Comparison of different Operating System

Comparison of different Operating System
Proceedings of National Conference on Recent Advances in Electronics and Communication Engineering
(RACE-2014), 28-29 March 2014
Comparison of different Operating System
[1,2]
Niti gupta 1, Amrita ticku2, Manoj kumar3
Faculty: Department of cse at Dronacharya Group Of Institution
Knowledge Park-III, Greater Noida, Uttar Pradesh, India
[3]
Student: Department of cse at Dronacharya Group Of Institution
Knowledge Park-III, Greater Noida, Uttar Pradesh, India
[1]
nitigupta86@gmail.com, [2]amrita_koul27@gmail.com, [3]mnj_gpt@rediffmail.com.
Abstract-Operating System: In the current era the OS is used in every Mobile, Laptop, Tablets and Desktops. Day by
day there is some important in Operating System and every new development give birth to a new Technology and new
Operating System. People’s requirements are changing as the time change. They want to keep themselves update. Our
Paper just gives a refreshing review on Operating System that has been developed.
This paper will help to compare operating Systems by their technology and usage in all aspect so that everyone can choose
best according to their requirements.
I. INTRODUCTION
Operating system (OS) is a collection of software that manages computer hardware resources and provides
common services for computer programs. The operating system is an essential component of the system software in
a computer system. Application programs usually require an operating system to function. Operating System can be
defined as “A program that acts as an intermediary between a user of a computer and the computer hardware”
Goals of Operating System Are:

Execute user programs and make solving user problems easier

Make the computer system convenient to use

Use the computer hardware in an efficient manner.
Operating systems can be found on almost any device that contains a computer from cellular phones and video
game consoles to supercomputers and web servers.
I.I ARCHITECTURE OF OPERATING SYSTEM
Kernel Mode
In Kernel mode, the executing code has complete and unrestricted access to the underlying hardware. It can execute
any CPU instruction and reference any memory address. Kernel mode is generally reserved for the lowest-level,
most trusted functions of the operating system.
User Mode
In User mode, the executing code has no ability to directly accesshardware or reference memory. Code running in
user mode must delegate to system APIs to access Hardware or memory. As shown in figure:-1.
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Proceedings of National Conference on Recent Advances in Electronics and Communication Engineering
(RACE-2014), 28-29 March 2014
Figure.1
Services provided by the Operating System

User Interfaces - Means by which users can issue commands to the system. Depending on the system
these may be a command-line interface (e.g. sh, csh, ksh, tcsh, etc.), a GUI interface ( e.g. Windows, XWindows, KDE, Gnome, etc. ), or a batch command systems. The latter are generally older systems using
punch cards of job-control language, JCL, but may still be used today for specialty systems designed for a
single purpose.

Program Execution - The OS must be able to load a program into RAM, run the program, and terminate
the program, either normally or abnormally.

I/O Operations - The OS is responsible for transferring data to and from I/O devices, including keyboards,
terminals, printers, and storage devices.

File-System Manipulation - In addition to raw data storage, the OS is also responsible for maintaining
directory and subdirectory structures, mapping file names to specific blocks of data storage, and providing
tools for navigating and utilizing the file system.

Communications - Inter-process communications, IPC, either between processes running on the same
processor, or between processes running on separate processors or separate machines. May be implemented
as either shared memory or message passing, ( or some systems may offer both. )

Error Detection - Both hardware and software errors must be detected and handled appropriately, with a
minimum of harmful repercussions. Some systems may include complex error avoidance or recovery
systems, including backups, RAID drives, and other redundant systems. Debugging and diagnostic tools aid
users and administrators in tracing down the cause of problems.
Other systems aid in the efficient operation of the OS:

Resource Allocation - E.g. CPU cycles, main memory, storage space, and peripheral devices. Some
resources are managed with generic systems and others with very carefully designed and specially tuned
systems, customized for a particular resource and operating environment.

Accounting - Keeping track of system activity and resource usage, either for billing purposes or for
statistical record keeping that can be used to optimize future performance.

Protection and Security - Preventing harm to the system and to resources, either through wayward
internal processes or malicious outsiders. Authentication, ownership, and restricted access are obvious parts
of this system. Highly secure systems may log all process activity down to excruciating detail, and security
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Proceedings of National Conference on Recent Advances in Electronics and Communication Engineering
(RACE-2014), 28-29 March 2014
regulation dictate the storage of those records on permanent non-erasable medium for extended times in
secure ( off-site ) facilities.

