USB-2523 User`s Guide
USB-2523
16-bit, 1 MS/s, High-Speed DAQ Board
User's Guide
Document Revision 7
December 2012
© Copyright 2012
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HM USB-2523.docx
Table of Contents
Preface
About this User's Guide ....................................................................................................................... 5
What you will learn from this user's guide ......................................................................................................... 5
Conventions in this user's guide ......................................................................................................................... 5
Where to find more information ......................................................................................................................... 5
Chapter 1
Introducing the USB-2523 .................................................................................................................... 6
Overview: USB-2523 features ............................................................................................................................ 6
Chapter 2
Installing the USB-2523 ........................................................................................................................ 7
What comes with your USB-2523 shipment? ..................................................................................................... 7
Hardware .......................................................................................................................................................................... 7
Optional components ........................................................................................................................................................ 7
Documentation .................................................................................................................................................................. 7
Unpacking the USB-2523 ................................................................................................................................... 7
Installing the software ........................................................................................................................................ 7
Installing the USB-2523 ..................................................................................................................................... 8
Configuring the hardware ................................................................................................................................... 8
Signal connections .............................................................................................................................................. 9
68-pin SCSI connector differential and single-ended pinouts (P5) ..................................................................................10
TB-100 terminal board connector to SCSI connector pinout ...........................................................................................12
40-pin header connector pinouts ......................................................................................................................................13
Four-channel TC terminal pinout (TB7) ..........................................................................................................................17
Cabling ............................................................................................................................................................. 18
Field wiring and signal termination .................................................................................................................................18
Using multiple USB-2523s per PC ................................................................................................................... 19
Chapter 3
Functional Details ...............................................................................................................................20
USB-2523 components ..................................................................................................................................... 20
USB-2523 block diagram ................................................................................................................................. 22
Synchronous I/O – mixing analog, digital, and counter scanning .................................................................... 23
Analog input ..................................................................................................................................................... 23
Analog input scanning .....................................................................................................................................................23
Thermocouple input .......................................................................................................................................... 25
Tips for making accurate temperature measurements ......................................................................................................25
Digital I/O ......................................................................................................................................................... 26
Digital input scanning ......................................................................................................................................................26
Digital outputs and pattern generation .............................................................................................................................27
Triggering ......................................................................................................................................................... 27
Hardware analog triggering .............................................................................................................................................27
Digital triggering..............................................................................................................................................................27
Software-based triggering ................................................................................................................................................27
Stop trigger modes ...........................................................................................................................................................28
Pre-triggering and post-triggering modes ........................................................................................................................28
Counter inputs .................................................................................................................................................. 28
Mapped channels .............................................................................................................................................................29
Counter modes .................................................................................................................................................................29
Debounce modes ..............................................................................................................................................................30
Encoder mode ..................................................................................................................................................................33
3
USB-2523 User's Guide
Timer outputs.................................................................................................................................................... 36
Example: Timer outputs ...................................................................................................................................................36
Using detection setpoints for output control ..................................................................................................... 36
What are detection setpoints? ..........................................................................................................................................36
Setpoint configuration overview ......................................................................................................................................37
Setpoint configuration......................................................................................................................................................38
Using the setpoint status register......................................................................................................................................39
Examples of control outputs ............................................................................................................................................39
Detection setpoint details .................................................................................................................................................41
FIRSTPORTC or timer update latency ............................................................................................................................42
Mechanical drawing ......................................................................................................................................... 43
Chapter 4
Calibrating the USB-2523 ...................................................................................................................44
Chapter 5
Specifications ......................................................................................................................................45
Analog input ..................................................................................................................................................... 45
Accuracy ..........................................................................................................................................................................45
Thermocouples ................................................................................................................................................................46
Digital input/output........................................................................................................................................... 46
Counters ............................................................................................................................................................ 47
Input sequencer ................................................................................................................................................. 47
Trigger sources and modes ............................................................................................................................... 48
Frequency/pulse generators .............................................................................................................................. 48
Power consumption .......................................................................................................................................... 48
External power .................................................................................................................................................. 48
USB specifications ........................................................................................................................................... 49
Environmental .................................................................................................................................................. 49
Mechanical ....................................................................................................................................................... 49
Signal I/O connectors and pin out..................................................................................................................... 49
68-pin SCSI connector pin outs .......................................................................................................................................50
40-pin header connector pin outs .....................................................................................................................................51
TC connector pin out (TB7) .............................................................................................................................................54
4
Preface
About this User's Guide
What you will learn from this user's guide
This user's guide describes the Measurement Computing USB-2523 data acquisition device and lists the
specifications.
Conventions in this user's guide
For more information
Text presented in a box signifies additional information and helpful hints related to the subject matter you are
reading.
Caution! Shaded caution statements present information to help you avoid injuring yourself and others,
damaging your hardware, or losing your data.
bold text
Bold text is used for the names of objects on a screen, such as buttons, text boxes, and check boxes.
italic text
Italic text is used for the names of manuals and help topic titles, and to emphasize a word or phrase.
Where to find more information
For additional information relevant to the operation of your hardware, refer to the Documents subdirectory
where you installed the MCC DAQ software (C:\Program Files\Measurement Computing\DAQ by default), or
search for your device on our website at www.mccdaq.com.
5
Chapter 1
Introducing the USB-2523
Overview: USB-2523 features
The USB-2523 is supported under popular Microsoft® Windows® operating systems. The USB-2523 board is a
multifunction measurement and control board designed for the USB bus.
The USB-2523 provides either eight differential or 16 single-ended analog inputs with 16-bit resolution. It
offers seven software-selectable analog input ranges of ±10 V, ±5 V, ±2 V, ±1 V, ±0.5 V, ±0.2 V, and ±0.1V.
You can configure up to four of the analog inputs as differential thermocouple (TC) inputs.
The board has 24 high-speed lines of digital I/O, two timer outputs, and four 32-bit counters. It provides up to
4 MHz scanning on all digital input lines1.
You can operate all analog I/O, digital I/O, and counter/timer I/O synchronously.
1
Higher rates—up to 12 MHz—are possible depending on the platform and the amount of data being transferred.
6
Chapter 2
Installing the USB-2523
What comes with your USB-2523 shipment?
As you unpack your USB-2523, verify that the following components are included.
Hardware


USB-2523 (with seven standoffs)
USB cable
Optional components
Power supplies, cables and signal conditioning accessories must be ordered separately. If you ordered any of the
following products with your board, they should be included with your shipment.



PS-9V1AEPS-2500 power supply
Cables
o CA-68-3R
o CA-68-3S (3-feet)
o CA-68-6S (6-feet)
o C40FF-x
Signal conditioning accessories
MCC provides signal termination products for use with the USB-2523. Refer to the "Field wiring and
signal termination" section for a complete list of compatible accessory products.
Documentation

MCC DAQ Quick Start Guide
The Quick Start Guide booklet provides an overview of the MCC DAQ software you received with the
device, and includes information about installing the software. Please read this booklet completely before
installing any software or hardware.
Unpacking the USB-2523
As with any electronic device, you should take care while handling to avoid damage from static
electricity. Before removing the USB-2523 from its packaging, ground yourself using a wrist strap or by simply
touching the computer chassis or other grounded object to eliminate any stored static charge.
If any components are missing or damaged, notify Measurement Computing Corporation immediately by
phone, fax, or e-mail:



Phone: 508-946-5100 and follow the instructions for reaching Tech Support
Fax: 508-946-9500 to the attention of Tech Support
Email: techsupport@mccdaq.com
For international customers, contact your local distributor. Refer to the International Distributors section on our
web site at www.mccdaq.com/International.
Installing the software
Refer to the Quick Start Guide for instructions on installing the software on the MCC DAQ CD. This booklet is
available in PDF at www.mccdaq.com/PDFmanuals/DAQ-Software-Quick-Start.pdf.
7
USB-2523 User's Guide
Installing the USB-2523
Installing the USB-2523
To connect the USB-2523 to your system, turn your computer on, and connect the USB cable to a USB port on
your computer or to an external USB hub that is connected to your computer. The USB cable provides power
and communication to the USB-2523.
When you connect the USB-2523 to a computer for the first time, a Found New Hardware dialog opens when
the operating system detects the device. When the dialog closes, the installation is complete.
The power LED (bottom LED) blinks during device detection and initialization, and then remains solid as long
as the USB-2523 has sufficient power. If the power provided from the USB is not sufficient, the LED turns off,
indicating you need a PS-9V1AEPS-2500 power supply.
When the board is first powered on, there is usually a momentary delay before the power LED begins to blink,
or come on solid.
Connect external power, if used, before connecting the USB cable to the computer
If you are using a PS-9V1AEPS-2500 power supply, connect the external power cable to the USB-2523 before
connecting the USB cable to the computer. This allows the USB-2523 to inform the host computer (when the
USB cable is connected) that the board requires minimal power from the computer’s USB port.
In general, all standoffs should be used to mount the board to a metal frame.
The standoff at this location
connects to the USB2523’s internal chassis
plane for shunting
electrostatic discharge.
The standoff at this location
connects to the USB
chassis for shunting
electrostatic discharge.
Caution! Do not disconnect any device from the USB bus while the computer is communicating with the
USB-2523, or you may lose data and/or your ability to communicate with the USB-2523.
Configuring the hardware
All hardware configuration options on the USB-2523 are software-controlled. You can select some of the
configuration options using InstaCal, such as the analog input configuration (16 single-ended or 8 differential
channels), and the edge used for pacing when using an external clock. Once selected, any program that uses the
Universal Library initializes the hardware according to these selections.
You need a PS-9V1AEPS-2500 power supply (sold separately) when there is insufficient power from the USB
port. However, you can use this power supply in any scenario.
Caution! Avoid redundant connections. Ensure there is no signal conflict between SCSI pins and the
associated header pin (J5, J7, and J8). Also make sure there is no conflict between theTB7 TC
connections and the SCSI and/or the 40-pin header connections.
Failure to do so could possibly cause equipment damage and/or personal injury.
Also, turn off power to all devices connected to the system before making connections. Electrical
shock or damage to equipment can result even under low-voltage conditions.
8
USB-2523 User's Guide
Installing the USB-2523
Information on signal connections
General information regarding signal connection and configuration is available in the Guide to Signal
Connections. This document is available on our web site at www.mccdaq.com/signals/signals.pdf).
Caution! Always handle components carefully, and never touch connector pins or circuit components unless
you are following ESD guidelines in an appropriate ESD-controlled area. These guidelines include
using properly-grounded mats and wrist straps, ESD bags and cartons, and related procedures.
Avoid touching board surfaces and onboard components. Only handle boards by their edges. Make
sure the USB-2523 does not come into contact with foreign elements such as oils, water, and
industrial particulate.
The discharge of static electricity can damage some electronic components. Semiconductor
devices are especially susceptible to ESD damage.
Signal connections
The following table lists the board connectors, applicable cables, and compatible accessory products for the
USB-2523.
Board connectors, cables, and compatible hardware
Parameter
Specification
Connector type
Main connector: 68-pin standard "SCSI type III" female connector
Auxiliary connectors: Four, 40-pin header connectors
CA-68-3R — 68-pin ribbon cable; 3 feet.
CA-68-3S — 68-pin shielded round cable; 3 feet.
CA-68-6S — 68-pin shielded round cable; 6 feet
C40FF-x
TB-100 terminal board
Compatible cables — main connector
Compatible cables — 40-pin connectors
Compatible accessory products using the
CA-68-3R, CA-68-3S, or CA-68-6S cables
Compatible accessory products using the C40FF-x
cable
Compatible accessory product
CIO-MINI40
TB-101 terminal board; mounts directly onto the header connectors
9
USB-2523 User's Guide
Installing the USB-2523
68-pin SCSI connector differential and single-ended pinouts (P5)
The 68-pin SCSI connector—labeled P5 on the board—provides 16 single-ended analog channels or eight
differential analog channels.
Caution! Avoid redundant connections. Make sure there is no signal conflict among the SCSI pins, the
40-pin header connector pins (J5, J7, and J8), and the TB7 TC connections. Failure to do so could
possibly cause equipment damage and/or personal injury.
68-pin SCSI connector pinout (labeled P5 on the board)
16-channel single-ended mode
Signal name
Pin
Pin
Signal name
ACH0
68
34
ACH8
AGND
67
33
ACH1
ACH9
66
32
AGND
ACH2
65
31
ACH10
AGND
64
30
ACH3
ACH11
SGND
ACH12
ACH5
AGND
ACH14
ACH7
NC
NC
NEGREF (reserved for self-calibration)
GND
A1
A3
A5
A7
B1
B3
B5
B7
C1
C3
C5
C7
GND
CNT1
CNT3
TMR1
GND
GND
63
62
61
60
59
58
57
56
55
54
53
52
51
50
49
48
47
46
45
44
43
42
41
40
39
38
37
36
35
29
28
27
26
25
24
23
22
21
20
19
18
17
16
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
AGND
ACH4
AGND
ACH13
ACH6
AGND
ACH15
NC
NC
POSREF (reserved for self-calibration)
+5 V
A0
A2
A4
A6
B0
B2
B4
B6
C0
C2
C4
C6
TTL TRG
CNT0
CNT2
TMR0
XAPCR
XDPCR
10
USB-2523 User's Guide
Installing the USB-2523
68-pin SCSI connector pinout (labeled P5 on the board)
8-channel differential mode
Signal name
Pin
Pin
Signal name
ACH0 HI
68
34
ACH0 LO
AGND
ACH1 LO
67
66
33
32
ACH1 HI
AGND
ACH2 HI
AGND
ACH3 LO
SGND
ACH4 LO
ACH5 HI
AGND
ACH6 LO
ACH7 HI
NC
NC
NEGREF (reserved for self-calibration)
GND
A1
A3
A5
A7
B1
B3
B5
B7
C1
C3
C5
C7
GND
CNT1
CNT3
TMR1
GND
GND
65
64
63
62
61
60
59
58
57
56
55
54
53
52
51
50
49
48
47
46
45
44
43
42
41
40
39
38
37
36
35
31
30
29
28
27
26
25
24
23
22
21
20
19
18
17
16
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
ACH2 LO
ACH3 HI
AGND
ACH4 HI
AGND
ACH5 LO
ACH6 HI
AGND
ACH7 LO
NC
NC
POSREF (reserved for self-calibration)
+5 V
A0
A2
A4
A6
B0
B2
B4
B6
C0
C2
C4
C6
TTL TRG
CNT0
CNT2
TMR0
XAPCR
XDPCR
11
USB-2523 User's Guide
Installing the USB-2523
TB-100 terminal board connector to SCSI connector pinout
SCSI connector pinout assignments for TB-100 terminal board connector
(differential analog signals in parentheses)
TB2 screw terminal
SCSI pin
TB1 screw terminal
SCSI pin
*
ACH0 (ACH0 HI)
ACH8 (ACH0 LO)
68
34
A0
A1
A2
A3
A4
A5
A6
A7
B0
B1
B2
B3
B4
B5
B6
18
52
17
51
16
50
15
49
14
48
13
47
12
46
11
AGND
ACH1 (ACH1 HI)
ACH9 (ACH1 LO)
AGND
ACH2 (ACH2 HI)
ACH10 (ACH2 LO)
AGND
ACH3 (ACH3 HI)
ACH11 (ACH3 LO)
AGND
ACH4 (ACH4 HI)
ACH12 (ACH4 LO)
AGND
ACH5 (ACH5 HI)
ACH13 (ACH5 LO)
**
B7
C0
C1
C2
45
10
44
9
AGND
ACH6 (ACH6 HI)
ACH14 (ACH6 LO)
AGND
**
C3
C4
C5
C6
C7
TTL TRG
GND
43
8
42
7
41
6
ACH7 (ACH7 HI)
ACH15 (ACH7 LO)
NC
SGND
POSREF (reserved for self-calibration)
NC
NEGREF (reserved for self-calibration)
57
23
56
62
20
55
54
CNT0
CNT1
CNT2
CNT3
5
39
4
38
AGND
NC
AGND
NC
**
TMR0
TMR1
XDPCR
3
37
1
AGND
XAPCR
GND
**
*
EGND
†
+5V
GND
19
GND
*
33
66
**
65
31
**
30
63
**
28
61
**
60
26
25
58
**
22
**
21
2
**
* Digital common ground pins on the SCSI connector are: 35, 36, and 40.
** Analog common ground pins on the SCSI connector are: 24, 27, 29, 32, 59, 64, and 67.
† EGND is connected to the SCSI connector shell.
12
USB-2523 User's Guide
Installing the USB-2523
40-pin header connector pinouts
Analog channels pinout (J5 and J6)
This edge of the header is closest to the center of the USB2523. Pins 2 and 40 are labeled on the board silkscreen.
40-pin header connector pinout (labeled J5)
16-channel single-ended mode
Analog channel
Pin
J5
Pin
Analog channel
NC
1
2
NC
NC
3
4
NC
AGND
5
6
AGND
ACH3
7
8
ACH11
ACH2
9
10
ACH10
NC
11
12
NC
NC
13
14
NC
ACH1
15
16
ACH9
ACH0
17
18
ACH8
AGND
19
20
AGND
NC
21
22
NC
NC
23
24
NC
ACH7
25
26
ACH15
ACH6
27
28
ACH14
AGND
29
30
NC
NC
31
32
NC
NC
33
34
ACH5
ACH13
35
36
ACH4
ACH12
37
38
AGND
AGND
39
40
AGND
13
USB-2523 User's Guide
Installing the USB-2523
40-pin header connector pinout (labeled J5)
8-channel differential mode
Analog channel
Pin
J5
Pin
Analog channel
NC
1
2
NC
NC
3
4
NC
AGND
5
6
AGND
ACH3 HI
7
8
ACH3 LO
ACH2 HI
9
10
ACH2 LO
NC
11
12
NC
NC
13
14
NC
ACH1 HI
15
16
ACH1 LO
ACH0 HI
17
18
ACH0 LO
AGND
19
20
AGND
NC
21
22
NC
NC
23
24
NC
ACH7 HI
25
26
ACH7 LO
ACH6 HI
27
28
ACH6 LO
AGND
29
30
NC
NC
31
32
NC
NC
33
34
ACH5 HI
ACH5 LO
35
36
ACH4 HI
ACH4 LO
37
38
AGND
AGND
39
40
AGND
14
USB-2523 User's Guide
Installing the USB-2523
40-pin header connector pinout (labeled J6)
Analog channel
Pin
J6
Pin
Analog channel
NC
1
2
NC
NC
3
4
NC
AGND
5
6
NC
NC
7
8
NC
NC
9
10
NC
AGND
11
12
NC
NC
13
14
NC
NC
15
16
NC
NC
17
18
AGND
NC
19
20
NC
NC
21
22
NC
NC
23
24
AGND
NC
25
26
NC
NC
27
28
NC
AGND
29
30
NC
NC
31
32
NC
NC
33
34
NC
NC
35
36
NC
NC
37
38
AGND
AGND
39
40
AGND
15
USB-2523 User's Guide
Installing the USB-2523
Digital ports, counters, timers, triggers, and pacer clocks pinout (J7 and J8)
You can use the 40-pin connector headers labeled J7 and J8 to connect digital ports, counters, timers, triggers,
pacer clocks, and other signals.
USB-2523 40-pin header connectors pinout (labeled J7 and J8)
Digital channel
Pin
J7
Pin
Digital channel
J8
Signal
Pin
Pin
Signal
+13 V
1
2
-13 V
GND
1
2
XAPCR
A0
3
4
A4
NC
3
4
NC
A1
5
6
A5
AGND
5
6
AGND
A2
7
8
A6
NC
7
8
NC
A3
9
10
A7
NC
9
10
NC
GND
11
12
TTL TRG
AGND
11
12
AGND
B0
13
14
B4
SelfCal
13
14
SGND
B1
15
16
B5
AGND
15
16
AGND
B2
17
18
B6
TTL TRG
17
18
XDPCR
B3
19
20
B7
XAPCR
19
20
GND (digital)
GND
21
22
+5 V
GND (digital)
21
22
GND (digital)
C0
23
24
C4
NC
23
24
NC
C1
25
26
C5
+5 V
25
26
AUX PWR
C2
27
28
C6
NC
27
28
NC
C3
29
30
C7
NC
29
30
NC
GND
31
32
TMR1
NC
31
32
NC
TMR0
33
34
CNT1
NC
33
34
NC
CNT0
35
36
CNT3
NC
35
36
NC
CNT2
37
38
GND
NC
37
38
NC
GND
39
40
GND
NC
39
40
NC
16
USB-2523 User's Guide
Installing the USB-2523
Using C40FF-x cables to obtain 40-pin female connectors
In this example, a C40FF-x cable is connected to three of the 40-pin headers (J5, J7, and J8). The result is three
female 40-pin connectors that together have the same signal connectivity as the SCSI connector.
40-pin female connectors
C40FF-x header cables
USB cable
Figure 1. Three C40FF-x cables connected to J5, J7, and J8 40-pin connectors
Four-channel TC terminal pinout (TB7)
You can use the TB7 terminal block to connect up to four thermocouples. The first TC channel uses ACH0
(analog channel 0) for its positive (+) lead, and ACH8 for its negative (-) lead. The second TC channel uses
ACH1 and ACH9, and so on, as indicated in Figure 2.
TC CH 0
TC CH 1
TC CH 2
TC CH 3
Standoff
AGND
ACH0 +
ACH8 (-)
ACH1 +
ACH9 (-)
ACH2 +
ACH10 (-)
ACH3 +
ACH11 (-)
Figure 2. TC terminal pinout (labeled TB7)
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USB-2523 User's Guide
Installing the USB-2523
Cabling
Use a CA-68-3R 68-pin ribbon expansion cable (Figure 3), or a CA-68-3S (3-foot) or CA-68-6S (6-foot) 68-pin
shielded expansion cable (Figure 4) to connect signals to the USB-2523's 68-pin SCSI connector.
34
68
1
35
34
68
1
35
The stripe
identifies pin # 1
Figure 3. CA-68-3R cable
34
68
1
35
34
68
1
35
Figure 4. CA-68-3S and CA-68-6S cable
Use one or more C40FF-x- ribbon cable(s) (Figure 5) to connect signals to one or more of the USB-2523 40-pin
header connectors.
2
40
The red stripe
identifies pin # 1
1
2
40
39
40-pin Female
IDC Connector
1
39
40-pin Female
IDC Connector
Figure 5. C40FF-x cable
Field wiring and signal termination
You can use the following Measurement Computing screw terminal board to terminate field signals and route
them into the USB-2523 board using the CA-68-3R, CA-68-3S, or CA-68-6S cable:

TB-100: Termination board with screw terminals.
A 19-inch rack mount kit (RM-TB-100) for the TB-100 termination board is also available.
18
USB-2523 User's Guide
Installing the USB-2523
You can use the following screw terminal board with the C40FF-x cable.

