Safe Cycling Guide
Photo by: Eldrige Chang
Safe Cycling Guide
Think Safe. Play Safe. Stay Safe.
Live better through Sports
A Sports Safe Singapore
Sport Singapore (SportSG) recognises that safety must be a fundamental
component of our sporting culture and a prerequisite for a healthy lifestyle.
Therefore, SportSG has set a goal of zero injuries, in a belief that all accidents
are preventable. Emphasising the need for personal accountability, SportSG also
urges people to be responsible for the safety of others.
ActiveSG’s first Sports Safety Division was formed in 2006 directly under the purview
of the CEO’s office. It is tasked to promote safety throughout Singapore’s sporting
community and to inculcate a safety first mentality in every stakeholder. For more
information, please visit sportsingapore.gov.sg/sports-education/sports-safety
Acknowledgement
Sport Singapore would like to thank and acknowledge the various organisations
and individuals who have participated in the consultation process of the
production of this guide. The feedback and suggestions greatly improved the
final delivery of this publication.
Australia and New Zealand Association Cycling
anza.org.sg
Safe Cycling Task Force
sctf.org.sg
Government of Western
Australia – Department for
Planning and Infrastructure
wa.gov.au
Singapore Amateur
Cycling Association
cycling.org.sg
Health Promotion Board
of Singapore
hpb.gov.sg
Singapore Police Force –
Traffic Police
spf.gov.sg
Land Transport Authority
lta.gov.sg
Singapore Road Safety Council
srsc.org.sg
National Parks Board
nparks.gov.sg
Triathlon Association of Singapore
triathlonsingapore.org
Think Safe. Play Safe. Stay Safe.
Another initiative by the Safety Management DIvision, ActiveSG
CONTENTS
Introduction1
Essentials Of Safe Cycling
2
Basic Safety Tips
4
Cycling Safely At Night
5
Challenges On The Road
6
Safety Guidelines For Young Children
Helping Young Children Learn To Ride Safely
10
11
Choosing A Bicycle 13
Choosing Accessories
15
Basic Bicycle Maintenance
18
Cycling For Health & Fitness
21
Before You Cycle
23
Cycling And The Law
25
Code Of Conduct
29
Park Connector Network (PCN) Etiquette
30
Foldable Bicycles On Buses And Trains
31
Disclaimer
The information contained in this publication is intended for general information only. Sport Singapore, the content contributors and the
distributors of this publication will not bear any responsibility for any action taken or any reliance placed as a result of reading any part
or all the information provided in this publication, or for any error, flaw or deficiency in or any omission from the information provided.
Sport Singapore and its partners in sport safety/health promotion make no warranty of non-infringement, reliability or fitness for any
particular purpose, or warranty of any kind, express or implied, in relation to the information provided in this publication. Readers shall
use it with discretion, and shall exercise care and diligence for their own and/other charges’ personal safety.
Copyright
Sport Singapore owns the rights to, or is permitted to reproduce, the information and materials provided in this publication. No part
of this publication may be reproduced or copied for any commercial purposes without the prior written consent of Sport Singapore.
2
INTRODUCTION
The way to safe cycling is to remember
S
Standardisation
Photo By: Phillip Au
1
A
Alert
F
Fitting Helmet
E
Etiquette
� Set the standards for safe cycling and cycle
defensively
� Always stay visible and never assume that a
motorist has seen you
� Always stay alert and predictable
� Always follow the highway code
� Wear protective and safety gear to reduce the
risk of injury and harm
� Always look out for other road users or hazards
� Make sure that they are aware of your presence
� Be courteous to other road and path users
� Treat them with the same consideration as you
would expect of them
ESSENTIALS OF SAFE CYCLING
Once the sizing pads
are in, the helmet must
not wobble in any
direction before the
straps are fastened.
The helmet should
not tilt back. Instead,
it must remain level
on your head.
Here is a list of essential items that could enhance your
safety when cycling:
Helmet
Cyclists
should ensure that:
� They wear helmets that meet approved standards
� The helmet is worn at all times on roads and paths that are accessible to the public
� The retention straps on the helmet are correctly
fastened at all times
� Children in child carriers also wear fitting helmets
that comply with the approved standards
� Helmets are changed every 2 to 3 years even if they
appear to be in good condition
� They replace the helmet immediately after a
collision or if it has been hit by objects on the road
a) Fit
A snug fit is essential when buying a helmet.
Choose one with an internal shape that closely
matches the shape and size of your head. Do not
rely on sizing pads to ‘take up the slack’. Try the
helmet first without the pads. Next, use your index
finger to check the space between your head and
the inner polystyrene. If your finger slides in easily,
the space is probably too big. If the space varies
from front to side, there is probably a mismatch
between the helmet and the shape of your head.
b) Visibility
Choose a bright or fluorescent coloured helmet
to remain visible. Refrain from black or other dark
coloured helmets as they are harder to be seen.
c) Air Vents
They allow air circulation so that you stay cool. While
comfort matters, choosing a helmet with many or
excessively large vents will offer less protection.
