energy efficiency
ABB, BU Marine and Cranes
Energy efficiency guide
energy efficiency
The other alternative fuel
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Table of contents
Foreword
5
1. Energy efficiency in marine vessels
7
2. Design point and energy efficiency
11
3. How can you improve your energy efficiency?
15
4. Energy efficiency solutions 27
4.1. Passenger vessels
32
4.2. Dry cargo vessels
36
4.3.Tankers
40
4.4. Oil & Gas
44
4.5. Work boats
48
5. Solution overviews
53
6. Detailed solution descriptions
77
7. How to proceed
189
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takes you to chapter “5.4.
Winch control with variable
frequency drive” at page 58.
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2 | Energy efficiency guide
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Preface
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Foreword
This energy efficiency guide provides data and information for preliminary project
evaluation of energy efficiency upgrades or services related to energy efficiency
upgrades. Furthermore, our project, service and sales departments are available
to advise on more specific questions concerning our products and solutions
regarding the various solutions available.
Our energy efficiency and propulsion system offering is constantly reviewed and
refined according to the technology development and the needs of our customers.
Therefore, we reserve the right to make changes to any data and information
herein without notice.
All information provided in this publication is meant to be informative only. All
project-specific issues shall be agreed separately and therefore any information
given in this publication shall not be used as part of agreement or contract.
Helsinki, April 2013
ABB Oy, Marine and Cranes
Merenkulkijankatu 1 / P.O. Box 185
00981 Helsinki, Finland
Tel. +358 10 22 11
www.abb.com/marine
Azipod is registered trademark of ABB Oy.
© 2005 ABB Oy. All rights reserved
Disclaimer
The data, examples and diagrams in this manual are included solely for the concept or product
description and are not to be deemed as a statement of guaranteed properties. All persons responsible
for applying the equipment addressed in this manual must satisfy themselves that each intended
application is suitable and acceptable, including that any applicable safety or other operational
requirements are complied with. In particular, any risks in applications where a system failure and/or
product failure would create a risk for harm to property or persons (including but not limited to personal
injuries or death) shall be the sole responsibility of the person or entity applying the equipment, and those
so responsible are hereby requested to ensure that all measures are taken to exclude or mitigate such
risks. This document has been carefully checked by ABB but deviations cannot be completely ruled out.
In case any errors are detected, the reader is kindly requested to notify the manufacturer. Other than
under explicit contractual commitments, in no event shall ABB be responsible or liable for any loss or
damage resulting from the use of this manual or the application of the equipment.
Dear reader,
Energy efficiency is recognized as a global mandate by governments,
maritime organizations and businesses, and has become a key driver for
ABB.
Rising operating costs and stricter environmental regulations are driving
ship owners/operators, designers and shipyards to find more effective
ways of designing and operating ships in an energy efficient manner.
The purpose of this publication is to guide its readers through the latest
ideas for improving energy efficiency, in both technical and operational
terms. We therefore hope that this guide will find its way onto the desks of
as many ship owners/operators, designers and shipyards as possible. You
can only maintain your competitive edge by being prepared for the future.
It is difficult to foresee how the world will change, but in ship design one
thing is certain – competition between ship owners will intensify and the
energy consumed by ships will constitute a larger part of total operating
costs. Environmental regulations for ships will become even tighter. A ship
built today must remain competitive, in terms of its operating costs and
environmental standards, even decades from now. Vessels with electric
propulsion provide flexibility in the face of change, enabling ship owners
and designers to adapt to emerging challenges.
We hope you enjoy reading this first issue of our energy efficiency
publication for the shipping industry. Although this issue will mainly focus
on what can be done to reduce fuel consumption on existing ships, all of
the measures discussed can also be applied to new ship designs.
Jan-Erik Räsänen
Energy Efficiency Business Manager
© Copyright 2013 ABB. All rights reserved.
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Energy efficiency in
marine vessels
6 | Energy efficiency guide
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Energy efficiency in marine vessels
This guide will introduce some of the areas in
which ABB works, in order to offer solutions that
will help ship owners and operators reduce their
fuel bills today and in the future. Owners keep
their chartered fleet competitive by responding
to growing demand of energy efficiency from the
industry. These solutions will also support yards
in offering vessel designs that meet the future
needs. Further and more detailed presentations
of core technologies and services can be found
in the following chapters.
The fuel dilemma and its opportunities
Global shipping consumes around 300 million
metric tons of fuel annually, comprising heavy
fuel oil (HFO) used in transportation and larger
ships, and marine diesel oil (MDO) used in
offshore and smaller near-shore vessels.
Because HFO is a residual oil product, it is the
8 | Energy efficiency guide
The shipping cost model has changed – falling
capital and rising fuel costs have turned ship
economics on its head.
Bunker cost
$25,000/day
Bunker cost/$ per day
25,000
Ship cost/$ per day
20,000
Ship cost
$17,000/day
15,000
Ship cost 3x
as much as fuel
10,000
5,000
Jan-12
Jan-10
Jan-08
Jan-06
Jan-04
Jan-02
Jan-00
Jan-98
0
Jan-96
The challenges involved in achieving macro
targets associated with stabilizing CO2
emissions, in order to reduce accelerated
global warming, are also bound to affect the
shipping industry, even if the related global
rules and regulations are not yet in place.
Such goals cannot be reached through today’s
technologies alone and will require new ways
of designing and operating vessels and fleets,
as well as further development of technologies
and energy sources. While this is a challenge,
it also represents a clear money driver for
long-term strategic players. With the current
cost of HFO at above $600 per metric ton, the
shipping industry faces a total annual fuel bill of
at least $200 billion. For providers of energyefficient solutions that reduce fuel consumption
for environmental reasons, enormous business
opportunities are in prospect, but only based on
reduced fuel bills.
30,000
Jan-94
During the last decade, the energy market has
been turbulent, with rising and changing fuel
prices. Few voices are predicting that this will
change in the next decade. Among ship owners
and designers, there is a clear trend towards
designing vessels with flexibility in terms of their
fuel sources and the operational loading of their
propulsion systems.
$/day cost
Jan-92
The answer is complex and the causes various.
But above all, this development is clearly the
result of the dramatic variations in, and high
levels of, fuel costs and income rates. This has
led to hemorrhaging revenues for ship operators
who are unprepared for rapidly changing fuel
costs and lack the ability to adjust vessel
operations and operational expenses. Another
factor concerns increased public awareness of
pollution and environmental emissions, which
is prompting political decisions on global or
local rules and regulations. While these could
be considered a burden for ship operators,
they may also create huge opportunities for
operators with the necessary foresight and longterm strategic perspectives.
lowest priced fuel and is therefore unlikely to be
replaced as a main fuel source for shipping in
the near future. However, the use of lower-sulfur
and cleaner fuels, such as MDO and liquefied
natural gas (LNG), will come to dominate
parts of the HFO market, as environmental
regulations and local restrictions on emissions
are tightened.
Jan-90
Only a few years ago, fuel efficiency was a
minor or even neglected topic in many marine
industrial conferences and journals. Today,
together with safety and availability, it is at
the top of the marine community’s agenda.
What has brought such a dramatic change in
awareness, in such a short time?
Source: Clarkson Research Services
The shipping cost model has changed - falling capital and rising fuel costs have turned ship economics on its head
Impact of EEDI and SEEMP
The International Maritime Organization (IMO)
commissioned a study by Lloyd’s Register and
Det Norske Veritas to estimate the impact of the
new requirements. The results from the study
show that the Energy Efficiency Design Index
(EEDI) will, as new ships are built, gradually
reduce the emissions from the world fleet
with 3 percent in 2020, 13 percent in 2030,
and 30 percent in 2050. The Ship Energy
Efficiency Management Plan (SEEMP) will not
directly mandate an emission reduction, but by
increased awareness of costs and reduction
potentials, the study estimated the reduction to
between 5-10 percent from 2015 onwards.
Effect of SEEMP
The EEDI will mandate improvements in hull
design and machinery, while the SEEMP will
require ship owners to develop a plan for
their ships. There are significant potentials for
reduction by operational measure, and with
the current fuel prices, most are also costeffective. However, there appears to be a limited
uptake of these measures caused by nonfinancial barriers, such as lack of capital, lack
of competence, lack of cooperation between
actor and split incentives. Higher fuel prices will
lead only to a limited extra implementation of
measures, but over time will drive technology
development and implement the existing set of
measures. The SEEMP will initiate monitoring
and target setting and look at concrete measure
to be implemented for each vessel. Awareness
of the potential savings is expected to increase
the adoption of measures.
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Design point and
energy efficiency
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Design point and energy efficiency
In principle, a vessel operating at the design
point is as efficient as it can be – everything else
being equal. In other words, a vessel designed
around a certain design point would have the
best optimization for the given variables, i.e. the
least fuel consumption, and a certain draft, trim,
cargo intake, propeller and hull cleanness and
sea/weather conditions.
But what happens if the vessel operates outside
its design point? And how often does a vessel
do so? What is the range of variation for the
different variables?
One could argue that these issues depend on
the type of vessel: that in principle no deviation
from a design point can exist and the idea is
therefore meaningless. In the case of some
vessels, this is probably true. But if we look
deeper into the operational profile of different
types of vessels, we begin to see a different
pattern.
What happens if the vessel
operates outside its design
point?
A good example of a vessel that barely deviates
from its design point is a small/medium inland
double ended ferry. The speed is always the
same; the deadweight barely changes (even
though the cargo deadweight may change
considerably) and the weather is fairly stable
(assuming a sheltered operating area). On
the other hand, a Panamax container carrier
that operates globally faces huge variations in
weather and seas, needs to operate at a wide
range of speeds and is subject to fairly large
cargo variations during a round voyage.
Still, there are vessels where the deviation from the
design point is less obvious. Take a bulk carrier, for
example. These vessels are designed to operate
based on two cargo conditions: full and ballast.
They are also designed to operate at constant
power (i.e. a lower speed with full draft and a
higher speed with ballast draft). In addition, the
designer assumes that the vessel must be able to
maintain its design speed with full draft and under
certain weather conditions, and therefore designs
for a certain Sea Margin. Normally equaling a
percentage of the power required to propel the
ship at a certain speed and draft, the Sea Margin
is usually set at 10-20%. This means that if the
resistance offered by sea states is different to that
assumed for the design point, the vessel is likely to
move at a different speed or have a different power
consumption (either more or less).
How often and how far does
a vessel operate outside its
design point?
Since a seagoing vessel is likely to face a wide
range of sea states over its lifecycle – for which
the added resistance is likely to be different to
the SM used to define the design point – we
can conclude that it is highly likely to operate
outside its design point for a significant part of
its lifetime. Consequently, the vessel will not
operate as efficiently as its designers assumed.
What is the range of variation
for the different variables?
The economic implications of the above will
depend on how far and how often a vessel
operates off the design point.
12 | Energy efficiency guide
At any rate, the main implication of these
considerations is that energy efficiency
must be viewed from a much broader
perspective. It is not enough to design a
vessel that is efficient at a particular design
point, if any variation from this would lead
to a considerable drop in efficiency. Much
can be done at the “drawing board” stage –
e.g. optimization for multiple design points.
However, in order to achieve a different level
of energy efficiency, a sound design must be
combined with power management and data
management technology that allow the crew
to operate the vessel more efficiently across a
wider range of conditions.
The design point is the
combination of variables around
which the design is optimized,
e.g. speed, draft, consumption,
deadweight, weather and sea
conditions, trim, etc.
In principle, a vessel
operating at the design point
is as efficient as it can be –
everything else being equal.
One draft, one speed…or do you need flexibility in design point?
Single point optimization
Range optimization
Fuel consumption
A key concept in ship design is the design point,
a combination of the variables around which a
design is developed and optimized. These can
be speed, draft, consumption, deadweight,
weather and sea conditions, trim (normally even
keel) and many other variables, depending on
the ship type and operational profile.
Design range
Design point
Speed (DWT, Sea, Weather, Fouling, Trim)
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How can you
improve your
energy efficiency?
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3.1. How can you improve your energy efficiency?
The energy balance can be calculated based on
a ship’s design documentation and/or verified
using onboard measurements. An onboard
energy assessment will enable the calculation
of each source of energy consumption, with
sufficient accuracy for use in an energy balance
chart. ABB’s advisory system provides energy
monitoring tools in EMMA™ Advisory Suite
with which the total energy balance can be
visualized.
The diagram provides information on the
conversion of all mechanical power into
electricity, for flexible distribution between
various loads. In the case of conventional or
hybrid propulsion, some of the power bypasses
conversion into electricity and is transferred
directly to propulsion.
