Computer Science
Computer Science
Personal Computer (PC) - Architecture
Cezary Bolek
cbolek@ki.uni.lodz.pl
University of Lodz
Faculty of Management
Department of Computer Science
Personal Computer - construction
Case
Power supply
Graphic card
Sound card
Network card, etc.
Mass storage
Hard drive
Floppy drive
CDROM
Motherboard
Processor
Memory
Extension cards
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Motherboard, Mainboard
Mechanical base for computer components such as memory,
processor, etc.
Multilayer (3-7 layers) Printed Circuit Board (PCB)
Sockets for processor, memory modules, extension cards
System and external buses
Set of integrated circuits (chipset)
Read-only memory (ROM) containing boot program (BIOS)
Nonvolatile RAM memory where computer configuration is stored
Real Time Clock (RTC)
Electromagnetic interference !
very high operating frequency
limitations for length and shape of
interconnections
board screening
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1
Motherboard – evolution
Before ~1993-1995:
only basic components of system (chipset+BIOS):
expansion slots – according to ISA bus standard
processor socket (no mechanical insertion support)
the oldest DIL (Dual In Line)
modern: PGA (Pin Grid Array)
keyboard plug-in sockets
memory modules sockets
After ~1993-1995:
tendency to integrate additional computer components
(controllers: in/out, drives, graphics, sound, network)
new processor sockets: ZIP (Zero Insertion Force)
variety of expansion slots (ISA, PCI, VLB, AGP)
Configuration standards: (form factor)
AT, (babyAT), ATX (microATX max:244x244mm)
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Motherboard
Introduction to Computer Science
Motherboard – construction
Expansion slots
ISA, PCI
AGP
Sound
Chip
Game
Port
Parallel and serial port
connectors
Mouse and
keyboard
connectors
USB
connector
Processor
socket
or slot
Memory
sockets
Bios
memory
Power supply
connector
CMOS RAM
battery
SCSI
chipset
Introduction to Computer Science
SCSI devices
controller conn.
IDE devices
controller conn.
Floppy disc
controller connector
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BIOS
Basic Input-Output System
(PC Firmware)
ROM memory containing startup program which is executed
after computer power up.
Hardware configuration checking (processor type, memory size,
extension cards, storage media presence)
Hardware testing for failure - POST (Power-On Self Test + audible
diagnostic signals)
Bootstrap – operating system loading from mass storage system. Data
source – fixed in CMOS RAM (hard drive, CDROM, floppy, network)
BIOS memory in general cannot be changed programmatically what
ensures that system will always boot.
But, usually BIOS is implemented in Flash Memory, what allows
periodical changes by reprogramming (bios upgrade)
www.wimsbios.com
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PnP BIOS
(Plug and Play)
PnP – automatic configuration,
selfconfiguration of expansion cards in PC
system
input/output address space fixing
interrupt number
Input/output address space allows exchange data between
external device and processor
Interrupts – mechanism which allows devices to notify the
processor that they need immediate service
For older BIOS all external devices configuration must have been performed
manually (card configuration) to avoid hardware conflicts.
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Microprocessors
Type –
generation
Year
8086 – I
80286 – II
80386DX – III
80386SX – III
80486DX – IV
80486SX – IV
80486DX2 – VI
80486DX4 – VI
Pentium – V
Pentium MMX – V
Pentium Pro – VI
Pentium II – VI
Pentium II – VI
Pentium III – VI
AMD Athlon – VII
Pentium 4 – VII
...
1978
1982
1985
1988
1989
1989
1992
1994
1993
1997
1995
1997
1998
1999
1999
2000
Buses
data/address
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16/20
16/24
32/32
16/32
32/32
32/32
32/32
32/32
64/32
64/32
64/36
64/36
64/36
64/36
64/36
64/36
Cache
L1
Memory
Clock (MHz)
Processor.
Clock (MHz)
none
none
none
8
8
8
8
8+8
8+8
16+16
8+8
16+16
16+16
16+16
64+64
12+8
4.77-8
6-20
16-33
16-33
25-50
25-50
25-40
25-40
60-66
66
66
66
66/100
100
266
400
4.77-8
6-20
16-33
16-33
25-50
25-50
40-80
75-120
60-200
166-233
150-200
233-300
300-450
450-1.2G
500-1.6G
1.4G-3.6G
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Microprocessor - Trends
Increase clock speed of processor and memory
Increase width of data and address buses
Evolution of instruction sets, main unit and Floating Point Unit (FPU) coprocessor
Low cost versions of existing processors
(SX, Celeron, Duron, ...)
