Categorizing Cybercrime

Categorizing Cybercrime

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1 YEAR UPGRADE

B U Y E R P R O T E C T I O N P L A N

Scene of the

Cybercrime

C o m p u t e r F o r e n s i c s H a n d b o o k

Debra Littlejohn Shinder

Ed Tittel

Technical Editor

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Syngress Publishing, Inc., the author(s), and any person or firm involved in the writing, editing, or production (collectively “Makers”) of this book (“the Work”) do not guarantee or warrant the results to be obtained from the Work.

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Syngress Media®, Syngress®,“Career Advancement Through Skill Enhancement®,” and “Ask the

Author UPDATE®,” are registered trademarks of Syngress Publishing, Inc. “Mission Critical™,”“Hack

Proofing®,” and “The Only Way to Stop a Hacker is to Think Like One™” are trademarks of Syngress

Publishing, Inc. Brands and product names mentioned in this book are trademarks or service marks of their respective companies.

KEY

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SERIAL NUMBER

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PUBLISHED BY

Syngress Publishing, Inc.

800 Hingham Street

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Scene of the Cybercrime: Computer Forensics Handbook

Copyright © 2002 by Syngress Publishing, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of

America. Except as permitted under the Copyright Act of 1976, no part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, or stored in a database or retrieval system, without the prior written permission of the publisher, with the exception that the program listings may be entered, stored, and executed in a computer system, but they may not be reproduced for publication.

Printed in the United States of America

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0

ISBN: 1-931836-65-5

Technical Editor: Ed Tittel

Acquisitions Editor: Andrew Williams

Developmental Editor: Kate Glennon

Cover Designer: Michael Kavish

Page Layout and Art by: Personal Editions

Copy Editor: Darlene Bordwell

Indexer: Claire A. Splan

Distributed by Publishers Group West in the United States and Jaguar Book Group in Canada.

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Acknowledgments

We would like to acknowledge the following people for their kindness and support in making this book possible.

Richard Kristof and Duncan Anderson of Global Knowledge, for their generous access to the IT industry’s best courses, instructors, and training facilities.

Ralph Troupe, Rhonda St. John, and the team at Callisma for their invaluable insight into the challenges of designing, deploying and supporting world-class enterprise networks.

Karen Cross, Lance Tilford, Meaghan Cunningham, Kim Wylie, Harry Kirchner,

Kevin Votel, Kent Anderson, Frida Yara, Bill Getz, Jon Mayes, John Mesjak, Peg

O’Donnell, Sandra Patterson, Betty Redmond, Roy Remer, Ron Shapiro, Patricia

Kelly, Andrea Tetrick, Jennifer Pascal, Doug Reil, and David Dahl of Publishers

Group West for sharing their incredible marketing experience and expertise.

Jacquie Shanahan, AnnHelen Lindeholm, David Burton, Febea Marinetti, and

Rosie Moss of Elsevier Science for making certain that our vision remains worldwide in scope.

Annabel Dent and Paul Barry of Elsevier Science/Harcourt Australia for all their help.

David Buckland,Wendi Wong, Marie Chieng, Lucy Chong, Leslie Lim, Audrey Gan, and Joseph Chan of Transquest Publishers for the enthusiasm with which they receive our books.

Kwon Sung June at Acorn Publishing for his support.

Jackie Gross, Gayle Voycey, Alexia Penny, Anik Robitaille, Craig Siddall, Darlene

Morrow, Iolanda Miller, Jane Mackay, and Marie Skelly at Jackie Gross & Associates for all their help and enthusiasm representing our product in Canada.

Lois Fraser, Connie McMenemy, Shannon Russell and the rest of the great folks at

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A special welcome to the folks at Woodslane in Australia! Thank you to David Scott and everyone there as we start selling Syngress titles through Woodslane in Australia,

New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, Fiji Tonga, Solomon Islands, and the Cook Islands.

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Author Acknowledgments and Dedications

It may or may not take a village to raise a child, but I know for sure that it takes a whole network of people, across time and the globe, to bring a book like this one into being. An author, like a parent, feels a certain proprietary investment in the final product—but I couldn’t have done it alone, and I’m glad I didn’t have to.

This book is the culmination of three separate but intertwined vocations I’ve pursued during my life: law enforcement, computer networking (a.k.a. IT), and writing.They say that in the end, the last shall be first, and that was and is true for me.To be a professional writer was one of my first aspirations, way back in eighth grade when I scrawled my first (badly written but somewhat complete) 300-page novel on notebook paper and loaned it out to friends like a one-person library. I went on to write for and edit my high school and college newspapers, and the teachers and friends who encouraged my ambitions back then deserve the first debt of gratitude: Bobbie Ferguson, Michael Britton, and Barbara Gifford Brown— wherever you are now, thank you.

I never gave up that dream, but the kind of writing I was doing early on didn’t pay the bills, so I followed in my father’s footsteps into government work, and ended up falling in love with law enforcement and following that path for the third decade of my life.Without my experience as a police officer and police academy instructor, this would be just another tech book, so I want to thank some of those who made all that possible: Larry Beckett, Sarah Whitaker, Danny Price, Marty Imwalle, Mike

Walker, Patt Scheckel-Hollingsworth, Lin Kirk Jones, and Neal Wilson.

I enjoyed being a cop, but as I got older, I found there was something else I enjoyed even more—and it was easier on the body and paid better, to boot. I’d been a computer hobbyist for a long time (my old VIC-20 and Commodore 64 are still here on a high shelf in the closet) and after meeting my husband online, together we set up our home network and studied together to become MCSEs. He was as tired of medicine as I was of police work, and when it came time for us to look for a new career we could share, the solution was obvious.The tech world beckoned.We did consulting for a while, and then started teaching.There were many who helped us along the way: Cash Traylor, Johnnie and Irene at Eastfield,Thomas Lee and everyone vi

225_Cybercrime_FM.qxd 7/17/02 10:34 AM Page vii on the Saluki list, David (Darkcat) Smith and the gang at DigitalThink, Donna Gang at Technology Partners, and all our students in the MCSE programs.

Through it all, writing was still my secret passion.When the opportunity arose to author tech books, it seemed that my life had come full circle. For providing that opportunity, I have to thank the folks at Syngress and Dave Dusthimer at Cisco Press.

Many people contributed to the success of my and Tom’s writing careers, especially

Julie, Maribeth, Kitty, Carl, our tech editors, and most of all, the readers who bought the books.

Which brings us to this book. I had a huge amount of input and assistance from many corners, all of which added value and made writing it easier and more fun:

Andrew Williams, who made it possible; James Michael Stewart, without whose contributions to Chapters 8 and 9 this book would not have been finished on time;

“Tech Ed”Tittel and Developmental Editor Kate Glennon, whose comments and questions kept me on my toes. I also want to thank David Rhoades of Maven

Security, for the information about “click kiddies,” and all the law enforcement officers who shared their experiences and cybercrime expertise, especially Wes Edens,

Glen Klinkhart, Dave Pettinari,Troy Lawrence, Bryan Blake, Dean Scoville, Robert

Bell, Bud Levin and Robert S. Baldygo, James Rogers, Bob Foy, Michael J.West,Tom

Burns, and Ira Wilsker.

Finally (and the first shall be last), there were the friends and family members who provided encouragement all along the way.This book is dedicated to Tom (my husband, best friend, and business partner, who also wrote part of the section on name resolution in Chapter 5), Kris and Kniki (the two best kids in the world),

Mom, Dad (whom I still miss every day), Jeff Tharp (one of the few friends who really did keep in touch after he moved away), all the Piglets (especially Bob, Lash,

Dee, Robert, Shawn, bud, the Buerger King, Chief Al, MikeO and “Ms.V,Wherever

You Are”), the MarketChat gang, the Storytalkers, the Writingchatters and all the rodents of unusual sizes on the CBP and related lists.

Debra Littlejohn Shinder vii

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Author

Debra Littlejohn Shinder

is a former Police Sergeant and Police

Academy Instructor, turned IT professional. She and her husband, Dr.

Thomas W. Shinder, have provided network consulting services to businesses and municipalities, conducted training at colleges and technical training centers, and spoken at seminars around the country. Deb specializes in networking and security, and she and Tom have written numerous books, including the best selling Configuring ISA Server 2000 (Syngress

Publishing, ISBN: 1-928994-29-6), and Deb is the sole author of

Computer Networking Essentials. Deb also is the author of over 100 articles for print publications and electronic magazines such as TechProGuild,

CNET, 8Wire, and Cramsession. Deb is a member of the editorial board of the Journal of Police Crisis Negotiations and the advisory board of the

Eastfield College Criminal Justice Training Center.

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Technical Editor and Contributor

Ed Tittel

is a 20-year veteran of the computing industry who has worked as a programmer, systems engineer, technical manager, writer, consultant, and trainer. A contributor to over 100 computer books, Ed created the Exam Cram series of certification guides. Ed also writes for numerous Web sites and magazines on certification topics including

InformIT.com, Certification and IT Contractor magazines, and numerous

TechTarget venues (www.searchsecurity.com, www.searchnetworking.com, www.searchWin2000.com, www.searchWebManagement.com).When he’s not busy writing, researching, or teaching, Ed likes to shoot pool, consume the occasional glass of red wine, and walk his Labrador retriever,

Blackie.

Contributors

James Michael Stewart

(MCSE, CCNA, CISSP,TICSA, CIW Security

Analyst) is a writer, researcher, and trainer who specializes in IT security and networking related certification topics. A contributor to over 75 books, Michael has most recently contributed to titles on CISSP,TICSA,

Windows 2000, and Windows XP topics. Michael also teaches for

NetWorld + Interop twice yearly, where he offers courses on Windows security and on Windows performance optimization and tuning. In his spare time, Michael is an avid handyman, waterskier, world traveler, and a dancin’ fool (primarily the two-step).

Michael Cross

(MCSE, MCP+I, CNA, Network+) is an Internet

Specialist and Programmer with the Niagara Regional Police Service and has also served as their Network Administrator. Michael performs ix

225_Cybercrime_FM.qxd 7/17/02 10:34 AM Page x computer forensic examinations of computers involved in criminal investigations, and has consulted and assisted in cases dealing with computerrelated/Internet crimes. He is responsible for designing and maintaining their Web site at www.nrps.com, and two versions of their Intranet (one used by workstations, and another accessed through patrol vehicles). He programs applications used by various units of the Police Service, has been responsible for network security and administration, and continues to assist in this regard. Michael is part of an Information Technology team that provides support to a user base of over 800 civilian and uniform users. His theory is that when the users carry guns, you tend to be more motivated in solving their problems.

Previous to working for the Niagara Regional Police Service, Michael worked as an instructor for private colleges and technical schools in

London, Ontario, Canada. It was during this period that he was recruited as a writer for Syngress Publishing, and became a regular member of their writing team. Michael also owns KnightWare, a company that provides Web page design and other services. He currently resides in

St. Catharines, Ontario Canada, with his lovely wife, Jennifer.

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Contents

Foreword xxv

Chapter 1 Facing the Cybercrime Problem Head On 1

Introduction 2

Quantifying the Crisis 3

Defining Cybercrime

Moving from the General to the Specific

Understanding the Importance of Jurisdictional Issues

Differentiating Crimes That Use the Net from Crimes That

Depend on the Net

Collecting Statistical Data on Cybercrime

10

11

Understanding the Crime Reporting System 11

Categorizing Crimes for the National Reporting System 13

Toward a Working Definition of Cybercrime

U.S. Federal and State Statutes

15

15

4

5

6

International Law:The United Nations Definition of

Cybercrime 17

Categorizing Cybercrime

Developing Categories of Cybercrimes

18

19

Violent or Potentially Violent Cybercrime Categories

Nonviolent Cybercrime Categories

Prioritizing Cybercrime Enforcement

Fighting Cybercrime

19

23

33

35

Determining Who Will Fight Cybercrime

Educating Cybercrime Fighters

35

37

Educating Legislators and Criminal Justice Professionals 38

Educating Information Technology Professionals 39

Educating and Engaging the Community 41 xi

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Contents

Getting Creative in the Fight Against Cybercrime

Using Peer Pressure to Fight Cybercrime

Using Technology to Fight Cybercrime

41

42

43

Finding New Ways to Protect Against Cybercrime 44

Summary 45

Frequently Asked Questions 46

Resources 47

Chapter 2 Reviewing the History of Cybercrime 49

Introduction 50

Exploring Criminality in the Days of Standalone Computers 51

Sharing More Than Time

The Evolution of a Word

Understanding Early Phreakers, Hackers, and Crackers

Hacking Ma Bell’s Phone Network

Phamous Phreakers

Phreaking on the Other Side of the Atlantic

52

52

53

53

54

54

A Box for Every Color Scheme

From Phreaker to Hacker

Living on the LAN: Early Computer Network Hackers

How BBSs Fostered Criminal Behavior

How Online Services Made Cybercrime Easy

Introducing the ARPANet:: the Wild West of Networking

Sputnik Inspires ARPA

ARPA Turns Its Talents to Computer Technology

57

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59

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55

56

Network Applications Come into Their Own

The Internetwork Continues to Expand

The ARPANet of the 1980s

The Internet of the 1990s

The Worm Turns—and Security Becomes a Concern 61

Watching Crime Rise with the Commercialization of the Internet 61

Bringing the Cybercrime Story Up to Date

Understanding How New Technologies Create New

62

60

60

60

60

Vulnerabilities 62

Why Cybercriminals Love Broadband 63

Why Cybercriminals Love Wireless

Why Cybercriminals Love Mobile Computing

67

72

Why Cybercriminals Love Sophisticated Web and

E-Mail Technologies 75

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Contents

Why Cybercriminals Love E-Commerce and

Online Banking

Why Cybercriminals Love Instant Messaging

Why Cybercriminals Love Standardization

Planning for the Future: How to Thwart Tomorrow’s

80

84

Why Cybercriminals Love New Operating Systems and

Applications 87

87

Cybercriminal 88

Summary 89

Frequently Asked Questions 90

Resources 91

Chapter 3 Understanding the People on the Scene 93

Introduction 94

Understanding Cybercriminals 96

Profiling Cybercriminals

Understanding How Profiling Works

Reexamining Myths and Misconceptions

About Cybercriminals

Constructing a Profile of the Typical Cybercriminal

Recognizing Criminal Motivations

98

99

102

111

112

Recognizing the Limitations of Statistical Analysis

Categorizing Cybercriminals

119

119

Criminals Who Use the Net as a Tool of the Crime 120

Criminals Who Use the Net Incidentially to the Crime 127

Real-Life Noncriminals Who Commit Crimes Online 128

Understanding Cybervictims 129

Categorizing Victims of Cybercrime

Making the Victim Part of the Crime-Fighting Team

Understanding Cyberinvestigators

Recognizing the Characteristics of a Good

130

134

136

Cyberinvestigator 136

Categorizing Cyberinvestigators by Skill Set 138

Recruiting and Training Cyberinvestigators

Facilitating Cooperation: CEOs on the Scene

139

140

Summary 142

Frequently Asked Questions 143

Resources 145

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Contents

Chapter 4 Understanding Computer Basics 147

Introduction 148

Understanding Computer Hardware 149

Looking Inside the Machine

Components of a Digital Computer

The Role of the Motherboard

The Roles of the Processor and Memory

The Role of Storage Media

Why This Matters to the Investigator

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150

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153

157

163

The Language of the Machine

Wandering Through a World of Numbers

Who’s on Which Base?

Understanding the Binary Numbering System

Converting Between Binary and Decimal

Converting Between Binary and Hexadecimal

Converting Text to Binary

Encoding Nontext Files

164

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169

Why This Matters to the Investigator

Understanding Computer Operating Systems

169

171

Understanding the Role of the Operating System Software 172

Differentiating Between Multitasking and

Multiprocessing Types 173

Multitasking 173

Multiprocessing 174

Differentiating Between Proprietary and Open Source

Operating Systems

An Overview of Commonly Used Operating Systems

Understanding DOS

Windows 1.x Through 3.x

Windows 9x (95, 95b, 95c, 98, 98SE, and ME)

Windows NT

Windows 2000

Windows XP

Linux/UNIX 188

Other Operating Systems 190

Understanding File Systems 193

FAT12 193

FAT16 194

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Contents

VFAT 194

FAT32 194

NTFS 195

Other File Systems 196

Summary 197

Frequently Asked Questions 198

Resources 199

Chapter 5 Understanding Networking Basics 201

Introduction 202

Understanding How Computers Communicate on a Network 203

Sending Bits and Bytes Across a Network

Digital and Analog Signaling Methods

How Multiplexing Works

Directional Factors

Timing Factors

Signal Interference

204

205

207

208

209

210

Packets, Segments, Datagrams, and Frames

Access Control Methods

Network Types and Topologies

Why This Matters to the Investigator

Understanding Networking Models and Standards

The OSI Networking Model

The DoD Networking Model

The Physical/Data Link Layer Standards

211

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215

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216

218

220

Why This Matters to the Investigator

Understanding Network Hardware

The Role of the NIC

The Role of the Network Media

The Roles of Network Connectivity Devices

Why This Matters to the Investigator

Understanding Network Software

Understanding Client/Server Computing

Server Software

Client Software

Network File Systems and File Sharing Protocols

A Matter of (Networking) Protocol

Understanding the TCP/IP Protocols Used on the Internet

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Contents

The Need for Standardized Protocols

A Brief History of TCP/IP

The Internet Protocol and IP Addressing

How Routing Works

The Transport Layer Protocols

The MAC Address

Name Resolution

TCP/IP Utilities

Network Monitoring Tools

263

269

Why This Matters to the Investigator 272

Summary 273

Frequently Asked Questions 274

Resources 277

240

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242

249

254

257

257

Chapter 6 Understanding Network Intrusions and Attacks 279

Introduction 280

Understanding Network Intrusions and Attacks 282

Intrusions vs. Attacks

Recognizing Direct vs. Distributed Attacks

Automated Attacks

Accidental “Attacks”

283

284

286

287

Preventing Intentional Internal Security Breaches

Preventing Unauthorized External Intrusions

Planning for Firewall Failures

External Intruders with Internal Access

Recognizing the “Fact of the Attack”

Identifying and Categorizing Attack Types

Recognizing Pre-intrusion/Attack Activities

Port Scans

288

289

290

290

291

292

292

294

Address Spoofing

IP Spoofing

ARP Spoofing

DNS Spoofing

297

298

298

299

Placement of Trojans

Placement of Tracking Devices and Software

300

300

Placement of Packet Capture and Protocol Analyzer Software 302

Prevention and Response 304

Understanding Password Cracking 305

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Contents

xvii

Brute Force

Exploitation of Stored Passwords

Interception of Passwords

Password Decryption Software

Social Engineering

Prevention and Response

General Password Protection Measures

Protecting the Network Against Social Engineers

Understanding Technical Exploits

Protocol Exploits

DoS Attacks That Exploit TCP/IP

Source Routing Attacks

Other Protocol Exploits

Application Exploits

Bug Exploits

Mail Bombs

Browser Exploits

Web Server Exploits

Buffer Overflows

Operating System Exploits

The WinNuke Out-of-Band Attack

Windows Registry Attacks

Other Windows Exploits

UNIX Exploits

Router Exploits

Prevention and Response

Attacking with Trojans,Viruses, and Worms

331

332

333

334

Trojans 336

Viruses 337

Worms 338

Prevention and Response 339

325

325

327

328

329

329

329

330

Hacking for Nontechies

The Script Kiddie Phenomenon

The “Point and Click” Hacker

Prevention and Response

340

340

341

342

Summary 343

Frequently Asked Questions 344

Resources 346

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xviii

Contents

Chapter 7 Understanding Cybercrime Prevention 349

Introduction 350

Understanding Network Security Concepts 351

Applying Security Planning Basics

Defining Security

The Importance of Multilayered Security

The Intrusion Triangle

Removing Intrusion Opportunities

Talking the Talk: Security Terminology

352

352

353

353

354

355

Importance of Physical Security

Protecting the Servers

Keeping Workstations Secure

Protecting Network Devices

Understanding Basic Cryptography Concepts

Understanding the Purposes of Cryptographic Security

Authenticating Identity

Providing Confidentiality of Data

357

359

359

360

364

364

366

372

Ensuring Data Integrity

Basic Cryptography Concepts

Scrambling Text with Codes and Ciphers

What Is Encryption?

Securing Data with Cryptographic Algorithms

How Encryption Is Used in Information Security

What Is Steganography?

Modern Decryption Methods

Cybercriminals’ Use of Encryption and Steganography 386

Making the Most of Hardware and Software Security 387

Implementing Hardware-Based Security

Hardware-Based Firewalls

387

387

Authentication Devices

Implementing Software-Based Security

Cryptographic Software

Digital Certificates

388

391

391

392

The Public Key Infrastructure

Software-Based Firewalls

Understanding Firewalls

How Firewalls Use Layered Filtering

372

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Contents

Packet Filtering

Circuit Filtering

Application Filtering

Integrated Intrusion Detection

Forming an Incident Response Team

Designing and Implementing Security Policies

Understanding Policy-Based Security

What Is a Security Policy?

Why This Matters to the Investigator

Evaluating Security Needs

Components of an Organizational Security Plan

402

403

404

404

Defining Areas of Responsibility

Analyzing Risk Factors

404

406

Assessing Threats and Threat Levels 407

Analyzing Organizational and Network Vulnerabilities 409

395

396

397

398

398

401

401

Analyzing Organizational Factors

Considering Legal Factors

Analyzing Cost Factors

Assessing Security Solutions

Complying with Security Standards

Government Security Ratings

Utilizing Model Policies

Defining Policy Areas

Password Policies

Other Common Policy Areas

Developing the Policy Document

Establishing Scope and Priorities

Policy Development Guidelines

Policy Document Organization

Educating Network Users on Security Issues

Policy Enforcement

Policy Dissemination

Ongoing Assessment and Policy Update

426

426

Summary 427

Frequently Asked Questions 428

Resources 430

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Contents

Chapter 8 Implementing System Security 431

Introduction 432

How Can Systems Be Secured? 433

The Security Mentality

Elements of System Security

Implementing Broadband Security Measures

Broadband Security Issues

Deploying Antivirus Software

Defining Strong User Passwords

433

435

436

439

441

444

Setting Access Permissions

Disabling File and Print Sharing

Using NAT

Deploying a Firewall

Disabling Unneeded Services

Configuring System Auditing

Implementing Browser and E-Mail Security

Types of Dangerous Code

444

445

446

448

449

449

452

454

JavaScript 454

ActiveX 455

Java 455

Making Browsers and E-Mail Clients More Secure 456

Restricting Programming Languages

Keep Security Patches Current

Cookie Awareness

Securing Web Browser Software

456

457

457

458

Securing Microsoft Internet Explorer

Securing Netscape Navigator

Securing Opera

Implementing Web Server Security

DMZ vs. Stronghold

Isolating the Web Server

Web Server Lockdown

Managing Access Control

Handling Directory and Data Structures

Scripting Vulnerabilities

468

469

Logging Activity 470

Backups 470

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Contents

Maintaining Integrity

Rogue Web Servers

Understanding Security and Microsoft Operating Systems

470

471

471

General Microsoft Security Issues 472

NetBIOS 472

Widespread Automated Functionality

IRDP Vulnerability

473

474

NIC Bindings 474

Securing Windows 9x Computers 475

Securing a Windows NT 4.0 Network

Securing a Windows 2000 Network

478

481

Windows .NET:The Future of Windows Security 483

Understanding Security and UNIX/Linux Operating Systems 483

Understanding Security and Macintosh Operating Systems

Understanding Mainframe Security

487

489

Understanding Wireless Security 490

Summary 493

Frequently Asked Questions 494

Resources 495

Chapter 9 Implementing Cybercrime Detection Techniques 499

Introduction 500

Security Auditing and Log Files 502

Auditing for Windows Platforms

Auditing for UNIX and Linux Platforms

Firewall Logs, Reports, Alarms, and Alerts

Understanding E-Mail Headers

Tracing a Domain Name or IP Address

Commercial Intrusion Detection Systems

503

508

510

516

522

524

Characterizing Intrusion Detection Systems

Commercial IDS Players

IP Spoofing and Other Antidetection Tactics

Honeypots, Honeynets, and Other “Cyberstings”

525

530

532

533

Summary 536

Frequently Asked Questions 539

Resources 542

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Contents

Chapter 10 Collecting and Preserving Digital Evidence 545

Introduction 546

Understanding the Role of Evidence in a Criminal Case 548

Defining Evidence

Admissibility of Evidence

Forensic Examination Standards

Collecting Digital Evidence

The Role of First Responders

The Role of Investigators

549

551

552

552

553

554

The Role of Crime Scene Technicians

Preserving Digital Evidence

Preserving Volatile Data

Disk Imaging

A History of Disk Imaging

Imaging Software

Standalone Imaging Tools

Role of Imaging in Computer Forensics

555

558

559

560

560

561

563

563

“Snapshot”Tools and File Copying

Special Considerations

Environmental Factors

Retaining Time and Datestamps

Preserving Data on PDAs and Handheld Computers

Recovering Digital Evidence

Recovering “Deleted” and “Erased” Data

Decrypting Encrypted Data

Finding Hidden Data

Where Data Hides

Detecting Steganographic Data

Alternate Datastreams

Methods for Hiding Files

The Recycle Bin

Locating Forgotten Evidence

Web Caches and URL Histories

Temp Files

Swap and Page Files

Recovering Data from Backups

568

569

569

570

571

572

572

572

563

564

564

565

565

566

567

568

574

575

577

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xxiii

Defeating Data Recovery Techniques

Overwriting the Disk

Degaussing or Demagnetizing

Physically Destroying the Disk

Documenting Evidence

Evidence Tagging and Marking

Evidence Logs

Documenting Evidence Analysis

Documenting the Chain of Custody

Computer Forensics Resources

Computer Forensics Training and Certification

Computer Forensics Equipment and Software

Computer Forensics Services

Computer Forensics Information

Understanding Legal Issues

Searching and Seizing Digital Evidence

U.S. Constitutional Issues

Search Warrant Requirements

Search Without Warrant

Seizure of Digital Evidence

Forfeiture Laws

Privacy Laws

The Effects of the U.S. Patriot Act

Summary 602

Frequently Asked Questions 603

Resources 605

588

589

591

594

597

598

598

599

582

583

583

584

585

586

587

587

578

579

580

580

581

581

581

Chapter 11 Building the Cybercrime Case 607

Introduction 608

Major Factors Complicating Prosecution

Difficulty of Defining the Crime

Bodies of Law

Types of Law

609

609

610

616

Levels of Law

Basic Criminal Justice Theory

Elements of the Offense

Level and Burden of Proof

618

620

624

625

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Contents

Jurisdictional Issues

Defining Jurisdiction

Statutory Law Pertaining to Jurisdiction

Case Law Pertaining to Jurisdiction

International Complications

Practical Considerations

The Nature of the Evidence

Human Factors

Law Enforcement “Attitude”

The High-Tech Lifestyle

Natural-Born Adversaries?

Overcoming Obstacles to Effective Prosecution

The Investigative Process

Investigative Tools

Steps in an Investigation

Defining Areas of Responsibility

Testifying in a Cybercrime Case

The Trial Process

Testifying as an Evidentiary Witness

Testifying as an Expert Witness

Giving Direct Testimony

Cross-Examination Tactics

Using Notes and Visual Aids

Summary 656

Frequently Asked Questions 657

Resources 658

650

650

651

652

652

653

654

654

633

633

635

635

636

637

639

646

626

626

629

630

631

631

632

Afterword

Appendix

Index

659

663

699

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Foreword

This book, more than any other I’ve written up to this point in my life, was a labor of love. It allowed me to combine the knowledge and experience of two careers

(over a decade in government and law enforcement, and close to another decade in the computer field, encompassing almost 20 years of working with computers as a hobbyist).When I was a working police officer, computer crime was an esoteric specialty area—investigators in small- and medium-sized agencies rarely encountered a case involving digital evidence, and the term cybercrime was unheard of in most police circles.

Today, all of that has changed. In fact, our whole way of life has changed over the past two decades, and many of those changes can be directly attributed to the

Internet. I met my husband on the Net in 1994, when I was still a cop and he was practicing medicine.We’ve come a long way, baby, since then.

Today, the two of us make our livings online, as authors, consultants, and providers of online training. Ninety percent of our business is conducted via the

Internet. Many of our friendships began in the virtual world, and we use e-mail to keep in touch with family members in remote locations, with whom we probably would rarely have contact otherwise.There are plenty of others out there like us, whose “real world” lives are inextricably intertwined with the time that we spend in the netherworld of cyberspace. It is inevitable, I suppose, that members of the same antisocial element of society I dealt with as a police officer would find their ways onto the Net, as well.

The more I delved into the intricacies of computers and networking in pursuit of my new profession, the more I was reminded of my old one as I realized that the commercialization and widespread use of the Internet provided opportunities for the scam artists, thieves, child pornographers, drug dealers and abusive personalities that make up every law enforcement officer’s cadre of “clientele.”Yet much of the law enforcement world seemed to lag behind when it came to technology. In the late xxv

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1990s, there were still many agencies across the country where cops did their reports by hand and police secretaries were the only ones in the office who had computers, which they used as nothing more than fancy word processors.

When it comes to computer crimes, the criminals got a big head start. But the law enforcement community in the twenty-first century seems to have finally awakened to the fact that resistance is futile and computers are here to stay. I’ve watched my former police colleagues struggle to understand this Brave New World where the once-tangible “tool of the crime” can be an ethereal series of bits and bytes, where offenses can be committed by “remote control” from hundreds or thousands of miles away, and where the rules of evidence have been turned upside down by the nature of digital communication. I also began to realize, as cybercrime became the hot topic of the day, that many of my fellow information technology professionals know a lot about programming and network administration but understand very little about the law. Hanging out in techie newsgroups and sorting through posts to police-only mailing lists, I saw a pattern emerging: the information and communication gap between law enforcement and IT was obvious from both sides of the fence. As I heard misperceptions repeated on both sides—misperceptions that made it impossible for the police and IT professionals to combine their talents and efforts against cybercriminals—I kept thinking, “Someone should write a book.” So I did.

My goal in writing this book is to reach a dual audience; I hope to give other technical experts a little peek into the law enforcement world, a highly structured environment where the “letter of the law” is paramount and procedures must be followed closely lest an investigation be contaminated and all the evidence collected rendered useless. I also hope to provide law enforcement officers with an idea of some of the technical aspects of how cybercrimes are committed—and how technology can be used to track down and build a case against the criminals who commit them. I want to provide a roadmap that those on both sides of the table can use to navigate the legal and technical landscape, so that together we can understand, prevent, detect, and successfully prosecute the criminal behavior that is as much a threat to the online community as “traditional” crime is to the neighborhoods in which we live.

The first chapter, “Facing the Cybercrime Problem Head On,” provides a broad overview of cybercrime: what it is (and isn’t), ways in which it’s different from other types of crime (and ways in which it isn’t), and how we can break the larger concept of “cybercrime” down into categories that make it more manageable to discuss, legislate, enforce, and ideally, prevent.This is where you’ll find statistics and formal definitions, as well as a brief introduction to some of the topics that will be covered in

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more detail in later chapters, such as jurisdictional issues and the nature of local, state, national, and international law regulating online behavior.The chapter ends with a proposal for educating cybercrime fighters at all levels (not only technical professionals and law enforcement officers, but also members of other parts of the criminal justice system, legislators, and the community at large) and explains how a united effort is the only way we’ll ever be able to take a significant “byte” out of cybercrime.

Chapter 2, “Reviewing the History of Cybercrime,” steps back to take a historical perspective. Cybercrime didn’t just “appear” overnight, but there’s no doubt that proportionately more criminal activity is occurring online today than in the early years of the Internet.This chapter attempts to analyze the reasons for the rising crime rate in this “place” called cyberspace, by tracing the tremendous growth of the Net from its origins in the 1960s to its present incarnation as a major commercial and sociological force that reaches all over the world.We look at how both the technology itself and the demographic makeup of the Internet have changed over the years, and how that (along with the sheer numbers of people getting online each year) has contributed to the crime problem.This chapter also addresses the ways in which the advent of new technologies makes the lives of criminals—not just our lives—easier.

Chapter 3, “Understanding the People on the Scene,” breaks momentarily from the concentration on technological and legal issues to explore the human element of cybercrime. Here we delve into the fascinating new realm of cyberpsychology, the study of human behavior in cyberspace. First we discuss the cybercriminals: common motivations, personality types, and the differences between those who commit different types of cybercrimes.We look at the art and science of criminal profiling and how it can be applied to online lawbreakers. But we don’t stop there.The criminals aren’t the only ones on the scene of the cybercrime whom the investigator needs to understand.We also discuss how to apply the principles of victimology to those who fall prey to cybercriminals, and how an understanding of these principles can help to predict the criminals’ behavior and aid in apprehension, along with helping to prevent others from being victimized in the future. Next, we focus on the cybercrimes investigator. Here you’ll learn about the characteristics that contribute to being a good cyber-detective, and the skills that are required to do the job. Finally, we briefly discuss the role played by company executives and managers in the cases of cybercrimes that involve corporate networks, and how management personnel can provide an important service by acting as liaison between law enforcement officers and IT personnel.

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Chapter 4, “Understanding Computer Basics,” plunges you head first into the technical details of how computers work.We provide a “fast track” course (or for some readers, a review) of computer hardware basics, explaining the binary language used by machines to process information and communicate with one another, and we describe how software—especially the operating system—functions as the

“middle man” between user and machine. Each section of this chapter includes a subsection titled “Why This Matters to the Investigator,” that explains the significance of the information in terms of conducting a criminal investigation.

Chapter 5 is titled “Understanding Networking Basics” and is a natural continuation of the information in the preceding chapter. Here we focus on network communications, describing how they work and introducing you to the hardware and software components that make them possible.You learn about the function of networking hardware (hubs, switches, routers, and more) and you find out about client and server software, network file systems, and protocols. Finally, we focus more tightly on the TCP/IP protocol suite that forms the basis of communications on the

Internet and on most large networks today.You’ll learn about addressing, routing and name resolution, and how TCP/IP utilities can be used to gather information about the network. Once again, we provide “Why This Matters to the Investigator” sections to tie the technical details back to the work of a cybercrime fighter.

Chapter 6, “Understanding Network Intrusions and Attacks,” addresses a specific type of cybercrime—the type that is generally committed by more technically savvy criminals (although you’ll learn how “script kiddies” with limited knowledge and skills can also launch these attacks using tools provided by more sophisticated hackers).This chapter looks at the pre-intrusion activities that a hacker may engage in while he or she prepares to attack, and then it moves on to the methods hackers use for gaining entry to networks and/or bringing them down.We include a section on password cracking, and discuss the different types of technical exploits that use the characteristics of common applications, operating systems, and protocols to create

Denial of Service and other network disruptions.

Chapter 7 is titled “Understanding Cybercrime Prevention” and it starts with an overview of computer and network security concepts.We discuss physical security and the differences between hardware-based and software-based security products, and you learn why a multi-layered security plan is essential in today’s threat-intensive world and how to develop one.We get specific in this chapter, explaining how authentication, confidentiality, and data integrity can be provided using cryptographic techniques; you’ll also learn about new methods of identifying network users such as smart cards and biometrics. Another important topic addressed here is firewall

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technology, as well as packet, circuit, and application filtering—you’ll learn how these technologies protect the network.We also discuss digital certificates and the Public

Key Infrastructure, and wrap it up with an overview of incident response planning and a detailed discussion of security policies and how they are developed and implemented.

Chapter 8, “Implementing System Security,” gets down to the nitty-gritty about how to implement security measures in specific cases and with specific technologies and software.You learn about steps that can be taken to protect broadband connections, ways to make Web browsing safer, and how network administrators can protect

Web servers from attack. Next we look at operating system security.You’ll find out some of the ways that the different Microsoft operating systems (Windows 9x, NT and 2000) are vulnerable to hack attacks and what can be done about it.We also talk about securing UNIX and Linux-based computers, and how security issues affect the

Macintosh operating systems, especially Apple’s new UNIX-based OS X. Finally, we touch on mainframe security and how wireless networking can be made more secure.

Chapter 9 deals with “Implementing Cybercrime Detection Techniques.”This chapter focuses on the issue central to the criminal investigation: gathering information that may be relevant to identifying and apprehending the cybercriminal and that might also serve as evidence in the criminal case.You’ll learn here how to use security auditing and read log files, including firewall logs and reports.Then we discuss how to unravel the mystery of e-mail headers to develop clues that lead you back to the sender.You’ll find out how to trace domain names and IP addresses, and filter through the wealth of information that is available when you use a commercial

Intrusion Detection System (IDS).You’ll also learn about the methods that criminals use to hide their identities and avoid detection, such as IP spoofing.

Chapter 10, “Collecting and Preserving Digital Evidence,” is the “meat and potatoes” that takes the investigator all the way into the world of computer forensics.

Here you learn about how to recover files and bits of data that the suspect may have thought were deleted or erased.You’ll also learn about ways to access encrypted data and to find steganographic data that can be hidden, using special software, inside other files.You’ll learn about all the places that data can hide on a disk, including file slack, alternate data streams, and partition gaps.You’ll find out where to look for “forgotten” evidence that is often left behind in Web caches, history logs, swap files, and other locations.We’ll provide step-by-step guidelines for searching and seizing computers and digital evidence, including specific tasks performed by first responders, investigators, and crime scene technicians.We’ll tell you how to preserve volatile evidence (evidence that disappears when the computer is powered down) and how to

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use disk imaging techniques to create exact bitstream duplicates of suspect hard disks so the original can be preserved in its original state.We talk about environmental factors that can affect digital evidence, and how it should be packaged and documented.

Next, we look at the legal issues surrounding search and seizure, including search warrant requirements, search without a warrant, and Fourth Amendment issues, and how the courts have applied them to computer-related cases.We also include a section on the ways in which the U.S. Patriot Act has changed the law in regard to electronic evidence.

Chapter 11, “Building the Cybercrime Case,” takes you beyond the apprehension of the cybercriminal and the collection of evidence, and shows you how to put together all the information you’ve gathered in the course of the investigation to prove the prosecution’s case.We talk first about some of the difficulties peculiar to cybercrimes, including the lack of concrete definitions and the jurisdictional dilemma.You’ll learn about basic criminal justice theory and the bodies and levels of law.You’ll also learn the differences between civil and criminal law and how they can sometimes overlap in computer-related cases.We discuss the “naturally adversarial” relationship that often arises between law enforcement officers and IT personnel, provide some explanations for why it occurs, and offer some suggestions to help create more cooperation between the two camps.Then we look at the investigative process, including how to evaluate evidence and how to use the standard investigative tools (information, interview/interrogation, and instrumentation) to facilitate the investigation.We outline the typical steps in an investigation, and how to define areas of responsibility so that the investigative team works most effectively. Finally, we talk about the last step in the process—testifying in a cybercrimes case.We approach this from the standpoints of both evidentiary and expert witnesses, and include some tips on understanding the trial process and dealing with the opposing attorneys’ tactics.

Throughout the book, we provide several types of sidebars to supplement the main text. In addition to explanatory Notes, we include the following:

CyberStats

These sidebars provide statistical information related to the topic at hand.

Crimestoppers

These sidebars provide information about tools and techniques that can be used to help prevent or detect cybercrimes.

CyberLaw Review

These sidebars discuss legal aspects of the topic being discussed in the text, including related statutes and case law citations.

On the Scene

These are real life accounts of cybercrime investigators and advice based on experiences in the field.

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You’ll find a lot of citations of other sources as you go through the text.This

book was intended to serve as handbook or reference, and I wanted to create something that could be used as a text for introductory cybercrimes courses (including those that I plan to teach), but I also wanted it to be readable and interesting, not a dry academic-styled textbook. I’ve tried to deal in concepts as well as specifics. I want readers to understand the “big picture,” not just how to implement various security solutions or how to use various forensics techniques.The laws and techniques will change over the years, but the concepts that form the foundation of cybercrime fighting will remain the same.

Due to the dynamic nature of the World Wide Web, some of the online resources we cite herein may be gone or relocated by the time you read this book. Please let us know about any dead links; we will attempt to track down new sources for the same or similar information and post them on my Web site at www.sceneofthecybercrime

.com and/or the publisher’s Web site at www.syngress.com/solutions.You can e-mail me at [email protected]

Finally, I wanted this to be a friendly book, one that could be enjoyed by “just plain folks” who are interested in computer forensics and cybercrime as well as by professionals in the law enforcement and technology fields. I hope I’ve accomplished that. My wish is that you will have as much fun reading it as I had writing it, and that it will make you think about the constantly evolving nature of both law and technology—just as it forced me to think (and rethink) many of my own ideas about

“how things work” as I put them down in words.

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Facing the

Cybercrime

Problem Head On

Chapter 1

Topics we'll investigate in this chapter:

Defining Cybercrime

Categorizing Cybercrime

Fighting Cybercrime

! Summary

! Frequently Asked Questions

! Resources

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2 Chapter 1 • Facing the Cybercrime Problem Head On

Introduction

Today we live and work in a world of global connectivity.We can exchange casual conversation or conduct multimillion dollar monetary transactions with people on the other side of the planet quickly and inexpensively.The proliferation of personal computers, easy access to the Internet, and a booming market for related new communications devices have changed the way we spend our leisure time and the way we do business.

The ways in which criminals commit crimes is also changing. Universal digital accessibility opens up new opportunities for the unscrupulous. Millions of dollars are lost to computer-savvy criminals by both businesses and consumers.

Worse, computers and networks can be used to harass victims or set them up for violent attacks—even to coordinate and carry out terrorist activities that threaten us all. Unfortunately, in many cases law enforcement agencies have lagged behind these criminals, lacking the technology and the trained personnel to address this new and growing threat, which has been aptly termed cybercrime.

Until recently, many information technology (IT) professionals lacked awareness of and interest in the cybercrime phenomenon. In many cases, law enforcement officers have lacked the tools needed to tackle the problem; old laws didn’t quite fit the crimes being committed, new laws hadn’t quite caught up to the reality of what was happening, and there were few court precedents to look to for guidance. Furthermore, debates over privacy issues hampered the ability of enforcement agents to gather the evidence needed to prosecute these new cases.

Finally, there was a certain amount of antipathy—or at the least, distrust— between the two most important players in any effective fight against cybercrime: law enforcement agents and computer professionals.Yet close cooperation between the two is crucial if we are to control the cybercrime problem and make the Internet a safe “place” for its users.

Law enforcement personnel understand the criminal mindset and know the basics of gathering evidence and bringing offenders to justice. IT personnel understand computers and networks, how they work, and how to track down information on them. Each has half of the key to defeating the cybercriminal.

This book’s goal is to bring the two elements together, to show how they both can and must work together in defending against, apprehending, and prosecuting people who use modern technology to harm individuals, organizations, businesses, and society.

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Quantifying the Crisis

Cybercrime: It sounds exotic, the stuff of which futuristic science fiction novels are made. However, law enforcement officers, network administrators, and others who deal with crime and/or cyberspace are discovering that the future is now, and cybercrime is a big and growing problem. For example:

According to the Internet Fraud Complaint Center (IFCC), a partnership between the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) and the National

White Collar Crime Center, between May 2000 and May 2001, its first year of operation, the IFCC Web site received 30,503 complaints of

Internet fraud. (The full report can be downloaded in .PDF format at www1.ifccfbi.gov/strategy/IFCC_Annual_Report.pdf.)

According to the Computer Security Institute’s Computer Crime and

Security Survey for 2001, conducted in conjunction with the FBI’s

Computer Intrusion Squad, 186 responding corporations and government agencies reported total financial losses of over US$3.5 million, due primarily to theft of proprietary information and financial fraud (see www.gocsi.com/press/20020407.html).

According to the Cybersnitch Voluntary Online Crime Reporting

System, Internet-related crimes range from desktop forgery to child pornography and include such potentially violent crimes as electronic stalking and terrorist threats. (A full list of reported cybercrimes is available at www.cybersnitch.net/csinfo/csdatabase.asp.)

According to Meridien Research, as reported at epaynews.com

(www.epaynews.com/statistics/fraud.html), the cost of Internet fraud is expected to reach between US$5 billion and US$15 billion by 2005.

Although almost anyone has the potential to be affected by cybercrime, two groups of people must deal with this phenomenon on an ongoing basis:

Information technology professionals, who are most often responsible for providing the first line of defense and for discovering cybercrime when it does occur

Law enforcement professionals, who are responsible for sorting through a bewildering array of legal, jurisdictional, and practical issues in their attempts to bring cybercriminals to justice

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4 Chapter 1 • Facing the Cybercrime Problem Head On

Cy

berStats…

Charting the Online Population Explosion

Nua Internet Surveys showed that as of February 2002, approximately

544 million people were online worldwide. As the global population becomes more and more “connected,” the opportunities for criminals to use the Net to violate the law will expand, and cybercrime will touch more and more lives.

Although it is imperative to the success of any war against cybercrime that these two groups work together, often they are at odds because neither has a real understanding of what the other does or of the scope of their own roles in the cybercrime-fighting process.

Defining Cybercrime

You might not find the word cybercrime in your dictionary (ironically, it doesn’t even show up in Microsoft’s Encarta World Dictionary 2001, an online dictionary, as you can see in Figure 1.1), but a Web search for the word, using the popular

Google search engine, reveals over 140,000 hits.

We might not officially know what cybercrime is, but everyone is talking about it. Even without a dictionary definition, legislators and law enforcers all over the world seem to believe of cybercrime that they “know it when they see it,” as U.S. Supreme Court Justice Potter Stewart said of obscenity in 1964. Laws that address online crime are being passed in all jurisdictions, and those who make and enforce the laws are, after a slow start, springing into action to address the problem.

Police departments in the United States and the rest of the world are establishing computer crimes units, and cybercrime makes up a large proportion of the offenses investigated by these units.The National Cybercrime Training

Partnership (NCTP) encompasses local, state, and federal law enforcement agencies in the United States.The International Association of Chiefs of Police

(IACP) hosts an annual Law Enforcement Information Management training conference that focuses on IT security and cybercrime.The European Union has created a body called the Forum on Cybercrime, and a number of European

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Facing the Cybercrime Problem Head On • Chapter 1

states have signed the Council of Europe’s Convention on Cybercrime treaty, which attempts to standardize European laws concerning crime on the Internet.

Figure 1.1

The word cybercrime doesn’t appear in most dictionaries, including Microsoft’s online Encarta.

5

Each organization and the authors of each piece of legislation have their own ideas of what cybercrime is—and isn’t.These definitions may vary a little or a lot.

To effectively discuss cybercrime in this book, however, we need a working definition.Toward that end, we start with a broad, general definition and then define specific cybercriminal offenses.

Moving from the General to the Specific

Cybercrime can be generally defined as a subcategory of computer crime.The

term refers to criminal offenses committed using the Internet or another computer network as a component of the crime. Computers and networks can be involved in crimes in several different ways:

The computer or network can be the tool of the crime (used to commit the crime)

The computer or network can be the target of the crime (the “victim”)

The computer or network can be used for incidental purposes related to the crime (for example, to keep records of illegal drug sales)

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6 Chapter 1 • Facing the Cybercrime Problem Head On

To be enforceable, laws must be specific. It is useful to provide a general definition to be used in discussion, but criminal offenses consist of specific acts or omissions, together with a specified culpable mental state.

In many instances, specific pieces of legislation contain definitions of terms.

This is necessary to avoid confusion, argument, and litigation over the applicability of a law or regulation.These definitions should be as narrow as possible, but legislators don’t always do a good job of defining terms (and sometimes don’t define them at all, leaving it up to law enforcement agencies to guess, until the courts ultimately make a decision).

One of the biggest criticisms of the European treaty is its overly broad definitions. For example, the definition of the term service provider is so vague that it could be applied to someone who sets up a two-computer home network, and the definition of computer data, because it refers to any representation of facts, information, or concepts in any form suitable for processing in a computer system, would include almost every possible form of communication, including handwritten documents and the spoken word (which can be processed by handwriting and speech recognition software). Likewise, the U.S. Department of

Justice (DoJ) has been criticized for a definition of computer crime that specifies

“any violation of criminal law that involved the knowledge of computer technology for its perpetration, investigation, or prosecution” (reported in the August

2002 FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin). Under such a definition, virtually any crime could be classified as a computer crime, simply because a detective searched a computer database as part of conducting an investigation.

These examples illustrate the difficulty of creating usable definitions of cybercrime and related terms. Later in this chapter, we will develop our own working definition of cybercrime for the purposes of this book.

Understanding the Importance of Jurisdictional Issues

Another factor that makes a hard-and-fast definition of cybercrime difficult is the jurisdictional dilemma. Laws in different jurisdictions define terms differently, and it is important for law enforcement officers who investigate cybercrime, as well as network administrators who want to become involved in prosecuting cybercrimes that are committed against their networks, to become familiar with the applicable laws. In the case of most crimes in the United States, that means getting acquainted with local ordinances and state statutes that pertain to the offense. Generally, criminal behavior is subject to the jurisdiction in which it

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occurs. For example, if someone assaults you, you would file charges with the local police in the city or town where the assault actually took place.

Because cybercrimes often occur in the virtual “place” we call cyberspace, it becomes more difficult to know what laws apply. In many cases, offender and victim are hundreds or thousands of miles apart and might never set foot in the same state or even the same country. Because laws can differ drastically in different geographic jurisdictions, an act that is outlawed in one location could be legal in another.

What can you do if someone in California, which has liberal obscenity laws, makes pornographic pictures available over the Internet to someone in Tennessee, where prevailing community standards—on which the state’s laws are based—are much more conservative? Which state has jurisdiction? Can you successfully prosecute someone under state law for commission of a crime in a state where that person has never been? As a matter of fact, that was the subject of a landmark case, U.S. v.Thomas and Thomas (see the “CyberLaw Review” sidebar in this section).

7

Cy

berLaw Review…

U.S. v. Thomas and Thomas

Robert and Carleen Thomas, residents of California, were charged with violation of the obscenity laws in Tennessee when a Memphis law enforcement officer downloaded sexually explicit materials from their

California bulletin board service (BBS) to a computer in Tennessee. This was the first time prosecutors had brought charges in an obscenity case in the location where the material was downloaded rather than where it originated. The accused were convicted, and they appealed; the appeals court upheld the conviction and sentences; the U.S. Supreme

Court rejected their appeal.

Even if the act that was committed is illegal across jurisdictions, however, you might find that no one wants to prosecute because of the geographic nightmare involved in doing so (see the “On the Scene” sidebar in this section for an example of one officer’s experience).

We discuss jurisdictional issues in much more depth and detail in Chapter 11,

“Building the Cybercrime Case.”

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On

the Scene…

Real Life Experiences

From Wes Edens,

Criminal Investigator and Computer Forensics Examiner

Here’s how the typical multijurisdictional case complicates the life of a working police detective. Put yourself in this detective’s shoes: Bob

Smith, who lives in your jurisdiction in Oklahoma, reports that he has had some fraudulent purchases on his credit card. In addition, he has been informed that two accounts have been opened using his information via the Internet at two banks: Netbank, based in Georgia, and

Wingspan, which was recently bought by Bank One.

The suspect(s) applied for a loan to buy a car in Dallas, Texas. As a result, the suspects changed Bob's address on his credit profile to 123

Somewhere Street, Dallas. This is a nonexistent address.

In the course of your investigation, you contact Netbank (Georgia) and they inform you that they do not keep Internet Protocol (IP) addresses of people opening accounts online. You obtain a copy of the online credit application. It contains all of Bob Smith's credit information, but the address is now 321 Elsewhere Street, Dallas. It is also a nonexistent address.

You contact all the companies at which purchases have been made with Bob’s bogus credit cards. Half won't speak to you unless you have paperwork, and half of those say that the paperwork has to be from a court in the state where they are located, not where you are. Now you have to find police departments in five different states that are willing to help you generate court papers to get records. Since you have filed no charges and the victim (and presumably the suspect) do not live in their jurisdiction, most of these organizations are reluctant to get involved.

You get the paperwork from half of the companies. Of 10, only one actually has an IP address. It is an American Online (AOL) account, which means it could have been accessed from anywhere in the world, further complicating the jurisdictional nightmare, but you press on. You get a subpoena for AOL, requesting the subscriber information for that IP address at that date and time. Three weeks later, AOL informs you that they keep logs for only 21 days, so you’re out of luck because the target

IP date and time occurred two months ago.

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You run down the 15 phone numbers used on the various suspect accounts and applications. All 15 are different. Three are in Dallas, two in Fort Worth, and the remainder are either disconnected numbers or are in a random spattering of towns across south Texas. There is no apparent connection between any of the numbers. You get the addresses used to ship the purchased items. Every address is different; three are in Dallas, two in Fort Worth. Several are either pay-by-the-week rentals or “flop houses” where people come and go as in a bus station.

A couple are mail drops. You subpoena those records, only to find that all the information they contain is bogus.

You decide to visit with your boss and explain to him that you need to travel to another state for a few days to solve this US$1500 caper. He listens intently until you start mentioning going to Georgia, Maryland, and Texas. You then tell him you also have three other such cases that involve nine other states, and you'll probably have to go to all those locations, too. You can hear him laughing as he walks out the door.

You decide to go visit with the DA just for the heck of it. You explain the case thus far, and she asks: What crime was committed here? (Your answer: “Well, none that I know of for sure.”) Does the suspect live here? (Probably not.) Can we show that any exchange of money or physical contact between suspect and victim took place here? (No, not really.) Do you have any idea where the suspect is? (Probably in Texas.)

Were any of the purchases made in Oklahoma? (No.) Why are you conducting this investigation? (Because the victim is standing in my office.)

The DA tells you that the victim needs to report this crime to the

Texas authorities. You give the victim a list of seven different agencies in

Texas, one in Georgia, and one in Maryland. You tell him that he needs to contact them. He calls you back three days later and says that they want him to go to each place to fill out a crime report and he can't afford to take off two weeks and travel 2000 miles to report that he is a victim. You suggest he call the FBI, even though deep down you know that they are not going to touch a US$1500 fraud case.

You give up on that case and pick up the other three identity-theft cases that landed on your desk while you were spinning your wheels on this one. You note that all three were done entirely through the Internet and, like the first one, they all involve a multitude of states.

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Differentiating Crimes That Use the Net from

Crimes That Depend on the Net

In many cases, crimes that we would call cybercrimes under our general definition are really just the “same old stuff,” except that a computer network is somehow involved.That is, a person could use the Internet to run a pyramid scheme or chain letter, set up clients for prostitution services, take bets for illegal gambling, or download pornographic pictures of minors. All these acts are already criminal in certain jurisdictions and could be committed without the use of the computer network.The “cyber” aspect is not a necessary element of the offense; it merely provides the means to commit the crime.The computer network gives criminals a new way to commit the same old crimes. Existing statutes that prohibit these acts can be applied to people who use a computer to commit them as well as to those who commit them without the use of a computer or network.

In other cases, the crime is unique and came into existence with the advent of the Internet. Unauthorized access is an example; while it might be likened to breaking and entering a home or business building, the elements that comprise unauthorized computer access and physical breaking and entering are different.

By statutory definition, breaking and entering generally require physical entry onto a premise, an element that is not present in the cyberspace version of the crime.Thus, new statutes had to be written prohibiting this specific behavior.

Cy

berLaw Review…

Theft of Intangible Property

Theft of intangible property, such as computer data, poses a problem under the traditional theft statutes of many U.S. jurisdictions. A common statutory definition of theft is “unlawful appropriation of the property of another without the effective consent of the owner, with the intent to deprive the owner of the property.” (This definition is taken from the Texas Penal Code, Section 31.03.)

This definition works well with tangible property; if I steal your diamond necklace or your new Dell laptop, my intent to deprive you of the use of the property is clear. However, I can “steal” your company’s financial records or the first four chapters of the great American novel you’re writing without depriving you of the property or its use at all.

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If I were prosecuted under the theft statute, my defense attorney could argue that the last element of the offense wasn’t met.

This is the reason new statutes had to be written to cover theft of intangible or intellectual properties, which are not objects that can be in the possession of only one person at a time.

“Traditional” intellectual property laws (copyright, trademark, and the like) are civil laws, not prosecuted in criminal court other than under special newer laws pertaining to only narrowly defined types of intellectual property such as software and music. Some federal laws prohibit theft of data, but the FBI and federal agencies have jurisdiction only in certain circumstances, such as when the data is stolen from federal government computers or when it constitutes a trade secret. In most cases, it’s up to the state to prosecute. States can’t bring charges under federal law, only under their state statutes. Until recently, many states didn’t have statutes that covered data theft because it didn’t fit under traditional theft statutes and they didn’t have “theft of intellectual property” statutes.

11

Collecting Statistical Data on Cybercrime

Another problem with adequately defining cybercrime is the lack of concrete statistical data on these offenses. At the beginning of this chapter, we provided some statistical information gathered by agencies formed to deal with cybercrime issues. However, reporting crimes to these agencies is voluntary.This means that the figures are almost certainly much lower than the actual occurrence of network-related crimes.This is because not only do an unknown number of cybercrimes go unreported (as with all crimes), but many or most of those that

are reported to police are not reported to the agencies that collect these statistics.

Currently it is, in fact, practically impossible to even get an accurate count of the number of cybercrimes reported to police.To understand why that’s true, let’s look at how crime data is reported and collected in the United States.

Understanding the Crime Reporting System

Local law enforcement agencies—municipal police departments and county sheriffs’ offices—are individually responsible for keeping records of criminal complaints filed with their agencies, the offenses they investigate, and the arrests they make.There is no mandated, standardized record-keeping system; each agency can set up its own database, use one of many proprietary record-keeping software

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packages marketed to law enforcement, or even keep the records manually as police agencies did for years prior to the computerization of local government operations.

In an effort to provide national crime statistics, the FBI operates the Uniform

Crime Reporting (UCR) program. Local law enforcement agencies complete a monthly report that is sent to the FBI.This information is consolidated and issued as reports documenting the “official” national crime statistics.The program has been in place since the 1960s; over 18,000 agencies provide data, either directly or through their state reporting systems.These statistics are made available to the media and through the FBI’s Web site, as shown in Figure 1.2.

Figure 1.2

The FBI collects crime data from local law enforcement agencies and issues annual statistical reports.

In the 1980s, the UCR program was expanded and redesigned to become an incident-based reporting system in which crimes are placed into predefined categories.The National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS) specifies data to be reported directly to the FBI through data-processing systems that meet the

NIBRS specifications. (Agencies that don’t have the requisite equipment and resources still file the standard UCR reports.)

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Facing the Cybercrime Problem Head On • Chapter 1

Categorizing Crimes for the National

Reporting System

NIBRS collects more details on more categories of crime than the UCR, which provides only summaries of various crime categories. Even so, the 22 Group A offense categories and the 11 Group B offense categories for which NIBRS collects data include no category that identifies an offense as a cybercrime. (See the “CyberStats” sidebar in this section for a list of the NIBRS categories.)

13

Cy

berStats…

NIBRS Crime Categories

According to the UCR Handbook (NIBRS Edition, pages 1–2), offenses are categorized into the following groups. Extensive data is collected for

Group A offenses, whereas only arrest data is collected for Group B offenses.

Group A Offense Categories

1. Arson

2. Assault (aggravated, simple, and assault by intimidation)

3. Bribery

4. Burglary/Breaking and Entering

5. Counterfeiting/Forgery

6. Destruction/Damage/Vandalism of Property

7. Drug/Narcotic Offenses (including drug equipment violations)

8. Embezzlement

9. Extortion/Blackmail

10. Fraud Offenses

11. Gambling Offenses

12. Homicide Offenses

13. Kidnapping/Abduction

14. Larceny/Theft (excluding motor vehicle theft)

15. Motor Vehicle Theft

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16. Pornography/Obscenity

17. Prostitution Related

18. Robbery

19. Sex Offenses (forcible)

20. Sex Offenses (nonforcible)

21. Stolen Property Offenses (excluding theft)

22. Weapons Law Violations

Group B Offense Categories

1. Bad Checks

2. Curfew/Loitering/Vagrancy

3. Disorderly Conduct

4. Driving Under the Influence

5. Drunkenness

6. Family Offenses (nonviolent)

7. Liquor Law Violations

8. Voyeurism (“peeping Tom”)

9. Runaway

10. Trespass

11. All Other Offenses

As you can see from the list of NIBRS offense categories shown in the sidebar, a local agency reporting a cybercrime must either find a standard category into which it fits (for example, an online con game that asked people to send money to a “charity” under false pretenses would be classified under Fraud

Offenses, whereas entering a computer’s files from across the Internet and stealing trade secrets would be classified as Theft) or place it into the catch-all “All Other

Offenses” category. Either way, no information in the national crime reports generated from this data indicates that these offenses are cybercrimes.

Agencies that deal with cybercrime must formulate their own cybercrimespecific categories for internal record keeping in order to accurately determine the types of cybercrimes occurring in their jurisdictions. Agencies that have technically savvy officers or in-house IT specialists will be able to do this without outside help. In many cases, however, local law enforcement personnel don’t have

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the technical expertise to understand the differences between different networkrelated crimes. Police officers might understand the concept of “hacking,” for example, but they might not be able to differentiate between a hacker who gains unauthorized access to a network and one who disrupts the network’s operations by launching a denial of service (DoS) attack against it.

This is where IT professionals can work with law enforcement to help more clearly and specifically define the elements of an offense so that it can be investigated and prosecuted properly. Agencies might need to hire outside IT security specialists as consultants and/or officers might need to receive specialized training to understand the technical elements involved in various cybercrimes.

We discuss the law enforcement-IT professional relationship in detail, along with more specifics about how the two can work together, in Chapter 11.

Toward a Working Definition of Cybercrime

Why is it so important for us to develop a standard definition of cybercrime?

Unless we all use the same—or at least substantially similar—definitions, it is impossible for IT personnel, users and victims, police officers, detectives, prosecutors, and judges to discuss the offense intelligently. For that reason, too, it will continue to be impossible to collect meaningful statistics that can be used to analyze crime patterns and trends.

Crime analysis allows agencies to allocate resources more effectively and to plan their own strategies for responding to problems. It is difficult for agency heads to justify the need for additional budget items (specialized personnel, training, equipment, and the like) to appropriations committees and governing bodies without hard data to back up the requests. Standard definitions and meaningful statistical data are also needed to educate the public about the threat of cybercrime and involve communities in combating it. Crime analysis is the foundation of crime prevention; understanding the types of crime that are occurring, where and when they are happening, and who is involved is necessary in order to develop proactive prevention plans.

Even though we have no standard definitions to invoke, let’s look at how cybercrime is defined by some of the most prominent authorities.

U.S. Federal and State Statutes

We have already mentioned the somewhat broad definition of computer crime adopted by the U.S. Department of Justice. Individual federal agencies (and task forces within those agencies) have their own definitions. For example, the FBI’s

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National Computer Crime Squad (NCCS), which is charged with investigating violations of the federal Computer Fraud and Abuse Act, lists specific categories of computer- and network-related crimes that they investigate:

Public switched telephone network (PSTN) intrusions

Major computer network intrusions

Network integrity violations

Privacy violations

Industrial/corporate espionage

Software piracy

Other crimes in which computers play a major role in committing the offense

Title 18 of the U.S. Code, in Chapter 47, Section 1030, defines a number of fraudulent and related activities that can be prosecuted under federal law in connection with computers. Most pertain to crimes involving data that is protected under federal law (such as national security information), involving government agencies, involving the banking/financial system, or involving intrastate or international commerce or “protected” computers. Defining and prosecuting crimes that don’t fall into these categories usually is the province of each state.

Most U.S. states have laws pertaining to computer crime.These statutes are generally enforced by state and local police and might contain their own definitions of terms. For example, the Texas Penal Code’s Computer Crimes section defines only one offense, Breach of Computer Security (Texas Penal Code

Section 33.02), defined as “knowingly accessing a computer, computer network, or computer system without the effective consent of the owner.”The classification and penalty grade of the offense is increased according to the dollar amount of loss to the system owner or benefit to the offender.

California Penal Code (Section 502), on the other hand, defines a list of eight acts that constitute computer crime, including altering, damaging, deleting, or otherwise using computer data to execute a scheme to defraud; deceiving, extorting, or wrongfully controlling or obtaining money, property, or data; using computer services without permission; disrupting computer services; assisting another in unlawfully accessing a computer; or introducing contaminants (such as viruses) into a system or network.

Thus, the definition of computer crime under state law differs, depending on the state. Once again, the jurisdictional question rears its ugly head. If the

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multijurisdictional nature of cybercrime prevents us from even defining it, how can we expect to effectively prosecute it?

International Law:The United Nations

Definition of Cybercrime

Cybercrime spans not only state but national boundaries as well. Perhaps we should look to international organizations to provide a standard definition of the crime.

At the Tenth United Nations Congress on the Prevention of Crime and

Treatment of Offenders, in a workshop devoted to the issues of crimes related to computer networks, cybercrime was broken into two categories and defined thus: a. Cybercrime in a narrow sense (computer crime): Any illegal behavior directed by means of electronic operations that targets the security of computer systems and the data processed by them.

b. Cybercrime in a broader sense (computer-related crime): Any illegal behavior committed by means of, or in relation to, a computer system or network, including such crimes as illegal possession

[and] offering or distributing information by means of a computer system or network.

Of course, these definitions are complicated by the fact that an act may be illegal in one nation but not in another.

The paper goes on to give more concrete examples, including:

Unauthorized access

Damage to computer data or programs

Computer sabotage

Unauthorized interception of communications

Computer espionage

These definitions, although not completely definitive, do give us a good starting point—one that has some international recognition and agreement—for determining just what we mean by the term cybercrime.

IT professionals need good definitions of cybercrime in order to know when

(and what) to report to police, but law enforcement agencies must have statutory definitions of specific crimes in order to charge a criminal with an offense.The

first step in specifically defining individual cybercrimes is to sort all the acts that can be considered cybercrimes into organized categories.

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Categorizing Cybercrime

As the attempts to define it show, cybercrime is such a broad and all-encompassing term that it is all but useless in any but the most general discussion.

Certainly if you called the police to report that your home was burglarized, you wouldn’t start by saying that you’d been the victim of a “property crime.” In order for police to have a chance of identifying the criminal or to bring charges against that person once identified, they must know the specific act that was committed.

Categorizing crimes as property crimes, crimes against persons, weapons offenses, official misconduct, and so on is useful in that it helps us organize related, specific acts into groups.That way, general statistics can be collected and law enforcement agencies can form special units to deal with related types of crimes. Furthermore, officers can specialize and thus become more expert in categories of crime.

Similarly, it’s useful to define categories of cybercrime and then place specific acts (offenses) into those categories. First, we must realize that cybercrimes, depending on their nature, can be placed into existing categories already used to identify different types of crime. For example, many cybercrimes (such as embezzling funds using computer technology) could be categorized as white-collar

crimes, generally defined as nonviolent crimes committed in the course of business activities, usually (although not always) motivated by monetary profit and often involving theft, cheating, or fraud. On the other hand, Internet child pornographers are usually classified as sex offenders (pedophiles) and regarded as violent or potentially violent criminals.

This crossover into other categories and the widely diverse acts that constitute cybercrime make it difficult to break cybercrime into its own narrower categories. However, most agencies that deal with cybercrime want to do so if only because it also helps them identify the type of suspect they’re looking for. (The profile for a person who operates a child pornography site on the Internet is different from that of a person who hacks into others’ computer systems, which in turn is different from that of a person who uses e-mail to run a chain letter scheme.)

We discuss the types of cybercriminals and their common characteristics in detail in Chapter 3, “Understanding the People on the Scene.”

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Developing Categories of Cybercrimes

There are several ways we can categorize the various cybercrimes.We can start by dividing them into two very broad categories: one, those crimes committed by violent or potentially violent criminals, and two, nonviolent crimes.

Violent or Potentially Violent Cybercrime Categories

Violent or potentially violent crimes that use computer networks are of highest priority for obvious reasons: these offenses pose a physical danger to some person or persons.Types of violent or potentially violent cybercrime include:

Cyberterrorism

Assault by threat

Cyberstalking

Child pornography

The U.S. Department of State defines terrorism as “premeditated politically motivated violence perpetrated against noncombatant targets by subnational groups or clandestine agents.” Cyberterrorism refers to terrorism that is committed, planned, or coordinated in cyberspace—that is, via computer networks.

This category includes using e-mail for communications between coconspirators to impart information to be used in violent activities as well as recruiting terrorist group members via Web sites. More ambitiously, it could include sabotaging air traffic control computer systems to cause planes to collide or crash; infiltrating water treatment plant computer systems to cause contamination of water supplies; hacking into hospital databases and changing or deleting information that could result in incorrect, dangerous treatment of a patient or patients; or disrupting the electrical power grid, which could cause loss of air conditioning in summer and heat in winter or result in the death of persons dependent on respirators in private residences if they don’t have generator backup.

Assault by threat can be committed via e-mail.This cybercrime involves placing people in fear for their lives or threatening the lives of their loved ones

(an offense that is sometimes called terroristic threat). It could also include e-mailed bomb threats sent to businesses or governmental agencies.

Cyberstalking is a form of electronic harassment, often involving express or implied physical threats that create fear in the victim and that could escalate to real-life stalking and violent behavior.

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Child pornography involves a number of aspects: people who create pornographic materials using minor children, those who distribute these materials, and those who access them.When computers and networks are used for any of these activities, child pornography becomes a cybercrime.

Cy

berLaw Review…

National Child Pornography Laws

In the United States, it is a federal crime (18 USC 2251 and 2252) to advertise or knowingly receive child pornography. The Child

Pornography Prevention Act (CPPA) of 1996 expanded the definition of

child pornography to any visual depiction of sexually explicit conduct in which the production involved the use of a minor engaging in sexually explicit behavior, even if the visual depiction only appears to be of a minor engaging in such conduct or is advertised or presented to convey the impression that it is of a minor engaging in such conduct. The Free

Speech Coalition sued to have the law struck down as unconstitutional, and a federal appellate court did strike down the statute. In October

2001, the Supreme Court heard arguments in the case Ashcroft v. the

Free Speech Coalition on the constitutionality of the CPPA. In April 2002, the Supreme Court ruled that the provisions of USC 2256 that prohibit

“virtual child pornography” (computer-generated images of children engaging in sexual conduct) are overly broad and unconstitutional.

In the United Kingdom, under the Protection of Children Act (1978) and Section 160 of the Criminal Justice Act of 1988, it is a criminal offense for a person to possess either a photograph or a “pseudophotograph” of a child that is considered indecent. The term pseudo-

photograph is defined as an image made by computer graphics or that otherwise appears to be a photograph. Typically this is a photograph that is created using a graphics manipulation software program such as

Adobe Photoshop to superimpose a child’s head on a different body (the same type of “virtual child pornography” addressed by the U.S. Supreme

Court in its April 2002 decision).

Most countries have laws addressing child pornography. For a synopsis of national laws compiled by Interpol (the International Criminal

Police Organisation), see the Interpol Sexual Offenses Against Children

Web site at www.interpol.int/Public/Children/SexualAbuse/NationalLaws.

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Child pornography is generally considered a violent crime, even if some of the persons involved have had no physical contact with children.This is the case because sexual abuse of children is required to produce pornographic materials and because people who are interested in viewing these types of materials often do not confine their interest to pictures and fantasies but are instead practicing pedophiles, or aspire to be, in real life.

21

On

the Scene…

Real Life Experiences

From Detective Glen Klinkhart,

Anchorage Police Department Computer Crimes Unit

Not too long ago, a friend of mine with the FBI called me with a request.

He told me that he had received a transcript from an Internet Relay Chat

(IRC) session, and he wanted to tell me about it. During the IRC correspondence, one of the participants had written a detailed plan about preparing the kidnap and rape of a young boy from a shopping mall.

The chat indicated that the mall might be somewhere in our city. The FBI agent asked if I would be interested in reading the chat sessions logs and giving him my opinion of the situation.

When the agent arrived I took a look at the transcript and was horrified by what I read. The IRC session showed what appeared to be two people chatting online. One, called “PITH,” apparently sent the FBI the computer chat logs, and the other was the suspect, known only as

“Kimmo.” PITH saved the chat log file and then contacted law enforcement about the incident. The chat was a chilling and frightening view into a demented mind.

The eight pages of chat noted extremely graphic, sexually explicit details, which included the very specific ways that the suspect said he would enjoy “raping” and “torturing” his victim. During the rest of the chat, the suspect, Kimmo, gave details about the specific shopping mall that he had scoped out and the general location of his cabin, north of the city. Kimmo was very specific about the sexual acts that he was going to perpetrate against his victim. It was apparent that Kimmo had been thinking and fantasizing about this attack for some time.

The FBI and our department immediately began working on the case. At one point, we had 14 agents and police detectives working on

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this single investigation. We continued to track the location of our suspect by going under cover into Internet chat rooms looking for

Kimmo, tracing his IP address, and using tools such as search warrants and subpoenas to gather a trail of information leading to our suspect.

The trail led to a divorced father living on the outskirts of the city.

Agents began watching him and his house. Others checked into his background and learned more about how he operated. He appeared to have no criminal history; however, he was very adept at using computers. He also matched many of the details that had been communicated to PITH during the disturbing chat session.

We obtained search warrants for the suspect’s house and prepared to search his office as well. On a clear, cold morning, we hit the office and the house of our suspect. Another group of officers attempted to interview the suspect.

When confronted, the suspect played it as though he didn't know what we were talking about. He denied any knowledge of the chat session between PITH and Kimmo. When presented with irrefutable evidence, including an electronic trail that led directly to his home computer, he finally admitted that he was Kimmo. He stated that he participated in the chat because he was heavily intoxicated at the time.

He told investigators that he had never harmed a child and that he would never hurt anyone.

His computer systems at home and at work told another tale. On his home computer and on various computer media, we found hundreds of images of child pornography, including images of children being forced into bondage and raped. Kimmo had also developed a fondness for collecting hundreds of computer drawings depicting children having their bodies sliced, mutilated, and displayed in disturbing and gory fashion.

The suspect was arrested. He later pleaded guilty to possession and distribution of child pornography. He is currently serving his time in federal prison.

Was the suspect merely drunk when he was chatting with PITH?

Would he really “never harm a child,” as he told us? Would he have grabbed a kid from the mall and taken him to a cabin to be raped and tortured? We might never know for certain. I do know that for at least the next few years, this guy will not have a chance to make good on his plans, thanks to the hard work of the FBI, the U.S. Attorney's office, and our team of dedicated investigators.

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Facing the Cybercrime Problem Head On • Chapter 1

Nonviolent Cybercrime Categories

Most cybercrimes are nonviolent offenses, due to the fact that a defining characteristic of the online world is the ability to interact without any physical contact.

The perceived anonymity and “unreality” of virtual experiences are the elements that make cyberspace such an attractive “place” to commit crimes.

Nonviolent cybercrimes can be further divided into several subcategories:

Cybertrespass

Cybertheft

Cyberfraud

Destructive cybercrimes

Other cybercrimes

A number of more specific criminal acts can fit into each of these categories.

Cybertrespass

In cybertrespass offenses, the criminal accesses a computer’s or network’s resources without authorization but does not misuse or damage the data there. A common example is the teenage hacker who breaks into networks just “because he (or she) can”—to hone hacking skills, to prove him- or herself to peers, or because it’s a personal challenge.

Cybertrespassers enjoy “snooping,” reading your personal e-mail and documents and noting what programs you have on the system, what Web sites you’ve visited, and so forth, but they don’t do anything with the information they find.

Nonetheless, cybertrespass is a crime in most jurisdictions, usually going under the name of “unauthorized access,” “breach of network security” or something similar.

Law enforcement professionals need to be aware of the laws in their jurisdictions and avoid automatically dismissing a complaint of network intrusion simply because the victim can’t show loss or damage. Network administrators need to be aware of this crime because under criminal statutes, a company can prosecute intruders simply for accessing the network or its computers without permission.

In this regard, it might be easier to build a criminal case than a civil lawsuit, since the latter often requires proof of damages in order to recover.

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Cybertheft

There are many different types of cybertheft, or ways of using a computer and network to steal information, money, or other valuables. Because profit is an almost universal motivator and because the ability to steal from a distance reduces the thief ’s risk of detection or capture, theft is one of the most popular cybercrimes.

Cybertheft offenses include:

Embezzlement, which involves misappropriating money or property for your own use that has been entrusted to you by someone else (for example, an employee who uses his or her legitimate access to the company’s computerized payroll system to change the data so that he is paid extra, or who moves funds out of company bank accounts into his own personal account)

Unlawful appropriation, which differs from embezzlement in that the criminal was never entrusted with the valuables but gains access from outside the organization and transfers funds, modifies documents giving him title to property he doesn’t own, or the like

Corporate/industrial espionage, in which persons inside or outside a company use the network to steal trade secrets (such as the recipe for a competitor’s soft drink), financial data, confidential client lists, marketing strategies, or other information that can be used to sabotage the business or gain a competitive advantage

Plagiarism, which is the theft of someone else’s original writing with the intent of passing it off as one’s own

Piracy, which is the unauthorized copying of copyrighted software, music, movies, art, books, and so on, resulting in loss of revenue to the legitimate owner of the copyright

Identity theft, in which the Internet is used to obtain a victim’s personal information, such as Social Security and driver’s license numbers, in order to assume that person’s identity to commit criminal acts or to obtain money or property or use credit cards or bank accounts belonging to the victim

DNS cache poisoning, a form of unauthorized interception in which intruders manipulate the contents of a computer’s DNS cache to redirect network transmissions to their own servers

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On

the Scene…

Real Life Experiences

Press Release, U.S. Department of Justice

Federal agents arrested a Jacksonville, Florida, man in March 2002 for identity theft in connection with stealing personnel records of 60,000

Prudential Insurance Company employees from a computer database.

The man was a former IT employee for Prudential, and he attempted to sell the database information over the Internet for the purpose of obtaining fraudulent credit cards using the stolen identities.

Network administrators should be aware that in many cases, network intrusion is much more than simply an annoyance; cybertheft costs companies millions of dollars every year. Law enforcement officers need to understand that theft does not always necessarily involve money; a company’s data can also be stolen, and in most jurisdictions, there are laws (including, in some cases, federal laws) that can be used to prosecute those who “only” steal information.

Cybertheft is closely related to cyberfraud, and in some cases the two overlap.

This overlap becomes apparent when you encounter cases of cyberfraud that involve misappropriation of money or other property.

Cyberfraud

Generally, cyberfraud involves promoting falsehoods in order to obtain something of value or benefit. Although it can be said to be a form of theft, fraud differs from theft in that in many cases, the victim knowingly and voluntarily gives the money or property to the criminal—but would not have done so if the criminal hadn’t made a misrepresentation of some kind.

Cyberfraud includes the same types of con games and schemes that were around long before computers and networks. For example, the con artist sends an e-mail asking you to send money to help a poor child whose parents were killed in an auto accident, or promising that if you “invest” a small amount of money

(by sending it to the con artist) and forward the same message to 10 friends, you’ll be sent thousands of times your “investment” within 30 days. Other frauds involve misrepresenting credentials to obtain business (and often not providing the service or product promised).The Internet simply makes it easier and quicker

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for these con artists to operate and gives them a greatly expanded number of potential victims to target.

Fraudulent schemes, cyber-based or not, often play on victims’ greed or good will. Law enforcement professionals find that these crimes can often be prosecuted under laws that have nothing to do with computer crime, such as general fraud statutes in the penal code or business code. Fraud is often aimed at individuals, but network administrators should be aware that con artists also sometimes target companies, sending their pleas for charity and “get rich quick” schemes to people in the workplace, where they can find a large audience. Such “spam” should be reported to the corporate IT department, where steps can be taken to report the abuse to the authorities and/or block mail from the con artist’s address if it is a continuing problem.

On

the Scene…

Real Life Experiences

Press Release, U.S. Department of Justice,

U.S. Attorney Emily M. Sweeney

A Miami, Florida, man was indicted in September 2001 of defrauding bidders through the eBay online auction site by advertising rare baseball and basketball cards, collecting payments from bidders, and then failing to send the items. He was charged under Title 18 of the U.S. Code, pled guilty, and was sentenced to five months in prison, to be followed by five months of home confinement (electronic monitoring).

Cyberfraud can take other forms; any modification of network data to obtain a benefit can constitute fraud (although some states have more specific computer crimes statutes that apply). For example, a student who hacks into a school system’s computer network to change grades or a person who accesses a police database to remove his arrest record or delete speeding tickets from his driving record is committing a form of fraud.

Destructive Cybercrimes

Destructive cybercrimes include those in which network services are disrupted or data is damaged or destroyed, rather than stolen or misused.These crimes include:

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Hacking into a network and deleting data or program files

Hacking into a Web server and “vandalizing”Web pages

Introducing viruses, worms, and other malicious code into a network or computer

Mounting a DoS attack that brings down the server or prevents legitimate users from accessing network resources

Each of these in some way deprives the owners and authorized users of the data and/or network of their use.

Cybervandalism can be a random act done “just for fun” by bored hackers with a malicious streak, or it might be a form of computer sabotage for profit (erasing all the files of a business competitor, for example). In some cases, cybervandalism might be performed to make a personal or political statement (as in cybergraffiti).

CNN.com reported on January 8, 2002, that the number of “defaced”Web sites increased more than fivefold between 2000 and 2001. Immediately following the crash landing of a U.S. spy plane in China in 2001, numerous incidents of

Chinese and U.S. hackers defacing each other’s Web sites were reported in a socalled “cyberwar.”

The increase in cybervandalism points up the necessity of not only setting up general intrusion detection systems (IDSs) but also ensuring that known vulnerabilities in Web servers be addressed by staying up to date on the latest attack types and faithfully applying the updates and “fixes” released by vendors to patch such security holes. IT professionals need to be aware that older operating systems and applications were not designed with high security in mind, simply because the risk was not as great and security was not as well understood at the time they were released. On the other hand, new operating systems and applications could have security vulnerabilities that haven’t yet been discovered. Most software vendors are quick to address security problems once they become known, but that often doesn’t happen until a hacker discovers and exploits the problem.

Law enforcement officials, in many cases, need legislation that specifically addresses network intrusion in order to prosecute cybervandals because it might be difficult to fit these activities into the elements of existing vandalism laws.

Viruses and other malicious code comprise a huge problem to all Internetconnected computers.There is some confusion, even within the tech world, about the terminology used to describe malicious code. A computer virus is a program that causes an unwanted—and often destructive—result when it is run.

A worm is a virus that replicates itself. A Trojan (or Trojan horse) is an apparently

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harmless or legitimate program inside which malicious code is hidden; it is a way to get a virus or worm into the network or computer.