2
d) Helmet safety standards
There are a number of internationally recognised
safety standards for bicycle helmets. Inside every
helmet, there should be stickers that spell out the
safety specifications.
Here is a list of some helmet safety specifications to
look out for:
� Snell Memorial Foundation
• CPSC
• EN1078
• American National Standard Institute
� ANSA Z-90.4
• ASTM (Do note that shatter-tests do not extend
to visors.)
Clothing
Wear bright or fluorescent colours such as orange
and yellow to ensure that you remain visible. While
not essential for safety, Lycra knicks and gloves can
improve your riding comfort. Do not wear bell bottom
or baggy trousers as they might entangle with the
bicycle gear. Avoid flip flop sandals when cycling as
they tend to slip off. Instead, wear shoes or closed and
strapped sandals.
Bell
A bell helps you to warn pedestrians of your presence.
When approaching pedestrians or slow moving
cyclists from the rear, always ring your bell. Sound the
bell when you are about 30 metres from them. This is
to prevent them from making sudden moves when you
are near them.
Mirrors
These help you see what is happening around you.
The most popular mirrors are small, circular and come
with stems that clip onto the handlebars. Small mirrors
that attach to helmets are also available.
Lights
In times of low visibility, it is mandatory to have a
white light at the front of the bicycle and a red light
or red reflector at the rear*. Both must be visible
from a reasonable distance. Bicycles in Singapore are
prohibited from having a red light at the front. For the
rear, only red reflectors or lights are permitted.
3
*Source: Road Traffic Act (CHAPTER 278, SECTION 140) as of 15 April 2009
BASIC SAFETY TIPS
Choosing the right bicycle frame will ensure that you
can mount and dismount safely. When straddling a
normal bicycle, the distance between your crotch
and the top tube of the main bicycle frame should
be at least 3cm. For mountain bicycles, the distance
is about 8cm.
Seat height
Adjust the height of the seat by placing your heel on
the pedal at its lowest point – while ensuring that your
leg is straight at full stretch.
Handlebars that are
too high or low and
too close or far apart
may cause aches in
the neck, shoulder,
back and hands. The
wrong angle of the
handlebar may also
lead to numbness
in the palms.
Your knees should be slightly bent when you are in the
proper pedalling position – with the balls of your feet
on the pedal. If your hips/pelvis sways from side to
side, the seat is too high.
Seat position
Adjust the seat so that your feet are placed naturally
above the pedals. Some riders may prefer a seat that
is tilted slightly to the front or to the back. However,
seats tilting excessively upwards may lead to pressure
points. Injuries may occur when seats tilt excessively
downwards.
Handlebar angle / height
Handlebars are available in different widths and the
sizes vary according to the type of bicycle.
For racing or touring bicycles, they should be about
the same width as your shoulders.
Handlebars that are too close/far may cause pain in
the neck, shoulder, back and hands. Riding with the
wrong handlebar angle can also lead to numbness in
the palms of your hands. Mountain bicycles can have
handlebars that are a little wider.
For an upright position, set the handlebars higher than
the seat. Setting the handlebar at the same height as
the seat will give a slightly forward riding position.
4
CYCLING SAFELY AT NIGHT
Tip 1 - Night riding:
Tilt the front light
to the eye level of
cars to increase
the visibility of your
bicycle.
Cycling at night can be as enjoyable as cycling in the day.
You just need to exercise more caution. Recognise the
dangers and dress accordingly. Remember that it is vital
for all riders to remain visible at all times.
If you cycle after dark, the law mandates that your
bicycle has a continuous white light in front and
a red light or reflector at the rear. While prices vary
drastically, do not make your decision based on price
alone. For front lights, choose a bright quartz halogen
lamp that produces an unbroken white beam.
For the rear, flashing red Light Emitting Diodes are
acceptable but steer away from cheaper versions as
they tend to be unreliable.
Highly visible clothing
Brightly coloured clothing are necessary to help
you remain visible in the dark. Reflective anklets,
cloth or plastic reflective tape and stickers are highly
recommended. Available in red or white, these are
cheap and can be attached to bicycles, helmets and
riders.
Being alert
Tip 2 - Night riding:
When not cycling
around moving
vehicles, tilt the front
lamp lower to light
up the path ahead.
5
The number one rule of cycling is to ride defensively.
Watch out for joggers, pedestrians and other vehicles.
Make sure they are aware of your presence.
At night, the headlights of approaching vehicles may
dazzle so be prepared.
When a vehicle is approaching you from the rear, your
shadow should move to the left. If it does not, you
should steer your bicycle to the left.