Infographics of a common energy balance
Generators
Engines
Mechanical
power
Electrical
power
Optimal
demand
Hotel loads
Vessel loads
Energy storage
Propulsion
Batteries
Super-capacitors
Waste
heat
recovery
systems
Heat process
St
ea
m
/h
i
gh
Wasted energy due to:
– Equipment tear and wear
– Inadequate maintenance
– Non-optimal operation
Propeller losses
ses
tor los
nera
Ge
losses
s
losse
*High and low temperature water
ater
ew
tur
era
mp
te
Di
es
Conversion and transmission losses
Steam/HT
and LT water*
Heat
Energy flow
Actual
demand
Conversion
Fuel
Utilization
e
gin
en
el
This chapter will guide you on how to identify
those areas that are essential to maximizing
your fleet’s energy efficiency and savings
potential.
Below, the Sankey diagram visualizes the
energy flow, from fuel to utilization. It should be
noted that values vary significantly according
to the type of vessel, and that a diagram like
this does not capture the dynamics of different
operational modes.
Electricity production
16 | Energy efficiency guide
How to find to the most cost effective
solutions
For ship owners and designers, a broad palette
of solutions is available for meeting such
challenges. The key question concerns which
of these are most cost-effective and which
will continue to be suitable in the long-term.
However, two tendencies seem to be clear:
• For ship owners and designers there is a clear
trend towards increasing efforts to design
vessels for flexibility in terms of their fuel
source and the operational loading of their
propulsion systems.
• There is also increasing interest in reaping the
benefits of electric propulsion in new vessel
segments, particularly with respect to hybrid
propulsion concepts.
The big picture in energy consumption and
energy saving
Understanding the energy balance is essential
for addressing the concerns of key consumers
and calculating savings potential in greater
detail.
WHR
For providers of energy efficiency solutions,
such as ABB, this represents a huge opportunity
which could also dramatically ease the situation
of ship owners. Another, related factor is
increased public awareness of pollution and
emissions into the environment, in response
to which rules and regulations are being set at
both local and global level. While these could
be considered a burden on ship operators,
for operators with foresight and a long-term
strategic perspective, they may also present
vast opportunities.
3.2. Where does the energy and money go?
Thermodynamic power conversion
International shipping is facing tough times with
escalating fuel prices, stricter environmental
regulations and very low day rates caused by
overcapacity in most segments. It is not long
time ago, when ship cost per day exceeded 5
times the bunker cost per day. Today, dramatic
variations and high levels in fuel costs, and
major fluctuations in income rates, are causing
revenues to hemorrhage for unprepared ship
operators that lack the ability to adjust vessel
operations and the associated expenses. While
HFO costs are now above $600 per metric ton,
the shipping industry’s total fuel bill has become
an extremely heavy burden for the ship owners.
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Lost or unused energy
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3.3. There are many ways to improve energy
efficiency. How to focus on the right things?
In the case of cruise ships, a primary utilization
factor would provide comfort to guests (the
hotel load). For platform support vessels,
dynamic positioning would be more useful while,
for tankers, the speed from A to B is the key
issue. The type of work done onboard would
vary in each case – the width of the arrows
indicates how the amount of energy consumed
would change from one minute to the next.
In static terms, we can fundamentally view the
diagram as representing the energy accounted
for during one year in operation, or as the
energy flow for an entire fleet.
By reading the diagram from left to right, you
can readily see how a large portion of the fuel
turns into waste heat due to the inefficiency of
the combustion engine. However, reading the
diagram from right to left could provide an even
more valuable insight into how the cost driver
on the left, fuel consumption, could be tamed
more effectively. Improvements in the processes
on the right would affect the left side by a factor
of two or three.
The most effective strategy for achieving
improved energy efficiency and reducing fuel
costs would be extremely simple: closing the
gap between optimal and actual demand.
Energy Efficiency as defined by IMO
The Ship Energy Efficiency Management Plan
(SEEMP) represents a possible approach to
monitoring ship and fleet efficiency performance
over time. It is also an option to consider when
seeking to optimize a ship’s performance.
The purpose of a SEEMP is to establish a
mechanism through which a company and/
or ship can improve the energy efficiency of
a ship’s operation. A ship-specific SEEMP
should be linked to a broader corporate energy
management policy for the company that owns,
operates or controls the ship. It should also
take account of the fact that no two shipping
companies are the same, and that ships operate
under a wide range of conditions.
We already today see an increased demand,
where charterers require a well-established
SEEMP from the ship owners.
In order to facilitate a systematic and analytical
approach to energy efficiency, SEEMP is
divided in 4 steps as described in the diagram
below. The ultimate goal is to increase energy
efficiency, reduce total fuel costs and, as such,
reduce emissions into the air.
Planning
• Selecting ship and company
specific measures
• Training
• Goal setting
Self evaluation & improvement
• Assess the effectiveness of
improvements achieved
• Performance analysis
• Reporting to key stakeholders
Implementation
• Establishment of implemantation
system
• implemantation and recordkeeping
Monitoring
• Emphasis on minumum additional
work load for the crew - automatic
function
• Continuous and consistent
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3.4. Energy appraisal – vital knowledge when
making investment decisions
Systematic approach to energy savings by
ABB
ABB’s straightforward and systematic approach
is illustrated below. It begins by identifying
where you are on the scale of efficiency and
ends with the implementation of the most
energy-efficient approach. Ultimately, while
operation of the ship includes technical
measures, services such as energy efficiency
audits and training play a key role in achieving a
more efficient operation.
Step 0
• Understand where
you are
• Analyze current
operations
• Set targets and
make a plan
• Begin follow-up
Fuel
consumption
20 | Energy efficiency guide
A SEEMP is used to establish
a mechanism enabling a
company and/or ship to
improve the energy efficiency
of a ship’s operation.
ABB Marine Energy Appraisal is a service that
identifies your potential for making fuel savings
and emission reductions onboard, by using
ABB Energy efficiency solutions. Fuel saving
and emission reduction, the investment cost
and payback time are analyzed for one or all of
ABB’s turnkey energy efficiency solutions.
A report of these analyses provides a firm basis
for evaluating the related benefits and making
investment decisions.
A typical situation
Ships’ pump and fan applications are typically
over-dimensioned for the actual needs in
question. Overdimensioning results from
design criteria set to meet a vessel’s extreme
operating conditions. However such conditions
are rarely met in everyday operation. Pumps
and fans constantly run at full speed and the
flow is controlled by valves and dampers. Such
control methods waste energy. By equipping
applications with frequency converters,
Step 1
• Concentrate on
simple improvements
• Daily operation and
maintenance
• Focus on zero or
low-cost items
Fuel
consumption
Step 2
• Improvement of
systems
• Minor modifications
during normal
operation
• Focus on items with
a payback period of
less than two years
Fuel
consumption
significant energy savings can be made.
Reduced energy consumption lowers CO2,
SOX and NOX emissions.
You obtain a technically guaranteed,
optimized solution
A typical energy efficiency project begins
with an energy appraisal, in order to analyze
the potential for energy and fuel savings
and emission reduction. Executed by ABB
engineers, such a project guarantees a
technically optimized solution and qualified
installation. Once the modified process has
been started, measurements can be used to
verify the actual results.
Scope of supply
In every case, this service includes a set of
analyses related to fuel savings and emission
reduction potential. The analysis report comes
complete with a price estimate for ABB’s
recommended energy efficiency solutions.
Step 3
• Improvement of
systems and ship
hull
• Modifications
requiring dry docking
Fuel
consumption
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3.5. Energy efficiency audit – the first concrete step
towards saving energy, the environment and money
Energy efficiency audit
Why?
The objective of an energy audit is to bring a
vessel’s overall energy efficiency to a clearly
higher level, by identifying various operational
and technical improvement options. The
outcome of the audit is a detailed roadmap
for achieving possible energy efficiency
improvements, with estimated investment costs
and saving potential.
An outline of SEEMP, required
by IMO for all ships, can be
included in energy efficiency
audit
22 | Energy efficiency guide
Environmental efficiency audit
What?
Such an audit includes an assessment of the
main machinery and equipment, as well as the
evaluation of ship operations and maintenance
practices in all of the relevant areas. Reporting
of the audit’s results includes:
• Actual proposals for improving fuel efficiency
in all areas of the vessel.
• The economic feasibility of all identified
improvements is evaluated by estimating the
saving in operational costs.
• An outline of SEEMP, required by IMO for all
ships, can be included.
Reporting
The written audit report includes an audit plan
and targets, the main findings from the onboard
assessment with estimated savings and costs,
and a wrap-up presentation with a roadmap for
achieving energy efficiency improvements.
Energy efficiency audit steps
Find the potential
• Behaviors and practices
• Monitoring and targeting
• Technology and control
Introduce the options
• Alignment workshops and prioritization
process
• Quick-win project implementation
• Project specification
• Opportunity confirmation
Gain the benefits
• Best-in-the-field equipment
• Advisory solutions
• Services and assistance
Why?
The objective of an environmental efficiency
audit is the most accurate identification and
quantification possible of emissions into the
environment during typical vessel operation.
In addition, the possibilities, both technical
and operational, for reducing emissions are
evaluated.
What?
You will obtain a comprehensive picture
of your multiple technical and operational
possibilities for reducing the fuel consumption
of your vessel(s). Your improvement potential is
quantified, based on estimated investments and
annual savings.
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3.6. Energy and environmental efficiency trainings
Energy efficiency training
The scope of energy efficiency training includes
improving the fuel economy of vessel(s) by
raising crew awareness when operating the ship
and its machinery. This is done through both
theoretical examples and practical principles. The
related training sessions consist of an interactive
combination of lectures, case studies and
discussions on energy efficiency. Training material
includes basic theoretical guidelines applicable to
the selected vessel and operation. Participants
should include chief engineers, captains and
any other key persons (shore/ship/technical)
proposed by the client. Training can be arranged
at your office, onboard or at a training center.
Environmental efficiency training
The objective of environmental efficiency training
is to lower vessels’ impact on the environment by
raising crew awareness of various environmental
issues. The emphasis is laid on technical and
operational means of reducing emissions, as
well as on current and forthcoming legislation.
Participants should include chief engineers and
captains, and any other key persons (shore/ship/
technical) chosen by the client.
What you get
is increased knowledge and awareness among
your crew of energy and environmental efficiency
and the related issues. Greater knowledge
reduces fuel consumption over a longer
timeframe, through enhanced competencies
among the crew and possible adjustments to
daily operations.
• Providing the big picture on fuel saving
onboard
• Refreshing your theoretical knowledge of the
ship and her systems
• Providing practical evaluation tools and
methods
• Strengthening the commitment to a common
goal
• Includes interactive workshop for initializing
creation of a company SEEMP
By acknowledging the current
status, and understanding
measures for optimizing
processes, action can be taken
to reduce energy consumption.
24 | Energy efficiency guide
Benefits for the ship owner
Awareness of energy- and environmental
efficiency enables the owner to determine and
monitor the current status of the vessel’s energy
production, consumption and emissions. Actions
to reduce energy consumption can be performed
by understanding the ship’s current status and
the measures required to optimize processes.
The results will appear in terms of increased
competencies amongst the crew, and their
understanding of the potential for reducing the
vessel’s operating costs.
Energy efficiency guide | 25
Table of contents | Solutions/products | Passenger vessels | Dry Cargo vessels | Tankers | Oil & Gas | Work boats
4
Table of contents | Solutions/products | Passenger vessels | Dry Cargo vessels | Tankers | Oil & Gas | Work boats
Energy efficiency
solutions
26 | Energy efficiency guide
Energy efficiency guide | 27
Table of contents | Solutions/products | Passenger vessels | Dry Cargo vessels | Tankers | Oil & Gas | Work boats
Table of contents | Solutions/products | Passenger vessels | Dry Cargo vessels | Tankers | Oil & Gas | Work boats
Energy efficiency solutions
Fuel is now the biggest cost element for
charterers. Under these circumstances, energy
efficient vessels will manage to attract premium
rates, whereas inefficient vessels may struggle
to be chartered at all. However, the game is not
lost: there are ways of improving the energy
efficiency of today’s global fleet. This chapter
will introduce ABB’s various solutions for the
marine industry, by vessel segment
An overview of each vessel segment is shown,
as in the example in figure 1 below. In addition,
there is an introductory overview and detailed
description of each solution (see figure 2). For
example, for solution 1 an overview is given on
page 54, while the detailed description begins
on page 78.
Figure 1: Dry cargo vessel segment, as an example of the vessel specific solution offering
4
Table 1 provides an overview of our various
offerings, and of the area and vessel segments
for which each ABB solution provides the best fit.
