Picoammeter/ Voltage Source

Picoammeter/ Voltage Source
06 Low Level Meas & Source
12/30/06
7:09 PM
Picoammeter/Voltage Source
Measures low currents and high resistances quickly, accurately, and economically
6487
The 51⁄2-digit Model 6487 Picoammeter/Voltage
Source improves on the measurement capability
of the award-winning Model 6485, and adds a
high resolution 500V source. It provides higher
accuracy and faster rise times than the 6485, as
well as a damping function for use with capacitive devices. With eight current measurement
ranges and high speed autoranging, this costeffective instrument can measure currents from
20fA to 20mA, take measurements at speeds up
to 1000 readings per second, and source voltage
from 200µV to 505V.
The Model 6487’s 10fA resolution, superior sensitivity, voltage sweeping, and Alternating Voltage
resistance measurements make it well suited for
characterizing low current devices. Using the latest current measurement technology, it is significantly less expensive than other instruments that
perform similar functions, such as optical power
meters, tera-ohmmeters, competitive picoammeters, or user-designed solutions. With a price
that’s comparable to a high-end DMM, the Model 6487 makes picoamp-level measurements affordable for virtually any laboratory or production floor.
• 10fA resolution
• 51⁄2-digit resolution
• <200µV burden voltage
• Alternating Voltage method
ohms measurements
• Automated voltage sweeps for
I-V characterization
• Floating measurements up to
500V
• Up to 1000 readings/second
• Built-in Model 486 and 487
emulation mode
• IEEE-488 and RS-232 interfaces
• Analog output
LOW L E V E L M E AS U R E & SO U R C E
Page 216
• Digital I/O
• Driver for LabVIEW™,
LabWindows™/CVI, Visual Basic®,
C/C++, and TestPoint™ included
• ExceLINX™ Excel® Add-In
included
Low Voltage Burden and Higher Accuracy
While DMMs typically employ shunt ammeter circuitry to measure current, the Model 6487 is a feedback picoammeter. This design reduces voltage burden by several orders of magnitude, resulting in a
voltage burden of less than 200µV on the lower measurement ranges. The low voltage burden makes
the Model 6487 function much more like an ideal ammeter than a DMM, so it can make current
measurements with high accuracy, even in circuits with very low source voltages.
Successor to the Model 487
The Model 6487 builds on the strengths of one
of Keithley’s most popular picoammeters, the
Model 487, offering an additional 20mA measurement range, as well as much higher measurement speeds, up to 1000 readings per second. It
simplifies device characterization with built-in
voltage sweeping capability and the Alternating
Voltage method for high resistances. A timestamped 3000-reading data buffer provides minimum, maximum, and standard deviation statistics. A built-in emulation mode makes it possible
to control the Model 6487 with any custom code
written to control the Model 487.
Current Ranges
Voltage Burden
Reading Rate
Voltage Sweeps
Alternating
Voltage Ohms
Analog Output
Storage Buffer
Best V Source
Resolution
Model 487
2 nA–2 mA
200 µV
Up to 180/s
No
Model 6487
2 nA–20 mA
200 µV
(1 mV on
20 mA range)
Up to 1000/s
Yes
No
Yes
Yes
(non-inverting)
512 points
Yes
(inverting)
3000 points
1 mV
0.2 mV
Features that Expand Test and Measurement Flexibility
• Direct resistance measurements. Optimized for resistances from 50Ω to 5×1014Ω using the
Source Voltage/Measure Current method.
• Alternating Voltage method resistance measurements. This method improves resistance measurements on devices with high background current or high noise. It extends the measurable resistance range up to 1016Ω.
• 500V overload protection. This high overload protection and a robust design let the Model 6487
tolerate abusive overflows, including accidentally shorting the voltage source directly into the
ammeter.