CHALLENGES ON THE ROAD
To be able to exercise the necessary safety precautions, you must first be aware of the
hazards of cycling. You will also need to be conscious of your surroundings. Dismount
from your bicycle if conditions become dangerous. Slow down when approaching road
openings, bends, junctions, bus stops and pedestrian crossings.
Surface hazards
Watch out for:
Uneven surfaces
You may ride slowly over these obstacles or cycle slowly around them. Always keep
a lookout for litter, drains, drainage gratings, pot holes and other roadside hazards
when riding close to the kerb
Slippery and/or loose objects
Ride over them slowly and corner without tilting the bicycle excessively. Try to avoid
cycling over oil patches, which are easily spotted by their rainbow-like sheen. If you
must ride over oil patches, take the shortest route. Keep the bicycle as upright as
you can and be prepared to put one foot down to stay balanced. Avoid applying
the brakes suddenly when riding over slippery and loose ground like sand, gravel
and puddles
Sharp objects
Avoid glass, sharp metal bits and other pointed objects. If your tyre goes flat,
carefully reduce your speed to a complete stop. Then dismount and push your
bicycle
Hot weather
Singapore is generally hot and humid with the
exception of occasional rain. It is important to check
the weather before embarking on a cycling trip so
that you can prepare yourself accordingly.
� When it gets bright and glaring, wear protective
clothing like caps and sunglasses to help make it
easier to keep your eyes on the road
� Plan your route so that it includes paths with lots of
shade
� Choose water bottles with push-pull caps. These
let you drink without having to unscrew the caps,
so that you can keep one hand on the handlebar
6
Your braking
distance is increased
on wet roads. Cycle
slowly as it allows
you to apply your
brakes gently.
Wet weather
Roads become slippery when they get wet. Always
exercise caution when it rains.
Visibility
Visibility is reduced in wet weather. Wear bright
clothing, and if necessary use your lights so that other
motorists are aware of your presence. Avoid cycling in
the rain where possible.
Braking
To get used to braking on wet surfaces, practise on
streets with no traffic.
Cornering
Negotiate corners slowly while keeping your bicycle
as upright as possible.
Puddles
When possible, avoid puddles. They provide less
traction and may conceal potholes, sharp objects and
other hazards.
Slopes and hills
If you often cycle up and down slopes, try to get a
bicycle with gears. It is also important to master gear
changing. The following tips have been provided as a
quick guide to gear changing:
� Change to a gear you are comfortable with on
level terrain
� Low gears make pedaling easy
� Switch to a lower gear when going uphill
� Change gears before you reach the hill to
maintain your momentum
7
Road safety
Starting off
� Look behind you and your left and right before moving off
Controlling
road
position
� Keep left unless turning right and ride in a straight line
with the traffic flow
� Ride at least one metre away from parked cars as their
doors may be opened unexpectedly
� Keep a safe distance away from the kerb
� Do not follow cars or other vehicles too closely
� Always check for traffic behind you. It helps to listen
for approaching cars too
� Ride safely to control your speed and braking
� Do not swerve or make sudden turns as drivers may
not be able to react fast enough to avoid colliding into
your bicycle
� Watch out for potential hazards - potholes, gravel and
drainage holes
� Look out for vehicles coming in and out of driveways
� Be particularly alert near driveways, gateways and
intersections
Braking
smoothly
� Use your front and back brakes
� Stop in a straight line with complete control over your
bicycle
Crossing
and
signalling
� Teach your child simple road rules such as stopping
at the kerb, looking right, left, then right again, listening for approaching cars and thinking before crossing
� Give hand signals clearly and in good time
8
9
Turning
left
�
�
�
Turning
right
� Check behind you before signalling and only move to the
right when the road is clear
� Move closer to the left of the centre of the road
� Signal to stop if the intersection is not clear or signal to
turn if the intersection is clear
� Keep both hands on the handlebars while you are turning
� Move through the intersection and ride to the left of the
road
Keeping
control
on hills
� When riding uphill, keep a straight line without wobbling
or swerving
� When riding downhill, keep a constant road position
� Always keep your bicycle under control with front and
back brakes
� Make sure you have both hands on the handlebars except
when signalling
Always check behind you and look for approaching
vehicles from the right
Signal clearly if you intend to stop, give way or turn into another road
Turn at a speed that allows you to keep full control over
the bicycle
SAFETY GUIDELINES FOR YOUNG CHILDREN
Learning to ride a bicycle is a rewarding experience for all children. It gives a great
sense of achievement, helps develop balance and coordination, and encourages
social contact.
It is important to let children learn at their own pace. Training wheels are an effective
way to help your child gain confidence and stability. When your child starts riding
without training wheels, support the bicycle at the back of the saddle and run
behind as they learn to balance. Once your child is more confident, teach them to
ride unsupported on a grass park or tennis court.
