured Receipt Timeout (refer to Alarm
Timeout/Threshold on page 138).

Loss Announce
RX: The Slave Clock does not receive Announce messages within their
expected arrival time for a duration exceeding the configured Receipt
Timeout (refer to Alarm Timeout/Threshold on page 138).

Unusable (G.8265.1)
RX: Either the maximum Sync IPDV value or the maximum Delay Req
IPDV value in the last second exceeds the configured IPDV Threshold
(refer to Alarm Timeout/Threshold on page 138).

Domain Mismatch (G.8275.1)
RX: The received Domain value does not match the configured value
(refer to page 133).

QL Mismatch
RX: The received QL value does not match the Expected QL (refer to
page 138 or page 438). The QL Mismatch alarm is only reported when
at least one Announce message has already been received (Last QL
Received) and that the QL Mismatch Monitoring check box is
selected.
Power Blazer
383
Test Results
Alarms/Errors
QoS Metrics
Note: Only available with Traffic Gen & Mon test application.
Errors

Frame Loss
RX: A sequence number is missing in the received frames.

Out-of-Seq. (Out-of-Sequence)
RX: The received frame sequence number is either smaller than the
expected frame sequence number or is a duplicate number.
384
88000 Series
Test Results
Alarms/Errors
RS-FEC
Alarms

FEC-LOA (FEC-Loss Of Alignment)
RX: Deskew process is not complete meaning that not all lanes are
synchronized (Alignment Marker locked) and aligned.

FEC-LOAML (FEC-Loss Of Alignment Marker Lock)
RX: The location of the alignment marker payload sequence for a given
lane on the PMA service interface is not detected.
Error

FEC-CORR-CW (FEC Correctable Codeword)
RX: FEC Codeword that contains errors and were corrected.

FEC-UNCORR-CW (FEC Uncorrectable Codeword)
RX: FEC Codeword that contains errors and were not corrected.

FEC-SYMB (FEC Symbol)
RX: FEC Symbol that contains errors and were corrected on FEC per
lane.
Power Blazer
385
Test Results
Alarms/Errors
S-OAM and MPLS-TP OAM
Alarms
Note: The following alarms are available when the CC Function check box is
selected (refer to page 264).

Loss Continuity
RX: No CCM frames with same or lower MEG/MD Level were received
from the peer MEP within an interval equal to 3.5 times the configured
CCM transmission period. The alarm is cleared when at least 3 CCM
frames with same or lower MEG/MD Level from the peer MEP are
received within an interval equal to 3.5 times the configured CCM
transmission period.

Mismerge
RX: A CCM frame was received from the peer MEP with same MEG/MD
Level but with incorrect MEG ID/MAID value or format. The MAID,
composed of a Domain ID and a Short MA Name strings, is incorrect if
one or both strings are not as expected. The alarm is cleared when no
CCM frames with same MEG/MD Level but with incorrect MEG ID/MAID
value or format are received within an interval equal to 3.5 times the
configured CCM transmission period.

Unexp MEG/MD Lvl (Unexpected MEG/MD Level)
RX: A CCM frames was received from the peer MEP with lower
MEG/MD Level. The alarm is cleared when no CCM frames with lower
MEG/MD Level are received within an interval equal to 3.5 times the
configured CCM transmission period.
386
88000 Series
Test Results
Alarms/Errors

Unexp MEP (Unexpected MEP)
RX: A CCM frame was received from the peer MEP with same MEG/MD
Level, correct MEG ID/MAID, and correct source MAC Address
(corresponds to the peer MEP) but with unexpected MEP ID. The alarm
is cleared when no CCM frames with same MEG/MD Level, correct
MEG ID/MAID, correct source MAC Address (corresponds to the peer
MEP) but with an unexpected MEP ID are received within an interval
equal to 3.5 times the configured CCM transmission period.

Unexp Period (Unexpected Period)
RX: A CCM frame is received from the peer MEP with same MEG/MD
Level, correct MEG ID/MAID, and correct MEP ID but with a period field
value different than the one configured. The alarm is cleared when no
CCM frames with same MEG/MD Level, correct MEG ID/MAID, and
correct MEP ID but with incorrect period field value are received within
an interval equal to 3.5 times the configured CCM transmission period.

RDI (Remote Defect Indication)
RX: The RDI flag bit of a valid CCM frames is set to 1. A valid CCM frame
has its source MAC address matching the Peer MEP MAC address, the
destination MAC address matching either the unit port Unicast MAC
address or a Multicast class 1 address (refer to page 739), and VLANs
matching the unit port VLANs.
TX: The RDI flag bit of transmitted CCM frames is set to 1.
Power Blazer
387
Test Results
Alarms/Errors
Note: The following alarms are available with G.8113.1, Y.1731 and MEF modes.

AIS (Alarm Indication Signal)
RX: A valid AIS frame is received. A valid frame has its destination MAC
address matching either the unit port Unicast MAC address or a
Multicast class 1 address (refer to page 739), VLANs matching the unit
port VLANs, and MEG level matching the local MEG level. The alarm is
cleared when during an interval equal to 3.5 times the AIS transmission
period indicated in the last received AIS frame, no AIS frames are
received.

LCK (Locked)
RX: An valid LCK frame is received. A valid frame has its destination
MAC address matching either the unit port Unicast MAC address or a
Multicast class 1 address (refer to page 739), VLANs matching the unit
port VLANs, and MEG level matching the local MEG level. The alarm is
cleared when during an interval equal to 3.5 times the LCK
transmission period indicated in the last received LCK frame, no LCK
frames are received.

C-LOS (Client Signal Fail - Loss Of Signal)
RX: A CSF frame is received with CSF type equal to 000. The alarm is
cleared when no CSF (C-LOS) frames are received during an interval
equal to 3.5 times the CSF transmission period indicated in the last
received CSF (C-LOS) frame, or when a CSF frame is received with
Client Defect Clear Indication (C-DCI) information (CSF Type 011).
TX: Generates a CSF frame with CSF type equal to 000.
388
88000 Series
Test Results
Alarms/Errors

C-FDI (Client Signal Fail - Forward Defect Indication)
RX: A CSF frame is received with CSF type equal to 001.The alarm is
cleared when no CSF (C-FDI) frames are received during an interval
equal to 3.5 times the CSF transmission period indicated in the last
received CSF (C-FDI) frame, or when a CSF frame is received with
Client Defect Clear Indication (C-DCI) information (CSF Type 011).
TX: Generates a CSF frame with CSF type equal to 001.

C-RDI (Client Signal Fail - Remote Defect Indication)
RX: A CSF frame is received with CSF type equal to 010. The alarm is
cleared when no CSF (C-RDI) frames are received during an interval
equal to 3.5 times the CSF transmission period indicated in the last
received CSF (C-RDI) frame, or when a CSF frame is received with
Client Defect Clear Indication (C-DCI) information (CSF Type 011).
TX: Generates a CSF frame with CSF type equal to 010.

C-DCI (Client Signal Fail - Defect Clear Indication)
TX: Generates a CSF frame with CSF type equal to 011.
Power Blazer
389
Test Results
Alarms/Errors
Section/Line / RS/MS
Alarms

LOF-S (Loss Of Frame - Section) - SONET
RS-LOF (Regeneration Section - Loss Of Frame) - SDH
RX: A SEF (SONET)/RS-OOF (SDH) defect on the incoming optical
signal persists for at least 3 milliseconds.
TX: Generates non-valid framing bytes (A1 and A2).

SEF (Severely Errored Framing) - SONET.
RS-OOF (Regeneration Section - Out-Of-Frame) - SDH.
RX: A minimum of four consecutive errored framing patterns are
received.
TX: Generates four consecutive errored framing patterns.

TIM-S (Trace Identifier Mismatch - Section) - SONET
RS-TIM (Regeneration Section - Trace Identifier Mismatch) - SDH
RX: The received J0 Trace doesn’t match the expected message value.
Only available when Enable TIM-S/RS-TIM check box is selected (refer
to Traces (SONET/SDH) on page 330).

AIS-L (Alarm Indication Signal - Line) - SONET
MS-AIS (Multiplex Section - Alarm Indication Signal) - SDH
RX: Bits 6, 7 and 8 of the K2 byte contain the “111” pattern in five
consecutive frames.
TX: Generates a SONET/SDH signal that contains a valid Section
Overhead (SOH) / Regenerator Section Overthead (RSOH) and an
all-ones pattern on the SPE.
390
88000 Series
Test Results
Alarms/Errors

RDI-L (Remote Defect Indication - Line) - SONET
MS-RDI (Multiplex Section - Remote Defect Indication) - SDH
RX: Bits 6, 7, and 8 of the K2 byte contain the “110” pattern in five
consecutive frames.
TX: Generates a “110” pattern for the bits 6, 7 and 8 of the K2 byte.
Errors

FAS-S (Frame Alignment Signal - Section) - SONET
RS-FAS (Regeneration Section - Frame Alignment Signal) - SDH
RX: At least one A1 or A2 byte of the FAS word is in error.

B1 (BIP-8, Bit-Interleave Parity - 8 bits)
RX: Indicates a Section (SONET) / Regeneration Section (SDH) parity
error by performing a routine even-parity check over all frames of the
previous STS-n/STM-n signal (located in the first STS-1/STM-1 of an
STS-n/STM-n signal).

B2 (BIP-8, Bit-Interleave Parity - 8 bits)
RX:


SONET: Indicates a Line parity error by performing an even-parity
check over all bits of the LOH and SPE of the previous frame
(located in every STS-1 of an STS-n signal).

SDH: Indicates a Multiplex Section parity error by performing an
even-parity check over all bits (except those in the RSOH bytes) of
the previous frame of a STM-N signal.
REI-L (Remote Error Indicator - Line) - SONET
MS-REI (Multiplex Section - Remote Error Indicator) - SDH
RX: The M0, M1, or the combination of both M0 and M1 bytes indicate
that one or more BIP violations have been detected. Refer to M0 or
M1/Z2 (SONET) on page 582 for more information. For OC-192, also
refer to REI-L Computation Method on page 302.
Power Blazer
391
Test Results
Alarms/Errors
STS-x/AU-x
Alarms

AIS-P (Alarm Indication Signal - Path) - SONET
AU-AIS (Administrative Unit - Alarm Indication Signal) - SDH
RX: The H1 and H2 bytes contain an all-ones pattern in three
consecutive frames or more.
TX: Generates an all-ones pattern over H1, H2, H3, and SPE.

LOP-P (Loss Of Pointer - Path) - SONET
AU-LOP (Administrative Unit - Loss Of Pointer) - SDH
RX: A valid pointer is not found in N consecutive frames (where
8  N  10), or that N consecutive NDFs (“1001” pattern) are detected
(non-concatenated payloads).
TX: Generates a non-valid pointer.

UNEQ-P (Unequipped - Path) - SONET
HP-UNEQ (HP - Unequipped) - SDH
RX: The C2 byte contains “00 H” in five consecutive frames. Only
available when PLM-P/UNEQ-P / HP-PLM/HP-UNEQ is enabled (refer to
Labels on page 192).
TX: Generates an all-zeros pattern over POH and SPE.

H4-LOM (H4 - Loss Of Multiframe)
RX: For VT/TU structured optical frames, the system loss track of the H4
byte multiframe indicator sequence.
TX: Generates a wrong H4 byte multiframe indicator sequence.

TIM-P (Trace Identifier Mismatch - Path) - SONET
HP-TIM (HP - Trace Identifier Mismatch) - SDH
RX: J1 Trace doesn’t match the expected message value. Only
available when TIM-P/HP-TIM is enabled (refer to Traces (SONET/SDH)
on page 330).
392
88000 Series
Test Results
Alarms/Errors

PLM-P (Payload Label Mismatch - Path) - SONET
HP-PLM (HP - Payload Label Mismatch) - SDH
RX: Five consecutive frames have mismatched STS/VC signal labels
(C2 byte). Only available when PLM-P/UNEQ-P / HP-PLM/HP-UNEQ is
enabled (refer to Labels on page 192).

PDI-P (Payload Defect Indication - Path) - SONET
RX: For VT-structured STS-1 SPE, there is a LOP-V, AIS-V, DS3 AIS, DS3
LOS, or DS3 OOF defect on any VT or DS3 payload that it embeds into
the STS SPE that it is originating. For non-VT-structured STS-1 or STS-Nc
SPE, the C2 byte contains the hexadecimal FC code.
TX: For VT-structured STS-1 SPE, generates a VT-structured STS-1 SPE
with payload defect. For non-VT-structured STS-1 or STS-Nc SPE,
inserts the hexadecimal FC code in the C2 byte.

RDI-P (Remote Defect Indication - Path) - SONET
HP-RDI (High Order Path - Remote Defect Indication) - SDH
RX: Bits 5, 6, and 7 of the G1 byte contain the “100” or “111” pattern in
five consecutive frames.
TX: Generates a “100” pattern for bits 5, 6 and 7 of the G1 byte.

ERDI-PCD (Enhanced RDI - Path Connectivity Defect) - SONET
ERDI-CD (Enhanced RDI - Path Connectivity Defect) - SDH
RX: Bits 5, 6 and 7 of the G1 byte contain the “110” pattern in five
consecutive frames.
TX: Generates a “110” pattern for bits 5, 6 and 7 of the G1 byte.

ERDI-PPD (Enhanced RDI - Path Payload Defect) - SONET
ERDI-PD (Enhanced RDI - Payload Defect) - SDH
RX: Bits 5, 6 and 7 of the G1 byte contain the “010” pattern in five
consecutive frames.
TX: Generates a “010” pattern for bits 5, 6 and 7 of the G1 byte.
Power Blazer
393
Test Results
Alarms/Errors

ERDI-PSD (Enhanced RDI - Path Server Defect) - SONET
ERDI-SD (Enhanced RDI - Server Defect) - SDH
RX: Bits 5, 6 and 7 of the G1 byte contain the “101” pattern in five
consecutive frames.
TX: Generates a “101” pattern for bits 5, 6 and 7 of the G1 byte.
Errors

B3 (BIP-8, Bit-Interleave Parity - 8 bits)
RX: Indicates a high order path parity error by performing an
even-parity check over all bits of the previous SPE (SONET) / VC-N
(SDH).

REI-P (Remote Error Indicator - Path) - SONET
HP-REI (HP - Remote Error Indicator) - SDH
RX: Bits 1 through 4 of the G1 byte contain one pattern from the
following binary range: “0001” through “1000” (1 to 8) (located in every
STS-1/STM-1 of an STS-n/STM-n signal.
394
88000 Series
Test Results
Alarms/Errors
SyncE
Alarms

ESMC Loss
RX: No ESMC valid information frames were received for more than 5
seconds.

QL Mismatch (available when the QL Mismatch Monitoring check
box is selected)
RX: The received QL value does not match the Expected QL (refer to
page 318 or page 440).
Power Blazer
395
Test Results
Alarms/Errors
TCM (SONET/SDH)
Note: TCM is displayed for rates up to OC-192/STM-64 under the STS-x/AU-x or
VT/TU alarms/errors group when TCM is enabled.
Alarms

TC-UNEQ-P / HPTC-UNEQ (Unequipped)
RX/TX: An all “0”s pattern is received/generated in the higher order
path signal label byte (C2), the TCM byte (N1) and the path trace byte
(J1), and a valid BIP-8 bytes (B3).

TC-UNEQ-V / LPTC-UNEQ (Unequipped)
(LPTC - Unequipped)
RX/TX: An all “0”s pattern is received/generated in the lower order path
signal label (bit 5, 6, 7 of byte V5), the TCM byte (Z6/N2) and the path
trace byte (J2), and a valid BIP-2 (bits 1, 2 of V5 byte).

TC-LTC-P / TC-LTC-V / HPTC-LTC / LPTC-LTC (Loss of Tandem
Connection)
RX/TX: A wrong FAS multiframe is received/generated.

TC-IAIS-P / HPTC-IAIS (Incoming Alarm Indication Signal)
RX/TX: Bits 1 through 4 of the N1 byte are set to “1110”.

TC-IAIS-V / LPTC-IAIS (Incoming Alarm Indication Signal)
RX/TX: Bit 4 of the Z6/N2 byte is set to “1”.

TC-ODI-P / TC-ODI-V / HPTC-ODI / LPTC-ODI (Outgoing Defect
Indication)
RX/TX:
396

SONET: Bit 7 of the N1/Z6 byte frame 74 is set to “1”.

SDH: Bit 7 of the N1/N2 byte multiframe 74 is set to “1”.
88000 Series
Test Results
Alarms/Errors

TC-TIM-P / TC-TIM-V / HPTC-TIM / LPTC-TIM (Trace Identifier
Mismatch)
RX: The received message differs from the defined expected message.
The TC-TIM is also declared when receiving invalid ASCII characters or
when errors are detected with CRC-7.

TC-RDI-P / TC-RDI-V / HPTC-RDI / LPTC-RDI (Remote Defect
Indication)
RX/TX:

SONET: The TC-RDI is declared when bit 8 of the N1/Z6 byte frame
73 is set to “1”.

SDH: The TC-RDI is declared when bit 8 of the N1/N2 byte
multiframe 73 is set to “1”.
Errors

TC-VIOL-P / HPTC-VIOL (Violations)
RX: TC-VIOL indicates the number of B3 parity violation within the
tandem connection for STS-1 SPE/VC-3 and above.

TC-VIOL-V / LPTC-VIOL (Violations)
RX: TC-VIOL indicates the number of violation within the tandem
connection for VT6 SPE/VC-2 and below.
Power Blazer
397
Test Results
Alarms/Errors

TC-IEC-P / HPTC-IEC (Incoming Error Count)
RX: The TC-IEC indicates the number of B3 parity violations detected at
the TC Source for STS-1 SPE/VC-3 and above (bits 1 to 4 of the N1 byte).
Bit
Number of
BIP-8 violations

1
2
3
4
Bit
Number of
BIP-8 violations
1
2
3
4
0
0
0
0
0
8
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
1
0
1
0
0
1
2
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
1
0
3
0
0
1
1
0
1
0
1
1
4
0
1
0
0
0
1
1
0
0
5
0
1
0
1
0
1
1
0
1
6
0
1
1
0
0 (IAIS)
1
1
1
0
7
0
1
1
1
0
1
1
1
1
TC-OEI-P / TC-OEI-V / HPTC-OEI / LPTC-OEI (Outgoing Error
Indication)
RX: Indicates errored blocks of the outgoing VTn/VC-n (bit 6 of the N1
or Z6/N2 byte).
TX: Bit 6 of the N1 or Z6/N2 byte is set to 1.

TC-REI-P / TC-REI-V / HPTC-REI / LPTC-REI (Remote Error Indication)
RX: Indicates errored blocks caused within the Tandem Connection
(bit 5 of the N1 or Z6/N2 byte).
TX: Bit 5 of N1 or Z6/N2 byte is set to 1.
398
88000 Series
Test Results
Alarms/Errors
Transcoding
Note: Only available with OTU3 BERT test application with 40 GbE client.
Alarms

LOBL1027B (Loss of Block Lock 1027 Blocks)
RX: Sixteen 1027-bit blocks with invalid 3-bit patterns are received
before sixty-four valid blocks.

Hi-BER1027B (High-Bit Error Ratio 1027 Blocks)
RX: The bit error ratio is > 10-4 on a fixed 250 μs time period.

LOAML1027B (Loss of Alignment Marker Lock 1027 Blocks)
RX: In lock mode, four consecutive marker values are received that do
not match the alignment marker that the lane is currently locked to.
The LOAML alarm is cleared when the PCS Lane is declared Lock and
two valid alignment markers 16384 blocks (66b) apart are received.
Errors

Inv. Flag (Invalid Flag)
RX: A 1027-bit block with invalid 3-bit pattern is received.

POSV (POS Violation)
RX: Two or more POS (Position Field) have the same POS values or
they are not in ascending order.

SEQV (Sequence Violation)
RX: Unexpected sequence is detected.

MSEQV (Marker Sequence Violation)
RX: Unexpected marker sequence is detected.
Power Blazer
399
Test Results
Alarms/Errors
VT/TU
Alarms

AIS-V (Alarm Indication Signal - VT) - SONET
TU-AIS (Tributary Unit - Alarm Indication Signal) - SDH
RX: V1 and V2 bytes for the VT/TU path contain an all-ones pattern in
three (SONET) / five (SDH) consecutive superframes.
TX: Generates an all-ones pattern for the V1 and V2 bytes of the VT/TU
path and payload.

LOP-V (Loss Of Pointer - VT) - SONET
TU-LOP (Tributary Unit - Loss Of Pointer) - SDH
RX: A valid pointer is not found in N consecutive superframes (where
8  N  10), or if N consecutive NDFs (“1001” pattern).
TX: Generates a non-valid pointer.

RDI-V (Remote Defect Indication - VT) - SONET
LP-RDI (Tributary Unit - Remote Defect Indication) - SDH
RX: Bit 8 of the V5 byte contains “1” in five consecutive VT/TU
superframes while bits 6 and 7 of the Z7 (SONET) / K4 (SDH) byte
contain the “00” or “11” pattern.
TX: Generates “1” for the bit 8 of the V5 byte and a “00” pattern for bits
6 and 7 of the Z7 (SONET) / K4 (SDH) byte.

RFI-V (Remote Failure Indication - VT) - SONET
LP-RFI (LOP - Remote Failure Indication) - SDH, available with VC-11
only.
RX: Bit 4 of the V5 byte contains “1” in five consecutive superframes.
TX: Generates “1” for the bit 4 of the V5 byte.
400
88000 Series
Test Results
Alarms/Errors

TIM-V (Trace Identifier Mismatch - VT) - SONET
LP-TIM (LOP - Trace Identifier Mismatch) - SDH
RX:


SONET: The J2 Trace doesn’t match the expected message value.
Only available when the TIM-V check box is selected (refer to
page Traces (SONET/SDH) on page 330).

SDH: None of the sampled LP trace strings match the expected
message value. Only available when the LP-TIM check box is
selected (refer to page Traces (SONET/SDH) on page 330).
PLM-V (Payload Label Mismatch - VT) - SONET
LP-PLM (LOP - Payload Label Mismatch) - SDH
RX: Five consecutive superframes with mismatched VT/LP Signal (bits
5 through 7 of the V5 byte are “000”, “001” or “111”). Only available
when the PLM-V/UNEQ-V / LP-PLM/LP-UNEQ check box is selected
(refer to page Labels on page 192).

UNEQ-V (Unequipped - VT) - SONET
LP-UNEQ (LOP - Unequipped) - SDH
RX: Bit 5 through 7 of the V5 byte contain “000” for five consecutive
superframes. Only available when the PLM-V/UNEQ-V /
LP-PLM/LP-UNEQ check box is selected (refer to page Labels on
page 192).
TX: Generates samples of unequipped VT/LP signal label (bits 5
through 7 of V5 byte are set to “000”).

ERDI-VSD (Enhanced RDI - VT Server Defect) - SONET
LP-ERDI-SD (LOP - Enhanced RDI - Server Defect) - SDH
RX: Bits 5, 6, and 7 of the Z7 (SONET) / K4 (SDH) byte contain the “101”
pattern, and bit 8 of the V5 byte contain “1”, in five consecutive VT/LP
superframes.
TX: Generates a “101” pattern for bits 5, 6, and 7 of the Z7 (SONET) / K4
(SDH) byte, and “1” for bit 8 of the V5 byte.
Power Blazer
401
Test Results
Alarms/Errors

ERDI-VCD (Enhanced RDI - VT Connectivity Defect) - SONET
LP-ERDI-CD (LOP - Enhanced RDI - Connectivity Defect) - SDH
RX: Bits 5, 6, and 7 of the Z7 (SONET) / K4 (SDH) byte contain the “110”
pattern, and bit 8 of the V5 byte contain “1”, in five consecutive VT/LP
superframes.
TX: Generates a “110” pattern for bits 5, 6, and 7 of the Z7 (SONET) / K4
(SDH) byte, and “1” for bit 8 of the V5 byte.

ERDI-VPD (Enhanced RDI - VT Path Payload Defect) - SONET
LP-ERDI-PD (LOP - Enhanced RDI - Path Payload Defect) - SDH
RX: Bits 5, 6, and 7 of the Z7 (SONET) / K4 (SDH) byte contain the “010”
pattern, and bit 8 of the V5 byte contain “0”, in five consecutive VT/LP
superframes.
TX: Generates a “010” pattern for bits 5, 6, and 7 of the Z7 (SONET) / K4
(SDH) byte, and “0” for bit 8 of the V5 byte.
Errors

BIP-2 (Bit-Interleave Parity - 2 bits)
RX:
SONET: The BIP-2 error indicates a parity error by performing a
routine even-parity check over all VT1.5 bytes of the previous frame
of a composite signal (VT1.5/VT2/VT6).
SDH: The BIP-2 error indicates a Low Order Path parity error by
performing a routine even-parity check over all bytes of the
previous VC frame.

REI-V (Remote Error Indicator - VT) - SONET
LP-REI (Low Order Path - Remote Error Indicator) - SDH
RX: REI is declared when bit 3 of the V5 byte is set to “1”.
402
88000 Series
Test Results
Alarms/Errors
WIS
Note: Available under the WIS sub tab for 10G WAN interface only.
Alarms

WIS Link Down
RX: At least one of the following errors is present: AIS-P, LOF, PLM-P,
SEF, LOP, or AIS-L.

SEF (Severely Errored Framing)
RX: A minimum of four consecutive errored framing patterns.
TX: Generates more than four consecutive errored framing patterns.

LOF (Loss Of Frame)
RX: A Severely Error Framing (SEF) defect on the incoming SONET
signal persists for at least 3 milliseconds.
TX: Generates a non-valid framing pattern.

AIS-L (Alarm Indication Signal - Line)
RX: Bits 6, 7 and 8 of the K2 byte contain the “111" pattern in five
consecutive frames.
TX: Generates a “111” pattern for the bits 6, 7 and 8 of the K2 byte.

RDI-L (Remote Defect Indication - Line)
RX: Bits 6, 7, and 8 of the K2 byte contain the “110" pattern in five
consecutive frames.
TX: Generates a “110” pattern for the bits 6, 7 and 8 of the K2 byte.

AIS-P (Alarm Indication Signal - Path)
RX: The H1 and H2 bytes for a STS path contain an all-ones pattern in
three consecutive frames or more.
TX: Generates an all-ones pattern for H1 and H2 bytes.
Power Blazer
403
Test Results
Alarms/Errors

RDI-P (Remote Defect Indication - Path)
RX: Bits 5, 6 and 7 of the G1 byte contain the “100" or “111" pattern in
ten consecutive frames.
TX: Generates a “100” pattern for bits 5, 6 and 7 of the G1 byte.

LCD-P (Loss of Code-Group Delineation - Path)
RX: The signal synchronization has been lost and the valid code-groups
are no longer being delineated from the received payload stream being
passed to the PCS.
TX: Generates a PCS link down.

LOP-P (Loss Of Pointer - Path)
RX: For non-concatenated payloads, a valid pointer is not found in N
consecutive frames (where 8 = N = 10), or N consecutive NDFs
("1001" pattern) are detected.
TX: Generates a non-valid pointer.

PLM-P (Payload Label Mismatch - Path)
RX: Five consecutive frames have mismatched STS signal labels.

UNEQ-P (Unequipped - Path)
RX: The C2 byte contains “00 H" in five consecutive frames.
TX: Generates samples of unequipped STS signal labels (C2 is set to
“00 H”).

ERDI-PSD (Enhanced RDI - Path Server Defect)
RX: Bits 5, 6 and 7 of the G1 byte contain the “101” pattern in five to ten
consecutive frames.
TX: Generates a “101” pattern for bits 5, 6 and 7 of the G1 byte.
404
88000 Series
Test Results
Alarms/Errors

ERDI-PCD (Enhanced RDI - Path Connectivity Defect)
RX: Bits 5, 6 and 7 of the G1 byte contain the “110” pattern in five to ten
consecutive frames.
TX: Generates a “110” pattern for bits 5, 6 and 7 of the G1 byte.

ERDI-PPD (Enhanced RDI - Path Payload Defect)
RX: Bits 5, 6 and 7 of the G1 byte contain the “010” pattern in five to ten
consecutive frames.
TX: Generates a “010” pattern for bits 5, 6 and 7 of the G1 byte.
PLM-P/UNEQ-P (Payload Label Mismatch - Path / Unequipped - Path)
check box when selected (cleared by default) enables the Signal Label
Mismatch for the expected message defined as well as UNEQ-P
monitoring.
Errors

B1 (BIP-8, Bit-Interleave Parity - 8 bits)
RX: Indicates a Section parity error by performing a routine even-parity
check over all Section bits of the previous frame of a composite signal
(located in the first STS-1 of an STS-n signal).

B2 (BIP-1536, Bit-Interleave Parity - 1536 bits)
RX: Indicates a Line parity error by performing a routine even-parity
check over all Line bits of the LOH and STS-1 frame capacity of the
previous frame of a composite signal (located in every STS-1 of an
STS-n signal).

B3 (BIP-8, Bit-Interleave Parity - 8 bits)
RX: Indicates a Path parity error by performing a routine even-parity
check over all Path bits of the previous SPE excluding the LOH and
SOH.
Power Blazer
405
Test Results
Alarms/Errors

REI-L (Remote Error Indicator - Line)
RX: Bits 5 through 8 of the M0 byte contain one pattern from the
following binary range: “0001" through “1000" (1 to 8) (located in the
first STS-1 of an STS-n signal).

REI-P (Remote Error Indicator - Path)
RX: Bits 1 through 4 of the G1 byte contain one pattern from the
following binary range: “0001" through “1000" (1 to 8) (located in every
STS-1 of an STS-n signal).
406
88000 Series
Test Results
Alarms/Errors
Inject Button
Selected Alarm/Error
and status

Open/Close pop-up button
Layer: Allows to select on which layer is the alarm/error to be
generated. Choices depend on the test application and its interface.
Port 1 or Port 2 selection, available with Dual Port topology, allows to
select the port used for alarm/error injection.
Power Blazer

Lane, available with parallel interface, allows to select the physical
lane that will be used for injection. Available for Interface, OTL, and
PCS layers only.

Channel, available with Multi-Channel OTN, allows to select the
channel number that will be used for injection. The All button selects
all channels.

Type: Allows to select the type of injection, either Alarms or Errors.

Defect: Allows the selection of the alarm/error defect to be generated.
Choices depend on the selected Layer and Type. Refer to
Alarms/Errors on page 338 for more information.
407
Test Results
Alarms/Errors

Mode and Rate/Amount

Manual allows to enter the amount of manual error to be
generated: 1 (default) through 50 or 100 (depends on the selected
error).

Rate allows the selection of the injection rate for the selected error.
The rate must be within the minimum and maximum values
specified.

Max Rate generates the selected error to its theoretical maximum
rate.


Burst Single1 available with any SONET/SDH layer, generates a
burst of consecutive alarmed frames and then automatically stops
the transmission. Use the Duration field to set the burst duration.
Burst Repeat1 available with any SONET/SDH layer, generates a
burst of consecutive alarmed frames over the period continuously.
Use the Duration field to set the burst duration and the Period
field to set the period.
1. Available with OC-768/STM-256 interface only.
408
88000 Series
Test Results
Alarms/Errors

Duration available with Burst Single and Burst Repeat modes, allows
the selection of the burst duration: 1 (default) to 14400000 frames or 1
to 1800 seconds. The burst duration value must be less of equal to the
period value.

Period
For GFP layer, allows to set the alarm period associated with the client
management frames: 10 ms to 1200 ms (default is 100 ms).
For Burst Repeat mode, allows the selection of the burst period: 1
(default) to 14400000 frames or to 1800 seconds. The burst period
value must be bigger or equal to the duration value.

User-Defined UPI available with GFP layer, allows entering the Client
Management Frame UPI value when GFP-User-Defined CMF alarm is
selected.
UPI
0000 0000 and 1111 1111
Description for PTI = 100
Reserved
0000 0001
Client Signal Fail (Loss of Client Signal)
0000 0010
Client Signal Fail (Loss of Client Character Synchronization)
0000 0011 through 1111 1110 Reserved for future use
Power Blazer
409
Test Results
Alarms/Errors
The following settings are only available with Carrier Ethernet OAM test
application.



Address Type defines the destination address type of the frame:
Unicast or Multicast (default).
Priority1 allows to select the VLAN user priority: 0 (default) to 7.
Refer to VLAN ID and Priority on page 740 for more information.
Drop Eligible1 is set to No (no frames will be dropped when
congestion occurs) and is not configurable.

MEG Level (Y.1731 and MEF) is the Maintenance Entity Group
Level configurable from 0 to 7 (default).

Period determines the transmission period of frames: 1 s (default)
and 1 min. Not available with C-DCI.

Amount, only available with C-DCI alarm, is set to 1.
Note: The RDI alarm is available when the CC Function is enabled and is using
the parameters from the CC Function (refer to page 264 for more
information).
1. Available when VLAN is enabled (see VLAN on page 220).
410
88000 Series
Test Results
Alarms/Errors

Inject button
For Manual mode: Manually generates the selected errors according to
the defect and the amount selected.
For Rate and Max Rate: Generates respectively the selected error at
the rate specified or at its theoretical maximum rate.
Note: The selected alarm/error as well as its injection mode and status are
displayed next to the Inject button.

Power Blazer
The open/close pop-up button allows to respectively expand (up
arrow) or collapse (down arrow) a pop-up allowing to set the
alarm/error injection parameters.
411
Test Results
FTFL/PT and PT
FTFL/PT and PT
For OTN BERT and OTN-SONET/SDH BERT: From the Test menu tap
Results, and the FTFL/PT tab.
For Multi-Channel OTN: From the Test menu, tap Results, and the PT tab.
Channel
Available with Multi-Channel OTN lower ODU layer, allows the selection of
the channel number.
ODUx Buttons
Tap on an ODUx button to select the multiplexed level.
FTFL
Indicates the Forward and Backward ODU Fault Type Fault Location. Not
available with Multi-Channel OTN.

Fault Indication and Code displays the FTFL fault indicator message
and its code in hexadecimal format (byte 0 for forward, byte 128 for
backward).
Fault Indication
412
Code
No fault
00 (default)
Signal fail
01
Signal Degrade
02
Reserved
03

Operator Identifier displays the received operator identifier (bytes 1
to 9 for forward, byte 129 to 137 for backward).

Operator Specific displays the received operator specific (bytes 10 to
127 for forward, byte 138 to 255 for backward).
88000 Series
Test Results
FTFL/PT and PT
PT (Payload Type)

Payload Type and Code
Received displays the received payload signal type and its code in
hexadecimal format.
Expected allows to select the expected payload signal type either by
selecting the payload from the list or by typing its hexadecimal code.
Note: Refer to PT / Global PT on page 178 for the list.


OPU-PLM1, when selected, enables the OPU-PLM alarm analysis.
Copy RX/Global Copy RX2 uses the received payload type as the
expected payload type. For Multi-Channel OTN lower ODU layer, use
the arrow button next to the Copy RX or Global Copy RX to switch
from one button to the other; Global Copy RX uses the current
channel received payload type as the expected payload type for all
channels while Copy RX only affects the selected channel.
1. For Multi-Channel OTN lower ODU layer, the OPU-PLM check box is only configurable from the test setup.
2. Only available for Multi-Channel OTN lower ODU layer.
Power Blazer
413
Test Results
GFP-F/GFP-T
GFP-F/GFP-T
Note: This tab is only available with OTN BERT test application with 1GbE,
10GbE, or Ethernet (flex/GFP-F) client.
From the Test menu, tap Results, and the GFP-F/GFP-T tab.
Transport Layer

Bandwidth Usage (%) indicates the transmitted/received transport
layer bandwidth in the last second, excluding the Idle bytes.

Mapping Efficiency (%) indicates the transmitted/received transport
layer mapping efficiency (Client Payload Bytes divided by Client Data
Bytes multiplied by 100) in the last second.
Frame Type
Note: For Ethernet (flex/GFP-F) client with EXI set to Linear, the RX count/rate is
configurable to either RX (default) or RX CID Filtered by tapping on the
table RX label. RX CID Filtered only includes frames that match the
expected CID (refer to CID on page 5).
414

Client Data indicates the transmitted/received client data frames
without uncorrectable cHEC, tHEC, and eHEC errors. Possible rate
units are Frames (default), Bytes, or Payload Bytes per second.

Client Management indicates the transmitted/received client
management frames without uncorrectable cHEC, tHEC, and eHEC,
and pFCS errors. Possible rate units are Frames (default), or Bytes per
second.

Idle indicates the transmitted/received idle frames. Possible rate units
are Frames (default), or Bytes per second.
88000 Series
Test Results
GFP-F/GFP-T

Reserved PTI indicates the received client data and management
frames with a payload type identifier different of 000 and 100 without
uncorrectable cHEC, tHEC, and eHEC, and pFCS errors. Possible rate
units are Frames (default), or Bytes per second.

Reserved PLI indicates the number of reserved control frames (PLI=1,
2, or 3 while in Synchronization state) received.

Invalid indicates the number of received frames corresponding to at
least one of the following conditions:
EXI=0000 while PFI=1 and PLI <8
EXI=0001 while PFI=0 and PLI <8
EXI=0001 while PFI=1 and PLI<12

Discarded indicates the number of received frames with
uncorrectable tHEC, eHEC errors, or Invalid Frames.

Total indicates the received frames including Idle, Client Data, Client
Management, and frames with a reserved PTI. Possible rate units are
Frames (default), or Bytes per second.
RX Mismatch

PFI (Payload Frame Check Sequence Identifier) indicates the number
of frames with PFI field not matching the expected PFI.

EXI (Extension Header Identifier) indicates the number of frames with
EXI field not matching the expected EXI.

UPI (User Payload Identifier) indicates the number of frames UPI field
not matching the expected UPI.

CID (Channel IDentifier), only available when EXI is et to Linear,
indicates the number of frames CID field not matching the expected
CID.
Note: For expected values, refer to GFP-F/GFP-T on page 180 for more
information.
Power Blazer
415
Test Results
GFP-F/GFP-T
Superblock
Note: Superblock is only available with GFP-T.
416

Valid indicates the transmitted/received superblocks without any
uncorrectable error.

Invalid indicates the transmitted/received superblocks with
uncorrectable error.

Total indicates the total transmitted/received valid and invalid
superblocks.
88000 Series
Test Results
Graph (RFC 2544)
Graph (RFC 2544)
Displays the graph showing the Throughput, Back-to-Back, Frame Loss,
and Latency measurements. For Dual Test Set the graph shows results
from Local to Remote and Remote to Local using distinctive colors. For
Dual Port topology the graph shows results from P1 to P2 (P1->P2) and P2
to P1 (P2->P1) using distinctive colors.
From the Test menu, tap Results, and the Graphs tab.

All button allows to view the graphs of all subtests simultaneously.

Throughput, Back-to-Back, Frame Loss, and Latency buttons allow to
view an enlarged graph view of the selected subtest.

Displayed Results allows to select the displayed results mode, either
Minimum, Maximum (default), Average, or Current.

Step, available with Frame Loss, allows to select the result step
(100 percent by default) to be displayed.
The X axis shows the frame sizes while the Y axis shows the subtest
results.

Power Blazer
Frame Size (Bytes) and Step (%), available with Frame Loss, allows to
select either Frame Size (default) or Step as the X axis criterion.
417
Test Results
Labels
Labels
From the Test menu, tap Results, and Labels.
Note: Selecting a Label byte to be generated will automatically update the
corresponding OH byte. Refer to OH - SONET/SDH on page 578 for more
information.
Labels

STS/AU Path (C2): The C2 byte is allocated to indicate the content of
the STS SPE / VC, including the status of the mapped payloads.
Received: Displays the received C2 byte. Refer to C2 on page 587 for
more information.

PLM-P/UNEQ-P / HP-PLM/HP-UNEQ: Enables the Payload Mismatch
and STS/AU UNEQ monitoring. This setting is coupled with the
configuration of Labels on page 192.
Expected: Select the expected C2 byte from the list. Refer to C2 on
page 587 for more information.

VT/TU Path (V5): The V5 byte is allocated to indicate the content of the
VT/TU path, including the status of the mapped payloads.
Received: Displays the received V5 byte. Refer to V5 on page 590 for
more information.

PLM-V/UNEQ-V / LP-PLM/LP-UNEQ: Enables the Payload Mismatch
and VT/TU UNEQ monitoring. This setting is coupled with the
configuration of Labels on page 192.
Expected: Select the expected V5 byte from the list. Refer to V5 on
page 590 for more information.
418
88000 Series
Test Results
Link OAM
Link OAM
From the Test menu, tap Results, and the Link OAM tab.
Remote MAC Address
Indicates the remote OAM link partner MAC address.
Remote OAM Information

OAM Version indicates the protocol version supported by the DTE.

Revision indicates the revision of the Information TLV.

Multiplexer Action reports the Multiplexer Action:
Forward indicates that the device is forwarding non-OAMPDUs to the
lower sublayer.
Discard indicates that the device is discarding non-OAMPDUs.

Parser Action reports the Parser Action:
Forward indicates that the device is forwarding non-OAMPDUs to the
higher sublayer.
Loopback indicates that the device is looping back non-OAMPDUs to
the lower sublayer.
Discard indicates that the device is discarding non-OAMPDUs.

OAM Mode reports the OAM mode:
Active indicates that the DTE is configured in Active mode.
Passive indicates that the DTE is configured in Passive mode.
Power Blazer

OUI reports the 24-bit IEEE Organizationally Unique Identifier field
identifying the vendor.

Maximum OAMPDU Size reports the maximum OAMPDU size in bytes,
supported by the DTE.
419
Test Results
Link OAM

Vendor Specific Information reports the 32-bit Vendor Specific
Information field identifying the vendor’s product model and version.

Unidirectional reports unidirectional support capability:
Supported indicates that the DTE is capable of sending OAMPDUs
when the receive path is non-operational.
Unsupported indicates that the DTE is not capable of sending
OAMPDUs when the receive path is non-operational.

Remote Loopback reports OAM remote loopback support capability:
Supported indicates that the DTE is capable of OAM remote loopback
mode.
Unsupported indicates that the DTE is not capable of OAM remote
loopback mode.

Variable Retrieval reports variable retrieval capability:
Supported indicates that the DTE supports sending Variable Response
OAMPDUs.
Unsupported indicates that the DTE does not support sending Variable
Response OAMPDUs.

Link Events reports link event capability:
Supported indicates that the DTE supports interpreting Link Events.
Unsupported indicates that the DTE does not support interpreting Link
Events.
420
88000 Series
Test Results
Link OAM
Remote Error Event Statistics





Date Stamp1 indicates the date the last Event Notification OAMPDU
frame was received.
Time Stamp1 indicates the time the last Event Notification OAMPDU
event was received by the test equipment.
Window
Symbol Period
Errored symbol Window in second
Frame
Errored frame event Window in second
Frame Period
Errored frame period Window - duration period in number of 64
bytes frames
Frame Seconds
Errored frame seconds summary Window
Threshold
Symbol Period
Errored symbol threshold in second
Frame
Errored frame event threshold in second
Frame Period
Errored frame period threshold in second
Frame Seconds
Errored frame seconds summary threshold in second
Error Count
Symbol Period
The number of symbol errors in Window
Frame
The number of frame event errors in Window
Frame Period
The number of frame period errors in Window
Frame Seconds
The number of frame seconds summary errors in Window
1. Date Stamp and Time Stamp parameters differ from the 802.3 standard definitions.
Power Blazer
421
Test Results
Link OAM


Error Running Total
Symbol Period
The number of symbol errors since the last reset
Frame
The number of frame event errors since the last reset
Frame Period
The number of frame period errors since the last reset
Frame Seconds
The number of frame seconds summary errors since the last reset
Event Running Total
Symbol Period
The number of symbol events since the last reset
Frame
The number of frame events since the last reset
Frame Period
The number of frame period events since the last reset
Frame Seconds
The number of frame seconds events since the last reset
Inject Errored Frames
Generates 5 consecutive packets with FCS errors within a 1 second period.
422
88000 Series
Test Results
Logger
Logger
The Logger page displays color-coded events and pass/fail verdict.
From the Test menu, tap Results, and the Logger tab.
Sort By
Select the sorting order of the event logger entries:

ID/Time (default) displays the event logger entries in numeric
ascending order based on the ID column of the event logger table.

Event displays the event Logger entries in alphanumeric ascending
order based on the Event column of the event logger table.
Time Mode

Relative displays the time elapse since the beginning of the test or
since the last test reset. The format of the time is Dd HH:MM:SS.

Absolute (default) displays the date and time the event occurred. The
time format depends on the platform time settings.
For 24 hours, the time format is MM/DD HH:MM:SS.
For 12 hours, the time format is MM/DD HH:MM:SS <AM or PM>.
Table
The logger table provides the following event logger information.
Power Blazer

ID: Indicates the event identification number. The events are
sequentially numbered.

Time: Indicates when the event has been detected.

Event: Provides the event type and threshold crossing information.

Duration: Indicates the number of seconds within which the event
occurred. Test events like Test Started and Test Stopped will have no
duration.
423
Test Results
Logger

Details: Provides contextual information including the pass/fail verdict.
The following table displays the nature of information reported by type of
event:
Type of Event
Nature of Information
Test Started
Start Date
Test Stopped
Pass/Fail Verdict
Alarm Events
Count value, Lane #, Ch#, etc.
Error Events
Current Count, Ch#, and Total Count
SDT Events
Service Disruption Time
Threshold Crossing Event
Value at the end of the test
Note: The Logger table can display up to 500 event entries. Once the Logger table
reports 5000 event entries, a log full indicator appears and no further entries
is possible. However, the events in the Pending state will be updated if the
test is still running.
The Event Logger information will be cleared when:

the test is reset or started.

stopping the current test and

the unit is restarted.
Note: An entry event remains in the Pending state as long as the event is not
completed and it is highlighted on a yellow background color.
Note: The Threshold Crossing events are displayed in red text color.
424
88000 Series
Test Results
MPLS
MPLS
From the Test menu, tap Results, and...

for Traffic Gen and Mon, the Streams, and the MPLS tab.

for Though Mode, the Traffic, and the MPLS tab.
Note: For Dual Port topology, the P1 and P2 buttons allow to respectively display
results for port #1 (P1) or port #2 (P2).
Label 1 and Label 2
The number of MPLS frames transmitted (TX) and received (RX) are
displayed for both Label 1 and Label 2 for each Stream. Not available for
Through Mode test application.
Total TX/RX MPLS
Power Blazer

Line Utilization indicates the percentage of MPLS line rate utilization
in TX and RX.

Ethernet BW (%) (Ethernet Bandwidth) indicates the MPLS data rate
in TX and RX.

Frame Rate (frames/s) indicates the number of transmitted (TX) and
received (RX) MPLS frames).

Frame Count indicates the count of transmitted (TX) and received
(RX) MPLS EtherType (0x8847 or 0x8848) frames regardless if FCS is
good or not.
425
Test Results
OTL-SDT
OTL-SDT
Note: Only available for parallel interfaces when an OTL defect, at the exception
of LOL, is selected for Service Disruption Time (refer to Service Disruption
on page 143).
From the Test menu, tap Results, and the OTL-SDT tab.
Service Disruption
Note: Service Disruption results are only available when Disruption Monitoring
is enabled (refer to BERT and Unframed BERT on page 140).
Service Disruption is the time during which there is a disruption of service
due to the absence of traffic or to the detection of defects per lane.
Disruption Time
426

Defect indicates on which layer and defect the service disruption time
test is performed.

Lane indicates the lane number.

Longest (ms) indicates the longest measured disruption time per lane.

Shortest (ms) indicates the shortest measured disruption time per
lane.

Last (ms) indicates the length of the last measured disruption time per
lane.

Average (ms) indicates the average duration of all measured
disruption times per lane.

Total (ms) indicates the total duration of all measured disruption times
per lane.

Count indicates the number of disruption events detected since the
beginning of the SDT test per lane.
88000 Series
Test Results
OTL-SDT

Longest Disruption indicates the longest measured disruption time.

Lanes with Disruption indicates the number of lanes with service
disruption.
Note: When a disruption event is equal or longer than the test period which is
fixed to 5 minutes, then the measured disruption time is equal to the test
period.
Power Blazer
427
Test Results
Performance Monitoring
Performance Monitoring
Note: This tab is only available with Transport test applications with Pattern
client.
The Performance Monitoring tab gives error performance events and
parameters for the circuit under test.
From the Test menu, tap Results, and the Performance Monitoring tab.
Each button on top of the window represents a level of the analyzed signal
for which the Performance Monitoring (PM) is available. Each button also
displays the PM standard(s) available for this level. Tap a signal level button
to get its PM results.
Standard’s availability
Analyzed Signal
G.821
DS3/DS1/E4/E3/E2/E1
G.826 G.828 G.829 M.2100 M.2100 M.2101
ISM
ISM ISM
ISM
OOSM
ISM
X
X
Section/RS
X
Line/MS
X
VTn/STS-n/AU-n/ TU-n
BERT
X
X
X
X
X
Note: G.821 and M.2100 OOSM are only available when No Pattern Analysis
(Live) check box is cleared (refer to page 140).
428
88000 Series
Test Results
Performance Monitoring
Near-End

EFS (Error Free Second) (G.821, G.826, G.828, and G.829): Gives the
number of seconds within which no error occurred.

EC (Error Count) (G.821 only): Gives the number of bit errors.

EB (Errored Block) (G.826, G.828, and G.829): Gives the count of
blocks in which one or more bits are in error.

ES (Errored Second)
For G.821, and M.2100 OOSM: Gives the number of seconds within
which one or more bit error occurred, or during which Loss Of Signal
(LOS) or AIS is detected.
For G.826, G.828, G.829, M.2100 ISM, and M.2101: Gives the number
of seconds within which one or more anomalies (FAS (DSn/PDH), EB,
etc.) occurred, or at least one defect occurred.

SES (Severely Errored Second)
For G.821, and M.2100 OOSM: Gives the number of seconds within
which a bit error ratio is  10-3, or during which one defect (LOS/AIS) is
detected.
For G.826, G.828, G.829 and M.2101: Gives the number of seconds
within which anomalies (FAS (DSn/PDH), EB, etc.) are  X percent (see
table below) or at least one defect occurred. X=30 percent for
DSn/PDH signals; see the following table for SONET/SDH signals SES
threshold.
OC-1
OC-3
STS-1e STS-3e OC-12
STM-0 STM-1 STM-4
STM-0e STM-1e
Power Blazer
OC-48
STM-16
OC-192 OC-768
STM-64 STM-256
Path
30 %
30 %
30 %
30 %
30 %
30 %
Line/MS
15 %
15 %
25 %
30 %
30 %
30 %
Section/RS
10 %
30 %
30 %
30 %
30 %
30 %
429
Test Results
Performance Monitoring
For M.2100 ISM: Gives the count of the seconds within which
anomalies (frame bit errors, CRC block errors, etc.) are  Y or at least
one defect occurred. Y depends on the type of DSn/PDH signal as
described in the following table.
Signal
SES Threshold
DS1 (SF)
8 frame bit errors (Near-End)
DS1 (ESF)
320 CRC-6 block errors (Near-End) 320 CRC-6 block errors (Far-End, if FDL
enabled)
E1 (Framed without CRC-4) 28 frame bit errors (Near-End)
E1 (Framed with CRC-4)
805 CRC-4 block errors (Near-End) 805 E-bit errors (Far-End)
DS3 (M13)
2444 P-bit errors (Near-End) or 5 F-bit errors (Near-End)
DS3 (C-bit Parity)
2444 P-bit errors (Near-End) or 5 F-bit errors (Near-End) 2444 FEBE errors
(Far-End)
E2 (Framed)
41 frame bit errors (Near-End)
E3 (Framed)
52 frame bit errors (Near-End)
E4 (Framed)
69 frame bit errors (Near-End)

430
BBE (Background Block Error) (G.826, G.828, G.829, and M.2101):
Gives the count of Errored Block not occurring as part of a SES.
88000 Series
Test Results
Performance Monitoring

UAS (Unavailable Second): Gives the count of the seconds
corresponding to the periods of unavailable time that begins at the
onset of 10 consecutive SES events, including these 10 seconds. A
period of available time shall begin at the onset of 10 consecutive
non-SES events, including these 10 seconds.

ESR (Errored Second Ratio) (G.821, G.826, G.828, and G.829): Gives
the ratio of the number of ES in available time (AS) during a fixed
measurement interval.
ESR = ES ÷ AS

SESR (Severely Errored Second Ratio) (G.821, G.826, G.828, and
G.829): Gives the ratio of the number of SES in available time (AS)
during a fixed measurement interval.
SESR = SES ÷ AS
Power Blazer

BBER (Background Block Error Ratio) (G.826, G.828, G.829, and
M.2101): Gives the ratio of BBE in available time (AS) to total blocks in
available time during a fixed measurement interval. The count of total
blocks excludes all blocks during SESs.

DM (Degraded Minutes) (G.821 only): A Degraded Minute is the
number of minutes in which the estimated error rate exceeds 10-6 but
does not exceed 10-3. DM is determined by collecting all of the
Available Seconds, removing any SES grouping the result in 60-second
long groups and counting a 60-second long group as degraded if the
cumulative errors during the seconds present in the group exceed 10-6.
431
Test Results
Performance Monitoring

SEP (Severely Errored Period) (G.828 only): A sequence between
3 to 9 consecutive SES. The sequence is terminated by a second which
is not a SES.

