CompTIA Server+ Objectives
CompTIA Server+ Objectives
CompTIA Server+ (2009 Edition) Examination
1.0 System Hardware
1.1 Differentiate between system board types, features, components and their purposes
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Dip switches / jumpers
Processor (single and multi)
Bus types and bus speeds
On board components
o NICs
o Video
o Audio
o USB
o HID
o Serial
o Parallel
Expansion slots
o PCI
o PCIe
o PCIx
o AGP
o ISA
BIOS
Riser Card / backplane
Storage connectors
o SCSI
o SATA
o IDE
o Floppy
1.2 Deploy different chassis types and the appropriate components
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Cooling
o Fans
o Water cooled
o Passive
o Active
o Shroud
o Ducts
o Redundant cooling
o Hot swappable
o Ventilation
Form Factor (tower, rack, blade)
o Space utilization (U size, height, width, depth)
Power
o Connectors
o Voltages
o Phase
Redundant power
Shut off switches – chassis intrusion
Power buttons
Reset buttons
Diagnostic LEDs
Expansion
1.3 Differentiate between memory features / types and given a scenario select appropriate memory
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Memory pairing
ECC vs. non ECC
Registered vs. non-registered
RAID and hot spares
Types
o DDR
o Fully buffered DIMM
o DDR2
o SDRAM
o DDR3
Memory compatibility
o Speed
o Size
o Pins
o CAS latency
o Timing
o Vendor specific memory
On board vs. riser card
1.4 Explain the importance of a Hardware Compatibility List (HCL)
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Vendor standards for hardware
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Memory and processor compatibility
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Expansion cards compatibility
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Virtualization requirements
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1.5 Differentiate between processor features / types and given a scenario select the appropriate processor
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Multicore
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Multiprocessor
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Cache levels
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Stepping
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Speed
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VRMs
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Execute disable (XD) or not execute (NX)
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Hyperthreading
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VT or AMD-V
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AMD vs.Intel (non-compatible CPUs)
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Processor architecture (RISC, CISC)
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Vendor slot types
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64bit vs. 32 bit
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Heat dissipation (heat sinks, fans, liquid cooling)
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1.6 Given a scenario, install appropriate expansion cards into a server while taking fault tolerance into consideration
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Manufacturer specific
o Fax cards
o PBX cards
o Camera cards
o VoIP
HBAs
NICs
Video
Audio
Storage controller (SCSI, SATA, RAID)
o SCSI low voltage / high voltage (LVD/HVD)
o SCSI IDs
o Cables and connectors
o Active vs. passive termination
Port expansion cards
o USB
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IEEE 1394
Serial
Parallel
1.7 Install, update and configure appropriate firmware
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Driver / hardware compatibility
Implications of a failed firmware upgrade (redundant BIOS)
Follow manufacturer instructions and documentation
2.0 Software
2.1 Install, deploy, configure and update NOS (Windows / *nix)
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Installation methods (optical media, USB, network share, PXE)
o Imaging – system cloning and deployment (Ghost, RIS/WDS, Altiris, virtualization templates)
Bootloader
File systems
o FAT
o FAT32
o NTFS
o VMFS
o ZFS
o EXT3
Driver installation
o Driver acquisition
o Installation methods
o Require media
Configure NOS
o Initial network
o User
o Device
o Roles
o OS environmental settings
o Applications and tools
Patch management
2.2 Explain NOS security software and its features
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Software firewall
o Port blocking
o Application exception
o ACL
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Malware protection software
o Antivirus
o Antispyware
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Basics of file level permissions vs. share permissions
2.3 Given a scenario, implement and administer NOS management features based on procedures and guidelines
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User management
o Add and remove users
o Setting permissions
o Group memberships
o Policies
o Logon scripts
Resource management
o ACLs
o Quotas
o Shadow volumes
o Disk management
o Performance monitoring
o Baselining
Monitoring (tools and agents)
o SNMP (MIBs)
o WBEM (WMI)
2.4 Explain different server roles, their purpose and how they interact
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File and print server
Database server
Web server
Messaging server
DHCP server
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Directory services server
DNS server