The best bicycle for your child is one that is easy to handle and has a frame suitable
for your child’s body shape.
When buying a bicycle for a child, it is important to consider:
� Handlebars (BMX or flat style is better)
� Wheels (size and type)
� Effective hand operated wheel brakes
� Bottom bracket
Here is a simple checklist to go through to ensure that the bicycle is the right size
for your child:
o
Is there at least a 3cm height clearance between the main top tube of
the bicycle frame and the lowest point of your child’s body when they are
standing with their feet flat on the ground?
o
o
If the bicycle is a BMX or mountain bicycle, is there a clearance of 10cm?
o
Is the seat level when your child is seated?
Are the handlebars and handbrakes within reach? When your child is seated,
his/her arms should be slightly bent when holding the handle grips and knees
should not hit the handlebar.
10
Helping young children learn to
ride safely
Remember: children
aged 12 years
old and under
have difficulties
concentrating for
prolonged periods,
gauging distances
and judging speed.
The next stage should be to teach children to
exercise necessary care on shared or cycling paths.
Get to know your local area
Help your child to map out a safe route. It is usually
the one with the least traffic and fewest roads to cross.
Equipment
Ensure your child is wearing a helmet and highly visible
clothing and shoes. Make sure that their bicycles are
maintained, their helmets fit properly and the straps
are always done up.
Weather
Avoid cycling in extreme weather. Encourage your
child to wear a hat, sun screen lotion and sunglasses,
even on cloudy days. Be sure that your child has a
water bottle too.
Photo By: DyanTjhia
11
Helmets
Head injuries are caused when cyclists hit objects or
fail to break their fall.
Make sure that your child wear a lightweight helmet
that fits the head while providing sufficient ventilation.
The helmet should also be of a colour that is easily
seen on the road on shared or cycling paths.
Child helmets are designed for those aged between
five and six years. Children above seven years old
should wear adult helmets.
Photo By: DyanTjhia
Make sure your
children know
where they can go
for help and what
to do when danger
arises.
Checking the helmet fit
� Place the helmet on your child’s head and check
that it fits snugly
� Adjust the straps and do up the buckle
� Place your palm under the front of the helmet and
push it up and back and ensure that it does not
move
� Place your palm on top of the helmet and push it
from side to side to ensure that it does not move
� For maximum protection, the helmet must fit well
12
CHOOSING A BICYCLE
It is very important that you buy a bicycle that fits
your needs and plans. Determine what you want to
use your bicycle for. Is it for racing, commuting, offroad exploration, long distance touring or some
other purpose? There are varying frame sizes to suit
your body shape, accessories to tailor the bicycle to
your specific needs, and differing levels of quality and
budgets.
There are many types of bicyles, each with their own
characteristics and uses. Here is a quick summary:
Mountain bicycles
Popular both on and off the bitumen, they have wide
and knobby tyres, flat handlebars and between 15 and
27 derailleur gears. Bicycles fitted with standard tyres
perform better off road than on bitumen. However,
special slick tyres can be fitted to make road cycling
easier.
Hybrid bicycles
Sometimes called “cross” or “city” bicycles, these
look like slim-framed mountain bicycles with narrower
tyres and slightly raised handlebars. Despite their
appearance, they perform better on bitumen than
off. Gearing varies from 15 to 24 speed, with 21
speed being the most common. They are good for
commuting or short leisure trips.
13
Touring bicycles
As the name implies, these are long distance bicycles
capable of carrying cargo. They are strong with a big
frame triangle, drop handlebars and 14 to 27 speed.
Road racing bicycles
Despite a finer frame, a shorter wheelbase and drop
handlebars, they have the same appearance as quality
touring bicycles. Built for speed, these bicycles are
light and therefore not as structurally strong as other
bicycles.
Foldable bicycles
There are a number of bicycles on the market that
can be reduced in size to allow easier carriage and
storage. They usually involve a folding sequence with
the wheels, handlebars and frame hinged together
into a tight package. When fully folded, they take up
less than half the space of a standard bicycle. However,
compromises have to be made in the process. Often
the wheels are smaller than other bicycles and not
suited for long distance riding.
Foldable bicycles are permitted on public buses and
Mass Rapid Transit (MRT) trains in Singapore. Before
taking a foldable bicycle onto public transport,
make sure you comply with all the regulations. More
information is available on page 31.
14
CHOOSING ACCESSORIES
A water carrier is an
important bicycle
accessory. It helps
you stay hydrated.
Child carriers
This is a great way to introduce your child to cycling.
Some models of child carriers attach:
� to the rear of a bicycle
� on top of a carrier
� to the centre of the bicycle frame and in front
of the rider
Always ensure your child is securely fastened in and
wearing a protective helmet before you start cycling.
It also helps to educate your child about safety and
proper conduct when sitting in the child carrier.