SEPI (Severely Errored Period Intensity) (G.828 only): Gives the count
of SEP events in available time, divided by the total available time in
seconds.
Far-End

EFS (Error Free Second): Gives the count of the seconds within which
no error occurred or when a defect is detected on the near-end.

EC (Error Count) (G.821 only): Gives the number of bit errors.

EB (Errored Block) (G.826, G.828, and G.829): Gives the count of
blocks in which one or more bits are in error.

ES (Errored Second): For G.826, G.828, G.829, M.2100 ISM, and
M.2101: Gives the count of the seconds within which one or more
anomalies (FAS (DSn/PDH), EB, etc.) occurred or at least one defect
occurred.

SES (Severely Errored Second)
For G.826, G.828, G.829 and M.2101: Gives the number of seconds
within which anomalies (FAS (DSn/PDH), EB, etc.) are  X percent (see
table below) or at least one defect occurred. X=30 percent for
DSn/PDH signals; see the following table for SONET/SDH signals SES
threshold.
OC-1
OC-3
STS-1e STS-3e OC-12
STM-0 STM-1 STM-4
STM-0e STM-1e
Path
432
30 %
30 %
30 %
OC-48
STM-16
30 %
OC-192 OC-768
STM-64 STM-256
30 %
30 %
Line/MS
15 %
15 %
25 %
30 %
30 %
30 %
Section/RS
10 %
30 %
30 %
30 %
30 %
30 %
88000 Series
Test Results
Performance Monitoring
For M.2100 ISM: Gives the count of the seconds within which
anomalies (frame bit errors, CRC block errors, etc.) are  Y or at least
one defect occurred. Y depends on the type of DSn/PDH signal as
described in the following table.
Signal
SES Threshold
DS1 (SF)
8 frame bit errors (Near-End)
DS1 (ESF)
320 CRC-6 block errors (Near-End) 320 CRC-6 block errors (Far-End, if FDL
enabled)
E1 (Framed without CRC-4) 28 frame bit errors (Near-End)
E1 (Framed with CRC-4)
805 CRC-4 block errors (Near-End) 805 E-bit errors (Far-End)
DS3 (M13)
2444 P-bit errors (Near-End) or 5 F-bit errors (Near-End)
DS3 (C-bit Parity)
2444 P-bit errors (Near-End) or 5 F-bit errors (Near-End) 2444 FEBE errors
(Far-End)
E2 (Framed)
41 frame bit errors (Near-End)
E3 (Framed)
52 frame bit errors (Near-End)
E4 (Framed)
69 frame bit errors (Near-End)

Power Blazer
BBE (Background Block Error) (G.828 and G.829 Line): Gives the count
of Errored Blocks not occurring as part of an SES.
433
Test Results
Performance Monitoring

UAS (Unavailable Second): Gives the count of the seconds
corresponding to the period of unavailable time that begins at the
onset of 10 consecutive SES events, including these 10 seconds. A
period of available time shall begin at the onset of 10 consecutive
non-SES events, including these 10 seconds.

ESR (Errored Second Ratio): Gives the ratio of the number of ES in
available time to total seconds in available time during a fixed
measurement interval.
ESR = ES ÷ AS

SESR (Severely Errored Second Ratio): Gives the ratio of the number of
SES in available time to total seconds in available time during a fixed
measurement interval.
SESR = SES ÷ AS

434
BBER (Background Block Error Ratio): Gives the ratio of BBE in
available time to total blocks in available time during a fixed
measurement interval. The count of total blocks excludes all blocks
during SESs.
88000 Series
Test Results
PTP Stats
PTP Stats
From the Test menu, tap Results, and the PTP Stats tab.
TX/RX PTP Message Count/Rate
Gives the transmitted/received count and average rate for each PTP
message, and the total count for all messages.
TX
Reqa
Signaling Announce
Signaling Sync Reqa
Signaling Delay Resp Reqa
Delay Req
a.
RX
Signaling Announce Granta
Signaling Sync Granta
Signaling Delay Resp Granta
Delay Resp
Sync
Follow Up
Announce
The rate value corresponds to an average rate because these messages are only
transmitted/received when negotiating or renewing the lease with the Grand Master
clock. If the connection with the Grand Master Clock was already established when the
test is started, the 0 value is displayed. However, the value becomes available with the
next lease renewal which happens every 150 seconds. Only available with G.8265.1
profile.
Note: In the case where messages are lost while the Receipt Timeout is set to a
large value (slow communication), the last valid recorded rate value will
be preceded with < to indicate that the reception rate is not stable. This
applies to Delay Resp, Announce, Sync, and Follow UP.
Note: When the rate is above 150 messages/s, > 150 is displayed.
Power Blazer
435
Test Results
PTP Stats
IPDV
Inter Packet Delay Variation (IPDV) is available for Sync and Delay Req
messages and is measured for all valid in-sequence messages (see Delay
Measurement on page 468). Current, Average, Minimum, Maximum, and
Standard Deviation measurement values are displayed. The Standard
Derivation is the measure of the dispersion of messages from its mean.
When a value is below 1μ second, < 1μs is displayed. The pass/fail verdict
is also displayed beside the maximum value when enabled.
436
88000 Series
Test Results
Quality Level (1588 PTP)
Quality Level (1588 PTP)
The quality level characterizes the clock quality in terms of network
synchronization.
From the Test menu, tap Results, and the Quality Level tab.
Power Blazer

Last QL Received indicates the last Quality Level value received. The
pass/fail verdict is also displayed when both QL Mismatch Monitoring
and Pass/Fail Verdict check boxes are selected.

Last Change indicates the date and time of the Last QL has changed.

QL Mismatch Monitoring when selected (default) enables the Quality
Level mismatch monitoring.
437
Test Results
Quality Level (1588 PTP)

Expected QL allows the selection of the Expected Quality Level value.
Available when the QL Mismatch Monitoring check box is selected.
Profile Quality Level PTP Clock
ITU
value
Class
G.8265.1 QL-PRS (default) 80
Primary Reference Source Traceable (G.811)
QL-STU/UNK
82
Synchronized - Traceability Unknown
QL-PRC
84
Primary Reference Clock Traceable (G.811)
QL-ST2
86
Traceable to Stratum 2 (G.812 Type II)
QL-INV3
88
Quality Level Invalid 3
QL-SSU-A/TNC
90
Type I or V slave clock (G.812)
Traceable to Transit Node Clock (G.812 Type V)
QL-INV5
92
Quality Level Invalid 5
QL-INV6
94
Quality Level Invalid 6
QL-SSU-B
96
Type VI slave clock (G.812)
QL-INV9
98
Quality Level Invalid 9
QL-ST3E
100
Traceable to Stratum 3E (G.812 Type III)
QL-EEC2/ST3
102
Ethernet Equipment Clock Option 2
Traceable to Stratum 3 (G.812 Type IV)
QL-EEC1/SEC
104
Ethernet Equipment Clock Option 1
Synchronous Equipment Clock (G.813 or G.8262, Option 1)
QL-SMC
106
Traceable to SONET Minimum Clock (G.813 or G.8262, Option 2)
QL-PROV
108
Provisionable by the Network Operator (PNO)
QL-DNU/DUS
110
Do Not Use
Do Not Use for Synchronization
G.8275.1 QL-PRC/PRS
438
Description
6, 7, 135, 140 Primary Reference Clock Traceable (G.811)
QL-SSU-A/ST2
150
Type I or V slave clock (G.812)
Traceable to Stratum 2 (G.812 Type II)
QL-SSU-B/ST3E
(default)
160
Type VI slave clock (G.812)
Traceable to Stratum 3E (G.812 Type III)
88000 Series
Test Results
Quality Level (1588 PTP)
Power Blazer

Count gives the count for each QL code (PTP Clock Class) included in
the announce message received.

Other includes all clock class codes (0 to 255) included in the
announce message received other than the QL codes (see table
above). Refer to page 467 for the complete list.

Total indicates the total count of all QL code messages received.
439
Test Results
Quality Level (SyncE)
Quality Level (SyncE)
The quality level characterizes the clock quality in terms of network
synchronization.
From the Test menu, tap Results, and the Quality Level tab.
Generated QL indicates the Quality Level value that is generated.

Last Change indicates the date and time of the Generated Quality
Level value has changed. For 1GE Electrical interface using Local
Clock set to Slave, the Last Change is not available.
Last QL Received indicates the last Quality Level value received. The
pass/fail verdict is also displayed when both QL Mismatch Monitoring
and Pass/Fail Verdict check boxes are selected.

Last Change indicates the date and time of the Last QL Received has
changed.

QL Mismatch Monitoring when selected (default), enables the Quality
Level mismatch monitoring.

Expected QL allows the selection of the Expected Quality Level value.
Available when the QL Mismatch Monitoring check box is selected.
Quality Level
value
SSM
Description
QL-STU/UNK
0
Synchronized - Traceability Unknown
QL-PRS
1
Primary Reference Source Traceable (G.811)
QL-PRC
2
Primary Reference Clock Traceable (G.811)
QL-INV3
3
Quality Level Invalid 3
QL-SSU-A/TNC
4
Type I or V slave clock (G.812)
Traceable to Transit Node Clock (G.812 Type V)
QL-INV5
5
Quality Level Invalid 5
QL-INV6
6
Quality Level Invalid 6
QL-ST2
7
Traceable to Stratum 2 (G.812 Type II)
440
88000 Series
Test Results
Quality Level (SyncE)
Quality Level
value
SSM
Description
QL-SSU-B
8
Type VI slave clock (G.812)
QL-INV9
9
Quality Level Invalid 9
QL-EEC2/ST3
(default)
10
Ethernet Equipment Clock Option 2
Traceable to Stratum 3 (G.812 Type IV)
QL-EEC1/SEC
11
Ethernet Equipment Clock Option 1
Synchronous Equipment Clock (G.813 or G.8262, Option 1)
QL-SMC
12
Traceable to SONET Minimum Clock (G.813 or G.8262, Option 2)
QL-ST3E
13
Traceable to Stratum 3E (G.812 Type III)
QL-PROV
14
Provisionable by the Network Operator (PNO)
QL-DNU/DUS
15
Do Not Use
Do Not Use for Synchronization

Power Blazer
QL Mismatch Frame Count gives the total count of information and/or
event frames received not matching the expected Quality Level. Only
available when the QL Mismatch Monitoring check box is selected.
441
Test Results
Quality Level (SyncE)


442
TX

Information gives the count of information frames generated for
each Quality Level as well as the total of all Quality Level values.
For 1GE Electrical interface using Slave as Master-Slave Clock,
only the count for QL-DNU/DUS is reported.

Event gives the count of event frames generated for each Quality
Level as well as the total of all Quality Level values. Not available
with 1GE Electrical using Slave as Master-Slave Clock.
RX

Information gives the count of information frames received for
each Quality Level as well as the total of all Quality Level values.

Event gives the count of event frames received for each Quality
Level as well as the total of all Quality Level values.
88000 Series
Test Results
S-OAM and MPLS-TP OAM
S-OAM and MPLS-TP OAM
From the Test menu, tap Results, and the S-OAM or MPLS-TP OAM tab.
Loopback

Status displays the status of the test function (refer to page 501).

TX LBM indicates the count of transmitted LBM frames.

RX LBR indicates the count of valid LBR frames received. A valid frame
for S-OAM has its source MAC address matching the Peer MEP MAC
address, destination MAC address matching the unit port MAC address,
and VLANs matching the unit port VLANs. A valid frame for MPLS-TP
OAM has its destination MAC address matching either the unit MAC
address, FF:FF:FF:FF:FF:FF, or 01:00:5E:90:00:00; VLANs matching the
unit port VLANs; and MPLS Labels matching the local MPLS Label
Stack configuration.

LBR Timeout
For connectivity verification (Continuous check box cleared), indicates
the count of LBR Timeout event which occurs if a reply (LBR frame
with matching Transaction ID) to a transmitted LBM frame is not
received within 5 seconds.
For diagnostic test (Continuous check box selected), indicates the
difference between the transmitted LBM frames and the received LBR
frames.

Invalid LBR
For connectivity verification (Continuous check box cleared), indicates
the count of LBR frames received from the peer MEP with incorrect
MEG/MD Level or with an unexpected Transaction ID.
For diagnostic test (Continuous check box is selected), indicates the
count of LBR frames received from the peer MEP with incorrect
MEG/MD Level.
Power Blazer
443
Test Results
S-OAM and MPLS-TP OAM

Invalid Payload indicates the count of received LBR frames having
either a TLV type different than the one transmitted, Bit error or wrong
data value detected in the data payload of a Data TLV, Bit error, Pattern
Loss, or Pattern Type mismatch of a Test TLV.

Successful indicates the count of received LBR frames having no
errors.

Failed indicates the count of LBR frames declared as invalid.
Test

Status displays the status of the test function (refer to page 501).

TX TST indicates the count of transmitted TST frames.

RX TST indicates the count of valid TST frames received. A valid frame
for S-OAM has its source MAC address matching the Peer MEP MAC
address; destination MAC address matching either the unit port Unicast
MAC address or a Multicast class 1 address1; and VLANs matching the
unit port VLANs. A valid frame for MPLS-TP OAM has its destination
MAC address matching either the unit MAC address, FF:FF:FF:FF:FF:FF,
or 01:00:5E:90:00:00; VLANs matching the unit port VLANs; and MPLS
Labels matching the local MPLS Label Stack configuration.

Invalid TST indicates the count of TST frames received from the peer
MEP with incorrect MEG/MD level.

Invalid Payload indicates the count of received TST frames having
either an unsupported pattern type, or bit error / pattern loss detected
in the payload.

Successful indicates the count of received TST frames having no
errors.

Failed indicates the count of TST frames declared as invalid.
1. Refer to Unicast/Multicast Addresses for Ethernet OAM on page 739 for more information.
444
88000 Series
Test Results
S-OAM and MPLS-TP OAM
Frame Delay
Power Blazer

Status displays the status of the test function (refer to page 501).

TX DMM indicates the count of transmitted DMM frames.

RX DMR indicates the count of valid DMR frames received. A valid
frame for S-OAM has its source MAC address matching the Peer MEP
MAC address; destination MAC address matching the unit port MAC
address; and VLANs matching the unit port VLANs. A valid frame for
MPLS-TP OAM has its destination MAC address matching either the unit
MAC address, FF:FF:FF:FF:FF:FF, or 01:00:5E:90:00:00; VLANs matching
the unit port VLANs; and MPLS Labels matching the local MPLS Label
Stack configuration..

Invalid DMR indicates the count of received DMR frames from the
peer MEP having an incorrect MEG/MD Level, an incorrect Test ID
(when applicable), or with a valid MEG/MD Level and valid Test ID
(when applicable) but with a Frame Delay outside the 0.001 to
8000.000 ms range.

Delay (ms): Current indicates the average of frame delay measured in
the last second. Minimum, Maximum, and Average indicates
respectively the minimum, maximum, and average frame delays
measured since the beginning of the test.

Successful indicates the count of received DMR frames having no
errors.

Failed indicates the count of DMR frames declared as invalid.
445
Test Results
S-OAM and MPLS-TP OAM
Frame Loss
446

Status displays the status of the test function (refer to page 501).

TX LMM indicates the count of transmitted LMM frames.

RX LMR indicates the count of valid LMR frames received. A valid
frame for S-OAM has its source MAC address matching the Peer MEP
MAC address; destination MAC address matching the unit port MAC
address; and VLANs matching the unit port VLANs. A valid frame for
MPLS-TP OAM has its destination MAC address matching either the unit
MAC address, FF:FF:FF:FF:FF:FF, or 01:00:5E:90:00:00; VLANs matching
the unit port VLANs; and MPLS Labels matching the local MPLS Label
Stack configuration.

Invalid LMR indicates the count of LMR frames received from the peer
MEP with incorrect MEG/MD level.

Frame Loss is calculated (count and %) for both Near-End and Far-End
over all valid LMR frames received.

Successful indicates the count of received LMR frames having no
errors.

Failed indicates the count of LMR frames declared as invalid.
88000 Series
Test Results
S-OAM and MPLS-TP OAM
Synthetic Loss
Note: Only available with Ethernet OAM.
Power Blazer

Status displays the status of the test function (refer to page 501).

TX SLM indicates the count of transmitted SLM frames.

RX SLR indicates the count of valid SLR frames received. A valid frame
has its source MAC address matching the Peer MEP MAC address;
destination MAC address matching the unit port MAC address; and
VLANs matching the unit port VLANs.

Invalid SLR indicates the count of SLR frames received from the peer
MEP with incorrect MEG/MD level, incorrect source MEP ID, or
incorrect Test ID.

Synthetic Loss is calculated (count and %) for both Near-End and
Far-End over all frames received and is updated after each Synthetic
Loss measurement period (after receiving the defined Frame Count,
refer to page 269).

Successful indicates the count of received SLR frames having no
errors.

Failed indicates the count of SLR frames declared as invalid.
447
Test Results
SDT (Multi-Channel OTN)
SDT (Multi-Channel OTN)
From the Test menu, tap Results and the SDT tab.
Note: The SDT tab is only available when Disruption Monitoring is enabled
(refer to ODU Channels - Global on page 232).
Service Disruption is the time during which there is a disruption of service
due to the absence of traffic or to the detection of defects per channel.

Channels with Disruption indicates the number of channels with
service disruption.

Channels Monitored indicates the number of channels monitored.

Channels Above Threshold, available when pass/fail verdict is
enabled, indicates the number of channels with a disruption time
above the defined threshold.

Longest Disruption indicates the duration of the longest measured
disruption time and the channel number on which it occurred. The
Pass/Fail verdict when enabled, is displayed next to duration value.

Last Disruption indicates the duration of the last measured disruption
time and the channel number on witch it occurred.

SDT Threshold (ms), available when pass/fail verdict is enabled,
allows to enter the SDT threshold value that will be used to declare the
pass/fail verdict: 0.001 to 299999.999 ms (default is 50 ms).
The following statistics are presented per channel:
448

Channel indicates the channel number.

Longest (ms) indicates the longest measured disruption time.

Shortest (ms) indicates the shortest measured disruption time.

Last (ms) indicates the duration of the last measured disruption time.

Average (ms) indicates the average duration of all measured
disruption times.
88000 Series
Test Results
SDT (Multi-Channel OTN)

Total (ms) indicates the total duration of all measured disruption
times.

Count indicates the number of disruption events detected since the
beginning of the test.

PASS FAIL, available when pass/fail verdict is enabled, indicates the
SDT pass/fail verdict.

Time Mode selects the format used to display the disruption time.
Relative displays SDT events based on the time elapsed since the
beginning of the test.
Absolute (default) displays SDT events based on date and time.

Units selects the unit used to display SDT statistics: μs, ms (default), s,
or min.

Time Stamp displays the time or date/time for each SDT channel; this
apply to Longest and Last disruption time statistics. Choices are None
(default), Time, and Date/Time. An extra line is added for each
channel to display the time, and two lines to display the time and date.
Note: When a disruption event is equal or longer than the test period which is
fixed to 5 minutes, then the measured disruption time is equal to the test
period.
Power Blazer
449
Test Results
Service Configuration - Burst
Service Configuration - Burst
From the Test menu, tap Results, Service Configuration, and the Burst
tab.
Service Name and Selection
Service Name indicates the name of the selected service.
Select the service to be displayed by either using the left/right arrow or by
tapping over the service numbers area then tapping on a specific service
number. An orange background indicates the selected service while a
green background indicates the services that are enabled.
Committed/Excess
450

Committed - Burst test is the CBS subtest.

Excess - Burst test is the EBS subtest.

Direction, available with Dual Test Set or Dual Port topology,
indicates respectively results from local to remote (L->R) and remote
to local (R->L), or P1 to P2 (P1->P2) and P2 to P1 (P2->P1).

Burst Size indicates the size in bytes of the burst used for each subtest.

SLA Verified indicates the committed SLA parameters that are used to
declare the pass/fail verdict. See Summary (EtherSAM) on page 475 for
more information on Frame Loss, Max Jitter, Round-Trip Latency,
Max Latency, and Max RX Rate.

Informational parameters are for information purpose only, they are
not included in the test pass/fail verdict. See Summary (EtherSAM) on
page 475 for more information on Frame Loss Rate, Max Jitter,
Max Latency, and Round-Trip Latency.

Average RX Rate indicates the measured average utilization
throughput for the CBS subtest.
88000 Series
Test Results
Service Configuration - Ramp
Service Configuration - Ramp
From the Test menu, tap Results, Service Configuration, and the Ramp
tab.
Service Name and Selection
Service Name indicates the name of the selected service. Select the
service to be displayed by either using the left/right arrow or by tapping
over the service numbers area then tapping on a specific service number.
An orange background indicates the selected service while a green
background indicates the services that are enabled.
Committed/Excess Steps
Power Blazer

Committed Steps indicate the pre CIR and CIR steps specified in the
ramp configuration.

Excess Steps indicate the CIR+EIR and Traffic Policing steps
specified in the ramp configuration.

Direction, available with Dual Test Set or Dual Port topology,
indicates respectively results from local to remote (L->R) and remote
to local (R->L), or P1 to P2 (P1->P2) and P2 to P1 (P2->P1).

TX Rate indicates the transmission rate for each step.

SLA Verified indicates the committed SLA parameters that are used to
declare the pass/fail verdict. See Summary (EtherSAM) on page 475 for
more information on Frame Loss Rate, Max Jitter, Round-Trip
Latency, and Max RX Rate.
451
Test Results
Service Configuration - Ramp
452

Informational parameters are for information purpose only, they are
not included in the test pass/fail verdict. See Summary (EtherSAM) on
page 475 for more information on Frame Loss, Max Jitter, and
Round-Trip Latency.

Average RX Rate indicates the measured average utilization
throughput for each step.
88000 Series
Test Results
Service Performance
Service Performance
From the Test menu, tap Results, and the Service Performance tab.
Service Name and Selection
Service Name indicates the name of the selected service.
Select the service to be displayed by either using the left/right arrow or by
tapping over the service numbers area then tapping on a specific service
number. An orange background indicates the selected service while a
green background indicates the services that are enabled.
SLA Parameters
The configured CIR, Max Jitter, Frame Loss Rate and Max Latency/Max
Round-Trip Latency SLA parameters are displayed. Refer to Services Profile on page 273 for more information. For Dual Test Set or Dual Port
topology, parameters are displayed respectively for both local to remote
(L->R), remote to local (R->L) directions, or P1 to P2 (P1->P2) and P2 to
P1 (P2->P1).
Metrics
Current, Average, Minimum, Maximum, and Estimate (Jitter) measured
values for each metric are reported. Direction, available with Dual Test
Set or Dual Port topology indicates respectively results from local to
remote (L->R) and remote to local (R->L), P1 to P2 (P1->P2) and P2 to P1
(P2->P1), and Round-Trip for Latency when in Round-Trip Latency
Measurement Mode (see Global Options on page 168). For Dual Test Set,
results for remote to local are obtained at the end of each step.
Power Blazer

RX Rate indicates the measured utilization throughput.

Jitter (ms) indicates the measured delay variation.

Latency (ms) indicates the measured round-trip latency (delay).
453
Test Results
Service Performance
Note: For the Current value, 0 is displayed when no RX rate has been measured
in the last second.
Note: Delay variation measurements smaller than 15 μs will be discarded, not
used for the sampling process, and < 0.015 is displayed as the minimum
value. For the Current value, Not measurable is displayed when no delay
has been measured in the last second.
Errors
For Dual Test Set, errors are reported for both local to remote (L->R) and
remote to local (R->L). For Dual Port topology, errors are reported for both
P1 to P2 (P1->P2) and P2 to P1 (P2->P1).

Frame Loss indicates that a sequence number is missing in the
received frames. The pass/fail verdict when enabled reports only the
verdict when it is fail. Seconds, Count, and Rate values are reported.

Out-of-Sequence indicates that the received frame sequence number
is either smaller than the expected frame sequence number or is a
duplicate number. The Out-Of-Sequence will not be considered in the
global verdict. Seconds, Count, and Rate values are reported.
RX Frame Count
The RX Frame Count indicates the number of frames received matching
the selected service ID. For Dual Test Set, the count is reported for both
local to remote (L->R) and remote to local (R->L). For Dual Port topology,
the count is reported for both P1 to P2 (P1->P2) and P2 to P1 (P2->P1).
454
88000 Series
Test Results
Streams - Frame Loss / Out-of-Sequence
Streams - Frame Loss / Out-of-Sequence
From the Test menu, tap Results, Streams, and the Frame Loss /
Out-Of-Sequence tab.

The P1 and P2 buttons, available with Dual Port topology, allow to
respectively display results for port #1 (P1) or port #2 (P2).

Stream: Indicates the stream identification number.

Thresholds button allows to set the pass/fail thresholds (refer to QoS
Metrics on page 316).

Frame Loss: See QoS Metrics on page 384.

Out-Of-Sequence: See QoS Metrics on page 384.
Streams - Jitter
From the Test menu, tap Results, Streams, and the Jitter tab.

The P1 and P2 buttons, available with Dual Port topology, allow to
respectively display results for port #1 (P1) or port #2 (P2).

Stream: Indicates the stream identification number.

Jitter (ms) is measured for each stream on all valid frames
(in-sequence frames, valid Jitter tag, and no FCS error) received.
Current, Average, Minimum, Maximum, and Estimate delay values
are reported.
Note: Delay variation measurements smaller than 15 μs will be discarded, not
used for the sampling process, and “< 0.015” will be displayed as the
minimum value. For the Current value, Not measurable is displayed when
no delay has been measured in the last second.

Power Blazer
Thresholds button allows to set the pass/fail thresholds (refer to QoS
Metrics on page 316).
455
Test Results
Streams - Latency
Streams - Latency
From the Test menu, tap Results, Streams, and the Latency tab.

The P1 and P2 buttons, available with Dual Port topology, allow to
respectively display results for port #1 (P1) or port #2 (P2).

Stream: Indicates the stream identification number.

Latency (ms) is measured for each stream on all valid frames (valid
Latency tag, expected originator identifier value, and no FCS error)
received. Current, Average, Minimum, and Maximum round-trip
latency (delay) are reported.
Note: Latency statistics are only available in loopback test topology.
Note: Delay measurements smaller than 15 μs will be discarded, not used for the
sampling process, and < 0.015 will be displayed. For the Current value,
Not measurable is displayed when no delay has been measured in the last
second.

456
Thresholds button allows to set the pass/fail thresholds (refer to QoS
Metrics on page 316).
88000 Series
Test Results
Streams - Throughput
Streams - Throughput
From the Test menu, tap Results, Streams, and the Throughput tab.

The P1 and P2 buttons, available with Dual Port topology, allow to
respectively display results for port #1 (P1) or port #2 (P2).

Stream indicates the stream identification number.

TX Rate indicates the transmitted throughput rate.

RX Rate is measured for each stream on all valid frames (valid
Throughput tag with no FCS error). Current, Average, Minimum, and
Maximum throughput results are reported. Refer to Unit on page 309
for unit selection.
Note: A Current value of 0 indicates that no RX rate has been measured in the
last second.
Power Blazer

Total indicates the total TX and current measured RX throughput of all
valid frames (valid Throughput tag with no FCS error).

Thresholds button allows to set the pass/fail thresholds (refer to QoS
Metrics on page 316).
457
Test Results
Summary
Summary
Note: Available with Transport, and Ethernet (EtherBERT, Through Mode, Smart
Loopback), and Wireless test applications. For other test applications see
the corresponding test summary page.
From the Test menu, tap Results, and the Summary tab.
458

Global (default), P1, and P2 buttons, available with Dual Port
topology, allow to respectively display a brief test summary for both
ports or a full summary for either port #1 (P1) or port #2 (P2).

Status indicates the actual test status as follows.

“--”: The test is not running or results are not available.

In Progress: The test is running.

Completed: The test is completed, stopped at the planned time, or
manually stopped when there is no set timer.

Start Time indicates the date and time the test was started. The date
and time is reset every time the test is restarted or reset.

Test/Power Recovery: Test Recovery (Windows 8 or above) or
Power Recovery (Windows XP), when displayed, indicates that the
test has automatically recovered from a power failure. The number of
occurrences is also displayed next to the Test/Power Recovery field.
Refer to Power Failure Recovery on page 645.

Logger Full, when displayed, indicates that the logger is full. Refer to
Logger on page 423.
88000 Series
Test Results
Summary
Interface
Note: Only available with CPRI/OBSAI Unframed test application.

Alarms
LOS indicates that there is no input signal.

Errors
CV (Code Violation) indicates that invalid 10B code word are received.
BERT and Multi-Pattern BER
Note: See BER on page 342 for a description of each alarm/error.
Note: For Multi-Pattern, alarms/errors are available for each pattern. An arrow in
front of a specific pattern indicates the pattern that is currently
generated/analyzed. All represents the sum of alarms/errors as well as the
consolidated rate for all patterns.



Receiving Live Traffic - RX Pattern Analysis Disabled when
displayed, indicates that the No Pattern Analysis (Live) check box is
selected and in this case no other information/statistics are available.
BER Threshold is available when Pass/Fail Verdict is enabled1.
Restart Sequence button, available with multi-pattern, clears results
and restarts the multi-pattern sequence with the first enabled pattern
in the list. This is the only way to restart the multi-pattern sequence and
to allow synchronization between two test sets.
For back-to-back testing using two test sets, create a multi-pattern test
on both units, tap the Restart Sequence button on each unit within 5
seconds apart. Once synchronized, start the test on each unit.
1. Refer to BERT and Unframed BERT on page 140 or EtherBERT, FC BERT, BERT (CPRI), and Unframed BERT on
page 155.
Power Blazer
459
Test Results
Summary

Bit/Pattern Error Rate/Count graphically displays a meter
representing either the bit/pattern error rate or the bit/pattern error
count depending on the Pass/Fail Verdict selection1.
When the verdict is enabled1, the values under the threshold are
presented in green while the values above are in red.
When the verdict is disabled, the bit/pattern error rate is displayed in
blue.
The arrow pointer indicates the current received bit/pattern error
rate/count.
The Pass/Fail verdict is displayed just on top of the meter when
enabled1.

460
Bit/Pattern Error, Amount/Rate, and Inject: The bit/pattern error
injection and settings are coupled with the Inject Button on page 407.
For Transport test applications, not available in Through modes.
88000 Series
Test Results
Summary
Service Disruption
Note: Service Disruption results are only available with Transport, CPRI, and
EtherBERT test applications when Disruption Monitoring is enabled (refer
to BERT and Unframed BERT on page 140 or EtherBERT, FC BERT, BERT
(CPRI), and Unframed BERT on page 155). When Service Disruption is
disabled, the message Service disruption monitoring disabled is
displayed.
Service Disruption is the time during which there is a disruption of service
due to the detection of defects.

Disruption Time
Note: For OTL defects, at the exception of LOL, the disruption time is displayed for
the lane having the longest disruption time. See OTL-SDT on page 426 for
results per lanes.
Longest (ms): Indicates the longest measured disruption time.
Shortest (ms) indicates the shortest measured disruption time.
Last (ms) indicates the length of the last measured disruption time.
Average (ms) indicates the average duration of all measured
disruption times.
Total (ms) indicates the total duration of all measured disruption
times.
Power Blazer

Defect, available with Transport test applications, indicates on which
layer and defect the service disruption time test is performed. For OTL
defect (parallel interface) also indicates within parenthesis the lane
number having the longest disruption time.

Disruption Count: Indicates the number of disruption events detected
since the beginning of the SDT test.
461
Test Results
Summary
Note: When a disruption event is equal or longer than the test period which is
fixed to 5 minutes, then the measured disruption time is equal to the test
period.

SDT Threshold (ms) allows to enter the SDT threshold value that will
be used to declare the pass/fail verdict: 0.005 to 299999.995 ms in step
of 0.005 ms (default is 50 ms). This setting is only accessible when
Pass/Fail Verdict is enabled and is coupled with the SDT Threshold set
from the test setup (refer to page 145).
GFP Frames
GFP Frames are available for OTN BERT with Ethernet 1 GbE, 10 GbE or
Ethernet (flex/GFP-F) client (see GFP-F/GFP-T on page 414).
Traffic / Traffic Ethernet
Note: The Traffic statistics are available for Smart Loopback , Through Mode,
and OTN BERT (with EoOTN client) test applications. See Traffic - Ethernet
on page 514 for more information.
CPRI
Note: Available with CPRI Framed L2.
462

Sequence indicates the last Sequence State parameter: Standby (A),
L1 Sync (B), Protocol (C), L2 C&M (D), Vendor (E), Operation (F),
and Passive (G). The pass/fail verdict is also displayed when enabled.

Frame Sync indicates that the startup sequence synchronization status
as per L1 Sync Status parameter: active (green) or inactive (red).

Protocol indicates either the last received (Version 1 or Version 2) or
negotiated (Auto) protocol version. A red background indicates a
Protocol version mismatch.
88000 Series
Test Results
Summary

C&M indicates either the received (HDLC or Ethernet) or negotiated
(Auto) C&M for Ethernet subchannel and HDLC rates in Mbit/s. A red
background indicates either a C&M type mismatch or HDLC
Rate/Ethernet subchannel mismatch. An arrow is displayed indicating
which C&M Channel, Ethernet or HDLC, is selected following the
negotiation process.

Code Word (CW) indicates the transmitted and received Code Word
count.

Hyperframe indicates the transmitted and received hyperframe count.

L1 Reset, available when Remote Radio Head emulation mode is
selected, indicates the number of times a request to reset the RRH
interface was received.
RX Frequency
Note: RX Frequency is available for Through Mode test application on both ports
(Port 1 and Port 2) for rates up to 10G LAN. Not available for a port using
an active copper SFP.

Frequency (GHz) indicates the frequency of the input signal.

Offset (ppm) indicates the frequency offset between the standard rate
specification and the rate at the input signal.
Note: For both Frequency and Offset the following background colors are used.
Background color
Power Blazer
Description
Green
The frequency is in range.
Red
The frequency is out-of-range. LOC is also displayed.
Gray
Pending state.
463
Test Results
Summary (1588 PTP)
Summary (1588 PTP)
From the Test menu, tap Results, and the Summary tab.

Test Status displays the current status of the 1588 PTP test. The global
test pass/fail verdict is displayed next to the Test Status field when
enabled (see Pass/Fail Verdict on page 139).
Test Status
Description
--
Idle state, the test is not running or results are not available.
In Progress
The test is running.
Completed
The test is completed, stopped at the planned time, or manually
stopped when there is no set timer.
Aborted
The test is interrupted; stopped before the set timer.
For G.8265.1: [Message type] Request Denied, Session Canceled,
or No Reply is displayed next to Aborted when applicable.
For G.8275.1: Sync Message Rate Changed is displayed next to
Aborted when applicable.
464

Start Time indicates the date and time the test was started. The date
and time is reset every time the test is restarted or reset.

Test/Power Recovery: Test Recovery (Windows 8 or above) or
Power Recovery (Windows XP), when displayed, indicates that the
test has automatically recovered from a power failure. The number of
occurrences is also displayed next to the Test/Power Recovery field.
Refer to Power Failure Recovery on page 645.

Logger Full, when displayed, indicates that the logger is full. Refer to
Logger on page 423.
88000 Series
Test Results
Summary (1588 PTP)

Negotiation Status
The status of the PTP Negotiation is displayed while in Unicast
negotiation (available with G.8265.1 profile).
Negotiation
Status
Description
Background
Colora
Request Granted
All the Signaling request types have been granted.
Green
[Message type]
Request Denied
The Signaling grant message has not been granted.
Red
Session Canceled
The Grand Master has canceled the Unicast session.
Red
No Reply
No message is received from the Grand Master following
transmission of 3 Signaling requests for a message type.
Red
Make sure that both IP address and Domain (refer to 1588 PTP on
page 133) of the Grand Master Clock are valid as well as the IP
address of the unit’s port used to connect on the network (refer to
Network on page 215).
Pending
Unicast negotiation has started and no message has been received
from the Grand Master.
Gray
Inactive
The Unicast negotiation is not active.
Gray
a.
The gray background color is also used for a Link Down.
Power Blazer
465
Test Results
Summary (1588 PTP)

GM Info
Note: Only available when Grand Master clock information is available.
The Grand Master Information window displays the decoded clock
information.
For G.8265.1 only:

Identity reports the 8-byte identification code of the Grand Master
Clock.
For G.8275.1 only:
466

Port Identity reports the identity type of the PTP port.

GM Identity reports the clock identity of the Grand Master Clock.

Priority 1 reports the priority 1 attribute of the Grand Master Cock.

Priority 2 reports the priority 2 attribute of the Grand Master Clock.

Steps Removed reports the number of communication paths
crossed between the local clock and the Grand master Clock.

Log Message Interval (Announce) reports the mean time interval
between successive Announce messages.

Log Message interval (Sync) reports the mean time interval
between successive Sync messages.
88000 Series
Test Results
Summary (1588 PTP)
For both G.8265.1 and G.8275.1:

Clock Class reports the description and code of the Grand Master
Clock Class.
Code
Description
0-5, 8-12, 15-51, 53-57, 59-67, 123-132, 171-186, 188-192, 194-215, Reserved
233-247, 249-254
6
Sync to primary reference
7, 14
Holdover
13
Sync to application-specific reference
52, 58, 187, 193
Degraded
68 to 79, 81-109 (odd values), 11-122, 133-170, 216-232
a
Alternate PTP profiles
80-110 (even values)
Quality Level (QL-xxxa)
248
Default
255
Slave only
a.
Refer to QL table on page 438 for the list of Quality Level values that will be used as the description.

Power Blazer

Clock Mode reports the description of the Grand Master Clock
Mode: Two-step or One-step.

Clock Accuracy reports the accuracy of the clock.

Time Source reports the source of time used by the Grand Master
Clock.
Start Time indicates the time the test was started.
467
Test Results
Summary (1588 PTP)
Delay Measurement

Sync IPDV meter displays the average of the inter packet delay
variation of consecutive Sync messages in the last second. The value
and the pass/fail verdict is also displayed when enabled.

Delay Req IPDV meter displays the average of the inter packet delay
variation of consecutive Delay Req messages in the last second. The
value and the pass/fail verdict is also displayed when enabled.
Note: When a value is below 1μ second, “< 1μs” is displayed.
Note: When the Pass/Fail verdict is enabled, the green region is delimited from 0
to the IPDV Threshold (refer to Alarm Timeout/Threshold on page 138)
corresponding to a PASS verdict. The red region beyond the threshold
corresponds to a FAIL verdict. There is neither green nor red region when
the Pass/Fail verdict is disabled.
Quality Level

Last QL Received indicates the last Quality Level received. The
pass/fail verdict is also displayed when both QL Mismatch Monitoring
and Pass/Fail Verdict check boxes are selected.

Last Change indicates the date and time of the Last QL change.
Total PTP Messages
Gives respectively the total count of transmitted (TX) and received (RX)
PTP messages.
468
88000 Series
Test Results
Summary (Cable Test)
Summary (Cable Test)
From the Test menu, tap Results, and the Summary tab.
Test Status
Test Status indicates the progress of the cable test as follows:

Idle (test has not started)

In Progress

Completed
The Pass/Fail verdict is displayed next to the Test Status field, when
enabled, based on the following criteria: The worst pair’s Wire Map,
Prop. Delay, Delay Skew, and Length.
Start Time
Indicates the date and time the test was started. The date and time is reset
every time the test is restarted or reset.
Cable
Note: When no value is available, “--” is displayed.
Power Blazer

Wire Map indicates the Wire Map result for the pair having the worst
Wire Map. The distance to fault is also displayed when a fault is
identified. The Pass/Fail verdict is also displayed, when enabled.

Prop. Delay (ns) indicates the propagation delay value for the pair
having the longest propagation delay. The Pass/Fail verdict is also
displayed when enabled.
469
Test Results
Summary (Cable Test)

Delay Skew (ns) indicates the delay skew value for the pair having the
worst delay skew. The Pass/Fail verdict is also displayed when enabled.
The Delay Skew result is only available for 1000 Base-T interface when
the link is up.

Length (m/ft) indicates the length for the pair having the worst cable
length value. The Pass/Fail verdict is also displayed when enabled.
Pairs
Note: When no value is available, “--” is displayed.
470

Pair indicates the pair number.

Pins indicates the pair’s pin numbers and color of each wire
corresponding to the selected wiring standard.
W-BL
White-Blue
BL
Blue
W-O
White-Orange
O
Orange
W-G
White-Green
G
Green
W-BR
White-Brown
BR
Brown
88000 Series
Test Results
Summary (Cable Test)

Wire Map Test Result gives the wire map test result for each pair.
When the link is up: The wire map result for each pair is given as seen
by the 88000 Series to get a link up. This means that the wire map result
may not correspond to the type of cable tested depending on the
cable(s) used and/or the configuration of the cable mode (MDI, MDIX,
or auto-detection) on both the 88000 Series and the far end equipment.
For example, two crossed pair cables end to end used between the
88000 Series and a far end equipment may give a straight pair (MDI)
wire map result.
MDI
Straight pair.
MDIX
Crossed pair.
MDI (-)
For 1 Gbit/s, straight pair with swapped wires within pair.
MDIX (-)
For 1 Gbit/s, crossed pair with pair A swapped with pair B and/or pair
C swapped with pair D.
Noise
Excessive noise on a pair most likely caused by a link partner running
in 10/100 Mbit/s forced mode. In this case, no propagation delay or
length is reported and there is no comparison with any threshold.
Note: For 1 Gbit/s, both MDI and MDIX can be reported simultaneously since
crossed pairs detection is performed independently for pairs A-B and C-D.
Power Blazer
471
Test Results
Summary (Cable Test)
When the link is down:
Short
Short-circuit between Tip and Ring wires of a pair or Tip or ring
wire of a pair is connected with an alien wire grounded.
Open
No cable plugged in, remote end open, or either one or two
wires of a pair are not connected.
Short-between-pairs Short between one or two wires of a pair with one or two wires
of another pair. Short between more than two pairs, including
one or two wires for each pair.
Noise
Excessive noise on a pair most likely caused by a link partner
running in 10/100 Mbit/s forced mode. In this case, no distance
is reported and there is no comparison with any threshold.
Unknown
No fault has been identified but the link is down. To maximize
the cable test result, it is preferable to have the far end
equipment powered up.
If the determined Wire Map is either MDI, MDIX, MDI (-), MDIX (-), or
Noise (Link up), the test is declared as PASS. If the determined Wire
Map is either Short, Short-between-pair, Open, Noise (Link down), or
Unknown, the test is declared as FAIL.
Note: Refer to Ethernet Cables on page 695 for cable pinout.
472

Distance To Fault (m/ft) gives the distance to fault from the near end
for each pair, unless the problem is due to excessive noise. Noise may
be due to electrical noise causing communication error.

Prop. Delay (ns) indicates the propagation delay of a signal through
each pair.

Length (m/ft) indicates the cable length of each pair.
88000 Series
Test Results
Summary (Cable Test)
PoE
Note: Only available on 8870/8880.
Detection/Classification

Power Presence indicates on which cable pairs (refer to Wiring
Standard on page 146) the power is received and the polarity of each
pair. Result is presented as follows:
Power Presence
Description
Pos: <pair>; Neg: <pair>
PSE applies power on 2 pairs.
Pos: <pair>,<pair>; Neg: <pair>,<pair>
PSE applies power on all pairs.
No power detected
No power over Ethernet was
detected.

PSE Type indicates the detected PSE type.

Granted Power Class indicates the power class provided by the PSE:
Granted power Class
Description
0
Class 0 (13.0W)
1
Class 1 (3.8W)

Class 2 (6.5W)
3
Class 3 (13.0W)
4
Class 4 (25.5W)
None
The PSE denied power.
The Pass/Fail verdict is also displayed when enabled.
Power Blazer
473
Test Results
Summary (Cable Test)
Operation
Note: The following results are only reported when the classification succeeded.
474

Unloaded Voltage (V) indicates the measured voltage when no load is
applied. A value less then 5 is reported as <5.0 and a value greater
than 59 is reported as >59.0.

Loaded Voltage (V) indicates the measured voltage by applying a load
corresponding to the configured power class. A value less then 5 is
reported as <5.0 and a value greater than 59 is reported as >59.0. The
Pass/Fail verdict is also displayed when enabled.

Current (mA) indicates the current which is calculated based on the
measured Loaded Voltage and the applied load.

Power (W) indicates the power in watt which is calculated based on
the measured Loaded Voltage and Current.
88000 Series
Test Results
Summary (EtherSAM)
Summary (EtherSAM)
From the Test menu, tap Results, and the Summary tab.
Note: For Dual Test Set, only Start Time is displayed on the remote module.

Service Configuration/Performance Test Status indicates the actual
test status as follows:
Test Status
Description
“--”
Test has not started.
Disabled
Test/subtests is/are disabled.
Running
Test/subtest is currently running.
Data Transfer
Test/subtest is running but no test traffic is being transmitted.
Completed, <Verdict> Test/subtest has completed with the test pass/fail verdict. A
fail verdict is declared when a Link Down or LOS is detected,
or when any SLA parameter fails.
Aborted, <reason>
a.
b.
Power Blazer
Test/subtest has been aborted either manually (Stop) or
automatically from an alarm and the reason why the test has
been aborted is also displayed as follows:
Link down alarm, LOS alarm, Timeout during execution,
DTS connection failed, Loss of remote connection (DTS),
LOPPS-L Alarma, LOPPS-R Alarma,
LOPPS-L / LOPPS-R Alarma, Unresolved addresses,
No test enabled, Invalid Burst Configuration,
CIR disabled for all services, Excessive Refill Timeb,
Stopped
Available for Dual Test Set in One-Way Latency measurement mode.
An excessive refill occurs when the pre-burst and/or post-burst duration last for
more than 2 seconds.

Start Time indicates the date and time the test was started. The date
and time is reset every time the test is restarted.

Remote unit in use and locked for Dual Test Set indicates that this
module is used for Dual Test Set as the remote module.
475
Test Results
Summary (EtherSAM)
476

Remote unit in Dual Test Set Mode indicates that this module is set as
remote but the DTS Connection is not established.

Service Configuration/Performance Test: Tap Service Configuration
Test or Service Performance Test button to view the result summary
of the corresponding test.

Service indicates the service’s number and name. For Service
Configuration Test, the number/name is highlighted in red per
service when VLAN mismatch occurred; in Dual Test Set or Dual
Port topology, the direction is also highlighted; in Dual Test Set, the
R -> L direction label is gray when VLAN Preservation is not
supported by the remote module.

Direction, available with Dual Test Set or Dual Port topology,
indicates respectively results from local to remote (L->R) and
remote to local (R->L), or P1 to P2 (P1->P2) and P2 to P1
(P2->P1).

Service Performance Test column displays the pass/fail verdict
icon indicating if the service complies to the configured SLA
parameters.

Service Configuration Test column displays the pass/fail verdict
icon indicating if the service complies to the configured SLA
parameters.
88000 Series
Test Results
Summary (EtherSAM)
Committed

Frame Loss Rate indicates the rate of frames that are lost. The
reported value is the maximum rate of Frame Loss from all burst
sequences and ramp steps excluding the CIR+EIR, EBS, and
Traffic Policing steps. Frame Loss is displayed as a percentage
value when the remote module does not support exponential
notation.

Max. Jitter (ms) indicates the maximum measured delay
variation.

Max Latency (ms) indicates the maximum measured round-trip
latency (delay). For Dual Test Set the local to remote and remote to
local values are reported for One-Way Latency Measurement Mode
while a single round-trip value is reported for Round-Trip Latency
Measurement Mode (see Global Options on page 168).

Avg RX Rate, for Service Performance Test, indicates the
measured average utilization throughput.
Excess
Max RX Rate, for Service Configuration Test, indicates the
measured maximum utilization throughput.

VLAN Preservation indicates if any VLAN mismatch occurred during
any step of a Ramp or Burst tests as follows:
Grey: Undefined
Green: No Mismatch detected
Red: Mismatch detected
Power Blazer
477
Test Results
Summary (FC BERT)
Summary (FC BERT)
From the Test menu, tap Results, and the Summary tab.

Test Status indicates the actual test status as follows.

“--”: The test is not running or results are not available.

In Progress: The test is running.

Completed: The test is completed, stopped at the planned time, or
manually stopped when there is no set timer.
Once the test is stopped, the test pass/fail verdict is displayed next to
the Status field when enabled. The verdict is Pass when all verdicts are
Pass, the verdict is Fail as soon as one of the verdict is Fail. Refer to
Bit/Pattern Error on page 157 and Latency Tag Insertion on page 159 for
more information.
478

Start Time indicates the date and time the test was started. The date
and time is reset every time the test is restarted or reset.

Test/Power Recovery: Test Recovery (Windows 8 or above) or
Power Recovery (Windows XP), when displayed, indicates that the
test has automatically recovered from a power failure. The number of
occurrences is also displayed next to the Test/Power Recovery field.
Refer to Power Failure Recovery on page 645.

Logger Full, when displayed, indicates that the logger is full. Refer to
Logger on page 423.
88000 Series
Test Results
Summary (FC BERT)
BER
Note: See BER on page 342 for a description of each alarm/error.

BER Threshold is available when Pass/Fail Verdict is enabled (refer to
page 157).

Bit Error Rate/Count graphically displays a meter representing either
the bit error rate or the bit error count depending on the Pass/Fail
Verdict selection (refer to page 157).
When the verdict is enabled, the values under the threshold are
presented in green while the values above are in red.
When the verdict is disabled, the bit error rate is displayed in blue.
The arrow pointer indicates the current received bit error rate/count.
The Pass/Fail verdict is displayed just on top of the meter when
enabled.


Power Blazer
Bit Error and Rate/Amount

Manual allows to enter the amount of manual error to be
generated: 1 (default) through 50.

Rate allows the selection of the injection rate for the selected error.

Max Rate generates the selected error to its theoretical maximum
rate.
Inject generates, if the test is running, the amount of bit error
configured.
479
Test Results
Summary (FC BERT)
Round-Trip Latency

Round Trip Latency (ms) is measured for each local and remote port.
Current, Average, Minimum, and Maximum indicates respectively the
current, average, minimum, and the maximum round trip latency from
the local to the remote port in the last one second. The pass/fail verdict
is also displayed for the maximum round trip latency.
Samples indicates the number of samples used for the round trip
latency.

Estimated BB_Credit indicates the estimated number of packets that
can be transmitted on the optical line at the same time.

Round-Trip Latency Threshold (ms) sets the round trip latency
threshold: 0.015 to 8000 ms (default is 15). This setting is only
available when both Latency Tags and Pass/Fail Verdict check boxes
are selected (refer to Latency Tag Insertion on page 159).
Traffic
480

Line Utilization (%) indicates the current percentage of the
transmitting/receiving line rate utilization.

Frame Rate (frame/s) indicates the current transmitted/received
number of frames (including frame with error and aborted frames) in
frame per second.

Byte Count indicates the total number of transmitted/received bytes
including the frame delimiters.

Frame Count indicates the total number of transmitted/received
frames including link service control frames.
88000 Series
Test Results
Summary (iOptics)
Summary (iOptics)
From the Test menu, tap Results, and the Summary tab.
Start Time indicates the date and time the test was started. The date and
time reset every time the test is restarted.
When necessary for power consumption monitoring the Calibrating
progress message is displayed. If at any point during this process or during
a sub-test execution an unexpected condition is detected, an abort
message is displayed as follows:
Test Status
Aborted, <reason>
Description
Sub-test sequence has been aborted and a reason is displayed:
Missing Optic, Invalid Optic, Laser Off, LOS, Optic Ovrld
(overload), Device Pulled, Failed, or User Stopped.
Sub-Test Sequence
The progress status and pass/fail verdict are displayed for each sub-test
sequence as follows:
Test Status
“--”
Sub-test is not running or results are not available.
Running <details>
Sub-test is running and progress details are displayed.
Completed, Pass/Fail
Sub-test is completed with Pass or Fail verdict.
Aborted, Fail
Sub-test sequence has been aborted with a fail verdict.

Power Blazer
Description
I/O Interface Quick Check:

Validates the operation of the MDIO/I2C interface by sending
specific commands to the transceiver.

Validates the information provided by a status pin and stimulates a
control pin of the transceiver.
481
Test Results
Summary (iOptics)

Optical TX Power Test (dBm) reports the minimum and maximum
optical TX power values; in-range values are displayed in green while
out-of-range are in red.

Optical RX Power Test (dBm) reports the minimum and maximum
optical RX power values; in-range values are displayed in green while
out-of-range are in red.

Bit Error Test reports the bit error count; count value smaller or equal
to the BER threshold is displayed in green while bigger value is in red.

Excessive Skew Test reports the highest skew value monitored during
the sub-test. Excessive Skew is reported if the threshold is crossed
otherwise there is no excessive skew. Only available for parallel
interfaces at the exception of 100GBase-SR4.
Monitoring

Power Consumption graphically displays a meter representing the
transceiver power consumption in Watt. Not available on 8870 and
8880 modules.
The Current (A) and Power (W) values (Actual and Maximum) for
3.3V source are displayed. For XFP transceivers the Current (A) for a
5.0V power source is also reported.

Temperature graphically displays a meter representing the transceiver
temperature in oC.
The current (Actual) and maximum temperature values are also
displayed.
Note: The green region is delimited from 0 to the Threshold corresponding to a
PASS verdict. The red region beyond the threshold corresponds to a FAIL
verdict.
482
88000 Series
Test Results
Summary (iSAM)
Summary (iSAM)
From the Test menu, tap Results, and the Summary tab.

Start Time indicates the date and time the test was started. The date
and time is reset every time the test is restarted.