CIO-MINI40: 40-pin screw terminal board.
Details on these products are available on our web site.
Using multiple USB-2523s per PC
USB-2523 features can be replicated up to four times, as up to four devices can be connected a single host PC.
The serial number on each USB-2523 distinguishes one from another. You can operate multiple USB-2523
boards synchronously. To do this, set up one USB-2523 with the pacer pin you want to use (XAPCR or
XDPCR) configured for output. Set up the USB-2523 boards you want to synchronize to this board with the
pacer pin you want to use (XAPCR or XDPCR) configured for input. Wire the pacer pin configured for output
to each of the pacer input pins that you want to synchronize.
19
Chapter 3
Functional Details
This chapter contains detailed information on all of the features available from the board, including:




a diagram and explanations of physical board components
a functional block diagram
information on how to use the signals generated by the board
diagrams of signals using default or conventional board settings
USB-2523 components
These USB-2523 components are shown in Figure 6.






One USB port
One external power connector
One 68-pin SCSI connector
Four 40-pin headers (J5, J6, J7, and J8)
One four-channel TC screw terminal block
Two LED indicators (USB and power)
J6
TB7
J5
J7
J8
P5
External power
Supply connector
USB 2.0 port
USB LED
Power LED
Figure 6. USB-2523 components
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USB-2523 User's Guide
Functional Details
SCSI - 68 pin (P5) connector
The 68-pin SCSI connector includes pins for the following:











16 single-ended/eight differential analog inputs
24 digital I/O
Four counter inputs
Two timer outputs
Input scan pacer clock I/O
Output scan pacer clock I/O
TTL trigger
self calibration
+5 VDC
analog commons
digital commons
40-pin headers (J5, J6, J7, J8)
Four 40-pin headers (J5 through J8) provide alternative connections to the signals of the SCSI connector. You
can get a female connector for each header by connecting a C40FF-x cable (40-pin header to female 40-pin
header) to each header.
9-slot screw terminal (TB7)
You can use the on-board screw terminal connector (TB7) to connect up to four TC inputs. TB7 uses the
following analog channels to obtain its four differential channels:




TC CH0: CH 0 (+); CH 8 (-)
TC CH1: CH 1 (+); CH 9 (-)
TC CH2: CH 2 (+); CH 10 (-)
TC CH3: CH 3 (+); CH 11 (-)
When using the thermocouple channels, do not connect signals to the associated channels on the SCSI
connector or J5.
External power connector
Although the USB-2523 is powered by a USB port on a host PC, an external power connector is available when
the host PC’s USB port cannot supply adequate power, or if you prefer to use a separate power source.
Connect the optional PS-9V1AEPS-2500 power supply to the external power supply connector. This power
supply plugs into a standard 120 VAC outlet and supplies 9 VDC, 1 A power to the USB-2523.
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USB-2523 User's Guide
Functional Details
USB-2523 block diagram
Figure 7 is a simplified block diagram of the USB-2523. This board provides all of the functional elements
shown in the figure.
Figure 7. USB-2523 functional block diagram
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USB-2523 User's Guide
Functional Details
Synchronous I/O – mixing analog, digital, and counter scanning
The USB-2523 can read analog, digital, and counter inputs, while generating digital pattern outputs at the same
time. Digital and counter inputs do not affect the overall A/D rate because these inputs use no time slot in the
scanning sequencer.
For example, one analog input channel can be scanned at the full 1 MHz A/D rate along with digital and counter
input channels. Each analog channel can have a different gain, and counter and digital channels do not need
additional scanning bandwidth as long as there is at least one analog channel in the scan group.
Digital input channel sampling is not done during the "dead time" of the scan period where no analog sampling
is being done either.
Analog input
The USB-2523 has a 16-bit, 1-MHz A/D coupled with 16 single-ended, or eight differential analog inputs.
Seven software programmable ranges provide inputs from ±10 V to ±100 mV full scale.
Analog input scanning
The USB-2523 has several scanning modes to address various applications. You can load the 512-location scan
buffer with any combination of analog input channels. All analog input channels in the scan buffer are measured
sequentially at 1 µs per channel by default.
For example, in the fastest mode, with a 1 µs settling time for the acquisition of each channel, a single analog
channel can be scanned continuously at 1 MS/s; two analog channels can be scanned at 500 kS/s each; 16
analog input channels can be scanned at 62.5 kS/s.
Settling time
For most applications, leave the settling time at its default of 1 µs.
However, if you are scanning multiple channels, and one or more channels are connected to a high-impedance
source, you may get better results by increasing the settling time. Remember that increasing the settling reduces
the maximum acquisition rate.
You can set the settling time to 1 µs, 5 µs, 10 µs, or 1 ms.
Example: Analog channel scanning of voltage inputs
Figure 8 shows a simple acquisition. The scan is programmed pre-acquisition and is made up of six analog
channels (Ch0, Ch1, Ch3, Ch4, Ch6, and Ch7). Each of these analog channels can have a different gain. The
acquisition is triggered and the samples stream to the PC. Using the default settling time, each analog channel
requires one microsecond of scan time—therefore the scan period can be no shorter than 6 µs for this example.
The scan period can be made much longer than 6 µs—up to 1 s. The maximum scan frequency is 1 divided by
6 µs, or 166,666 Hz.
Figure 8. Analog channel scan of voltage inputs example
Example: Analog channel scanning of voltage and temperature inputs
Figure 9 shows a programmed pre-acquisition scan made up of six analog channels (Ch0, Ch1, Ch5, Ch11,
Ch12, Ch13). Each of these analog channels can have a different gain. You can program channels 0 and 1 to
directly measure TCs.
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USB-2523 User's Guide
Functional Details
In this mode, oversampling is programmable up to 16384 oversamples per channel in the scan group. When
oversampling is applied, it is applied to all analog channels in the scan group, including temperature and voltage
channels. Digital channels are not oversampled.
If you want 256 oversamples, then each analog channel in the scan group takes 256 µs, and the returned 16-bit
value represents an average of 256 consecutive 1 µs samples of that channel. The acquisition is triggered and
16-bit values—each representing an average of 256—stream to the PC via the USB cable. Since two of the
channels in the scan group are temperature channels, you need the acquisition engine to read a cold-junctioncompensation (CJC) temperature every scan.
Figure 9. Analog channel scanning of voltage and temperature inputs example
Since the targeted number of oversamples is 256 in this example, each analog channel in the scan group
requires 256 microseconds to return one 16-bit value. The oversampling is also done for CJC temperature
measurement channels, making the minimum scan period for this example 7 X 256 µs, or 1792 µs. The
maximum scan frequency is the inverse of this number, 558 Hz.
For accurate measurements, you must associate TC and CJC channels properly
The TC channels must immediately follow their associated CJC channels in the channel array. For accurate TC
readings, associate CJC0 with TC0, CJC1 with TC1 and TC2, and CJC2 with TC3.
Example: Analog and digital scanning, once per scan mode
The scan is programmed pre-acquisition and is made up of six analog channels (Ch0, Ch2, Ch5, Ch11, Ch13,
Ch15) and four digital channels (16-bits of digital IO, three counter inputs.) Each of the analog channels can
have a different gain.
The acquisition is triggered and the samples stream to the PC via the USB cable. Each analog channel requires
one microsecond of scan time. Therefore, the scan period can be no shorter than 6 µs for this example. All of
the digital channels are sampled at the start of scan and do not require additional scanning bandwidth as long as
there is at least one analog channel in the scan group. The scan period can be made much longer than 6 µs, up to
1 second. The maximum scan frequency is one divided by 6 µs, or 166,666 Hz.
Figure 10. Analog and digital scanning, once per scan mode example
The counter channels may return only the lower 16-bits of count value if that is sufficient for the application.
They could also return the full 32-bit result if necessary. Similarly, the digital input channel could be the full 24
bits if desired or only eight bits if that is sufficient. If the three counter channels are all returning 32-bit values
and the digital input channel is returning a 16-bit value, then 13 samples are being returned to the PC every scan
period, with each sample being 16-bits. The 32-bit counter channels are divided into two 16-bit samples—one
24
USB-2523 User's Guide
Functional Details
for the low word, and the other for the high word. If the maximum scan frequency is 166,666 Hz, then the data
bandwidth streaming into the PC is 2.167 MS/s. Some slower PCs may have a problem with data bandwidths
greater than 6 MS/s.
The USB-2523 has an onboard 1 MS buffer for acquired data.
Example: Sampling digital inputs for every analog sample in a scan group
The scan is programmed pre-acquisition and is made up of six analog channels (Ch0, Ch2, Ch5, Ch11, Ch13,
Ch15) and four digital channels (16-bits of digital input, three counter inputs.) Each of the analog channels can
have a different gain.
The acquisition is triggered and the samples stream to the PC via the USB cable. Each analog channel requires
one microsecond of scan time therefore the scan period can be no shorter than 6 µs for this example. All of the
digital channels are sampled at the start of scan and do not require additional scanning bandwidth as long as
there is at least one analog channel in the scan group. The 16-bits of digital input are sampled for every analog
sample in the scan group. This allows up to 1 MHz digital input sampling while the 1 MHz analog sampling
bandwidth is aggregated across many analog input channels.
The scan period can be made much longer than 6 µs—up to 1 second. The maximum scan frequency is one
divided by 6 µs, or 166,666 Hz. Note that digital input channel sampling is not done during the "dead time" of
the scan period where no analog sampling is being done either.
Figure 11. Analog and digital scanning, once per scan mode example
If the three counter channels are all returning 32-bit values and the digital input channel is returning a 1-bit
value, then 18 samples are returned to the PC every scan period, with each sample being 16-bits. Each 32-bit
counter channel is divided into two 16-bit samples—one for the low word and the other for the high word. If the
maximum scan frequency is 166,666 Hz, then the data bandwidth streaming into the PC is 3 MS/s. Some slower
PCs may have a problem with data bandwidths greater than 6 MS/s.
The USB-2523 has an onboard 1 MS buffer for acquired data.
Thermocouple input
You can configure up to four analog inputs on the USB-2523 to accept a TC input. Built-in cold-junction
sensors are provided for each of the screw-terminal connectors, and any TC type can be attached to any of the
four thermocouple channels.
When measuring TCs, the USB-2523 can operate in an averaging mode, taking multiple readings on each
channel, applying digital filtering and cold-junction compensation, and then converting the readings to
temperature.
As a result, the USB-2523 measures channels with TCs attached at a rate from 50 Hz to 10 kHz, depending on
how much over-sampling is selected.
Additionally, a rejection frequency can be specified in which over sampling occurs during one cycle of either
50 Hz or 60 Hz, providing a high level of 50 Hz or 60 Hz rejection.
Tips for making accurate temperature measurements