These seats must be:
� securely attached to the frame
� attached in a position that is not in front of or on
the handlebars
� fitted with a footrest to prevent the child’s feet
from dangling
� fitted with a restraining device that cannot be accidentally released
Load carriers
Avoid carrying heavy or bulky items in front load
baskets. This can affect the ease with which you
can turn your bicycle handle, making steering more
difficult. It is easier to let the bicycle, rather than the
rider carry the load, so use a rear rack where possible.
It is important to note that when attaching racks,
baskets or bags to your bicycle, they do not put
pressure on brake cables, or obstruct the reflector,
lights or your pedals and feet. Each bicycle should not
carry a load that weighs more than 18kg in total. The
load cannot overhang the body fitted thereto nor shall
its height be more than one metre from the ground .
u
15
u Source:
Road Traffic Act (CHAPTER 276, SECTION 140) as of 15 April 2009
Rear racks
These create a flat carrying surface over the rear wheel. They also act as a base
for the attachment of panniers and baskets. Note that some racks have a strong
spring-loaded gripping mechanism that may damage soft or fragile goods.
Baskets
It is usually more efficient to place a larger basket on the rear of the bicycle than
in the front. Only place lighter items in a front basket. Rear baskets can usually
accommodate more weight (up to 10 kg).
Panniers
Like saddlebags, they hang down on either side of the bicycle. Most are
waterproof but if not, use waterproof covers. They have the benefit of a low
centre of gravity and are therefore very stable. When packing a pannier, avoid
placing pointed items directly against the sides as they may tear the lining. Try
to distribute the load evenly on both sides of the bicycle and if you have front
and rear sets, arrange items so that 60% of the weight is in the back pair and
40% in the front pair.
Bicycles carriers
The two common ways to transport bicycles on vehicles are with a roof rack or a tow
bar carrier. Both designs make it easier to transport your bicycle. When making a
choice, consider both safety and security factors.
Pumps
Traditional models have a cloth covered extension tube that screws into the pump
at one end and the tyre valve at the other. Increasingly popular are high pressure
pumps that fit directly to the valve without an extension tube. Besides floor pumps,
there are also those that are found in petrol stations. Whatever type of pump you
use, be sure not to over inflate the tyres. You will generally find bicycles fitted with
one of two types of valve - Presta (racing bicycles) or Schraeder (similar to a car
valve). The two are not interchangeable, so you must ensure your pump fittings
match the valve. Valve adaptors are small and easily found in most bicycle shops
and may come packaged together with some bicycle pumps. It is good to always
have an adaptor handy to facilitate pumping, especially if the air pumps at most
petrol stations do not fit your bicycle’s tyre valve.
Water bottle cages
The need for cyclists to stay hydrated makes a water carrier an important accessory
for your bicycle. Water bottle cages should give you easy access to your water
bottle.
16
Tool bags
Available in leather or plastic, tool kits usually do
not come with the bicycle and have to be purchased
separately.
Computer
Cycle computers provide information on speed,
total time and trip distance. They are a great way to
encourage regular cycling, or to set a training regime.
Overall roadworthiness
A bicycle must be properly maintained so that it does
not present a danger to road users.
A bicycle is not roadworthy if the:
� chain is too loose (more than 25mm of play)
� wheel nuts or wheel bearings are loose
� tyres are in poor condition
� wheel rims are buckled or spokes are missing
� brake callipers are misaligned or brake shoes are
excessively worn
� steering assembly is loose
� seat is not securely fitted
17
BASIC BICYCLE MAINTENANCE
How often you need to do maintenance on your
bicycle will depend on how regularly you cycle it.
However, no matter how often you ride, a wellmaintained bicycle works better, is safer and more
fun to ride than one that has been neglected by its
owner. Servicing and repairing a bicycle is inexpensive
compared to a car. Depending on how often you
ride, you should maintain your bicycle on a daily,
weekly or monthly basis. No matter what, it must be
serviced at least once a year by an experienced and
knowledgeable bicycle mechanic.
Doing it yourself
The beauty of a bicycle is its simplicity. You can carry
out many repair and maintenance jobs yourself. To
make this task easier, have the right tools, allow
yourself plenty of time and do the job methodically.
The reward for your effort is the satisfaction of doing
the job yourself (and perhaps saving a few dollars)
while learning new skills and gaining the confidence
to carry out more difficult repair tasks.
Tool kit
The basics are a puncture repair kit, tyre levers,
screwdriver, set of allen keys, set of spanners or a small
shifting spanner, cleaning rags, an old toothbrush
and lubricants such as light oil and grease. More
advanced work will require specialist tools.
18
Daily maintenance
Before riding, give your bicycle a quick but thorough
lookover. Check the brakes and tyre pressure. Properly
inflated tyres are easier to ride on, prevent damage to
the wheel rims when hitting bumps, and reduce the
chance of punctures.