Propulsion & Hull
Solutions in this category vary between ready
designed, small propulsion packages and
software supported advice for optimized hull
cleaning periods. ABB has developed an officebased tool for estimating and forecasting hull
and propeller fouling.
Power production & Machinery spaces
Processes within this category are well
represented in ABB’s energy efficiency offering.
This offering can be divided into solutions
highly suitable for the retrofit market, as well as
solutions mainly intended for new build, such as
the Onboard DC Grid.
Hotel & Cargo
Heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC)
represent the biggest single source of energy
consumption onboard a passenger vessel. A
great deal of interest is being raised in improving
the energy efficiency of these processes, since
this can lead to major reductions in overall
power consumption. Overall efficiency can be
increased by installing high-efficiency motors,
with 40% less losses, in cargo equipment.
Operational advice
Operational advice can be divided into several
categories, such as performance monitoring
based on data automatically collected via a central
system. This can also be data collected manually,
processed via an energy efficiency audit and
presented in a report. The goal is that, on the basis
of such data, the crew will raise awareness and
take action to improve overall efficiency onboard.
Table 1: Presentation of energy efficiency solutions by vessel type
o
8
4
2i
7 9 y p
Propulsion &
Hull
1 t u 1 2 3
Mechanical shaftline
Figure 2: Guide to navigating between solutions and descriptions
Propulsion & Hull
7Variable frequency drive for shaft
1 ABB’s energy efficiency and
advisory systems yShaft torque and power metering
54
78
71 164
Power production & Machinery spaces
1 ABB’s energy efficiency and
advisory systems 54
78
55
86
2Variable frequency drive for
cooling systems Winch
control with variable
4
frequency drive 28 | Energy efficiency guide
58 100
generator (PTO/PTI) 8Improved fuel efficiency with waste
heat recovery system 9Diesel electric auxiliary propulsion
system tShore-to-ship power
yShaft torque and power metering
uHigh efficiency motors
iDiesel engine speed regulation
oAutomatic voltage regulator
61 118
62 124
Power
production &
Machinery
spaces
Hotel &
Cargo
63 130
70 158
71 164
72 170
73 174
74 180
Operational
advice
Passenger
vessels
Dry cargo
vessels
Tankers
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(includes OSV’s)
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Energy efficiency guide | 29
Table of contents | Solutions/products | Passenger vessels | Dry Cargo vessels | Tankers | Oil & Gas | Work boats
Table of contents | Solutions/products | Passenger vessels | Dry Cargo vessels | Tankers | Oil & Gas | Work boats
Solutions/products and consulting services to be
introduced in this guide
Solutions
1 ABB’s energy efficiency
Products
and advisory systems
A vast portfolio of performance management tools for
minimizing fuel costs, and maximizing the availability and
improving the overall safety of vessels.
2
Variable frequency drive for
cooling systems
A simple and efficient way to achieve major savings in fuel
consumption on various onboard pump and fan applications.
3
Variable frequency drive to
control HVAC systems
Solutions
t Shore-to-ship power
Products
Shut down all of your engines while berthed and reduce your
emissions to zero. Gain a reduced fuel bill, by using onshore
power.
y
Shaft torque and power
metering
Controlling pumps and fans in HVAC processes with VFD
provides substantial savings in fuel consumption and
reduced maintenance costs.
Do you know whether your engines are running optimally?
Accurate shaft power and RPM measurement can help
determine whether this is so.
u
High efficiency motors
Winch control with variable
frequency drive
A smooth, stepless speed and torque control solution, with
a special winch control program and Direct Torque Control
feature for increasing system reliability.
ABB high efficiency motors meet the highest efficiency
requirements in all load points. This enables the use of VFDs
in all motor applications. Losses reduced by 40%.
i
Diesel engine speed
regulation
Onboard DC Grid
Up to 20% fuel saving when taking full advantage of all
features, including energy storage and variable speed
engines. Improved dynamic response in DP mode.
The DEGO III digital governor system not only reduces fuel
consumption and maintenance, creating savings in operating
costs, but also cuts exhaust emissions.
o
Hybrid power plants
enabled by batteries
An additional and/or alternative power source to diesel
generator sets, providing reduced fuel consumption and
enabling zero emission operation.
Automatic voltage regulator UNITROL ® 1000 products, designed for compliance with
worldwide grid codes, for reliable control of a machine, even
during heavy failure conditions on the network.
p
Two stroke diesel engine
performance monitoring
Variable frequency drive for
shaft generator (PTO/PTI)
Use the shaft generator in a wider operating window,
enabling the use of a hybrid solution with flexibility in power
intake and output modes.
8
Improved fuel efficiency
with waste heat recovery
system
Through the WHRS, recovered energy, typically 10% of
the main propulsion’s shaft power, is converted back for
mechanical work.
9
Diesel electric auxiliary
propulsion system
A simple approach to improving a vessel’s operational profile
involves installing an electrical auxiliary propulsion system for
CPP operated vessels running at low speeds: 0–6 kn.
q
Small power propulsion
solution
Small power range of ready-designed electrical propulsion
system packages; typical power range of 100 to 400 kW is
highly suitable for smaller vessels.
w
Azipod® propulsion
A podded electric main propulsion and steering system
driving a fixed-pitch propeller at variable speed, known for its
high hydrodynamic efficiency.
4
5
6
7
e
r
A well-tuned and balanced engine consumes less fuel. ABB
Cylmate ® System enables fuel-consumption reductions of
around 1–2%, with a short payback time.
1Product/solution applicable for both retrofits and new vessels
2Product/solution feasible mainly for new vessels
Consulting services
1 Energy appraisal
These services are applicable to all vessel types
An easy way to increase awareness of fuel savings and
emissions reduction potential. A customized study that
enables the improvement of a vessel’s energy efficiency.
Azipod® hydrodynamics
upgrade
A retrofit package for further improving Azipod ®
hydrodynamic efficiency, with the fuel savings effect
occurring across the vessel’s entire speed range.
2
Energy efficiency audit
Marine automation
modernizations and energy
efficiency
Run your systems closer to peak efficiency, combine the
automation retrofit with an advisory system to increase your
awareness of power production and consumption.
For clearly improving the overall energy efficiency of a vessel
by identifying various operational and technical improvement
options.
3
Energy efficiency training
To improve the fuel economy of vessel(s) by raising crew
awareness when operating the ship and its machinery.
30 | Energy efficiency guide
Energy efficiency guide | 31
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Table of contents | Solutions/products | Passenger vessels | Dry Cargo vessels | Tankers | Oil & Gas | Work boats
Passenger vessels
1
Product/solution applicable for
both retrofits and new vessels
2
Product/solution feasible mainly
for new vessels
3
Solution overview
Consulting service
Detailed solution description
4
o
o
4
w
e
26i
q
7 9 y
1 3 5 r t u 1 2 3
Mechanical shaftline
Propulsion & Hull
1 ABB’s energy efficiency and
advisory systems Small
power propulsion solution q
®
Azipod
propulsion
w
®
eAzipod hydrodynamics upgrade
yShaft torque and power metering
54
78
64 136
66 142
68 150
71 164
Power production & Machinery spaces
1 ABB’s energy efficiency and
advisory systems 2Variable frequency drive for
cooling systems 4Winch control with variable
frequency drive 32 | Energy efficiency guide
26i
54
78
55
86
5Onboard DC Grid
6Hybrid power plants enabled by
59 106
batteries 7Variable frequency drive for shaft
generator (PTO/PTI) 9Diesel electric auxiliary propulsion
system rMarine automation modernizations
and energy efficiency Shore-to-ship
power
t
yShaft torque and power metering
uHigh efficiency motors
iDiesel engine speed regulation
oAutomatic voltage regulator
60 114
Hotel & Cargo
Consulting services
1 ABB’s energy efficiency and
61 118
advisory systems
Variable
frequency drive to
3
control HVAC systems u High efficiency motors
54
78
56
92
1Energy appraisal
2Energy efficiency audit
3Energy efficiency training
21
22
24
72 170
63 130
Operational advice
69 154
70 158
71 164
72 170
1 ABB’s energy efficiency and
advisory systems Shaft
torque and power metering
y
54
78
71 164
73 174
74 180
58 100
Energy efficiency guide | 33
Table of contents | Solutions/products | Passenger vessels | Dry Cargo vessels | Tankers | Oil & Gas | Work boats
Table of contents | Solutions/products | Passenger vessels | Dry Cargo vessels | Tankers | Oil & Gas | Work boats
Passenger vessels
Pullmantur reduced fuel consumption and
diminished its ecological footprint
Alejandro Zorzo |
Challenge and opportunity
In recent times, little effort has been invested
in improving the energy efficiency of passenger
vessels. Only lately has a greater focus and
effort been put into reducing operational costs
by lowering energy consumption. Even today,
vessels are being built to older technical
specifications, meaning that even new vessels
can be highly inefficient.
Passenger vessels often operate close to shore
and call into port in populated areas, which
are governed by more stringent environmental
regulations. This requires the use of cleaner
fuel with a low sulfur content, resulting in much
higher operational costs.
Cruise
Because they are often large, cruise vessels
require a high amount of propulsion power.
However, on average the hotel load can be as
much as 50% of total fuel consumption over
a single year. Long port times and modest
cruising speeds are typical of cruise vessels,
even when the design criteria are set to meet
much higher design speeds.
In fact, this is what makes cruise vessels
so interesting from the energy efficiency
perspective. Major savings potential exists in
their power production and consumption, based
on optimizing various processes by means of
technology, software and operational consulting.
Ferry
Ferries are characterized by relatively high
installed power, since they usually operate on
short routes with a fixed itinerary and regular
departures. In other words, they must keep
to schedule in all kinds of loading conditions
and operational modes, for example in icy
conditions during the winter. Increased fuel
prices have made this extremely challenging
for the ferry industry. Indeed, it is perhaps in
the ferry sector that the need to reduce fuel
costs is most urgent. ABB has the technology,
software and operational knowledge required to
improve energy efficiency onboard a passenger
vessel. Most of its solutions in this regard have
a reasonable short return on investment and,
in most cases, a vessel can remain in normal
operation during installation and start-up.
Head of Technical Procurement at Pullmantur
“We are not only seeking for our cruises to
be an example of quality and attention to
our clients, but also of highest respect to the
environment and this project brings us closer to
that objective”, says Alejandro Zorzo, head of
Technical Procurement at Pullmantur.
Pullmantur is committed to reducing its ecological
footprint, particularly in CO2 emissions. It therefore
warmly welcomed and acted on ABB’s proposal
from the outset. Throughout the years ABB has
developed and installed electrical and automation
systems on Pullmantur vessels and has gained
detailed first-hand knowledge of their ships.
The Sovereign, the vessel chosen to begin the
project, has two cooling systems for its four
propulsion engines. These systems use sea water
as a coolant, which is sent to the cooling circuit by
four pumps. Until now, the cooling system pumps
unnecessarily functioned at full power whenever
the ship was in operation. An analysis performed
on the vessel demonstrated significant potential
for energy savings, if the operation of the pumps
was adapted to the actual cooling needs. Until
that time, two of the pumps operated at 100 %
capacity in cases where only 40% was actually
required. However, the electric motors that
drove the pumps were incapable of adjusting the
operational power used.
New high-efficiency system
To achieve the energy-saving objective, ABB
installed a new system with high-efficiency
electric motors, controlled by frequency
converters, to drive the pumps in accordance
with requirements at any given time. The
scope of the project included a needs analysis,
engineering, the provision of control cabinets,
frequency converters and motors, and the
installation and start-up of the system.
Installation of the new pump control system has
led to an average saving of almost 40%, i.e.
approximately 100,000 kWh per annum. This is
equivalent to an annual reduction of 50 tonnes
in CO 2 emissions, in addition to the fall in costs
associated with lower fuel consumption.
Pullmantur Cruises is the largest Spain-based
cruise line with a career spanning over 40 years.
The modern fleet consists of five ships with a
daily capacity of more than 12,000 passengers.
The Group, headquartered in Madrid, employs
over 7,000 professionals and it is the holiday
choice for more than 1 million customers per
year. Since 2006, the group belongs to the
Royal Caribbean Cruises Ltd.