Malicious code does millions of dollars’ worth of damage to computer systems, and virus writers are very active, continually turning out new viruses and worms and modifying old ones so they won’t be detected by antivirus (AV) software.The advent of modern e-mail programs that support Hypertext Markup

Language (HTML) mail and attachments has made spreading viruses easier than ever. It’s no longer necessary to break into the network to introduce malicious code—now you can simply e-mail it to one technically unsophisticated user, and it will quickly spread throughout the local area network (LAN) and beyond.

AV software such as that marketed by Symantec (Norton AntiVirus, shown in

Figure 1.3) and McAfee is an essential part of every network’s security plan.

Whichever AV package is used, it is essential that its virus definition files, used to identify and red-flag known malicious code, be updated frequently.

Viruses, worms, and Trojans are discussed in much more detail in Chapter 6,

“Understanding Network Intrusions and Attacks.

Figure 1.3

A good antivirus software package, updated frequently, is an essential first line of defense.

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Cy

berStats…

The Cost of Malicious Code

Computer Economics, a California research organization that advises businesses on technology issues, published a report estimating that virus and other malicious code cost over US$13 billion worldwide in 2001.

Critics question the accuracy of the figure, and any such estimate will be just that—an estimate based only on reported cases and relying on companies’ assessments of the loss. But there is no question that virus attacks can cost more than just the value of the lost data. Loss in productivity during the resulting downtime, damage to the company’s reputation, resultant loss of business, and other difficultto-measure factors must also be taken into consideration. (See www.computereconomics.com/cei/press/pr92101.html for a discussion of the ramifications.)

Other Nonviolent Cybercrimes

There are many more nonviolent varieties of cybercrime. Again, many of these only incidentally use the Internet to accomplish criminal acts that have been around forever (including the world’s oldest profession). Some examples include:

Advertising/soliciting prostitution services over the Internet

Internet gambling

Internet drug sales (both illegal drugs and prescription drugs)

Cyberlaundering, or using electronic transfers of funds to launder illegally obtained money

Cybercontraband, or transferring illegal items, such as encryption technology that is banned in some jurisdictions, over the Internet

Prostitution is illegal in all U.S. states except Nevada and in many countries.

The statutes in most states are written in such a way so that soliciting sexual services using the Internet falls under the law. Additionally, according to Mike

Goodwin of the Electronic Frontier Foundation, in an interview entitled

Prostitution and the Internet (published at www.bayswan.org/EFF.html), it is a

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federal offense to use interstate commerce to solicit “unlawful activity”; 18 USC

1952 defines “prostitution in violation of state laws” as an unlawful activity.

Nonetheless, according to the March 13, 2001, issue of the E-Commerce Times, high-tech hookers advertise their services extensively on the Internet, often under the guise of “escort services.” Online prostitution is often closely affiliated with online pornography services, which (unless children are involved) are generally protected as speech in the United States under the First Amendment to the Constitution.

An interesting law enforcement issue is that of “cyberprostitution,” which involves trading virtual sex for money. Because no physical contact actually takes place, these activities don’t fall under most states’ prostitution statutes. In 1996, the U.S. Congress passed the Communications Decency Act, which prohibited

“indecent” or “patently offensive” communications on the Internet.Then, in

1997, in Reno v. ACLU, the Supreme Court struck down the law as unconstitutional (a violation of First Amendment free speech). It is important for law enforcement professionals to realize that the laws governing online sexual conduct and content are constantly evolving; this is an area in which it is vital to stay up to date because what’s legal today could be illegal tomorrow, and vice versa.

Network professionals have other issues to consider regarding sexual content.

Even if not a crime, posting or allowing sexually offensive material on a company network can result in civil lawsuits alleging sexual harassment. Employers who create a “hostile workplace” environment can be sued under Title VII of the Civil

Rights Act of 1964.

Internet gambling has flourished, with online customers able to place bets in virtual casinos using credit cards. In July 2000, the U.S. House of Representatives voted on and rejected a proposed Internet Gambling Prohibition Act. However, the federal government has used the 1961 Interstate Wireline Act (18 USC 1084) to prosecute online gambling operations.This act prohibits offering or taking bets from gamblers over phone lines or through other “wired devices” (which include

Internet-connected computers) unless authorized by a particular state to do so. As with many other Internet crimes, jurisdiction is a problem in prosecuting

Internet gambling proprietors.

Internet gambling is another area in which laws can change quickly and vary tremendously from one jurisdiction to another. Indeed, some states themselves engage in online gambling, offering lottery sales on the Internet.

Internet drug sales comprise another big business. Both the trafficking of illegal drugs and the sale of prescription drugs by online pharmacies are growing problems.The Internet’s impact on the international trafficking of illegal drugs such as

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opium has been studied by the United Nations and individual governments. In

March 2000, the UN passed a resolution with the objective of “deterring the use of the World Wide Web for the proliferation of drug trafficking and abuse,” encouraging its members to adopt a set of measures to prevent or reduce sales of illicit drugs through the Internet.

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Cy

berLaw Review…

Offline and Online Gambling

In the United States, offline gaming is legal in some states and not in others. Some countries, such as Antigua and other Caribbean states, permit and license Internet gaming operations. Some states have enacted statutes prohibiting Internet gambling. In 2000, South Dakota passed such a law, the Act to Prohibit the Use of the Internet for Certain

Gambling Activities, which makes Internet gambling a felony in that state. (The state lottery and casinos licensed in South Dakota are exempt from prosecution, however.)

Internet-based pharmacies that sell controlled substances might be legal, legitimate businesses that work much the same as traditional mail-order pharmacies, abiding by state licensing laws and processing prescriptions issued by patients’ doctors. Other online pharmacies provide prescription drugs based merely on a form filled out by the “patient,” which is purportedly evaluated by a physician who has never seen the “patient” and without requiring any verification of identification. Spammers bombard the mailboxes of e-mail users with unsolicited advertisements for drugs such as Viagra, diet pills, Prozac, birth control pills, and other popular prescription medicines.

In the United States, the Internet Pharmacy Consumer Protection Act was introduced by a House Committee but failed to make it to the House floor.

Nonetheless, a number of existing laws are applicable to the Internet.The

Controlled Substances Act and the Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act can be used to prosecute offenders under federal law, and each state has laws regarding licensing of pharmacies and requirements for prescribing and dispensing drugs.

The DoJ, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and the Federal Trade

Commission (FTC) have all cracked down on companies selling controlled substances over the Net without valid prescriptions. In addition, several state

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attorneys general have sued such online pharmacies to prevent them from doing business in those states. In March 2001, federal and local authorities cooperated to close down an Oklahoma-based pharmacy that allegedly sold prescription drugs illegally online. Law enforcement officials should become familiar with the many state and federal laws that regulate the sales of prescription drugs as well as those that address sales and possession of illicit drugs.

Cyberlaundering involves using the Internet to hide the origins of money that was obtained through illegal means. Money laundering is a very old crime, but the relative anonymity of the Internet has made it easier for criminals to turn

“dirty money” into apparently legitimate assets or investments.

N

OTE

The origin of the term money laundering is said to date back to the habit of the famous Chicago gangster Al Capone: hiding his profits from illegal gambling in coin-operated Laundromats.

The Internet gambling operations discussed earlier provide one way to launder money: a criminal uses the illegally obtained cash in gambling transactions. Online banking also offers opportunities for criminals, who can open accounts without meeting banking officials face to face. Money can be deposited in a secret offshore bank account or transferred electronically from one bank to another until its trail is difficult or impossible to follow. Although criminals still face the challenge of initially getting large amounts of cash deposited into the system without raising suspicions, once they do, they can move these funds around and manipulate them much more easily and quickly with the convenience of today’s electronic transfers.

Cybercontraband refers to data that is illegal to possess or transfer. For example, in the United States, the International Traffic in Arms Regulations (ITAR) prohibits the export of strong cryptographic software and invokes prison and/or fines up to US$1 million for sending such software to anyone outside the United

States. In 1997, a U.S. District judge ruled that the regulations were unconstitutional and violated First Amendment rights to freedom of speech. In 2000, the

Clinton Administration adopted new, more relaxed encryption export regulations.

Under the Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA), software that circumvents protection of copyrighted materials is illegal to make available to the public. A Russian cryptographer named Dmitri Sklyarov was arrested in Las Vegas

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in 2001 for “trafficking in” a software program that breaks the encryption codes created by Adobe to protect its eBook product.The charges against Sklyarov were dropped in exchange for his agreement to testify against the company he worked for, which was charged with the same offense. At this writing, the latter case is still pending.This, the first criminal case brought under this section of the

DMCA, has generated a great deal of controversy, especially since the software in question is legal under the laws of Sklyarov’s own country, Russia.There is much disagreement over interpretations of various sections of the DMCA; an interesting aspect is that the act does not appear to prohibit possession (or even use) of the software by end users, only the “provision” of such software to others.

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berLaw Review…

Making Software Illegal

A bill introduced in the U.S. Senate in 2002 by Senator Fritz Hollings would prohibit creating, selling, or distributing software that does not include government-approved security standards. IT professionals have speculated that if passed, the law would make open-source operating systems such as Linux illegal. In the current national security-conscious environment and with the international focus on preventing terrorism, we can expect to see more proposed laws that would turn certain software programs or even data itself into contraband.

In the United States, most data is currently protected under the First

Amendment, although there are obvious exceptions, such as child pornography

(discussed earlier in this chapter).The concept of cybercontraband is a relatively new—and controversial—one. Law enforcement professionals are still feeling their way in this area, along with legislators who attempt to balance the freedoms and rights of Internet users with the desire to protect society from “harmful” information.

Prioritizing Cybercrime Enforcement

As cybercrime proliferates, it will obviously be impossible for law enforcement agencies to devote the time and effort required to investigate and prosecute every

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instance of Internet-related criminal activity. Establishing crime categories helps agencies prioritize enforcement duties.

Factors to consider in deciding which types of cybercrime will get top enforcement priority include:

Extent of harm

Cybercrimes that involve violence or potential violence against people (especially crimes against children) are normally of high priority; property crimes that result in the largest amount of monetary loss generally take precedence over crimes for which the amount of loss is less.

Frequency of occurrence

Cybercrimes that occur with more frequency usually result in more concerted efforts than those that seldom occur.

Availability of personnel

Cybercrimes that can be investigated easily by one detective might get more agency attention simply because there are not sufficient personnel resources to set up sophisticated investigations that require many investigators.

Training of personnel

Which cybercrimes are investigated and which aren’t sometimes depends on which ones investigators have the training to handle.

Jurisdiction

Agencies generally prefer to focus their resources on crimes that affect local citizens. Even if the agency has legal jurisdiction, it might choose not to spend resources on cybercrimes that cross jurisdictional boundaries.

Difficulty of investigation

Closely related to the two preceding factors, the difficulty of the investigation and the likelihood of a successful outcome could affect which crimes get top priority.

Political factors

The prevailing political climate often influences an agency’s priorities. If the politicians who govern the agency have a special concern about specific crimes, enforcement of those crimes is likely to take precedence.

In dealing with law enforcement officials on cybercrime cases, it is important for IT professionals to understand how these factors might cause some cybercrimes to be investigated more enthusiastically and prosecuted more vigorously than others.

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Fighting Cybercrime

To successfully fight cybercrime, as with any other type of crime, we must first understand it. Know thine enemy is good advice, regardless of the type of war we plan to wage.The first step in developing a plan to fight cybercrime is to define it, both generally and specifically.This chapter has given you some definitions to serve as a starting point in identifying just what cybercrime is—and what it isn’t.

Another important element in determining our strategy against cybercrime is to collect statistical data so that we can perform an analysis to detect patterns and trends.Without reliable statistics, it is difficult to establish effective prevention and enforcement policies.

Statistics are the basis for the next step: writing clear, enforceable laws when needed to address cybercrimes that aren’t covered by existing laws.

Finally, an effective crime-fighting effort must educate all those who deal with or are touched by cybercrime: those in the criminal system community, those in the IT community, and those in the community at large.

Determining Who Will Fight Cybercrime

By necessity, the fight against cybercrime must involve more than just the police.

Legislators must make appropriate laws.The IT community and the community at large must be on the lookout for signs of cybercrime and report it to the authorities—as well as taking measures to prevent becoming victims of these crimes themselves.The law enforcement community must investigate, collect evidence, and build winnable cases against cybercriminals. Jurors must weigh the evidence and make fair and reasonable determinations of guilt or innocence.

Courts must assign fair and effective penalties.The corrections system must attempt to provide rehabilitation for criminals who might not fit the standard

“criminal profile.”

A major problem in writing, enforcing, prosecuting, and interpreting cybercrime laws is the lack of technical knowledge on the part of people charged with these duties. Legislators, in most cases, don’t have a real understanding of the technical issues and what is or is not desirable—or even possible—to legislate. Police investigators are becoming more technically savvy, but in many small jurisdictions, no one in the department knows how to recover critical digital evidence.

The budget might not allow for bringing in high-paid consultants or, for instance, sending a disk to a high-priced data recovery service (not to mention the fact that both of these options can create chain-of-custody issues that might ultimately prevent the recovered data from being admissible as evidence).

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Prosecutors have the advantage of being able to bring in expert witnesses to explain the intricacies, but prosecutors must have a minimal grasp of the technical issues involved to know what to ask those witnesses on the stand. Juries, too, are often in over their heads when evaluating the merits of a cybercrime case. If jury members don’t have enough technical understanding to determine for themselves whether the elements of an offense have been proven, they must rely on conflicting opinions presented by the attorneys and the experts without really understanding the basis of those opinions.

On

the Scene…

Real Life Experiences

Here’s an illustration of how technically complex cybercrime cases can present a challenge to jurors beyond that of, for example, a murder case:

In determining whether a defendant is guilty of murder, the jury will hear testimony, such as eyewitness accounts that the defendant picked up a gun, aimed it at the victim, and fired, or testimony of forensics experts who testify that the defendant’s fingerprints were on the gun. The veracity of the witnesses’ statements might be in question, and the defense attorney could argue that the defendant had handled the gun previously but didn’t use it to kill the victim, but the basic issues are not difficult to understand. Everyone on the jury knows what a gun is, and it is pretty well established that fingerprints are unique and can be positively identified as belonging to a specific person.

In a case involving hacking into a computer network, on the other hand, jurors might hear testimony about open ports and TCP/IP exploits and how IP spoofing can be used to disguise the origin of a network transmission. These terms probably mean little to jurors whose only exposure to computers is as end users, and the finer points of network communications and security are not topics that can be easily explained in the limited amount of time that’s usually available during trial testimony. If the jurors don’t understand how the crime occurred, it will be difficult for them to decide whether a particular defendant committed it.

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Judges, too, often have a lack of technical expertise that makes it difficult for them to do what courts do: interpret the laws.The fact that many computer crime laws use vague language exacerbates the problem.

Lack of technical understanding also comes into play when judges hand down sentences. In an attempt to “make the punishment fit the crime,” in many jurisdictions judges exercise creativity in dealing with computer-related crimes.

Rather than assigning the penalties normally associated with criminal conduct— fines and/or imprisonment—judges are imposing sentences such as probation with “no use of computers or networks” for a specific period of time. In today’s world, where computers are quickly becoming ubiquitous, a strict interpretation of some sentences would prohibit a person from even using the telephone network and would make it practically impossible for that person to function—and certainly impossible for him or her to gain productive employment.

Corrections officials don’t need technology expertise to deal with cybercriminal inmates, but they are challenged by a growing population of prisoners unlike the formerly typical lower-class, undereducated criminal they are used to handling.White-collar criminals could be at special risk within a general prison population, yet providing separate facilities for them might bring complaints from politicians and pundits that they are being housed in “country clubs” and given preferential treatment.This situation could escalate to debates charging racial discrimination, since a majority of convicted cybercriminals are white—the opposite of the prison population in general.

The answer to all these dilemmas is the same: education and awareness programs.These programs must be aimed at everyone involved in the fight against cybercrime, including:

Legislators and other politicians

Criminal justice professionals

IT professionals

The community at large and the cyberspace community in particular

Educating Cybercrime Fighters

An effective cybercrime-fighting strategy requires that we educate and train everyone who will be involved in preventing, detecting, reporting, or prosecuting cybercrime. Even potential cybercriminals, with the right kind of education, could be diverted from criminal behavior.

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Educating Legislators and Criminal

Justice Professionals

Those who make, enforce, and carry out the law already understand the basics of legislation, investigation, and prosecution.They need training in the basics of information technology: how computers work, how networks work, what can and cannot be accomplished with computer technology, and most important, how crimes can be committed using computers and networks.

This training, to be most useful, should be targeted at the criminal justice audience rather than a repackaging of the same material, taught the same way, that is used to train IT professionals. Although much of the information might be the same, the focus and scope should be different. A cybercrime investigator doesn’t need to know the details of how to install and configure an operating system. He or she does need to know how a hacker can exploit the default configuration settings to gain unauthorized access to the system.

The training necessary for legislators to understand the laws they propose and vote on is different from the training needed for detectives to ferret out digital evidence.The latter should receive not only theoretical but hands-on training in working with data discovery and recovery, encryption and decryption, and reading and interpreting audit files and event logs. Prosecuting attorneys need training to understand the meanings of various types of digital evidence and how to best present them at trial.

Police academies should include a block on computer crime investigation in their basic criminal investigation courses; agencies should provide more advanced computer crime training to in-service officers as a matter of course. Many good computer forensics training programs are available, but in many areas these tend to be either high-priced, short-duration seminars put on by companies in business to make a profit or in-house programs limited to larger and more urban police agencies. Enrollees primarily tend to be detectives. Few states have standard mandated curricula for computer crime training in their basic academy programs or as a required part of officers’ continuing education.

In rural areas and small-town jurisdictions, few if any officers have training in computer crime investigation, although this situation is slowly changing. Again, officers who do have training are usually detectives or higher-ranking officers— yet it is the patrol officer who generally is the first responder to a crime scene.

He or she is in a position to recognize and preserve (or inadvertently destroy or allow to be destroyed) valuable digital evidence.

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Ideally, all members of the criminal justice system would receive some basic training in computer and network technology and forensics. However, that is an unrealistic goal in the short term.The next best solution is to establish and train units or teams that specialize in computer-related crime. If every legislative body had a committee of members who are trained in and focus on technology issues; if every police department had a computer crime investigation unit with special training and expertise; and if every district attorney’s office had one or more prosecutors who are computer crimes specialists, we would be a long way toward building an effective and coordinated cybercrime-fighting mechanism.

For years law enforcement lagged behind in the adoption of computer technology within departments. Over the last decade, the law enforcement community has begun to catch up. Federal agencies such as the FBI have excellent computer forensics capabilities. Large police organizations such as the IACP and

Police Futurists International (PFI) have embraced modern technology issues and provide excellent resources to agencies. Metropolitan police departments and state police agencies have recognized the importance of understanding computer technology and established special units and training programs to address computer crime issues. But law enforcement in the United States and other countries still has a long way to go before all law enforcement agencies have the technical savvy to understand and fight cybercrime.

Those agencies that are still lacking in such expertise can benefit greatly by working together with other more technically sophisticated agencies and partnering with carefully selected members of the IT community to get the training they need and develop a cybercrime-fighting plan for their jurisdictions.

The Internet reaches into the most remote areas of the country and the world.

Cybercrime cannot remain only the province of law enforcement in big cities; cybercriminals and their victims can be found in any jurisdiction.

Educating Information Technology Professionals

IT professionals already understand computer security and how it can be breached.The IT community needs to be educated in other areas:

Computer crime awareness

An understanding of what is and isn’t against the law, the difference between criminal and civil law, penalty and enforcement issues.

How laws are made

This area includes how IT professionals can get involved at the legislative level by testifying before committees, sharing

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■ their expertise, and making their opinions known to members of their governing bodies.

How crimes are investigated

This area includes how IT professionals can get involved at the investigative level by assisting police, both as victims and interested parties and as consultants to law enforcement agencies.

How crimes are prosecuted

This area includes how IT professionals can get involved at the prosecution level as expert witnesses.

The basic theory and purpose behind criminal law and the justice system

This area includes why IT professionals should support laws against computer crime.

Perhaps a more controversial issue surrounds the attitude of many IT professionals toward those in law and law enforcement. Although by no means universal, an antipathy toward the government and authority figures is common in some parts of the IT community.

There are undoubtedly a number of reasons for this attitude.Technological

prowess is highly valued, so skilled hackers garner a certain amount of admiration, even among many corporate IT pros.The IT industry is young, compared with other professions, and has been largely unregulated. IT professionals fear the inefficiency and increased difficulty that overregulation will impose on them in the course of doing their jobs, as they have seen happen to some other professions. Many tech people are not familiar with legal procedure, and distrust of the unknown is a common human reaction. Finally, many technical people buy into the hacker mantra that “information wants to be free” and disagree with at least some of the cybercrime laws (particularly those restricting encryption technologies and making software and music or movie copyright violations criminal offenses).

Thus, in order to actively engage the IT world in the fight against cybercrime, we face the challenge of educating IT personnel in how cybercrime laws actually work to their benefit.We won’t be able to do this unless we can show IT professionals that the laws themselves are fair, that they are fairly enforced, and that they can be effectively enforced. Network administrators and other IT professionals are generally busy people. Even if they believe that cybercriminals should be brought to justice, they won’t take the time to report suspected security breaches or work with law enforcement in investigations if they have no confidence in the competence or integrity of the criminal justice system.

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One way IT personnel can become more familiar with and more comfortable with the legal process is through more exposure to it. Law enforcement personnel should actively solicit their help and involve them as much as possible in the fight against cybercrime, giving IT professionals a personal stake in the outcome.

Educating and Engaging the Community

Finally, we must educate the community at large, especially the subset that consists of the end users of computer and network systems.These are the people who are frequently direct victims of cybercrime and who all are ultimately indirect victims in terms of the extra costs they pay when companies they patronize are victimized and the extra taxpayer dollars they spend every year in response to computer-related crimes.

Just as neighborhood watch groups and similar programs have given citizens a way to become proactive about crime prevention in their physical localities, educational programs can be developed to teach citizens of the virtual community how to protect themselves online.These programs would teach network users about common types of cybercrime, how to recognize when they are in danger of becoming cybercrime victims, and what to do if they do encounter a cybercriminal. In some areas, such as online scams and fraud, this type of education alone would greatly reduce the success of con artists’ schemes. Organizations such as Cyberangels (www.cyberangels.com) have been created for this purpose.

Law enforcement and IT professionals need to work more closely with the community (including businesses, parents, students, teachers, librarians, and others) to build a cybercrime-fighting team that has the skills, the means, and the authority necessary to greatly reduce the instances of crime on the Internet.

Getting Creative in the Fight

Against Cybercrime

The fight against cybercrime has the best chance for success if we approach it from many different angles.The legal process is just one way to fight crime.The

best methods are proactive rather than reactive—that is, it’s best to prevent the crime before it happens. Failing that, this section discusses some creative ways that businesses and individuals can shield themselves from some of the consequences of being victims if a cybercrime does occur.

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Cri

mestoppers…

Cybercrime Fighting Organizations

The National Cyber Security Alliance is a cooperative effort between industry and government to foster awareness of cybersecurity through educational outreach and public awareness. More information is available at www.staysafeonline.info.

The National Infrastructure Protection Center (NIPC) was established in 1998 and is located in FBI headquarters in Washington, D.C.

It combines representatives from federal, state, and local government, the military, and the private sector to protect the nation’s critical infrastructures, including the Internet. More information is available at www.nipc.gov.

The International Association of Computer Investigative Specialists

(IACIS) is an international volunteer nonprofit organization from local, state, and federal law enforcement agencies. IACIS provides training and education in the field of forensic computer science. More information is available at http://cops.org.

Using Peer Pressure to Fight Cybercrime

One way to reduce the incidence of Internet crime is to encourage groups to apply peer pressure to their members. If cybercriminals are shamed rather than admired, some will be less likely to engage in the criminal conduct.This method is especially effective when it comes to young people. Many teenage hackers commit network break-ins in order to impress their friends. If more technologyoriented young people were taught a code of computer ethics early—emphasizing that respect for others’ property and territory in the virtual world is just as important as it is in the physical world—hackers might be no more admired by the majority of upstanding students than are the “bad kids” who steal cars or break into houses.

Certainly it’s been shown that peer pressure and changes in peer group attitudes can affect behavior.To a large degree, the increasing social stigma associated with smoking has been linked with a decline in the percentage of smokers in the

United States.

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Of course, some people will commit crimes regardless of peer pressure, but this pressure is a valuable tool against many of those cybercriminals who are otherwise upstanding members of the community and whose criminal behavior online erroneously reflects the belief that “everyone does it.”

43

On

the Scene…

Real Life Experiences

Jorge Gonzalez, the owner of one Internet file-sharing portal,

Zeropaid.com, took an innovative approach to combating the swapping of child pornography through his site. He has posted a number of bogus files on the site, which uses the popular Gnutella file-sharing program.

These bogus files are identified as child porn images, although they are not. When users try to access those files, they are “busted.” The user’s

IP address (which can be used to trace his or her identity) is recorded and posted on the site’s Wall of Shame. (The Wall of Shame site was actually created by a Gnutella user who identifies himself as Lexx Nexus.)

This tactic is similar to the tactics of some newspapers that print the names of people arrested for crimes such as drunk driving or prostitution. The premise is that the fear of publicity will deter some people from committing these crimes.

Using Technology to Fight Cybercrime

In the spirit of “fighting fire with fire,” one of our best weapons against technology crimes is—you guessed it—technology.The computer and network security industry is hard at work, developing hardware and software to aid in preventing and detecting network intrusions. Operating system vendors are including more and more security features built into operating systems. In

January 2002, Bill Gates announced that security would henceforth be the top priority in developing Microsoft products, and development teams were provided in-depth security training.

Third-party security products, from biometric authentication devices to firewall software, are available in abundance to prevent cybercriminals from invading your network or system. Monitoring and auditing packages allow IT professionals to collect detailed information to assist in detecting suspicious activities. Many of

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these packages include notification features that can alert network administrators immediately when a breach occurs.

Data recovery products assist law enforcement personnel in gathering evidence despite criminals’ efforts to destroy it, and police can—with a search warrant—get into criminals’ protected systems using the same tools that hackers use to illegitimately break into systems.

We discuss all these technologies and more in Chapter 7, “Understanding

Cybercrime Prevention”; Chapter 8, “Implementing System Security”; Chapter

9, “Implementing Cybercrime Detection Techniques”; and Chapter 10, “Collecting and Preserving Digital Evidence.”

Finding New Ways to Protect Against Cybercrime

It is not possible to prevent all cybercrime or to always avoid becoming a cybercrime victim. However, organizations and individuals can take steps in advance to minimize the impact that cybercrime will have on them or their organizations.

For example, The Austin Business Journal reported in the April 28, 2000, print edition that companies are taking out insurance policies to cover cybercrimerelated damages. As the cybercrime problem grows, it is inevitable that potential victims will come up with new ways to protect themselves from financial loss.

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Summary

Cybercrime is already a big problem all over the world—and it’s growing fast.

The law enforcement world is scrambling to catch up; legislators are passing new laws to address this new way of committing crime, and police agencies are forming special computer crime units and pushing their officers to become more technically savvy.

However, the cybercrime problem is too big and too widespread to leave to politicians and police to solve.The former often don’t have the technical expertise to pass effective laws, and the latter lack sufficient training, manpower, and time—not to mention the confusing issue of jurisdiction—to tackle any but the most egregious of Internet crimes.

Cybercrime, like crime in general, is a social problem as well as a legal one.

To successfully fight it, we must engage people in the IT community (many of whom might be reluctant to participate) and those in the general population who are affected, directly or indirectly, by the criminal activity that has found a friendly haven in the virtual world.

We can use a number of tactics and techniques, including the legal system, peer pressure, and existing and emerging technologies, to prevent cybercrime.

Failing that, we can develop formal and informal responses that will detect cybercrime more immediately, minimizing the harm done and giving us more information about the incident, maximizing the chances of identifying and successfully prosecuting the cybercriminal.

We’re all in this boat together.The only way to stop cybercrime is to work together and share our knowledge and expertise in different areas to build a

Class A cybercrime-fighting team.

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Frequently Asked Questions

The following Frequently Asked Questions, answered by the authors of this book, are designed to both measure your understanding of the concepts presented in this chapter and to assist you with real-life implementation of these concepts. To have your questions about this chapter answered by the author, browse to

www.syngress.com/solutions and click on the “Ask the Author” form.

Q:

Is the law enforcement community opposed to the use of encryption?

A:

Most law enforcement professionals who specialize in cybercrime do not oppose use of encryption for legitimate communications.The Department of

Justice states its official position on the www.cybercrime.gov Web site: “We do not oppose the use of encryption—just the opposite, because strong encryption can be an extraordinary tool to prevent crime.We believe that the use of strong cryptography is critical to the development of the ‘Global

Information Infrastructure,’ or the GII.We agree that communications and data must be protected—both in transit and in storage—if the GII is to be used for personal communications, financial transactions, medical care, the development of new intellectual property, and other applications.The widespread use of unrecoverable encryption by criminals, however, poses a serious risk to public safety.”

Q:

Is software piracy really a big problem?

A:

According to some estimates, the average purse snatcher gets only US$20 or

US$30 per stolen purse, and the average strong-arm robbery (mugging) yields

US$50 or less. In contrast, pirated software programs often cost from several hundred to several thousand dollars.Thus, economically, one act of software piracy is several times more “serious” than victimization by a petty thief or robber.

Q:

Why, then, do many people feel that software piracy is not a serious crime?

A:

There are a number of reasons. Software piracy doesn’t carry the emotional, face-to-face impact that purse snatching and robbery do. Software is “intangible”; it is made up of bits and bytes of electronic data, unlike a piece of physical property. Software piracy is not “theft” in the traditional meaning of the word because it is taken by copying, not by depriving the owner of its

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use. Many people feel that software vendors’ licensing terms are unfair, and thus piracy is somewhat justified retaliation.There is also a general feeling that because copying of software is so widespread and appears to do no harm, it’s not a “real crime” (similarly to the way many people, who would never think of running a red light, feel about speeding).

Q:

With all the computer and network security products currently on the market, why aren’t all systems completely secured?

A:

Despite all the excellent products available, the only completely secure computer is one that is turned off. In law enforcement firearms training, officers learn about “security holsters” that are designed to prevent a criminal from taking away an officer’s weapon and using it against him or her.The first thing an officer who tries a security holster learns is that it is more difficult to use than a traditional, nonsecure holster and that the officer must practice diligently or he won’t be able to draw his weapon quickly when it’s needed.

The simple truth is that the only totally secure holster is one into which the gun is permanently glued.Then it’s not accessible to the bad guy, but it’s not accessible to the officer, either. Computer and network security includes this same balancing act of security and accessibility, and the two factors will always be at odds.The more secure your systems, the less accessible they are, and vice versa. Because the very purpose of a computer network is accessibility, no network can ever be 100-percent secure.

References

Internet Fraud Complaint Center (IFCC) statistical reports www1.ifccfbi.gov/index.asp

Computer Security Institute 2001 Computer Crime and Security Survey www.gocsi.com/prelea/000321.html

Cybersnitch Basic Crime Report Statistics www.cybersnitch.net/csinfo/csdatabase.asp

Meridien Research www.meridien-research.com

National Cybercrime Training Partnership (NCTP) www.nctp.org

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48 Chapter 1 • Facing the Cybercrime Problem Head On

International Association of Chiefs of Police (IACP)

Law Enforcement Information Management Training Conference www.iacptechnology.org/2002LEIM.htm

Council of Europe Convention on Cybercrime Treaty http://conventions.coe.int/Treaty/EN/WhatYouWant.asp?NT=185

Tenth United Nations Congress on the Prevention of Crime and the

Treatment of Offenders,Vienna, April 2000 www.uncjin.org/Documents/congr10/4r3e.pdf

Texas Penal Code, Chapter 33, Computer Crimes www.capitol.state.tx.us/statutes/pe/pe003300.html#pe001.33.01

California Penal Code, Section 502, Computer Crimes http://caselaw.lp.findlaw.com/cacodes/pen/484-502.9.html

Cyberterrorism: Fact or Fancy, Mark M. Pollitt, FBI Laboratory www.cs.georgetown.edu/~denning/infosec/pollitt.html

National Center for Victims of Crime Cyberstalking www.ncvc.org/special/cyber_stk.htm

Regulation of Child Pornography on the Internet resource page www.cyber-rights.org/reports/child.htm

CNN.com, January 8, 2002: Report: Cybervandalism Jumped in 2001 www.cnn.com/2002/TECH/internet/01/08/cybervandal.jump.idg/

?related

E-Commerce Times, March 13, 2001: New Economy, Oldest Profession www.ecommercetimes.com/perl/story/8121.html

Understanding the Law of Internet Gambling,

I. Nelson Rose, Professor of Law www.gamblingandthelaw.com/internet_gambling.html

Regulation of Pharmaceuticals Online, Amy Cassner-Sems www.gase.com/cyberlaw/toppage1.htm

EduCause Current Issues:The Digital Millennium Copyright Act www.educause.edu/issues/dmca.html

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Chapter 2

Reviewing the

History of

Cybercrime

Topics we’ll investigate in this chapter:

Exploring Criminality in the Days of

Standalone Computers

Understanding Early Phreakers, Hackers, and Crackers

How Online Services Made Cybercrime Easy

Introducing the ARPANet: The

Wild West of Networking

Watching Crime Rise with the

Commercialization of the Internet

Bringing the Cybercrime Story Up to Date

! Summary

! Frequently Asked Questions

! Resources

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50 Chapter 2 • Reviewing the History of Cybercrime

Introduction

How old is the phenomenon of cybercrime? It’s safe to say that soon after the first computer networks were built, some people were looking for ways to exploit them for their own illegal purposes.The idea of theft is as old as the concept of privately owned property, and an element of almost all societies is dedicated to taking as much as possible of what isn’t theirs—by whatever means they can.

As soon as it was widely recognized that computers store something of value

(information), criminals saw an opportunity. But just as it’s more difficult to target a robbery victim who stays locked up in his own home every day, the data on closed, standalone systems has been difficult to steal. However, when that data began to move from one computer to another over networks, like the robbery victim who travels from place to place, this data became more vulnerable.

Networks provided another advantage: an entry point. Even if the information that was of value was never sent across the wire, the comings and goings of other bits of data opened up a way for intruders to sneak inside the computer, like a robber taking advantage of the victim’s housemates who leave the doors unlocked on their way out.

However, cybercrime didn’t spring up as a full-blown problem overnight. In the early days of computing and networking, the average criminal didn’t possess either the necessary hardware or the technical expertise to seize the digital opportunity of the day. Computers were million-dollar mainframe monstrosities, and only a few of them were in existence. An aspiring cybercriminal could hardly go out and buy (or steal) a computer, and even if he did, it’s unlikely that he would have known what to do with it.There were no “user-friendly” applications; working with early systems required the ability to “speak” machine

language—that is, to communicate in the 1s and 0s of binary calculation that computers understood.

The cybercrime problem emerged and grew as computing became easier and less expensive.Today almost everyone in industrialized countries has access to computer technology; children learn to use PCs in elementary school, and people who can’t afford computers of their own can use PCs in public libraries or on college campuses for free, or they can rent computer time at business centers or

Internet cafés. Applications are “point and click” or even voice-activated; it no longer requires a computer science degree to perform once-complex tasks such as sending e-mail or downloading files from another machine across the Internet.

Some of today’s cybercriminals are talented programmers (the hacker elite), but most are not. Advanced technical abilities make it easier for cybercriminals to

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“do their thing” and cover their tracks, but these abilities are by no means a job requirement.

In this chapter, we take a look at these issues:

The challenges of computer crime in the days of standalone computers

How early network-connected criminals operated

How members of ARPANet (predecessor of the Internet) increased the opportunities for criminal activity

How the phenomenal growth of the commercial Internet led to the equally phenomenal rise in cybercrime

How the advent of easy-to-use online services such as CompuServe and

America Online (AOL) made online criminality even easier

Where we are today and how the “latest and greatest” technologies have created new security vulnerabilities

First, let’s go back to the 1940s, when Dr. J. Presper Eckert and Dr. John W.

Mauchly devised one of the first digital computers, the Electronic Numerical

Integrator and Computer (ENIAC).

Exploring Criminality in the Days of

Standalone Computers

ENIAC was a behemoth, requiring more than 1500 square feet of floor space— more than many of today’s “starter homes.”This gigantic machine used more than 17,000 vacuum tubes and could do about 1000 calculations per second, compared with the millions of calculations per second attained by compact, inexpensive modern PCs.

ENIAC was quite an accomplishment, but the good doctors involved in its development didn’t rest on their laurels. In 1949, they introduced the Binary

Automatic Computer (BINAC), which stored data on a magnetic tape. Shortly thereafter, they invented the Universal Automatic Computer (UNIVAC), the first commercially marketed computer, under a grant from the U.S. government.

When the first UNIVAC was delivered to the U.S. Census Bureau in 1951, it was the size of a room and cost $1 million.The manufacturer eventually built

46 UNIVACs for government and business customers.The UNIVAC used magnetic tape, which was faster than the IBM punch card system that was its direct competitor.

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N

OTE

The first punch card tabulation machines were invented in the late 1800s by an engineer named Herman Hollerith. Like the UNIVAC, punch card technology was originally developed for the U.S. Census Bureau to use in sorting and analyzing its data. Hollerith’s Tabulating Machine Company, founded in 1896, was acquired by IBM in 1924.

These early computers had some inherent security advantages:They were huge and expensive, they were standalone systems, and most of the world didn’t really know what a computer was, much less how to use it.

Sharing More Than Time

It wasn’t long before scientific types were enamored of computers.The

Programmed Data Processor (PDP-1), developed and marketed by Digital

Equipment Corporation (DEC) in the 1960s, was the first computer used for commercial time sharing (that is, the owners of the computer rented computer time to other businesses, schools, laboratories, and programmers who couldn’t afford to buy computers of their own).

Because numerous people and businesses were using the same computer, the data and programs stored on it were vulnerable.Thus the first doors to hacking were opened—and despite the efforts of systems administrators, security product vendors, and law enforcement, those doors have never been closed since.

The Evolution of a Word

In the 1960s, the term hacker was used to refer to someone who was considered a

“real programmer,” who had mastered the computer systems of the day and was able to manipulate programs to do more than they were originally intended to do.

In the late1960s and early 1970s, hacking became associated with the radical underground (“yippie”) movement and took on an antiestablishment flavor. Law enforcement agencies began to arrest phreakers for tampering with the phone system, as we discuss in more detail in the following section. In the 1980s, the

FBI made some of the first high-profile arrests of computer hackers (including that of Kevin Mitnick, who became something of a “martyr to the cause” in the hacking community). Movies such as John Badham’s WarGames in the 1980s and

Iain Softley’s Hackers in the 1990s brought into the mainstream the concept of the hacker as a brilliant and somewhat romantic figure who breaks the law (but usually for noble purposes).

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N

OTE

The first hackers’ group came about, not surprisingly, at the

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in 1961 shortly after MIT got its first PDP-1. The group, called the Tech Model Railroad Club, was made up of members who programmed for the sheer joy of it—the essence of hacking in its original sense.

53

Understanding Early Phreakers,

Hackers, and Crackers

Hacking in the modern sense of the word—as applied to someone who breaks into systems, usually remotely—couldn’t have come into its own without the network. However, we mustn’t forget that networks existed long before there were computers. In the 1940s, when the first real computers were being developed, today’s huge global telephone network, the construction of which began in the late 1800s, had already been steadily growing for 60 years.

The first electronic hackers broke into the phone system to make long distance calls without having to pay for them.These telephone network hackers became known as phreakers. Yet another term that originated during the early years of electronic communication is cracker, used to describe someone who

“cracks” a system’s security; this term now often refers to someone who specializes in cracking passwords.

Hacking Ma Bell’s Phone Network

An MIT student named Stewart Nelson, who figured out how use MIT’s computer to generate the tones to access the phone company’s long distance service, was one of the first known phreakers, according to the article Hacking History—

Phreaking in the Internet/Network Security section of the About.com Web site.

Some especially talented phreakers were able to reproduce these tones merely by whistling, but most phreakers used a device called the blue box, which was a tone generator set to reproduce the 2600Hz frequency.Today’s phone systems don’t use the 2600 tone for long distance access, but there is still an active contingent of phone phreakers who take advantage of the complexities of modern systems to find new ways to exploit the telephone system technology to their benefit.

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Phamous Phreakers

John Draper, a U.S. Air Force veteran and engineering technician for National

Semiconductor who went by the alias of Cap’n Crunch, is generally credited with designing the original blue box after discovering that the toy whistle included in boxes of Cap’n Crunch cereal could produce the 2600Hz signal that granted access to AT&T’s long distance service. Draper was arrested and served time in a California minimum-security prison for this infraction. According to legend, he held seminars while in prison, teaching other inmates how to hack the phone system. He was later arrested again in New York.

Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak, who later founded Apple Computer, are reported by several sources (including Wozniak himself, who worked for Draper prior to meeting Jobs) to have made and sold blue boxes in the early 1970s.

N

OTE

The 2600 Magazine and Web site, popular resources for the hacker underground, got their names from the 2600Hz phone phreaking frequency.

Phreaking on the Other Side of the Atlantic

The British phone system had its own phreakers, dating back to the time when the “Toll A” hack was discovered and exploited to make free long distance calls.

Later, British phreakers constructed “bleeper boxes” that served the same purpose as the blue box in the United States but used different sets of frequencies.

A Box for Every Color Scheme

In addition to the original blue box, phreakers constructed a number of other devices to outwit the phone system.The red box replicates the tones that are produced when coins are deposited in a pay phone, and a black box allows calls placed to the phone to which it is attached to be made free of charge.

Not all phone phreaking was done for the purpose of circumventing long distance charges. Manipulation of the phone system was also popular with people engaged in other criminal activities, to cover their tracks when conducting illegal business over the phone.The cheese box was devised to connect two lines at a location in such as way as to allow bookies or drug dealers to receive calls from another remote location and go through the cheese box to disguise the number at which they were actually located.

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From Phreaker to Hacker

A huge wealth of information about phreaking is available on the Web, including detailed instructions for “wannabe” phreakers.The phreaker “attitude” (disdain for large corporations such as the telephone company and a belief in the “right” of those who are clever enough to rip off these corporations) formed the basis of the later hacker subculture. Many of the first computer hackers began their criminal careers as phone phreakers.

Living on the LAN: Early Computer

Network Hackers

In the 1970s, the first affordable personal computer, the Altair 8800, became available.The machine was sold as a kit that the buyer had to put together, and it didn’t do much once it was built because the owner also had to write his or her own programs for it. Nevertheless, the Altair gave birth to hacking as we know it today; this device made it possible for individuals to own their own computers and learn to program.

Other relatively low-cost computers followed; the Commodore 64 was a popular “toy” that introduced many youngsters, mostly teenage boys, to the joys of programming and, later, full-fledged hacking. Radio Shack’s TRS-80

(affectionately known as the Trash 80) and the original IBM PC brought more powerful computing to people who were eager to find new ways to exploit the systems’ capabilities. But it was the PC network that really opened the floodgates for all hacking that followed.

The first computer “networks” were not actually made up of networked computers. Rather, they consisted of one computer—a mainframe—and many terminals that connected to the mainframe, ran programs on it, and accessed its files. Although these terminals were networked in one sense of the word, they were “dumb” terminals that possessed no processing power of their own.This

mainframe time sharing linked multiple users and allowed them to share files and printers. It also allowed early hackers to access the files of other mainframe users.

Disadvantages of mainframe computing included the high cost of the computer and the single point of failure that it represented. If the system went down, no one on the network could do any computing, since the terminals they operated were dumb. Minicomputers (such as the DEC PDP and VAX and the IBM

AS/400) were created as lower-cost, more compact alternatives to the full-fledged mainframe, but these machines still relied on dumb terminals and worked in essentially the same way as the older devices. Eventually, the search for a better

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way led to the development of smaller, less expensive computers (then called

microcomputers and later called personal computers, or PCs) that could sit on a desktop.With each worker having a full-fledged computer on the desktop, there was much more fault tolerance than with the mainframe; if one computer went down, everyone else could keep computing.

However, workers missed some of the advantages of the mainframe environment, such as the ability to easily share files with others. “Sneakernet”—copying files to a floppy disk and physically transporting the disk to another computer— was the workaround, but that system didn’t work so well when the users who wanted to share files were in different parts of the building or the files were too large to fit on a floppy.The solution was to connect the standalone desktop computers in a network, providing the resource-sharing benefits of mainframe computing with the fault tolerance of decentralized computing. Networked PCs give us, in many ways, the best of both worlds.They also give the hackers among us a way to access our information, whether we want to share it or not.

In the 1970s, researchers at Xerox’s Palo Alto Research Center (PARC) developed Ethernet, which still forms the basis of most local area networks

(LANs) today. DEC, Intel, and Xerox got together in 1979 to create Ethernet standards (originally called DIX after the company names) to make it easy for vendors to create compatible products. In 1983, the Institute of Electrical and

Electronics Engineers (IEEE) released the 802.3 specifications based on thick coaxial cable and called 10Base5. Ethernet gave companies a way to link their computers easily and relatively inexpensively, especially after the IEEE developed and standardized a second version based on thin coax (10Base2) in 1985. Networked PCs began to emerge as a popular alternative to mainframe computing

(or in some cases, an addition to it) in the 1980s.

How BBSs Fostered Criminal Behavior

In addition to networking PCs together at one location to create a LAN, PCs could be used to link to one another from remote locations using a modem and a telephone line.This led to the advent of the bulletin board service (BBS), a computer system equipped with one or more modems so that users can dial in and download files from it or post messages to a “board” to carry on public virtual discussions.

Ward Christensen and Randy Suess developed the software for the

Computerized Bulletin Board System (CBBS) in the 1970s in Chicago.They

described it in an article published in Byte Magazine in 1978.The system was a huge success, and BBSs sprang up all over the country.

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Early hackers and phreakers seized on the BBS idea as a way to communicate with one another and share their tricks and techniques. Most boards included both the public forum and e-mail service between members of the BBS.

Although many BBSs were legitimate “places” where computer hobbyists could gather and share the software they’d written themselves or discuss issues of the day, the BBS had a natural appeal to the criminal element.The BBSs spawned the first large-scale method of distributing warez (hacker jargon for pirated software), often computer games. Other BBSs specialized in sharing of pornographic pictures and/or stories.

Early BBSs were slow (2400-baud modems were top of the line at the time) and expensive unless you were lucky enough to live in the same locality as your cohorts or you were a phreaker who didn’t pay for long distance calls. It was often difficult to get connected because most BBSs were operated out of someone’s home on a limited budget, so the average systems operator, or sysop

(the person who ran the BBS), didn’t have a large number of modems and phone lines.While some sysops ran these systems for fun, many (especially those who dealt in pornography) charged members a monthly or annual fee to connect.

Some BBSs are still in operation today, but the popularity of these forums began to decline in the 1990s, when Internet access became commercially available at an affordable price and the graphical nature of the World Wide Web made the BBS systems with their ASCII drawings seem hopelessly outdated.

How Online Services Made

Cybercrime Easy

In the early days of the commercial Internet, getting online was not necessarily an easy proposition. Unlike today’s operating systems, the operating systems in use

(mostly Windows 3.x) didn’t come with the Transmission Control Protocol/

Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) stack built in; also not included was the software required to make a dialup connection to the Internet and use its applications

(Winsock).The correct software had to be downloaded, complex text configuration files had to be edited, and it took a certain amount of technical savvy (not to mention patience) to put it all together and successfully log on to the Internet. In addition, users had to log on through the first commercial Internet service providers (ISPs), which were often brand-new ventures launched by a couple of nerds on a shoestring budget, working out of an apartment.These entrepreneurs generally didn’t provide user-friendly setup CDs to configure the settings for you, as most ISPs do today.

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There was, however, an easier way to get online: the online service.

Companies such as CompuServe, Prodigy, and AOL offered access to their network “communities.” Once logged onto the service, users could download software, post messages to bulletin boards, find information on a wide variety of topics, and waste amazing amounts of time in chat rooms or holding private conversations through instant messaging.

The big lure of these services was ease of use.They provided a disk that usually installed the proper software automatically and configured users’ computer settings, so users didn’t have to know anything about much of anything to get

“connected.” In their early days, the services were excruciatingly expensive by modern standards; in the 1980s it cost US$25 an hour to connect to CompuServe.

Prices dropped in the early 1990s to around US$3 an hour, and eventually the services went to unlimited usage plans that cost less than US$20 a month.

The online services were not, in their early days, ISPs. Rather, they were private wide area networks (WANs) in which members interacted with each other but not with the “outside world” of the Internet—they were similar to BBSs on steroids. Later the services provided e-mail gateways so that their members could exchange e-mail with others outside the private network.They also added access to the World Wide Web.Today, most online services are also ISPs. Even though ease of use associated with regular Internet providers has increased dramatically, many “Net newbies” still find the online services easier to use.This ease of use attracts criminals (along with legitimate users) who are not particularly technically proficient.

Another benefit of the online services that attracts criminals is the anonymity they offer. Generally, if you set up an account with a regular ISP, you’re assigned a user account name and an e-mail address based on that name. It’s possible to get the ISP to change your account name, but it’s a lot of trouble and can’t be done too frequently. Services such as AOL allow users to create secondary “screen names” that they can change whenever they want, making it easier for a criminal to change identities and cover his or her tracks.

Introducing the ARPANet: the Wild West of Networking

In the beginning (or what was the beginning of today’s vast global internetwork), there was the ARPANet.The ARPANet eventually begat the Internet.

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Cy

berStats…

The Popularity of Online Services

According to AOL’s corporate Web site, as of 2002 AOL has an estimated

34 million members. AOL also now owns its former competitor,

CompuServe, which claims about 3 million members. Prodigy

Communications, which was the first consumer-oriented online service

(founded in 1984, one year before AOL), estimates its membership at

3.6 million. Microsoft’s Microsoft Network (MSN) service claims close to

9 million users.

Sputnik Inspires ARPA

Back in 1957, no one could have foreseen the communications system that today connects friends, relatives, business partners, and strangers all over the world. In

1957, President Dwight Eisenhower authorized the creation of the Advanced

Research Projects Agency (ARPA) in response to the launch of the Soviet

Union’s first artificial Earth-orbiting satellite, Sputnik.

ARPA’s first project was to develop a satellite of its own for the United

States; it was not until years later that the agency began to work on computer and networking technology. In the 1960s, as the cold war with the Soviet Union continued, the government considered the possibility of nuclear war and how to maintain communications if the unthinkable occurred.This is where ARPA’s involvement with computing began.

ARPA Turns Its Talents to Computer Technology

Dr. J.C.R. Licklider was appointed to run ARPA’s computer technology project in 1962. He was largely responsible for building the beginnings of a wide area network connecting government/military and university sites, using redundant links so that if one node was taken out, messages could still get through by taking a different path.This network, based on packet-switching technology developed in the 1960s, was called the ARPANet.

The first node of the network was installed at the University of California at

Los Angeles (UCLA) in 1969. Additional nodes were installed at Stanford, U.C. at

Santa Barbara (UCSB), and the University of Utah, located at Salt Lake City.

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Network Applications Come into Their Own

In the early 1970s, e-mail—which today is still the Internet’s “killer application” in terms of popularity—was invented. Gateways were devised to connect networks using different architectures, and specifications were developed for what would become File Transfer Protocol (FTP).

By the end of the 1970s, Usenet newsgroups had been established, and the first interactive multiple-user sites, called multiuser dungeons, or MUDs, had appeared. By that time, the ARPANet had been up and running for over 10 years, although it was still limited mostly to university and government sites.

The Internetwork Continues to Expand

In the early 1980s, the TCP/IP suite was defined as the standard for communications on the ARPANet. Soon after, name servers were created to handle the translation of “friendly” computer names and paths to the IP addresses computers use to route messages to one another.

William Gibson’s sci-fi novel Neuromancer, published in 1984, coined the term

cyberspace as a description of the online world. At that time, no one had any idea just how crowded cyberspace would soon become.

The ARPANet of the 1980s

The worldwide network was steadily growing, but in 1986 there were still only about 5000 hosts (computers) on the Net. About this time, the National Science

Foundation (NSF), which maintained the Internet backbone, established five supercomputer centers, which resulted in a dramatic increase in available connections.The next year, 1987, the number of hosts had risen to either 10,000 or

28,000 (depending on the source you consult), and a year after that, the NFSNet backbone was upgrade to 1.544Mbps (a T-1 line). By 1989, all sources agree that there were over 100,000 hosts on the network.

The Internet of the 1990s

In 1990, the ARPANet ceased to exist, and the Internet was born. In actuality,

ARPA had already been split into two parts in the 1980s: Milnet (for military use, which was integrated into the Defense Data Network) and the NSFNet, which handled civilian communications. NSF upgraded the backbone again, to

T-3 speed (44.736Mbps).The NSFNet grew into today’s commercial Internet, and by 1992, there were over 1 million Internet hosts. In 1995, NSFNet gave the backbone services to interconnected commercial network access providers

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(NAPs) and became a research network again, establishing the very high-speed

Backbone Network Service (vBNS) that connected the five supercomputer centers.The commercialization of the Internet had begun.

The Worm Turns—and Security Becomes a Concern

During the early ARPANet days, security was both a major concern to the military contingent and almost a nonissue to research scientists, who were more interested in what the technology could do than in securing it)—hence the splitup of the network.The small number of nodes on the network limited the scope of the threat posted by security breaches. However, in 1988, a worm (a selfreplicating program) was released on the Internet and attacked computers running Berkeley UNIX, spreading all across the United States, infecting thousands of computers and shutting down a large portion of the Internet.This was the wakeup call; Internet users suddenly realized that some in their midst harbored malicious intent. Many more virus attacks and hacks were to follow.

Watching Crime Rise with the

Commercialization of the Internet

By 1991, e-mail users had begun to consider the possibility that their Internet communications would be intercepted. Philip Zimmermann released an encryption program called Pretty Good Privacy (PGP) that could be used to protect sensitive messages. PGP was also used by criminals to hide evidence of their crimes from police.

The first cyberbank, called First Virtual, came online in 1994, opening up vast new opportunities for hackers. Also that year, researchers began work on the

“next generation” of the Internet Protocol, called IPv6.The primary purpose of the new version was to address the anticipated shortage of IP addresses using the current IPv4’s 32-bit address space, but another concern addressed by the new protocol version was to be IP security.

In 1995, the U.S. Secret Service and the Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA) obtained an Internet wiretap to help build a case against suspects who were accused of producing and selling illegal cell phone cloning equipment.

In 1996, Congress became concerned about the amount of pornography that was being exchanged over the Internet and passed the Communications Decency

Act (CDA), which was later declared unconstitutional. Meanwhile, a cracker was able to shut down the Public Access Networks Corporation in New York using a hack attack that was described in 2600 Magazine. A “cancelbot” launched on

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Usenet destroyed over 25,000 newsgroup messages, and in the same year, U.S.

Department of Justice, Central Intelligence Agency, and Air Force computers

(among others) were hacked.

In the next three years, many more government agencies and prominent companies had their systems hacked, including the U.S. Department of

Commerce, UNICEF, and the New York Times. eBay, Microsoft, and the U.S.

Senate Web sites also fell victim to hackers.The Melissa virus caused company email servers to shut down. A fraudulent Web page that was designed to appear to be a Bloomberg financial news story resulted in the shares of a small tech company increasing 31 percent in response to the false “news.”

As we entered the 2000s, a huge, distributed DoS attack shut down major

Web sites such as Yahoo! and Amazon. Apache, RSA Security, and Western Union were hacked, the Code Red worm attacked thousands of Web servers, and the

Sircam virus hit e-mail accounts all over the world.

However, malicious code and hack attacks comprised only a small portion of the overall criminal activity that in some way used or depended on the Internet.

From the infamous “Nigerian letter” scam to the use of the Net to plot the

September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks, crime was running rampant on the network—and still is today.

Bringing the Cybercrime

Story Up to Date

The new millennium brought with it the growing popularity of new and exciting technologies, such as wireless networking and low-cost, high-speed

“always on” connectivity options through Digital Subscriber Line (xDSL) and cable modem.These technologies have become available in increasing numbers of places. Unfortunately, these technologies also provide new opportunities for cybercriminals, for a number of reasons, which we explore here.

Understanding How New Technologies

Create New Vulnerabilities

Most of us are much more security-conscious today than we were a decade ago, in regard to both our computers and life in general. Certainly there are more security products on the market today than there were a few years ago.

Lawmakers all over the world have “cracked down” on behaviors such as unauthorized access that not long ago weren’t covered by criminal statutes.

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We seem to have all the most important elements for reducing the incidence of cybercrime:We have the laws (“with teeth”); we have the tools; we even have the widespread awareness that is sometimes the most difficult component of a crime prevention effort.Why, then, is cybercrime not only not going away, but steadily increasing?

An important reason for the increase in cybercrime is the whirlwind pace at which new technologies are being developed to make our computing experience more productive, easier, faster, and more fun. However, convenience and performance often come with a price, and that price is security.

Cybercriminals love new technologies, including:

Broadband

Wireless

Mobile computing and remote access

Sophisticated Web technologies such as Java, ActiveX, and so on

Fancy e-mail programs that support Hypertext Markup Language

(HTML) and scripting

E-commerce and online banking

Instant messaging

New operating systems

Cybercriminals also love standardization. If everyone uses the same operating system, or the same Web browser, or the same e-mail client, or if all vendors adhere to the same specifications, the potential attacker has much less to learn and a much larger playing field.

Let’s discuss why these new technologies and the standardization of computer and networking technologies are so dear to the heart of the cybercriminal.

Why Cybercriminals Love Broadband

Broadband technologies such as xDSL, cable modem, and satellite Internet services have made Internet users’ lives easier, but they have also made it easier for hackers to invade those users’ computers and networks. Because individual computers attached to broadband networks such as cable modem or DSL behave more like computers attached to a network than like individual computers that use telephone lines to dial into the Internet, it is easier to exploit the technology to gain unauthorized access. As a consequence, broadband users need to be much more security conscious than dialup Internet users.

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Cy

berStats…

Broadband Internet Use

According to Cable Datacom News, March 2002, the number of broadband subscribers (cable modem, DSL, satellite, and fixed wireless) in

North America reached over 6.4 million in 2001. This figure still represents only 10-percent market penetration in the United States and 22percent penetration in Canada, but total revenues are in excess of

US$4.5 billion, and most experts expect this market to continue to grow each year for the foreseeable future.

The Problem with 24/7 Connectivity

A network is vulnerable to an attack from outside only when it is connected to an outside network.When most users and companies were connecting to the

Internet with analog modems or dialup ISDN connections, their vulnerability to attack was limited because the system was available to outsiders only during a session.When you finished doing what you wanted to do on the Net, you disconnected and your system “disappeared” from the Internet.

Additionally, most ISPs use Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) to assign IP addresses to dialup users.This means that your Internet-connected computer gets a new IP address each time you hang up and reconnect.

DSL and cable are referred to as “always-on” technologies.You don’t have to dial up a connection each time you want to get onto the Internet; instead, you stay connected 24 hours a day, seven days a week.This makes it quicker and easier for you to access Internet resources. It also makes it easier for you to run a server, allowing other authorized users to remotely access shared files on your system.

Because your IP address generally stays the same, since you don’t disconnect, these authorized clients can find your server more easily from one communication session to the next. Of course, powering the computers down breaks the connection (and “shuts the door” to potential hackers). However, today’s computers are made to run continuously (and except for some peripherals such as the monitors, generally run better and last longer when they do), so many technically savvy users never turn their systems off.

The problem with 24/7 technologies is that they make it easier for unautho-

rized folks to access your system, too.Your exposure is much greater because you’re “always open for business,” giving a hacker more time to mount a brute-

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force attack to guess your password or figure out which TCP/UDP ports might be open and vulnerable. Furthermore, because your IP address stays the same, it’s easier for these hackers to return to your system next time they want to do a little virtual breaking and entering.

The Problem with High-Speed Connectivity

Another advantage of broadband is the increased connectivity speed. Unlike an analog modem that’s limited to 56Kbps (and practically speaking, less than that due to federal regulations and line considerations), DSL and cable companies offer high-speed downloads and often higher upload speeds as well.This means improved performance on your end—but if your service offers a high upload speed, it also means an intruder will be able to snatch your files more quickly.

Luckily, in terms of security if not usability, most broadband services are asymmetric.That means that upload and download speeds are not created equal; typically for consumer accounts, the upstream transfer rate is limited to 128Kbps by cable companies and anywhere from 128Kbps to 764Kbps by DSL providers.

N

OTE

Most commercial ISPs limit (or throttle) upstream speeds in order to discourage home users from running servers (which is a violation of many cable and DSL contract terms of service).

65

Even with these limitations, however, upstream speed is generally at least twice that of an analog modem—a boon to hackers downloading data from your computer to their own.

The Problem with Low-Cost, 24/7, High-Speed Connectivity

The problems linked to high-speed 24/7 connectivity and high-speed data rates associated with consumer broadband technologies also exist with traditional 24/7 high-speed business solutions such as T-1. However, because most T-1 lines are connected to companies that employ IT professionals, it is more likely that security measures are in place to offset the security risk.

The problem with cable and DSL is that these technologies have brought high-speed, always-on access to home and small office users who can’t afford the high cost of T-1.These less sophisticated users are also less likely to be aware of the security risk or to have the technical expertise or budget to implement the proper level of security.

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Most small offices and a growing number of home users run Network

Address Translation (NAT) software of some type to share Internet access with multiple PCs on a small LAN.This provides a small measure of security to the systems on the local network because NAT assigns private IP addresses to the

NAT client computers.These addresses are not visible on the Internet. However, the NAT host computer that is directly connected to the Internet is exposed.

How to Protect Your Broadband Connection

If you have a computer that uses a broadband Internet connection and the computer is not connected to a LAN and is not functioning as an Internet server, one step you can take is to be sure file and print sharing is not enabled on that computer.

Another common security hole on Windows systems is called an IRDP vul-

nerability.This is caused by the ICMP Router Discovery Protocol (IRDP) that is enabled by default on Windows machines that are configured as DHCP clients.

IRDP isn’t needed when the DHCP server specifies router information, but hackers can use it to add default route entries that will then override the default route that the DHCP server provides.You can disable IRDP by editing the

Windows Registry.

Some cable users have found that when the NIC used to connect to the cable modem was installed by the cable company (or by the user),Windows automatically binds the card to both TCP/IP and the Microsoft Networking service.

Having this interface bound to Microsoft networking opens their systems to others on the cable segment.

N

OTE

Chapter 8, “Implementing System Security,” provides details on how to disable file and print sharing on Windows, UNIX/Linux, and Macintosh computers; how to edit the Registry to protect against IRDP vulnerability; and how to check and change NIC bindings.

Which is more secure: DSL or cable? Cable is a shared connection (that is, everyone in your neighborhood is part of the same network segment). In essence, this creates a local area network.That means that your neighbors have access to your system, much as neighboring computers on any LAN have access to one another.

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As on a regular LAN, there are ways to protect yourself from your LANmates.The Data Over Cable Service Interface Specification (DOCSIS) standard for cable modems provides some measure of security because modems that comply with this specification support data encryption between the provider’s hub and the user’s computer. Data is not encrypted between the provider and the end destination (that is, when traveling over the Internet), but this standard does help to address the “neighborhood segment sharing” problem, since others on your cable segment will not be able to read your data if they intercept it. Cable networks that use DOCSIS standards also prevent your computer from announcing its shares to the network using NetBIOS protocols (which cause other computers on the network to show up in the Network Neighborhood or

Network Places window on computers running Windows). Be aware, though, that a hacker could still connect to your computer if he or she knows your computer name or IP address.

DSL users are connected directly via their phone lines to the telephone company central office (CO).Thus DSL provides fewer vulnerabilities to hackers— but this does not mean a DSL connection is a secure one.

No one should use a broadband Internet connection without also using a firewall to protect from outside intruders. Firewalls can filter both incoming and outgoing data and block open ports to cut hackers off from their usual entry points. A firewall can be either a hardware device or a software program that runs on the Internet-connected computer. Microsoft’s newest desktop operating system,Windows XP, even comes with built-in firewall software.

We discuss how firewalls work and the various types of firewalls that are available in Chapter 7, “Understanding Cybercrime Prevention.

Why Cybercriminals Love Wireless

Wireless technologies are emerging as the Next Big Thing in computer networking for the twenty-first century.The IEEE’s 802.11b specifications provide standards for wireless networking at 11Mbps using spread-spectrum radio transmission. A newer specification, 802.11g, allows for wireless communications at about twice that rate: 22Mbps.This specification gives mobile computers the ability to boldly go where no Ethernet cable has gone before—and still stay connected to the local network and/or the Internet.

Microsoft’s latest operating system,Windows XP, includes built-in support for

802.11b wireless networking. Setup of a wireless network is easy using the XP interface, as shown in Figure 2.1.

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Figure 2.1

You can set up wireless networking quickly and easily with

Windows XP.

Bluetooth is a wireless technology designed to enable a wide variety of portable devices, such as personal digital assistants (PDAs) and mobile phones—as well as more traditional laptop and notebook computers—to connect to the Internet.

Unfortunately, the ability to access a network without any physical connection makes it that much easier for hackers to do the same, because they don’t have to worry about “plugging in” to the cable. If a network includes a wireless access point, it is vulnerable to outside intruders even if there is no remote access server or Internet connection on the network.

The Problem with Wireless Technologies

How secure are today’s wireless technologies? It’s important to understand that most are based on radio transmissions that go out over the airwaves. For example,

Bluetooth devices transmit in the 2.4GHz spectrum.This is an unlicensed range, so anyone can transmit and receive on it.

Transmissions over the airwaves can be intercepted, and 2.4GHz antennas, amplifiers, and transceivers are readily available.The signals can be picked up hundreds of feet from the access point; high-gain antennas increase this distance.

All this is fodder for the cybercriminal.

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It’s not quite as bad as it sounds, though.Two types of spread-spectrum radio transmission are supported by IEEE 802.11:

Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum (FHSS)

Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS)

The first type, FHSS, uses frequency hopping, which means the signal “hops” or changes from one frequency to another. (For Bluetooth, the hops span 79 frequencies at 1MHz intervals and can make up to 1600 hops per second.) This means a hacker can’t just tune into a set frequency and listen in, as you can do with narrowband radio broadcasts that use a fixed frequency.This provision gives only a small measure of security, however.

DSSS uses a redundant bit pattern for each bit of data that is transmitted

(called a chipping code).The purpose is to make the signal more resistant to interference and provide some fault tolerance; if some of the bits get damaged during transmission, the redundancy allows for the original data to be recovered.

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Cy

berStats…

A World Without Wires?

Bank of America projections anticipate that there will be 400 million wireless users by 2003, according to Eric W. Pfeiffer, writing on

Forbes.com. International Data Corporation (IDC) reports that over 15 million subscribers already have wireless access to the Internet through

PDAs and smart phones.

The 802.11 wireless standards actually do provide for security measures, such as authentication and encryption. Unfortunately, the encryption used by these technologies is weak and can be broken relatively easily. Small handheld devices, such as mobile phones, have limited memory and processing power.This means larger encryption algorithms that require heavy processing can’t be used.

A program named AirSnort that runs on Linux exploits the weaknesses of wireless encryption to discover the WEP encryption key simply by passively monitoring the wireless network.The fact that WEP uses static keys (rather than more secure dynamic keys that change at regular intervals) makes this technology especially dangerous.

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N

OTE

The IEEE 802.11b standards governing wireless technology defines WEP as Wireless Equivalent Privacy. This protocol is also referred to as the

WEP Encryption Protocol (the acronym for which is also WEP) or in much technical literature, simply as the Wireless Encryption Protocol (you guessed it—WEP).

On

the Scene…

Real Life Experiences

In 2001, Sun Microsystems’ network was hacked by two intruders who were in the company’s parking lot, using standard wireless networking cards.

In 2002, a security firm named i-sec showed how hackers could use a Pringles potato chip can to make a directional antenna that was able to locate wireless networks in the London financial district. Coffee cans or similar metal containers can also be used. These homemade antennas can increase the signal by up to 15 decibels.

The weakness of the encryption algorithms aside, wireless encryption covers only the transmission between a user’s computer and the wireless gateway that connects the wireless network to the Internet.When the data reaches the Wireless

Application Protocol (WAP) gateway, it must be transferred from the wireless network to the wired network. In order to do this, the wireless communication, which is in the form of encrypted Wireless Markup Language (WML), must be decrypted and then re-encrypted in order to be transmitted on the cabled network.The data is vulnerable during this “encryption gap.”

Another problem is that even though the data is encrypted, the source and destination addressing information is not. Finally, encryption is not necessarily enabled by default when wireless networking components are installed.

According to a BBC News broadcast of March 8, 2002, an informal survey conducted by i-sec discovered that 67 percent of networks in the survey had encryption disabled.

According to an article, Exploiting and Protecting 802.11b Wireless Networks, published on the ExtremeTech Web site in April 2002, security tests were con-

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ducted using a Yagi antenna on the deck of the Ziff Davis office building in

Manhattan.Testers were able to find over 60 wireless access points, and an astonishing 79 percent of them did not have encryption enabled. Similar vulnerabilities were found in Jersey City and Silicon Valley.

The practice of driving around with a portable computer that’s equipped with a wireless NIC, searching for wireless network signals, is called war driving (a term coined by security expert Peter Shipley) or drive-by hacking.

How to Protect Your Wireless Connection

Organizations and individuals who use wireless technologies don’t want to give up the convenience, but they are recognizing that extra security precautions are necessary. One way to add security to wireless networks is the use of hardwarebased security devices such as smart cards; users are not able to access resources without swiping the issued card through a card reader.

N

OTE

We discuss smart card authentication and access control in more detail in Chapter 7, “Understanding Cybercrime Prevention.”

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Other wireless security measures that can be implemented either by wireless device manufacturers or by wireless LAN (WLAN) administrators include:

Moving wireless hubs away from windows and toward the center of buildings

Ensuring that wireless encryption is enabled

Disabling broadcasts on the network’s hubs

Changing the default settings such as the Service Set Identifier (SSID) and the default password on the wireless access point or router

Limiting the number of wireless access points can also make the WLAN less vulnerable to unauthorized access

Assigning static IP addresses to wireless NICs and disabling DHCP on the wireless router

Security auditing, in the form of a media access control (MAC) addresstracking system that can be used to track the devices that access the wireless network

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Installing a firewall between the WLAN and the wired LAN

Putting the wireless access points in what is known as a demilitarized zone

(DMZ), also referred to as a perimeter network or screened subnet, and configuring wireless users to use a virtual private network (VPN) to create a secure tunnel into the network

Treating the wireless network as though it were a public network and not sending sensitive data over it without taking precautions (such as using another encryption method along with WEP)

Why Cybercriminals Love Mobile Computing

Over the past decade, the high price of portable computers—laptops, notebooks, and handhelds—has steadily dropped while the processing power has come to equal that of desktop machines.This trend has been great for on-the-go businesspeople, who can now continue to work when they’re on the road, with little loss in productivity.

Often, getting the work done requires access to the corporate network, and accordingly, most of today’s laptops come with built-in modems and Ethernet ports.Travelers can dial directly back to the remote access server on the company

LAN or dial up a local ISP and “tunnel” back to the corporate network through the Internet. More hotels are now providing high-speed Internet services, to which you connect via your portable computer’s Ethernet port or PCMCIA (PC

Card) NIC.

Once you connect to the company’s LAN via one of these remote access methods, your computer becomes another (temporary) node on that local network, and remote access technology allows you to perform any task you could do from a wired workstation on site.This is great for employees who must be away from the office—but it’s also great for hackers looking to come in uninvited.

The Problem with Mobile Computing

Remember that every point of access on the network creates one more vulnerability. A remote access server provides a point of access, as does a VPN server.

Of course, mobile computing also provides an additional security consideration: the possibility that the entire computer will be stolen.You might think this isn’t a security problem if you don’t store sensitive information on the portable’s hard disk—but what about your VPN or remote access software configuration, which would allow anyone in possession of the computer to connect to the company network? Although a password may be required for network logon,

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many users set up their systems to “remember” their passwords so they won’t have to take the time to type them in each time they connect, thus defeating the purpose of password security if someone else takes possession of the computer.

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Telecommuting Numbers Continue to Grow

According to ebizChronicle.com, in 2001 the number of employees telecommuting—working away from the office and connecting to the company network via remote access—grew to 32 million in the United

States alone. Projections estimate that by 2004, almost 40 million workers will telecommute.

Mobile computing presents some special security concerns. User authentication is one of the biggest. Unlike the corporate environment, where there are security guards, surveillance cameras, and fellow employees to physically recognize the presence of suspicious strangers around the computer systems, a user connecting remotely to the network offers no assurance that he or she really is the person whose credentials are being used.

Oh, and there’s one more reason cybercriminals love today’s powerful, lowcost mobile computers: Now they can take it with them. Lightweight, compact computers are much easier to transport to a “secure” location such as a pay phone, from which a hacker can initiate a hard-to-trace online session, or to take on “drive-by hacking” expeditions to find wireless LANs to which they can connect surreptitiously.

How to Protect Your Mobile Computers and

Remote Access Connections

The first line of defense in mobile security is physical security of the portable computer.There are many laptop locking devices on the market. Mobile users should be instructed to keep a close watch on their computers, especially in airports and other crowded public places.You can buy hardware devices that will emit a “homing” signal and software programs that can be set to automatically dial in or contact “home base” through the Internet the first time the computer goes online after someone uses an incorrect password.

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Various means are available to address the mobile user authentication problem. For example,Windows-based remote access servers offer the ability to configure user accounts so that callback security is required.This means that a specific telephone number is associated with that user’s account.When the user dials into the network and enters the username and password, the server doesn’t provide immediate access. Instead, it disconnects and calls the user back at the specified telephone number and only then allows access to network resources.

This means that someone who has stolen a user’s laptop with “remembered” passwords (or who has somehow discovered the user’s password and is dialing in from another location) will not be able to access the network unless the hacker is also calling from the user’s home or other previously specified location.This

system works well for telecommuters, who usually dial into the network from their homes. It is less useful for traveling employees, who might be calling from a different hotel each day. Similar systems are available that, instead of hanging up and calling the user back, identify the caller’s number through caller ID and check it against a list of approved remote user numbers. If the number is on the list, the user can access the network.This would work better than callback for users who dial in from several different fixed locations.

Windows remote access servers allow you to set remote access policies that control whether remote connection attempts are authorized. Another method of authenticating remote users is the Remote Access Dial In User Service

(RADIUS) server. RADIUS is a security protocol that supports multiple authentication methods and allows encrypted transmissions between client and server.

RADIUS allows administrators to place limitations and restrictions on the tasks that a remote user can perform once that user is logged onto the network, based on settings for that user account. RADIUS can be used to centrally manage multiple remote access servers or VPN servers using the same set of policies.

N

OTE

Companies should also have written policies that specify rules governing remote access to the network. These rules should be distributed to all employees whose accounts allow remote logon. A sample dial-in access policy is available through the SANS Institute Web site at www.sans.org/ newlook/resources/policies/Dial-in_Access_Policy.pdf. The document is in

.PDF format; you’ll need Adobe Acrobat or Acrobat Reader (the latter is free from the www.adobe.com Web site) to open it.

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Other measures that can improve the security of remote access connections include:

Use of dedicated application access so that the remote user connects to a specific application on the network server using proprietary protocols.

This means the connected user will not have access to any other network resources.This system works well in cases in which remote users need to perform only a specific task, such as checking e-mail.

Use of two-factor authentication. In this system, two separate components are required to successfully access the network: the first is something

you know, and the second is something you have or something you are. In addition to providing a password (something you know), you must also provide a hardware token, smart card, or a biometric identifier such as a fingerprint (something you have).

Deployment of callback security for telecommuters and other remote access users who connect from the same location all the time.

Use of encryption for sensitive communications over public phone lines or through the Internet.

Use of remote access policies to restrict what dial-in users can do on the network as well as the days and times of day they can connect and other parameters.

Remote access opens company networks to employees, partners, and customers—and to unwanted intruders. It is important to take extra security precautions at every point at which your network can be accessed from the outside.

Why Cybercriminals Love Sophisticated

Web and E-Mail Technologies

Today’s World Wide Web is a different “place” from that of 10 years ago. In the early 1990s, most Web pages consisted of plain text and graphics.The limitations of HTML and the slow bandwidth of most Internet connections dictated that

Web designers follow the “keep it simple, stupid” caveat.

Today it’s a whole different ballgame.Web sites flash and dance. Increasingly sophisticated presentations and interaction are possible with technologies such as

Java and Visual Basic scripting and ActiveX controls. New markup languages such as Dynamic HTML (DHTML) and XML provide opportunities for Web

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designers to push the envelope.The prevalence of high-speed connections makes bandwidth-intensive Web applications feasible.

But once again, one man’s (or woman’s) feature enhancement is another’s security hole. Scripts are programs that run when you access Web sites in which they are embedded.What the program does is up to the programmer. Most Web scripts serve useful, harmless purposes; for example, a Java script can produce visual effects such as falling snow or animated text. Applets and scripts can also create calculator tools, chat interfaces, games, or clocks.

Malicious programmers, however, can use these technologies for their own nefarious purposes. Although there are many kinds of attachments,Web page components, and other aspects of Web and e-mail technologies that can present security risks, the most worrisome are those that can actually run code and do things on (or to) your computer. In most cases, this kind of material—sometimes known as active content because it can run itself on your machine—is benign and is designed to perform specific tasks to manage or update a page display, run an animation, perform a calculation, and so forth. But active content can also include malicious code that can do all kinds of nasty things to your PC if allowed to run unchecked.That’s why most security experts recommend that users (and network administrators) screen active content. By far, the safest security policy is to refuse to accept active content. However, this alternative could also prevent you from being able to use features that you need that depend on active content. Other strategies include requiring the active content to show valid credentials before being allowed to run or accepting active content only from specified (known safe) Internet locations or addresses. If written by a malicious programmer, active content can introduce viruses, worms, back doors, and all kinds of other questionable code and access points to your systems and networks.

This same problem (along with a few others) that applies to Web browsers also applies to today’s sophisticated e-mail client programs that allow the display of HTML mail, running of scripts embedded in mail messages, and sending of attachments. Here again, active content—which makes sophisticated presentations and interaction work—opens the door to potential security breaches.

The Problem with Web Scripts and Controls

Scripts and controls can be used to perform tasks on your computer without your knowledge—including monitoring your communications with others or deleting key files on your hard disk. Java and ActiveX give programmers a way to run any program they like on your computer. Malicious code can emulate a login box request and send the password credentials you enter to the hacker, all without your knowledge.

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There are many ways that your Web browser can be exposed to malicious code. Following links from other Web sites or clicking on links in e-mail messages or newsgroup posts can take you to a page that runs a malicious script.

How to Protect Your Web Browser from Malicious Code

Because of these very security concerns, a number of mechanisms have been developed to protect unwary Web users from potentially dangerous content.

Code can be digitally signed to verify that it is from a legitimate vendor and thus safe to download. Most modern Web browsers allow you to select the level of security you desire.You can disable Java and/or ActiveX, or you can set the browser to prompt you when a script is encountered so that you can make the decision about whether to run it based on your trust (or lack thereof) in the site.

For example, the Microsoft Internet Explorer Web browser allows you to either select a predefined security level (Low, Medium Low, Medium, or High), as shown in Figure 2.2.The level selected determines whether unsigned ActiveX controls will be downloaded and whether you will be prompted before downloading any content that is considered potentially unsafe.

If none of the preset security levels works for you, you can also create your own customized security settings, as shown in Figure 2.3.

Figure 2.2

Modern browsers allow you to set security levels.

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Figure 2.3

You can create custom security settings instead of using predefined levels.

Because the Web is one of the most-used Internet applications, it is important to ensure that you don’t expose your system and your network to a hack attack through the code that is run by your browser.

The Problem with Fancy E-Mail Clients

All of the same risks that are inherent in Web browsers that run scripts and controls surface again when you use an e-mail client that allows you to receive messages formatted in HTML, which can have the same sorts of malicious code embedded.

In the early days of e-mail, programs were simple and messages were basically text only.This system provided much less opportunity for security breaches, but it also limited the usefulness of e-mail communications.When it became possible to send files as attachments to messages, the doors opened to a new risk. Initially, attachments were usually photos (.jpg, .gif, etc.) or text files that were too large to include in the message itself.The problem arises when an attachment is or contains an executable program. Files with .exe, .com, or .bat extensions are obvious examples, but there are many other files that can run code, infect your system with viruses, and otherwise do great damage.These files include screensaver files (.scr) and link files (.lnk). Registry (.reg) files can edit the Windows

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On

the Scene…

Real Life Experiences

In 1999, a Word macro virus called Melissa began propagating throughout the Internet and caused performance problems and denial of service due to overload on mail servers throughout the world.

According to the Computer Emergency Response Team (CERT)

Coordination Center at Carnegie-Mellon University, Melissa affected at least 100,000 computers within the first week after it appeared.

The original Melissa was relatively benign (it shut down servers due to the overload but didn’t damage anything on users’ computers). Soon after the major virus makers (such as Symantec and McAfee) updated their definition files to protect their products’ users from Melissa, virus writers began to create modifications to the original code. Some of these modifications were more destructive, carrying payloads that destroyed files or sent personal information back to the virus writer.

A New Jersey computer programmer named David Smith was arrested by federal prosecutors and pled guilty to creating the virus.

Estimates of the damage done by Melissa in North America alone range from US$80 million to US$385 million. Much of the evidence linking

Smith to Melissa was gathered by ICSA.net, which operates a team of undercover security experts called IS Recon. This group gathers intelligence about underground hackers and potential computer and network security threats.

Registry, and .url files can open Web pages that run malicious code. Document files (such as Word .doc files) can include macros, which are simply small programs; virus writers have taken advantage of the powerful Visual Basic for

Applications (VBA) support in Microsoft’s Office applications to create macro viruses that can infect your system if you open the macro-containing document.

How to Protect Your E-Mail

To avoid the problems associated with modern e-mail programs, you might want to configure your e-mail client not to display a “preview pane” (which displays messages, including HTML messages, without you having to click on them to open them), install an antivirus package that checks both incoming and outgoing mail for viruses, and take care not to open e-mail attachments with suspicious extensions unless you are absolutely certain of their origin.