Application server
o Update server and proxy server
o Filtering server
o Monitoring server
o Dedicated
o Distributed
o Peer to peer
Remote access server
Virtualized services
NTP server
Explain the different between a workstation, desktop and a server
Server shut down and start up sequence (one server vs. multiple servers vs. attached components)
2.5 Summarize server virtualization concepts, features and considerations
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Resource utilization
Configuration
Interconnectivity
Management server
Reasons for virtualization
o Cost benefits
o Redundancy
o Green initiative
o Disaster recovery
o Testing environment
o Ease of deployment
2.6 Describe common elements of networking essentials
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TCP/IP
o Subnetting
o DNS
o DHCP
o Classes
o Gateways
o Static vs. dynamic
o IP stack
o Ports
Ethernet
o Types
o Speeds
o Cables
VPN
VLAN
DMZ
3.0 Storage
3.1 Describe RAID technologies and its features and benefits
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Hot spare
Software vs. hardware
Cache read/write levels (data loss potential)
Performance benefits and tradeoffs
3.2 Given a scenario, select the appropriate RAID level
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0, 1, 3, 5, 6, 10, 50
Performance benefits and tradeoffs
3.3 Install and configure different internal storage technologies
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Hot swappable vs. non-hot swappable
SCSI, Ultra SCSI, Ultra320 (termination), LUNs
SAS, SATA
Tape
Optical
o DVD
o DVD-R
o CD-ROM
o CD-R
o CD-RW
o Blu-Ray
Flash
Floppy (USB)
Controller (firmware levels)
Hard drive (firmware, JBOD)
3.4 Summarize the purpose of external storage technologies
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Network attached storage
Storage area network
Tape library
WORM
Optical jukebox
Transport media
o iSCSI
o SATA
o SAS
o SCSI
o Fiber Channel
4.0 IT Environment
4.1 Write, utilize and maintain documentation, diagrams and procedures
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Follow pre-installation plan when building or upgrading servers
Labeling
Diagram server racks and environment topologies
Hardware and software upgrade, installation, configuration , server role and repair logs
Document server baseline (before and after service)
Original hardware configuration, service tags, asset management and warranty
Vendor specific documentation
o Reference proper manuals
o Websites
o Support channels (list of vendors)
4.2 Given a scenario, explain the purpose of the following industry best practices
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Follow vendor specific server best practices
o Documentation
o Tools
o Websites
Explore ramifications before implementing change – determine organizational impact
Communicate with stakeholders before taking action and upon completion of action
Comply with all local laws / regulations, industry and corporate regulations
Purpose of Service Level Agreement (SLAs)
Follow change control procedures
Equipment disposal
4.3 Determine an appropriate physical environment for the server location
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Check for adequate and dedicated power, proper amperage and voltage
o UPS systems (check load, document service, periodic testing)
o UPS specifications (run time, max load, bypass procedures, server communication and shut down, proper monitoring)
Server cooling considerations – HVAC
o Adequate cooling in room
o Adequate cooling in server rack
o Temperature and humidity monitors
4.4 Implement and configure different methods of server access
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KVM (local and IP based)
Direct connect
Remote management
o Remote control
o Administration
o Software deployment
o Dedicated management port
4.5 Given a scenario, classify physical security measures for a server location
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Physical server security
o Locked doors
o Rack doors
o CCTV
o Mantraps
o Security personnel
Access control devices (RFID, keypads, pinpads)
o Biometric devices (fingerprint scanner, retina)
Security procedures
o Limited access
o Access logs
o Limited hours
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Defense in-depth – multiple layers of defense
Reasons for physical security
o Theft
o Data loss
o Hacking
Secure documentation related to servers
o Passwords
o System configurations
o Logs
5.0 Disaster Recovery
5.1 Compare and contrast backup and restoration methodologies, media types and concepts
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Methodologies (full, incremental, differential)
o Snapshot
o Copy
o Bare metal
o Open file
o Databases
o Data vs. OS restore
o Rotation and retention (grandfather, father and son)
Media types
o Tape
o Disk
o WORM
o Optical
o Flash
Backup security and off-site storage
Importance of testing the backup and restoration process
5.2 Given a scenario, compare and contrast the different types of replication methods
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Disk to disk
Server to server
o Clustering
o Active/active
o Active/passive
Site to site
Site types
o Cold site
o Hot site
o Warm site
o Distance requirements
5.3 Explain data retention and destruction concepts
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Awareness of potential legal requirements
Awareness of potential company policy requirements
Differentiate between archiving and backup
