motherboard - AllTechies Support Area
motherboard
is the central printed circuit board (PCB) in many modern computers
and holds many of the crucial components of the system, while providing
connectors for other peripherals. The motherboard is sometimes
alternatively known as the mainboard, system board
A motherboard, like a backplane, provides the electrical connections by which the other
components of the system communicate, but unlike a backplane,
it also connects the central processing unit and hosts other subsystems and devices
North bridge
www.shriraminfotech.net
South bridge
Register
B
Register
C
Control unit
vcc
Power good
Reset
ALU
3-state
latch
Register
A
Instruction
decoder
Clock
Program
counter
Read
Data bus
Address bus
Write
Vcc
Cpu core voltage 0.8 to 1volt 30Amp
VRM_POWER GOOD
CPU
clock
A system bus is a single computer bus that
connects the major components of a computer
system. The technique was developed to reduce
costs and improve modulariIt combines the
functions of a
data bus to carry information.,
address bus to determine where it should be sent,
control bus to determine its operation
CPU has three main blocks
Arithmetic-logic (ALU-Arithmetic Logic Unit) The function to execute
the commands of the control unit and signal processing. As the name
suggests, this unit is used to perform arithmetic (+,-,*,/) or arithmetic
logic (compare greater than, less than ...)
Controller (Control Unit) is the processor is responsible for
translating the program's command and control process
activities, regulated by precision clock generation
Register (Register) register is responsible for recording the
code before processing and the result after processing
The specifications of the CPU
CPU speed :
FSB - Front Side Bus
Cache memory.
CPU speed
Cache memory
FSB - Front Side Bus
Celron
Pentium 4
Centrino
Dual core
Core 2 duo
Core 2 quad
I3
I5
I7
Athlon
Athlon 64
Athlon 64 x2
Turion
Duron
Opetron
Sepmpron
MEMORY TYPES
RAM
Double data rate RAM
+1.5V
DDR2
(for DDD3)
+.75Vs
(DDR3)
SPD
Types of ROM (BIOS)chip
spi FLASH =
FLASH ROM=A nonvolatile storage chip
that easy electrical erasability and
reprogramming
Number start from 29/39/49
25C40
39C040
Spi Flash
size in MB
Flash Rom
size in MB
CPU
ROM
Display
controller
RTC
I/O
Timer
Parallal
port
Math
CPU
clock
DMA
RAM
INT
PS/2
port
KB
controller
HDD
cont
Serial
I/o
FDD
Cont.
Audio
CPU
ROM
Display
Hub 1
controller
RTC
I/O
Hub 2
Timer
Parallal
port
Math
CPU
clock
DMA
RAM
INT
PS/2
port
KB
controller
HDD
cont
Serial
I/o
FDD
Cont.
Audio
Two hub works on pairs called chipset
Clk
CPU
Hub 1
CPU
MCH
DISPLAY
MCH
Hub 2
RAM
ICH
IDE
BIOS
ICH
SATA
USB
AUDIO
In computing, the term chipset is
commonly used to refer to a set of
specialized chips on a computer's
motherboard
CPU
FSB
MCH
DISPLAY
chipset is usually designed to work with a
specific family of microprocessors. Because
it controls communications between the
processor and external devices, the chipset
plays a crucial role in determining system
performance.
RAM
ICH
IDE
Intel, Nvida, AMD, sis, VIA
BIOS
SATA
USB
AUDIO
North Bridge
The northbridge typically handles communications among the
CPU, in some cases RAM, and PCI Express (or AGP) video cards
MGCH or North Bridge
FSB
CPU
1.05v
Clock input
LVDS
DISPLAY
Memory controller
RGB
Analog o/p
Graphics controller
V+
DMI cont.
TO ICH
RAM
MGCH or North Bridge
FSB
CPU
1.05v
GRAPHICS
CONTROLLER
Memory controller
LVDS
DISPLAY
Clock input
V+
PCI PORT
RGB
Analog o/p
DMI cont.