Configuration/Performance Results and RFC 6349 Results buttons
are used to respectively display summary results for Service
Configuration Test and Service Performance Test, or RFC 6349 Test
when results don’t fit on one page.
Service Configuration Test and Service
Performance Test

The actual test status is displayed as follows:
Test Status
Description
“--”
Test has not started.
Disabled
Test/subtests is/are disabled.
Running
Test/subtest is currently running.
Data Transfer
Test/subtest is running but no test traffic is being transmitted.
Completed, <Verdict> Test/subtest has completed with the test pass/fail verdict.
A fail verdict is declared when a Link Down or LOS is detected,
or when any SLA parameter fails.
Aborted, <reason>
Power Blazer
Test/subtest has been aborted either manually (Stop) or
automatically from an alarm and the reason why the test has
been aborted is also displayed as follows:
Link down alarm, LOS alarm, Timeout during execution,
DTS connection failed, Loss of remote connection (DTS),
Unresolved addresses, Stopped
483
Test Results
Summary (iSAM)
For Dual Test Set the following values are reported for both local to remote
(L->R) and remote to local (R->L).

Service indicates the service’s number and name.
The pass/fail verdict icon is displayed next to the service name
indicating if the service complies to the configured SLA parameters.


TX CIR (Mbit/s) indicates the transmitted Committed Information Rate.
FD (ms) (RTT1) (Latency) indicates the maximum measured
round-trip latency (Frame Delay). The pass/fail verdict is also
displayed.

IFDV (ms) (Jitter) indicates the maximum measured Inter Frame
Delay Variation. The pass/fail verdict is also displayed.

FLR (%) (Frame Loss) indicates the maximum percentage of frames
that are lost (Frame Loss Ratio) from the CIR step. The pass/fail verdict
is also displayed.

RX Rate (Mbit/s) indicates either the measured maximum utilization
throughput for Service Configuration Test or the measured average
utilization throughput for Service Performance Test. The pass/fail
verdict is also displayed.

Total RX Rate, available for Service Performance Test, indicates the
average utilization throughput for all services (both directions are
displayed for Dual Test Set).
1. RTT is only displayed for Dual Test Set.
484
88000 Series
Test Results
Summary (iSAM)
RFC 6349 Test

Test Status indicates the actual test status as follows.
Test Status
Description
“--”
Test has not started.
In Progress
The test is running.
Completed, <Verdict> Test has completed and the test pass/fail verdict is displayed
when enabled. A fail verdict is declared if any of the following
conditions occurs: Link Down, LOS, TCP Throughput verdict
failed, or an abort condition (Timeout, DTS connection lost,
unresolved address, user stopped, configuration
synchronization error, invalid MTU).
Aborted, <reason>
Power Blazer
Test has been aborted either manually (Stop) or automatically
from an alarm and the reason is displayed as follows:
Link down alarm, LOS alarm, Timeout during execution,
DTS connection failed, Invalid Configuration,
Unresolved addresses, Invalid MTU, User Stopped

MTU (bytes) is the validated Maximum Transfer Unit.

Minimum RTT (ms) is the minimum time between the first bit of a
segment sent and the last bit of the corresponding acknowledge.

TCP Throughput

Service indicates the service’s number and name. The pass/fail
verdict icon is displayed next to the service name. A fail verdict is
declared if any of the following conditions occurs: Link Down,
LOS, TCP Throughput verdict failed, or an abort condition
(Timeout, DTS connection lost, unresolved address, user stopped,
configuration synchronization error, invalid MTU).

L->R and R->L indicates respectively the direction from local to
remote and remote to local.

Window indicates the total Max Window (1 KiB = 1024 bytes)
followed by the number of connections and KiB per connection in
parenthesis as follows: (n conn.@ n KiB).
485
Test Results
Summary (iSAM)
486

Ideal L4 indicates the ideal TCP throughput metric.

Actual L4 indicates the average of actual TCP Throughput metric.
The pass/fail verdict icon is displayed next to the this metric. A
value greater or equal to the defined threshold gives a pass verdict.

TCP Efficiency (%) indicates the TCP Efficiency metric based on
transmitted and retransmitted bytes.

Buffer Delay (%) indicates the Buffer Delay percentage metric
which represents the increase in RTT during a TCP Throughput test
versus the Minimum RTT.
88000 Series
Test Results
Summary (Link OAM)
Summary (Link OAM)
From the Test menu, tap Results, and the Summary tab.

Test Status displays the current status of the Link OAM test. The global
test pass/fail verdict is displayed next to the Test Status when enabled
(see Pass/Fail Verdict on page 319).
Test Status
Description
--
The test is not running or results are not available.
In Progress
The test is running.
Completed
The test is completed, stopped at the planned time, or manually stopped when there is no
set timer.
Aborted
The test is interrupted; stopped before the set timer.

Start Time Indicates the date and time the test was started. The date
and time is reset every time the test is restarted or reset.

Test/Power Recovery: Test Recovery (Windows 8 or above) or
Power Recovery (Windows XP), when displayed, indicates that the
test has automatically recovered from a power failure. The number of
occurrences is also displayed next to the Test/Power Recovery field.
Refer to Power Failure Recovery on page 645.

Logger Full, when displayed, indicates that the logger is full. Refer to
Logger on page 423.
Alarms
Power Blazer

Link OAM indicates that no OAM Information PDUs were received for 5
seconds.

Critical Event: Indicates that the OAM link partner has sent a critical
event notification (bit 2 of the Flags field is set to 1).
487
Test Results
Summary (Link OAM)

Dying Gasp: Indicates that the OAM link partner has sent an
unrecoverable local failure notification (bit 1 of the Flags field is set
to 1).

Link Fault: Indicates that the OAM link partner has sent a link fault
notification (bit 0 of the Flags field is set to 1).
Loopback


Local indicates the Status of the local loopback (Enabled or
Disabled) and allows to Enable or Disable it.
Remote1 indicates the Status of the remote loopback (Enabled or
Disabled), the number of Successful remote loopback requests, the
number of Fail remote loopback requests, and allows to Enable or
Disable it.
OAMPDU Frame Count


Indicates the number of transmitted and received OAMPDU frames of
the following types:

Information

Loopback Control

Event Notification (received only)
Total indicates the total number of transmitted and received OAMPDU
frames.
1. Statistics are influenced by both the protocol (Parser Action is set to “01”) and physical loopback. The Fail and
Successful counters will be affected by successive enable/disable loopback requests when sending loopback request
to a remote Power Blazer Series module running Link OAM test since it does not provide physical loopback.
488
88000 Series
Test Results
Summary (Multi-Channel OTN)
Summary (Multi-Channel OTN)
From the Test menu, tap Results, and the Summary tab.

Status indicates the actual test status as follows.

“--”: The test is not running or results are not available.

In Progress: The test is running.

Completed: The test is completed, stopped at the planned time, or
manually stopped when there is no set timer.

Start Time indicates the date and time the test was started. The date
and time is reset every time the test is restarted or reset.

Test/Power Recovery: Test Recovery (Windows 8 or above) or
Power Recovery (Windows XP), when displayed, indicates that the
test has automatically recovered from a power failure. The number of
occurrences is also displayed next to the Test/Power Recovery field.
Refer to Power Failure Recovery on page 645.

Logger Full, when displayed, indicates that the logger is full. Refer to
Logger on page 423.
Alarms/Errors, Traces, and Payload Type
The results displayed are for the first channel by default. Tap on one of the
button described on the next page to select the results to be displayed. The
selected button has an amber background.
When a channel button is selected:
Power Blazer

The channel number is displayed indicating the selected channel.

A channel selector becomes available when zooming a result block
allowing to select a specific channel.
489
Test Results
Summary (Multi-Channel OTN)
Interface / OTL / OTU4, ODU4, and Channel Buttons
Note: Refer to Alarms/Errors on page 338 for more information on alarms/errors
and alarms/errors injection.

Interface / OTL / OTU4 displays alarms/errors for Interface (see
page 366), Clock (see page 344), OTL (see page 378), and OTU4 (see
page 379) as well as the received SM TTI Traces (see page 511).

ODU4 displays alarms/error at ODU4 (see page 371) and OPU4 (see
page 376) levels as well as the received PM TTI Traces (see page 511)
and received Payload Type (see page 412).

1, 2, up to 80, depending on the OTN multiplexing, displays
alarms/error for a specific channel including: ODUx (see page 371),
OPUx (see page 376), ODTU4.1 - GMP (see page 365), BERT (see
page 459), SDT (see page 461), received PM TTI Traces (see
page 511), and received Payload Type (see page 412).
Buttons use different background colors representing current and history
alarms/errors. An orange background indicates the selected button.
Background color Alarm/ Errora
Gray
Current
Description
No test result available.
History
Green
Red
Current
No alarm/error has occurred in the last second.
History
No alarm/error has occurred during the test.
Current
An alarm/error occurred in the last second.
History
Amber
a.
490
History
At least one alarm/error has occurred during the test.
History background color is presented on the left side of the button while Current background color is
covering the rest of the button.
88000 Series
Test Results
Summary (NI/CSU Emulation)
Summary (NI/CSU Emulation)
From the Test menu, tap Results, and the Summary tab.
Status
Status indicates the progress of the cable test as follows:

Idle (test has not started)

In Progress

Completed
The Pass/Fail verdict is displayed next to the Test Status field, when
enabled, based on the following criteria: The worst pair’s Wire Map,
Prop. Delay, Delay Skew, and Length.
Start Time
Indicates the date and time the test was started. The date and time is reset
every time the test is restarted or reset.
Auto-Response/Manual Loopback Status
Indicates the status of the loopback:

Loopback Active

No Loopback.
Interface
See Interface on page 366 for more information on Interface alarms/errors.
DS1
See DS1 on page 346 for more information on DS1 alarms/errors.
Power Blazer
491
Test Results
Summary (RFC 2544)
Summary (RFC 2544)
From the Test menu, tap Results, and the Summary tab.
492

Start Time indicates the date and time the test was started. The date
and time is reset every time the test is restarted or reset. For Dual Test
Set, this is the only information available on the remote module.

Test/Power Recovery: Test Recovery (Windows 8 or above) or
Power Recovery (Windows XP), when displayed, indicates that the
test has automatically recovered from a power failure. The number of
occurrences is also displayed next to the Test/Power Recovery field.
Refer to Power Failure Recovery on page 645.

Logger Full, when displayed, indicates that the logger is full. Refer to
Logger on page 423.

Remote unit in use and locked for Dual Test Set indicates that this
module is used for Dual Test Set as the remote module.

Remote unit in Dual Test Set Mode indicates that this module is set as
remote but the DTS Connection is not established.
88000 Series
Test Results
Summary (RFC 2544)
Throughput, Back-to-Back, Frame Loss, and
Latency Subtests

Throughput, Back-to-Back, Frame Loss, and Latency
For each subtest, its status (-- (Idle), In Progress, Completed, or
Aborted - (reason)) and duration are displayed.



TX Frames1 and RX Frames1 display the transmitted and received
frame counts of the subtest in progress. For Dual Test Set, frame
counts are available for both directions: from local to remote (L->R)
and remote to local (R->L). For Dual Port topology, frame counts are
available for both P1 to P2 (P1->P2) and P2 to P1 (P2->P1).
Trial #1 displays the current trial iteration of the subtest in progress
when applicable.
Val. #1 displays the current validation iteration of the subtest in
progress when applicable.

Step1 displays the current step of the subtest in progress when
applicable.

Displayed Results: Select the displayed result mode: Current,
Minimum (default), Maximum, or Average.

Throughput/Back-to-Back/Frame Loss/Latency table.
Each frame size used for the test is displayed with its subtest statistics.
Statistics values are displayed based on the Displayed Results setting.
“--” indicates that the result is not available because the test has not
run yet. While testing, one of the following messages is displayed for
each frame size: Initializing, Learning, Testing, Waiting, Not
measurable, Aborted, Link is Down, or MAC not resolved.
Dir. (Direction), available with Dual Test Set or Dual Port topology,
indicates respectively results from local to remote (L->R) and remote
to local (R->L), or P1 to P2 (P1->P2) and P2 to P1 (P2->P1).
1. Only displayed once the test is started.
Power Blazer
493
Test Results
Summary (RFC 2544)

Unit: Select the subtest result unit:
For Throughput: Mbit/s, Gbit/s, frame/s, and %.
For Back-to-Back: Mbit/s, Gbit/s, frame/burst, and %.
Frame Loss: %.
Latency: ms, and μs.

Layer: For Throughput and Back-to-Back subtests, select the
subtest layers used to calculate the throughput.
All (default): Layer 1,2,3 contains the Idle, Preamble, Start of Frame
Delimiter, MAC address, IP address, and data.
Ethernet: Layer 2,3 contains the MAC layer, IP layer, and data.
IP: Layer 3 contains the IP layer, and data.

Step: For Frame Loss subtest, selects the step (%) of the testing
rate to be displayed.

Mode: For Latency subtest, selects the propagation time mode.
Cut Through (default) allows the calculation of the propagation
time of a bit (Bit Latency).
S. & F. (Store and Forward) allows the calculation of the
propagation time of a frame (Frame Latency).
494
88000 Series
Test Results
Summary (RFC 6349)
Summary (RFC 6349)
From the Test menu, tap Results, and the Summary tab.

Status indicates the actual test status as follows.
Test Status
Description
“--”
Test has not started.
In Progress
The test is running.
Completed, <Verdict> Test has completed and the test pass/fail verdict is displayed
when enabled. A fail verdict is declared if any of the following
conditions occurs: Link Down, LOS, TCP Throughput verdict
failed, or any abort condition.
Aborted, <reason>
Power Blazer
Test has been aborted either manually (Stop) or automatically
due to an abort condition, and the reason is displayed as
follows:
Link down alarm, LOS alarm, DTS connection failed,
No Communication with Remote, Remote is busy,
Unexpected response from Remote,
Timeout during execution, Invalid Configuration,
Unresolved addresses, Invalid MTU, User Stopped

Start Time indicates the date and time the test was started. The date
and time is reset every time the test is restarted or reset. This is the only
information available on the remote module.

Test/Power Recovery: Test Recovery (Windows 8 or above) or
Power Recovery (Windows XP), when displayed, indicates that the
test has automatically recovered from a power failure. The number of
occurrences is also displayed next to the Test/Power Recovery field.
Refer to Power Failure Recovery on page 645.
495
Test Results
Summary (RFC 6349)



Logger Full1, when displayed, indicates that the logger is full. Refer to
Logger on page 423.
Remote unit in use and locked for Dual Test Set2 indicates that this
module is used for Dual Test Set as the remote module.
Remote unit in Dual Test Set Mode2 indicates that this module is set
as remote but the DTS Connection is not established.
MTU (bytes) is the validated Maximum Transfer Unit.
Minimum RTT (ms) is the minimum time between the first bit of a
segment sent and the last bit of the corresponding acknowledge.
Window Sweep

L->R and R->L indicates respectively the direction from local to
remote and remote to local.

Actual L4 indicates for each step the average TCP throughput metric.
TCP Throughput

L->R and R->L indicates respectively the direction from local to
remote and remote to local.

Window (KiB) indicates the total Max Window (1 KiB = 1024 bytes)
followed by the number of connections and KiB per connection in
parenthesis as follows: (n conn.@ n KiB).

Ideal L4 indicates the ideal TCP throughput metric.

Actual L4 indicates the average of actual TCP Throughput metric. The
pass/fail verdict icon is displayed next to the this metric when enabled.
A value greater or equal to the defined threshold gives a pass verdict.

TCP Efficiency (%) indicates the TCP Efficiency metric based on
transmitted and retransmitted bytes.
1. Displayed on local module only.
2. Displayed on Remote module only.
496
88000 Series
Test Results
Summary (RFC 6349)
Power Blazer

Buffer Delay (%) indicates the Buffer Delay percentage metric which
represents the increase in RTT during a TCP Throughput test versus the
Minimum RTT.

TCP Throughput Threshold (% of ideal) allows to enter the TCP
Throughput as a percentage of the defined CIR that will be used to
declare the pass/fail verdict for both directions: 0 to 100 %; default is
 %. The calculated throughput based on the selected threshold is
displayed for both directions.
497
Test Results
Summary (S-OAM and MPLS-TP OAM)
Summary (S-OAM and MPLS-TP OAM)
From the Test menu, tap Results, and the Summary tab.

Test Status displays the current status of the S-OAM / MPLS-TP OAM
test. The global test pass/fail verdict is displayed next to the Test Status
when enabled (see Pass/Fail Verdict on page 319).
Test Status
Description
--
The test is not running or results are not available.
In Progress
The test is running.
Completed
The test is completed, stopped at the planned time, or manually stopped when there is no
set timer.
Aborted
The test is interrupted; stopped before the set timer.
498

Start Time Indicates the date and time the test was started. The date
and time is reset every time the test is restarted or reset.

Test/Power Recovery: Test Recovery (Windows 8 or above) or
Power Recovery (Windows XP), when displayed, indicates that the
test has automatically recovered from a power failure. The number of
occurrences is also displayed next to the Test/Power Recovery field.
Refer to Power Failure Recovery on page 645.

Logger Full, when displayed, indicates that the logger is full. Refer to
Logger on page 423.
88000 Series
Test Results
Summary (S-OAM and MPLS-TP OAM)
Continuity Check (Peer MEP)

Status displays the status of the continuity check with the peer MEP.
Status
Power Blazer
Description
Loss Continuity
Loss of Continuity alarm is active.
Mismerge
Mismerge alarm is active.
Unexpected MEG Level
Unexpected MEG Level alarm is active.
Unexpected MEP
Unexpected MEP alarm is active.
Unexpected Period
Unexpected Period alarm is active.
Unexpected MD Level
Unexpected MD Level alarm is active.
Receiving CCMs
CCM frames from the peer MEP are received without alarms.

TX CCM indicates the count of transmitted CCM frames.

RX CCM indicates the count of valid CCM frames received. A valid
frame for S-OAM has its source MAC address matching the Peer MEP
MAC address; destination MAC address matching either the unit port
Unicast MAC address or a Multicast class 1 address (refer to 739); and
VLANs matching the unit port VLANs. A valid frame for MPLS-TP OAM
has its destination MAC address matching either the unit MAC address,
FF:FF:FF:FF:FF:FF, or 01:00:5E:90:00:00; VLANs matching the unit port
VLANs; and MPL Labels matching the local MPLS Label Stack
configuration.
499
Test Results
Summary (S-OAM and MPLS-TP OAM)

CCM indicates the content of the last received CCM frame including
MEG ID (Y.1731 and G.8113.1), Domain ID (802.1ag and MEF), MA
Name (802.1ag and MEF), MEG Level (Y.1731, MEF, and G.8113.1), MD
Level (802.1ag), MEP ID, and Period.
For unsupported Domain ID, MA Name, and MEG ID, the Unexpected
Format message is displayed.
Supported Format
Domain ID
1 (No Maintenance Domain Name present)
4 (Character String)
MA Name
MEG ID
2 (Character String)
32 (ICC based format)
33 (CC and ICC based format)
500
88000 Series
Test Results
Summary (S-OAM and MPLS-TP OAM)
Loopback / Test / Frame Delay / Frame Loss /
Synthetic Loss
Note: Either Loopback, Test, Frame Delay, Frame Loss, or Synthetic Loss
(available with Ethernet OAM) statistics are displayed according with the
selected test function (refer to Test Function on page 266).

Status displays the status of the test function.
For Loopback, Frame Delay, Frame Loss, and Synthetic Loss
(available with Ethernet OAM) functions:
Status
Description
Idle
No Results (function did not run yet).
In Progress
Test is in progress. Frames are being transmitted and monitored.
Completed
Test is completed:
The test with continuous transmission is manually stopped and replies have been received
or timed out.
The test with continuous transmission is automatically stopped by a test timer and replies
have been received or timed out.
All frames of the test with non-continuous transmission have been transmitted and replies
have been received or timed out.
Aborted
Test is aborted. The test with non-continuous transmission is stopped before all the frames
are transmitted.
For Test function:
Status
Description
Idle
No Results (function did not run yet).
In Progress
Test is in progress. RX TST frames are being monitored.
Completed
Test is completed. The test is stopped or function is disabled after being In Progress state.
Power Blazer
501
Test Results
Summary (S-OAM and MPLS-TP OAM)

RX Line Utilization meter and value, available with Loopback
function, indicate the line rate utilization percentage (only LBR frames
are considered) received in the last second.

TST RX Rate meter and value, available with Test function, indicate the
quantity of TST frames received in the last second.

Frame Delay meter and value, available with Frame Delay function,
indicate the average of the measured frame delays in the last second.

Frame Loss Ratio meter, available with Frame Loss function,
indicates for both Near-End and Far-End the last measured frame loss
ratio in the last second.

Synthetic Loss Ratio meter, available with Synthetic Loss function
which is available with Ethernet OAM, indicates for both Near-End and
Far-End the last measured Synthetic Loss ratio in the last second.
Note: Refer to S-OAM and MPLS-TP OAM on page 443 for more
alarms/errors/statistics information.
Summary
Refer to S-OAM and MPLS-TP OAM on page 443 for more information on
alarms.
Thresholds
Refer to Thresholds on page 262 for more information.
502
88000 Series
Test Results
Summary (SyncE)
Summary (SyncE)
From the Test menu, tap Results, and the Summary tab.

Test Status displays the current status of the SyncE test. The global test
pass/fail verdict is displayed next to the Test Status when enabled (see
Pass/Fail Verdict on page 319).
Test Status
Power Blazer
Description
--
The test is not running or results are not available.
In Progress
The test is running.
Completed
The test is completed, stopped at the planned time, or manually
stopped when there is no set timer.
Aborted
The test is interrupted; stopped before the set timer.

Start Time indicates the time the test was started.

Test/Power Recovery: Test Recovery (Windows 8 or above) or
Power Recovery (Windows XP), when displayed, indicates that the
test has automatically recovered from a power failure. The number of
occurrences is also displayed next to the Test/Power Recovery field.
Refer to Power Failure Recovery on page 645.

Logger Full, when displayed, indicates that the logger is full. Refer to
Logger on page 423.
503
Test Results
Summary (SyncE)
ESMC
Indicates the current (meter and value), average, minimum, and
maximum ESMC frame rate (including information and event frames)
received in frame/s. A fail verdict is also displayed beside the minimum
and/or maximum values when the ESMC frame rate is outside the range
while the Pass/Fail Verdict is enabled.
ESMC RX Rate meter displays the current ESMC frame rate (including
information and event frames) in frame/s averaged over the last 11 frames
received. The pass/fail verdict is also displayed when enabled.
Note: When the Pass/Fail Verdict and ESMC Rate Threshold check boxes are
selected (see page 319), the green region is delimited from 0.8 to 10.2
frames/s corresponding to a PASS verdict. The red regions above and
beyond the threshold correspond to a FAIL verdict. There is neither green
nor red region when the Pass/Fail verdict is disabled.
504
88000 Series
Test Results
Summary (SyncE)
RX

Last QL Message indicates the last Quality Level value received. The
pass/fail verdict is also displayed when both QL Mismatch Monitoring
and Pass/Fail Verdict check boxes are selected.
Last Change indicates the date and time of the Last QL Message has
changed.

Information/Event Count gives respectively the count of information
and event frames generated for all Quality Level values.

QL Mismatch Frame Count gives the total count of information and/or
event frames received not matching the expected Quality Level. Only
available when the QL Mismatch Monitoring check box is selected.

Frequency/Offset indicates respectively the frequency and the offset
between the standard rate specification and the rate of the input signal.

Max. (-/+) Offset (ppm) indicates respectively the minium and
maximum offset between the standard rate specification and the
largest/smallest rate recorded from the received signal.
TX

QL Message indicates the Quality Level value that is generated.
Last Change indicates the date and time of the QL Message value has
changed. For 1GE Electrical interface using Local Clock set to Slave,
the Last Change is not available.

Power Blazer
Information/Event Count gives respectively the count of information
and event frames generated for all Quality Level values. Event Count is
not available with 1GE Electrical interface using remote local clock.
505
Test Results
Summary (TCP Throughput)
Summary (TCP Throughput)
From the Test menu, tap Results, and the Summary tab.

Test Status indicates the actual test status as follows.
Test Status
Description
“--”
The test is not running or results are not available.
In Progress
The test is running.
Completed
The test is completed, stopped at the planned time, or
manually stopped when there is no set timer.
Aborted - <Reason> The test is interrupted; stopped before the set timer. Possible
<Reason> are: TCP Session Closed or Remote IP Not Found.
506

Start Time indicates the date and time the test was started. The date
and time is reset every time the test is restarted or reset.

Test/Power Recovery: Test Recovery (Windows 8 or above) or
Power Recovery (Windows XP), when displayed, indicates that the
test has automatically recovered from a power failure. The number of
occurrences is also displayed next to the Test/Power Recovery field.
Refer to Power Failure Recovery on page 645.

Logger Full, when displayed, indicates that the logger is full. Refer to
Logger on page 423.
88000 Series
Test Results
Summary (TCP Throughput)
TCP Throughput

TCP Connection Status indicates the actual TCP connection status.
Test Status
Description
“--”
The test is not running or results are not available.
In Progress
The TCP initialization algorithm is in progress.
Waiting
Indicates on the remote unit that the test is started but the
TCP initialization algorithm is not initiated by the local unit.
Established
The TCP session has been successfully established between the
local and remote units.
Closed
The session is closed. Either no TCP initialization algorithm has
been received, the remote unit has received and completed the
request to close the TCP session, or no data has been received
at the remote unit for 30 seconds.
Closing
The TCP protocol is closing down the connection.
Remote IP not found The local unit didn’t received an answer to the ARP request sent
to the IP address of the remote unit.
Power Blazer

Transmitted Frames indicates the total of frames transmitted by the
local unit excluding the re-transmitted frames.

Re-transmitted Frames indicates the total of frames that have been
re-transmitted by the local unit.

Efficiency (%) indicates the percentage of bytes that were not
retransmitted.

Window Size Unit allows to select the unit used for Window Size:
Bytes, KBytes, or MBytes (default).

Throughput Threshold allows to set the pass/fail verdict threshold
value: 0 to 100 % (default). This setting is available when the
Throughput Pass/Fail Verdict check box is selected (refer to TCP
Throughput on page 321).

Throughput meter displays the last second TCP Throughput
measurement.
507
Test Results
Summary (TCP Throughput)

TCP Throughput displays respectively the last, minimum, maximum,
and average TCP Throughput measurement.

Window Size displays respectively the last, minimum, and maximum
TCP window size.

Round Trip Latency (ms) displays respectively the last, minimum,
maximum, and average round trip time gathered from the TCP
Throughput test.
Ethernet Traffic
Note: See Traffic - Ethernet on page 514 for more information.
508
88000 Series
Test Results
Summary (Traffic Gen & Mon)
Summary (Traffic Gen & Mon)
From the Test menu, tap Results, and the Summary tab.

The P1 and P2 buttons, available with Dual Port topology, allow to
respectively display the test summary for port #1 (P1) or port #2 (P2).

Test Status indicates the actual test status as follows. The global test
pass/fail verdict is displayed next to the Test Status when enabled (see
QoS Metrics on page 316).

“--”: The test is not running or results are not available.

In Progress: The test is running.

Completed: The test is completed, stopped at the planned time, or
manually stopped when there is no set timer.

Start Time indicates the date and time the test was started. The date
and time is reset every time the test is restarted or reset.

Test/Power Recovery: Test Recovery (Windows 8 or above) or
Power Recovery (Windows XP), when displayed, indicates that the
test has automatically recovered from a power failure. The number of
occurrences is also displayed next to the Test/Power Recovery field.
Refer to Power Failure Recovery on page 645.

Logger Full, when displayed, indicates that the logger is full. Refer to
Logger on page 423.
Stream
The following statistics are available for each stream.
Power Blazer

Current Throughput: See Streams - Throughput on page 457.

Frame Loss Rate: See Streams - Frame Loss / Out-of-Sequence on
page 455.

Jitter: See Streams - Jitter on page 455.

Latency: See Streams - Latency on page 456.
509
Test Results
Summary (Traffic Gen & Mon)

Out-of-Sequence: See Streams - Frame Loss / Out-of-Sequence on
page 455.

Stream indicates the stream number and provides stream detailed
statistics when tapping on its button.
The following statistics are displayed for the selected stream.

Stream Selection: Select a stream by either using the left/right
arrow or by tapping over the stream numbers area then tapping on
a specific stream number. An orange background indicates the
selected stream.

Throughput, Jitter, and Latency meters display respectively the
measured Throughput, Jitter, and Latency for the selected stream.
Note: The green region is delimited from 0 to the Threshold corresponding to a
PASS verdict. The red regions beyond the threshold corresponds to a FAIL
verdict. The Pass/Fail verdict is only displayed when enabled (see QoS
Metrics on page 316).
510

Jitter: See Streams - Jitter on page 455.

Latency: See Streams - Latency on page 456.

RX Rate: See Streams - Throughput on page 457.

RX Frame Count indicates the number of frame received
matching the selected stream.

TX Rate: See Streams - Throughput on page 457.

TX Frame Count indicates the number of transmitted frames
matching the selected stream.

Frame Loss and Out-of-Sequence: See Streams - Frame Loss /
Out-of-Sequence on page 455.
88000 Series
Test Results
Traces - OTN
Traces - OTN
From the Test menu, tap Results, Traces, and the OTN sub-tab.
Channel
Available with Multi-Channel OTN lower ODU layer, allows the selection of
the channel number.
OTUx, ODUx, and TCM Buttons
Tap on either OTUx, or an ODUx button. For ODUx when TCM is enabled
(see Modify TCM on page 300), tap on a TCMx button to select a TCM level.
TCM is not available with Multi-Channel OTN.
SM/PM TTI Traces
Received Message

SAPI indicates the received TTI (Trail Trace Identifier) Source Access
Point Identifier.

DAPI indicates the received TTI Destination Access Point Identifier.

Operator Specific indicates the received TTI Operator Identifier.
Expected Message
Note: The TTI Traces are configurable for SM (OTUx), PM (ODUx), and TCM
(ODUx when TCM is enabled; refer to Modify TCM on page 300). The
following settings are coupled with the Expected Message from Traces
(OTN) on page 326.

Power Blazer
SAPI allows editing the expected Source Access point Identifier (TTI
bytes 0 to 15). Available when the SAPI OTU/ODU-TIM check box is
selected.
511
Test Results
Traces - OTN




DAPI allows editing the expected Destination Access point Identifier
(TTI bytes 16 to 31). Available when the DAPI OTU/ODU-TIM check box
is selected.
SAPI OTU/ODU-TIM check box1, when selected (cleared by default),
allows editing the expected Source Access Point Identifier (SAPI) and
also enables OTU/ODU-TIM alarm monitoring.
DAPI OTU/ODU-TIM check box1, when selected (cleared by default),
allows editing the expected Destination Access Point Identifier (SAPI)
and also enables the OTU/ODU/TCM-TIM alarm monitoring.
Copy RX/Global Copy RX2 uses the received SAPI/DAPI message as
the expected SAPI/DAPI. For Multi-Channel OTN lower ODU layer, use
the arrow button next to the Copy RX or Global Copy RX to switch
from one button to the other; Global Copy RX uses the current
channel received SAPI/DAPI message as the expected SAPI/DAPI for all
channels while Copy RX only affects the selected channel.
1. For Multi-Channel OTN lower ODU layer, the SAPI and DAPI ODU-TIM check boxes are only configurable from the
test setup.
2. Only available for Multi-Channel OTN lower ODU layer.
512
88000 Series
Test Results
Traces - SONET/SDH
Traces - SONET/SDH
From the Test menu, tap Results, Traces, and the SONET/SDH sub-tab.
Note: Selecting a Trace byte to be generated will automatically update the
corresponding OH byte. Refer to OH - SONET/SDH on page 578 for more
information.
Traces

Section/RS (J0), and STS/AU/TU-3 Path (J1), and VT/TU Path (J2)
Displays the received J0/J1/J2 value in 16 or 64-bytes format. The
<crc7> represents the CRC-7 for a 16-bytes format. The last two bytes
of a 64-bytes format, <CR> and <LF>, represent respectively a
carriage return and a line feed.

TIM-S/RS-TIM, TIM-P/HP-TIM, TIM-V/LP-TIM: Enables the
corresponding Trace Identifier Mismatch for the expected message
defined. These settings are coupled with the Traces configuration from
Traces (SONET/SDH) on page 330.
Copy RX allows to use the received TIM message as the expected one.
TCM Access Point Identifier
Note: Available when TCM is enabled (refer to page 301).

STS/AU Path (N1), and VT/TU Path (Z6 or N1 (TU-3))
Displays the received N1/Z6 value.

TC-TIM-P/HPTC-TIM/TC-TIM-V/LPTC-TIM: Enables the corresponding
TCM Access Point Identifier for the expected message defined. These
settings are coupled with the Traces configuration from Traces
(SONET/SDH) on page 330.
Copy RX allows to use the received TIM message as the expected one.
Power Blazer
513
Test Results
Traffic - Ethernet
Traffic - Ethernet
From the Test menu, tap Results, Traffic, and when applicable the
Ethernet tab.
Note: For Through Mode test application, the traffic statistics are displayed for
both port directions (P1->P2 and P2->P1).
P1 and P2 Buttons
The P1 and P2 buttons, available with Dual Port topology, allow to
respectively display results for port #1 (P1) or port #2 (P2).
Traffic

Line Utilization (%) indicates the current percentage of the
transmitting/receiving line rate utilization.

Ethernet BW (Mbit/s) indicates the current transmitting/receiving data
rate expressed in Mbit/s.

Frame Rate (frame/s) indicates the current transmitted/received
number of frames (including bad frames, Broadcast frames and
Multicast frames) in frame per second.

Frame Count indicates the total number of transmitted/received valid
and invalid frames.
Frame Type
Displays the TX and RX count of the following frame types.
514

Multicast indicates the number of multicast frames
transmitted/received without FCS errors. Broadcast frames are not
counted as multicast frames.

Broadcast indicates the number of broadcast frames
transmitted/received without FCS errors.
88000 Series
Test Results
Traffic - Ethernet

Unicast indicates the number of unicast frames transmitted/received
without FCS errors.

Non-Unicast indicates the number of multicast and broadcast frames
transmitted/received without FCS errors.

Total indicates the total number of all frames transmitted/received
without FCS error.
Frame Size
Displays the RX count of each received frame size (valid and invalid), and
the percentage (%) ratio of each received frame size based on the total
count of frames. The percentage (%) ratio is not available for Through
Mode test application.
Power Blazer

< 64/80/82: frames with less than 64 bytes; 80 bytes for EoE; 82 bytes
for PBB-TE.

64/80/82: frames equal to 64 bytes; 80 bytes for EoE; 82 bytes for
PBB-TE.

65/81/83 - 127: frames from 65 to 127 bytes; 81 to 127 bytes for EoE; 83
to 127 bytes for PBB-TE.

128 - 255: frames from 128 to 255 bytes.

256 - 511: frames from 256 to 511 bytes.

512 - 1023: frames from 512 to 1023 bytes.

1024 - 1518/1534/1536:

1024 - 1518: frames from 1024 to 1518 (no VLAN), 1522 (1 VLAN
tag), 1526 (2 VLAN tags), or 1530 (3 VLAN tags) bytes.

1024 - 1534: for EoE, frames from 1024 to 1534; add 4 bytes to 1534
for each VLAN layer enabled in the encapsulated Ethernet payload
and 4 bytes for EoE VLAN when enabled.
515
Test Results
Traffic - Ethernet



516
1024 - 1536: for PBB-TE, frames from 1024 to 1536; add 4 bytes to
1536 for each VLAN layer enabled in the encapsulated Ethernet
payload and 4 bytes for B-VLAN when enabled.
> 1518/1534/1536:

> 1518: frames with more than 1518 (no VLAN), 1522 (1 VLAN
tag), 1526 (2 VLAN tags), or 1530 (3 VLAN tags) bytes.

> 1534: for EoE: frame with more than 1534; add 4 bytes to 1534
for each VLAN layer enabled in the encapsulated Ethernet payload
and 4 bytes for EoE VLAN when enabled.

> 1536: for PBB-TE, frame with more than 1536; add 4 bytes to
1536 for each VLAN layer enabled in the encapsulated Ethernet
payload and 4 bytes for B-VLAN when enabled.
Total indicates the total count of all received frames (valid and invalid).
88000 Series
Test Results
Traffic - Flow Control
Traffic - Flow Control
From the Test menu, tap Results, Traffic, and the Flow Control tab.
P1 and P2 Buttons
The P1 and P2 buttons, available with Dual Port topology, allow to
respectively display results for port #1 (P1) or port #2 (P2).
Frame Count - RX

Pause Frames indicates the number of received valid flow-control
frames. Frames that have a type/length field equal to 0x8808 will be
counted as a pause frame.

Abort Frame indicates the number of received pause frames with a
Quanta equal to zero; cancelling the pause frames.

Total Frame indicates the total number of pause time received from
the link partner.
Pause Time
Indicates respectively the total, last, maximum, and minimum pause time
received from the link partner in Quanta (default) or Microsecond (μs).
Power Blazer
517
Test Results
Traffic - Flow Control
Pause Injection
Note: Pause injection is only available for Traffic Gen & Mon test application.

Packet Pause Time: Enter the pause time value to be transmitted in
Quanta or Microsecond (default is 100 Quanta).
Interface
Range
Quanta
μs
10 Mbit/s
0 to 65535
0 to 3355392
100 Mbit/s
0 to 65535
0 to 335539.2
1000 Mbit/s
0 to 65535
0 to 33553.92
10 Gbit/s
0 to 65535
0 to 3355.392
40 Gbit/s
0 to 65535
0 to 838.848
100 Gbit/s
0 to 65535
0 to 335.5392
Note: When entering a value in μs it will be rounded to the closest multiple of
0.0512 for 10 Gbit/s, 5.12 μs for 100 Mbit/s, 0.512μs for 1000 Mbit/s, 0.0512μs
for 10 Mbit/s, 0.0128 for 40 Gbit/s, and 0.00512 for 100 Gbit/s.
518

Inject button allows to generate the defined packet pause time.

Destination MAC Address check box, when selected (cleared by
default), enables and allows to set the destination MAC address. The
default destination MAC address is the control protocol multicast
address: 01:80:C2:00:00:01.
88000 Series
Test Results
Traffic - Graph
Traffic - Graph
From the Test menu, tap Results, Traffic, and the Graph tab.
P1 and P2 Buttons
The P1 and P2 buttons, available with Dual Port topology, allow to
respectively display results for port #1 (P1) or port #2 (P2).
The graph displays the received line utilization. The X axis shows the time
in seconds while the Y axis shows the percentage utilization.
Power Blazer
519
Test Results
Traffic - OAM, S-OAM, and MPLS-TP OAM
Traffic - OAM, S-OAM, and MPLS-TP OAM
From the Test menu, tap Results, Traffic, and the OAM, S-OAM, or
MPLS-TP OAM tab.
Traffic Monitoring
Note: Only available with Carrier Ethernet OAM test application.

In TX, reports counts of CCM, LBM, LTM, DMM, LMM, SLM, TST, AIS,
LCK, and CSF frames transmitted. LTM and SLM are only available with
Ethernet OAM. Total count is reported as well as unicast and/or
multicast frame counts when applicable.

In RX, reports counts of CCM, LBR, LTR, DMR, LMR, SLR, TST AIS, LCK,
and CSF frames (LTR and SLR are only available with Ethernet OAM)
received regardless of the sender as long as the following criteria are
met:

S-OAM: The destination MAC address matches either the local MEP
Unicast MAC address or a Multicast class 1 or class 2 address; and
the VLANs matches the unit port VLANs. Refer to Unicast/Multicast
Addresses for Ethernet OAM on page 739 for more information.

MPLS-TP OAM: The destination MAC address matches either the
unit MAC address, FF:FF:FF:FF:FF:FF, or 01:00:5E:90:00:00; the
VLANs matches the unit port VLANs; and MPL Labels matches the
local MPLS Label Stack configuration. For AIS, LCK, and CSF, valid
messages must also have the MEG Level matching the Local MEG
Level.
Total count is reported as well as unicast and/or multicast frame counts
when applicable.
520
88000 Series
Test Results
Traffic - OAM, S-OAM, and MPLS-TP OAM
Responder
Note: Available when the S-OAM Responder or MPLS-TP OAM Responder check
box is selected (refer to S-OAM and MPLS-TP OAM Responder on
page 261).
For Carrier Ethernet OAM test application:

In TX, reports counts of LBR, LTR, DMR, LMR, and SLR total frames
transmitted. LTR and SLR are only available with Ethernet OAM.

In RX, reports counts of valid LBM, LTM, DMM, LMM, and SLM unicast,
multicast, and total frames received. LTM and SLM are only available
with Ethernet OAM. A valid messages must have its:
S-OAM: source MAC address matching the Peer MEP MAC address;
destination MAC address matching either the unit port Unicast MAC
address or a Multicast class 1 or class 2 address; VLANs matching the
unit port VLANs, and MEG/MD Level matching the local MEG/MD Level.
Refer to Unicast/Multicast Addresses for Ethernet OAM on page 739 for
more information.
MPLS-TP OAM: destination MAC address matching either the unit MAC
address, FF:FF:FF:FF:FF:FF, or 01:00:5E:90:00:00; VLANs matching the
unit port VLANs; and MPL Labels matching the local MPLS Label Stack
configuration.
For Smart Loopback test application:
Power Blazer

In TX, reports counts of LBR, LTR, DMR, LMR, and SLR total frames
transmitted.

In RX, reports counts of valid LBM, LTM, DMM, LMM, and SLM total
frames received. A valid messages must have its destination MAC
address matching either the unit port Unicast MAC address or a
Multicast class 1 or class 2 address. Refer to Unicast/Multicast
Addresses for Ethernet OAM on page 739 for more information.
521
Test Results
Window Sweep
Window Sweep
Displays the graph showing the Ideal L4 and Actual L TCP Throughput
measured for each Window Sweep step. The number of connections and
KiB per connection is also displayed in parenthesis as follows:
(n conn.@ n KiB)
From the Test menu, tap Results, and the Window Sweep tab.
522
88000 Series
Test Results
WIS
WIS
From the Test menu, tap Results, and the WIS tab.
Traces/Label
Power Blazer

J0 Trace displays the J0 Trace value in 16-bytes format.

J1 Trace displays the J1 Trace value in 16-bytes format.

Path Signal Label (C2) displays the content of the STS SPE including
the status of the mapped payload.
523
10 Test Functions
The Test Functions menu offers the following structure:
Transport Test Applications
Available with
Tab - Sub Tab
OTNMultiSONET/ DSn/
OTN
SONET/
NI/CSU Page
Channel
SDH PDH
BERT
SDH
Emulation
OTN
BERT BERT
BERT
40/100G Advanced CFP/CFP2/CFP4/QSFP Control
X
X
X
Xa
-
-
528
40/100G Advanced - Lanes Mapping &
Skew
X
-
X
-
-
-
532
40/100G Advanced - Pre-Emphasis
X
-
X
-
-
-
537
APS
-
-
X
X
-
-
539
Client Offset
X
-
-
-
-
-
542
FDL - Bit-Oriented Message
-
-
-
-
X
X
545
FDL - Performance Report Message
-
-
-
-
X
X
549
FEAC
-
-
-
-
X
-
552
GMP
X
X
X
-
-
-
566
OH (GFP-F/GFP-T)
X
-
-
-
-
-
567
OH (OTN)
X
-
X
-
-
-
572
OH (SONET/SDH)
-
-
X
Xb
-
-
578
Pointer Adjustment
-
-
X
X
-
-
598
RTD
X
-
X
X
X
-
608
Signaling Bits
-
-
-
-
X
-
615
Spare Bits
-
-
-
-
X
-
616
a.
b.
Not available with CFP4 and QSFP.
The sub tab is not displayed.
Power Blazer
525
Test Functions
Ethernet Test Applications
Test Application
Tab - Sub Tab
a
b
c
d
e
f
g
h
i
j
Page
40/100G Advanced - CFP/CFP2/CFP4/QSFP Control
X
X
X
X
X
X
-
-
-
-
528
40/100G Advanced - Lanes Mapping & Skew
X
X
X
X
X
X
-
-
-
-
532
40/100G Advanced - Pre-Emphasis
X
X
X
X
X
X
-
-
-
-
537
Filters
-
-
-
X
X
-
X
-
X
-
556
Packet Capture
-
-
-
X
X
-
X
-
X
-
560
Ping & Trace Route
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
593
S-OAM Link Trace
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
X
-
613
Traffic Scan
-
-
-
-
X
-
-
-
-
-
618
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.
h.
i.
j.
526
EtherSAM
RFC 6349
RFC 2544
EtherBERT
Traffic Gen & Mon
Smart Loopback
Through Mode
TCP Throughput
Carrier Ethernet OAM
Cable Test
88000 Series
Test Functions
Packet Sync Test Applications
Test Application
Tab
Filters
1588 PTP
SyncE
X
X
Page
556
Packet Capture
X
X
560
Ping & Trace Route
X
X
593
Wireless Test Application
Tab
RTD
Power Blazer
Test Application
Framing
Page
X
Unframed
608
X
Framed L2
611
CPRI/OBSAI BERT
527
Test Functions
40/100G Advanced - CFP/CFP2/CFP4/QSFP Control
40/100G Advanced - CFP/CFP2/CFP4/QSFP
Control
Note: Not available with Internal Loopback connector.
From the Test menu, tap Functions, 40/100G Advanced, and the
CFP/CFP2/CFP4/QSFP Control tab.
CFP4 Reference Clock (MHz)
Available with CFP4 only, allows to select the reference clock that will be
used by the CFP4 transceiver.
Interface/Rate
1/160 Host Lane Rate
(default - recommended)
1/40 Host Lane Rate
OTU4
174.7031 MHz
698.8123 MHz
100GE
161.1328 MHz
644.5313 MHz
CFP/CFP2/CFP4/QSFP Power Class
Indicates the power class of the inserted CFP/CFP2/CFP4/QSFP module.
528
88000 Series
Test Functions
40/100G Advanced - CFP/CFP2/CFP4/QSFP Control
CFP/CFP2/CFP4/QSFP Control Pins
Allows the following CFP/CFP2/CFP4/QSFP control pin settings. Refer to
the CFP MSA standard for more information.
Note: To apply any control, first select its check box then clear it; the control is
applied only when the selected check box is cleared.

TX & RX IC RST1, 2 check box (cleared by default).

Connector Power Rating1, 2, choices are:
Connector
Power Rating
CFP
Power Class 1 (<= 8W)
Power Class 2 (<= 16W)
Power Class 3 (<= 24W) (default)
CFP2
Power Class 1 (<= 3W)
Power Class 2 (<= 6W)
Power Class 3 (<= 9W) (default)

TX Disable2 check box (cleared by default).

Module Low Power Mode check box (cleared by default).

Module Reset check box (cleared by default).

Module Power Shutdown check box (cleared by default).
1. Not supported with CFP4.
2. Not supported with QSFP
Power Blazer
529
Test Functions
40/100G Advanced - CFP/CFP2/CFP4/QSFP Control
CFP/CFP2/CFP4/QSFP Status Pins
Gives the following CFP/QSFP’s pin status (refer to the CFP/QSFP MSA
standard for more information):
Transceiver
Pin status
CFP/CFP2
Hi Power On, Module Ready, Module Fault, Module Absent, RX Loss of
Signal, Global Alarm
CFP4
Module Absent, RX Loss of Signal, Global Alarm
QSFP
Module Absent
CFP/CFP2/CFP4 MDIO Access Interface

MDIO - Bulk Read

MDIO Start Address allows the selection of the MDIO start address
0x0000 (default) to 0xFFFF.

MDIO End Address allows the selection of the MDIO end address
0x0000 to 0xFFFF; default is 0x00FF.

Bulk Read button reads and displays the data based on the
specified MDIO range (MDIO Start Address to MDIO End Address).
Save to CSV button allows to save the read MDIO’s addresses and
data to a CSV file.
Note: The bulk read size is limited to 1024 addresses.
530
88000 Series
Test Functions
40/100G Advanced - CFP/CFP2/CFP4/QSFP Control

MDIO - Read/Write

MDIO Address allows the selection of the MDIO address,
0x0000 (default) to 0xFFFF.

MDIO Data allows to either select (write) or read the MDIO data,
0x0000 (default) to 0xFFFF.
MDIO Read button reads the data of the specified MDIO Address.
MDIO Write button writes the specified MDIO DATA value to the
specified MDIO Address.
CFP/CFP2/CFP4 TX Status
For parallel interface, indicates the CFP transmission status for each optical
lane. For serial interface, indicates the CFP transmission laser status.
Power Blazer
531
Test Functions
40/100G Advanced - Lanes Mapping & Skew
40/100G Advanced - Lanes Mapping & Skew
Note: Only available with parallel interface. Not available when the RS-FEC
check box is selected.
From the Test menu, tap Functions, 40/100G Advanced, and the Lanes
Mapping & Skew tab.
TX

PCS/Logical Lane, for Ethernet test applications, indicates the PCS
(Ethernet test applications) or Logical (Transport Test applications)
lane markers. To change the PCS/Logical lane order, see
Default/Random/Manual Mapping on page 534.

Skew (Bits) indicates the TX relative delay in bit time for each
PCS/Logical lane. To change the skew values, see Reset/Manual Skew
on page 535.
CAUI/Physical Lane
Indicates the CAUI (Ethernet test applications) or Physical (Transport Test
applications) Lane numbers. Not available with CFP4 and QSFP.
RX

Skew (bits) indicates the delay in bit time between the earliest
PCS/Logical lane and the current lane for the one to zero transition of
the alignment marker sync bits. The received skew accuracy is
±100 bits.

PCS/Logical Lane indicates received PCS/Logical Lane markers.
Note: If a PCS/Logical Lane marker is detected more than once, a red
background is used to highlight all occurrences of this PCS/Logical Lane
marker. Duplicate is also displayed on a red background.
532
88000 Series
Test Functions
40/100G Advanced - Lanes Mapping & Skew
PCS/Logical Lane
Allows to order the PCS/Logical Lane markers in either Ascending (1,2,3...)
or Coupled to RX.
Alarms
For a description of each alarm, refer to OTL on page 378 for Transport and
Ethernet - PCS Lanes / PCS on page 356 for Ethernet.
Errors
For a description of each error, refer to OTL on page 378 for Transport and
Ethernet - PCS Lanes / PCS on page 356 for Ethernet.
The error values are displayed in seconds by default. Tapping on the unit
allows to select either Seconds, Count, or Rate.
Total indicates the total of all lanes when Count or Rate unit is selected.
Power Blazer
533
Test Functions
40/100G Advanced - Lanes Mapping & Skew
Default/Random/Manual Mapping
Allows to change the PCS/Logical lane mapping that will be used for the
test. Not available with 100 GbE client in OTU4.

Default Mapping sets the TX mapping to the default numerical order
value which corresponds to the ascending PCS/Logical lane order.

Random Mapping sets the TX mapping in a random order. Each time
the button is tapped, random alignment markers are assigned to each
PCS/Logical lane.

Manual Mapping allows to manually set the TX mapping.

PCS/Logical Lane and Assigned Status: The PCS/Logical Lane
buttons allow to assign the corresponding Lane Marker to the
selected PCS/Logical to CAUI/XLAUI/Physical Lane mapping (the
one pointed by the arrow). The Assigned Status column displays a
check mark next to the assigned PCS/Logical Lanes. Range is from
0 to 19 for OTU4/100G and 0 to 3 for OTU3/OTU3e1/OTU3e2/40G.

PCS/Logical Lane and CAUI/XLAUI/Physical Lane columns
indicate the target PCS/Logical to CAUI/XLAUI/Physical mapping.

Clear All clears the PCS/Logical to CAUI /XLAUI/Physical Lane
assignments.

OK accepts the new PCS/Logical to CAUI/XLAUI/Physical lane
mapping. All target PCS/Logical Lane fields must contain an
assignation, including duplicates, to give access to the OK button.
Note: A PCS/Logical Lane marker can be assigned more than once, if this is the
case a red background is used to highlight all occurrences of this
PCS/Logical Lane marker.
534
88000 Series
Test Functions
40/100G Advanced - Lanes Mapping & Skew
Reset/Manual Skew
Allows the selection of a relative delay in bit time that will be introduced for
each PCS/Logical lane. Not available with 100 GbE client in OTU4.
Power Blazer

Reset Skew sets all TX skew (bit time) values to 0.

Manual Skew allows to manually set the skew value for each
PCS/Logical lane.

All Lanes, when selected, applies the change(s) to all PCS/Logical
Lane at once.

Skew Inc/Dec Size (bits) allows to set the increment/decrement
value that will be used when changing the TX Skew (bits) values
using the “+” and “-” buttons. Range is from 0 to 2047 for
100G/OTU4 and 0 to 4095 for 40G/OTU3/OTU3e1/OTU3e2.

PCS/Logical Lane indicates the PCS/Logical Lane numbers and All
which represents the value for all PCS/Logical Lane when the All
Lanes check box is selected.

Skew (bits) allows to set the skew value for each lane. Enter
directly the skew value in the field or use the “+” and “-” buttons to
respectively increment or decrement the skew value using the
defined Skew Inc/Dec Size value. Tapping and holding the “+” or
“-” button increments/decrements successively allowing to reach
the desired value faster. using the defined Skew Inc/Dec Size
value. Range is from 0 to 2047 for 100G/OTU4 and 0 to 4095 for
40G/OTU3/OTU3e1/OTU3e2.
535
Test Functions
40/100G Advanced - Lanes Mapping & Skew
Laser ON/OFF
Allows to activate the laser control per optical lane or for all lanes.
Optical lane numbers are from 0 to 3 or from 0 to 9 depending on the
selected interface/rate.