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In the case of most e-mail–distributed viruses, once a virus has infected a machine, it automatically sends itself to everyone in the victim’s address book, appearing to be a message from the victim.This means that you can’t assume an attachment is safe just because you recognize the name in the “From” field of the message.

In recognition of these problems, e-mail programs are building in more security—sometimes so much that the functionality of the mail client is severely crippled. For example, Microsoft Outlook 2002 by default will not allow you to open executable file attachments, even if you are absolutely certain of the file’s validity and safety.This restriction might be fine for the “average” user, but not for people like software developers who need to send programs back and forth on a regular basis. Luckily, you can get add-on software that will allow you to change this overprotective behavior if it’s a problem for you.

In many cases, the correct application configuration can save you a good deal of grief. For example, Microsoft Word now allows you to set security so that the system will prompt you before running any macros. If you open a document that shouldn’t have macros and get the dialog box asking you whether to disable macros, elect to do so and you can read the document itself without running the potentially dangerous code.

Why Cybercriminals Love E-Commerce and Online Banking

Most of us have heard the quote erroneously attributed to famous bank robber

Willie Sutton in response to the question, “Why do you rob banks?”The answer:

“That’s where the money is.” Regardless of who really said it, it makes sense.

It also makes sense that criminals are showing up in greater numbers online, because increasingly, that’s where the money is. E-commerce, online banking, and related technologies have resulted in millions of dollars of financial transactions taking place across network connections.

Cy

berStats…

E-Commerce Predictions

Forrester Research (www.forrester.com) predicts that by 2004, total e-commerce transaction figures will reach US$3.5 trillion in North

America alone, with another US$1.6 trillion in Asia and US$1.5 trillion in

Western Europe.

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Perhaps the growing popularity of online shopping, banking, stock trading, and other financial activities is best summed up by the title of an article published by Nua about a Penn State study of Internet activities: Sex out, E-commerce in. The study indicated that Internet users as a whole are spending proportionately less time each year (based on 1997–2001 data) searching for sexually oriented material online and more time on business and financial transactions.

The Problem with E-Commerce and Online Banking

The open nature and wide scope of the Internet make it a perfect forum for conducting business; transactions can be conducted between a business and a customer across the street or across the globe.Those wide-open cyberspaces also expose both seller and buyer to risks that aren’t present, or at least not to the same extent, in face-to-face transactions.

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berStats…

Fraudulent Online Transactions

According to Nua’s Internet trends and statistics resource site

(www.nua.com), online fraud reached US$700 million in 2001.

Epaynews.com reported that Meridien Research estimated that the cost of Internet fraud would reach between US$5 billion and US$15 billion by 2005. The lower number is based on companies investing in antifraud software; the higher figure predicts what will happen without such an investment. (See www.epaynews.com/statistics/fraud.html#1.)

When buyers must enter their credit card information to make a purchase, they are rightfully concerned that the information could fall into the wrong hands. Some would say that providing this information to a Web-based vendor is no different than giving it out over the telephone—but that philosophy doesn’t take into account the difference between a telephone connection and an Internet transaction.

A phone call establishes a temporary dedicated private circuit directly between the caller and recipient; although it is possible to tap into a telephone line, it is relatively difficult and expensive. Information sent via e-mail or a Web form travels over the very public Internet and goes through a number of nodes

(servers and routers) along the way. It is vulnerable to interception and, unless the information is encrypted, could then be used to make unauthorized purchases.

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On

the Scene…

Real Life Experiences

As more companies have taken their sales online, security breaches that expose consumers’ credit card information have occurred many times.

Bibliofind.com, a book vendor, revealed in March 2001 that its servers, holding customers’ credit card data, had been subjected to a security breach that lasted for four months. In December of the same year,

CreditCards.com, a credit card processing firm, had more than 50,000 credit card numbers stolen from its Web site.

Charles Schwab Corporation and the E*TRADE online brokerage company both discovered security holes in their networks that exposed clients’ stock-trading accounts.

The Internet also makes it easy for criminals to exchange this illegally obtained information. Lists of stolen credit card numbers are posted in newsgroups that are frequented by criminally minded individuals.

In fact, the incidence of credit card fraud in online transactions is significantly greater than that for more traditional purchase methods. According to a paper on credit card fraud published by the National White Collar Crime Center (NW3C)

Research Section, estimates put the overall percentage of credit card fraud at about .08 percent of all credit card transactions, but the same source estimates fraud accounts for 3 percent to 5 percent of all those transactions conducted online.

Credit card purchases are not the only online financial transactions that expose consumers to risk. An increasing number of busy professionals are turning to the convenience of online banking for depositing and transferring money and paying bills. Although one might assume that banks, of all businesses, would be certain to have adequate security measures in place, a number of serious security holes have been discovered in some online banking systems.

In 2000, a flaw in the software used by an online bank based in Palo Alto,

California, allowed anyone to open an account and then use that account to transfer funds from other customers’ accounts without their permission using the account and routing numbers for the victim’s account. (These numbers are printed on account holders’ checks, so all the thief would need is a look at a victim’s checks.) Barclays Bank in the United Kingdom has reported security breaches in its online services that allowed customers’ account information to be

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displayed to others. Similar problems have haunted other online banks around the world.

Today it seems that almost any financial transaction—from buying Girl Scout cookies to financing a home loan—can be conducted online. Any time you send sensitive information across the Net, you need to be aware of the risks. Last

November, a computer security firm discovered a security flaw in the software that many mortgage brokers use to process loan applications.The flaw resulted in the display on the Internet of applications filed by hundreds of consumers, exposing such information as their Social Security numbers that could be used to steal their identities.

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On

the Scene…

Real Life Experiences

In May 2001, FBI investigators filed charges for credit card fraud, bank fraud, and other online fraud totaling an estimated US$117 million against almost 100 individuals and businesses as part of Operation

CyberLoss.

How to Protect Your E-Commerce and Online Banking Transactions

Protecting e-commerce and online banking transactions must be a joint effort involving everyone who participates.The “protection triad” includes:

The IT professionals who run the e-commerce or bank servers

The consumer who uses e-commerce or online banking services

The law enforcement community

The role of the IT professional is to secure the servers that are used for financial transactions, using technologies such as firewalls to keep outsiders from breaking in and stealing confidential information and strong encryption to protect the data when it travels from customers through ISPs to the server. Chapters

7 and 8 discuss Web server security and protocols such as Secure Sockets Layer

(SSL),Transport Layer Security (TLS), and Secure HTTP (S-HTTP) that can be used to transmit data securely through Web browsers.

Consumers must also be made aware of the dangers of online transactions so that they can take precautions, such as never giving credit card numbers and

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similar information online unless the Web site or form is a secure site. Consumers need to understand how to secure the home or office computers that they use to conduct online transactions, because their passwords and other personal information can be stored on their own local hard disks, and how to properly configure security options on their Web browsers.

On

the Scene…

Real Life Experiences

A popular online bank called Egg, based in the United Kingdom, detected attempts to set up fraudulent online bank accounts in 2000 and contacted the National Crime Squad, which was able to track down and arrest the would-be crooks.

Law enforcement agents must understand the scope and nature of the online fraud problem and should be educated in what information to gather, how to track down and preserve the evidence, and federal and private resources that can provide guidance and information in handling these types of cases.

Jurisdiction, as always, is an issue.The U.S. government established the

Internet Fraud Complaint Center (IFCC) in May 2000 to provide an avenue for victims of online crime to file complaints and submit information to a centralized source rather than having to figure out what law enforcement agency has jurisdiction in their particular situations.The IFCC is operated by the FBI in partnership with the NW3C.

Why Cybercriminals Love Instant Messaging

Instant messaging (IM) gives Internet users the ability to communicate in near real time with others anywhere in the world. It’s an application that inspires a lot of passion:You either love it or hate it. Some people consider “IM’ing” a time waster and an intrusion, but others happily spend hours at home and work communicating this way. It does have advantages even in a business environment; you can get immediate questions answered without waiting for e-mail to go through or paying for long distance telephone calls.

Convenient as it might be, instant messaging software (AOL’s AIM and ICQ,

Microsoft’s MSN Messenger,Yahoo Instant Messenger, and others) poses serious security risks, along with providing criminals an easy way to communicate with one another to plan or discuss their crimes.

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berStats…

The Popularity of Instant Messaging

According to an article from Reuters printed in USA Today in January

2002, at that time approximately 100 million users were registered with

AOL’s AIM service.

The Problem with Instant Messaging

By default, most of the IM products are configured to stay active all the time, running in the background, and broadcast that the user is online even when the program interface is closed.This wouldn’t be so bad except that the IM software also allows for sending of files between users, which means it’s not that difficult for a knowledgeable hacker to use this open channel to transfer viruses hidden in

Trojans or other unwanted “gifts.”

Other IM programming flaws can be exploited to execute malicious code as well. For example, some versions of AOL’s ICQ and AIM programs were subject to a “buffer overflow” error if the application was sent more code than it could handle; this error allowed hackers to download malicious code to the targeted computer. Although this particular problem was fixed in subsequent software versions, it is impossible to know how many people unknowingly continued to use the flawed version of the software after the problem was revealed.

In February 2002, two bugs were reported in Microsoft’s MSN Messenger software: one that exposes names and e-mail addresses on the victim’s contact list and another potentially more dangerous bug that can allow a hacker to take control of the program and perform tasks on the user’s computer by exploiting a security hole in Internet Explorer known as the Document.Open() bug.

Although IM vendors are pretty good about releasing fixes for these security flaws when they become known, new exploits are continuously being found, and many users don’t update their software often.They could remain unaware of the problem until they are victimized. Network administrators and other IT professionals should stay current on these issues by subscribing to security newsletters and regularly visiting security bulletin Web sites.They should then work to educate the users in their organizations about security vulnerabilities and see that updates and fixes are installed when they become available.

Another possible security problem is the IM log that records the content of online discussions.These could be accessed by a hacker, exposing private conversations.

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In fact, IM vendors generally admit that their products are not secure and, in their end-user agreements, they recommend that you not use them for sensitive communication. Nevertheless, many business users discuss personnel matters, financial and budgeting decisions, marketing strategies, and other confidential information via instant messages.

Another problem with IM software is that there is no reliable authentication mechanism to verify that a person sending you a message across the Internet really is who he or she claims to be. Anyone can set up an IM account using a false name and information. For this reason, instant messages are also a popular way for pedophiles, scam artists, and other criminals to make contact with their victims and get to know those they target for their crimes.

How to Protect Your System from Instant-Messaging Security Flaws

The best way to avoid the security problems inherent in instant messaging is not to use the programs or to use them only when necessary and never for sensitive or mission-critical communications. Many businesses block the ports used by IM software in their firewalls to prevent employees from using the programs.

If you must use IM, here are a few things you can do to reduce the risk:

Block file transfers and game-playing capability at the firewall.

If users only need to communicate with others within the company, administrators can install IM programs that run on the intranet, reducing exposure to the Internet.

Users should close the program completely when not using it (just closing the interface can result in the program still running in the background— check the system tray or the list of running processes to be sure).

Users should not accept messages from people they don’t know.

Some IM programs allow you to block the display of your IP address to recipients. If you don’t completely trust the person with whom you’re conversing, you might want to enable this feature.

Turn off message logging or, if you need to keep logs, move the files to a location other than the default and encrypt them.

Like the other technologies we’ve discussed, IM software can be used for either good or evil. Because the programs were originally designed for recreational chatting, security hasn’t been a high priority, but if you use instant messaging in a business environment or on a home machine that has sensitive data stored on it, it’s important to consider the security ramifications.

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Why Cybercriminals Love New

Operating Systems and Applications

User demands and rapidly increasing hardware capabilities result in new operating systems (or at least new versions) being released every few years. Each new incarnation includes nifty new features, and in many cases, the new versions are more stable and faster performers than their predecessors. It seems as though users hardly have time to learn one operating system before it’s time to upgrade.The

same goes for productivity applications; once you upgrade the operating system, you often need a new version of your word processing or graphics software to go with it.

This system is great for the software companies, which get to make a lot of new sales, of course—but it’s also great for hackers, for a couple of reasons:

New software, especially operating systems that include dramatic changes such as Microsoft’s Windows 2000 or Apple’s Mac OS X, never comes out of the box perfect, regardless of how many tireless hours of beta testing went into it.Version 1.0 (and sometimes several more versions following it) is almost always at least a little buggy, and hackers can often exploit those bugs.

Even if the software is perfect, users are not yet well acquainted with it and could misconfigure it in ways that open up security vulnerabilities.

Thus cybercriminals are happy when you upgrade to the latest and greatest.

It opens up a window of opportunity for them before bugs are reported and security patches released—and before users learn to configure the new systems for best security.

There’s not a lot you can do about this, other than perhaps foregoing the temptation to be an “early adopter” of every new software program that comes along. Even if you wait for version 2.0 or later, you’ll still have to deal with users’ learning curve. Network administrators should be especially wary and monitor closely for security breaches during the period immediately following major upgrades or the rollout of completely new software.

Why Cybercriminals Love Standardization

It might sound like a contradiction to say that cybercriminals love the new and different and then turn around and say that they love standardization, but it’s really not.What we mean by standardization is everyone (or a vast majority) using the same operating systems, applications, protocols, and hardware.

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Standardization makes things easier for hackers because they don’t have to learn how to manipulate dozens of different types of systems.When a product becomes a standard, it also becomes a favorite target of hackers, crackers and virus writers. Users of Windows operating systems are more vulnerable to attack than users of other systems in large part because the vast majority of computer users run Windows. It’s common sense: If you want to do the largest amount of damage with a virus, you write one that targets the most popular operating system.

You don’t see many hackers out there working on how to crack OS/2 Warp

(IBM’s client operating system that has a very small percentage of the desktop market). It might not be a coincidence that many of the existing OS/2 client deployments are in the banking industry, a business that needs all the security it can get.

Standardization makes possible networking and computer communications on a large scale, but it also makes it possible for hackers to do their damage on a large scale. Standards are good in that they make computer hardware and software work more smoothly, but if your business deals with particularly sensitive information, one way to make your systems less vulnerable is to go with a proprietary rather than an industry-standard solution.

Planning for the Future: How to Thwart

Tomorrow’s Cybercriminal

What does all of this information mean as we make plans for a future in which we will all be less likely to be victimized by cybercrime? Must we give up our fast, always-on connections and go back to dialup modems? Must we forego the conveniences of wireless and mobile computing, and go back to the Lynx textbased Web browser and the PINE e-mail program? Must we stop chatting online and start waiting in line at the drive-through bank again? Should we hang on to our ancient software once we’ve learned to use it, or should we switch to some exotic proprietary software that no one else has ever heard of?

Of course, we won’t—probably can’t—do any of this.What we can do is be aware of the dangers that each brave new technological miracle poses and take steps that will protect us from criminal exploitation of these technologies while still allowing us to enjoy their benefits. Chapters 4 through 8 of this book provide very specific details of how this goal can be achieved.

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Summary

Those who cannot remember the past are condemned to repeat it. —George Santayana

Computers and networking have only been around for a few decades. Cybercrime thus far has a short but colorful history.What can we learn from that history that will help us build a more secure online future?

As we read through some of the events that brought us to where we are today, we can see that cyberspace is still much like the American West was in the

1800s: chaotic and unsettled, a new frontier that hasn’t yet been tamed.The

ARPA had its own agenda, the research universities that were involved in the

Net’s beginnings had their big dreams, the companies that flocked online in the

1990s had their marketing plans, the individuals who “live online” have their reasons, and the criminals who take advantage of the technology have their motives.

However, there was no grand master plan by which the Internet evolved into the integral part of our lives that it occupies today. Rather, it “just grew that way,” and the result was a hodgepodge of systems and technologies that work amazingly well in spite of its haphazard nature.

As we enter the twenty-first century, the Internet enters a new phase in its existence. Law and order are coming to the new frontier, making it a safer—and perhaps a less creative and less fun—“place” to work and play.Those who long for the “good old days” when the Net was the province of only an elite few and online crime wasn’t—or didn’t seem to be—a problem are missing the point:The genie won’t go back into the bottle.

Law enforcement specialists know that the policing methods that work in rural areas are not necessarily appropriate in the inner city, and vice versa.Today’s

Internet is not the virtual small town that it used to be; it’s now a bustling international urban environment. If we are to make it an environment that’s safe for us

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Frequently Asked Questions

The following Frequently Asked Questions, answered by the authors of this book, are designed to both measure your understanding of the concepts presented in this chapter and to assist you with real-life implementation of these concepts. To have your questions about this chapter answered by the author, browse to

www.syngress.com/solutions and click on the “Ask the Author” form.

and for our children, our cybercrime-fighting tactics will have to reflect that— much as we might wish it weren’t so.

Q:

What about satellite Internet service? Does it suffer the same security vulnerabilities as DSL and cable?

A:

Satellite Internet services such as DirecPC and Starband use a dish-type antenna to transmit signals to and from a geostationary (fixed-position) satellite that is 22,300 miles above the earth. Radio waves (which travel at the speed of light, or approximately 186,000 miles per second) must make this trip twice when you send a communication via satellite to a computer elsewhere in the world. During this journey, the radio waves are vulnerable to interception, just as other wireless technologies. Unlike a land-based wireless transmission, satellite transmission allows an attacker to eavesdrop from anywhere within a huge area (the satellite’s reception range). Satellite systems use frequency hopping and multiple-access technologies that divide the signal, making it somewhat more difficult to intercept. In addition, some systems such as DirecPC use a VPN for the connection, which prevents users from setting up their own VPNs to address security concerns. On the other hand, because satellite offers greater bandwidth than most wireless technologies, it is easier to deploy strong encryption and authentication methods.

Q:

Does it matter whether I have a static or dynamic IP address?

A:

Yes. Although there are advantages to having a static IP address (such as the ability to run a Web server, FTP site, or VPN), security isn’t one of them.

Many broadband providers issue a static IP, but others use technology that automatically changes your IP address on a regular basis (every day or even every hour), and some issue you several IP addresses so that you can manually

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change the address yourself when you want.This makes it more difficult for a hacker to continue attacking your site once it’s been found.

Q:

Does it matter which remote access authentication protocols are used? Are some more secure than others?

A:

The answer is another, resounding “yes.”The two most common authentication protocols used for dialup Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) connections are

Password Authentication Protocol (PAP) and Challenge Handshake

Authentication Protocol (CHAP). PAP merely sends the user’s name and password across the network to the server, in plain-text form. If the packets are intercepted in transit, the password can be read and stolen. CHAP uses symmetric encryption to protect the passwords that are sent over the network. However, the way CHAP works creates a new problem.The server generates a random key called the challenge and sends it to the client; the client uses the key to encrypt the password and sends the encrypted password back to the server.The server looks up the user’s password in its database, uses the same key to encrypt it, and compares the result with the encrypted password sent by the client. Although the plain-text password doesn’t ever pass across the network with this method, the server must store a plain-text version of the user’s password in its database in order to make the encryption for comparison. If an intruder accesses the server’s database, the intruder will have the passwords for all the users. RADIUS is a more secure alternative.

References

John Draper: Life as a Hacker www.rit.edu/~gpm8967/imm/Draper/index.html

Hobbes’ Internet Timeline v5.6

www.zakon.org/robert/internet/timeline

The Internet Worm of 1988 http://world.std.com/~franl/worm.html#p3

Internet Fraud Complaint Center www1.ifccfbi.gov/index.asp

ComputerUser.com: Serious Online Banking Breach www.computeruser.com/newstoday/00/01/31/news4.html

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Cable Datacom News, Cable Modem Info Center www.cabledatacomnews.com/cmic

DSL/Cable Security: Links to Guide Picks http://compnetworking.about.com/cs/dslcablesecurity

Remote Access Network Security

http://home.indy.net/~sabronet/secure/remote.html

ExtremeTech: Exploiting and Protecting 802.11b Wireless Networks www.extremetech.com

SANS Institute: Security on Internet Satellite http://rr.sans.org/wireless/satellite.php

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Understanding the

People on the Scene

Chapter 3

Topics we’ll investigate in this chapter:

Understanding Cybercriminals

Understanding Cybervictims

Understanding Cyberinvestigators

! Summary

! Frequently Asked Questions

! Resources

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Introduction

Cybercrime, by definition, involves computers and networks. However, as sophisticated as technology has become and as fascinating as the science of artificial intelligence (AI) might be, we are not yet at the point where computers can—by themselves—engage in criminal activity.The machines are wonderfully compliant

(difficult as that sometimes might be to believe when we’re struggling to make them work) and totally amoral.They do whatever we tell them to do, with no protests, no regrets, and no ulterior motives. A cybercrime always involves at least one human being who originates, plans, prepares, and initiates the criminal act.

The cybercriminal is usually not the only person on the scene of the cybercrime, however. Some cybercrimes appear to be victimless, such as a network intrusion that occurs without anyone knowing about it, in which no files are harmed and no information is “stolen” or misused. In most cases, though, some person(s) are ultimately harmed by the cybercriminal’s actions.These victims might be workers who lose productive time due to a DoS attack or have to redo their work because of cybervandalism.They might be company shareholders who lose money due to extra charges for the bandwidth that a hacker uses.They

might be managers who lose “brownie points” in their bosses’ eyes because of the impact on their budgets.They might be IT administrators who lose their jobs for

“allowing” the attack to happen. In most cases of cybercrime, if you look hard enough, you’ll find a victim.

When cybercrimes are reported to the police or other enforcement agencies, more people get involved.The investigators who collect clues to discover the identity of the cybercriminal and build up the evidence can spend days, weeks, or months on a single case.The skills, knowledge, perseverance, and determination of the investigator might have a profound impact on the outcome of the case.

When cybercrime occurs in the business environment, management personnel inevitably become involved as well. As we’ve mentioned in earlier chapters, the law enforcement personnel and the IT professionals who need to cooperate in the investigative process often find themselves at odds. Managers, who know that cybercrime is hurting the company’s bottom line and have a vested interest in minimizing the damage and seeing the cybercriminals brought to justice, are often in a unique position to facilitate cooperation among the other players.

In this chapter, we take a look—up close and personal—at all these people on the scene of the cybercrime.We examine the roles of both cybercriminals and cybervictims and how they interact—sometimes in ways that mirror the “realworld” criminal-victim relationship and sometimes in ways that are quite different.

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We try to get inside the heads of the cybercriminals and understand what motivates them.We show how cybercriminals can be divided into a number of different categories and how determining which category a cybercrook fits into can help you protect yourself from his or her actions.We also look for patterns that can help us predict who will be victimized by cybercrime, and we discuss ways of making potential victims less vulnerable.

Then we turn to the professionals on the scene: the law enforcement officers and private or corporate investigators and the IT professionals who are employed by the victimized companies or who are brought in as consultants.We discuss the characteristics of a good cybercrime investigator and the type of background and training that can give the aspiring cyberdetective a head start on the job.We also focus on the specific problems of IT and law enforcement pros when they try to work together and how they can overcome these problems.

Finally, we take a special look at the role of the chief executive officer (CEO) or manager in business-related cybercrimes.We examine what the IT team and the police need—and don’t need—from upper management and how managers can become facilitators in the sometimes adversarial investigative process.

At this point, you could be wondering why this book seems to be suddenly stepping away from the technical topics of computer science and law to delve into a “soft science” like psychology.Why do you—an IT professional or law enforcement officer—need to “understand” the cybercriminal? Why should you care what motivates such a person to break the law? What difference does it make to you if some personality types (and remember that companies have “personalities,” too) are more likely than others to find themselves victims of cybercrimes? Isn’t an investigator still an investigator, regardless of the type of crime that’s been committed? Why are special skills or personal characteristics necessary for a cybercrime investigator? We provide answers to these questions as you progress through this chapter. Specifically:

We show you how an understanding of the basics of criminal psychology can put you one step ahead of the cybercriminal.You’ll see how knowing what motivates a criminal can help you catch that criminal— or even help you take steps to prevent the next crime from occurring.

You’ll learn about criminal profiling, a subject that has been frequently discussed, and frequently misrepresented, in the popular media.

We talk about the science of victimology—the study of crime victim characteristics, with the goal of determining why criminals target certain people as their victims.

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We discuss career aptitude as it applies to the criminal investigator.You’ll find out why some people are better suited for this role than others.

You’ll learn why, in many cases, investigation is as much an art as a science.

The human element is not only an important component of every crime case, including cybercrimes—it is often the most fascinating.We get down to the nitty-gritty technical details (and there will be plenty of those!) in upcoming chapters. But first, let’s delve into the complex and often confusing issues surrounding the people who engage in, are victimized by, or devote their workdays to preventing, solving, and prosecuting cybercrime.

Understanding Cybercriminals

A number of scientific disciplines are devoted to gaining a better understanding of criminals and criminal behavior. Criminal psychology is the study of the criminal mind and what leads a person to engage in illegal or socially deviant behavior.

You can think of criminal psychology as a subcategory of forensic psychology, which concerns itself with emotional and behavioral issues that pertain to the law and legal systems and includes police psychologists (who address emotional and behavioral issues with police officers), social psychologists (who study group behavior and broader societal implications of psychological issues), and others.

The job of the criminal psychologist may also overlap with that of the criminolo-

gist, who studies criminals, crime, and the effect of the criminal justice system and societal factors on criminal behavior and crime rates.

N

OTE

Forensic psychology is a different discipline from forensic psychiatry, which the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law (AAPL) defines as “a medical subspecialty that includes research and clinical practice in the many areas in which psychiatry is applied to legal issues.” (See http://flash.lakeheadu.ca/~pals/forensics/forensic.htm.) Forensic psychiatrists are medical doctors and can treat patients, prescribe controlled drugs, and otherwise practice medicine. Forensic psychologists may also work directly with patients, but criminal psychologists often focus on studying the cases of criminals to detect patterns, analyze behaviors, and make predictions and profiles based on their analyses.

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On

the Scene…

At the FBI

Behavioral science is a broad term that refers to use of scientific methods to study the behavior of living creatures (including humans).

The behavioral sciences is often used as a collective term referring to psychology, sociology, anthropology, and other sciences that study behavior of people or animals. The FBI uses the term much more specifically, as in the name of its Behavioral Science Unit (BSU) at its Quantico,

Virginia, training academy.

The BSU focuses on the study of human behavior as it applies to criminals and crime. FBI personnel who work in the BSU are trained special agents who also have advanced degrees in psychology, sociology, criminology, and the like. The BSU is famous for its success in criminal profiling of serial killers and other violent criminals. The BSU uses a number of methodologies, such as computerized crime analysis, clinical forensic psychology, and applied criminal psychology, to provide assistance to other law enforcement agencies in solving crimes and capturing criminals.

Many of the FBI’s behavioral science specialists have made names for themselves outside the agency. Robert Ressler, John E. Douglas,

James T. Reese, and Roy Hazelwood all became famous for their work, as part of the BSU, on various high-profile cases.

A new psychological specialty has evolved over the last few decades: that of the investigative psychologist. Investigative psychology involves applying knowledge of psychological principles to police work and criminal investigation.

Despite the FBI’s and many large law enforcement agencies’ focus on bringing scientific methods such as criminal psychology into police investigations, many police officers at the local level are still skeptical. “Why should I care about understanding criminals?” they ask. “All I want to do is catch them and put them behind bars.”

This attitude is usually due to a misunderstanding about the meaning of the word understanding. One of its meanings is indeed “sympathetic, empathetic, or tolerant.” Police (understandably!) see no reason to show this sort of feeling toward lawbreakers, especially people who cause harm to others in doing so.

We’re not asking them to exhibit this meaning of the word understanding.

The other meaning of the word is “to perceive and explain the meaning or nature of somebody or something.”This is the kind of understanding you need as

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a law enforcement officer or IT professional involved in investigating cybercrimes as it relates to the cybercriminal’s mindset and motivations.You need that kind of understanding because it will help you catch the criminal and put him or her behind bars.

Profiling Cybercriminals

Criminal profiling is the art and science of developing a description of a criminal’s characteristics (physical, intellectual, and emotional) based on information collected at the scene(s) of the crime(s). A criminal profile is a psychological assessment made before the fact—that is, without knowing the identity of the criminal.The profile consists of a set of defined characteristics that are likely to be shared by criminals who commit a particular type of crime.The profile can be used to narrow the field of suspects or evaluate the likelihood that a particular suspect committed the crime.

Profiling by police has taken on a number of unfortunate connotations due to media focus on the term when describing discriminatory police practices.

In the mind of some members of the public, all police profiling has become associated with racial profiling, which in turn has come to mean treating people as criminal suspects based solely on their ethnicity or the appearance of ethnicity.

On the other hand, in some circles the perceived effectiveness of profiling has been elevated to almost mythical proportions. Movies such as Jonathan Demme’s

Silence of the Lambs and Michael Mann’s Manhunter have glorified and glamorized the role of the criminal profiler, making it seem that profiling is almost akin to magic. Profilers in movies are able to take a look at the crime scene and unerringly describe the criminal’s physical characteristics and background.

It’s not quite that easy or certain in real life, but criminal profiling is a valuable tool that can give investigators many clues about the person who commits a specific crime or series of crimes. Nonetheless, it’s important to understand that a profile—even one constructed by the top profilers in the field—will provide only an idea of the general type of person who committed a crime; a profile will not point to a specific person as the suspect. Although good profiles can be amazingly accurate as to the offender’s occupation, educational background, childhood experiences, marital status, and even general physical appearance, there will always be many individuals who fit a given profile.

Profiling is just one tool among many for conducting an investigation and building a criminal case. A profile is not evidence; rather, it is a starting point that can help investigators focus on the right suspect(s) and begin to gather evidence.

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N

OTE

Profiling has been in use in law enforcement for quite some time.

Although the FBI is often credited with its “invention,” a less sophisticated form of profiling and crime reconstruction was used in the Jack the Ripper case in London in the 1880s. See the article Criminal Profiling:

How It Got Started and How It Is Used by Wayne Petherick, located on the Crime Library Web site at www.crimelibrary.com/criminology/ criminalprofiling2, for a historical examination of criminal profiling.

99

Understanding How Profiling Works

Criminal profiling is considered by some people—including, still, some law enforcement officers—to be an exotic “last resort” investigative tactic.Those

skeptics equate the profiler’s work with that of “forensic psychics” who offer their clairvoyant powers to assist in solving crimes. Profiling, however, is a process that is based on collecting information and then analyzing that information by applying logic.

Profilers draw inferences about the criminal’s personality and other characteristics based on the following indicators:

Their observations of the crime and crime scene

The testimony of witnesses and victims

Their knowledge of human psychology and criminal psychology

The existence of patterns and correlations between different crimes

John E. Douglas, former FBI profiler, says in his book MindHunter, “Behavior reflects personality.” Profilers examine the criminal’s behavior and develop a description of his personality.

Often, an important part of a criminal profiler’s work involves comparing the facts and impressions from a group of crimes and determining whether it is likely that the crimes were committed by the same person. Repeat criminals are, not surprisingly, creatures of habit in ways other than the fact that they continue to commit crimes.They tend to do things in the same way each time; this is known in popular parlance as the criminal’s modus operandi (method of operation, or

MO). Behaviors that a criminal repeats at each crime scene, especially if the behavior seems to fulfill a psychological need (as opposed to being a matter of practicality), are also known as the criminal’s signature. Cybercriminals, like other criminals, often give themselves away by their MOs or signatures.

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There are two basic profiling methods: inductive and deductive. Each is based on a particular method of reasoning or logic. Generally, inductive reasoning works from the specific to the general, whereas deductive reasoning works from the more general to the more specific.

With inductive reasoning, you begin with observations or information, then come up with a theory that you apply to new circumstances.With deductive reasoning, you begin with a premise and then come up with specific conclusions based on the premise. For better understanding, see San Jose State University’s exercises in inductive and deductive reasoning at www.sjsu.edu/depts/itl/ graphics/induc/ind-ded.html.

Inductive Profiling

The inductive profiling method relies on statistics and comparative analysis to create a profile. Information is collected about criminals who have committed a specific type of crime.The information can take the form of formal studies of convicted criminals, informal observation of known criminals, clinical or other interviews with criminals known to have committed certain crimes, and data already available in databases.

By analyzing the data and establishing correlations, the profiler infers that characteristics common to a statistically significant number of offenders who commit a particular type of crime are applicable to other criminals who commit the same type of crime.The inductive-profiling model tends to produce results that are nonspecific and generalized.

Deductive Profiling

A deduction is an argument in which, certain things being laid down, something other

than these necessarily comes about through them.—Aristotle

The deductive profiling method relies on the application of deductive reasoning to the observable evidence. Investigators collect general information about the crime, and the profiler draws specific conclusions about the criminal’s characteristics, based on the profiler’s experience, knowledge, and critical thinking.

Victimology, the crime scene, forensic evidence, and behavioral analysis are all components of the deductive process.

The deductive method involves several distinct steps:

1. A problem is stated.

2. Information is collected.

3. A working hypothesis is formulated.

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4. The hypothesis is tested.

5. Results of the test are examined.

6. One or more conclusions are reached.

Hypotheses can be tested using if/then thinking. We might start with a hypothesis such as, “Hackers are mostly harmless.” If our hypothesis is correct, the data should show that the vast majority of hacking incidents cause no monetary loss or other harm to the companies or individuals whose systems are hacked. Finding one or two incidences of loss or harm would not disprove the hypothesis—but if we find large numbers of cases that are inconsistent with our hypothesis, we can consider it to be invalid. Our conclusion, then, could be the opposite of the hypothesis we started with: Hackers are not “mostly harmless.”

Profilers using the deductive method often mention that success depends on being able to “get inside the mind” of the criminal, to think like the criminal thinks, in order to understand the criminal’s motives and predict his future actions.The best deductive profilers might state that they rely on intuition or that they use common sense to develop profiles. However, close examination usually reveals that the “common sense” to which they refer is a process of logical thinking, applied to the hard evidence they’ve gathered and observed.This

thinking process can take place subconsciously, leading to the “intuitive feelings” that don’t really come out of nowhere but are instead the result of long hours or days of subconsciously processing masses of information.

Unlike the inductive process, which is based on statistical data (and which can be processed by a computer as well as or better than by a human being), deductive reasoning requires intelligence of a kind of which machines are not yet capable. Deductive thinking is not only a skill, it is a talent that some people seem to be born with and that other people can never learn.The most talented detectives tend to be masters of deductive reasoning.We discuss the qualifications and characteristics of a good investigator later in this chapter, in the

“Understanding Cyberinvestigators” section.

N

OTE

Perhaps one of the most famous proponents of deductive reasoning was

Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, the Scottish writer and physician who created the Sherlock Holmes character in the 1880s. Doyle summed up the deductive method rather succinctly: “It is an old maxim of mine that when you have excluded the impossible, whatever remains, however improbable, must be the truth.”

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Uses of the Criminal Profile

A profile cannot, by itself, solve a criminal case. However, the profile can be used for several purposes:

To narrow the field of suspects

To link related crimes

To give investigators valuable leads to follow

Although the profile is not itself evidence of a particular suspect’s guilt, it can be used in court in conjunction with expert witness testimony. Expert witnesses, unlike other witnesses in a criminal case, are allowed to state opinions. An expert witness can reference a criminal profile as the basis of an opinion that there is a high probability of a link between a particular suspect and a particular crime scene.We discuss expert witnesses and expert testimony in more detail in

Chapter 11, “Building the Cybercrime Case.”

Profiling that is based on collecting large amounts of data about cybercrime and those who commit it can serve another purpose. As a picture of the typical cybercriminal begins to come into focus, we could be forced to reexamine our own misconceptions about cybercriminals based on media myths and a few anecdotal cases.

Reexamining Myths and Misconceptions

About Cybercriminals

Movies such as WarGames and Hackers have given us Hollywood’s image of the cybercriminal, one that tends to be simplified and romanticized. In those movies, hackers are all misunderstood geniuses with hearts of gold who are just trying to save the world, despite the interference of the big, bad government. News stories, on the other hand, often go overboard in the opposite direction.They paint anyone who believes in the distribution of open-source software as a dangerous pirate who is determined to undermine the very foundations of our capitalistic society.The truth, as usual, lies somewhere in between these two extremes.

Now that Internet access is a mainstream activity, most members of the general public have heard of cybercrime, and many hold opinions at the extreme ends of the spectrum. Some of the most common misconceptions regarding cybercriminals include:

All cybercriminals are “nerds”—bright but socially inept.

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All cybercriminals have very high IQs and a great deal of technical knowledge.

All cybercriminals are male, usually teenage boys.

All teenage boys with computers are dangerous cybercriminals.

Cybercriminals aren’t “real” criminals because they don’t operate in the

“real world.”

Cybercriminals are never violent.

All cybercriminals neatly fit one profile.

Most of these misconceptions are based on stereotypes.We could argue that stereotyping is what profiling is all about.What is a stereotype, anyway? The dictionary defines the term as “an oversimplified standardized image or idea held by one person or group of another.”The key here (and the difference between a stereotype and a profile) is oversimplification. A criminal profile is complex and based on hard data. A stereotype is a device that allows you to bypass collecting hard data and apply a “known” fact (or a statement widely accepted as such) to individual situations.

Are stereotypes always wrong? Of course they’re not. If there were not some truth in a belief, at least some of the time, it would never become a stereotype.

The danger of relying on stereotypes—especially in the context of investigating crime and enforcing the law—is that it puts blinders on the investigator and closes his or her mind to all the possibilities. Savvy criminals can take advantage of these stereotypes and literally “get away with murder” (and lesser crimes) simply by not fitting the known stereotype.

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On

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How and Why We Stereotype

The word stereotype is derived from the process of creating metalengraved plates for printing. Once the plate is created, the image is

“set” and cannot be easily changed. Thus the word evolved into a description of the “set image” or opinion that people apply to an entire category of people.

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Stereotypes often contain a grain of truth; women do tend to be more emotional than men, more Asians than Westerners do practice and master the martial arts, the rich are different from you and me and

Ernest Hemingway (they have more money). The danger of stereotypes is that they provide a “quick and dirty”—and often misleading and inaccurate—way of judging people we don’t know.

Stereotyping is a handy “shortcut,” and the human brain is attracted to that. We all base some of our beliefs on stereotypes; when we simply don’t have enough information to form an opinion, we tend to default to what we’ve heard from others, read in books, or seen on television. The media is one of the biggest perpetuators of stereotypes.

Much comedy is based on common stereotypes. This is not necessarily out of any evil intent; when you have to tell a story in the space of a halfhour sitcom or a two-hour movie, shortcuts become a necessity. The more a particular stereotype is repeated, however, the more likely we are to believe it.

An excellent, detailed discussion of stereotyping and how it is used in social interaction is available at www.psc-cfp.gc.ca/publications/ monogra/mono3_e.htm.

Let’s take an up-close look at each of the misconceptions on our list and discuss how each came about and why each is generally an inaccurate assumption.

All Cybercriminals Are “Nerds”—Bright But Socially Inept

As with many misconceptions, this one grew out of a past when it was more often true than it is today. Recall from the history discussion in Chapter 2 that in the early days of computers and networking, few common folks had access to the huge, expensive, user-unfriendly mainframe systems that defined the word

computer.

Who did have access? “Scientific types” at places like MIT.These were the guys with crew cuts and slide rules in their pockets.Working with the first computers required extensive math skills.There were no computer “users” back then; if you wanted to interact with the machine, you needed to be a programmer.

Programming was a painstaking process that required patience and the willingness to devote huge chunks of your time to coding. It was hardly conducive to cultivating opportunities to appear on the newspaper’s society pages.When (if) you

did get out into the world at night, what did you have to talk about after spending your days locked up with a bunch of vacuum tubes, poring over printouts of 1s and 0s? Not much that anyone else could understand or care about.

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The word nerd has a couple of different meanings and even more connotations. Microsoft's Encarta World Dictionary 2001 defines it as “a single-minded enthusiast, whose interest is regarded as too technical or scientific and who seems obsessively wrapped up in it.”That’s an apt description of a large proportion of the computer hobbyists of the 1950s, 1960s, and 1970s.Today, though, computers are almost ubiquitous.The skills needed to use the Net for mischievous or malicious purposes are far less complex than they used to be.The “nerd” stereotype still fits some people, but many of today’s cybercriminals—especially computer scam artists and sexually motivated criminals who use the Internet to find victims—are smooth and charming and have highly developed social skills.

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Cyber Serial Killer

In 2000, a Kansas man named John Robinson was arrested for sexual assault and became a suspect in the killings of several women over a span of 15 years. What made this case unique was the method of procuring victims: through Internet chat rooms, most of them dedicated to sadomasochism. Although he had a criminal record (he had previously been arrested for theft and fraud), he represented himself to his victims as a rich, professional businessman. Robinson’s trial for three of the murders, which has been postponed several times, is scheduled for

September 2002. See www.mayhem.net/Crime/robinson.html for more information.

All Cybercriminals Have Very High IQs and a

Great Deal of Technical Knowledge

Again, this is a stereotype based on outdated facts.Those early MIT math majors tended to fit it, but it bears little relevance to today’s cybercriminal. Getting online now is as easy as pointing and clicking. Although some cybercrimes—such as writing and distributing new viruses or mounting intrusion attacks against highly protected networks—require technical expertise, many other cybercrimes can be (and are) committed by people of average or below-average intelligence with little or no technical training or skill.

Cyber con games can be played by anyone who is capable of sending e-mail or using Internet chat programs. Data theft is often a simple matter of dragging

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and dropping. Even crimes that depend on complex technical exploits can be performed by unskilled hackers called script kiddies, who merely use the code written by others to do their mischief. Hundreds of Web sites and newsgroups provide technologically clueless “wannabe” hackers with these preconfigured or automated tools that can be used to crack systems.

For more information, see the article Don’t Fear the Reaper, Fear the Script

Kiddie on the About.com Web site at http://netsecurity.about.com/library/ weekly/aa111600a.htm.

All Cybercriminals Are Male, Usually Teenage Boys

This is a double stereotype. It makes assumptions about two groups: cybercriminals and women. Science and math in general, and computer technology in particular, have traditionally been predominantly male domains. Furthermore, law enforcement statistics show that males are more likely to commit crimes of all types than are females.

On

the Scene…

From Script Kiddies to Click Kiddies

Script kiddies, who use scripts written by others to break into networks, crack passwords, and wreak other mischief, must have at least enough technical ability to enter the proper commands to execute the script. The newest phenomenon in the “devolution of hacking,” according to security expert David Rhoades, is the click kiddie, who hacks simply by pointing and clicking, cutting and pasting. This is made possible by Web sites that do all the work for them. Rhoades’s excellent presentation on this topic, called Hacking for the Masses, is available online at www.clickkiddie.net.

However, statistics also show that the gender gap is closing. Near the end of the 1990s, arrests of women comprised about 22 percent of all arrests (with women accounting for about 14 percent of violent offenders and about 29 percent of property-related crime offenders), according to the U.S. Department of

Justice’s Bureau of Justice Statistics (www.ojp.usdoj.gov/bjs/crimoff.htm#women).

That same source states that during the 1990s, the number of female defendants convicted of felonies in the state courts increased at more than twice the rate of the increase of male convictions.

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White-collar criminals have traditionally been male—but some experts theorize that this was because, until recent years, high-level corporate positions

(which pose the greater opportunities and temptations) were almost exclusively held by men. Now that women are making it into the executive suite, more and more female offenders are being arrested on embezzlement, fraud, and other white-collar crime charges. See the paper Integrity in the Corporate Suite: Predictors

of Female Frauds by Collins, Muchinsky, Mundfrom, and Collins, at www.cj.msu

.edu/~faculty/collinsintegrity.html for theoretical and statistical information.

Computer science is no longer an all-male occupation.The U.S. Department of Commerce statistics show that 28.5 percent of programmers are now female.

Although only a small percentage of programmers (of either gender) use their skills for illegal purposes, women are definitely acquiring the means to commit computer crimes in greater numbers than ever before.

Randy Nichols, president of Comsec Security and lecturer on cryptography and security at George Washington University in Washington, D.C., was quoted in the Irish Times in January 2000 as saying, “Worldwide, not one single female has been charged with a felony committed with a computer.” However, there have been a few noted female hackers. See the ABC News Web site at http://abcnews.go.com/sections/tech/dailynews/hackerwomen000602.html for an article that contains interviews with female hackers discussing sexism in the hacker community.

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On

the Scene…

The World’s Oldest Profession and the

World’s First Famous Female Hacker

A woman who used the pseudonym Susan Thunder evolved from a rockstar groupie and prostitute into a phone phreaker and computer hacker.

She specialized in breaking into military computers and eventually become associated with infamous hackers Ron and Kevin Mitnick. She was, in fact, granted immunity from prosecution for testifying against them when they were arrested for their own hacking exploits.

Given her background, it was only logical that Susan became adept at what is known in the hacking world as social engineering—that is, persuading authorized users to reveal their passwords. Legend has it that she often accomplished this goal by engaging in sexual relationships with the military personnel who had the information she sought.

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The “typical cybercriminal” profile offered by Nichols—male, white, and 19 to 30 years of age—is still valid for speaking in generalities, but it is becoming less so every year. Increasingly, those who commit cybercrimes come from both genders, all races, and every age group.

All Teenage Boys with Computers Are Dangerous Cybercriminals

Once again, the media is mostly responsible for this stereotype. It is a common belief in some quarters that every teenage boy with a computer spends his nights breaking into the defense department computers in search of the codes to fire nuclear missiles.This image is reinforced by stories such as the report in the summer of 2001 that a “secret society of teenage cyberanarchists” had brought down the corporate Web site of Steve Gibson, a well-known security expert.

Even the FBI was unable to help Gibson track down the hackers. (For the full story, see http://grc.com/dos/grcdos.htm.) The TV networks run documentaries such as the 20/20 Monday episode that featured an online “gang” of teenage hackers called Global Hell. Books such as The Hacker Diaries: Confessions of Teenage

Hackers, published by McGraw-Hill/Osborne Media, further perpetuate many people’s fear and suspicion of teenagers with computers.

No one can dispute that teenagers who get their kicks by vandalizing corporate Web sites or trying to penetrate government computer systems are criminals, and that such behavior constitutes a problem. Neither can anyone dispute that teenagers full of rage who open fire on their classmates and teachers are dangerous criminals. However, most of us realize that the vast majority of teens— even sullen, angry, rebellious teens—will never engage in such extreme behavior.

The same is true of the vast majority of teenage boys who have computer skills.The farthest most will go in using their computers for illegal activities is to download music or software for their own personal use through services like

Napster or “warez” newsgroups. Although this activity might be “dangerous” to the record companies’ and software vendors’ bottom lines, it’s a crime on the same level as copying songs from a CD to cassette tape to share with a friend. It’s hardly in the same category as bringing down the systems that run Wall Street or infiltrating the international banking system’s computers.

Cybercriminals Aren’t “Real” Criminals Because

They Don’t Operate in the “Real World”

Many cybercriminals buy into this myth themselves—or at least they use it to justify and rationalize their behavior. Even people who stop short of illegal activity often behave online in ways they would not think of behaving in their

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“real lives”—lying, cheating on their spouses via “virtual” relationships, or merely acting rude and obnoxious.

This phenomenon is so commonplace that an entire field of study, cyberpsy-

chology, has grown up around it. Publications such as CyberPsychology & Behavior

(www.liebertpub.com/CPB/default1.asp), professional mailing lists, and Web sites such as the Computer-Mediated Communication (CMC) Studies Center

(www.december.com/cmc/study/center.html) have examined the double illusion of unreality and anonymity that leads people to behave differently (and often badly) in cyberspace.

Technology such as online chat, multiple-user dungeons (MUDs), and virtual reality programs have distorted some users’ ability to distinguish between what is real and what is unreal. Many Internet users, especially those who are new to the online world, seem to see the people on the other end of their modem line as akin to characters in an interactive program, and they see the interactions and relationships they engage in with those people as nothing more than a game.

Because these people are not being their “real selves” in online interactions, they perhaps believe that no one else is, either. Hence, it becomes okay in their minds to concoct elaborate stories and deceptions, which might cross the line into illegal fraud. Furthermore, because they can sign on using pseudonyms (online services like AOL let you easily and quickly create new screen names, making it even more tempting to do so), they think nobody knows who they are or what they do online. For those people who have no real internal controls in the form of personal ethics and morals and who behave “properly” only out of fear of external consequences (societal disapproval or jail), this forum provides an excuse to throw off all inhibitions. Add to this the anecdotal evidence that many of those who frequent chat rooms lower their inhibitions even further by indulging in alcohol while they surf the Net, and you have a recipe for antisocial behavior.

Of course, this idea that nothing online is real and therefore nothing you do there “counts” is a fallacy. But it’s an old trick of the criminal to depersonalize his or her victims; seeing them as something less than true human beings makes it easier to hurt them.This self-deception is made much easier in cyberspace because they never have to see the faces or hear the voices of the people they’re victimizing; the people with whom the criminal deals can conveniently remain nothing more than words on a computer screen.

Cybercriminals Are Never Violent

Because the Internet is more a virtual than a physical medium, it seems logical to assume that even if cybercrime is real crime, it isn’t violent crime. After all, it’s the

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ability to commit their crimes from a distance that attracts many criminals to the

Net in the first place.

It’s true that a large percentage of reported cybercrimes are frauds, thefts, and cases of unauthorized access. However, it is interesting to note that the most frequently reported cybercrime in the Cybersnitch database (www.cybersnitch.net) is child pornography, which is generally classified as a violent or potentially violent crime for two reasons: the harm done to the children who are used to make the photographs, and the potential of the material to incite pedophiles to act out their fantasies with real children. Hacker intrusions are the second most frequently reported crime type; the third is electronic stalking, which can also be considered a violent crime because it terrorizes the victim, and cyberstalkers have often been known to progress to actually stalking their victims in real life.

Some people might argue that child porn and cyberstalking aren’t in themselves physically violent crimes, but it would be difficult to make such a claim of the predators who use the Internet to find vulnerable people they can lure into a meeting in order to rape, assault, or kill them. In addition to these violent offenders who usually act alone, the terrorists who use the Internet to raise money, plan their activities, recruit new members, and communicate with one another are violent criminals of the most dangerous sort.

Cybercriminals, like criminals in general, span a continuum that reaches from the kid whose curiosity causes him or her to try hacking into someone’s network just to see if it can be done, with no intent to do damage, all the way up to the men who carried out the attack on the World Trade Center in New York City.

This realization leads us to our last misconception.

All Cybercriminals Neatly Fit One Profile

We might be able to construct a profile of the type of person who commits a particular cybercrime, but it is impossible to create one profile that fits all cybercriminals, just as it is impossible to make an accurate profile of all traffic law violators.The casual speeder is likely to have a different personality and different motivations from the habitual drunk driver or the outraged motorist who uses his vehicle as a weapon to mow down pedestrians. Likewise, the computer scam artist is an entirely different creature from the cyberstalker, who is, in turn, nothing like the typical hacker.

Even within a particular category of cybercrime, the physiology, psychology, and motivations of each cybercriminal is different from every other. Nonetheless, some commonalities allow us to paint a very broad picture of the “typical” cybercriminal.We must keep in mind, however, that in order for a profile to be useful in our investigations, it must be based on the facts of an individual case.

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Constructing a Profile of the Typical Cybercriminal

As a first step in building a profile (and remembering that it is only the first step), we can look at some generalities that, more often than not, apply to cybercriminals in all categories. It is important to see these characteristics as probabilities, not as absolute rules.There are exceptions to each case.That said, a majority of cybercriminals exhibit at least some of these characteristics:

At least a minimal amount of technical savvy

This assumption is based on common sense. Although, as we’ve mentioned before, it is easier than ever to get online without being a computer whiz, most people who use the Internet for illegal purposes are able to find their way around in cyberspace without a lot of assistance. People generally use the tools with which they feel comfortable, especially when engaging in high-risk activities such as committing crime. In order to use the Internet to carry out a planned act such as a crime, you must be capable of basic tasks such as sending e-mail, surfing the Web, or logging onto a chat line. Some crimes require a good deal more expertise.The

typical cybercriminal isn’t a computerphobe or someone who’s just signed onto the Net for the first time.

Disregard for the law or a feeling of being above or beyond the law

Few people, including criminals, think of themselves as “bad.”

Most—though not all—lawbreakers justify their actions by instead seeing the laws themselves (at least the ones they break) as bad laws.

Cybercriminals, like other habitual criminals, often exhibit disregard or disdain for the law.They are not the types of people who believe you should comply with the law just because it’s the law. Rather, they tend to believe that laws they consider unreasonable are fair game to be broken.

In some cases, they feel that they themselves, because of their special skills, intelligence, positions, or circumstances, are above the law. For example, an employee who regards the common thief as a crook might believe that embezzling money from his or her employer is okay because the company underpays and overworks its employees. Other cybercriminals believe that the law simply doesn’t apply in cyberspace, hearkening back to the “unreality” aspect we mentioned earlier.

An active fantasy life

Many cybercriminals use the Internet as an outlet for their fantasies.They often construct entirely new personas that they use online—both to hide their true identities and avoid detection and because they enjoy “playing the part” of someone different from

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■ themselves. Con artists can concoct elaborate schemes based on their fantasies. Cyberstalkers build fantasies around their victims. Child pornographers deal in sexual fantasies. Hackers fantasize about “hacking the world,” gaining control over other people by controlling their computer systems.This ties into the next common characteristic of cybercriminals.

A “control freak” and/or risk-taking nature

Criminals often expend more energy, for less practical return, in committing crimes than they would if they turned their efforts to more socially acceptable work.

Why then do they engage in such high-risk behavior? For some, it is the risk of getting caught, the thrill of doing something that’s forbidden, that makes a life of crime attractive. For others, it is the sense of control they get from manipulating or outwitting others. Although these two characteristics seem to conflict, they can exist simultaneously in the same person.

The risk-taking element provides the “rush,” while escaping detection one more time makes the cybercriminal feel safe and in control.

Strong motivations—but the motivations might be wildly different

As noted, it takes time and energy to commit most crimes. It takes extra effort, and a certain amount of skill, to commit cybercrimes.

Most cybercriminals are strongly motivated, but the motivations range from just wanting to have fun to the need or desire for money, emotional or sexual impulses, political motives, or dark compulsions caused by mental illness or psychiatric conditions. Discerning the motivation for a particular crime is an important aspect of building a useful profile of the criminal who committed it.

Recognizing Criminal Motivations

In the words of one police academy instructor, “Why do criminals commit crimes? Because they’re criminals.” If only it were that simple. People break the law for many different reasons. Some of those reasons might even seem reasonable, such as the out-of-work mother with no money left who steals baby food to feed her child. On the other hand, many people in dire straits find solutions to their problems that don’t involve breaking the law. Some cybercriminals—for example, the longtime loyal employee who suddenly embezzles company funds to pay unexpected medical bills or get a relative out of trouble—might do so out of desperation, too. Most, though, are driven by far less noble motives: greed, anger, lust, or just plain boredom.

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Why does motive matter? In many jurisdictions, an important element of proving guilt is showing that the accused possesses each component of the socalled crime triangle: means (a way to commit the crime), motive (a reason for committing the crime), and opportunity (being in the right place at the right time to commit the crime).Thus understanding the criminal’s motive is useful at two points in the investigation: when we are creating a profile to help us identify the correct suspect(s) and later when we present the case against our suspect.

Common motives for committing cybercrimes include:

Just for fun

Monetary profit

Anger, revenge, and other emotional needs

Political motives

Sexual impulses

Serious psychiatric illness

Let’s examine each of these motives individually and look at how each can apply to the cybercriminal.

Just for Fun

Young hackers are the cybercriminals most likely to fall into this category.

According to J. Maxwell in the Electronic Data Processing Audit, Control, and Security

Newsletter (cited at http://faculty.ncwc.edu/toconnor/315/315lec12.htm), the hackers who do it for fun can be further broken down into several categories:

Pioneer types, who are fascinated by the technology.They enjoy learning how the systems work via a trial-and-error process and hack as a learning experience.

Scamps,” playful hackers who don’t intend to do any harm.This is the type who might hack into a Web site and leave an innocuous message such as “J.B. was here.”

Explorers, who get their kicks out of “going where no hacker has gone before”—or at least, where they themselves have never been.Their

curiosity leads them to break into networks just to look around and see what’s there.

Game players, who look at hacking into systems as a game, pitting themselves against the network’s security measures and motivated by the desire to “win” by breaking in.

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Another of Maxwell’s hacker personality types, the addict, might start as any of these character types but becomes psychologically dependent on the activity. At that point, the pioneer, scamp, explorer, or gamester is no longer really hacking just for fun, but because he or she needs to hack in order to feel okay or normal.

The distinguishing characteristic of the “for fun” hacker is enjoyment. Unlike other cybercriminals who use the computer and Internet as the means to an end, for these hackers, hacking is an end in itself.They might view the computer as a toy and the entire Internet as their playground.

These “for fun” hackers realize no practical or financial gain from their hacking; in fact, hacking could be an expensive hobby for those who are continually upgrading their own computer systems to make the hacking experience faster and more satisfying.

Monetary Profit

If love of money is the root of all evil, it’s no surprise that many cybercrimes— like many offline crimes—are motivated by the desire for financial gain. “Hacking for dollars” can cover many different offenses, including embezzlement, corporate espionage, and selling one’s hacking services to others who have monetary or nonmonetary motives (the “hacker for hire”).

Most cyberscam artists are in it for the money.Their motive could be to get money into their own hands or obtain properties or services without paying.

Money-motivated cybercriminals come in all “flavors”—male, female, young, old, wealthy, poor, or middle class. Some never made it through high school; others have advanced degrees. White-collar criminals (embezzlers, trade-secret thieves, and the like) tend to be educated professionals, often in the midst of career stagnation or burnout. Scam artists are usually sociable and charming, able to persuade others to do what they want. Hired hacks are generally highly skilled technicians who, in their own eyes, are “just doing a job.”

Anger, Revenge, and Other Emotional Motivators

Money is not the only motive, or even the strongest one, for committing crimes.

Many criminal offenses, especially those that involve violence (and threat of violence) or property destruction, are committed out of emotional motivations: anger, rage, or revenge for real or imagined wrongs.

Anger can drive people to do things they otherwise might not. Psychologists note that dealing with a person who is very angry, hurt, or emotionally distraught is like dealing with someone who is mentally disturbed or under the influence of alcohol or drugs. Indeed, strong emotions cause a release of adrenaline, which

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does act on the body and brain like a drug, resulting in both physiological and psychological changes (enhanced physical strength, heightened alertness, “tunnel vision,” or obsession with the problem immediately at hand). A very angry person

is—temporarily, at least—an emotionally disturbed person.

Cybercriminals who act out of anger might be spurned lovers or spouses, fired employees, business associates who feel they’ve been cheated or ripped off, or others who believe some great wrong has been done to them or someone they care about.Their crimes range from terrorist threats (for example, e-mail threatening to assault or kill someone) to defacing a company’s Web site with profanities or bringing down an organization’s network with DoS attacks or computer viruses.

Revenge differs from anger in that it is usually better planned and not an immediate response.This makes it a less emotional act; consequently, it could be more dangerous because the vengeance-motivated cybercriminal has more time to think through the plan, cover his or her tracks, and reduce the probability of being caught.

Almost anyone, pushed hard enough and far enough, is capable of lashing out in anger.Thus the anger-motivated cybercriminal can be someone who doesn’t ordinarily engage in criminal activity.The crime could seem completely out of character. Just as an investigator asks, in the case of a money-motivated crime,

“Who was in a position to benefit financially?” the investigator should approach a crime that appears to be motivated by anger with the question, “Who has been harmed or is close to someone who has been harmed by the victim?”

Anger and revenge are not the only motives that involve emotions.

Cybercriminals commit crimes out of other emotional and psychological needs.

For example, hackers could break into protected systems in order to prove themselves to their friends, to obtain a sense of belonging to the group. In fact, hackers sometimes commit acts in groups that they would not commit individually.The

“crowd mentality” (or mob mentality, in extreme cases) is a phenomenon with which psychologists are familiar and is something most law enforcement officers are aware of. Large groups can take on personalities of their own, becoming more or other than the sum of their parts. Hackers might egg one another on, daring each other to go farther, with no one willing to be the first to say “no” and lose status in the eyes of his or her peers.

Hackers also commit crimes to gain attention.This is especially true of teenage hackers who want to embarrass their families or simply make family members or authority figures notice them.

Another emotional motivation for hacking is loyalty to a friend or the desire to “help” someone—for example, the high school hacker who doesn’t want his

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girlfriend to flunk calculus and have to go to summer school, so he breaks into the school’s computer system and changes her grade from an F to a C.

Political Motives

Politically motivated cybercriminals include members of extremist and radical groups at both ends of the political spectrum who use the Internet to spread propaganda, attack the Web sites and networks of their political enemies, steal money to fund their militant activities, or plan and coordinate their “real-world” crimes.

Examples include:

The 1996 case in which “hacktivists” infiltrated the U.S. DoJ through its

Web site, deleted the DoJ’s Web files and replaced them with their own pages protesting the recently passed Communications Decency Act

The rash of Web site defacements that included the message “Free

Kevin” (in reference to Kevin Mitnick, who was arrested for computer crimes) in 1998

The “cyberwars” between U.S. and Chinese hackers in the summer of

2000, following international disputes over the landing of a U.S. spy plane in China

Cybercriminals with political motivations range from relatively benign hackers who just want to make a political statement to organized terrorist groups such as Hezbollah, Hamas, and al Qa’ida. Cyberterrorism refers to using the

Internet and computer skills to disrupt or shut down the critical infrastructure and government services of a country. Although no such large-scale attacks have thus far been implemented at this writing, security experts warn that such attacks are or will be within the capabilities of some terrorist organizations and could pose a huge threat to government and business operations.

The politically motivated cybercriminal usually devotes a good deal of time to his or her cause and often (though by no means always) has a prior criminal record for offenses such as criminal trespass, rioting, and similar activities.True

terrorists are especially dangerous because they are willing to die for their cause.

They also often have large networks of like-minded people they can call on to help them carry out their missions and to hide them from law enforcement.

Sexual Impulses

Sex is one of the strongest instincts in any animal, including humans.

Psychologists and psychiatrists argue over what causes normal sexual feelings to become perverted, but there is no question that sexual deviance (defined as

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sexual behavior that is out of the norm or breaks societal rules) is common among certain types of criminals.

Not all sexually deviant behavior is illegal or considered harmful. However, when sexual arousal becomes associated with violence or with inappropriate objects of desire, such as children, serious harm and criminal activity can result.

Sexually motivated cybercriminals include these types:

Passive pedophiles, who use the Internet to access and download kiddie porn and use photos and stories of children engaging in sex (usually with adults) to feed their own fantasies. Even if they never act out those fantasies in real life, in the United States and many other countries, it is illegal to even possess child pornography in photographic form.This law is based on the assumption that children were harmed in the making of the pictures.The pornography laws generally apply to visual depictions only; the written word (stories about child sex) is protected by the First

Amendment.The issue of “virtual child pornography” that uses highquality, computer-generated images instead of real photographs is a matter of intense debate. In April 2002, the Supreme Court struck down the federal laws making this form of kiddie porn illegal. At the time of this writing, the Justice Department and members of Congress were intent on rewriting those laws more narrowly, in a way that would outlaw virtual child pornography that is indistinguishable from the real thing while still allowing the law to pass Constitutional muster.

Active pedophiles, who use the Internet to find their victims.These criminals usually also collect child pornography, but they don’t stop at fantasies.They often hang out in chat rooms that are frequented by children and engage them in virtual conversations, attempting to gain their trust and lure them into an in-person meeting.They might then rape the children, or they could simply “court” them, preferring to gradually seduce them into sexual relationships. Because children under a certain age (which varies from one state to another) are not considered capable of consenting to sex, sexual conduct with a minor is still a crime, even if the child agrees to it. Usually the offense is defined as statutory rape or some category of sexual assault.

Fans of S&M, or sadomasochistic sex, who are aroused either by inflicting pain on others (sadists) or by having pain inflicted on them

(masochists). Although S&M behavior between consenting adults is generally not considered a crime, some sadistic individuals hunt for partners

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■ on the Internet and then take the activities beyond the level that the partner bargained for or consented to, seriously injuring or sometimes even killing their victims.

Serial rapists, who develop relationships (hetero- or homosexual) online and then invite their victims to meet in real life, only to rape them.

Serial rapists often have problems performing sexually in a normal, loving situation.They are able to become aroused only when the sex is violent and forced. Psychologists call rape an anger-motivated or powermotivated crime rather than a sexually motivated one, but sex is certainly an important element, if only as the “tool of the crime.”

Sexual serial killers, who—like serial rapists—cruise Internet chat rooms and forums looking for victims. Psychiatric literature recognizes two types of serial killers: organized and disorganized. The organized killer is often of above-average intelligence, socially gregarious and charming, and is usually married or living with a partner. Disorganized killers are almost exactly the opposite; their IQ is usually below average, and they are socially inadequate loners and are anxious during the commission of the crime. Organized killers tend to be very controlled and unemotional and are often diagnosed (as was Ted Bundy, one of the country’s most famous sexual serial killers) as sociopathic. In fact, sexual serial killers, despite the sexual motivation for their crimes, belong in the next category of motivation: serious psychiatric illness.

Serious Psychiatric Illness

Criminal behavior is not, itself, indicative of mental illness. If it were, perhaps it could be treated medically. However, some criminals are motivated to engage in illegal and antisocial behavior by underlying psychiatric conditions, especially those conditions that manifest themselves in symptoms such as lack of impulse control and lack of inhibition, hallucinations and delusions, paranoia, hyperactivity, and inability to concentrate or possession of impaired communications skills.

Persons suffering from personality disorders, schizophrenia, bipolar affective disorder, aggression, depression, adjustment disorders, and sexual disorders such as paraphilias are prone to criminal behavior, according to Psychiatric Illness Associated

with Criminality, by William H.Wilson, MD, and Kathleen A.Trott, MD

(www.emedicine.com/med/topic3485.htm). Illegal conduct can also stem from drug- or alcohol-induced psychosis or conditions caused by traumatic brain injury.

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It might be easier for such persons to hide their mental illness in the online community, where they don’t have to come into physical contact with others, than in the offline world. Cybercrime that is motivated by psychiatric illness can be difficult to investigate and solve, precisely because the criminal’s motivations don’t seem logical or rational.We can understand why a money-motivated offender commits crimes, even though we don’t approve of the behavior.

However, we might not be able to easily understand the actions of a mentally ill person.

Recognizing the Limitations of Statistical Analysis

According to author Samuel Clemens, writing under the famous pseudonym

Mark Twain, “There are three kinds of lies: lies, damn lies, and statistics.” Many members of the public are suspicious of statistical analysis and statistics-based arguments, and rightly so. Everyone who has worked with statistical data or has followed both sides in a political campaign knows that the same set of facts can be manipulated during presentation to support divergent conclusions.

Criminal profiles are based on probabilities.The probabilities are based on statistical patterns that have been discerned by studying similar past cases. As we’ve seen, profiling can be a useful tool, and cybercrime investigators—who face special challenges due to the complexity and global nature of the Internet—need all the tools they can get. However, it is important to remember that a carefully constructed profile can be completely wrong.The investigation should shape the profile; the profile should never shape the investigation.

Categorizing Cybercriminals

In Chapter 1, we discussed the importance of categorizing cybercrimes. In the previous section, we touched on one way that cybercriminals could be categorized, based on their motivations for committing crimes.There is another way to categorize Internet-using offenders: by the role that the Internet plays in their criminal activity.This role generally breaks down into two broad categories:

Criminals who use the Net as a tool of the crime

Criminals who use the Net incidentally to the crime

In the following sections, we examine the differences between these two categories.We also take a look at a special category of cybercriminal: the one who would never engage in illegal activity in “real life” but who becomes a criminal via an online persona.

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Criminals Who Use the Net as a Tool of the Crime

Many types of cybercrime depend on the use of a computer network to accomplish the criminal act.This doesn’t mean that the same offense couldn’t be committed without computers and networks; it means that in this instance, the network was directly used to commit the crime.

Here’s an analogy to make it easier to understand this concept: A murder can be committed using any of a number of methods—a gun, a knife, poison, even a motor vehicle. Although the end result (death of the victim) is the same in all cases, the killing cannot be done in the same way if the tool is different. Likewise, an embezzler could steal company money without using a network, but it would be done in a different way. If the embezzler does use a network to divert funds, the network is a tool of that crime.

A network can be used as a crime tool by different types of cybercriminals.

Most frequently, a network is used as a tool by:

White-collar criminals

Computer con artists

Hackers, crackers, and network attackers

White-Collar Criminals

The term white-collar criminal is derived, of course, from the image of the office worker or professional who traditionally wears business attire (white shirt and tie) to work.White-collar cybercrimes can include many different offenses, such as:

Changing company computer records to provide the criminal with an unauthorized pay raise or to eliminate or change bad employee evaluations or pad expense accounts

Accessing and using insider information for purchasing stocks or securities, which are U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) violations

Selling company information to outsiders; using insider information to obtain kickbacks from clients, business partners, or competitors; or using confidential information for blackmail purposes

Manipulating electronic accounts to appropriate the company’s or clients’ money or property for oneself

“Cooking” the company books or financial statements to provide false information to creditors, investors, the Internal Revenue Service, internal auditors, and so on—often to cover other crimes

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Studies of white-collar crime have shown that these offenders can fall into several subcategories, based on their underlying motivations:

The resentful white-collar criminal cheats the company because he or she feels cheated by the company.This is often a long-time employee who has been passed over several times for a raise or promotion or has received a negative employee evaluation that, in the employee’s eyes, is undeserved.These cybercriminals adopt something of a Robin Hood mentality, convinced that they are merely taking from the rich company—which can afford the loss and even deserves it—and giving to the poor (usually themselves).

The deliberate white-collar criminal has no personal ethics that would prohibit stealing. Unlike the previously described offender, there is no period of building anger or resentment; this type begins criminal activity as soon as the opportunity arises.These cybercriminals can be quite bright and plan their crimes meticulously.They often have a timeline or monetary goal in mind; the master plan is to put the stolen money away in a safe place (such as an offshore bank account). After a certain number of years or after a specific amount of cash is built up, they plan to retire and live in luxury someplace beyond the jurisdiction of the law.They are often very disciplined and careful, taking only small amounts of money at a time so as not to be noticed.

The desperate white-collar criminal steals in response to serious personal financial problems.These problems can be unpredictable, such as a medical or legal crisis in the family. More often, though, they are the result of bad judgment: gambling, alcohol, or drug problems, losing money in bad business investments, or living beyond their means to impress others.

These cybercriminals are often careless, becoming more blatant as their situations worsen.Thus they are the most likely type of white-collar cybercriminal to be caught.

White-collar criminals often give themselves away by leaving clues that arouse investigators’ suspicions, such as:

Unexplained income, property, or lifestyle that is far greater than the person’s job makes feasible

Many large cash transactions

Multiple bank accounts in different banks, especially banks in different cities or countries

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Multiple businesses listed at the same address

“Paper” corporations that have no physical assets and seem to make no product and provide no services

A detailed list of types of white-collar crimes and scams is available at the

National Check Fraud Center Web site at www.ckfraud.org/whitecollar.html.

Some of the crimes described on this list more appropriately belong in our next section, about computer con artists.

Cri

mestoppers…

The White-Collar Crime Fighter

White-Collar Crime Fighter magazine is a good source of information about white-collar crime, with tips and tricks on how to avoid being victimized and information for law enforcement officers and prosecutors who deal with white-collar offenses. A sample copy and subscription information are available on the magazine’s Web site at www.wccfighter.com.

Computer Con Artists

Con artists use the Internet as a tool, to reach “marks” (their terminology for victims) that they could never reach otherwise. E-mail,Web sites and chat rooms can all become tools for scammers to propagate their fraudulent schemes.

According to the Online Buyer’s Guide (at www.netaction.org/shoppers/ fraud.html), the FTC lists the most frequently reported “dot-cons” as:

Internet auctions

Bidders send their money but do not receive the promised product, or they receive property that is not what it was represented to be.

Internet service scams

Customers prepay for access services and then companies fold and disappear, or customers are enticed into paying for services they don’t want (for example, by official-looking notices that imply that you will lose your domain name registration if you don’t send money to the scam artist). In another variation, an ISP mailed checks for

$3.50 to people on a mailing list; unless the recipients read the fine print, they didn’t realize that by cashing the check, they were agreeing to

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■ purchase Internet services that would be billed through their phone companies.

Credit card fraud

This type of fraud involves individuals and shady companies that pretend to (or actually do) sell a service or product via credit card, for the purpose of collecting the victim’s credit card information and using it to make fraudulent purchases.Transferring the information from a card to another counterfeit card is a practice called

skimming.

International modem dialing

Internet users are persuaded to download a free dialer or viewer program (often for the purpose of downloading “free” pornography) that disconnects their modems and redials an international long distance number or pay-per-minute 900 number that results in huge, unexpected charges on the user’s phone bill.

Web “cramming”

This crime involves offers for free services such as

Web hosting for a trial period with no obligation, after which users are charged on their phone bills or credit cards, even though they never agreed to continue the service after the trial period. (See www.ftc.gov/ bcp/conline/pubs/alerts/webalrt.htm for more information.)

Multilevel marketing (MLM) and pyramid schemes

Con artists play on users’ greed and desire to get rich quick by signing recruits—for a hefty fee—and promising them huge profits if they recruit others.The

chain letter is a variation on the pyramid scheme, as is the Ponzi scheme

(named after Charles Ponzi, who successfully defrauded hundreds of people using this method in the 1920s). All these con games were around long before the Internet, but today’s ability to communicate quickly and easily with a huge number of people all over the world has given them new life. (See http://skepdic.com/pyramid.html for detailed explanations of how the pyramid, chain letter, Ponzi, and other MLM schemes work—and why they don’t work for the naïve recruits who are their victims.)

Travel and vacation scams

These are the Internet-age variant on a time-honored telemarketing con. Travel “bargains” and “free” vacation scams (that include all manner of hidden costs) abound.These include selling frequent-flyer miles that are on the verge of expiration, selling travel vouchers in conjunction with pyramid schemes, bait-and-switch offers, and other too-good-to-be-true travel deals.

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Business and investment “opportunities”

These range from workat-home scams that require you to purchase an expensive starter kit and don’t provide actual jobs to day-trading programs and solicitations for investment in worthless real estate. According to the Better Business

Bureau (www.bbb.org/library/faithscams.asp), the number of investment con artists who attempt to take advantage of their victims’ religious beliefs has been rising dramatically. The SEC maintains a Web site on how to prevent Internet investment scams at www.sec.gov/investor/ pubs/cyberfraud.htm.

Scams involving health-care products and services

These include weight loss, antiaging, and alternative health products that are marketed under false or unproven claims; online prescription drug sales that don’t require the patient to be seen by a physician; multilevel marketing of health products; and other con games that seek to take advantage of people who are ill or frightened about their health. A number of organizations and agencies exist to combat health-care fraud, such as the

National Council Against Health Fraud (www.ncahf.org).

Cri

mestoppers…

The FTC Scam Line

The Federal Trade Commission provides consumer information, takes complaints, and maintains a database of companies reported to engage in online fraud. Consumers who have been victims of fraud or deceptive or unfair business practices (online or off) can contact the agency via their toll-free telephone help line at 1-877-FTC-HELP, or they can fill out the online complaint form at https://rn.ftc.gov/dod/ wsolcq$.startup?Z_ORG_CODE=PU01. Internet fraud cases, telemarketing frauds, and identity theft cases are entered into a secure database called the Consumer Sentinel (www.consumer.gov/sentinel).

The database is made available to law enforcement agencies all over the world. The state attorney general’s office in most states also handles these types of fraud cases.

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A good source of news, information, and links pertaining to all types of con games and fraud cases (including a Scam Alerts section) is the Scams & Swindles site at www.swindles.com.This site is updated daily. Scamwatch, part of

InterGOV International (www.scamwatch.com), is another good resource for reporting scams and other crimes. A huge number of scams are listed in the

InterGOV database; as well as the FTC’s most frequently reported types, these include gambling scams, credit-repair scams, college degree scams, prize offer scams, and many more.

Hackers, Crackers, and Network Attackers

The network is an important tool that makes white-collar criminals’ and scam artists’ “jobs” easier, but it is an absolutely essential tool for hackers. It would be impossible for hackers to commit their crimes without the Net.

In Chapter 1 we discussed the types of crimes hackers commit: unauthorized access, theft of data or services, and destructive cybercrimes such as Web site defacement, release of viruses, DoS and other attacks that bring down the server or network. In Chapter 6, you will learn the technical details of how most of these attacks work.

Hackers learn their “craft” in a number of ways: by trial and error, by studying network operating systems and protocols with an eye to learning their vulnerabilities, and perhaps most significantly, from other hackers.There is an enormous underground network (in the traditional, rather than technical, sense of the word) where those new to hacking can get information and learn from more experienced hackers.

Web sites such as www.2600.com (originally a phone phreakers’ magazine), www.hackers.com (which advertises itself as “for hacker to housewife, student to scientist”), and www.atomicvoid.net (a source of hack/attack tools) provide opportunities to meet other hackers online. So do newsgroups such as alt.hackers

and alt.2600.hackerz and mailing lists such as the FreeBSD Hackers Digest at

FreeBSD.org. Online papers such as How to Become a Hacker (www.tuxedo.org/

~esr/faqs/hacker-howto.html) provide guidance to people who are attracted to the hacker lifestyle. Hacker conferences such as DEF CON and the Black Hat

Briefings provide real-world opportunities for hackers to meet. Interestingly, the organizations that sponsor these meetings have become more and more mainstream over the past few years, now attracting security professionals and government officials as well as hackers.

There is a definite hierarchy in the hacker community. “Real” hackers— expert programmers and networking wizards who write the code and discover

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the exploits—have disdain for the script kiddies who merely use software written by others to break into systems or launch attacks, without really understanding how it works.The hacker culture also divides itself into two groups:

Black hats

break into systems illegally, for personal gain, notoriety, or other less-than-legitimate purposes.

White hats

write and test open-source software, work for corporations to help them beef up their security, work for the government to help catch and prosecute black-hat hackers, and otherwise use their hacking skills for noble and legal purposes.

There are also hackers who refer to themselves as gray hats, operating somewhere between the two primary groups. Gray-hat hackers might break the law, but they consider themselves to have a noble purpose in doing so. For example, they might crack systems without authorization and then notify the system owners of the systems’ fallibility as a “public service,” or find security holes in software and then publish them in order to force the software vendors to create patches or fixes for the problem.

N

OTE

The white-hat/black-hat distinction has become more muddled as former criminal hackers have gone on the lecture circuit or gotten corporate jobs as security experts and as organizations like Black Hat, Inc., have added a “white-hat track” to their conference training programs. Only in old Western movies can you rely on a person’s hat color as a dependable indication of his character. In today’s cyberworld, most people— including hackers—are neither all good nor all bad. A hacker who identifies him- or herself as a white-hat hacker might succumb to the temptation to engage in an illegal act, and a self-professed black hat can reform and become one of the “good guys.”

So-called “ethical hacking” can be a lucrative business, if a hacker has the requisite skills, including the social skills necessary to function in the corporate world. Consultants charge companies $10,000 or more to test their security by attempting to hack into their systems and providing reports and recommendations on plugging the security holes that they find. (See www.research.ibm.com/ journal/sj/403/palmer.html for more information about ethical hacking.)

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Criminals Who Use the Net

Incidentially to the Crime

Some criminals use the network in relation to their crimes, but the Net is not an actual tool of the crimes.That is, the network is not used to commit the criminal activity, although it can be used to prepare for or keep records of that criminal activity. Examples of this type of criminality include:

Criminals who use the Net to find victims

Criminals who use computers or networks for record keeping

Criminals who use e-mail or chat services to correspond with accomplices

Even in cases in which the network is not a tool of the crime, it can still provide evidence of criminal intent and clues that help investigators track down the criminals.We discuss each of these situations in the following sections.

Criminals Who Use the Net to Find Victims

It might seem that using the Net to find victims would make it a tool of the crime. In some cases, the criminal goes on to use the Internet to actually commit the crime—for example, sending electronic chain letters, e-mailing fictitious notices purporting to be from the victims’ ISPs that request their credit card information, or directing victims to a Web site that tries to sell them products under false pretenses). In those cases, the Internet is a tool of the crime, but the initial act of searching out potential victims is not, by itself, criminal.Thus a pedophile or rapist or other criminal who uses the Net to find victims but then commits the criminal activity in the real world is using the Internet incidentally to the crime.

However, the Internet can be used to set up a sting operation that will turn the tables and lure the criminal into revealing his identity to law enforcement.

Criminals Who Use Computers or Networks for Record Keeping

People who engage in noncomputer-related criminal activity such as drug dealing, illegal gambling, or other illicit “businesses” can use computers to keep financial records, customer lists, and other information related to the criminal activity and use the Internet to transfer these files to an offsite location where they will be safer from law enforcement.

Transferring business records to a friend’s computer or an Internet data storage service is not against the law, so Net use is incidental to this criminal activity, even though those files might be important evidence of the actual crime.

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Criminals Who Use E-mail or Chat Services to Correspond with Accomplices

Criminals who work in groups—terrorist groups, theft rings, black-hat hackers— often use e-mail and chat in the same way that legitimate users do: to correspond with people they work with.The correspondence itself is not a crime; it is the illegal activity being planned or discussed that is criminal. However, the correspondence can be used not only to show the criminal’s intent and help track him down but also, in some cases, to prove the existence of a criminal conspiracy.This

is important because if the elements of conspiracy exist, charges can be brought against all members of the conspiracy, not just the person(s) who physically committed the crime.

Cy

berLaw Review…

Criminal Conspiracy

The wording of conspiracy statutes varies in different jurisdictions, but most states address conspiracy as an inchoate or preparatory offense.

The conspiracy charge is a separate offense, but it must be charged in conjunction with another criminal offense. Generally, a criminal conspiracy exists when two or more persons agree that one or more of them will commit a felony offense and one or more of the conspirators performs some overt act in furtherance of the agreement. In other words, if in court the prosecution can show (for example, via e-mail collected pursuant to a search warrant or intercepted legally under court order) that such agreement was made and can further prove that at least one of the parties took some step toward committing the crime, all parties can be charged with criminal conspiracy, whether or not the crime was completed successfully.

Real-Life Noncriminals Who

Commit Crimes Online

In some situations, people who are not criminals in real life engage in criminal conduct online.These include accidental cybercriminals and situational cybercriminals. Accidental cybercriminals have no criminal intent.They commit illegal acts online because of ignorance of the law or lack of familiarity with the technology.