5.4 Given a scenario, carry out the following basic steps of a disaster recovery plan
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Disaster recovery testing process
Follow emergency procedures (people first)
Use appropriate fire suppressants
Follow escalation procedures for emergencies
Classification of systems (prioritization during recovery)
6.0 Troubleshooting
6.1 Explain troubleshooting theory and methodologies
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Identify the problem and determine the scope
o Question users/stakeholders and identify changes to the server/environment
o Collect additional documentation / logs
o If possible, replicate the problem as appropriate
o If possible, perform backups before making changes
Establish a theory of probable cause (question the obvious)
o Determine whether there is a common element of symptom causing multiple problems
Test the theory to determine cause
o Once theory is confirmed determine next steps to resolve problem
o If theory is not confirmed re-establish new theory or escalate
Establish a plan of action to resolve the problem and notify impacted users
Implement the solution or escalate as appropriate
o Make one change at a time and test/confirm the change has resolved the problem
o If the problem is not resolved, reverse the change if appropriate and implement new change
Verify full system functionality and if applicable implement preventative
measures
Performa a root cause analysis
Document findings, actions and outcomes throughout the process
6.2 Given a scenario, effectively troubleshoot hardware problems, selecting the appropriate tools and methods
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Common problems
o Failed POST
o Overheating
o Memory failure
o Onboard component failure
o Processor failure
o Incorrect boot sequence
o Expansion card failure
o Operating system not found
o Drive failure
o Power supply failure
o I/O failure
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Causes of common problems
o Third party components or incompatible components
o Incompatible or incorrect BIOS
o Cooling failure
o Mismatched components
o Backplane failure
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Environmental issues
o Dust
o Humidity
o Temperature
o Power surge / failure
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Hardware tools
o Power supply tester (multimeter)
o System board tester
o Compressed air
o ESD equipment
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6.3 Given a scenario, effectively troubleshoot software problems, selecting the appropriate tools and methods
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Common problems
o User unable to logon
o User cannot access resources
o Memory leak
o BSOD / stop
o OS boot failure
o Driver issues
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o Runaway process
o Cannot mount drive
o Cannot write to system log
o Slow OS performance
o Patch update failure
o Service failure
o Hangs no shut down
o Users cannot print
Cause of common problems
o Malware
o Unauthorized software
o Software firewall
o User Account Control (UAC/SUDO)
o Improper permissions
o Corrupted files
o Lack of hard drive space
o Lack of system resources
o Virtual memory (misconfigured, corrupt)
o Fragmentation
o Encryption
o Print server drivers/services
o Print spooler
Software tools
o System logs
o Monitoring tools (resource monitor, performance monitor)
o Defragmentation tools
6.4 Given a scenario, effectively diagnose network problems, selecting the appropriate tools and methods
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Common problems
o Internet connectivity failure
o Email failure
o Resource unavailable
o DHCP server mis-configured
o Non-functional or unreachable
o Destination host unreachable
o Unknown host
o Default gateway mis-configured
o Failure of service provider
o Can reach by IP not by host name
Causes of common problems
o Improper IP configuration
o VLAN configuration
o Port security
o Improper subnetting
o Component failure
o Incorrect OS route tables
o Bad cables
o Firewall (mis-configuration, hardware failure, software failure)
o Mis-configured NIC, routing / switch issues
o DNS and/or DHCP failure
o Mis-configured hosts file
Networking tools
o ping
o tracert / traceroute
o ipconfig / ifconfig
o nslookup
o net use / mount
o route
o nbstat
o netstat
6.5 Given a scenario, effectively troubleshoot storage problems, selecting the appropriate tools and methods
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Common problems
o Slow file access
o OS not found
o Data not available
o Unsuccessful backup
o Error lights
o Unable to mount the device
o Drive not available
o Cannot access logical drive
o Data corruption
o Slow I/O performance
o Restore failure
o Cache failure
o Multiple drive failure
Causes of common problems
o Media failure
o Drive failure
o Controller failure
o HBA failure
o Loose connectors
o Cable problems
o Mis-configuration
o Improper termination
o Corrupt boot sector
o Corrupt file system table
o Array rebuild
o Improper disk partition
o Bad sectors
o Cache battery failure
o Cache turned off
o Insufficient space
o Improper RAID configuration
o Mis-matched drives
o Backplane failure
Storage tools
o Partitioning tools
o Disk management
o RAID array management
o Array management
o System logs
o Net use / mount command
o Monitoring tools
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