Application of the methods of chaos theory and

Application of the methods of chaos theory and
ТЕKA. COMMISSION OF MOTORIZATION AND ENERGETICS IN AGRICULTURE – 2015, Vol. 15, No.3, 41-46
Magnetometric new generation device for determination
of the operability of metal structures
D. Marchenko, A. Zhidkov
Volodymyr Dahl East-Ukrinian national university, e-mail: .zhand.cmw@ukr.net
Received June 10 2015: accepted August 29 2015
Summary. The basic principles of creation of the
magnetometric device for determination of the
operability of metal structures on the basis of the
definition of the level of the fatigue damages are stated.
The main requirements to the device are written, the
choice of all the units of the device is proved, the
principle of its work is described and the flow chart is
given. Preliminary results of the device usage are
presented. The visualization principles of the
measurement results for an operating control on the
measurement results are described
Key words: fatigue damages, magnetic properties,
device, knots, visualization.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
It is known that ferromagnetic materials which the
majority of metal structures are made of change greatly
their magnetic properties under the influence of plastical
deformation [6-8]. Plastical deformation leads to the
decrease of magnetic capacity and to the increase of
coercive forcefor various magnetic steel [9].
INTRODUCTION
The reason for the destruction of the most metal
structures is accumulation of a certain level of fatigue
damages. At the initial stage these microdamages can
accumulate for quite a long time, and then the
destruction goes promptly. The main reason for fatigue
damage is exhaustion of metal plasticity in the places
where plastical deformation locally takes place. Special
danger of fatigue failure is that often from the outside
there are no signs of this process and the transition of a
structure to the stage which is directly preceding
destruction can't be determined by visual examination
[1].
For the determination of operability of structures
there are a number of ways and devices for detection of
the various macro - and microdefects, but the definition
of the fatigue damage is not discovered well [2-5]. One
of the possible ways for the solution of this task is the
definition of metal magnetic properties changes inthe
places where there is a plastical deformation and
measurements on the basis of magnetic properties
changes of the deformation level and structure
operability from the point of fatigue damages
accumulation.
The aim of this article is to form the general
requirements to the new generation magnetometric
device (MD) for determination of the operability of
metal structures on the basis of ideas about the fatigue
damage mechanism and practice of the nondestructive
control devices usage.
Fig. 1. Dependence of magnetic parameters of
ferromagnetic material on the degree of reduction [9]
Therefore, the places with methane volumes that
were deformed are magnetized by external magnetic
fields worse, in comparison with metal, which is in the
starting state. Existence of micro cracks, even the small
ones and in small quantity also influences on the
magnetization ability towards its decrease.
As the real metal structure during its production and
operation is always under the influence of external
magnetic fields (the Earth field, fields from electric
motors, electric devices, electric wires, etc.), it receives
residual magnetization and the magnetic field near a
structure surface significantly differs from a background
magnetic field.
The operation of the offered MD is based on the
measurement of a magnetic field on a metal structure
surface and further processing of the received figures.
The measurement method of a magnetic field on a real
structure taking into account inequality of its
magnetization and a method of processing of the
obtained data goes beyond this article. Here we will
consider only principle basics of the creation of the MD
and we will formulate the requirements to its main units.
42
D. Marchenko, A. Zhidkov
RESULTS
Any device in general consists of a sensitive element
(sensor), a signal processor, an indicator, the power
supply (if necessary) and data line.
The modern trend of tool engineering development
is the usage of digital sensors which are more protected
from electromagnetic noise, are less in size and less
energy-intensive. Besides, digital means of processing
and representation of measurement results are well
combined with them.
From the point of operation convenience of the MD,
it is necessary to reach the smallest sizes and weight,
good protection from atmospheric action, long time of
autonomous work and simplicity in the device control.
During the MD usage for examination of bridges,
platforms, towers and other industrial facilities the work
of the operator at height and in an uncomfortable
position is a daily routine therefore the requirements to
the size, weight and other ergonomic indicators are the
most important. The aim is in the device creation which
will be identical in size and weight to the modern mobile
phone.