Increase size of cache memory – internal (L1) and external (L2 & L3)
Advanced architectures: superscalar, pipelining, chaining,
multithreading, ...
Specialized instruction sets: MMX, SSE, 3DNow,...
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Microprocessor Complexity
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Processor sockets
Socket must conform processor terminals and packaging
Efficient carrying of heat by radiator
Passive cooling system: radiator + fan
Radiator: base (copper, aluminum, ceramics) + ribbing
Advanced, active cooling systems: water, electric (Peltier), cryogenic.
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Processor Socket Evolution
Socket 1
169-terminals
486 processors (supply voltage 5V)
and versions DX2, DX4, OverDrive
Socket 2
238-terminals
Socket 1 modification for 486
processors
Socket 3
237-terminals
Last socket for 486 , supply voltage
5V and 3.3V
Socket 4
273-terminals
Socket for first Pentium
processors 60/66 MHz, 5V
Socket 5
320-terminals
Socket for Pentium 75/133 MHz, 3.3V
Socket 6
235-terminals
Socket 3 extension for 486,
very rare
Socket 7
321-terminals
Very popular socket for Pentium
MMX and clones, dual voltage
Socket 8
387-terminals
Socket for Pentium Pro only
Slot 1
242-terminals
For Pentium II, III and Celerons, L2 cache memory
in processor cartridge
Slot 2
330-terminals
For Pentium II, III and Xeon with bigger cache
memory
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Microprocessor Sockets Evolution
Slot A
242-terminals
Mechanically identical to Slot1 but electrically
different, for AMD Athlon processors
Socket 370
370- terminals
Slot 1 replacement for new Pentium II, III and
Celeron
Socket 423
423- terminals
For Pentium 4, better heat dissipation and
more efficient cooling systems
Socket A
462- terminals
For newer AMD Athlon, Athlon XP
and Duron with bigger cache memory
Socket 478
478- terminals
Smaller version of 423 for newer Pentium 4
processors
Socket 603
603- terminals
For Pentium 4 Xeon with bigger cache
memory, multiprocessor support
Socket 754
754- terminals
Socket for new AMD Athlon 64 processors
Socket 940,939 939- terminals
Improved socket for new Athlon 64 and
Opteron processors
Socket 775
(LGA775, T)
Socket for newest Pentium 4, P4EE, Celeron
(Prescott i Smithfield core)
775- terminals
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Input/Output Buses
I/O buses are interfaces between computer system and devices located on
expansion cards.
Construction of motherboards, processors and memory chips changes fairly
often, but I/O interfaces relatively rarely. This allows to use typical
expansion cards in every PC computer.
ISA (Industry Standard Architecture 1982) – the oldest,
clock speed 4.77 i 8MHz, max. transfer speed 8MB/s (not
enough for grpahic cards, hard drives, network),
PCI (Peripheral Component Interconnect 1993) –
universal and efficient, clock speed 33,66MHz, max. data
transfer speed 266MB/s, support for PnP,
PCI-Express (PCIe, PCI-E 2003) – universal, efficient
serial bus, clock speed 2.5 GHz, max. transfer speed
250MB/s (per line)
AGP (Accelerated Graphics Port ) – efficient local bus
optimized for graphic cards controllers, max. transfer
speed up to GB/s, clock speed = 1x, 2x, 4x, 8x frontside
bus,
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AGP Bus
AGB Bus controller is connected to System Bus, what offers high speed data
transfer between:
AGP graphic card and processor
AGP graphic card and RAM memory
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PCI Express Bus
very high data transfer speed – serial
architecture
PCIe
Speed
x1 (2004)
250 MB/s
x2 (2004)
500 MB/s
x4 (2004)
1000 MB/s
possibility to plug/unplug cards during
computer work (hot plug/swap)
x8 (2004)
2000 MB/s
x16 v. 1.0 (2004)
4 GB/s
target – to eliminate other I/O buses
x16 v. 2.0 (2007)
8 GB/s
introduced in 2003, first computers equipped
with PCI Express: 2004
x16 v. 3.0
(20011)
16 GB/s
point-to-point connection
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Hard Disc Interfaces
IDE (Integrated Drive Electronics) – hardware solution for data
transfer to/form hard drive
Data exchange protocol (interface) for IDE devices: ATA (AT
Attachment)
IDE device controllers with ATA interface are connected to I/O
buses: ISA, VL-Bus or PCI (presently)
IDE architecture allows to connect only 2 hard drives, maximum
storage capacity 528MB per drive, data transfer speed 3MB/s