1.888.KEITHLEY
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Picoammeter/Voltage Source
6487
Ordering Information
6487
Page 217
Picoammeter/Voltage
Source
Accessories Supplied
CA-186-1B
Ground Connection
Cable, Banana to ScrewLug
CAP-31 Protective Shield/Cap
(3-lug)
CS-459 Safety Interlock Plug
7078-TRX-3
Low Noise Triax Input
Cable, 1m (3 ft)
8607
High Voltage Banana
Cable Set for Voltage
Source Output
Extended warranty, service, and
calibration contracts are available.
• Rear panel triax input. This allows the picoammeter to be used in floating operation, up to 500V.
When not floating, the addition of a triax to BNC adapter allows inexpensive, easy-to-use BNC
cables to be employed, rather than more expensive triaxial cables.
• RS-232 and IEEE-488 interfaces. These interfaces make it easy to integrate the Model 6487 into
automated test and measurement systems.
• Scaled voltage analog output. This output allows the Model 6487 to transmit measurement
results to devices like DMMs, data acquisition cards, oscilloscopes, or strip chart recorders.
• Built-in Trigger Link interface. The Trigger Link interface simplifies synchronizing the Model
6487 with other instruments and voltage sources. This interface combines six independent selectable trigger lines on a single connector for simple, direct control over all instruments in a system.
• Display on/off switch. For research on light-sensitive components, such as measuring the dark
currents of photodiodes or I-V measurements on unpackaged semiconductors, the front panel display can be switched off to avoid introducing light that could significantly reduce the accuracy of
the results.
• One-touch front panel design. Functions can be configured easily with the push of a button,
without complicated function menus.
A Broad Range of Low Current Applications
Wafer-Level Photodiode Testing
The Model 6487 Picoammeter/Voltage Source can be paired with a calibrated light source and a probing fixture to create a cost-effective photodiode test system. Multiple Model 6487s can be connected
to the DUT’s probe pads to provide photocurrent readings or, with the addition of a switch matrix,
one picoammeter can take current measurements from multiple pads. In the first step of the measurement process, performed in total darkness, the Model 6487 produces a voltage sweep and then
measures the resulting dark current. In the second step, a voltage bias is applied and the resulting
photocurrent is measured while the light level is increased in calibrated steps. The same basic test
configuration can be used for testing positive intrinsic negative (PIN) and avalanche photodiodes
(APDs). The 6487’s high resolution on the 10V source range provides superior sweeping and biasing
when small biases are required. The 500V source capability is necessary to bias APDs.
Calibrated Light Source
APPLICATIONS
Photo Diode
• Resistance/resistivity
measurements
Pads
• Leakage current testing in
insulators, switches, relays, and
other components
LOW L E V E L M E AS U R E & SO U R C E
Probe Needles
Probe
Needles
• Beam monitoring and radiation
monitoring
Wafer
• I-V characterization on
semiconductor and
optoelectronic devices
• Fiber alignment
Vsource
• Circuit test and analysis in DCLF
circuits
Ammeter
6487 Picoammeter/Voltage Source
• Sensor characterization
1.888.KEITHLEY
(U.S. only)
www.keithley.com
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G R E A T E R
Measures low currents and high resistances quickly, accurately, and economically
06 Low Level Meas & Source
M E A S U R E
O F
C O N F I D E N C E
06 Low Level Meas & Source
12/30/06
7:09 PM
Picoammeter/Voltage Source
6487
Measures low currents and high resistances quickly, accurately, and economically
Page 218
Monitoring and Control of Focused Ion Beam Currents
In semiconductor fabrication, focused ion beam systems are often used for nanometer-scale imaging,
micromachining, and mapping. Careful monitoring of the magnitude of the beam current with an ion
detector is critical. The ion detector generates a secondary current that’s proportional to the current
of the primary ion beam. When this secondary current is measured, it can be used to control the
intensity of the primary beam. However, this secondary current is very low, often just a few
picoamps, so the instrumentation measuring it must provide high measurement accuracy and
repeatability, as well as sub-picoamp resolution. The Model 6487’s wide measurement range and 51⁄2digit resolution make it ideal for this application. Signal connections to the Model 6487 are made
through the instrument’s triax connector. Often, a detector may require high voltage to attract ions,
making the 6487’s 500V source a necessity.