Average payback time
3 years
5 years
*) Compared to conventional diesel electric AC distribution
1 year
o
3
2
1
5
i
y u
4
3
21
t
r
w
6
q7
9 e
*
34 | Energy efficiency guide
50 kUSD
500 kUSD
5000 kUSD
Average investment cost
Energy efficiency guide | 35
Table of contents | Solutions/products | Passenger vessels | Dry Cargo vessels | Tankers | Oil & Gas | Work boats
Table of contents | Solutions/products | Passenger vessels | Dry Cargo vessels | Tankers | Oil & Gas | Work boats
Dry cargo vessels
1
Product/solution applicable for
both retrofits and new vessels
2
Product/solution feasible mainly
for new vessels
3
Solution overview
Consulting service
Detailed solution description
4
o
8
4
2i
7 9 y p
1 t u 1 2 3
Mechanical shaftline
Propulsion & Hull
1 ABB’s energy efficiency and
advisory systems Shaft
torque and power metering
y
54
78
71 164
Power production & Machinery spaces
1 ABB’s energy efficiency and
advisory systems Variable
frequency drive for
2
cooling systems 4Winch control with variable
frequency drive 36 | Energy efficiency guide
Hotel & Cargo
7Variable frequency drive for
54
78
55
86
58 100
shaft generator (PTO/PTI) 61 118
8Improved fuel efficiency with
waste heat recovery system 9Diesel electric auxiliary propulsion
system tShore-to-ship power
yShaft torque and power metering
uHigh efficiency motors
iDiesel engine speed regulation
oAutomatic voltage regulator
pTwo stroke diesel engine
performance monitoring 1 ABB’s energy efficiency and
62 124
63 130
Consulting services
advisory systems Variable
frequency drive for
2
cooling systems uHigh efficiency motors
54
78
55
86
1Energy appraisal
2Energy efficiency audit
3Energy efficiency training
21
22
24
72 170
70 158
71 164
72 170
73 174
74 180
Operational advice
1 ABB’s energy efficiency and
advisory systems Shaft
torque and power metering
y
54
78
71 164
75 184
Energy efficiency guide | 37
Table of contents | Solutions/products | Passenger vessels | Dry Cargo vessels | Tankers | Oil & Gas | Work boats
Dry cargo vessels
EMMA will take us and the whole industry
a huge step forward
Container carriers
Since the maiden voyage of the M.V. ”Ideal X”
in 1956, with a consignment of 58 containers,
the container industry has never stopped
growing. This has driven the development of
bigger ships and engines. Container carriers
are currently used to transport around 90% of
non-bulk cargo worldwide. The industry has been
gaining efficiency by building bigger and faster
vessels. On long-haul routes, vessels such as the
“Emma Maersk” are enabling the achievement of
unprecedentedly low transport unit costs ($/TEU.
nm). However, the rise in fuel costs has brought
energy efficiency into focus. Although size is still a
key driver of transport efficiency, greater effort is
now being directed at reducing the “fuel bill”.
The largest marine engines can be found in
today’s large container vessels. Although
these, mainly slow speed, two-stroke diesel
engines are the most energy-efficient propulsion
engines, even they only achieve an energy
efficiency of 50%. In addition, modern container
vessels have a growing number of reefer slots,
with a high requirement for electric power,
usually produced by three to four powerful
diesel generator sets. Together, these present
huge opportunities for efficiency gains.
The strict emission regulations pose a major
challenge to short-distance shipping. For feeder
container carriers, which represent the smaller
end of this segment, this means adapting to
sharp increases in fuel prices and increasingly
stringent environmental requirements.
Challenge and opportunity
A container carrier is traditionally designed for
a certain route and speed. But what if these
demands change? The pace of globalization
has already shown that cargo flows are
changing much faster than vessel lifecycles.
Consequently, ship owners are seeking vessel
designs that are as flexible as possible, with a
variety of power sources that can produce the
power required for different scenarios, as well
as an advisory system that can inform them of
the most energy efficient approach to meeting
demand.
High-efficiency turbochargers and Waste Heat
Recovery Systems (WHRS) can transform
a considerable amount of waste heat into
usable energy. Electricity produced by WHRS
significantly increases overall efficiency, reducing
CO2 emissions by tons.
Our shaft generator provides cost effective,
environmentally-neutral electric power to
onboard services when required. When excess
electric power is available, it is used to boost
the propulsion system.
EMMA™ Advisory Suite - ABB’s cutting-edge
system shows remarkable results
ABB´s Energy Management system for Marine
Applications (EMMA) has once again shown first
class results in real life action. EMMA system
was installed to five multipurpose cargo vessels
with over 23,000 DWT each and to two 13,000
TEU cargo ships.
With fuel costs representing 88% of the total
cost of a 13,000 TEU vessel, the customer
selected ABB after being impressed by its
dynamic trim concept and last September
confirmed a 6% saving with the retrofitting of
one of the vessels.
EMMA is recognized as a unique tool to gather
exact energy consumption data and shipping
companies agree that in these difficult economic
times when the vessels are sailing with lower
cargo volumes, it is essential that performance
can be optimized regardless of overall sailing
conditions.
“With these solutions, we are better equipped
to help ship operators reduce fuel consumption
efficiently and provide added-value technology
to all ship owners,” says Heikki Soljama, head of
the ABB business unit Marine and Cranes.
“It is vital that EMMA is providing real time
relevant data to the crew so they can analyze
the areas where the vessel’s performance is
lacking. To be able to be proactive you need
to know your baseline, your current condition
and the best possible conditions at that
very moment, not one day or six hours after,
“commented the customer.
Different analyses with EMMA has revealed that
while savings of 10%-plus can be achieved from
implementing such procedures as propeller
polishing and hull conditions, clear voyage
instructions, autopilot settings, trim and ballast
conditions and weather routing. There are
masses of things that cost little or nothing but
there are prerequisites, much of fuel saving
is due to the attitude and training of the crew
onboard whether on the bridge or in the engine
room.
Propulsion power breakdown showing energy losses to different external and environmental conditions.
t
Average payback time
3 years
5 years
1 year
Table of contents | Solutions/products | Passenger vessels | Dry Cargo vessels | Tankers | Oil & Gas | Work boats
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i
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2
y4
u
7
21 p
9
1
50 kUSD
38 | Energy efficiency guide
500 kUSD
5000 kUSD
Average investment cost
Energy efficiency guide | 39
Table of contents | Solutions/products | Passenger vessels | Dry Cargo vessels | Tankers | Oil & Gas | Work boats
Table of contents | Solutions/products | Passenger vessels | Dry Cargo vessels | Tankers | Oil & Gas | Work boats
Tankers
1
Product/solution applicable for
both retrofits and new vessels
2
Product/solution feasible mainly
for new vessels
3
Solution overview
Consulting service
Detailed solution description
4
4
i2
o
8
w
7 9 y p
Propulsion & Hull
1 ABB’s energy efficiency and
advisory systems ®
Azipod
propulsion
w
Shaft
torque
and power metering
y
54
78
66 142
71 164
Power production & Machinery spaces
1 ABB’s energy efficiency and
advisory systems Variable
frequency drive for
2
cooling systems 4Winch control with variable
frequency drive 40 | Energy efficiency guide
1 5 u 1 2 3
Mechanical shaftline
54
55
78
86
58 100
5Onboard DC Grid
7Variable frequency drive for shaft
59 106
Hotel & Cargo
61 118
generator (PTO/PTI) 8 Improved fuel efficiency with
waste heat recovery system 9Diesel electric auxiliary propulsion
system yShaft torque and power metering
uHigh efficiency motors
iDiesel engine speed regulation
oAutomatic voltage regulator
pTwo stroke diesel engine
performance monitoring Consulting services
1 ABB’s energy efficiency and
62 124
advisory systems Variable
frequency drive for
2
cooling systems u High efficiency motors
54
78
55
86
1Energy appraisal
2Energy efficiency audit
3Energy efficiency training
21
22
24
72 170
63 130
71 164
72 170
73 174
74 180
Operational advice
1 ABB’s energy efficiency and
advisory systems Shaft
torque and power metering
y
54
78
71 164
75 184
Energy efficiency guide | 41
Table of contents | Solutions/products | Passenger vessels | Dry Cargo vessels | Tankers | Oil & Gas | Work boats
Tankers
Table of contents | Solutions/products | Passenger vessels | Dry Cargo vessels | Tankers | Oil & Gas | Work boats
Overall energy consumption was lowered by
3.5% on a chemical tanker
The chief characteristic of sea-borne crude
transport, namely the average size of cargo
parcels, has directed efforts to achieve
efficiency in crude oil tankers to focus on size
rather than technology.
Capital has traditionally been the key cost
component in the overall cost structure.
However, the rise in fuel costs and increased
awareness of emission control and reduction
have recently drawn the attention of charterers
and operators to the energy efficiency of these
types of vessels.
On the other hand, the tanker segment is
not limited to crude tankers, since it includes
other types of vessels, each with their own
specificities.
LNG carriers
Although most LNG carriers in service are
powered by steam, the current order-book and
vessels delivered over the last few years are
mainly powered by Diesel Electric/Dual Fuel
(DE/DF) propulsion plants. This propulsion
solution provides much greater efficiency than
traditional plants. However, many opportunities
remain for optimising the related power plants,
using software developed by ABB.
Shuttle tankers
The operational profile of Shuttle tankers is such
that, in many cases, diesel electrical propulsion
offers the most energy-efficient option. ABB’s
recently launched DC-grid can further improve
energy efficiency. The flexibility provided by this
novel concept is likely to improve fuel savings by
as much as 30%.
Chemical and product tankers
Most product and chemical tankers are
equipped with several cargo pumps, which
require a considerable amount of power. ABB
has specific solutions, which could significantly
reduce both fuel consumption and wear-andtear in cargo pumps.
The target was to improve the energy efficiency
of the 182 meter, 43,475 DWT chemical tanker.
Based on ABB’s energy appraisal, the decision
was made to invest in variable frequency drive
solution for cooling systems, for two on board
sea water cooling pumps and four ventilation
fans in the engine room. Calculated saving
based on the energy appraisal was 70%.
The installation and commissioning of the
improved system were done in a short time
period while the ship was in normal operation.
Instantly after the installation and commissioning
of the system, it was possible to record energy
savings, when comparing the previous energy
consumption to the energy consumption with
the improved system.
For saving verification, a one year period was
defined. During this period ABB collected
essential data of the ship’s operation, such as
engine running hours, propeller rpm, engine
room temperature and pressure as well as
sea water temperature. The logging data was
collected with an interval of 10 minutes.
An actual and verified energy saving of 72%
was achieved on the engine room fans and sea
water cooling pump processes. In annual terms,
this means a reduction in fuel consumption of
319 tonnes, giving a saving of 220,000 USD
in monetary terms. Besides the fuel savings,
the unburned fuel represents a significant
environmental pay-off. Thanks to ABB’s variable
frequency drive solution for cooling systems,
the chemical tanker in question emitted nearly
1,000 tonnes less of carbon dioxide into the
atmosphere. These changes resulted in a 3.5%
overall fuel consumption reduction for the ship,
with an investment payback time of less than
half a year. That is to say, upgrading was very
wisely spent money.
* Compared to conventional diesel electric AC distribution
Average payback time
3 years
5 years
** Compared to diesel-mechanical propulsion plant. Dependent on tanker type and size, e.g. ice-going tankers.
w* *
8
i
1 year
o
y4
u
3
2
21 p
1
5
Propulsion
85%
7
Saving SWC
1%
Saving EV
2%
9
Aux
12%
*
42 | Energy efficiency guide
Total fuel consumption [%]
50 kUSD
500 kUSD
5000 kUSD
Average investment cost
Energy efficiency guide | 43
Table of contents | Solutions/products | Passenger vessels | Dry Cargo vessels | Tankers | Oil & Gas | Work boats
Table of contents | Solutions/products | Passenger vessels | Dry Cargo vessels | Tankers | Oil & Gas | Work boats
Oil & Gas
1
Product/solution applicable for
both retrofits and new vessels
2
Product/solution feasible mainly
for new vessels
3
Solution overview
Consulting service
Detailed solution description
4
2
i
4
6
o
1 3 5 r u 1 2 3
w
Propulsion & Hull
1 ABB’s energy efficiency and
advisory systems ®
Azipod
propulsion
w
54
78
66 142
Power production & Machinery spaces
1 ABB’s energy efficiency and
advisory systems Variable
frequency drive for
2
cooling systems Hotel & Cargo
4Winch control with variable
54
78
55
86
frequency drive 58 100
1 ABB’s energy efficiency and
5Onboard DC Grid
6Hybrid power plants enabled by
59 106
batteries rMarine automation modernizations
and energy efficiency High
efficiency motors
u
Diesel
engine speed regulation
i
Automatic
voltage regulator
o
60 114
69 154
72 170
advisory systems 2 Variable frequency drive for
cooling systems Variable
frequency drive to
3
control HVAC systems u High efficiency motors
Consulting services
54
78
55
86
56
92
1Energy appraisal
2Energy efficiency audit
3Energy efficiency training
21
22
24
72 170
73 174
74 180
Operational advice
1 ABB’s energy efficiency and
44 | Energy efficiency guide
advisory systems 54
78
Energy efficiency guide | 45
Table of contents | Solutions/products | Passenger vessels | Dry Cargo vessels | Tankers | Oil & Gas | Work boats
Oil & Gas
Table of contents | Solutions/products | Passenger vessels | Dry Cargo vessels | Tankers | Oil & Gas | Work boats
Myklebusthaug Management invested in the
innovative idea to ”power sharing” agreement
Roald Myklebusthaug |
We have seen increased demand for the
opening up of new areas of oil production. New
technologies enable drilling in deep waters, and
there is high demand for new drilling vessels with
the required extra capabilities.