So it was decided to build the device on the basis of
a universal board Arduino Nano 3.0 having small size
and weight:
Table 1. Main characteristics of Arduino Nano 3.0
Characteristics
Type of microcontroller
Voltage supply
The number of numerical
inputs/ outputs
Flash-memory
SRAM
EEPROM
The type of the external
interface
Clock rate
Board size
Weight
Value
ATmega328
7 – 12 W
14 (6 PWM)
32 kW (2 are used by the
loader)
2 kW
2 kW
Mini-B USB
16 MHz
18,5х43х8(18) mm *
5,75 g
Note: * - from this point and onward in brackets the size is
according to the bonding pads which if necessary can be
removed
Table 2. Characteristics of HMC5883L
Characteristics
Measurement range
Accuracy
Supply
Board size
Weight (with a bonding
pad)
Number of the used
inputs
Value
± 1,3 – 8 gauss (is soft
defined )
5 milligauss
3,3 – 3,6 W (power supply
from the board stabilizer is
possible)
14х13х3(13) mm
1,1 g
2
As the sensor HMC5883L is chosen which
represents the magnetometer with measurement
possibility of intensity of a magnetic field on 3 axes. The
sensor uses magneto-resistive effect, gives good results
in determination of constant magnetic fields, or such
which slowly change.
As for signal processing the usage of powerful
mathematical apparatus is planned, the personal
computer, or a laptop, with the specially installed
program are necessary components of the device. The
task of the program is identification of the received
nonuniformity of a magnetic field near a metal structure
surface.
The offered board, as well as any close in the size
microcontrollers, isn't capable to carry out such volume
of calculations, and the volume of own memory doesn't
allow to hold the necessary data volume. Therefore there
is a problem of the saving on the separate carrier or
results transferring on the basic computer (BC) on-line.
Ideally these two processes are to happen
simultaneously.
It is also necessary to transfer quickly measurement
results to the indicator located in the MD for definition
of failures in work, and for the preliminary estimate of
research results.
Nokia 5110 LCD has the most acceptable
characteristics from the point of Weight / Energy
consumption / Presentation, so its module is offered to be
used as an indicator.
Table 3. Main characteristics of Nokia 5110
Characteristics
Supply
Value
3,3 W (power supply from the
board stabilizer is possible)
Yes
monochromatics
84х48 px
Up to 4Mbit/s
43х45х4(14) mm
13,85 g
5
Lightning
Colour
Extension
Data-transfer rate
Size
Weight
The number of used
inputs/ outputs
The MD control elements consist of 1 switch, including
screen lightning he and not less than 2 Switch on / Switch Off
and Measurements buttons.
The possible decisions for expansion of own memory of
the MD can be the module for application SD or Micro - SD cards. The Micro module - SD - cards, was chosen as its size
and weights about two thirds the size of the module for SD
memory cards.
Table 4. Main characteristics of the module miсro-SDcard
Characteristics
Supply
Card support
Size
Weight
The number of used
inputs/ outputs
Value
3 - 5W (power supply from the
board stabilizer is possible)
miсro-SD/TF
24х41(45)х3(6) mm
5,75 г (without a card)
4
MAGNETOMETRIC NEW GENERATION DEVICE FOR DETERMINATION
43
OF THE OPERABILITY OF METAL STRUCTURES
For the organization of a radio communication for But again it should be noted that the problem of the radio
the data transmission from the PC to the BC on-line the channel organization demands a separate research, as
usage of radio - NRF24L01 modules, or all modules, well as a power supply choice for the MD.
realizing VirtualWire is offered. Range of operation of
such modules is 100-150 m in the open space and it has
to be quite enough. In the cases when distance from the
MD to the BC has to be more, other modules can be
used, but they demand more difficult control and more
powerful supply.
Table 5. Main characteristics of the radio module
NRF24L01
Characteristics
Supply
Frequence:
Data-transfer rate:
Operating range:
Size
Wight
The number of used
inputs/ outputs
Value
1,8-3,6 В (power supply from
the board stabilizer is possible)
2.4GHz
500 Kb/s, 1Mb/s, 2Mb/s
about 100m
12х17х2,5 mm (without an
external antenna)
0,55 g (without an external
antenna)
6
Fig. 2. Flow chart of the MD
On fig. 3, 4 there are the measuring module and the
receiver of a radio channel connected to the laptop set up
on the model boards.