Measuring low DC currents often
demands a lot more than a digital
multimeter can deliver. Generally,
DMMs lack the sensitivity required
to measure currents less than
100nA. Even at higher currents, a
DMM’s input voltage drop (voltage
burden) of hundreds of millivolts
can make accurate current
measurements impossible.
Electrometers can measure low
currents very accurately, but the
circuitry needed to measure
extremely low currents, combined
with functions like voltage,
resistance, and charge measurement, can increase an electrometer’s cost significantly. The Model
6487 Picoammeter/Voltage Source
combines the economy and ease
of use of a DMM with low current
sensitivity near that of an
electrometer.
6487
Picoammeter/Voltage Source
Ion
Detector
Ion Beam
IM
High Resistance Measurements
The Model 6487 Picoammeter can be used to
measure high resistances (>1GΩ) in applications such as insulation resistance testing. A
constant voltage is placed in series with the
unknown resistance and the picoammeter. The
voltage drop across the picoammeter is negligible, so all the voltage appears across the
unknown resistance. The resulting current is
measured by the picoammeter and the resistance is calculated using Ohm’s Law (R = V/I). To
prevent generated current due to electrostatic
interference, the unknown resistance is housed
in a shielded test fixture. A small series resistor
may be added to reduce noise if the unknown
resistor has high stray capacitance across it.
Metal Shield
R
6487 Picoammeter/
Voltage Source
HI
Ammeter
LO
HI
Vsource
LO
ACCESSORIES AVAILABLE
LOW L E V E L M E AS U R E & SO U R C E
When do you need a
picoammeter?
CABLES
6517-ILC-3
7007-1
7007-2
7078-TRX-10
7078-TRX-20
8501-*
Interlock Cable for 8009 Resistivity Test Fixture
Shielded IEEE-488 Cable, 1m (3.3 ft)
Shielded IEEE-488 Cable, 2m (6.6 ft)
Low Noise Triax Cable, 3.0m (10 ft)
Low Noise Triax Cable, 6.0m (20 ft)
Trigger Link Cable with male Micro-DIN connectors
at each end, 1m or 2m (3.3 ft or 6.6 ft)
ADAPTERS
237-TRX-BAR Triax Barrel
7078-TRX-BNC Triax-to-BNC Adapter
1.888.KEITHLEY
TEST FIXTURES
8009
Resistivity Test Fixture
RACK MOUNT KITS
4288-*
Single or Dual Fixed Rack Mounting Kit
OTHER
1050
KPCI-488LP
KPXI-488
KUSB-488A
Padded Carrying Case
IEEE-488 Interface/Controller for the PCI Bus
IEEE-488 Interface Board for the PXI Bus
IEEE-488 USB-to-GPIB Interface Adapter
Powerful Software Options
To simplify integrating the Model 6487 into PCbased test systems, the instrument comes with
Keithley’s ExceLINX, an add-in utility for
Microsoft® Excel. Within minutes of installing
ExceLINX on a PC, users can acquire data directly from the Model 6487, then employ Excel’s
graphics, charting, and analysis capabilities to
turn that data into useful information. No programming is required to use ExceLINX—a few
mouse clicks are all it takes. Keithley also provides a 6487 instrument driver for use with
Application Development Environments such as
LabVIEW, LabWindows/CVI, Visual Basic, C/C++,
and TestPoint.