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An example is someone who has a cable modem connection or is using the broadband Internet access available in some hotels and opens up the Network

Neighborhood folder on his computer (the network browse list) and sees other computers listed there. Curious, he might click one of the icons just to see what happens. If he has stumbled upon a computer on the network that is running a low-security operating system or doesn’t require a username and password to log on, and it has network file sharing enabled, he might be able to access the shared files on that computer.

If our hypothetical user is not very technically or legally savvy, he might not even realize that those files are on someone else’s private (or so the owner thought!) computer. Or he might think that because they’re accessible, it is legal to look at them. However, depending on how the state’s unauthorized access statutes are written, it might be a crime to access any other computer across a network without permission, even if that computer’s users have, perhaps unwittingly, made it technologically easy to do so.

The behavior of situational cybercriminals reflects an interesting phenomenon that we discussed earlier—the psychological dissociation experienced by some people when they go online.This dissociation can cause some people who, in real life, consider themselves upstanding, law-abiding citizens and would never deliberately commit a crime to engage in illegal activity when they don their “alternate persona” while online.

These people might have repressed desires to indulge in illicit conduct that they control through self-discipline but which they feel free to unleash when they log onto the Internet because there they can be (in their own minds) “someone else.”

They literally lead double lives, like a modern-day [email protected]

Understanding Cybervictims

The term victim is derived from the Latin word victima, which means “an animal offered as a sacrifice.”Today the word is used to refer to someone or something that is harmed by some act or circumstance.The crime victim is the person to

whom the crime happens, the one who is harmed by a criminal’s illegal act.

The field of victimology involves collecting data about, and in effect profiling, the victims of crime.This information is useful for several reasons:

It allows law enforcement officers to predict what people or personality types are likely to become victims of certain crimes and warn them.This

in turn gives the potential victims the opportunity to take steps to protect themselves.

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It allows law enforcement officers to better profile the criminal, because patterns in victim choice are an important part of the criminal profile.

It allows law enforcement officers to use the victim profile to bait criminals, to draw them out into the open.

The victim of a crime is often the key witness against the offender. Using victimology techniques, even a deceased victim can provide important clues for investigators. According to Amy Goldman, author of The Importance of Victimology

in Criminal Profiling, “Each question answered regarding the victim is actually a window to the offender’s psyche and, in turn, answers questions about the offender.”

On

the Scene…

Using Victimology to Develop a Sting

Officers had been investigating an online pedophile who was suspected of luring children into in-person meetings and raping them. An undercover office created an online persona—that of a 12-year-old girl— based on the characteristics of a pedophile’s past victims. The officer then frequented the chat rooms where the offender was known to hang out, in hopes that the pedophile would try to set up a real-life meeting with the officer in her guise as a child. In this way, police could monitor the meeting place and positively identify the criminal.

It is very important, in any sting operation, to avoid committing entrapment, which will cause evidence against the offender to be thrown out of court. Generally, courts have held that officers can “provide a mere opportunity” for someone to commit a crime—as the officer in our example did by pretending to be a child who fit the profile of the pedophile’s victims and waiting for the pedophile to initiate contact and pursue her. Entrapment occurs when officers go beyond providing the opportunity, overtly attempting to induce, entice, or persuade the suspect to commit the criminal act. For example, if our officer (playing the role of the child) had contacted the pedophile, had “come on” to him and asked him to meet her for sex, that could be held to constitute entrapment.

Categorizing Victims of Cybercrime

We can create categories of cybercrime victims, just as we were able to do with cybercriminals. Again, it is important to note that not all victims fit neatly into

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these categories, and some of the categories overlap at times. Some common victim characteristics include:

People who are new to the Net

People who are naturally naïve

People who are disabled or disadvantaged

“Desperados” who are greedy, lonely, or have other emotional needs

Pseudo-victims who report having been victimized but actually were not

People who are simply unlucky enough to be in the wrong (virtual) place at the wrong time

Let’s take a moment to review each of these characteristics and understand why people in these groups are especially vulnerable to cybercrime.

New to the Net

Internet “newbies” might not yet be familiar with the common scams that would cause a Net veteran to sigh and say “Ho, hum, not that sob story again.” In addition, newbies are often unaware of common security practices and known software security holes. Newcomers might not realize that their systems can be infected with viruses simply by opening an e-mail attachment or visiting the wrong Web site, nor might they be aware that viruses can be sent from their own machines without their knowledge.

Computer users who have not had a lot of experience interacting online could be more trusting of those they “meet” via chat.They could believe that because they are honest in their online communications, everyone else is, too.

With huge numbers of people connecting to the Internet for the first time every year, cybercriminals always have a fresh crop of Net newbies on which to prey. In their efforts to educate the public about cybercrime, law enforcement and IT professionals should pay special attention to new Internet users, let them know that they can be the targets of scam artists and other offenders, and provide them with information on how to recognize and avoid questionable schemes.

Naturally Naïve

Some groups are naturally more naïve, as a whole, than others—although individual members of those groups might not be naïve at all.The very young and the elderly have long been the favorite marks of con artists, and that preference carries over to the online world.

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Youngsters often have distorted world views, especially if they’ve led sheltered lives.They might not yet have internalized the idea—even if they’ve been told— that there are bad people who want to hurt others.They might think that if they are nice to others, everyone will be nice to them. Furthermore, kids are naturally curious and eager to please, which can be a dangerous combination of qualities when they come into contact with a cybercriminal. Children are, of course, the targets of some of the Internet’s worst of the worst: pedophiles.

Many elderly people feel uncomfortable with new technology because they didn’t grow up with it.They might enjoy helping people, a trait that scam artists can exploit.When elderly people do fall victim to criminal behavior, they might be hesitant to report it—even when they’ve been cheated out of thousands of dollars—because they feel that they were themselves somehow to blame for being “dumb.”Traditional mail-fraud schemes that targeted the elderly are being reborn in a new incarnation: e-mail fraud.

Enforcement agencies are recognizing the growing problem faced by young and old victims and are developing programs designed to help these “student drivers” and folks who have slowed down a little ease onto the information superhighway without getting run down. Law enforcement and IT professionals can join together with schools and senior citizens’ centers to increase awareness and educate these vulnerable groups.

Disabled and Disadvantaged

The mentally and physically disabled and the disadvantaged can also be targeted by particularly reprehensible cybercriminals who—with the goal of identifying potential victims—search online databases and join mailing lists that are intended as support groups for people with disabilities.

Online forums can be especially important as a means of social interaction and a source of friendship for people with certain disabilities that limit their mobility, such as paraplegia, or that make it inadvisable for them to be around groups of people, such as immune system disorders, or that have altered their appearance, such as traumatic injuries. Law enforcement agencies can partner with IT firms to provide a valuable service by helping these people develop a greater awareness of cybercrime while assisting them in learning to take full advantage of computer technology’s ability to enhance their lives.

Desperados

Desperate people make excellent targets for cybercriminals.They could be looking for love in all the wrong online places, desperately seeking salvation

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through Internet religious groups, direly in need of money, or have some other immediate emotional or physical need. In any event, their desperation makes them vulnerable—to Lothario-style scam artists who enter romantic relationships with the intent to defraud the partner, or unethical online evangelists who are out to make money off others’ spiritual longings, to get-rich-quick schemers,

Internet loan sharks, or fraudulent job brokers.

Because desperation is usually a temporary or intermittent condition, and because, to paraphrase Henry David Thoreau, those suffering from it usually lead lives of quiet desperation, it might be more difficult to identify and warn these potential victims of their vulnerability. Investigators who detect this victimization pattern for a particular cybercriminal can, however, use the information in constructing stings, by posing as “marks” who fit the victim profile.

Pseudo-Victims

Sigmund Freud might have been right when he said that sometimes a cigar is just a cigar, but sometimes a victim is not just a victim.There are people who, for various reasons, report crimes that never occurred or represent themselves as victims when they are not (and could, in fact, actually be the perpetrator).

The motivations of these pseudo-victims run the gamut:

People who take revenge or express their anger at another person by falsely accusing that person of a crime

People who want attention; pretending to be a crime victim makes them feel “special”

People who claim to be crime victims to cover up the fact that they themselves committed the crime

People who pretend to be victims in order to claim money from victim relief funds, charitable organizations, or insurance companies

People who honestly believe that a crime has been committed against them when they have been the victims of unethical or immoral—but not illegal—behavior

Although the vast majority of victim reports are genuine, when investigators interview crime victims they should always be cognizant of the possibility of pseudo-victimhood. In most states, statutes make it a criminal offense to file a false crime report; such charges might be appropriate in all except the last example.

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In the Wrong (Virtual) Place at the Wrong Time

It is true that human predators, like their animal counterparts, often seek as prey the weakest members of the herd, or those they perceive to be weakest. However, not all crime victims are selected because they exhibit some vulnerability. Some criminals are indiscriminate and choose their victims at random—first come, first served. Sometimes ending up a cybercrime victim is just a matter of being in the wrong (virtual) place at the wrong time.

In building profiles, whether of criminals or of victims, just as profilers must be on the lookout for patterns, they must also take care not to imagine patterns where none exist.The fact that a criminal’s victims don’t fit a profile can also be valuable information for the investigator.

Making the Victim Part of the Crime-Fighting Team

When the field of victimology first emerged in the 1940s, those who studied victimization tended to see victims as objects of pity, weak people who were often viewed as contributing to their own bad fortune.This later became known as the

“blame the victim” mentality and gave way to the more prevalent attitude today—that victims should be “empowered” through education and access to resources. In large part, the shift was in response to feminists who protested the denigrating and humiliating treatment that female crime victims—especially the victims of rape or sexual assault—sometimes suffered at the hands of law enforcement and the courts.

Many victims today prefer not to define themselves as victims because of the image of weakness and helplessness that implies. According to Victimology Theory, by T.O. Connor (http://faculty.ncwc.edu/toconnor/300/300lect01.htm), the preferred term now is survivor, a word that implies strength.

Many states have enacted a Crime Victims’ Bill of Rights and other legislation that imposes requirements on law enforcement agencies to follow certain guidelines in dealing with crime victims. Many agencies now appoint crime victims’ liaisons, professionals who are trained to offer counseling and guidance to victims and in some cases to “protect” the victims from hostile or overeager law enforcement personnel.

Victims’ rights granted by these laws often include:

The right to be notified when the offender will come to trial

The right to be present at the trial, either personally or through representation of an attorney

The right to be informed of the disposition of the case

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If the suspect is convicted, the right to be informed and to give input when the suspect comes up for parole

The right to be informed if and when the suspect is released from prison

The right to be treated with dignity by the criminal justice system

The right to be informed of victim social services and financial assistance that are available

The right to be compensated for their loss, when possible

Victim compensation programs are usually state-funded programs designed to help pay medical and other expenses associated with being the victim of crime.

In some cases, the courts require offenders to pay restitution directly to victims or to pay restitution into a compensation fund.These programs are usually administered by the state attorney general’s office.

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berLaw Review…

Victim Services Programs

The U.S. Department of Justice operates the Office for Victims of Crime

(OVC), which organizes events for National Crime Victims’ Rights Week in April and provides news, research, and statistics and other resources at www.ojp.usdoj.gov/ovc. You can find examples of state victim services programs at these sites: www.oag.state.tx.us/victims/victims.htm (Texas) http://legal.firn.edu/victims (Florida) www.scattorneygeneral.org/public/victimassist.html (South Carolina) www.ago.state.nm.us/Advocate/victim_services_advocate.html

(New Mexico) www.ag.state.il.us/crimevictims/crime.htm (Illinois) www.ago.state.ma.us/videfault.asp (Massachusetts) www.doj.state.wi.us/cvs (Wisconsin) www.caag.state.ca.us/cvpc/fa_victims_services.html (California) www.oag.state.ny.us/crime/crime.html (New York)

Other states run similar programs.

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Understanding Cyberinvestigators

Are cybercrime investigations just the “same old stuff ” for police detectives? Are the same personality characteristics, skills, and knowledge required for cyberinvestigations as for general criminal investigations? Do investigators who deal with cybercrime need special training? In the following sections, we address these questions and build a profile of an effective cyberinvestigator.

N

OTE

There is generally no official job title or position called cyberinvestigator, although local agencies are usually free to create their own titles, so we can’t say with certainty that such a title doesn’t exist. We use the term here to refer to people whose investigative duties include cybercrimes. In most agencies, not enough computer-related offenses are reported and investigated to justify dedicating personnel to investigating only those types of crimes. Even in large agencies such as the Los Angeles Police

Department (LAPD), only a few of the 9000 employees are part of the department’s computer crimes unit.

Recognizing the Characteristics of a

Good Cyberinvestigator

A good cyberinvestigator must possess the qualities that are necessary for any good criminal investigator, including:

Excellent observation skills

An investigator must notice things, including the “little things.”

Good memory

In order to put together the many clues that pop up over the course of an investigation, a detective must be able to remember facts, names, places, and dates, or the investigator could miss a vital connection.

Organization skills

A good investigator not only remembers information but is able to organize it in a logical way so that patterns and correlations become apparent.

Documentation skills

A good investigator doesn’t keep all this information in his head; instead, he is able and willing to meticulously put it into writing so that it can be shared with others and used as a foundation for building the case.

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Objectivity

The investigator must not allow personal prejudices, relationships, or feelings to affect his or her ability to evaluate the evidence objectively.

Knowledge

An effective investigator knows the criminal laws, the rules of evidence, victimology theory, criminal psychology, and investigative concepts and procedures and knows about scientific aids, lab services, and resources inside and outside the agency.

Ability to think like a criminal

The best investigators have a

“native” awareness of criminal mental processes and can put themselves in the place of an offender and predict the offender’s actions.

Intellectually controlled constructive imagination

The investigator must be creative enough to consider all possibilities, to examine facts and then extrapolate conclusions.

Curiosity

The best investigators are innately curious.They aren’t satisfied with simply clearing the case. It’s not enough for them to determine that the suspect committed the crime; they want to know why and exactly how the crime was committed.

Stamina

Investigation is hard work, often involving long hours. A good investigator must be physically up to the challenge.

Patience

Investigation is often a drawn-out process. Progress is frequently made one tiny step at a time. Leads often lead to nowhere, prime suspects turn out to have airtight alibis, and the investigator must back up and start over from scratch.

Love of learning

Learning is really what investigation is all about— learning the facts of a case, learning about the people involved, sometimes even becoming an “instant expert” in another field, such as computer networking, in order to understand the technical aspects of the crime.

In addition to these generic qualities, an investigator who specializes in cybercrime needs a few additional characteristics:

A basic understanding of computer science

The more the investigator knows about how computers work (including both hardware and software), the better.

An understanding of computer networking protocols

Cybercrime, by definition, involves a network. Even if the investigator has a good grasp of computer technology in a standalone context, it doesn’t mean he or she

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■ will understand how network intrusions and attacks work, what happens to e-mail when it leaves the sender’s system, or how a Web browser requests and downloads pages, graphics, or scripts.

Knowledge of computer jargon

All vocations and most avocations have a unique jargon, terminology that has little meaning outside the field that members use as “shorthand” to communicate with one another. A good investigator must be able to “speak the language.”

An understanding of hacker culture

It’s been said that it takes a hacker to catch a hacker (usually by reformed hackers selling their services as security experts).There is a grain of truth in this axiom; it’s much easier to track down hackers if you understand their mentality and the protocols (in the nontechnical sense this time) of interacting in the hacker community. Just as narcotics officers need to be intimately familiar with how drug dealers interact with each other, cybercrime investigators likewise should be experts in hacker culture.

Knowledge of computer and networking security issues

In order to investigate hacking or intrusion and network-attack crimes, the investigator should be familiar with common security “holes,” security products (such as firewalls), and security policies and practices.

It should be apparent from the preceding list that cybercrime investigators usually need extensive training in order to operate effectively in this specialty area.This need is usually recognized in large law enforcement agencies, where IT professionals and computer science graduates might be recruited to handle cybercrime investigations or outside consultants might be called in to assist detectives with those investigations. In small agencies, however, too often the detective on duty is assigned to the cybercrime case, whether or not he or she knows anything about computers. Almost as bad is the common situation in which the officer in the department who is considered the computer whiz (which can mean anything from “expert programmer” to “the only one in the department who knows how to format a diskette”) is assigned to all cybercrime cases. Because this officer is perceived as a computer expert by the agency administrators—even though he or she might be far from that—the newly anointed cybercrime investigator is expected to handle matters that are far beyond his or her capabilities.

Categorizing Cyberinvestigators by Skill Set

While the skill level of those doing cybercrimes investigations varies tremendously, we can categorize most cyberinvestigators according to skill set:

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Investigators who specialize in computer/network crime

They are investigators first, with a secondary interest in technology.They are usually law enforcement officers or corporate security personnel.

Computer specialists who conduct investigations

They are IT professionals first, with a secondary interest in law enforcement/investigation.They often work as consultants to law enforcement agencies.

Those who are equally skilled, trained, or interested in investigation and IT

They are involved in computer/cybercrime from the beginnings of their careers; they may have parallel training in both fields, such as a double major in criminal justice and network engineering or programming.They may work for law enforcement agencies or as independent consultants and are generally in great demand and command high salaries.

Those who have no real skills or interest in either investigation or

IT

These could be police officers who were “kicked upstairs” to the detective division and drew a cybercrime case randomly.They aren’t really interested in investigative work and would prefer to be working patrol, and they have no training in or love of computers and networking.

Fortunately, there aren’t many cyberinvestigators who fit in this category.

Recruiting and Training Cyberinvestigators

The question has been asked before: Is investigation a skill or a talent? You might wonder what the difference is, and what difference the answer to that question makes.

A skill can be learned; a talent is inborn. Most creative activities involve both.

Almost anyone can take piano lessons, learn to read music, and be able to play simple songs.That’s a skill that can be developed through practice. Some people, however, are born with the ability to “play by ear,” to sit down at a piano and perform any song they’ve ever heard, without sheet music, or to compose original pieces of their own.That’s talent, and the best teacher can’t teach you to do it if you don’t have it.

Investigation is, as we’ve mentioned, a creative process. It requires certain skills that can be learned and developed, but the best investigators are also talented; they can be said to have “a nose for it” or thought to possess some quasi-magical sense of intuition.There are also people who seem to have a natural way with computers.The rare individual who is talented in both of these areas should be recruited vigorously by law enforcement agencies.

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But raw talent is not enough to become a master cyberinvestigator, any more than it’s enough to make you a concert pianist.Training is required to develop and perfect the skills to go along with the talent.

State police training oversight commissions (often called POST, for Peace

Officers Standards and Training, although in Texas it’s the Texas Commission on Law

Enforcement Officer Standards and Education, or TCLEOSE) should incorporate basic cybercrime training into their academy programs. Almost all officers working in today’s world eventually encounter cybercrimes. As first responders, patrol officers need to know how to handle computer evidence, even if they won’t be conducting the investigation.

Advanced training in cybercrimes should be available—and mandatory—for those who actually handle the investigation. New technologies (and new ways to use them to commit crimes) are emerging constantly, so cybercrime investigators must stay up to date on the latest information.

Organizations such as the International Association of Chiefs of Police

(www.theiacp.org), the High Technology Crime Investigators Association

(www.htcia.org), and the International Association of Computer Investigative

Specialists (www.iacis.com) can provide training guidelines and resources.

Facilitating Cooperation: CEOs on the Scene

There is one more important person involved in cybercrimes that victimize businesses and large organizations: the corporate chief executive officer (CEO) or manager. Corporate executives are finding their organizations increasingly exposed to the threat of criminal activity—and in some cases, criminal liability— from people both inside and within the organization who use computers and networks to commit illegal acts.

The first step company executives must take on discovering criminal activity is to report it to law enforcement.The choice to report the crime is not always as simple as it sounds. If every violation of the law were reported, investigated, and prosecuted, our criminal justice system would soon break down from the overload. For example, in many states it’s a criminal offense to call someone a profane name in a public place. However, if this happens to you, unless the situation escalates, you probably won’t call in the police.Why? Because consciously or subconsciously, you do a cost/benefits analysis and determine that the time and effort you would have to spend to give an official sworn statement and perhaps return to testify in court, along with the risk of making the offender really mad at you, isn’t worth the benefits of pressing charges.

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Similarly, if company officials discover that a hacker has broken into their network, but there has been little or no loss or damage, they might decide that the downtime of key personnel, the risk of bad publicity to the company if others find out they were hacked, and other factors make the cost of reporting outweigh the benefits.

Another reason victimized companies hesitate to report cybercrime is the issue of their own liability. Even though the crime was committed against them, it is conceivable that their customers might sue them for negligence for allowing the crime to happen (as some of the victims of the terrorist attacks on New York

City’s World Trade Center sued the airlines that were also victimized).The perception today is that a company is legally responsible for preparing for every possible contingency to protect itself and its clients; this view has been upheld by juries, which have awarded big bucks to plaintiffs in many negligence cases. Even if clients don’t sue, shareholders could be upset and investors might withhold funding if the company’s network is seen as less than secure.

Managers could also be reluctant to open up the information stored on their network to government investigators.This is especially true if any less-than-legal activities are going on—“creative” tax strategies, for example. It’s easier simply to absorb the costs accrued by the crime, if there are any, and spend the time and money to secure the network rather than pursue justice against those who breached it. In fact, in some cases, the discovery of unauthorized access might never make it up the management ladder at all; the network administrator or security specialist whose job it is to prevent such incidents will not be eager to tell the bosses that hackers found their way around his or her security measures.

It is important for managers to realize that they have a vested interest in working with law enforcement to track down and bring charges against the cybercriminals who cost the company time and money and, in some cases, do irreparable damage to the business’s reputation. Managers are more likely to cooperate with law enforcement if the investigative process isn’t shrouded in mystery. Education, as always, is the key.

It is essential that managers, as well as their IT teams, understand how a criminal investigation works, their own roles in the investigation, and special issues that pertain to the collection, preservation, and presentation of digital evidence.

We mentioned before that IT professionals and law enforcement officers often find themselves at odds in their efforts to reach a common goal: bringing the cybercriminal to justice. Managers, who see cybercrime hurting their bottom lines, can be in a unique position to facilitate cooperation between the two if they are made a part of the cybercrime-fighting team from the beginning.

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Summary

Cybercrime is not just about computers. It is also about people. Understanding cybercrime is the first step in combating it. Understanding the people on the scene of the cybercrime—those who commit it, those who are injured by it, and those who work to stop it—is the first step toward understanding cybercrime.

Cybercriminals cannot be easily understood as a group because they engage in a wide range of very different criminal activities for very different reasons.

However, we can gain more understanding if we categorize them and analyze each group separately. Understanding the motives, characteristics, and typical behaviors of criminals in each group, along with analyzing the evidence in each particular case, can help us develop a criminal profile that will assist in identifying and capturing offenders.

Part of the criminal profile involves studying the type of people that criminals choose as victims.Victimology also serves other purposes; it allows us to predict where the cybercriminal might strike next and warn potential future victims.

Victim profiles can also be used in concocting sting operations that lure the cybercriminal out of the virtual world and into the real one.

Investigators of cybercrime need all the characteristics that are required of any criminal investigator, plus a few extra ones to boot. Not only must cyberspace detectives be smart, logical, objective, patient, curious, and physically fit, but they must also have some knowledge and understanding of computers, networking, technical jargon, the hacker underground, and IT security issues.That’s a tall order, and talented, skilled, well-trained cybercrime investigators are highly in demand. Law enforcement agencies might have to pay premium salaries to get them—especially considering the discrepancy between compensation in the public sector and the corporate world for IT professionals. However, a professional cyberinvestigator can be invaluable to law enforcement agencies, which can expect to see the incidence of cybercrime continue to rise at an exponential rate for the foreseeable future.

Understanding the technology of cybercrime is easy compared with understanding the people who carry out the crimes.The human factor is often the most inexplicable component in an investigation.

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Frequently Asked Questions

The following Frequently Asked Questions, answered by the authors of this book, are designed to both measure your understanding of the concepts presented in this chapter and to assist you with real-life implementation of these concepts. To have your questions about this chapter answered by the author, browse to

www.syngress.com/solutions and click on the “Ask the Author” form.

Q:

Internet auctions are mentioned as one of the most frequently reported online crimes. Does this mean that all online auctions are con games?

A:

No. Most online auctions are legitimate. Recognized auction sites such as eBay attempt to provide protections by publishing ratings of their sellers that are provided by people who have done business with them.The auction sites usually post security recommendations and guidelines that will help users protect themselves against fraud. However, the auctions do provide an opportunity for unscrupulous dealers to cheat their customers. It is important to be very careful when buying merchandise through an auction site.

Q:

Why do con artists continue to engage in scams, even when they can make more money doing legitimate work, or even when the scam doesn’t benefit them financially—or benefits them only minimally?

A:

According to the study Deceivers and Deceived: Observations on Confidence

Men and Their Victims, Informants and Their Quarry, Political and Industrial

Spies and Ordinary Citizens, by Richard Blum (see www.fraudaid.com/

Why-Con-artists-Scam.htm), the typical con artist is both impulsive and compulsive and is addicted to the con games he plays because they give him the “high” of having put something over on someone. Blum concludes that most con artists exhibit the symptoms of antisocial personality disorder.

According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition (DSM-IV), which is the primary diagnostic reference used by U.S.

mental health professionals, characteristics of people with antisocial personality disorder include:

1. Failure to conform to social norms with respect to lawful behaviors, as indicated by repeatedly performing acts that are grounds for arrest

2. Deceitfulness, as indicated by repeated lying, use of aliases, or conning others for personal profit or pleasure

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3. Impulsivity or failure to plan ahead

4. Irritability and aggressiveness, as indicated by repeated physical fights or assaults

5. Reckless disregard for safety of self or others

6. Consistent irresponsibility, as indicated by repeated failure to sustain consistent work behavior or honor financial obligations

7. Lack of remorse, as indicated by being indifferent to or rationalizing having hurt, mistreated, or stolen from another

Q:

What factors should a company consider before recruiting hackers to work as corporate security specialists or computer crimes specialists for law enforcement agencies?

A:

This is a trend based on the notion that “it takes a hacker to catch a hacker”

(or to protect a network from another hacker). It is certainly true that those who have committed the crimes are intimately familiar with how they are committed and with how they might be thwarted. Police have traditionally utilized the expertise of criminals, using studies made of people convicted of crimes. However, police agencies would not consider hiring former burglars as property-crime detectives or convicted murderers as homicide investigators. Hiring hackers who have broken the law in the past presents a number of problems that both private and public sector employers should keep in mind.

For one, many hacker types are philosophically opposed to big business.

Although they could be persuaded to work for a corporation if tempted by enormous salaries to do what they do anyway—play with computers—they might not fit in well in the structured corporate environment. Hackers are often loners who do not conform to the corporate model, which stresses teamwork. Perhaps more important, a hacker who has been guilty of criminal activity in the past can expose your company to substantial risks if he or she hasn’t truly reformed.Your organization’s network could be used to launch hack attacks when your “professional hacker” gets bored with assigned duties.

This can leave the company open to serious liability issues.Your hacker could also build “back doors” into your system so that if you fire him or if he gets tired of playing the corporate game and leaves, he can get back in and have full access to your network.

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There are computer security specialists who are as skilled as the hackers but have never chosen to use their skills to go outside the law. Company officials should think long and hard and consider all the advantages and disadvantages before hiring a hacker just because it’s currently the “thing to do.” Law enforcement agencies, in most cases, are constrained by their own policies and their state commission rules from hiring people who have been convicted of serious criminal offenses. Many criminal hackers, however, have never been arrested or convicted. Agencies are finally realizing that it’s in their interest to recruit people with computer skills. Most of them conduct thorough background investigations that reveal how those people acquired their skills and how they’ve used them in the past.

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References

Forensic Psychology and Forensic Psychiatry: An Overview

http://flash.lakeheadu.ca/~pals/forensics/forensic.htm

Criminal Profiling: How It Got Started and How It Is Used

www.crimelibrary.com/criminology/criminalprofiling2

Cornell University Research Methods Knowledge Base:

Deductive and Inductive Thinking

http://trochim.human.cornell.edu/kb/dedind.htm

Public Service Commission of Canada monograph: Stereotyping www.psc-cfp.gc.ca/publications/monogra/mono3_e.htm

About.com: Don’t Fear the Reaper, Fear the Script Kiddie http://netsecurity.about.com/library/weekly/aa111600a.htm

U.S. Department of Justice’s Bureau of Justice Statistics: Women Offenders www.ojp.usdoj.gov/bjs/crimoff.htm#women

Integrity in the Corporate Suite: Predictors of Female Frauds

www.cj.msu.edu/~faculty/collinsintegrity.html

The Irish Times: WAP Challenges Security Experts

www.ireland.com/newspaper/finance/2000/0121/fin41.htm

Netaction Online Buyers Guide www.netaction.org/shoppers/fraud.html

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Federal Trade Commission www.ftc.gov

National Check Fraud Center: Types of White-Collar Crime www.ckfraud.org/whitecollar.html

Psychiatric Illness Associated with Criminality

www.emedicine.com/med/topic3485.htm

IBM Systems Journal: Ethical Hacking, by C.C. Palmer www.research.ibm.com/journal/sj/403/palmer.html

The Importance of Victimology in Criminal Profiling, by Amy Goldman http://isuisse.ifrance.com/emmaf/base/impvic.html

Victimology Theory, by T.O. Connor http://faculty.ncwc.edu/toconnor/300/300lect01.htm

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Understanding

Computer Basics

Chapter 4

Topics we’ll investigate in this chapter:

Understanding Computer Hardware

Understanding the Language of the Machine

Understanding Computer

Operating Systems

! Summary

! Frequently Asked Questions

! Resources

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Introduction

In Chapter 3, we mentioned that, in addition to traditional investigative skills, a good cybercrimes investigator needs a thorough understanding of the technology that is used to commit these crimes. Just as a homicide investigator must know something about basic human pathology to understand the significance of evidence provided by dead bodies—rigor mortis, lividity, blood-spatter patterns, and so forth—a cybercrimes investigator needs to know how computers operate so as to recognize and preserve the evidence they offer.

A basic tenet of criminal investigation is that there is no “perfect crime.” No matter how careful, a criminal always leaves something of him- or herself at the crime scene and/or takes something away from the scene.These clues can be obvious, or they can be well hidden or very subtle. Even though a cybercriminal usually never physically visits the location where the crime occurs (the destination computer or network), the same rule of thumb as for traditional crimes applies: Everyone who accesses a network, a system, or a file leaves a track behind.Technically sophisticated criminals might be able to cover those tracks, just as sophisticated and careful criminals are able to do in the physical world— but in many cases, they don’t completely destroy the evidence; they only make the evidence more difficult to find.

For example, a burglar might take care to wipe all fingerprints off everything he’s touched while inside a residence, removing the most obvious and often the most helpful evidence that proves he was there. But if as he does so, tiny bits of fabric from the rag that he uses adhere to some of the surfaces, and if he takes that rag with him and it is later found in his possession, police could still have a way to link him to the crime scene. Likewise, the cybercriminal may take care to delete incriminating files from his hard disk, even going so far as to reformat the disk. It will appear to those who aren’t technically savvy that the data is gone, but an investigator who understands how information is stored on disk will realize that evidence could still be on the disk, even though it’s not immediately visible

(much like latent fingerprints), and will take the proper steps to recover and preserve that evidence.

IT professionals who are reading this book and who already have a good understanding of technology might wonder if they can skip this chapter.We recommend they read the chapter. It might be useful for those who anticipate working with law enforcement officers and crime scene technicians to see computer technology from a new perspective: how it can serve as evidence and which technological details are most important to understand from the investiga-

tive point of view. Most IT professionals are used to looking at computer and

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networking hardware, software, and protocols in terms of making things work.

Investigators see these items in terms of what they can reveal that is competent, relevant, and material to the case. A network administrator familiar with the

Windows operating system, for example, knows that it can be made to display file modification dates, but he or she might not have considered how crucial this information could be in an investigation. Similarly, a police investigator who is not trained in the technology might realize the importance of the information but not realize that such information is available, because it isn’t obvious when the operating system is using default settings. Once again, each side has only half the pieces to the puzzle. If the two sides work together, the puzzle falls into place that much more quickly.

In this chapter, we provide an overview of how computers process and store information. First we look at the hardware, then we discuss the software (particularly the operating system) on which personal computers run. At the end of each section, we summarize how the information in that section can be useful to cybercrimes investigators.

Understanding Computer Hardware

Today, most people who operate in the business world or in any administrative or clerical capacity in the public sector gain some exposure to computers.The fact that they use computers every day doesn’t mean that they understand them, however.This makes sense. Most of us drive cars every day without necessarily knowing anything about mechanics. Even people with enough mechanical aptitude to change their own car’s oil and spark plugs might not really understand how an internal combustion engine works. Similarly, we can turn on our televisions and change the channels (some of us can even set the clocks on our VCRs!) without really knowing how programs are broadcast over the airwaves or via cable.

Most casual users take it for granted that if they put gas in a car, it takes them where they want to go, and if they pay the cable bill, the show goes on. Even though we don’t understand these technologies, they’ve been around long enough that we’re comfortable with them.To “first-generation” users, though, the old Model T Ford must have seemed like quite a mysterious and scary machine, and pictures that somehow invisibly flew through the air and landed inside a little box in people’s living rooms seemed nothing short of magic to early TV owners.

We must remember that many of the people using computers today are members of the “first generation” of computer users—people who didn’t grow up with computers in every office, much less in almost every home.To them, computers still retain the flavor of something magical, something unexplainable.

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Some skilled criminal investigators fit into this category. Just as effective cybercrime fighting requires that we acquaint IT professionals with the legal process, it also requires that we acquaint law enforcement personnel with computer processing—how the machines work “under the hood.”

The first step is to open up the case and look inside at all the computer’s parts and pieces and what they do so that we can understand the role that each plays in creating and retaining electronic evidence.

Looking Inside the Machine

Machines have been making our lives easier for many centuries. Scientists agree that one of the features distinguishing man from most other species is the ability to make and use tools. In many ways, historical eras are defined by their tools.

The agrarian age, when most humans were farmers, gave way to the industrial age of the nineteenth century, when the manufacturing companies reigned and the steam engine and railroad provided a way to get manufactured products to market. By the early twentieth century, commercial electrical-generating stations were becoming widespread, which led us into the electronic age, giving our machines the “power of lightning.” As we venture into the twenty-first century, we find ourselves smack in the middle of the digital age, a.k.a. the information age, in which we have become (frighteningly so, many feel) dependent on computers to run our national infrastructures.

Regardless of how you feel about these machines, they seem to be here to stay—at least, unless and until some global catastrophe such as a solar-generated worldwide electromagnetic pulse of huge proportions renders them all useless and plunges us all back into chaos. As they become more powerful, computers are capable of performing more complex tasks, and performing these tasks with increasing speed.

Nonetheless, at its most basic level, all a computer really does is crunch numbers. As explained later in this chapter, all data—text, pictures, sounds, programs— must be reduced to numbers for the computer to “understand” it. According to

Microsoft's Encarta World English Dictionary 2001, the definition of a computer is an electronic device that accepts, processes, stores, and outputs data at high speeds according to preprogrammed instructions.

Components of a Digital Computer

Regardless of whether it is a tiny handheld model or a big mainframe system, a digital computer consists of the same basic components:

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On

the Scene…

Analog vs Digital Computers

The machines we usually think of today when we hear the word com-

puter are digital computers. There is another type of computer, the

analog computer. Both types of machines perform mathematical calculations, but analog computers represent numbers using voltages. The most important difference between analog and digital computers is that analog systems operate on continuous variables rather than adding and subtracting digits. Analog computers are considered obsolete by many today, but in fact there are still analog computers in use. Some computer theorists believe that analog computers are actually more powerful than digital computers. For a description of analog computers, visit www.science.uva.nl/faculteit/museum/AnalogComputers.html.

(Additional resources on this topic appear in the “References” section at the end of the chapter.)

A control unit

A processing unit

A memory unit

Input/output units

Of course, there must be a way for all these components to communicate with one another. PC architecture is fairly standardized, which makes it easy to interchange parts between different computers.The foundation of the system is a main circuit board, fondly referred to as the motherboard.

The Role of the Motherboard

Most other components plug into the main board, and they all communicate via the electronic paths (circuits) that are imprinted into the board. Additional circuit boards can be added via expansion slots. The electronic interface between the motherboard and these additional boards, cards, and connectors is called the bus.

The bus is the pathway on the motherboard that connects the components and allows them to interact with the processor.

The motherboard is the PC’s control unit.The motherboard is actually made up of many subcomponents:

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The printed circuit board (PCB) itself, which may be made of several thin layers or a single planar surface onto which the circuitry is affixed

Voltage regulators, which reduce the 5V signal from the power supply to the voltage needed by the processor (typically 3.3V or less)

Capacitors that filter the signals

The integrated chipset that controls the interface between the processor and all the other components

Controllers for the keyboard and I/O devices (integrated SCSI, onboard sound and video, etc.)

An erasable programmable read-only memory (EPROM) chip that contains the core software that directly drives the system hardware

A battery-operated CMOS chip that contains the BIOS settings and the real-time clock that maintains the time and date

Sockets and slots for attaching other components (processor, main memory, cache memory, expansion cards, power supply)

Ports and/or pins (headers) for connecting cables and devices (serial, parallel, USB, IDE, SCSI, IR, IEEE 1394/FireWire) and pin connectors for the case power switch, LED indicators, case speaker, and processor fan

The layout and organization of the components on the motherboard is called its form factor. The form factor determines the size and shape of the board and where its integrated ports are located, as well as the type of power supply it is designed to use.The computer case type must match the motherboard form factor or the openings in the back of the case won’t line up correctly with the slots and ports on the motherboard.Typical motherboard form factors include:

ATX/mini ATX

, currently the most popular form factor; all current

Intel motherboards are ATX. Port connectors and PS/2 mouse connectors are built in; access to components is generally more convenient, and the ATX power supply provides better air flow to reduce overheating problems.

AT/Baby AT

, the most common PC motherboard form factor prior to

1997, still in wide use.The power supply connects to the board with two connectors labeled P8 and P9; reversing them can destroy the motherboard.

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LPX/Mini LPX

, generally used by big brand-name computer manufacturers to save space in small cases. Uses a “daughterboard” or riser card that plugs into the main board. Expansion cards then plug into the riser card.

NLX

, a modernized and improved version of LPX.This form factor is also used by name-brand vendors.

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For a more detailed discussion of motherboard components and form factors, see www.pcguide.com/ref/mbsys/index.htm.

The Roles of the Processor and Memory

Two of the most important components in a computer are the processor and memory. Let’s take a brief look at what these components do.

The Processor

The processor (short for microprocessor) is an integrated circuit on a single chip that performs the basic computations in a computer.The processor is sometimes called the CPU (for central processing unit), although many computer users use that term to refer to the PC “box”—the case and its contents—without monitor, keyboard, and other external peripherals.

The processor is the part of the computer that does all the work of processing data. Processors receive input in the form of strings of ones and zeros (called

binary communication, which we discuss later in this chapter) and uses logic circuits, or formulas, to create output (also in the form of ones and zeros).This system is implemented via digital switches. In early computers, vacuum tubes were used as switches; they were later replaced by transistors, which were much smaller and faster and had no moving parts (making them solid-state switches).Transistors were then grouped together to form integrated circuit chips, made of materials (particularly silicon) that conduct electricity only under specific conditions (in other words, a semiconductor). As more and more transistors were included on a single chip, the chips became smaller and smaller and less expensive to make. In 1971,

Intel was the first to use this technology to incorporate several separate logic components into one chip and call it a microprocessor.

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Processors are able to perform different tasks using programmed instructions.

Modern operating systems allow multiple applications to share the processor using a method known as time slicing, in which the processor works on data from one application, then switches to the next (and the next and the next) so quickly that it appears to the user as if all the applications are being processed simultaneously.This method is called multitasking, and there are a couple of different ways it can be accomplished. Some computers have more than one processor. In order to take advantage of multiple processors, the computer must run an operating system that supports multiprocessing.We discuss multitasking and multiprocessing in more depth in the section “Understanding Computer Operating Systems” later in this chapter.

The processor chip itself is an ultra-thin piece of silicon crystal, less than a single millimeter in thickness, that has millions of tiny electronic switches (transistors) embedded in it.This embedding is done via photolithography, which involves photographing the circuit pattern and chemically etching away the background.

The chip is part of a wafer, which is a round piece of silicon substrate, on which

16 to 256 individual chips are etched (depending on wafer size).The chips are then packaged, which is the process of matching up the tiny connection points on the chip with the pins that will connect the processor to the motherboard socket and encasing the fragile chip in an outer cover.

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The processor package determines the type of slot or socket it will fit into. Package styles include Dual Inline Package (DIP), Pin Grid Array

(PGA) and its variations (a square flat package that connects to a socket on the motherboard with rows of pins, as in the Intel 80286 through

80486 and early Pentiums), and Single Edge Contact (SEC) that mounts the chip on a small circuit board (sometimes called a daughtercard), the edge of which plugs into a slot on the motherboard. Notebook PCs sometimes have the processor chip soldered directly onto the motherboard to save space, or they use a special mobile module that includes processor, secondary cache, and chipset.

Before they’re packaged, the chips are tested to ensure that they perform their tasks properly and to determine their rated speed. Processor speed is dependent on the production quality, processor design, process technology, and the size of the circuit and die. Smaller chips generally can run faster because they generate less heat and use less power. As processor chips have shrunk in size, they’ve gotten

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faster.The circuit size of the original 8088 processor chip was 3 microns; modern

Pentium chips are 0.25 microns or less. Overheating decreases performance, and the more power is used, the hotter the chip gets. For this reason, new processors run at lower voltages than older ones.They also are designed as dual voltage chips, in which the core voltage (the internal voltage) is lower than the I/O voltage

(the external voltage).The same motherboard can support processors that use different voltages, because they have voltage regulators that convert the power supply voltage to the voltage needed by the processor that is installed.

Even running at lower voltages, modern high-speed processors get very hot.

Heat sinks and processor fans help keep the temperature down. A practice popular with hackers and hardware aficionados, called overclocking (setting the processor to run faster than its rating), causes processors to overheat easily.

Elaborate—and expensive—water-cooling systems and Peltier coolers that work like tiny solid-state air conditioners are available to address this problem.

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For more information about how overclocking of processors works, see www.hiphardware.com/editorials/overclocking/index.shtml.

Numerous Web sites, such as www.overclockers.com and www

.overclockershideout.com, provide advice on overclocking and sell cooling products and other related accessories.

System Memory

The term memory refers to a chip on which data is stored. Some novice computer users might confuse the terms disk space and memory; thus you hear the question,

“How much memory do I have left on my hard drive?” In one sense, the disk does indeed “remember” data. However, the term memory is more accurately used to describe a chip that stores data temporarily and is most commonly used to refer to the system memory or random access memory (RAM) that stores the instructions with which the processor is currently working and the data currently being processed. Memory chips of various types are used in other parts of the computer; there’s cache memory, video memory, and so on. RAM is called random access memory because data can be read from any location in memory, in any order.

The amount of RAM installed in your computer affects how many programs can run simultaneously and the speed of the computer’s performance. Memory is a common system bottleneck (that is, the slowest component in the system that

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causes other components to work at less than their potential performance speed).

The data that is stored in RAM, unlike data stored on disks or in some other types of memory, is volatile. That means the data is lost when the system is shut down or the power is lost.

Each RAM chip has a large number of memory addresses or cells, organized in rows and columns. A single chip can have millions of cells. Each address holds a specified number of bits of data. Multiple chips are combined on a memory

module, which is a small circuit board that you insert in a memory slot on the computer’s motherboard.These modules are called single inline memory modules

(SIMMs) or dual inline memory modules (DIMMs). The memory controller, which is part of the motherboard chipset, is the “traffic cop” that controls which memory chip is written to or read at a given time. How does the data get from the memory to the processor? It takes the bus—the memory bus (or data bus), that is. As mentioned earlier, a bus is a channel that carries the electronic signals representing the data within the PC from one component to another.

RAM can be both read and written. Computers use another type of memory,

read-only memory (ROM), for storing important programs that need to be permanently available. A special type of ROM mentioned earlier, erasable programmable

ROM (EPROM), is used in situations in which you might need to occasionally, but not often, change the data. A common function of EPROM (or EEPROM, which is electrically erasable PROM) is to store “flashable” BIOS programs, which generally stay the same but might need to be updated occasionally.Technically,

EPROM is not “read only” 100 percent of the time, since it can be erased and rewritten, but most of the time it is only read, not written.The data stored in

ROM (including EPROM) is not lost when the system is shut down.

Yet another type of memory used in PCs is cache memory. Cache memory is much faster than RAM but also much more expensive, so there is less of it.

Cache memory holds recently accessed data.The cache is arranged in layers between the RAM and the processor. Primary, or Level 1 (L1), cache is fastest; when the processor needs a particular piece of data, the cache controller looks for it first in L1 cache. If it’s not there, the controller moves on to the secondary, or

L2, cache. If the controller still doesn’t find the data, the controller looks to RAM for it. At this writing, L1 cache memory costs approximately 100 times as much as normal RAM or SDRAM, whereas L2 cache memory costs 4 to 8 times the price of the most expensive available RAM. Cache speeds processing considerably because statistically, the data that is most recently used is likely to be needed again. Getting it from the faster cache memory instead of the slower RAM increases overall performance.

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There are other types of cache in addition to the processor’s cache memory. For example, Web browsers create a cache on the hard disk where they store recently accessed Web pages, so if those same pages are requested again, the browser can access them from the local hard disk. This system is faster than going out over the Internet to download the same pages again. The word cache (pronounced “cash”) originally meant “a secret place where things are stored,” and appropriately, the

Web cache can provide a treasure trove of information that might be useful to investigators, as we discuss in Chapter 10, “Collecting and

Preserving Digital Evidence.”

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Cache memory uses static RAM (SRAM) instead of the dynamic RAM

(DRAM) that is used for system memory.The difference is that SRAM doesn’t require a periodic refresh to hold the data that is stored there, as DRAM does.

This makes SRAM faster. Like DRAM, though, SRAM loses its data when the computer’s power is turned off.

The Role of Storage Media

The term storage media is usually used to refer to means of storing data permanently (that is, nonvolatile storage that retains the data without electrical power).

Data can be stored more or less permanently on several different media types, including:

Hard disks

Floppy disks

Compact discs (CDs) and digital versatile/video discs (DVDs)

Tape

Flash memory (CompactFlash, SmartMedia, Memory Stick)

Other removable media (Zip and Jaz disks, microdrives, magnet-optical)

Let’s look briefly at how each of these media works.

Hard Disks

Today, the hard disk is usually the primary permanent storage media in a PC.

However, the earliest PCs didn’t have hard disks. In fact, early computers (prior to the PC) didn’t have any sort of data storage medium.You had to type in every

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program that you wanted to run, each time you ran it. Later, punched cards or tape were used to store programs and data.The next advancement in technology brought us magnetic tape storage; large mainframes used big reels of tape, whereas early microcomputers used audiocassette tapes to store programs and data. By the time the IBM PC and its clones appeared, computers were using floppy disks

(the 5.25-inch type that really was floppy). More expensive models had two floppy drives, one for loading programs and a second for saving data—but still no hard disk.

Cy

berStats…

Hard Disk Sizes

IBM introduced its first hard disk in 1956, but the real “grandfather” of today’s hard disks was the Winchester drive, which wasn’t introduced until the 1970s. The standard physical size of disks at that time was 14 inches (the size of the platters that are stacked to make up the disk). In

1979, IBM made an 8-inch disk, and Seagate followed that in 1980 with the first 5.25-inch hard disk, which was used in early PCs. Three years later, disks got even smaller; the 3.5-inch disk was introduced. This became a standard for PCs. Much smaller disks (less than 2 inches) were later developed for use in laptop and notebook computers. The IBM

“microdrive” shrunk the diameter of the platter to 1 inch.

The platter size of a hard disk is called its form factor. Smaller platter sizes do more than save space inside the computer; they also improve disk performance (seek time) because the heads don’t have to move as far.

The first hard disks that came with PCs provided 5MB of storage space—a huge amount, compared to floppies.The IBM PC XT came with a gigantic

10MB hard disk.Today’s hard disks are approaching 200GB capacities at prices far lower than those first comparatively tiny disks. Despite the fact that they’re much bigger, much faster, less fragile, and more reliable, the hard disks of today are designed basically the same way as those of years ago.

Hard disks comprise from one to several platters (flat, round disks).The platters are stacked one on top of another on a spindle that runs through a hole in the middle of each platter, like LPs on an old-time record player.There is a motor

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attached to the spindle that rotates the platters, which are made of some rigid material (often aluminum alloy, glass, or a glass composite) and are coated with a magnetic substance. Electromagnetic heads write information onto the disks in the form of magnetic impulses and read the recorded information from them.

Data can be written to both sides of each platter.The information is recorded in tracks, which are concentric circles in which the data is written.The tracks are divided into sectors (smaller units).Thus a particular bit of data resides in a specific sector of a specific track on a specific platter. Later in this chapter, when we discuss computer operating systems and file systems, you will see how the data is organized so that users can locate it on the disk.

Hard disks generally connect to the computer’s motherboard via one of the following interfaces:

Integrated Drive Electronics/Enhanced IDE (IDE/EIDE), so named because the disk controller is built into, or integrated with, the disk drive’s logic board. It is also referred to as Advanced Technology

Attachment (ATA), a standard of the American National Standards

Institute (ANSI). Almost all modern PC motherboards include two

EIDE connectors. Up to two ATA devices (hard disks or CD-ROM drives) can be connected to each connector, in a master/slave configuration.

One drive functions as the “master,” which responds first to probes or signals on the interrupt (a signal from a device or program to the operating system that causes the OS to stop briefly to determine what task to do next) that is shared with the other, “slave” drive that shares the same cable. User-configurable settings on the drives determine which will act as master and which as slave. Most drives have three settings: master, slave, or cable-controlled. If the latter is selected for both drives, the first drive in the chain will be the master drive.

Small Computer System Interface (SCSI, pronounced “scuzzy”), another

ANSI standard that provides faster data transfer than IDE/EIDE. Some motherboards have SCSI connectors and controllers built in; for those that don’t, you can add SCSI disks by installing a SCSI controller card in one of the expansion slots.There are a number of different versions of

SCSI; later forms provide faster transfer rates and other improvements.

Devices can be “chained” on a SCSI bus, each with a different SCSI ID number. Depending on the SCSI version, either 8 or 16 SCSI IDs can be attached to one controller (with the controller using one ID, thus allowing 7 or 15 SCSI peripherals).

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For more information about SCSI, including comparisons between SCSI and other disk interfaces, see the articles at www.scsi-planet.com/vs.

Although most hard disks use the IDE/EIDE or SCSI interface, there are other ways to connect disks to your computer.The microdrive, mentioned earlier, connects via a PC Card (also called PCMCIA, for the Personal Computer

Memory Card International Association that created the standard). FireWire

(IEEE 1394) and USB hard drives are also available.

Data written on a hard disk generally stays there unless or until it is either overwritten by more data or physically erased by a magnet. Simply deleting the data using operating system file management utilities does not get rid of the data.

It only removes the pointer used by the file system to locate that data physically on the disk.The data itself (in the form of the physical changes to the disk’s magnetic surface) is still there and can be recovered using special recovery software.

Many users think that formatting a hard disk erases all its data, but this isn’t necessarily so. Formatting defines the structure of the disk. Low-level formatting

(LLF), which physically defines where the tracks and sectors are on the disk, does erase data. However, modern disks are formatted at the low level at the factory; users do not perform LLF on today’s IDE and SCSI disks. So, when we discuss formatting, we are generally talking about high-level formatting (HLF). This term refers to the process of defining the file system structure.Thus, we say a disk is formatted in FAT or formatted in NTFS (file systems that we discuss later in this chapter).

Before we can format a hard disk, we must partition it.This involves dividing the disk into volumes, which generally appear to the operating system as logical

drives, identified by different drive letters. The disk is divided into logical drives for the purposes of performance and organization of the data. Each logical drive can be formatted separately. Of course, you can partition the disk as a single partition. Partitioning schemes and tools differ depending on the operating system and file system. Contrary to popular belief, FDISK and other partitioning utilities do not erase the data on a disk; they only delete and manipulate the partition tables. Even though tools such as Partition Magic warn that their use will erase the data on a disk, this is not true; the warning is intended for the average user who will not be able to recover the data after using the utility. However, professional data recovery techniques can still recover the data (although the data might be fragmented—that is, the contents of a file could be spread out in different areas of the disk and recoverable in bits and pieces).

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On

the Scene…

Wiping a Hard Disk Clean

There are ways to completely erase the data on a disk, but the average user (and the average cybercriminal) will not usually take these measures. Software programs that “zero out” the disk do so by overwriting all the ones and zeros that make up the data on the disk, replacing them with zeros. These programs are often called “wiping” programs. Some of these programs make several passes, overwriting what was already overwritten in the previous pass, for added security. However, in some cases, the data tracks on the disk are wider than the data stream that is written on them. This means that some of the original data might still be visible and recoverable with sophisticated techniques.

A strong magnet can also erase or scramble the data on magnetic media. This process is called degaussing. It generally makes the disk unusable without restoring the factory-installed timing tracks. The platters might have to be disassembled to completely erase all the data on all of them, but there is equipment available that will degauss all the platters while they remain intact.

In very high-security environments such as sensitive government operations, disks that have contained classified information are usually physically destroyed (pulverized, incinerated, or exposed to an abrasive or acid) to prevent recovery of the data.

Removable Storage

There are several popular types of removable media, so called because the disk itself is separate from the drive, the device that reads and writes to it. Of course, some hard disks can be removed from the computer. Removable disk racks and bays allow you to easily slide an IDE or SCSI hard disk drive (mounted in a carrier rack) in and out of a docking bay that remains attached to the computer’s ATA or

SCSI interface. Hard disk drives can also be inserted into external bays that are easily plugged into and removed from the computer’s USB port.The distinction is that in these cases you are removing the entire drive, not just the disk itself, whereas with true removable storage media, the drive stays attached to the computer and only the media—disk, tape or card—is removed. Removable media includes the following:

Floppy disks or diskettes

In the early days of personal computing, floppy disks were large (first 8 inches, then later 5.25 inches in

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■ diameter), thin, and flexible.Today’s “floppies,” often and more accurately called diskettes, are smaller (3.5 inches), rigid, and less fragile.The disk inside the diskette housing is plastic, coated with magnetic material.The

drive into which you insert the diskette contains a motor to rotate the diskette so that the drive heads, made of tiny electromagnets, can read and write to different locations on the diskette. Standard diskettes today hold 1.44MB of data; SuperDisk technology (developed by Imation

Corporation) provides for storing either 120MB or 240MB on diskettes of the same size.

CDs and DVDs

CDs and DVDs are rigid disks a little less than 5 inches in diameter, made of hard plastic with a thin layer of coating.

CDs and DVDs are called optical media because CD and DVD drives use a laser beam, along with an optoelectronic sensor, to write to and read the data that is “burned” into the coating material (a compound that changes from reflective to nonreflective when heated by the laser).The

data is encoded in the form of incredibly tiny pits or bumps on the surface of the disk. CDs and DVDs work similarly, but the latter can store more data because the pits and tracks are smaller, because DVDs use a more efficient error correction method (that uses less space), and because

DVDs can have two layers of storage on each side instead of just one.

Tape

Magnetic tape is a relatively inexpensive form of removable storage, especially for backing up data. It is less useful for data that needs to be accessed frequently because it is a sequential access media.You have to move back and forth through the tape to locate the particular data you want. In other words, to get from file 1 to file 20, you have to go through files 2 through 19.This is in contrast to direct access media like disks, in which the heads can be moved directly to the location of the data you want to access without progressing in sequence through all the other files.

Flash memory

Flash memory cards and sticks are popular for storing and transferring small amounts of data (typically from 8MB to 512MB).

For example, they are commonly used for storing photos in digital cameras (and transferring them to PCs) and for storing and transferring programs and data between handheld computers (pocket PCs and Palm OS devices). Although called “memory,” unlike RAM, flash media is nonvolatile storage; that means that the data is retained until it is deliberately erased or overwritten. Flash cards and sticks include Compact Flash and

SmartMedia cards and Sony’s Memory stick. PCMCIA flash memory cards are also available. Flash memory reader/writers come in many

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■ handheld and some laptop/notebook computers, and external readers can be attached to PCs via USB or serial port.

Other removable media

There are a number of other types of removable media, such as the venerable Zip and Jaz disks made by Iomega that contain one or more hard disk platters in a removable cartridge that is inserted into a drive (which contains the motor and heads). Iomega recently introduced high-capacity Peerless cartridges and drives for backing up large hard disks (up to 20GB). Magneto-optical (MO) technology uses a combination of magnetic and laser (optical) technology.

New removable storage options are appearing all the time. Removable storage provides convenience in an increasingly mobile computing world.Technologies

such as holographic storage are in development and expected to greatly increase data storage capacities in the future.

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For more information about the theoretical possibilities of holographic storage techniques, see the Scientific American article “On the Horizon:

Holographic Storage” on the magazine’s Web site at www.sciam.com/

2000/0500issue/0500toigbox5.html.

Why This Matters to the Investigator

Why does the cybercrime investigator need to know the difference between

RAM and disk space, what a microprocessor does, or the function of cache memory? Understanding what each part of a computer does will ensure that you also understand where in the machine the evidence (data) you need might be— and where not to waste your time looking for it.

For example, if you know that information in RAM is lost when the machine is shut down, you’ll be more careful about immediately turning off a computer being seized pursuant to warrant.You’ll want to evaluate the situation; was the suspect “caught in the act” while at the computer? The information that the suspect is currently working on will not necessarily be saved if you shut down the system.The contents of open chat sessions, for example, could be lost forever if they’re not automatically being logged.You will want to consider the best way to preserve this volatile data without compromising the integrity of the evidence.

You might be able to save the current data, print current screens, or even have

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your crime scene photographer take photos of the screens to prevent information in RAM from being lost.

Understanding how data is stored on and accessed from hard disks and removable media will help you recognize why data can often be recovered even though the cybercriminal thinks he or she has “erased” it, either by merely deleting the files or by formatting the disk.

Investigators should also be aware of the many existing removable media options that allow cybercriminals to store evidentiary data in a location separate from the computer, easily transfer that data to another computer, or make copies of the data that can be used in case the original data on the computer’s hard disk is destroyed.The presence of any removable media drive (diskette drive, CD-R, tape drive, or the like) means that there is definitely a possibility that data has been saved and taken away. Unfortunately, the absence of such a drive does not negate that possibility, because many removable media drives are external and portable; they can be quickly and easily moved from one computer to another, attaching to the machine by way of a serial, parallel, USB, or other port.

The Language of the Machine

Computer hardware and accessories, such as hard disks and removable media, might provide the physical evidence of cybercrime. However, in most cases the hardware itself is not really the evidence; it merely contains the evidence. Similarly, a letter written by a criminal might be entered into evidence, but it is not the physical page and ink that provide proof of guilt, it is the words written on the page that indicate the criminal’s culpable mental state or that provide a written confession of the criminal’s actions. If those words are in a language that the police, prosecutors, and jury can understand, using them as evidence is easy. On the other hand, if the words are written in a foreign language, using them as evidence might be more difficult because they will have to be interpreted by someone who understands both languages.

In a sense, most computer data is written in a foreign language.The data stored in computers is written in the “language” of ones and zeros, or binary lan-

guage (also called machine language or machine code). Although relatively few humans can program in pure machine language and few cybercrime investigators learn to translate the magnetic encoding representing ones and zeros on a disk into “real” (understandable) data, it is helpful for investigators to understand how binary language works in order to anticipate questions that can be raised by the defense in a case that relies on computer data as evidence.

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On

the Scene…

Getting Down to the Lowest Level

Machine language is the lowest level of programming language. The next step up is assembly language, which allows programmers to use names (or mneumonics) represented by ASCII characters, rather than just numbers. Code written in assembly language is translated into machine language by a program called an assembler.

Most programmers, however, write their code in high-level lan-

guages (for example, BASIC, COBOL, FORTRAN, or C++). High-level languages are “friendlier” than other languages in that they are more like the languages that humans write and speak to communicate with one another and less like the machine language that computers “understand.” Although easier for people to work with, high-level languages must be converted into machine language for the computer to use the program. This is done by a program called a compiler, which reorganizes the instructions in the source code, or an interpreter, which immediately executes the source code. Because different computing platforms use different machine languages, there are different compilers for a single high-level language to enable the code to run on different platforms.

Wandering Through a World of Numbers

Working with numbers, beyond the primitive method of simply representing each item counted as a one (for example, carving one notch on the investigator’s wooden desktop for each case solved), requires that we use a base system to group items in an ordered fashion, making it easier for us to keep count.

Who’s on Which Base?

Most of us are most familiar with the base-10 numbering system, also called the

decimal numbering system. Many sources credit early Indian cultures with creating this numbering system approximately 5000 years ago; it was later refined in the

Arab world.This system uses 10 digits (0 through 9) to represent all possible numbers. Each digit’s value depends on its place; as you move left in reading a number, each place represents 10 times the value to its right.Thus the digit 1 can represent 1, 10, 100, 1000, and so on, depending on its place as defined by the number of digits to its right. A decimal point is used to allow numbers less than 1 to be represented.

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We use base 10 all the time; it is our day-to-day numbering system.When we see a decimal number such as 168, we understand that the 1 represents one hun-

dred, the 6 represents six tens, and the 8 represents eight ones, based on the place occupied by each digit in relation to the others.

Base 10 works great for human counting because we have 10 fingers (also called digits) that we can use to count on. Historians believe this explains the development and popularity of decimal numbering; primitive people found it easy to count to 10 on their fingers and then make a mark in the sand or on stone to represent each group of 10.

Computers, however, work with electrical impulses that have two discrete states.You can visualize this system by thinking of a standard light switch.The

bulb can be in one of two possible states at a given time; it is either on or off.

This is a digital signal.We don’t have 10 different states to represent the 10 digits of the decimal system to the computer, but we can still represent all possible numbers using the base-2 numbering system, also called the binary numbering

system.

Understanding the Binary Numbering System

Binary numbering uses only two digits, 0 and 1. Each binary digit (each 0 or 1) is called a bit. In binary numbering, as in decimal, the value of a digit is determined by its place. However, in binary, each place represents 2 times the value of the place to its right (instead of 10 times, as in base 10).

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A byte generally equals 8 bits. Bytes are the units that computers usually use to represent a character (a letter of the alphabet, a numeral, or a symbol). Eight bits is also called an octet, especially in the context of IP addressing.

This means the binary number 1000 does not represent one thousand; instead, it represents eight (its decimal equivalent) because that’s the value of the fourth place to the left. A zero is a placeholder that indicates that place has no value, and a one indicates that a place has the value assigned to it.Thus 1111 represents 15 in decimal, because each place (starting from the right) has a value of

1, 2, 4, and 8. Adding these values together gives us 15.

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Converting Between Binary and Decimal

Although computer processors must work with binary numbering, humans prefer to work with numbering systems that use more digits, because it is less confusing for us to deal with a number that looks like 139 than its binary equivalent of

10001011.

Table 4.1 shows the place values of the first 12 places of a binary number, starting from the right. If the binary digit is a 1, the value shown is assigned to it; if it’s a 0, no value is assigned.The second line of the table shows the digits of a typical binary number.

Table 4.1

Place values of binary digits

Value 2048 1024 512 256 128 64 32 16 8

Binary

Digit 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 1

4 2 1

0 0 1

Looking at this binary number, 110100011001, we see that the bits that are

“on” (represented by 1s) have values of 1, 8, 16, 256, 1024, and 2048. If we add those values together, we get 3353.This is the decimal equivalent of the binary number.

Converting Between Binary and Hexadecimal

Another numbering system that is sometimes used to make binary more palatable for humans is the hexadecimal, or hex, system, or base 16.Why not just use our familiar decimal system and convert it to binary instead of learning yet another numbering system? Hex is useful because it is easier to convert hex to binary.

Since hex uses 16 digits, each byte (8 binary digits) can be represented by 2 hex digits. Hex also produces shorter numbers to work with than decimal.

Hex needs six more symbols than decimal to represent all its digits, so it uses the standard decimal digits 0 to 9 to represent the first 10 digits and then uses the first six letters of the alphabet, A to F, to represent the remaining six digits.Table

4.2 shows the hexadecimal digits and their decimal equivalents.

Table 4.2

Hexadecimal digits and their decimal equivalents

Hexadecimal 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F

Decimal 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

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Using this system, for example, the decimal number 11,085 is equivalent to the hex number 2B4D, and the decimal number 1409 is equivalent to the hex number 581. In the first case, it’s obvious that we’re dealing with a hexadecimal number, but if we see the number 581, how do we know whether it’s a decimal or hexadecimal number? To solve this problem, hex numbers are indicated by either a prefix of 0x or a suffix of H.Thus, our hex equivalent of 1409 would be written either 0x581 or 581H.

In the computer world, you’ll find that some numbers (such as IP addresses) are traditionally represented by their decimal equivalents, whereas others (such as memory addresses and MAC addresses) are traditionally represented by their hexadecimal equivalents.

Converting Text to Binary

Computers “think” in binary, but people (aside from the rare mathematical genius) don’t.We tend to work with words, and much of the data that we input to our computers is in the form of text. How does the computer process this data? Ultimately, it must be converted to the binary “language” that the computer understands.

Text files are commonly encoded in either ASCII (in UNIX and MS-DOSbased operating systems) or Unicode (in Windows NT/2000). ASCII stands for

American Standard Code for Information Interchange, which represents binary numbers as text. Assembly language uses ASCII characters for programming. Each character of the alphabet, numeric digit, or symbol is represented by a specific

1-byte string of binary digits. (In a binary file, there is no one-to-one correlation between characters and bytes.)

ASCII characters are used by text-based operating systems and programs such as MS-DOS and WordPerfect versions prior to 5.0. By contrast, graphical programs use bitmaps or geometrical shapes instead of characters to create display objects.

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The extended ASCII character set includes additional characters, such as shapes for drawing pictures so that graphics objects can be simulated.

MS-DOS uses extended ASCII to display menus, bar charts, and other shapes that are based on straight lines.

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Encoding Nontext Files

The original ASCII encoding scheme used 7-bit characters and is designed to handle plain text only.Then along came the Internet, and people wanted to send files to one another via e-mail. E-mail server software was designed to handle the

ASCII character set and another 7-bit encoding scheme, Extended Binary Coded

Decimal Interchange Code (EBCDIC) that was developed by IBM for their minicomputers and mainframes.This worked fine as long as everyone was sending plain text files. However, it was a problem if you wanted to send pictures, audio, programs, or files created in applications that did not produce plain text, because most nontext files use 8-bit characters. Even the documents created by word processors are usually not saved as ASCII files but as binary files (in order to preserve formatting information).

The answer to this problem was to use an encoding scheme that could represent nontext files as text. Programmers came up with solutions such as uuencode and Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME) to convert nontext files into

ASCII text.Thus a photo or other nontext file could be sent across the Internet without a problem. An encoded file looks like a mass of meaningless ASCII characters to the human eye, but when it is decoded by software at the recipient’s end, it is converted back into its original form. MIME provided a number of advantages over uuencode in that it supported sending multiple attachments and interactive multimedia content. Perhaps most important, it supports languages such as Japanese, Chinese, and Hebrew that don’t use the Roman alphabet.

Another encoding scheme, called BinHex, is often used by Apple Macintosh software. Mac files differ from those created by Windows and some other operating systems in that the Mac files consist of two parts, called forks—one that contains the actual data and one that contains attribute information and parametric values.There are programs available to convert the files into a single byte stream for sending over a network. Macintosh files can be sent via MIME, using the MIME encapsulation specifications outlined in RFC1740.

Web browsers also support MIME so they can display files that are not in

HTML format.There is also a version of MIME called S/MIME that supports encryption of messages.

Why This Matters to the Investigator

Investigators might not be capable of interpreting machine language, but they should understand what it is when they see it.The 1s and 0s of binary

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computation, the odd-looking hexadecimal numbers used in some types of addressing, and the indecipherable “gibberish” of MIME-encoded files might look meaningless, but when properly translated they can contain valuable evidence.

Just as an investigator should not throw away a letter found at the scene of a crime just because it happens to be written in Chinese, neither should computer data be dismissed as useless just because the investigators can’t understand it. Pure binary data, or data that has been encoded for sending across a network, might be less convenient to work with than text or unencoded pictures, but often it can be converted to a readable form by the proper software.

It is also important for investigators to understand the difference between the type of encoding we are discussing here, which is done to make data recognizable and usable by a computer, and encryption, the purpose of which is to make data unrecognizable and unusable by unauthorized humans. Encoded data is intended to be easily decoded, and the software for doing so is widely available; encrypted data is intended to be difficult or impossible to decrypt without the proper key.

The very fact that a file has been encrypted can in some cases be a red flag that arouses suspicion or a building block of the probable cause needed to get a warrant or effect an arrest.Thus knowing the difference between an encoded file and an encrypted file will save investigators time and strengthen their credibility before a judge.

On

the Scene…

Does File Encryption Create Probable Cause?

Investigators know that probable cause is usually not based on one fact or piece of evidence but rather comprises multiple building blocks that, when taken together, would cause a reasonable and prudent person to believe that a crime has been committed by the suspect. Law enforcement professionals sometimes refer to these building blocks collectively as the totality of the circumstances. The fourth amendment to the U.S.

Constitution requires that probable cause, based on the totality of the circumstances, be shown before a search warrant can be issued.

Does the existence of an encrypted file (or files) on a computer establish probable cause to seize that computer and examine the files, going on the theory that “only guilty people have something to hide”?

In other words, if the girlfriend of a child-pornography suspect tells you that there are files on the family computer that are encrypted so that she

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can’t open them, is that enough cause for a search warrant? Given the nature of probable cause, the answer is no—at least, not by itself.

Encryption alone generally would not be enough to satisfy the definition of probable cause. Use of encryption is not illegal in the United States (it is in some countries), and many people concerned with privacy use encryption to protect data that has nothing to do with criminal activity.

However, the fact that data is encrypted can be used as one of your building blocks of probable cause. If you have other evidence that indicates, for example, that a suspect regularly downloads pornographic photos of children (such as testimony of a known child pornographer that the suspect requested such photos from him, intercepted e-mail messages, or the like), the existence of encrypted files on the suspect’s hard disk would add to the suspicion that illicit photos were stored there.

Other considerations include whether all the files on the disk are encrypted or only some select ones. The former situation is more indicative of someone who is just generally concerned about privacy, whereas the latter situation serves as a red flag that those particular files could contain something of interest to law enforcement. We discuss encryption in more detail in Chapter 7, “Understanding Cybercrime

Prevention,” in the section on cryptography.

Understanding Computer

Operating Systems

As a computer starts, the operating system is loaded into its memory and provides the foundation or platform on which application programs run. Although the vast majority of today’s personal computers run some version of one of the three most popular PC operating systems (Windows, UNIX/Linux, or Macintosh OS), thousands of different computer operating systems exist. Some of these are network operating systems such as NetWare that run servers but don’t function as desktop/client operating systems. Some run on mainframe or mini-mainframe computers, such as IBM’s z/OS and OS/400, and some are designed for high-end workstations, such as Sun’s Solaris and IBM’s AIX (both based on UNIX). Others are proprietary operating systems used for specific devices, such as Cisco’s

Internetworking Operating System (IOS) that runs on Cisco routers or SCOUT, which runs network appliances. Some are used as embedded operating systems in a variety of devices, such as Windows CE Embedded, QNX, and Symbian. Some are experimental operating systems such as GNU HURD and SkyOS.

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For a list of many operating systems that are in development, see the

Current Operating Systems Projects page at www.cs.arizona.edu/people/ bridges/oses.html.

Understanding the Role of the Operating

System Software

The operating system acts as a sort of liaison between the computer hardware and the application programs that are used to perform specific tasks (such as word processing or downloading and sending e-mail). It also provides file management, security, and coordination of application and utility programs that are running simultaneously. Operating systems can be classified in a number of different ways:

Text-based (or character-based) operating systems such as MS-DOS and

UNIX/Linux are faster performers because they don’t have the overhead required to display complex graphics, but many people find them to be less user-friendly than GUI operating systems because you must learn and type commands to perform tasks. Most text-based operating systems can run shell programs to give them a graphical interface. Examples include Windows 3.x for MS-DOS and KDE for Linux.

Multiuser operating systems generally run on mainframe systems and allow more than one user to log on, through terminals, and run programs simultaneously.The term is sometimes also used to refer to operating systems (such as Windows NT/2000/XP) that allow only one user at a time to log on but identify different users by a user account that is assigned a profile that defines settings, preferences, and documents that are specific to that user. Server operating systems (such as Windows

NT/2000/.NET Server, Novell NetWare, and UNIX) allow multiple users to log onto the server over the network and access its resources, although only one user is logged on interactively (at the local machine).

Multitasking operating systems are those that allow you to run more than one program at a time. MS-DOS is a single-tasking operating system; in other words, you have to close one application before you can start another.The Windows shell, running on top of DOS, allows it to multitask. UNIX, IBM’s OS/2, and Windows 9x/ME and NT/2000 and later are all true multitasking operating systems.

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Multiprocessing operating systems are able to use the capabilities of more than one microprocessor installed in the system, either by assigning different programs to run on different processors or by allowing different parts of a single program to run on different processors. For example,

Windows 9x/ME operating systems do not recognize or use multiple processors, but Windows NT/2000/XP/.NET do. (The number of processors depends on the OS version.) UNIX and Macintosh also support multiple processors.

Differentiating Between Multitasking and Multiprocessing Types

Different operating systems support such features as multitasking and multiprocessing in different ways.The type of multitasking or multiprocessing that is used by a particular operating system depends on its architecture—that is, its design and structure.

Multitasking

Multitasking works by time slicing—that is, allowing multiple programs to use tiny slices of the processor’s time, one after the other.Two basic types of multitasking are used by PC operating systems: cooperative and preemptive. Cooperative multi-

tasking was used by Windows 3.x and prior, running on top of MS-DOS, as well as Macintosh operating systems prior to OS X. In this type of multitasking environment, each program must be written so that its processes (tasks or executing programs) use the processor for a short amount of time and then give up control of the processor to other processes. As long as the programs are written to cooperate, this system works. However, poorly written programs can take over the processor and refuse to relinquish control.When this happens, the system can freeze or crash.

Preemptive multitasking is more efficient.This method puts the operating system itself in charge of the processor.This way, a badly written program can’t hog control of the processor; if it tries to do so, the operating system preempts its use of the processor and gives it to another process. A component in the operating system’s kernel called the scheduler is responsible for allotting use of the processor to each process in turn. Some operating systems allow you to assign priorities to certain processes so that they come first when they need to use the processor. Preemptive processing is used by Windows 9x and later, UNIX, OS/2, and Macintosh OS X.

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Multiprocessing

Even if a computer has more than one processor physically installed, it might not be able to perform multiprocessing. In order to perform multiprocessing, the operating system must be capable of recognizing the presence of multiple processors and be able to use them. Some operating systems, such as Windows 9x, do not support multiprocessing. Even among those that do, not all multiprocessing operating systems are created equal.

There are three methods of supporting multiple processing:

Asymmetric multiprocessing (AMP or ASMP)

Symmetric multiprocessing (SMP)

Massively parallel processing (MPP)

With asymmetric multiprocessing, each processor is assigned specific tasks. One primary processor acts as the “master” and controls the actions of the other, secondary processors.

Symmetric multiprocessing makes all the processors available to all individual processes.The processors share the workload, distributed more or less equally, thus increasing performance. Symmetric multiprocessing is also called tightly coupled

multiprocessing because the multiple processors still use just one instance of the operating system and share the computer’s memory and I/O resources.

Massively parallel processing is a means of crunching huge amounts of data by distributing the processing over hundreds or thousands of processors, which might be running in the same box or in separate, distantly located computers.

Each processor in an MPP system has its own memory, disks, applications, and instances of the operating system.The problem being worked on is divided into many pieces, which are processed simultaneously by the multiple systems.

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MMP is generally used in research, academic, and government environments running large, complex computer systems. It is seldom used on desktop machines or typical business servers, although there is a type of parallel processing called distributed computing that uses large numbers of ordinary PCs on a network to work together on a problem, dividing the task among multiple machines. One of the best-known examples of this type of processing is done on the Search for Extraterrestrial

Intelligence (SETI) project. [email protected] recruits volunteers across the

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Internet who install software on their home computers that allows their systems, during idle time, to process a portion of the massive amount of data collected from radio telescopes and analyze it for signals that might have originated from intelligent beings in space.

A paper that outlines the advantages of the distributed computing model of parallel processing used in SETI and other projects is available at http://roland.grc.nasa.gov/~mallman/papers/prime-delay.pdf (PDF format).

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Symmetric multiprocessing is the type supported by mainstream operating systems, including Windows NT/2000/XP/.NET, Linux, BSD and other UNIX versions, BeOS, and OS/2 Warp.To take advantage of the multiprocessing capabilities, the programs running on multiprocessor machines and operating systems must be

multithreaded—that is, they must be written in a way that allows them to execute tasks in small executable parts called threads.Windows 2000, XP, and .NET also support a feature called processor affinity that provides AMP-like functionality.

Differentiating Between Proprietary and

Open Source Operating Systems

Most commercial operating systems are proprietary—that is, the vendors keep the source code (the programming instructions) secret, and the licensing agreements prohibit “reverse engineering” (that is, dismantling the software’s components and replicating them).Vendors don’t depend on the licensing agreement alone to prevent you from performing reverse engineering.When you buy the software, it has been compiled; in other words, a compiler program has translated the source code

(written in a higher-level language understandable to the programmer) into machine language that is understandable by the computer.This compilation process makes it difficult or impossible for programmers to replicate the original source code, which is needed in order to make changes to the software.

However, some operating systems are distributed as open source products, meaning that the source code is made available to the public and developers at no cost. Anyone is free to modify the code to improve it.The only “catch” is that the license, although free, usually obligates programmers to disclose their improvements or even to make them available to the public at no cost.

The most notable (though not the only) open source operating system is

Linux, which is based on the UNIX operating system. (Some versions of UNIX, such as FreeBSD, are open source; others, such as AIX, HP-UX, and Solaris, are not.) To confuse matters more, although the source code for Linux is free,

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vendors such as Red Hat, Caldera, and Corel market their own “distros” (Linuxspeak for distributions) commercially.The term open source doesn’t necessarily mean that the compiled version is free—only the source code is.

Linux was developed by and is named after Linus Torvalds, under the GNU

General Public License (GPL).The licensing agreement makes it clear that developers who modify or distribute the software can charge for the service if they like; what they can’t do is keep the source code secret or patent the products

(unless the patent is licensed for everyone’s free use).

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You can read all the terms of the entire GNU GPL on the GNU Web site at www.gnu.org/licenses/gpl.html#SEC1. For information about the Open

Source Initiative (OSI), visit www.opensource.org.

If open source software is free—or at least the source code is—why doesn’t everyone use it instead of proprietary commercial software that costs big bucks?

There are several reasons:

There are dozens of different versions or “distros” of each open source operating system or application.This can be confusing to users, who don’t know which one to select.

Because anyone and everyone can make modifications to the operating system, you don’t have the standardization that you have with proprietary software. In other words, one version of Linux might work fine with your hardware configuration, but another distro might not.

Often, device drivers are not readily available for open source operating systems, so you must write your own.This is beyond the capabilities of many consumers and business users (in other words, people who aren’t

“geeks”).

Generally, no warranty is included with open source software, and no technical support is available (although some companies, such as Red

Hat, package their distros of Linux and in essence sell the warranty/ tech support services accompanied by the “free” software).This is especially important to business users, who generally will not use software that doesn’t include tech support from the vendor.

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The open source community has criticized vendors of proprietary software, such as Microsoft and Apple, for keeping their source code secret. As a result,

Apple Computer has, for the first time, opened its source code for Darwin, the

Mac OS X kernel, which is based on UNIX. For more information about the

OpenDarwin project, see Apple’s Web site for developers at http://developer

.apple.com/darwin/projects.

An Overview of Commonly Used

Operating Systems

The most commonly used operating systems for microcomputers today include those made by Microsoft, Apple’s Macintosh operating systems, and the various

“distros” of Linux and other UNIX-based operating systems. In this section, we look briefly at the following operating systems:

DOS

Windows 3.x

Windows 9x (95, 95b, 95c, 98, 98SE, ME)

Windows NT 3.51 and 4.0 (Workstation and Server versions)

Windows 2000 (Professional and Server versions)

Windows XP (Home and Professional versions)

Linux/UNIX

OS/2 and BeOS

Macintosh

At the time of this writing, Microsoft’s .NET Server operating system was still in beta testing, but it can be expected to be deployed widely in the corporate environment when it is released. Figure 4.1 shows the Microsoft “family tree,” diagramming the chronological evolution of the current Windows operating systems.

Understanding DOS

DOS is the Disk Operating System, which was the operating system first used on the original IBM PCs.Today many computers still run some form of DOS.The

most popular “flavor” of DOS is Microsoft’s version, MS-DOS. IBM licensed

DOS from Microsoft and marketed a version called PC-DOS that was bundled with its early PCs. Digital Research sold a version called DR-DOS that was later

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marketed by Caldera as DR-OpenDOS.There is an open source version of DOS called FreeDOS; for more information on this product, see the FreeDOS Web site at www.freedos.org.

The earliest versions of DOS used a file system called FAT12 (we’ll discuss file systems in more detail in the next section). MS-DOS versions 3.x through

6.x supported FAT16 along with FAT12 and were used both as standalone operating systems and as the operating system on which Windows (through version

3.11) was loaded, because early versions of Windows were not full-fledged operating systems, only graphical shells that required DOS underneath. MS-DOS version 7.0, which also supported FAT12 and FAT16, was part of the Windows 95 operating system. At that point in the evolution of Microsoft operating systems, the shell was integrated with the operating system, and users no longer installed

MS-DOS and Windows as two separate products.Windows 95b (also called

OEM Service Release 2 or OSR 2) was integrated with a new version of MS-

DOS, version 7.1, which supported the FAT32 file system.

Figure 4.1

The Microsoft family tree

In the beginning there was DOS...

MSDOS

Business

Windows

Windows v 1-3.x was a graphical shell that ran on top of DOS.