Use as much oversampling as possible.
25
USB-2523 User's Guide






Functional Details
Warm up the USB-2523 for 60 minutes—including TC wires—so that it is thermally stabilized. This
warm-up time enables the CJC thermistors to more accurately measure the junction at the terminal block.
Make sure the surrounding environment is thermally stabilized and ideally around 20 °C to 30 °C. If the
board’s ambient temperature is changing due to a local heating or cooling source, then the TC junction
temperature may be changing and the CJC thermistor will have a larger error.
Use small-diameter, instrument-grade TC wire. Small diameter TC wire has less effect on the TC junction
at the terminal block because less heat is transferred from the ambient environment to the junction.
Use shielded TC wire (see "Shielding" below) with the shield connected to analog common to reduce noise.
The USB-2523 has several analog common pins on both the 68-pin connector and the 40-pin connectors,
and the TB-7 has one analog common screw terminal.
You can also minimize the effect of noise by averaging readings (see "Averaging" below), or combining
both shielding and averaging.
Refer to "68-pin SCSI connector differential and single-ended pinouts (P5)" on page 10, "40-pin header
connector pinouts" on page 13, and "Four-channel TC terminal pinout (TB7)" on page 17 for the locations
of these analog common pins.
Make sure the USB-2523 is mounted on a flat surface.
Be careful to avoid loading down the digital outputs too heavily (>1 mA). Heavy load down causes
significant heat generation inside the unit and increase the CJC thermistor error.
Shielding
Use shielded TC wire with the shield connected to analog common to further reduce noise.
The USB-2523 has one analog common screw-terminal on TB7 and several analog common pins on the headers
(see "Signal " starting on page 9). You can connect the shield of a shielded thermocouple to one of the analog
commons. When this connection is made, leave the shield at the other end of the thermocouple unconnected.
Caution! Connecting the shield to common at both ends results in a ground loop.
Averaging
Certain acquisition programs apply averaging after several samples have been collected. Depending on the
nature of the noise, averaging can reduce noise by the square root of the number of averaged samples.
Although averaging can be effective, it suffers from several drawbacks:


Noise in measurements only decreases as the square root of the number of measurements—reducing RMS
noise significantly may require many samples. Thus, averaging is suited to low-speed applications that can
provide many samples.
Only random noise is reduced or eliminated by averaging. Averaging does not reduce or eliminate periodic
signals.
Digital I/O
Twenty-four TTL-level digital I/O lines are included in each USB-2523. You can program digital I/O in 8-bit
groups as either inputs or outputs and scan them in several modes (see "Digital input scanning" below). You can
access input ports asynchronously from the PC at any time, including when a scanned acquisition is occurring.
Digital input scanning
Digital input ports can be read asynchronously before, during, or after an analog input scan.
Digital input ports can be part of the scan group and scanned along with analog input channels. Two
synchronous modes are supported when digital inputs are scanned along with analog inputs.
Refer to "Example 4: Sampling digital inputs for every analog sample in a scan group" on page 25 for more
information.
In both modes, adding digital input scans has no affect on the analog scan rate limitations.
If no analog inputs are being scanned, the digital inputs can sustain rates up to 4 MHz.
Higher rates—up to 12 MHz—are possible depending on the platform and the amount of data being transferred.
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USB-2523 User's Guide
Functional Details
Digital outputs and pattern generation
Digital outputs can be updated asynchronously at anytime before, during, or after an acquisition. You can use
two of the 8-bit ports to generate a digital pattern at up to 4 MHz. The USB-2523 supports digital pattern
generation. The digital pattern can be read from PC RAM.
Higher rates—up to 12 MHz—are possible depending on the platform and the amount of data being transferred.
Digital pattern generation is clocked using an internal clock. The on-board programmable clock generates
updates ranging from once every 1 second to 1 MHz, independent of any acquisition rate.
Triggering
Triggering can be the most critical aspect of a data acquisition application. The USB-2523 supports the
following trigger modes to accommodate certain measurement situations.
Hardware analog triggering
The USB-2523 uses true analog triggering in which the trigger level you program sets an analog DAC, which is
then compared in hardware to the analog input level on the selected channel. This guarantees an analog trigger
latency that is less than 1 µs.
You can select any analog channel as the trigger channel, but the selected channel must be the first channel in
the scan. You can program the trigger level, the rising or falling edge, and hysteresis.
A note on the hardware analog level trigger and comparator change state
When analog input voltage starts near the trigger level, and you are performing a rising or falling hardware
analog level trigger, the analog level comparator may have already tripped before the sweep was enabled. If this
is the case, the circuit waits for the comparator to change state. However, since the comparator has already
changed state, the circuit does not see the transition.
To resolve this problem, do the following:
1.
Set the analog level trigger to the threshold you want.
2.
Apply an analog input signal that is more than 2.5% of the full-scale range away from the desired
threshold. This ensures that the comparator is in the proper state at the beginning of the acquisition.
3.
Bring the analog input signal toward the desired threshold. When the input signal is at the threshold
(± some tolerance) the sweep will be triggered.
4.
Before re-arming the trigger, move the analog input signal to a level that is more than 2.5% of the full-scale
range away from the desired threshold.
For example, if you are using the ±2 V full-scale range (gain = 5), and you want to trigger at +1 V on the rising
edge, you would set the analog input voltage to a start value that is less than +0.9 V (1 V – (2 V * 2 * 2.5%)).
Digital triggering
A separate digital trigger input line is provided (TTL TRG), allowing TTL-level triggering with latencies
guaranteed to be less than 1 µs. You can program both of the logic levels (1 or 0) and the rising or falling edge
for the discrete digital trigger input.
Software-based triggering
The three software-based trigger modes differ from hardware analog triggering and digital triggering because
the readings—analog, digital, or counter—are checked by the PC in order to detect the trigger event.
Analog triggering
You can select any analog channel in the scan as the trigger channel. You can program the trigger level, the
rising or falling edge, and hysteresis.
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USB-2523 User's Guide
Functional Details
Pattern triggering
You can select any scanned digital input channel pattern to trigger an acquisition, including the ability to mask
or ignore specific bits.
Counter triggering
You can program triggering to occur when one of the counters meets or exceeds a set value, or is within a range
of values. You can program any of the included counter channels as the trigger source.
Software-based triggering usually results in a long period of inactivity between the trigger condition being
detected and the data being acquired. However, the USB-2523 avoids this situation by using pre-trigger data.
When software-based-triggering is used, and the PC detects the trigger condition—which may be thousands of
readings after the actual occurrence of the signal—the USB-2523 driver automatically looks back to the
location in memory where the actual trigger-causing measurement occurred, and presents the acquired data that
begins at the point where the trigger-causing measurement occurs. The maximum inactive period in this mode
equals one scan period.
Set pre-trigger > 0 when using counter as trigger source
When using a counter for a trigger source, you should use a pre-trigger with a value of at least 1. Since all
counters start at zero with the first scan, there is no valid reference in regard to rising or falling edge. Setting a
pre-trigger to 1 or more ensures that a valid reference value is present, and that the first trigger will be
legitimate.
Stop trigger modes
You can use any of the software trigger modes explained previously to stop an acquisition.
For example, you can program an acquisition to begin on one event—such as a voltage level—and then stop on
another event—such as a digital pattern.
Pre-triggering and post-triggering modes
The USB-2523 supports four modes of pre-triggering and post-triggering, providing a wide-variety of options to
accommodate any measurement requirement.
When using pre-trigger, you must use software-based triggering to initiate an acquisition.
No pre-trigger, post-trigger stop event
In this simple mode, data acquisition starts when the trigger is received, and the acquisition stops when the stoptrigger event is received.
Fixed pre-trigger with post-trigger stop event
In this mode, you set the number of pre-trigger readings to acquire. The acquisition continues until a stoptrigger event occurs.
No pre-trigger, infinite post-trigger
In this mode, no pre-trigger data is acquired. Instead, data is acquired beginning with the trigger event, and is
terminated when you issue a command to halt the acquisition.
Fixed pre-trigger with infinite post-trigger
You set the amount of pre-trigger data to acquire. Then, the system continues to acquire data until the program
issues a command to halt acquisition.
Counter inputs
Four 32-bit counters are built into the USB-2523. Each counter accepts frequency inputs up to 20 MHz.
USB-2523 counter channels can be configured as standard counters or as multi-axis quadrature encoders.
The counters can concurrently monitor time periods, frequencies, pulses, and other event driven incremental
occurrences directly from pulse-generators, limit switches, proximity switches, and magnetic pick-ups.
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USB-2523 User's Guide
Functional Details
Counter inputs can be read asynchronously under program control, or synchronously as part of an analog or
digital scan group.
When reading synchronously, all counters are set to zero at the start of an acquisition. When reading
asynchronously, counters may be cleared on each read, count up continually, or count until the 16 bit or 32 bit
limit has been reached. See the counter mode descriptions below.
Figure 12. Typical USB-2523 counter channel
Mapped channels
A mapped channel is one of four counter input signals that can get multiplexed into a counter module. The
mapped channel can participate with the counter's input signal by gating the counter, latching the counter, and
so on. The four possible choices for the mapped channel are the four counter input signals (post-debounce).
A mapped channel can be used to:



gate the counter
decrement the counter
latch the current count to the count register
Usually, all counter outputs are latched at the beginning of each scan within the acquisition. However, you can
use a second mapped channel to latch the counter output.
Counter modes
A counter can be asynchronously read with or without clear on read. The asynchronous read-signals strobe
when the lower 16-bits of the counter are read by software. The software can read the counter's high 16-bits
some time later after reading the lower 16-bits. The full 32-bit result reflects the timing of the first
asynchronous read strobe.
Totalize mode
The Totalize mode allows basic use of a 32-bit counter. While in this mode, the channel's input can only
increment the counter upward. When used as a 16-bit counter (counter low), one channel can be scanned at the
12 MHz rate. When used as a 32-bit counter (counter high), two sample times are used to return the full 32-bit
result. Therefore a 32-bit counter can only be sampled at a 6 MHz maximum rate. If you only want the upper 16
bits of a 32-bit counter, then you can acquire that upper word at the 12 MHz rate.
The counter counts up and does not clear on every new sample. However, it does clear at the start of a new scan
command.
The counter rolls over on the 16-bit (counter low) boundary, or on the 32-bit (counter high) boundary.
Clear on read mode
The counter counts up and is cleared after each read. By default, the counter counts up and only clears the
counter at the start of a new scan command. The final value of the counter —the value just before it was
cleared—is latched and returned to the USB-2523.
Stop at the top mode
The counter stops at the top of its count. The top of the count is FFFF hex (65,535) for the 16-bit mode, and
FFFFFFFF hex (4,294,967,295) for the 32-bit mode.
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USB-2523 User's Guide
Functional Details
32-bit or 16-bit
Sets the counter type to either 16-bits or 32-bits. The type of counter only matters if the counter is using the
stop at the top mode—otherwise, this option is ignored.
Latch on map
Sets the signal on the mapped counter input to latch the count.
By default, the start of scan signal—a signal internal to the USB-2523 pulses once every scan period to indicate
the start of a scan group—latches the count, so the count is updated each time a scan is started.
Gating "on" mode
Sets the gating option to "on" for the mapped channel, enabling the mapped channel to gate the counter.
Any counter can be gated by the mapped channel. When the mapped channel is high, the counter is enabled.
When the mapped channel is low, the counter is disabled (but holds the count value). The mapped channel can
be any counter input channel other than the counter being gated.
Decrement "on" mode
Sets the counter decrement option to "on" for the mapped channel. The input channel for the counter increments
the counter, and you can use the mapped channel to decrement the counter.
Debounce modes
Each channel's output can be debounced with 16 programmable debounce times from 500 ns to 25.5 ms. The
debounce circuitry eliminates switch-induced transients typically associated with electro-mechanical devices
including relays, proximity switches, and encoders.
There are two debounce modes, as well as a debounce bypass, as shown in Figure 13. In addition, the signal
from the buffer can be inverted before it enters the debounce circuitry. The inverter is used to make the input
rising-edge or falling-edge sensitive.
Edge selection is available with or without debounce. In this case the debounce time setting is ignored and the
input signal goes straight from the inverter or inverter bypass to the counter module.
There are 16 different debounce times. In either debounce mode, the debounce time selected determines how
fast the signal can change and still be recognized.
The two debounce modes are trigger after stable and trigger before stable. A discussion of the two modes
follows.
Figure 13. Debounce model block diagram
Trigger after stable mode
In the trigger after stable mode, the output of the debounce module does not change state until a period of
stability has been achieved. This means that the input has an edge, and then must be stable for a period of time
equal to the debounce time.
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USB-2523 User's Guide
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Figure 14. Debounce module – trigger after stable mode
The following time periods (T1 through T5) pertain to Figure 14. In trigger after stable mode, the input signal
to the debounce module is required to have a period of stability after an incoming edge, in order for that edge to
be accepted (passed through to the counter module.) The debounce time for this example is equal to T2 and T5.