For comparison we will give the characteristics of
the radio module of the FS1000A transmitter which
realizes VirtualWire. The characteristics of the receiver
are less important because it will be installed next to the
BC, but not built in the MD.
Table 6. Main characteristics of the radio module
FS1000A
Characteristics
Supply
Frequence:
Operating range:
Size
Weight
The number of used inputs/
outputs
Value
3-12 W (the more voltage
is, the more distance of
commection will be)
433 kHz
Up to 150 m
19х19(25)х5(7) mm
2,42 g
1
As we can see the first module has an advantage in
weight and size, but considerably loses because of the
bigger quantity of the used inputs and outputs. But the
key problem is the sufficient data-transfer rate and
reliability of communications which can be defined only
by a complex test. Therefore the problem of a radio
module which will be used in the MD is still open.
The flow chart of the device looks like this (Fig. 2).
The number of the used inputs /outputs totally
makes 17 during the usage of the radio module
NRF24L01 and makes 12 during the usage of the radio
module FS1000A. If there are 14 outputs in the board the
first variant demands the additional “extender of inputs”
that will lead to decrease in information processing rate,
the increase of the needed supply power, size and weight.
Fig. 3. The measuring block setup on the model board
Fig. 4. The radio channel receiver connected to the laptop
Power supply of the measuring block is temporarily
organized from the battery 6F22. Finally, the choice of
the power supply will be made after test operation.
Preliminary testing results of the HMC5883L sensor
together with Arduino Uno board and magnetic field
measurements per samples allowed to reveal the
44
D. Marchenko, A. Zhidkov
following features. At the installation of the maximum
sensitivity sensor “overswing” on the much magnetized
places is possible. But such places on real structures can
be only single ones and their demagnetization and
magnetic reversal are carried out very easily.
The distance from a structure surface significantly
influences on the sensor sensitivity. At the distance of
1 mm from a surface the sensor registers anomalies of a
magnetic field as a result of deformation on a reverse
side of a plate 4 mm thick. It allows to draw a conclusion
that oxidizing films and paint coatings which don't
contain ferromagnetic parts significantly won't influence
on the research results.
Because of the high sensor sensitivity, and
dependence of the research results on the distance to a
surface, it is desirable to keep a constant tilt angle of the
sensor and the minimum distance from a structure
surface during the testing. It was decided by creation of a
mounting pad. The board of the sensor was filled in with
epoxy for the best isolation from undesirable influences
of the atmosphere (moisture, dust, mechanical
influences). A model sample which is used for
preliminary testing of the MD is on Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. A mounting pad of the sensor with clamping
devices
It is offered to add the research directed sensor axis
X along a longitudinal axis of the structure element, or
other axis, which is easily defined for “correlation” of
the research results to a concrete structure point. The
testing is conducted, leaning with a pad on a surface and
smoothly with a constant speed moving it along the
studied place. During testing of the plane the lines pitch
has to be 5 mm that provides reliable overlapping of all
the places.
The minimum time between sensors' scanning is 60
ms that gives the chance to receive 16 values of a
magnetic field in a second. At motion speed about 5 mm
/s we receive too high accuracy of the research because
the single defect influences on a magnetic field in a
radius of 1-2 mm. So, it is potentially possible either to
reduce the frequency of sensors scanning, or to have
more data for statistical processing.
As a result of data readout from the sensor we
receive a number of values of conditional intensity of a
magnetic field on axes X, Y, Z. The format of values is
integer and it demands 16 bits = 2 bytes for storage, so
6 bytes are necessary for research results fixing. If we
examine the sensor with the maximum frequency datatransfer rate has to be not less than 32 bytes / s. The radio
channel and record on the SD card rate practically much
exceeds these values. Capacity of modern SD cards
allows to store hours of continuous measurements, even
taking into account that additional information for
identification of files, zones of testing, date, testing time
and so forth will be necessary.