All Lanes check box, when selected, applies the change(s) to all
optical lanes at once.

Optical Lane indicates the optical lane numbers and All which
represents the setting for all optical lanes when the All Lanes
check box is selected.

Laser check box, when selected, indicates that the corresponding
optical laser lane is activated and emitting an optical laser signal.
Skew Alarm Threshold (bits)
Allows to set the threshold value that will be used to declare a skew alarm
(see Ex. Skew on page 378).
Default button restores the default alarm threshold value.
536
88000 Series
Test Functions
40/100G Advanced - Pre-Emphasis
40/100G Advanced - Pre-Emphasis
Note: Only available with parallel interface using CFP transceiver (not supported
with CFP2, CFP4, and QSFP). Not available with Internal Loopback
connector.
From the Test menu, tap Functions, 40/100G Advanced, and the
Pre-Emphasis tab.
TX and RX parameters allow to respectively adjust the transmit and receive
transceiver signal level and shape per channel.

All Lanes check box, when selected (cleared by default), applies the
change(s) to all channels at once.

Channel indicates the channel numbers. All applies the values to all
channels when the All Lanes check box is selected.
Note: To restore the pre-emphasis values to their default setting, either tap the
restore defaults test application button (available with Transport tests; refer
to Restore < Test Application > Defaults on page 145 or Restore EtherSAM
Defaults on page 168) or the restore default button of the whole unit (refer
to Factory Default on page 320).
Power Blazer
537
Test Functions
40/100G Advanced - Pre-Emphasis
TX

VOD (mv) allows to change the channel’s signal amplitude.

Pre-Emphasis Pre-tap 0t, Post-tap 1t, Post-tap 2t, which essentially
pre-distorts or modifies the energy/frequency content of signal
transitions, compensates for signal degradation by effectively reducing
reflections and crosstalk, while improving inter-symbol interference
(ISI). It is key to apply a known level of energy or pre-distortion on the
transition or bits, to help minimize high-frequency effects and allow the
signal to reach its destination at the receiver with improved detection
ability.
Pre-emphasis can be set with multiple taps—a tap being the coefficient
that will be added to the corrected bit. A one-, two- or three-tap
selection can be used to determine the right amplitude to be applied to
the corrected bit. A similar analysis can be conducted for post- or
de-emphasis where the correction will be applied to the post-bits.
RX
Equalizer Control and Equalizer Gain (dB) allow to enhance the
receiver’s detection capabilities. This process offsets the
high-frequency effects of the transmission path by applying the reverse
transfer function of the frequency-energy content of the signal
compromised by the transmission path. Non-linear amplification of the
degraded frequency components in the signal is applied in an amount
that is inversely proportional to the loss or distortion in which the
components were affected by the signal transmission medium.
538
88000 Series
Test Functions
APS
APS
From the Test menu, tap Functions, and the APS tab.
Overwrite, available with SONET/SDH BERT test application in Through
Intrusive or Through Intrusive with Block & Replace topology, enables
the overwrite of the TX parameters.
TX/RX

Switching Mode, available for both TX and RX, selects the switching
mode: Linear (default) or Ring.

K1
Request: Bits 1 through 4 of the K1 byte.
Request
Bits
1 to 4
Linear mode
Ring mode
0000
No Requesta
No Request (default)a
0001
Do Not Revert
Reverse Request - Ring
0010
Reverse Request
Reverse Request - Span
0011
Unused
Exerciser - Ring
0100
Exerciser
Exerciser - Span
0101
Unused
Wait-to-Restore
0110
Wait-to-Restore
Manual Switch - Ring
0111
Unused
Manual Switch - Span
1000
Manual Switch
Signal Degrade - Ring
1001
Unused
Signal Degrade - Span
1010
Signal Degrade - Low Priority
Signal Degrade (Protection)
1011
Signal Degrade - High Priority
Signal Fail - Ring
1100
Signal Fail - Low Priority
Signal Fail - Span
1101
Signal Fail - High Priority
Force Switch - Ring
1110
Force Switch
Force Switch -Span
1111
Lockout of Protection
Lockout of Protection - Span/SF - P
a.
Default value.
Power Blazer
539
Test Functions
APS
Channel (Linear switching mode) or
Destination Node ID (Ring switching mode):
Bits 5 through 8 of the K1 byte.
Bits
Channel ID Destination Node ID Bits
Channel ID Destination Node ID
5 to 8 (Linear mode)
(Ring mode)
5 to 8 (Linear mode)
(Ring mode)
0000
0 - Nulla
0a
1000
8
0001
1
1
1001
9
9
0010
2
2
1010
10
10
0011
3
3
1011
11
11
0100
4
4
1100
12
12
0101
5
5
1101
13
13
0110
6
6
1110
14
14
0111
7
7
1111
15 - Extra Traffic
15
a.
8
Default value.

K2
Protected Channel (Linear switching mode) or
Source Node ID (Ring switching mode):
Bits 1 through 4 of the K2 byte.
Bits Protected Channel Source Node ID Bits Protected Channel Source Node ID
1 to 4
(Linear mode)
(Ring mode) 1 to 4
(Linear mode)
(Ring mode)
0000
0 - Nulla
0a
1000
8
8
0001
1
1
1001
9
9
0010
2
2
1010
10
10
0011
3
3
1011
11
11
0100
4
4
1100
12
12
0101
5
5
1101
13
13
0110
6
6
1110
14
14
0111
7
7
1111
15 - Extra Traffic
15
a.
540
Default value.
88000 Series
Test Functions
APS
Architecture (Linear switching mode) or
Bridge Request (Ring switching mode):
Bit 5 of the K2 byte. The default setting is 1+1 for Linear switching
mode and Short Path Request for Ring switching mode.
Architecture
(Linear mode)
Bit 5
Bridge Request
(Ring mode)
0
1+1a
Short Patha
1
1:n
Long Path
a.
Default value.
Operation Mode: Bits 6 through 8 of the K2 byte.
Bits 6 to 8
Linear mode
Ring mode
000
Reserveda
Idlea
001
Reserved
Bridged
010
Reserved
Bridged and Switched
011
Reserved
Extra Traffic - Protection
100
Unidirectional
Reserved
101
Bidirectional
Reserved
110
RDI-Lb/MS-RDIc
RDI-Lb/MS-RDIc
111
AIS-Lb/MS-AISc
AIS-Lb/MS-AISc
a.
b.
c.
Default value.
Operation mode for SONET.
Operation mode for SDH.
Power Blazer
541
Test Functions
Client Offset
Client Offset
Note: Available with OTN BERT test application with 1GbE client and Pattern
client with ODUflex multiplexing.
From the Test menu, tap Functions, and the Client Offset tab.
TX Frequency
Note: TX Frequency is not available in Through / Through Intrusive topology.

Frequency (GHz) indicates the frequency (nominal frequency +
port frequency offset + client frequency offset) used for transmission.

Offset (ppm) check box, when selected (cleared by default), allows to
set the client frequency offset that will be generated. Use the “+” or “-”
button to respectively increment or decrement the client frequency
offset value based on the defined Increment/Decrement Size, or
directly type the frequency offset value in the field.

Increment/Decrement Size (ppm) allows to set the
increment/decrement value (from 0.1 to either 115) that will be used
when changing the frequency offset using the “+” or “-” button.
Client
1GbE
Nominal Frequency
1250000000 bps
Offseta
± 115 ppm
Pattern in ODUflex Nominal bit rate configured (refer to Nominal Bit Rate ± 115 ppmb
on page 300).
a.
b.
542
The Client frequency offset range is guaranteed for a clock source signal at 0 ppm
offset. In the event that the clock source signal already has an offset, the output signal
may exhibit an offset larger than the range specified. For example, if the clock source
signal has an offset of +20 ppm (configured on the Signal interface), the Client
frequency offset could be up to 135 ppm (115 ppm + 20 ppm).
The Client offset function does not allow the generation of a signal with a rate above
100 % of the TX rate. For example, if the TX Rate is set to 100 %, the allowed offset
range will be -115 ppm to 0 ppm.
88000 Series
Test Functions
Client Offset
RX Frequency

Frequency (GHz) indicates the frequency of the input signal.
Client

Measurement range
1GbE
1250000000 ±120 ppm
Pattern in ODUflex
Expected Frequency ±120 ppm (see page 544)
Offset (ppm) indicates the frequency offset between the standard rate
specification and the rate at the input signal.
Note: For both Frequency and Offset a background color is used to indicate if the
received client signal rate meets the standard rate specifications. Not
available with Pattern in ODUflex when the Frequency Offset Analysis
check box is cleared.
Background color
Green
The frequency is in range.
Red
The frequency is out-of-range or there is a LOC Lane
condition. LOC is also displayed.
Gray
Pending state.
Client

Power Blazer
Description
Standard Rate Specification
1GbE
1250000000 ±12500 bps (±100 ppm)
Pattern in ODUflex
Expected Frequency ±100 ppm
(see page 544)
Max. Negative Offset (ppm) indicates the maximum negative
frequency offset between the standard rate specification and the rate
from the received signal.
543
Test Functions
Client Offset

Max. Positive Offset (ppm) indicates the maximum positive
frequency offset between the standard rate specification and the rate
from the received signal.
Note: The following parameters are only available with ODUflex mapped to
pattern.

Frequency Offset Analysis check box, when selected, enables the
frequency offset measurements. This setting is enabled by default for
Coupled topology, and disabled for Through / Through Intrusive
topology.

Expected Frequency (GHz) is available when the Frequency Offset
Analysis check box is selected.
For Coupled topology, the frequency is set to the configured TX Rate
(refer to page 140).
For Through / Through Intrusive topology, enter the expected
frequency in GHz.
544
88000 Series
Test Functions
FDL - Bit-Oriented Message
FDL - Bit-Oriented Message
Allows to set and configure the Bit-Oriented Messages (BOM) of the
Extended Super-Frame (ESF).
Note: FDL is only available for DS1 interface with ESF framing. For Dual RX test,
FDL is only available for the DS1 TX/RX port 1.
From the Test menu, tap Functions, FDL, and the Bit-Oriented Message
tab.
Generated Messages

Priority
Codeword: The Bit-Oriented Message codewords are priority
messages sent over the Data-Link. These messages are mostly used for
networking operation and maintenance. A Bit-Oriented Message
consists of 8 consecutive ones followed by a byte starting and ending
by zeros.
Codeword
Pattern
RAI
00000000 11111111
Loopback Retention and Acknowledge
00101010 11111111
RAI-CI
00111110 11111111
Injects generates the selected codeword priority message.

Command/Response
Amount allows the selection of the number of message to be
generated. Choices are 1 to 15. The default value is 10.
Inject manually generates the selected amount of messages.
Power Blazer
545
Test Functions
FDL - Bit-Oriented Message
Codeword
Command/Response
Codeword
Pattern
Command/Response
Codeword
Pattern
Line Loopback Activate
Line Loopback Deactivate
Payload Loopback Activate
Payload Loopback Deactivate
Reserved for Network Use
Universal Loopback
(Deactivate)
ISDN Line Loopback (NT2)
CI/CSU Line Loopback (NT1)
For network use
Protection Switch Line 1 b
Protection Switch Line 2
00001110 11111111
00111000 11111111
00010100 11111111
00110010 11111111
00010010 11111111a
00100100 11111111
Protection Switch Line 22
Protection Switch Line 23
Protection Switch Line 24
Protection Switch Line 25
Protection Switch Line 26
Protection Switch Line 27
01101100 11111111
01101110 11111111
01110000 11111111
01110010 11111111
01110100 11111111
01110110 11111111
00101110 11111111
00100000 11111111
00011100 11111111b
01000010 11111111
01000100 11111111
00011000 11111111
00100110 11111111
00110000 11111111
00001100 11111111
00100010 11111111
Protection Switch Line 3
Protection Switch Line 4
Protection Switch Line 5
01000110 11111111
01001000 11111111
01001010 11111111
Protection Switch Line 6
Protection Switch Line 7
01001100 11111111
01001110 11111111
Protection Switch Line 8
Protection Switch Line 9
Protection Switch Line 10
Protection Switch Line 11
Protection Switch Line 12
Protection Switch Line 13
Protection Switch Line 14
Protection Switch Line 15
Protection Switch Line 16
Protection Switch Line 17
Protection Switch Line 18
Protection Switch Line 19
Protection Switch Line 20
Protection Switch Line 21
01010000 11111111
01010010 11111111
01010100 11111111
01010110 11111111
01011000 11111111
01011010 11111111
01011100 11111111
01011110 11111111
01100000 11111111
01100010 11111111
01100100 11111111
01100110 11111111
01101000 11111111
01101010 11111111
Protection Switch Acknowledge
Protection Switch Release
Do Not use for Synchronization
Stratum 2 Traceable
SONET Minimum Clock
Traceable
Stratum 4 Traceable
Stratum 1 Traceable
Synchronization Traceability
Unknown
Stratum 3 Traceable
Reserved for Network
Synchronization
Transmit Node Clock (TNC)
Stratum 3E Traceable
Under study for maintenance
Under study for maintenance
Reserved for network use
Reserved for network use
Reserved for network use
Reserved for network use
Reserved for customer
Reserved for customer
Reserved for customer
Reserved for customer
Reserved for customer
Reserved for customer
a.
b.
546
00101000 11111111
00000100 11111111
00001000 11111111
00010000 11111111
01000000 11111111
01111000 11111111
01111100 11111111
00101100 11111111
00110100 11111111
00010110 11111111
00011010 11111111
00011110 11111111
00111010 11111111
00000110 11111111
00001010 11111111
00000010 11111111
00110110 11111111
00111100 11111111
01111010 11111111
Loopback Activate.
Indication of NT1 power off.
88000 Series
Test Functions
FDL - Bit-Oriented Message
Receive Messages


Link Activity indicates the activity of the following parameters during
the last second of measurement.

Idle indicates that only idle codes have been detected in the last
second.

Priority indicates that at least one valid priority message has been
detected in the last second.

C/R (Command/Response) indicates that a least one valid
command and response has been detected in the last second.

Unassigned indicates that at least one unassigned message has
been detected in the last second. Therefore, since an unassigned
message is part of a Command/Response codewords, the
Command/Response LED will also be red.

PRM indicates that at least one PRM has been detected in the last
second.
Priority: The Bit-Oriented Messages are priority messages send over
the Data-Link. These messages are mostly used for networking
operation and maintenance. A Bit-Oriented Message consists of
8 consecutive 1s followed by a byte starting and ending by zeros.
Current indicates the priority message detected in the last second. If
no priority message has been detected, “--” is displayed.
Previous indicates the last priority message detected excluding the
current message. If no priority message has been detected since the
beginning of the test, “--” is displayed.
Note: See Priority on page 545 for the list of possible priority codeword messages.
Power Blazer
547
Test Functions
FDL - Bit-Oriented Message

Command/Response
Current indicates the command/response message detected in the
last second. If no priority message has been detected, “--” is displayed.
Previous indicates the last command/response message detected
excluding the current message. If no command/response message has
been detected since the beginning of the test, “--” is displayed.
Note: See Command/Response on page 545 for the list of possible
Command/Response codeword messages.
548
88000 Series
Test Functions
FDL - Performance Report Message
FDL - Performance Report Message
Note: FDL PRM is only available for DS1 interface with ESF framing. For Dual RX
test, FDL is only available for the DS1 TX/RX port 1. For NI/CSU Emulation,
only available in the RX direction.
From the Test menu, tap Results, tap the FDL, and
Performance Report Message tab.
Generated Messages

Circuit allows the selection of the circuit type: CI to Network (default)
or Network to CI.

ANSI T1-403 check box when selected allows the generation of a
compliant ANSI T1.403 PRM Message.

Injection
Single sends the selected PRM Message(s) manually.
Continuous generates the selected PRM Message(s) continuously.

Event Count indicates the number of PRM messages sent.

PRM Bit Events allows the activation of the following PRM bit events.
All PRM bit events are disabled by default.
G1: CRC = 1
G2: 1 < CRC  5
G3: 5 < CRC 10
G4: 10 < CRC  100
G5: 100 < CRC 319
G6: CRC  320
SE: Severely errored framing  1
Power Blazer
FE: Frame sync. bit error  1
LV: Line code violation event  1
LB: Payload loopback activated
SL: Slip  1
R Bit (Reserved - Default value is 0)
U1: Bit
U2: Bit
549
Test Functions
FDL - Performance Report Message
Received Messages

Event Counts lists received PRM bit event counts.See PRM Bit Events
below.

Report Content lists received performance information. See
Performance Information below.

Circuit indicates the selected circuit type: CI to Network or
Network to CI.

Valid Event Count indicates the number of valid PRM messages
received.

Link Activity, see page 547 for more information.

PRM Bit Events table, available when the Event Counts button is
selected, reports the count of the detected valid PRM bit events.
G1: CRC = 1
G2: 1 < CRC  5
G3: 5 < CRC 10
G4: 10 < CRC  100
G5: 100 < CRC 319
G6: CRC  320
550
SE: Severely errored framing  1
FE: Frame sync. bit error  1
LV: Line Code Violation  1
LB: Payload loopback activated
SL: Slip  1
88000 Series
Test Functions
FDL - Performance Report Message

Performance Information table, available when the Report Content
button is selected, reports the time t0, t0-1, t0-2, and t0-3 for each PRM.
Time

T0 represents the valid PRM message received in the last second of
measurement (bytes 5 and 6).

T0-1 represents the message one PRM ago (bytes 7 and 8).

T0-2 represents the message two PRM ago (bytes 9 and 10).

T0-3 represents the message three PRM ago (bytes 11 and 12).
PRM
G3: 5 < CRC Error Event 10
LV: Line Code Violation Event  1
G4: 10 < CRC Error Event  100
U1: Under study for synchronization
U2: Under study for synchronization
G5: 100 < CRC Error Event 319
SL: Controlled Slip Event  1
G6: CRC Error Event  320
FE: Frame Sync. Bit Error Event  1
SE: Severely-Errored Framing Event  1
LB: Payload Loopback Activated
G1: CRC Error Event = 1
R: Reserved
G2: 1 < CRC Error Event  5
Nm and Nl: One-second report modulo 4 counter.
Power Blazer
551
Test Functions
FEAC
FEAC
The Far-End Alarm and Control signal (FEAC) provides Communication
Channel capability over a DS3 in a network applications using C-bit Parity
configuration (see page 287).
From the test menu, tap Functions, and the FEAC tab.
Generated Messages
Allows to configure and send alarms/status information and control signals
(loopback commands) to other network elements.

Alarm/Status and Unassigned

Codeword allows the selection of the codeword alarm/status to be
generated either manually or continuously.
The FEAC message format is a 16 bit codeword
(0xxxxxx0 11111111) with the rightmost bit transmitted first. The
0xxxxxx0 represents the message codeword.
Codeword
DS3 Equipment Failure SA (00110010)
Single DS1 LOS (00111100)
User Defined (00100000)
DS3 Loss of Signal (LOS) (00011100)
DS1 Equipment Failure NSA
(00000110)
User Defined (00100010)
DS3 Out-of-Frame (00000000)
User Defined (00000010)
User Defined (00101000)
DS3 AIS Received (00101100)
User Defined (00000100)
User Defined (00101110)
DS3 Idle Signal Received (00110100)
User Defined (00001000)
User Defined (00110000)
DS3 Equipment Failure NSA (00011110)
User Defined (00001100)
User Defined (00111110)
DS3 NUI Loop Up (00010010)
User Defined (00010000)
User Defined (01000000)
DS3 NUI Loop Down (00100100)
User Defined (00010100)
User Defined (01111010)
Common Equipment Failure NSA (00111010) User Defined (00010110)
User Defined (01111100)
Multiple DS1 LOS (00101010)
User Defined (00011000)
User Defined (01111110)
DS1 Equipment Failure SA (00001010)
User Defined (00011010)

552
Mode is the alarm/status injection mode: Manual or Continuous.
88000 Series
Test Functions
FEAC


Amount is the amount of codeword to be generated: 1 to15
(default is 10).

Inject generates error(s) according to the Codeword and mode
selected.
Loopback Commands

Control
Codeword is the loopack control codeword to be generated: Line
Loopback Activate (00001110) - (Default) or Line Loopback
Deactivate (00111000).
Amount is the number of Control Codeword to be generated: 1 to
15 (default is 10).

Channel
Codeword is the channel codeword to be generated.
Channel Codeword
DS3 Line (00110110)
DS1 Line-No10 (01010100)
DS1 Line-No20 (01101000)
DS1 Line-No1 (01000010)
DS1 Line-No11 (01010110)
DS1 Line-No21 (01101010)
DS1 Line-No2 (01000100)
DS1 Line-No12 (01011000)
DS1 Line-No22 (01101100)
DS1 Line-No3 (01000110)
DS1 Line-No13 (01011010)
DS1 Line-No23 (01101110)
DS1 Line-No4 (01001000)
DS1 Line-No14 (01011100)
DS1 Line-No24 (01110000)
DS1 Line-No5 (01001010)
DS1 Line-No15 (01011110)
DS1 Line-No25 (01110010)
DS1 Line-No6 (01001100)
DS1 Line-No16 (01100000)
DS1 Line-No26 (01110100)
DS1 Line-No7 (01001110)
DS1 Line-No17 (01100010)
DS1 Line-No27 (01110110)
DS1 Line-No8 (01010000)
DS1 Line-No18 (01100100)
DS1 Line-No28 (01111000)
DS1 Line-No9 (01010010)
DS1 Line-No19 (01100110)
DS1 Line-All (00100110)
Amount is the number of Channel Codeword to be generated:
1 to 15 (Default is 10).

Power Blazer
Inject generates the defined loopback command.
553
Test Functions
FEAC
Received Messages
Displays current and previous alarms/status and loopback commands as
well as the link activity for the received DS3 signal.


554
Link Activity

None (All 1’s): An all ones pattern (11111111 11111111) has been
detected in the last second.

Alarm/Status: An Alarm/Status codeword has been detected in the
last second. An Alarm/Status is only detected when receiving at
least 10 consecutive occurrences of a specific codeword.

Loopback: A Loopback command message has been detected in
the last second. A valid loopback command is detected only when
receiving 10 consecutive occurrences of a specific Loopback
Command immediately followed by 10 occurrences of a specific
Channel Codeword.

Unassigned: An unassigned message has been detected in the last
second. An Unassigned message is only detected when receiving
at least 10 consecutive occurrences of a specific unassigned
codeword. An Alarm/Status codeword is also reported since
Unassigned is part of the Alarm/Status group.
Alarm/Status and Unassigned displays the current and previously
received Codeword messages.

Current indicates the last valid message, if any, received in the last
second of measurment.

Previous indicates the message, if any, that was received just
before the current measurement.
88000 Series
Test Functions
FEAC

Power Blazer
Loopback Commands

Current displays the valid message received in the last second of
measurement. A valid message is detected only when receiving 10
consecutive occurrences of a specific Loopback Command
immediately followed by 10 occurrences of a specific Channel
Codeword.

Previous displays the last valid message received excluding the
actual Current message.
555
Test Functions
Filters
Filters
Allows gathering statistics according to the programmed filters. Filters
provide the capability to analyze a specific stream’s behavior in order to
monitor a single protocol’s behavior, perform SLA verification, or precisely
troubleshoot unwanted behavior. Up to 10 filters having up to four
operands each can be defined and enabled.
From the Test menu, tap Functions, and the Filters tab.
P1 and P2 Buttons
The P1 and P2 buttons, available with Dual Port topology, allow to
respectively display results for port #1 (P1) or port #2 (P2).
Filters
Allows the selection of the filter number (1 to 10). The filter criteria, if
defined, will be displayed. A filter used (enabled) for data capture will not
be configurable and the message Filter in use for data capture is
displayed.
Enable
Once the filter is configured, select the Enable check box to enable the
current filter. However, if the filter configuration contains errors, it will not
be possible to enable it. A filter can be enabled or disabled even when the
test is running. It is not possible to modify or disable a filter that is already in
use for capture until either another filter or Interface (see Capture Source
on page 560) is assigned to capture.
Enabled Time
Indicates the time during which the filter is enabled.
556
88000 Series
Test Functions
Filters
Assign to Capture
Note: Only available when the ETH-CAPTURE software option is enabled. Refer
to Software Option on page 34 for more information.
Assigns the selected filter for packet capture. See Packet Capture on
page 560.
Filter Configuration
Note: Multiple filter criteria is only available when the ADV-FILTERS option is
enabled; otherwise only one criterion is possible. Refer to Software Option
on page 34 for more information.
The filter configuration section allows to configure the filter criteria for the
selected filter. The configuration is only possible when the Enable check
box is cleared.
Power Blazer

“(“ and “)“, the open and close parenthesis controls the
precedence of operands when more than two operands are used.
Only one level of parenthesis is supported. When no parenthesis
are used, a logical AND has precedence over a logical OR.

Not check box when selected, adds the logical negation (not
equal) operator for the operand filter defined at its right.
557
Test Functions
Filters

Filter specifies the filter to be used (None by default).
Category
Ethernet
MAC Destination Address, MAC Source Address,
EtherTypea, C-VLAN ID, S-VLAN ID, E-VLAN ID,
C-VLAN Priority, S-VLAN Priority, E-VLAN Priority
IPv4
IPv4 Destination Address, IPv4 Source Address, IPv4 TOS,
IPv4 Precedence, IPv4 Protocol, IPv4 DiffServ
IPv6b
IPv6 Destination Address, IPv6 Source Address,
IPv6 Flow Label, IPv6 Next Headerc, IPv6 Traffic Class, IPv6
Precedence, IPv6 DiffServ
Higher Layer
TCP Destination Portd, TCP Source Portd,
UDP Destination Port, UDP Source Port
MPLSb
MPLS Label 1, MPLS Label 2, MPLS COS 1, MPLS COS 2
a.
b.
c.
d.

558
Filter
Applies only to the last EtherType occurrence when VLAN is used.
Available when the corresponding software option is enabled (refer to
page 34).
Applies only to the last next header occurrence when extension headers are
used.
Available with 10M to 10G interface rates only.
Value is the value associated to the selected filter.
88000 Series
Test Functions
Filters

Mask allows masking the defined filter value. A bit mask of 1
indicates that the corresponding bit in the value is compared for
the match. A bit mask of 0 indicates that the corresponding bit in
the value is ignored.
For binary values, enter the mask value in binary format.
For decimal values, enter the mask value in hexadecimal format.
For IP address field, enter the mask in decimal format.
For MAC address, enter the mask value in hexadecimal format.

Oper. specifies the logical operator (AND or OR) used between
two operands.
Filter Statistics
Indicates throughput statistics of frame matching the configured filter’s
criteria.
Power Blazer

Line Utilization gives the percentage of line rate utilization.

Ethernet BW (Bandwidth) gives the receiving data rate expressed in
Mbit/s.

Frame Rate gives the receiving number of frames (including bad
frames) in frame/s.

Frame Count indicates the number of frame matching the configured
filter’s criteria.

Error Count indicates respectively the number of frames matching the
configured filter’s criteria having IP Checksum, UDP Checksum,
TCP Checksum, FCS, Jabber, Oversize, Runt, or Undersize errors.
Refer to Ethernet on page 353 and IP/UDP/TCP on page 370 for more
information on errors.
559
Test Functions
Packet Capture
Packet Capture
Capture is used to analyze all or filtered data traffic and save complete or
truncated frames into a buffer. It allows to precisely observe network
truncated data, or to understand errors and unwanted behavior.
From the Test menu, tap Functions, and the Packet Capture tab.
P1 and P2 Buttons
The P1 and P2 buttons, available with Dual Port topology, allow to
respectively display results for port #1 (P1) or port #2 (P2).
Capture Source
Specifies what kind of data to be captured.

Interface captures all received frames and saves them in the capture
buffer.

Filter x captures only frames that match the selected filter and saves
them in the capture buffer. Select the filter number from the list. Only
enabled filters are available, see Filters on page 556.
The selected filter will be reserved for data capture and will not be
available for filter configuration.
560
88000 Series
Test Functions
Packet Capture
Frame Length
Specifies the length of the frame that will be saved in the capture buffer.

Complete captures the entire frames.

Truncated captures only the first specified number of bytes per frame.
Use either the Bytes field to manually enter the number of bytes per
frame or tap on the Truncation Calculator button for automatic bytes
per frame calculation.
Bytes allows the selection of the number of bytes that will be saved in
the capture buffer for each frame captured. Choices are from 14
(default) to 1536 bytes.
Truncation Calculator allows to easily determine at what byte to
truncate the frame captured by selecting the desired frame header
components.

Header Layer specifies the header layer level: Layer 2 (Ethernet),
Layer 3 (IP), or Layer 4 (TCP/UDP).

IP Version specifies the IP version: IPv4 or IPv6.

Encapsulation parameters are optional and not selected by
default.
VLAN check box, when selected, enables VLAN and allows to
select the number of VLANs: 1, 2, or 3.
MPLS check box, when selected, enables MPLS and allows to
select the number of labels: 1 or 2.
Power Blazer

Additional Payload (bytes) allows to optionally select the number
of additional payload bytes (1 to 1400 bytes).

Total Number of Bytes indicates the number of bytes for the
selected frame parameters. This value will be used as the
truncated frame length (Truncated field).
561
Test Functions
Packet Capture
Trigger

Trigger Type defines the trigger source criterion that will be used to
automatically start/stop the capture when a received frame matches
the filter and the trigger criteria.

Manual automatically starts the frame capture when the Capture
button is on (green LED) and the test is started (refer to
Start/Stop|TX Button on page 643).

On Error starts the frame capture when the selected error occurs.
FCS
Jabber
Oversize (Available when Oversize Monitoring is enabled)
Runt
Undersize
IP Checksum
UDP Checksum
TCP Checksum
Any Type (Any of the above errors).

Field Match starts the frame capture when the configured field
match is encountered. User the Configuration button to select the
field match criteria (see Filter Configuration from the Filters tab).
Cfg. Status indicates the status of the configured field match
configuration: Valid or Invalid. A valid status is required to be able
to start the capture.
562
88000 Series
Test Functions
Packet Capture

Trigger Position selects the triggered frame position within the buffer.

Post-Trigger for a trigger frame located at the beginning of the
buffer. The buffer will contain the triggered frame with the
following frames.

Mid-Trigger for a trigger frame located at the middle of the buffer.
The buffer will contain the triggered frame with the preceding and
following frames.

Pre-Trigger for a trigger frame located at the end of the buffer. The
buffer will contain the triggered frame with the preceding frames.
Status and Controls

Capture Status indicates the status of the data capture:
“--”: The capture is not started and has not run yet.
Armed...: The capture is started but waiting for the trigger event.
Capturing...: The capture is in progress. For Post-Trigger and
Mid-Trigger mode, the trigger event has been captured and the buffer is
filling up.
Completed: The capture is completed.
Power Blazer

Frame Count indicates the number of frames captured that matches
the selected filter criteria. However, for Mid-trigger and Pre-Trigger, the
frame counter will only be available when the capture is completed.

Buffer Usage indicates the percentage of the buffer capacity used.

Triggered Error is available when trigger on error is selected and
indicates the error that activated the trigger.
563
Test Functions
Packet Capture

Triggered Frame - Details gives details on the triggered frame.
The triggered frame corresponds to the first received frame that
matches the filter and the trigger settings.
Frame Number indicates the triggered frame position in the buffer.
The framing MAC/IP/UDP/TCP source and destination addresses are
displayed in a table.

Capture button allows to start/stop the data capture. The test must be
running (refer to Start/Stop|TX Button on page 643) in order to start
capturing and recording data into the buffer. The Capture button is not
available when the trigger on field match is selected while its trigger
parameters are not valid.
No data will be recorded in the buffer if no frame matches the filter and
the trigger criteria during the data capture.
The data capture stops automatically once the buffer is full. The
maximum buffer capacity is 64 KBytes or a maximum of 2078 frames
for rates up to 10GE and 512 KBytes or a maximum of 8192 frames for
rates 40GE and 100GE.
When the capture stops or is manually stopped, the following message
is displayed: Capture completed. Press Export to save captured
data (the test must be stopped). To avoid losing the captured data,
the data must be exported and saved into a file before restarting the
test or creating a new test.

Export button, available when the test application is stopped, allows to
export the data captured into a .pcap file format and to view the file
using Wireshark.

Save In: Allows to select the folder to save the capture file.
The capture file is saved in the following folder by default:
d:\ToolBox\User Files\<Product Name>\Capture Data
d:\IQSManager\User Files\<Product Name>\Capture Data
564
88000 Series
Test Functions
Packet Capture

View File After Generation: Allows to display the report once it is
generated using the Wireshark application. The View File After
Generation check box is not selected by default.

Generate & Save
Allows to generate and save the capture data. The name of the
captured file is automatically selected and contains the date and
time of the capture. Capture file bigger than 100Mbytes will be split
into multiple files.
Tapping on the Cancel button stops the capture generation. The
captured data already processed will be saved.
Note: The export process may take several minutes.
Once generated, the capture file will be automatically opened in
Wireshark when the View File After Generation check box is
selected.
The capture file report may also be manually opened within
Wireshark typically using Windows Explorer.
Power Blazer
565
Test Functions
GMP
GMP
Note: Available with Transport test applications with either payload type 21
(PT21) or one of the following clients: 1GbE, 40GbE, Ethernet
(flex/GFP-F), or SONET/SDH (through ODU0).
From the Test menu, tap Functions, and the GMP tab.
Channel
Available with Multi-Channel OTN, allows the selection of the channel
number.
Generic Mapping Procedure
566

TX Cm indicates the minimum and maximum Cm value transmitted
during the test.

TX CnD indicates the minimum and maximum CnD value transmitted
during the test.

RX Cm indicates the minimum and maximum Cm value captured
during the test.

RX CnD indicates the minimum and maximum CnD value captured
during the test.
88000 Series
Test Functions
OH - GFP-F/GFP-T
OH - GFP-F/GFP-T
Note: Available with OTN BERT test application with 1GbE (GFP-T),
10GbE (GFP-F), or Ethernet (flex/GFP-F) client.
From the Test menu, tap Functions, OH tab, and GFP-F/GFP-T sub tab.

Core Header
PLI and cHEC are not configurable.

Type Header
The following settings are available for Client Data and Client
Management frame types.

PTI (Payload Type Identifier) allows overwriting the Payload Type
Identifier.
PTI
000

Description
Client Data Frame
100
Client Management Frame
001, 010, 011, 101, 110, and 111
Reserved
PFI (Payload Frame Check Sequence Identifier) allows overwriting
the Payload FCS Indicator.
PFI
Power Blazer
Description
0
FCS Absent
1
FCS Present
567
Test Functions
OH - GFP-F/GFP-T

EXI (Extension Header Identifier) allows overwriting the Extension
Header Identifier.
EXI

UPI
Description
0000
Null Extension Header
0001
Linear Frame
0010
Ring Frame
0011 to 1111
Reserved
UPI (User Payload Identifier) allows overwriting the User Payload
Identifier.
Description for
PTI = 000
Description for
PTI = 100
0000 0000 Reserved and not available
1111 1111
Reserved
0000 0001 Frame-Mapped Ethernet
Client Signal Fail (Loss of Client Signal)
0000 0010 Mapped PPP Frame
Client Signal Fail (Loss of Character
Synchronization)
0000 0011 Transparent Fibre Channel
Client Defect Clear Indication (DCI)
0000 0100 Transparent FICON
Client Forward Defect Indication (FDI)
0000 0101 Transparent ESCON
Client Reverse Defect Indication (RDI)
0000 0110 Transparent GbE
0000 0111 Reserved for future use
0000 1000 Frame-Mapped Multiple Access Protocol over SDH
(MAPOS)
0000 1001 Transparent DVB ASI
0000 1010 Framed-Mapped IEEE 802.17 Resilient Packet Ring
0000 1011 Frame-Mapped Fibre Channel FC-BBW
0000 1100 Asynchronous Transparent Fibre Channel
0000 1101 Framed MPLS Unicast
0000 1110 Framed MPLS Multicast
0000 1111 Framed IS-IS
0001 0000 Framed IPv4
0001 0001 Framed IPv6
568
88000 Series
Test Functions
OH - GFP-F/GFP-T
Description for
PTI = 000
UPI
Description for
PTI = 100
0001 0010 Framed DVD-ASI
0001 0011 Framed 64B/66B Ethernet
0001 0100 Framed 64B/66B Ethernet Ordered Set
0001 0101 Reserved for future standardization
through
1110 1111
1111 0000 Reserved for proprietary use
through
1111 1110
0000 0110
through
1101 1111
Reserved for future use
1110 0000
through
1111 1110
Reserved for proprietary use

Extension Header: CID and Spare are only available when EXI is set
to Linear (refer to EXI on page 180) and are available for Client Data
and Client Management frame types.

CID (Channel IDentifier) allows to overwrite the communication
channel used for the signal transmission set from CID on page 180.
Choices are from 00000000 through 11111111 (0 to 255). The
default setting is 00000000.

Spare allows to set the extension header Spare field. Choices are
from 00000000 through 11111111 (0 to 255).
Default all OH
Returns all TX overhead bytes to their factory default values.
Power Blazer
569
Test Functions
OH - GFP-F/GFP-T
RX
Note: The following Core Header, Type Header, and Extension Header
parameters are available for Client Data, Client Management, and
Reserved PTI frames. The details of the selected OH field is displayed in the
OH Details section on the bottom-right of the screen.


570
Core Header

PLI (Payload Length Indicator) indicates the number of octets in
the GFP payload area.

cHEC (Core Header Error Control) indicates the CRC-16 error
control code that protects the integrity of the contents of the core
header by enabling both single-bit error correction and Multi-bit
error detection.
Type Header: See Type Header on page 567 for PTI, PFI, EXI, and UPI
possible values.

PTI (Payload Type Identifier) indicates the type of GFP client frame.

PFI (Payload Frame Check Sequence Indicator) displays the
Payload FCS Indicator.

EXI (Extension Header Identifier) indicates the Extension Header
Identifier.

UPI (User Payload Identifier) indicates the User Payload Identifier.

tHEC (Type Header Error Control) indicates the CRC-16 error
control code that protects the integrity of the contents of the type
field by enabling both single-bit error correction and multi-bit error
detection.
88000 Series
Test Functions
OH - GFP-F/GFP-T

Extension Header: CID, Spare, and eHEC are only available when EXI
is set to Linear (refer to EXI on page 180).

CID (Channel IDentifier) indicates the communication channel
used by the signal. Possible values are 00000000 through 11111111
(0 to 255).

Spare indicates the extension header Spare field. Possible values
are 00000000 through 11111111 (0 to 255).

eHEC (Type Header Error Control) indicates the CRC-16 error
control code that protects the integrity of the contents of the
extension header by enabling both single-bit error correction
(optional) and multi-bit error detection.
OH Details
Displays the details of the selected OH byte. The first column indicates the
selected OH byte. The second column indicates respectively from top to
bottom the bit numbers used, the byte value in binary, and the
interpretation of the byte when applicable.
Power Blazer
571
Test Functions
OH - OTN
OH - OTN
For OTN BERT, from the Test menu, tap Functions, and the OH tab.
For OTN SONET/SDH BERT, from the Test menu, tap Functions, OH, and
the OTN sub tab.
Allows to respectively modify the overhead information to be transmitted
or to view the overhead information received.
OTUx/ODUx and ODUx Buttons
Tap on either the OTUx/ODUx or the ODUx button to select the OH level.
Default OTN OH
Returns all TX overhead bytes to their factory default values.
TX/RX
Overhead bytes are organized using rows and columns structure as per
G.709 standard.
Row 1

OA1 and OA2, columns 1-6, OTU FAS: All the Frame Alignment Signal
OA1 bytes and OA2 bytes are individually configurable from 00 to FF.
The default values are F6 for all OA1 bytes and 28 for all OA2 bytes.

MFAS, column 7, OTU MFAS: The Multi-Frame Alignment Signal byte is
not configurable.

SM, columns 8-10, OTU OH: The Section Monitoring contains the
following bytes.
The first SM byte (column 8) contains the TTI multiframe byte that is
only configurable from Traces (OTN) on page 326.
The second SM byte (column 9) contains the BIP-8 byte that is
automatically generated for each frame. This byte is not configurable.
572
88000 Series
Test Functions
OH - OTN
The third SM byte (column 10) contains the following sub-fields. This
byte is configurable from 00 (default) to FF.
Bit 1-4
Bit 5
Bit 6
Bit 7-8
BEI/BIAE
BDI
IAE
RES

GCC0, columns 11-12, OTU OH: The two General Communication
Channel-0 bytes are configurable from 00 (default) to FF.

RES, columns 13-14, OTU OH: The two Reserved (RES) bytes are
configurable from 00 (default) to FF.

JC4 or RES1
JC4, column 15, OPU OH: Bits 1-3 set to all-0s, and bits 4-8 are
controlled by GMP function. This byte is not configurable.
RES, column 15, OPU OH: The Reserved (RES) byte is configurable
from 00 (default) to FF.

JC1 or JC1
JC1, column 16, OPU OH: Controlled by GMP function. This byte is not
configurable.
JC, column 16, OPU OH:

Bits 1-6, Reserved (RES), are configurable from binary 000000
(default) to 111111.

Bits 7-8, Justification Control (JC), are configurable from binary
00 (default) to 11. Not available with ODU mux. Changing the JC
value will corrupt the payload.
1. Depending on the test MUX/Mapping.
Power Blazer
573
Test Functions
OH - OTN
Row 2

RES, columns 1-2, ODU OH: The two Reserved (RES) bytes are
configurable from 00 (default for each byte) to FF.

PM & TCM, column 3, ODU OH: The Path Monitoring and Tandem
Connection Monitoring byte is configurable from 00 (default) to FF.

TCM ACT, column 4, ODU OH: The Tandem Connection Monitoring
Activation is configurable from 00 (default) to FF.

TCM6/TCM5/TCM4, column 5-13, ODU OH: The Tandem Connection
Monitoring overhead contains the following bytes.
The first TCMi byte contains the TTI multiframe byte and is only
configurable from Traces (OTN) on page 326.
The second TCMi byte contains the BIP-8 byte and is automatically
generated for each frame. This byte is not configurable.
The third TCMi byte contains the following sub-fields. This byte is
configurable from 00 to FF. The default value is 00 when TCMi is
disabled, and 01 when enabled.
Bit 1-4
Bit 5
Bit 6-8
BEI/BIAE
BDI
STAT

FTFL, column 14, ODU OH: The Fault Type Fault Location multiframe
byte is only configurable from FTFL/PT and PT on page 176.

JC5 or RES1
JC5, column 15, OPU OH: Bits 1-3 set to all-0s, and bits 4-8 are
controlled by GMP function. This byte is not configurable.
RES, column 15, OPU OH: The Reserved (RES) byte is configurable
from 00 (default) to FF.
574
88000 Series
Test Functions
OH - OTN

JC2 or JC1
JC2, column 16, OPU OH: Controlled by GMP function. This byte is not
configurable.
JC, column 16, OPU OH:

Bits 1-6, Reserved (RES), are configurable from binary 000000
(default) to 111111.

Bits 7-8, Justification Control (JC), are configurable from binary
00 (default) to 11. Not available with ODU mux. Changing the JC
value will corrupt the payload.
Row 3

TCM3/TCM2/TCM1, columns 1-9, ODU OH: See TCM6/TCM5/TCM4 on
page 574 for more information.

PM, column 10-12, ODU OH: The Path Monitoring overhead contains
the following bytes.
The first PM byte (column 10) contains the TTI byte that is not
configurable.
The second PM byte (column 11) contains the BIP-8 byte and is
automatically generated for each frame. This byte is not configurable.
The third PM byte (column 12) contains the following sub-fields. This
byte is configurable from 00 to FF. The default value is 01.

Power Blazer
Bit 1-4
Bit 5
Bit 6-8
BEI
BDI
STAT
EXP., column 13-14, ODU OH: The two Experimental overhead bytes
are configurable form 00 (default for each byte) to FF.
575
Test Functions
OH - OTN

JC6 or RES1
JC6, column 15, OPU OH: Bits 1-3 set to all-0s, and bits 4-8 are
controlled by GMP function. This byte is not configurable.
RES, column 15, ODU OH: The Reserved (RES) bytes are configurable
from 00 (default) to FF.

JC3 or JC1
JC3, column 16, OPU OH: Controlled by GMP function. This byte is not
configurable.
JC, column 16, OPU OH:

Bits 1-6, Reserved (RES), are configurable from binary 000000
(default) to 111111.

Bits 7-8, Justification Control (JC), are configurable from binary
00 (default) to 11. Not available with ODU mux. Changing the JC
value will corrupt the payload.
Row 4
576

GCC1, column 1-2, ODU OH: The two General Communication
Channel-1 bytes are configurable from 00 (default for each byte) to FF.

GCC2, column 3-4, ODU OH: The two General Communication
Channel-2 bytes are configurable from 00 (default for each byte) to FF.

APS/PCC, column 5-8, ODU OH: The Automatic Protection Switching /
Protection Communication Channel overhead bytes are defined in the
ITU-T G.709 standard. These bytes are configurable from 00 (default) to
FF.

RES, column 9-14, ODU OH: The six Reserved (RES) bytes are
configurable from 00 (default for each byte) to FF.
88000 Series
Test Functions
OH - OTN


PSI, column 15, OPU/ODU OH: Tap the PSI field to configure (TX) or
display (RX) the Payload Structure Identifier.

TX: Select any TX byte from the list and its content is displayed
below the list. Tap the Edit button to change its value.

RX: Select any RX byte from the list and its content is displayed
below the list.

Link TX/RX Scrolling, when selected (cleared by default), allows
to synchronize both TX and RX table allowing to see the same TX
and RX PSI byte numbers when scrolling from either TX or RX
table.

Foreground Signal Label: Indicates the status of the MSI for each
PSI#, either MSI TX (black), Expected MSI RX (green), or MSI
Mismatch (red).
OMFI or NJO
OMFI, column 16, OPU OH: OPU Multi-Frame Identifier is only
available for OPU4 of a mapped signal. This byte is not configurable.
NJO, column 16, ODU OH: The Negative Justification Opportunity byte
is not configurable. Available either for non-concatenated signal or on
the LO of a concatenated signal.
RX
Power Blazer

RX OH Byte Details displays the content of the selected OH RX byte.
Tap on any OH RX byte to see its content

Legend TX/RX indicates the path level for all OH bytes.
577
Test Functions
OH - SONET/SDH
OH - SONET/SDH
The SONET/SDH OH page allows to modify (TX) the overhead information
to be transmitted and to view (RX) the overhead information received.
For SONET/SDH BERT, from the Test menu, tap Functions, and the OH
tab.
For OTN-SONET/SDH BERT, from the Test menu, tap Functions, OH, and
the SONET/SDH sub tab.
Tap on any overhead byte in TX to modify its value. In Through Intrusive
and Through Intrusive with Block & Replace topologies make sure to
select the Overwrite check box from the keyboard pop up to activate the
overwrite of the byte. A modified overhead byte value is presented using a
different color and in addition a red triangle is displayed at its bottom-right
corner.
Tap on any overhead byte in RX to see its detailed content/value.
Note: A byte in TX that has no value displayed or is grayed out, is not configurable
from the OH tab.
TX and RX Buttons (SDH)
Tap on the TX or RX button to respectively access the overhead bytes in
transmission or receive mode.
STS-1 Timeslot/STM-1 Channel
Allows to select the timeslot number for the Transport OH bytes. The
STS/AU/TU-3 overhead bytes are always for the timeslot selected in the test
configuration. Furthermore when modifying the Transport OH bytes H1 SS
bits, the modification applies to all timeslots when the test topology is
Coupled while it only affects the timeslot selected in the test configuration
when the test topology is Through Intrusive or Through Intrusive with
Block & Replace. Choices are 1 (default) to 768 (SONET) / 256 (SDH)
depending on the OC-N/STM-N interface selected.
578
88000 Series
Test Functions
OH - SONET/SDH
Transport OH - Section/RS

A1 and A2: Framing. The value should be hexadecimal F6 for A1 and
28 for A2. They must appear in every STS-1/STM-1 frame of a
composite signal.
SONET: Provide frame alignment of each STS-1 frame within a
composite signal (STS-1 to STS-n).
SDH: Indicate the beginning of the STM-N frame.

J0/Z0

J0: The J0 (Trace) byte is used to trace the origin of an STS-1/STM-1
frame as it travels across the SONET/SDH network. This byte is only
defined for the first STS-1/STM-1 frame of a composite signal.
Available when the Trace format is set to 1 Byte (refer to Traces
(SONET/SDH) on page 330).

Z0: Growth.
SONET: The Z0 byte was used to uniquely identify the STS in
question. This byte has to be defined in every STS-1 to STS-n frame
of a composite signal. This byte is only defined for the STS-1 #2 to
STS-1 #N of a OC-N signal.
SDH: These bytes are reserved for future international
standardization. They are located at positions S[1,6N+2] to S[1,7N]
of an STM-N signal (N > 1).
Power Blazer

B1: BIP-8 (Bit-Interleaved Parity) byte provides section error
monitoring. This byte is only defined for the first STS-1/STM-1 frame of a
composite signal. The byte is calculated by performing a routine
even-parity check over all bits of the previous STS-N/STM-N frame of a
composite signal.

E1: Orderwire. Provides a 64 Kbit/s voice channel for communication
between two STEs (Section Terminating Equipment). This byte is only
defined for the first STS-1/STM-1 frame of a composite signal.
579
Test Functions
OH - SONET/SDH

F1: User/User Channel. This byte is reserved for user purposes. This
byte is only defined for the first STS-1/STM-1 frame of a composite
signal.

D1, D2, and D3: Data Communications Channel (DCC). Provides a
192 Kbit/s data communication between two STEs for operation
functions such as OAM&P. These bytes are only defined for the first
STS-1/STM-1 frame of a composite signal.
Transport OH - Line/MS

H1 and H2: Pointer.
SONET: H1 and H2 bytes are combined to form a pointer indicating
where the path overhead begins within each SPE.
SDH: H1 and H2 bytes are combined to form a pointer indicating where
the VC (Virtual Container) frame begins within each SPE.
Bits 5 and 6 of the H1 byte represent the SS bits and are configurable as
follows.
SS Bits

Description
00
SONET
01
Undefined
10
SDH
11
Undefined
H3: Pointer Action. H3 is an extra byte used to compensate for the SPE
timing variation. The H1 and H2 pointer tell the receiver when the H3
pointer is used.
SONET: This byte must be defined in every STS-1 to STS-n frame of a
composite signal.
SDH: This byte must be defined in every STM-1 of an STM-N signal in
the event of negative justification, otherwise it is not defined.
580
88000 Series
Test Functions
OH - SONET/SDH

B2: BIP-8
SONET: The BIP-8 (Bit-Interleaved Parity) byte provides line error
monitoring. This byte is only defined for the first STS-1/STM-1 frame of a
composite signal. The byte is calculated by performing a routine
even-parity check over all bits of the LOH and the STS-1 frame capacity
of the previous frame of a composite signal (STS-1 to STS-n). Note that
the SOH is not used to calculate the parity check.
SDH: The MS BIP-N*24 (Bit-Interleaved Parity) byte provides line error
monitoring. The byte is calculated by performing a routine even-parity
check over all bits of the MSOH and the STM-N frame of the previous
STM-N frame. Note that the RSOH is not used to calculate the parity
check.

K1 and K2: Automatic Protection Switching (APS): The K1 and K2 bytes
communicate APS between two LTE. These bytes are only defined for
the first STS-1/STM-1 frame of a composite signal.

D4 through D12: Data Communications Channel (DCC): The D4
through D12 bytes provide a 576 Kbit/s data communications channel
between two LTEs for administration, monitoring and other
communications. These bytes are only defined for the first STS-1/STM-1
frame of a composite signal.

S1/Z1 (SONET)
S1: Synchronization Status: The S1 byte is used to carry the
synchronization status of the SONET device. This byte is only defined
for the first STS-1/STM-1 frame of a composite signal.
Z1: Growth. This byte is located in the second STS-1 through STS-n
frame of a composite signal (STS-1 #2, STS-1 #3, up to STS-1 #N of a
OC-N (N>3) signal).

Power Blazer
S1 (SDH): Synchronization Status. Bits 5 to 8 of the S1 byte are used to
carry the synchronization messages of the SDH device. This byte is only
defined for the first STS-1/STM-1 frame of a composite signal.
581
Test Functions
OH - SONET/SDH

M0 or M1/Z2 (SONET)
M0: REI-L: The M1 byte is used for line Remote Error Indication (REI-L)


For STS-1e and OC-1: The M0 byte located in the STS-1 indicates
BIP violations.
M0, bits
234 5678
Indicates
000 0000
0 BIP violation
000 0001
1 BIP violation
:
:
000 1000
8 BIP violations
000 1001 to
1111 1111
0 BIP violation
For OC-192 and OC-768: The M0 bytes located in the STS-1 #4
indicates BIP violations when combined with the M1 byte (see M1
byte below for more information).
M1: REI-L. The M1 byte is used for line Remote Error Indication (REI-L).