– limitation, bottleneck for mass storage systems
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EIDE Standard
Enhanced IDE
4 IDE devices:
two channels
master-slave
faster data transfer up to 16MB/s (ATA-2 1994)
max. disc capacity 8.4GB and (1998) 137GB
support for other devices (CD-ROM) – extension ATA to ATAPI
support for Direct Memory Access (DMA)
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And faster... Ultra ATA
ATA 3 (1996) – SMART (Self-Monitoring Analysis and Reporting
Technology)
ATA 4 (1997, Ultra ATA) – data transfer speed 33MB/s (ATA 33),
support for error correction CRC (Cyclical Redundancy Check),
ATAPI integration
ATA 5 (1999) – data transfer speed 66MB/s (ATA 66),
new 80-wire connecting tapes (so far 40-wire)
ATA 6 (2000) – data transfer speed 100MB/s (ATA 100)
(2001) – speed 133MB/s (ATA 133)
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Serial ATA
Parallel ATA
Serial ATA
lower signal voltage (0.5V)
longer connecting tapes (up to 1m), less wires per tape
efficient error correction
data transfer speed:
SATA Revision 1.x: 170MB/s, 1.5Gb/s (I generation – 2002)
SATA Revision 2.x: 350MB/s, 3Gb/s
SATA Revision 2.x: 700MB/s, 6Gb/s (2009)
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SCSI Interface
Communication interface for external devices, developed for
efficient, high-end computers (1986).
8 devices can be attached to single SCSI adapter. Ststem
can have many SCSII adapters.
Long connection cable (up to 12m)
Application: servers,
efficient computer systems
Many versions:
FastSCSI,
FastWideSCSI
UltraSCSI
UltraWideSCSI,
Ultra2
Ultra3
...
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Parallel and Serial Ports
Legacy ports
Standard for over 20 years with no any modifiactions !!!
Serial Port:
• data transfer speed 115Kb/s (~12kB/s) – sufficient only for very
slow devices: modem, mouse
• simple data transmission protocol, long connection cables (few
meters)
• necessity of using computer hardware resources (interruptions)
Parallel Port:
• data transfer speed ~60KB/s – not enough for most multimedia
devices
• problems when connecting many devices do single port
• simple, dual direction data transmission protocol
• short connection cables (1.5 m)
• necessity of using computer hardware resources (interruptions)
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USB Interface
Universal Serial Bus
Universal communication standard for external I/O devices, full support for
PnP, support for hot-plug
Up to 127 devices can connected at a time: serially or via hub
USB connector has 5V power supply lines, that can be used for supplying
external low power consumption devices (0.5A)
Maximum data transfer speed 12Mbit/s (~1MB/s USB 1.1) and 480Mbit/s
(USB 2.0)
Speed:
USB 1.1
12Mbit/s
(~1.5MB/s)
USB 2.0
(Hi-Speed)
480Mbit/s
USB 3.0
(SuperSpeed)
4.8Gbit/s
Cable length 5m
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IEEE1394 Interface
FireWire - Apple
Interface dedicated to high speed multimedia equipment,
sound and video, philosophy similar to USB
Cable length up to 4.5m, for bigger length repeater is
needed
63 devices can connected at a time, serially
High data transfer speed
400Mbit/s (~50MB/s)
Flexible configuration
Hot-Plug support
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Memory Systems in PC
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Memory Efficiency Progress
Processor efficiency doubles: every 18 month
Memory efficiency doubles:
every 7 years
Memory efficiency is understood as:
speed
capacity
Memory speed, two parameters:
Memory access time: transfer time of basic portion of
data between memory and processor
Memory cycle time: minimal time between read/write
operations form/to same memory cell
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Memory – Computer System
Bottleneck
How to solve the problem of slow memory subsystem ?
using very fast StaticRAM memory modules –very expensive solution, high
power consumption. Only for high-end, expensive computer systems;
using slow DRAM memory modules improving methods of data transfer: wide
buses, block transfers;
using the combination of slow and cheap DRAM memory (main memory) and
fast StaticRAM (support memory). Such memory subsystem should organized
the way to optimize data transfer that mostly takes place between processor
and fast, support memory – Cache Memory.
Modern, efficient memory system must have
hierarchical organization!