System calls- provide a means for user or application programs to call upon the services of the operating
system.Generally written in C or C++, although some are written in assembly for optimal performance.
I.II COMPONENTS OF OPERATING SYSTEM:

The components of an operating system (as shown in figure:-2) all exist in order to make the different parts
of a computer work together. All user software needs to go through the operating system in order to use any
of the hardware, whether it be as simple as a mouse or keyboard or as complex as an Internet component.
Figure-2 Component of Operating System
Kernel
With the aid of the firmware and device drivers, the kernel provides the most basic level of control over all of the
computer's hardware devices. It manages memory access for programs in the RAM, it determines which programs
get access to which hardware resources, it sets up or resets the CPU's operating states for optimal operation at all
times, and it organizes the data for long-term non-volatile storage with file systems on such media as disks, tapes,
flash memory, etc.
Program Execution
The operating system provides an interface between an application program and the computer hardware, so that an
application program can interact with the hardware only by obeying rules and procedures programmed into the
operating system. The operating system is also a set of services which simplify development and execution of
application programs. Executing an application program involves the creation of a process by the operating
system kernel which assigns memory space and other resources, establishes a priority for the process in multitasking systems, and loads program binary code into memory, and initiates execution of the application program
which then interacts with the user and with hardware devices.
Interrupts
Interrupts are central to operating systems, as they provide an efficient way for the operating system to interact with
and react to its environment. The alternative — having the operating system "watch" the various sources of input for
events (polling) that require action — can be found in older systems with very small stacks (50 or 60 bytes) but are
unusual in modern systems with large stacks. Interrupt-based programming is directly supported by most modern
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Proceedings of National Conference on Recent Advances in Electronics and Communication Engineering
(RACE-2014), 28-29 March 2014
CPUs. Interrupts provide a computer with a way of automatically saving local register contexts, and running specific
code in response to events. Even very basic computers support hardware interrupts, and allow the programmer to
specify code which may be run when that event takes place. When an interrupt is received, the computer's hardware
automatically suspends whatever program is currently running, saves its status, and runs computer code previously
associated with the interrupt; this is analogous to placing a bookmark in a book in response to a phone call. In
modern operating systems, interrupts are handled by the operating system's kernel. Interrupts may come from either
the computer's hardware or from the running program.
When a hardware device triggers an interrupt, the operating system's kernel decides how to deal with this event,
generally by running some processing code. The amount of code being run depends on the priority of the interrupt
(for example: a person usually responds to a smoke detector alarm before answering the phone). The processing of
hardware interrupts is a task that is usually delegated to software called device driver, which may be either part of
the operating system's kernel, part of another program, or both.
I.III TYPES OF OPERATING SYSTEM
Real-time Operating System
A real-time operating system is a multitasking operating system that aims at executing real-time applications. Realtime operating systems often use specialized scheduling algorithms so that they can achieve a deterministic nature of
behaviour. The main objective of real-time operating systems is their quick and predictable response to events. They
have an event-driven or time-sharing design and often aspects of both. An event-driven system switches between
tasks based on their priorities or external events while time-sharing operating systems switch tasks based on clock
interrupts.
Multi-user Operating System
A multi-user operating system allows multiple users to access a computer system at the same time. Time-sharing
systems and Internet servers can be classified as multi-user systems as they enable multiple-user access to a
computer through the sharing of time. Single-user operating systems have only one user but may allow multiple