582
For STS-3e and OC-3: The M1 byte located in the STS-1 #3 indicates
BIP violations.
M1, bits 234 5678
Indicates
000 0000
0 BIP violation
000 0001
1 BIP violation
:
:
001 1000
24 BIP violations
001 1001 to
1111 1111
0 BIP violation
88000 Series
Test Functions
OH - SONET/SDH


Power Blazer
For OC-12: The M1 byte located in the STS-1 #7 indicates BIP
violations.
M1, bits 234 5678
Indicates
000 0000
0 BIP violation
000 0001
1 BIP violation
:
:
110 0000
96 BIP violations
110 0001 to
1111 1111
0 BIP violation
For OC-48: The M1 byte located in the STS-1 #7 indicates BIP
violations.
M1
Indicates
0000 0000
0 BIP violation
0000 0001
1 BIP violation
:
:
1111 1111
255 BIP violations
583
Test Functions
OH - SONET/SDH

For OC-192: Either the M1 byte located in the STS-1 #7, or the
combination of the M0 and M1 bytes indicates BIP violations (refer
to REI-L Computation Method on page 302).
For M1 Only computation method:
M1
Indicates
0000 0000
0 BIP violation
0000 0001
1 BIP violation
:
:
1111 1111
255 BIP violations
For M0 and M1 computation method:
584
M0
Located in STS-1 #4
M1
Located in STS-1 #7
Indicates
0000 0000
0000 0000
0 BIP violation
0000 0000
0000 0001
1 BIP violation
:
:
:
0000 0110
0000 0000
1536 BIP violations
0000 0110 to
1111 1111
0000 0001 to
1111 1111
0 BIP violation
88000 Series
Test Functions
OH - SONET/SDH

For OC-768: The combination of the M1 byte located in the
STS-1 #7 and the M0 byte indicates BIP violations.
M0
Located in STS-1 #4
M1
Located in STS-1 #7
Indicates
0000 0000
0000 0000
0 BIP violation
0000 0000
0000 0001
1 BIP violation
:
:
:
0001 1000
0000 0000
6144 BIP violations
0001 1000 to
1111 1111
0000 0001 to
1111 1111
0 BIP violation
Z2: Growth. Available with OC-3, OC-12, and OC-48 signal, this byte is
located in STS-1 #1 up to STS-1 #48 except for timeslots used by M0
and M1.
Undefined “--” for all other timeslots not covered by M0, M1, and Z2.

M0 or M1 (SDH)
M0: MS-REI. STM-1 channel #1 of a STM-0 signal; channel #2 of an
STM-64/STM-256 signal.
M1:MS-REI. STM-1 channel #1 of a STM-1 signal; channel #3 of an
STM-N signal (N>1).
Undefined “--” for all other channels not covered by M0, and M1.

Power Blazer
E2: Orderwire. Provides a 64 Kbit/s voice channel for communication
between LTEs. This byte is only defined for the first STS-1/STM-1 frame
of a composite signal.
585
Test Functions
OH - SONET/SDH
STS/AU/TU-3

J1: Trace. Available when the Trace format is set to 1 Byte (refer to
Traces (SONET/SDH) on page 330).
SONET: The J1 Trace byte provides a 16 or 64 byte fixed string to verify
connection between path transmitting equipment and path receiving
equipment.
SDH: The higher-order (AU)/low-order (TU) VC-N path trace byte
provides a 64 byte fixed string to verify connection between path
transmitting equipment and path receiving equipment.

586
B3: BIP-8. The BIP-8 (Bit-Interleaved Parity) byte provides path error
monitoring. The byte is calculated by performing a even-parity check
over all bits of the previous SPE.
88000 Series
Test Functions
OH - SONET/SDH

C2: Signal Label. Entering a C2 byte value will automatically update the
Path Signal Label (C2) selection and vice versa. Refer to
STS/AU Path (C2) on page 192 for more information.
Description
C2
(Hex.)
a
SONET
SDH
Unequipped
UNEQ or supervisory-UNEQ
Equipped - Non-Specific
RES (Equipped - Non-Specific)
02
Floating VT Mode (Default)
TUG Structure
03
Locked VT Mode
Locked TU-n
00
01
04
Async Mapping for DS3
Async Mapping of 34M/45M in C-3
05
Mapping under development
Experimental Mapping
12
Async Mapping for 140M (DS4NA)
Async Mapping of 140M in C-4
13
Mapping for ATM
ATM Mapping
14
Mapping for DQDB
MAN DQDB
15
Async Mapping for FDDI
FDDI [3]-[11] Mapping
16
Mapping of HDLC over SONET
Mapping of HDLC/PPP
17
SDL with self-sync scrambler
RES (SDL self-synch scrambler)
18
Mapping of HDLC/LAPS
Mapping of HDLC/LAPS
19
SDL with a set-reset scrambler
RES (SDL set-reset scrambler)
1A
10 Gbit/s Ethernet (IEEE 802.3)
10 Gbit/s Ethernet (IEEE 802.3)
1B
GFP
GFP
1C
Not supported
Mapping 10 Gbit/s FC
20
Not supported
Async Mapping of ODUk
CF
RES (Obsolete HDLC/PPP framed)
RES (obsolete HDLC/PPP framed)
E1a to
FCa
STS-1 w/1 VTx PD, STS-1 w/2 VTx PD, ... STS-1
w/28 VTx or STS-n/nc PD
Not supported
FE
Test Signal, ITU-T 0.181
Test Signal, ITU-T 0.181
FFa
STS SPE AIS (TCM)
VC-AIS (TCM)
a.
These values cannot be selected as Expected Path Signal Label.
Power Blazer
587
Test Functions
OH - SONET/SDH

G1: Path Status. The G1 byte provides a method to communicate the
far-end path status back to the path originating equipment.
REI:
Bits 1 to 4 of G1
Description
0000
No error
0001
1 error
0010
2 errors
:
:
1000
8 errors
1001 to 1111
No error
RDI/ERDI:
Bits 5, 6, 7 of G1
588
Description
000, 001, 011
No defect
100, 111
RDI
010
ERDI-PD
101
ERDI-SD
110
ERDI-CD

F2: User Channel. The User Channel provides a 64 Kbit/s channel for
communication between two PTEs. This byte is only defined for the
first STS-1/STM-1 frame of a composite signal.

H4: Multiframe Indicator. The H4 byte provides a multiframe phase
indication of a VT/TU payload.
88000 Series
Test Functions
OH - SONET/SDH

Z3 and Z4:
SONET only: Growth.

F3:
SDH only: User Channel. The Path User Channel provides a channel for
communication purposes between path elements and is payload
dependent.

K3:
SDH only: Automatic Protection Switching (APS). Bits 1 to 4 of the K3
byte are used for APS signaling. K3 bits 5 to 8 are reserved for future
use.

N1:
SONET: The N1 byte (formerly referred to as the Z5 byte) is allocated
for Tandem Connection Maintenance (TCM) and the Path Data
Channel.
SDH: (Network operator byte) The N1 byte is allocated to provide a
Higher-Order Tandem Connection Monitoring (HO-TCM) function.
Power Blazer
589
Test Functions
OH - SONET/SDH
VT/TU

V5 VT/TU Path Overhead
The V5 byte is allocated to indicate the content of the VT/TU path,
including the status of the mapped payloads. It provides the same
functions for VT/VC paths that the B3, C2, and G1 bytes provide for
STS/STM paths.

BIP-2 is not configurable.

REI, RFI, and RDI: Choices are 0 (disabled), and 1 (enabled).

Signal Label
Bits 5, 6, 7
of V5
SONET
SDH
000a
Unequipped
001
Reserved (Equipped - Non-specific)
010
Asynchronous
011
Bit Synchronous
100
Byte Synchronous
101
Extended Signal Label
110
Test Signal, ITU-T 0.181 specific mapping
111a
VT SPE AIS (TCM)
a.
590
Description
Unequipped or
supervisory-unequipped
VC-AIS (TCM)
These bytes cannot be selected in receive mode.
88000 Series
Test Functions
OH - SONET/SDH
If the signal label in V5 (bits 5, 6, and 7) is 101 the contents of the
extended signal label is valid and contains in a 32 bit multiframe as
shown below. See Z7/K4 Structure shown below.
Z7/K4 Structure

J2 Trace. Available when the Trace format is set to 1 Byte (refer to
Traces (SONET/SDH) on page 330).
SONET: VT Path Trace: The J2 Trace byte provides a 16 or 64 bytes fixed
string allowing the receiving VT PTE to verify its continued connection
to the intended transmitting VT PTE.
SDH: Path Trace: The J2 byte is used to repetitively transmit a
Lower-Order Access Path Identifier so that a path receiving terminal
can verify its continued connection to the intended transmitter.

Z6/N2
Z6 (SONET): VT Tandem Connection Monitoring or VT Path Growth.
The Z6 byte is allocated for future growth.
N2 (SDH): (Network operator byte) Tandem Connection Monitoring for
the VC2, VC-12, and VC-11 level.
Power Blazer
591
Test Functions
OH - SONET/SDH

Bits
Z7 /K4 : Extended signal label
Description
Z7 (SONET)
K4 (SDH)
1
Extended signal label. Bits 12 to 19 of the 32 bit frame multiframe (see Z7/K4 Structure on page 591)
contain the extended signal label.
2
Virtual concatenation. Bits 1 to 5 of the 32 bit frame multiframe (see Z7/K4 Structure on page 591)
contain the LO virtual concatenation frame count while bits 6 to 11 contain the LO virtual
concatenation sequence indicator.
3-4
unassigned and reserved for APS signaling for protection at the lower order path level.
5-7
These bits in combination with bit 8 of V5 are
allocated for RDI -V/ERDI-V signal
8
unassigned and reserved for a lower order path data link.
Optional use.
Disable all Overwrites
Clear the Overwrite check box for all TX bytes. Only available with
SONET/SDH BERT test application in Through Intrusive and Through
Intrusive with Block & Replace topologies.
Default all OH
Returns all TX overhead bytes to their factory default values.
592
88000 Series
Test Functions
Ping & Trace Route
Ping & Trace Route
From the Test menu, tap Functions, and the Ping & Trace Route tab.
P1 and P2 Buttons
The P1 and P2 buttons, available with Dual Port topology, allow to
respectively display the alarms/errors for port #1 (P1) or port #2 (P2).
Source IP Address
Displays the configured Source IP Address. Refer to MAC/IP/UDP on
page 200 for RFC 2544 and EtherBERT tests, and to Smart Loopback on
page 306 for Smart Loopback test.
Destination IP Address
Enter the Destination IP Address of the network device to be detected.
The destination IP address is configurable only with IPv4 Network Layer
(refer to Modify Structure Button on page 108). The accepted range for IPv4
is 0.0.0.0 (default) to 255.255.255.255.
The default setting for IPv6 is 2001:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000
or is set automatically to the IP address of the target module from the
Remote Loopback mode. The destination IP address is configured only
when Ethernet/IPv6/UDP is selected. The IPv6 Address can either be the
Link-Local IPv6 Address or the Global IPv6 Address. The acceptable
range for IPv6 is from 000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0001 to
FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF.
Stream
Stream is available with EtherSAM and Traffic Gen & Mon and allows to
select a stream/service to use its source and destination IP addresses for
the Ping and Trace Route tests.
Power Blazer
593
Test Functions
Ping & Trace Route
Use Stream
Use Stream is available with test application using stream/services and
allows to use the source and destination IP of the defined or selected
stream/services.
Ping
594

Data Size (Bytes): Enter the data size that will be sent to the network
device to be detected. Choices are 0 to 1452 bytes; 32 bytes by
default.

TTL for IPv4 and Hop Limit (TTL) for IPv6: Enter the maximum
number of hops the packet can go through. Choices are 1 to 255; 128
by default.

IP TOS/DS for IPv4 and Traffic Class (TOS/DS) for IPv6: Enter the type
of service. Choices are 00 (default) to FF.

Flow Label (IPv6) value acceptable range is from 0 (default) to
1048575.

Timeout (ms): Enter the maximum time allowed between an ICMP
echo and response. Choices are 200 ms to 10000 s; 4000 ms by
default.

Delay (ms): Enter the delay between each attempt (PING). Choices
are 100 to 10000 ms; 1000 ms by default.

Attempts: Select n-Attempts to specify the number of ping requests to
send following a ping activation or select Continuous to ping
continuously until manually stopped. If n-Attempts is selected, enter
the number of ping attempts from 1 to 100. The default setting is
n-Attempts with 4 attempts.

Ping button starts the ping tool with the specified settings.
88000 Series
Test Functions
Ping & Trace Route
Trace Route

Max Hop Count: Enter the maximum network device the packet is
allowed to go through. Choices are 1 to 255; 128 by default.

Timeout (ms): Enter the maximum time allowed between an ICMP
echo and response at each hop. Choices are 200 ms to 10000 ms;
4000 ms by default.

Trace Route button starts the trace route tool with the specified
settings.
Results
To succeed, a ping command shall be acknowledged by the network
device within a given delay (Timeout). Typically a ping command can fail
for the following reasons:

The IP address is unavailable or unknown.

The time allowed to perform the ping command is too short.

The remote device is not supporting ICMP messaging.
To succeed, a trace route command shall be acknowledged by the
network device within a given delay (Timeout). Typically a trace route
command can fail for the following reasons:

The IP address is unavailable or unknown.

The time allowed to perform the trace route command is too short.

The remote device is not supporting ICMP messaging.
The ping and trace route results are displayed with the following columns:

Power Blazer
No.: Indicates the attempt number.
595
Test Functions
Ping & Trace Route

Status: Indicates the status of the attempt as follows:
Status
Description
Successful
Valid ICMP echo reply received.
User Aborted
When a user has manually stopped the ping/trace route function before the end of
attempts.
Time Out
When an ICMP echo reply was not received within the defined timeout.
Destination Invalid
With reserved IP addresses:
For IPv4: 0.0.0.0, 127.0.0.0, and all addresses above 240.0.0.0 (Class E and above).
For IPv6: 0::/8 (reserved/unspecified), 0::1/128 (Loopback), FF00::/8 (Multicast).
TTL Expired (ping
test)
When the number of TTL was insufficient to reach the destination host.
Hop Reached
(trace route test)
When a Time Exceeded message is received from a host while executing the trace route
function.
Destination
Unreachable
For IPv4: When the IP address is unreachable (no default gateway for an IP address, not
in the same subnet, or an ICMP Unreachable message is received).
For IPv6: When the IP address is unreachable (no default gateway for an IP address, not
in the same subnet, or address resolution failed or an ICMP Destination Unreachable
message is received).
Data Corrupted
Parameter problem message is received or data corruption is found for IPv4.
Discarded
Congestion has been detected and the request cannot be transmitted.
Packet Too Big
Packet Too Big message is received in response to a packet that the router cannot
forward because the packet is larger than the MTU of the outgoing link. It is only
applicable for the IPv6 version.
Undefined
For any other errors in ping/trace route that do not fall into one of the above
description.
596
88000 Series
Test Functions
Ping & Trace Route

Replied Details
For ping, indicates the IP address of the replier, the buffer size of
the ICMP echo response, the time of response in milliseconds, and
the TTL of the ICMP echo response.
For trace route, indicates the IP address of the replier, and the time
of response in milliseconds.
Statistics

Packets Transmitted indicates the number of sent packets.

Packets Received indicates the number of received packets.
The following statistics are only available for the ping test.
Power Blazer

Percentage Lost (%) indicates the percentage of packets lost.

Min Round Trip Time (ms) indicates the minimum time recorded
for a ping request to be answered.

Max Round Trip Time (ms) indicates the maximum time
recorded for a ping request to be answered.

Avg. Round Trip Time (ms) indicates the average time required
for a ping request to be answered.
597
Test Functions
Pointer Adjustment
Pointer Adjustment
From the Test menu, tap Functions, and the Pointer Adjustment tab.
TX Pointer Adjustment
Note: Only available in Coupled topology.
The pointer adjustment supports two modes of operation: Manual and
Sequence. Both modes offer the generation of pointer events even when
the test is not started. The Sequence mode is only available for SONET/SDH
BERT test application for rates up to OC-192/STM-64.
TX Pointer Adjustment - Manual Button
Step

Value
For STS/AU: Select the number of positive (Increment) or negative
(Decrement) pointer adjustments to include into the STS-n (SONET) or
AU-n (SDH): 1 (default) to 1000. For multiple pointer adjustments, the
pointer adjustment rate is 1 adjustment at every 4 frames.
For VT/TU: Select the number of positive (Increment) or negative
(Decrement) pointer adjustment to include into the VTn (SONET) or
TU-n (SDH): 1 (default) to 1000. For multiple pointer adjustments, the
pointer adjustment rate is 1 adjustment at every 4 multiframes.
598

Increment button sends the positive pointer adjustment defined.

Decrement button sends the negative pointer adjustment defined.

Pointer Value indicates the current pointer value.
88000 Series
Test Functions
Pointer Adjustment
Jump

New Pointer allows to select a new pointer value:
For STS/AU: 0 (default) to 782
For VT/TU:
Path
Range
VT1.5
0 to 103
VT2
0 to 139
TU-3
0 to 764
TU-11
0 to 103
TU-12
0 to 139

Inject button sends the new pointer value.

New Data Flag (NDF) check box when selected inserts a New Data
Flag with the pointer adjustment when the Inject button is tapped.
For STS/AU: When NDF is enabled, bits 1 to 4 of the pointer word (H1
and H2 bytes) are set to 1001 when executing a pointer jump.
For VT/TU: When NDF is enabled, bits 1 to 4 of the pointer word (V1
and V2 bytes) are set to 1001 when executing a pointer jump.
Power Blazer
599
Test Functions
Pointer Adjustment
TX Pointer Adjustment - Sequence Button
Note: The pointer sequence is only supported on one test layer; either on VT/TU
layer or on STS/AU when the test doesn’t contain VT/TU mapping. The field
next to the Sequence operation mode button indicates the path level used
for the sequence pointer adjustment.

Sequence: T.105-03/GR-253 allows the selection of the pointer
sequence pattern based on the T.105-03/GR-253 standard.
Pointer Sequence Pattern
Single pointers of opposite polarity
Available with
AU-x, TU-3, TU-11, TU-12
Regular pointers plus one double pointer
AU-x, TU-3, TU-11, TU-12
Regular pointers with one missing pointer
AU-x, TU-3, TU-11, TU-12
Double pointers of opposite polarity
AU-x, TU-3, TU-11, TU-12
Single pointer adjustment
STS-x, VT1.5, VT2,
AU-x, TU-3, TU-11, TU-12
Burst pointer adjustment
STS-x, VT1.5, VT2,
AU-x, TU-3, TU-11, TU-12
Phase transient
STS-x, VT1.5, VT2,
AU-x, TU-3, TU-11, TU-12
Periodic pointer adjustment 87-3 pattern
STS-x, AU-x, TU-3
Periodic 87-3 with Add
STS-x, AU-x, TU-3
Periodic 87-3 with Cancel
STS-x, AU-x, TU-3
Periodic pointer adjustment continuous
STS-x, VT1.5, VT2,
AU-x, TU-3, TU-11, TU-12
Periodic pointer adjustment continuous with Add
STS-x, VT1.5, VT2,
AU-x, TU-3, TU-11, TU-12
Periodic pointer adjustment continuous with Cancel STS-x, VT1.5, VT2,
AU-x, TU-3, TU-11, TU-12
600
Periodic pointer adjustment 26-1 pattern
VT1.5, TU-11
Periodic 26-1 with Add
VT1.5, TU-11
Periodic 26-1 with Cancel
VT1.5, TU-11
88000 Series
Test Functions
Pointer Adjustment

Initialization / Cool Down / Sequence
The following time line examples show the initialization, cool down,
and the pointer sequence according to the selected sequence and
parameters.
Example 1: Periodic 87-3 with Cancel
Example 2: Regular pointers plus one double pointer
Legend:
Description
When located at the end (right) of the sequence, indicates a continuous repetition of the pointer
sequence.
When located within the sequence, indicates a repetition of pointers.
Regular pointer event or sequence.
Cancel event.
Special event like an extra cancel event (for example in Periodic 87-3 with Cancel) or a missing
event from the Regular pointers with one missing pointer sequence.
Special event like add, double pointer, etc.
Indicates that the sequence is periodic with special event.
Power Blazer
601
Test Functions
Pointer Adjustment

T1 to T6 are configurable duration parameters. The range of the
duration parameters as well as their availability versus pointer
sequence are described in the following table.
Pointer Sequence Pattern
Parameter
Duration range
Single pointers of opposite polarity
T1
10 to 30 s (default 10 s)
Regular pointers plus one double pointer
T2
AU/TU-3: 7.5 ms to 30 s (default 0.333 s)
TU-11/12: 0.2 s to 30 s (default 0.75 s)
T3
AU/TU-3: 0.5 ms
TU-11/12: 2 ms
Regular pointers with one missing pointer
T2
AU/TU-3: 7.5 ms to 30 s (default 0.333 s)
TU-11/12: 0.2 s to 30 s (default 0.75 s)
Double pointers of opposite polarity
T1
10 to 30 s (default 10 s)
T3
STS-x/AU-x/TU-3: 0.5 ms to 1 s (default 0.5 ms)
VT-x/TU-11/12: 2 ms to 1 s (default 2 ms)
Single pointer adjustment
T6
30 to 60 s (default 30 s)
Burst pointer adjustment
T4
STS-x/AU-x/TU-3: 0.5 ms
VT-x/TU-11/12: 2ms
T6
30 to 60 s (default 30 s)
Phase transient
T6
30 to 60 s (default 30 s)
Periodic pointer adjustment 87-3 pattern
T5
7.5 ms to 10 s (default 0.333 s)
Periodic 87-3 with Add
T4
0.5 ms
T5
7.5 ms to 10 s (default 0.333 s)
Periodic 87-3 with Cancel
T5
7.5 ms to 10 s (default 0.333 s)
Periodic pointer adjustment continuous
T5
STS-x/AU-x/TU-3: 7.5 ms to 10 s (default 0.333 s)
VT-x/TU-11/12: 0.2 s to 10s (default 1 s)
Periodic pointer adjustment continuous with T4
Add
STS-x/AU-x/TU-3: 0.5 ms
VT-x/TU-11/12: 2 ms
T5
STS-x/AU-x/TU-3: 7.5 ms to 10 s (default 0.333 s)
VT-x/TU-11/12: 0.2 s to 10 s (default 1 s)
Periodic pointer adjustment continuous with T5
Cancel
STS-x/AU-x/TU-3: 7.5 ms to 10 s (default 0.333 s)
VT-x/TU-11/12: 0.2 s to 10 s (default 1 s)
Periodic pointer adjustment 26-1 pattern
T5
0.2 s to 10 s (default 1 s)
Periodic 26-1 with Add
T4
2 ms
T5
0.2 s to 10 s (default 1 s)
T5
0.2 s to 10 s (default 1 s)
Periodic 26-1 with Cancel
602
88000 Series
Test Functions
Pointer Adjustment

T1 (s) represents the interval between two pointer events.
Example of Single pointer of opposite polarity sequence.

T2 (s) represents the interval between successions of pointer
events.
Example of Regular pointers with one missing pointer
sequence.

T3 (ms) represents the interval between back to back pointer
events.
Example of Regular pointers plus one double pointer sequence.
Power Blazer
603
Test Functions
Pointer Adjustment

T4 (ms) represents the interval between back to back pointer
events in periodic pointer sequence.
Example of Burst pointer adjustment sequence.

T5 (s) represents the interval between successions of pointer
events in a Periodic pointer sequence.
Example of Periodic 87-3 with Cancel sequence.

T6 (s) represents the interval between successions of pointer
events.
Example of Phase transient sequence.
604
88000 Series
Test Functions
Pointer Adjustment

Increment/Decrement allows to determine if the pointer sequence
will increment (positive) or decrement (negative) the pointer values.

Periodic check box when selected, generates the pointer sequence
continuously. The pointer sequence is generated only once when the
Periodic check box is cleared. The capability to clear the Periodic
check box is only available for the following pointer sequences:
Single pointers of opposite polarity

Regular pointers plus one double pointer

Regular pointers with one missing pointer

Double pointers of opposite polarity

Init-Cool check box when selected, generates pointer action with
three phases: initialization, Cool-down, and pointer sequence. Only the
pointer sequence is generated when the Init-Cool check box is
cleared.

Status indicates the pointer event activity status.

Power Blazer


Initialization indicates that the pointer sequence test is started
and is running the initialization phase.

Cool-down indicates that the pointer sequence test is started and
is running the cool down phase.

Sequence indicates that the pointer sequence test is started and is
running the sequence phase; this phase runs until the Sequence is
turn off.

Static pointer indicates that the pointer sequence is not started.
The signal generator transmits a fix pointer value.
Pointer Value indicates the current pointer value. Available even if the
test is not started or if the sequence is not enabled.
605
Test Functions
Pointer Adjustment

Sequence button when enabled, generates pointer events on a regular
basis. The initialization and cool down sequence are described below
for each pointer sequence pattern.
Pointer Sequence Pattern
Initialization
Cool down
Single pointers of opposite polarity
Basic sequenceab
Duration 60 sec
Basic sequenceab
Duration 30 sec
Regular pointers plus one double pointer
Add sequence
Duration 60 sec
Add sequence
Duration 30 sec
Regular pointers with one missing pointer
Cancel sequence
Duration 60 sec
Cancel sequence
Duration 30 sec
Double pointers of opposite polarity
Basic sequenceab
Duration 60 sec
Basic sequenceab
Duration 30 sec
Single pointer adjustment
One pointer event per second No pointer event
Duration = 30 sec
Duration 60 sec
Burst pointer adjustment
Phase transient
Periodic pointer adjustment 87-3 pattern
Basic sequencea
Duration 60 sec
Basic sequencea
Duration = 30 sec
Periodic 87-3 with Add
Add sequence
Duration = 30 sec
Periodic 87-3 with Cancel
Cancel sequence
Duration = 30 sec
Periodic pointer adjustment continuous
Basic sequencea
Duration 60 sec
Basic sequencea
Duration = 30 sec
Periodic pointer adjustment continuous with Add
Add sequence
Duration = 30 sec
Periodic pointer adjustment continuous with Cancel
Cancel sequence
Duration = 30 sec
Periodic pointer adjustment 26-1 pattern
Basic sequencea
Duration 60 sec
Basic sequencea
Duration = 30 sec
Periodic 26-1 with Add
Add sequence
Duration = 30 sec
Periodic 26-1 with Cancel
Cancel sequence
Duration = 30 sec
a.
b.
606
The basic sequence corresponds to the pointer event pattern defined in the standard without any Add or
extra Cancel event.
Only available when the Periodic check box is selected.
88000 Series
Test Functions
Pointer Adjustment
RX Pointer Adjustment

Pointer Value
For STS/AU: Displays the value for the pointer, H1 and H2, indicating the
offset in bytes between the pointer and the first byte of the STS-n
(SONET) or AU-n (SDH).
For VT/TU: Displays the value of the pointer, V1 and V2, indicating the
offset in bytes between the pointer and the first byte of the VTn
(SONET) or TU-n (SDH) of the high order path. However, TU-3
considered a low order path, uses the H1, H2, H3 bytes for its location.

Cumulative Offset indicates the difference between the pointer
increment and the pointer decrement. A pointer jump will reset this
value to 0.

Ptr. Incr. (Pointer Increment) gives statistics on positive pointer
adjustment detected.

Ptr. Decr. (Pointer Decrement) gives statistics on negative pointer
adjustment detected.

NDF (New Data Flag) gives statistics on pointer jumps containing a
New Data Flag.
For STS/AU: Bits 1 to 4 of the pointer word (H1 and H2) detected are
1001.
For VT/TU: Bits 1 to 4 of the pointer word (V1 and V2) detected are
1001.

No NDF (No New Data Flag) gives statistics on normal pointer jumps
containing no NDF.
For STS/AU: Bit 1 to 4 of the pointer word (H1 and H2) detected are
0110.
For VT/TU: Bit 1 to 4 of the pointer word (V1 and V2) detected are 0110.
Power Blazer
607
Test Functions
RTD
RTD
Note: Available with Pattern client. Not available in Decoupled, Through, or
Through Intrusive mode.
Round Trip Delay (RTD) measurements are needed to quantify the time it
takes for a signal to cross the network and come back. Usually, transport
delay is due to two factors: long configured paths and transit times through
the network elements along the path. Therefore, RTD measurements are
significant in systems that require two-way interactive communication,
such as voice telephony, or data systems where the round-trip time directly
affects the throughput rate.
From the Test menu, tap Functions, and the RTD tab.
Note: To do Round Trip Delay test, the remote NE should be configured to provide
a loopback.
Note: Be aware that RTD requires error free operation conditions to provide
reliable results. Therefore, RTD results could be affected by error injection
or error introduced by the network.
Mode
Allows the selection of the round trip delay test mode. Choices are Single
(default) and Continuous.
608

Single allows testing the round trip delay once.

Continuous allows testing the round trip delay continuously in a
repetitive manner (one RTD measurement every 2 seconds).
88000 Series
Test Functions
RTD
Measure Delay Button
Allows enabling the round trip delay measurement.
For Single mode, the test is performed once and stops (the Measure Delay
button turns off by itself). The Measure Delay button is only available when
the test is running.
For Continuous mode, the test is performed continuously until the RTD
test or the test case itself is stopped. However, the measurement will only
start if the test is running or when it will be started. The Measure Delay
button turns off by itself when the auto-calibration fails.
Note: The Round Trip Delay (RTD) auto-calibration generates some bit errors
when turning on the RTD measurement while the test is running or when
starting the test while the Measure Delay button is enabled. A far end
testing equipment will detect those bit errors.
Status
Indicates the test status of the RTD test. The status is only available when
the test case is running.

Ready indicates that the last calibration sequence has been successful
and the test is now ready to perform RTD measurement.

Running indicates that the RTD test is running.

Cancelled indicates that the RTD test has been stopped before its
completion.

Calibration Failed indicates that the test calibration failed due to at
least one of the following conditions:

Internal errors.

Presence of high number of bit errors.
Therefore the RTD statistics becomes unavailable since the test does
not allow RTD testing.
Power Blazer
609
Test Functions
RTD

Disabled: Indicates that the RTD feature is disabled.

--: Indicates that the RTD measurement is not ready.
Reset
Resets the RTD results and measurement counts.
Delay
Indicates the time required for a bit to travel from the transmitter back to its
receiver after crossing a far-end loopback.

Last indicates the result of the last Round Trip Delay measurement.

Minimum indicates the minimum Round Trip Delay recorded.

Maximum indicates the maximum Round Trip Delay recorded.

Average indicates the average Round Trip Delay value.

Unit measurement selections are ms (default) and μs.
Count
Indicates the total number of successful and failed measurements.
Successful: A measurement is declared successful when the RTD is
smaller or equal to 2 seconds.
Failed: A measurement is declared failed when the RTD is > 2 seconds.
610
88000 Series
Test Functions
RTD (CPRI Framed L2)
RTD (CPRI Framed L2)
Note: Only available with CPRI Framed L2 in Base Station emulation mode.
Round Trip Delay (RTD) measurements are needed to quantify the time it
takes for a signal to cross the remote radio head and come back.
Note: Be aware that RTD requires error free operation conditions to provide
reliable results. Therefore, RTD results could be affected by error injection
or error introduced by the network.
From the Test menu, tap Functions, and the RTD tab.
P1 and P2 buttons, available with Dual Port topology, allow to select the
port to be displayed.
Power Blazer
611
Test Functions
RTD (CPRI Framed L2)
Round Trip Delay
Indicates the time required for a bit to travel from one point to another.

Delay T14 indicates the round trip delay measurement from the Base
Station going through the Remote Radio Head (including Toffset) and
back to the Base Station. The Delay T14 appearing on the diagram
corresponds to the average value.

Cable Delay indicates the cable delay measured from the Base Station
to the Remote Radio Head (RRH) or vice-versa assuming that the
cabling in both directions are the same. The Cable Delay appearing on
the diagram corresponds to the average value.

Last indicates the result of the last delay measurement.

Minimum indicates the minimum delay recorded.

Maximum indicates the maximum delay recorded.

Average indicates the average delay value.

Unit measurement selections are μs (default) and ns.

Toffset allows the configuration of the internal delay introduced by the
electronic components in the Radio Equipment (RE): 0 μs (default) to
66.67 μs.
Note: A warning icon appears next to the Toffset value when this value is larger
than the Delay T14 value measured indicating that the Toffset configured
value maybe invalid thus corrupting the Cable Delay values reported.
612
88000 Series
Test Functions
S-OAM Link Trace
S-OAM Link Trace
From the Test menu, tap Functions, and the S-OAM Link Trace tab.
Link Trace


Priority1 allows to select the VLAN user priority: 0 (default) to 7. Refer
to VLAN ID and Priority on page 740 for more information.
Drop Eligible1 is set to No (no frames will be dropped when
congestion occurs) and is not configurable.

TTL sets the Time To Live value: 1 to 255 (default is 128).

Link Trace button when ON (OFF by default) starts the link trace
process. The Link Trace button turn OFF automatically once the link
trace process is completed.
Result
The table reports the following information for each valid LTR frames
received in response to the last LTM frame sent: TTL, MEP/MIP MAC
Address, Forward, and Term MEP.

Last Link Trace Status displays the last link trace status.
Status

Description
Pending
No Results
Successful
Last Link Trace was successful
Failed – LTR Timeout
Last Link Trace failed due to a LTR Timeout
Failed – Invalid LTR
Last Link Trace failed due to an Invalid LTR
TX LTM indicates the count of transmitted LTM frames.
1. Available when VLAN is enabled (see VLAN on page 220).
Power Blazer
613
Test Functions
S-OAM Link Trace
614

RX LTR indicates the count of received LTR frames having their
destination MAC address matching the unit port MAC address, and
VLANs matching the unit port VLANs.

LTR Timeout indicates the count of LTR Timeout event which occurs if
a reply (LTR) from the Peer MEP is not received within 5 seconds.

Invalid LTR indicates the count of LTR frames received with incorrect
MEG/MD Level or Transaction ID.
88000 Series
Test Functions
Signaling Bits
Signaling Bits
Signaling Bits is only available for DSn/PDH BERT test with DS1 interface,
DS0 enabled, and SF, ESF, or SLC-96 framing.
From the Test menu, tap Functions and the Signaling Bits tab.
The monitoring of signaling bits of the 24 - DS0 channels is performed
when test is running. Two signaling bits (AB) are monitored for SF or
SLC-96 framing while four signaling bits (ABCD) are monitored for ESF.
Power Blazer
615
Test Functions
Spare Bits
Spare Bits
Note: Spare Bits are not available when the framing is set to Unframed.
From the Test menu, tap Functions, tap the Spare Bits tab.
TX
Tap a spare bits field to set its value.
Note: All spare bits are reserved for national use and should be set to 1 when not
used.

E4
G.751 Bit 14, 15, 16: Choices are 000 to 111 (default).

E3
G.751 Bit 12: Choices are 0 and 1 (default).

616
E1

Si0 is located in the bit 1 of the frame containing the frame
alignment signal (FAS). Choices are 0 and 1 (default).

Si1 is located in the bit 1 of the frame not containing the frame
alignment signal (FAS). Choices are 0 and 1 (default).

Sa4 to Sa8 are located in bit 4 to 8 of frame number 1, 3, 5, and 7 of
sub-multiframe 1 and 2. Choices are 0 and 1 (default) or 0000 to
1111 (default) depending on the selected framing.

TS16 Frame 0 Bit 5, 7, 8 are located in bit 5, 7, and 8 from Timeslot
16 of frame 0 of a E1 signal. Choices are 000 to 111 (default).
88000 Series
Test Functions
Spare Bits
RX

E4
G.751 Bit 14, 15, 16 are reserved for national use.

E3
G.751 Bit 12 is reserved for national use.

E2
G.742 Bit 12 represents Bit 12 from Timeslot 1, 2, 3, and 4 respectively.

Power Blazer
E1

Si0 is located in the bit 1 of the frame containing the frame
alignment signal (FAS).

Si1 is located in the bit 1 of the frame not containing the frame
alignment signal (FAS).

Sa4 to Sa8 are located in bit 4 to 8 of frame number 1, 3, 5, and 7 of
sub-multiframe 1 and 2. Possible values are either 0 and 1 or 0000
to 1111 depending on the framing.

TS16 Frame 0 Bit 5, 7, 8 are located in bit 5, 7, and 8 from Timeslot
16 of frame 0 of a E1 signal.
617
Test Functions
Traffic Scan
Traffic Scan
The traffic scan tool provides the capability to discover and monitor VLAN
traffic flows on the network.
Note: Not available with dual port test and when Provider Encapsulation is
used.
From the Test menu, tap Functions, and the Traffic Scan tab.
Level
Allows the selection of the criteria that will be used to filter the incoming
VLAN traffic flows. The default setting is All. Choices are:
Level
618
Description
All
Monitors untagged frames and up to 3 levels of stacked VLAN frames
Untagged
Monitors untagged frames only (no VLAN)
C-VLAN
Discovers/monitors only frames where the outer VLAN is a C-VLAN
(TPID of 0x8100)
S-VLAN
Discovers/monitors only frames where the outer VLAN is a S-VLAN
(TPID of 0x8100, 0x88A8, 0x9100, 0x9200, or 0x9300)
E-VLAN
Discovers/monitors only frames where the outer VLAN is a E-VLAN
(TPID of 0x8100, 0x88A8, 0x9100, 0x9200, or 0x9300)
88000 Series
Test Functions
Traffic Scan
Rate Layer
Allows the selection of the rate unit used for Link Rate and Rate statistics.

Line Utilization is used to express the real line rate including the
Preamble, SFD, and IFG.

Ethernet BW (Bandwidth) is used to express the Ethernet bandwidth
rate excluding the Preamble, SFD, and IFG.
Discovered
Indicates the number of different traffic flows monitored based on the scan
criteria.
Link Rate (Mbit/s)
Indicates the network link rate based on the received frames with a valid
FCS regardless if the frame matches or not the traffic flows, and regardless
if the traffic flow was ignored due to the limit reached (see Limit Reached).
The rate is expressed either in Line Utilization or Ethernet Bandwidth
depending on the Rate Layer selected.
Limit Reached
Up to 128 different traffic flows can be monitored, the Limit Reached text
appears with a red background next to the Discovered field when the limit
is reached.
Scan
Starts/stops the traffic scan test.
Power Blazer
619
Test Functions
Traffic Scan
Monitored Frames Table
Statistics are gathered for each different traffic flow matching the scan
criteria. Each different monitored traffic flow creates a separate entry in the
scan table. When the limit is reached, new traffic flows are not considered
in the table but the existing traffic flows are still monitored.
The level of VLAN (untagged, E-VLAN, S-VLAN, C-VLAN), and values of
VLAN ID, Priority, and TPID are used to identify a traffic flow. Any difference
in one of these values will create a separated entry in the table. PBB-TE
frames are ignored.
Note: Scan statistics are cleared when restarting the scan.

E-VLAN / S-VLAN / C-VLAN

ID indicates the VLAN ID of the received traffic flow.

Priority indicates the VLAN Priority of the received traffic flow.
Note: The TPID indicating the Tag Protocol Identifier of the received traffic flow is
reported in the test report.

Statistics

Frame Count indicates for each traffic flow, the number of frames
matching the selected scan criteria.
Total indicates the total number of frames matching the selected
scan criteria.

Rate (Mbit/s) indicates for each traffic flow, the rate of frames
matching the selected scan criteria. The rate is expressed either in
Line Utilization or Ethernet Bandwidth (see Rate Layer).
Total indicates the total rate of frames matching the selected scan
criteria.
620
88000 Series
11 Test Control
This chapter describes the test control buttons available on the right
navigation bar of the application.
Button
Power Blazer
For more information, see:
Discover Remote
Discover Remote Button on page 622
Inject
Inject Button on page 625
Laser
Laser Button on page 625
Lpbk Tool
Lpbk Tool Button (Loopback Tool) on page 626
Report
Report Button on page 633
Reset
Reset Button on page 638
Save/Load
Save/Load Button on page 639
Start/Stop|TX
Start/Stop|TX Button on page 643
621
Test Control
Discover Remote Button
Discover Remote Button
The Discover Remote function allows to perform Ethernet tests in
conjunction with a second test set (module) by scanning and connecting
to any available EXFO Datacom remote module. The remote module is
used to loop back the traffic via Smart Loopback or Dual Test Set (DTS) for
simultaneous bidirectional RFC 2544, RFC 6349, or EtherSAM results.
Note: Only available with EtherSAM, EtherBERT, RFC 2544, RFC 6349, and
Traffic Gen & Mon test applications.
Remote Modules Discovery

Target defines how to perform the scan to discover remote modules.

Subnet indicates to perform the scan based on the current subnet.

Specific IP indicates to perform the scan for a specific remote
module IP address. Enter the IP address of the target module.
Quick Ping tests if the destination IP address can be reached. A
message displays if the ping attempt is Successful or Failed.

Scan button scans the subnet or a specific IP (see Target) to discover
remote EXFO compatible module(s).
The discovered modules are listed in the table with their IP Address,
Remote ID, Capabilities, and Status information. Remote ID,
Capabilities, and Status are only available for remote 88000 Series,
and 85100G modules.

622
Capabilities indicates the loopback capabilities of the remote
module using the following test application icons:
Smart Loopback, RFC 2544, RFC 6349, and/or EtherSAM.
88000 Series
Test Control
Discover Remote Button

Status indicates the status of the remote module.
Status
Idle-<test application>
Description
a
The specified test application is selected but not
running.
Busy-<test application>b The specified test application is running.
Not Responding
a.
b.

No response from the specified IP address (only
possible when Target is set to Specific IP).
Possible test applications: EtherSAM, RFC 2544, RFC 6349, EtherBERT,
Traffic Gen & Mon,
Smart Loopback,
Through Mode,
TCP Throughput,
Carrier Ethernet OAM, Cable Test, 1588 PTP, or SyncE.
Possible test applications: EtherSAM, RFC 2544, RFC 6349, EtherBERT,
Traffic Gen & Mon, Smart Loopback, TCP Throughput, Carrier Ethernet OAM,
1588 PTP, or SyncE.
Loop Up and Loop Down buttons (Not available with RFC 6349 test
application)

Loop Up establishes the connection with the selected remote
module and sets the remote module into Smart Loopback test
application.
If a remote module is in any busy status a user confirmation is
required to proceed with the Loop Up command.
Following a successful loop up, the IP address of the remote
module will be used as the destination IP address for the test.
Once the connection is established with the remote module, the
local module can be set for EtherSAM, RFC 2544, EtherBERT, or
Traffic Gen & Mon testing.

Power Blazer
Loop Down ends the connection between the local and the
remote modules.
623
Test Control
Discover Remote Button

Connect and Disconnect buttons are only available with RFC 2544,
RFC 6349, and EtherSAM test applications.

Connect establishes the connection with the selected remote
module and sets the remote module into either DTS RFC 2544, DTS
RFC 6349, or DTS EtherSAM test application, depending on the
active test on the local module.
If a remote module is in any busy status a user confirmation is
required to proceed with the Loop Up command.
Following a successful connection, the IP address of the remote
module will be used as the destination IP address for the test.

Disconnect ends the connection between the local and the
remote modules.
Local Module Identification
Module ID is used to easily identify this module in case another Power
Blazer is performing a discovery scan. Up to 16 alpha-numeric characters
are allowed.
624
88000 Series
Test Control
Inject Button
Inject Button
Injects alarms/errors based on settings from the Inject Button on page 407.
Laser Button
The Laser button enables or disables the laser for optical interfaces. For
Dual Port topology, enables or disables the laser for both optical interfaces
(ports). However, when an active copper SFP is used on a port, the laser is
always on for this port.
Laser Button
Power Blazer
Border Color
Description
Black
Laser is off.
Red
Laser is on.
625
Test Control
Lpbk Tool Button (Loopback Tool)
Lpbk Tool Button (Loopback Tool)
The Loopback Tool provides the capability of looping back the Ethernet
frames/packets that are received on the loopback tool port.
Pressing the Lpbk Tool button opens the Loopback Tool pop-up and
powers up the port unused by the main test application (it does not start
looping back the frames yet). The Loopback Tool starts looping back the
Ethernet frames/packets that are received when pressing on the Loopback
button from the Loopback Tool tab.
Note: The Lpbk Tool button is available when the main test application is any
single port Ethernet test application (up to 10G WAN rate) with the
exception of Through mode. Not available on 88200NGE.
Note: The Loopback Tool is independent from the main test Start/Stop, Reset
and Test Timer.
Note: Enabling/disabling the Laser control affects both the main test application
and the Loopback Tool when applicable (if both test and tool are using an
optical port).
626
88000 Series
Test Control
Lpbk Tool Button (Loopback Tool)
Loopback Tool tab
The Loopback Tool tab allows the configuration of the loopback
parameters and displays the traffic statistics as well as the S-OAM
Responder statistics.
Press the Lpbk Tool button and select the Loopback Tool tab.

Status: The status field displays the current status of the Loopback test.

-- (Idle): Loopback Tool is not looping back frames and results are
not available.

In Progress: Loopback Tool is looping back frames.

Completed: Loopback Tool is not looping back frames but results
are available. The test Status indicates Completed when the
loopback tool has been stopped.

Start Time: The time when the Loopback Tool was started.

Transparent (Pseudo-Physical) check box when selected (cleared by
default), determines that the Loopback tool operates as a physical
loopback by transmitting all received frames unaltered and without
discrimination.
In transparent mode, the Network tab and the S-OAM Responder
statistics are not available.
Note: The Transparent mode is intended to be used for point-to-point topology,
not for switched or routed networks. Use the Transparent mode with
caution because all received frames are looped back without
discrimination.
Power Blazer
627
Test Control
Lpbk Tool Button (Loopback Tool)


628
Loopback Mode determines at which layer the address/port swapping
is limited.

Ethernet swaps the MAC addresses of received packets having
their Destination MAC address matching the MAC address of the
loopback port.

Ethernet (All Unicast) swaps the MAC addresses of received
packets having Unicast Destination MAC address.

IP, for Ethernet Layer 3 and 4, swaps the MAC and IP addresses of
received packets having their Destination IP address matching the
IP address of the loopback port. For Ethernet Layer 2, swaps the
MAC addresses for packets having their Destination MAC address
matching the MAC address of the loopback port.

UDP/TCP (default), for Ethernet Layer 4, swaps the UDP or TCP
ports and the MAC and IP addresses of received packets having
their Destination IP address matching the IP address of the
loopback port. For Ethernet Layer 3, swaps the MAC and IP
addresses for packets having their Destination IP address
matching the IP address of the loopback port. For Ethernet Layer 2,
swaps the MAC addresses for packets having their Destination
MAC address matching the MAC address of the loopback port.
Traffic

Line Utilization (%) indicates the current percentage of the
transmitting/receiving line rate utilization.

Ethernet BW (Mbit/s) indicates the current transmitting/receiving
data rate expressed in Mbit/s.

Frame Rate (frame/s) indicates the current transmitted/received
number of frames (including bad frames, Broadcast frames and
Multicast frames) in frame per second.

Frame Count indicates the total number of transmitted/received
valid and invalid frames.
88000 Series
Test Control
Lpbk Tool Button (Loopback Tool)

S-OAM Responder check box when selected (default) allows to
respond to LBM, LTM, DMM, LMM, and SLM valid messages
(Lpbk Tool must be started, see Loopback button below). Traffic
statistics are also monitored (refer to Responder on page 521).
Responds to... message
Responds with... message
LBM
LBR
LTM
LTR
DMM
DMR
LMM
LMR
SLM
SLR
Responder - TX Count reports respectively the count of LBR, LTR,
DMR, LMR, SLR, and the total of frames transmitted.
Responder - RX Count reports counts of valid LBM, LTM, DMM,
LMM, SLM, and the total of frames received. A valid messages must
have its destination MAC address matching either the unit port
Unicast MAC address or a Multicast class 1 address1.

Loopback button starts/stops looping back the frames/packets that are
received. The default value is disabled.
1. Refer to Unicast/Multicast Addresses for Ethernet OAM on page 739 for more information.
Power Blazer
629
Test Control
Lpbk Tool Button (Loopback Tool)
Interface Tab

Physical Interface

Interface/Rate allows the selection of the loopback tool interface
rate: 10/100/1000M Electrical (default), 100M Optical,
1GE Optical, or 10GE LAN. 10GE LAN is only available when the
loopback tool runs on Port #1.

Connector displays the Power Blazer’s port for the selected
interface/rate.
Interface/Rate
When using Port 1
When using Port 2
10GE LAN
Port 1 - XFP
Port 1 - SFP/SFP+
Port 2 - SFP/SFP+
1GE Optical
100M Optical
Port 1 - SFP/SFP+
Port 2 - SFP/SFP+
10/100/1000M Electrical
Port 1 - RJ45
Port 2 - SFP/SFP+ (RJ45)a
a.

Connector
Ethernet 10/100/1000M electrical is supported when using an active copper
SFP.
Clock Mode: Displays the clock mode
Internal: Internal clock of the unit (STRATUM 3).
Recovered: Line clock from the input port signal involved in the
tool.

RX Power (dBm) indicates the current received power level of the
optical laser in dBm.
Green: Power level in range.
Yellow: Power level out-of-range.
Red: Loss of signal or power level is close to damage.
Gray: Invalid operational range value or not supported by the
optical transceiver.
630
88000 Series
Test Control
Lpbk Tool Button (Loopback Tool)


Power Range (dBm) indicates, when supported, the received
power level range of the optical laser in dBm.

RX Frequency (MHz/GHz) indicates the frequency of the input
signal. When no frequency reading is possible, “--” is displayed.
Not available when using an active copper SFP.
LINK

Auto-Negotiation check box when selected, enables the link
auto-negotiation and allows to set the port Speed, Duplex, Flow
Control, and Local Clock parameters. Those settings are not
applied immediately to the port, they are used only when the
negotiation process is started and take effect only when the
auto-negotiation succeeds. However current settings are applied
immediately to the port when the Auto-Negotiation check box is
cleared. The Auto-Negotiation check box is automatically selected
for 1GE Electrical interface and is not configurable. Available with
10/100/1000M Electrical interface.

Speed, available with 10/100/1000M Electrical interface, allows
the selection of the interface rate: 10M, 100M, 1GE, or Auto1. The
negotiated speed will be displayed next to the Speed field
selection.

Duplex choices for 10M and 100M electrical interfaces are
Full Duplex (default), Half Duplex, and Auto1. For other rates the
Duplex is set to Full Duplex. The negotiated duplex will be
displayed next to the Duplex field selection.

Flow Control choices are TX, RX, RX and TX, None (default), and
Auto1. When the Flow Control is set to None, pause frames
received are ignored.
1. Auto is only available when the Auto-Negotiation check box is selected.
Power Blazer
631
Test Control
Lpbk Tool Button (Loopback Tool)

Cable Mode is available with 10/100/1000M Electrical interface.
Manual mode is selected when the Auto-Negotiation check box is
cleared and allows to select the type of cable: MDI (default) for
straight through cable or MDIX for crossover cable.
Automatic mode is selected when the Auto-Negotiation check
box is selected and allows to automatically detect the MDI or MDIX
cable type.

Local Clock is only available with 1GE electrical interface and
allows to set the provenance of the clock: Master (default), or
Slave, or Auto1.
Network tab
Refer to Network on page 215 for more information.
SFP/SFP+ tab
Refer to CFP/CFP2/CFP4/QSFP/XFP/SFP/SFP+ on page 149 for more
information.
1. Auto is only available when the Auto-Negotiation check box is selected.
632
88000 Series
Test Control
Report Button
Report Button
The report contains all information about the current test including its
setup and results.
Note: Nothing prevents the configuration and alarm/error injection setup while
the test has been stopped; thus, the report should be saved/printed before
changing any test parameters to avoid printing discrepancy between the
configuration and results.
The Report button is available when the test is running or stopped, but the
report generation is only possible when the test is stopped. It is possible to
save, open, import, export, and delete test report(s).
File Location

Public Documents:
Users\Public\Documents\88000-PowerBlazer\Reports

My Documents:
Users\<User>\Documents\88000-PowerBlazer\Reports
Power Blazer

Others, use Browse to select a specific file location that will be
displayed under Others.

Removable Drives is only available when there is a removable
disk/key connected to the platform USB port.
633
Test Control
Report Button
Config/Save Tab
The Config/Save tab allows to configure the report parameters and
generate/save the report.
Tap the Report button and the Config/Save tab.

Job Information parameters are used to identify the source of the
report and are not mandatory. Enter the following job information if
required: Job ID, Contractor Name, Customer Name, Operator
Name, Circuit ID, and Comment. Up to 30 characters are allowed for
each parameter at the exception of Comment for which 256 characters
are allowed.
Restore Default reverts all Job Information parameters back to the
default values.

Report Headlines and Content parameters are used to identify the
report and are not mandatory. Up to 30 characters are allowed for each
parameter.

Report Header could be the company name.

Report Title could be the name of the product, name of test, test
number, etc.

Optional Content allows to choose the optional content that can
be part of the report:
All (default) includes all optional content to the report.
None excluded all optional content from the report.
Custom allows to select the optional content to be part of the
report.

634
Choose Content, available when the Optional Content is set to
Custom, allows to select what will be part of the custom content.
88000 Series
Test Control
Report Button

Save Report

Auto-Generate File Name check box, when selected (default),
automatically generates the report file name which contains the
name of the test, the date (YY.MM.DD), and time (HH.MM.SS).
Clear the Auto-Generate File Name check box to enter a specific
file name.
File Name is the name of the report to be generated.