Vessel types
A floating vessel is required for offshore drilling
deeper than 120 m. Semi-submersibles
obtain their buoyancy from ballasted, watertight
pontoons located below the ocean surface and
wave action. Due to high stability, the operating
deck can be located high above sea level.
Through de-ballasting, a semi-submersible
vessel can be transformed from a deep into a
shallow draft.
rigs and platforms. Despite this, for much of the
time they operate on stand-by at platforms.
Challenge and opportunity
Large seawater and ballast pumps are
extensively used on drilling vessels. These pumps
unnecessarily run continuously at 100%, leading to
excessive energy and fuel consumption. A variable
frequency drive system for controlling pump speed
brings significant energy savings.
The power plant/switchboard configuration
can be designed so that the number of running
diesel engines required is dependent on the
vessel’s overall power requirement, rather than
the switchboard configuration.
Drill ships are most often used for the exploratory
offshore drilling of new oil or gas wells. They can
also be used as platforms when performing well
maintenance or completion work, such as casing
and tubing installation. The greatest advantage
lies in their ability to drill in water depths of more
than 2,500 m and in the time saved when sailing
between oilfields worldwide.
The variable power consumption of OSVs makes
them excellent candidates for the Onboard DC
Grid system. Due to redundancy considerations,
DP vessels often run several diesel generators
in parallel. This means that the connected diesel
engines spend most of their running hours at
relatively low loads, at which fuel efficiency is
significantly lower than at optimal load.
Offshore support vessels (OSV), such as
platform supply vessels, anchor handling tug
supply vessels, rescue vessels and ice breaking
OSV are specially designed to supply offshore oil
For DP equipped vessels, advisory systems with
advanced features enable maximized workability
and additional productive hours during DP
operations.
Myklebusthaug Management
Norwegian owner Myklebusthaug decided
to invest in the innovative idea. In November
2011 the company agreed to equip a newbuild
platform support vessel with the DC Grid.
Roald Myklebusthaug of Myklebusthaug
Management, the first owner to use the DC Grid
on board one of its vessels, said he does not
feel as if his company is taking a risk.
“We saw that only a few things are new. Most
of the equipment is well-known with proven
performance. We do not see it as a problem
that a new control system and new software is
needed.” Myklebusthaug is referring to the fact
that while the new control system is DC driven,
the AC-based components can still be plugged
in.
ABB’s Onboard DC Grid is part of a revival
of power solutions using DC and will provide
highly efficient power distribution and electric
propulsion for a wide range of vessels. It is
designed for ships with low-voltage onboard
circuits, such as offshore support vessels,
tug boats, ferries and yachts, and can reduce
fuel consumption and emissions by up to 20
percent.
“ABB is a strong company and we expect them
to provide us with the best of the best. We
count on their backing both before and after
delivery of the vessel”, said Myklebusthaug.
He adds that the company’s reasons for
fitting its next vessel with DC Grid are “purely
economical”. “With performance on a par with
conventional diesel-electric propulsion systems,
the most fuel-efficient vessel will always be the
most attractive in the market.
ABB’s Onboard DC Grid is flexible with respect
to use of various power and fuel sources, and it
gives clear benefits for vessels operating in DP,
with respect to fuel consumption but also with
respect to dynamic performance of the thruster
system.
Myklebusthaug Management AS is a fully
integrated ship management company operating
dry cargo vessels, offshore supply vessels
and barges. At present, the total number of
employees is about 210 persons, of which
12 are shore staff. The main office is located
at Fonnes, Norway. The vessels managed
by Myklebusthaug Management are mainly
owned by different companies within the
Myklebusthaug Group
* Compared to conventional diesel electric AC distribution
Average payback time
3 years
5 years
** Compared to mechanical thruster with electrical drive. Dependent on vessel size.
r
6
i
1 year
o
u
32
1
3
2
1* *
5w
4
9
*
46 | Energy efficiency guide
50 kUSD
500 kUSD
5000 kUSD
Average investment cost
Energy efficiency guide | 47
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Work boats
1
Product/solution applicable for
both retrofits and new vessels
2
Product/solution feasible mainly
for new vessels
3
Solution overview
Consulting service
Detailed solution description
4
2
6
o
4
i
q
w
Mechanical shaftline
Propulsion & Hull
1 ABB’s energy efficiency and
advisory systems Small
power propulsion solution q
®
Azipod
propulsion
w
yShaft torque and power metering
54
78
64 136
66 142
71 164
Power production & Machinery spaces
1 ABB’s energy efficiency and
advisory systems Variable
frequency drive for
2
cooling systems 4Winch control with variable
frequency drive 48 | Energy efficiency guide
54
55
78
86
7 9 y
1 5 t u 1 2 3
5Onboard DC Grid
6Hybrid power plants enabled by
59 106
Hotel & Cargo
batteries 7Variable frequency drive for shaft
generator (PTO/PTI) 9Diesel electric auxiliary propulsion
system tShore-to-ship power
yShaft torque and power metering
uHigh efficiency motors
iDiesel engine speed regulation
oAutomatic voltage regulator
60 114
Consulting services
1 ABB’s energy efficiency and
61 118
advisory systems Variable
frequency drive for
2
cooling systems u High efficiency motors
54
78
55
86
1Energy appraisal
2Energy efficiency audit
3Energy efficiency training
21
22
24
72 170
63 130
70 158
71 164
72 170
73 174
74 180
Operational advice
1 ABB’s energy efficiency and
advisory systems Shaft
torque and power metering
y
54
78
71 164
58 100
Energy efficiency guide | 49
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Work boats
Table of contents | Solutions/products | Passenger vessels | Dry Cargo vessels | Tankers | Oil & Gas | Work boats
Geopotes 15 – Stable RPM for all dredging
conditions
Robert Aarens |
Challenge and opportunity
Vessels working in harbor areas and close to
coastlines face environmental pressure from
land-based communities. This new pressure
has changed the design of certain vessel types,
such as harbor tugs. Riding the same wave of
environmental awareness, the related design
principles are spreading to vessel types that
operate further from the coast. In this case,
the main driving force is the savings potential
gained by efficient operational design for partial
loads. This equation means electrical propulsion
systems.
Tugs, harbor tugs, pushers, pullers, dredgers
and other small but powerful ships are
typically made in series. While their design
philosophy was originally well considered, the
final execution of the design does vary, and may
lead to operations where fuel consumption is
well above that required.
The move from mechanical to electrical
propulsion will continue to gather pace, while
the need to create a low-consuming idle
mode is increasing. This is leading to updates
involving electrical auxiliary propulsion, concept
changes in traditional diesel-electrical solutions.
In order to carry out their missions, tugs are
equipped with large engines – considering
their relatively small size in particular. However,
most of the time tugs use less than 25% of the
installed power, which means that the main
engines are operated either on idle or at a very
low load. Consequently, these types of vessels
are amongst the least energy efficient types.
However, electrical propulsion combined with
energy storage is opening up new possibilities
for the design of tugs, allowing these vessels
to achieve a completely new level of energy
efficiency. Combined, these two technologies
could improve specific fuel consumption
dramatically at most operating ranges, optimize
the performance of winches through peak
shaving and power regeneration, and make use
of alternative sources of energy.
Offshore construction vessels, coastguards,
fishing vessels and other ships with clear
dual-type operation profiles cover longer
distances at greater speed during transport,
before slowing to perform their work, during
which the operational speed is well below the
transit speed. An operational profile of this type
can be altered to achieve a different level of
consumption, by adding the electrical auxiliary
propulsion system to the existing propulsion.
Electrical Superintendent of Van Oord
Van Oord Dredging and Marine Contractors
deploys 25 trailing suction hopper dredgers
for several dredging projects: these involve
the deepening, widening and maintaining
of waterways and ports, as well as land
reclamation and beach nourishment.
On board of one of these dredgers, Geopotes
15, the dredging equipment is driven by electric
motors. Because dredging requires huge
amounts of power, the main engines drive
not only a propeller but also a relatively large
shaft generator. During dredging, the two shaft
generators must work together in tandem.
Since the main engines also drive the propellers,
maneuvering induces disturbances in the engine
RPM and therefore in the frequency developed
by the shaft generators. Heavy disturbances
easily lead to major variations, which causes the
generators to trip, thus interrupting dredging
operations.
To enhance dredging operations, ABB’s DEGO
III governors have been installed in the main
engines. Additionally, the propeller shafts are
equipped with the ABB Torductor® shaft torque
measurement system. The DEGO governors
not only measure the engine RPM, but also the
electric power delivered by the generators and
the shaft power consumed by the propellers
in using the output of the Torductor. All load
variations are processed into a calibrated
feed forward action, causing the governor to
inject the right amount of fuel before the RPM
changes significantly. The result is engines that
run at a very stable RPM. Electric power is
guaranteed, no matter how much maneuvering
occurs, ensuring continuous dredging for the
Geopotes 15.
“We selected ABB to upgrade the old DEGO
S governor because we have had good
experiences of ABB products and their reliability.
We are delighted with this new governor
upgrade, since we need a very stable RPM
for all dredging conditions”, explains Robert
Aarens, Electrical Superintendent.
Van Oord is a leading international contractor
specializing in dredging, marine engineering
and offshore projects (oil, gas and wind).
The company’s expertise ranges from design
to execution. Van Oord is an independent
family business and employs around 5,000
professionals worldwide. Its modern fleet
consists of more than a hundred vessels and
other specialized equipment.
* Compared to conventional diesel electric AC distribution
** Applicable for offshore construction vessels, when compared to mechanical thruster with electrical drive.
1 year
Average payback time
3 years
5 years
t
o
3
2
1* *
5w
i
y4
u
21
q
7
6
9
*
50 | Energy efficiency guide
50 kUSD
500 kUSD
5000 kUSD
Average investment cost
Energy efficiency guide | 51
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5
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Solution
overviews
52 | Energy efficiency guide
Energy efficiency guide | 53
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Table of contents | Solutions/products | Passenger vessels | Dry Cargo vessels | Tankers | Oil & Gas | Work boats | Detailed solution description
5.1. ABB’s energy efficiency and advisory systems
5.2. Variable frequency drive for cooling systems
ABB’s Advisory Systems provides a complete product portfolio for performance
management in marine applications. It includes a wide range of products for reducing energy
consumption, increasing the availability of the vessels, and improving the safety of the whole
fleet of vessels.
There are always cooling systems on board vessels, such as sea water cooling system
and engine room ventilation. These processes are always dimensioned according to the
design point so that they can deliver the cooling demand for all the extreme conditions that
the vessel may operate in. However, how often do these vessels operate in these extreme
conditions? Some of them operate very much in these conditions, but most of the vessels do
not approach these conditions in everyday operation.
ABB’s Advisory Systems modules can be either
retrofitted in operations or installed to a new
building at the shipyard. Retrofitting can be done
without interruptions to the vessel operation.
The easiest and most efficient way to reduce
the power consumption in these processes is to
install a variable frequency drive (VFD) to control
the cooling capacity when operating at less than
extreme conditions. ABB provides specialized
solutions and services to improve the energy
efficiency in these processes. Average annual
savings are 40-60%.
54 | Energy efficiency guide
Figure 1: Cash flow (net present value with 16 % interest
rate) for a combined solution of Trim and Speed optimization for a large container vessel. Projected return of
investment is about 8 months with delivery and commissioning time included.
Pumps and fans on board vessels are mainly of
a centrifugal type, which means that a speed
reduction of 10%, will give 27% power savings.
This is called the cube law or affinity law, where
the relationship between speed, power and flow
are as follows:
Affinity laws – Proportion of speed (n), flow (Q), head (H)
and power (P)
Flow
Head
Q1
Q2
H1
H2
P1
P2
=
n1
n2
=
( )
2
=
( )
3
n1
n2
n1
n2
Benefits
• Soft starting – no high starting currents
causing disturbance on the network.