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Hierarchical Memory Organization
CPU and
internal registers
L1
Cache
farther from
processor –
slower memory
Cache L2
...
Main Memory
Memory size on every level
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Main Memory
Always Dynamic RAM, communication with processor via system bus
or frontside bus
All Pentium processors (after 1993) have data bus width
= 64bits (8 bytes)
DRAM
Fast Page Mode DRAM
Extended Data Out DRAM
Burst Extended Data Out DRAM
Synchronous DRAM
Double Data Rate DRAM
DDR2
DDR3
Introduction to Computer Science
– 4.77-40MHz
– FPM DRAM (16-66MHz)
– EDO DRAM (33-75MHz)
– BEDO DRAM (60-100MHz)
– SDRAM (100,133MHz)
– DDR DRAM (200, 266, 333MHZ, ...)
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DDR3
DDR2
DDR1
DDR1-3 SDRAM
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Memory Modules
(the most popular)
DIP (dual inline package) – DRAM,
oldest type of modules, computers with processors
8086, 80286
SIMM (single inline memory module) – FPM, EDO
for processors 386 (30 terminals modules, 16 bit),
486 (72 terminals modules, 32 bit),
Pentium (72 terminals modules, 32 bit, used in pairs)
DIMM (dual inline memory module) –
for computers with Pentium II and MMX (100 terminals
modules, FPM, EDO) and newer (168 terminals
modules, 64 bit, SDRAM, DDR RAM)
SO-DIMM (Small Outline DIMM) – for laptop
computers, 72 or 144 terminals (32 or 64 bit)
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Flash Memory
Nonvolatile semiconductor memory (EEPROM technology)
Compromise between ROM and RAM memory, perfect for for
portable computers: Palmtop, DigiCam, etc...
Significantly slower than typical computer memory systems, (write
cycles), not suitable (for now) as main computer memory
Limited number of write cycles (hundreds of thousand)
Application: BIOS memory in PC, configuration memory for
extension cards, external storage systems (PenDrive,
SmartMedia, CompactFlash,...)
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Moore’s Law
Gordon E. Moore, 1965. "Cramming more components onto integrated
circuits," Electronics, v.38, no 8 (19 April),
Exponential increase in the number of components on a chip
Doubling of number of transistors on a chip every 18 months
(1980s)
Doubling of microprocessor power every 18 months (1990s)
Computing power at fixed cost is doubling every 18 months
(1990s)
Throughput of integrated circuits, in MIPS, will be doubled every
18 months with cost of decrease by 50%, and this regularity
will remain correct for several decades.
(MIPS -millions of instructions per second)
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Memory and Processor Complexity Progress
1T
1012
256G
64G
1011
DRAMs
Transistors per Chip
1010
1G
109
McKinley
Itanium (Merced)
256M
108
64M
Pentium IV
Pentium III
Pentium II
PPC 620
Pentium Pro
Pentium
16M
107
4M
1M
106
256k
64k
105
104
16G
4G
i486
80386
80286
16k
4k
8086
Intel
Motorola
1k
103
1970
Processors
4004
1980
2000
1990
Introduction to Computer Science
2010
2020
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Evolution of Computer Power/Cost
MIPS / $1000
(1997 Dollars)
3
Gateway G6-200
PowerMac 8100/80
10
Gateway-485DX2/55
Power Tower 150e
Macintosh-128K
Mac II
AT&T
Commodore
IBM PC
Globalyst 600
Apple II 64
IBM
PS/290
DG Eclipse Sun-2
CDC 7600
Sun-3
DEC PDP-10
IBM 1130
VAX 11/750
IBM 7090
DEC VAX 11/780
Whirlwind
DEC-KL-10
IBM 704
DG Nova
UNIVAC I
SDS 920
ENIAC
IBM 350/75
IBM 7040
Colossus
Burroughs 5000
IBM 1620
IBM 650
Burroughs Class 16
Zuse-1
IBM Tabulator
1
10-3
10-6
10-9
Monroe Calculator
1900
1920
Introduction to Computer Science
ASCC
(Mark 1)
1940
1960
1980 2000 2020 2040
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Memory Cost
Prices of 1 Mbit RAM
150 000 $
History
Forecast
10 $
1$
26 C
5C
3C
1973
1977
1981
1984
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1987
1991
1995
1999
2002
2005
1C
2009
1 paper clip
60 $
1 sticker
240 $
1 gummi bear
800 $
1 sheet of paper
1 chewing gum
10 000 $
0,5 C
0,1 C
2013
2017
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