Consumer

Server

Windows NT

Workstation

Windows 95

Windows 98

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Windows .NET

Server

Windows 2000

Professional

Home

Windows XP

Professional

Windows ME

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MS-DOS as a standalone operating system is text-based and is not capable of multitasking. It has several limitations, such as the inability to work with disk partitions larger than 2GB or memory greater than 1MB (unless you use the

Expanded Memory Scheme, or EMS, software).Windows 3.x uses EMS to provide multitasking. DOS was built on the BASIC programming language, and most versions include a version of BASIC.The MS-DOS interface is shown in

Figure 4.2.

Figure 4.2

MS-DOS has a text-based interface.

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Advantages of MS-DOS include size (version 6.22 fits on three diskettes), relative simplicity, low cost, and the fact that it will run on older, low powered hardware that doesn’t have enough memory or disk space to support more modern operating systems.

Windows 1.x Through 3.x

Not really operating systems in their own right but rather add-ons to MS-DOS,

Windows versions 1.x through 3.x were designed to bring a graphical interface to the Microsoft computing environment.Versions 1 and 2 were not very popular, but as the old adage says, the third time is a charm, and Windows 3.0, released in 1990, was the beginning of Microsoft’s dominance in the operating system market.

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On

the Scene…

Who “Stole” What from Whom?

It is a popular truism in the personal computing community that

Microsoft “stole” (or at least derived) the idea of a graphical interface for Windows from its chief competitor at the time, Apple. Like most truisms, it is only partially true. It is true that Apple did develop a graphical operating system for its Local Integrated Software Architecture (LISA) computer, which it officially released in 1983, just prior to Microsoft’s announcement of Windows and almost two years before Windows 1.0

actually became available to the public. However, Apple didn’t “invent” the idea of the mouse-driven GUI, as many people believe. The Xerox

Alto (named after the Palo Alto Research Center, where it was developed) and Star computers were actually the first personal computers to use these features, way back in the 1970s. Both Steve Jobs (of Apple) and Bill Gates (of Microsoft) visited Palo Alto and “borrowed” the ideas from Xerox, which later showed up in the Lisa (and later the Macintosh) and in Windows.

For more information about the Alto, see www.fortunecity

.com/marina/reach/435. To view the Lisa interface, see http://members

.fortunecity.com/pcmuseum/lisadsk.htm. For a look at the interface on

Windows 1.0 and subsequent versions of Windows (up through XP), visit www.infosatellite.com/news/2001/10/a251001windowshistory_ screenshots.html#win101.

Windows 3.x is still in use on many computers in the world today. Like MS-

DOS alone, it will run on older hardware, and many applications were made for it.Windows 3.x over MS-DOS is known as a 16-bit operating system, meaning that it can process 2 bytes (which equals 16 bits) at a time. One of its limitations is the inability to handle filenames that have more than eight characters (with a threecharacter extension).

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The first microcomputer operating systems, used by the Commodore PET,

Tandy TRS-80, Texas Instruments TI/99, and Apple II, were 8-bit operating systems.

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Windows 3.11 added 32-bit file access (a new way of accessing the disk), updated device drivers, and bug fixes. Another popular version of Windows 3.1 and

3.11 was called Windows for Workgroups, which included integrated networking components for the first time. It included Microsoft Mail support and remote access services, and it claimed 50- to 150-percent faster disk I/O performance.

Windows for Workgroups made peer-to-peer networking much easier and more convenient than earlier Microsoft operating systems and became very popular in small business environments.The Windows 3.11 interface is shown in Figure 4.3.

Figure 4.3

Windows 3.x ran on top of MS-DOS, providing a graphical interface.

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Windows 9x (95, 95b, 95c, 98, 98SE, and ME)

Windows 95 was a major new operating system release that was accompanied by heavy fanfare from Microsoft and the computing community. Released in August

1995,Windows 95 was Microsoft’s first 32-bit consumer operating system; however, it is a hybrid operating system rather than a true 32-bit OS. For backward compatibility with older programs written for Windows 3.x, there is still a good deal of 16-bit code in Windows 95.

Windows 95 was designed to provide users with an entirely new interface

(doing away with the old Program Manager and incorporating the now-familiar

Start button and taskbar) and many enhanced features, such as:

Preemptive multitasking (for 32-bit programs only)

Support for long filenames (up to 256 characters) through the VFAT file system

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Plug and Play (which makes hardware installation easier)

Power Management (a boon for laptop users)

The Recycle Bin (which makes it easier to recover deleted files)

Dialup networking support built into the operating system

Windows 95 became tremendously popular and was the beginning of the

Windows 9x family tree, which includes Windows 98 and ME.The Windows 95 interface is shown in Figure 4.4.

Figure 4.4

Windows 95 provided a whole new look and many new features.

The second release of Windows 95, popularly called 95b and officially referred to as OSR 2, was not available to consumers on the shelves. It was released to original equipment manufacturers (OEMs, or PC hardware vendors) to install on the machines they sold.Version 95b added support for the FAT32 file system. A variant of 95b, called OSR 2.1, added rudimentary USB support.

Another variant, OSR 2.5, which is often called Windows 95c, added the

Internet Explorer 4.0 Web browser as an integrated component.

The next upgrade to Microsoft’s 9x line of consumer operating systems was

Windows 98, released, appropriately enough, in June 1998.This was the first version available as packaged software to consumers that supported FAT32 (in addition to the “old” file systems FAT12 and FAT16).Windows 98 also added networking and dialup enhancements, better hardware support, infrared (IrDA)

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support, and Advanced Configuration and Power Interface (ACPI). It also included the Active Desktop (which could be added to Windows 95 by installing the Internet Explorer 4.0 browser) and provided for multiple monitor support.

Windows 98 replaced the old Help files with an indexed, searchable HTML system that is far more functional and added a number of interactive Troubleshooting Wizards, along with the Windows Update online driver/component update feature.Windows 98SE (second edition) added a few new features such as

Internet Connection Sharing (ICS) and DVD-ROM support.

Next (and presumably last) in the Windows 9x line is Windows ME, short for

Millennium Edition, released in September 2000. ME added several multimedia features such as a video-editing program and included better home networking support, but it was not a major upgrade. ME is presumably the last in the 9x line because the Windows 9x line of operating systems, geared to home users, and the

Windows NT/2000 line, geared toward businesses, have been merged into one with the advent of Windows XP.

Windows NT

Microsoft designed Windows NT for the corporate desktop and server market.

NT comes in two versions:Workstation for desktops and Server for servers. NT was released in 1993 and was based in part on the work done jointly by Microsoft and IBM, before they parted ways, on OS/2.Thus many of NT’s features, such as its pure 32-bit code and its high-performance, secure file system, are similar to features in OS/2. NT is Microsoft’s first operating system that is not based on MS-

DOS. However, it can run MS-DOS programs by creating a virtual machine that emulates the DOS environment on which DOS applications can run.

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What does NT stand for? In its early days, Microsoft said the letters stood for New Technology. Later (when the technology could no longer be called “new”), Microsoft changed its story and said it doesn’t stand for anything. David Cutler was the driving force behind the development of Windows NT.

Primary differences between Windows 9x and Windows NT are stability and security.The business environment requires an operating system that does not crash frequently, one that is secure enough to protect the sensitive data stored often stored on corporate computers.Windows NT’s architecture incorporates a

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hardware abstraction layer (referred to fondly as HAL) that prevents software applications from making direct calls to the hardware.This makes NT more stable and less crash-prone, but it also means that some applications written for

Windows 9x won’t run on Windows NT.

NT 3.1 was released in 1993, a year prior to the release of Windows 95.The

interface resembled Windows 3.x, but the kernel was completely different. A significant factor was the way NT handled memory. Unlike with Windows 3.x before it, each program ran in its own separate memory address.This meant that if one program crashed, it would not bring down all the rest of the currently running programs with it. Security features included mandatory logon (a user must have an account name and password to log onto the computer). NT also introduced support for a new file system, NT File System (NTFS), that offers better performance as well as the ability to set permissions (called NTFS permis-

sions or file-level permissions) on individual files and folders. NT 3.51 and prior versions also included support for the native file system of IBM’s OS/2, High

Performance File System (HPFS).

NT 4.0 was a major upgrade released in 1996.The interface resembled that of Windows 95, and it included advanced user administration tools, wizards, a network monitor (a built-in protocol analyzer or “sniffer” software), a task manager (a tool that provides information on running applications and processes), and support for system policies and user profiles to allow administrators to more easily control the users’ desktop environment. Remote access services and built-in virtual private networking (VPN) support via the Point-to-Point Tunneling

Protocol (PPTP) were other improvements. NT 4.0 dropped support for HPFS.

The Windows NT 4.0 interface is shown in Figure 4.5.

Although Windows NT Workstation has many advantages over the Windows

9x operating systems, it never became popular for home computing, for several reasons:

NT does not support Plug and Play, so hardware installation is more difficult and NT is “pickier” about the hardware it supports.

NT is not optimized for gaming; many popular Windows 9x and DOS games won’t run on NT, because the game software needs direct access to the hardware, which NT doesn’t allow.

NT Workstation costs about twice as much as Windows 9x.

NT is more complex and less “user friendly,” and its extra security measures are considered unnecessary and inconvenient by many home users.

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Figure 4.5

Windows NT 4.0 provided an interface similar to that of Windows 95.

Despite its lack of popularity in the consumer market,Windows NT—both

Workstation and Server versions—became immensely popular in the business environment, with Microsoft’s server product eventually overtaking and surpassing Novell’s NetWare as a network authentication server.Windows NT made huge inroads into the Internet mail and Web server markets, which were previously dominated by UNIX.

Windows 2000

Although Windows NT provided significantly more stability and security than the 9x operating systems, in order to continue to grow in market share among business customers, especially when competing with UNIX, Microsoft needed something better.Windows 2000 was released in February 2000, representing at least as many changes as the upgrade from Windows 3.x to 95. Like NT,

Windows 2000 is really a family of products: Professional (the desktop/client operating system that replaces NT Workstation) and three versions of the server software (Server, Advanced Server, and Datacenter Server).The startup screen for

Windows 2000 Pro is shown in Figure 4.6.

The Windows 2000 operating systems are built on the NT kernel but with the Windows 98 interface and literally hundreds of enhancements and improvements. Many features that were missing in NT (although some of them could be added via third-party add-on software) such as file encryption, disk quotas, and—

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finally!—Plug and Play are included in Windows 2000. New security features include support for the Internet-standard Kerberos authentication protocol, IP

Security (IPSec) for encrypting data that travels over the network, Group Policy (a much more robust and powerful replacement for system policies), and the Layer 2

Tunneling Protocol (L2TP) for more secure VPNs.The biggest difference between

NT and Windows 2000 networking is the addition of the Active Directory, a directory service similar in some ways to Novell’s NDS, which provides a centralized database for managing security, user data, and distributed resources.

For more information about Windows 2000 and Active Directory, a good starting point is Microsoft’s Windows 2000 Web site at www.microsoft.com/ windows2000.

Figure 4.6

Windows 2000 is built on NT technology.

Windows XP

In October 2001, Microsoft released another semi-major desktop upgrade, this one called Windows XP. One thing that makes XP special is the fact that it is an upgrade to both the Windows 9x line and the Windows NT/2000 line of desktop operating systems, which have been merged back together into one product line—sort of. Although both are based on the more stable NT kernel,

XP comes in two different versions: XP Home Edition for consumers and XP

Professional for business users.

The Home Edition of XP focuses on entertainment (digital photography, music, and video), gaming, and other consumer-oriented activities, along with features that make Internet connectivity and home networking easier than ever.

The Professional Edition includes all the features of XP Home plus additional features that are geared toward the corporate user, such as Remote Desktop (a

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“lite” terminal server application that allows you to access your XP desktop from anywhere across the network), file encryption, support for multiple-processor systems, and advanced networking features.The Windows XP Professional interface is shown in Figure 4.7. Note that this is not the default XP desktop; it has been highly customized to show the great flexibility provided by the operating system to allow users to “have it their way.”

Figure 4.7

Windows XP combines the best of the 9x and NT/2000 worlds.

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A Windows XP Pro computer, like NT Workstation and Windows 2000 Pro, can be a member of a Windows domain (a server-based network), whereas XP

Home computers, like Windows 9x systems, can be used to access domain resources but cannot belong to the domain. Useful features included in both versions of XP are:

Built-in Internet firewall for better security

Windows file protection feature that prevents accidentally changing the core operating system files

Fast user switching that allows users to change the currently logged-on user account without closing applications (on nondomain computers)

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A number of new wizards that walk you through commonly performed tasks such as transferring files and settings from one computer to another, setting up a network, publishing to the Web, and so on

Windows XP is a desktop/client operating system only. Although it had not been released at the time of this writing, its corresponding server operating system is Windows .NET Server (currently in beta testing). For more information about Windows XP, a good starting point is Microsoft’s XP home page at www.microsoft.com/windowsxp/home/default.asp.You can find more information about .NET Server at www.microsoft.com/windows.netserver.

Linux/UNIX

UNIX has been around since the 1960s, when it was developed at Bell Labs in conjunction with MIT computer scientists and thus has a “head start” on most of the competition in the PC operating system market. Generally used for servers rather than desktop machines, UNIX is a very powerful but complex (and somewhat user-hostile) text-based operating system that runs many of the mail,Web, and other servers on the Internet.

UNIX grew out of the Multiplexed Information and Computing Service

(Multics) mainframe system developed at MIT but was a completely new operating system designed to create a multiuser computing environment that would support a large number of users. It originally ran on the huge PDP timesharing machines in use at universities and government facilities in the 1960s and 1970s.

The first versions of UNIX were written in assembler language, but later versions were written in the high-level C programming language. In the late 1970s, the popularity of UNIX began to spread beyond the academic world, and in the early days of the Internet, it ran on most of the VAX computers that were connected to the internetwork. In the 1980s, more versions of UNIX were developed, and its use spread throughout the business world.

Today there are still a large number of different versions of UNIX, including

IBM’s AIX, Sun Microsystems’ Solaris, Hewlett-Packard’s HP-UX, Berkeley’s

BSD, Santa Cruz Operations’ SCO UNIX (which that company bought from

Novell in 1995), and others.The X Window system was developed to add a graphical shell to UNIX and make it more user-friendly. It’s not really a GUI but is instead a protocol that can be used to build a GUI, such as Common Desktop

Environment (CDE). However, UNIX graphical interfaces tend to be somewhat clunky and ugly compared to Windows interfaces, and UNIX purists shun the

GUI, preferring the higher-performance command-line environment.

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In 1991, Finnish student Linus Torvalds wrote a UNIX-based operating system that he called Linux (mentioned briefly earlier in this chapter) and distributed free through Internet newsgroups. Linux caught on with programmers and then with users who were looking for an alternative to Microsoft Windows.

Although Linux is often used to run servers (especially Web servers running the open source Apache Web server software), it is more suitable for the desktop than

UNIX. Linux is a text-based operating system like UNIX, but when it became popular as a desktop operating system, developers soon created a variety of graphical shells that ran on top of it, much as Windows 3.x ran on MS-DOS.

These shells included Kool Desktop Environment (KDE) and GNOME, which is part of the GNU project and is available as a free download from the GNOME

Web site at www.gnome.org.You can see the KDE interface in Figure 4.8.

Figure 4.8

The KDE graphical interface makes Linux more user-friendly.

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In 1994, Red Hat released a commercial version of Linux, which was followed by a release from Caldera in 1997 called OpenLinux. A large number of versions of Linux are available today. Some of the most popular are:

Red Hat (www.redhat.com)

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Caldera (www.caldera.com)

Debian (www.debian.org)

SuSE (www.suse.com)

Mandrake (www.linux-mandrake.com)

Slackware (www.slackware.com)

TurboLinux (www.turbolinux.com)

At least 70 distributions are available; you can find information and comparisons at the Linux Distrowatch Web site at www.distrowatch.com.

Other Operating Systems

Other operating systems in use on personal computer systems include:

OS/2

BeOS

Macintosh operating systems

Operating System 2 (OS/2) began as a joint effort between IBM and Microsoft in the 1980s to replace DOS.The original OS/2 (version 1) was text-based but was a 16-bit operating system, unlike the then-current version of DOS (version 3.0), which was 8-bit.Version 2.0 included a graphical interface and was a true 32-bit operating system. OS/2 was designed to feature stability and multitasking capabilities that DOS didn’t have.The OS/2 desktop is shown in Figure 4.9.

After Microsoft’s Windows 3.0 started to become popular, Microsoft dropped its support for OS/2, although it based the Windows NT kernel on the OS/2 kernel. IBM was really a hardware company rather than a software company, so when Microsoft left the project, IBM contracted with Commodore and borrowed from the Amiga for OS/2’s object-oriented GUI.Version 2.11 added support for symmetric multiprocessing and was able to run Windows 3.x programs as well as applications written for OS/2. In 1994, IBM released OS/2 Warp 3.0. It included built-in Internet support (the first consumer OS to do so), and its successor, OS/2 Warp Connect, supported all the major networking protocols:

TCP/IP, IPX, and NetBIOS.

In 1996, “Merlin” (OS/2 4.0) was released, with a more attractive interface and support for OpenGL and the Java virtual machine. Unfortunately for IBM, by this time Windows had gained momentum and most applications were written for it. OS/2 was unable to run 32-bit Windows applications, a limitation that severely hurt its popularity. IBM stopped development on OS/2 and it is still

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stuck at version 4 as of this writing, although it has continued to be popular in certain industries such as banking and IBM continues to support it while also marketing OS/2 Warp Server for e-business.

Figure 4.9

OS/2 featured the Workplace Shell interface.

191

BeOS is a single-user operating system that has some similarities to UNIX, but it is not a UNIX clone (UNIX is a multiuser operating system). BeOS was designed for a specialized purpose: to serve as a platform for audio, video, and other “near real-time” applications. BeOS supports multithreading and multiprocessing. It was developed by two former Apple employees, and the first public version was released in 1995 for the PowerPC, then was ported to the Intel x86 platform in 1998.The current version supports TCP/IP networking and PPP dialup connections.The OS has also been used for Internet appliances (dedicated e-mail/Web machines that don’t have the functionality of full fledged computers) and digital VCRs.

The Apple Macintosh computers differ from Intel-compatible PCs in many ways, one of which is the fact that they are proprietary; Apple makes both the hardware and the operating system software. Mac operating systems don’t run on

PCs, and PC operating systems don’t run on Macs (although it is possible to use special virtual machine software to allow you to run a PC operating system in a window on top of your Mac OS).

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The latest version of the Mac OS, called OS X, is a big departure from prior versions because it is based on a version of UNIX called Darwin. Macintosh OS

X combines the power of underlying UNIX code with a beautiful, user-friendly

GUI called Aqua.The Mac has always been popular with educational institutions and graphic designers, but OS X is gaining popularity among both traditional

UNIX users and die-hard Windows fans.The Mac OS X interface is shown in

Figure 4.10.

OS X features built-in support for writing CDs and DVDs and is easy to connect to a local area network and/or the Internet. Built-in support is included for accessing files on Windows PCs across the network, and software such as

SAMBA is available to allow you to share your Mac files with networked

Windows machines.With OS X, the Mac finally adds such advanced features as preemptive multitasking and protected memory and includes support for symmetric multiprocessing, USB, and FireWire (IEEE 1394). Apple is also marketing a server version, OS X Server, that supports clients running Mac,Windows,

UNIX, and Linux. For more information about OS X, see the Apple Web site at www.apple.com/macosx.

Figure 4.10

Macintosh OS X features an attractive, usable interface on a

UNIX OS.

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Understanding File Systems

An important factor related to the operating system used by the computer is the file

system, which defines the structure for organizing and locating data on the disk.

Data is stored in clusters, which are units measuring a specified size in bytes. A file can be stored across many clusters, but data from different files is not stored in the same cluster.This means that if, for example, a cluster is 12KB in size and a file is only 2KB, there will be 10KB of wasted space in that cluster. Handling of clusters and cluster sizes comprise a major difference between different file systems. Other differences include the maximum partition size supported, reliability, and security.

Most file systems store data in a hierarchical tree structure. Containers called

directories or folders hold files (and can also hold subdirectories or subfolders), organized into groups for better management.The top level of the hierarchy is called the root or root directory. The file system is the entire directory structure, consisting of the root directory and all the subdirectories and files underneath it in the hierarchy.

Different operating systems use different file systems, and some operating systems support more than one file system.The most familiar are those used by the

Microsoft operating systems:

FAT12

FAT16

VFAT

FAT32

NTFS

In the following sections, we look at some of the characteristics of each file system, along with some less commonly encountered file systems used by non-

Microsoft operating systems.

FAT12

FAT stands for file allocation table; the FAT file system was developed for use by the DOS operating systems.The first version of FAT was called FAT12 because its allocation tables used a 12-digit binary number (12 bits) for cluster information. FAT12 was useful for the very small hard disks that came with the original

IBM PC (under 16MB in size). It is also used to format floppy diskettes.

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FAT16

FAT16 was developed for disks larger than 16MB, and for a long time it was the standard file system for formatting hard disks. As you can probably guess, it uses

16-bit allocation table entries. FAT16 (often referred to as just FAT) is supported by all Microsoft operating systems, from MS-DOS to Windows XP. It is also supported by some non-Microsoft operating systems, including OS/2 and Linux.

This support makes it the most universally compatible file system. However, it has many drawbacks, including:

FAT16 doesn’t scale well to large disks; because the cluster size increases as the disk partition size increases, a large disk (over about 2GB) formatted with FAT16 will have a lot of wasted space.

FAT16 doesn’t support file-level compression; the compression scheme used with FAT16, such as that implemented by DriveSpace, requires that the entire logical drive be compressed.

FAT16 doesn’t support file-level security (assignment of permissions to individual files and folders).

N

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You may read in some sources that FAT16 is limited to 2GB in size, but that’s not really the case (although it does become inefficient at larger disk sizes). MS-DOS will not allow you to create a FAT16 partition larger than 2GB, but you can create larger FAT16 partitions (up to 4GB) in

Windows NT/2000. These larger FAT16 partitions are not supported and recognized by MS-DOS or Windows 9x.

VFAT

Virtual FAT, or VFAT, is a file system driver that was introduced in Windows for

Workgroups 3.11 and supported by Windows 95. Its advantages are that it operates in protected mode and provides the capability for using long file names with

FAT16.VFAT is not a file system; rather, it is a program extension that handles filenames over the 8.3 limitation imposed by the original FAT16.

FAT32

FAT32 uses a 32-bit allocation table. It was first supported by the OSR 2 version of Windows 95 (95b) and was designed to improve on the functionality of

FAT16 by adding such features as:

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More efficient use of space with large hard disks by using smaller cluster sizes.

Support for larger partitions, up to 2 terabytes in size, in theory

(Windows supports FAT32 partitions of up to 32GB)

Greater reliability, due to the inclusion of a backup copy of important data structure information in the boot record

FAT32 also has its disadvantages, including the fact that it is incompatible with

MS-DOS,Windows 3.x,Windows 95a,Windows NT, and some non-Microsoft operating systems (although FAT32 drivers are available from third-party vendors for Windows 95, NT, and even non-Microsoft operating systems such as Linux).

Additionally, the overhead used by FAT32 can slow performance slightly.

NTFS

NTFS, Windows NT’s native file system, was designed to be more robust and secure than other Microsoft file systems. It supports very large partition sizes (up to 16 exabytes, in theory) and allows you to create volumes that span two or more partitions.You can set access permissions at the file level to control who can read, change, or otherwise access a file.This applies to users accessing the file from the local machine as well as over the network and is in addition to network share permissions that are set at the folder/directory level. NTFS is more reliable because it supports a feature called hot fixing, a process by which the operating system detects a bad sector on the disk and automatically relocates the data stored on that sector to a good sector, then marks the bad sector so that it won’t be used by the system.This process is done on the fly, without the awareness or intervention of the user or applications.

The compression scheme used by NTFS allows you to compress data on a file-by-file basis to save disk space and archive older files.This is much safer than the drive-level compression used by Windows 9x, in which the loss of the single compressed file that held the contents of the entire drive meant all data on that drive was lost.

The version of NTFS included in Windows 2000 and above (NTFS 5.0) supports file encryption.This feature is called Encrypting File System (EFS) and relies on public key cryptography and digital certificates. For more information about EFS, see the Windows & .NET Magazine at www.winntmag.com/Articles/

Index.cfm?ArticleID=5387&Key=Internals. Note that NTFS 5.0 also supports

disk quotas, which involve the administrator’s capability to set limits on how much disk space can be used on a per-user, per-disk basis.

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Service Packs 4 and later for Windows NT 4.0 add support for NTFS 5.0

so that NT can access local drives formatted in NTFS 5.0. However, NT is not able to use all the functionality of NTFS 5.0 (for example, EFS encryption is not supported in NT).

Other File Systems

Other file systems you might encounter include:

CDFS, the file system used to write data to CDs

HPFS, the high-performance native file system of OS/2

Ext2fs,VFS, and Journaling file systems, used by Linux

Macintosh Hierarchical File System (HFS)

Network file systems

Because the file system determines how data is stored on the disk, it is important to be familiar with the file system when you’re performing data recovery.

Table 4.3 shows at a glance which file systems are supported by various Microsoft operating systems (without adding third-party drivers).

Table 4.3

Microsoft operating system and file system correlation

Operating System

MS-DOS

Windows 3.x

Windows 95a

Windows 95b

Windows 98

Windows ME

Windows NT

Windows 2000

Windows XP/.NET

FAT12 FAT16 FAT32 NTFS

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

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Summary

Cybercrime investigators need to be as intimately familiar with the internal workings of computers and the software that runs on them as homicide investigators must be with basic human pathology.That includes understanding the function of all the hardware components that go together to make up a computer and how these components interact with one another.

It would be difficult for an investigator to conduct a proper investigation in a foreign country where he or she does not speak the local language, because many clues might go unnoticed if the investigator cannot understand the information being collected. Likewise, a cybercrime investigator must have a basic understanding of the “language” used by the machines to process data and communicate with one another. Even though an investigator in the field might not be able to speak all human languages, it is helpful to at least be able to recognize what language written evidence is in, because this evidence might be significant and will certainly help the investigator find someone who can translate it. Similarly, even though a cybercrime investigator is not expected to be able to program in binary, it helps to recognize the significance of data that is in binary or hexadecimal format and when it can or can’t be valuable as evidence.

Computers today run a variety of operating systems and file systems, and the investigator’s job of locating evidence will be done differently depending on the system being used. A good cybercrime investigator is familiar with the most common operating systems and how their file systems organize the data on disk.

Although all this information might seem far too technical to the “non-geek” police professional—and could perhaps seem too obvious to the computer or networking professional—it is important that investigators who aspire to specialize in computer crimes and cybercrimes have a good grasp of how technical understanding can lead to understanding of cybercrime and cybercriminals. Now that you understand how computers work, in the next chapter we delve into how they communicate on a network.

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Frequently Asked Questions

The following Frequently Asked Questions, answered by the authors of this book, are designed to both measure your understanding of the concepts presented in this chapter and to assist you with real-life implementation of these concepts. To have your questions about this chapter answered by the author, browse to

www.syngress.com/solutions and click on the “Ask the Author” form.

Q:

What is meant by terms such as data transfer rate and seek time in relation to hard disks?

A:

These are ways to measure the performance of a hard disk.The data transfer

rate refers to the number of bytes per second (bps) that the disk drive is able to transfer to the processor.This is usually measured for today’s disks in megabytes per second, and rates between 5 and 40 are common.The higher this number, the better the disk performance. Seek time refers to the time interval between the time that the processor makes a request for a file from disk and the time at which the first byte of that file is received by the processor.This time is measured in milliseconds (typically between 7 and 20), and the lower this number, the better the performance.

Q:

How does a CD-R drive write data on a CD?

A:

CD-Recordable, or CD-R, discs, unlike regular read-only CDs, have a layer of dye (usually a greenish color) on the disk that is then covered with a reflective gold layer. Both of these thin layers sit on top of a rigid piece of plastic called the substrate. The CD-R drive has a writing laser that is more powerful than the reading laser in a regular CD-ROM drive.This more powerful laser heats the layer of dye from the bottom, going through the substrate.The heating process changes the transparency of the dye at that spot, creating a “bump” that is not reflective.This bump forms a readable mark that is then read by the CD drive as data.The same encoding scheme is used as for regular CDs; that’s why a regular CD-ROM drive can read CD-R discs.

Q:

How does virtual memory work?

A:

When an operating system supports the use of virtual memory, it creates a file on the hard disk (called a swap file or a page file) in which it can “swap out” data between the RAM and the disk.The system detects which areas of the

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physical memory (RAM) haven’t been used recently.Then it copies the data from that location in memory to the file on the hard disk.This means there will be more free space in RAM, which allows you to run additional applications or speeds the performance of applications that are currently running.

When the data stored in the swap/page file is needed by the processor, it can be loaded from the hard disk back to RAM.The data is stored in units called

pages. Using virtual memory can degrade performance if the system has to frequently swap the data in and out of RAM.This is because the hard disk is much slower than the RAM. Frequent swapping results in disk thrashing, which is usually a sign that you need to add more physical memory to the computer.

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Resources

Analog computers www.science.uva.nl/faculteit/museum/AnalogComputers.html

Analog Computer Museum http://dcoward.best.vwh.net/analog/analog1.htm

EETimes: Analog Computer Trumps Turing Model www.eetimes.com/story/OEG19981103S0017

Overclocking information www.overclockers.com and www.overclockershideout.com

PC Guide: Hard Disk Drives www.pcguide.com/ref/hdd/index.htm

How Hard Disks Work

www.howstuffworks.com/hard-disk.htm

How Floppy Disk Drives Work

http://howstuffworks.lycoszone.com/floppy-disk-drive.htm

How Flash Memory Works

http://howstuffworks.lycoszone.com/flash-memory.htm

How Removable Storage Works

http://howstuffworks.lycoszone.com/removable-storage.htm

How Operating Systems Work

http://howstuffworks.lycoszone.com/operating-system.htm

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GNU General Public License www.gnu.org/licenses/gpl.html#SEC1

Open Source Initiative www.opensource.org

Apple’s Open Source Projects http://developer.apple.com/darwin/projects

The FreeDOS Project www.freedos.org

Windows 2000 www.microsoft.com/windows2000

Windows XP www.microsoft.com/windowsxp/home/default.asp

Windows .NET Server www.microsoft.com/windows.netserver

Linux DistroWatch www.distrowatch.com

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Understanding

Networking Basics

Chapter 5

Topics we'll investigate in this chapter:

Understanding How Computers

Communicate on a Network

Understanding the TCP/IP Protocols Used on the Internet

! Summary

! Frequently Asked Questions

! Resources

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Introduction

In Chapter 4, we discussed how computers—both the hardware and the software—accept, process, and store data. A decade ago, that might have been as far as we needed to go in our discussion. Many PCs, especially home computers, functioned as standalone systems.Today, however, the local machine is only the starting point for computer crime investigators. Now most computers—and by the very nature of cybercrime, all computers that are involved in this special type of offense—are connected to a network.That network might be a local area network, the global Internet, or both.

Network connectivity opens up new opportunities for criminals as well as for legitimate computer users. Understanding the more technically oriented cybercrimes, such as unauthorized access across the network (hacking)—and indeed, even determining whether or not a crime has occurred—can depend on an understanding of how networked computers communicate with one another.

Many hack attacks, which are designed to bring down a computer or network or to congest the system so that legitimate users are unable to get through, are based on exploiting the characteristics of the network protocols, typically the

Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) suite.To launch these attacks, a criminal must understand how TCP/IP works. Likewise, in order for an investigator to document how the attack was made and determine from where it might have been launched, the investigator must understand the workings of the

TCP/IP protocols.

A burglary investigator who doesn’t understand how door locks (both mechanical and electronic) work and how they can be picked might miss clues and overlook ways that a real-world intruder could have gained entry to a residence or business. Knowing this type of information could help to narrow down the burglar’s identity. It is an important part of proving the case, because if you can show that the criminal used special skills or tools to get in (as opposed to finding the door unlocked and walking in), you usually create a stronger case in the minds of jury members. Forced entry indicates premeditation rather than a

“spur of the moment” offense. Similarly, a cybercrime investigator who doesn’t understand the process of gaining entry to a networked computer is likely to have a harder time interpreting the digital clues, tracking down the criminal, and building the case.

Even for crimes that are less technical in nature, the network gives criminals an infinite number of additional locations for storing files that provide evidence of the crime. Investigators must be aware of this fact or they could overlook crucial

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pieces of evidence. For example, a child pornographer might be careful to upload all his illegal graphics files to a location someplace geographically far away from his home computer, deleting the originals from his hard disk. Examination of the suspect’s own computer might reveal nothing incriminating. However, network logs could show when and to where the transmissions were made, and sniffer software can capture the actual packets during transmission.The logs of FTP clients or other programs used to transfer the data could reveal the site to which uploads were made. An investigator who doesn’t understand how data is sent across networks or who is not aware of the existence of log files or the significance of program settings would not even know how to begin looking for this evidence.

In this chapter, we pick up where Chapter 4 left off, continuing to discuss how computers work but now focusing on how they work on the network: sending and receiving data (at the physical level), implementing standardized networking models, and using industry-standard protocols. Once again, each section is summarized with an explanation of why the information matters to cybercrime investigators and how it can be used in the detection and prosecution of criminal offenses.

Understanding How Computers

Communicate on a Network

The purpose of a network is to allow computers to share; that means sharing data, sharing application programs, sharing hardware peripherals such as printers, and even sharing a common authentication mechanism so that all the other sharing will occur more easily and more transparently to the user.

The earliest form of “networking” (when most computers were standalones) was called sneakernet because it involved physically transporting the data, software, or hardware being shared to the remote computer. In other words, if you wanted to share a data file or software program with someone using a different machine, you copied it to a floppy disk and trekked across the room or building (or, in some cases, used the postal service or private courier to deliver it across town or across the country). Sharing a printer could be even more inconvenient; you copied the file you wanted to print onto a floppy and take it to the lucky (or unlucky) user who had a printer attached to his or her computer.That user got to stop what he or she was doing and insert the floppy, bring up the document, and send it to the printer for you. Alternatively, you could transport the printer itself from one computer to another. Printers often resided on wheeled carts for that very purpose. No matter how you did it, sharing printers was awkward and

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time-consuming prior to the advent of local area networking.The alternative— providing a separate printer for each user—was often too expensive to be feasible.

It soon became obvious that there was a better way: connect the computers via cable so that data (including documents to be printed) could be sent from one computer to another without anyone having to make the physical journey.

In fact, this was one of the most popular reasons for companies to implement local networks in the early days of networking. Networking hardware and software have grown more sophisticated over the years, and now we can do much more than send files. Network applications allow us to communicate quickly and easily via e-mail, chat, or instant messaging, make information available to other network users on Web sites, run applications on remote servers from our own desktops via terminal services, and much more.

Sending Bits and Bytes Across a Network

Because all data processed by computers is ultimately reduced to strings of 0s and

1s, all network communication involves transmitting and receiving this binary data (bits and bytes).This binary information can be sent across copper-based cabling as electrical impulses, across optical cabling as pulses of light, or through the air as radio or microwave signals, infrared, or laser pulses. Regardless of the medium, the signals represent the 0s and 1s that comprise all computer data.The

process of turning the 0s and 1s into these energy pulses is called signal encoding or signal modulation.

There are a number of different encoding methods that specify exactly how the binary 0s and 1s are to be represented electrically. For example, the

Manchester encoding scheme dictates that a binary 1 is represented by low voltage for the first half of the bit and high voltage for the second half. A 0 is represented by the opposite signal; the first half is high voltage and the second is low voltage.This system is represented graphically in Figure 5.1.

As you can see, each bit consists of a voltage change, either from low to high

(representing a 1) or from high to low (representing a 0).The transition, called the clock transition, is used by the network adapter receiving the signal to determine the beginning and end of each bit.This encoding method is used for

10BaseT Ethernet networks—networks that send signals over unshielded twisted pair (UTP) cabling at the rate of 10Mbps.The encoding schemes used for other network architectures (such as Fast Ethernet, also called 100BaseX) are different.

This is because Manchester encoding increases the frequency at which the signal is transmitted and is difficult or impossible to implement at the 100Mbps transmission rate of Fast Ethernet.

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Figure 5.1

The Manchester encoding scheme is one method of representing binary data electrically.

High

Voltage

= 0 = 1

Low

Voltage

1 0

Representing binary with digital signals

1 0 0 1 1 1

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If there is interference from an outside source (a motor, radio transmission, or other source that creates a strong electromagnetic field), the signal can be disrupted. This could destroy some of the bits, resulting in a loss of data.

Digital and Analog Signaling Methods

The type of signaling that best represents binary information, in which there are two possible states (off or on) that represent two specific values (0 or 1), is called

discrete state signaling. Digital signals are discrete state, whereas analog signals are not.

Analog signals change state gradually, on a continuum, rather than going directly and instantaneously from one discrete state to another. Analog signals can be drawn as waveforms, as shown in Figure 5.2.

If an ordinary light switch that has two positions—on and off—represents digital signaling, then a “dimmer” switch, which allows you to use a knob or slider to move through stages of “on” before you reach “off,” represents how analog signals work. Hundreds of devices in our everyday world illustrate the difference between digital and analog signals—for example:

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Figure 5.2

Analog signals are continually changing waves of energy.

Analog clocks with a hand that sweeps continuously through the time markings and digital clocks that instantly change from one minute to the next

Analog radio tuners with a dial that lets you tune gradually through the frequencies and digital tuners that allow you to punch in the exact frequency you want

Analog thermometers in which mercury rises gradually and digital thermometers that display a specific temperature

Analog signals are obviously more complex than digital signals. Measurement of analog signals involves measuring the following three characteristics: amplitude, frequency, and phase. Amplitude is the signal strength; in the illustration, the height of the wave represents its amplitude. Frequency refers to the amount of time it takes for a wave to complete a cycle. Frequency is denoted by the number of cycles per second, called hertz. Phase measures the state of one wave relative to another; this is measured in degrees.

We live in a world that can be thought of as mostly analog in nature. Even though time, radio frequencies, and temperature can be represented digitally, we know that in reality there are “in between” states that aren’t being represented by digital devices. However, for most purposes, digital representation is good enough or even preferable. It is simpler than analog, and it’s usually less vulnerable to interference. A continuous waveform can be disrupted by small distortions that won’t affect the discrete states of digital signals.

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Although digital signals are less vulnerable to interference than analog signals, the opposite is true when it comes to attenuation, which is the loss of signal strength over distance. Analog signals are generally able to go further than digital ones without becoming so weak that the transmission is unreliable.

207

Other advantages of digital transmissions over analog include:

Performance

Digital connections usually offer faster performance.

Cost effectiveness

It is generally less expensive to manufacture digital devices than their analog counterparts.

Reliability

Due to its simplicity, digital signals are generally more reliable.

Security

It is generally easier to secure digital transmissions.

On the other hand, analog signals are generally easier to multiplex.

Multiplexing refers to using a single link to send multiple streams, or channels, of information. Multiplexing is how cable TV works, transmitting dozens or even hundreds of different channels of programming over one cable.

How Multiplexing Works

Signals can be multiplexed in several different ways. For example, different streams of information can be sent on separate frequencies.This is called frequency division

multiplexing (FDM) and is the typical method for multiplexing analog signals.

Each channel is transmitted at a different frequency but on the same line. Special equipment called a multiplexer/demultiplexer is required at both the sending and receiving end of the transmission so that the frequency channels can be separated for use when they reach the destination.

Another multiplexing method is called time division multiplexing, or TDM.This

method can be used for multiplexing digital signals. Instead of using different frequencies,TDM breaks each of the signals into small pieces called segments, and these are transmitted over the link one after the other. At the other end, the segments that make up each individual signal stream are put back together.This

system is similar in some ways to the time slicing used by computer processors to give the appearance of working on multiple tasks simultaneously.

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If the transmission medium is optical cable, another method of multiplexing, called dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM), can be used. Because light can be separated into different wavelengths, separate signals can be transmitted using separate wavelengths.

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This discussion of multiplexing is a highly simplified overview of a complex subject. If you are interested in more technical details, refer to the following resources:

Bell Labs: What Does Multiplexing Do for Communications? www.bell-labs.com/technology/multiplex

Explanation of FDM: www.cs.williams.edu/~cs105/f01/text/ch3/DigitalTrans_13.html

Explanation of TDM: www.cs.williams.edu/~cs105/f01/text/ch3/DigitalTrans_9.html

Tutorial on DWDM by the International Engineering Consortium: www.iec.org/online/tutorials/dwdm

Directional Factors

Depending on the signaling method, signals can travel in one direction only (unidirectional) or in both directions (bidirectional). Bidirectional signals can either travel in both directions sequentially or in both directions simultaneously.These

three different methods of signal travel are identified as follows:

Simplex transmissions

These are unidirectional transmissions that work like a one-way street; travel is permitted in only one direction.

Early cable TV systems used this type of transmission because the information (TV programming) was being delivered to the customer; there was no need for the customer to send return transmissions. Most cable companies have upgraded their infrastructures to support two-way signaling, which is necessary for cable Internet services and for entertainment services that require the customer to communicate back to the cable company (such as Pay-Per-View). Other cable companies have retained their one-way signaling schemes and use the phone lines for customers’ upstream transmissions. Another example of one-way transmission is a public address system. Amplified voice messages are broadcast, but there is no mechanism for receiving return messages.

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Half-duplex transmissions

In these transmissions, signal transmission is bidirectional, but the signal can travel only one way at a time.This is similar to a two-way road over a bridge that is so narrow that only one vehicle can fit on it at a time. A car coming in the opposite direction must wait to enter the bridge until the oncoming vehicle has exited it.

Half-duplex signals are often used for two-way radio communications; law enforcement officers are familiar with this type of transmission because this is the way most police radios operate.When you hold the

Transmit button down, you can talk, but you can’t hear anything being said on the other end of the transmission.The other party must wait until you’re finished transmitting before he or she can reply. If you both try to transmit at once, you’ll “step on” each others’ signals and no transmission will get through.

Full-duplex transmissions

Signals are transmitted both ways and can travel across the air or cable simultaneously.This is akin to a two-lane, two-way road over a bridge, where vehicles can pass one another going in opposite directions. Regular phone lines work this way; when you’re having a telephone conversation with someone else, you can both talk at the same time, and while you’re talking you’re able to hear (although you might not be able to understand) what the other person is saying.

If we apply these transmission methods to computer networking, it should be obvious that full duplex provides faster performance than the other methods.

Data can be sent and received simultaneously. Network cards and modems are capable of transmitting in either half-duplex or full-duplex modes.The line must also support full-duplex transmission. Digital connections require two separate wire pairs: one for sending and one for receiving. Analog transmissions can divide the sending and receiving signals into two separate frequencies.

Timing Factors

When a network adapter or other network device receives an incoming signal, it needs timing information in order to interpret the signals correctly.This is referred to as synchronizing the bits.There are two basic ways to accomplish this goal, and the transmission method is said to be either synchronous or asynchronous, depending on which method is used.The difference is as follows:

Asynchronous

A start bit is included at the beginning of each message; this bit is used as a signal for the receiving device to synchronize its clock with that of the sending device.

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Synchronous

A timing mechanism built into the transmission synchronizes the clocks of the sending and receiving devices.

Signal Interference

Network signals can be disrupted by outside interference, which can cause loss or garbling of data.We mentioned earlier that digital signals are less vulnerable to interference; the type of media used to transmit the signals (copper cable, optical cable, or airwaves) also affects vulnerability to interference.Two common types of interference you’ll hear about are:

Electromagnetic interference (EMI)

Electromagnetic energy (EM) is made up of alternating waves of electric and magnetic fields.The electromagnetic spectrum ranges from X-rays and gamma rays at the short end through light waves near the middle to radio waves at the long end.The

U.S. Navy uses signals with very long wavelengths, called extra-long

frequency (ELF), for communicating with submarines. Microwaves have short wavelengths of approximately a millimeter. All types of electronic equipment can generate EMI, or unwanted electromagnetic signals.

When EMI interferes with audio transmissions (such as telephone conversations), it is often called noise. When it interferes with data transmissions, it can cause loss of or changes to the data.

Radio frequency interference (RFI)

Radio frequencies are the wavelengths between about 10kHz and 100GHz. RFI refers to the reception of unwanted radio signals and is really a subset of EMI.

Wireless networking uses radio frequencies to send and receive network signals. If nearby radio transmitters use the same (or close) frequencies to broadcast, this can interfere with the network’s data transmissions.

Computer monitors, processors, and other devices also generate signals on radio frequencies and can be sources of interference. RFI can originate from many sources.

Electromagnetic energy is capable of different effects, depending on the frequency. EM at the lowest end (X-rays) can ionize atoms because their wavelengths are so tiny. Microwaves, a bit further up the spectrum, are capable of making water molecules vibrate, which heats them (this is how a microwave oven works). Metal objects (for example, antennae) generate currents when struck by

EM; this signal can then be passed to circuits that are able to decode the signal, such as a radio or television receiver. EM waves are generated constantly, so EMI can be a major source of transmission disruption.

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On

the Scene…

Preparing for the EMP

A sudden huge burst of EM is called an electromagnetic pulse, or EMP.

An EMP can be produced by a nuclear explosion; gamma rays are produced that interact with the air molecules to produce a very strong electric field followed by a conduction current that flows in the opposite direction. An EMP can destroy or damage electronic equipment, power generators, metal pipes and wiring, and anything else that is vulnerable to electric voltage surges. Semiconductor chips—which are embedded in everything from elevators to airplanes and control many of the machines on which our modern society, including our military system, depends—are especially susceptible to EMP. The EM energy heats up the chip and can melt it completely.

Metallic shielding can be used to “harden” vulnerable devices against the possibility of EMP. However, the process is very expensive, and in some cases it decreases the functionality of the equipment. Most discussions of nuclear detonation have centered on the effect of radiation on organic life, but the effects of an accompanying EMP on electronic devices could create a different type of devastation, for which we might not be prepared.

For more information about the threat of EMP, see the transcript of testimony before the House of Representatives’ Committee on National

Security in 1997, Threat Posed by Electromagnetic Pulse to U.S. Military

Systems and Civilian Infrastructure, on the Web at http://commdocs

.house.gov/committees/security/has197010.000/has197010_1.HTM.

Packets, Segments, Datagrams, and Frames

Signals represent individual bits, and those bits are often grouped together in bytes for convenience, but computers send data across the network in larger units: packets, segments, datagrams, or frames. A packet is a generic term, generally defined as a “chunk” of data of a size that is convenient for transmitting. Rather than send an entire, large file as one long stream of bits, the file is divided into blocks, and each of these blocks is transmitted individually.This system allows for more efficient network communications because one computer doesn’t “hog” the network bandwidth while sending a large amount of data. On an internetwork, where there are multiple routes from a particular sender to a particular destination, this system also allows the separate blocks of data to take different routes.

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Most networks, including the Internet, run on the TCP/IP protocols. At the transport level, a unit of data is called a segment when TCP is the transport layer protocol.To further confuse an already confusing issue, it’s called a user datagram when User Datagram Protocol (UDP) is used. One step down, at the network

(IP) level, the chunks of data that are routed across the network are called data-

grams.When we move down to the data link level (at which Ethernet and other link layer protocols operate), the unit of data we work with is called a frame.

The Internet uses packet-switching technology to most effectively move large amounts of data being transmitted by multiple computers along the best pathways toward their destinations. Each packet travels independently; when all the packets that make up a communication arrive at the destination computer, they are reassembled in proper order using information contained in their headers. A packet can be thought of as an electronic envelope that contains the data as well as addressing and other relevant information (such as sequencing and checksum information).

Access Control Methods

When signals are transmitted on a network, there must be some mechanism for

“directing traffic”—that is, a way to ensure that when multiple computers are sending signals, all the data packets make it safely to their destinations.This is called the access control method.

The popular access control methods are grouped in three categories: contention methods, token passing, and polling methods. Let’s take a brief look at each:

Contention methods

These include Carrier Sense Multiple Access

Collision Detection (CSMA/CD), used in Ethernet networks, and

Carrier Sense Multiple Access Collision Avoidance (CSMA/CA), used in

Appletalk networks. In both cases, computers that want to transmit data on the network must compete, or contend, for the use of the wire or other media. If two stations attempt to send at the same time, a collision occurs. CSMA/CD and CSMA/CA differ in their ways of addressing this collision problem; with the former, data collisions are detected and the data is sent again after a random amount of time.With the latter, an

“intent to transmit” message is put out as a “feeler” before the computer transmits the actual data.

Token-passing methods

These eliminate the possibility of collision by using a circulating signal called a token to determine which computer can transmit. A computer on a token-passing network is more “polite”;

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■ rather than blurting out its transmission whenever it has something to say, it waits patiently for its turn (when the token gets around to it) and sends data only when it “has the floor.”

Polling methods

These are similar in some ways to token passing, except that instead of the group of computers policing itself by passing around a token, a central unit acts as a “chairperson,” asking members of the “committee” in turn whether they have something to say. Since the computers follow these “rules of parliamentary procedure,” data transmission proceeds in an orderly fashion, and again, there is no danger of data collision.

Network Types and Topologies

Networks can be categorized in many ways. For example, networks are classified according to their physical scope (the size of the area that a network spans geographically) as follows:

Local area network (LAN)

Confined to one geographic area, such as a single building or several buildings in close proximity.

Wide area network (WAN)

Connects locations in widely dispersed areas, using technology such as regular telephone lines, dedicated leased lines, or satellite.

Metropolitan area network (MAN)

Covers an area about the size of a typical city.

Different media, protocols, and technologies are used in these networks, depending on which of these three categories a network fits into.

Another important issue is the layout, or topology, of the network.The term

topology refers to whether the cables are arranged in a line going directly from computer to computer (a bus), in a circle going from computer to computer with the last connecting back to the first (a ring), or in a spoke-like fashion with each connecting directly to a central hub (a star). A fourth topology, the mesh, is created when every computer is connected to every other computer, creating redundant data pathways and high fault tolerance, at the cost of increasing complexity as the network grows.

Wireless communications can use a cellular topology, such as is widely used for wireless telephone networks. In this case, an area is divided into slightly overlapping cells, representing connection points.

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The physical layout of a network influences other factors, such as the media access method (and thus the cable type) that is used. All the physical layer factors

(cable type, access method, topology, and so on), considered together, define the

architecture of the network. Popular network architectures include Ethernet,

ARCnet,Token Ring, and AppleTalk.

You can classify networks based on their architectureóthe standards and specifications for media type, physical and logical topology, access method, distance limitations, packet sizes, and headers and other criteria.The most popular architectures are:

Ethernet

Developed in the 1960s and based on the CSMA/CD access method, with specifications created by Digital, Intel, and Xerox

(governed by the IEEE 802.3 standards).

Token Ring

Developed by IBM and based on the token-passing access method (governed by the IEEE 802.5 standards).

Ethernet networks can be divided into subcategories, depending on the type of cabling used, the topology, and the transfer speed supported, as follows:

10Base5 Ethernet

Uses thick coax cable and a bus topology and transfers data at 10Mbps. Sometimes called “standard” Ethernet, although it is less common than other types today.

10Base2 Ethernet

Uses thin coax cable and a bus topology and transfers data at 10Mbps.

10BaseT Ethernet

Uses UTP cable and a star topology and transfers data at 10Mbps.

100BaseT

Similar to 10BaseT but transfers data at 100Mbps.

Sometimes called Fast Ethernet.

1000BaseT

Similar to 10BaseT but transfers data at 1000Mbps

(1Gbps). Sometimes called Gigabit Ethernet.

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There are other Ethernet subarchitectures that use different media or have slightly different specifications. For example, 100BaseFL uses fiber optic cabling.

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Why This Matters to the Investigator

Understanding how binary data is translated into electrical or optical signals helps investigators understand how those signals can be captured off the cable or airwaves and, in some cases, translated back to their data form.This is a most insidious form of “breaking and entering” the network, because it doesn’t leave behind the same number or type of clues that might be present when a criminal uses higher-level methods to steal data. Being able to identify the type of network with which you’re working gives you a head start on understanding how the data is packaged and transmitted and what the particular vulnerabilities are at the physical level.

In the next sections, you will learn about specific media types and how some are more susceptible to unauthorized interception than others. Putting that information together with a good grasp of signaling theory will help you recognize what is and isn’t possible for technically savvy cybercriminals to accomplish when they’re determined to break into a network.

Understanding Networking

Models and Standards

A network protocol is a set of rules computers use to communicate. Protocols had to be developed so that two computers attempting to transfer data back and forth would be able to “understand” one another.

The first networking protocols were proprietary—that is, each vendor of networking products developed its own set of rules. Computers using one particular product would be able to communicate with each other, but they could not communicate with computers that were using a networking product from a different vendor.This situation had the effect of locking a business into a particular set of equipment from a particular vendor—in other words, a company was limited to buying the products of a specific vendor if its systems were all to be able to communicate with one another.

The solution to this problem was the development of protocols based on open

standards.The U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) developed the original networking model on which TCP/IP is based. Later, the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) refined and expanded on this model, creating the Open

System Interconnection, or OSI, model.These standards were published so that they would be available to any vendor that wanted to create products that adhered to them. As a result, consumers are no longer forced to buy all products from one

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vendor, and the advantage to the vendor is that its products are more widely compatible and thus can be used in networks that also use a different vendor’s products.

A model provides an easy-to-understand description of a networking architecture and serves as the framework for standards. As we look at each of the popular networking models, you’ll see that all use layers to represent areas of functionality. In OSI’s terms, each layered specification uses the services of the layer below it to build an enriched service.The layered approach provides a logical division of responsibility, where each layer handles prescribed functions.

The OSI Networking Model

Although the DoD model was developed first, we start by looking at the OSI model, because it has become the common reference point for discussion of network protocols and connection devices.The OSI model is used as a broad guideline for describing the network communications process. Not all protocol implementations map directly to the OSI model, but it serves as a good starting point for gaining an understanding of how data is transferred across a network.

The Seven Layers of OSI

The OSI model consists of seven layers.The number 7 carries many historical connotations; it is thought by some to signify perfect balance or even divinity.

Whether or not this was a factor when the OSI model’s designers decided how to break down the functional layers, it’s safe to say that within the technical community, the Seven Layers of the OSI model are at least as legendary as the

Seven Deadly Sins and the Seven Wonders of the World.

The data is passed from one layer to the next layer below it at the sending computer, until the physical layer finally puts the data out onto the network cable. At the receiving end, the data travels back up the stack in reverse order.

Although the data travels down the layers on one side of the transmission and up the layers on the other, the logical communication link is between each layer and its matching counterpart, as shown in Figure 5.3.

Here’s how the system works: as the data goes down through the layers, it is

encapsulated, or enclosed within a larger unit, as each layer adds its own header information.When the encapsulated data reaches the receiving computer, the process occurs in reverse; the information is passed upward through each layer, and as it travels, the encapsulation information is stripped off, one layer at a time.The information added by the network layer, for example, is read and processed by the network layer on the receiving side. After processing, each layer removes the header information that was added by its corresponding layer on the sending side.

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When the application layer finally presents the incoming data to the user application at the receiving computer, the data is once again in approximately the same form it was in when sent by the user application at the originating machine.

(The form is identical only if the computers, operating systems, applications, and configuration settings used by sender and recipient are identical.) Figure 5.4 illustrates how the header information is added to the data as it progresses down through the layers.

Figure 5.3

The OSI networking model uses seven layers to represent the communication process.

Sending Computer

Receiving Computer

Application Application

Presentation Presentation

Session

Transport

Network

Data Link

Physical

Session

Transport

Network

Data Link

Physical

Network Media

Figure 5.4

Protocols at each layer (except the physical layer) add header information to the data.

Data

Link

Hdr

Application

Data

Data

Link

Hdr

Pres

Hdr

Link

Hdr

Pres

Hdr

Ses

Hdr

Presentation

Session

Data

Link

Hdr

Pres

Hdr

Ses

Hdr

Transp

Hdr Transport

Data

Link

Hdr

Pres

Hdr

Ses

Hdr

Transp

Hdr

Net

Hdr

Link

Trailer

Data

Link

Hdr

Pres

Hdr

Ses

Hdr

Transp

Hdr

Net

Hdr

Link

Hdr

Network

Data

Link

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Many books teach the OSI layers “upside down”—that is, starting with the bottom layer. In fact, the physical layer is often referred to as Layer 1, the data link layer as Layer 2, and so on. Other descriptions start (seemingly logically) at the topmost layer.The way you look at it depends not on which hemisphere you live in but on whether you’re addressing the communication process from the viewpoint of the sending or the receiving computer.

Table 5.1 shows the function of each of the seven layers, from the “top down,” but retaining the traditional numbering scheme.

Table 5.1

Each layer of the OSI model prescribes a specific set of functions.

Layer Number/

Layer Name Function

7 Application Supports application and end-user processes; provides services for file transfer, e-mail, and other network software services.

6 Presentation Deals with differences in the way data is represented

(compression, encryption), translating from application to network format or vice versa.

5 Session Establishes, manages, and terminates connections between applications at each end.

4 Transport Provides for transfer of data between hosts; handles acknowledgment, error checking, and recovery and flow control.

3 Network Handles routing and switching using logical addresses (IP addresses) by creating virtual circuits. Responsible for congestion control and packet sequencing.

2 Data link

1 Physical

Divided into two sublayers: media access control (MAC), which handles how computers access and transmit data on the network, and logical link control (LLC), which handles frame synchronization, flow control, and error checking at the link level.

Interacts with the hardware to provide the actual stream of bits as signals at the electrical and mechanical levels.

The DoD Networking Model

When the DoD developed the TCP/IP protocol stack for ARPANet, the OSI model had not yet been developed, so the model used was a slightly different, somewhat simpler model. It is sometimes called the TCP/IP model, but it’s more often referred to as the DOD model. It consists of only four layers, compared

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with the OSI model’s seven layers.The DoD model layers can be roughly mapped to those of the OSI model, as shown in Figure 5.5.

The various protocols in the TCP/IP suite fit nicely into the layers of the

DOD model. Remember that the DOD model was designed in the 1970s; the

OSI model came along a decade later, with the goal of more specifically defining the layers of functionality for the network components.

Figure 5.5

The four layers of the DoD model map roughly to the seven OSI layers.

DOD Model OSI Model

Application Layer

Application/

Process

Layer

Presentation Layer

Session Layer

Host to Host

Layer Transport Layer

Internetwork

Layer

Network Layer

Network Interface

Layer

Data Link Layer

Physical Layer

219

The Application/Process Layer

The top layer of the DOD model encompasses all three OSI upper layers: application, presentation, and session.Thus when an article or book refers to TCP/IP, you may read that encryption of data or checkpointing and dialog control take place at the application layer. Remember that this does not mean the OSI application layer and you’ll avoid confusion.

The Host-to-Host (Transport) Layer

The host-to-host layer is sometimes labeled the transport layer, even on four-layer

DoD diagrams, and it maps to the transport layer on the OSI model.TCP, UDP, and DNS operate here.

The Internetworking Layer

The internetworking layer corresponds closely to the OSI network layer. IP,

Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP), and Address Resolution Protocol

(ARP) function at this layer. As we discussed earlier, IP deals with routing based on logical IP addresses. ARP translates logical addresses to MAC addresses.This translation is necessary because the lower layers can process only the MAC addresses.

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The Network Interface Layer

The network interface layer maps to OSI’s data link and physical layers.The

TCP/IP suite itself has no protocols that operate at these lower layers but uses the standard Ethernet and Token Ring data link and physical layer protocols.

The Physical/Data Link Layer Standards

The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), like the ISO, develops standards.The 802 Project was named after the year and month that the original committee met, February 1980.The IEEE 802 specifications address various physical and data link layer issues.Those most pertinent for the average network administrator are:

802.2

Establishes standards for the implementation of the LLC sublayer of the data link layer.

802.3

Sets specifications for an Ethernet network using CSMA/CD, a linear or star bus topology, and baseband transmission.

802.5

This specification sets standards for a token-passing network using a physical star/logical ring topology such as Token Ring.

802.7

Establishes criteria for networks using broadband transmission.

802.8

Sets specifications for using fiber optic as a network medium.

802.11

Establishes standards for wireless networking.

Why This Matters to the Investigator

The OSI and DoD networking models form the basis of understanding how network communications are prepared for transmission and how the signals that go across the media are processed when they reach the destination.

Networking professionals are taught to troubleshoot communications problems “from the ground up,” starting with the physical layer and moving up through the models. Investigators are also troubleshooters of a sort, and the same problem-solving methods are appropriate when investigating cybercrimes that rely on technical implementation, such as unauthorized access or network attacks.

Understanding header information can be crucial in tracking down the source of an attack, and the first step in that understanding is awareness of how, when, and where that information is added to the data packet.

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Understanding Network Hardware

Just as you need a working knowledge of the hardware that makes up a PC to understand how a computer works, you need to be familiar with the hardware that enables network communication in order to understand how that communication process works. Networks range from very small (two directly linked computers) to very large (wide area internetworks that rely on complex hardware devices to link entire local networks in distant locations).Thus, the number and type of network hardware devices on a network will vary. However, all computer networking begins with an interface connecting each networked computer to the network.

The Role of the NIC

The network interface card (NIC) is the hardware device most essential to establishing communication between computers. Although there are ways to connect computers without a NIC (by modem over phone lines or via a serial “null modem” cable, for instance), in most cases where there is a network, there is a

NIC (or, more accurately, at least one NIC for each participating computer).

The NIC is responsible for preparing the data to be sent over the network media. Exactly how that preparation is done depends on the medium being used.

A Token Ring NIC is different from an Ethernet NIC, for example; it logically would have to be, since they use different access methods. And even though

10Base2, 10Base5 and 10BaseT Ethernet networks all use CSMA/CD as their access method, they use different cable and connector types, although it is possible to get a “combo” card that has connectors for all three.

The NIC must match the bus type for which you have an open slot in the computer, it must be of the correct media access type, it must have the correct connector for the cable your network uses, and it must be rated to transfer data at the proper speed. (Ethernet normally transmits at either 10Mbps or 100Mbps, and Token Ring runs at 4Mbps or 16Mbps.)

The Role of the Network Media

The network media are the cable or wireless technologies on which the signal is sent. Cable types include thin and thick coaxial cable (similar to but not the same as cable TV media), twisted-pair cable (such as is used for modern telephone lines, available in both shielded and unshielded types), or fiber optic cable, which sends pulses of light through thin strands of glass or plastic for fast, reliable communication but is expensive and difficult to work with.Wireless media include radio waves, laser, infrared, and microwave.

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Data can be captured by unauthorized people directly from the media, by

“tapping into” the cable and using a protocol analyzer to open packets and view the data inside. Copper cables are especially easy to compromise in this way, but data can also be intercepted on fiber optic cabling using a device called an optical

splitter.Wireless transmissions are also easy to intercept; the practice of “war driving” is popular with hackers, who set up laptop systems with wireless network cards and then drive around looking for open wireless networks to connect to. Because many businesses leave the default settings on their wireless access points and don’t elect to use wireless encryption protocols, their networks are wide open to anyone with a portable computer, a wireless NIC, and a small amount of technical knowledge. (Wireless security is addressed in detail in

Chapter 8, “Implementing System Security.”)

On

the Scene…

When the Medium Is the Phone Line

Remote access networking uses the phone lines as the network medium and a modem (a device that modulates and demodulates signals to convert them from the computer’s digital format to the public telephone system’s analog format and back again) in place of a NIC. To establish a dialup connection to a remote computer, link protocols such as Point-to-

Point Protocol (PPP) or Serial Line Internet Protocol (SLIP) are used. Then a regular network/transport protocol stack such as TCP/IP is used to communicate with the remote computer and other computers on its local network. This is the way you connect to your ISP’s remote server and, through it, to the ISP’s connection to the Internet. Once connected to the remote network, you can log on using the same user account and password that you use when logging on at the site, and you can do everything (if given the proper access permissions) that you could do from a machine physically cabled to the remote network. The only difference is speed; the phone lines are much slower than even the slowest

LAN connections.

Another type of remote access involves creation of a virtual private

network (VPN), which allows you to “tunnel” through the Internet using special tunneling protocols, such as:

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Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol (PPTP)

The Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol (L2TP)

Layer 2 Forwarding (L2F)

IP Security Protocol (IPSec)

These protocols allow for a private (encrypted) connection to a remote computer when both are connected to the Internet, thus allowing for private communications through a public infrastructure (and saving the cost of long distance if the remote server is geographically distant). For more information about VPN, see the tutorial at www.wkmn.com/newsite/vpn.html or the VPN overview at www.intranetjournal.com/foundation/vpn-1.shtml.

The Roles of Network Connectivity Devices

Network connectivity devices do exactly what the name implies:They connect two or more segments of cable. Complex connectivity devices can serve two seemingly opposite purposes:They are used to divide large networks into smaller parts (called subnets or segments, depending on the device type), and they are used to combine small networks into a larger network called an internetwork or internet.

Less complex connectivity devices do neither; they are used merely as connection points for the computers on a network (or network segment) or to amplify the signals of networked computers, which extends the distance over which transmissions can be sent.They can also:

Connect network segments that use different media types (for instance, thin coax and UTP)

Segment the network to reduce traffic without dividing the network into separate IP subnets

We look briefly at some of these devices in the following subsections.

Repeaters and Hubs

Hubs and repeaters are connection devices.We discuss them together because, in many cases, they are the same thing. In fact, you will hear hubs referred to as

multiport repeaters. Repeaters connect two network segments (usually thin or thick coax) and boost the signal so the distance of the cabling can be extended past the normal limits at which attenuation, or weakening, interferes with the reliable transmission of the data.

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A repeater is used to extend the usable length of a given type of cable. For instance, a 10Base5 Ethernet network, using thick coax cable, has a maximum cable segment length of 500 meters, or 1640 feet. At that distance, attenuation

(signal loss due to distance) begins to take place. But when you place a repeater at the end of the cable and attach another length to the repeater’s second port, the signal is boosted and the data can travel further without damage or loss, as shown in Figure 5.6.

Figure 5.6

Repeaters address the problem of attenuation (signal loss due to distance).

500 meters

500 meters

Repeater

Repeaters extend distance limits

N

OTE

Repeaters are not very “smart” devices. They simply boost whatever signal they receive, without distinguishing between data and noise, and pass the signal on. They also aren’t very “polite.” They don’t follow the usual CSMA/CD process that NICs use, listening for traffic on the network before transmitting. A repeater just goes ahead and transmits, even if another node is in the middle of a transmission. This situation, of course, results in a data collision, which means data must be resent and network performance is negatively impacted. Also note that repeaters do not logically segment or subnet the network and do no filtering of traffic. You cannot reduce the traffic load or increase available network bandwidth by using repeaters; you can only amplify the signal and extend the maximum length of the cable.

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On

the Scene…

The Difference Between Repeaters and Amplifiers

A repeater boosts the signal traveling across an Ethernet cable in much the same way that an amplifier boosts the signal input from an old radio tuner. The difference between a repeater and an amplifier lies not in what they do but in the kind of signals they do it to.

Amplifiers boost analog signals (such as those used in the public telephone network or in older home stereo systems); repeaters boost the digital signals used in most computer communications.

Hubs are different from basic repeaters in that the repeater generally has only two ports, whereas the hub can have many more (typically from 5 to 64 or more).

Hubs can also be connected to one another and stacked, providing even more ports. Hubs are generally used with Ethernet twisted-pair cable, and most modern hubs are repeaters with multiple ports; they also strengthen the signal before passing it back to the computers attached to it. Hubs can be categorized as follows:

Passive hubs

These hubs serve as connection points only; they do not boost the signal. Passive hubs do not require electricity and thus don’t use a power cord as active hubs do.

Active hubs

These hubs serve as both a connection point and a signal booster. Data that comes in is passed back out on all ports. Active hubs require electrical power.

Intelligent or “smart” hubs

These are active hubs that include a microprocessor chip with diagnostic capabilities so that you can monitor the transmission on individual ports.

Another type of hub, called a switching hub, operates at the data link rather than the physical layer and is more commonly called simply a switch.

N

OTE

Hubs present a security risk because all messages, to all computers, go out over every port. This makes it easy for an unauthorized person who can gain access to the server rooms or offices where the hubs are located to simply plug in a laptop and intercept data.

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Bridges

Bridges operate at the data link layer of the OSI model. Bridges can separate a network into segments, but they don’t subnet the network as routers do. In other words, if you use a bridge to physically separate two areas of the network, it still appears to be all one network to higher-level protocols.

A bridge monitors the data frames it receives to construct a MAC address table, using the source addresses on the frames.This is a simple table that tells the bridge on which side a particular address resides.Then the bridge can look at the destination address on a frame and, if it is in the table, determine whether to let it cross the bridge (if the address is on the other side) or not (if the address is on the side from which it was received).

In this way, less unnecessary traffic is generated, because when a computer on

Side A sends a message to another computer that is also on Side A, the signal goes only to those computers on Side A.The computers on Side B, on the other side of the bridge, go blithely on with their business and never have to deal with the message.

Bridges can decrease network congestion because they can do some basic filtering of data traffic based on the destination computer’s MAC address.When a transmission reaches the bridge, the bridge will not pass it to the other side of the network if the destination computer’s MAC address is known to be on the same side of the network as the sending computer, as shown in Figure 5.7.

Figure 5.7

Bridges segment networks to reduce traffic.

Side A

Side B

Bridge recognizes destination MAC address and does not send to Side B

Bridge

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Data is transmitted from a computer on

Side A to another computer on Side A

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On

the Scene…

Types of Bridges

There are different types of bridges. Although all types work at the data link layer, some operate at the lower MAC sublayer and others at the higher LLC sublayer. There are some important differences between bridge types. One practical question is whether you can use a bridge to connect network segments that use different media access methods (for instance, an Ethernet segment and a Token Ring segment). The answer is yes—or no, depending on which type of bridge you’re referring to.

A bridge that operates at the LLC sublayer, sometimes called a

translation bridge, can connect segments using different access methods. However, a lower-level bridge (one that operates at the MAC sublayer) cannot. Either type, however, can connect segments using different physical media—that is, a segment cabled with thin coax and a segment running on UTP cable.

Translation bridges do not translate between protocols. Bridges are unaware of and not dependent on the network/transport protocols used for communication. Bridges can use only the MAC addresses. Because bridges do not look at the upper-layer protocols such as IP, they cannot make decisions about where to send data frames based on IP address.

Switches

Layer 2 switches, or switching hubs, work at the data link layer, and they are installed in place of the active hubs that have been more typically used to connect computers on a UTP-cabled network. Replacing hubs with switches costs a bit more than using only hubs but offers several important advantages.

A switch combines the characteristics of hubs and bridges. Like a bridge, a switch constructs a table of MAC addresses.The switch knows which computer network interface (identified by its physical address) is attached to which of its ports. It can then determine the destination address for a particular packet and route it only to the port to which that NIC is attached. Obviously, this system cuts down a great deal on unnecessary bandwidth usage since the packet is not sent out to all the rest of the ports, where it will be disregarded when those computers determine that it is not intended for them.This process is illustrated in

Figure 5.8.

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Figure 5.8

Switches reduce traffic by sending data only out the port with which the destination MAC address is associated.

A B C

Switch

Switch consults table, sends out port connected to Computer F only

D E F

Using switches instead of hubs creates individual “collision domains” for each segment (the cable length between the switch and each node).This means a particular computer receives only the packets addressed to it, to a multicast address to which it belongs, or to the broadcast address.You increase potential bandwidth in this way by the number of devices connected to the switch, because each computer can send and receive at the same time that one or more other nodes are doing so.

Switches can forward data frames more quickly than bridges because instead of reading the entire incoming Ethernet frame before forwarding it to the destination segment, the switch typically only reads the destination address in the frame, then retransmits it to the correct segment.This is why switches can offer fewer and shorter delays throughout the network, resulting in better performance.

Recently a type of switch that operates at the network layer, or Layer 3 of the

OSI model, has become a popular connectivity option. A Layer 3 switch, sometimes referred to as a switch router, is in fact a type of router. Although a Layer 2 switch (switching hub) is unable to distinguish between protocols, a Layer 3 switch actually performs the functions of a router. A Layer 3 switch can filter the packets of a particular protocol to allow you to further reduce network traffic.

Layer 3 switches perform the same tasks as routers and can be deployed in the same locations in which a router is traditionally used.Yet the Layer 3 switch overcomes the performance disadvantage of routers, layering routing on top of switching technology. Layer 3 switches, manufactured by such companies as Cisco

(one of the most well-known makers of traditional routers), is quickly becoming the solution of choice for enterprise network connectivity.

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Routers

Like hubs and switches, routers are multiport connectivity devices. Unlike hubs and Layer 2 switches, routers are appropriate for use on large, complex networks because they are able to use the logical IP address to determine where packets need to go.

How does using the IP address help simplify the routing process? Recall that an

IP address is divided into two parts: the network ID and the host ID.The network

ID is the key here because it “narrows down” the location of the particular destination computer by acting somewhat the way a ZIP code does for the post office.

Routers are used to handle complex routing tasks. Routers also reduce network congestion by confining broadcast messages to a single subnet. A router can either be a dedicated device (such as those made by Cisco) or a computer running an operating system that is capable of acting as a router.Windows 2000, like

Windows NT, can function as a router when two network cards are installed and

IP forwarding is enabled.

Routers are capable of filtering so that you can, for instance, block inbound traffic.This capability allows the router to act as a firewall, creating a barrier that prevents undesirable packets from either entering or leaving a particular designated area of the network. However, in general, the more filtering a router is configured to do, the slower its performance.We look at how IP routing works in detail later in this chapter, in the section on IP addressing.

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On

the Scene…

The Marriage of the Bridge and the Router

Although its name might sound like the weird result of some recombinant DNA experiment, the brouter is a device that attempts to combine the features of bridges and routers into a “best of both worlds” solution. This can be useful when some nodes on the network are running unroutable protocols, such as NetBEUI, while others use protocols that can benefit from routing. A brouter functions like a router, using IP addresses to make routing decisions when packets are sent using a routable protocol such as TCP/IP, but if a nonroutable protocol is used, it the brouter uses the MAC address to function as a bridge. Because it performs the functions of both a router and a bridge, brouters operate at both the data link and network layers of the OSI model. Brouters are not often seen on networks today.

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On

the Scene…

Using the Network ID to “Narrow the Search”

In a small town, all streets might share the same ZIP code, so a letter addressed to 100 Hall Street, Somecity, Texas, doesn’t really need a ZIP code. It will reach its destination because there is only one Somecity post office, and it can easily keep track of the location of all the streets in town. In a big city with several ZIP codes, however, a letter addressed to

100 Hall Street, Bigcity, Texas, will have more difficulty reaching its destination. That’s because there are several post offices in Bigcity, each designed to serve only a designated part of the city. It’s the ZIP code that identifies which of these post office stations will handle the delivery of the letter, much as the network ID identifies which subnet, or part of the network, a destination computer is on.

In order to use this information, though, the post office must be “ZIP code aware.” That is, the employees who sort the mail in the post office must understand what the ZIP codes mean. If employees performing this task came from the era before the advent of ZIP codes, they would see the series of numbers at the end of the address and, not understanding its significance, disregard it. Like those postal employees from a former time, bridges and other lower-layer devices don’t recognize IP addresses or utilize them in making decisions about where to send the data.

Routers, however, working at the network layer where IP operates, can understand and use IP addresses. A router keeps a table, too, but unlike a bridge or switch, which deals in only MAC addresses, the routing table tells the router how to get to other known networks (or subnets) based on the network ID. Then when a packet reaches the appropriate network, the host ID is used to get it to the particular computer for which it is destined.

Gateways

Gateways are usually not implemented as “devices” (although they can be).

Rather, they are implemented as software programs running on servers. However, because they are also used to connect disparate networks, we touch briefly on what they are and why they are implemented in many networks.

Gateways normally operate at higher levels of the OSI model—typically at the application layer—and can be used to connect two networks that use entirely different protocols. For instance, an SNA gateway (Microsoft’s latest version is called Host Integration Server) allows personal computers running Windows

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operating systems to communicate with an IBM mainframe computer, even though the two systems are “alien” to one another. Another type of gateway is used to allow Windows machines, which use the SMB file-sharing protocol, to

“talk” to a file server that runs the NetWare NOS and uses NetWare Core

Protocol (NCP).There are many other different types of gateways, such as e-mail gateways, which translate between e-mail protocols.

Why This Matters to the Investigator

The network hardware controls how data is handled once it leaves the computer and begins its journey across the network. Understanding how network devices work helps investigators understand how data signals can be captured while in transit over the network and how an unauthorized person who is able to gain access to the premises can plug a laptop into a hub and capture data traffic or tap into the cable using a splitter and intercept the data flowing through it.

Understanding Network Software

Modern operating systems have networking capabilities built in. Early PC operating systems such as DOS (and the Windows shell that ran on it) did not; it wasn’t until version 3.11, with Windows for Workgroups, that Microsoft included networking components. As the name implied, that version of Windows was designed to function in a small peer-to-peer local network.Windows NT added authentication server functionality (Microsoft called the authentication server a

domain controller), but with the early versions of NT, the focus was still on the

LAN, not the WAN. At that time, Microsoft operating systems were not considered scalable enough for enterprise networking, and most Web servers on the

Internet were UNIX machines.With Windows 95, it became easier for users to connect to the Internet, and NT 4.0 supported Web services (Internet

Information Server) that made it easy to host Web sites on the Internet or intranets.Windows 2000 built more heavily on Internet connectivity and added features to the server products that made it more suitable for enterprise-level computing, including a robust directory service (Active Directory), industry-standard security protocols such as Kerberos and IPSec, and load-balancing and clustering support.The next generation of Windows servers, .NET, continues this trend and embraces the idea that “the network is the computer” to a larger extent than ever.

The term network operating system (NOS) is used in three different ways:

It is sometimes used to refer to any computer operating system that has built-in networking components, as do all of today’s popular PC

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■ operating systems.Thus Windows 9x, NT, 2000, XP, and .NET (along with most distros of Linux, UNIX, Macintosh, and OS/2 Warp) are considered NOSs, whereas MS-DOS and Windows 3.1 and earlier are not.

It is sometimes used to refer to the components of the operating system that make networking possible. For example, today’s Windows operating systems include file and print sharing services (known as the Server service in NT), which allow the computer to act as a server and share its resources with other systems, and the Client for Microsoft Networks

(known as the Workstation service in NT) which allows the computer to connect to and access the shared resources of other systems.These

components, along with the protocol stacks on which the network operates, are sometimes referred to as the NOS.

It is sometimes used to refer to the server operating system software— such as Windows NT Server,Windows 2000 Server, UNIX, or

NetWare—especially when functioning as an authentication server that maintains a security accounts database for the network.

In the following sections, we look at how client/server computing works and discuss both the server software and client software that work together to enable network communications.We also take a look at network file systems and how they differ from local file systems as well as the protocols that govern the network communication process.

Understanding Client/Server Computing

The term client/server computing has different meanings, depending on the context in which it is used. Some documentation uses the term narrowly, to refer to applications in which the bulk of the processing is performed on a server. For example, SQL Server is a database application that uses the server’s power to sort the data in response to a query and then returns only the results back to the client. Contrast this system with Microsoft’s Access, in which database files are stored on a server, but a client query results in the entire file being transferred to the client machine, where the sorting takes place.

Using this meaning of the term, thin client computing is the ultimate form of client/server computing.With thin client software such as Microsoft’s terminal services, the operating system runs on the server, and all applications run there; only the graphical representation of the desktop screen runs on the client machine.This means that client machines can be low-power systems with modest processors and small amounts of RAM—machines that are not capable of

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running the operating system themselves.Thus a user can work in Windows 2000 using an old 80486 system that only has 16MB of RAM, because the operating system isn’t really running on that old system—it’s only being used as a terminal to access the OS on the server.

Authentication Server-Based Networks

A second, broader meaning of the term client/server computing refers to a network that is based on an authentication server.This is a server that controls access to the network, storing a security accounts database that holds users’ networkwide account information.When a user wants to log onto the network, the client computer contacts this authentication server.The server checks its database to ensure that the user is authorized and to determine the level of access allowed that user (usually based on security groups to which the user belongs).The

authentication server is a centralized point of security and network resource management and must run special (and usually expensive) server software. In

Microsoft networking, this type of network is called a domain and the authentication server is called a domain controller. UNIX and NetWare servers also provide network authentication services.

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We discuss authentication, which refers to the verification of a user’s or computer’s identity, in much more detail in Chapter 7, when we discuss security concepts.

Authentication server operating systems such as NT Server used a flat accounts database, but the trend is toward the use of hierarchical databases called

directory services, such as Novell’s NDS and Microsoft’s Active Directory.The new

Macintosh OS X Server uses a somewhat less robust directory service called

NetInfo. All these services have something in common:They are compatible with the Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) standards.This is an industry-standard based on the ISO’s X.500 specifications, and adherence to the standards allows directory services from different vendors to interoperate on a network.

These client/server (or server-based) networks provide many advantages, especially for large networks. Because security and management are centralized, this type of network can be more easily secured and managed than the alternative network model.

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Peer-to-Peer Networks

Networks without an authentication server are called workgroups or peer-to-peer

networks.This model is appropriate for small networks with only a few computers, in environments where high security is not required. In a workgroup, all computers can provide both client and server services.

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In this context, the term server services means only that the computers make their resources accessible to (share them with) other computers on the network. The computers in a workgroup do not have to run expensive server software, although a workgroup can have machines running such software as Windows 2000 Server, operating as member servers instead of domain controllers. The key differentiating factor is that in a workgroup, there is no authentication server, although there can be other types of servers (file and print servers, remote access servers, fax servers, and the like).

Workgroups are less expensive to implement than server-based networks, for several reasons:

Server operating system software, which costs from several hundred to several thousand dollars, must be purchased to implement a server-based network.

Server software generally requires more powerful hardware than do desktop operating systems, so you might need to purchase more expensive machinery to run it.

Server-based networks generally require a dedicated network administrator to perform the many tasks involved in network administration and maintenance, necessitating hiring additional personnel or extra work on the part of an existing employee.

Despite workgroups’ cost advantage, they are less secure, because the user of each computer must manage its resources. In order to access resources on any other computer in the workgroup, a user must have a local account created on that machine, or alternatively, each individual shared resource can be protected by a password. Either of these methods gets very cumbersome when there are more than a handful of users and/or more than a few shared resources.

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With the first method, a user might need accounts on a dozen or more computers; with the second method, that user would have to remember dozens or even hundreds of different passwords in order to access different shared folders or printers. Contrast this scenario with the authentication server-based network, where each user has a single username and password for logging onto the entire network.The user can then access any resource on any machine in the network for which the appropriate permissions have been assigned. Although administrators do have to assign permissions to each shared resource, from the user’s point of view this is a much simpler system.When workgroups grow beyond 20 or 25 computers, it is usually advantageous to convert to a centralized (server-based) model.