Therefore it is possible to consider that at the chosen
configuration neither the line nor the processor, neither a
radio channel, nor the ROM isn't “a weak link” of the
MD. And in general the MD parameters are optimum.
Another important problem is the MD interface and
information displayed for the user during the work.
Critical for the user is data about necessary supply
characteristics, normal operation of the sensor, the radio
channel and the ROM. It can be shown on the display in
the form of text messages, or in the form of pictograms
pressing the corresponding button. In this article we
won't consider various service functions, and we will
concentrate only on the information from the sensor, that
has to be shown on the display of the measuring module.
For convenient operation the user has to have at least
superficial idea about the characteristics which he is
measuring now. As it was described above the
information from the sensor represents a set of the
integers characterizing a magnetic field near a structure
surface. At a measuring rate of 16 figures / s it is
impossible to trace visually the changes of absolute
values. Even if we take values with a smaller frequency,
there is a problem of a figure choice for output (one
figure per second, so 1 of 16 or the average value of
some period, or mathematical expectation, etc.). The
choice is rather unevident. Besides, data presentation in a
graphic form is more informative.
Therefore we made the decision to visualize the
research results for a certain period in the form of the
diagram / line chart on the measuring block display.
We made the decision to reorganize the chart line
every 5 seconds that will allow to receive data about the
last 80 measurements, or at the rate of 5 mm / with 25
mm from the surface.
Preliminary data processing for their bigger
visualization is also expedient.
For example, the value from the sensor on axes X
and Y is given on Fig. 6 are not really informative. Even
the addition of the line, which illustrates the position of
average value, doesnot help. The different size of the
measured value must be also considered that places
inconveniently all three line charts on the axes.
MAGNETOMETRIC NEW GENERATION DEVICE FOR DETERMINATION
OF THE OPERABILITY OF METAL STRUCTURES
REFERENCES
Основной
Основной
Основной
Основной
Основной
-Основной
-Основной
ОсновнойОсновнойОсновнойОсновнойОсновной
X
Y
Fig. 6.The line chart of magnetic field change in the
strain-hardening range
Therefore we decided to use rated values (Fig. 7) for
displaying because usually we are interested in a
deviation from the average value, but not an absolute
value of the magnetic field intensity.
Основной
Основной
Основной
Основной
Основной
Основной
Основной
Основной
Основной
Основной
Основной
Основной
Основной
Xn
Yn
Fig. 7.Reflection of the rated values with the same data, as
in Fig. 6
As we can see, anomalies are shown more visually.
It should be noted that all these transformations demand
computing resources which significantly depend on the
chosen processing algorithms, but are a priori limited
with controller opportunities. Therefore a final
conclusion about application of the chosen way of
visualization will be made according to the results of the
device testing on samples and real structures.
CONCLUSIONS
The main requirements to the magnetometric device
for determination of the operability of metal structures
are established. The configuration and blocks which are
its part are chosen. It is defined that the chosen structure
and device components fit the research requirements,
blocks are compatible and the system has no “weak
links”. According to the test results of a device model
sample, the display way, optimum in informational
content, of the research results of metal structures, on the
measuring block is established. The problem of
parameters of a radio channel, power supplies and
service functions demand additional research.
45
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МАГНИТОМЕТРИЧЕСКИЙ ПРИБОР НОВОГО
ПОКОЛЕНИЯ ДЛЯ ОПРЕДЕЛЕНИЯ
РАБОТОСПОСОБНОСТИ МЕТАЛЛОКОНСТРУКЦИЙ
Д. Марченко, А. Жидков
Аннотация. Сформулированы основные принципы
создания магнитометрического прибора для определения
работоспособности металлоконструкций
на основе
измерения уровня усталостных повреждений. Определены
основные требования к прибору, обоснован выбор всех его
блоков, описан принцип его работы и устройство.
Представлены предварительные результаты использования
прибора. Описаны принципы визуализации результатов
измерений для оперативного управления на основе
испытаний.
Ключевые
слова:
усталостные
повреждения,
магнитные свойства, устройство, узлы, визуализация.
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