programs to run at the same time.
Multi-tasking Operating System
A multi-tasking operating system allows more than one program to be running at the same time, from the point of
view of human time scales. A single-tasking system has only one running program. Multi-tasking can be of two
types: pre-emptive and co-operative. In pre-emptive multitasking, the operating system slices the CPU time and
dedicates one slot to each of the programs. Unix-like operating systems such as Solaris and Linux support preemptive multitasking, as does AmigaOS. Cooperative multitasking is achieved by relying on each process to give
time to the other processes in a defined manner. 16-bit versions of Microsoft Windows used cooperative multitasking. 32-bit versions of both Windows NT and Win9x used pre-emptive multi-tasking. Mac OS prior to OS X
used to support cooperative multitasking.
Distributed Operating System
A distributed operating system manages a group of independent computers and makes them appear to be a single
computer. The development of networked computers that could be linked and communicate with each other gave
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Proceedings of National Conference on Recent Advances in Electronics and Communication Engineering
(RACE-2014), 28-29 March 2014
rise to distributed computing. Distributed computations are carried out on more than one machine. When computers
in a group work in cooperation, they make a distributed system.
Embedded Operating System
Embedded operating systems are designed to be used in embedded computer systems. They are designed to operate
on small machines like PDAs with less autonomy. They are able to operate with a limited number of resources. They
are very compact and extremely efficient by design.
Time Sharing Operating System
Time-sharing operating systems schedule tasks for efficient use of the system and may also include accounting
software for cost allocation of processor time, mass storage, printing, and other resources.
Examples of popular modern operating systems include Android, BSD, iOS, Linux, OS X, QNX, Microsoft
Windows, Windows Phone, and IBM z/OS. All these, except Windows, Windows Phone and z/OS, share roots
in UNIX.
II COMPARISON OF OPERATING SYSTEM
The following table provide the comparison between General and Technical information for a number of widely
used and currently available PC and handheld (including smart phone and tablet computer) operating systems.
Thepaper share the information of operating systems provides a broader, and more general, comparison of operating
systems that includes servers, mainframes and supercomputers. There are large numbers of variety of Linux
Operating System. See the comparison of Linux distributions for a detailed comparison. There are also a variety of
BSD operating systems, covered in comparison of BSD operating systems.(as shown in table :-1).
OS Name
AIX f
Android
Latest
stable
version
Latest
release
date
Target
system type
OS Name
7.1
2010
Server, NAS,
workstation
DragonFly
BSD
4.4
(KitKat)
2013,
October
31
Consumer,
enterprise,
military, educ
ation
Haiku
5
Latest
stable
version
Latest
release date
Target
system type
3.6
2013
Server,
workstation,
NAS,
embedded
R1/Alpha4
2012
Personal
computer
Proceedings of National Conference on Recent Advances in Electronics and Communication Engineering
(RACE-2014), 28-29 March 2014
Amiga OS
classic
3.9
Amiga OS 4
4.1
update 6
eComStation
EPOC32
2.1
ER5
2000,
Decembe
r4
Workstation,
personal
computer
HP-UX
11.31 "11i
v3"
2007
Server,
workstation
2012
Workstation,
personal
computer
IBM i
7.1
2010
Server
2011
Server,
workstation,
personal
computer
Inferno
Fourth
Edition
2007
NAS, server,
embedded
1999
PDA
iOS
7.0
2013
Smartphone,
music
player,tablet
computer
IRIX
6.5.30
2006
Server,
workstation
FreeBSD
9.2
2013
Server,
workstation,
NAS,embed
ded
GhostBSD
3.1
2013
Desktop,
Linux
3.12.2
2013, Nov
Comparision
of linux
MPE
MPE-V
1988
Server
MPE/XL
7.5
2002
Server
Latest
Latest
Target
DragonFly
BSD
3.6
2013
Server,
workstation,
NAS,
embedded
Haiku
R1/Alp
ha4
2012
Personal
computer
Latest
Latest
Target
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Proceedings of National Conference on Recent Advances in Electronics and Communication Engineering
(RACE-2014), 28-29 March 2014
OS Name
stable
version
release
date
system type
OS Name
stable
version
release
date
system type
IBM i
7.1
2010
Server
OS X Server
10.9
2013
Server
Inferno
Fourth
Edition
2007
NAS, server,
embedded
MINIX 3
3.2.1
2013
Workstation
NetBSD
6.1.1
2013
NAS, server,
workstation,
embedded
iOS
7.0
2013
Smartphone,
music
player,tablet
computer
IRIX
6.5.30
2006
Server,
workstation
NetWare
6.5 SP8
2008
Server
Linux
3.12.2