• No process disturbance due to voltage drops;
no trips of other electrical devices connected
to same bus.
• No excessive thermo-mechanical stress on
the motor; longer lifetime of the motor.
• Immediate start-up without warming-up
delays (e.g. steam turbines).
• Controlled and smooth start-up.
• Accurate process control – flow based on
production need.
• Mechanical wear of piping is minimized.
• Risk of cavitation in the pump is minimized.
• Passenger comfort (in air conditioning
applications).
• Reliability/technical improvement.
• Environmental compliancy.
• Lower energy bills.
Savings and payback time
The ABB VFD solution reduces a ship’s energy
and fuel consumption, bringing savings in
operational costs. Based on affinity laws, a
linear reduction of pump or fan speed leads to
a cubic reduction of electric power consumed.
Consequently a 10% reduction of pump speed
saves 27% of the energy cost related to the
pump.
The ABB sea water cooling pump solution
typically has a 6-18 months payback time.
2017
2016
2015
2014
Power
2013
Benefits of ABB’s Advisory Systems
• A complete energy, fuel and process
monitoring and benchmarking tool.
• Dynamic trim optimization for reducing energy
costs.
• Optimal use of the Dynamic Positioning (DP)
system with DP Capability forecasting.
• Speed/RPM optimization for making the whole
voyage with minimum energy costs.
• Power plant optimization for ensuring the
most economical way to produce the required
power on board.
• Motion monitoring including alarms in case
vessel limits are exceeded.
• Motion forecasting for preventing damages or
losses to cargo.
• The Clean Hull module for reminding
personnel on hull and propeller cleaning
schedules.
• The sloshing forecasting system for preventing
damages within LNG tanks.
2012
Advisory Systems has two product lines which
can be combined freely to enable the perfect
fit for each vessel type and operational profile.
The first product line, EMMA™ Advisory
Suite, includes energy-related monitoring and
optimization tools. The second product line,
OCTOPUS Advisory Suite, provides vessel
motion based tools (monitoring, calculation and
forecasting) that increase the availability of the
vessels and improve the safety of the operations.
Savings and payback time
As an example, a combined solution for
optimizing the dynamic trim and speed/rpm can
easily save up to 7% in propulsion energy costs.
On a large container vessel with a capacity
of 13,000 TEU, this means a payback time
as short as two months. Taking into account
the three-month delivery time and the data
collection period of approximately three months
required before trim and speed optimization is
taken into use, the investment is returned in a
total of eight months. A graphical presentation
of the project cash flow is illustrated in the figure
below.
Energy efficiency guide | 55
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Table of contents | Solutions/products | Passenger vessels | Dry Cargo vessels | Tankers | Oil & Gas | Work boats | Detailed solution description
5.3. Variable frequency drive to control HVAC
systems
In passenger vessels, heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) are the second-largest
consumers of energy, after propulsion. Onboard HVAC systems are generally divided into
three elements: the cooling system (chiller plant), chilled water circuit, as well as air handling
units (AHU). These processes normally function in separation from each other.
Fans use approximately 40% of all electricity in
HVAC systems. Despite the range of textbooks
and handbooks on the issue, which describe
the proper procedure for the selection of fans,
practice shows that fans in existing HVAC
systems have a very low overall efficiency.
Chiller plants play an important role in air
conditioning systems, since they supply the air
handling unit with chilled water. Onboard ships,
the most commonly used chiller systems are
vapor compressed refrigeration cycle chillers,
comprising compressor, condenser, expansion
or flow control devices, as well as evaporators.
The most commonly used compressors are
screw or centrifugal types, with an indirect
central cooling system design. This means that
secondary circuits are also installed, where the
condenser is cooled via a seawater cooling
circuit and the chilled water circuit (evaporator
side) uses cold water to cool the air handling
units.
Cooling and heating coils are contained in the
AHU. These coils are connected to a preheating or a re-heating system, which uses a
combination of pumps, fans and compressors.
Incoming fresh air passes over these coils and
is warmed or cooled, depending on the room-air
quality requirements.
Consideration can be given to using a variable
frequency drive (VFD) for the chilled water
circuit in both variable flow and constant
pressure systems. In practice, energy efficiency
improvements are always achieved in cases
where the existing system uses balancing valves
to adjust either the flow or pressure. If the
operational profile of the ship varies significantly
during the year, it is worth considering whether
to install VFD on seawater cooling pumps on the
condenser side.
56 | Energy efficiency guide
Several methods are available for capacity
control of the centrifugal compressor, each of
which has its advantages and disadvantages.
Two of the most common capacity control
methods are speed variation and pre rotation
vanes, also known as inlet guide vanes. Pre
rotation vanes modulate capacity by altering
the direction of the refrigerant flow entering the
impeller. Capacity control based on variable
speed (with VFD) is more economical than
pre rotation vanes, in applications where the
pressure requirements vary under a part load.
A typical HVAC system with an AHU and central cooling
system.
Using VFD for the speed control of fans
provides an effective way of improving air
quality and optimising energy use. Choosing
ABB standard drives for HVAC provides users
with ready-made macros for the most common
HVAC applications, such as pumps, fans and
condensers.
Savings and payback time
• Installing VFDs on chilled water pumps and
on the evaporator cooling side provides
accurate control and energy consumption
based on process demand. In most cases,
the typical payback time is less than one year.
On average, savings are between 30 – 40% of
total power consumption.
• Using VFDs for supply and exhaust fans,
rather than relying on inlet vanes and twospeed motors, generates energy savings in
every case. The payback time is less than one
year.
• In theory, installing a VFD on a centrifugal
compressor can reduce power consumption
by as much as 25%. This depends heavily
on the chiller plant’s control strategy. The
investment cost of a chiller upgrade is
relatively high, generating a payback time of
between 2 – 2.5 years.
Benefits
• Accurate process control based on the
actual operating conditions, rather than on a
theoretical design point of the process.
• Solutions for retrofitting existing cooling
circuits.
• Running motors at reduced speed lowers
energy consumption.
• Precise control of air quality leads to a
healthier and more comfortable environment
• Smooth control reduces mechanical stress on
pumps, fans and compressors, while lowering
maintenance costs.
Energy efficiency guide | 57
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5.4. Winch control with variable frequency drive
5.5. Onboard DC Grid
Deck winches are commonly used on board today’s ships. Traditionally the marine winch
market has been dominated by hydraulic systems and three-speed direct-on-line electrical
systems. Both systems have their drawbacks. The hydraulic system requires a significant
amount of space, while the oil used can constitute an environmental hazard. The three-speed
electrical system has limited speed control, resulting in mechanical wear and coarse winch
operation.
ABB delivers motors and drives from the smallest to the largest ones used in propulsion
systems. These motors and drives can be used to simplify and improve the power plant of
the vessel.
ABB’s winch control program enables the ABB
variable frequency drive (VFD) range, rated from
0.55 kW to 5,600 kW to be used in different
winching control configurations found on board
ships, offshore oil or gas platforms and in
harbors.
Imagine a ship which has an efficient and
modern propulsion system. It is electric,
featuring state-of-the-art equipment. Now,
take this vessel and increase the efficiency
by up to 20% and reduce the footprint of
electrical equipment by up to 30%. Add to
that the freedom to integrate and combine
different energy sources, including renewables,
gas and diesel, and flexibility to place system
components around the vessel.
ABB variable frequency drives are certified for
marine applications, enabling smooth stepless
speed and torque control of anchor winches,
mooring winches, Ro-Ro quarter ramp winches
and towing winches.
Benefits
• The ideal solution for retrofits – the existing
winch motor, motor cable and operator
control can be reused.
• Space saving on the deck – simplified winch
arrangement.
• Lower noise level.
• Reduced maintenance costs - Soft starting
reduces startup current peaks. Smooth
stepless speed and torque control reduce
stress on the whole mooring system.
• DTC (Direct Torque Control) eliminates the
need for a pulse encoder, increasing the
reliability of the winch system.
• Safe and accurate anchor and mooring winch
control throughout the whole speed range.
• Cost reduction compared to closed loop
systems.
• Environmentally friendly solution – Oil-free
operation with fully electronic equipment.
• Reduction of mechanical wear.
58 | Energy efficiency guide
• External programmable logic controller
(PLC) not needed because the winch control
program includes winch operation and
protection functions.
• Multi I/O functionality allowing three different
control stands to be connected directly to the
drive.
• Anchor-in or anchor-slowdown protection
reduces the speed as the anchor approaches
its end position. Slip protection operates
between the winch drum and winch motor.
• The peak torque protection in hand-mooring
function detects severe tightening of the rope
enabling immediate speed adjustment to
protect the rope and the winch system from
overload.
• Mechanical brake control with torque memory.
• Easy start-up and maintenance of drive
system.
• Adjustable auto-mooring provides accurate
rope tension control and eliminates the need
for load cells on the ropes.
This is the ABB Onboard DC Grid, a solution
designed for all types of vessels which have a
low voltage power plant.
Benefits for the ship owner
• Up to 20% fuel saving when taking full
advantage of all of the features, including
energy storage and variable speed engines.
• Reduced methane slip for gas engines at low
load.
• Reduced maintenance of engines as a
consequence of more efficient operation.
• Improved dynamic response by using energy
storage, which may give a better dynamic
positioning (DP) performance with lower fuel
consumption or more accurate positioning.
• Increased space for payload due to the lower
footprint of electrical plant.
• More functional vessel layout because electrical
components can be placed more flexibly.
• A system platform that enables simple “plug
and play” retrofitting possibilities to adapt to
future energy sources.
Benefits for the shipyard and designers
• More flexible placement of electric
components.
• Reduced footprint and up to 30% weight
saving of electrical equipment.
• Less cabling and connections, thanks to the
use of bus ducts and fewer components.
Although the use of bus ducts is a relatively new
type of installation work for many shipyards,
there are several benefits to using them. For
example, reduced cross section, no bending
radius, and significant reduction of fire load
compared to traditional cables.
Savings
An Onboard DC Grid can reduce the equipment
footprint and weight by up to 30%, and can
reduce fuel consumption and emissions by up
to 20%.
Energy efficiency guide | 59
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Table of contents | Solutions/products | Passenger vessels | Dry Cargo vessels | Tankers | Oil & Gas | Work boats | Detailed solution description
5.6. Hybrid power plants enabled by batteries
5.7. Variable frequency drive for shaft generator
(PTO/PTI)
Facing a growing demand for higher power plant efficiency, reduced fuel consumption and
lower emission levels, the marine industry is evaluating concepts based on the use of hybrid
power plants with energy storage systems.
Shaft generators are commonly used to produce electrical power for the ship’s network, in
vessels equipped with a conventional propulsion system, where a mechanical shaft is driven
by a slow or medium speed engine.
With the availability of high-power and energy
dense batteries, such systems are now being
considered as a possible additional and/or
alternative power source to diesel generator
sets for on board electrical power plants. Load
sharing has to be controlled, especially when
the battery system is operating in parallel with
other power sources.
System design often restricts how and under
what conditions the shaft generator can be
used to generate electricity since, because most
systems lack frequency control, such power
generation depends on the ship maintaining a
constant speed.
Hybrid systems will reduce the energy
consumption. When an offshore supply vessel
is operating on dynamic positioning, the fuel
saving potential is significant. When in harbor,
the vessel should be able to simply use the
power stored in the batteries, which again will
have a positive impact on the environment.
Additional benefits are related to the reduction
in the machinery maintenance cost and in lower
noise and vibrations.
Ferries operating on short-distance routes,
such as river and fjord crossing ferries, can
operate fully battery driven with fast charging
at both ends or only at one end, depending
on the distance of the crossing. A hybrid
version, where the vast majority of the energy
is delivered by the batteries supported with
onboard diesel generators can also be
considered.
60 | Energy efficiency guide
Use of batteries as a source of energy brings in
a big portion of flexibility in every day operation.
The objective with using batteries may be:
• An energy backup source which is
instantaneously available for the equipment
essential to safety and operations, in case of
main power supply interruption.
• Overall efficiency improvement by temporary
storage of braking energy and smoothening
of power consumption from power network
in case of process dependent fast load
fluctuation (load shaving).
• Reducing frequency variation in network
by avoiding fast load gradients of diesel
generators.
• Low emission power plant by use of hybrid
system; a combination of combustion engine
and electrical energy storage system, or pure
electrical power plant with electrical energy
storage systems.
Benefits
• Reduced fuel consumption
• Reduced emissions
• Improved dynamic response of the power
plant
• Increased power plant availability due to the
instantaneous availability of energy backup
source
also be made to the efficiency and operational
flexibility of an existing shaft generator system
by retrofitting it with a VFD.