Server Software

Remember that all modern operating systems, even consumer/home editions, have a server component (such as file and print sharing for Microsoft Networks) that allows them to share their resources.When we refer to server software here, we’re talking about operating systems capable of providing network authentication services (as well as other server services such as DNS,Web services, or remote access services).There are also many server applications (such as the SQL database server, the ISA proxy/firewall server, the Exchange mail server, and the like) that can be installed only on a system running a server operating system.

The major server operating systems in use today include:

Microsoft Windows NT and 2000 Server

There are several versions of each; the NT 4.0 family includes Standard Server, the Enterprise

Edition, and the Terminal Server Edition.The Windows 2000 family includes Standard Server, Advanced Server, and Datacenter Server.The

higher-level products include additional features and/or support more memory and a greater number of processors. As of this writing, the next generation of Microsoft’s server product, .NET Server, has not yet been released.

Novell NetWare

Only a decade ago, NetWare had the majority of the installed base for network authentication server software in the United

States. It lost ground to Microsoft with the introduction of Windows

NT 4.0 and then Windows 2000 (which included a directory service similar to NetWare’s NDS). Prior to NetWare 5, the IPX/SPX protocol stack was required for connecting to NetWare servers. Now NetWare can run on pure IP. As of this writing, the current version of NetWare is version 6.

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UNIX/Linux in many, many different “flavors”

UNIX has been around since the beginning of networking and the Internet. Linux is a

UNIX-based OS that can also be run on the desktop. UNIX is a very powerful server operating system, but it is considered to have a steep learning curve. It is a character-based OS, but GUI interfaces are available.There are dozens of different popular commercial and free distributions of UNIX and Linux.

Apple makes its OS X in a server version, which supports Macintosh,Windows,

UNIX, and Linux clients and includes Apache Web server, POP and IMAP mail, and DNS and DHCP services. OS X Server runs only on Macintosh systems (G3,

G4, and iMac). Although not widely implemented at this time, the server version of

OS X is less costly than Microsoft’s and Novell’s products and much more userfriendly than other versions of UNIX. For more information about OS X Server, see the FAQ at www.apple.com/macosx/server/faq/index.html.

Client Software

Most modern operating systems can also function as network clients.These

include the server operating systems discussed earlier, with the possible exception of NetWare. However, it would be inefficient and costly to run NT Server or

Windows 2000 Server, for example, as a desktop client—the OS itself costs 10 times more than Windows operating systems designed for the desktop (9x/ME,

NT Workstation, 2000/XP Professional, and the like). UNIX is most often used as a server, but Linux is growing in popularity as a desktop/client OS. Mac OS X comes in both client and server forms. Novell doesn’t make a client OS of its own; NetWare clients generally run Windows or UNIX operating systems with

NetWare client software (and the IPX/SPX protocols, if necessary) installed.

This brings up an important point: Client machines don’t necessarily have to run an operating system made by the vendor of the network’s server software.

With the proper add-on software installed, Macintosh and UNIX-based clients can access Windows servers,Windows and Macintosh clients can access UNIX servers, and so forth.

The most popular client operating systems are:

NT Workstation, and 2000/XP Professional

Windows-based clients are by far the most popular client operating systems, regardless of the server type running on the network. Novell makes client software for all versions of Windows, and Microsoft includes its own NetWare client software with Windows operating systems as well. SAMBA is software that runs on a UNIX machine and allows Windows computers to

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■ access its resources. (MS-DOS and Windows 3.x clients are also still in use in some businesses, and Windows 9x/ME or XP Home Edition can be used to access a Windows domain, although those computers cannot actually join the domain.This means that a user with a valid domain account can log on from the system, but the computer has no computer account and thus is less secure and cannot be managed as an NT/2000 or XP Pro machine can.)

Linux

Novell, Microsoft, and Apple all provide add-on client software to allow Linux and UNIX machines to access some or all of their resources. For example, Microsoft’s Services for UNIX is added to an

NT or Windows 2000 server to allow NFS authentication for Linux and

UNIX clients. (Note that not all distros are supported.) The SAMBA project has also developed a program called Winbind to allow UNIXbased workstations in networks with multiple operating systems (sometimes called hybrid or heterogeneous networks) to log onto Windows domains with full functionality. NetWare v6 allows Linux clients to access resources without installing NetWare client software, either using a Web browser or through the native file access feature for Linux clients using the Network File System (NFS).

Macintosh OS 8/9 and OS X

Microsoft’s Services for Macintosh allow Mac clients to access Windows servers.The Microsoft User

Authentication Module (UAM) provides a mechanism for encrypting passwords used by Mac users to log onto Windows’ Apple File Protocol

(AFP) services. Novell provides the NetWare Client for Mac OS, which can be installed on Macintosh machines to access NetWare 5 servers, or alternatively, NetWare’s Services for AppleShare can be installed on the

NetWare server (in which case no client software is required). NetWare

6 allows access through the browser or native file sharing without installing client software.The latest Mac OS, OS X, is UNIX-based and connects easily to UNIX servers. Older versions of Mac OS can use terminal emulation software to connect to UNIX servers.

Network File Systems and File Sharing Protocols

Network file systems and file sharing protocols allow users to access and update files on remote computers as though they were on the local computer.They can make different file systems on the remote machine irrelevant when accessing that machine’s resources across the network.This is the reason that a Windows 9x

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computer, which does not support NTFS and can’t access NTFS files locally, is able to read and write to NTFS files that are stored on a remote Windows NT/

2000 computer. Popular mechanisms for file sharing across a network include:

Server Message Block (SMB) Protocol

Microsoft uses this protocol to allow client applications to access and write to remote files and request services from server applications on remote systems. SMB is included with Windows operating systems. SAMBA is an implementation of SMB and the Common Internet File System (CIFS) that can be installed on UNIX computers to allow Windows clients to access their files as though they were SMB servers.

Common Internet File System (CIFS)

CIFS is a protocol proposed as an Internet standard for allowing access to remote files across the Internet. CIFS is considered an open (nonproprietary) version of

SMB. Both SMB and CIFS run on top of the TCP/IP protocol stack.

NetWare Core Protocol (NCP)

NCP is actually a set of protocols that provide file and printer access, among other services, between clients and remote servers on NetWare networks. NCP runs over IPX or IP.

Network File System (NFS)

NFS is a client/server application developed by Sun Microsystems that runs on TCP/IP to allow remote file access. NFS uses the Remote Procedure Call (RPC) communication method. NFS is used for remote file access by UNIX/Linux machines and can be installed on Windows and Macintosh computers.

A Matter of (Networking) Protocol

In order for any network communication to take place between computers, the computers must be running a common network protocol. Protocols are simply sets of rules that define the communication process. Some texts compare protocols to languages, but a better comparison is to the grammar and syntax of a language— the rules that govern the language’s use.Think of it this way: Even if you learn all the words or vocabulary of a foreign language, you will not be able to effectively communicate with a speaker of that language if you don’t understand the rules for putting those words together in sentences.

Networking protocols generally work together in protocol stacks or suites. A

stack is two or more protocols working at different layers of the OSI or DoD model. For example,TCP and IP form a protocol stack, with TCP working at the transport layer and IP working at the network layer. Similarly, Sequenced Packet

Exchange (SPX) and IPX work together, with SPX performing transport layer

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duties and IPX performing network layer tasks. A suite includes additional protocols such as the application-layer FTP and Telnet protocols included in the TCP/IP suite.

In the early days of Microsoft networking, most networks were small LANs, so simple protocols sufficed to enable communication.The NetBIOS Extended

User Interface (NetBEUI), an outgrowth of the Network Basic Input/Output

System (NetBIOS) protocol developed by IBM, was used for network communications. NetBIOS and NetBEUI rely on assigned computer names, called

NetBIOS names, to identify computers on a network.There is no mechanism for identifying the network itself, which means that transmissions using this protocol cannot travel between two different networks.

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How Protocols Work

Networking protocols set rules for such things as how computers are identified and located on the network. For example, both the Internet

Protocol (IP) and the Internet Packet Exchange (IPX) protocol handle addressing and routing of packets at the network layer of the OSI model. However, they use completely different addressing schemes. It’s like the difference between the postal service, which uses your street number and name to locate your house, and a satellite system that uses the geographic coordinates to find the same structure. Geographic coordinates would be of little help to a postal worker in delivering a letter, and your street address would mean nothing to the satellite system.

As networks grew and became interconnected, more complex protocols were required so that messages could be routed between different networks. NetWare networks depended, until recently, on the IPX/SPX protocols. IPX/SPX is a routable protocol stack that uses a system of network addresses and internal network addresses to identify both network and computer.

The most popular protocol stack today is TCP/IP, primarily because it is the protocol of the Internet and any computer that connects to the Internet must have

TCP/IP installed.TCP/IP uses an addressing scheme that makes it extremely routable, so it is suitable for the largest networks. It can also be run on the smallest networks, although its slower performance and complexity of administration may make it less desirable than NetBEUI for small, nonrouted networks. Nonetheless,

TCP/IP is the networking protocol stack of choice for most of today’s networks. In the following section, we examine the TCP/IP protocol suite in detail.

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IPX/SPX can also be used on networks that don’t have NetWare servers.

Some Microsoft networks run IPX/SPX—or Microsoft’s version of it, called

NWLink—to provide greater security when the local network is connected to the Internet. Because most computers on the Internet don’t have IPX/SPX installed, they aren’t able to access machines running only that protocol stack.

Understanding the TCP/IP Protocols

Used on the Internet

The Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (also referred to as the

TCP/IP protocol stack, or just plain TCP/IP) is a familiar, if poorly understood, networking component to most modern network administrators and information technology professionals.

If you work in any but the smallest networked environment, chances are you’ve encountered TCP/IP. However, only a few short years ago,TCP/IP was regarded as a somewhat sluggish, difficult-to-configure protocol used primarily by university or government networks that participated in an exotic wide area networking project called the ARPANet.TCP/IP was considered too slow and complex to be an appropriate choice for most private organizations’ LANs.

Microsoft and IBM workgroups ran fine on NetBEUI, a fast and simple transport protocol that could be set up easily and quickly by someone without a great deal of expertise. Novell NetWare LANs used the IPX/SPX stack, which was routable and thus could be used with larger server-based networks. Few business networks had any need for a powerful but high-overhead set of protocols like TCP/IP.Then something happened: the Internet.

The Need for Standardized Protocols

The ARPANet’s reach expanded and grew into the commercial Internet that we know today. Although changed in many ways from its early days, the global network still runs on the TCP/IP protocol suite developed for the ARPANet. In order for computers all over the world to communicate with one another, there must be a common, standardized set of protocols—and TCP/IP fills that role.

Although TCP/IP is a “universal” protocol stack that allows communication between machines running different operating systems or even running on

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different platforms, different vendors’ implementations of the protocols might differ slightly.You’ll see this in the different commands used to perform the same utilitarian tasks. For example, on Microsoft networks, the ipconfig command is used to view TCP/IP configuration information. On UNIX-based networks, the same task is performed using the ifconfig command. Likewise, Microsoft’s

tracert

is UNIX’s traceroute, and so forth.

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The Effort to Dethrone TCP/IP as

King of the Internet

There have been occasional attempts to usurp TCP/IP’s position as the protocol of choice for internetworking. The Open Systems

Interconnection protocol suite, based on the famous (or infamous) seven-layer OSI networking model, was conceived with the idea of unseating the incumbent and replacing TCP/IP as a universal standard for internetworking communications. In fact, in the late 1980s, the U.S.

government, which had played an important part in creating and developing TCP/IP, made plans to phase it out in favor of the OSI suite. It didn’t quite work out that way. TCP/IP turned out to be the protocol stack that refused to go quietly into that good night.

It was as though someone announced that they had discovered a replacement for dirt and suggested that we uproot all the trees and plants and then “reinstall” them in the new, superior substance.

Restructuring the huge, sprawling global Internet to “plant” it in a different protocol environment—regardless of any advantages that new environment might offer—is just too overwhelming an undertaking.

A Brief History of TCP/IP

As German philosopher Friedrich Schlegel said, “The subject of history is the gradual realization of all that is practically necessary.”

Practical necessity is the driving force behind most important inventions and developments, and the necessity for a reliable set of communications protocols suitable for connecting large networks led to the creation of the TCP/IP stack.

In the 1960s, computer networking was in its infancy.The many benefits of connecting computers so that they could share resources were only beginning to

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become apparent.The equipment was expensive, and products from different manufacturers were largely incompatible. Few business entities had the money or inclination to bother with creating local networks, much less attempt to get their computers to “talk” to distant systems.

The U.S. Department of Defense recognized the value of establishing electronic communications links between major military installations. (Grim as it might seem, a primary motivation was the desire to maintain communication capabilities in the event of the mass destruction that would come with nuclear war.) Major universities were involved in networking projects as well.The DoD funded research sites throughout the United States, and in 1968, the Advanced

Research Projects Agency (ARPA) contracted with a company called Bolt,

Beranek and Newman (later called simply BBN) to build a network based on packet-switching technology.

The next year, ARPANet was born when its first node, or connection point, was installed at the University of California at Los Angeles.Within three years, the network had spread across the United States and two years after that, to the

European continent.

It was important that the networking protocols, the set of rules governing the communications process, be reliable and scalable to accommodate multiple redundant sites and anticipated growth (although no one at that time expected the rate of growth that was to come). Perhaps following the timeworn advice that

“if you want it done right, you have to do it yourself,” the ARPANet’s developers designed a new group of protocols that fit the bill.Their first attempt was the

Network Control Protocol (NCP), but it proved to be unsuitable as traffic increased. By the mid-1970s, necessity had mothered invention again, and the

TCP/IP protocol suite was implemented.

The Internet Protocol and IP Addressing

One of TCP/IP’s great strengths—and a primary reason that it has become the standard for large networks, including the Internet—is its scalable addressing scheme, which can accommodate networks of all sizes. In order to communicate over a network using the TCP/IP protocols, a computer must have an IP address that is unique on that network.The IP address can be manually assigned by a network administrator or it can be automatically assigned by an automatic addressing service (see the following section on automatic addressing). In any event, there will be no IP communication without an address.

Under the current IP addressing system, IPv4, there are “only” a little over 4 billion possible IP addresses (4,294,967,296, or 2 32 , for those who like to be

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precise). In the beginning (the early 1980s), this seemed to be more than enough for the foreseeable future. At that time, when IP specifications became standardized, a two-level hierarchical addressing structure was imposed, consisting of the network ID (sometimes called the network prefix) and the host ID. Networks were divided into “classes” A, B, and C (as well as D and E, but the latter two were not allocated to networks; rather, they were reserved for special purposes).This is referred to as classful addressing. A newer method of identifying networks via an

“IP prefix” is called classless interdomain routing (CIDR), which we discussed briefly in Chapter 4. Instead of designating networks as Class A, B, or C, a network is referred to as a /16, a /24, and so on, depending on the number of bits used for the network ID portion of the address.

Logical IP Addresses vs. Physical MAC Addresses

The IP address is a “logical” address assigned by the network administrator. It bears no direct relation to the network interface card’s “physical” address (often referred to as the MAC address because it is used at the media access control sublayer of the OSI data link layer).

Changing a computer’s (or more precisely, an individual NIC’s) IP address is a software function. If you have administrative privileges, it’s as simple as clicking the mouse a few times to open the proper dialog box and typing in a new number. (The hardest part is knowing what number to type in.)

The MAC address, on the other hand, is hardcoded into the chip on the network card in the typical Ethernet network. Some network cards provide for a way to change the MAC address via jumper settings or by “flashing” the chip with special software, but this is not usual; in most cases, the MAC address stays the same.

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You could think of the IP address as analogous to your street address, with two parts representing the street on which you live and the particular house on that street (as the two parts of an IP address represent the network on which the computer “lives” and the specific host on that network). The street address is a “logical” address, in that it was assigned (probably by the city). A vote of the municipal government can change the name of the street or even the numbering scheme, just as the network administrator can easily change the IP address of a computer. The MAC address is more like the geographic coordinates (latitude and longitude) that identify the location of your house. These are permanent and can’t be changed at the whim of the city government.

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An Ethernet MAC address is a 48-bit number represented in hexadecimal, so it looks something like this: 00-80-C8-6A-FA-00. If you’re using a Windows computer, you can find out the physical address of your Ethernet card by typing

ipconfig /all

at the command line, which will give you the information shown in Figure 5.9.

Figure 5.9

You can find out a computer’s IP address using the ipconfig command in Windows.

Figure 5.10

You can use the GUI to find out your Ethernet address with an

OS X system.

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On Linux systems, the command for finding out your MAC address is

ifconfig –a

. The method differs on different “flavors” of UNIX; for example, in

HP-UX, you use the lanscan command.With Macintosh OS X, you select

System Preferences

from the Apple menu, then select Network, select your

Ethernet adapter from the drop-down box in the Show field, and the hardware address will be displayed (along with TCP/IP configuration information), as shown in Figure 5.10.

As you can see in these screenshots, the IP and MAC addresses are in two very different formats and have no logical relationship to one another.The

Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) is responsible for “keeping tabs” on which

IP addresses match up with which physical addresses and relaying that information so computers can communicate at the physical (network interface) level.

Static Addressing

Administrators can manually assign IP addresses to each computer on a network, using the TCP/IP configuration utilities (which vary depending on the operating system).This works fine when the network is small and is necessary when you have computers (typically servers) that need to always have the same IP address.

Figure 5.11 shows the TCP/IP properties sheet that is used to assign a static IP address to a Windows 2000 computer.

Figure 5.11

Network administrators can manually assign IP addresses (called

“static addresses”) to computers.

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When you manually assign an address, you must also enter the correct subnet mask and, if the network is routed, the IP address of the default gateway (the router or computer performing routing functions). Although manual addressing is more time consuming if you have more than a few computers, and it is easy to make errors entering the data, which could result in loss of connectivity or odd network behavior, there are sometimes good reasons to manually assign addresses.

If there is no mechanism for automatic addressing on the network, obviously the addresses need to be assigned manually.There are also certain systems, such as domain controllers and DNS and WINS servers, that need to have static addresses.

Automatic Addressing

With very large networks, manual addressing is time-consuming and prone to error (duplication of addresses). Automatic address assignment can be done by a server running the Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) service.

DHCP can be a network administrator’s best friend—unless that administrator fails to configure it properly, in which case it can be a source of nightmares.

DHCP’s purpose is to assign IP addresses dynamically as computers come onto the network. Each computer only has to be set up in TCP/IP properties to get an IP address (and other TCP/IP configuration information) from a DHCP server, and the service does the rest.This system has several advantages:

Time savings

Network administrators don’t have to tediously enter the IP address, subnet mask, DNS and WINS server addresses, and other information over and over, for every machine on the network. Likewise, if the IP address for the network’s DNS server changes, the change does not have to be made on every machine; the change is made in the

DHCP server’s configuration and the new address is automatically disseminated to client computers when they obtain an address.

Better accuracy

The possibility of mistyping an address in one of the machines is eliminated. A scope of addresses is defined only once, on the

DHCP server, and the addresses are managed by the server.There is no possibility of the server “forgetting” that a particular address was already assigned to another machine and duplicating the address.

More efficient use of addresses

If the number of available addresses is limited, DHCP optimizes their use, since it only “leases” the addresses to computers for a predetermined period of time instead of assigning them permanently, as with manual assignment.When a computer goes offline, its address can be released so that it can then be assigned to a different system.

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You must set up the client computers to seek an address from the DHCP server. In Windows, configuring a computer to obtain an address from a DHCP server is simple. In the TCP/IP properties box, simply check the radio button option Obtain an IP address automatically.

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DHCP works with most operating systems. It grew out of BootP, the bootstrap protocol that was originally designed to allow diskless workstations to boot an operating system from the network. DHCP adds much more functionality, allowing administrators to configure many different options. The DHCP server can assign other TCP/IP information, such as the default gateway and DNS and WINS server addresses, as well as assigning an IP address.

Other services can assign IP addresses under some circumstances. For example, in Windows 98/2000 and later, the Automatic Private IP Addressing

(APIPA) service and Internet Connection Sharing (ICS) can assign IP addresses.

APIPA was included in Windows 2000 to make TCP/IP configuration easier and to help ensure that a computer would be able to communicate on a small

(unsubnetted) TCP/IP network that does not have a DHCP server. In past versions of Microsoft’s operating systems, prior to the release of Windows 98 and then Windows 2000, if a computer did not have a manually entered address and was not able to contact a DHCP server when it came online, it would not be able to join the TCP/IP network.With APIPA, the computer first attempts to reach a DHCP server and negotiate a lease for an IP address. However, if this fails, the computer then takes the initiative and assigns itself an address from the reserved APIPA range of 169.254.0.1 through 169.254.255.254 with a subnet mask of 255.255.0.0.This allows the computer to communicate on the network, using the APIPA address temporarily until a DHCP server can be reached.

ICS is another new feature introduced in Windows 98/2000. ICS is used to allow multiple computers to access the Internet or another outside connection via a single public IP address. ICS is a part of Windows 2000 Network and

Dialup Connections and can be enabled on a Windows 2000 Professional or

Server computer that has a dialup connection to the Internet, thereby allowing other computers on the LAN to share that connection using Network Address

Translation (NAT).

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When you enable ICS, the host machine that is sharing its connection will be configured with an IP address of 192.168.0.1 with a subnet mask of

255.255.255.0.The ICS computer also becomes a DHCP allocator.This role differs from that of a full-fledged DHCP server in that the computer does not have to be running a server operating system.The DHCP allocator has a predefined scope of IP addresses that it can hand out to the client computers sharing its

Internet connection.These addresses fall into a private Class C address range, the

192.168.0.0 network.

The Future of IP

The current version of IP (IPv4) uses 32-bit addresses.This provides for a total of approximately 4 billion individual unique addresses, in theory. Unfortunately, in practice, there are far fewer usable addresses.This situation is unfortunate because every computer that connects to the Internet—with the exception of those connecting through proxies and NAT—must have a unique address.The Internet’s popularity has exceeded the wildest dreams of those who developed the Internet

Protocol. Additionally, address assignments in the early days were not made with efficiency in mind. Many addresses were “wasted”—for example, the entire

127.x.y.z address range is not used because it is assigned as a “loopback” address for testing the local TCP/IP stack, wasting over 16 million addresses. In the early days of the Internet, Class A and B address blocks, with approximately 16 million and 65,000 host addresses, respectively, were assigned to organizations that didn’t need nearly that many addresses.

N

OTE

In 1991, there were a little over 1 million hosts on the global Internet. By

1997, there were over 16 million. By 2000, according to the Internet

Society, there were an estimated 50 million. If growth continues at this rate, the prospect of using up all the available addresses will become very real.

As a consequence, the world is running short on available IP addresses. As the number of Internet devices increases, with PDAs, cell phones, and household appliances expected to be connected to the Net in the future, the need for more addresses will become critical. A new version of IP is needed—one that provides for a larger number of addresses.That’s where IPv6 comes in.

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IPv6, or IPng (the ng stands for next generation), is the new version of IP. It was designed by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) as the next step up from IPv4. It builds on IPv4 and is a natural progression. IPv6 uses 128-bit addresses.This provides for a total number of IP addresses that, represented exponentially, is 2 to the 128th power.The actual number would take up an entire line of space in this paragraph; it’s safe to say it definitely adds up to “a lot.”You can install it as a software implementation, and it is compatible with IPv4, which is currently used on the Internet and other TCP/IP networks.The specific intent of

IPv6 was to work efficiently in high-performance networks such as asynchronous transfer mode (ATM), while still working efficiently over low-bandwidth networks (which include many wireless technologies).

It’s not likely you’ll wake up one day and suddenly see an announcement that on a particular date, at a particular time, the Internet is switching to IPv6.The new version is expected to replace IPv4 gradually, and the two will coexist for a number of years as the transition occurs. Because IPv6 provides for so many possible addresses, the entire original IPv4 address space will remain as is to ensure maximum compatibility with IPv6 addresses, making the transition easier to implement.

How Routing Works

Computers on an internetwork send packets to one another in one of two ways:

Directly (if the source and destination computers are on the same subnet)

Indirectly (if the source and destination computers are on different subnets) by forwarding the packets to a router

IP routing involves discovering a pathway from the sending computer (or forwarding router) to the destination computer whose address is designated in the

IP header. In concept, this process is not unlike what you do when planning a trip from your home to a distant location.To navigate a course, you sit down with a map and plot out the best route based on several factors. Distance, simplicity, and congestion might be some things you consider when deciding which roads to take.

IP routing refers to forwarding of packets from a source computer to a destination computer by going through routers that support IP routing. Every computer has a table of network numbers, known as a routing table. A gateway address is listed there for each network number, and the gateway is used to reach that network.The gateway doesn’’ have to connect directly to the destination

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network; it is just the starting point. Each gateway, or router, that the message must go through is called a hop. At each router, the destination IP address on the packet is compared to the routing table, and the best route is used to decide the endpoint of the next hop.You might say a journey of 1000 hops begins with a single step: the gateway address listed in the routing table for a particular network number.

Typically, a router is connected to two or more networks or subnets.The

router, a dedicated device or a computer acting as a router, is said to have an inter-

face to each network to which it is connected.

The router’s interface can connect to a LAN or to a WAN.The wide area networking interface can be a modem or ISDN terminal adapter or other WAN media connection device; the LAN interface is a network adapter card.

Each interface must have an IP address with a network ID appropriate for the network to which it is connected.The router functions at the internetwork layer of the DoD networking model (the network layer of the OSI model).

Static Routing

Routing comes in two basic “flavors,” static and dynamic.With static IP routing, the routing table must be constructed manually; an administrator must enter the

IP addresses defining the routes to remote networks one by one. Static routing not only requires that you painstakingly set up the routing table; you also must manually enter every change, addition, and deletion that occurs.This reprogramming of the routers each time a change is made can be time-consuming and tedious.Why would anyone ever use static routing? Actually, most networks today don’t, but static routing does have a couple of advantages:

Static routing can be implemented with a minimum of equipment. No dedicated routing device is needed; you can set up a multihomed

Windows NT or Windows 2000 computer to be a static router. A multihomed computer is one that has two (or more) network interfaces.

The initial cost of implementing static routing is less than dynamic routing because of the cost of routing devices. However, these initial savings can be offset by the simplification of administration and reduction in person-hours needed to maintain the dynamic routers.

You have more specific control over routes used in a static routing situation, since you enter the routes into the table manually.You can delete or change routes and ensure that packets use the desired route.

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These benefits are usually not enough, however, to make static routing an attractive solution to network administrators, due to the method’s many disadvantages:

There is no real fault tolerance in a static routing environment. If one of the routers becomes unavailable, others cannot detect its absence. Since a static routed internetwork is generally a single-path environment (only one path available between any two endpoints), this can result in some hosts’ inability to communicate with others on the network.

A great deal of administrative maintenance is required to keep routing tables updated on a static network if new routes need to be added or removed.

Static routing is appropriate only for small internetworks (those having from two to 10 networks). Beyond this, administration becomes unmanageable.

Using a dynamic routing protocol, the table is configured and maintained automatically because the dynamic router can communicate with and “learn” from other routers on the network.This system saves the administrator a great deal of time.

Dynamic Routing Protocols

Routers running dynamic routing protocols can automatically build their routing tables and make modifications when the network changes.These changes are propagated throughout the network as the dynamic routers communicate with one another.Two popular dynamic routing protocols are the Routing

Information Protocol (RIP) and Open Shortest Path First (OSPF).

RIP has been in use for many years and works well with small and mediumsized networks, although it does not scale well to large internetworks. RIP is a distance vector protocol (for more information, see the On the Scene sidebar) with a maximum hop count of 15. For practical purposes, this means that if it takes more than 15 hops to reach another network (subnet), RIP will not work.

RIP for IP works by sending at regular intervals an announcement message that contains the information in its routing table. Other RIP routers receive this message and add the information to their own tables. In this way, route information spreads throughout the network.Version 1 of RIP sends its announcements via broadcast packets.Version 2 can also send announcements via broadcast packets but can use multicast packets, too. RIP routers also use triggered updates to

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spread their information. An update is triggered by a change in the network, such as the failure of a gateway.When a router detects the failure, it updates its own table and then sends out the new information immediately instead of waiting for the next scheduled update period.

OSPF overcomes some of the limitations imposed by RIP. OSPF was designed to handle the types of networks that RIP doesn’t handle well: large, complex internetworks. OSPF is efficient; it does not require much overhead.

This is especially important in the large internetwork environments for which it is designed. Furthermore, OSPF’s Shortest Path First (SPF) algorithm is not vulnerable to routing loops that can plague RIP routes. SPF calculates the shortest path between the router and remote networks by creating and maintaining a map of the internetwork.The map is called a link state database, and OSPF is referred to as a link state protocol.

On

the Scene…

Distance Vector vs. Link State Routing Protocols

One of the significant ways in which RIP and OSPF differ is in the algorithms used to calculate routing decisions. RIP is what is called a distance

vector protocol; OSPF is referred to as a link state protocol.

Distance Vector Algorithms

Distance vector algorithms are also called Bellman-Ford or Ford-

Fulkerson algorithms. The latter authors were the first to document the distance vector algorithm class, which is based on Bellman’s equation that forms the foundation of dynamic programming.

The distance vector algorithms are a long-standing standard that was in use for network routing calculations in global networking’s infancy in the 1960s, in the ARPANet that was the predecessor of today’s

Internet.

The distance vector algorithms allow gateways (routers) to share and exchange routing table information. This provides a huge benefit over static routing protocols, which require tables to be constructed and maintained manually. RIP descended from the Xerox networking protocols and the name Routing Information Protocol was first used in conjunction with XNS. Another variation is called Berkeley’s Routed.

Distance vector algorithms, although a vast improvement over static routing, suffer from several limitations. The maximum path length

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is 15 hops, and they are vulnerable to routing loops, caused by a behavior called count to infinity. RIP and the other distance vector protocols were designed for use in moderately sized networks, not for an internetwork as vast as the Internet. That’s why they are implemented as IGPs.

This brings us to the need for another type of routing protocol that can better handle routing over enormous, disparate networks. That’s where link state algorithms come in.

Link State Algorithms

The link state protocol used by OSPF maps the network and updates the mapping database (called the link state database) whenever any changes are made to the network. Link state protocols are also referred to as Shortest Path First (SPF) or distributed database protocols. The first link state protocol was designed for use in the ARPANet. Later modifications were made to reduce traffic overhead and add fault tolerance.

A link state routing protocol builds a consistent view of a network by mapping the network topology. Each router broadcasts (or multicasts) data about the cost of the path to each of its neighboring routers.

This information is disseminated to all nodes on the network. Link state protocols are more efficient but more complex than distance vector protocols.

As the link state database grows, memory and processor requirements and the time required to calculate routes increase. In order to address this problem with link state protocols, OSPF divides the internetwork into areas (groups of contiguous networks) that are connected to each other through a backbone area. Each router then keeps a link state database only for those areas that are connected to the router. Link state protocols use TCP-directed packets to communicate with other routers directly in an area, thus reducing broadcast traffic on the network.

With link state protocols, convergence occurs as soon as the databases are updated, avoiding the slow convergence problems of distance vector algorithms. Link state routing protocols also allow for security of the record update messages. The database description packets are transmitted in a secure manner and protected by a checksum. Link state records are also protected by timers that remove them from the database if a refresh packet doesn’t arrive within the timeout specified. For even more security, the messages can be authenticated via password.

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In an OSPF network, the database is synchronized between the OSPF routers, which use it to calculate routes in the routing table. OSPF uses the

Dijkstra algorithm, which comes from the branch of mathematics called graph

theory, to calculate the lowest-cost path to a destination from a given source.

OSPF supports load balancing and multipath routing and can be used with both broadcast networks (such as Ethernet) or nonbroadcast networks (such as ATM or

X.25). OSPF has different protocols for broadcast and multicast network types.

The routing tables used by a distance vector protocol like RIP have a flat structure; every RIP router on the internetwork must contain an entry for every network.The networks are not divided into areas or groups; all are seen as individual entities—thus the “flat” description. Link state protocols like OSPF create a hierarchical structure by dividing the internetwork into areas. Every OSPF router belongs to an area, identified by a 32-bit number called the area number.

This area greatly reduces the size of the routing table for each router, since it has to keep entries only for its area.

The Transport Layer Protocols

The TCP/IP protocols that operate at the transport layer of the OSI model (the host-to-host layer of the DoD model) are the Transmission Control Protocol

(TCP) and the User Datagram Protocol (UDP).These two protocols provide two different types of connection services:

TCP is a connection-oriented protocol.

UDP is a connectionless protocol.

The protocol most appropriate for sending a given message depends on whether reliability or speed is of highest priority. A connection-oriented protocol such as TCP offers better error control, but its higher overhead means a loss of performance. A connectionless protocol like UDP, on the other hand, suffers in the reliability department but, unhampered by error-checking duties, is faster.

Here is more information about the two types of service:

Connection-oriented services

As a provider of connection-oriented services,TCP first establishes a virtual connection between the sending and receiving computers.This is done through the use of acknowledgments and response messages.

Connectionless services

A connectionless transport protocol like

UDP doesn’t provide the service of dividing a message into packets (also called datagrams) and reassembling it at the other end, as the connection-

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oriented TCP does. Since UDP doesn’t sequence the packets that the data arrives in, an application program that uses UDP has to be able to make sure that the entire message has arrived and is in the right order.

To save processing time, network applications that have very small data units to exchange, and thus very little message reassembling to do, may use UDP instead of TCP.

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On

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The Difference Between Connection-Oriented and Connectionless Services

The most common analogy for differentiating between connection-oriented and connectionless communications compares different services available from the post office. If you’re in Boston and you need to send an important report to the manager of your company’s branch office in

El Paso, you could put it in an envelope, affix the required amount of postage, and drop it in the corner mailbox. This would be the easiest, quickest way to take care of the task, but you would have no idea whether or when the report reached its destination.

On the other hand, you could go to the post office and fill out a card to send the report via registered, certified mail, with a return receipt requested. It would cost more and it would take more time and effort on your part, but it would be a more reliable form of communication. You would get back an acknowledgment when the package was delivered, showing that it was indeed received by the person to whom it was addressed.

Connection-oriented services resemble the second example, although they actually go one step further: They establish the connection before sending the data. This would be as though, before you sent your certified mail, you first got on the phone with the El Paso manager and let him know the report was coming so he could be on the lookout for its arrival. If you’re really detail-minded (or paranoid) you could even ask that he call you back when it gets there, and let you know that all the pages are there in sequence and it wasn’t damaged along the way.

That is essentially what a connection-oriented service does. You’ve taken pains to make sure your communication is as reliable as possible, but at a cost in time (and long distance phone charges) to both you and the intended recipient.

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Which Port in a (Broadcast) Storm?

Thanks to the multitasking capabilities of Windows 2000 and other modern operating systems, you can use more than one network application simultaneously. For example, you can use your Web browser to access your company’s homepage at the same time your e-mail software is downloading your e-mail.You know that TCP/

IP uses an IP address to identify your computer on the network and get the messages to the correct system, but how does it separate the response to your browser’s request from your incoming mail when both arrive at the same IP address?

That’s where ports come in. If the two parts of an IP address that represent the network identification and the host (individual computer) identification are somewhat like a street name and an individual street number, you might think of the port number as the identifier of the specific apartment or suite within the building.

TCP and UDP, the transport layer protocols, assign port numbers to each application, so the data intended for the Web browser in Apartment A doesn’t get sent to the e-mail program in Apartment B.

Table 5.2 shows some of the commonly used ports (the designated ports used by certain services or applications by default).

Table 5.2

Specific ports are designated for the use of certain services and applications.

Port Number Service/Application

88

110

119

143

161

220

53

68

69

80

7

20, 21

23

25

Echo

File Transfer Protocol (FTP)

Telnet

Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP)

Domain Name System (DNS)

Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP)

Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP)

Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP)

Kerberos

Post Office Protocol, version 3 (POP3)

Network News Transfer Protocol (NNTP)

Internet Message Access Protocol (IMAP)

Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP)

IMAP 3

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The MAC Address

When we discuss a computer’s “address,” in the context of TCP/IP, we are usually referring to its IP address.The IP address is a logical address; it can be assigned by the administrator (or by a DHCP server) and can be changed easily. However, each network card or interface also has a physical address, called the Media Access

Control (MAC) address. This address is usually permanently burned into a chip on the NIC and is not as easily changed (although some NIC manufacturers allow you to change the MAC address by “flashing” the card with special software).

How does the MAC address correlate to the IP address? Think of it this way:

A city or county can assign a street name and house number to a physical structure, but this is really only a “logical” address.This address can be changed; sometimes a neighborhood group will petition to have a street renamed, or the city council will change the numbering scheme to facilitate emergency response or to accommodate new construction. But the location where the building stands also has a “physical” address—its geographic coordinates.When the land is surveyed, the location is identified by degrees of longitude and latitude, and these points will remain constant regardless of changes to the street name and number.That physical address is like the NIC’s MAC address; it will (almost always) remain the same.

MAC addresses on Ethernet cards are generally 12-digit hexadecimal numbers, with one part of the address identifying the NIC vendor.The IEEE assigns this part to the vendor.The rest of the address is a unique identification for that card, assigned by the vendor. No two NICs should have the same MAC address

(although this doesn’t really become a problem unless the two identical addresses are on the same network). ARP maps IP addresses to MAC addresses.

Name Resolution

What’s in a name? When it comes to computer networking, the answer is, a lot.

On TCP/IP-based networks, the endpoints of communication are the IP address of the hosts and destination computers. But IP addresses are difficult for humans to remember. Just imagine a world in which people were identified solely by numbers—how much more difficult would it be to keep those identifications straight if you had to remember that the colleague you just met is called

1000101000110111 instead of Bob? Most software programs are not written to be “aware” of IP addresses, either. Network access would be fraught with error if everyone had to remember the IP address of every host with which they wanted to communicate.

There must be a mechanism, then, that allows users and programs to access network resources via computer or host name, rather than just IP addresses.This

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is the role of the name resolution service. Name resolution services in use on today’s networks fall into two broad categories:

NetBIOS name resolution

Hostname resolution

In the following sections, we look at the “how’s and why’s” of NetBIOS name resolution, and we define and analyze the major methods of resolving

NetBIOS names, including the Windows Internet Naming Service.Then we move to hostname resolution and examine how the hierarchical names used on the Internet (such as www.shinder.net) are resolved to IP addresses, with a focus on the Domain Name System and its latest incarnation, Dynamic DNS.

NetBIOS Name Resolution

A company called Sytek, Inc., developed NetBIOS in 1983 for IBM.The

NetBIOS transport protocol was designed to accommodate small LANs located on a single segment, and the NetBEUI transport protocol is an outgrowth of the

NetBIOS transport protocol. NetBEUI uses the instruction set provided with the

NetBIOS standard and has “extended” it—hence the name NetBIOS Extended

User Interface (NetBEUI).

Programs written to the NetBIOS interface use NetBIOS names as the “endpoint” of communications. Each computer on a NetBIOS network must have a

NetBIOS name, which consists of 16 bytes. Only the first 15 bytes of the NetBIOS name are configurable by the user.The sixteenth byte is used by the operating system to denote the availability of network services. NetBIOS programs must know the name of the destination computer in order to establish a session.

In order to access the destination computer, a broadcast is used. Broadcast messages are sent to all computers on the network segment, rather than to a specific destination.This means that all computers must be on the same physical subnet, since normally broadcast messages don’t cross routers. In larger network installations (more than about 40 or 50 computers), the volume of broadcast traffic will become so “loud” from network congestion that no useful information will be able to get through.

So NetBIOS is broadcast-based, limited to a single segment, and uses

NetBIOS names as the endpoint of communications.This presents a significant challenge to NetBIOS programs that need to function on a TCP/IP-based network.The TCP/IP protocol stack was designed to work on large internetworks, with the segments separated by routers. Routers do not forward broadcasts by default.Therefore, NetBIOS applications would not be able to access resources

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on computers located on another segment. Even if we open up the NetBIOS ports on the routers, we still have the problem of NetBIOS applications using only NetBIOS names. Before the request can be passed down the TCP/IP protocol stack, the NetBIOS name must be converted, or resolved, to an IP address.

The entire process of matching a NetBIOS name with an IP address is called

NetBIOS name resolution. In order to get TCP/IP to “care” about NetBIOS names and deal with them in an orderly fashion, we need to add something to the TCP/

IP protocol stack.This “add-on” is called NetBIOS over TCP/IP, shortened to

NETBT or NBT. NetBT is implemented in the NetBIOS session layer interface.

When a request for network services is passed from the user application to the application layer of the TCP/IP stack, NetBT intercepts the request and the

NetBIOS name is resolved to an IP address. After the IP address is discovered, the request is passed on, now including the destination computer’s IP address. It moves down the stack to the transport layer, then to the network layer, through the data link and physical layers and onto the wire (or wireless media).

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On

the Scene…

Understanding The Need for

NetBIOS Name Resolution

Here’s an analogy to help you understand the need for NetBIOS name resolution. A young child writes a letter to his mother and addresses it to “Mom,” the friendly name by which he identifies her. If the child were to leave this letter on the kitchen table, there would be no problem getting it to its destination host (Mom). This is because the kitchen table is on the local segment (the kitchen of Mom’s home). But if the child put the letter in the mailbox, the post office would encounter quite a challenge in trying to get the letter to the correct destination. “Mom” is like a NetBIOS name in that it is not a routable address. However, if the child’s father took that letter and put it into another envelope that had both “Mom” and the house address on the front, the post office would be able to deliver the message. The house address is a routable address, so the letter will now find its way to the right mom. What Dad did is similar to what NetBT does for NetBIOS names. It converts NetBIOS name requests to IP address requests so that the message or communication will get to the intended host.

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NetBIOS and NetBEUI, which use a flat namespace for computer identification and don’t include any method of identifying the network on which a computer resides, are consequently nonroutable protocols. But when the NetBIOS name is converted to an IP address, which does provide for network identification, our message becomes a routable request.

Microsoft operating systems use several different ways to resolve NetBIOS names to an IP address.This is because it is vitally important for NetBIOS applications to be able to access the IP address of a destination host on a TCP/

IP-based network. If the NetBIOS name cannot be resolved, the NetBIOS application will not be able to establish a session with the destination host.

NetBIOS names can be resolved by the following mechanisms:

NetBIOS name cache

NetBIOS name servers

Broadcasts

LMHOSTS file

The NetBIOS remote name cache contains the name and IP address mappings of recently accessed machines.This cache is searched first before any other method of NetBIOS name resolution takes place.

A NetBIOS name server keeps track of NetBIOS names and their associated

IP addresses. In the real world, NetBIOS is in widespread use only on Microsoft networks, and almost all NetBIOS name servers run Microsoft’s WINS. It’s unlikely that you’ll ever run into any other implementation of NetBIOS names servers, so from this point forward we refer to NetBIOS name servers as WINS servers.WINS servers provide two basic functions. First is NetBIOS name registration, where the WINS server registers computers’ NetBIOS names and IP addresses. A WINS server dynamically and automatically updates WINS clients’

NetBIOS names when WINS clients start.The second major function of a WINS server is to resolve NetBIOS name queries when NetBIOS clients query the

WINS server for the IP address of a destination NetBIOS host.

Even on TCP/IP-based networks, NetBIOS clients can still broadcast for the

IP address of the destination host.The effectiveness of the broadcast method is limited because, by default, routers do not pass traffic over UDP Ports 137 and

138 (the NetBIOS name service and the NetBIOS datagram services, respectively).Therefore, NetBIOS name resolution via broadcast works only when destination clients are located on the same segment.

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The LMHOSTS file is a static, manually updated text file that contains

NetBIOS name and IP address mappings for NetBIOS hosts.The LMHOSTS file resolves NetBIOS names by reading the file from top to bottom.This means the most frequently accessed computers should have their names placed on top, whereas less frequently accessed files should have their names placed toward the bottom. Due to its static nature, the LMHOSTS file does not work well in networks that use dynamically assigned IP addresses or in large enterprise networks.

NetBIOS names can also be resolved from hostname resolution methods such as the HOSTS file or DNS server (discussed in the next section) if other

NetBIOS name resolution methods have failed.

Hostname Resolution

Hostnames are used to identify computers on the Internet. Remember that any kind of name, whether a flat NetBIOS name or a hierarchical hostname, is just a convenience for human beings. Computers work only with numbers, so in order to be useful, hostnames, like NetBIOS names, must ultimately be resolved to IP addresses.

When the Internet was in its infancy, hostnames were resolved to IP addresses via a plain-text file named hosts.txt.This file was located at the Stanford

Research Institute’s Network Information Center (SRI-NIC).Whenever a machine was added to the network or an existing machine’s IP address was changed, the hosts.txt file had to be edited.This hosts.txt file then had to be downloaded from SRI-NIC so that all machines on the network would have an accurate list of hostnames and IP addresses for hostname resolution.

There were several problems with using the hosts.txt file. First, it used a flat name space like that seen in NetBIOS.The flat name space required each computer to have a different name. Second, as more and more machines joined the network, traffic at SRI-NIC became a significant bottleneck to network communications.Third, the size of the hosts.txt file grew increasingly large, which led to long download times and reduced performance for lookups.

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Microsoft operating systems can still use a Hosts file for resolution of fully qualified domain names; however, this Hosts file does not use the

.txt (or any) extension. A common mistake in creating a Hosts file in

Notepad or other text editors is that the application saves it with the .txt

extension, and it then will not work.

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To solve these problems, in 1987 Paul Mockapetris developed and proposed the Domain Naming System (DNS).The DNS was designed to be a hierarchical naming system, with responsibility for the DNS database distributed rather than centralized. For that reason, today’s hostnames are hierarchical. They have multiple parts, much as a person’s name does in modern U.S. culture.Your last name identifies the family to which you belong, and your first and middle names identify an individual within that family. Hostnames work the same way, except that the

“family” is a domain and there can be subdomains within a domain.Thus two computers can have the same computer name, as long as they are in different domains (just as there’s no problem differentiating between two people named

Bob when one is named Bob Smith and the other is named Bob Jones).There

are thousands of machines on the Internet named www, although this is usually a name assigned to a virtual machine—the Web server function running on a computer that might have an entirely different name.Yet their “full names” are all unique; there is no problem differentiating between www.shinder.net and www.tacteam.net because their domain names are different.

At the top of the DNS hierarchy is the root domain.The root domain is sometimes represented as a period surrounded by quotation marks (“.”) or as a space surrounded by quotation marks. Just underneath the root domain are the top-level

domains.The top-level domains consist of a two- or three-letter designation, such as .com, .net, .org (called generic domains) or .au, .us, .de (called country codes).The

second-level domains lie below the top-level domains.These second-level domains are named for the organizations that own the domain names—for example,

“BrandXDrugs.com.” A second-level domain name can be obtained from a domain registrar, such as Network Solutions, Inc (NSI).The root domain, toplevel domains, and second-level domains are the only centralized aspects of the DNS. After a company or an individual registers a second-level domain name with a domain registrar, they are free to create as many subdomains as they like—these subdomains are nested inside the second-level domain, as in

“sedatives.BrandXDrugs.”

N

OTE

New domain name registrars are being approved on a continuous basis.

For an up-to-date listing of authorized registrars, see ICANN’s Web site at www.icann.org/registrars/accredited-list.html.

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The combination of a hostname and its domain name is referred to as a fully

qualified domain name (FQDN). All hosts participating in the DNS are identifiable via their FQDNs.The servers that maintain a database mapping host and domain names to IP addresses are called DNS servers.

Computers on TCP/IP networks are configured with the IP address of a

DNS server as part of setting up their TCP/IP properties.When a hostname needs to be resolved, the computer (called a DNS client) sends a request to the

DNS server.The DNS server searches its database and either responds with the

IP address associated with the hostname or, if the name is not in its database, the server can query other DNS servers to find the address.

Because DNS must work to resolve names all across the Internet, a number of standards govern its implementation. For example, hostnames must follow specified naming conventions.These are spelled out in RFCs 952 and 1123.

According to these standards, names were limited to upper- and lowercase letters

(A–Z and a–z), the numerals 0–9, and the hyphen (–).

DNS is also used by Microsoft’s Active Directory (Windows 2000 and later domain controllers) for name resolution. Microsoft’s DNS servers allow the use of other characters such as the underscore (_) in hostnames because they support

UTF-8, a superset of the ASCII character set that allows you to use alphabets of other languages. However, these names will not be recognized by many of the

UNIX-based DNS servers on the Internet.

TCP/IP Utilities

A number of software tools associated with the TCP/IP protocols can be useful to investigators.The TCP/IP stacks of different vendors are not identical, and neither are the diagnostic and information-gathering utilities that are included. In this section, we focus on the utilities that come with the Windows TCP/IP suite.

We also mention their equivalents (when applicable) in UNIX/Linux implementations.

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The TCP/IP tools we discuss here are the command-line utilities that are included in the TCP/IP stacks of various operating systems. Third-party utilities are available (many of them free) that provide graphic interfaces to perform the same functions.

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Connection Verification, Identification, and Tracing Utilities

Several command-line utilities can be used to test TCP/IP connectivity, gather information about the TCP/IP configuration, configure properties, and trace the route that a packet takes over the network.These tools include the following:

PING

NSLOOKUP

IPCONFIG/IFCONFIG

ROUTE

TRACERT/TRACEROUTE

ARP

PING, short for Packet Internet Groper, is used to determine whether a

TCP/IP connection can be made to a particular address.You can PING a computer or router on the local network or a remote network, or you can test the configuration of the TCP/IP stack by PINGing the loopback address, 127.0.0.1.

PING works by sending ICMP echo request messages to the destination computer, which then returns an echo reply message.The response shows you the number of packets sent and received (along with percentage of packet loss, if any) and the time in milliseconds that it takes for a packet to make the round trip. As shown in Figure 5.12, you can PING a computer by IP address or by name. If you PING by name, the response provides you with the computer’s IP address.

PING includes a dozen switches that can be used to further control the behavior of the PING function. Available switches are shown in Table 5.3.

Table 5.3

PING switches

Switch

-t

-a

-n count

-l size

-f

-i TTL

-v TOS

Function

PINGs the specified host until stopped (continuous PING) by pressing Ctrl-C.

Resolves addresses to hostnames.

Specifies number of echo requests to send.

Specifies send buffer size.

Sets Don’t Fragment flag in packet.

Time to live.

Type of service.

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Table 5.3

Continued

Switch

-r count

-s count

-j host-list

-k host-list

-w timeout

Function

Records route for count hops.

Timestamp for count hops.

Loose source route along host list.

Strict source route along host list.

Timeout in milliseconds to wait for each reply.

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Figure 5.12

The PING command provides TCP/IP connectivity information.

For more information about using PING and how the PING utility works, see www.cisco.com/warp/public/63/ping_traceroute.html#ping.

NSLOOKUP is used to find the hostname associated with an IP address (or vice versa), as shown in Figure 5.13. NSLOOKUP queries DNS servers for information about hosts and domains. NSLOOKUP can be a starting point for tracking cybercriminals using their IP addresses.

For more information on using NSLOOKUP, see the UNIX Shell

Command manual page at www.stopspam.org/usenet/mmf/man/nslookup.html.

The ipconfig command (on Windows machines) provides basic TCP/IP configuration information. Figure 5.14 shows the results of ipconfig (run with the /all switch).

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Figure 5.13

The NSLOOKUP utility can be used to discover the hostname associated with an IP address.

Figure 5.14

The ipconfig /all command in Windows provides configuration information.

As you can see, this utility gives you a great deal of information about how this machine is configured, including the hostname and DNS suffix assigned to it, the Ethernet adapter installed (and its physical or MAC address), and the IP address, subnet mask, default gateway, and DNS and WINS servers assigned.We

see that this information was manually assigned by the administrator, because

DHCP is not enabled.We can also see that the machine is not acting as an IP router or a WINS proxy.

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On UNIX/Linux machines, some basic configuration information is available using the ifconfig command with the –a switch.This is shown in Figure 5.15, using Macintosh OS X.

Figure 5.15

The command used to display configuration information in

UNIX is IFCONFIG –a.

267

As you can see, the information is formatted differently, but you are still able to determine the computer’s IP address, subnet mask (in hexadecimal rather than decimal), physical Ethernet address, and other basic information.

The ROUTE utility is used in both Windows and UNIX-based machines to view and manually manipulate the network routing tables.You can add, delete, or modify routes with this tool, although it is usually not necessary, since Windows can automatically builds a routing table using RIP or OSPF. In addition, on

UNIX computers, system routing table daemons such as routed(8), which uses

RIP and the Internet Router Discovery Protocol (IRDP), handle this task.To

view the routing table information, use the ROUTE PRINT command.

The TRACERT (in Windows) and TRACEROUTE (in UNIX) commands are used to trace the route taken by a packet to reach a remote host.You

can specify either an IP address or a hostname as the destination machine.The

results will show you the number of “hops” required to reach the destination, as well as the amount of time (in milliseconds) for each hop.You can see the names of the routers through which the packet passes.You can also specify a maximum number of hops to be used in searching for the target computer. Figure 5.16

illustrates a route trace that was completed in five hops.

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Figure 5.16

The TRACERT and TRACEROUTE commands allow you to view the route taken by a packet to a remote destination.

The ARP (Address Resolution Protocol) command allows you to view and manipulate the entries in the ARP cache.The ARP cache is a list of both the IP addresses and the corresponding MAC (physical) addresses for computers that have recently had a connection to the computer on which you’re running the

ARP utility.This utility also allows you to add and delete entries in the cache.

Network Statistic Utilities

Statistics utilities can provide you with information about network connections.

These include:

NETSTAT

NBTSTAT

The NETSTAT command can be used on both Windows and UNIX-based computers to give you information about current active connections using different protocols (TCP, UDP, RAW, or UNIX socket). Running this command displays each connection on a separate line, showing the local address (computer and port) and the remote (or “foreign”) address, as well as the status (state) of the connection.The output from NETSTAT is shown in Figure 5.17.

There are also switches that can be used with NETSTAT to provide different or additional information. Some of this information can be useful to investigators. For example, knowing that there are open and listening ports on the machine is an important security issue when the computer is connected to the

Internet.

The NETSTAT switches are shown in Table 5.4.

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Figure 5.17

The NETSTAT command can be used to display current active connections.

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Table 5.4

NETSTAT switches

Switch Function

-a

-e

-n

-o

Shows all connections, including listening ports.

Shows Ethernet statistics, such as the number of bytes of data received and sent (can be combined with the –s option).

Shows addresses and port numbers in numeric form.

Shows the owning process ID associated with each connection.

-p proto Shows only the connections for the protocol specified by proto

(for example, TCP).

-r Shows the routing table (the same information you get with the

ROUTE PRINT command in Windows).

-s Shows per-protocol statistics.

Network Monitoring Tools

Many tools are available for monitoring network activity and even capturing transmitted packets and peeking inside them. Some of these tools are included with modern operating systems, some are distributed at no cost on the Internet as “freeware,” and others must be purchased from third-party vendors.

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The Simple Network Management Protocol

The Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) is not a utility in and of itself. Rather, it is a protocol used to communicate status messages from devices distributed throughout the network to machines configured to receive these status messages. Machines that report their status run SNMP agent software, and machines that receive the status messages run SNMP management software. One way to remember how this works is to think of the agent software as the “secret agent” that gets information about a network device and then reports the information to his or her “manager” at headquarters.

Although the name of the protocol would lead you to believe that the primary function is to allow you to “manage” objects on the network, management in this context is more related to monitoring rather than actually effecting any changes to the devices. SNMP allows you to audit the activities of servers, workstations, routers, bridges, intelligent hubs, and just about any network-connected device that supports the installation of agent software.

In order for agent software to collect information regarding a particular service, a Management Information Base (MIB) must be created.The MIB is a database and a collection of instructions about how and what information should be gathered from a system.The agent is responsible for reporting the information gathered by the MIB. However, agents don’t usually volunteer information spontaneously. Rather, the agent must be queried by an SNMP management system before it gives up its knowledge.There is an exception to this rule, called a trap message. A trap message is sent spontaneously by an agent to SNMP management systems to which it has been configured to send.

Protocol Analyzers (“Sniffers”)

Protocol analyzers allow network professionals to capture and analyze the traffic on the network.These can be hardware devices or software programs and are often referred to as packet sniffers. Microsoft’s NT, 2000, and .NET operating systems come with a built-in protocol analyzer called Network Monitor (NetMon).

The Microsoft NetMon is a software protocol analyzer that allows you to capture and analyze traffic on your network; it is included with the Windows NT and

2000 server operating systems.The version of NetMon that comes with the operating system is limited in scope; it does not allow you to place the network adapter in “promiscuous mode.”When an adapter is placed in promiscuous mode, it is able to listen to all the traffic on the segment, even if that traffic is not destined for the machine running the Network Monitor software. A more robust version of NetMon is included in Microsoft’s Systems Management Server (SMS).

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Even with its limitations, the “lite” version of Network Monitor is a very useful tool for assessing the activity on the network.You can use the tool to collect network data and analyze it on the spot or save your recording activities for a later time. It allows you to monitoring network activity and set triggers for when certain events or data cross the wire, which could be useful if you are looking for certain keywords in e-mail communications moving through the network.

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Any person with administrative privileges can install the Network

Monitor on a Windows server family computer and start “listening” to activity on the wire. This is one (among many) reasons that the number of persons in an organization who are assigned administrative privileges should be considered very carefully. The Network Monitor is also able to detect when someone else on the segment is using Network Monitor and provide you with their location.

The Network Monitor program allows you to capture only those frames that you are interested in, based on protocol or source or destination computer.You

can apply even more detailed and exacting filters to data that you have finished collecting, which allows you to pinpoint the precise elements you might be looking for in the captured data. For more information about Microsoft’s

Network Monitor, see Q article 148942 on the Microsoft Web site.

On

the Scene…

Finding Q Articles

You can find a great deal of information about Microsoft products, including detailed how-to instructions, in the Microsoft Technical

Database (formerly called the Knowledge Base), which you can search at http://support.microsoft.com/default.aspx?ln=EN-GB&pr=kbinfo&.

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Network analyzers are available from many different vendors, including the following:

Sniffer Technologies, in partnership with Network Associates, makes a number of network analysis tools, including versions made specifically for wireless networks, enterprise-level networks, and portable solutions.

Sniff-Tech markets a product called ANASIL that includes protocol capture and decoding for protocols used on Microsoft, UNIX, NetWare, and AppleTalk networks.

Ethereal is a protocol analysis program for UNIX and Windows that can be downloaded free at www.ethereal.com.

Hackers often use sniffer software to covertly capture packets and read their contents (which can include network passwords). Protecting against unauthorized

“sniff attacks” requires that data be encrypted while traveling across the network

(as is done by the IP Security Protocol, IPSec). More information about sniffer programs for Windows and UNIX is available at www.packetattack.com/ network_analysis_sniffers.html.

Why This Matters to the Investigator

An understanding of client/server networking and what goes on at the higher levels (above the physical) when computers communicate with one another is vital to understanding security vulnerabilities that allow hackers to access computers and networks without authorization.The TCP/IP protocols are the basis of Internet communication, and technically savvy cybercriminals are intimately familiar with how they work and how to exploit their characteristics to gain access or to attack and bring down servers and networks.

The information in this chapter forms the foundation for understanding the more detailed descriptions in Chapter 6, “Understanding Network Intrusions and

Attacks,” and will also help you understand the functions of the security mechanisms described in Chapter 7, “Understanding Cybercrime Prevention,” and

Chapter 8, “Implementing System Security.”

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Summary

Computer networking is a complex subject, in part due to the following reasons:

There are many different ways to network computers at the physical level using different types of media and different layouts or topologies.

There are many different methods of controlling access to the media and

“directing traffic” at the link level.

There are different ways to handle addressing and routing of messages between computers at the network level.

There are different methods for dealing with the transfer of data at the transport level.

There are a number of protocols and file-sharing mechanisms that can be used for computer communication at the higher levels.

A good understanding of networking requires knowledge of how data, converted to electrical or light pulses, is sent across cabling or over the airwaves, as well as the processes used on the sending and receiving ends to prepare that data for sending and to translate received data back into a form usable by applications and, ultimately, computer users.

For greater efficiency, data is broken into manageable chunks called packets, and it is these packets that are transmitted across a network.The packet structure and size vary, depending on the protocols in use. Network protocols are rules that govern the exact procedures computers follow when sending and receiving data.

In order to standardize these processes so that systems using different hardware platforms and operating system software can communicate with one another, networking models and specifications are developed so that vendors can use them as guidelines to ensure compatibility.

The OSI and DoD models are layered to define specific tasks to be performed by protocols at different levels or steps in the network communication process. At the physical level, each computer that will communicate on a network requires at least one network interface, usually in the form of a network interface card, or NIC.The simplest networks require only NICs and cabling to enable communication. For more complex network configurations, a number of hardware devices operate at different layers to provide more efficient connectivity; these devices include hubs, switches, bridges, and routers. Gateways (usually implemented as software) operate at the highest levels and provide translation between different protocols.

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Modern operating systems come with networking capabilities built in, and expensive server operating systems provide for many network services in addition to file and print sharing, including authentication, name resolution, remote access, and even the ability to function as a router. Authentication servers provide for centralized network security and management of resources. Different operating system platforms rely on different file-sharing protocols and authentication schemes, but most OS vendors provide for interoperability with other operating systems because many of today’s networks are heterogeneous.

Regardless of operating system or hardware platform, the majority of networks today run on the TCP/IP protocols.TCP/IP is the most routable protocol stack and thus the most appropriate for large routed networks; it is required for connecting to the Internet.This chapter provides a basic overview of networking hardware and software and a high-level explanation of how TCP/IP communications are accomplished.You can consult many excellent books and Web resources for more details about each of these aspects of computer networking; some good references are listed in the Resources section at the end of this chapter.

Frequently Asked Questions

The following Frequently Asked Questions, answered by the authors of this book, are designed to both measure your understanding of the concepts presented in this chapter and to assist you with real-life implementation of these concepts. To have your questions about this chapter answered by the author, browse to

www.syngress.com/solutions and click on the “Ask the Author” form.

Q:

What’s the difference between public and private IP addresses?

A:

Public addresses are visible to the Internet. Public addresses must be unique across the global Internet.They are generally assigned to ISPs by the Internet

Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) and then assigned by ISPs to their customers. Public addresses are sometimes called routable addresses because they can be routed across the Internet. Private IP addresses are not routable on the

Internet; they are used on private (internal) networks and come from one of the address ranges reserved for private addressing. Anyone can use the private addresses, and the address of each computer needs to be unique only within the private network.The private address ranges are 10.xxx.xxx.xxx (with a subnet mask of 255.0.0.0), 172.016.xxx.xxx (with a subnet mask of

255.255.0.0), and 192.168.xxx.xxx (with a subnet mask of 255.255.255.0).

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Additionally, IP addresses in the range 169.254.xxx.xxx are reserved for the use of APIPA services. For more information, see RFC 1597 on private addressing at www.pku.edu.cn/academic/research/computer-center/ tc/html/RFC1597.html.

Q:

How can all the computers on a local network access the Internet through a single Internet connection?

A:

There are several different ways that a LAN can share an Internet connection.

If the ISP assigns multiple public IP addresses, the computers can be connected to a router, with the router connecting to the Internet via phone line,

DSL cable, ISDN, or T-1. If the ISP allocates only a single public address for the connection, the computers can be connected to a Network Address

Translation, or NAT, device—either a dedicated device or a computer running NAT.This NAT host connects to the Internet, and other computers (the

NAT clients) go through it to access Internet resources.The client computers are assigned private IP addresses (either manually, via a DHCP server on the network, or through the NAT’s IP allocation service).The NAT host translates the private addresses to the public address and maintains a table with which it keeps track of which Internet requests came from which internal computers. Microsoft servers include a full-fledged NAT service;Windows

98/ME, 2000, and XP Professional computers include a “lite” version of

NAT called Internet Connection Sharing (ICS). In the Linux/UNIX world, address translation is often referred to as IP masquerading. NAT products such as Vicomsoft and IPNetRouter (from Sustainable Networks) are available for

Macintosh systems. For more information about NAT, see RFC 2663 at www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2663.txt?number=2663.

Q:

What’s the difference between the PPP and SLIP link protocols used for dialup networking?

A:

SLIP was designed exclusively for TCP/IP and isn’t appropriate if the LAN to which you are connecting uses a different network/transport protocol stack, such as IPX/SPX. Additionally, SLIP doesn’t support DHCP, so when you configure it, you must enter a static IP address. Many ISPs don’t assign customers static addresses (sometimes referred to as “nailed” addresses) but instead use DHCP to assign a new address each time you dial in. PPP is a more modern link protocol that addresses these problems; it supports non-TCP/IP protocols such as IPX/SPX and NetBEUI, and it allows use of multiple protocols. PPP supports automatic negotiation of IP addresses, so it works with

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DHCP servers, and it also allows the use of checksums for error checking— something SLIP doesn’t do. Basically, PPP was designed to replace SLIP, since it is much more flexible. Both of these protocols are not full networking protocols; they are used only for establishing a link across phone lines. Another protocol (such as TCP/IP or IPX/SPX) is required to communicate with applications on the remote computer or network.

Q:

How do TCP and UDP use ports to distinguish between multiple applications using the protocols simultaneously?

A:

Each application using TCP or UDP identifies itself by a 16-bit number called a port number.The UDP and TCP header information that is added to the data packets at the transport layer on the sending computer (prior to the packets being passed down to the IP layer) contains the port numbers for both source and destination computers.Thus, even if there are dozens of applications running at the same time using the TCP or UDP protocol, the correct packets are delivered to each application based on the destination port number, and responses are returned using the port number listed for the source in the received packet (which will become the destination port number in the reply message).

Q:

Where can I find a complete list of the well-known TCP and UDP ports?

A:

The Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) maintains lists of all types of numbers used on the Internet, including the list of well-known port numbers. For this information, see www.iana.org/assignments/port-numbers.

Q:

If the current version of the Internet Protocol is version 4, why is the “next generation” called IPv6? Why did we skip IPv5?

A:

An experimental real-time stream protocol called ST, or the Internet Stream

Protocol, used the version number 5 in the IP header of its packets. ST was designed as a connection-oriented protocol operating at the network level like the connectionless IP. ST was never intended to replace IP but to operate as an adjunct to it as part of the IP family, for transmission of streaming audio, video, and the like. Because the v5 identification had already been used, the new version of IP was assigned the designation IPv6. (For more information about ST, see RFC 1819 at ftp://ftp.isi.edu/in-notes/rfc1819.txt).

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Q:

What are some sniffing tools that can be used to capture and analyze packets on UNIX networks?

A:

Some common sniffing tools for UNIX include Ethereal (which we mentioned earlier, in versions for UNIX and Windows), tcpdump (included with the BSD operating systems), ipgrab (available at http://home.xnet.com/

~cathmike/MSB/Software), tcpflow (capture only, but it stores data in a format convenient for protocol analysis; it is available free on the Web at www.circlemud.org/~jelson/software/tcpflow).There are also sniffer programs available for particular UNIX versions, such as Snoop for Solaris,

Etherfind for Sun Osm, and nettle/ntfmt for HP-UX.

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Resources

Bell Labs: Advantages of Digital Signals www.bell-labs.com/technology/digital/advantages.html

Telecommunications Fundamentals: Analog and Digital Transmission

www.privateline.com/manual/three.html

Explanation of multiplexing http://williams.comp.ncat.edu/Networks/multiplexing.htm

Explanation of frequency division multiplexing www.cs.williams.edu/~cs105/f01/text/ch3/DigitalTrans_13.html

Explanation of time division multiplexing www.cs.williams.edu/~cs105/f01/text/ch3/DigitalTrans_9.html

Tutorial on DWDM from the International Engineering Consortium www.iec.org/online/tutorials/dwdm

Bell Labs: What Does Multiplexing Do for Communications? www.bell-labs.com/technology/multiplex

House Committee on National Security hearings on EMP http://commdocs.house.gov/committees/security/has197010.000/ has197010_1.HTM

Associated Press: Experts cite electromagnetic pulse as terrorist threat www.globalsecurity.org/org/news/2001/011001-attack03.htm

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The Electromagnetic Pulse

http://home.swbell.net/kkmartin/emp.htm

Networking Tutorial

http://punch.engr.wisc.edu/~orchard/net-tutorial

World of networking www.helmig.com

Network primer www2.edc.org/cope/networkprimer

Windows 2000 Server www.microsoft.com/windows2000/server/default.asp

Novell NetWare Server www.novell.com

Macintosh OS X Server www.apple.com/macosx/server

UNIX operating systems www.cs.arizona.edu/people/bridges/os/unix.html

Linux operating systems www.linux.org

Windows Services for UNIX www.ehsco.com/reading/20000807ncr1.html

MacWindows Web site for Macintosh-Windows Integration Solutions www.macwindows.com

Introduction to the Internet Protocols

http://oac3.hsc.uth.tmc.edu/staff/snewton/tcp-tutorial

TCP/IP and IPX Routing Tutorial

www.sangoma.com/fguide.htm

TCP/IP Resources List

www.private.org.il/tcpip_rl.html

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Understanding

Network Intrusions and Attacks

Chapter 6

Topics we’ll investigate in this chapter:

Understanding Network Intrusions and Attacks

Recognizing Pre-attack Activities

Understanding Password Cracking

Understanding Technical Exploits

Attacking with Trojans, Viruses, and Worms

Hacking for Nontechies

Deploying an Incident Response Team

! Summary

! Frequently Asked Questions

! Resources

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Introduction

As we’ve discussed in earlier chapters, there are many different types of cybercrime, committed by all kinds of cybercriminals—some of whom have very little technical knowledge or skill. However, thanks to the news media and a few popular movies, most people associate the term cybercrime with a particular type of offense: hacking into a system or network from outside an organization. Included in this narrow definition are malicious attacks designed to crash computers and congest networks, even when no actual “illegal entry” takes place. In either case, the criminal is presumed to have a high level of knowledge about computers and networking.

Unlike the cyberscam artist who needs to know only enough about computers to send mass e-mailings, or the child pornographer whose technical knowhow is limited to uploading and downloading files, the network intruder or attacker has traditionally been able to boast of a certain amount of skill. It takes knowledge (and sometimes talent) to circumvent security measures and slip through the holes programmers leave in applications and operating systems to gain access to someone else’s servers. It takes a thorough understanding of how network protocols work to exploit their characteristics and bring down systems or entire networks. Or at least, it once did.

Dedicated hackers spend hundreds or even thousands of hours perfecting intrusion techniques and attacks.Today, however, many hackers who break into or bring down networks aren’t really hackers at all—at least, not in the original sense of the word (which referred to computer “whiz kids” whose mastery of the technology was the key to their ability to penetrate and crack systems).This is because the “real” hackers have generously made available the fruits of their knowledge and labor in the form of scripts and executable programs that do all the work.The “script kiddies” who use them might be scorned as hacker

“wannabes” by those with technical knowledge, but hacking tools still continue to proliferate, shared freely through “warez” newsgroups and Web sites, making intrusions and attacks easy. No longer does a would-be intruder or attack have to bother to learn the technical aspects of Windows vulnerabilities or TCP/IP security flaws. Now anyone, with no training at all, can “worm” his way into the network of a competing business or launch a massive denial-of-service attack against a company whose politics she doesn’t like.

It is important for cybercrime investigators who build cases charging unauthorized access or breach of network integrity to understand the basics of how intrusion techniques and system attacks work, even though intruders and attackers need not necessarily understand the technicalities of what they’re doing.

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After all, the investigator could be required to testify in court about an important issue that must be established in every criminal case: whether probable cause existed to make the arrest. It might be difficult to convince a jury that you had enough evidence to believe the accused committed a crime if you’re unable to explain exactly what the crime is and exactly how it was committed.

In this chapter, we provide overviews of the technical aspects of various types of intrusions and attacks.We start with a discussion of an intruder’s preparatory activities that might precede an attack:

Scanning for open ports on the targeted network

Disguising the attacker’s IP address and other identifying information

Placing software constructs or hardware devices (such as Trojan programs or keystroke monitors) to gather preliminary data that will help the attacker carry out the attack

Next, we take a look at how intruders crack passwords to gain access to systems and networks.You’ll learn about brute-force crack attacks, how passwords stored on a system can be discovered and exploited, and how hackers use social engineering to con authorized users into disclosing their passwords.

Then we discuss the many types of technical exploits that hackers use to access or attack networked computers, including application exploits, operating system exploits, and protocol exploits.We also address the “script kiddie” and

“click kiddie” phenomena and show you how people with almost no technical expertise can use readily available tools to jumpstart their hacking careers. Finally, we discuss how companies put together incident response teams to deal with these intrusions and attacks when they occur and how the internal response team can work together with law enforcement to improve the likelihood that the intruder or attacker will be tracked down and successfully prosecuted.

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Some of the attacks and exploits discussed in this chapter might be considered by some to be “obsolete.” However, this is true only if we assume that all systems are running the latest versions of software and that all security patches have been applied. Unfortunately, this is not the case; in a world where a substantial number of business and government computers still run MS-DOS and Windows 3.x, it would be naïve to assume that the vulnerabilities of older operating systems and applications are no longer relevant.

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Understanding Network

Intrusions and Attacks

Network intrusions and attacks come in many forms and from all directions.

Although external threats (usually from across the Internet) get the most attention, attacks and intrusions can—and often do—come from employees, contractors, and others on site or within a local network. Remember that just because someone is authorized to access a network doesn’t mean that he or she has authorization to access all its resources.

We can no longer assume that attackers are particularly knowledgeable about computers. At one time, an attacker had to have a minimal level of skill to launch an attack, but today readily available tools completely automate the attack process.

An attack really can come from just about anyone who has the motivation and the mindset to launch it.

Cri

mestoppers…

Considering Internal Threats

All cybercrime by its very definition involves using a network to access systems. However, when investigators are confronted with theft or destruction of data or attacks that crash servers, the possibility of an

“inside job” shouldn’t be discounted. Not all attacks or unauthorized entries into systems come from the Internet; they can also come from somewhere on the LAN or via physical access to the affected machines.

Some intrusions and “attacks” can even be unintentional. Users with just enough technical knowledge to be dangerous could experiment with changing settings and crash the system or network; curious people could stumble on unsecured resources to which they shouldn’t have access; and employees attempting to make things more convenient for themselves (for example, by installing wireless access points so they’ll have network connectivity when they take their laptops to the conference room for meetings) can unknowingly open up security holes.

In the following sections, we examine the difference between an intrusion and an attack; discuss various types of attacks, including accidental ones; and provide some guidelines for preventing intentional internal security breaches.

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Intrusions vs. Attacks

It is important for investigators to understand the difference between an intrusion and an attack because whether or not there was an actual unauthorized entry to the network or system can be an important factor in proving the elements of a criminal offense. Attacks can be committed without gaining entry to the network or system, as in the case of DoS attacks.These attacks overload network resources to make the network unavailable to legitimate users, but the attacker never gains access to any computer on the network.

If investigators and prosecutors don’t understand this difference (which they can do only by understanding the technical aspects of how the attack works), they might file charges that won’t stand up in court or bring the wrong charges against a cybercriminal.This would be similar to a situation in which no one on the law enforcement team understood the difference between the offenses of robbery and burglary. Robbery requires that a physical assault or threat of serious bodily injury take place during the commission or attempted commission of a theft. Burglary requires that the offender unlawfully enter the premises of another person to commit a theft. If law enforcement officers arrest a suspect for breaking into a home and stealing a television set while the residents are gone, and they charge the suspect with robbery (and if the prosecutor brings such a case to trial), the suspect will almost certainly be found not guilty, because the state doesn’t have proof of the elements of the offense of robbery.This situation would never happen, because law enforcement officers are drilled in the technical differences between robbery and burglary from the time they attend the police academy, and all prosecuting attorneys are well versed in these differences. However, it’s entirely plausible to imagine the wrong charges being filed in a computer crimes case simply because no one involved understands the technical aspects of these types of crimes.

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CyberLaw Review: Analyzing the Law

As an example of how important it is to understand the elements of the offense, which vary from statute to statute and jurisdiction to jurisdiction, Texas Penal Code section 33.02 defines “Breach of Computer

Security” as follows:

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A person commits an offense if the person knowingly accesses a computer, computer network, or computer system without the effective consent of the owner.

At first glance, it would appear that this offense would not apply to attacks in which there is no entry to the network. The statute requires

“access” as an element of the offense, and a standard dictionary definition of that word is “a means of entry.” However, to understand what the legislature intended when this statute was passed, we have to look back to the legal definitions that apply to this particular chapter of the

Penal Code, which are contained in section 33.01. There, the term

“access” is defined as:

To approach, instruct, communicate with, store data in, retrieve or intercept data from, alter data or computer software in, or otherwise make use of any resource of a computer,

computer network, computer program, or computer system.

As you can see, this definition is broader. The key to bringing this charge against a DoS attacker is the phrase in italics. Because network bandwidth is a resource of a computer network, and because the attacker does indeed make use of that resource, the attacker could be charged under section 33.02.

It is very important for law enforcement officers to carefully analyze the statutes under which they intend to file charges and, if in doubt, to consult the district attorney or state attorney general for clarification of the language in the statute.

It’s important, then, to be precise when we refer to specific computer crimes.

DoS attackers should not be referred to as intruders when no intrusion occurs.

Likewise, not all intruders can accurately be classified as attackers—although those who gain access and then destroy data or plant viruses are properly called by both names.

Recognizing Direct vs. Distributed Attacks

There are two different ways that attackers can launch their attacks against a system or network. A direct attack is launched from a computer used by the attacker (often after pre-intrusion/attack tools, such as port scanners, are used to find potential victims).

A distributed attack is more complex. Distributed attacks use someone else’s system(s), rather than the attacker’s, to perform the tasks that directly launch the attack. In this type of attack, there are multiple victims, which include not only the target of the attack but intermediary remote systems from which the attack is

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launched that are controlled by the attacker.The intermediaries are referred to as

agents or zombies. This type of attack, of course, makes it more difficult to track down the perpetrator, because the attack packets that reach the victim have multiple source addresses, and none of these is the address of the attack’s originator. Commands from attacker to intermediary are often encrypted to further thwart tracing. Encrypted transmissions can’t be read by a packet sniffer

(a protocol analyzer).

A distributed attack works a little like the practical joke in which the jokester calls numerous pizza parlors, pretending to be a customer, and requests that pizzas be delivered to someone else’s address.The primary victim is the resident at the target address who ends up with a flood of unwanted pizzas, but the pizza vendors are victims as well because their resources are used, without their prior knowledge or consent, to carry out the attack.

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To better understand the concept of DoS, the technicalities of which we discuss later in this chapter, let’s take the pizza prank scenario described in this section a step further. If our attacker is really determined, he might call not only pizza parlors but also all the Chinese restaurants, florists, and other “we deliver” businesses in the area, coordinating the requests so that all the delivery persons converge on the victim at the same time. If there are so many delivery vans parked on the streets that the victim’s family members are unable to get to their own driveway, this results in a denial of service to legitimate users of the driveway.

Attackers using the distributed method can launch their attacks simultaneously from dozens, hundreds, or even thousands of Internet hosts all over the world.This means that far more traffic can be generated than is possible with standard one-source attacks. A typical distributed attack model using UNIXbased computers, according to the CERT Distributed Systems Intruder Tools

Workshop, has the attacker controlling several systems called masters. Each master controls a larger number of agents running daemons—the software that is used to launch the attack.The daemons are installed on the agent machines by exploiting operating system or protocol vulnerabilities.This entire process can be automated so that potential agents are discovered and penetrated and the daemon is installed on all of them, then steps taken to hide the fact that an intrusion occurred, using batch scripts. (We discuss attack automation in more detail in the next section.)

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The distributed attack process (after installation of the daemons) is outlined in

Table 6.1.

Table 6.1

The distributed attack process

2

3

4

Step Component Action

1

5

Daemon Announces itself to the “masters” that have been

(or agent) predefined

Master

Attacker

Master

Daemon

Lists daemon as “ready and willing” to be used for attack

Issues command to masters to launch attack

Issues command to daemons on agents to launch attack

(with specific parameters such as identity of target and duration of attack)

Launches attack on specified victim

Because this model’s components are arranged in a pyramid form, with one attacker controlling several masters, which in turn control numerous agent/ daemons, it is easier to disable the attack system closer to the top, where there are fewer systems to deal with. If the masters are disabled, the agents and their daemon software will not be able to function. Of course, the most efficient disabling technique is to find the attacker, thus disabling the entire attack sequence.

Automated Attacks

An automated attack is one that’s performed by a computer program rather than the attacker manually performing the steps in the attack sequence. For quite some time, hackers have distributed attack tools that make it easier to launch network attacks. However, prior to 2000, most of these tools would initiate only one attack sequence; launching additional attack sequences required the intervention of the human attacker. However, newer tools such as Nimda and Code Red are able to continually initiate new attack cycles on their own.This increasing level of automation makes these attacks more dangerous and more widespread.

According to CERT, the increasing automation and sophistication of attack tools is one of the most significant trends in the “Black Hat” hacking community.

Today’s attack tools can perform the entire attack process. Instead of a hacker being required to perform a port scan with one tool to identify vulnerable systems, then using a different tool to penetrate the victim network and yet another tool to propagate the attack, now one tool can do it all.This speeds up the process as well as making it easier for hackers who lack technical skills to mount a successful attack. Some attack tools are executed at the command line, but

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many of them have user-friendly graphical interfaces as well as detailed Help files to instruct attackers in their use.There might also be configuration files that allow users to customize the attack.

In order to avoid detection by IDS software that relies on pattern recognition, modern tools can employ different techniques—such as random selection— to interrupt patterns that would trigger detection by the IDS. In addition, many of the tools use common protocols such as HTTP and Internet Relay Chat

(IRC), which disguise their packets by making them look like normal Internet traffic.These tools are widely available through anonymous FTP sites and hacker newsgroups on the Internet. Hackers can also modify legitimate network analysis tools if they have the source code, turning them into attack tools by adding code to exploit the vulnerabilities that they find.

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It is ironic that hackers make their attack tools available on anonymous

FTP sites, since anonymous FTP and TFTP are themselves often exploited by attackers. Knowledgeable hackers can easily create tools and scripts that attempt an anonymous login; try various commands such as pwd,

mkdir, and rmdir (to print the working directory, make a directory, and remove a directory on UNIX/Linux systems, respectively); and plant a

Trojan in the FTP site that then enables the hacker to access the system remotely, without a password.