Weekly maintenance
If necessary, lubricate exposed moving parts of the
bicycle with a light oil, such as sewing machine oil.
Do not get oil on the tyres or rims, and do not use
penetrating spray oil on bearings.
Oil the following areas:
� Front and rear derailleur gears
� Front and rear brake pivots
� Brake and gear levers
� and a small amount on each chain link
Monthly maintenance
Wheels
� Check tyre pressure and condition
� Pump tyres to recommended pressure
� The valves should be upright and not leaking
� The wheels should be straight, without any damage
and can spin freely
� Replace broken spokes and tighten loose
ones
� Check axle nuts and cones and tighten if
necessary
� If the wheel have quick release mechanisms, make
sure they are securely fastened
19
Brakes
� Check brake blocks for wear, and ensure that they contact squarely with the rim,
not the tyre
� Replace worn or frayed brake cables
� Adjust brakes so that even when braking hard, there is still some clearance
between the brake levers and handlebars
Gears
� Check derailleur gear action and cables (derailleur repairs are best left to a
mechanic)
� Clean chain with a rag soaked in degreaser and re-oil
� Clean rear sprockets
Steering
� Check for looseness in the handlebar and stem
� Ensure that the handgrips are secure
Pedals
� The axle must spin freely
� Check pedal axles and bottom bracket axles for excessive looseness
Frame
� Inspect for damage
� Ensure that seat-post height is correct and that the seat-post bolt is tight
Accessories
� Check to ensure the bell works
� Ensure that the bicycle has a rear reflector
� Make sure that the white headlight and red tail light work
20
CYCLING FOR HEALTH & FITNESS
Before start of exercise
Get the all clear from your doctor before starting an
exercise programme, especially if you are overweight,
smoke, or have high blood pressure.
Alternatively, you can run through the Physical Activity
Readiness Questionnaire (PAR-Q) on page 23.
Photo By: Shau Chiet
Cycling is a relatively inexpensive way to achieve
better health and fitness. Because it is a low impact
activity, cycling places very little strain on the body.
This is especially good for people who are starting to
get into exercise, pregnant women and people who
are recovering from injury. Cycling also gives a great
cardiovascular workout because it uses the biggest
muscles in the body.
Cycling can save you money, improve your health and
help you enjoy the outdoors. Regular cycling will:
� make you feel more energetic
� lessen the risk of many lifestyle diseases such as
cardiovascular disease
� help you sleep better
� reduce stress
� strengthen your heart
� improve your blood pressure
� help you manage your weight
� aid the release of ‘feel good’ body chemicals
called ‘endorphins’
21
Warming up
As with any exercise, it is important to warm up before
cycling. Cycling gently for 10 minutes will warm your
body up and prepare your muscles for more intense
exercise.
Increase your cycling speed and distance at a steady
rate as you get fitter, remembering that you are
exercising for good health and enjoyment. As a guide,
a beginner with a moderate level of fitness should aim
to cover five kilometres in 20 minutes.
Cooling down
Take it easy in the
beginning. When you
first start cycling you
should aim to cover
five kilometres in 20
minutes.
Rest is also very important as it allows your body
to recuperate. Cooling down after a ride is just as
important as warming up beforehand. Ride at an easy
pace for the last five minutes of your ride and you will
finish refreshed and revitalised, rather than strained
and tired.
Current recommendations for physical activity
The Health Promotion Board of Singapore recommends
30 minutes of exercise, five to seven times a week. If the
thought of continuously exercising for 30 minutes is too
daunting, you could break the 30 minutes into shorter
periods. For example, you could exercise for 10 minutes,
three times a day, or 15 minutes twice a day and still
enjoy the same benefits.
To get the most out of cycling, try to go at a pace that
makes you breathe a little faster, feel warmer and have
a slightly raised heartbeat.
GSource:
Health Promotion Board of Singapore as of 15 April 2009
22
BEFORE YOU CYCLE
Regular physical activity is fun and healthy. Increasingly, more people are starting
to become more active every day. Being more active is very safe for most people.
However, some people should check with their doctors before they start becoming
more physically active.
If you are planning to become more physically active than you are now, start by
answering the seven questions in the PAR-Q. The Physical Activity Readiness
Questionnaire (PAR-Q) is designed to help you assess your level of readiness for
physical activity. It is simple and it takes a fraction of your time to complete. If you
are between the ages of 15 and 69, the PAR-Q will tell you if you should check with
your doctor before you start. If you are above 69 years of age, and you are not used
to being very active, check with your doctor.
Common sense is your best guide when you answer these questions.
Please read the questions carefully and answer each one honestly: check YES or
NO.
YES NO
Has your doctor ever said that you have a heart condition and that you
should only do physical activity recommended by a doctor?
Do you feel pain in your chest when you do physical activity?
Do you have a bone or joint problem (for example, back, knee or hip)
that could be made worse by a change in your physical activity?