A shaft generator is the most practical solution
when equipped with a variable frequency drive
(VFD). By this addition the shaft generator may
be used on the wider speed range and often
the meaningful part of combinator speed range
is covered. The operational flexibility of an
existing shaft generator can also be significantly
improved, by retrofitting it with a VFD for
controlling the shaft generator’s output.
• A power source which, under most
conditions, generates much cheaper energy
than auxiliary diesel generator sets
• With CPP propulsion, VFD installation allows
efficient use of combinator mode instead of
fixed speed operation, thus reducing propeller
losses significantly on partial propeller loading
conditions.
• With a VFD, it is possible to utilize the shaft
generator at a wide range of main engine
RPMs, enabling operational flexibility:
– – Nominal voltage and frequency output from
the shaft generator can be maintained
– – For improved efficiency, main engine shaft
power can be used to produce electricity
over the entire operating area,
– – Generating power for ship network via the
shaft generator alone reduces the need to
use auxiliary generators
– – Flexibility in PTI/PTO function
– – Parallel running with generator sets is
possible
– – Increased efficiency from optimal operation
of the propeller with CPP
– – Lower noise levels
– – Improved energy efficiency reduces
emissions
Benefits
Using a shaft generator with a VFD for power
production is economical, environment-friendly
and provides a range of advantages. This is not
limited to new builds – major improvements can
Savings
Although the benefits vary from vessel to vessel
and are dependent on the operating profile, the
payback time can be short and the reduction in
the vessel’s environmental footprint significant.
In vessels equipped with a fixed pitch propeller
(FPP), this generally means that the shaft
generator can only be used on open seas when
the vessel is operating at its design speed,
which does not allow a flexible use of the shaft
generator.
In the case of vessels equipped with a
controllable pitch propeller (CPP), more
hydrodynamic efficient combinator control
mode cannot be used together with the shaft
generator, due to the fact that this would
generate incorrect frequency into the electrical
network.
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5.8. Improved fuel efficiency with waste heat
recovery system
5.9. Diesel electric auxiliary propulsion system
Using a waste heat recovery system to increase the energy output from combustion engines
is becoming an increasingly viable means of reducing fuel costs.
A simple means of improving a vessel’s operational performance is to install an electrical
auxiliary propulsion system. In this system, the electrical motor is included into the shaft
line of the main propulsion engine running the controllable pitch propeller (CPP). On vessels
where the space between the shaft line bearing or support and the reduction gear is limited,
similar results can be achieved by installing the electrical motor onto the reduction gearbox
(when this is made physically possible in the gearbox).
Waste heat recovery has significant potential
for use in marine propulsion systems. Even
with the current conventional two-stroke
propulsion power plants, approximately 50%
of fuel’s energy content is lost, mainly as heat,
without being used for mechanical work. By
supplementing the ship’s main propulsion plant
with a waste heat recovery system (WHRS),
fuel can be utilized more efficiently because
less energy is lost in the exhaust gas flow. As a
further environmentally beneficial consequence,
the amount of CO2 emissions in relation to the
engine’s mechanical power output is decreased.
Savings and payback time
The savings provided by the utilization of WHRS
and the payback time of the investment vary
from one application to another. The initial cost
of the WHRS will eventually be covered by the
fuel savings made during the operation of the
vessel. The WHRS can be optimized to meet the
required level of efficiency and tailored for the
specified propulsion plant. Based on these main
parameters, a payback time can be estimated
in advance, relative to the prevailing cost of fuel
and the operational profile of the ship.
Electrical auxiliary propulsion (EAP) is fed from
an auxiliary generator or from some other
energy source, such as a battery. The EAP
mode is utilized when the main propulsion
engine is not connected to the propeller shaft.
Slow speed operation is possible without the
main propulsion motors. Best performance is
reached if the CPP curve can be modified for
this new use and best blade angle practices
are designed for electrical auxiliary and main
mechanical modes individually.
Benefits to the shipyard / designer
• Simple installation.
• Reduced gear stress (in case of shaft line
installation).
• Risk reducing by gear output removed (in
case of shaft line installation).
• Gear/support for motor (sensible) installation
not needed (in case of shaft line installation).
• Ready design options available.
• Slow speed noise targets can be described
without main propulsion engines.
Through the WHRS, the recovered energy,
which typically amounts to about 10% of the
main propulsion’s shaft power, is converted
back to mechanical work. When the WHRS is
provided with a propeller shaft generator/motor,
further savings are gained by improving the main
engine’s loading condition at various points
within the ship’s operating profile. In addition,
energy recovered from the main engine exhaust
can be converted back to mechanical work and
added back to the propeller shaft as well.
Shaft power output:
49% energy
efficiency
Benefits to the vessel owner
• New operational mode for the vessel.
• Fuel savings.
• Reduced noise and vibration in low speed
operations.
• Increased comfort.
• Increased redundancy.
• New fueling and energy generation options.
• Standard and proven products, supported
worldwide.
Savings and payback time
Consider electrical auxiliary propulsion if your
vessel operates in slow speeds (0 – 6 kn) and
utilizes CPP propulsion with main propulsion
engines. Electrical auxiliary propulsion enables
you to fully change your operations to be much
more economical. The payback time of such
savings is typically very short, but the change
requires project-specific evaluation.
Benefits
• Energy efficiency increased by 10%
• Reduced CO 2 emissions
• Flexibility and redundancy in power plant
operation, for example less operating hours
for auxiliary engines at sea if so desired
WHRS: electric power
production ≈ 5%
Exhaust gas
Scavenger
Jacket water
Energy in fuel:
100%
Lubricating oil
Radiation
Figure 1: The energy efficiency of a large two-stroke
diesel engine can be increased by 10% using WHRS
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5.10. Small power propulsion solution
As environmental issues have become an important factor for many of us, the need for
electrical propulsion solutions in the smaller propulsion power ranges has become a very
common request for ABB Marine.
Traditionally, the additional weight from the
power generation and the equipment size
increase due to slower main engine revolutions
have been a limiting design criteria in the
utilization of electrical propulsion systems
(the execution limit has been somewhere
between 20 - 40 meters of the vessel length),
but nowadays we are often ready to accept
some performance reductions for the sake of
environmentally healthier operations. Such a
mindset change is leading to the utilization
of electrical propulsion in smaller and smaller
vessels, ranging from leisure boats to fishing
vessels.
Another design-related obstacle in the utilization
of small electrical propulsion systems has
been the lack of solutions available from the
global propulsion system manufacturers who
are delivering these systems to the larger
vessels. Such companies, including also ABB
Marine, often work as system suppliers, being
responsible for the total design and scope of
the system. These companies have the best
experience, know-how, service network and
practices to build working solutions for large
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vessels and this expertise should also be made
available to smaller vessels. Additionally, the
propulsion system providers are often large
companies, looking for big projects. This has
not been favorable for smaller vessels, where
the design task of the electrical propulsion
system is equally demanding as with larger
vessels, but the project size is too small to be
of interest to many of the system providers. As
a result, the electrical propulsion system market
for smaller vessels has been dominated by all
kinds of tailored solutions using components
that are made for small series and are often
supported only locally. This is a pity for the
vessel operators, who – even though their
vessel size is smaller – often operate their ships
in various areas, requiring services and support
at the same scale as larger ship operators.
As a market leader in many various vessel
types, ABB wants to introduce a systematic and
standard product portfolio for small electrical
propulsion systems. We want to make the same
electrical propulsion options that are already in
use in larger vessels available also to smaller
vessels.
Benefits for the owner
• Possibility to run one, two or more common
engines with two propellers with relatively
good efficiency throughout the vessel’s speed
range, especially at lower speeds.
• New operational modes for the vessel.
• Fuel savings.
• Reduced noise and vibration in low speed
operations.
• Increased comfort.
• Increased redundancy.
• New fueling and energy generation options.
• Standard and proven products, supported
worldwide.
• New sources of energy can be utilized.
Benefits for the shipyard / designer
• Day 1 material availability for the main
component dimensions.
• Support from the system designers.
• Simple installation.
• Hull design does not need to follow the
propulsion engine and shafting (the main
engines do not have to be side-by-side
either).
• Flexible location of equipment.
• No gear boxes.
• Industrial risk levels due to standard product
offering.
• Slow speed noise targets can be achieved
easier with small engines.
Savings and payback time
Consider electrical propulsion option if
your vessel does not follow the pattern of
continuous full speed operations. Dieselelectrical propulsion system makes it possible
for the vessel to stay moving longer, for longer
distances and with a higher comfort level. This
makes diesel-electrical propulsion system a
different concept compared to the noisy but
fast-moving mechanical version and comparing
these two in parallel a bit of a challenge.
When the concepts were compared in the
operation profile of a less than 50-meter yacht,
the study outcome reflected the same result as
in the whole small vessel segment: compared
to mechanical propulsion, electrical propulsion
brings savings at the same cruising speed,
extends the cruising time (at 25 Kn from 15
hours to 17,7 hours) but the vessel’s maximum
performance (top speed) was reduced from
31 Kn to 27 Kn in order to keep the weight
within allowed limits. Therefore the savings
by the concept selection are clear and have a
defined payback time, but they also require the
owner to make selections regarding the vessel’s
operational requirements.
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5.11. Azipod® propulsion
Efficiency and availability
Azipod technology was introduced in 1990. The
first cruise vessel installation on the Fantasyclass vessel Elation in 1998 showed remarkably
positive results with high efficiency and excellent
maneuverability. The new technology provided
ship designers with greater freedom to optimize
the ship’s general arrangement.
and design. As an example of the latter, sliding
bearings were selected for thrust bearings.
After processing further knowledge from
experience and getting a better understanding
of the system’s behavior in operation, the scope
of development was widened to cover larger
systems.
For larger models the seal can be changed from
inside the pod. The seal is designed for a fiveyear lifetime and to be replaced during normal
dry-dockings, but in case of an emergency
situation this can also be done with the vessel
afloat.
Design improvements
At first the improvements were mainly
concentrated on shaft bearings and seals. While
the basic mechanical design remained the same,
the focus was to provide improved lubrication
conditions and to improve seals to prevent any
leakages into the lube oil or into the sea.
After collecting several years of operational
experience with wider knowledge of system
behavior, improvements were broadened
to include processes like better control of
manufacturing, delivery and operational
processes, and general quality control.
Time for redesign
After several generations of updates from the
original design, it was seen that a concurrent
redesign would be necessary to be able to
combine all identified improvement ideas. The
first such development project addressed
the larger open water unit series, which was
subsequently given the identifying type code
Azipod XO where X stands for “next generation
Azipod” and O means that it is mainly made
for vessels that will operate in open water
conditions. In this research and development
project ABB Marine decided to utilize wellknown, proven technologies for components
66 | Energy efficiency guide
The outer shaft seal was also completely
redesigned to provide similar benefits: reliability
and maintainability. The seal system enables
advanced condition monitoring to a degree not
seen elsewhere in the market.
The fully electric steering gear was originally
designed for smaller Azipod sizes, but it was
the right time to introduce it for larger open
water unit sizes to replace conventional electrohydraulic steering gear. The main reasons
for this step were that it reduced energy
consumption and noise, as well as cutting the
amount of oil in the installation, in order to make
it more environmentally friendly. Electric steering
gear is now installed on recent Azipod deliveries
for open water conditions.
Improved fuel efficiency
The propulsion efficiency of Azipod propulsion,
when originally installed on cruise ship Elation
back in 1997, improved by some 9 percent,
when comparing identical sisterships with
traditional shaftlines. Since then, the propulsion
efficiency has been improved by several steps in
design optimization.
One major hydrodynamic improvement was
gained early by installing a fin under the Azipod
to reduce rotational flow losses generated by
the propeller. In the next steps, the Azipod strut
design was modified by making it slimmer and
more optimal for operation in the propulsion
environment. Finally, with the Azipod XO, the
propeller hub and motor module diameters were
reduced and the unIt is entire hull was optimized
with the help of CFD and model testing.
before the introduction of asymmetric fin, X-tail
and ADO, which can improve the efficiency of
the Azipod system overall by up to four percent.
During 2011, ABB introduced an additional
package to improve Azipod propulsion efficiency
further. This package consists of an asymmetric
lower fin and crossed plates (X-tail) that are
integrated in the aft cone. The asymmetric lower
fin will improve efficiency up to 1 percent by
reducing the losses from the propulsion system
and the X-tail will further increase efficiency by
up to 1.5 percent by reducing the rotational flow
losses at the aft cone section. These changes
can also be made as a retrofit installation on
open water units. The first retrofit work with
asymmetric fin and X-tail was done in 2011
during the vessel’s normal dry docking.