(U.S. only)
www.keithley.com
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06 Low Level Meas & Source
12/30/06
7:09 PM
Picoammeter/Voltage Source
ACCURACY (1 Year) 1
±(% rdg. + offset)
18°–28°C, 0–70% RH
0.3 % + 400 fA
0.2 % + 1 pA
0.15% + 10 pA
0.15% + 100 pA
0.1 % + 1 nA
0.1 % + 10 nA
0.1 % + 100 nA
0.1 % + 1 µA
TYPICAL ANALOG
RISE TIME (10% to 90%)3
DAMPING4
OFF
ON
4 ms
80 ms
4 ms
80 ms
300 µs
1 ms
300 µs
1 ms
110 µs
110 µs
110 µs
110 µs
110 µs
110 µs
110 µs
110 µs
TYPICAL
RMS NOISE 2
20 fA
20 fA
1 pA
1 pA
100 pA
100 pA
10 nA
10 nA
TEMPERATURE COEFFICIENT: 0°–18°C & 28°–50°C. For each °C, add 0.1 × (% rdg + offset) to accuracy spec.
INPUT VOLTAGE BURDEN: <200µV on all ranges except <1mV on 20mA range.
MAXIMUM INPUT CAPACITANCE: Stable to 10nF on all nA ranges and 2µA range; 1µF on 20µA and 200µA ranges, and on mA ranges.
MAXIMUM CONTINUOUS INPUT VOLTAGE: 505 VDC.
NMRR1: (50 or 60Hz): 60dB.
ISOLATION (Ammeter Common or Voltage Source to chassis): Typically >1×1011Ω in parallel with <1nF.
MAXIMUM COMMON MODE VOLTAGE (between chassis and voltage source or ammeter): 505 VDC.
ANALOG OUTPUT: Scaled voltage output (inverting 2V full scale on all ranges): 2.5% ±2mV.
ANALOG OUTPUT IMPEDANCE3: <100Ω, DC–2kHz.
VOLTAGE SOURCE:
RANGE
(Max.)
STEP SIZE
(typical)
ACCURACY 5
±(% prog. + offset)
18°–28°C, 0–70% R.H.
NOISE
(p-p)
0.1–10 Hz
TEMPERATURE
COEFFICIENT
TYPICAL
RISE TIME 6, 8
(10%–90%)
TYPICAL
FALL TIME 7, 8
(90%–10%)
±10.100
±50.500
±505.00
200 µV
1 mV
10 mV
0.1 % + 1 mV
0.1 % + 4 mV
0.15% + 40 mV
<50 µV
<150 µV
<1.5 mV
(0.005% + 20 µV)/°C
(0.005% + 200 µV)/°C
(0.008% + 2 mV)/°C
250 µs
250 µs
4.5 ms
150 µs
300 µs
1 ms
SELECTABLE CURRENT LIMIT: 2.5mA, 250µA, 25µA for 50V and 500V ranges, 25mA additional limit for 10V range. All current limits are
–20%/+35% of nominal.
WIDEBAND NOISE 9: <30mVp-p 0.1Hz–20MHz.
TYPICAL TIME STABILITY: ±(0.003% + 1mV) over 24 hours at constant temperature (within 1°C, between 18°–28°C, after 5 minute
settling).
OUTPUT RESISTANCE: <2.5Ω.
VOLTAGE SWEEPS: Supports linear voltage sweeps on fixed source range, one current or resistance measurement per step. Maximum
sweep rate: 200 steps per second. Maximum step count 3000. Optional delay between step and measure.
RESISTANCE MEASUREMENT (V/I): Used with voltage source; resistance calculated from voltage setting and measured current.
Accuracy is based on voltage source accuracy plus ammeter accuracy. Typical accuracy better than 0.6% for readings between 1kΩ and
1TΩ.
ALTERNATING VOLTAGE RESISTANCE MEASUREMENT: Offers alternating voltage resistance measurements for resistances from 109Ω
to 1015Ω. Alternates between 0V and user-selectable voltage up to ±505V.
NOTES
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
At 1 PLC – limited to 60 rdgs/s under this condition.