Accidental “Attacks”

Some intrusions and “attacks” might actually be unintentional. Server or network crashes can be caused by users experimenting, visiting Web sites that run malicious code, or unknowingly downloading and introducing a virus into the system. In fact, a large number of virus attacks are initiated accidentally or unknowingly.The user who appears to have sent the virus via e-mail is often a victim of the attack him- or herself, because many viruses and worms are written to spread themselves by accessing the victim’s address book and sending infected mail to all the addresses found there.

Accidental attacks can be just as destructive as deliberate ones, and network security personnel must be just as vigilant in protecting against them. However, from the law enforcement perspective, the perpetrator’s intent matters very much.

Most criminal offenses require that an act be committed intentionally or at least knowingly, so the elements of the offense might not be present if an employee

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causes an intrusion or attack without intending to—even if his or her actions were careless. On the other hand, some acts are still considered criminal when a lower state of culpability (recklessness or negligence) is present. It is very important for investigators to be aware of the culpable mental state that is specified as an element of each offense to be charged. If no level of culpability is specified, the criminal code usually defines a “default” level of culpability that applies.

Preventing Intentional Internal

Security Breaches

Users inside the network are in the best position to gain access to information or sabotage the network’s integrity. According to most computer security studies, as documented in RFC 2196, actual loss (in terms of money, productivity, computer reputation, and other tangible and intangible harm) is greater for internal security breaches than for those from the outside. Internal attackers are more dangerous for several reasons:

People inside the network generally know more about the company, the network, the layout of the building(s), normal operating procedure, and other information that makes it easier for them to gain access without detection.

Internal attackers usually have at least some degree of legitimate access and could find it easy to discover passwords and holes in the current security system.

Internal hackers know what information is on the network and what actions will cause the most damage.

Preventing such problems begins with the same methods used to prevent unintentional security compromises, but it goes a step further.To a large extent, unintended breaches can be prevented through education.This obviously will not have the same effect on network users who intend to breach security.The best way to prevent such breaches depends, in part, on the motivations of the employee(s) concerned.

Implementing auditing helps detect internal breaches of security by recording specified security events. Administrators are then able to track when objects such as files or folders are accessed, the user account used to access them, when users exercise user rights, and when users log onto or off the computer or network.

Modern network operating systems include built-in auditing functionality.

Methods of auditing security events are discussed in Chapter 8, “Implementing

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System Security.” Interpreting and using security audit log files are discussed in

Chapter 9, “Implementing Cybercrime Detection Techniques.

Firewalls are helpful in keeping basically compliant employees from accidentally (or out of ignorance of security considerations) visiting dangerous Web sites or sending specific types of packets outside the local network. However, firewalls are of more limited use in preventing intentional internal security breaches.

Simply limiting users’ access to the external network cannot thwart insiders who are determined to destroy, modify, or copy data. Because they have physical access, insiders can copy data to removable media or to a portable computer

(including tiny handheld machines) or perhaps even print it to paper and remove it from the premises.They can change the format of the data to disguise it, or they can even employ steganography to hide it inside seemingly innocent files and then upload the files to Web-based data storage services.

In a high-security environment, measures should be taken to prevent this sort of theft. For example:

Install computers without floppy diskette drives—or even completely diskless workstations.

Apply system or group policy that prevents users from installing software

(such as that needed for a desktop computer to communicate with a

Pocket PC or Palm OS device).

Lock PC cases and cover physical access to serial ports, USB ports, and other connection points so that removable media devices can’t be attached.

Intentional internal breaches of security constitute a serious problem, and company policies should treat them as such.We discuss this topic more in

Chapter 7, “Understanding Cybercrime Prevention,” under the section on designing and implementing security policies.

Preventing Unauthorized External Intrusions

External intrusions and attacks are the major concerns of many companies when it comes to network security issues. In a number of high-profile cases in recent years, the Web servers of prominent organizations such as Yahoo! and Microsoft have been hacked. Attempts to penetrate sensitive government networks, such as the Pentagon’s systems, occur on a regular basis. Distributed denial-of-service

(DDoS) attacks make front-page news when they crash servers and prevent

Internet users from accessing popular sites.

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The good news about external intrusions is that the area(s) that must be controlled are much more focused than with internal attacks.There are usually only a limited number of points of entry to the network from the outside.This is where a properly configured firewall can be invaluable, allowing authorized traffic into the network while keeping unauthorized traffic out. On the other hand, the popularity of firewalls ensures that dedicated hackers know how they work and spend a great deal of time and effort devising ways to defeat them.

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Psychological factors affect the ways in which companies handle various types of security breaches. Internal breaches are usually seen by companies as personnel problems and are handled administratively. External breaches might seem more like violations and are more often prosecuted in criminal actions. Because the external intruder can come from anywhere, at any time, the sense of uncertainty and fear of the unknown can cause organizations to react in a much stronger way to this type of threat. Thus, law enforcement officers are more likely to become involved when the breach is external. Officers might then (erroneously) conclude that the ratio of external to internal breaches is greater than it really is.

Planning for Firewall Failures

Organizations should never depend on the firewall to provide 100-percent protection, even against outside intruders.To be effective, a security plan must be both multifaceted and multilayered. Although administrators can hope that a firewall will keep intruders out of the network completely, their planning must take into consideration the possibility that the firewall will fail and address such questions as:

If intruders do get in, what is the contingency plan?

How can they reduce the amount of damage attackers can do?

How can the most sensitive or valuable data be protected?

External Intruders with Internal Access

A special type of external intruder is the outsider who physically breaks into your facility to gain access to your network. Although not a true insider because he or she is not authorized to be there and does not have a valid account on the network, this intruder enjoys many of the same advantages as the true insider.

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On

the Scene…

Tactical Planning

In dealing with network intruders, network administrators should practice what police officers in defensive tactics training call if/then thinking.

This strategy involves considering every possible outcome of a given situation and then posing the question: “If this happens, then what could be done to protect us from the consequences?” The answers to these questions should form the basis of the organization’s security policy.

This tactic requires that administrators be able to plan responses in detail, which means thinking in specifics rather than generalities. The security threat assessment must be based in part on understanding the motivations of people initiating the attack and in part on the technical aspects of the type of attack that is initiated. In a high-security environment, these tasks should be the responsibility of an incident response

team. We discuss deployment of such teams later in this chapter.

Recognizing the “Fact of the Attack”

If preventative measures don’t work (and it’s likely that sometimes they won’t), the next step for network administrators is to shift into reactive mode and attempt to minimize the damage. Before they can do that, they must have a way to recognize that an attack is taking place.

Intrusion detection systems (IDSs) use two methods to identify that an attack is occurring:

Pattern recognition

Analyzing files, network traffic, sequences in

RAM, or other data for repeated or recognizable signs of attack, such as unexplained increases in file size or particular character strings.

Effect recognition

Identifying the results of an attack, such as a system crash caused by overload or a sudden reboot for no reason.

It’s easy to program an IDS to recognize specific patterns, but attackers can defeat it by making small changes to the pattern or by fragmenting the attack packets—that is, dividing the attack messages or code into fragmented packets. A number of TCP/IP exploits use fragmented packets; these exploits are called frag

attacks. Effect recognition is more difficult because the “effects” often resemble normal network traffic or problems caused by hardware or software faults.

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The problem with any IDS—indeed, with all computer software—is that it does only exactly what it is told to do.Thus far, true artificial intelligence (programs that can “think”) hasn’t been achieved. Law enforcement officers know that the human factor—intuition and the ability to make great leaps of logic— can be very important in detecting and solving crimes. Unfortunately, no device or program is able to observe the behavior of computer systems and network components and intuitively recognize that there’s something wrong.Very specific criteria must be set and met before an IDS will recognize an attack.This explains why human administrators will always remain an important ingredient in creating a proper security posture in any organization and why eternal vigilance is more than just a watchword for people with security responsibilities.

Identifying and Categorizing Attack Types

The attack type refers to how an intruder gains entry to your computer or network (if, indeed, entry is actually gained at all) and what the attacker does once he or she has gained entry (or without gaining entry). Some of the more common types of hack attacks include social engineering attacks, DoS attacks, scanning and spoofing, “nuke” attacks, and dissemination of malicious code.When you have a basic understanding of how each type of attack works, you will be better armed to guard against them.

It is useful for us to sort these different intrusions and attacks into categories such as the following:

Pre-intrusion/attack activities

Password-cracking methods

Technical exploits (taking advantage of characteristics of the applications, operating systems, or protocols)

Malicious code attacks (Trojans, viruses, worms)

The following sections discuss specific types of attacks that fit into each category.

Recognizing Pre-intrusion/

Attack Activities

Hacker how-to documents often break the hack/attack process into steps, as follows:

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1.

Pre-attack

2.

Initial access

3.

Full system access

4.

Planting “back doors” for future access

5.

Covering tracks

The pre-attack phase focuses on gathering information. Experienced hackers tell newbies to learn as much about the targeted victim as they can before initiating an attack.This “intel” information is vitally important for a hacker who has a concrete goal, such as corporate espionage.

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Planning the Hack and Hacking the Plan

The most successful hackers plan their attack strategies in almost as much detail as a military unit or police SWAT team plans a strike or raid.

Then they carry out the hack exactly according to plan. These are the real pros, and they are the most difficult to defend against or apprehend.

The hackers who get caught are usually careless, hurried, or inexperienced. In contrast, amateur hackers “play it by ear,” breaking into systems and wandering around looking for something of interest. The term

amateur refers to someone who does something for fun, just for the love of it. Professional hackers (hackers for hire) know exactly what they’re after, and they get in, get it, and get out quickly, like a master thief. The planning phase can last many times longer than the actual execution of the hack. When professional hackers get caught, it’s usually because they’re egotistical and brag about their exploits to the wrong people.

Pre-attack information gathering and planning involve determining the goal of the hack, determining the target of the attack (the network or system that must be compromised to achieve the goal), and identifying the weaknesses of the target that can be exploited to carry out the hack. Pre-attack planning can also include taking steps to disguise the attacker’s identity or putting preliminary programs or devices in place to gather information or to make it easier to get into the system when the time comes to carry out the attack. Some specific pre-attack activities include:

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Port scanning to identify potential targets and their weaknesses

IP spoofing to disguise the attacker’s identity

Placing Trojans on the target system

Placing tracking devices and software (such as keystroke loggers) on the target system

Putting protocol analyzers (sniffers) in place to capture transmissions to and from the target system

In the following sections, we look at each of these activities in more detail.

Port Scans

A port is, in its simplest meaning, a point where information enters or leaves a computer.The TCP and UDP protocols use port numbers to provide separate

“subaddresses” to identify what service or application incoming information is destined for or from which outgoing information originates.

The term port scanner, in the context of network security, refers to a software program that hackers use to remotely determine what TCP/UDP ports are open on a given system and thus vulnerable to attack. Scanners are also used by administrators to detect vulnerabilities in their own systems, in order to correct them before an intruder finds them. Network diagnostic tools such as the famous

Security Administrator’s Tool for Analyzing Networks (SATAN), a UNIX utility, include sophisticated port-scanning capabilities.

Scanning is used for several purposes prior to penetration and/or attack:

Target enumeration

Locating host systems that are open to attack.

Target identification

Identifying the target system.

Service identification

Identifying the vulnerable services or ports on the target system.

N

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A common saying among hackers is, “A good port scanner is worth a thousand passwords.”

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A good scanning program can locate a target computer on the Internet

(one that is vulnerable to attack), determine what TCP/IP services are running on the machine, and probe those services for security weaknesses. Nmap

(www.insecure.org/nmap) is a popular open source port scanner available free on the Web. Many scanning programs are available as freeware on the Internet.

For a good resource for information about scanning and some popular scanning techniques and software, see www.garykessler.net/library/is_tools_scan.html.

Port scanning refers to a means of locating “listening”TCP or UDP ports on a computer or router and obtaining as much information as possible about the device from the listening ports.TCP and UDP services and applications use a number of well-known ports (see “Who’s Listening?,” the “On the Scene” sidebar in this section), which are widely published.The hacker uses his knowledge of these commonly used ports to extrapolate information.

For example,Telnet normally uses port 23. If the hacker finds that port open and listening, he knows that Telnet is probably enabled on the machine. He can then try to infiltrate the system by, for example, guessing the appropriate password in a brute-force attack.

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Who’s Listening?

The official well-known port assignments are documented in RFC 1700, available on the Web at www.freesoft.org/CIE/RFC/1700/index.htm. The port assignments are made by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority

(IANA). In general, a service uses the same port number with UDP as with TCP, although there are some exceptions. The assigned ports were originally those from 0–255, but the number was later expanded to

0–1023.

Some of the most used well-known ports include:

TCP/UDP port 20: FTP (data)

TCP/UDP port 21: FTP (control)

TCP/UDP port 23: Telnet

TCP/UDP port 25: SMTP

TCP/UDP port 53: DNS

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TCP/UDP port 67: BOOTP server

TCP/UDP port 68: BOOTP client

TCP/UDP port 69: TFTP

TCP/UDP port 80: HTTP

TCP/UDP port 88: Kerberos

TCP/UDP port 110: POP3

TCP/UDP port 119: NNTP

TCP/UDP port 137: NetBIOS name service

TCP/UDP port 138: NetBIOS datagram service

TCP/UDP port 139: NetBIOS session service

TCP/UDP port 194: IRC

TCP/UDP port 220: IMAPv3

TCP/UDP port 389: LDAP

Ports 1024–65,535 are called registered ports; these numbers are not controlled by IANA and can be used by user processes or applications. Some of these are traditionally used by specific applications (for example, SQL uses port 1433) and could be of interest to hackers.

A total of 65,535 TCP ports (and the same number of UDP ports) are available to be used for various services and applications. If a port is open, it responds when another computer attempts to contact it over the network. Port-scanning programs such as Nmap are used to determine which ports are open on a particular machine.The program sends packets for a wide variety of protocols, and by examining which messages receive responses and which don’t, creates a map of the computer’s listening ports.

Port scanning in itself does no harm to a network or system, but it provides hackers with information they can use to penetrate the network. Because people conducting port scans are often up to no good, they frequently forge the source

IP address to hide their identity.

Half scans (also called half open scans or FIN scans) attempt to avoid detection by sending only initial or final packets rather than establishing a connection. A half scan starts the SYN/ACK process with a targeted computer but does not complete it. (See the description of this process in the following section on

TCP/IP exploits.) Software that conducts half scans, such as Jakal, is called a

stealth scanner. Many port-scanning detectors are unable to detect half scans.

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berLaw Review…

Should Scanning Be Illegal?

Some in the IT industry argue that port scanning should not be illegal, because “no harm is done.” They say port scanning is similar to ringing someone’s doorbell to see if anybody is home—not in itself a crime.

However, laws are enacted not just to protect from actual physical harm but also to protect people’s privacy and their interests in their own property. Those on the other side of the argument say that port scanning is really more like the virtual equivalent of someone who goes from door to door in an apartment building, trying each one to find out whether it’s locked and whether there is an easy way in. Although this practice might do no actual harm if the “door scanner” only collects information and doesn’t enter the premises, and although the person might have the right to be in the public hallway, in most jurisdictions such behavior would, at the very least, cause discomfort to the apartments’ residents and attract the attention of the police.

In 2000, in Moulton v. VC3, a U.S. District Court in Georgia ruled that port scanning does not damage a network and thus does not constitute a crime or create a cause of action for civil suit. Although the federal laws in regard to computer fraud and abuse were changed by the passage of the USA Patriot Act in 2001, there is still a requirement that loss or damage must occur in order to charge a violation. For more information on the ethics and legality of port scanning, see the article at http://rr.sans.org/audit/ethics.php on the SANS Institute’s Web site. For an opinion paper that holds that scanning is not legal despite the

Moulton ruling, see the article from the Journal of Technology Law and

Policy at http://grove.ufl.edu/~techlaw/vol6/Preston.html.

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A good port-scanning resource for network administrators is www.doshelp.com/trojanports.htm, which details the ports that should be blocked for best security.

Address Spoofing

The dictionary defines a spoof as a good-humored hoax, but the definition of the verb to spoof indicates a less benign action: “to fool or deceive somebody”

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(Microsoft's Encarta World Dictionary 2001). Hackers use spoofed addresses to deceive other computers and fool them into thinking a message originated from a different machine. Although IP spoofing is probably the most popular, it is not the only spoofing method used by hackers. Others include ARP spoofing,Web spoofing, and DNS spoofing. Let’s take a quick look at how each of these works.

IP Spoofing

IP spoofing involves changing the packet headers of a message to indicate that it came from an IP address other than the true source. In essence, the sending computer impersonates another machine, fooling the recipient into accepting its messages.The spoofed address is normally a trusted port, which allows a hacker to get a message through a firewall or router that would otherwise be filtered out.When

configured properly, modern firewalls protect against IP spoofing.

Spoofing is used whenever it is beneficial for one machine to impersonate another. It is often used in combination with one of the other types of attacks.

For example, a spoofed address is used to hide the true IP address of the attacker in Ping of Death,Teardrop, and other attacks. Remote Procedure Call (RPC) services, the X Window system, the UNIX r services (rlogin, rsh, and so on) and any service that uses IP address authentication are all susceptible to IP spoofing.

After deciding on the targeted victim, the next step in spoofing is to find out the address of a trusted host. Legitimate communications between the trusted host and the target can be intercepted and examined. Often hackers use a DoS attack against the trusted host to prevent it from communicating on the network.

Then the packet headers can be modified to make it look as though the attacker’s messages are coming from the trusted host, and the packets are sent to a service or port that uses address authentication. One of the most difficult aspects of IP spoofing is the necessity of correctly guessing the sequence numbers of the trusted machine.This process is made easy for the attacker by the numerous spoofing tools that are available on the Web.

ARP Spoofing

The Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) maintains the ARP cache. This is a table that maps IP addresses to MAC (physical) addresses of computers on the network.This cache is necessary because the MAC address is used at the physical level to locate the destination computer to which a message should be delivered.

If there is no cache entry for a particular IP address, a broadcast message is sent by ARP to all the computers on the subnet, requesting that the machine with the

IP address in question respond with its MAC address.This mapping then gets

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added to the ARP cache. ARP spoofing, also called ARP poisoning, is a method of sending forged replies that result in incorrect entries in the cache.This results in subsequent messages being sent to the wrong computer (the machine whose

MAC address is incorrectly matched with the IP address). Once again, this process has been automated by hacker tools such as ARPoison and Parasite.

DNS Spoofing

DNS spoofing refers to two methods of causing a DNS server to direct users incorrectly:

“Poisoning” of the DNS cache (similar to ARP poisoning in that incorrect information is entered into the cache) of name resolution servers, resulting in those servers directing users to the wrong Web sites or e-mail being sent to the wrong mail servers.

Using the recursive mechanism of DNS to predict the request that a

DNS server will send and responding with forged information. (For more information on how recursion works, see the article DNS

Overview with a Discussion of DNS Spoofing at http://rr.sans.org/

DNS/DNS.php).

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On

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What Makes DNS Spoofing So Dangerous?

Because the Domain Name System (DNS) is responsible for managing the resolution of domain names (such as www.microsoft.com) into an equivalent IP addresses (for example, 206.122.10.6), any successful replacement of a valid address with an alternate address causes people attempting to access the domain name to visit the wrong TCP/IP address. This gives attackers the chance to create their own Web site that masquerades as a legitimate site and to attempt to steal all kinds of information by getting between the user and the real site. Alternatively, the attackers can completely take over the apparent role of the real site.

Because DNS helps mediate access to Web, FTP, e-mail, and other services, the opportunities for mischief inherent in DNS spoofing are serious and powerful.

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Either of these methods allows the attacker to intercept the victim’s mail or to set up spoofed Web pages that give users inaccurate information.This method can even be used to con the victim into providing personal information through

Web forms. (See the section on Web spoofing in the discussion of browser exploits later in this chapter.)

Placement of Trojans

Trojans, or Trojan horse software, are programs that appear to be legitimate or innocent but actually do something else in addition to or instead of their ostensible purposes.We discuss Trojans in general later in the chapter, in the section

“Attacking with Trojans,Viruses, and Worms.” As part of the pre-attack phase, a hacker can plant on the victim’s computer a Trojan program that installs keystroke-logging programs to gather information for the main attack or that sets up the means by which the attacker will later get into the system. An infamous case of the latter was the Back Orifice Trojan, which could be disguised as a component of some other innocuous software program and, once installed, created a “back door” in Windows 95/98 systems for attackers to take over control of the victim PC. For more information about Back Orifice, see www.nwinternet.com/~pchelp/bo/bobasics.htm.

Placement of Tracking Devices and Software

If an attacker has onsite access to the victim system, one way to collect passwords and other information prior to an attack is to place a physical tracking device (a

keystroke logger) on the system.This is a very small device, about 2 inches long and a half-inch in diameter, that can be installed in less than a minute; you simply unplug the keyboard from the PC and plug the keyboard into the logger, then plug the logger into the PC’s keyboard port. It is not noticeable to most users.

Inside the logger are a microchip and a nonvolatile memory chip (similar to a

CompactFlash card or memory stick). Depending on the amount of memory in the device, it can record anywhere from a few to dozens of pages of keystrokes; for example, 64KB of memory will store about 32 pages. No software needs to be installed on the computer for the loggers to work, and they are compatible with a variety of PC operating systems. No battery or outside power source is required; the device draws power from the computer. Once the strokes have been captured, the attacker removes the device and attaches it to a different PC.The

captured data can be password protected; once the correct password is entered, it can be read in Notepad or another text editor. Afterward, the data can be saved

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to a file and the memory in the device can be erased. An example of a keystrokelogging device is the KeyGhost (see www.keyghost.com).

Software programs can also perform keystroke logging, but the attacker needs to be able to log onto the system in order to install the software; the advantage of the physical device is that it can capture the passwords necessary to log on.

Software-based loggers capture only the keystrokes made after booting into the operating system, whereas the hardware device can capture keystrokes made before the OS loads—for example, changes made to the system BIOS.

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Keystroke Logging as an Investigative or

Monitoring Tool

Keystroke loggers and spyware programs are not used exclusively by criminals. Law enforcement investigators use logging devices and software to gather evidence of offenses. In early 2000, Nicodemo S. Scarfo,

Jr., was charged with illegal gambling, racketeering, and loan shark activities based on evidence in a file on his computer, which had been encrypted with PGP. Investigators used a keystroke logger to get the information needed to break the encryption. Defense attorneys tried to get the evidence suppressed, arguing that the use of the tool amounted to an unconstitutional search. However, the court ruled against the petition to suppress, and Scarfo eventually pled guilty.

Vendors of these programs often market their products to law enforcement agencies, and some, such as Codex Data Systems, have begun offering their software free of charge to police, military, and intelligence agencies following the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks.

Keystroke loggers and spyware have other legitimate purposes.

Companies may use them to monitor employees’ computer and Internet activities (according to company policy), and parents can use them to oversee what their children are doing on the Net.

Neither type of keystroke logger records screens that appear on the computer that are not typed in by the user—they do not record, for example,Web sites the user accesses, files the user opens, or mail the user reads. Other spyware programs can do much more than just log keystrokes. Many of these programs allow the

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person who installs and configures the software to specify criteria that will trigger capture of screenshots. Some of the programs can even rename themselves and change their locations on the disk to avoid detection. Examples of spyware programs include WinWhatWhere Investigator (www.winwhatwhere.com), Spector

Pro (www.spectorsoft.com), and Data Interception by Remote Transmission, or

D.I.R.T. (www.codexdatasystems.com).

Placement of Packet Capture and

Protocol Analyzer Software

Network monitors, also called protocol analyzers, allow administrators to capture and analyze the traffic on their networks for troubleshooting purposes or to monitor network activity. Hackers can use these same tools to capture packets surreptitiously and read the information in those packets. Analyzers that allow for placing the network adapter in promiscuous mode are especially useful to hackers. In this mode, the adapter can capture traffic sent to or from any computer on the network segment. Some analyzers, such as the Network Monitor built into Microsoft’s Windows 2000 Server, limit capture to packets sent to or from the machine that is running the analyzer software. However, a more robust version of Microsoft’s NetMon comes with the company’s Systems Management

Server (SMS) product and permits the use of promiscuous mode.

These programs are network sniffers. Any person with Administrative privileges can install the Network Monitor on a Windows 2000 Server family computer and start “listening” to activity on the wire. Administrators—or hackers who have compromised an administrative account—can use the tool to collect network data and analyze it on the spot, or they can save the recorded activities to review at a later time. It is possible to set triggers for when certain events or data cross the wire, so the tool can be used, for example, when certain keywords in e-mail communications move through the network.The Network Monitor program allows its users to capture only those frames that they are interested in, based on protocol or the source or destination computer. Even more detailed and exacting filters can be applied to data that has been collected, allowing the monitoring person to pinpoint the precise elements that he or she is looking for in the captured data.

Figure 6.1 shows the contents of a captured packet.You can see the text message (“Windows 2000 is great!”) that was sent across the network.

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Figure 6.1

Packet sniffers such as Network Monitor can reveal the contents of messages sent on the network.

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Dozens of commercial packet-sniffing programs are available. Sniffer Pro

(www.sniffertechnologies.com) is probably the most popular. Others include

LANSleuth from SSI (www.lansleuth.com) and Sniff ’em (www.yasc.net/ home2.html). In addition, many freeware/shareware sniffers are available, such as:

PacketBoy (www.pro-soft.de/products/netboys/index.htm), which decodes TCP/IP protocols, NetWare protocols, and AppleTalk protocols

Ethereal (www.ethereal.com), for both Windows and UNIX

TraceWolf (www.simtel.net/pub/pd/16981.html), for Windows 9x/ME

Sniffing software usually has to be installed on the same local network as the victim computer; it doesn’t work remotely across the Internet. However, hackers can exploit bugs such as those in SNMP to take over hubs, switches, and routers or use other tactics to take over control of a computer on the LAN to implement sniffing.

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The FBI’s Carnivore system, now renamed DCS 1000, is a network monitoring tool that works similarly to commercial sniffer software. It is installed at ISP locations to conduct electronic surveillance and capture data such as e-mail communications sent to or from persons suspected of terrorism and other illegal activities. A characteristic of the DCS 1000 system is its ability to filter transmissions according to communications type (e-mail, Web transactions, and so on) so that only messages of the specified type(s) will be intercepted. For details about how the system works, see www.howstuffworks.com/carnivore1.htm.

Prevention and Response

There is no way to prevent port scanning—but IT professionals can control whether or not the scanner finds open doors to their networks. An important security step for administrators is to use port-scanning software themselves to learn about their own networks’ vulnerabilities and then plug the openings so others will be unable to use them to gain access. Most firewalls log port-scanning attempts, and freeware or shareware such as Jammer, Lockdown2000, or Nukenabber can be downloaded and installed to notify the administrator that ports are being scanned and provide the IP address from which the scan originates.

IP spoofing can be prevented using source address verification on the router, if it supports this function. Other steps that can be taken to protect against spoofing include:

Use encrypted authentication.

Configure the router to reject any messages from outside that appear to come from an internal (local) address.

Administrators can prevent ARP spoofing using static ARP tables. A static table is manually configured by the administrator, so broadcast responses don’t result in automatic update of the cache.The problem with this solution is that it doesn’t work well with large networks; the burden on the administrator to keep the tables current would be overwhelming. Another solution is MAC binding.This

method is enabled on the network switches and allows automatic updating, but when a particular IP address has been associated with a MAC address, that association can’t be changed except by an administrative action. Furthermore, some tools monitor changes to the cache, with automatic notification to administrators so they will be aware of any attempts to use ARP spoofing.

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Administrators can prevent DNS spoofing by securing the DNS servers on the Internet and by using the latest version of the DNS software. For example, previous vulnerabilities have been fixed in BIND versions 8 and 9, and the vulnerabilities present in Windows NT DNS servers have been addressed in the

Windows 2000 version.

Properly configured firewalls can help keep Trojans out of the network, and software such as Trojan Remover claims to be able to eliminate Trojan programs even when antivirus software cannot detect them.The usual virus protection guidelines (don’t open unsolicited attachments, download files only from reputable sites, apply security patches diligently) can also help protect against Trojans.

Keystroke-logging devices are impossible to detect via software. Physical examination of the cable connecting the keyboard to the computer reveals the presence of such devices. Antikeystroke logger programs can scan for keystrokelogging activity and detect software-based loggers. An example is anti-keylogger, which is shareware that can be downloaded at www.webattack.com/get/ antikey.shtml.

Protective measures against sniffers include limiting physical access to the network (because the sniffer software must be installed on a computer on the local subnet), using switches instead of hubs to prevent all packets from going to all the systems on the network, and using encryption.This last solution won’t prevent sniffers from capturing network packets, but it will prevent the hacker from being able to read the data inside them. “Antisniffing” software can be used to scan the network for sniffers or for computers whose network adapters are running in promiscuous mode. Antisniff is available for both UNIX and Windows. For more information, see www.securitysoftwaretech.com/antisniff/overview.html.

Understanding Password Cracking

The best way to get into a system is to “trick” the system into thinking you’re an authorized user. In many cases, you can do this simply by using a valid account name and password.This method is called password cracking. In this section, we look at the tools and resources hackers use to crack passwords. Investigators need to be aware of all the techniques and tools that can be used to impersonate a legitimate user and how they work. Understanding how a crack was accomplished provides valuable clues to the cracker’s skill level and how determined he or she is to get into a particular network, as well as other characteristics that can help track down the culprit.

In computer security, there are three basic ways to validate user identity: the

“what you know” method (with the password being what you know); the “what

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you have” method, which requires physical possession of some object such as a smart card; and the “what you are” method, which uses biometric data such as a fingerprint or retinal or iris scan.We discuss each of these methods in more detail in Chapter 7, “Understanding Cybercrime Prevention,” in the section on authentication. For purposes of this discussion, it’s important to know that the vast majority of networks rely solely on the first method, so anyone who knows or can guess the correct password that goes with a valid username can get in.

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Passwords are used for many purposes: to log onto the local computer or the network, to access password-protect Web sites or FTP sites, to access e-mail, to open password-protected documents, to get back to the desktop after the screensaver is activated, and even to enter the BIOS setup program. Many users, unable to remember dozens of different passwords, use the same password for everything. Although this strategy simplifies the user’s life, it also simplifies the cracker’s job. Once he or she has one password, it functions as an “open sesame” for everything the user has password-protected.

Password cracking involves acquiring valid passwords.This can be done in several ways, including:

Brute force

Recovery and exploitation of passwords stored on the system

Use of password decryption software

Social engineering

In the following sections, we look at each of these methods and ways to protect against them.

Brute Force

Brute force might not be the most elegant solution for a hacker in search of a password, but it can be very effective—especially if strong password policies aren’t enforced. In its simplest form, a brute-force attacker tries one possible password after another until he or she hits on the right one. Although this process can be done manually by someone with a lot of time and patience, in practice it is usually done (much more efficiently) using a program that runs through all the

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words in a dictionary file, which is simply a large list of words (in what is sometimes called a dictionary attack) and other possible character combinations.

Some of these cracking programs are very sophisticated and allow the cracker to implement rules or criteria. For example, if the cracker is able to obtain some information about the password—for example, the cracker knows that it consists of five alpha characters and three numeric—he or she can create a rule that will limit the program’s attempts to passwords that fit the criteria (apple123, seven890, and so on).This strategy narrows the number of possible passwords and speeds the cracking process.

Password-cracking programs also have a legitimate use. An employee might leave a company or die suddenly without revealing passwords that were used to protect important files, which other employees now need to access. Even if they’re still around, sometimes employees forget their passwords. Programs marketed for legitimate purposes are usually called password recovery programs, but of course the same software can be used by crackers for less-than-legitimate purposes. For example, Sunbelt Software’s NTAccess works by creating a boot diskette, then using the tool to modify the boot disk to reset the Administrator password. Another program, Locksmith from Winternals, allows you to reset the password of any account remotely. Some companies do password recovery as a service. One such company is Password Crackers Inc. (www.pwcrack.com).

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Some recovery programs are focused on operating system passwords and others on application passwords. The Passware software at www.lostpassword.com is a modular system that lets you select modules according to your needs, to recover passwords in Windows NT, 2000, XP,

Excel, Access, Outlook, Word, WinZip, WordPerfect, QuickBooks, ACT, and more. Their Passware Kit includes all the modules, and a demo version can be downloaded free from the site.

Some of these cracking programs won’t work on Windows 2000/XP when file encryption (EFS) is used, and the programs we’ve discussed reset local passwords—those stored on a specific computer—not network passwords such as those stored in Windows 2000 Active Directory and used to log onto the domain.

Some password protection schemes are more difficult to crack than others.

The passwords on documents created with older versions of Microsoft Office and zipped files are notoriously easy to crack with readily available software.With any

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password scheme, the better (the longer and more complex) the passwords, the longer it takes to crack them. For difficult cracking jobs, some tools such as

L0phtCrack versions 3 and above (shown in Figure 6.2) allow you to divide the task into parts and use multiple machines simultaneously to work on it in a method called distributed cracking.

Figure 6.2

Widely available tools such as L0phtCrack use comparative analysis to crack passwords.

On

the Scene…

Cracking 101 on the Web

On hundreds of Web sites, would-be crackers can get information on how to defeat passwords and download tools such as L0phtCrack,

NTcrack, Cracker Jack, and Dictionary Maker. Like all hacker sites, these sites come and go quickly and move from one domain to another to avoid scrutiny. A Web search on password cracking tools turns up thousands of hits, but you’ll probably find that many of these return “File not found” messages when you try to access them. Nonetheless, if you’re persistent, it’s not hard to find all the information you need to start cracking. Dictionary files are available in many languages. A popular site for downloading dictionaries is ftp://ftp.cerias.purdue.edu/pub/dict.

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None of these tools is illegal (yet), so there’s not much that law enforcement can do about their easy availability. However, it’s good for investigators to be aware of where cybercriminals get the tools they use to commit crimes, just as it’s useful to know what outlets in an area

(legally) sell poison, dynamite, guns, or other items that can be used for illegal purposes.

Exploitation of Stored Passwords

Trying to guess passwords, even with software to expedite the process, is a tedious business. It would be much easier if a cracker could just find a list of passwords lying around somewhere.Well, in some cases, that’s exactly what happens—the list is right there for the taking on the computer’s hard disk. Passwords have to be stored somewhere; after all, how else will the system know whether a user has entered the correct password? Additionally, most people have several different passwords in addition to their logon passwords; these are used for e-mail access, entry to restricted Web sites, and the like. Rather than memorizing all these secondary passwords, many users elect to have the system “remember” the password for them. Since computers have short memories (you’ll recall that all the data in

RAM is lost when the computer is rebooted), these “remembered” passwords must be stored in a file somewhere. All a cracker has to do is get his or her eager little hands on that file.

Thank goodness it’s a little more complicated than that. In most cases, passwords are not stored in a plain-text file that the cracker can simply open and read, except in cases in which a forgetful user creates such a file, diligently recording passwords for various services and applications. Usually, stored passwords are encrypted or hashed.

For example, UNIX systems store passwords in the /etc/passwd file, along with other user information.The passwords are encrypted with a hash function.

The computer doesn’t compare the actual password you type in to a list to determine whether to log you in; instead, the password you enter is hashed and the resultant hash value is compared to that of the stored (hashed) password.

This system sounds foolproof, but it’s not.The cracking software just needs to be a little more sophisticated. If the cracker can get the password file, the program uses whatever hash function the system uses and encrypts possible passwords

(generating them via brute-force and dictionary methods), then compares the results with the encrypted passwords in the password file.This technique is called

comparative analysis.

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UNIX and Linux systems can use shadow passwords to circumvent comparative analysis techniques. If shadow passwords are enabled, the encrypted password in the passwd file is replaced by an x. The real passwords are stored in another file, called /etc/shadow. What good does it do to store the information in a different file, especially when everyone familiar with UNIX knows the name and location of that file? The secret is that the /etc/shadow file can be accessed only by the root account.

Although group accounts usually aren’t assigned passwords, they can be.

Group passwords can be shadowed like user passwords. In that case, the encrypted passwords are stored in a file called /etc/gshadow.

NetWare systems store passwords in the bindery files NETSBAL.SYS or

NETSVAL.SYS (on older versions of NetWare) or the NDS database (on versions 4.x and above).The password is stored as an object attribute or property; the object might be a user account, printer, or the like.

Windows 9x machines store passwords in files named after the corresponding user account, with the extension .pwl, in the system root directory (called Windows by default).The passwords are encrypted, but a weak encryption algorithm is used, so it’s easy to crack these passwords with software such as Glide. However, it’s not even necessary to crack the passwords to get into a Windows 9x computer by booting into MS-DOS and renaming the password file.This system allows the cracker to enter any new password to log onto the system.The Windows 9x screensaver password is stored in the Registry file named user.dat, which is located in <driveletter>:\windows\profiles\<username>.The password is a string of hexadecimal values, with each two-digit hex value representing one ASCII character.To

crack the password, you have to decrypt the hex values to ASCII.

Windows NT-based operating systems are much more secure. Like UNIX, they store a hash of the password in the Registry.This information is contained in the Security Accounts Manager (SAM) database, which hackers can sometimes obtain from the \<systemroot>\repair directory that is created when the rdisk utility is run with the /s switch to back up system configuration information to a diskette.

Windows 2000 uses Kerberos authentication, which is generally recognized as more secure than NTLM. However, Kerberos has vulnerabilities, too. Crackers can use sniffer software to capture network logon traffic and use the pre-authentication data used by Kerberos to verify a user’s credentials. A discussion of how

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this is done is located on the Web at www.brd.ie/papers/w2kkrb/feasibility_of_ w2k_kerberos_attack.htm. Information on cracking NT and Windows 2000 can be found on numerous Web sites, mailing lists, and newsgroups.

Why does all of this matter to the investigator? An investigator’s knowledge of how various operating systems store passwords can be used, in some cases, to track criminals’ actions. If security auditing is properly configured, investigators will be able to tell if and when various files have been accessed. Logs that record access to password files might indicate that passwords have been or will be compromised.

Interception of Passwords

Crackers don’t always have to access password files or resort to guessing (brute force) to learn usable passwords.When passwords are sent across the network via local or remote access connections in plain-text form, they can be intercepted, as can other data traveling across the network, using sniffer software.Telnet sessions to UNIX computers can be intercepted and the plain-text password extrapolated if security measures haven’t been taken. Use of non-secure authentication protocols such as Password Authentication Protocol (PAP) for remote access results in sending plain-text passwords across the link and should be avoided when possible.

(We discuss authentication protocols in more detail in Chapter 7.)

Another means of intercepting passwords is to use a keystroke logger. As we discussed earlier in the chapter, this is a hardware device or software program that captures and records every character that is typed—including passwords.

It is often possible to detect an unauthorized packet sniffer on the wire using a device called a time domain reflectometer (TDR), which sends a pulse down the cable and creates a graph of the reflections that are returned. Users who know how to read the graph can tell whether and where unauthorized devices are attached to the cable.

Other ways of detecting unauthorized connections include monitoring hub or switch lights, using SNMP managers that log connections and disconnections, or using one of the many tools designed for the specific purpose of detecting sniffers on the network.

Furthermore, several techniques using PING, ARP, and DNS could help catch unauthorized sniffers.The use of these techniques is beyond the scope of this book, but you can find instructions for using them (and much more excellent information on packet sniffing) at Robert Graham’s Sniffing FAQ located at www.secinf.net/info/misc/sniffingfaq.html.

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Password Decryption Software

Most password-cracking programs don’t actually decrypt anything. However, if the encryption algorithm is weak or implemented incorrectly, it is sometimes possible to use a technique called one-byte patching, which is able to decrypt the password by changing one byte in the program. Another technique used with weak algorithms requires that the cracker already have obtained one or more files in decrypted form; then they can be used to decrypt others that use the same algorithm.This is called the known plain-text method.This technique is popular as an attack against password-protected .zip, .rar, and .arj files. All of these are extensions used for compressed archive files.

When strong cryptography is used and complex passwords are chosen, it is much more difficult to use direct decryption; in these cases, a dictionary or brute-force attack is more often successful. PDF “decryptors” such as Guaranteed

PDF Decryptor/Restrictions Remover (GuaPDF) use a type of brute force that involves testing all possible keys.

On

the Scene…

The Weak Encryption Debate

Many security experts feel that weak, easily broken encryption is worse than no encryption at all because it gives users a false sense of security, leading them to be careless with sensitive data because they believe it is protected. Others argue that weak encryption is better than no encryption because it at least keeps out the casual, merely curious, or technically unsophisticated “snoop.” The truth, as usual, lies between the extremes; weak encryption might be beneficial in some situations—for example, for a noncritical document such as a personal journal that a user wants to protect from other, nontechnical users who share the computer. On the other hand, weak security can be disastrous in the case of vitally important information such as trade secrets or military data that is likely to be targeted by technically sophisticated crackers. In this situation, the weak encryption actually can be worse than none at all because the fact that the file is encrypted draws the attention of the cracker, who might otherwise have ignored it.

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Social Engineering

Unlike the other attack types, social engineering does not refer to a technological manipulation of computer hardware or software vulnerabilities, and it does not require much in the way of technical skills. Instead, this type of attack exploits

human weaknesses—such as carelessness or the desire to be cooperative—to gain access to legitimate network credentials.The talents that are most useful to the intruder who relies on social engineering techniques are the so-called “people skills,” such as a charming or persuasive personality or a commanding, authoritative presence.

Social engineering is defined as obtaining confidential information by means of human interaction (Business Wire, August 4, 1998).You can think of social engineering attackers as specialized con artists.They gain users’ (or even better, administrators’) trust and then take advantage of the relationship to find out user account names and passwords or have the unsuspecting users log them onto the system. Because it is based on convincing a valid network user to “open the door,” social engineering can successfully get an intruder into a network that is protected by high-security measures such as biometric scanners.

Social engineering is, in many cases, the easiest way to gain unauthorized access to a computer network.The Social Engineering Competition at a Defcon annual hackers’ convention in Las Vegas attracted hundreds of attendants eager to practice their manipulative techniques. Even hackers who are famous for their technical abilities know that people make up the biggest security vulnerability on most networks. Kevin Mitnick, convicted computer crimes felon and celebrity hacker extraordinaire, tells in his lectures how he used social engineering to gain access to systems during his hacking career.

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For more information on Mitnick’s lectures, see Mitnick Teaches

Social Engineering, at www.zdnet.com/filters/printerfriendly/

0,6061,2604480-2,00.html.

These “engineers” often pose as technical support personnel—pretending to work as either in-house staff or for outside entities such as the telephone company, an ISP, the network’s hardware vendor, or even the government.They often contact their victims by phone, and they usually spin a complex and plausible tale

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of why they need the users to divulge their passwords or other information (such as the IP address of the user’s machine or the computer name of the network’s authentication server).

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For more information about social engineering and how to tell when someone is attempting to pull a social engineering scam, see the preview chapter, Everything You Wanted to Know About Social Engineering—

But Were Afraid to Ask, at the Happy Hacker Web site, located at www.happyhacker.org/uberhacker/se.shtml.

Prevention and Response

Because passwords are the first—and in some networks, the only—line of defense in protecting a network from intruders, it is extremely important that steps be taken to ensure the integrity of all users’ passwords.We discuss password policies in more detail in Chapter 7; the following sections provide some general guidelines on protecting passwords and dealing with so-called social engineers.

General Password Protection Measures

Network administrators and users can take a number of measures to protect passwords, including the following:

Follow guidelines for creating strong passwords, discussed in detail in

Chapter 7 in the section on password policies.

Configure settings so that user accounts are disabled or locked out after a reasonable number of incorrect password attempts.

Use EFS on Windows 2000/XP/.NET computers to encrypt files.

Store critical data on network servers rather than local machines.

Don’t rely on the password protection built into most applications.

Enable password shadowing on UNIX/Linux systems.

Disable LAN Manager Authentication on Windows networks.

(NTLMv2 or Kerberos are much more secure.)

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Ensure that passwords are never sent across the network in plain-text form.

Use antisniffer software and sniffer detection techniques to guard against crackers who try to intercept passwords traveling across the network.

Protecting the Network Against Social Engineers

Administrators find it especially challenging to protect against social engineering attacks. Adopting strongly worded policies that prohibit divulging passwords and other network information to anyone over the telephone and educating users about the phenomenon are obvious steps that administrators can take to reduce the likelihood of this type of security breach. Human nature being what it is, however, some users on every network will always be vulnerable to the social engineer’s con game. A talented social engineer is a master at making users doubt their own doubts about his legitimacy.

The “wannabe” intruder might regale the user with woeful stories of the extra cost the company will incur if he or she spends extra time verifying his identity.

He could pose as a member of the company’s top management and take a stern approach, threatening the employee with disciplinary action or even loss of job if he doesn’t get the user’s cooperation. Or the social engineer could try to make the employee feel guilty by pretending to be a low-level employee who is just trying to do his job and who will be fired if he doesn’t get access to the network and take care of the problem right away. A really good social engineer is patient and thorough. He will do his homework and will know enough about the company he targets or the organization he claims to represent to be convincing.

Because social engineering is a human problem, not a technical problem, prevention must come primarily through education rather than technological solutions.

Understanding Technical Exploits

A thief who is not able to forge an employee ID card to get in the front door of a company can, instead, come back at night and pick the locks on the back door to gain access. Likewise, if a cyberintruder or attacker is unable to come up with passwords to get into the network posing as a legitimate user, he or she has numerous methods for breaking in without credentials.

Generally, these methods exploit the characteristics of the protocols, operating system, or application software used on the targeted system or network, just as a

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master thief might exploit the fact that a building has ventilation shafts and use them to enter the premises. In the following sections, we discuss some popular technical exploits hackers use to gain access or interrupt communications on networks. Investigators should have a basic understanding of how these techniques work, for the same reasons that they need to know the technicalities of password cracking: Knowledge of how a cybercriminal commits the crime often provides valuable information for profiling that leads to apprehension.

Protocol Exploits

Protocol exploits use the characteristics of a protocol, such as the “handshake” method TCP uses to establish a communications session, to obtain a result that was never intended—for example, overwhelming the targeted system to the point where it is unable to communicate with legitimate users.There are many ways that the normal behavior of network protocols can be manipulated to congest the network or server to the point where no legitimate communications can get through. In this section, we discuss in detail what a DoS attack is and the many ways that the characteristics of TCP/IP can be used to launch DoS attacks.We

also discuss source routing attacks and other protocol exploits.

DoS Attacks That Exploit TCP/IP

DoS attacks, mentioned previously in this chapter, are one of the most popular choices of Internet hackers who want to disrupt a network’s operations. In

February 2000, massive DoS attacks brought down several of the world’s biggest

Web sites, including Yahoo.com and Buy.com. Many such attacks exploit various characteristics of the TCP/IP protocol suite.This section goes into detail on how various DoS attacks work. Attack types we discuss include:

DNS DoS attacks, which exploit the Domain Name System protocols

SYN/LAND attacks, which exploit the way the TCP handshake process works

The Ping of Death, which uses a “killer packet” to overwhelm a system

Ping flood, fraggle, and smurf attacks, which use various methods to

“flood” the network or server

UDP bomb and UDP snork, which exploit the User Datagram Protocol

Teardrop attacks, which exploit the IP packet header fields

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Exploits of SNMP, which is included with most TCP/IP implementations

What Is Denial of Service?

Although they do not destroy or steal data like some other types of attacks, DoS attackers have an objective bringing down a network, denying service to its legitimate users. DoS attacks are easy to initiate; software is readily available from hacker Web sites and warez newsgroups that allow anyone to launch a DoS attack with little or no technical expertise.

The purpose of a DoS attack is to render a network inaccessible by generating a type or amount of network traffic that crashes the servers, overwhelms the routers, or otherwise prevents the network’s devices from functioning properly.

DoS can be accomplished by tying up the server’s resources by, for example, overwhelming the CPU and memory resources. In other cases, a particular user or machine can be the target of DoS attacks that hang up the client machine and require it to be rebooted.

Distributed DoS, or DDoS, attacks use intermediary computers, called agents, on which programs called zombies have previously been surreptitiously installed.

The hacker activates these zombie programs remotely, causing the intermediary computers (which can number in the hundreds or even thousands) to simultaneously launch the actual attack. Because the attack comes from the computers running the zombie programs, which can be on networks anywhere in the world, the hacker is able to conceal the true origin of the attack.

Examples of DDoS tools hackers use are Tribe FloodNet (TFN),TFN2K,

Trinoo, and Stacheldraht (German for barbed wire). Early versions of DDoS tools targeted UNIX and Solaris systems, but TFN2K can run on both UNIX and

Windows systems.

Because DDoS attacks are so popular, many tools have been developed to help you detect, eliminate, and analyze DDoS software that might be installed on your network. It is important to note that DDoS attacks pose a two-layer threat.

Not only could your network be the target of a DoS attack that crashes your servers and prevents incoming and outgoing traffic, but your computers could be used as the “innocent middlemen” to launch a DoS attack against another network or site.

DoS/DDoS attacks can be accomplished in a number of ways. Application exploits, operating system exploits, and protocol exploits can all be used to overload systems and create a denial of service. In the following sections, we address specific types of DoS and DDoS attacks and explain how they work.

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On

the Scene…

DoS as a Weapon of Cyberwar

In November 2000, Lucent Technologies announced that a pro-

Palestinian group named Unity had attacked its Web site using a tool called Defend, which creates a flood of messages designed to overwhelm the system and create a denial of service. Lucent was said to be targeted because it did business in Israel.

DNS DoS

The DNS DoS attack exploits the difference in size between a DNS query and a DNS response, in which all of the network’s bandwidth is tied up by bogus

DNS queries.The attacker uses the DNS servers as “amplifiers” to multiply the

DNS traffic.

The attacker begins by sending small DNS queries that contains the spoofed

IP address (see the “IP Spoofing” discussion earlier in this chapter) of the intended victim to each DNS server.The responses returned to the small queries are much larger in size so that if a large number of responses are returned at the same time, the link becomes congested and denial of service will take place.

One solution to this problem is for administrators to configure DNS servers to respond with a “refused” response, which is much smaller in size than a name resolution response, when they received DNS queries from suspicious or unexpected sources.

SYN/LAND Attacks

SYN attacks exploit the TCP “three-way handshake,” the process by which a communications session is established between two computers. Because TCP (unlike

UDP) is connection-oriented, a session, or direct one-to-one communication link, must be created prior to sending of data.The client computer initiates the communication with the server (the computer whose resources it wants to access).

The “handshake” includes the following steps:

1. The client machine sends a synchronization request (SYN) segment.

2. The server sends an acknowledgment (ACK) message and a SYN, which acknowledges the client machine’s request that was sent in Step 1, and sends the client a synchronization request of its own.The client and server machines must synchronize each other’s sequence numbers.

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3. The client sends an ACK back to the server, acknowledging the server’s request for synchronization.When both machines have acknowledged each other’s requests, the handshake has been successfully completed and a connection is established between the two computers.

Figure 6.3 illustrates how the process works.

Figure 6.3

TCP uses a “three-way handshake” to establish a connection.

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Step 1

SYN segment

Client Server

Step 2

ACK message

SYN segment

Client Server

Step 3

Client

Connection Established

ACK message

Server

A SYN attack uses this process to flood the system targeted as the victim of the attack with multiple SYN packets that have bad source IP addresses.This

causes the system to respond with SYN/ACK messages.The problem comes in when the system, waiting for the ACK message from the client that normally comes in response to its SYN/ACK, puts the waiting SYN/ACK messages into a queue.This is a problem because the queue is limited in the number of messages it can handle.When the queue is full, all subsequent incoming SYN packets will be ignored. In order for a SYN/ACK to be removed from the queue, an ACK must be returned from the client or an interval timer must run out and terminate the three-way handshake process.

Because the source IP addresses for the SYN packets sent by the attacker are no good, the ACKs that the server is waiting for never come.The queue stays full, and there is no room for valid SYN requests to be processed.Thus service is denied to legitimate clients attempting to establish communications with the server.

The LAND attack is a variation on the SYN attack. In the LAND attack, instead of sending SYN packets with IP addresses that do not exist, the flood of

SYN packets all have the same spoof IP address—that of the targeted computer.

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The LAND attack can be prevented by filtering out incoming packets whose source IP addresses appear to be from computers on the internal network.

The Ping of Death

Another type of DoS attack is the so-called Ping of Death (also known as the large

packet ping).The Ping of Death attack is launched by creating an IP packet larger than 65,536 bytes, which is the maximum allowed by the IP specification (sometimes referred to as a killer packet).This packet can cause the target system to crash, hang, or reboot.

Ping Flood/Fraggle/Smurf

The ping flood or ICMP flood is a means of tying up a specific client machine. It is caused by an attacker sending a large number of ping packets (ICMP echo request packets) to the Winsock or dialer software.This flood prevents the software from responding to server ping activity requests, which causes the server to eventually time out the connection. A symptom of a ping flood is a huge amount of modem activity, as indicated by the modem lights.This type of attack is also referred to as a ping storm.

The fraggle attack is related to the ping storm. Using a spoofed IP address

(which is the address of the targeted victim), an attacker sends ping packets to a subnet, causing all computers on the subnet to respond to the spoofed address and flood it with echo reply messages.

On

the Scene…

Fraggle Attacks in Action

During the Kosovo crisis, pro-Serbian hackers frequently used the fraggle attack against U.S. and NATO sites to overload them and bring them down.

The smurf attack is a form of brute-force attack that uses the same method as the ping flood, but directs the flood of ICMP echo request packets at the network’s router.The destination address of the ping packets is the broadcast address of the network, which causes the router to broadcast the packet to every computer on the network or segment.This can result in a very large amount of

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network traffic if there are many host computers and can create congestion that causes a denial of service to legitimate users.

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The broadcast address is normally represented by all 1s in the host ID (in the binary form of the address). This means, for example, that on Class C network 192.168.1.0, the broadcast address would be 192.168.1.255.

The number 255 in decimal represents 11111111 in binary, and in a Class

C network, the last, or z, octet represents the host ID. A message sent to the broadcast address is sent simultaneously to all hosts on the network.

In its most insidious form, the smurf attacker spoofs the source IP address of the ping packet.Then both the network to which the packets are sent and the network of the spoofed source IP address will be overwhelmed with traffic.The

network to which the spoofed source address belongs will be deluged with responses to the ping when all the hosts to which the ping was sent answer the echo request with an echo reply.

Smurf attacks can generally do more damage than some other forms of DoS, such as SYN floods.The SYN flood affects only the ability of other computers to establish a TCP connection to the flooded server, but a smurf attack can bring an entire ISP down for minutes or hours.This is because a single attacker can easily send 40 to 50 ping packets per second, even using a slow modem connection.

Because each packet is broadcast to every computer on the destination network, the number of responses per second is 40 to 50 times the number of computers on the network—which could be hundreds or thousands.This is enough data to congest even a T-1 link.

One way to prevent a smurf attack from using a network as the broadcast target is to turn off the capability to transmit broadcast traffic on the router. Most routers allow you to do this.To prevent the network from being the victim of the spoofed

IP address, the firewall should be configured to filter out incoming ping packets.

UDP Bomb/UDP Snork

An attacker can use the User Datagram Protocol (UDP) and one of several services that echo packets on receipt to create service-denying network congestion by generating a flood of UDP packets between two target systems. For example, the UDP chargen service on the first computer, which is a testing tool that generates a series of characters for every packet that it receives, sends packets to

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another system’s UDP echo service, which echoes every character it receives.

UDP chargen is on port 19. By exploiting these testing tools, an endless flow of echoes goes back and forth between the two systems, congesting the network.

This is sometimes called a UDP packet storm or UDP bomb.

In addition to port 7, the echo port, an attacker can use port 17, the quote of the day service (quotd), or the daytime service on port 13.These services also echo packets they receive. Disabling unnecessary UDP services on each computer

(especially those mentioned earlier) or using a firewall to filter those ports or services protects you from this type of attack.

The snork attack is similar to the UDP bomb. It uses a UDP frame that has a source port of either 7 (echo) or 9 (chargen), with a destination port of 135

(Microsoft location service).The result is the same as the UDP bomb—a flood of unnecessary transmissions that can slow performance or crash the systems that are involved.

Teardrop Attacks

The teardrop attack works a little differently from the Ping of Death, but with similar results.The teardrop program creates IP fragments, which are pieces of an IP packet into which an original packet can be divided as it travels through the

Internet.The problem is that the offset fields on these fragments, which are supposed to indicate the portion (in bytes) of the original packet that is contained in the fragment, overlap.

For example, normally two fragments’ offset fields might appear as shown here:

Fragment 1: (offset) 100 – 300

Fragment 2: (offset) 301 – 600

This indicates that the first fragment contains bytes 100 through 300 of the original packet and the second fragment contains bytes 301 through 600.

Overlapping offset fields appear something like this:

Fragment 1: (offset) 100 – 300

Fragment 2: (offset) 200 – 400

When the destination computer tries to reassemble these packets, it is unable to do so and might crash, hang, or reboot.

Variations include:

NewTear

Teardrop2

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SynDrop

Boink

All of these programs generate some sort of fragment overlap.

For more information about these variations, see An Analysis of Fragmentation

Attacks, by Jason Anderson, at rr.sans.org/threats/frag_attacks.php.

SNMP Exploits

SNMP is used to monitor network devices and manage networks. It is a set of protocols that uses messages called Protocol Data Units (PDUs) over the network to various machines or devices that have SNMP agent software installed.These

agents maintain Management Information Bases (MIBs) that contain information about the device.When agents receive the PDUs, they respond with information from the MIB.

Vulnerabilities have been discovered in some implementations of SNMP that provide a means for attackers to disable the devices or create a DoS.

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For more information about SNMP exploits, see the following articles:

SNMP Vulnerability Poses Major Threat

(www.vnunet.com/news/1129218)

SNMP Alert 2002: What Is It All About?

(http://rr.sans.org/protocols/SNMP_alert.php)

Source Routing Attacks

TCP/IP supports source routing, which is a means to permit the sender of network data to route the packets through a specific point on the network.There are two types of source routing:

Strict source routing

The sender of the data can specify the exact route (rarely used).

Loose source record route (LSRR)

The sender can specify certain routers (hops) through which the packet must pass.

The source route is option in the IP header that allows the sender to override routing decisions that are normally made by the routers between the source and destination machines. Network administrators use source routing to map the

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network or for troubleshooting routing and communications problems. It can also be used to force traffic through a route that will provide the best performance.

Unfortunately, source routing can be exploited by hackers.

If the system allows source routing, an intruder can use it to reach private internal addresses on the LAN that normally would not be reachable from the

Internet, by routing the traffic through another machine that is reachable from both the Internet and the internal machine Source routing can be disabled on most routers to prevent this type of attack.

Other Protocol Exploits

The attacks we have discussed so far involve exploiting some feature or weakness of the TCP/IP protocols. Hackers can also exploit vulnerabilities of other common protocols, such as HTTP, DNS, Common Gateway Interface (CGI), and other commonly used protocols.

Application Exploits

Application software exploits are those that take advantage of weaknesses of particular application programs; these weaknesses are often called bugs. Like protocol exploits, intruders use application exploits to gain unauthorized access to computers or networks or to crash or clog up the systems to deny service to others.

Bug Exploits

Common “bugs” can be categorized as follows:

Buffer overflows

Many common security holes are based on buffer overflow problems. Buffer overflows occur when the number of bytes or characters input exceeds the maximum number allowed by the program.

Unexpected input

Programmers might not take steps to define what happens if invalid input (input that doesn’t match program specifications) is entered.This could cause the program to crash or open a way into the system.

Configuration bugs

These are not really “bugs,” per se; rather, they are ways of configuring the software that leaves it vulnerable to penetration.

Popular software such as Microsoft Internet Information Server (IIS), Internet

Explorer (MSIE), and Outlook Express (MSOE) are the favorite targets of hackers looking for software security holes to exploit. ActiveX controls, JavaScript, and

VBScript can be used to add animations or applets to Web sites or e-mail

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messages, but hackers can exploit these features to write controls or scripts that allow them to remotely plant viruses, access data, or change or delete files on the hard disk of unaware users who visit the page or open the mail and run the script.

Major software vendors regularly release security patches to fix exploitable bugs. It is very important for network administrators to stay up to date in applying these fixes to ensure that their systems are as secure as possible.The following sections take a closer look at some popular attacks that exploit application software.

Mail Bombs

A mail bomb is a means of overwhelming a mail server, causing it to stop functioning and thus denying service to users. A mail bomb is a relatively simple form of attack, accomplished by sending a massive quantity of e-mail to a specific user or system. Programs available on hacking sites on the Internet allow a user to easily launch a mail bomb attack, automatically sending floods of e-mail to a specified address while protecting the attacker’s identity. A number of types of mail-bombing techniques can be used against the popular Sendmail program, including chain bombs, error message bombs, covert distribution channels, and abuse-of-mail exploders. For detailed technical explanations of these techniques, see www.silkroad.com/papers/html/bomb.

One variation on the mail bomb automatically subscribes a targeted user to hundreds or thousands of high-volume Internet mailing lists, which fill the user’s mailbox and/or mail server. Bombers call this attack list linking. Examples of these mail bomb programs include Unabomber, Extreme Mail, Avalanche,Voodoo, and

Kaboom.

The solution to repeated mail bomb attacks is to block traffic from the originating network using packet filters. Unfortunately, this solution does not work with list linking because the originator’s address is obscured; the deluge of traffic comes from the mailing lists to which the victim has unknowingly been subscribed.

Browser Exploits

Web browsers are client software programs such as MSIE, Netscape, and Opera that connect to servers running Web server software such as IIS or Apache and request Web pages via a URL, which is a “friendly” address that represents an IP address and particular files on the server at that address.The browser receives files that are encoded (usually in HTML) and must interpret the code or “markup” that determines how the page will be displayed on the user’s monitor. Browsers are open to a number of types of attack.

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Exploitable Browser Characteristics

Early browser programs were fairly simple, but today’s browsers are complex; they are capable of not only displaying text and graphics but of playing sound files and movies and running executable code.The browser software also usually stores information about the computer on which it is installed and even about the user

(data stored as cookies on the local hard disk), which can be uploaded to Web servers—either deliberately by the user or in response to code on a Web site.

These characteristics all serve useful purposes. Support for running code (as

“active content” such as Java, JavaScript, and ActiveX) allows Web designers to create pages that interact with users in sophisticated ways. Cookies allow users to set preferences on sites that will be retained the next time they visit the site.

However, hackers can exploit these characteristics in many ways. For example, a hacker can program a Web site to run code that transfers a virus to the client computer through the browser, erases key system files, or plants a “back door” program that then allows the hacker to take control of the user’s system. Chapter

8, “Implementing System Security,” discusses active content and other browser security issues and provides tips on how to disable these features when they aren’t needed and make popular browsers more secure.

Web Spoofing

Web spoofing is a means by which an attacker is able to see and even make changes to Web pages that are transmitted to or from another computer (the target machine).These pages include confidential information such as credit card numbers entered into online commerce forms and passwords that are used to access restricted Web sites. JavaScript can be used to route Web pages and information through the attacker’s computer, which impersonates the destination Web server.The attacker can send e-mail to the victim that contains a link to the forged page or put a link into a popular search engine. SSL doesn’t necessarily prevent this sort of “man in the middle” attack; the connection appears to the victim user to be secure because it is secure.The problem is that the secure connection is to a different site than the one the victim thinks he or she is connecting to. Hyperlink spoofing exploits the fact that SSL doesn’t verify hyperlinks that the user follows, so if a user gets to a site by following a link, the user can be sent to a spoofed site that appears to be a legitimate site.

Web spoofing is a high-tech form of con artistry.The point of the scam is to fool the user into giving confidential information such as credit card numbers, bank account numbers, or Social Security numbers to an entity that the user thinks is legitimate and then using that information for criminal purposes such as

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identity theft or credit card fraud.The only difference between this and the “realworld” con artist who knocks on a victim’s door and pretends to be from the bank, requiring account information, is in the technology used to pull it off.

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For more technical details about Web and hyperlink spoofing, see the paper by Frank O’Dwyer at www.brd.ie/papers/sslpaper/sslpaper.html and the paper by Felten, Balfanz, Dean, and Wallach at www.cs.princeton

.edu/sip/pub/spoofing.pdf.

There might be clues that will tip off an observant victim that a Web site is not what it appears to be, such as the URL or status line of the browser. However, the attacker can use JavaScript to cover his or her tracks by modifying these elements. An attacker can even go so far as to use JavaScript to replace the browser’s menu bar with one that looks the same but replaces functions that provide clues to the invalidity of the page, such as the display of the page’s source code.

Later versions of browser software have been modified to make Web spoofing more difficult. However, many people in the business world are still using MSIE or Netscape versions 3, both of which are highly vulnerable to this type of attack.

Web Server Exploits

Web servers host Web pages that are made available to others across the Internet or an intranet. Public Web servers (those accessible from the Internet) always pose an inherent security risk because they must be available to the Internet in order to do what they’re supposed to do. Clients (Web browser software) must be able to send transmissions to the Web server for the purpose of requesting Web pages.

However, allowing transmissions to come into the network to the Web server makes the system—and the entire network, unless measures are undertaken to isolate the Web server from the rest of the internal network—vulnerable to attackers.

Web server applications, like other software, can contain bugs that can be exploited. For example, in 2001 a flaw was discovered in Microsoft’s IIS software

(included with Windows NT, 2000, and XP) that exploited the code used for the indexing feature.The component was installed by default.When it was running, hackers could create buffer overflows to take control of the Web server and change Web pages or attack the system to bring it down. Microsoft quickly released security patches to address the problem, but many companies don’t

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upgrade their software or update it with available fixes, and new, different security holes are being found all the time in all major Web server programs. Major flaws have been found in Apache Web servers’ PHP scripting language that, if exploited by an attacker, can result in the attacker running arbitrary code on the system.

Security patches are available to address this issue.These are just a few examples of the ways that Web servers can be exploited, making it vitally important that these machines be secured.

We discuss the implementation of Web server security in more detail in

Chapter 8.

Buffer Overflows

A buffer is a sort of holding area for data.To speed processing, many software programs use a memory buffer to store changes to data, then the information in the buffer is copied to the disk.When more information is put into the buffer than it is able to handle, a buffer overflow occurs. Overflows can be caused deliberately by hackers and then exploited to run malicious code.

There are two types of overflows: stack overflows and heap overflows.The stack and the heap are two areas of the memory structure that are allocated when a program is run. Function calls are stored in the stack, and dynamically allocated variables are stored in the heap. A particular amount of memory is allocated to the buffer. Attackers can use buffer overflows in the heap to overwrite a password, a filename, or other data. If the filename is overwritten, a different file will be opened. If this is an executable file, code will be run that was not intended to be run. On UNIX systems, the substituted program code is usually the command interpreter, which allows the attacker to execute commands with Superuser privileges. On Windows systems, the overflow code can be used to send an HTTP request to download malicious code of the attacker’s choice.

Buffer overflows are based on the way the C programming language works.

Many function calls don’t check to ensure that the buffer will be big enough to hold the data copied to it. Programmers can use calls that do this check to prevent overflows, but many do not.

Creating a buffer overflow attack requires that the hacker understand assembly language as well as technical details about the operating system to be able to write the replacement code to the stack. However, the code for these attacks is often published so that others, who have less technical knowledge, can use it. Some types of firewalls, called stateful inspection firewalls, allow buffer overflow attacks through, whereas application gateways (if properly configured) can filter out most overflow attacks.We discuss firewalls in detail in Chapter 7,

“Understanding Cybercrime Prevention.”

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Operating System Exploits

Some exploits are unique to a particular operating system or family of operating systems.These hacks exploit specific characteristics of the operating system code to carry out the attack. All operating systems have their own vulnerabilities.

The WinNuke Out-of-Band Attack

The out-of-band (OOB) attack is one that exploits a vulnerability in some

Microsoft networks, so it is sometimes called the Windows OOB bug.The

WinNuke program and variations such as Sinnerz and Muerte create an OOB data transmission that crashes the machine to which it is sent. It works like this: A

TCP/IP connection is established with the target IP address, using port 139 (the

NetBIOS port).Then the program sends data using a flag called MSG_OOB (or

Urgent) in the packet header.This flag instructs the computer’s Winsock to send data called out-of-band data. Upon receipt of this flag, the targeted Windows server expects a pointer to the position in the packet where the Urgent data ends, with normal data following, but the OOB pointer in the packet created by WinNuke points to the end of the frame, with no data following.

The Windows machine does not know how to handle this situation and ceases communicating on the network. Service is denied to any users who subsequently attempt to communicate with it. A WinNuke attack usually requires a reboot of the affected system to reestablish network communications.

Windows 95 and NT 3.51 and 4.0 are vulnerable to the WinNuke exploit, unless the fixes provided by Microsoft have been installed.Windows 98/ME and

Windows 2000/XP are not vulnerable to WinNuke. Unfortunately, many networks still use older Microsoft operating systems, sometimes without updating patches and service packs.

Windows Registry Attacks

The Windows Registry in Windows 9x/ME and NT/2000/XP (that is, all

Windows operating systems later than Windows 3.x) is a database in which critical system and application configuration and initialization information is stored.

Having this information in one centralized location instead of scattered in multiple initialization and configuration files offers many benefits, but it also makes the Registry vulnerable to hackers and attackers.

The Regedit and Regedt32 tools in Windows allow the user to connect to the Registry on a remote system across the network and make changes to

Registry settings, as shown in Figure 6.4. A hacker can exploit this ability and alter important information that could bring down the system. Administrative

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privileges are needed to edit remote registries, and you cannot edit a Windows

95/98 computer’s Registry unless remote administration has been explicitly enabled by installing the remote Registry service.This can be done by administrators using a batch file during the rollout of a number of Windows 9x machines.

It can be difficult to detect registry attacks, because the system accesses the registry often, complicating the monitoring process. However, utilities such as

RegMon can be used to track registry access data, which can be compared with common attack models.

Figure 6.4

The Regedit utility can be used to connect to and edit a remote system’s Registry.

Other Windows Exploits

Many vulnerabilities have been discovered in the Windows operating systems.

Microsoft is generally quick to patch these vulnerabilities once they become known. Many of the operating system vulnerabilities are caused by buffer overflows in built-in applications such as Network Monitor, the SNMP service, and the Universal Plug and Play (UPnP) service. Others are created by installing particular software programs in Windows or stem from security flaws in the MSIE

Web browser. Here are a few of the more interesting security flaws that have been discovered in Windows 2000:

Renaming the CD-ROM or other removable drive automatically creates an administrative share for the new drive letter. Although this share is

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■ not visible in the network browser, no password is required to access the share if its name is known.The problem was fixed in Service Pack 2, but users running Windows 2000 without this service pack are vulnerable.

The Network News Transport Protocol (NNTP) service in Windows

NT 4.0 and 2000 has a programming flaw that causes a memory leak that an attacker can exploit to use up all the server’s memory and create a DoS. Microsoft released a patch to fix this problem.

A programming flaw allowed hackers to start an NTLM challengeresponse authentication process with a remote Telnet server, causing user credentials to be sent across the network when a user clicked a link in an HTML document. A patch was released to address this problem.

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For a good list of known Windows 2000 security vulnerabilities, see the

LabMice Web site at www.labmice.net/articles/win2000securityholes.htm.

For lists of exploits that can be used with Linux, Macintosh, and various flavors of UNIX (as well as Windows), see the Exploit World Web site at www.insecure.org/sploits.html.

UNIX Exploits

Many UNIX/Linux exploits aim at gaining root access. In UNIX, the root account is the equivalent of the Administrator account on a Windows system. A user logged on with the root account has full control of the system and is able to clear the logs to cover his or her tracks.“Getting root” often involves finding a file that has

Superuser ID (SUID) permissions and running a script (downloadable from hacker sites on the Web) or exploiting bugs in Sendmail or some other service.

Rootkit Attacks

Despite its name, a rootkit attack is not a method of obtaining root account privileges—at least, not directly. It is a group of programs that install a Trojan login replacement with a back door, along with a packet sniffer, on UNIX boxes.The

sniffer can then be used to capture network traffic, including user credentials, thus giving the user access to the root account by logging in with legitimate credentials. Software such as Rkdet is available to detect rootkit installation or packet sniffers running on a UNIX system.

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NFS Exploits

The Network File System (NFS) allows users to remotely mount disks on other computers in order to access the files on the remote system.This makes the files on the remote disk available across the network. A program called nfsbug can be used to try out different methods of mounting an NFS disk to determine if the remote computer is configured in such a way as to allow remote mounting. If it works, this allows the attacker full access to the remote file system.The attacker can then read or write to all the files.

Other UNIX Exploits

The *nix operating systems, like their Windows cousins, are vulnerable to a variety of buffer overflow exploits, insecure default configurations, and programming flaws that hackers can use to compromise the systems and networks. For an incomplete but fairly comprehensive list of vulnerabilities in specific distributions of UNIX and Linux, see the UNIX security Web site at www.cs.iastate.edu/

%7eghelmer/unixsecurity/unix_vuln.html.

Router Exploits

Many hackers now target routers instead of computers for their attacks.The

growing popularity of DSL and cable Internet connectivity has brought routers to home networks as well as business networks.This, in turn, has created a new point of vulnerability.

Many of the new, relatively inexpensive routers designed for broadband connections come with default administrator passwords that can be used on any of the vendor’s devices if the administrator does not change the password.This means a hacker with knowledge of the default password could log on and make changes to the routing table or router configuration.This differs from most operating systems that do not come with a default password but require the user to create one during installation. In addition to the administrator password, some router vendors have created special so-called “back door” passwords for their systems, intended to be used by the vendor’s tech support personnel so that if an administrator forgot the admin password, the vendor could help the administrator get back in. Of course, this system could also be exploited by hackers with knowledge of the secret “master” password.

Hackers can also obtain router passwords the same way they get the passwords for computers: using sniffer or spyware software, brute-force attacks, or social engineering tactics.Whichever method the hacker uses to access the router, he or

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she can then create DoS attacks by changing routing table entries to send all messages to the same destination. In fact, if the router uses the Routing

Information Protocol to dynamically update its routing tables, the attacker can send spoofed RIP messages to make the changes to the routing table without even needing to access the router directly.

DoS attacks can also target routers. Shutting down the router effectively stops communication between the subnet and the outside world. Cisco announced in

2001 that its 12000 series routers were vulnerable to DoS attacks.

For more information about the growing popularity of router exploits, see www.vnunet.com/News/1126398.

Prevention and Response

Administrators can take a number of steps to help prevent protocol, application, and operating system exploits, including the following:

Ensure that all systems have the latest security patches. Applying the patches protects against many DoS attacks, which rely on operating system or protocol “bugs.”

Linux systems can be protected from SYN attacks by building the kernel with SYN cookies. Some versions of UNIX (such as Solaris 2.6

and above) have built-in protection against SYN attacks. In Windows

2000, the Registry can be edited to protect against SYN attacks. For information and how-to instructions, see http://security.uchicago.edu/ seminars/DDoS/netprot.shtml.

Routers can be configured to respond to directed broadcasts instead of passing them on to the subnet to guard against smurf attacks.

DNS servers can be configured to respond with a “refused” response when they received DNS queries from suspicious or unexpected sources to protect from DNS DoS attacks.

The router can be configured to filter out incoming packets with a source IP address that appears to be from the local network.

Configure the system to ignore router redirects.

Disabling SNMP, if it is not needed, protects against exploits that rely on the protocol.

Disabling Java, JavaScript, ActiveX, and other active content in the Web browser thwarts many common browser exploits.

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Use application gateway firewalls to protect against buffer overflow attacks.

Change default passwords on routers and disable “back door” passwords.

Attacking with Trojans,

Viruses, and Worms

Intruders who access networks and systems without authorization or inside attackers with malicious motives can plant various types of programs to cause damage to the network.These programs—often lumped together under the general term viruses, although there are other varieties—have cost companies and individuals billions of dollars in lost data, lost productivity, and the time and expense of recovery. Some of the more destructive examples of malicious code, also sometimes referred to as malware, over the past decade are:

CIH/Chernobyl

In the late 1990s, this virus caused a great deal of damage to business and home computer users. It infected executable files and was spread by running an infected file on a Windows 95/98 machine.There were several variants of CIH; these were “time bomb” viruses that activated on a predefined date (either April 26—the anniversary of the Chernobyl disaster—or every month on the twenty-sixth).

Until the trigger date, the virus remained dormant. Once the computer’s internal clock indicated the activation date, the virus would overwrite the first 2048 sectors of every hard disk in the computer, thus wiping out the file allocation table and causing the hard disk to appear to be erased.

However, the data on the rest of the disk could be recovered using data recovery software; many users were unaware of this capability.The virus also attempted to write to the BIOS boot block, rendering the computer unbootable. (This did not work on computers that had been set to prevent writing to the BIOS.) This virus started to show up again in the spring of 2002, piggybacking on the Klez virus, described later in this list.

Melissa

This was the first virus to be widely disseminated via e-mail, starting in March 1999. It is a macro virus, written in Visual Basic for

Applications (VBA) and embedded in a Microsoft Word 97/2000 document.When the infected document is opened, the macro runs (unless

Word is set not to run macros), sending itself to the first 50 entries in every Microsoft Outlook MAPI address book.These include mailing list addresses, which could result in very rapid propagation of the virus.The

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■ virus also made changes to the Normal.dot template, which caused newly created Word documents to be infected. Because of the huge volume of mail it produced, the virus caused a denial of service on some e-mail servers.The confessed author of the virus, David Smith, was sentenced to 20 months in federal prison and fined $5000.

Code Red

In the summer of 2001, this self-propagating worm began to infect Web servers running Internet Information Server (IIS). On various trigger dates, the infected machine would try to connect to TCP port 80 (used for Web services) on computers with randomly selected

IP addresses.When successful, it attempted to infect the remote systems.

Some variations also defaced Web pages stored on the server. On other dates, the infected machine would launch a DoS attack against a specific

IP address embedded in the code. CERT reported that Code Red infected over 250,000 systems over the course of nine hours on

July 19, 2001.

Nimda

In the late summer of 2001, the Nimda worm infected numerous computers running Windows 95/98/ME, NT, and 2000.The

worm made changes to Web documents and executable files on the infected systems and created multiple copies of itself. It spread via e-mail, via network shares, and through accessing infected Web sites. It also exploited vulnerabilities in IIS versions 4 and 5 and spread from client machines to Web servers through the back doors left by the Code

Red II worm. Nimda allowed attackers to then execute arbitrary commands on IIS machines that had not been patched, and denials of service were caused by the worm’s activities.

Klez

In late 2001 and early 2002, this e-mail worm spread throughout the Internet. It propagates through e-mail mass mailings and exploits vulnerabilities in the unpatched versions of Outlook and Outlook

Express mail clients, attempting to run when the message containing it is previewed.When it runs, it copies itself to the System or System32 folder in the system root directory and modifies a Registry key to cause it to be executed when Windows is started. It also tries to disable any virus scanners and sends copies of itself to addresses in the Windows address book, in the form of a random filename with a double extension

(for example, file.doc.exe).The payload executes on the thirteenth day of every other month, starting with January, resulting in files on local and mapped drives being set to 0 bytes in length.

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These are only a few examples of the damage and inconvenience caused by various forms of malicious code.There are three broad categories of this type of code, identified as Trojans or Trojan horse programs, viruses, and worms. We take a brief look at each of these attack types in the following sections.

Trojans

The name Trojan is short for Trojan horse and refers to a software program that appears to perform a useful function but in fact performs actions that the program’s user does not intend or is not aware of.Trojan horses are often written by hackers to circumvent a system’s security. Once the Trojan is installed, the hacker can exploit the security holes it creates to gain unauthorized access, or the Trojan program may perform some action such as:

Deleting or modifying files

Transmitting files across the network to the intruder

Installing other programs or viruses

Basically, the Trojan can perform any action that the user has privileges and permissions to do on the system.This means that a Trojan is especially dangerous if the unsuspecting user who installs it is an administrator and has access to the system files.

W

ARNING

Although Microsoft Office documents are not executable files themselves, they can contain macros, which are small programs that are embedded into the documents and can be used to spread malicious code. Thus, Office documents should be treated as though they are executables unless running macros is disabled in the Office program.

Trojans can be very cleverly disguised as innocuous programs, utilities, or screensavers. A Trojan can also be installed by an executable script (JavaScript, a

Java applet, ActiveX control, or the like) on a Web site. Accessing the site can initiate the program’s installation if the Web browser is configured to allow scripts to run automatically.Trojans can use Windows’ default behavior to disguise their true nature. Because the file extension (the characters that appear after the last dot in a filename) are hidden by default, a hacker can name a file something like vacation.jpg.exe and it will be shown in Windows Explorer as vacation.jpg, seeming to be an innocent graphics file when it is really an executable program.

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Of course, double-clicking it to open the “picture” will run the program.Trojans

that are designed to allow a hacker unauthorized access across the network (such as Back Orifice and NetBus) are sometimes called remote access Trojans, or RATs.

For more information about Trojans in general and links to specific fixes for

Trojan attacks, see www.irchelp.org/irchelp/security/trojan.html.

Viruses

Viruses are programs that are usually installed without the user’s awareness and perform undesired actions that are often harmful, although sometimes merely annoying.Viruses can also replicate themselves, infecting other systems by writing themselves to any diskette that is used in the computer or sending themselves across the network.Viruses are often distributed as attachments to e-mail or as macros in word-processing documents. Some activate immediately on installation, and others lie dormant until a specific date or time or a particular system event triggers them. For more information, see the article How Computer Viruses Work at www.howstuffworks.com/virus.htm.

Viruses come in thousands of varieties.They can do anything from popping up a message that says “Hi!” to erasing the entire contents of a computer’s hard disk.

The proliferation of computer viruses has also led to the phenomenon of the virus

hoax, which is a warning—generally circulated via e-mail or Web sites—about a virus that does not exist or that does not do what the warning claims it will do.

Real viruses, however, present a real threat to your network. Companies such as Symantec and McAfee make antivirus software that is aimed at detecting and removing virus programs. Because new viruses are created daily, it is important to download regularly new virus definition files, which contain information required to detect each virus type, to ensure that your virus protection stays up to date.

The types of viruses include:

Boot sector viruses

These are often transmitted via a diskette.The virus is written to the master boot record on the hard disk, from which it is loaded into the computer’s memory every time the system is booted.

Application or program viruses

These are executable programs that, when run, infect your system.Viruses can also be attached to other, harmless programs and installed at the same time the desirable program is installed.