2013,
Novemb
er 29
See: Compar
ison of
Linux
distributions
NeXTStep
3.3
1995
Workstation
NetBSD
6.1.1
2013
NAS, server,
workstation,
embedded
OpenIndiana
2010,
December
17
Server,
workstation
NetWare
6.5 SP8
2008
Server
OpenVMS
8.4
2010
Server,
workstation
OpenIndiana
2010,
Server,
OpenVMS
8.4
2010
Server,
workstation
OpenIndiana
2010,
Decembe
r 17
Server,
workstation
RISC OS
4.39
2004
Education,
2010
Server,
workstation
RISC OS
5.18
2012
Education,
personal
computer
OpenVMS
8.4
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Proceedings of National Conference on Recent Advances in Electronics and Communication Engineering
(RACE-2014), 28-29 March 2014
OS Name
Latest
stable
version
Latest
release
date
Target
system type
OS Name
Latest
release
date
Target
system type
ZETA
1.5
2007
Personal
computer,
mediacenter,
workstation
STOP 6,
XTS-400
6.4.U1
2007
Server,
workstation
ReactOS
0.3.15
2013
Workstation,
personal
computer
Server,
workstation
VxWorks
6.9
2011
2009
Phones
z/OS
1.12
2010
2010
Embedded
z/VSE
5.1.1
2012, June
2012
Server,
NAS,
embedded,
HPC
z/VM
6.3
2013
2013
Workstation,
personal
computer, m
edia
center,Table
t PC,
embedded
HP Nonstop
H06.24/J06.
13
PC-BSD
9.2
2013
Plan 9
Fourth
Edition
(Daily
snapshot
s)
QNX
6.5.0
2012
Solaris
11.1
2012
Symbian
9.5
Symbian
platform
3.0.4
Windows
Server (NT
family)
Windo
ws
Server
2012
R2 (NT
6.3.960
0)
Microsoft
Windows(N
T family)
Windo
ws
8.1(NT
6.3.960
0)
Personal
computer,
workstation,
server
Workstation,
server,
embedded,
HPC
Workstation,
smartphones
, consumer,
server,
industrial,
automotive,
embedded
Latest
stable
version
TABLE:-1
8
2012
Embedded
Real-time
systems
IBM
mainframe
IBM
mainframe
IBM
mainframe
HP Nonstop
Servers
Proceedings of National Conference on Recent Advances in Electronics and Communication Engineering
(RACE-2014), 28-29 March 2014
III TECHNICAL INFORMATION
1.
Operating systems where the GUI is not installed and turned on by default are often bundled with an
implementation of the X Window System, installation of which is usually optional.
2.
Most operating systems use proprietary APIs in addition to any supported standards.
3.
Amiga OS features since OS 2.0 version a standard centralized Install utility called Installer, which
could be used by any software house to install programs. It works as a Lisp language interpreter, and
install procedures could be listed as simple text. AmigaOS can also benefit of a 3rd party copyrighted
library called XAD that is available for all POSIX (Unix, Linux, BSD, and for AmigaOS, MorphOS,
etc.). This library is freely distributable and publicly available on Aminet Amiga centralized repository
of all Open Source or Free programs and utilities. XAD.Library, complete with GUI Voodoo-X, is
based on modules and capable to manage over 300 compression methods and package systems
(Voodoo-X GUI supports 80 package systems), including those widely accepted as standards such
as .ZIP, .CAB, .LHA, .LZX, .RPM, etc.
4.
A standard AmigaOS installation requires usually only few files (typically 3 to 10 files) to be copied in
their appropriate directory, and libraries and language files for national localization to be put in their
standard OS directories. Any Amiga user with some minimal experience knows where these files
should be copied and could perform programs installations by hand.
5.
AmiUpdate is capable to update AmigaOS files and also all Amiga programs which are registered to
use the same update program that is standard for Amiga. Updating AmigaOS requires only few
libraries to be put in standard OS location (for example all libraries are stored in "Libs:" standard
virtual device and absolute path finder for "Libs" directory, Fonts are all in "Fonts:" absolute locator,
the files for language localization are all stored in "Locale:" and so on). This leaves Amiga users with a
minimal knowledge of the system almost free to perform by hand the update of the system files.
6.
NetBSD and OpenBSD include the X Window System as base install sets, managed in their respective
main source repository, including local modifications. Packages are also provided for more up-to-date
versions which may be less tested.
7.
Windows can read and write with Ext2 and Ext3 file systems only when a driver from FSdriver or Ext2Fsd is installed. However, using Explore2fs, Windows can read from, but not write to,
Ext2 and Ext3 file systems. Windows can also access ReiserFS through rfstool and related programs.
2.
IV Securities
(Refer as shown in table 2).
Name
AIX 7.1
Resource
access
control
POSIX,ACLs,MA
C,Trusted AIX MLS,RBAC
Integrated
firewall
Encrypted
file
systems
Name
Resource
access
control
Integrated
firewall
Encrypted
file
systems
IPFilter,IPs
ecVPNs,
basic IDS