TO ICH
RAM
South Bridge
A southbridge chipset handles all of the computers I/O
functions, such as USB, audio, serial, the system BIOS,
the ISA bus, the interrupt controller and the IDE channels
ICH\ South Bridge
PCI
Interface
SM Bus
interface
Interupt
interface
MCH
Direct
Media
interface
Direct Media Interface (DMI) is the link between
an northbridge and southbridge on a computer moth
GPI
Power
Management
Serial
ATA
interface
Power
input
Spi
Audio
codec
3.3v
1.05v or 1.5v
5v
RTC
MICRO CONTROLLER
LPC
interface
Lan
USB
Timer
1.05v
AMD
CPU
Nvidia
nFORCE
DDR 2
ATHALON
Clock
Run on 3.3volt and 14.3Mhz crystal
Function: provide diff. clock freqvencies
Clock chip
3.3volt
VDD
To cpu clock
USB
MCH
PCI-E
ICH
SM interface
To microcontroller
14.3Mhz Crystal
Clock chip provide different clock freqvencies to different section
of laptop motherboard
CLOCK GENERATOR
3.3V
CPU
CLK_PWRGD
HOST_CLK_CPU
ITP_EN
CPU_STP
PCI_STP
MGCH
HOST_CLK_MGCH
SMBC
ICH
CLOCK
CHIP
SMBD
CLK_USB
CLK_SATA
14.3Mhz Crystal
CLK_PCI_ICH
Micro controller/ sio
The Super I/O chip controls most of the I/O function on the motherboard
Function : power management, keyboard, touch pad,fan,bios
Run 3.3 volt , 32.7Khz crystal
32.7Khz crystal
3.3Volt
Micro controller/ sio
To ICH
LPC
Bus
PWM
Inverter pwr
brightnes
On/off sw
Power control signal
BIOS
Cs
Data
clk
GPIO
CPU
SPI
bus
LED & other switches
DAC
ADC
Bat temp
FAN
Cont.
FAN
Host Bus
BATERY
CPU temp sense
SM
bus
Ps/2
KEYBOARD
Touch pad
KBC
Reset
BIOS (Basic Input/Output System)
• When the PC starts up, the first job for the BIOS is the power-on
self-test
• BIOS software is stored on a ROM chip on the motherboard
• ROM = read Only Memory
BIOS
BIOS sockets & Chip
Manufacturer
Hardware
Manufacturer
P-Flash
AMD
ATMEL
SST
WINBOND
Numoyx
AMIC
EON
MxIC
Software
Manufacturer
AWARD
PHONIX
AMI
8SOIC/spi flash
PLCC
TSOP
VSOP
FSB: Front-side buses usually connect the CPU
and the rest of the hardware via a chipset,
LPC low pin count link between
ich and microcontroller
DMI Direct Media Interface is the link between
an Intel northbridge
SPI serial peripheral interface
Display
CPU Temp sense
VCC 3.3v
vdd
Micro conrtoller
DXP
DXN
SMB CLK
Sm clk
Sm data
SMB DATA
FAN ROTATION
FEEDBACK
ALERT
overt
GND
Sys_shdn
Audio controller
3.3 volt
L out
S data out
S data in
I
C
H
5 volt
5 volt
Audio
Amp
R out
sync
Bit clock
AUDIO
Controller
reset
Line in
Mic in
25Mhz
USB
USB pinout
USB testing
Check 3.3volt across chip
SATA
Testing SATA Port
LAN controller
Testing LAN controller
NETWORK
NETWORK Testing
Repair technique- transformer testing
VGA Output Signal
keyboard
14.3MHZ CRYSTAL
Volt IN
Charging
Temp
sensor
CPU SENSE
CPU
230v AC
Clock
1v
5 VOLT
Reset
CPU CORE
V
STEP
Analog
RGB o/p
DOWN VOLT
MCH
3.3V
1.05v
1.8v
Reset
Step
down 2
3.3v Cmos
Bat
32.7khz crystal
reset
ICH
ON/OFF SWITCH
PG Signal
www.shriraminfotech.net
Mumbai
Help Line 7666766623
CPU
FAN
AMP
camera
BIOS
Network
USB
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