T1 – In the example above, the input signal goes high at the beginning of time period T1, but never stays
high for a period of time equal to the debounce time setting (equal to T2 for this example.)
T2 – At the end of time period T2, the input signal has transitioned high and stayed there for the required
amount of time—therefore the output transitions high. If the input signal does not stabilize in the high state
long enough, no transition would have appeared on the output and the entire disturbance on the input would
have been rejected.
T3 – During time period T3, the input signal remained steady. No change in output is seen.
T4 – During time period T4, the input signal has more disturbances and does not stabilize in any state long
enough. No change in the output is seen.
T5 – At the end of time period T5, the input signal has transitioned low and stayed there for the required
amount of time—therefore the output goes low.
Trigger before stable mode
In the trigger before stable mode, the output of the debounce module immediately changes state, but will not
change state again until a period of stability has passed. For this reason the mode can be used to detect glitches.
Figure 15. Debounce module – Trigger before stable mode
The following time periods (T1 through T6) pertain to the above drawing.






T1 – In the illustrated example, the input signal is low for the debounce time (equal to T1); therefore when
the input edge arrives at the end of time period T1, it is accepted and the output (of the debounce module)
goes high. Note that a period of stability must precede the edge in order for the edge to be accepted.
T2 – During time period T2, the input signal is not stable for a length of time equal to T1 (the debounce
time setting for this example.) Therefore, the output stays "high" and does not change state during time
period T2.
T3 – During time period T3, the input signal is stable for a time period equal to T1, meeting the debounce
requirement. The output is held at the high state. This is the same state as the input.
T4 – At anytime during time period T4, the input can change state. When this happens, the output will also
change state. At the end of time period T4, the input changes state, going low, and the output follows this
action [by going low].
T5 – During time period T5, the input signal again has disturbances that cause the input to not meet the
debounce time requirement. The output does not change state.
T6 – After time period T6, the input signal has been stable for the debounce time and therefore any edge on
the input after time period T6 is immediately reflected in the output of the debounce module.
Debounce mode comparisons
Figure 16 shows how the two modes interpret the same input signal, which exhibits glitches. Notice that the
trigger before stable mode recognizes more glitches than the trigger after stable mode. Use the bypass option to
achieve maximum glitch recognition.
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Figure 16. Example of two debounce modes interpreting the same signal
Debounce times should be set according to the amount of instability expected in the input signal. Setting a
debounce time that is too short may result in unwanted glitches clocking the counter. Setting a debounce time
too long may result in an input signal being rejected entirely. Some experimentation may be required to find the
appropriate debounce time for a particular application.
To see the effects of different debounce time settings, simply view the analog waveform along with the counter
output. This can be done by connecting the source to an analog input.
Use trigger before stable mode when the input signal has groups of glitches and each group is to be counted as
one. The trigger before stable mode recognizes and counts the first glitch within a group but rejects the
subsequent glitches within the group if the debounce time is set accordingly. The debounce time should be set
to encompass one entire group of glitches as shown in the following diagram.
Figure 17.Optimal debounce time for trigger before stable mode
Trigger after stable mode behaves more like a traditional debounce function: rejecting glitches and only passing
state transitions after a required period of stability. Trigger after stable mode is used with electro-mechanical
devices like encoders and mechanical switches to reject switch bounce and disturbances due to a vibrating
encoder that is not otherwise moving. The debounce time should be set short enough to accept the desired input
pulse but longer than the period of the undesired disturbance as shown in Figure 18.
Figure 18. Optimal debounce time for trigger after stable mode
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Encoder mode
Rotary shaft encoders are frequently used with CNC equipment, metal-working machines, packaging
equipment, elevators, valve control systems, and in a multitude of other applications in which rotary shafts are
involved.
The encoder mode allows the USB-2523 to make use of data from optical incremental quadrature encoders. In
encoder mode, the USB-2523 accepts single-ended inputs. When reading phase A, phase B, and index Z
signals, the USB-2523 provides positioning, direction, and velocity data.
The USB-2523 can receive input from up to two encoders.
The USB-2523 supports quadrature encoders with a 16-bit (counter low) or a 32-bit (counter high) counter,
20 MHz frequency, and X1, X2, and X4 count modes. With only phase A and phase B signals, two channels are
supported; with phase A, phase B, and index Z signals, 1 channel is supported. Each input can be debounced
from 500 ns to 25.5 ms (total of 16 selections) to eliminate extraneous noise or switch induced transients.
Encoder input signals must be within -5 V to +10 V and the switching threshold is TTL (1.3V).
Quadrature encoders generally have three outputs: A, B, and Z. The A and B signals are pulse trains driven by
an optical sensor inside the encoder. As the encoder shaft rotates, a laminated optical shield rotates inside the
encoder. The shield has three concentric circular patterns of alternating opaque and transparent windows
through which an LED shines. There is one LED and one phototransistor for each of the concentric circular
patterns. One phototransistor produces the A signal, another phototransistor produces the B signal and the last
phototransistor produces the Z signal. The concentric pattern for A has 512 window pairs (or 1024, 4096, etc.)
When using a counter for a trigger source, use a pre-trigger with a value of at least 1. Since all counters start at
zero with the initial scan, there is no valid reference in regard to rising or falling edge. Setting a pre-trigger to
1 or more ensures that a valid reference value is present, and that the first trigger is legitimate.
The concentric pattern for B has the same number of window pairs as A—except that the entire pattern is
rotated by 1/4 of a window-pair. Thus the B signal is always 90 degrees out of phase from the A signal. The A
and B signals pulse 512 times (or 1024, 4096, etc.) per complete rotation of the encoder.
The concentric pattern for the Z signal has only one transparent window and therefore pulses only once per
complete rotation. Representative signals are shown in the following figure.
A
B
Z
Figure 19. Representation of quadrature encoder outputs: A, B, and Z
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As the encoder rotates, the A (or B) signal indicates the distance the encoder has traveled. The frequency of A
(or B) indicates the velocity of rotation of the encoder. If the Z signal is used to zero a counter (that is clocked
by A) then that counter gives the number of pulses the encoder has rotated from its reference. The Z signal is a
reference marker for the encoder. It should be noted that when the encoder is rotating clockwise (as viewed
from the back), A will lead B and when the encoder is rotating counterclockwise, A lags behind B. If the
counter direction control logic is such that the counter counts upward when A leads B and counts downward
when A lags B, then the counter gives direction control as well as distance from the reference.
Maximizing encoder accuracy
If there are 512 pulses on A, then the encoder position is accurate to within 360°/512.
You can get even greater accuracy by counting not only rising edges on A but also falling edges on A, giving
position accuracy to 360 degrees/1024.
You get maximum accuracy counting rising and falling edges on A and on B (since B also has 512 pulses.) This
gives a position accuracy of 360°/2048. These different modes are known as X1, X2, and X4.
Connecting the USB-2523 to an encoder
You can use up to two encoders with each USB-2523 in your acquisition system. Each A and B signal can be
made as a single-ended connection with respect to common ground.
Differential applications are not supported.
For single-ended applications:


Connect signals A, B, and Z to the counter inputs on the USB-2523.
Connect each encoder ground to GND.
You can also connect external pull-up resistors to the USB-2523 counter input terminal blocks by placing a
pull-up resistor between any input channel and the encoder power supply. Choose a pull-up resistor value based
on the encoder's output drive capability and the input impedance of the USB-2523. Lower values of pull-up
resistors cause less distortion, but also cause the encoder's output driver to pull down with more current.
Connecting external pull-up resistors to the USB-2523
For open-collector outputs, you can connect external pull-up resistors to the USB-2523's counter input terminal
blocks. You can place a pull-up resistor between any input channel and the provided +5 V power supply.
Choose a pull-up resistor value based on the encoder's output drive capability and the input impedance of the
USB-2523. Lower values of pull-up resistors cause less distortion but also cause the encoder's output driver to
pull down with more current.
Wiring to one encoder: Figure 20 shows the connections for one encoder to a module.
The following figure illustrates connections for one encoder to a 68-pin SCSI connector on a USB-2523.
The "A" signal must be connected to an even-numbered channel and the associated "B" signal must be
connected to the next [higher] odd-numbered channel. For example, if "A" were connected to CTR0, "B" would
be connected to CTR1.
+5 VDC, pin 19
To ground (of external power source)
Ground (to Digital Common pin 35, 36, 40)
Counter 0 (CNT0, pin 5) – To Encoder “A”
Counter 1 (CNT1, pin 39) – To Encoder “B”
Counter 2 (CNT2, pin 4) – To Encoder “Z”
Figure 20. Encoder connections to pins on the SCSI connector*
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USB-2523 User's Guide
Functional Details
* Connections can instead be made to the associated screw-terminals of a connected TB-100 terminal connector
option.
The "A" signal must be connected to an even-numbered channel and the associated "B" signal must be
connected to the next higher odd-numbered channel. For example, if "A" were connected to counter 0, then "B"
would be connected to counter 1.
If the encoder stops rotating, but is vibrating (due to it being mounted to a machine), you can use the debounce
feature to eliminate false edges. Choose an appropriate debounce time and apply it to each encoder channel.
Refer to the Debounce modes section in the Functional Details chapter in this manual for additional information
regarding debounce times.
You can get the relative position and velocity from the encoder. However, during an acquisition, you cannot get
data that is relative to the Z-position until the encoder locates the Z-reference.
Note that the number of Z-reference crossings can be tabulated. If the encoder was turning in only one direction,
then the Z-reference crossings equal the number of complete revolutions. This means that the data streaming to
the PC is relative position, period = 1/velocity, and revolutions.
A typical acquisition might take six readings off of the USB-2523 as illustrated below. The user determines the
scan rate and the number of scans to take.
Figure 21. USB-2523 acquisition of six readings per scan
Digital channels do not take up analog channel scan time.
In general, the output of each channel’s counter is latched at the beginning of each scan period (called the startof-scan.) Every time the USB-2523 receives a start-of-scan signal, the counter values are latched and are
available to the USB-2523.
The USB-2523 clears all counter channels at the beginning of the acquisition. This means that the values
returned during scan period 1 are always zero. The values returned during scan period 2 reflect what happened
during scan period 1.
The scan period defines the timing resolution for the USB-2523. If you need a higher timing resolution, shorten
the scan period.
Wiring for two encoders: Figure 22 shows the single-ended connections for two encoders. Differential
connections do not apply.
Figure 22. Two encoders connected to pins on the SCSI connector*
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USB-2523 User's Guide
Functional Details
* Connections can instead be made to the associated screw-terminals of a connected TB-100 terminal connector
option.
Each signal (A, B) can be connected as a single-ended connection with respect to the common digital ground
(GND). Both encoders can draw their power from the +5 V power output (pin 19) on the 68-pin SCSI
connector.
Connect each encoder’s power input to +5 V power. Connect the return to digital common (GND) on the same
connector. Make sure that the current output spec is not violated.
With the encoders connected in this manner, there is no relative positioning information available on encoder #1
or #2 since there is no Z signal connection for either. Therefore only distance traveled and velocity can be
measured for each encoder.
Timer outputs
Two 16-bit timer outputs are built into the USB-2523. Each timer is capable of generating a different square
wave with a programmable frequency in the range of 16 Hz to 1 MHz.
Figure 23. Typical USB-2523 timer channel
Example: Timer outputs
Timer outputs are programmable square waves. The period of the square wave can be as short as 1 µs or as long
as 65535 µs. Refer to the table below for examples of timer output frequencies.
Timer output frequency examples
Divisor
Timer output frequency
1
100
1 MHz
10 kHz
1000
10000
1 kHz
100 Hz
65535
15.259 Hz
The two timer outputs can generate different square waves. The timer outputs can be updated asynchronously at
any time.
Using detection setpoints for output control
What are detection setpoints?
With the USB-2523's setpoint configuration feature, you can configure up to 16 detection setpoints associated
with channels in a scan group. Each setpoint can update the following, allowing for real-time control based on
acquisition data:


FIRSTPORTC digital output port with a data byte and mask byte
timers
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USB-2523 User's Guide
Functional Details
Setpoint configuration overview
You can program each detection setpoint as one of the following:



Single point referenced – Above, below, or equal to the defined setpoint.
Window (dual point) referenced – Inside or outside the window.
Window (dual point) referenced, hysteresis mode – Outside the window high forces one output (designated
Output 2; outside the window low-forces another output, designated as Output 1).
A digital detect signal is used to indicate when a signal condition is True or False—for example, whether or not
the signal has met the defined criteria. The detect signals can be part of the scan group and can be measured as
any other input channel, thus allowing real time data analysis during an acquisition.
The detection module looks at the 16-bit data being returned on a channel and generates another signal for each
channel with a setpoint applied (Detect1 for Channel 1, Detect2 for Channel 2, and so on). These signals serve
as data markers for each channel's data. It does not matter whether that data is volts, counts, or timing.
A channel's detect signal shows a rising edge and is True (1) when the channel's data meets the setpoint criteria.
The detect signal shows a falling edge and is False (0) when the channel's data does not meet the setpoint
criteria. The True and False states for each setpoint criteria are explained in the "Using the setpoint status
register" section on page 39.
Criteria – input signal is equal to X
Action - driven by condition
Compare X to:
Update conditions:
Setpoint definition (choose one)
True only:
Limit A or Limit B
 Equal to A (X = A)
 Below A (X < A)
 Above B (X > B)
 If True, then output value 1
 If False, then perform no action
True and False:
 If True, then output value 1
 If False, then output value 2
True only
Window* (nonhysteresis mode)
Window*
(hysteresis mode)
 Inside (B < X < A)
 Outside: B > X; or, X > A
 Above A (X > A)
 Below (B X < B) (Both
conditions are checked when
in hysteresis mode
 If True, then output value 1
 If False, then perform no action
True and False
 If True, then output value 1
 If False, then output value 2
Hysteresis mode (forced update)
 If X > A is True, then output value 2 until X < B is True,
then output value 1.
 If X < B is True, then output value 1 until X > A is True,
then output value 2.
This is saying:
(a) If the input signal is outside the window high, then output
value 2 until the signal goes outside the window low, and
(b) if the signal is outside the window low, then output value 1
until the signal goes outside the window high. There is no
change to the detect signal while within the window.
The detect signal has the timing resolution of the scan period as seen in the diagram below. The detect signal
can change no faster than the scan frequency (1/scan period.)
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Figure 24. Example diagram of detection signals for channels 1, 2, and 3
Each channel in the scan group can have one detection setpoint. There can be no more than 16 total setpoints
total applied to channels within a scan group.
Detection setpoints act on 16-bit data only. Since the USB-2523 has 32-bit counters, data is returned 16-bits at a
time. The lower word, the higher word, or both lower and higher words can be part of the scan group. Each
counter input channel can have one detection setpoint for the counter's lower 16-bit value and one detection
setpoint for the counter's higher 16-bit value.
Setpoint configuration
You program all setpoints as part of the pre-acquisition setup, similar to setting up an external trigger. Since
each setpoint acts on 16-bit data, each has two 16-bit compare values: a high limit (limit A) and a low limit
(limit B). These limits define the setpoint window.
There are several possible conditions (criteria) and effectively three update modes, as explained in the following
configuration summary.
Set high limit
You can set the 16-bit high limit (limit A) when configuring the USB-2523 through software.
Set low limit
You can set the 16-bit low limit (limit B) when configuring the USB-2523 through software.
Set criteria






Inside window: Signal is below 16-bit high limit and above 16-bit low limit.
Outside window: Signal is above 16-bit high limit, or below 16-bit low limit.
Greater than value: Signal is above 16-bit low limit, so 16-bit high limit is not used.
Less than value: Signal is below 16-bit high limit, so 16-bit low limit is not used.
Equal to value: Signal is equal to 16-bit high limit, and limit B is not used.
The equal to mode is intended for use when the counter or digital input channels are the source channel.
You should only use the equal to16-bit high limit (limit A) mode with counter or digital input channels as
the channel source. If you want similar functionality for analog channels, then use the inside window mode
Hysteresis mode: Outside the window, high forces output 2 until an outside the window low condition
exists, then output 1 is forced. Output 1 continues until an outside the window high condition exists. The
cycle repeats as long as the acquisition is running in hysteresis mode.
Set output channel



None
Update FIRSTPORTC
Update timerx
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USB-2523 User's Guide
Functional Details
Update modes


Update on True only
Update on True and False
Set values for output


FIRSTPORTC* value or timer value when input meets criteria.
FIRSTPORTC* value or timer value when input does not meet criteria.
* By default, FIRSTPORTC comes up as a digital input. You may want to initialize FIRSTPORTC to a
known state before running the input scan to detect the setpoints.
When using setpoints with triggers other than immediate, hardware analog, or TLL, the setpoint criteria
evaluation begins immediately upon arming the acquisition.
Using the setpoint status register
You can use the setpoint status register to check the current state of the 16 possible setpoints. In the register,
Setpoint 0 is the least-significant bit and Setpoint 15 is the most-significant bit. Each setpoint is assigned a
value of 0 or 1.


A value of 0 indicates that the setpoint criteria is not met—in other words, the condition is False.
A value of 1 indicates that the criteria has been met—in other words, the condition is True.
In the following example, the criteria for setpoints 0, 1, and 4 is satisfied (True), but the criteria for the other 13
setpoints has not been met.
Setpoint #
True (1)
False (0)
15
14
13
12
0
0
0
0
<<< Most significant bit
11
0
10
0
9
0
8
0
7
0
6
0
5
0
4
1
3
0
2
0
1
1
0
1
Least significant bit >>>
From the above table we have 10011 binary, or 19 decimal, derived as follows:



Setpoint 0, having a True state, shows 1, giving us decimal 1.
Setpoint 1, having a True state, shows 1, giving us decimal 2.
Setpoint 4, having a True state, shows 1, giving us decimal 16.
For proper operation, the setpoint status register must be the last channel in the scan list.
Examples of control outputs
Detecting on analog input and FIRSTPORTC updates
Update mode: Update on True and False
Criteria: Channel 4: inside window
Channel 4 is programmed with reference to two setpoints (limit A and limit B) which define a window for that
channel.
Channel
Condition
State of detect signal
Action
4
Within window
(between limit A
and limit B) for
channel 4
True
When Channel 4's analog input voltage is within the
window, update FIRSTPORTC with 70h.
When the above stated condition is False (channel 4
analog input voltage is outside the window), update
FIRSTPORTC with 30h.
False
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USB-2523 User's Guide
Functional Details
Figure 25. Analog inputs with setpoints update on True and False
You can program control outputs programmed on each setpoint, and use the detection for channel 4 to update
the FIRSTPORTC digital output port with one value (70 h in the example) when the analog input voltage is
within the shaded region and a different value when the analog input voltage is outside the shaded region (30 h
in the example).
Detection on an analog input, timer output updates
Update Mode: Update on True and False
Criteria Used: Inside window
The figure below shows how a setpoint can be used to update a timer output. Channel 3 is an analog input
channel. A setpoint is applied using update on True and False, with a criteria of inside-the-window, where the
signal value is inside the window when simultaneously less than Limit A but greater than Limit B.
Whenever the channel 3 analog input voltage is inside the setpoint window (condition True), Timer0 is updated
with one value; and whenever the channel 3 analog input voltage is outside the setpoint window (condition
False) timer0 will be updated with a second output value.
Figure 26. Timer output update on True and False
Using the hysteresis function
Update mode: N/A, the hysteresis option has a forced update built into the function
Criteria used: Window criteria for above and below the set limits
The figure below shows analog input Channel 3 with a setpoint which defines two 16-bit limits, Limit A (High)
and Limit B (Low). These are being applied in the hysteresis mode and FIRSTPORTC is updated accordingly.
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In this example, Channel 3's analog input voltage is being used to update FIRSTPORTC as follows:


When outside the window, low (below limit B) FIRSTPORTC is updated with 30 h. This update remains in
effect until the analog input voltage goes above Limit A.
When outside the window, high (above limit A), FIRSTPORTC is updated with 30 h. This update remains
in effect until the analog input signal falls below limit B. At that time we are again outside the limit "low"
and the update process repeats itself.
Hysteresis mode can also be done with a timer output, instead of a FIRSTPORTC digital output port.
Figure 27. Channel 3 in hysteresis mode
Detecting setpoints on a totalizing counter
In the following figure, Channel 1 is a counter in totalize mode. Two setpoints define a point of change for
Detect 1 as the counter counts upward. The detect output is high when inside the window (greater than Limit B
(the low limit) but less than Limit A (the high limit).
In this case, the Channel 1 setpoint is defined for the 16 lower bits of channel 1's 32-bit value. The
FIRSTPORTC digital output port could be updated on a True condition (the rising edge of the detection signal).
You can also update timer outputs with a value.
At this point you can update FIRSTPORTC or DACs
Figure 28. Channel 1 in totalizing counter mode, inside the window setpoint
Detection setpoint details
Controlling digital and timer outputs
You can program each setpoint with an 8-bit digital output byte and corresponding 8-bit mask byte. When the
setpoint criteria is met, the FIRSTPORTC digital output port can be updated with the given byte and mask.
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USB-2523 User's Guide
Functional Details
You can also program each setpoint a timer update value.
In hysteresis mode, each setpoint has two forced update values. Each update value can drive one timer or the
FIRSTPORTC digital output port. In hysteresis mode, the outputs do not change when the input values are
inside the window. There is one update value that gets applied when the input values are less than the window
and a different update value that gets applied when the input values are greater than the window.
Update on True and False uses two update values. The update values can drive FIRSTPORTC or timer outputs.
FIRSTPORTC digital outputs can be updated immediately upon setpoint detection.
FIRSTPORTC or timer update latency
Setpoints allow timers or FIRSTPORTC digital outputs to update very quickly. Exactly how fast an output can
update is determined by these factors:



scan rate
synchronous sampling mode
type of output to be updated
For example, you set an acquisition to have a scan rate of 100 kHz, which means each scan period is 10 µs.
Within the scan period you sample six analog input channels. These are shown in the following figure as
channels 1 through 6. The ADC conversion occurs at the beginning of each channel's 1 µs time block.
FIRSTPORTC
Figure 29. Example of FIRSTPORTC latency
By applying a setpoint on analog input channel 2, that setpoint gets evaluated every 10 µs with respect to the
sampled data for channel 2.
Due to the pipelined architecture of the analog-to-digital converter system, the setpoint cannot be evaluated
until 2 µs after the ADC conversion. In the example above, the FIRSTPORTC digital output port can be
updated no sooner than 2 µs after channel 2 has been sampled, or 3 µs after the start of the scan. This 2 µs delay
is due to the pipelined ADC architecture. The setpoint is evaluated 2 µs after the ADC conversion and then
FIRSTPORTC can be updated immediately.
The detection circuit works on data that is put into the acquisition stream at the scan rate. This data is acquired
according to the pre-acquisition setup (scan group, scan period, etc.) and returned to the PC. Counters are
latched into the acquisition stream at the beginning of every scan. The actual counters may be counting much
faster than the scan rate, and therefore only every 10 th, 100th, or nth count shows up in the acquisition data.
As a result, you can set a small detection window on a totalizing counter channel and have the detection setpoint
"stepped over" since the scan period was too long. Even though the counter value stepped into and out of the
detection window, the actual values going back to the PC may not. This is true no matter what mode the counter
channel is in.
When setting a detection window, keep a scan period in mind. This applies to analog inputs and counter inputs.
Quickly changing analog input voltages can step over a setpoint window if not sampled often enough.
There are three possible solutions for overcoming this problem:
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USB-2523 User's Guide



Functional Details
Shorten the scan period to give more timing resolution on the counter values or analog values.
Widen the setpoint window by increasing limit A and/or lowering limit B.
A combination of both solutions (1 and 2) could be made.
Mechanical drawing
Figure 30. Circuit board dimensions
43
Chapter 4
Calibrating the USB-2523
Board ranges are calibrated at the factory using a digital NIST traceable calibration method in which a
correction factor for each range is stored on the unit at the time of calibration.
Two calibration tables are stored on the board in EPROM — one table contains the factory calibration, and the
other is available for field calibration. You can adjust the AI calibration while the board is installed in the
acquisition system without destroying the factory calibration supplied with the board.
You can perform field calibration automatically in seconds with InstaCal. No external hardware or instruments
are required. Field calibration derives its traceability through an on-board reference which has a stability of
0.005% per year.
Calibrate the board after it has fully warmed up; the recommended warm-up time is 30 minutes. For best results,
calibrate the board immediately before making critical measurements. The high resolution analog components
on the board are somewhat sensitive to temperature. Pre-measurement calibration ensures that your board is
operating at optimum calibration values.
The recommended calibration interval is one year.
44
Chapter 5
Specifications
Typical for 25 °C unless otherwise specified.
Specifications in italic text are guaranteed by design.
Analog input
Table 1. Analog input specifications
A/D converter type
Resolution
Number of channels
Input ranges (SW programmable)
Maximum sample rate
Nonlinearity (integral)
Nonlinearity (differential)
A/D pacing
Trigger sources and modes
Acquisition data buffer
Configuration memory
Maximum usable input voltage
+ common mode voltage (CMV +
Vin)
Signal to noise and distortion
Total harmonic distortion
Calibration
CMRR @ 60 Hz
Bias current
Crosstalk
Input impedance
Absolute maximum input voltage
Successive approximation
16 bits
16 single-ended/8 differential, software-selectable
Bipolar: ±10 V, ±5 V, ±2 V, ±1 V , ±0.5 V, ±0.2 V, ±0.1 V
1 MHz
±2 LSB maximum
±1 LSB maximum
Onboard input scan clock, external source (XAPCR)
See Table 7
1 MSample
Programmable I/O
Range: ±10 V, ±5 V, ±2 V, ±1 V ,
10.5 V maximum
±0.5 V
Range: ±0.2 V, ±0.1 V
2.1 V maximum
72 dB typical for ±10 V range, 1 kHz fundamental
-80 dB typical for ±10 V range, 1 kHz fundamental
Auto-calibration, calibration factors for each range stored onboard in non-volatile
RAM.
-70 dB typical DC to 1 kHz
40 pA typical (0 °C to 35°C)
-75 dB typical DC to 60Hz; -65 dB typical @ 10kHz
10 MΩ single-ended, 20 MΩ differential
±30 V
Accuracy
Table 2. Analog input accuracy specifications
Voltage range
Accuracy
±(% of reading + %
range)
23°C ±10 °C, 1 year
Temperature coefficient
±(ppm of reading + ppm range)/°C
Noise (cts
RMS)
-10 V to 10 V
-5 V to 5 V
-2 V to 2 V
-1 V to 1 V
-500 mV to 500 mV
-200 mV to 200 mV
-100 mV to 100 mV
0.031% + 0.008%
0.031% + 0.009%
0.031% + 0.010%
0.031% + 0.02%
0.031% + 0.04%
0.036% + 0.075%
0.042% + 0.15%
14 + 8
14 + 9
14 +10
14 + 12
14 +18
14 +12
14 +18
2.0
3.0
2.0
3.5
5.5
8.0
14.0
Note 1
Note 1: Specifications assume differential input single-channel scan, 1 MHz scan rate, unfiltered,
CMV=0.0 V, 30 minute warm-up, exclusive of noise, range is +FS to -FS.
Note 2: Noise reflects 10,000 samples at 1 MHz, typical, differential short
45
Note 2
USB-2523 User's Guide
Specifications
Thermocouples
Table 3. TC types and accuracy (Note 3)
TC type
Temperature range (°C)
Accuracy (±°C)
Noise typical (±°C)
J
K
T
E
R
S
N
B
-200 to + 760
-200 to + 1200
-200 to + 400
-270 to + 650
-50 to + 1768
-50 to + 1768
-270 to + 1300
+300 to + 1400
1.7
1.8
1.8
1.7
4.8
4.7
2.7
3.0
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.2
1.5
1.5
0.3
1.0
Note 3: Assumes 16384 oversampling applied, CMV = 0.0V, 60 minute warm-up, still environment, and
25 °C ambient temperature; excludes thermocouple error; TCin = 0° C for all types except B
(1000 °C), PS-9V1AEPS-2500 power supply for external power.
Digital input/output
Table 4. Digital input/output specifications
Number of I/O
Ports
Input scanning modes
Input characteristics
Logic keeper circuit
Input protection
Input high
Input low
Output high
Output low
Output current
Digital input pacing
Digital output pacing
Digital input trigger sources and
modes
Digital output trigger sources
Sampling/update rate
Pattern generation output
24
Three banks of eight.
Each port is programmable as input or output
Two programmable
 Asynchronous, under program control at any time relative to input scanning
 Synchronous with input scanning
220 series resistors, 20 pF to common
Holds the logic value to 0 or 1 when there is no external driver
±15 kV ESD clamp diodes parallel
+2.0 V to +5.0 V
0 to 0.8 V
>2.0 V
<0.8 V
Output 1.0 mA per pin, sourcing more current may require a PS-9V1AEPS-2500
power supply option
Onboard clock, external input scan clock (XAPCR)
Four programmable sources:
 Onboard output scan clock, independent of input scan clock
 Onboard input scan clock
 External output scan clock (XDPCR), independent of external input scan clock
(XAPCR)
 External input scan clock (XAPCR)
See Table 7
Start of input scan
4 MHz maximum (rates up to 12 MHz are sustainable on some platforms)
Two of the 8-bit ports can be configured for 16-bit pattern generation. The pattern
can also be updated synchronously with an acquisition at up to 4 MHz.
46
USB-2523 User's Guide
Specifications
Counters
Counter inputs can be scanned based on an internal programmable timer or an external clock source.
Table 5. Counter specifications
Channels
Resolution
Input frequency
Input signal range
Input characteristics
Trigger level
Minimum pulse width
De-bounce times
Time-base accuracy
Counter read pacer
Trigger sources and modes
Programmable mode
Counter mode options
Four independent
32-bit
20 MHz maximum
-5 V to 10 V
10 k pull-up, ±15 kV ESD protection
TTL
25 ns high, 25 ns low
16 selections from 500 ns to 25.5 ms, positive or negative edge sensitive, glitch
detect mode or de-bounce mode
50 ppm (0 ° to 50 °C)
Onboard input scan clock, external input scan clock (XAPCR)
See Table 7
Counter
Totalize, clear on read, rollover, stop at all Fs, 16-bit or 32-bit, any other channel
can gate the counter
Input sequencer
Analog, digital, and counter inputs can be scanned based on either an internal programmable timer or an
external clock source.
Table 6. Input sequencer specifications
Scan clock sources: two (see Note 4)
Programmable parameters per scan:
Depth
Onboard channel to channel scan rate
External input scan clock (XAPCR)
maximum rate
Clock signal range:
Minimum pulse width
Internal:
 Analog channels from 1 µs to 1 sec in 20.83 ns steps.
 Digital channels and counters from 250 ns to 1 sec in 20.83 ns steps.
External. TTL level input (XAPCR):
 Analog channels down to 1 µs minimum
 Digital channels and counters down to 250 ns minimum
Programmable channels (random order), programmable gain
512 locations
Analog: 1 MHz maximum
Digital: 4 MHz if no analog channels are enabled, 1 MHz with analog
channels enabled
Analog: 1 MHz
Digital: 4 MHz if no analog channels are enabled, 1 MHz with analog
channels enabled
Logical zero: 0 V to 0.8 V
Logical one: 2.4 V to 5.0 V
50 ns high, 50 ns low
Note 4: The maximum scan clock rate is the inverse of the minimum scan period. The minimum scan
period is equal to 1 µs times the number of analog channels. If a scan contains only digital
channels, then the minimum scan period is 250 ns.
Some platforms can sustain scan rates up to 83.33 ns for digital-only scans.
47
USB-2523 User's Guide
Specifications
Trigger sources and modes
Table 7. Trigger sources and modes