Yes
OS X
10.6.4
POSIX,
ACLs[s 6]
ipfw
Yes
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Proceedings of National Conference on Recent Advances in Electronics and Communication Engineering
(RACE-2014), 28-29 March 2014
Name
Resource
access
control
Integrated
firewall
Encrypted
file
systems
Name
GhostBS
D3.1
POSIX, ACLs,
MAC
IPFW2,
IPFilter, PF
Yes
NetWare
6.5 SP8
HP-UX
POSIX, ACLs
IPFilter
No
OESLinux
Inferno
POSIX
?
?
OpenBSD
4.8
Name
Resource
access
control
Integrated
firewall
Encrypted
file
systems
POSIX, ACLs,[s
4]
MAC
Netfilter,
varied by
distribution
No
No
Linux 2.6.
39
Mac
OS 9.2.2
Resource
access
control
Directoryenabled
ACLs
Directoryenabled
ACLs
Integrated
firewall
Encrypted
file
systems
IPFLT.NL
M
Yes
IPFilter
Yes
POSIX
PF
Yes
Name
Resource
access
control
Integrated
firewall
Encrypted
file
systems
Yes
OpenVM
S8.4
ACLs,privil
eges
?
?
No
OS/2,eCo
mStation
ACLs[s 7]
IPFilter
No
IPFilter
Yes[s 10]
Windows
Firewall
Yes
Windows
Firewall
Yes
POSIX,
RBAC,
ACLs, least
privilege,
Trusted
Extensions
ACLs,
privileges,
RBAC
ACLs,
privileges,
RBAC
Plan 9
POSIX ?
ipmux
Yes
OpenSola
ris2009.0
6
QNX 6.5.
0
POSIX
PF, from
NetBSD
?
Windows
Server
2008R2
RISC OS
No
No
No
Windows
7SP1
IPFilter
Yes[s 10]
Windows
Vista SP2
ACLs,
privileges,
RBAC
Windows
Firewall
Yes
No
No
Windows
XPPro
SP3
ACLs
Windows
Firewall
Yes, with
NTFS
z/OS
IPSecurity
Optional
ZETA
POSIX[s 13]
No
No
Solaris 10
STOP 6,
XTS-400[s
14]
z/OS 1.11
POSIX, RBAC,
ACLs,least
privilege,Trusted
Extensions
POSIX,multilevel
security,Biba
Modelmandatory
integrity, ACLs,
privileges, subtype
mechanism
RACF
TABLE:-2
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Proceedings of National Conference on Recent Advances in Electronics and Communication Engineering
(RACE-2014), 28-29 March 2014
V CONCLUSIONS
We conclude that among Windows family Windows 7 is fast , easy to understand , simple and has excellent user
experience.It is user-friendly and explorer friendly whereas Windows 8 is a total different thing that has been
created. Windows 7, xp and 98 are somewhat same but windows8 is not even a bit same as them. And Windows 7 is
also the most popular in the croud of a lot of people who love computers but Windows 8 has more security features
and adds an extra twist and extra compatibility to Windows.
Moving towards other operating systems, Ubuntu is a mixture of Windows and Macintosh. It looks like mac but
shortcut keys is similar to Windows. Macintosh is one of the easiest operating system to learn for a complete
beginner (although switching from windows has a slight learning curve). It is ideal for the everyday user but Linux
is better than Ubuntu. Linux is very similar to other operating systems, such as Windows and OS X . Linux is
already successful on many different kinds of devices, but there are also many technological areas where Linux is
moving towards, even as desktop and server development continues to grow faster than any other operating system
today. Now there are mobile operating system also such as Symbian and Android.
Symbian is a mobile operating system (OS) targeted at mobile phones that offers a high-level of integration with
communication and personal information management (PIM) functionality. Symbian OS combines middleware with
wireless communications through an integrated mailbox and the integration of Java and PIM functionality (agenda
and contacts) on the other hand, Android is the operating system that powers over 1 billion smartphones and tablets.
Since these devices make our lives so sweet, each Android version is named after a dessert: Cupcake, Donut, Eclair,
Froyo, Gingerbread, Honeycomb, Ice Cream Sandwich, and Jelly Bean ,Kitkat. Android is better than Symbian.
Now if talk about Solaris and Open solaris, Solaris is a Unix operating system originally developed by Sun
Microsystems. It superseded their earlier SunOS in 1993. Oracle Solaris, as it is now known, has been owned
by Oracle Corporation since Oracle's acquisition of Sun in January 2010.Solaris is known for its scalability on the
other hand open solaris is an open source operating system, similar in scope to GNU/Linux and BSD, but descended
from the proprietary Solaris operating system from Sun Microsystems. Therefore solaris is better than open solaris.
There are operating systems that are based on Unix OS.These are ZETA , HP-UX, BSD.HP-UX(HewlettPackardUniX) is Hewlett-Packard's proprietary implementation of the Unix operating system, based on UNIX
System V (initially System III) and first released in 1984.magnussoft ZETA, earlier yellowTAB ZETA, was
an operating system formerly develop.
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11
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