At 6 PLC, 1 standard deviation, 100 readings, filter off, capped input – limited to 10 rdgs/sec under this condition.
Measured at analog output with resistive load >2kΩ.
Maximum rise time can be up to 25% greater.
Accuracy does not include output resistance/load regulation.
Rise Time is from 0V to ± full-scale voltage (increasing magnitude).
Fall Time is from ± full-scale voltage to 0V (decreasing magnitude).
For capacitive loads, add C·ΔV/ILimit to rise time, and C·ΔV/1mA to fall time.
Measured with LO connected to chassis ground.
REMOTE OPERATION
IEEE-488 BUS IMPLEMENTATION: SCPI (IEEE-488.2,
SCPI-1996.0); DDC (IEEE-488.1).
LANGUAGE EMULATION: Keithley Model 486/487
emulation via DDC mode.
RS-232 IMPLEMENTATION:
Supports: SCPI 1996.0.
Baud Rates: 300, 600, 1200, 2400, 4800, 9600, 19.2k,
38.4k, 57.6k.
Protocols: Xon/Xoff, 7 or 8 bit ASCII, parityodd/even/none.
Connector: DB-9 TXD/RXD/GND.
GENERAL
AMMETER INPUT CONNECTOR: Three lug triaxial on rear
panel.
ANALOG OUTPUT CONNECTOR: Two banana jacks on rear
panel.
VOLTAGE SOURCE OUTPUT CONNECTOR: Two banana
jacks on rear panel.
INTERLOCK CONNECTOR: 4 pin DIN.
TRIGGER LINE: Available, see manual for usage.
DISPLAY: 12 character vacuum fluorescent.
DIGITAL FILTER: Median and averaging (selectable from 2
to 100 readings).
RANGING: Automatic or manual.
AUTORANGING TIME3: <250ms (analog filter off, 1PLC)
OVERRANGE INDICATION: Display reads “OVRFLOW.”
CONVERSION TIME: Selectable 0.01PLC to 60PLC (50PLC
under 50Hz operation). (Adjustable from 200µs to 1s)
READING RATE:
To internal buffer
1000 readings/second1
To IEEE-488 bus
900 readings/second1, 2
BUFFER: Stores up to 3000 readings.
PROGRAMS: Provide front panel access to IEEE address,
choice of engineering units or scientific notation, and digital calibration.
EMC: Conforms with European Union Directive 89/336/EEC,
EN61326-1.
SAFETY: Conforms with European Union Directive
73/23/EEC, EN61010-1, CAT I.
ENVIRONMENT:
Operating: 0°–50°C; relative humidity 70% non-condensing, up to 35°C. Above 35°C, derate humidity by 3%
for each °C.
Storage: –10°C to +65°C.
WARM-UP: 1 hour to rated accuracy (see manual for recommended procedure).
POWER: 100–120V or 220–240V, 50–60Hz, (50VA).
PHYSICAL:
Case Dimensions: 90mm high × 214mm wide × 369mm
deep (31⁄2 in. × 83⁄8 in. × 149⁄16 in.).
Working Dimensions: From front of case to rear including power cord and IEEE-488 connector: 394mm (15.5
inches).
NET WEIGHT: <4.7 kg (<10.3 lbs).
Notes:
1. 0.01PLC, digital filters off, front panel off, auto zero off.
2. Binary transfer mode. IEEE-488.1.
3. Measured from trigger in to meter complete.
1.888.KEITHLEY
(U.S. only)
www.keithley.com
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Model 6487 specifications
51⁄2 DIGIT
DEFAULT
RESOLUTION
10 fA
100 fA
1 pA
10 pA
100 pA
1 nA
10 nA
100 nA
LOW L E V E L M E AS U R E & SO U R C E
6487
RANGE
2 nA
20 nA
200 nA
2 µA
20 µA
200 µA
2 mA
20 mA
Page 219
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