Save To is the file location where the report file will be saved (see
File Location on page 633).

Display Report after Saving check box when selected (default)
automatically displays the report once it is generated.
Note: Once generated, the report can be opened from the Open Tab on page 636.

Turn on Report Generation Prompt check box when selected
(default) displays a pop-up every time a test case is stopped or
completed to ask if a report generation is desired.

Format is the file format for the report: PDF (default), HTML, and
Text.

Logo check box when selected (default) allows to include a logo
to the report. Only available with the PDF and HTML file format.
Select the logo picture that will be displayed on the report.

To select another logo, first add a new logo by either copying the
logo picture file to the following folder or by using the
Import/Export (see page 637) then select the new logo from the
list.
Documents\88000-PowerBlazer\Reports\Images
Supported picture file formats are jpg, gif, bmp, and png.

Power Blazer
Save Report button generates and saves the report on the selected
media (Save to).
635
Test Control
Report Button
Open Tab
Report files can be opened from this page.
Tap the Report button and the Open tab.
To open a saved report:
1. Select the file location (see File Location on page 633).
2. Select the report file from the list.
3. Tap the Open button.
636
88000 Series
Test Control
Report Button
Import/Export Tab
Allows to transfer and delete report files from an external USB media. Also
allows to import images that can used as the Logo for reports.
Tap the Report button and select the Import/Export tab.
To import/export a report or image:
1. Select either Report or Image as File Type.
2. Select the file location (see File Location on page 633).
3. From the Copy To drop list, select where the file(s) will be copied.
4. Select the file(s) to be copied by selecting its corresponding check box
or tap the (Un)Select All button to select or unselect all files in the list.
5. Tap the Copy button.
6. A confirmation is displayed, tap OK.
To delete a report or image:
1. Select either Report or Image as File Type.
2. Select the file location (see File Location on page 633).
3. Select the file(s) to be deleted by selecting its corresponding check
box or tap the (Un)Select All button to select or unselect all files.
4. Tap the Delete button.
5. Tap YES to confirm the deletion.
Power Blazer
637
Test Control
Reset Button
Reset Button
Tap the Reset button to clear results, statistics, and logger content. The
Reset button is only available when the test is running.
Note: The Reset button is not available for EtherSAM, RFC 2544, RFC 6349, Cable
Test, and Smart Loopback test applications.
638
88000 Series
Test Control
Save/Load Button
Save/Load Button
The Save/Load button allows to save, load, import, export, and delete
configuration file(s).
Note: Save/Load is only possible when the test is stopped.
File location

My Documents offers two file locations: use Favorites for most
commonly used configuration files or Configurations for others.
Users\<User>\Documents\88000-PowerBlazer\Configuration
Users\<User>\Documents\88000-PowerBlazer\Configuration\Favorites

Public Documents offers two file locations: use Favorites for most
commonly used configuration files or Configurations for others.
Users\Public\Documents\88000-PowerBlazer\Configuration
Users\Public\Documents\88000-PowerBlazer\Configuration\Favorites
Power Blazer

Others offers two file locations: use Factory Defined for factory
defined configuration files or select Browse to create a user defined
file location.

Removable Drives is only available when there is a removable
disk/key connected to the platform USB port.
639
Test Control
Save/Load Button
Save/Load Tab
Tap the Save/Load button and the Save/Load tab.
The save function stores the configuration of the Power Blazer including all
test settings to a file.
To save a configuration:
1. Select the file location (see File location on page 639).
2. Tap on the Save button.
3. Type the name of the configuration file to be saved and a description
(Config Summary) if needed.
4. Select the Add to Favorites check box to save the configuration file in
the Favorites list.
5. Tap OK.
The load function opens and applies the test configuration from a
previously saved configuration file.
To load a configuration:
1. Select the file location (see File location on page 639).
2. Select the file from the list.
3. Select or clear the Overwrite report settings check box as required.
The Overwrite report settings check box when selected (default)
replaces the current report settings by those from the configuration
that is loaded.
4. Tap the Load button.
Note: Configuration file has a limited backward compatibility (Typically the
backward compatibility period is one year or three software releases).
640
88000 Series
Test Control
Save/Load Button
To rename a configuration file:
1. Select the file location (see File location on page 639).
2. Select the file from the list.
3. Tap the Rename button.
4. Change the name of the configuration file.
5. Select the Add to Favorites check box to save the configuration file in
the Favorites list.
6. Tap OK.
To delete a configuration file:
1. Select the file location (see File location on page 639).
2. Select the file from the list.
3. Tap the Delete button.
4. Tap Yes to confirm the deletion.
To add a configuration file to the Favorites list:
1. Select Configuration from either My Documents or Public
Documents.
2. Select the file from the list.
3. Tap the Add to Favorites button. The file will be moved into the
Configurations folder of its corresponding location (either My
Documents or Public Documents).
To remove a configuration file from the Favorites list:
1. Select Favorites from either My Documents or Public Documents.
2. Select the file from the list.
3. Tap the Remove from Favorites button. The file will be moved into the
Configurations folder of its corresponding location (either My
Documents or Public Documents).
Power Blazer
641
Test Control
Save/Load Button
Import/Export Tab
Configuration files can be transferred to and from an external USB media
as well as deleted.
Tap the Save/Load button and the Import/Export tab.
To import/export a test configuration:
1. Select the source file location (see File location on page 639).
2. From the Copy To drop list, select a destination file location.
3. Select the file(s) to be copied by selecting its corresponding check box
or tap the (Un)Select All button to select or unselect all files in the list.
4. Tap the Copy button.
5. A confirmation is displayed, tap OK.
To delete a test configuration:
1. Select the file location (see File location on page 639).
2. Select the file(s) to be deleted by selecting its corresponding check
box or tap the (Un)Select All button to select or unselect all files in the
list.
3. Tap the Delete button.
4. Tap YES to confirm the deletion.
642
88000 Series
Test Control
Start/Stop|TX Button
Start/Stop|TX Button
The Start/Stop|TX button allows to manually start or stop any test as well
as to enable traffic generation (Traffic Gen & Mon).
To start the test:
Tap the Start button to start the test. Start is available when the test is
not running.
To stop the test:
Tap the Stop button to stop the test; the traffic generation (Traffic Gen
& Mon) also stops if it was enabled (TX button). Stop is available when
the test is running.
By default, a message is displayed when the test stops asking to
generate a report. To disable this feature, see Turn on Report
Generation on page 635. Nothing prevents the configuration and
alarm/error injection setup while the test has been stopped; thus, if a
report is required, it should be saved before changing any test
parameters to avoid discrepancy between the configuration and
results. See Report Button on page 633 to generate and save a report
file.
To enable traffic generation (available with Traffic Gen & Mon):
Tap the TX button to enable traffic generation for all enabled streams;
the test is also started if it was not running. While the test is running the
TX button is available to enable/disable traffic generation. Some
conditions, such as ARP not resolved, link down, etc., may prevent the
stream to be transmitted.
Power Blazer
643
12 Power Failure Recovery
The automatic power failure recovery is used to select, configure, and
restart1 the test that was running before the power failure; a test that was
not running will be selected and configured but not started. To provide this
level of protection, the configuration of the current test is automatically
saved; the logger, injections, and configuration are periodically saved.
A power failure occurs when the AC power is down (LTB-8, FTB, and IQS)
while the unit’s battery (FTB) has not sufficient power to keep the unit
running. Pressing the platform power button for 5 seconds performs a
power down reset and is also considered as a power failure condition. For
a platform running Windows 8, the Hibernate or Sleep mode is also
considered as a power failure condition.
When the power returns, the automatic power failure recovery restarts the
platform, the Power Blazer, then selects, configures, and starts the test if it
was running before the power failure. The IQS-600 does not support the
automatic power failure recovery.
Note: If the automatic power failure recovery is not used, restarting the Power
Blazer after a power failure automatically selects, configures, and starts the
test if it was running before the power failure.
1. Not applicable for iSAM, EtherSAM, RFC 2544, TCP Throughput, and Cable Test applications; these tests must be
started manually.
Power Blazer
645
Power Failure Recovery
Enabling Power Failure Recovery
Enabling Power Failure Recovery
To enable the automatic power failure recovery:
1. Enable launching the application when starting the platform (refer to
the platform user guide for more information):
Windows 8: From ToolBox / ToolBox X, tap on the System Settings
button, the Startup Applications button, and select the corresponding
module’s check box.
Windows XP: From ToolBox, tap on the Setup button, the Application
Startup tab, and select the corresponding module’s check box.
2. Enable the platform automatic power on feature (refer to the platform
user guide for more information):
2a. Windows 8: From ToolBox / ToolBox X, tap on the System
Settings button and the ToolBox / ToolBox X button.
Windows XP: Tap on the Setup button, the Tools tab, and the
Platform Settings icon.
2b. Select the Power on the unit when AC outlet is connected or
after power outage check box.
3. Make sure that Windows does not require a user name and password.
The platform is set to require user name and password by default. To
disable Windows user name and password:
3a. Windows 8: From ToolBox / ToolBox X, tap on the System
Settings button and the Automatic Logon button.
Windows XP: From Windows, logon as Supervisor, tap Start,
Programs, Accessories, System Tools, User Accounts
(Advanced), select a user account.
3b. Clear the User must enter a user name and password to use
this computer check box and enter the password to confirm.
Note: The power failure recovery is not used when the application closes
normally.
646
88000 Series
Power Failure Recovery
When Using the Test Timer
When Using the Test Timer
Refer to Timer on page 324 for more information on test timer.
The test that was running will be re-created and started after a power
failure if conditions described above are met in addition with the following
test time conditions:
Power Blazer

The start time has not expired during the power failure.

The stop time or the duration has not expired during the power failure.
647
13 Suspend and Resume
Note: Suspend and Resume is not available on the IQS-600.
Suspend and Resume allow respectively the platform and its running
applications to stop (Suspend) and to be quickly re-initialized (Resume)
when the unit is turned back on.
Note: For a platform running Windows 8, the resume operation after Hibernate
or Sleep mode perform a power up and restore instead of a resume. Refer
to Power Failure Recovery on page 645.
Suspend Mode
To enter the suspend mode, refer to the platform user guide. In Suspend
Mode, the Power Blazer module is directly turned off and its configuration
and injection information are kept. The Suspend Mode remains active as
long as battery power or AC power is available. If the battery is drained the
information is lost and the Resume operation is no more possible.
The following conditions prevent the activation of the Suspend Mode:

A firmware download is in-progress

Resume operation is in-progress.
Note: The test will be stopped when entering the suspend mode meaning that the
test logger content will be lost.
Power Blazer
649
Suspend and Resume
Resume Operation
Resume Operation
To enter the resume operation, turn on the platform by pressing the power
button. During the resume operation, the module is re-initialized.
Note: In the event a manual shutdown of the platform occurs, while the resume
operation is in-progress, the resume operation is terminated and all the test
configuration information is lost.
The following conditions prevent the resume operation:
650

The module status has changed (mismatch in serial number or
module is missing).

A module failure is detected.
88000 Series
14 Maintenance
To help ensure long, trouble-free operation:

Always inspect fiber-optic connectors before using them and clean
them if necessary.

Keep the unit free of dust.

Clean the unit casing and front panel with a cloth slightly dampened
with water.

Store unit at room temperature in a clean and dry area. Keep the unit
out of direct sunlight.

Avoid high humidity or significant temperature fluctuations.

Avoid unnecessary shocks and vibrations.

If any liquids are spilled on or into the unit, turn off the power
immediately, disconnect from any external power source, remove the
batteries and let the unit dry completely.
WARNING
The use of controls, adjustments and procedures, namely for
operation and maintenance, other than those specified herein may
result in hazardous radiation exposure or impair the protection
provided by this unit.
Power Blazer
651
Maintenance
Cleaning LC/SC/MPO-24 Connectors
Cleaning LC/SC/MPO-24 Connectors
Under normal circumstances the cleaning of the LC/SC/MPO-24 connector
is not required. However if the connector shows signs of debris or
contamination, cleaning may be required.
To clean a LC/SC/MPO-24 connector
1. Use a clean dry air (CDA) or a air gun to blow out the dust or
contamination.
2. Re-inspect the connector. For MPO-24 optical connector, re-inspect the
connector under magnification to make sure that it is clean.
3. If the connector is still not clean, use a commercial cleaner
recommended by the SFP/SFP+/XFP/CFP/CFP2 manufacturer.
Note: Refer to the transceiver manufacturer for more detailed cleaning
recommendations and instructions.
652
88000 Series
Maintenance
Recalibrating the Unit
Recalibrating the Unit
EXFO manufacturing and service center calibrations are based on the
ISO/IEC 17025 standard (General Requirements for the Competence of
Testing and Calibration Laboratories). This standard states that calibration
documents must not contain a calibration interval and that the user is
responsible for determining the re-calibration date according to the actual
use of the instrument.
The validity of specifications depends on operating conditions. For
example, the calibration validity period can be longer or shorter depending
on the intensity of use, environmental conditions and unit maintenance, as
well as the specific requirements for your application. All of these elements
must be taken into consideration when determining the appropriate
calibration interval of this particular EXFO unit.
Under normal use, the recommended interval for your Power Blazer Series
is: 2 years.
For newly delivered units, EXFO has determined that the storage of this
product for up to six months between calibration and shipment does not
affect its performance (EXFO Policy PL-03).
Power Blazer
653
Maintenance
Recycling and Disposal (Applies to European Union Only)
To help you with calibration follow-up, EXFO provides a special calibration
label that complies with the ISO/IEC 17025 standard and indicates the unit
calibration date and provides space to indicate the due date. Unless you
have already established a specific calibration interval based on your own
empirical data and requirements, EXFO would recommend that the next
calibration date be established according to the following equation:
Next calibration date = Date of first usage (if less than six months
after the calibration date) + Recommended calibration period
(2 years)
To ensure that your unit conforms to the published specifications,
calibration may be carried out at an EXFO service center or, depending on
the product, at one of EXFO’s certified service centers. Calibrations at
EXFO are performed using standards traceable to national metrology
institutes.
Note: You may have purchased a FlexCare plan that covers calibrations. See the
Service and Repairs section of this user documentation for more
information on how to contact the service centers and to see if your plan
qualifies.
Recycling and Disposal
(Applies to European Union Only)
For complete recycling/disposal information as per European Directive
WEEE 2012/19/UE, visit the EXFO Web site at www.exfo.com/recycle.
654
88000 Series
15 Troubleshooting
Solving Common Problems
Before calling EXFO’s technical support, please read the following
common problems that can occur and their respective solution.
Problem
Optical Laser LED is off and the
connector is not generating the
signal.
Power Blazer
Possible Cause
Solution
The Laser On option is disabled.
Ensure that the Laser button is
enabled (On).
There is a configuration mismatch
between the inserted SFP/XFP/CFP
and the rate selected for the test
case.
Ensure that the SFP/XFP/CFP is
supporting the rate used for the
test case.
The SFP/XFP/CFP is not compatible
with the 88000 Series.
Ensure to use a compatible
SFP/XFP/CFP. Refer to Modify
Structure Button on page 108 and
Specifications on page 661.
655
Troubleshooting
Contacting the Technical Support Group
Contacting the Technical Support Group
To obtain after-sales service or technical support for this product, contact
EXFO at one of the following numbers. The Technical Support Group is
available to take your calls from Monday to Friday, 8:00 a.m. to 7:00 p.m.
(Eastern Time in North America).
Technical Support Group
400 Godin Avenue
Quebec (Quebec) G1M 2K2
CANADA
1 866 683-0155 (USA and Canada)
Tel.: 1 418 683-5498
Fax: 1 418 683-9224
support@exfo.com
For detailed information about technical support, and for a list of other
worldwide locations, visit the EXFO Web site at www.exfo.com.
If you have comments or suggestions about this user documentation, you
can send them to customer.feedback.manual@exfo.com.
To accelerate the process, please have information such as the name and
the serial number (see the product identification label), as well as a
description of your problem, close at hand.
Transportation
Maintain a temperature range within specifications when transporting the
unit. Transportation damage can occur from improper handling. The
following steps are recommended to minimize the possibility of damage:
656

Pack the unit in its original packing material when shipping.

Avoid high humidity or large temperature fluctuations.

Keep the unit out of direct sunlight.

Avoid unnecessary shocks and vibrations.
88000 Series
16 Warranty
General Information
EXFO Inc. (EXFO) warrants this equipment against defects in material and
workmanship for a period of one year for FTB/FTBx-88000 Series and two
years for IQS-88000 Series from the date of original shipment. EXFO also
warrants that this equipment will meet applicable specifications under
normal use.
During the warranty period, EXFO will, at its discretion, repair, replace,
or issue credit for any defective product, as well as verify and adjust the
product free of charge should the equipment need to be repaired or if the
original calibration is erroneous. If the equipment is sent back for
verification of calibration during the warranty period and found to meet all
published specifications, EXFO will charge standard calibration fees.
IMPORTANT
The warranty can become null and void if:

unit has been tampered with, repaired, or worked upon by
unauthorized individuals or non-EXFO personnel.

warranty sticker has been removed.

case screws, other than those specified in this guide, have been
removed.

case has been opened, other than as explained in this guide.

unit serial number has been altered, erased, or removed.

unit has been misused, neglected, or damaged by accident.
THIS WARRANTY IS IN LIEU OF ALL OTHER WARRANTIES EXPRESSED,
IMPLIED, OR STATUTORY, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE
IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A
PARTICULAR PURPOSE. IN NO EVENT SHALL EXFO BE LIABLE FOR
SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES.
Power Blazer
657
Warranty
Liability
Liability
EXFO shall not be liable for damages resulting from the use of the product,
nor shall be responsible for any failure in the performance of other items to
which the product is connected or the operation of any system of which
the product may be a part.
EXFO shall not be liable for damages resulting from improper usage or
unauthorized modification of the product, its accompanying accessories
and software.
Exclusions
EXFO reserves the right to make changes in the design or construction of
any of its products at any time without incurring obligation to make any
changes whatsoever on units purchased. Accessories, including but not
limited to fuses, pilot lamps, batteries and universal interfaces (EUI) used
with EXFO products are not covered by this warranty.
This warranty excludes failure resulting from: improper use or installation,
normal wear and tear, accident, abuse, neglect, fire, water, lightning or
other acts of nature, causes external to the product or other factors beyond
the control of EXFO.
IMPORTANT
In the case of products equipped with optical connectors, EXFO will
charge a fee for replacing connectors that were damaged due to
misuse or bad cleaning.
Certification
EXFO certifies that this equipment met its published specifications at the
time of shipment from the factory.
658
88000 Series
Warranty
Service and Repairs
Service and Repairs
EXFO commits to providing product service and repair for five years
following the date of purchase.
To send any equipment for service or repair:
1. Call one of EXFO’s authorized service centers (see EXFO Service
Centers Worldwide on page 660). Support personnel will determine if
the equipment requires service, repair, or calibration.
2. If equipment must be returned to EXFO or an authorized service
center, support personnel will issue a Return Merchandise
Authorization (RMA) number and provide an address for return.
3. If possible, back up your data before sending the unit for repair.
4. Pack the equipment in its original shipping material. Be sure to include
a statement or report fully detailing the defect and the conditions under
which it was observed.
5. Return the equipment, prepaid, to the address given to you by support
personnel. Be sure to write the RMA number on the shipping slip. EXFO
will refuse and return any package that does not bear an RMA number.
Note: A test setup fee will apply to any returned unit that, after test, is found to
meet the applicable specifications.
After repair, the equipment will be returned with a repair report. If the
equipment is not under warranty, you will be invoiced for the cost
appearing on this report. EXFO will pay return-to-customer shipping costs
for equipment under warranty. Shipping insurance is at your expense.
Routine recalibration is not included in any of the warranty plans. Since
calibrations/verifications are not covered by the basic or extended
warranties, you may elect to purchase FlexCare Calibration/Verification
Packages for a definite period of time. Contact an authorized service center
(see EXFO Service Centers Worldwide on page 660).
Power Blazer
659
Warranty
EXFO Service Centers Worldwide
EXFO Service Centers Worldwide
If your product requires servicing, contact your nearest authorized service
center.
EXFO Headquarters Service Center
400 Godin Avenue
Quebec (Quebec) G1M 2K2
CANADA
EXFO Europe Service Center
Winchester House, School Lane
Chandlers Ford, Hampshire S053 4DG
ENGLAND
1 866 683-0155 (USA and Canada)
Tel.: 1 418 683-5498
Fax: 1 418 683-9224
support@exfo.com
Tel.: +44 2380 246800
Fax: +44 2380 246801
support.europe@exfo.com
EXFO Telecom Equipment
(Shenzhen) Ltd.
Tel: +86 (755) 2955 3100
3rd Floor, Building C,
FuNing Hi-Tech Industrial Park, No. 71-3, Fax: +86 (755) 2955 3101
support.asia@exfo.com
Xintian Avenue,
Fuyong, Bao’An District,
Shenzhen, China, 518103
660
88000 Series
A
Specifications
IMPORTANT
The following general specifications can change without notice. The
information presented in this section is provided as a reference
only. To obtain this product’s most recent technical specifications,
visit the EXFO Web site at www.exfo.com.
CAUTION
The operation and storage temperatures, as well as the altitude,
humidity and IP rating of some modules may differ from those
specified for your platform. In this case, always ensure that you
comply with the most restrictive conditions (either module or
platform).
Power Blazer
661
Specifications
General Specifications
General Specifications
88100NGE
88100G
Specification
8830NGE
8830NGE-16X
8805
8870
8880
88200NGE
Size
(H x W x D)
118 x 25 x 160 mm
96 x 51 x 288 mm 96 x 25 x 280 mm 96 x 25 x 288 mm
(3 3/4 x 1 x 11 in) (3 3/4 x 1 x 11 3/8 in) (4 5/8 x 1 x 6 3/8 in)
(3 3/4 x 2 x 11
5/16 in)
Weight (without
transceiver)
1.05 kg (2.32 lb)
Temperature
Operating: 0 °C to 40 °C (32 °F to 104 °F)
Storing: -40 °C to 70 °C (-40 °F to 158 °F)
Relative humidity
0 % to 95 %, non-condensing
0.55 kg (1.2 lb)
0.5 kg (1.1 lb)
8870: 0.35 kg (0.75 lb)
8880: 0.41 kg (0.9 lb)
88200NGE: 0.5 kg (1.1 lb)
Maximum operation 5000 m (16000 ft)
altitude
Pollution degree
3
Measurement
category
Not rated for measurement categories II, III, or IV
CFP-to-CFP2 Adapter
Size
(H x W x D)
82 mm x 17 mm x 163 mm
(3 1/2 in x 11/16 in x 6 7/16 in)
Weight (without transceiver)
0.2 kg (0.4 lb)
Temperature
Operating: 0 °C to 40 °C (32 °F to 104 °F)
Storing: -40 °C to 70 °C (-40 °F to 158 °F)
662
88000 Series
Specifications
40G/100G Pluggable Transceivers (CFP)
40G/100G Pluggable Transceivers (CFP)
The TX operational wavelength (nm) range per Lane is as follows.
Lane 0
Lane 1
Lane 2
Lane 3
Lane 4
Lane 5
Lane 6
Lane 7
Lane 8
Lane 9
100GBASE-LR10
40GBASE-LR4
100GBASE-LR4
1521 to1525
1529 to 1533
1537 to 1541
1545 to 1549
1553 to 1557
1561 to 1565
1569 to 1573
1577 to 1581
1585 to 1589
1593 to 1597
1264.5 to 1277.5
1284.5 to 1297.5
1304.5 to 1317.5
1324.5 to 1337.5
1294.53 to 1296.59
1299.02 to 1301.09
1303.54 to 1305.63
1308.09 to 1310.19
100G Pluggable Transceivers (CFP2)
The TX operational wavelength (nm) range per Lane is as follows.
Lane 0
Lane 1
Lane 2
Lane 3
Lane 4
Lane 5
Lane 6
Lane 7
Lane 8
Lane 9
Power Blazer
100GBASE-SR10
100GBASE-LR4
840 to 860
840 to 860
840 to 860
840 to 860
840 to 860
840 to 860
840 to 860
840 to 860
840 to 860
840 to 860
1294.53 to 1296.59
1299.02 to 1301.09
1303.54 to 1305.63
1308.09 to 1310.19
663
B
Glossary
Acronym List
10B_ERR
10B_Error
?
Help
AC
Alternating Current
ACH
Associated Channel Header
ACT
Activity
AIS
Alarm Indication Signal
AMI
Alternate Mark Inversion
APS
Automatic Protection Switching
ATM
Asynchronous Transfer Mode
AU-n
Administrative Unit-n
AUI
Attachment Unit Interface
B-VLAN
Backbone Virtual Local Area Network
B8ZS
Bipolar with 8 zero substitution
BB
Buffer to Buffer
BBE
Background Block Error
BBER
Background Block Error Ratio
BDI
Backward Defect Indication
BDP
Bandwidth Delay Product
BEI
Backward Error Indication
BER
Bit Error Rate
BERT
Bit Error Rate Test
A
B
Power Blazer
665
Glossary
Acronym List
BIAE
Backward Incoming Alignment Error
BIP
Bit-Interleaved Parity
bit/s
Bit per second
BSD
Backward Signal Degrade
BSF
Backward Signal Fail
C
Current
C-DCI
Client - Defect Clear Indication
C-FDI
Client - Forward Defect Indication
C-LOS
Client - Loss Of Signal
C-RDI
Client - Remote Defect Indication
C-VLAN
Client/Customer Virtual Local Area Network
CAUI
100 Gbit/s Attachment Unit Interface
CAGE
Commerce And Government Entities
CBR
Constant Bit Rate
CBS
Committed Burst Size
CC
Continuity Check
CCM
Continuity Check Message
CE
Congestion Encountered
CD
Connectivity Defect
CDF
Client Data Frames
CE
European Conformity
cHEC
core Header Error Check
CID
Channel IDentifier
CIR
Committed Information Rate
CLK
Clock
CMF
Client Management Frames
C
666
88000 Series
Glossary
Acronym List
CORR
Correctable
COS
Class Of Service
CPRI
Common Public Radio Interface
CRC
Cyclic Redundancy Check
CRC-4
Cyclic Redundancy Check on 4 bits
CRITIC
Critical
CSF
Client Signal Fail
CSV
Comma Separated Value
CV
Code Violation
CW
Code Word
DA
Destination MAC Address
DAPI
Destination Access Point Identifier
dBm
Decibel - milliwatts
DCC
Data Communications Channel
DCI
Defect Clear Indication
DM
Degraded Minutes
DMM
Delay Measurement Message
DMR
Delay Measurement Reply
DS0
Digital Signal-level 0 (64 Kbit/s)
DS1
Digital Signal-level 1 (1.544 Mbit/s)
DS3
Digital Signal-level 3 (44.736 Mbit/s)
DSn
Digital Signal-level n
DST
Destination
DTE
Data Terminal Equipment
DUS
Don’t Use for Synchronization
DUT
Device Under Test
D
Power Blazer
667
Glossary
Acronym List
E
668
E-VLAN
Extended Virtual Local Area Network
E0
European standard for digital transmission-level 0 (64 Kbit/s).
E1
European standard for digital transmission-level 1 (2.048 Mbit/s).
E2
European standard for digital transmission-level 2 (8.448 Mbit/s).
E3
European standard for digital transmission-level 3 (34.368 Mbit/s).
E4
European standard for digital transmission-level 4 (139.264 Mbit/s).
EB
Errored Block
EBS
Excess Burst Size
EC
Error Count
ECN
Explicit Congestion Notification
ECT
ECN Capable Transport
EEC
Ethernet Equipment Clock
EFS
Error Free Second
eHEC
extension Header Error Check
EIR
Excess Information Rate
EoE
Ethernet over Ethernet
EoOTN
Ethernet over OTN
ERDI
Enhanced RDI
ES
Errored Second
ESMC
Ethernet Synchronization Message Channel
ESF
Extended Superframe
ESR
Errored Second Ratio
ETag
Extended Tag
EUI
EXFO Universal Interfaces
EXI
Extension Header Identifier
EXM
Extension Header Mismatch
EXT CLK
External Clock
88000 Series
Glossary
Acronym List
F
FAS
Frame Alignment Signal
FC
Fibre Channel
FCC
Federal Communications Commission
FCS
Frame Check Sequence
FCC
Federal Communications Commission
FD
Frame Delay
FDI
Forward Defect Indication
FEC
Forward Error Correction
FLOGI
Fabric Login
FLR
Frame Loss Ratio
fps
Frame Per Second
FSD
Forward Signal Degrade
FSF
Forward Signal Fail
GAL
Generic Associated Channel Label
GE
Gigabit Ethernet
Gbit/s
Gigabit per second
GCC
General Communication Channel
GFP
Generic Framing Procedure
GFP-F
GFP - Framed
GFP-T
GFP - Transparent
GHz
Giga Hertz
GM
Grand Master
GMP
Generic Mapping Procedure
GMP OOS
GMP Out of Synchronization
G
Power Blazer
669
Glossary
Acronym List
GUA
Global IPv6 Address
GUI
Graphical User Interface
H
History
HDB3
High Density Bipolar 3 Code
HDMI
High Definition Multimedia Interface
HDTV
High Definition Television
Hi-BER
High-Bit Error Ratio
Hi-BER1027B
High-Bit Error Ratio 1027 Blocks
HP-
High Order Path -
Hz
Hertz
IAE
Incoming Alignment Error
IAIS
Incoming Alarm Indication Signal
ID
Identification
H
I
IEC
670
International Electrotechnical Commission
IEC
Incoming Error Count
IEEE
Institute of Electrical & Electronics Engineers
IFDV
Inter-Frame Delay Variation
IN
Input
IP
Internet Protocol
IPDV
Inter Packet Delay Variation
IPTV
Internet Protocol Television
IPG
Interframe Gap
IPv4
Internet Protocol version 4
88000 Series
Glossary
Acronym List
IPv6
Internet Protocol version 6
ISM
In-Service Monitoring
JC
Justification Control
-L
Line
LAN
Local Area Network
LBM
Loopback Message
LBR
Loopback Reply
LCD
Loss of Code-Group Delineation
LCK
Locked
LED
Light-Emitting Diode
LER
Label Edge Router
lb
Pound
LBO
Line Build Out
LFD
Loss of Frame Delineation
LLA
Link-Local IPv6 Address
LLC
Logical Link Control
LLM
Logical Lane Marker
LLM
Loss Measurement Message
LMR
Loss Measurement Reply
LOA
Loss Of Alignment
LOAML
Loss of Alignment Marker Lock
LOAML1027B
Loss of Alignment Marker Lock 1027 Blocks
LOBL
Loss of Block Lock
J
L
Power Blazer
671
Glossary
Acronym List
LOBL1027B
Loss of Block Lock 1027 Blocks
LOC
Loss Of Clock
LOC Lane
Loss Of Clock Lane
LOCS CSF
Loss of Client Signal - Client Signal Fail
LOCCS CSF
Loss of Client Character Synchronization - Client Signal Fail
LOF
Loss Of Frame
LOFLOM
Loss of Frame Loss Of Multiframe
LOL
Loss of Lane Alignment
LOM
Loss Of Multiframe
LOOMFI
Loss of OPU Multi-Frame Identifier
LOPPS-L
Loss Of Pulse Per Second - Local
LOPPS-R
Loss Of Pulse Per Second - Remote
LOP
Loss Of Pointer
LOR
Loss Of Recovery
LOS
Loss Of Signal
LSB
Least-Significant Bit
LSP
Label Switch Path
LSR
Label Switching Router
LSS
Loss of Sequence Synchronization
LTC
Loss of Tandem Connection
LTM
Link Trace Message
LTR
Link Trace Reply
m
Minute
m
Meter
MA
Maintenance Association
MAC
Media Access Control
M
672
88000 Series
Glossary
Acronym List
MAID
Maintenance Association Identification
Mbit/s
Megabit per second
MD
Maintenance Domain
MDI
Media Dependant Interface (straight through Ethernet cable)
MDIO
Management Data Input/Output
MDIX
Media Dependant Interface Crossover (crossover Ethernet cable)
ME
Maintenance Entity
MEG
ME Group
MEG ID
MEG Identification
MEP
MEG End Point
MFAS
Multiframe Alignment Signal
MHz
Megahertz
MIP
MEG Intermediate Point
MPD
Mean Path Delay
MPLS
Multiprotocol Label Switching
MS
Multiplex Section
MSA
Multisource Agreement
MSB
Most-Significant Bit
MSEQV
Marker Sequence Violation
msg/s
Message per second
MSIM
Multiplex Structure Identifier Mismatch
MTU
Maximum Transfer Unit
NAT
Network Address Translation
NATO
North Atlantic Treaty Organization
nAUI
CAUI or XLAUI
NDF
New Data Flag
N
Power Blazer
673
Glossary
Acronym List
NE
Network Element
NID
Network Interface Device
NJO
Negative Justification Opportunity
nm
Nanometer
OAM
Operation, Administration, and Maintenance
OBSAI
Open Base Station Architecture Initiative
OC-
Optical Carrier-
OCI
Open Connection Indication
ODI
Outgoing Defect Indication
ODU
Optical Data Unit
OEI
Outgoing Error Indication
OH
Overhead
OLA
Out-of-Lane-Alignment
OMFI
OPU Multi-Frame Identifier
OOMFI
Out of OPU Multi-Frame Identifier
OOF
Out-Of-Frame
OOM
Out-Of-Multiframe
OOR
Out-Of-Recovery
OOS
Generic Mapping Procedure Out Of Synchronization
OOS
Out-Of-Sequence
OOSM
Out-Of-Service Monitoring
OPU
Optical Payload Unit
OTL
Optical channel Transport Lane
OTN
Optical Transport Network
OTU
Optical Transport Unit
O
674
88000 Series
Glossary
Acronym List
OUI
Organizationally Unique Identifier
OUT
OUTput
-P
Path
PBB-TE
Provider Backbone Bridges with Traffic Engineering
PC
Personal Computer
PCD
Path Connectivity Defect
PCP
Priority Code Point
PCS
Physical Coding Sublayer
PD
Payload Defect
PDI
Payload Defect Indication
PDU
Protocol Data Unit
PE
Provider Edge
pFCS
payload Frame Check Sequence
PFI
Payload Frame Check Sequence Identifier
PHY
Physical Layer Device
PLI
Payload Length Indicator
PLM
Payload Label Mismatch
PLOGI
Port Login
PM
Performance Monitoring
PNO
Provisionable by the Network Operator
POS
Position Field
POSV
Position Field Violation
PPD
Path Payload Defect
ppm or PPM
parts per million
PRBS
Pseudo Random Bit Sequence
PRS
Primary Reference Source/Clock
P
Power Blazer
675
Glossary
Acronym List
PRC
Primary Reference Source/Clock
PSD
Path Server Defect
PSI
Payload Structure Identifier
PTI
Payload Type Identifier
PTP
Precision Time Protocol
Ptr. Incr.
Pointer Increment
Ptr. Decr.
Pointer Decrement
PTSF
Packet Timing Signal Fail
PW
Pseudo-Wire
QL
Quality Level
QoS
Quality of Service
QSFP
Quad Small Form Factor Pluggable
RDI
Reverse Defect Indication
RDI
Remote Defect Indication
REI
Remote Error Indicator
RES
Reserved
RFI
Remote Failure Indication
RMA
Return Merchandise Authorization
RS-
Regenerator Section
RTD
Round Trip Delay
RTT
Round Trip Time
RX
Receive
Q
R
676
88000 Series
Glossary
Acronym List
S
Power Blazer
s
second
-S
Section
S-OAM
Service - OAM
S-VLAN
Service Virtual Local Area Network
SA
Source MAC Address
SAPI
Source Access Point Identifier
SB
Superblock
SD
Server Defect
SDH
Synchronous Digital Hierarchy
SDT
Service Disruption Time
SDTV
Standard Digital Television
SEF
Severely Errored Framing
SEP
Severely Errored Period
SEQV
Sequence Violation
SES
Severely Errored Second
SESR
Severely Errored Second Ratio
SF
Superframe
SFP
Small Form Factor Pluggable
SI
International System
SID
Service Instance Identifier
SLA
Service-Level Agreement
SLM
Synthetic Loss Message
SLR
Synthetic Loss Reply
SM
Section Monitoring
SMA
Sub-Miniature A Connector
SMC
SONET Minimum Clock Traceable
SNAP
Sub Network Access Point
677
Glossary
Acronym List
SOF
Start Of Frame
SONET
Synchronous Transport Signal
SP
Service Provider
SPE
Synchronous Payload Envelope
SR4
Short Reach (4 Lanes)
SRC
Source
SSM
Synchronization Status Messaging
ST1
Stratum 1 Traceable
ST2
Stratum 2 Traceable
ST3
Stratum 3 Traceable
ST3E
Stratum 3E Traceable
STM
Synchronous Transport Module
STS
Synchronous Transport Signal
STU
Synchronized - Traceability Unknown
SYMB
Symbol
TC
Traffic Class
TCM
Tandem Connection Monitoring
TCP
Transport Control Protocol
tHEC
type Header Error Check
TIM
Trace Identifier Mismatch
TLV
Type, Length, and Value
TNC
Transit Node Clock Traceable
TOS
Type Of Service
TST
Test PDU
TTI
Trail Trace Identifier
TTL
Time To Live
T
678
88000 Series
Glossary
Acronym List
TU
Tributary Unit
TUG
Tributary Unit Group
TX
Transmit
UAS
Unavailable Second
UDP
User Data Protocol
UNCORR
Uncorrectable
UNEQ
Unequipped
UPI
User Payload Identifier
UPM
User Payload Mismatch
μs
microsecond
USA
United States of America
UTP
Unshielded Twisted Pairs
V
VT
VC
Virtual Container
VIOL
Violation
VLAN
Virtual Local Area Network
VoIP
Voice over Internet Protocol
VT
Virtual Tributary
VTG
VT Group
U
V
Power Blazer
679
Glossary
Acronym List
W
WAN
Wide Area Network
WIS
WAN Interface Sublayer
WWN
World Wide Name
XLAUI
40 Gbit/s Attachment Unit Interface
X
680
88000 Series
Glossary
10G Ethernet Client
10G Ethernet Client
The OTN Overclocked technology provides the capability to transparently
transport 10G base-R Ethernet signals into OPU2 as specified in ITU-T. Two
optical rates are provided:

11.0957 Gbits/s, +/- 100 ppm, designated OTU2e

11.0491 Gbits/s, +/- 100 ppm, designated OTU1e
The OTU2e uses the mapping scheme of CBR10G into OPU2 as defined in
G.709. The client signal, 10GE LAN and the OPU fixed stuff bytes are
accommodated into an OPU-like signal designated OPU2e. This signal is
then wrapped in an ODU2e and then in an OTU2e signal.
The OTU1e uses the mapping scheme of CBR2G5 into OPU1 as defined in
G.709. The client signal, 10GE LAN is accommodated into an OPU-like
signal designated OPU1e (note that the fixed stuff bytes are not left free)
this is why the 10GE signal can be transported at a lower rate than OTU2e.
This signal is then wrapped in an ODU1e and then in an OTU1e signal.
The transparent transport of the 10G base-R means that the full 10G
Ethernet data rate i.e. 10.3125 Gbit/s is transported over OTN. This means
that the following information is transported:

PCS 64B/66B coded information

IPG (inter-frame filler), MAC FCS, Preamble and SFD (start of frame
delimiter) and Ordered Sets (Remote Fault indication)
The OTN clocking is derived from the Ethernet client signal which is +/100 ppm, this is outside the clock tolerance allocated by the G.709 standard
which translates in unspecified jitter performance thus limiting the
application to Point to Point data path.
Power Blazer
681
Glossary
10G Ethernet Client
The following figure presents a typical network application.
682
88000 Series
Glossary
10G Ethernet Client
The following figure presents a typical test application.
The Ethernet layer provides the equivalent functionality of the BERT
Framed Layer 2 Test application supported on EXFO’s Datacom product
family with the particularity that there is no Ethernet Physical port as such.
The Ethernet frame has its Ethertype field set to 0x88B7.
Power Blazer
683
Glossary
1588 PTP
1588 PTP
The goal of the IEEE 1588 Precision Time Protocol (PTP) is to provide
Network Synchronization using a packet based distribution mechanism.
Depending on the system application the Network Synchronization may
require phase and frequency synchronization. 1588 PTP has the capability
to deliver both by allowing a Client clock to track a Master clock in phase
(time of day) and in frequency.
The protocol is based on exchange of time stamps between the Master
clock and the Client clock. Two methods have been defined in the
1588 PTP standard:

684
Delay Request-Response mechanism uses message Sync, Delay
Request, Delay Response, and Follow Up (if required).
88000 Series
Glossary
1588 PTP

Peer Delay mechanism uses message Pdelay Request, Pdelay
Response, and if required Pdelay Response Follow Up. This
mechanism is restricted to topologies where each peer-to-peer port
communicates PTP messages with, at most, one other such port. Peer
Delay is not supported by the Telecom Profile.
In order to minimize traffic on the network, PTP can operate in different
modes:

Two-way operation uses Sync/Follow Up, Delay Request, and Delay
Response messages.

One-way operation uses only the Sync/Follow Up messages. This
mode of operation is used to synchronize a Client clock in frequency
only. The Master clock and Client clock phases are not aligned.

Two-step clock mode uses the optional Follow Up message to carry
the T1 time stamp.

One-step clock mode uses the Sync message to carry the T1 time
stamp; no Follow Up message is transmitted by the Master clock,
therefore less traffic on the network.
Client clock synchronization is achieved with a 2-part process:

Part 1: Path delay measurement using bidirectional messages
Mean path delay measurement (MPD) = ((T2-T1) + (T4-T3)) / 2

Part 2: Clock phase offset correction
Offset = (T2-T1) - MPD
The offset information is used by the Client clock to adjust the frequency of
its oscillator in order to keep the phase offset close to zero.
Power Blazer
685
Glossary
1588 PTP
The 1588 PTP supports the following Master/Client communication;
however Unicast is used for the Telocom Profile.

Multicast: A Master clock sends its Sync/Follow Up and Delay
Response in a multicast mode. A Client can collect information from
many Master clocks and select the Master clock that is best suited for
its application.

Unicast: A dedicated communication link is established between the
Master and the Client clock. This mode of operation requires a
negotiation which is initiated by the Client clock.
The 1588 PTP messages can be mapped on the following protocols;
however UDP IPv4 is used for the Telecom Profile.

UDP/IPv4

UDP/IPv6

Ethernet
1588 PTP Profiles
The purpose of a PTP profile is to allow organizations to specify particular
selections of attribute values and optional features of PTP that, when using
the same transport protocol, inter-work and achieve a performance that
meets the requirements of a given application.
686
88000 Series
Glossary
1588 PTP
Telecom Profile G.8265.1
The Telecom Profile G.8265.1 is designed for frequency synchronization in
Telecom network applications. The main attributes of this profile are:

Unicast communication with the Grand Master

UDP/IPv4 network layer
With the Telecom Profile, the Client Clock initiates the communication to
the Master Clock by making a request for service that consists of sending
Signaling messages containing a REQUEST UNICAST TRANSMISSION TLV
to the IP address of the Master Clock.
If the Master Clock has sufficient capacity to handle the Client Clock
request, it responds with a signaling message containing a GRANT
UNICAST TRANSMISSION TLV.
The REQUEST UNICAST TRANSMISSION TLV contains several parameters:

messageType is the type of service being requested: Announce,
Sync, or Delay Response.

durationField is the duration of the requested service:
300 seconds by default and configurable from 60 to 1000 seconds.

logInterMessagePeriod: transmission rate of the requested
messages.
If the Master Clock denies the request, e.g. because it has no remaining
capacity, it will send back a GRANT UNICAST TRANSMISSION TLV with the
durationField set to zero.
In the event of being denied service by a Master Clock, or receiving no
response to the service request, a Client Clock should wait a minimum of
one second before issuing a new Unicast request to that Master Clock.
As Unicast service is only granted for a limited time, the Client Clock must
re-request service periodically, before the expiration of the current grant.
The Client Clock should reissue the request sufficiently far in advance of
the expiration to allow the request to be repeated at least twice if no grant
is received. This parameter is called Unicast renewal interval.
Power Blazer
687
Glossary
1588 PTP
The following diagram shows the sequence of message exchange
between a Client Clock and a Master Clock. First, the Client request Unicast
Announce message service. When this is granted and the first Announce
message is received, the Client can check the QL value conveyed in the
clockClass field of the message. From there the Client Clock can request
service for Sync and Delay Request messages. Service requests are
reissued at the end of the Announce duration interval to ensure continuity
of service.
688
88000 Series
Glossary
1588 PTP
Telecom Profile G.8275.1
The Telecom Profile G.8275.1 is designed for time/phase synchronization in
telecom network applications. The main attribute of this profile are:

Full timing support from the network, i.e. all network nodes are
boundary clocks

Slave clocks synchronize with its respective upstream Boundary Clock

1588 messages are mapped on Ethernet Multicast
A very important distinction that has to be made compared with G.8265.1 is
the mandatory use of Boundary Clocks with G.8275.1. With G.8265.1,
network nodes such as Ethernet Switches or Routers were not required to
be PTP aware. With G.8275.1, all network nodes needs to be PTP aware.
This means that regular Ethernet Switches or Routers cannot be used.
Switches/Routers are required to include the Boundary Clock functionality.
Power Blazer
689
Glossary
CPRI
CPRI
Overview
Traditional mobile installations are bulky (use thick coaxial cables) and
require a lot of power to operate (there is a huge power loss in the coaxial
cabling which often requires the use of Tower Mounted Amplifiers) as
outlined in the following figure.
Pressures on the Mobile Network Operators (MNO) to reduce their capital,
operational cost, and increase coverage are at the heart of a revolution in
the mobile network. To address the situation, a concept of decomposition
of the radio base station has been developed where the radio basic
functions and its ability to transmit and receive radio modulated signals are
separated. In such a distributed environment a protocol is required to
maintain synchronization and management capabilities as well as
transporting the user traffic between the simplified base station and its
Remote Radio Head (RRH).
690
88000 Series
Glossary
CPRI
This protocol called Common Public Radio Interface (CPRI) separates a
traditional radio base station configuration into two separate elements:
Radio Equipment Control (REC) and the Radio Equipment (RE). The REC
processes the baseband radio digital information and performs the control
of the Radio Equipment. The RE converts the digital radio information into
radio frequency signals transported over the air interface (antenna). The
REC and RE are interconnected by a point-to-point link. This link carries the
CPRI protocol and is known in the industry as the fronthaul as opposed to
the backhaul that is the WAN bringing the network traffic to the base
station.
The CPRI link can be extended over several kilometers as it uses fiber
optics, in fact it can be deployed up to 40 km although most field
installations at the moment of this writing are below 10 km.
The CPRI standard covers the physical and data link layers only. This
specific focus provides additional development freedom to the various
vendors to implement proprietary functions at upper layers.
Power Blazer
691
Glossary
CPRI
Functional Description
As mentioned earlier, CPRI remotely locates the RE from the REC. This
means that the RE must be controlled, managed and synchronized from
the REC in addition to transporting the User information (Voice and user
application data) and all that on the same digital link. As such, CPRI is
composed of 3 communication flows multiplexed into a single serial signal
transmitted in the same optical fiber as illustrated in the following figure.
An electrical link is also available from CPRI but it is typically used for base
station shelf interconnection. Since a state machine drives the link
parameters (rates, protocol, and C&M channel) alignment, a BTS (defined
as Master in the standard) and RRH (defined as Slave in the standard)
interfaces are defined where the Master initiates the negotiation procedure
necessary to achieve this alignment.
692

Synchronization: Provides precise frequency and frame timing
alignment from BTS to RRH to ensure accurate frequency and timing of
the RF signal transmission and reception on the Air Interface. In
essence, it provides the reference frequency for the RE.

Control & Management (C&M): Management of the link between the
REC and RE as well as control over radio functions such as alarms and
power.

User: Also known as IQ Data, represents the voice and data
information that is exchanged by end-User Equipment (UE)
88000 Series
Glossary
CPRI
CPRI Model
The CPRI Model revolves around the 3 communication flows described
above. CPRI defines only the Layer 1 and Layer 2 associated to these
communication flows as outlined in the following figure.
The User Data Plane contains mostly voice/data traffic in the form of IQ
Data samples. IQ Data digitally encodes the change in amplitude/phase of
a user device modulated signal sampled at the RE antenna.
The Control & Management Plane maintains the CPRI link itself and
provides the facility to manage the operation of the RE radio functions. It is
done through the L1 Inband Protocol which provides a bit oriented channel
defined to support link specific alarms (R-LOS, R-LOF, …). Also, the
Ethernet/HDLC channel offer two OAM&P channel alternatives which are
respectively high and low bandwidth with rates configurable based on the
CPRI line interface rate. These carry proprietary information between the
REC and RE. Some Vendor Specific overhead is also available.
Finally, the Synchronization flow ensures frequency stability and offers the
overhead necessary for frame alignment between the REC and RE to
ensure hitless channel or frequency hopping. All these flows are time
division multiplexed onto one optical fiber for CPRI field deployments such
as Distributed Antenna Systems (DAS).
Power Blazer
693
Glossary
CPRI
Physical Interface
CPRI offers 8 options in terms of interface rates. Rates below 10G uses
8B/10B line coding as per CPRI V6.0 while rates above 10G use 64B/66B
coding. Depending on the rates used, scrambling is optional. Depending on
the CPRI signal structure (Framed or Unframed) the scrambling is either
manually configured or negotiated.
Option
Mbit/sa
Line Coding
8B/10B
Protocol Version (Scrambling)
Version 1: No scrambling
1
614.4
2
1.2288 Gbit/s
3
2.4576 Gbit/s
4
3.0720 Gbit/s
5
4.9152 Gbit/s
Version 1: No scrambling
6
6.1444 Gbit/s
Version 2: Scrambling
7
9.8304 Gbit/s
8
10.1376 Gbit/sa
a.
694
Rate
(Scrambling is optional)
64B/66B
Version 2: Scrambling
Not supported as presently not used in the field.
88000 Series
Glossary
Ethernet Cables
Ethernet Cables
Minimum Category 3 cable is required for 10Base-T connection while
Category 5 cable is required for 100Base-TX and 1000Base-T connections.
Maximum cable length (between two nodes) for 10Base-T, 100Base-TX, or
1000Base-T connection is 328 feet (100 meters).

Straight Through Cable (10/100 Mbit/s)
An Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP) straight through cable is required to
connect a 10Base-T/100Base-TX Power Blazer port to a layer 1 or 2
device (ex: HUB, switch).