Do you lose your balance because of dizziness or do you ever lose
consciousness?
Do you know of any other reason why you should not do physical activity?
Is your doctor currently prescribing drugs (for example, water pills) for
your blood pressure or heart conditions?
In the past month, have you had chest pain when you were not doing
physical activity?
23
If you answered YES to one or more questions:
� Consult your doctor by phone or in person BEFORE you start becoming much more
physically active or BEFORE you have a fitness appraisal. Tell your doctor about
the PAR-Q and which questions you answered YES
� You may be able to do any activity as long as you start slowly and build up
gradually
� You may need to restrict your activities to those which are safe for you
� Consult and follow the advice of your doctor about the kinds of activities that
are suitable for you
� Find out which community programmes are safe and helpful for you
If you have answered NO honestly to all PAR-Q questions, you can be
reasonably sure to:
� Start becoming much more physically active. Starting slowly and building up gradually is the safest and easiest way to go
� Take a fitness appraisal to determine your fitness level so as to plan the best way to live actively
Delay becoming much more active if:
� You do not feel well
� You are or may be pregnant – consult your doctor before you start becoming
more active
Source: Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology
24
CYCLING AND THE LAW
This section covers the requirements and offences as laid down by the Road Traffic
Act; so you know how to comply with all the rules and regulations. Users are also
encouraged to cycle safely and conscientiously so as not to endanger anyone,
including themselves.
The bicycle
A bicycle is a legal road vehicle provided it is suitably constructed and equipped.
In Singapore, conventional bicycles do not have to be formally registered by licensing
authorities in order to be used on public roads.
Under the Road Traffic Act, a bicycle refers to a two-wheeled pedal cycle, that is
constructed or adapted for use as a means of conveyance.
Carrying or towing loads
Any load or attachment on a bicycle must not pose any risk to the rider or any other
person. Each bicycle should not carry a load that weighs more than 18kg in total
and the load cannot overhang the body fitted thereto nor shall its height be more
than one metre from the ground.
Cycling equipment
A bicycle must have:
� A red reflector fitted to the rear
When riding in dark surroundings (7pm - 7am), a bicycle must also have:
� A front light showing an unbroken white beam that is clearly visible as far as 200
metres
� A rear light showing an unbroken or flashing red beam that is clearly visible
as far as 200 metres
;
Source: Singapore Traffic Police & Road Traffic Act (Singapore) as of 15 April 2009
25
Road Traffic (Bicycles) Rules
When using a public road, all bicycle riders must obey the same rules as other
vehicles such as cars and trucks. A cyclist may be punished under the Penal Code/
Road Traffic Act should he/she act rashly or negligently so as to endanger human
lives or the personal safety of others.
As a general rule, cyclists shall not unreasonably obstruct or prevent free passage
of a vehicle or pedestrian upon a path or road. Similarly, vehicles and pedestrians
shall not unreasonably obstruct cyclists.
Bicycles are not permitted to be towed by any other vehicle when on the road.
Restriction on number of persons carried
� All bicycles cannot exceed the limit of passengers it is designed for
� A child under 12 years of age may be carried on a properly constructed child
seat affixed firmly to the pedal bicycle
Travelling abreast
� Bicycles are not permitted to be ridden on the right of another vehicle
proceeding in the same direction except when overtaking such other vehicle
� Bicycles shall not be ridden on the right of any two other pedal bicycles
proceeding abreast in the same direction except when overtaking such other
pedal bicycles or on parts of roads or paths set aside for the exclusive use of
bicycles
� When a portion of a road or path has been set aside for the exclusive use of
bicycles, bicycles cannot be ridden on any other part of the roadway
On-Road (Bicycles) Rules
Bicycles are also not allowed to be ridden on any part of any expressway^.
^Road Traffic (Expressways – Excluded Vehicles) Rules 2010, Road Traffic (Bicycles) Rules and the Highway Code.