Input scan trigger sources
Input scan triggering modes




Single channel analog hardware trigger
Single channel analog software trigger
External-single channel digital trigger (TTL TRG input)
Digital Pattern Trigger
Counter/Totalizer Trigger
Single channel analog hardware trigger:
The first analog input channel in the scan is the analog trigger channel
Input signal range: -10 V to +10 V maximum
Trigger level: Programmable (12-bit resolution)
Latency: 350 ns typical
Accuracy: ±0.5% of reading, ±2 mV offset maximum
Noise: 2 mV RMS typical
Single channel analog software trigger:
The first analog input channel in the scan is the analog trigger channel
Input signal range: Anywhere within range of the trigger channel
Trigger level: Programmable (16-bit resolution)
Latency: One scan period (maximum)
External-single channel digital trigger (TTL trigger input):
Input signal range: -15 V to +15 V maximum
Trigger level: TTL level sensitive
Minimum pulse width: 50 ns high, 50 ns low
Latency: One scan period maximum
Digital Pattern Triggering
8-bit or 16-bit pattern triggering on any of the digital ports. Programmable for
trigger on equal, not equal, above, or below a value. Individual bits can be
masked for “don’t care” condition.
Latency: One scan period, maximum
Counter/Totalizer Triggering
Counter/totalizer inputs can trigger an acquisition. User can select to trigger on
a frequency or on total counts that are equal, not equal, above, or below a value,
or within/outside of a window rising/falling edge.
Latency: One scan period, maximum
Frequency/pulse generators
Table 8. Frequency/pulse generator specifications
Channels
Output waveform
Output rate
High-level output voltage
Low-level output voltage
2 x 16-bit
Square wave
1 MHz base rate divided by 1 to 65535 (programmable)
2.0 V minimum @ -1.0 mA, 2.9 V minimum @ -400 µA
0.4 V maximum @ 400 µA
Power consumption
Table 9. Power consumption specifications (Note 5)
Power consumption (per board)
2000 mW
External power
Table 10. External power specifications (see Note 5)
Connector
Power range
Switchcraft # RAPC-712
6 to 16 VDC (used when USB port supplies insufficient power, or when an
independent power supply is desired)
48
USB-2523 User's Guide
Specifications
20 V for 10 seconds, maximum
Over-voltage
Note 5: An optional power supply (MCC p/n PS-9V1AEPS-2500) is required if the USB port cannot
supply adequate power. USB 2.0 ports are, by USB 2.0 standards, required to supply 2500 mW
(nominal at 5 V, 500 mA)
USB specifications
Table 11. USB specifications
USB-device type
Device compatibility
USB 2.0 high-speed mode (480 Mbps) if available (recommended), otherwise,
USB 1.1 full-speed mode (12 Mbps)
USB 2.0 (recommended) or USB 1.1
Environmental
Table 12. Environmental specifications
Operating temperature range
Storage temperature range
Relative humidity
-30 °C to +70 °C
-40 °C to +80 °C
0 to 95% non-condensing
Mechanical
Table 13. Mechanical specifications
Vibration
Dimensions
Weight
MIL STD 810E cat 1 and 10
152.4 mm (W) x 150.62 mm (D) (6.0” x 5.93”)
147 g (0.32 lbs)
Signal I/O connectors and pin out
Table 14. Main connector specifications
Connector type
Temperature measurement connector
68-pin standard "SCSI TYPE III" female connector (P5);
four 40-pin headers (J5, J6, J7, J8), AMP# 2-103328-0
4-channel TC screw-terminal block (TB7); Phoenix # MPT
0.5/9-2.54
Compatible cables (for the 68-pin SCSI connector)
CA-68-3R — 68-pin ribbon cable; 3 feet.
CA-68-3S — 68-pin shielded round cable; 3 feet.
CA-68-6S — 68-pin shielded round cable; 6 feet.
Compatible cables (for the 40-pin header connectors)
C40FF-#
Compatible accessory products (for the 68-pin SCSI
connector)
Compatible accessory products (for the 40-pin header
connectors)
TB-100 termination board with screw terminals
RM-TB-100, 19-inch rack mount kit for TB-100
CIO-MINI40
49
USB-2523 User's Guide
Specifications
68-pin SCSI connector pin outs
Table 15. 68-pin SCSI connector pin out (labeled P5 on the board)
16-channel single-ended mode
Pin
68
67
66
65
64
63
62
61
60
59
58
57
56
55
54
53
52
51
50
49
48
47
46
45
44
43
42
41
40
39
38
37
36
35
Function
ACH0
AGND
ACH9
ACH2
AGND
ACH11
SGND (low level sense - not for general use)
ACH12
ACH5
AGND
ACH14
ACH7
NC
NC
NEGREF (reserved for self-calibration)
GND
A1
A3
A5
A7
B1
B3
B5
B7
C1
C3
C5
C7
GND
CNT1
CNT3
TMR1
GND
GND
Pin
34
33
32
31
30
29
28
27
26
25
24
23
22
21
20
19
18
17
16
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
50
Function
ACH8
ACH1
AGND
ACH10
ACH3
AGND
ACH4
AGND
ACH13
ACH6
AGND
ACH15
NC
NC
POSREF (reserved for self-calibration)
+5 V (see Note 6)
A0
A2
A4
A6
B0
B2
B4
B6
C0
C2
C4
C6
TTL TRG
CNT0
CNT2
TMR0
XAPCR (input scan clock)
XDPCR (output scan clock)
USB-2523 User's Guide
Specifications
Table 16. 68-pin SCSI connector pin out (labeled P5 on the board)
8-channel differential mode
Pin
68
67
66
65
64
63
62
61
60
59
58
57
56
55
54
53
52
51
50
49
48
47
46
45
44
43
42
41
40
39
38
37
36
35
Function
ACH0 HI
AGND
ACH1 LO
ACH2 HI
AGND
ACH3 LO
SGND (low level sense - not for general use)
ACH4 LO
ACH5 HI
AGND
ACH6 LO
ACH7 HI
NC
NC
NEGREF (reserved for self-calibration)
GND
A1
A3
A5
A7
B1
B3
B5
B7
C1
C3
C5
C7
GND
CNT1
CNT3
TMR1
GND
GND
Pin
34
33
32
31
30
29
28
27
26
25
24
23
22
21
20
19
18
17
16
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Function
ACH0 LO
ACH1 HI
AGND
ACH2 LO
ACH3 HI
AGND
ACH4 HI
AGND
ACH5 LO
ACH6 HI
AGND
ACH7 LO
NC
NC
POSREF (reserved for self-calibration)
+5 V (see Note 6)
A0
A2
A4
A6
B0
B2
B4
B6
C0
C2
C4
C6
TTL TRG
CNT0
CNT2
TMR0
XAPCR (input scan clock)
XDPCR (output scan clock)
Note 6: 5 V output, ±20% tolerance, 2mA USB powered, 10mA using external power.
40-pin header connector pin outs
This edge of the header is closest to the center of the USB2523. Pins 2 and 40 are labeled on the board silkscreen.
51
USB-2523 User's Guide
Specifications
J5
Table 17. 40-pin header connector pinout (labeled J5 on the board)
16-channel single-ended mode
Pin
1
3
5
7
9
11
13
15
17
19
21
23
25
27
29
31
33
35
37
39
Function
NC
NC
AGND
ACH3
ACH2
NC
NC
ACH1
ACH0
AGND
NC
NC
ACH7
ACH6
AGND
NC
NC
ACH13
ACH12
AGND
Pin
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
22
24
26
28
30
32
34
36
38
40
Function
NC
NC
AGND
ACH11
ACH10
NC
NC
ACH9
ACH8
AGND
NC
NC
ACH15
ACH14
NC
NC
ACH5
ACH4
AGND
AGND
Table 18. 40-pin header connector pinout (labeled J5 on the board)
8-channel differential mode
Pin
1
3
5
7
9
11
13
15
17
19
21
23
25
27
29
31
33
35
37
39
Function
NC
NC
AGND
ACH3 HI
ACH2 HI
NC
NC
ACH1 HI
ACH0 HI
AGND
NC
NC
ACH7 HI
ACH6 HI
AGND
NC
NC
ACH5 LO
ACH4 LO
AGND
Pin
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
22
24
26
28
30
32
34
36
38
40
52
Function
NC
NC
AGND
ACH3 LO
ACH2 LO
NC
NC
ACH1 LO
ACH0 LO
AGND
NC
NC
ACH7 LO
ACH6 LO
NC
NC
ACH5 HI
ACH4 HI
AGND
AGND
USB-2523 User's Guide
Specifications
J6
Table 19. 40-pin header connector pinout (labeled J6 on the board)
Pin
1
3
5
7
9
11
13
15
17
19
21
23
25
27
29
31
33
35
37
39
Function
NC
NC
AGND
NC
NC
AGND
NC
NC
NC
NC
NC
NC
NC
NC
AGND
NC
NC
NC
NC
AGND
Pin
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
22
24
26
28
30
32
34
36
38
40
Function
NC
NC
NC
NC
NC
NC
NC
NC
AGND
NC
NC
AGND
NC
NC
NC
NC
NC
NC
AGND
AGND
J7
Table 20. 40-pin header connector pin out (labeled J7 on the board)
Pin
1
3
5
7
9
11
13
15
17
19
21
23
25
27
29
31
33
35
37
39
Function
GND
A0
A1
A2
A3
GND
B0
B1
B2
B3
GND
C0
C1
C2
C3
GND
TMR0
CNT0
CNT2
GND
Pin
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
22
24
26
28
30
32
34
36
38
40
Function
XAPCR (input scan clock)
A4
A5
A6
A7
TTL TRG
B4
B5
B6
B7
+5 V (see Note 7)
C4
C5
C6
C7
TMR1
CNT1
CNT3
GND
GND
53
USB-2523 User's Guide
Specifications
J8
Table 21. 40-pin header connector pin out (labeled J8 on the board)
Pin
1
3
5
7
9
11
13
15
17
19
21
23
25
27
29
31
33
35
37
39
Function
+13 V (see Note 8)
NC
AGND
NC
NC
AGND
SelfCal
AGND
TTL TRG
XAPCR (input scan clock)
GND (digital)
NC
+5 V
NC
NC
NC
NC
NC
NC
NC
Pin
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
22
24
26
28
30
32
34
36
38
40
Function
-13 V (see Note 8)
NC
AGND
NC
NC
AGND
SGND (not for general use)
AGND
XDPCR (output scan clock)
GND (digital)
GND (digital)
NC
AUX PWR (output - reserved)
NC
NC
NC
NC
NC
NC
NC
Note 7: 5 V output, ±20% tolerance, 2mA USB powered, 10mA using external power.
Note 8: ±13 V outputs, ±10% tolerance, 1 mA USB powered, 5 mA using external power.
TC connector pin out (TB7)
TC CH 0
TC CH 1
TC CH 2
TC CH 3
Standoff
AGND
ACH0 +
ACH8 (-)
ACH1 +
ACH9 (-)
ACH2 +
ACH10 (-)
ACH3 +
ACH11 (-)
Figure 31. TC terminal pin out (labeled TB7)
54
Measurement Computing Corporation
10 Commerce Way
Suite 1008
Norton, Massachusetts 02766
(508) 946-5100
Fax: (508) 946-9500
E-mail: info@mccdaq.com
www.mccdaq.com
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