Crossover Cable (10/100 Mbit/s)
An Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP) crossover cable is required to
connect the 10Base-T/100Base-TX Power Blazer port to a layer 3 device
(ex: router).
Power Blazer
695
Glossary
Ethernet Cables
696

Straight Through Cable (1000 Mbit/s)

Crossover Cable (1000 Mbit/s)
88000 Series
Glossary
G.709 Optical Transport Network (OTN)
G.709 Optical Transport Network (OTN)
Overview
The optical transport network (OTN) combines the benefits of SONET/SDH
technology with the bandwidth expansion capabilities offered by dense
wavelength-division multiplexing (DWDM) technology.
The OTN consists of the following layers:
Power Blazer

Optical Transport Section (OTS)

Optical Multiplex Section (OMS)

Optical Channel (OCh)

Optical channel Transport Lane (OTL)

Optical Transport Unit (OTU)

Optical Data Unit (ODU)

Optical Channel Payload Unit (OPU)
697
Glossary
G.709 Optical Transport Network (OTN)
Each of these layers and their functions are distributed along the network
and activated when they reach their termination points, which are
illustrated in the following figure.
OTN Layer Termination Points
The termination of the OTS, OMS and OCh layers is performed at the
optical level of the OTN. It is at the termination of the OTU layer that further
functionality can be added. This layer is the digital layer—also known as
the “digital wrapper”—and offers specific overhead to manage the OTN’s
digital functions. The OTU also introduces a new dimension to optical
networking by adding forward error correction (FEC) to the network
elements, allowing operators to limit the number of required regenerators
used in the network which, in turn, lowers its cost.
FEC allows an increase in the optical link budget by providing a new
method to correct errors, thereby reducing the impact of network noise
and other optical phenomena experienced by the client signal traveling
through the network.
The OTU also encapsulates two additional layers—the ODU and the OPU—
which provide access to the payload (SONET, SDH, etc.). These layers are
normally terminated at the same location.
698
88000 Series
Glossary
G.709 Optical Transport Network (OTN)
The OTU, ODU (including the ODU tandem connection) and OPU layers
can all be analyzed and monitored. As per ITU G.709, current test solutions
offer these possibilities using the following line rates:

OTU1 (255/238 x 2.488 320 Gbit/s ≈ 2.666057143 Gbit/s) also referred to
as 2.7 Gbit/s

OTU2 (255/237 x 9.953280 Gbit/s ≈ 10.709225316 Gbit/s) also referred
to as 10.7 Gbit/s

OTU3 (255/236 x 39.813120 Gbit/s ≈ 43.018413559 Gbit/s) also referred
as to 43 Gbit/s

OTU4 (255/227 x 99. 532 800 Gbit/s ≈ 111.809973568 Gbit/s) also
referred to as 112 Gbit/s.
The following non standard rates are also defined:

OTU1e (255/238 × 10.3125 Gbit/s ≈ 11.0491071429 Gbit/s)

OTU2e (255/237 × 10.3125 Gbit/s ≈ 11.0957278481 Gbit/s)

OTU3e1 (255/236 x 4 x 10.3125 Gbit/s ≈ 44.570974576 Gbit/s)

OTU3e2 (243/217 x 16 x 2.488320 Gbit/s ≈ 44.583355576 Gbit/s)
The following non standard rates are not covered by the ITU standard but
they are the equivalent function associated to Fiber Channel rates:

OTU1f (255/238 × 10.51875 Gbit/s ≈ 11.2700892857143 Gbit/s)

OTU2f (255/237 × 10.51875 Gbit/s ≈ 11.3176424050633 Gbit/s)
Each line rate is adapted to service different client signals:
Power Blazer

OC-48/STM-16 is transported via OTU1

OC-192/STM-64 is transported via OTU2

OC-768/STM-256 is transported via OTU3

Null Client (All 0s) is transported via OTUk (k = 1, 2, 1e, 2e, 1f, 2f, 3,
3e1, 3e2, 4)

PRBS31 is transported via OTUk (k = 1, 2, 1e, 2e, 1f, 2f, 3, 3e1, 3e2, 4)
699
Glossary
G.709 Optical Transport Network (OTN)
In order to map client signals via ITU G.709, they are encapsulated using
the structure illustrated in the following figure.
Basic OTN Transport Structure
700
88000 Series
Glossary
G.709 Optical Transport Network (OTN)
As depicted above, to create an OTU frame, a client signal rate is first
adapted at the OPU layer. The adaptation consists of adjusting the client
signal rate to the OPU rate. Its overhead contains information to support
the adaptation of the client signal. Once adapted, the OPU is mapped into
the ODU. The ODU maps the OPU and adds the overhead necessary to
ensure end-to-end supervision and tandem connection monitoring (up to
six levels). Finally, the ODU is mapped into an OTU, which provides
framing as well as section monitoring and FEC.
Following the OTN structure presented in figure Basic OTN Transport
Structure on page 700, OTUks (k = 1, 2, 3) are transported using the OCh;
each unit is assigned a specific wavelength of the ITU grid. Several
channels can be mapped into the OMS and then transported via the OTS
layer. The OCh, OMS and OTS layers each have their own overhead for
management purposes at the optical level. The overhead of these optical
layers is transported outside of the ITU grid in an out-of-band channel
called the optical supervisory channel (OSC).
When the OTU frame structure is complete (OPU, ODU and OTU), ITU
G.709 provides OAM&P functions that are supported by the overhead.
Power Blazer
701
Glossary
G.709 Optical Transport Network (OTN)
OTU Frame Structure and Overhead
As shown in the figure below, the OTU frame is broken down into the
following components:

Framing

OTL, OTU, ODU, OPU overhead

OTU FEC
OTU Frame Description
702
88000 Series
Glossary
G.709 Optical Transport Network (OTN)

Framing
The OTU framing is divided into two portions: FAS and MFAS.
The frame alignment signal (FAS) uses the first six bytes and, similarly
to SONET/SDH, it is used to provide framing for the entire signal. In
order to provide enough 1/0 transitions for synchronization, scrambling
is used over the entire OTU frame, except for the FAS bytes.
The multiframe alignment signal (MFAS) byte is used to extend
command and management functions over several frames. The MFAS
counts from 0 to 255, providing a 256 multiframe structure.

Overhead
Each portion of the OTU frame has its own specific overhead functions.
They are displayed in figure OTU Frame Description on page 702, and
are briefly described below. Further details can be found about these
overhead fields in the ITU G.709 standard.

Optical channel Transport Lane (OTL)
The Optical channel Transport Lane (OTL) is an adaptation layer
whose purpose is to re-use the modules developed for Ethernet
40GBASE-R and 100GBASE-LR4. These modules have a four-lane
WDM interface to and from a transmit/receive pair of G.652 optical
fibers, and connect to the host board via a 4-lane (OTL3.4) or
10-lane (OTL4.10) electrical interface.
The OTL layer is responsible for mapping the serial OTU signal
onto a parallel path designated lanes. In the case of OTU4 the
signal is distributed over 20 logical lanes and for OTU3 the signal is
distributed over 4 logical lanes.
Power Blazer
703
Glossary
G.709 Optical Transport Network (OTN)

Optical Transport Unit (OTU)
The OTU overhead is comprised of the SM, GCC0 and RES bytes.
The section monitoring (SM) bytes are used for the trail trace
identifier (TTI), parity (BIP-8) and the backward error indicator
(BEI), or backward incoming alignment error (BIAE), backward
defect indicator (BDI), and incoming alignment error (IAE). The
TTI is distributed over the multiframe and is 64 bytes in length. It is
repeated four times over the multiframe.
General communication channel 0 (GCC0) is a clear channel used
for transmission of information between OTU termination points.
The reserved (RES) bytes are currently undefined in the standard.
704
88000 Series
Glossary
G.709 Optical Transport Network (OTN)

Optical Data Unit (ODU)
The ODU overhead is broken into several fields: RES, PM, TCMi,
TCM ACT, FTFL, EXP, GCC1/GCC2 and APS/PCC.
The reserved (RES) bytes are undefined and are set aside for future
applications.
The path monitoring (PM) field is similar to the SM field described
above. It contains the TTI, BIP-8, BEI, BDI and Status (STAT) field.
There are six tandem connection monitoring (TCMi) fields, which
contain the BEI/BIAE, BDI and STAT fields. The STAT field is used in
the PM and TCMi fields to provide an indication of the presence or
absence of maintenance signals.
The tandem connection monitoring activation/deactivation (TCM
ACT) field is currently undefined in the standards.
The fault type and fault location reporting communication channel
(FTFL) is a message spread over a 256-byte multiframe that
provides the ability to send forward and backward path-level fault
indications.
The experimental (EXP) field is a field that is not subject to
standards and is available for network operator applications.
General communication channels 1 and 2 (GCC1/GCC2) fields are
very similar to the GCC0 field except that each channel is available
in the ODU.
The automatic protection switching and protection
communication channel (APS/PCC) supports up to eight levels of
nested APS/PCC signals, which are associated to a
dedicated-connection monitoring level depending on the value of
the multiframe.
Power Blazer
705
Glossary
G.709 Optical Transport Network (OTN)

Optical Payload Unit (OPU)
The primary overhead field associated to the OPU is the Payload
Structure Identifier (PSI). This is a 256 bytes multi-frame where its
first byte is defined as the Payload Type (PT). The remaining 255
bytes are currently reserved.
The other fields in the OPU overhead are dependent on the
mapping and concatenation capabilities associated to the OPU.
For an asynchronous mapping (the client signal and OPU clock are
different) Justification Control (JC) bytes are available to
compensate for clock rate differences, two methods are supported
Asynchronous Mapping Procedure (AMP) and Generic Mapping
Procedure (GMP). For a purely Bit-Synchronous Mapping
Procedure (BMP) (client source and OPU clock are the same), the
JC bytes become reserved (set to 0). Concatenation bytes are also
available as described in ITU G.709.
706
88000 Series
Glossary
G.709 Optical Transport Network (OTN)
Tandem Connection Monitoring (TCM)
TCM enables the user and its signal carriers to monitor the quality of the
traffic that is transported between segments or connections in the network.
SONET/SDH allowed a single level of TCM to be configured, while ITU
G.709 allows six levels of tandem connection monitoring to be configured.
The assignment of monitored connections is currently a manual process
that involves an understanding between the different parties. There are
various types of monitored connection topologies: cascaded, nested and
overlapping. Examples of these topologies are provided in the following
figure.
Tandem Connection Monitoring
Power Blazer
707
Glossary
G.709 Optical Transport Network (OTN)
Each of the six TCMi fields in the ODU overhead is assigned to a monitored
connection. There can be from zero to six connections that can be
configured for each connection. In the figure Tandem Connection
Monitoring on page 707, there are three different connections that are
actually monitored. Carrier C, due to its location, can monitor three TCM
levels as the ODU passes through its portion of the network.
In addition to monitoring maintenance signals, using the STAT field
associated with each TCM level, the TCM connection also monitors the
BIP-8 and BEI errors for each connection level. Maintenance signals are
used to advertise upstream maintenance conditions affecting the traffic
and errors provide an indication of the quality of service offered at each
segment of the network, which provides a valuable tool for the user and
carrier to isolate faulty sections of the network.
Forward Error Correction (FEC)
The ITU G.709 standard supports forward error correction (FEC) in the OTU
frame and is the last part added to the frame before the frame is
scrambled. FEC provides a method to significantly reduce the number of
transmitted errors due to noise, as well as other optical phenomena that
occur at high transmission speeds. This enables providers to support
longer spans in between optical repeaters.
An OTU frame is divided into four rows. Each row is broken down into 16
sub-rows comprised of 255 bytes each, as shown in figure Forward Error
Correction on page 709. A sub-row is composed of interleaved bytes. The
interleave is executed so that the first sub-row contains the first overhead
(OH) byte, the first payload byte and the first FEC byte, and so on for the
remaining sub-rows of each row in the frame. The first FEC byte starts at
position 240 for all sub-rows.
708
88000 Series
Glossary
G.709 Optical Transport Network (OTN)
The FEC uses a Reed-Solomon RS (255/239) coding technique. This means
that 239 bytes are required to compute a 16-byte parity check. The FEC can
correct up to eight (bytes) errors per sub-row (codeword) or detect up to
16 byte errors without correcting any. Combined with the byte interleave
capability included in ITU G.709 implementation, the FEC is more resilient
in regards to error burst, where up to 128 consecutive bytes can be
corrected per OTU frame row.
Forward Error Correction
Power Blazer
709
Glossary
G.709 Optical Transport Network (OTN)
ODU Multiplexing
The ODU multiplexer is a function that allows the multiplexing of ODU
tributary signals into higher OTN signal rates. The G.709 standard supports
2 types of ODU multiplexer which can be classified as follows:

Legacy architecture is based on multi-stage architecture to bring an
ODUk client to a higher OTN interface rate. This multiplexer is
identified by Payload Type 20 (PT 20).

New architecture uses a single stage architecture to bring an ODUk
client to any higher OTN interface rate. This method supports the
ODUflex client signal. The multiplexer is identified by Payload Type 21
(PT 21).
Note: Refer to the OTN BERT on page 45 or OTN-SONET/SDH BERT on page 49 for
the ODU multiplexing capabilities.
The multiplexing strategy is based on the concept of tributary slots, which
is similar in concept to the SONET timeslot. The multiplexing of 4 ODU1 in
one ODU2 is made by distributing the ODU1 structure in a repetitive
sequence of 4 ODU2 Tributary slots, a similar strategy is used for ODU3
multiplexing where the repetitive sequence is made of 16 ODU3 tributary
slots, refer to G.709 standard for detailed information.
710
88000 Series
Glossary
G.709 Optical Transport Network (OTN)
The main attributes of the ODU multiplexer functionality are as follows:
Power Blazer

The Asynchronous Mapping Procedure (AMP) is used for multiplexing
the tributary signals; this method uses a modified Justification Control
mechanism which has 2 positive Justification Control bytes and one
negative Justification Control byte.

The new multiplex method also supports the Generic Mapping
Procedure as the Justification Control mechanism is still using the OPU
OH JC bytes.

The Multiplex Structure Identifier (MSI) provides information that is
specific to each type of multiplexer provided.

Can handle multiplex signals with frequency offset of +/- 20 ppm on
every layer for the legacy architecture while the new architecture
(using GMP) can handle frequency offset of +/-100 ppm.
711
Glossary
G.709 Optical Transport Network (OTN)
ODUflex
ODUflex provides the capability to carry client payload of variable size with
a container size of 1.244 Gbit/s granularity. An ODUflex (L) signal can be
transported once multiplexed in an ODUk (H) signal, the multiplexer in this
case handles tributary slots of 1.244 Gbit/s and has a Payload Type 21. The
ODUflex function can be used to transport 2 signal categories mapped in
ODTUk.ts using GMP:

Ethernet in ODUflex over GFP-F signal
The Ethernet packets are mapped in GFP-F as specified in G.7041, the
packets are processed as follows:

The Start of Frame Delineation bytes are terminated

Inter Frame Gaps bytes are terminated

PCS coding is terminated

GFP overhead bytes added
Since the PCS coding is terminated, it is not possible to transport the
Ethernet Link status transparently but it is accommodated by the
Forward Defect Indication (FDI) and Remote Defect Indication (RDI)
alarms over GFP. The RDI is used to carry the Remote Fault alarm while
the FDI is used to carry the Local Fault.
GFP-F provides rate adaptation between the incoming Ethernet signal
and the outgoing OPUflex transport signal. This brings the fact that
GMP is operated at a fixed Cm value close to the maximum server
capacity.

CBR over ODUflex signal
ODUflex can transport Constant Bit Rate signal (bulk filled Test pattern)
as Client of the ODUflex CBR function. This CBR function needs a
Pattern generator that can operate at a data rate specified by the user,
the range of the available data rates is qualified by the Bandwidth
management function.
712
88000 Series
Glossary
G.709 Optical Transport Network (OTN)
OTN Signal Rates
Rate
2.666057143 Gbit/s
Power Blazer
Signal
OTU1
10.709225316 Gbit/s
OTU2
11.0491 Gbit/s
OTU1e
11.0957 Gbit/s
OTU2e
11.2701 Gbit/s
OTU1f
11.3176 Gbit/s
OTU2f
43.018413559 Gbit/s
OTU3
44.571 Gbit/s
OTU3e1
44.583 Gbit/s
OTU3e2
111.81
OTU4
713
Glossary
Generic Framing Procedure (GFP)
Generic Framing Procedure (GFP)
Generic framing procedure (GFP), defined in ITU recommendation
G.7041/Y.1303, is a framing mechanism to transport packet-based client
signals, such as Ethernet, Fibre Channel, ESCON, FICON, over
fixed-data-rate optical channels. As such, GFP provides a single, flexible
mechanism to map these client signals into SONET/SDH and OTN
networks, as shown in figure below.
Client Signal Mapping over GFP
Prior to the introduction of GFP, several methods had been used to
transport packet services over SONET/SDH networks. The first method was
Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) Adaptation Layer 5 (AAL 5) over
SONET/SDH. ATM is a very efficient switching and multiplexing technology,
whose transfer rates scale with SONET/SDH rates. However, ATM does not
make the most efficient use of bandwidth because the payload data is
separated into groups of 48 bytes, called cells, with an additional 5-byte
header of software overhead. It became immediately apparent that almost
10 % of the bandwidth would be lost. In addition, certain types of data
required even more ATM overhead.
714
88000 Series
Glossary
Generic Framing Procedure (GFP)
Other methods have focused on using point-to-point protocol (PPP). The IP
traffic coming to an Ethernet port is encapsulated over a PPP link and
multiple ports can be encapsulated over multilink PPP (ML-PPP) links. By
using an HDLC framing, the PPP traffic is transported over the SONET/SDH
payload. These methods have been standardized within the IETF through
the following Requests for Comments (RFC): RFC 1662, RFC 1990 and RFC
2615. The ITU-T expanded this work by specifying the use of LAPS (very
similar protocol to PPP/HDLC) and specifying IP over LAPS in X.85/Y.1321
and Ethernet over LAPS in X.86/Y1323. All these methods for encapsulating
traffic suffer from the weaknesses of HDLC framing; i.e., limited protection
from frame corruption and the introduction of variable packet sizes
because of its trailer.
GFP has been standardized to better optimize the transport of Ethernet and
other data services over SONET/SDH networks, taking into account both
the pros and cons of ATM and PPP/HDLC and leveraging two new
emerging SONET/SDH capabilities, VCAT and LCAS, that will be discussed
later in this document.
Power Blazer
715
Glossary
Generic Framing Procedure (GFP)
GFP Mapping
Two types of mapping are currently available for GFP: framed-mapped
(GFP-F) and transparent-mapped (GFP-T), whose mappings keep the
same basic frame structure, as will be shown in the next sections. The
decision on which mode to use is dependent on the underlying service to
be transported.


716
Frame-Mapped GFP (GFP-F): mapping mechanism in which one
client signal frame is received and mapped in its entirety into one GFP
frame. Therefore, with this adaptation mode, the GFP-F frame size is
variable as it is directly related to the incoming client payload. In fact,
with GFP-F, the entire client frame must be buffered in order to
determine its length. GFP-F is usually used to support Layer 2 frames
like Ethernet MAC that are tolerant to some latency. The ITU G.7041
defines the following frame-mapped user payloads supported through
GFP-F:

Frame-Mapped Ethernet

Frame-Mapped PPP

Frame-Mapped Multiple Access Protocol over SDH (MAPOS)

Frame-Mapped IEEE 802.17 Resilient Packet Ring

Frame-Mapped Fibre Channel FC-BBW
Transparent-Mapped GFP (GFP-T): mapping mechanism that
facilitates the transport of 8B/10B block-coded client signals like
Gigabit Ethernet (GbE), Fibre Channel, ESCON, FICON, and DVB-ASI.
With GFP-T, individual characters of a client signal are decoded from
the client signal and then mapped into fixed-size GFP frames (64B/65B
coded superblocks). This approach avoids the buffering of an entire
client frame before it can be mapped into a GFP frame, which reduces
latency and in turn makes it ideally suited for SAN applications that
require very low transmission latency.
88000 Series
Glossary
Generic Framing Procedure (GFP)
The figure GFP-T vs GFP-F Features below provides a functional
comparison between GFP-F and GFP-T, while figure GFP-T vs. GFP-F
Frames below provides a comparison of the GFP frames for both modes.
GFP-T vs GFP-F Features
GFP-T vs. GFP-F Frames
Power Blazer
717
Glossary
Generic Framing Procedure (GFP)
Functionally, GFP consists of both common and client-specific aspects.
Common GFP aspects apply to all GFP-adapted traffic (i.e., both GFP-F and
GFP-T) and cover functions such as packet data unit (PDU) delineation,
data link synchronization and scrambling, client PDU multiplexing, and
client-independent performance monitoring. Client-specific aspects of GFP
cover issues such as mapping of the client PDU into the GFP payload,
client-specific performance monitoring, as well as operations,
administration, and maintenance (OA&M). This is illustrated in figure Client
Signal Mapping over GFP on page 714.
GFP Frame Structure
As illustrated in figure below, Two basic GFP frame types have been
defined: GFP client frames and GFP control frames. GFP client frames are
categorized into two types: client data frames (CDFs) and client
management frames (CMFs). CDFs are used to transport the client data,
while CMFs are used to transport information associated with the
management of the client signal or GFP connection.
As for GFP control frames, at this time, only one category has been defined
by the standard so far; i.e., GFP idle frames.
GFP Frames Types
718
88000 Series
Glossary
Generic Framing Procedure (GFP)
The GFP generic frame structure is presented in figure below.
GFP Generic Frame Structure
Each GFP frame type consists of three main components: the core header,
the payload header, and the payload information field.
The core and payload headers form the GFP header, whereas the payload
information field represents the customer traffic carrying the data services.
The payload header carries information about the payload type (i.e.,
Ethernet, Fibre Channel, etc.) that it is carrying, while the core header
carries information about the size of the GFP frame itself.
Each header contains a header error correction (HEC) calculation,
allowing for the correction of single errors; that is, any errors that occur in
the core header or in the payload header can potentially be corrected by
the HEC, through the network element. This creates a very robust mapping
scheme, which ensures that GFP frames can get transported across a
network without customer traffic loss.
Power Blazer
719
Glossary
Generic Framing Procedure (GFP)

Core Header
The GFP core header consists of a two-octet length field, specifying the
length of the GFP frame's payload area in octets, and a two-octet field
containing a CRC-16 error-check code.


Payload Length Indicator (PLI): The PLI is a two-byte field
indicating the size in bytes of the GFP payload area. It indicates the
beginning of the next GFP frame in the incoming bit-stream as an
offset from the last byte in the current GFP core header. PLI values
in the range of 0 to 3 are reserved for GFP internal use and are
referred to as GFP control frames. All other frames are referred to
as GFP client frames.

Core HEC (cHEC): The cHEC is a two-byte field containing a cyclic
redundancy check (CRC-16) sequence that protects the integrity of
the core header. The cHEC sequence is computed over the core
header bytes using standard CRC-16. The CRC-16 enables both
single-bit error correction and multibit error detection.
Payload Header
The payload header is a variable-length area, 4 to 64 octets long,
intended to support data-link management procedures specific to the
transported client signal. The payload header contains two mandatory
fields, the Type field and Type Header Error Correction (tHEC) field.
The payload header also supports an additional variable number of
subfields referred to, as a group, as the extension header.

720
Payload Type Identifier (PTI): A three-bit subfield that identifies
the type of GFP client frame. The following table lists the currently
defined user frames.
PTI
Description
000
Client Data Frame
100
Client Management Frame
Others
Reserved
88000 Series
Glossary
Generic Framing Procedure (GFP)

PFI
Description
0
FCS Absent
1
FCS Present

EXI
Payload FCS Indicator (PFI): A one-bit subfield indicating the
presence (1) or absence (0) of the payload FCS field. The following
table lists the currently defined PFI values.
Extension Header Identifier (EXI): A four-bit subfield identifying
the type of GFP extension header. Three kinds of extension
headers are currently defined:
Description
Function
0000
Null Extension
Header
Indicates that no extension header is present.
0001
Linear Extension
Header
A two-octet extension header that supports sharing of the GFP payload across
multiple clients in a point-to-point configuration. The linear extension header
consists of an eight-bit channel ID (CID) field, used to indicate one of 256
communication channels (i.e. clients) at a GFP termination point, and an
eight-bit spare field reserved for future use.
0010
Ring Extension
Header
The use of this field is under consideration. Similar to linear, the current proposal
being considered is to allow the sharing of the GFP payload across multiple
clients;
however, this would only apply to ring configurations.
0011
to
1111
Reserved

UPI
User Payload Identifier (UPI): An eight-bit field identifying the
type of payload conveyed in the GFP payload information field:
Client Data
Client Management
0000 0000
1111 1111
Reserved and not available
Reserved
0000 0001
Mapped Ethernet Frame
Client Signal Fail (Loss of Client Signal)
Power Blazer
721
Glossary
Generic Framing Procedure (GFP)
UPI
Client Data
Client Management
0000 0010
Mapped PPP Frame
Client Signal Fail (Loss of Character
Synchronization)
0000 0011
Transparent Fibre Channel
Client Defect Clear Indication (DCI)
0000 0100
Transparent FICON
Client Forward Defect Indication (FDI)
0000 0101
Transparent ESCON
Client Reverse Defect Indication (RDI)
0000 0110
Transparent GbE
0000 0111
Reserved for future use
0000 1000
Frame-Mapped IEEE 802.17
Resilient Packet Ring
0000 1011
Frame-Mapped Fibre Channel FC-BBW
0000 1100
Asynchronous Transparent Fibre Channel
0000 1101
Framed MPLS Unicast
0000 1110
Framed MPLS Multicast
0000 1111
Framed IS-IS
0001 0000
Framed IPv4
0001 0001
Framed IPv6
0001 0010
Framed DVD-ASI
0001 0011
Framed 64B/66B Ethernet
0001 0100
Framed 64B/66B Ethernet Ordered Set
0001 0101 through Reserved for future standardization
1110 1111
1111 0000 through Reserved for proprietary use
1111 1110
0000 0110 through
1101 1111
Reserved for future use
1110 0000 through
1111 1110
Reserved for proprietary use
722
88000 Series
Glossary
Generic Framing Procedure (GFP)

Type HEC (tHEC) Field: A two-octet field that contains a CRC-16
sequence to protect the integrity of the type field. The tHEC
sequence is computed over the core header bytes using standard
CRC-16. As with the cHEC, CRC-16 enables both single-bit error
correction and multibit error detection.

Channel Identifier (CID): A one-byte field that is only available
when the EXI field is configured to Linear. The CID byte is used to
indicate one of 256 communication channels at a GFP termination
point.

Spare: A one-byte field that is only available when the EXI field is
configured to Linear. This field is reserved for future use.

Extension HEC (eHEC): A two-byte field that contains a CRC-16
check sequence that protects the integrity of the contents of the
extension. CRC-16 enables both single-bit correction and multibit
error detection.
The figure below explains how (in GFP-F) the transmitter encapsulates
one entire frame of the client data.
GFP-F vs. GFP-T Frame Structure
Power Blazer
723
Glossary
Generic Framing Procedure (GFP)

Payload Information Field
The payload area (also referred to as payload information field)
contains the framed client signal. This variable-length field may include
from 0 to 65,535 – X octets, where X is the size of the payload header
(including the extension header, if present) and the payload FCS field
(if present).
Figure GFP-T vs. GFP-F Frames on page 717 shows the GFP-T and
GFP-F frame structures. As shown, Both GFP-T and GFP-F frame types
share a common core header, payload header, and payload FCS
(optional), and they differ in the way in which the client is mapped into
this payload area.

Payload FCS (pFCS)
This is an optional four-octet-long frame-check sequence. It
contains a CRC-32 check sequence that is designed to validate the
entire content of the payload area. The FCS field presence is
signalled by the PFI bit located in the Type field of the payload
header. The FCS does not correct any errors; it just indicates the
presence of error(s).
In GFP-F, the transmitter encapsulates one entire frame of the
client data into one GFP frame. In this case, the basic frame
structure of a GFP client frame is used, including the required
payload header.
In GFP-T, however, rather than buffering an entire client-data
frame, the individual characters of the client signal are demapped
from the client block codes and then mapped into periodic
fixed-length GFP frames. The transparent GFP client frame uses
the same structure as the frame-mapped GFP, including the
required payload header.
724
88000 Series
Glossary
Generic Framing Procedure (GFP)
GFP Summary
GFP has been standardized to better optimize the transport of Ethernet and
other data services over SONET, taking into account both the pros and cons
of ATM and PPP/HDLC framing mechanisms. As described in this section,
GFP represents a robust mapping mechanism that allows for the mapping
of multiple client-data types into SONET/SDH payload (SPEs). This
technology has been embraced by network equipment and service
providers as it provides an efficient way of providing interoperable
data-services transport over the existing SONET/SDH install base. The
versatility provided by GFP allows SONET/SDH networks to offer transport
services for a multiple of services, as shown in figure below.
Multiservice SONET/SDH Network
Power Blazer
725
Glossary
MPLS Labels
MPLS Labels
The MPLS labels are listed in the following table.
Label
726
Description
0
IPv4 explicit null
1
Router alert
2
IPv6 explicit null
3
Implicit null
14
OAM alert
4 to 13, and 15
Unassigned
16 to 1048575
Label ID
88000 Series
Glossary
SONET/DSn/SDH/PDH
SONET/DSn/SDH/PDH
SONET/DSn/SDH/PDH Nomenclature
The GUI will used the International or European nomenclature based on
the SONET and SDH software options installed on the 88000 Series.
Software option
Nomenclature
SONET only
International
SDH only
European
SONET and SDH
International
Signal Rates
Rate
Power Blazer
SDH/PDH
SONET/DSn
International
European
1.544 Mbit/s
DS1
-
1.5M
2.048 Mbit/s
-
E1
2M
8.448 Mbit/s
-
E2
8M
34.368 Mbit/s
-
E3
34M
44.736 Mbit/s
DS3
-
45M
51.84 Mbit/s
OC-1
STM-0
52M
139.264 Mbit/s
-
E4
140M
155.52 Mbit/s
OC-3
STM-1
STM-1
622.08 Mbit/s
OC-12
STM-4
STM-4
2.48832 Gbit/s
OC-48
STM-16
STM-16
9.95328 Gbit/s
OC-192
STM-64
STM-64
39.81312 Gbit/s
OC-768
STM-256
STM-256
727
Glossary
SONET/DSn/SDH/PDH
SONET/SDH High and Low Order Path
Nomenclature
Path Type
High Order
Low Order
728
SDH
SONET
AU-3
STS-1
AU-4
STS-3c
AU-4-4c
STS-12c
AU-4-16c
STS-48c
AU-4-64c
STS-192c
AU-4-256c
STS-768c
TUG-3
-
TUG-2
VTG
TU-11
VT1.5
TU-12
VT2
TU-3
-
88000 Series
Glossary
SONET/DSn/SDH/PDH
SONET/SDH Alarms and Errors Nomenclature
Layer
SDH
Physical
BPV/CV
CV
Section / Regenerator Section
LOF-S
RS-LOF
SEF
RS-OOF
TIM-S
RS-TIM
FAS-S
RS-FAS
B1
B1
AIS-L
MS-AIS
RDI-L
MS-RDI
B2
B2
REI-L
MS-REI
AIS-P
AU-AIS
LOP-P
AU-LOP
H4-LOM
H4-LOM
PDI-P
-
RDI-P
HP-RDI
ERDI-PCD
ERDI-CD
ERDI-PPD
ERDI-PD
ERDI-PSD
ERDI-SD
PLM-P
HP-PLM
UNEQ-P
HP-UNEQ
TIM-P
HP-TIM
B3
B3
REI-P
HP-REI
Line / Multiplex Section
High Order Path
Power Blazer
SONET
729
Glossary
SONET/DSn/SDH/PDH
Layer
Low Order Path
730
SONET
SDH
AIS-V
TU-AIS
LOP-V
TU-LOP
RDI-V
LP-RDI
ERDI-VCD
ERDI-CD
ERDI-VPD
ERDI-PD
ERDI-VSD
ERDI-SD
RFI-V
LP-RFI
UNEQ-V
LP-UNEQ
TIM-V
LP-TIM
PLM-V
LP-PLM
BIP-2
BIP-2
REI-V
LP-REI
88000 Series
Glossary
SONET/DSn/SDH/PDH
SONET Numbering Convention
The 88000 Series supports the Timeslot (default) and hierarchical two-level
numbering conventions as per GR-253.
Hierarchical Notation:
The 88000 Series supports numbering SONET high order path STS-1s and
STS-3c using the two-level “STS-3#,STS-1#”convention in an OC-N. For
example: STS-1 [2,3].
Power Blazer
731
Glossary
SONET/DSn/SDH/PDH
The 88000 Series supports numbering SONET low order path using the
two-level “VTGroup#,VT#” convention for numbering VTs within an STS-1.
For example: VT1.5 [1,3], VT2 [3,2], VT6 [6,1].
The 88000 Series supports numbering SONET high order path STS-nc
within an OC-N using the two-level “STS-3#,STS-1#”. For example: STS-12c
[5,1].
SDH Numbering Convention
As per ITU G.707, the high order paths are defined using a 2 to 5 level
convention E,D,C,B,A depending on the rate of the STM-n used.
732

E: the AUG-64 are numbered 1 to 4

D: the AUG-16 are numbered 1 to 4

C: the AUG-4 are numbered 1 to 4

B: the AUG-1 are numbered 1 to 4

A: the AU-3 are numbered 1 to 3
88000 Series
Glossary
SONET/DSn/SDH/PDH
Naming is as follows for each of the following rates:
Power Blazer

[E,D,C,B,A] for STM-256

[D,C,B,A] for STM-64

[C,B,A] for STM-16

[B,A] for STM-4

[0] for AU-4 in STM-1

[A] for AU-3 in STM-1
733
Glossary
SONET/DSn/SDH/PDH
The low order paths are defined using a 2 or 3 level convention K,L,M
depending on the rate of the AU-4 or AU-3 used to multiplex the low order
signals.

K: the TUG-3 are numbered 1 to 3

L: the TUG-2 are numbered within the TUG-3 0 or from 1 to 7

M: the TU-2, TU-12, TU-11 are numbered within the TUG-2 1, 1 to 3, 1 to
4 respectively
Examples for AU-4 (3 level convention)
TU-3: [K,0,0]
TU-2: [K,L,0]
TU-12:[K,L,M] where M = 1 to 3
TU-11:[K,L,M] where M = 1 to 4
Example for AU-3 (2 level convention)
TU-2: [L,0]
TU-12: [L,M] M is numbered 1 to 3
TU-11: [L,M] M is numbered 1 to 4
734
88000 Series
Glossary
SONET/DSn/SDH/PDH
The GUI Grid indicates the TUG-2 [x] and TUG-3 [x] values.
Power Blazer
735
Glossary
SONET/DSn/SDH/PDH
DSn/PDH Numbering Convention
The DS1 numbering in DS3 shall be numbered with respect to the DS2
muxing [DS2,DS1]. For example a DS3 has 7 DS2 and a DS2 has 4 DS1, so
an example would be for a DS1 number [3,2]. The DS3 shall have a single
number to represent its position. That is [1] all the time whether it is used
in an STS-1 or it is the DS3 electrical interface.
The PDH do not have special grouping of the E1, E2, E3 or E4. This means
that the PDH has a single number. For example E1 number 2 shall be
number [2].
The E1 in DS3 via G.747 numbering uses the naming [DS2,E1]. However in
the grid the label shall adapt itself to DS2 [x] or 6.3M [x] (where x = 1 to 7)
with respect to the interface standard used: European or International.
736
88000 Series
Glossary
SyncE
SyncE
Synchronous Ethernet or SyncE enables a traceable network timing
reference frequency to be distributed node-by-node across a chain of
Ethernet devices (SyncE compliant devices only). The network timing
reference is typically hierarchically traceable to a Primary Reference
Source/Clock (PRS/PRC) in a unidirectional flow. Any node in the chain not
compliant to SyncE automatically terminates the synchronization
propagation but this does not impact the flow of traffic.
The Physical Layer carries the clock frequency and the Data Link layer
carries the Quality Level (QL) associated to the transported frequency via
Synchronization Status Messaging (SSM) embedded in the Ethernet
Synchronization Message Channel (ESMC). The QL is transported via
Information and Event PDUs typically transmitted at a rate of 1 frame per
second but this rate can vary between 1 to 10 messages per second to
respect the slow protocol rules. The Information PDU is used as heart-beat
for the channel while one Event PDU is transmitted asynchronously to the
Information PDU upon change of the QL value. Following this change, the
Information PDU is also adjusted to match the new QL.
Power Blazer
737
Glossary
SyncE
In order for an Ethernet interface to be considered Synchronous Ethernet
compliant it needs to be upgraded as shown in the following diagram. In
addition to supporting the ESMC channel, this upgrade consists in allowing
the recovered clock from the CDR to be propagated to a function called the
Ethernet Equipment Clock (EEC).
The EEC is present in a network element (NE) to determine which port
should be used to distribute the frequency to other port(s) in the NE as well
as what QL value to transmit over the ESMC to other network element in
the network synchronization chain. The actual selection decision is based
on the QL value received from the various port(s) in the NE. If none are
valid the EEC is equipped with a better oscillator than a standard Ethernet
interface to provide synchronization (Holdover mode). Typically the
highest QL value is selected among the nominated sources within the
network element.
738
88000 Series
Glossary
Unicast/Multicast Addresses for Ethernet OAM
Unicast/Multicast Addresses for Ethernet OAM
Unicast or multicast address can be used for most of S-OAM functions.

Unicast addresses a unique destination address of the MEP.

Multicast Class 1 addresses all MEPs in the MEG. The address value is
01-80-C2-00-00-3x, where x represents the MEG/MD Level.

Multicast Class 2 addresses all MIPs and MEPs in the MEG. The address
value is 01-80-C2-00-00-3y, where y represents the MEG/MD Level + 8.
The following table specifies which address type is used for each frame
type.
Frame
Type
Unicast
Multicast
Class 1
Unicast
Multicast
Class 1
CCM
X
X
LMM
X
LBM
X
X
LMR
X
LBR
X
SLM
X
SLR
X
AIS
X
X
LTM
Power Blazer
Class 2
Frame
Type
X
Class 2
X
X
LTR
X
TST
X
X
CSF
X
X
DMM
X
X
LCK
X
X
DMR
X
739
Glossary
VLAN ID and Priority
VLAN ID and Priority
Special VID values (IEEE Std 802.1Q-1998)
ID
Description
0
The null VLAN ID. Indicates that the tag header contains only user priority
information; no VLAN identifier is present in the frame. This VID value must not be
configured as a PVID, configured in any Filtering Database entry, or used in any
Management operation.
1
The default PVID value used for classifying frames on ingress through a Bridge Port.
The PVID value can be changed on a per-Port basis.
4095
Reserved for implementation use. This VID value shall not be configured as a PVID,
configured in any Filtering Database entry, used in any Management operation, or
transmitted in a tag header.
VLAN Priority
740
0
000 - Low Priority
4
100 - High Priority
1
001 - Low Priority
5
101 - High Priority
2
010 - Low Priority
6
110 - High Priority
3
011 - Low Priority
7
111 - High Priority
88000 Series
C
Remote ToolBox
Overview
The Remote ToolBox application allows to remotely control a module
installed on a platform using a remote PC. Remote users are connected to
the platform using an Ethernet connection.
Note: The remote control feature has to be enabled for the module on its specific
slot on the platform. Refer to the Controlling Modules Remotely section
from the platform user guide for more information.
The Remote ToolBox allows to start one or several module application(s).
Once a module application is started, the application is independent and
does not require the Remote ToolBox anymore. Thus, the Remote
ToolBox application can be closed or can be disconnected from the
platform using the Disconnect button without affecting the running remote
module applications.
Power Blazer
741
Remote ToolBox
Overview
A remote module application offers the same level of control as if the
module is locally controlled with the following behaviors.

Multi-user behaviors:
Up to five connections including the local and/or remote sessions are
allowed per module. Beyond five connections, the performance to
service the connections may decrease.
Each user is able to individually navigate through the module
application without affecting the other users. However, any changes to
the operation of the test (Start, Stop, Reset, etc.) or to any test
parameter will be applied to all users.

File location behaviors:
The save, load, report, and data capture functions are associated with
the location of the session initiated; for Remote ToolBox it will be on
the local PC. The files are not duplicated on the platform platform.

The Save/Load configurations are saved in the following folder:
Document\88000-PowerBlazer\Configuration

The Reports are saved in the following folder:
Document\88000-PowerBlazer\Reports
If a report is being generated, no user will be able to start the test
case until the report generation is completed.

The Data Capture files are saved in the following folder:
Document\88000-PowerBlazer\CaptureData
If a capture file is being generated, all users will be able to stop the
capture but only the user that initiates the capture will be able to
see the captured data file after generation.
742
88000 Series
Remote ToolBox
Remote ToolBox Installation
Remote ToolBox Installation
Requirements
The following system requirements must be met before installing the
Remote ToolBox software.

10 or 10/100 Mbit/s network interface card.

Windows XP/Vista/7/8 operating system.
Note: Some Windows applications such as PDF reader, Excel, etc. may be
required to open the generated reports.
Installation
Download the Remote ToolBox application from EXFO STORE at
www.exfo.com. Run the Setup.exe application and follow the on-screen
instructions to complete the installation.
A shortcut of the EXFO Remote ToolBox will be created on the PC
desktop.
Power Blazer
743
Remote ToolBox
Starting and Using the Remote ToolBox Application
Starting and Using the Remote ToolBox
Application
Start the Remote ToolBox application, either by using the desktop EXFO
Remote ToolBox shortcut, or by clicking on the EXFO Remote ToolBox
application from All Programs - EXFO.
File Menu
The File-Exit menu allows to quit the Remote ToolBox application.
Help Menu
The Help menu displays the help information about the Remote ToolBox
application.
Server Address or Host Name
Allows to enter the platform IP address or the Host Name. The IP address
format is IPv4 (xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx) where xxx are values from 0 to 255. For
example: 192.168.1.1.
To find the IP address of the platform, refer to the platform user guide.
Connect/Disconnect Button
744

Connect establishes the connection with the platform specified by the
selected IP address or the Host Name.

Disconnect, closes the connection with the selected platform allowing
to establish a connection with another platform.
88000 Series
Remote ToolBox
Starting and Using the Remote ToolBox Application
Modules
Once connected to the platform, lists the modules installed on the platform
regardless of the remote control feature being enabled or not. The
following information is displayed for each module.
Power Blazer

Type displays the module’s icon.

Slot indicates the platform slot number where the module is inserted.

Module indicates the name of the module.

Description displays the description given to the module. Refer to the
platform user guide for more information.

Serial Number indicates the serial number of the module.

Remote Control indicates if the remote control feature is enabled for
this module. Refer to the Controlling Modules Remotely section from
the platform user guide for more information.

Standalone indicates if the standalone feature is possible for this
module. Refer to the Controlling Modules Remotely section from
platform platform user guide for more information.