Macro viruses

These are embedded in documents (such as Microsoft

Word documents) that can use macros, small applications or “applets” that automate the performance of some task or sequence.

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On

the Scene…

Understanding the Virus Threat

The most dangerous aspect of computer viruses (as is true of their biological counterparts) is their ability to “mutate” into something else. Of course, this mutation doesn’t happen spontaneously, but virus writers build on the code of others to make relatively benign viruses more destructive—and to avoid detection by antivirus software.

Viruses that are programmed to “go off ” (activate and destroy data or files) on a certain date are called time bombs or logic bombs. One of the first of this type to gain worldwide attention was the Michelangelo virus in the early 1990s, which attempted to erase the hard disks of infected PCs on March 6, the birthday of the famous painter. A few years later, a disgruntled ex-employee of Omega

Engineering planted a time-bomb virus on the company’s network that resulted in approximately $10 million in loss and damage. He was convicted of the crime and sentenced to 41 months in prison.

Worms

A worm is a program that can travel across a network from one computer to another. Sometimes different parts of a worm run on different computers.Worms

make multiple copies of themselves and spread throughout a network.The distinction between viruses and worms has become blurred. Originally the term

worm was used to describe code that attacked multiuser systems (networks), whereas virus described programs that replicated on individual computers.

The primary purpose of the worm is to replicate.These programs were initially used for legitimate purposes in performing network management duties, but their ability to multiply quickly has been exploited by hackers who create malicious worms that replicate wildly and can also exploit operating system weaknesses and perform other harmful actions.

N

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One of the first widely disseminated worm programs was the Internet

Worm of 1988, which practically shut down the entire Internet. For a detailed paper on how it happened, see A Tour of the Worm at http://world.std.com/~franl/worm.html.

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Prevention and Response

Protecting systems and networks from the damage caused by Trojans, viruses, and worms is mostly a matter of common sense. Practices that can help prevent infection include these:

Don’t run executable (.exe) files from unknown sources, including those attached to e-mail or downloaded from Web sites.

Turn off the Preview and/or HTML mail options in your e-mail client program.

Don’t open Microsoft Office documents from unknown sources without first disabling macros.

Be careful about using diskettes that have been used in other computers.

Install and use firewall software.

Install antivirus software, configuring it to run scans automatically at predefined times and updating the definition files regularly.

Use intrusion prevention tools called behavior blockers that deny programs the ability to execute operations that have not been explicitly permitted.

Use behavior detection solutions such as Finjan’s SurfinGate and

SurfinShield that can use heuristic techniques to analyze executable files and assess whether they are likely to be hostile.

Use integrity checker software (such as Tripwire) to scan the system for changes.

Recognizing the presence of malicious code is the first-response step if the system does get infected. Administrators and users need to be on the alert for common indications that a virus might be present, such as missing files or programs; unexplained changes to the system’s configuration; unexpected and unexplained displays, messages, or sounds; new files or programs that suddenly appear with no explanation; memory “leaks” (less available system memory than normal) or unexplained use of disk space; and any other odd behavior of programs or the operating system. If a virus is suspected, a good antivirus program should be installed and run to scan the system for viruses and attempt to remove or quarantine any that are found. Finally, all mission-critical or irreplaceable data should be backed up on a regular basis in case all these measures fail.

Some virus writers create “proof of concept” viruses that do not cause damage and are designed merely to demonstrate that a particular type of virus

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can be written. For example, it was once thought that viruses could not be spread by simply reading e-mail; users were told that as long as they didn’t open attachments, they were safe.The first viruses exploiting HTML e-mail to run and infect systems when a user opened the e-mail message (not an attachment) proved the concept of a virus that could spread via e-mail alone. In June 2002, researchers at

McAfee received a proof-of-concept virus called Perrun that is claimed to be embedded in a JPEG image file. If genuine, this was the first known case of a virus embedded in a picture file that runs automatically when the graphic is viewed.That same month, Symantec reported the first cross-platform virus; it could infect both Linux and Windows systems.

Some technical commentators have questioned the feasibility of these new viruses, but many technical types also once assured users that viruses couldn’t spread via e-mail.The moral of the story is that virus writers are a creative and persistent bunch and will continue to come up with new ways to do the “impossible,” so computer users should never assume that any particular file type or operating system is immune to malicious code.The only sure way to protect against viruses is to power down the computer and leave it turned off.

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Information about specific viruses and instructions on how to clean an infected system are available at www.symantec.com and www.mcafee.com. Both antivirus vendors provide detailed databases that list and describe known viruses.

Hacking for Nontechies

As we’ve mentioned, highly developed technical skills are no longer necessary for people who want to break into computer systems and networks. Some say that hacking was originally an art that required great talent, later required only a bit of skill, and today can be done by anyone who has enough hand/eye coordination to click a mouse.To put it more eloquently, “Hacking has devolved from a labor of love to unskilled labor.”This process of deterioration began with the phenomenon of the script kiddie.

The Script Kiddie Phenomenon

You’ll find a dozen definitions of script kiddie, depending on the source you consult.Webopedia (www.webopedia.com) defines the term as someone who

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“randomly seeks out a specific weakness over the Internet in order to gain root access to a system without really understanding what it is s/he is exploiting because the weakness was discovered by someone else.”The Jargon Lexicon at www.tuxedo.org/~esr/jargon is a bit more judgmental: “The lowest form of cracker … People who cannot program but who create tacky HTML pages by copying JavaScript routines from other tacky HTML pages.”

Regardless of the precise definition, most agree on one thing: Script kiddies don’t have much technical expertise themselves, but they use code written by others to wreak havoc. In the hacker culture, they are generally regarded with contempt or at least with a lack of respect. Nonetheless, hackers who do understand the technology continue to distribute scripts and programs that the script kiddies use to do their dirty work.

According to the SANS Institute (http://rr.sans.org/hackers/monkeys.php), script kiddies and their cousins, packet monkeys (defined as people who launch

DoS attacks against Web sites for “no apparent reason”), are the new generation of hackers who are responsible for many of the large-scale DDoS attacks of recent years, including those that brought down Yahoo!, eBay, ZDNet, and CNN.

The Yahoo! attack was launched by a Canadian teenager called “Mafiaboy” who used a utility called Stacheldraht that was written by a German hacker.

The “real” hackers spend years playing with computer systems and learning the intricacies of complex operating systems, often preferring to work with

UNIX.They take pride in their knowledge and in the “elegance” of their attacks.

They regard script kiddies, who rely on scripts written by others and even stoop to using hacking tools with graphical interfaces, in much the way a master jewel thief regards a street thug. Because script kiddies are unskilled (and thus less able to cover their tracks) and because they tend to crave attention (whereas most skilled hackers take pride in being able to stealthily invade a system and get out without anyone knowing), script kiddies make up a large proportion of the network intruders and attackers who are caught and prosecuted.

Despite their disrespectful nickname and the low level of regard they’re given in the hacker community, script kiddies can do a lot of damage, and the randomness of their attacks makes them especially dangerous. As with drive-by shootings that target random victims, script kiddies’ actions are impossible to predict and they place everyone at risk.

The “Point and Click” Hacker

As unsophisticated as script kiddies are, another variety of “wannabe” hacker is even less technically savvy. At least the average script kiddie knows enough to

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type a few commands to launch the script he or she got from somebody else.The

newest incarnation of “do it the easy way” attackers is too unknowledgeable—or too lazy—to do even that. Instead, this new breed uses “point and click” utilities with pretty graphical interfaces or “fill in the blank”Web sites that serve as front ends to launch the chosen attack(s) against specified targets without the so-called hacker even needing to know how to download a file.

David Rhoades of Maven Security came up with the term click kiddies to describe these “rebels without a clue.” Rhoades travels to computer security conferences around the world with his presentation, called “Hacking for the Masses.”

In his talk, he outlines just how easy it is for literally anyone to commit online breaking and entering—and much worse—with readily available tools that, to paraphrase Rhoades, are so user-friendly even your grandmother can bring down several servers before dinner.

Use of the Web-based attack tools favored by click kiddies also makes it more difficult to trace the origin of the attack, since the attack is coming from an intermediary (the Web site that provides the tool) instead of directly from the attacker.

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An online version of Rhoades’ “Hacking for the Masses” presentation, complete with examples of the Web-based tools he discusses, is available for viewing or download at his Web site, http://www.clickkiddie.net.

Prevention and Response

The same preventative measures that we’ve already discussed apply to protecting a network from nontechie hackers. In addition, script kiddies can sometimes be lured in and caught by setting up a honeypot, which is a system designed specifically for the purpose of trapping attackers.The honeypot is a system or network that acts as an “open invitation” to hackers. It is connected to the Internet with minimal protection, running unpatched operating systems and application software that can be easily exploited.The systems are constantly monitored so that the attacker can be identified and traced before he or she has a chance to destroy evidence.

We discuss honeypots in more detail in Chapter 9, “Implementing

Cybercrime Detection Techniques.”

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Summary

The sheer number of ways that a hacker can intrude or attack a network can be overwhelming. As soon as one security “hole” is plugged, dozens more are discovered or created. Some of these methods are so subtle that no one might ever realize the network’s security has been compromised. Others are so blatant that

everyone will know instantly.

Attackers range from charmers with lots of “people skills” who can persuade legitimate users to provide the credentials they need to break into the system to technical “whiz kids” who can exploit the characteristics of network protocols, applications, and operating systems and technically unsophisticated hacker

“wannabes” who use scripts, GUI tools, and Web sites created by others to carry out their attacks.The attacks themselves can range from denials of service that disrupt communications on the entire network to “benign” viruses that do no more than pop up an annoying message window. In many cases, the goal of an attack is to plant a “back door” in the system that will allow the hacker to reenter later at will.

The good news is that network professionals can take many steps to prevent technical exploits on their systems. In fact, applying all the current patches, fixes, service packs, and other upgrades and running good antivirus software with updated virus file definitions will go a long way toward keeping intruders out and attackers at bay.The bad news is that administrators must be constantly vigilant to guard against new threats that appear on a daily basis.The state of hacking has reached the point at which anyone and everyone who wants to launch an attack can do so, and the incidence of “drive-by hacking” has increased with the advent of easy-to-use hacking tools.

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Frequently Asked Questions

The following Frequently Asked Questions, answered by the authors of this book, are designed to both measure your understanding of the concepts presented in this chapter and to assist you with real-life implementation of these concepts. To have your questions about this chapter answered by the author, browse to

www.syngress.com/solutions and click on the “Ask the Author” form.

Q:

Why aren’t the tools described in this chapter—port-scanning utilities, packet sniffers, keystroke-logging devices, and so on—illegal to create or download?

A:

Many of these tools have legitimate uses. It is especially important for network administrators and security consultants to be able to use scanning tools to determine where the vulnerabilities are in their own or their clients’ networks in order to take the appropriate steps to “harden” the systems. After all, if scanning tools were outlawed, only outlaws would have scanning tools.

These utilities—like many other things—can be used either offensively or defensively. Keystroke-logging devices and other “spyware” can be useful in situations in which monitoring users’ activities is legal and appropriate—for example, for employers to keep tabs on what employees are doing on the network (especially when the employer could be held liable for those activities) and for parents to exercise control over children’s online activities.

Q:

If a company has a good firewall installed, won’t that protect from all these attacks?

A:

No. Firewall products are very useful for controlling what comes into or goes out of a network. But a firewall is like a computer (in many cases, a firewall is a specialized computer); it does only what the person who configures it tells it to do. Some types of attacks are recognized and can be stopped by firewalls, but others exploit the characteristics of the protocols commonly used for legitimate network communications, and packets might appear to be nothing more than a benign bit of data destined for a computer on the internal network.Trojans, viruses, and worms piggyback into the network as e-mail attachments or through remote file sharing. Firewalls won’t catch them, but a good antivirus program, frequently updated and set to scan all incoming email, might be able to do so. Many companies seem to operate under the assumption that installing a firewall is akin to invoking a magic spell that casts a force field of protection around their networks, rendering them completely

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immune to attack. Even the best firewall won’t protect against social engineering attacks, nor will it do any good against internal attackers who have physical access to the network. Studies have shown that a large number of network-related crimes are actually “inside jobs.” In the next chapter, you’ll learn in detail how firewalls work, which will make it easier to understand why they are not the “cure all” solution to network security that they’re sometimes made out to be.

Q:

Exactly how does social engineering work? Why would anyone reveal his or her password to a stranger? Does this really happen?

A:

Yes, it really happens—and more often than you might think. Skilled social engineers are good con artists; they are masters at making other people trust them. In large companies, employees often aren’t personally familiar with all the other employees, so it’s relatively easy for the social engineer to come strolling in or even call on the phone and persuade a user that he or she is a member of the IT department and needs the user’s password.The social engineer might have a convincing story, saying, for instance, that a hacker has gotten into the system and discovered all the password files, and now the IT department needs to know everyone’s old password so they can reset them and issue new ones to protect against the hacker. Like all con artists, the social engineer usually plays on common human emotions. For example, the engineer will play up the danger that the hacker can access and destroy all of the user’s data if the “IT worker” doesn’t get the password immediately and make the change. In other cases, the engineer might exploit other emotions, such as people’s natural desire to help, claiming that the “IT worker” will get in trouble with the “big boss,” maybe even lose the job, if he or she is unable to get the password information needed. Social engineers are not above appealing to the user’s ego or pretending sexual/romantic interest in the user to get the password, either. Although some might not categorize it as social engineering, another technique involves simply spying on the user to obtain the password (“shoulder surfing” or looking over the user’s shoulder as it is typed) or going through the user’s papers to find a written record of the password. Infamous hacker Kevin Mitnik is quoted as saying, “You can have the best technology, firewalls, intrusion-detection systems, biometric devices. All it takes is a call to an unsuspecting employee, and that’s all she wrote, baby.They

got everything.”Visit http://searchsecurity.techtarget.com/originalContent/

0,289142,sid14_gci771517,00.html for more on this topic.

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Q:

I think I understand the differences between a virus, a Trojan, and a worm.

But what are all these other types of viruses I hear about: stealth viruses, polymorphic viruses, armored viruses, and cavity viruses?

A:

Stealth viruses are able to conceal the changes they make to files, boot records, and the like from antivirus programs.They do so by forging the results of a program’s attempt to read the infected files. A polymorphic virus makes copies of itself to spread, like other viruses, but the copies are not exactly like the original.The virus “morphs” into something slightly different in an effort to avoid detection by antivirus software that might not have definitions for all the variations.Viruses can use a “mutation engine” to create these variations on themselves. An armored virus uses a technique that makes it difficult to understand the virus code. A cavity virus is able to overwrite part of the infected (host) file while not increasing the length of the file, which would be a tip-off that a virus had infected the file. All of these and more virus classifications are described in Nick FitzGerald’s Virus FAQ sheet located at www.safetynet.com/support/kbvfaq.asp#SB. Although somewhat out of date in regard to specific viruses, this site contains some good basic information that forms a foundation for modern virus studies.

Resources

Strategies for Defeating Distributed Attacks

http://razor.bindview.com/publish/papers/strategies.html

CERT Warns of Automated Attacks

www.vnunet.com/News/1130755

Russian PaSsWord Crackers: examples of free cracking software www.password-crackers.com/crack.html

Everything You Wanted to Know About Social Engineering—But Were

Afraid to Ask

www.happyhacker.org/uberhacker/se.shtml

The Unofficial NetWare Hack FAQ

http://nmrc.org/faqs/netware/nw_sec02.html#02-1

Web Spoofing: An Internet Con Game (the Princeton paper) www.cs.princeton.edu/sip/pub/spoofing.pdf

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SANS Institute: DNS Overview with Discussion of DNS Spoofing http://rr.sans.org/DNS/DNS.php

Port Scanning: It’s Not Just an Offensive Tool Anymore, by Gary Kessler www.garykessler.net/library/is_tools_scan.html

The Ethics and Legality of Port Scanning, by Shaun Jamieson http://rr.sans.org/audit/ethics.php

Finding Fences in Cyberspace: Privacy, Property and Open Access on the

Internet, by Ethan Preston http://grove.ufl.edu/~techlaw/vol6/Preston.html

Back Orifice Basics

www.nwinternet.com/~pchelp/bo/bobasics.htm

E-Mail Bombs and Countermeasures: Cyber Attacks on Availability and

Brand Integrity

www.silkroad.com/papers/html/bomb/

Known Windows 2000 Security Vulnerabilities

www.labmice.net/articles/win2000securityholes.htm

Exploit World: Exploits for various operating systems www.insecure.org/sploits.html

Routers Surpass Servers for Hacker Attacks, by James Middleton www.vnunet.com/News/1126398

How Computer Viruses Work, by Marshall Brain www.howstuffworks.com/virus.htm

The Internet Worm of 1988: A Tour of the Worm

http://world.std.com/~franl/worm.html

Script Kiddies and Packet Monkeys—The New Generation of “Hackers,”

by Denis Dion http://rr.sans.org/hackers/monkeys.php

Know Your Enemy:The Tools and Methodologies of the Script Kiddie, from the Honeynet Project http://project.honeynet.org/papers/enemy

Hacking for the Masses, presentation by David Rhoades, Maven Security www.clickkiddie.net

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Script Kiddies: Who Are They and What Are They Doing?

by Andrew Stephens http://rr.sans.org/hackers/kiddies.php

UNIX Forensics Techniques for Incidence Response

www.incident-response.org

Computer Forensics: Introduction to Incident Response and Investigation of Windows NT/2000

http://rr.sans.org/incident/comp_forensics3.php

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Understanding

Cybercrime

Prevention

Chapter 7

Topics we’ll investigate in this chapter:

Understanding Security Concepts

Understanding the Technical Aspects of Network Security

Making the Most of Hardware and Software Security

Understanding Firewalls

Deploying an Incident Response Team

Designing and Implementing

Security Policies

! Summary

! Frequently Asked Questions

! Resources

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Introduction

Understanding what cybercrime is and how cybercrimes can be committed only gives an investigator half the picture. Just as every police officer needs a good grasp of physical defensive tactics, the cybercrime investigator must be aware of the tactics that are commonly used to defend a network from criminal intrusion or attack. In this chapter, we discuss the basic concepts involved in computer and network security.This includes the importance of multilayered security and the components that make up a multilayered security plan.We also emphasize the need for investigators to “talk the talk” by learning computer security terminology.

We discuss physical security, the first (and often-overlooked) line of defense.

We show you how network administrators keep workstations and servers secure and how a good security plan goes a step further to protect the network’s routers, switches, hubs, and other connectivity devices, as well as the cable over which the signal travels (and from which it can be intercepted).We also look at special problems involved in physically securing portable computers and some innovative products that can be used to protect these computers and the data they contain.

Next, we delve into the fascinating and complex world of cryptography, the study of “hidden writing.”We look at encryption technologies and algorithms and the many ways in which encryption can be used to protect data stored on computers or traveling across the network.You learn about the purposes of encryption in the context of network security and how it can provide for authentication, data confidentiality, and data integrity.We provide a brief history of cryptography and discuss common encryption protocols in use today.We also explain the differences between encryption and steganography and how these two techniques are used together for stronger security—by both the good guys and the cybercriminals. Finally, we discuss cryptanalysis and decryption techniques and how cryptographic software is being used today as a terrorist tool.

Moving from theory to implementation, we next discuss how organizations can make the most of both hardware- and software-based security products to protect their networks. First, we look at hardware devices, including firewall appliances and authentication devices such as smart card readers, fingerprint scanners, retinal and iris scanners, and voice analysis devices.Then we discuss software-based security solutions, including cryptographic software, digital certificates, and the public key infrastructure.

The next section takes us into how firewalls—both hardware- and softwarebased—work “under the hood.”You learn about layered filtering and how the best firewalls provide protection at the packet, circuit, and application levels.Then

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we discuss integrated intrusion detection and the way that many firewall products can be configured to perform predefined attacks when an attack occurs.

After covering the specifics of available security products, we turn to another aspect of creating an overall security plan—the issue of how to form an incident response team to deal quickly and effectively with attacks when they occur. But having a team in place will not provide the protection that an organization needs unless the team—and the users and IT professionals who make up the “human side” of the network—are governed by specific, detailed security policies that bring the organization’s security plan into focus and incorporate it into the everyday use of the systems and network.Thus the last section of this chapter deals with why and how solid security policies can be developed and put in place, creating a foundation for the implementation of all the security measures that we’ve addressed as well as laying the cornerstone of the organization’s cybercrime prevention plan.

Understanding Network

Security Concepts

In Chapter 6, you learned about “technical” intrusions and attacks on networks and how hackers (and hacker wannabes) can exploit the protocols, operating systems, and applications to commit the criminal acts of unauthorized access, interrupting network communications, and destroying or damaging computer data. It is important for investigators to have at least a basic understanding of how these attacks are carried out. It is also important for investigators to be aware of how networks can be defended from further attacks, for several reasons:

In the course of investigating an intrusion or attack, knowing what security measures were in place at the time of the incident might help narrow down the exact nature of the attack and even who could have perpetrated it.

Understanding how various security measures work can lead investigators to log files and other sources of information useful in the investigation.

Knowledge of security measures and concepts allows investigators to make suggestions to victims as to how they might prevent further incidents.

Some of the measures used by the “good guys” to protect their networks and data (such as encryption) can also be used by the “bad guys” to cover their criminal activities.

Knowledge is power. That’s a famous hacker motto, (along with such other gems as “Information wants to be free” and the simplistic but optimistically ambitious

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“Hack the world!”). However, it is a truism that applies not only to people attempting to gain access to data they aren’t supposed to see, but also to those who are trying to protect themselves from the intruders.The first step in winning any battle—and network security is a battle over the ownership and control of your computer files—is the same as it’s always been: “Know thine enemy.”

To protect a network’s resources from theft, damage, or unwanted exposure, administrators must understand who initiates these things, why, and how they do it. Knowledge will make you, the investigator, powerful, too—and better able to track down and prosecute unauthorized intruders and attackers.

Applying Security Planning Basics

Securing a company’s electronic assets from cybercriminals must involve much more than the IT department; it must involve the entire organization—just as a community policing effort, to be effective, must involve the police department as a whole and not just an isolated “community service division.” For cyberinvestigators to understand the security planning and implementation process, they need to start at the beginning, with the very basics of computer security.The following sections illustrate how some of the most basic tenets of traditional security can be applied to the context of computer networking.

Defining Security

A generic dictionary definition of security (taken from the American Heritage

Dictionary) is “freedom from risk or danger; safety.”This definition is perhaps a little misleading when it comes to computer and networking security, because it implies a degree of protection that is inherently impossible in the modern connectivity-oriented computing environment.

This is why the same dictionary provides another definition, specific to computer science: “The level to which a program or device is safe from unauthorized use” [emphasis added]. Implicit in this definition is the caveat that the objectives of security and accessibility—the two top priorities on the minds of many network administrators—are, by their very natures, diametrically opposed.The more accessible the data, the less secure it is. Likewise, the more tightly you secure the data, the more you impede accessibility. Any security plan is an attempt to strike the proper balance between the two objectives.

The first step is to determine what needs to be protected, and to what degree.

Because not every asset is equally valuable, some assets need stronger protection than others.This determination leads to the concept of instituting multiple layers of security.

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The Importance of Multilayered Security

An effective security plan does not rely on one technology or solution but instead takes a multilayered approach. Compare this approach to a business’s physical security measures; most companies don’t depend on just the locks on the buildings’ doors to keep intruders and thieves out. Instead, they might also have perimeter security (a fence), perhaps additional external security such as a guard or guard dog, external and internal alarm systems, and to protect special valuables, further internal safeguards such as a vault. IT security should be similarly layered.

For example:

Firewalls at network entry points (and possibly a DMZ or screened subnet between the LAN and the network interface connected to the

Internet) that function as perimeter protection

Password protection at local computers, requiring user authentication to log on, to keep unauthorized persons out

Access permissions set on individual network resources to restrict access of those who are “in” (logged onto the network)

Encryption of data sent across the network or stored on disk to protect what is especially valuable, sensitive, or confidential

Servers, routers, and hubs located in locked rooms to prevent people with physical access from hijacking data without authorization

The Intrusion Triangle

Crime prevention specialists use a model called the Crime Triangle to explain that certain criteria must exist before a crime can occur.We can adapt this same familiar law enforcement concept to network security:The same three criteria in the Crime Triangle must exist before a network security breach can take place.

The three “legs,” or points of the triangle, are shown in Figure 7.1.

Let’s look at each point on the triangle individually:

Motive

An intruder must have a reason to want to breach the security of the network (even if the reason is “just for fun”); otherwise he or she won’t bother.

Means

An intruder must have the ability (either the programming knowledge or, in the case of script kiddies, the intrusion software written by others) or he or she won’t be able to breach your security.

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Opportunity

An intruder must have the chance to enter the network because of flaws in the security plan, holes in a software program that open an avenue of access, or physical proximity to network components. If there is no opportunity to intrude, the would-be hacker will go elsewhere.

Figure 7.1

All three legs of the Crime Triangle must exist for a network intrusion to occur.

Opportunity

Intrusion

Triangle

Motive

Means

If you think about the three-point intrusion criteria for a moment, you’ll see that there is really only one leg of the triangle over which the network administrator or security specialist has any control. It is unlikely that anyone can do much to remove the intruder’s motive.The motive is likely to be built into the type of data that’s on the network or even the personality of the intruder him- or herself. It is also not often possible to prevent the intruder from having or obtaining the means to breach your security. Programming knowledge is freely available, and many experienced hackers are more than happy to help less sophisticated ones.The one thing that people who strive to prevent cybercrime can affect is the opportunity afforded the hacker.

Removing Intrusion Opportunities

Crime prevention officers tell members of the community that they probably can’t keep a potential burglar from wanting to steal, and they certainly can’t keep the potential burglar from obtaining burglary tools or learning the “tricks of the trade.”What they can do is take away, as much as possible, the opportunity for the burglar to target their own homes.

This means putting dead-bolt locks on house doors (and using them); getting a big, loud dog who is unfriendly to strangers; and installing an alarm system. In other words, the homeowner’s goal is not to prevent the burglar from burglarizing but to make his or her own home a less desirable target. For network

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“owners,” the objective is to “harden” the network, so that all those hackers out there who already have the motive and the means will look for an easier victim.

The best and most expensive locks in the world won’t keep intruders out of your house if you don’t use them. And if those locks are difficult to use and cause you inconvenience in your everyday comings and goings, you probably won’t use them—at least, not all the time. A poorly implemented network security system that is difficult to administer or that unduly inconveniences network users might end up similarly; eventually the person burdened with maintaining it will throw his or her hands up in frustration and just turn the darn thing off. And that will leave the network wide open to intruders.

Talking the Talk: Security Terminology

Every industry has its own “language,” the jargon that describes ideas, items, concepts, and procedures that are unique to the field. Lawyers speak “legalese,” rife with wherefores and hereuntos; doctors and nurses use terms like crash cart and defib, and police reports are sprinkled with references to perps and vics and MVAs.

Computer networking is infamous for its “technotalk” and the proliferation of acronyms that often mystify outsiders. Specialty areas within an industry often have their own brands of jargon as well, and the computer security subfield is no exception.

It might not be absolutely necessary for the cybercrime investigator to understand all the technical aspects of how security measures work—but knowledge of the technical language used to describe security concepts and devices will serve a couple of important purposes:

It will make you aware of what can and can’t be accomplished by a hacker in particular network environment.

If you are able to “talk the talk”—to converse intelligently about security issues and measures—you will be better able to win the trust of and communicate with the IT professionals who provide much of the information necessary to your investigation.

It is not possible to provide a complete glossary of security-related terms within the scope of this chapter, but in this section, we define some of the more common words and phrases that you might encounter as you begin to explore the fascinating world of computer security:

Authentication

Verification of identity of a user, computer, or process.

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Authorization

The actions that a user, computer, or process, once identified, is permitted to do.

Audit

To track security-related events, such as logging onto the system or network, accessing objects, or exercising user/group rights or privileges.

Breach

Successfully defeating security measures to gain access to data or resources without authorization, to make data or resources available to unauthorized persons, or to delete or alter computer files.

Cipher

A method used to encrypt data.

Cipher text

Data in encrypted form.

Confidentiality of data

Ensuring that the contents of messages will be kept secret. See also integrity of data.

Cryptography (crypto)

The science of hiding information.

Encryption

The process of converting data (plain text) into a format

(cipher text) that cannot be read or understood by anyone except those authorized to receive it.

Encryption algorithm

A formula or calculation that is applied to data to encrypt, or scramble, it.

Integrity of data

Ensuring that data has not been modified or altered, that the data received is identical to the data that was sent.

Key

A variable that is used in conjunction with an algorithm to encrypt or decrypt data.

Penetration testing

Evaluating a system by attempting to circumvent the computer’s or network’s security measures.

Reliability

The probability of a computer system or network continuing to perform in a satisfactory manner for a specific time period under normal operating conditions.

Risk

The probability that a specific security threat will be able to exploit a system vulnerability, resulting in damage, loss of data, or other undesired results.

Risk management

The process of identifying, controlling, and either minimizing or completely eliminating events that pose a threat to system reliability, data integrity, and data confidentiality.

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TCSEC

Trusted Computer System Evaluation Criteria, a system for evaluating a system’s level of security.

Technical vulnerability

A flaw or bug in the hardware or software components of a system that leave it vulnerable to security breach.

Vulnerability

A weakness in the hardware, software, or security plan that leaves a system or network open to threat of unauthorized access or damage or destruction of data.

357

N

OTE

For definitions of many more security-related terms, see the following

Web sites: www.securitypanel.org/glossary.html

www.mobrien.com/terminology.shtml

www.whatis.com

Importance of Physical Security

One of the most important, and at the same time most overlooked, aspects of a comprehensive network security plan is physical access control.This matter is often left up to facilities managers and plant security departments or outsourced to security guard companies. Network administrators concern themselves with sophisticated software and hardware solutions that prevent intruders from accessing internal computers remotely while doing nothing to protect the servers, routers, cable, and other physical components of the network from direct access.

In far too many supposedly security-conscious organizations, computers are locked away from employees and visitors all day, only to be left open at night to the janitorial staff—who usually have keys to all offices. It is not at all uncommon for computer espionage experts to pose as members of a cleaning crew to gain physical access to machines that hold sensitive data.This is a favorite ploy for several reasons:

Cleaning services are often contracted to outside firms; thus company management has minimal control over the screening of the individuals who are hired by the contractor and who are given access to the offices and other parts of the building.

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Workers in the cleaning industry are often transient, so company employees might not be easily aware of who is or isn’t a legitimate member of the cleaning crew.

Cleaning is usually done late at night, when all or most company employees are gone, making it easier to surreptitiously steal data.

Cleaning-crew members are often paid little or no attention by company employees, who take their presence for granted and think nothing of cleaners being in areas where the presence of others would be questioned.

Physically breaking into the server room and stealing the hard disk on which sensitive data resides may be a crude method of committing cybercrime; nonetheless, it happens. In some organizations, it could be the easiest way to gain unauthorized access, especially for an intruder who has help “on the inside.” One of the first things an investigator will want to do in a network intrusion case is to review the physical security measures in place to determine whether access could have been gained this way. Knowledge that the intruder was physically on the site narrows your list of possible suspects from “all hackers, all over the world” to persons who are or have been in the immediate vicinity.

It is beyond the scope of this book to go into great detail about how to physically secure a network, but it is important to understand that physical access control is the “outer perimeter” of any organization’s security plan. Ensuring physical access control means:

Controlling physical access to the servers

Controlling physical access to networked workstations

Controlling physical access to network devices

Controlling physical access to the cable

Being aware of security considerations with wireless media

Being aware of security considerations related to portable computers

Recognizing the security risk of allowing data to be printed

Recognizing the security risks involving diskettes, CDs, tapes, and other removable media

Let’s look at why each of these is important and how a physical security plan can address all these factors.

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Protecting the Servers

File servers on which sensitive data is stored, as well as infrastructure servers that provide mission-critical services such as logon authentication and access control, should be placed in a highly secure location. At the minimum, servers should be in a locked room to which only employees who need to work directly with the servers have access. Keys should be distributed sparingly, and records should be kept of keys’ issuance and return.

If security needs are high due to the nature of the business or the data, access to the server room could be controlled by magnetic card, electronic locks requiring entry of a numerical code, or even biometric access control devices such as fingerprint or retinal scanners. Other security measures include monitor detectors or other alarm systems, activated during nonbusiness hours, and security cameras. A security guard or company should monitor these devices.

Keeping Workstations Secure

Many network security plans focus on the servers but ignore the risk posed by workstations that have network access to those servers. It is not uncommon for employees to leave their computers unsecured when they leave for lunch or even when they leave for the evening. Often there will be a workstation in the receptionist area that is open to visitors who walk in off the street. If the receptionist manning the station must leave briefly, the computer—and the network to which it is connected—is vulnerable unless steps have been taken to ensure that it is secure.

A good security plan includes protection of all unmanned workstations. A secure client operating system such as Windows NT or Windows 2000 requires an interactive logon with a valid account name and password in order to access the operating system (unlike Windows 9x).These systems allow users to “lock” the workstation when they are going to be away from it, so someone else can’t just step up and start using the computer. Organizations must not depend on access permissions and other software security methods alone to protect the network. If a potential intruder can gain physical access to a networked computer, he or she is that much closer to accessing valuable data or introducing a virus onto the network.

Many modern PC cases come with some type of locking mechanism that will help prevent an unauthorized person from opening the case and stealing the hard disk. Locks are also available to prevent use of the diskette drive, copying of data to diskette, or rebooting the computer with a diskette.

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Protecting Network Devices

Hubs, routers, switches, and other network devices should be physically secured from unauthorized access. It is easy to forget that just because a device doesn’t have a monitor on which you can see data, this does not mean the data can’t be captured or destroyed at that access point.

For example, a traditional Ethernet hub sends all data out every port on the hub. An intruder who has access to the hub can plug a packet-sniffing device (or a laptop computer with sniffer software) that operates in “promiscuous mode” into a spare port and capture data sent to any computer on the segment, as shown in Figure 7.2.

Although switches and routers are somewhat more secure than hubs, any device through which the data passes is a point of vulnerability. Replacing hubs with switches and routers makes it more difficult for an intruder to “sniff ” on your network. However, it is still possible to use techniques such as router redirec-

tion via ARP spoofing, in which nearby machines are redirected to forward traffic through an intruder’s machine, by sending ARP packets that contain the router’s

IP address mapped to the intruder’s machine’s MAC address.This results in other machines believing the intruder’s machine is the router, and so they send their traffic to it. A similar method uses ICMP router advertisement messages.

Figure 7.2

An intruder who has access to the hub can easily intercept data.

All data goes out all ports

Hub

Plug into unused port

Unauthorized

Laptop

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With certain switches, it is also possible to overflow the address tables with multiple false MAC addresses or send a continuous flow of random garbage through the switch to trigger it to change from bridging mode to repeating mode.This means all frames will be broadcast on all ports, giving the intruder the same opportunity to access the data that he would have with a regular hub.This

activity is called switch jamming. If the switch has a special monitor port designed to be used with a sniffer for legitimate (network troubleshooting) purposes, an intruder who has physical access to the switch can simply plug into this port and capture network data. For these reasons, all network devices should be placed in a locked room or closet; administrators should protect these devices in the same manner as the servers.

Securing the Cable

The next step in protecting the network and its data is to secure the cable across which that data travels.Twisted-pair and coaxial cable are both vulnerable to data capture; an intruder who has access to the cable can tap into it and eavesdrop on messages being sent across it. A number of companies make “tapping” devices.

Fiber optic cable is more difficult to tap into because it does not produce electrical pulses but instead uses pulses of light to represent the 0s and 1s of binary data. It is possible, however, for a sophisticated intruder to use an optical splitter and tap into the signal on fiber optic media. Cable taps can sometimes be detected using a time domain reflectometer (TDR) or optical TDR to measure the strength of the signal and determine where the tap is located.

Compromise of security at the physical level is a special threat when network cables are not contained in one facility but span a distance between buildings.

There is even a name for this risk: manhole manipulation, referring to the easy access intruders often have to cabling that runs through underground conduits.

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Wireless connections are even more susceptible to interception than cabled ones. At least the cabling can be hidden within the infrastructure, making it difficult to access. Wireless transmissions go over the airwaves and can be “grabbed” by anyone with the desire and the proper equipment. We discuss how to secure wireless connections in Chapter 8,

“Implementing System Security.”

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Have Laptop,Will Travel

Portable computers—laptops, notebooks, and new fully functional handheld computers such as the Pocket PC and Palm OS machines—present their own security problems based on the very features that make them popular: their small size and mobility. Physical security for portable computers is especially important because it is so easy to steal the entire machine, data and all.

Luckily, a large number of companies make theft protection devices and security software for laptops. Locks and alarms are widely available, along with software programs that will disable the laptop’s functionality if it is stolen or even help track it down by causing the computer to “phone home” the first time the portable computer is attached to a modem (see Figure 7.3). In addition, data on portables can be encrypted to protect it from access if the devices are stolen.

Figure 7.3

Tracking programs can help recover stolen portable computers.

User reports missing laptop to Monitoring Center.

Stolen laptop "phones home" when connected to a modem.

Laptop

Modem

Monitoring Center logs laptop's location (phone line or IP address) and starts the recovery process.

Modem

Security Software Provider

Monitoring Center

An example of theft recovery and tracking software for laptops is Cyber

Angel (www.sentryinc.com) from Computer Sentry Software. Another product,

TrackIT (www.trackitcorp.com), is a hardware antitheft device for computer cases and other baggage.

Some laptops come with removable hard disks. If users have highly sensitive data that must be accessed with a laptop, it’s a good idea to store it on a removable disk (PC Card disks and those that plug into the parallel port are widely available) and encrypt it.The user should also separate that disk from the computer when it is not in use.

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The possibility of theft is not the only way in which laptops present a security risk. Another threat to the network is that a data thief who is able to enter the physical premises might be able to plug a laptop into the network, crack passwords or obtain a password via social engineering, and download data to the portable machine, which he or she can then easily carry away.

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The Paper Chase

Network security specialists and administrators tend to concentrate on protecting data in electronic form, but intruders can also steal confidential digital information by printing it or locating a hard copy that was printed by someone else. It does little good to implement strong password policies and network access controls if employees can print sensitive material and then leave it lying on desks, stored in unlocked file cabinets, or thrown into an easily accessed trash basket.

“Dumpster diving” (searching the trash for company secrets) is a common form of corporate espionage—and one that surprisingly often yields results.

If confidential data must be printed, the paper copy should be kept as physically secure as the digital version. Disposal should require shredding, and in cases of particularly high-security information, the shredded paper can be mixed with water to create a pulp that is impossible to put back together again.

Removable Storage Risks

Yet another potential point of failure in the network security plan involves saving data to removable media. Diskettes, Zip and Jaz disks, tapes, PC cards, CDs, and

DVDs containing sensitive data must be kept physically secured at all times. As you will see in Chapter 10, “Collecting and Preserving Digital Evidence,” deleting the files on a disk, or even formatting the disk, does not completely erase the data; the data is still there and can be retrieved using special software until it has been overwritten.

Although removable media can present a security threat to the network, it can also play an important part in the overall security plan, when used properly.

Removable disks (including fully bootable, large-capacity hard disks installed in mobile “nesting” racks) can be removed from the computer and locked in a safe or removed from the premises to protect the data that is stored there.

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Understanding Basic

Cryptography Concepts

Cryptography is a word derived from the Greek kryptos (“hidden”), and the use of cryptography pre-dates the computer age by hundreds of years. Keeping secrets has long been a concern of human beings, and the purpose of cryptography is to hide information or change it so that it is incomprehensible to people for whom it is not intended. Cryptographic techniques include:

Encryption,

which involves applying a procedure called an algorithm to plain text to turn it into something that will appear to be gibberish to anyone who doesn’t have the key to decrypt it.

Steganography,

which is a means of hiding the existence of the data, not just its contents.This is usually done by concealing it within other, innocuous data.

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The words cryptography and encryption are often used interchangeably, but cryptography is a much broader term than encryption; encryption is a form of cryptography. In other words, all encryption is cryptography, but not all cryptography is encryption.

Understanding the Purposes of

Cryptographic Security

Cryptographic techniques are an important part of a multilayered security plan.

Some security measures, such as implementation of a firewall and use of access permissions, attempt to keep intruders out of the network or computer altogether, much like fences and door locks attempt to keep burglars off the grounds or out of the house. Cryptography provides an inner line of defense. Like a wall safe that is there in case the burglars do make it inside your house—and to protect valuables from people who are authorized to come into your house— cryptography protects data from intruders who are able to penetrate the outer network defenses and from those who are authorized to access the network but not this particular data.

Cryptographic techniques concern themselves with three basic purposes:

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Authentication

Verifying the identity of a user or computer.

Confidentiality

Keeping the contents of the data secret.

Integrity

Ensuring that data doesn’t change between the time it leaves the source and the time it reaches its destination.

One or more of these goals may be a priority, depending upon the situation.

For example, if an investigator receives a message from the Chief to fly to the

West Coast to interview a witness in a case, the overriding concern might be knowing that it was, indeed, the Chief of Police who sent the message and not a fellow officer playing a practical joke. In this case, authentication of the message sender’s identity is of utmost importance. If the case relates to an internal affairs investigation and it is important that no one else in the department know where the investigator is going, confidentiality of the data might be important as well. And if the message states that the investigator is authorized to spend $3000 on the trip, it might be important to ensure that the message has not been changed (after all, chiefs are not usually this generous) in transit—in other words, that the message’s integrity has not been compromised.

All three mechanisms can be used together, or they can be used separately when only one or two of these considerations are important. In the following sections, we look more closely at how each one works in relation to network security.

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On

the Scene…

An Historical Perspective on Cryptography

Cryptography has probably been around almost as long as written language. According to A Short History of Cryptography, by Fred Cohen

(www.all.net/books/ip/Chap2-1.html), the study of cryptography has been around for 4000 years or more. Whenever communications are recorded, the issue of protecting those recorded communications arises.

In both business and personal communications, it is often not desirable to share the contents with everyone—in fact, in many cases doing so could have disastrous results. Thus, early civilizations looked for ways to conceal the contents of messages from prying eyes. In ancient Egypt, deviations on the hieroglyphic language in use were developed for that purpose. The Greeks used a “transposition code” in which each letter of the alphabet was represented by another that indicated where, in a grid,

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the original letter was located. In early India, spies employed by the government used phonetic-based “substitution codes” (the same concept children use for pig Latin). In biblical times, a substitution cipher called

atbash, which worked by replacing the last letter of the Hebrew alphabet with the first and so on, was used to encrypt writings.

Encryption methods were used by such diverse historical figures as Julius

Caesar (after whom the “Caesar cipher” was named), Thomas Jefferson

(who invented the cipher wheel), and Sir Francis Bacon. Governments have long used encryption to protect sensitive military messages.

Authenticating Identity

Many different methods can be used to authenticate a user’s (or in some cases, a computer’s) identity. In general, the user is asked to provide something that is associated with his or her user account that could not easily be provided by someone else.The requested credential is generally one (or more) of the following:

Something you know

One way to determine that a person is really who he or she claims to be is to ask a question that only the “real

McCoy” is likely to be able to answer. If you are engaging in online messaging with someone who purports to be your brother, before discussing personal or sensitive subjects, you might ask him what your mother’s oldest sister’s name is, or ask him to name the song that the two of you played in a piano duet as children. In information security, the “something you know” is usually a password or personal identification number (PIN).

Something you have

Passwords can be compromised—as you learned in Chapter 6. For example, someone can discover passwords through a brute-force attack or by watching over a user’s shoulder as he or she types the password. In many of these cases, the user doesn’t know that someone else now knows the password. A better authentication method is to require that the user provide a physical object, such as a “smart card” (a credit-card-sized device with an embedded chip that contains authentication information). If the card is lost or stolen, the user is likely to know about it. Smart cards are used to log onto computer networks and to access bank accounts and make purchases.

Something you are

Although a card or other physical object that must be in the user’s possession is a step up from password authentica-

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tion, cards can be lost or stolen or perhaps even duplicated. An even more secure method of proving identity is via what you are, that is, biological data such as a fingerprint, voice print, or retinal or iris scan.

Biometric methods are much more difficult to defeat than other identification methods.

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Some security literature mentions a fourth means of proving identity:

something you do. An example would be a sample of your handwriting, and voice prints might also be considered to be in this category.

On

the Scene…

Defeating “Foolproof” Authentication Mechanisms

In 2000, a French engineer/hacker named Serge Humpich (and known as

“the Count of Monte Crypto”) was able to defeat the 640-bit encryption key used by smart cards issued by banks in France, which millions of

French consumers used for purchasing items. The equipment he used to break the encryption key cost only US$250.

Even supposedly “foolproof” biometric methods aren’t. This is because the biometric data must be analyzed by a software program, and everyone who has worked with computers knows that there is no such thing as a software program that works perfectly. Thus the vendors of biometric solutions establish fault-tolerance limits that are based on a certain level of false rejection and false acceptance rates (called FRRs and FARs, respectively). False rejection occurs when an authorized user is rejected by the system, and false acceptance occurs when an unauthorized user is “passed” by the software and allowed access. In fact, fingerprint scanners have been defeated by such simple methods as blowing on the sensor surface to reactivate a fingerprint previously left there or by dusting a latent fingerprint on the sensor with graphite and then applying adhesive film to the surface and pressing on it gently.

These techniques are examples of latent image reactivation. In a wellpublicized case in May 2002, a cryptographer in Japan was able to create a phony fingerprint using gelatine, which he claimed fooled fingerprint scanners approximately 80 out of 100 times.

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For more information about the reliability of biometric devices, see the following articles: www.heise.de/ct/english/02/11/114/ and http://theregister.co.uk/content/55/25300.html.

Because none of these authentication methods (or any other) is absolutely foolproof, it makes sense in a high-security environment to use a multifactor authentication system (sometimes called two-way or three-way authentication, depending on the number of authentication methods used) by combining two or more of them.That is, a user is required to provide both something he has and something he knows (in fact, most smart card implementations require that the user not only insert the card in a reader but also enter a PIN), or he must both undergo a biometric scan and provide a password before being granted access.

Another method of implementation is layered authentication, in which one form of authentication is accepted to provide a lower level of access, and additional authentication is required for a higher level of access. For more information about this concept, see Jeff Parker’s article titled Layered Authentication at http://rr.sans.org/authentic/layered.php.

When Is Authentication Necessary?

There are a number of different circumstances in which authentication is necessary, and different authentication methods are used in different circumstances. For example:

Logon authentication

When users initially access the computer or network (log on), a secure operating system will require that the user authenticate to a security accounts database.When logging onto the local computer, the user must enter an account name and password that are stored in a local security database on that machine’s hard disk.When

logging onto a server-based network (such as a Windows NT/2000/

.NET domain or a NetWare NDS network), the user must enter an account name and password that is in the authentication server’s database. Additionally,Windows domains require that NT/2000/XP

Pro/.NET computers have a computer account in order to join the domain. (The computer’s credentials are sent to the domain controller automatically, without any user intervention.) However, a user with a domain account can log on from an insecure computer, such as a

Windows 9x/ME/XP Home machine.Windows NT uses NTLM authentication, whereas Windows 2000—although it supports NTLM

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■ for backward compatibility—uses Kerberos authentication by default.

(NTLM, Kerberos, and other protocols are described in the next section,

“Authentication Protocols.”)

Remote access authentication

When users access the network over a remote connection (dialup or VPN), security is especially important because the computer from which the user is logging on isn’t physically wired to the local network. Different, additional protocols are used for remote access authentication.When a remote logon is initiated, the remote client and the remote access server generally negotiate an authentication method and protocols that both are configured to support.There

are a number of different methods for authenticating remote users, some of which we discuss in the following section, “Authentication Protocols.”

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In a network that uses an authentication server, users are authenticated when they log onto the network, and then access to individual network resources is controlled based on the permissions granted to the account with which the user logged on. In workgroup (peer-to-peer) networks, there is no authentication server, but access to resources can be protected using file-level security. Passwords are assigned to individual resources, and those passwords are shared with users who are authorized to access them. Every time a user wants to open a particular file or use a particular printer, he or she must enter the correct password. This is not really authentication, because the user’s identity isn’t verified (the password is not associated with a user account), although entering the password does verify that the user is authorized to access the resource.

Authentication Protocols

The protocols used for authenticating identity depend on the authentication type. Some common protocols used for authentication include the following:

Kerberos

is a logon authentication protocol that is based on secret key

(symmetric) cryptography. It usually uses the DES or Triple-DES (3DES) algorithm, although with the latest version, Kerberos v5, algorithms other than DES can be used. Kerberos uses a system of “tickets” to provide verification of identity to multiple servers throughout the network.

This system works a little like the payment system at some amusement parks and fairs where, instead of paying to ride each individual ride,

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■ customers must buy tickets at a central location and then use those tickets to access the rides. Similarly, with Kerberos, a client who wants to access resources on network servers is not authenticated by each server; instead, all the servers rely on “tickets” issued by a central server, called the Key Distribution Center (KDC).The client sends a request for a ticket (encrypted with the client’s key) to the KDC.The KDC issues a ticket called a Ticket-Granting Ticket (TGT), which is encrypted and submitted to the Ticket-Granting Service (TGS).The TGS can be running on the same physical machine that is running the KDC.The TGS issues a session ticket to the client for accessing the particular network resource that was requested (which is usually on a different server).The

session ticket is presented to the server that hosts the resource, and access is granted.The session key is valid only for that particular session and is set to expire after a specific amount of time. Kerberos allows mutual authentication; that is, the identities of both the client and the server can be verified. For a more detailed explanation of how Kerberos works, see the Kerberos v5 Administrators Guide at www.lns.cornell.edu/public/

COMP/krb5/admin/admin_2.html.

NT LanMan, or NTLM,

is another Microsoft logon authentication method, used by Windows NT domains and supported by Windows 2000 in case “down-level” client computers (those running NT or Windows

9x) want to log onto the network. NTLMv2, the current version, provides more security than NTLMv1.Version 2 is supported by Windows

2000 and NT 4.0 with SP4 or higher. If the Directory Services client software (which is available on the Windows 2000 Server CD-ROM) is installed on Windows 9x computers, NTLMv2 can be used; however, it is necessary to edit the registry to enable it. Unlike Kerberos, with NTLM, when a client wants to access a server’s resources, that server must contact the domain controller to have the client’s identity verified.The client doesn’t have credentials already issued (the session ticket in Kerberos) that the file or application server knows it can trust.

Password Authentication Protocol (PAP)

is a remote access authentication protocol used for PPP (dialup) connections. Its distinguishing characteristic (and the reason it should not be used on secure networks) is the fact that it sends passwords in plain text.This means the passwords can be intercepted during transmission and used by an unauthorized person.The only good reason to use PAP is if you face a situation where the remote server doesn’t support other, more secure authentication

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■ methods. Shiva PAP (S-PAP) addresses this problem by using a two-way reversible authentication method that encrypts passwords so they will not be subject to interception and misuse.

Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol (CHAP)

uses a hashing algorithm and a shared secret (more about that later in the chapter, in the section on encryption) to protect the password. CHAP provides more security than PAP. Microsoft developed its own version of the protocol, called MS-CHAP, which uses the DES encryption algorithm and LM/NTHASH.

The Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service (RADIUS)

is another means of authenticating remote connections that takes the authentication responsibility off each individual remote access server by providing a centralized server to authenticate clients securely. Exchanges are encrypted using a shared key, and multiple RADIUS servers can communicate with each other and exchange authentication information.

The AppleTalk Remote Access Protocol (ARAP)

is a two-way authentication protocol that uses DES encryption for remote access connections on AppleTalk networks.

Secure Shell (SSH)

allows users to log into UNIX systems remotely.

Both ends of the connection (client and server) are authenticated, and data—as well as passwords—can be encrypted. 3DES, Blowfish, and

Twofish are encryption algorithms that are supported by SSHv2, which also allows the use of smart cards.

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There are also versions of SSH made for Windows and Mac machines.

Freeware SSH client software for these operating systems is available at www.openssh.org/windows.html.

A concept that is closely related to authentication is nonrepudiation. This is a means of ensuring that whoever sends a message cannot later claim that he or she didn’t send it. Nonrepudiation is sometimes considered to be a fourth, separate purpose of cryptography, but we include it here in the discussion of authentication because the two concepts go together; nonrepudiation just goes a step further than authentication.

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On

the Scene…

Identity Confirmed; Now What?

Once a user’s identity has been established, the next step in the security process is authorization, which is concerned with what that user is permitted to do. Authentication and authorization work together to provide a security system that takes into account the need for different users to have different capabilities on the network.

Administrators can control which files and other objects a user can access and the level of access (read only, change, and so on) by setting

permissions. Most network operating systems provide a mechanism for associating specific permissions on an object with certain user accounts or groups. For example, Windows NT/2000/XP provide for two levels of permissions: share permissions that apply only to users accessing the resource across the network, and file-level permissions (also called NTFS permissions) that apply both across the network and to users accessing the resource from the local machine.

Administrators can also control which system-wide actions a particular user (or group of users) can perform by setting user rights. User rights differ from permissions in that permissions apply to access of individual files, folders, printers, and other objects.

Providing Confidentiality of Data

Confidentiality refers to any method that keeps the contents of the data secret.

Usually this means encrypting it to prevent unauthorized persons from understanding what the data says even if they intercept it. In a high-security environment, where network communications necessarily involve information that should not be shared with the world, it is important to use strong encryption to protect the confidentiality of sensitive data.We discuss exactly how that is done in the “Basic Cryptography Concepts” section later in the chapter.

Ensuring Data Integrity

Data integrity, in the context of cryptography, means that there is a way to verify that the data was not changed after it left the sender, that the data that was sent is exactly the same as the data that is received at the final destination. It is essential to be able to count on data integrity in network transactions such as e-commerce.

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The term data integrity has a broader meaning in terms of general computing and networking than it does in the context of cryptography. In this sense, it refers to protection of data from damage or destruction; the integrity of data can be threatened by a power surge, a magnetic field, fire, flood, or the like as well as by persons who would deliberately modify it. You can install utilities such as Tripwire (www.tripwire.org) to monitor changes to system data on the hard disk.

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Basic Cryptography Concepts

Cryptographic techniques such as encryption are the basis of digital certificates, dig-

ital signatures, and the public key infrastructure, or PKI. All of these technologies are important components of an enterprise-level security plan, and we discuss the use of each later in this chapter. Now that you understand the purposes of cryptography, we can look at the mechanics of how these technologies are implemented.

Scrambling Text with Codes and Ciphers

There are many different ways to “scramble” text or hide its meaning in such a way that only authorized persons (at least in theory) are able to read it.This

scrambled (encrypted) text is called cipher text. A method for encrypting text is called a cipher or a code. Technically, a code uses substitution at the word or phrase level, whereas a cipher works at the level of individual letters or digits.The two words are often used interchangeably, but computerized cryptographic techniques generally rely on ciphers that operate on the binary form of the data by applying an algorithm (a mathematical calculation). Some common cipher/code types are:

Substitution

Transposition

Obscure languages

Substitution Ciphers

Simple substitution is a method often used by children in their first experiments with secret code. A substitution cipher merely substitutes different letters, numbers, or other characters for each character in the original text.The most straightforward example is a simplistic substitution in which each letter of the alphabet is

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represented by a numerical digit, starting with 1 for A.The message goodbye then becomes 7-15-15-4-2-25-5.This code is obviously extremely easy to break.

The Caesar Cipher used a simple shifting method, in which each letter of the message is represented by the letter two places to the right in the alphabet (A becomes C, B becomes D, and so on). Other substitution methods can be much more difficult to crack. For example, if two parties exchanging communications have an identical copy of a particular book, they might create a message by referencing page, line, and word numbers (e.g., 73-12-6 tells you that the word in the message is the same as the sixth word in the twelfth line on page 72 of the code book). In this case, anyone who doesn’t have a copy of the book (and to cite the correct pages, it must be the exact same edition and print run) will not be able to decipher the message.

Some types of substitution ciphers are:

Monoalphabetic substitution

Each letter is represented by another letter or character in a one-to-one relationship.

Polyalphabetic substitution

Different cipher-text characters can represent the same plain-text letter, making it more difficult to decrypt messages using the frequency analysis technique. Renaissance architect and art theorist Leon Battista Alberti is credited with developing this technique, earning him recognition as the “father of Western cryptography.”

Polygraphic (block) cipher

Several letters (or digits when dealing with binary data) are encrypted at the same time, using a system that can handle all the possible combinations of a set number of characters.

Fractionation

Multiple symbols are substituted for each plain-text letter, then the letters or digits are transposed.

Transposition Ciphers

Transposition ciphers use tables in which the plain text is entered one way, then read another way to create the encrypted text. For example, each character of text is entered into the table cells going across from left to right, then the cipher text is produced by reading the characters in columns. A variation uses a square grid with holes that is placed on top of a sheet of paper, then the message is written, rotating the grid at intervals.

Obscure Languages as Code

Obscure languages have been used as code by governments for military communications. Ancient (“dead”) languages have been used in this way.The U.S. military

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even used Navajo “code talkers” (speakers of the complex and little known

Navajo language) in World War II to send secret communications.This language was chosen because it was hard to learn, and only a few people in the world knew it.The Navajo language had never been written, which made it even more obscure. Members of the Navajo tribe were recruited to develop a code based on the language. For more information about this project, see the article Navajo Code

Talkers at http://raphael.math.uic.edu/~jeremy/crypt/contrib/mollo2.html.

Mechanical and Electrical Cipher Devices

Cipher devices such as cipher wheels and cylinders can be used to encrypt and decrypt text. An early example of this technique was the skytale cipher or staff

cipher used by the Spartans.They wrapped a sheet of papyrus around a staff and wrote their message down the length of the staff.When the sheet was unwrapped, the message couldn’t be easily read unless it was wrapped around a staff of the same diameter as the original one.

Leon Battista Alberti used a set of disks that both had the alphabet etched on them to employ his polyalphabetic ciphering system. He lined up the two disks to determine what cipher-text character would represent each plain-text letter.

By rotating the disks at set intervals, he caused different cipher-text letters to represent the same plain-text letters at different places in the message.

Many different cipher machines have been developed by government and military entities. Most use multiple rotating disks to create letter substitutions, and they can be operated either mechanically or electrically.Thomas Jefferson invented a cipher wheel of this type. During World War II, the Japanese used cipher machines called RED and PURPLE, and the German Enigma machine (a wired rotor machine that has equally spaced electrical contacts on each side of a disk, which are connected to one another in scrambled order) is perhaps the most famous—or infamous—of the cipher devices.

Computerizing the Ciphering Process

The availability of computer technology made it much easier to encrypt messages using very complex methods that would be difficult or impossible to use by hand or with mechanical and electrical devices. As we discussed in Chapter 4,

“Understanding Computer Basics,” when you get down to the heart of the system, computers really do only one thing: perform calculations on numbers.

However, they can do an incredible number of such calculations incredibly quickly.This is exactly what is needed for complex encryption algorithms. Of course, computers also make it much easier to decrypt encrypted data. Ciphers

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that would take hundreds or thousands of years to break with a team of top cryptanalysts working on them manually can be cracked in hours, days, or weeks using high-powered computers.

One of the first well-known computer ciphering systems was LUCIFER, an IBM project that formed the foundation of the popular Data Encryption

Standard (DES) cipher that is still widely used (along with its more secure version, 3DES). LUCIFER was a block cipher, as is DES. It used a 128-bit key to encrypt blocks of binary data that were 128 bits in length.The cipher was applied to each block several times. Even though LUCIFER uses a larger block and key than DES, it is less secure.That’s because its key schedule is regular and thus more predictable. In the “Encryption Algorithms” section later in this chapter, we discuss DES and other modern ciphers used by computerized encryption schemes.

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For much more detailed information about how different types of ciphers and cipher devices work, see http://pardus-larus.student

.utwente.nl/librarilo/texts/computers/crypto.

What Is Encryption?

Encryption is a form of cryptography that “scrambles” plain text into unintelligible cipher text. Encryption is the foundation of such security measures as digital signatures, digital certificates, and the public key infrastructure that uses these technologies to make computer transactions more secure. Computer-based encryption techniques use keys to encrypt and decrypt data. A key is a variable

(sometimes represented as a password) that is a large binary number—the larger, the better. Key length is measured in bits, and the more bits in a key, the more difficult the key will be to “crack.”

The key is only one component in the encryption process. It must be used in conjunction with an encryption algorithm (a process or calculation) to produce the cipher text. Encryption methods are usually categorized as either symmetric or asymmetric, depending on the number of keys that are used. We discuss these two basic types of encryption technology in the following sections.

Symmetric Encryption

Symmetric encryption is also called secret key encryption, and it uses just one key, called a shared secret, for both encrypting and decrypting.This is a simple, easy-to-

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use method of encryption, but there is one problem with it: the key must be shared between the sender and the recipient of the data, so a secure method of

key exchange must be devised. Otherwise, if a third party intercepts the key during the exchange, an unauthorized person can easily decrypt the data.

Asymmetric Encryption

To address the problem of key exchange, another type of encryption was developed. Asymmetric encryption is also called public key encryption, but it actually relies on a key pair.Two mathematically related keys, one called the public key and another called the private key, are generated to be used together.The private key is never shared; it is kept secret and used only by its owner.The public key is made available to anyone who wants it. Because of the time and amount of computer processing power required, it is considered “mathematically unfeasible” for anyone to be able to use the public key to recreate the private key, so this form of encryption is considered very secure.

The primary advantage of asymmetric encryption is that there is no need to securely transmit a secret key. Instead, the public key is published openly, made available to the entire world.There is no need to keep it secret, because it can’t be used alone.The encryption process works like this:

1. The sender of a message uses the intended recipient’s public key, which is freely available, to encrypt a message.

2. The recipient decrypts the message using his or her private key. Only the private key associated with the public key that encrypted it can be used to decrypt the message.

This key pair can also be used to provide for authentication of a message sender’s identity using the keys a little differently:This time the sender uses his or her own private key to encrypt the message.This system provides no confidentiality, because anyone can decrypt the message using the owner’s public key.

However, it does verify the sender’s identity, because if the associated public key will decrypt the message, it could only have been encrypted with that person’s private key.

Obviously, the most important issue in public key cryptography is the protection of the private keys.This concept is especially important because compromise of a private key not only allows the unauthorized person to read private messages sent to the owner, but it also allows the key thief to “sign” transactions emulating the owner, thus stealing the owner’s identity.When the key pair is used for secure credit card or banking transactions, the result can be disastrous.

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Securing Data with Cryptographic Algorithms

Literally thousands of different cryptographic algorithms have been developed over the years. Crytographic algorithms can be classified as follows:

Encryption algorithms

that are used to encrypt data and provide confidentiality

Signature algorithms

that are used to digitally “sign” data to provide authentication

Hashing algorithms

that are used to provide data integrity

Algorithms (ciphers) are also categorized by the way they work at the technical level (stream ciphers and block ciphers).This categorization refers to whether the algorithm is applied to a stream of data, operating on individual bits, or to an entire block of data. Stream ciphers are faster because they work on smaller units of data.The key is generated as a keystream, and this is combined with the plain text to be encrypted. RC4 is the most commonly used stream cipher. Another is ISAAC.

Block ciphers take a block of plain text and turn it into a block of cipher text.

(Usually the block is 64 or 128 bits in size.) Common block ciphers include

DES, CAST, Blowfish, IDEA, RC5/RC6, and SAFER. Most Advanced

Encryption Standard (AES) candidates are block ciphers.

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AES is a standard for cryptography used by the U.S. federal government to protect sensitive but unclassified information. A number of different algorithms were considered candidates for this standard. The National

Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) selected the Rijndael algorithm for the AES. For more information about the Advanced Encryption

Standard, see http://csrc.nist.gov/encryption/aes/aesfact.html.

Encryption Algorithms

Some popular encryption algorithms (many of which were AES candidates) are:

Rijndael (AES standard)

www.tcs.hut.fi/~helger/crypto/link/block/ rijndael.html

DES and 3DES

www.rsasecurity.com/rsalabs/faq/3-2-1.html

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SAFER

www.cylink.com/news/press/pressrels/92000.htm

IDEA

http://home.ecn.ab.ca/~jsavard/crypto/co0404.htm

DEAL

www.ii.uib.no/~larsr/newblock.html

CAST-256

www.entrust.com/resources/pdf/cast-256.pdf

MARS

www.research.ibm.com/security/mars.html

Blowfish and Twofish

www.counterpane.com/blowfish.html and www.tcs.hut.fi/~helger/crypto/link/block/twofish.html

Other encryption algorithms include SERPENT, RC4/RC5/RC6,

LOKI-97, FROG, and Hasty Pudding.

Signature Algorithms

Signature algorithms are used to create digital signatures. A digital signature is merely a means of “signing” data (as described earlier in the section on asymmetric encryption) to authenticate that the message sender is really the person he or she claims to be. Digital signatures can also provide for data integrity along with authentication and nonrepudiation. Digital signatures have become important in a world where many business transactions, including contractual agreements, are conducted over the Internet. Digital signatures generally use both signature algorithms and hash algorithms.

When a message is encrypted with a user’s private key, the hash value that is created becomes the signature for that message. Signing a different message will produce a different signature. Each signature is unique, and any attempt to move the signature from one message to another would result in a hash value that would not match the original; thus the signature would be invalidated.

Hashing Algorithms

Hashing is a technique in which an algorithm (also called a hash function) is applied to a portion of data to create a unique digital “fingerprint” that is a fixedsize variable. If anyone changes the data by so much as one binary digit, the hash function will produce a different output (called the hash value) and the recipient will know that the data has been changed. Hashing can ensure integrity and provide authentication as well.

The hash function cannot be “reverse-engineered”; that is, you can’t use the hash value to discover the original data that was hashed.Thus hashing algorithms are referred to as one-way hashes. A good hash function will not return the same result from two different inputs (called a collision); each result should be unique.

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There are several different types of hashing, including division-remainder, digit rearrangement, folding, and radix transformation.These classifications refer to the mathematical process used to obtain the hash value. Standard hashing algorithms include:

MD2, MD4, and MD5

These methods use a message digest (the hash value) that is 128 bits in length.They were created by Ron Rivest and are popularly used for digital signatures.

Secure Hash Algorithm (SHA)

There are several variations on this algorithm, including SHA-1, SHA-256, SHA-384, and SHA-512.The

differences between them lie in the length of the hash value. SHA was created by a cooperative effort of two U.S. government agencies, NIST and the NSA.

How Encryption Is Used in Information Security

Encryption is used for a number of different purposes in organizations that deal in sensitive data of any type. In the “Designing and Implementing Security

Policies” section later in this chapter, we discuss the types of information that should be protected. In this section, we look at the different ways encryption technologies can be used to protect that information.

Encrypting Data Stored on Disk

Disk encryption refers to encrypting the entire contents of a hard disk, diskette, or removable disk. File encryption refers to encrypting data stored on disk on a fileby-file basis. In either case, the goal is to prevent unauthorized persons from opening and reading files that are stored on the disk.

Support for disk/file encryption can be built into an operating system or file system. NTFS v5, the native file system for Windows 2000/XP/.NET, includes the Encrypting File System (EFS), which can be used to protect data on a hard disk or large removable disk. (EFS can’t be used to protect data on floppy diskettes because they cannot be formatted in NTFS format.) EFS allows encryption of individual files and/or folders.

Third-party programs—such as ScramDisk, PGPdisk, and SafeDisk for

Windows operating systems and the Crypto File System and Transparent

Cryptographic File System (TCFS) for UNIX/Linux—can be installed to provide encryption on file systems that don’t natively support encryption or to provide partition-level or virtual drive encryption.

With partition-level and virtual drive encryption, a user does not have to explicitly set encryption properties on individual files and folders (as is true with

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file-level encryption). Instead, an entire partition is marked as encrypted or an encrypted virtual drive is created, and all data that is stored there will be automatically encrypted. Many users choose these methods because performance is better than with file-level encryption. Some file/disk encryption methods use a password to protect encrypted data; when someone wants to access an encrypted file, he or she must enter a password. Other methods rely on the user account that is logged on to determine whether access will be granted. EFS, for example, uses digital certificates that are associated with the user account.These later methods require less user interaction, but they have their drawbacks. It might not be possible to share encrypted files with others without decrypting them in cases where only one particular account is allowed access. In addition, there is a security risk if the user leaves the computer while logged on; then anyone who sits down at the machine can access the encrypted data.

Encrypting Data That Travels Across the Network

Early in this chapter, in the section addressing physical security, we discussed how data can be intercepted and captured as it travels across a network and its contents revealed with a “sniffer,” or protocol analyzer.When sensitive data is transmitted across the network, users can protect against its decoding by ensuring that it is encrypted so that if unauthorized persons do intercept it, they won’t be able to read it.The industry standard method for doing this on a TCP/IP network is to use the Internet Protocol Security (IPSec) encryption mechanism.

Specifications for IPSec are laid out in RFC 2401. (A number of additional

RFCs pertain to different protocols used by IPSec.) IPSec can be used with different operating systems and platforms.Windows 2000/XP/.NET include builtin support for IPSec. IPSec can provide machine-level authentication (verification of the identity of the computer from which a network transmission originated).

It can be configured to work in one of two modes:

Transport mode

This mode provides end-to-end security, from the source computer to the destination computer. It is also called host-to-host

mode.

Tunnel mode

This mode provides for encryption between two secure gateways (the computers that act as gateways between an internal network and the Internet or other internetwork).

Because it is capable of tunneling, IPSec can be used to create virtual private networks on its own, and it is also used in conjunction with the Layer 2

Tunneling Protocol (L2TP) to provide encryption in an L2TP VPN tunnel.

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Although often referred to as a protocol, IPSec is actually a security scheme that incorporates several different protocols.These include the following:

Authentication Header (AH) protocol

This protocol is used for authentication and to ensure data integrity by signing each data packet.

AH signs the entire packet (including the IP headers) but does not provide data confidentiality.

Encapsulating Security Payload (ESP) protocol

This protocol is used to encrypt data for confidentiality. It also signs the data portion of the packet for authentication and integrity, but it doesn’t sign the entire packet.

These two protocols can be used separately or together (in the latter case, when both data confidentiality and signing of the entire packet are desired).

Other protocols used by IPSec include:

The Internet Security Association and Key Management

Protocol (ISAKMP)

This protocol creates security associations between two computers that communicate using IPSec, to define the process of exchanging information.

The Oakley Key Generation Protocol

This protocol creates the keys used during the transaction.These are temporary keys that are discarded after the communication session is terminated.

Because IPSec uses shared keys (symmetric encryption), it is important that there be a way to exchange keys securely across the network.The Diffie-Hellman

Key Exchange algorithm provides a way for the computers on both sides of the transaction to generate identical keys without ever actually sending the key itself across the network and exposing it to possible interception.The encryption algorithms used by IPSec are standard ciphers such as DES/3DES, IDEA, Blowfish,

RC-5, and CAST-128.

Another important feature of IPSec is its ability to provide antireplay—protection against hackers who might try to capture transmissions and replay them to create a communication session, emulating one of the parties to the original transaction. IPSec is an important mechanism for protecting data during the vulnerable period when it is being sent across a network.The current version of the

Internet Protocol, IPv4, allows the use of IPSec as an option; the next generation,

IPv6, will require it.

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Encrypting E-Mail Communications

More and more people are using e-mail for communications of all kinds, including messages that contain sensitive personal or business information. Several software programs encrypt e-mail; the most popular is Pretty Good Privacy (PGP), which was created by Phil Zimmermann in the early 1990s. Since then, PGP has become widely distributed, and versions are available for most common operating systems—even more outdated or obscure OSs such as OS/2 and Amiga.

PGP first compresses and then encrypts the plain-text data using a one-time secret key (or session key), which is itself then encrypted with the public key of the intended recipient.The encrypted session key is sent to the recipient along with the encrypted data, and the recipient uses his or her private key to decrypt the session key so it can be used to decrypt the message itself. Because both symmetric and asymmetric encryption are used in this process, PGP is called a hybrid

cryptosystem. Different versions of PGP use different encryption algorithms.

Version 2.6.x (sometimes called “classic PGP” and considered by some to be more secure than newer versions) uses a combination of the RSA asymmetric cipher and the IDEA symmetric cipher.The MD5 hash algorithm is also used to create a fixed-length replacement for very long text strings in digital signatures.

Public keys and private keys are stored in separate files called keyrings on the hard disk of the computer where PGP is installed. Both the sender and recipient must have PGP installed to use the program for secure communications.

PGP’s biggest vulnerability is related to the fact that users have to use a passphrase to perform actions such as signing documents and decrypting messages

(anything for which the private key is used). Protecting this passphrase is a big security issue; good security practices require that the passphrase not be revealed to anyone else or stored on the system for “automatic” entry. Anyone who knows the passphrase can read the encrypted messages or send messages that purport to be from the legitimate user. If the passphrase does become compromised, a key revocation certificate can be generated and issued to render the associated public key null and void. PGP also includes a wipe option (-w) that can be used to overwrite the contents of an encrypted file when you delete it, so that it can’t be easily recovered using data recovery utilities.

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What Is Steganography?

Steganography (from the Greek word for covered writing) refers to a method of hiding data—not just concealing its contents as encryption does, but concealing its very existence. Steganography is usually used in conjunction with encryption for added protection of sensitive data.This method ameliorates one of the biggest problems of encrypting data—the fact that it is encrypted draws the attention of people who are looking for confidential or sensitive information.

The concept of steganography has been around for a long time.The ancient

Greeks are said to have sent secret messages by shaving the head of the messenger and writing the message on his scalp, then letting the hair grow back over it before sending him on his way to deliver the message. Early methods of steganography involved using “invisible ink” or concealing a message inside another message using a code whereby only every fifth word, for example,

“counts” as part of the real, hidden message. One of the earliest books on the subject, Steganographica, by Gaspari Schotti, was published in the 1600s.

Steganography in the computer world also hides data inside other data, but the way it does so is a little more complex. Because of the way data is stored in files, there are often unused (empty) bits in a file such as a document or graphic.

A message can be broken up and stored in these unused bits, and when the file is sent it will appear to be only the original file (called the container file).The hidden information inside is usually encrypted, and the recipient will need special software to retrieve it (and then decrypt it, if necessary). Messages can be concealed inside all sorts of other files, including executables and graphic and audio files.

Another form of steganography is the hidden watermark that is sometimes used to embed a trademark or other symbol in a document or file.

A number of different software programs can be used for this purpose, including JP Hide and Seek, which conceals data inside .jpg files, and MP3Stego, which conceals data in .mp3 files. Steganos Security Suite is a package of software programs that provide steganography, encryption, and other services.

Other programs, such as StegDetect, are designed to look for hidden content in files.The process of detecting steganographic data is called steganalysis.

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For more information and links to lots of good steganography Web sites, see Information Hiding at www.jjtc.com/steganography.

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Modern Decryption Methods

The use of cryptography naturally led to the science of cryptanalysis, the process of decrypting encrypted messages. One of the early methods for “cracking” polyalphabetic substitution ciphers was frequency analysis, which involved examining the encrypted text for repeated character strings and using the distance between the repeated strings to calculate the key length. (Repetitions of identical plain-text characters that are ciphered in the same way will occur at intervals that are a multiple of the key length.) Then statistical methods can be used to painstakingly determine which plain-text character each cipher-text character represents.

Cryptanalysts throughout history have used a number of different methods to break encryption algorithms, including the following:

Known plain-text analysis

If the analyst has a sample of decrypted text that was encrypted using a particular cipher, he or she can sometimes deduce the key by studying the cipher text.

Differential cryptanalysis

If the analyst can obtain cipher text from plain text but is unable to analyze the key, it can be deduced by comparing the cipher text and the plain text.

Ciphertext-only analysis

Used when only the cipher text is available and the analyst has no sample of plain text.

Timing/differential power analysis

A means of measuring the differences in power consumption over a period during which a computer chip is encrypting information to analyze key computations.

Key interception (man in the middle)

The analyst tricks two parties to an encrypted exchange into sending their keys by making them think they’re exchanging keys with each other.

Mathematician Claude Shannon (see the sidebar in this section) put forth the theory of workload.This term refers to the fact that increasing the amount of work (and the time required to do it) necessary to crack an encryption system increases the strength of the encryption and is an alternative to increasing the unicity distance (the amount of cipher text needed to crack the encryption).

Computer encryption ciphers are difficult to crack, but it can be done.With

enough time and patience, a brute-force attack that tries every possible key will be successful.The goal of cryptographers is to create ciphers for which this process will take such a long time—even using supercomputers or distributed processing methods—that the effort will not be worthwhile.Today’s popular encryption algorithms rely on this deterrent effect.

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Cri

mestoppers…

A Perfect Cipher?

A perfect cipher is one in which every possible cipher text is equally likely for every method, thus rendering the encryption unbreakable without the key.

In his paper A Communications Theory of Secrecy Systems, published in 1948, Claude Shannon, a Bell Labs mathematician sometimes called the “father of information theory”, postulated that given enough time and a large enough sample of the cipher text, every cipher can be broken. He held that a number he called the unicity distance, which represented the amount of cipher text that is needed to be able to decrypt a message, could be used as a measurement of how strong a cipher is.

If the unicity distance is infinite (the sequence of numbers in the key is genuinely random and is at least as long as the message, and the key is used only for that one message), the cipher is called a one-time pad and the message is undecipherable.

Another example of an undecipherable message is one in which the length of the entire message is shorter than the amount of cipher text needed to break the key. If an alphabetical substitution cipher has a key length that is greater than the message length, the message can’t be decrypted by analyzing the cipher text.

Cybercriminals’ Use of Encryption and Steganography

We have been discussing the legitimate use of cryptographic techniques as part of an organization’s security plan.There are many reasons to take steps to provide extra protection for data such as trade secrets, customer and client personal information, and so forth. However, these same technologies can be—and often are— also used by cybercriminals to conceal the self-incriminating information in messages they send to one another.Terrorists are believed to use steganography and encryption (as well as less technical code words inserted in seemingly innocuous e-mails or Web pages) to communicate with one another and coordinate their financial activities and attacks.

In cases of serious crimes, investigators might need to employ the services of a cryptanalyst to help decipher encrypted data that could contain information essential to identifying criminals or preventing future criminal activities.

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On

the Scene…

Cryptography as a Terrorist Tool

According to an article in USA Today and later reported on the Wired

Web site at www.wired.com/news/print/0,1294,41658,00.html, government officials believe al Qa’ida terrorists use steganography to hide their secret communications “in plain sight” in messages and files posted on bulletin board Web sites and exchanged in Internet chat rooms and encryption technologies to conceal the true content of e-mail messages.

Encrypted files containing terrorist plans have been found on the computers of various terrorist suspects, including Pakistani terrorist Khalil

Deek and the terrorist convicted of plotting the first World Trade Center bombing in 1993, Ramzi Yousef. In both cases, mathematicians working for the FBI were able to use supercomputers to decrypt the files, although in the case of some files, it took more than a year to do so.

For more information, see www.usatoday.com/life/cyber/tech/

2001-02-05-binladen.htm.

Making the Most of Hardware and Software Security

A multilayer security plan will incorporate multiple security solutions. Security is not a “one size fits all” issue, so the options that work best for one organization are not necessarily the best choice for another. Security solutions can be generally broken down into two categories: hardware solutions and software solutions.

Implementing Hardware-Based Security

Hardware security solutions can come in the form of network devices: Firewalls, routers, even switches can function to provide a certain level of security. In general, these devices are dedicated computers themselves, running proprietary software.

Hardware-Based Firewalls

Many firewall vendors provide hardware-based solutions. Some of the most popular hardware firewalls include the Cisco PIX firewall, SonicWall, the Webramp 1700, the Firebox from WatchGuard Technologies, and the OfficeConnect firewalls from

3Com. Hardware solutions are available for networks of all sizes. For example, the

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3Com products focus on small office/home office (SOHO) users, whereas the

Cisco PIX comes in configurations that support up to 250,000 connections.

Hardware-based firewalls are often referred to as firewall appliances. A disadvantage of hardware-based firewalls is the proprietary nature of the software they run. Another disadvantage of many of these products, such as Cisco’s highly respected PIX, is the high cost. Hardware-based firewalls perform basically the same functions as software-based firewalls. Later in this chapter, in the section

“Understanding Firewalls and Proxies,” we discuss how both of these work.

Authentication Devices

Other hardware-based components of your network security plan may include devices that provide extra security for authentication, such as:

Smart card readers

Fingerprint scanners

Retinal and iris scanners

Voice analysis devices

These devices can be used in environments that require a high level of security for secure and reliable network authentication. Microsoft has acquired

Biometric API (BAPI) technology from I/O Software and plans to incorporate support for biometric authentication devices into future versions of its operating systems.Windows 2000 already supports smart card authentication.

Smart Card Authentication

The term smart card has several different meanings. In a broad sense, it refers to any plastic credit-card-sized card that has a computer chip (a memory chip and/or a tiny microprocessor) embedded in it to hold information that can be changed (as opposed to less “smart” cards that use a magnetic strip that holds static information). A smart card reader—a hardware device—is needed to write to and read the information on the card. Smart cards can be used for different purposes, but one of the most popular is for authentication. Satellite television services use smart cards in the SATV receiver to identify the subscriber and that subscriber’s service level. Banks use smart cards for conducting transactions.These

cards are especially popular in Europe.

Smart cards can also be used for network logon authentication.This provides an extra level of security, the “something you have” factor described in the

“Authenticating Identity” section earlier in this chapter.The cards are generally resistant to tampering and relatively difficult for a hacker to compromise, since

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they are self-contained.They’re also inexpensive in comparison with biometric authentication devices.

Smart cards used for logon authentication generally store a digital certificate that contains user identification information, the user’s public key, and the signature of the trusted third party that issued the certificate, as well as a time for which the certificate is valid.The certificates are stored on the cards by an authorized administrator.To log on with a smart card, a user must insert the card in the reader or swipe it through and enter a PIN that is associated with the card. If the

PIN is compromised, an administrator can change it or issue a new card.To use smart cards for network logon, the computer must run an operating system that supports smart card authentication, such as Windows 2000 or XP, or use add-on software such as Sphinx (www.securetech-corp.com/sphinx.html).

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the Scene…

The Future of Smart Cards

In the future, if smart card authentication becomes more popular, computers might come with smart card readers built in as a matter of course. Several thin-client devices (such as those made by Sun

Ray and Acer) already have smart card readers built in. Currently, you can buy both internal and external readers. The ChipDrive (www

.towitoko.com/datintrn.html) is an example of the former.

Standards for smart card