26
Common infringements by cyclists in Singapore include but are not
limited to:
�
�
�
�
�
�
Failing to keep a proper lookout for others
Changing lane without due care
Failing to give way to traffic with right of way
Riding against the traffic flow
Failing to conform to red light signal
Riding on any other part of the roadway when a portion of a road or path has
been set aside for the exclusive use of bicycles
� Riding on any part of any expressway
� Not slowing down when approaching road openings, bends, junctions, bus
stops and pedestrian crossings
� Cycling across pedestrian crossings
27
Dealing with traffic
� On-road cyclists need to ride defensively at all times
� Try not to ride along a road directly into the rising or setting sun as the lighting
condition make it harder for motorists to see you
� Show caution when nearing a motorist who is intending to turn left across your
path. Always assume the motorist has not seen you
� Always use the correct hand signals to indicate when you want to turn left or
right and to stop. Signal well ahead of your action so other road users have
enough time to take the appropriate action
Turning
left
� Fully extend your left arm horizontally with the palm of the hand
Turning
right
� Fully extend your right arm horizontally with the palm of the
Stopping
� Fully extend your right arm horizontally with the forearm vertical
U-turning
� Same rules apply as for a right hand turn
to the front
hand to the front
and with the palm of the hand to the front
� When approaching parked cars, slow down and keep a safe distance from them
� Avoid riding within two metres from the rear of a motor vehicle, for a distance of
more than 200 metres
� Never overtake on the left of a motor vehicle if it is moving and is indicating to
turn left
28
Code of Conduct
Off-road Cycling
� Always give way to pedestrians on footpaths and shared paths
� When a cycling or shared path is next to a footpath, use the cycling or shared
path instead of the footpath
� Slow down and be prepared to stop when approaching high pedestrian-traffic
areas such as bus-stops
� Either ‘walk your bicycle’ or dismount and push at high pedestrian-traffic areas
� Stop and look out for on-coming traffic when approaching pedestrian crossings,
and cross only at walking speed
� Keep left unless when overtaking
� Do not overtake others when approaching places such as pedestrian crossings,
corners and bends
� Keep a safe distance from other users to avoid collisions
� Slow down when approaching intersections or where there is limited sight
distance such as around bends
� Slow down and give way to vehicles/pedestrians when approaching car parks/
pedestrian accesses

On-road Cycling (both conventional and electric bicycles)
� Slow down and look out for other road users when approaching bends, junctions,
bus stops and pedestrian crossings or when passing a parked car
� Do not weave through traffic
� Do not squeeze between a stopped bus at a bus stop and the kerb
� Avoid squeezing between a turning vehicle and the kerb
� Keep a safe distance behind moving vehicles
� Do not hold on to the back or side of motor vehicles
� If available, use the cycling or shared path instead of riding on the road
General Code of Conduct for Cycling
� Ring the bell/suitable device fitted that is capable of providing an audible
signal only when necessary, such as when trying to overtake others
� Ensure that your device lights, brakes, tyres, chain and so forth are in good
condition before setting off
� Always stop to render assistance and exchange particulars when involved in an
accident
29
Park Connector Network (PCN) Etiquette
A pleasant experience on the PCN requires all of us to be considerate towards one
another. This section aims to help you have a safe and enjoyable time using the
PCN. Do read this section and share these tips with your friends.
PCN Users on Foot and Rollerblades
� Always keep to the left side of the track and be aware of other users around you
� Be careful when crossing the PCN, especially in front of an approaching cyclist.
Keep in mind that cyclists will require sufficient distance to slow down and stop
� When walking or rollerblading at night, wear bright-coloured clothing so that
other users, like cyclists, are able to see you clearly from a distance
� Wear personal protective gear such as helmet or knee guards when rollerblading
for your own safety
PCN Users on Bicycles
� Ensure that your bicycle lights (front and back), brakes, tyres and chain are in
good condition before setting off. When riding at night, keep your bicycle lights
on to make yourself more visible to other users
� Keep to the left side of the track, ride in single file and avoid weaving along the
track
� Refrain from speeding
� Slow down and give way to other users especially at crowded or narrow areas
� Keep a safe distance from other users to avoid collisions
� Do not overtake others when approaching pedestrian crossings, corners and
bends
� Pedestrians have the right of way on pedestrian crossings
� Keep both hands on the handlebars unless signalling. Signal in good time
before you make a change in direction
� Wear protective cycling gear such as helmet for your own safety
� Do not use electric or motorised vehicles on the PCN
30
FOLDABLE BICYCLES ON BUSES AND TRAINS
Commuters are permitted to travel with their foldable bicycles on the Mass Rapid
Transit (MRT) and Light Rail Transit (LRT) trains and buses, subject to the following
conditions:
� Allowable hours are weekday off-peak times (9:30am to 4:00pm and 8:00pm to
end of service) and at all times on Saturdays, Sundays and Public Holidays
� Only one foldable bicycle is allowed on board a bus at any time
Commuters with a foldable bicycle must ensure that it:
� Does not exceed 114cm by 64cm by 36cm when folded
� Does not have protruding parts likely to cause injury to other commuters
� Does not block the aisles and doors of trains and buses at any time
� Is folded at all times on the trains and at MRT/LRT stations
� Is not left unattended at any time
� Is carried in an upright position
� Is not placed on the upper deck of a bus or on the staircase leading to the upper
deck
� Uses the first or last car on trains, which tend to be less crowded
� Uses lifts and wide fare gates at MRT/LRT stations
LTA is currently revising its guidelines on foldable bicycles on buses and trains.
For more information, please refer to the following website www.lta.gov.sg for updates.
31
3 Stadium Drive
Singapore 397630
sportsingapore.gov.sg
35
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