Version indicates the software version of the module application.
745
Remote ToolBox
Applications for...
Applications for...
Note: The application icon is only available if the selected module has its Remote
Control enabled and is only displayed if the module is supported by the
Remote ToolBox application.
Click on the icon to start the application.
The application is automatically started when the same version of the
application is installed on the local PC.
The application is downloaded from the platform and installed on the
local PC when either the application is not installed or the versions are
different. Once installed, the application is automatically started. While
downloading the application, the Cancel button allows to cancel the
download and the installation process.
Note: Multiple versions of a module application may be installed on the same PC.
Use the Windows - Control Panel - Add/Remove tool to remove
non-required versions from the PC.
746
88000 Series
Index
Index
10 Unframed CAUI .................................... 126
10 Unframed Physical Lanes ...................... 113
10B_ERR .................................................... 364
1588 PTP ............................................. 78, 133
20 Unframed Logical Lanes ....................... 112
20 Unframed PCS ...................................... 126
2M-155M .................................................... 24
4 Unframed Physical Lanes ........................ 113
4 Unframed XLAUI .................................... 126
802.1ag..................................................... 260
A
A1 ............................................................. 579
A2 ............................................................. 579
Abort Frame .............................................. 517
About button .............................................. 34
Absolute.................................................... 423
Accept Connection from IP........................ 321
Acceptable Errors .............................. 250, 251
Accuracy.................................................... 250
Accuracy (Frames) ..................................... 251
Acronym.................................................... 665
Activate ..................................................... 295
Actual L4 ........................................... 486, 496
Add Step ................................................... 169
Additional Payload .................................... 561
Address ..... 198, 208, 209, 210, 217, 218, 219
Address Type ............................. 264, 266, 410
Addressing ................................................ 271
Advertised BB_Credit ................................. 172
after-sales service ...................................... 656
AIS.... 346, 347, 348, 350, 351, 352, 371, 376,
379, 388, 520
AIS-L.................................................. 390, 403
AIS-P ................................................. 392, 403
AIS-V ......................................................... 400
Alarm Timeout/Threshold .......................... 138
Power Blazer
Alarm/Status.............................................. 554
Alarms ....................................................... 533
Alarms background color .................. 336, 490
Alarms/Status and Unassigned .................. 552
Alignment.................................................. 354
All.............................................................. 417
All Lanes ............................................ 142, 537
Amount ............................................. 410, 553
Announce .................................................. 135
ANSI TI-403 ............................................... 549
Application buttons..................................... 34
Applications for... ...................................... 746
Apply Channel TX to RX............................. 291
APS ............................................................ 539
APS/PCC..................................................... 576
Architecture............................................... 541
ARM .......................................................... 325
Arrow buttons ............................................. 37
Arrows....................................................... 107
Assign to Capture ...................................... 557
Attempts ................................................... 594
AU Path (C2)...................................... 192, 418
AU Path (J1)............................................... 513
AU Path (N1) ..................................... 331, 513
AU-AIS ....................................................... 392
AU-LOP ...................................................... 392
Auto .................................................. 184, 185
Automatic.................................. 183, 210, 219
Automatic IP (DHCP).................. 199, 208, 216
Auto-Negotiation ...................... 182, 197, 631
Auto-Response Loopback Status................ 491
AUX ....................................................... 17, 24
AU-x .......................................................... 392
Auxiliary....................................................... 13
Available.................................................... 272
Available BB_Credit.................................... 171
Average ..................................................... 337
Average RX Rate ........................................ 450
Average TX Rate ........................................ 452
747
Index
Avg RX Rate .............................................. 477
Avg. Round Trip Time................................ 597
B
B1.............................................. 391, 405, 579
B2.............................................. 391, 405, 581
B3.............................................. 394, 405, 586
Background............................................... 288
Background Traffic ............................ 298, 302
Backplane.......................................... 150, 154
Backplane Clock ........................................ 154
Back-to-Back ..................................... 251, 493
Back-to-Back button.................................. 417
Bandwidth Usage ...................................... 414
BANTAM.......................................... 13, 17, 25
Base Station .............................................. 131
Batch button ..................................... 271, 309
Battery/AC Icons .......................................... 30
BBE.................................................... 430, 433
BBER.................................................. 431, 434
BDI ............................................ 371, 374, 379
BEI............................................. 373, 375, 381
Bell ............................................................ 289
BER............................................................ 342
BER Threshold ................... 142, 157, 233, 479
BERT .................................................. 140, 155
BERT Duration ........................................... 323
BERT Threshold.......................................... 323
BIAE .................................................. 374, 379
Bidirectional .............................................. 246
Binary ........................................................ 290
Binary/Hex ................................................. 212
BIP-2.......................................................... 402
BIP-8.......................................... 373, 375, 381
Bit Error............. 142, 157, 233, 343, 460, 479
Bit Error Count .......................................... 460
Bit Error Rate............................................. 460
Bit Error Test ............................................. 482
Bit-Oriented Message ................................ 545
Block ................................................. 354, 357
Block & Replace ......................................... 140
748
BNC ................................................. 13, 17, 24
BPV............................................................ 369
BPV/CV ...................................................... 369
BRIDGE .............................................. 151, 152
Bridge Request .......................................... 541
Broadcast .................................................. 514
BSD............................................................ 371
BSF ............................................................ 371
Buffer Delay....................................... 486, 497
Buffer to Buffer Flow Control .................... 171
Buffer Usage.............................................. 563
Bulk Read .................................................. 530
Burst.................................................. 314, 450
Burst Count ............................................... 315
Burst Duty Cycle ........................................ 315
Burst Frames.............................................. 163
Burst Max Rate .......................................... 277
Burst Repeat .............................................. 408
Burst Sequence.......................................... 163
Burst Single ............................................... 408
Burst Size........................................... 278, 450
Burst Test .................................................. 167
Burst Time ................................................. 251
Burst/IR Frame Ratio .................................. 164
Bursts ........................................................ 251
Burt ........................................................... 163
Busy........................................................... 257
B-VLAN ...................................................... 204
C
C/R............................................................. 547
C&M .................................................. 185, 463
C&M Channel ............................................ 185
C2...................................................... 192, 587
cable.......................................................... 695
Cable Delay................................................ 612
Cable Mode ....................................... 183, 632
Cable Test............................................ 77, 146
Calibration Failed....................................... 609
Cancelled................................................... 609
Capture button.......................................... 564
88000 Series
Index
Capture Source.......................................... 560
Capture Status .......................................... 563
Carrier Ethernet OAM.................................. 75
CAUI Lane.................................................. 532
caution
of personal hazard................................... 2
of product hazard.................................... 2
CBS.................................................... 167, 279
CBS Test Time............................................ 164
CC Function............................................... 264
C-CDI......................................................... 389
CCM .................................................. 500, 520
CDF pFCS................................................... 180
certification information ................................x
C-FDI ......................................................... 389
Cfg. Status ................................................ 562
CFP .................. 11, 12, 15, 111, 123, 149, 655
CFP Interface ......................................... 19, 21
CFP/CFP2 Control....................................... 528
CFP/CFP2 Control Pins ............................... 529
CFP/CFP2 MDIO Access Interface ............... 530
CFP/CFP2 Power Class................................ 528
CFP/CFP2 Reference Clock.......................... 528
CFP/CFP2 Status Pins ................................. 530
CFP/CFP2 TX Status.................................... 531
CFP2 .................................. 111, 123, 149, 663
CFP4 .............................. 14, 16, 111, 123, 149
Channel............................. 288, 537, 540, 553
channel identifier ...................................... 723
Channels Monitored.................................. 448
cHEC.......................................................... 570
cHEC-CORR................................................ 362
cHEC-UNCORR ........................................... 362
CID .................................... 180, 415, 569, 571
CIR..................................... 224, 258, 274, 278
CIR or CIR+EIR Frames .............................. 163
CIR+EIR............................................. 224, 278
Circuit................................................ 549, 550
Classification ..................................... 221, 226
cleaning
front panel........................................... 651
Cleaning Optical Connectors ..................... 652
Power Blazer
Client ......................................................... 118
Client Data................................................. 414
Client Frequency ................................ 342, 353
Client Management ................................... 414
Client Offset .............................................. 542
Clock ................................................. 150, 344
Clock Accuracy .................................. 137, 467
Clock block ................................................ 107
Clock Class......................................... 137, 467
Clock Mode ....................... 137, 150, 467, 630
Clock Out................................................... 154
Clock Out Low Speed................................... 26
Clock Synchronization ............................... 150
C-LOS......................................................... 388
Cm CRC-8 .................................................. 365
CMF ........................................................... 362
CMF pFCS .................................................. 180
CnD CRC-5 ................................................. 365
Code.......................................................... 413
Code Word ................................................ 463
Codeword.................................. 545, 552, 553
Collision..................................................... 355
Command/Response .................................. 548
Committed ................................................ 272
Committed - Burst Test.............................. 450
Committed Steps....................................... 451
Complete................................................... 561
Config TCM ............................................... 300
Config/Save ............................................... 634
Configuration/Performance Results ........... 483
Connect ..................................... 134, 243, 624
Connect button ......................................... 744
Connected ................................. 165, 245, 257
Connection ................................................ 257
Connector. 109, 122, 128, 129, 130, 151, 197,
630
Continuity Check ....................................... 264
Continuity Check (Peer MEP) ..................... 499
Continuous ................................ 266, 314, 608
Control ...................................................... 553
conventions, safety........................................ 2
Copy .......................................................... 272
749
Index
Copy From Throughput ............................. 253
Copy RX .................................... 413, 512, 513
Copy Service.............................................. 272
Copy Services button................................. 272
Copy Stream button.................................. 309
Core Header .............................................. 567
core header ............................................... 720
Count ................................................ 336, 610
Couple with Interface................................ 200
Coupled..................................................... 119
Coupled RX to TX .............................. 140, 156
CP-bit ........................................................ 347
CPRI................................... 157, 345, 462, 690
CPRI/OBSAI BERT ......................................... 81
CRC-4 ........................................................ 349
CRC-6 ........................................................ 346
C-RDI ......................................................... 389
Critical Event ............................................. 487
CSF .................................................... 376, 520
Cumulative Offset ..................................... 607
Current.............................................. 337, 474
Current Throughput .................................. 509
Customer Frame TX Rate ........................... 315
customer service........................................ 659
Cut Through.............................................. 494
CV ..................................................... 369, 459
D
D1 ............................................................. 580
D2 ............................................................. 580
D3 ............................................................. 580
D4 through D12 ........................................ 581
DAPI .......................................... 328, 511, 512
DAPI ODU-TIM................................... 329, 512
DAPI OTU-TIM ................................... 329, 512
DAPI TCM-TIM ........................................... 329
Data Size ................................................... 594
Date and Time............................................. 30
Date Stamp ............................................... 421
DCI ............................................................ 360
Decoupled................................................. 119
750
Default all OH .................................... 569, 592
Default Gateway........ 199, 210, 211, 216, 219
Default Mapping ....................................... 534
Default OTN OH......................................... 572
Defaults ..................................................... 170
Defect........................ 143, 234, 407, 426, 461
Delay ......................................... 212, 594, 610
Delay (ms) ................................................. 445
Delay Measurement................................... 468
Delay Mode ............................................... 134
Delay Req IPDV .......................................... 468
Delay Skew ................................................ 470
Delay Skew Threshold................................ 148
Delay T14................................................... 612
Delay-Request............................................ 135
Delete Step ................................................ 170
Delta.......................................................... 180
Destination ................................................ 171
Destination B-MAC Address....................... 204
Destination EoE MAC Address ................... 203
Destination Flooding ................................. 206
Destination IP Address....................... 208, 593
Destination MAC Address .......... 162, 205, 518
Destination Node ID .................................. 540
Destination Port ........................................ 214
Details ....................................................... 424
Detection/Classification ............................. 473
Differentiated Services............................... 213
Direction... 164, 257, 270, 450, 451, 476, 485,
493, 496
Disable all Overwrites ................................ 592
Disabled ............................................ 185, 610
Discarded .................................................. 415
Disconnect......................................... 243, 624
Disconnect button ..................................... 744
Disconnected............................. 165, 245, 257
Discover Remote........................ 165, 245, 257
Discovered Topology ................................. 172
Displayed Results ............................... 417, 493
Disruption Count ....................................... 461
Disruption Monitoring............... 144, 158, 233
Disruption Time ................................. 426, 461
88000 Series
Index
Distance To Fault....................................... 472
DM ............................................................ 431
DMM......................................... 520, 521, 629
DMR .................................................. 521, 629
Domain ..................................................... 133
Domain ID ................................................. 263
Domain Mismatch ..................................... 383
Drop Eligible203, 204, 206, 220, 265, 267, 410,
613
DS0 check box........................................... 288
DS0/E0 Size ............................................... 289
DS1 ................................................... 346, 491
DS3 ........................................................... 347
DSCP Codepoints....................................... 213
DSn/PDH BERT ............................................. 56
DSn/PDH Multiplexing ............................... 118
DSX-MON.................................................. 151
Dual RX ..................................................... 120
Dual Test Set ............................. 165, 245, 257
DUPLEX ....................................................... 26
Duplex....................................................... 183
Duration............................ 259, 324, 409, 423
Dying Gasp................................................ 488
Dynamic Ramp .......................................... 169
E
E0 check box ............................................. 288
E1...................................................... 348, 579
E2...................................................... 350, 585
E3.............................................................. 351
E4.............................................................. 352
EB...................................................... 429, 432
E-bit .......................................................... 349
EBS .................................................... 167, 279
EBS Test Time ............................................ 164
EC...................................................... 429, 432
ECN ........................................................... 213
Efficiency................................................... 507
EFS ............................................................ 432
eHEC ......................................................... 571
eHEC-CORR................................................ 363
Power Blazer
eHEC-UNCORR ........................................... 363
Embedded SONET/SDH .............................. 116
EMIX.................................................. 224, 276
EMIX Frame Sizes ...................................... 276
Emulation Mode........................................ 131
Enable ....................................... 273, 310, 556
Enable TX .................................................. 160
Enabled Time............................................. 556
Encapsulation ............................................ 561
EoE .................................................... 202, 203
EoE VLAN................................................... 203
Equalizer Control ....................................... 538
Equalizer Gain ........................................... 538
equipment returns..................................... 659
ERDI-CD ..................................................... 393
ERDI-PCD ........................................... 393, 405
ERDI-PD ..................................................... 393
ERDI-PPD ........................................... 393, 405
ERDI-PSD ........................................... 394, 404
ERDI-SD ..................................................... 394
ERDI-VCD................................................... 402
ERDI-VPD ................................................... 402
ERDI-VSD ................................................... 401
Error Count........................................ 421, 559
Error Running Total ................................... 422
Errors......................................................... 533
Errors background color .................... 336, 490
ES ...................................................... 429, 432
ESD................................................................ 6
ESF............................................................. 429
ESMC ................................................. 318, 504
ESMC Generation ...................................... 319
ESMC Loss ................................................. 395
ESMC Monitoring ...................................... 318
ESMC Rate Threshold................................. 319
ESMC RX Rate............................................ 504
ESR .................................................... 431, 434
Estimated BB_Credit .................................. 480
Estimated Time.......................................... 246
ETag .......................................................... 203
EtherBERT ............................................ 67, 155
751
Index
Ethernet .................... 185, 306, 353, 356, 628
Traffic .................................................. 514
Ethernet (All Unicast) ........................ 306, 628
Ethernet BW ...................... 425, 514, 559, 628
Ethernet Frame.......................................... 161
Ethernet OAM ........................................... 127
Ethernet Traffic ......................................... 508
EtherSAM .................................................... 62
EtherType .................................................. 205
0x88A8 ................................................ 204
0x88E7 ................................................ 204
Event ................................................. 423, 442
Event Count ...................................... 505, 549
Event Counts ............................................. 550
Event Running Total .................................. 422
Exc. Coll..................................................... 355
Exc. Skew .......................................... 357, 378
Excess - Burst Test ..................................... 450
Excess Steps .............................................. 451
Excessive Skew Test ................................... 482
EXFO CFP-toCFP2 Adapter ........................... 20
EXFO|Worx Interop ................................... 257
EXI..................................... 180, 415, 568, 570
Exit button .................................................. 34
EXM .......................................................... 360
EXP............................................................ 575
Expected ................................... 178, 331, 413
Expected Frequency .................................. 544
Expected Message..................................... 327
Expected QL ...................... 138, 318, 438, 440
EXT CLK ............................... 14, 15, 16, 24, 25
Ext Clock In ............................................... 151
Extension Header ...................................... 569
extension header identifier........................ 721
extension HEC ........................................... 723
External ..................................................... 150
External Clock........................................ 11, 12
EXZ............................................................ 369
752
F
F1 .............................................................. 580
F2 .............................................................. 588
F3 .............................................................. 589
Fabric ........................................................ 172
Fabric Status.............................................. 173
Factory Default .................................. 215, 320
FAIL ..................................................... 32, 337
False Carrier............................................... 354
Far-End ...................................................... 432
FAS ............ 345, 349, 350, 351, 352, 378, 381
FAS-S ......................................................... 391
Fault Indication.................................. 177, 412
Fault Indication Code ................................ 177
F-bit........................................................... 347
FC BERT ............................................... 80, 155
FC Frame ................................................... 159
FCS ............................................ 214, 354, 359
FD...................................................... 227, 484
FDI............................................................. 361
FEAC .......................................................... 552
FEBE .......................................................... 347
FEC .................................................... 296, 708
FEC-CORR .................................................. 381
FEC-CORR-BIT ............................................ 381
FEC-CORR-CW.................................... 381, 385
FEC-CORR-SYMB ........................................ 381
FEC-LOA..................................................... 385
FEC-LOAML................................................ 385
FEC-STRESS-CW ......................................... 382
FEC-SYMB .................................................. 385
FEC-UNCORR ............................................. 382
FEC-UNCORR-CW ............................... 382, 385
Fibre Channel .................................... 171, 358
Field Match................................................ 562
File............................................................. 744
Filter .......................................................... 558
Mask .................................................... 559
Operator .............................................. 559
Value ................................................... 558
Filter Configuration ................................... 557
88000 Series
Index
Filter x ....................................................... 560
Filters ........................................................ 556
Fixed.................................................. 224, 312
Fixed Structure .......................................... 299
Flood Range .............................................. 206
Flow Control...................................... 183, 631
Traffic .................................................. 517
Flow Direction ........................................... 246
Flow Label ................................................. 212
FLR .................................................... 227, 484
Force Release............................................. 295
Foreground Signal Label............................ 577
Format .............................................. 330, 331
Frame Count269, 315, 425, 480, 514, 559, 563,
628
Frame Count - RX ...................................... 517
Frame Delay .............................. 266, 445, 502
Frame Delay Threshold .............................. 262
Frame Distribution .................................... 247
Frame Format.................................... 201, 215
Frame Loss 227, 266, 316, 317, 384, 446, 454,
455, 477, 484, 493
Frame Loss / Out-of-Sequence
Stream ................................................. 455
Frame Loss button..................................... 417
Frame Loss Configuration.......................... 252
Frame Loss Rate ................................ 279, 509
Frame Loss Ratio ....................................... 502
Frame Loss Threshold ................................ 262
Frame Number .......................................... 564
Frame Rate ................ 425, 480, 514, 559, 628
Frame Size 159, 161, 225, 247, 268, 271, 275,
308, 312, 417, 515
Frame Sync................................................ 462
Frame Type................................ 224, 414, 514
Framed ...................................................... 112
Framed L2 ................................................. 130
Framed Layer 1.......................................... 124
Framed Layer 2.......................................... 124
frame-mapped GFP ................................... 716
Framing.... 112, 124, 130, 133, 152, 153, 271,
287, 308
Power Blazer
Framing Bit ................................................ 346
Frequency . 152, 154, 174, 175, 191, 285, 367,
463, 543
Frequency Offset Analysis .......................... 544
Frequency/Offset ....................................... 505
front panel, cleaning ................................. 651
FSD ............................................................ 371
FSF............................................................. 372
FTFL ................................................... 177, 574
FTFL/PT....................................................... 412
Function .................................................... 266
Functions..................................................... 33
G
G.709 OTN................................................. 697
G.742 Bit 12 .............................................. 617
G.751 Bit 12 ...................................... 616, 617
G.751 Bit 14, 15, 16 .......................... 616, 617
G.8113.1 ................................................... 260
G1 ............................................................. 588
GAL ........................................................... 265
GCC0 ......................................................... 573
GCC1 ......................................................... 576
GCC2 ......................................................... 576
Generate & Save ........................................ 565
Generated.......................................... 192, 330
Generated Message ................................... 326
Generated Messages ................. 545, 549, 552
Generated QL .................................... 319, 440
Generic Framing Procedure ....................... 714
GFP .................................................... 360, 714
GFP frame structure................................... 718
GFP mapping............................................. 716
GFP-10B_ERR ............................................. 364
GFP-cHEC-CORR ......................................... 362
GFP-cHEC-UNCORR .................................... 362
GFP-DCI ..................................................... 360
GFP-eHEC-CORR......................................... 363
GFP-eHEC-UNCORR .................................... 363
GFP-EXM ................................................... 360
GFP-F ................................................. 180, 414
753
Index
GFP-F/GFP-T............................................... 567
GFP-FDI ..................................................... 361
GFP-LFD..................................................... 360
GFP-LOCCS ................................................ 361
GFP-LOCS .................................................. 361
GFP-pFCS................................................... 364
GFP-RDI ..................................................... 361
GFP-Reserved CMF..................................... 362
GFP-SB-CORR............................................. 363
GFP-SB-CORR (Post)................................... 363
GFP-SB-CORR (Pre)..................................... 363
GFP-SB-UNCORR........................................ 364
GFP-T......................................................... 180
GFP-tHEC-CORR ......................................... 362
GFP-tHEC-UNCORR .................................... 363
GFP-UPM ................................................... 360
GFP-UserDefined CMF ............................... 362
Global
EtherSAM ............................................ 165
RFC 2544 ..................................... 245, 246
Services................................................ 270
Streams ............................................... 308
Global alarm ............................................... 32
Global Copy RX ................................. 413, 512
Global indicator .......................................... 31
Global IPv6 Address .......................... 209, 218
Global Options .................. 168, 246, 272, 309
Global Pass/Fail Verdict ............................. 316
Global Test Duration Estimate................... 167
Global Thresholds Type ............................. 316
Global Verdict ............................................. 32
GM Info............................................. 136, 466
GM IP Address........................................... 134
GMP .................................................. 365, 566
Granted Power Class ................................. 473
Granularity ................................................ 252
Graph
RFC 2544 ............................................. 417
Traffic .................................................. 519
GTE ........................................................... 289
754
H
H1 ............................................................. 580
H2 ............................................................. 580
H3 ............................................................. 580
H4 ............................................................. 588
H4-LOM ..................................................... 392
HDLC ......................................................... 185
Header Layer.............................................. 561
Help........................................................... 744
Help button ................................................. 34
Hi-BER........................................................ 353
Hi-BER1027B.............................................. 399
HOP Limit TTL ............................................ 212
Host Name ................................................ 744
HP-PLM...................................................... 393
HP-PLM/HP-UNEQ ...................................... 418
HP-RDI ....................................................... 393
HP-REI........................................................ 394
HPTC-IAIS................................................... 396
HPTC-IEC.................................................... 398
HPTC-LTC ................................................... 396
HPTC-ODI................................................... 396
HPTC-OEI ................................................... 398
HPTC-RDI ................................................... 397
HPTC-REI.................................................... 398
HPTC-TIM........................................... 397, 513
HPTC-UNEQ ....................................... 302, 396
HPTC-VIOL ................................................. 397
HP-TIM....................................... 331, 392, 513
HP-UNEQ ................................................... 392
Hyperframe ............................................... 463
I
I/O Interface Quick Check .......................... 481
IAE..................................................... 374, 379
ID .............................................................. 423
Ideal L4.............................................. 486, 496
identification label..................................... 656
Identity .............................................. 136, 466
Idle ............................ 290, 347, 354, 414, 547
IFDV................................................... 227, 484
88000 Series
Index
Import/Export tab...................................... 642
Increment/Decrement Size......................... 542
Information ............................................... 442
Information Count .................................... 505
Information Rate ....................................... 278
Informational .................................... 450, 452
Initial Window Size.................................... 322
Inject ......................... 479, 518, 545, 553, 599
Inject button ..................................... 407, 411
Injection .................................................... 549
Injects........................................................ 545
inserting a module ........................................ 8
Int. RX Fault .............................................. 366
Interface.... 181, 196, 238, 323, 366, 491, 560
Interface block .......................................... 107
Interface ID Coupled ......................... 209, 218
Interface Type.................................... 151, 153
Interface/Rate ... 108, 121, 128, 129, 130, 196,
630
Internal.............................................. 150, 630
Internal Loopback ............................. 111, 123
Inv. Flag..................................................... 399
Inv. Mapping............................................. 356
Inv. Marker........................................ 357, 378
Invalid ............................................... 415, 416
Invalid DMR............................................... 445
Invalid LBR................................................. 443
Invalid LMR ............................................... 446
Invalid LTR ................................................. 614
Invalid Payload .......................................... 444
Invalid SLR................................................. 447
Invalid TST ................................................. 444
Invert......................................... 142, 156, 232
iOptics ......................................................... 42
IP....................................... 208, 244, 306, 628
IP Address ................................. 199, 216, 263
IP Checksum .............................................. 370
IP TOS/DS .......................... 134, 212, 321, 594
IP Version .................................. 199, 201, 216
IP/UDP/TCP ................................................ 370
IPDV .......................................................... 436
IPDV Threshold.......................................... 138
Power Blazer
IPv4 ................................................... 208, 216
IPv6 ................................................... 208, 217
IPv6 Destination Address ........................... 210
iSAM............................................................ 43
I-TAG ......................................................... 204
ITU G.8275.1 ............................................. 133
J
J0............................................................... 579
J0 Trace ............................................. 187, 523
J1............................................................... 586
J1 Trace ............................................. 187, 523
J2............................................................... 591
Jabber........................................................ 354
jammed bit 8 ............................................. 289
JC .............................................. 573, 575, 576
JC1 ............................................................ 573
JC2 ............................................................ 575
JC3 ............................................................ 576
JC4 ............................................................ 573
JC5 ............................................................ 574
JC6 ............................................................ 576
Jitter .................. 227, 317, 453, 455, 484, 509
Streams................................................ 455
Job Information......................................... 634
K
K1...................................................... 539, 581
K2...................................................... 540, 581
K3.............................................................. 589
K4.............................................................. 592
Keyboard usage ........................................... 38
L
L1 Reset ..................................................... 463
L2 .............................................................. 221
L3/L4.......................................................... 221
Label.................................................. 265, 523
Label 1............................................... 265, 425
Label 2............................................... 265, 425
755
Index
label, identification ................................... 656
Labels ................................................ 192, 418
Lanes Mapping & Skew ............................. 532
Lanes with Disruption ....................... 427, 448
LASER .......................................................... 26
Laser.................................................. 188, 280
Laser OFF at Start-Up ........ 189, 198, 240, 281
Laser On .................................................... 655
Laser ON/OFF............................. 188, 281, 536
Last ........................................................... 337
Last Change .............................. 437, 468, 505
Last Disruption .......................................... 448
Last Link Trace Status ................................ 613
Last QL Message........................................ 505
Last QL Received........................ 437, 440, 468
Late Coll. ................................................... 355
Latency...... 227, 317, 453, 456, 484, 493, 509
Streams ............................................... 456
Latency button .......................................... 417
Latency Configuration ............................... 253
Latency Measurement Mode ..................... 168
Latency Tag ............................................... 159
Latency Tag Insertion ................................ 159
Layer ......................................... 221, 407, 494
LBM........................................... 520, 521, 629
LBO ................................................... 153, 282
LBR .................................................... 521, 629
LBR Timeout .............................................. 443
LCD-P ........................................................ 404
LCK............................................ 372, 388, 520
Lease Duration .......................................... 135
LED.............................................................. 26
Blue ....................................................... 26
Legend TX/RX ............................................ 577
Length............................................... 470, 472
Length Threshold ...................................... 148
Length Unit ............................................... 146
LFD ............................................................ 360
Line ........................................................... 390
Line Coding ............................... 152, 153, 283
Line Utilization .......... 425, 480, 514, 559, 628
LINK .................................... 26, 155, 181, 196
756
Link Activity ............................... 547, 550, 554
Link Capacity ............................................. 309
Link Down ................................. 345, 353, 358
Link Events ................................................ 420
Link Fault ................................................... 488
Link OAM .......................................... 194, 487
Link Trace .................................................. 613
Link TX/RX Scrolling ................................... 577
LINK/ACT...................................................... 26
Link-Local IPv6 Address ..................... 208, 217
LMM.......................................... 520, 521, 629
LMR ................................................... 521, 629
Loaded Voltage ......................................... 474
LOAML....................................................... 357
LOAML1027B............................................. 399
LOBL1027B ................................................ 399
LOC.................................................... 154, 344
LOC Lane ................................................... 366
Local.................................................. 258, 320
Local block ................................................ 103
Local Clock ........................................ 183, 632
Local Fault Det........................................... 353
Local Fault Detected .................................. 358
Local Fault Rcd. ......................................... 353
Local Fault Received................................... 358
Local Module Identification ....................... 624
Local Parameters ....................................... 263
Local to Remote......................................... 246
LOCCS........................................................ 361
LOCS.......................................................... 361
LOF .... 345, 348, 350, 351, 352, 378, 380, 403
LOFLOM..................................................... 372
LOF-S ......................................................... 390
Logger ....................................................... 423
Logger Full 458, 464, 478, 487, 489, 492, 496,
498, 503, 506, 509
Logical Lane....................................... 532, 533
Login ......................................................... 172
Logo .......................................................... 635
LOL ............................................................ 378
LOM .......................................................... 380
LOMF......................................................... 348
88000 Series
Index
Longest Disruption ............................ 427, 448
LOOMFI ..................................................... 376
Loop Down ............................................... 623
Loop UP..................................................... 623
Loopback........... 266, 292, 306, 443, 554, 629
Loopback Commands........................ 553, 555
Loopback Mode ................................ 127, 628
Loop-Down ............................... 243, 292, 295
Loop-Up .................................... 243, 292, 295
LOP-P................................................. 392, 404
LOPPS-L ............................................. 168, 344
LOPPS-R............................................. 168, 344
LOP-V ........................................................ 400
LOR ........................................................... 378
LOS.................................................... 366, 459
Loss Announce .......................................... 383
Loss Continuity.......................................... 386
Loss Sync................................................... 383
LP-ERDI-CD ................................................ 402
LP-ERDI-PD ................................................ 402
LP-ERDI-SD ................................................ 401
LP-PLM .............................................. 193, 401
LP-PLM/LP-UNEQ ....................................... 418
LP-RDI........................................................ 400
LP-REI ........................................................ 402
LP-RFI ........................................................ 400
LPTC- ......................................................... 398
LPTC-IAIS ................................................... 396
LPTC-LTC.................................................... 396
LPTC-ODI ................................................... 396
LPTC-OEI.................................................... 398
LPTC-RDI.................................................... 397
LPTC-TIM ................................... 331, 397, 513
LPTC-UNEQ........................................ 302, 396
LPTC-VIOL.................................................. 397
LP-TIM ....................................... 331, 401, 513
LP-UNEQ............................................ 193, 401
LSP ............................................................ 265
LTC ............................................................ 374
LTM ........................................... 520, 521, 629
LTR .................................................... 521, 629
LTR Timeout .............................................. 614
Power Blazer
M
M0..................................................... 582, 585
M1..................................................... 582, 585
MA Name .................................................. 263
MAC .......................................................... 244
MAC Address............................. 215, 263, 264
MAC/IP/UDP ............................................... 200
MAID ......................................................... 263
maintenance
front panel........................................... 651
general information ............................. 651
Manual .............................. 183, 408, 479, 562
Manual Loopback Status ........................... 491
Manual Mapping ....................................... 534
Manual Skew............................................. 535
Mapping Efficiency .................................... 414
Margin....................................................... 253
Mask
Filter..................................................... 559
Matching & Swapping ............................... 306
Max Hop Count ......................................... 595
Max Jitter................................................... 279
Max Latency ...................................... 279, 477
Max Rate ........................................... 408, 479
Max Round Trip Time................................. 597
Max Round-Trip Latency ............................ 279
Max RX Power ................................... 188, 281
Max RX Rate .............................................. 477
Max TX Rate .............................................. 314
Max. (-/+) Offset ....................................... 505
Max. Jitter.................................................. 477
Max. Negative Offset ................. 175, 286, 543
Max. Offset................................................ 191
Max. Positive Offset ................... 175, 286, 544
Max. Rate .......................................... 249, 252
Maximum .................................................. 337
Maximum OAMPDU Size ........................... 419
Maximum Window Size ............................. 322
MD Level.................................................... 264
MDIO - Bulk Read ...................................... 530
MDIO Address ........................................... 531
757
Index
MDIO Data ................................................ 531
MDIO End Address .................................... 530
MDIO Read................................................ 531
MDIO Start Address................................... 530
MDIO Write ............................................... 531
Measure Delay button............................... 609
Mechanism................................................ 134
MEF........................................................... 260
MEG ID...................................................... 263
MEG Level ......................................... 264, 410
MEP ID ...................................................... 264
Message Rate ............................................ 135
Metrics ...................................................... 453
MFAS................................................. 382, 572
Mid-Trigger ............................................... 563
Min Round Trip Time................................. 597
Min RX Power ................................... 188, 281
Minimum .................................................. 337
Minimum RTT .................................... 485, 496
Minimum Window Size ............................. 322
Mismatch .................................................. 180
Mismatch ’0’ ............................................. 343
Mismatch ’1’ ............................................. 343
Mismerge .................................................. 386
Mode ........................ 133, 306, 408, 552, 608
Modify DS0 ............................................... 289
Modify E0.................................................. 289
Modify Frame Structure ............................ 201
Modify Loop Codes ........................... 293, 295
Modify Structure ....................................... 106
Ethernet Test Applications ................... 121
Packet Sync Test Applications ...... 128, 129
Transport Test Applications ................. 108
Wireless Test Applications.................... 130
Modify Structure button ........................... 108
Modify Trib Slots/Port................................ 299
module
insertion .................................................. 8
removal ................................................... 8
Modules .................................................... 745
MON ......................................................... 152
Monetary Cost........................................... 213
758
MPLS ................................................. 207, 425
MPLS Label ................................................ 202
MPLS-TP Label Stack .................................. 265
MPLS-TP Mode .......................................... 265
MPLS-TP OAM............ 127, 260, 386, 419, 443
Traffic .................................................. 520
MPLS-TP OAM Responder .......................... 261
MS............................................................. 390
MS-AIS....................................................... 390
MSEQ Violation ......................................... 399
MSIM......................................................... 376
MS-RDI ...................................................... 391
MS-REI....................................................... 391
MS-REI Computation Method.................... 302
MTU .................................................. 485, 496
Multicast ................................................... 514
Multicast MAC........................................... 133
Multi-Channel OTN ...................................... 44
Multipexer Action ...................................... 419
Multiple Connections ................................ 258
N
N1 ............................................................. 589
N2 ............................................................. 591
n-Burst....................................................... 314
NDF ........................................................... 607
Near-End ................................................... 429
Negative .................................................... 191
Negotiation Status............................. 134, 465
Network .................................................... 215
Network block ........................................... 103
Network Details ................................. 221, 241
Network Layer ........................................... 202
New Data Flag ........................................... 599
New Pointer............................................... 599
Next HOP Router........................................ 263
n-Frame ..................................................... 314
NI/CSU Emulation ........................................ 61
NJ0 ............................................................ 577
No Defect Time.......................... 144, 158, 234
No NDF...................................................... 607
88000 Series
Index
No Pattern Analysis (Live) .......... 140, 156, 232
No Traffic .................................................. 342
No Traffic Time.......................................... 158
Nominal Bit Rate ....................................... 300
None ................................................. 289, 291
None (All 1’s) ............................................ 554
Non-Unicast .............................................. 515
n-Ramp ..................................................... 314
Number ..................................................... 302
Number of Burst Sequence........................ 164
Number of Calls ................................ 274, 311
Number of Channels ......................... 274, 311
Number of Trib Slots ................................. 300
O
OA1........................................................... 572
OA2........................................................... 572
OAM Mode ............................... 194, 260, 419
OAM Quick Ping ................................ 205, 264
OAM Type ................................................. 127
OAM Version............................................. 419
OCI ............................................................ 372
ODU .......................................................... 705
ODU Channels ........................................... 232
ODU Multiplexing...................................... 710
ODU0 ........................................................ 297
ODUflex..................................................... 712
ODUx......................................................... 371
ODUx-TCM ................................................ 374
Offset 152, 174, 175, 190, 191, 284, 285, 463,
542, 543
OH Details ................................................. 571
OMFI ................................................. 377, 577
On Error .................................................... 562
One-step ........................................... 137, 467
One-Way Latency Threshold ...................... 256
OOF................................... 346, 347, 378, 380
OOM ......................................................... 380
OOMFI....................................................... 377
OOR .......................................................... 378
OOS........................................................... 365
Power Blazer
Operation .................................................. 474
Operation Mode ................................ 257, 541
Operator
Filter..................................................... 559
Operator Identifier............................. 177, 412
Operator Specific ............... 177, 328, 412, 511
Optical Device Under Test block ................ 102
Optical Lane ...................................... 188, 280
Optical RX Power Test................................ 482
Optical TX Power Test................................ 482
OPU ........................................................... 706
OPU Tributary Port..................................... 297
OPU Tributary Slots.................................... 297
OPU-PLM ........................................... 179, 413
OPUx ......................................................... 376
OTL .................................................... 378, 703
OTL-SDT..................................................... 426
OTN ........................................................... 572
OTN BERT .................................................... 45
OTN BIP-8 .................................................. 357
OTN Multiplexing....................................... 114
OTN-SONET/SDH BERT ................................. 49
OTU ........................................................... 704
OTU frame structure .................................. 702
OTU overhead............................................ 702
OTU1 ......................................................... 296
OTU1e ....................................................... 296
OTU1f ........................................................ 296
OTU2 ......................................................... 296
OTU2e ....................................................... 296
OTU2f ........................................................ 296
OTU3 ......................................................... 296
OTU3e1 ..................................................... 296
OTU3e2 ..................................................... 296
OTU4 ......................................................... 296
OTUx.......................................................... 379
OUI .................................................... 205, 419
Out-of-Seq................................................. 384
Out-of-Sequence ....... 316, 317, 454, 455, 510
Oversize............................................. 354, 359
Oversize Monitoring .................................. 355
Overtake .................................................... 243
759
Index
Overwrite .......................................... 177, 178
Overwrite Fixed Stuff................................. 302
P
P1...................... 455, 514, 517, 519, 560, 593
P2...................... 455, 514, 517, 519, 560, 593
Packet Capture .......................................... 560
Packet Pause Time ..................................... 518
Packets Received ....................................... 597
Packets Transmitted .................................. 597
Pair............................................................ 470
Parameters ........................................ 164, 258
Parser Action ............................................. 419
PASS.................................................... 32, 337
Pass/Fail Verdict 139, 142, 144, 147, 157, 158,
159, 168, 233, 234, 246, 259, 262,
319
FAIL ..................................................... 337
PASS .................................................... 337
Path Signal Label (C2) ....................... 187, 523
Path/Mapping
DSn/PDH BERT........................................ 57
OTN BERT......................................... 44, 46
OTN-SONET/SDH BERT ........................... 50
SONET/SDH - DSn/PDH BERT .................. 59
SONET/SDH BERT ................................... 54
Pattern .............................. 140, 156, 232, 291
Pattern Error.............................. 157, 343, 460
Pattern Error Count ................................... 460
Pattern Error Rate...................................... 460
Pattern Loss............................................... 342
Pattern Sync .............................................. 142
Pause Frames ............................................ 517
Payload ............................................. 214, 269
Payload Content........................................ 290
payload FCS............................................... 724
payload FCS indicator................................ 721
payload header ......................................... 720
payload information field.......................... 724
Payload Type ............................. 178, 235, 413
payload type identifier .............................. 720
760
PBB-TE ............................................... 202, 204
P-bit........................................................... 347
PCS BIP-8 ................................................... 357
PCS BIP-8 Mask.......................................... 357
PCS Lane............................................ 532, 533
PCS Lanes .................................................. 356
PD.............................................................. 227
PDI-P.......................................................... 393
Peer MEP Parameters................................. 264
Per Direction Configuration ....................... 168
Percentage Lost ......................................... 597
Performance Criteria.......................... 227, 279
Performance Information .......................... 551
Performance Monitoring ........................... 428
Performance Report Message .................... 549
Performance Test....................................... 222
Period ........................ 265, 267, 315, 409, 410
pFCS .......................................................... 364
PFI ............................................. 415, 567, 570
Physical clock port ..................................... 107
Physical Interface
Electrical .............................................. 282
Optical ................................................. 280
Physical interface port ............................... 106
Physical Lane ............................................. 532
Ping & Trace Route .................................... 593
Ping button ............................................... 594
Pins............................................................ 470
PLI ............................................................. 570
PLM ........................................................... 377
PLM-P ................................................ 393, 404
PLM-P/UNEQ-P ................................... 405, 418
PLM-V................................................ 193, 401
PLM-V/UNEQ-V .......................................... 418
PM............................................................. 575
PM & TCM ................................................. 574
PM TTI Traces..................................... 326, 511
PoE .................................................... 146, 473
PoE Loaded Voltage Thresholds................. 148
Point To Point ............................................ 172
Pointer Adjustment ................................... 598
Pointer Value ..................................... 598, 607
88000 Series
Index
Port #1 to Port #2 .................................... 246
Port #2 to Port #1 .................................... 246
Port 1 ................................................ 121, 130
Port 2 ................................................ 121, 130
Port Availability on the Module ................... 15
Port Status ................................................ 173
POS Violation ............................................ 399
Positive...................................................... 191
Post-Trigger............................................... 563
Power........................................................ 474
Power Class ............................................... 147
Power Consumption.................................. 482
Power Presence ......................................... 473
Power Range ............................. 189, 281, 631
Power Recovery 458, 464, 478, 487, 489, 492,
495, 498, 503, 506, 509
Power Threshold ....................................... 323
Preamble/SFD ............................................ 203
Precedence ................................................ 212
Pre-Emphasis............................................. 537
Pre-Emphasis Pre-tap 0t, Post-tap 1t, Post-tap
2t ................................................ 538
Prefix Mask........................................ 210, 219
Pre-Trigger ................................................ 563
Primary Port / Secondary Port.................... 122
Priority162, 198, 203, 204, 206, 220, 264, 267,
410, 545, 547, 613
PRM................................................... 547, 551
PRM Bit Events .................................. 549, 550
product
identification label............................... 656
specifications ................................... 1, 661
Profile........................................ 133, 223, 274
Services................................................ 273
Streams ............................................... 310
Profile button ............................................ 311
Prop. Delay........................................ 469, 472
Prop. Delay Threshold ............................... 147
Protected Channel..................................... 540
Protocol............................................. 184, 462
Protocol block ........................................... 107
PSE Type.................................................... 473
Power Blazer
PSI ............................................................. 577
PSP (Link Protocol)..................................... 184
PTI ..................................................... 567, 570
PTP ............................................................ 383
PTP Message.............................................. 435
PTP Stats.................................................... 435
Ptr. Decr. ................................................... 607
Ptr. Incr...................................................... 607
PW............................................................. 265
Q
QL Message ............................................... 505
QL Mismatch ..................................... 383, 395
QL Mismatch Frame Count ................ 441, 505
QL Mismatch Monitoring... 138, 318, 437, 440
QL Rate...................................................... 319
QoS Metrics ....................................... 316, 384
QoS Metrics Tags Insertion ........................ 309
QSFP .............................................. 14, 16, 149
Quality Level ...................... 138, 437, 440, 468
Quantity .................................................... 247
Quick Ping ................................. 134, 211, 321
R
RAI..................... 345, 346, 348, 350, 351, 352
RAI MF....................................................... 348
Ramp ......................................................... 314
EtherSAM............................................. 169
Service Configuration........................... 451
Ramp Cycle Count ..................................... 315
Ramp Duration .......................................... 169
Ramp Nb. of Steps..................................... 315
Ramp Test.................................................. 166
Random..................................................... 312
Random Mapping...................................... 534
Rate ........................... 186, 311, 336, 408, 479
Rate Unit ................... 246, 258, 272, 309, 322
rates .................................................. 713, 727
RDI............................................. 347, 361, 387
RDI-L.................................................. 391, 403
RDI-P.................................................. 393, 404
761
Index
RDI-V ......................................................... 400
Ready ................................................ 257, 609
Receipt Timeout ........................................ 138
Receive Messages .............................. 547, 554
Received .................................................... 413
Received QL............................................... 318
Receiving Live Traffic ................................. 459
REF OUT .................................... 14, 15, 16, 26
Reference Clock........................................... 12
Reference Output ........................................ 11
Refill .......................................................... 163
Refill Delay ................................................ 163
Refill Delay Ratio ....................................... 164
REI-L .................................................. 391, 406
REI-L Computation Method....................... 302
REI-P.................................................. 394, 406
REI-V ......................................................... 402
Relative ..................................................... 423
Release ...................................................... 295
Reliability................................................... 213
Re-Login .................................................... 172
Remote...................................................... 258
Remote block ............................................ 103
Remote Control ......................................... 320
Remote Fault ..................................... 353, 358
Remote Fault Emulation ............................ 187
Remote IP Address ............................ 258, 321
Remote Loopback ..................................... 420
Remote Modules Discovery ....................... 622
Remote Radio Head................................... 131
Remote to Local ........................................ 246
Remote ToolBox ........................................ 741
Installation........................................... 743
Starting and using ............................... 744
Remote unit in DTS Mode ......... 476, 492, 496
Remote unit in use and locked for DTS .... 475,
492, 496
removing a module ....................................... 8
Renewal Interval........................................ 135
Replied Details........................................... 597
Report Content.......................................... 550
Request ..................................................... 539
762
Requesting MEP ID TLV.............................. 267
RES ............................................ 573, 574, 576
Reserved Bit ............................................... 213
Reserved CMF ............................................ 362
Reserved PLI............................................... 415
Reserved PTI .............................................. 415
Reset.......................................................... 610
Reset button.............................................. 638
Reset Skew ................................................ 535
Resolve MAC.............................................. 263
Resolve MAC Address ................ 205, 211, 244
Responder ................................................. 521
Restore 1588 PTP Defaults ......................... 139
Restore Cable Test Defaults ....................... 148
Restore Carrier EThernet OAM Defaults ..... 269
Restore CPRI/OBSAI Defaults...................... 157
Restore Default.................................. 276, 320
Restore Default at Start-Up........................ 320
Restore EtherBERT Defaults ....................... 155
Restore EtherSAM Defaults........................ 168
Restore Multi-Channel OTN Defaults ......... 237
Restore OTN BERT Defaults ........................ 155
Restore RFC 2544 Defaults......................... 247
Restore RFC 6349 Defaults......................... 259
Restore SyncE Defaults .............................. 319
Restore TCP Throughput Defaults .............. 322
Restore Test Application Defaults .............. 145
Results ................................................. 33, 595
resume operation ...................................... 650
Re-transmitted Frames............................... 507
return merchandise authorization (RMA) .. 659
Revision ..................................................... 419
RFC 2544 ..................................................... 64
Global .................................................. 246
RFC 6349 ............................................. 66, 257
RFC 6349 Results ....................................... 483
RFC 6349 Test on Service 1........................ 222
RFI-V .......................................................... 400
RJ45........................................... 11, 12, 15, 23
RJ48C .............................................. 13, 17, 25
R-LOF......................................................... 345
R-LOS......................................................... 345
88000 Series
Index
Round Trip Delay ............................... 611, 612
Round Trip Latency.................................... 508
Round-Trip Latency ................................... 480
Round-Trip Latency Threshold ........... 159, 480
RS.............................................................. 390
RS (J0) ....................................................... 513
RS-FAS....................................................... 391
RS-FEC ....................................................... 385
RS-LOF....................................................... 390
RS-OOF...................................................... 390
RS-TIM....................................... 331, 390, 513
RTD ................................................... 608, 611
RTT ............................................................ 484
Running .................................................... 609
Runt .......................................................... 355
RX button.................................................. 578
RX CCM ..................................................... 499
RX Cm ....................................................... 566
RX CnD...................................................... 566
RX DMR..................................................... 445
RX Frame Count ........................................ 454
RX Frames ................................................. 493
RX Frequency ............ 175, 191, 285, 463, 543
RX LBR....................................................... 443
RX Line Utilization ..................................... 502
RX LMR...................................................... 446
RX LTR ....................................................... 614
RX Mismatch ............................................. 415
RX OH Byte Details .................................... 577
RX Pattern ......................................... 141, 142
RX Pointer Adjustment .............................. 607
RX Power................................... 188, 280, 630
RX Power Range ........................................ 323
RX Rate...................................... 453, 457, 484
RX SLR ....................................................... 447
RX Termination.......................................... 283
RX TST ....................................................... 444
S
S. & F......................................................... 494
S1...................................................... 301, 581
Power Blazer
Sa4 .................................................... 616, 617
Sa5 .................................................... 616, 617
Sa6 .................................................... 616, 617
Sa7 .................................................... 616, 617
Sa8 .................................................... 616, 617
safety
caution..................................................... 2
conventions ............................................. 2
warning ................................................... 2
SAPI ................................................... 327, 511
SAPI ODU-TIM.................................... 329, 512
SAPI OTU-TIM .................................... 329, 512
SAPI TCM-TIM............................................ 329
Save to CSV ............................................... 530
Save/Load button ...................................... 639
Save/Load tab ............................................ 640
SB-CORR .................................................... 363
SB-CORR (Post) .......................................... 363
SB-CORR (Pre) ............................................ 363
SB-UNCORR ............................................... 364
Scrambler .................................................. 296
Scrambling ................................................ 184
SDI............................................................. 345
SDT Threshold............ 145, 158, 234, 448, 462
Secondary Port .......................................... 122
Seconds ..................................................... 336
Seconds per Service ................................... 166
Section .............................................. 265, 390
Section (J0) ................................................ 513
SEF..................................................... 390, 403
SEP ............................................................ 432
SEPI ........................................................... 432
SEQ Violation............................................. 399
Sequence ........................................... 184, 462
Server Address ........................................... 744
Service ............................... 273, 476, 484, 485
service and repairs ..................................... 659
service centers ........................................... 660
Service Configuration
Ramp ................................................... 451
Service Configuration Test ......... 166, 221, 476
Service Configuration Test button ............. 476
763
Index
Service Configuration Test Status ...... 475, 483
Service Disruption ..... 143, 233, 426, 448, 461
Service Duration ........................................ 135
Service Name..................................... 164, 270
Service Name and Selection ...... 450, 451, 453
Service No ................................................. 164
Service Performance .................................. 453
Service Performance Test................... 167, 476
Service Performance Test button............... 476
Service Performance Test Status ........ 475, 483
Service Selection........................................ 200
Services ..................................................... 223
SES .................................................... 429, 432
SESR .................................................. 431, 434
Set All........................................................ 290
Setup........................................................... 33
SFP .................................................... 149, 655
SFP/SFP+ ......................................... 11, 12, 15
SFP+ ............................................. 14, 16, 149
Shaping..................................................... 314
Shaping button ......................................... 315
shipping to EXFO ...................................... 659
Si0..................................................... 616, 617
Si1..................................................... 616, 617
SID ............................................................ 204
Signal ........................................................ 280
Signal Auto-Detect .................................... 132
Signal Configuration ................................. 286
DSn/PDH .............................................. 287
OTN ..................................................... 296
SONET/SDH .......................................... 301
signal rates........................................ 713, 727
Signaling Bits ............................................ 615
Single ........................................................ 608
Skew ......................................................... 532
Skew Alarm Threshold............................... 536
Skew Threshold ......................................... 323
SLA button ................................................ 271
SLA Parameters ................................. 278, 453
SLA Verified....................................... 450, 451
SLM ........................................... 520, 521, 629
SLR .................................................... 521, 629
764
SM............................................................. 572
SM TTI Traces..................................... 326, 511
SMA............................................................. 26
Smart Loopback .................................. 71, 306
S-OAM............... 201, 207, 260, 386, 419, 443
Traffic .................................................. 520
S-OAM Link Trace ...................................... 613
S-OAM Responder ..................... 261, 307, 629
Software options ......................................... 34
SONET/SDH................................................ 578
SONET/SDH - DSn/PDH BERT ........................ 58
SONET/SDH BERT ......................................... 53
SONET/SDH Multiplexing ........................... 117
Sort By....................................................... 423
Source ....................................................... 171
Source B-MAC Address .............................. 204
Source EoE MAC Address .......................... 203
Source Flooding......................................... 206
Source IP Address .............................. 208, 593
Source IP Multiplicator .............................. 211
Source MAC Address ......................... 162, 205
Source Node ID.......................................... 540
Source Port................................................ 214
Spare ......................................... 569, 571, 723
Spare Bits .................................................. 616
Special VID values...................................... 740
Specific IP .................................................. 622
specifications, product .......................... 1, 661
Speed ........................................ 183, 198, 631
Start button............................................... 643
Start Time. 324, 458, 464, 467, 469, 475, 478,
481, 483, 487, 489, 491, 492, 495,
498, 503, 506, 509, 627
Stateless Auto.................... 208, 209, 217, 218
Static ................................. 208, 210, 217, 219
Status458, 489, 491, 495, 499, 501, 596, 609,
627
Status Bar .................................................... 28
Alarm/Error Injection.............................. 30
Busy ....................................................... 29
Clock synchronization ............................ 29
Connected ............................................. 29
88000 Series
Index
Disconnected ......................................... 29
ESMC ............................................... 28, 29
Interface/Signal...................................... 28
Laser ...................................................... 29
LINK ....................................................... 28
Loopback ............................................... 29
Loopback mode ..................................... 30
OH ......................................................... 29
P1, P2 .................................................... 28
Pattern................................................... 29
Power level ............................................ 29
PTP......................................................... 28
Remote PC connection........................... 30
Test icon ................................................ 28
TX/RX, TX, RX......................................... 28
Step................................... 417, 493, 494, 598
Step SIze ................................................... 285
Step Size ........................................... 174, 190
Step Time .......................................... 169, 315
STM-1 Channel .......................................... 578
Stop button............................................... 643
Stop Time.................................................. 325
storage requirements ................................ 651
Stream............... 310, 455, 456, 457, 510, 593
Stream Name ............................................ 308
Stream Selection ....................................... 200
Stream Selection and Activation................ 310
STS Path (C2)..................................... 192, 418
STS Path (J1).............................................. 513
STS Path (N1) .................................... 331, 513
STS-1 Timeslot........................................... 578
STS-x ......................................................... 392
Subchannel ............................................... 185
Subnet....................................................... 622
Subnet Mask ............................. 199, 211, 216
Subtest Duration ....................................... 167
Subtests ............................................ 166, 246
RFC 2544 ............................................. 248
Subtests EtherSAM
Service Configuration Test ................... 221
Power Blazer
Summary ........................................... 458, 489
1588 PTP.............................................. 464
Cable Test ............................................ 469
EtherSAM............................................. 475
FC BERT ................................................ 478
iSAM ............................................ 481, 483
MPLS-TP OAM .............................. 487, 498
NI/CSU Emulation................................. 491
RFC 2544.............................................. 492
RFC 6349.............................................. 495
S-OAM ......................................... 487, 498
SyncE ................................................... 503
TCP Throughput ................................... 506
Traffic Gen & Mon ............................... 509
Superblock................................................. 416
suspend mode ........................................... 649
Sweep........................................................ 313
Switching Mode ........................................ 539
Symbol .............................................. 354, 359
symbols, safety .............................................. 2
Sync........................................................... 135
Sync IPDV .................................................. 468
SyncE........................................... 79, 318, 395
Synchronization Status Message (S1) ........ 301
Synthetic Loss .................................... 266, 447
Synthetic Loss Ratio................................... 502
Synthetic Loss Threshold............................ 262
System................................................. 97, 320
T
T0 .............................................................. 551
T0-1 ........................................................... 551
T0-2 ........................................................... 551
T0-3 ........................................................... 551
Target ........................................................ 622
TC .............................................................. 265
TC-IAIS-P.................................................... 396
TC-IAIS-V ................................................... 396
TC-IEC-P ..................................................... 398
TC-LTC-P .................................................... 396
TC-LTC-V .................................................... 396
765
Index
TCM .......................... 297, 300, 302, 396, 707
TCM Access Point Identifier ....................... 331
TCM ACT ................................................... 574
TCM TTI Traces .......................................... 326
TCM1 ........................................................ 575
TCM2 ........................................................ 575
TCM3 ........................................................ 575
TCM4 ........................................................ 574
TCM5 ........................................................ 574
TCM6 ........................................................ 574
TC-ODI-P.................................................... 396
TC-ODI-V ................................................... 396
TC-OEI-P .................................................... 398
TC-OEI-V.................................................... 398
TCP............................................................ 214
TCP Checksum ........................................... 370
TCP Connection Configuration .................. 321
TCP Connection Status .............................. 507
TCP Efficiency .................................... 486, 496
TCP Mode.................................................. 321
TCP Port ............................................ 258, 321
TCP Server Port.......................................... 258
TCP Throughput .......................... 74, 321, 508
TCP Throughput Configuration ................. 322
TCP Throughput Threshold (% of ideal)..... 497
TC-RDI-P .................................................... 397
TC-RDI-V.................................................... 397
TC-REI-P..................................................... 398
TC-REI-V .................................................... 398
TC-TIM....................................................... 331
TC-TIM-P............................................ 397, 513
TC-TIM-V ........................................... 397, 513
TC-UNEQ-P ........................................ 302, 396
TC-UNEQ-V........................................ 302, 396
TC-VIOL-P .................................................. 397
TC-VIOL-V.................................................. 397
technical specifications ......................... 1, 661
technical support ...................................... 656
Temp. Threshold ....................................... 323
Temperature.............................................. 482
temperature for storage............................ 651
TERM................................................. 151, 152
766
Termination ............................................... 151
Test.................................................... 266, 444
Test Applications ......................................... 41
Test Block .................................................. 107
Test Configurator ........................................ 97
Ethernet Test Applications ................... 104
Fibre Channel Test Application............. 105
Intelligent Apps ................................... 102
Overview.............................................. 102
Packet Sync Test Applications .............. 105
Transport Test Applications.................. 104
Wireless Test Applications.................... 105
Test Control ................................................. 33
Test Equipment ......................................... 320
Test Function ............................................. 266
Test ID ....................................................... 269
Test Menu ................................................... 33
Test Parameters ......................................... 277
Test Pattern ............................................... 269
Test Recovery.... 458, 464, 478, 487, 492, 495,
498, 503, 506, 509
Test Sequence block .................................. 102
Test Setup.................................................... 41
Test Status 464, 469, 478, 485, 487, 498, 503,
506, 509
Test Timer.................................................... 33
tHEC .......................................................... 570
tHEC-CORR ................................................ 362
tHEC-UNCORR ........................................... 363
Threshold .......................................... 322, 421
Threshold (% of ideal) ....................... 222, 259
Thresholds ......................... 262, 455, 456, 457
Through..................................................... 119
Through Intrusive ...................................... 120
Through Intrusive with Block & Replace..... 120
Through Mode ............................................ 73
Throughput ............... 212, 248, 316, 317, 493
Streams................................................ 457
Throughput button ................................... 417
Throughput meter ..................................... 507
Throughput Pass/Fail Verdict ..................... 322
Throughput Threshold............................... 507
88000 Series
Index
TIM............................................ 372, 374, 380
Time .................................................. 423, 551
Time Mode ........................................ 423, 449
Time Source ...................................... 137, 467
Time Stamp ....................................... 421, 449
Time Zone ................................................. 320
Timeout............................................. 594, 595
Timer............................................. 33, 97, 324
Timeslot .................................................... 302
TIM-P......................................... 331, 392, 513
TIM-S......................................... 331, 390, 513
TIM-V ........................................ 331, 401, 513
Title Bar ....................................................... 30
TLV Type.................................................... 269
To the following Services........................... 272
Tone .......................................................... 290
Topology ........................... 106, 119, 127, 131
TOS/DS .............................................. 212, 258
TOS/DS Config ........................................... 212
Total.................................................. 415, 416
Total Burst Test Time ................................. 164
Total Frame ............................................... 517
Total Number of Bytes............................... 561
Total PTP Messages ................................... 468
Total TX Rate ..................... 272, 274, 309, 316
Total TX/RX MPLS ...................................... 425
Trace Route ............................................... 595
Traces ........................................................ 523
OTN ............................................. 448, 511
SONET/SDH .................................. 330, 513
Traffic................................................ 480, 514
Traffic Class (TOS/DS) ................................ 212
Traffic Ethernet ......................................... 462
Traffic Gen & Mon....................................... 69
Traffic Monitoring ..................................... 520
Traffic Policing........................................... 277
Traffic Scan ............................................... 618
Transcoding............................................... 399
Transmitted Frames................................... 507
Transparent ....................................... 127, 627
Transparent (Pseudo-Physical) ........... 127, 627
transparent-mapped GFP .......................... 716
Power Blazer
Transport Layer.................................. 202, 414
transportation requirements.............. 651, 656
Trial ........................................................... 493
Trial Duration ............................ 249, 252, 253
Trials.................................. 249, 251, 252, 253
Tributary Port .................................... 235, 300
Trigger Position ......................................... 563
Trigger Type............................................... 562
Triggered Error .......................................... 563
Triggered Frame - Details........................... 564
Truncated .................................................. 561
Truncation Calculator ................................ 561
TS16 AIS .................................................... 348
TS16 Frame 0 Bit 5, 7, 8 .................... 616, 617
TST............................................................. 520
TST RX Rate ............................................... 502
TTI Traces
DAPI ODU-TIM ..................................... 329
DAPI OTU-TIM ...................................... 329
DAPI TCM-TIM...................................... 329
PM ....................................................... 326
SAPI ODU-TIM ...................................... 329
SAPI OTU-TIM....................................... 329
SAPI TCM-TIM ...................................... 329
SM ....................................................... 326
TCM ..................................................... 326
TTL............................. 203, 212, 265, 594, 613
TU.............................................................. 400
TU Path...................................................... 305
TU Path (N1) .............................................. 331
TU Path (V5) ...................................... 192, 418
TU Path (Z6 or N1 (TU-3)) .................. 331, 513
TU-AIS ....................................................... 400
TU-LOP....................................................... 400
Two-step ........................................... 137, 467
TX button .......................................... 578, 643
TX CCM ..................................................... 499
TX CIR ........................................................ 484
TX Cm........................................................ 566
TX CnD ...................................................... 566
TX DMM .................................................... 445
TX Enable .................................................. 266
767
Index
TX Frames ................................................. 493
TX Frequency..................... 174, 190, 284, 542
TX LBM...................................................... 443
TX LMM..................................................... 446
TX LTM ...................................................... 613
TX Mode ................................................... 314
TX Pattern ................................. 141, 142, 232
TX Pattern/RX Pattern................................ 156
TX Poniter Adjustment .............................. 598
TX Power........................................... 188, 280
TX Power Range ........................................ 323
TX Rate...... 140, 160, 267, 308, 314, 451, 457
TX SLM ...................................................... 447
TX to RX .................................................... 246
TX TST ....................................................... 444
Type .......................... 162, 203, 206, 220, 407
Type Header .............................................. 567
type HEC field............................................ 723
Type Of Service.......................................... 212
U
UAS ................................................... 431, 434
UDP ................................................... 214, 306
UDP Checksum .......................................... 370
UDP/TCP .................................................... 628
Unassigned ....................................... 547, 554
Undersize .......................................... 355, 359
UNEQ-P ............................................. 392, 404
UNEQ-V ............................................. 193, 401
Unexp MEP................................................ 387
Unexp Period............................................. 387
Unexp. MD Lvl ........................................... 386
Unexp. MEG Lvl ......................................... 386
Unframed.......................................... 125, 130
Unframed (Interop) ................................... 125
Unframed BERT ................................. 140, 155
Unframed with Sync.................................. 125
Unicast ...................................................... 515
Unidirectional............................................ 420
Unit ........................................................... 494
Unloaded Voltage ..................................... 474
768
Unusable ................................................... 383
UPI..................................................... 415, 568
UPM .......................................................... 360
Use Stream ................................................ 594
User Defined Codes ................................... 213
User Defined UPI........................................ 409
User Information ....................................... 320
user payload identifier............................... 721
User Performance ...................................... 227
UserDefined CMF....................................... 362
V
V5.............................................................. 590
Val. ............................................................ 493
Valid .......................................................... 416
Valid Event Count...................................... 550
Validations ................................................ 250
Value ......................................................... 598
Filter..................................................... 558
Variable Retrieval....................................... 420
Vendor Specific Information...................... 420
Verdict......................................................... 32
-- ............................................................ 32
FAIL................................................ 32, 337
PASS .............................................. 32, 337
Version 1 ................................................... 184
Version 2 ................................................... 184
VID ............................................................ 740
Video......................................................... 311
Video Codec ...................................... 274, 311
View File After Generation......................... 565
VLAN ................................................. 206, 308
VLAN (ID/Priority)....................................... 271
VLAN ID ............. 162, 198, 203, 204, 206, 220
VLAN ID/Priority ......................................... 198
VLAN Priority ............................................. 740
VLAN Tag........................................... 202, 220
VOD........................................................... 538
Voice ......................................................... 311
Voice Codec....................................... 274, 311
VT .............................................................. 400
88000 Series
Index
VT Path...................................................... 305
VT Path (V5) ...................................... 192, 418
VT Path (Z6) ...................................... 331, 513
Z6 .............................................................. 591
Z7 .............................................................. 592
Zero Code Suppression .............................. 289
W
warranty
certification ......................................... 658
exclusions ............................................ 658
general ................................................ 657
liability................................................. 658
null and void........................................ 657
Wavelength ....................................... 188, 280
Window .................................................... 421
Window (KiB) .................................... 485, 496
Window Size ............................................. 508
Window Sweep ................................. 496, 522
Windows Size Unit .................................... 507
Wire Map .................................................. 469
Wire Map Test Result................................. 471
Wiring Standard ........................................ 146
WIS.................................................... 403, 523
WIS button................................................ 187
WIS Link Down .......................................... 403
World Wide Name..................................... 171
X
XFP ............................ 11, 12, 15, 23, 149, 655
Y
Y.1731....................................................... 260
Z
Z0.............................................................. 579
Z1.............................................................. 581
Z2.............................................................. 585
Z3.............................................................. 589
Z4.............................................................. 589
Z5.............................................................. 589
Power Blazer
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P/N:1070512
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