Operation experience
With regards to fuel savings and ship
maneuverability, the expectations set by
ship operators have typically been fulfilled
or exceeded by the Azipod. Ship captains in
particular have expressed satisfaction with the
ease of operation and the maneuverability of
their ships. Concerning energy efficiency, some
operators have claimed fuel savings of more
than 20 percent, compared with their vessels
operating with conventional propulsion.
Also in 2011, ABB launched a method of
optimizing the energy efficiency of Azipod
installations on board vessels. This was based
on the finding that further fuel consumption
savings can be reached by optimizing the toe
(steering) angle of the Azipod units dynamically,
in addition to the angle optimization already
undertaken at the vessel design stage. This
package has the acronym ADO from the words
“Azipod Dynamic Optimizer”. Fuel consumption
is estimated to be reduced further by up to 1.5
percent using ADO.
The overall improvement in propulsion efficiency
has been above 10 percent over the course of
the existence of the Azipod, with a more than 20
percent gain when compared to the shaftlines
being used back in the mid 1990s. However, it
is fair to acknowledge that there have also been
improvements in shaftline propulsion during
this time. Even so, a recent comparison test at
Marin showed that Azipod propulsion compared
to a fixed shaftline propulsion design still had a
6 – 8 percent lead what regards to propulsion
efficiency. Furthermore, these tests were made
Over 8,5 million operating hours with Azipod
propulsion have resulted in the largest pool of
experience in how podded propulsion systems
should be designed, used and maintained for
trouble-free reliable operation.
During the two decades ABB has established a
unique position being the only company that has
in-depth and in-house product and integration
knowledge, with a responsibility covering the
whole concept from hydrodynamics, mechanics,
electronics, cooling to operating, maintenance
and services, as well as the integration of the
complete electrical and control system.
Nowadays, Azipod propulsion and thruster units
are designed for five years dry-docking and
maintenance intervals. For some applications
a longer maintenance interval of even up to 10
years has proven supportable. This conclusion is
based on results drawn from a well documented
operational and maintenance history. Today, there
are some 100 vessels using Azipod propulsion. It
has been selected for a wide range of ship types
and operations; such as cruise ships, icebreakers
and ice-going cargo vessels, ferries, megayachts,
offshore supply vessels, research vessels, wind
turbine installation vessels and drilling rigs.
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5.12. Azipod® hydrodynamics upgrade
5.13. Marine automation modernizations and
energy efficiency
The ABB Azipod propulsion system is known for its high hydrodynamic efficiency. Azipod
has been on the market from the 1990’s, since when several improvements have been made
to its hydrodynamics. The latest major step in this development comprises three separate
enhancements.
In traditional automation retrofits, the objective is to replace the existing system or part of
the existing system, while retaining the same functionality. Little focus has been placed on
the possibility of increase energy efficiency at the same time. For example, energy efficiency
improvements in the HVAC (heating, ventilation and air conditioning) system, can create
substantial fuel savings onboard a vessel.
As an option, the shape of the propulsor’s fin
has been redesigned and is now asymmetric,
and the aft cone of the propulsor now has cross
plates. Both of these modifications reduce
rotational losses. The third part of the Azipod
hydrodynamics upgrade comprises the Azipod
Dynamic Optimizer (ADO) – a system that
optimizes the toe angle between propulsors,
based on the vessel’s operating conditions.
The total savings potential of the Azipod
hydrodynamics upgrade can account for up to 4
percent in propulsion power.
Retrofit solutions are available for the
following onboard processes
• Machinery Alarm & Monitoring System
• Vessel Integrated Control System
• Power Management System
• Shore Connection
• Propulsion Control System
• Engine Safety System
• ESD
• Cargo Alarm & Monitoring System
• HVAC System
• Energy Efficiency Solutions
• Energy Monitoring and Management (ABB’s
Advisory Systems)
• Higher output and quality per unit of energy
used
• Ability to manage environmental impact
Benefits for the ship owner
• Automation retrofit can be combined with
ABB’s Advisory Systems, for an increase in
overall awareness of energy production and
consumption onboard
• Automation system can be used to control
variable frequency drives in pump and fan
applications, in order to increase energy
efficiency
• Systems run closer to peak efficiency,
reducing waste and consumption
Integrating electrical equipment increases
uptime and overall energy efficiency
ABB is leading the trend in integrating process
automation and power management systems.
System 800xA is fully compliant with the IEC
61850 standard, enabling the integration of
process control, electrical systems, power
generation and distribution into one and the
same system, on the same vessel. This creates
savings over the system lifecycle, thanks to a
smaller footprint, lower power consumption and
reduced risk of blackouts.
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Benefits
• Lower fuel consumption due to reduction in
required propulsion power
• Lower emissions due to reduction in fuel
consumption
Savings and payback time
The improvement in hydrodynamic efficiency
reduces the required propulsion power, for
the vessel’s entire speed range, not only when
at top speed. For the Azipod hydrodynamics
upgrade, the typical payback time is less than
24 months.
Maximum efficiency: System for process
automation enables
• Systems run closer to peak efficiency,
reducing waste and consumption
• Higher output and quality per unit of energy
used
• Ability to manage environmental impact
• Product innovation
• Sustainability in supply chain
• Improved health and safety
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5.14. Shore-to-ship power
5.15. Shaft torque and power metering
The auxiliary engines of ships that run in ports produce SOX, NOX, CO2 and particle
discharges, as well as noise and vibration. These pollutants have a negative health and
environmental impact on the surrounding communities.
Engine RPM, propeller pitch, vessel’s speed, tons of fuel burned per day – does this
information suffice to tell you whether you are efficient?
Probably not, for various reasons, such as
• lack of information on whether the engine is
running optimally
• lack of information on how much water the
fuel contains
• the vessel’s speed cannot be measured
accurately
• lack of information on how the trim changes
when fuel is being burned
With ABB Shore-to-ship power supply solutions,
ships can shut down their auxiliary engines while
berthed and plug into an onshore power source,
thereby eliminating emissions into the local
surroundings. The ship’s power load can be
transferred to the shore-side power source, in a
secured automated manner, without disrupting
onboard services.
This solution covers all necessary electrical and
automation infrastructure on ships, and can be
used for retrofits or new builds. ABB Shore-toship power supply solutions are delivered on a
turnkey basis, including project management,
engineering, installation, commissioning and
testing.
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Benefits
ABB Shore-to-ship power supply solutions
enable customers to comply with the
environmental requirements set by regulatory
authorities such as the IMO, European Union
and individual states and governments.
The ABB Shore-to-ship power supply solution
for ships in port is a practical and effective
means of reducing pollutants, noise and
vibrations for the crew and local community. In
some cases, the solution also provides energy
and maintenance cost reductions.
• Turnkey supply of complete system –
including port side
• Safety based on ABB’s experience, know-how
and crew training
• Type approved equipment provides high
reliability
• Flexible arrangement for most vessel types
• Fast installation – minimal disruption to ship
services
• Availability of ABB worldwide service network
Minor deviations from optimal performance
can create surprisingly high costs. By closely
monitoring the performance of propulsion
machinery, you become instantly aware of its
efficiency. In the long run, performance analysis
begins with mapping trends in shaft torque
and power. However, the most important issue
involves awareness that meaningful trending
requires stable measurements over a long
period.
Benefits
• Robust construction, without mechanical
contact with the shaft
• No delicate optical instruments involved, so
no sensitivity to moisture and dirt
• No moving parts in the system, so no wear or
drift
• Excellent, long-term stability (0.5% in 10
years)
• No recalibration or periodic zeroing
• Only 25 cm of free shaft length, with a
constant tubular or solid cross section, is
needed for the transducer
• Maintenance-free
When the shaft torque measurement is
integrated with ABB’s Advisory Systems
and Coriolis fuel flow meters, you get a
comprehensive engine performance monitoring
system.
Shaft torque monitoring contributes to the
performance of propulsion machinery and
can be used as a basis for corrective actions.
Measuring shaft torque and fuel efficiency
provides you with real-time measuring values,
enabling you to:
• monitor and evaluate the tuning state of the
propulsion engines
• monitor and evaluate the performance of the
overall propulsion system
• optimize the speed and pitch of the propeller
at different loadings
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5.16. High efficiency motors
5.17. Diesel engine speed regulation
There are a many different kinds of motor driven applications onboard a vessel. Typical
applications are fans, pumps, cranes, winches, compressors, thrusters and propulsion.
All of these are vital when operating the vessel, and motors must meet the highest quality,
availability and various standards.
A vital component in all diesel engines is a mechanical or electronic governor, which
regulates the idling and maximum speed of the engine, by controlling the rate of fuel delivery.
A diesel engine without a governor cannot attain a stable idling speed. This means that it
can easily over speed, resulting in its destruction. The DEGO III digital governor system is
a fully electronic speed control unit intended for a wide range of diesel engine types and
applications. The governor fulfills all traditional governor functions, such as propulsion,
power generation, single and multi engine arrangements. DEGO III is based on a single
hardware platform, and its design takes advantage of a number of new control algorithms.
Combined with modern control architecture, this control system is more efficient and easier
to commission and use.
In addition to the above requirements, energy
efficiency has become one of the main
purchasing criteria. Since a motor consumes
its capital investment in electricity in a couple
of months, account must be taken of the total
cost of ownership when planning an investment.
ABB meets these challenges based on the
widest portfolio of motors on the market, from
fractional kW up to tens of MW’s.
Benefits
• High availability of motors, throughout low
temperature rise
• High quality, lower maintenance, longer
lifetime
• Highest output from the smallest size; space
and weight savings
• Fully compatible with various starting
methods, DOL, Y/D, auto-trafo, soft starter,
variable frequency drive
• Meeting the highest efficiency requirements,
especially in all load points
• Wide range of motors already approved by
the major classification societies
• Worldwide technical support
• Degrees of protection up to IP56 for open
deck
72 | Energy efficiency guide
Savings and payback time
ABB offers a broad range of motors already
fulfilling the IE4 efficiency performance standard
specified in IEC 60034 and IEC 60034-31.
ABB’s solutions consist of IE4 induction motors,
the IE4 synchronous reluctance motor and
drive package, and permanent magnet motors.
For low voltage motors, the payback time is
typically 2-3 years in the case of a replacement.
When considering a new investment, the
typical payback time for a higher IE efficiency
performance class is less than one year.
Benefits
• Up to 28 control units can communicate with
each other and act as a single system
• Load and speed tuned/adopted PID regulator
with I-limit
• Guided commissioning and setup by means of
the comprehensive DEGO Aid software
• Different types of actuators – both electrohydraulic and electric – can be controlled
• VIT – Variable Injection Timing – algorithm with
fuel quality setting for achieving greater fuel
efficiency
Benefits propulsion control
• Torque and smoke limits
• Slow mode function – reducing fuel
consumption and maintenance
• Excellent load-sharing in multi engine
applications
• Back-up control bypassing the governor in
fixed propeller applications
• Engine Synchronization
• Shaft Synchronization
Benefits generator control
• Soft start – reducing emissions
• Integrated synchronizing and power
management
• Fast response to load changes due to feed
forward action
• A special version – QHFQ 552 – is available
with an additional interface board, designed
for installations with minimum PMS functions
Savings and payback time
DEGO III not only reduces fuel consumption
and maintenance, creating savings in operating
costs, but also cuts exhaust emissions. Even
greater fuel efficiency can be achieved with
the optional VIT - Variable Injection Timing
algorithm. Controlling the timing of fuel injection
into the cylinder is the key to minimizing
the engine’s emissions and maximizing its
fuel efficiency. Bringing forward the start of
injection, results in higher in-cylinder pressure
and temperatures and greater efficiency.
However, it also creates elevated engine noise
and NOX emissions, due to higher combustion
temperatures.
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5.18. Automatic voltage regulator
5.19. Two stroke diesel engine performance
monitoring
UNITROL 1010 and UNITROL 1020 are the latest automatic voltage regulators (AVR) in the
UNITROL 1000 product family, for generators and motors with exciters up to an output of 50
megawatts. These regulators set new standards in functionality, reliability and connectivity.
The reliability and performance of a vessel’s main engine is crucial to safe and economic
vessel operation. Engine operators on ships and in power plants want to feel secure about
diesel engine performance. The Cylmate® System provides both on-board engineers and a
ship’s management with all of the key data required for optimum engine operation.
Main features
• Compact and robust AVR for excitation
current up to 20 A
• Separate communication and control
processors
• Wide range of built-in control software
functions
• Ethernet-based fieldbus interface
• Wide range of power input voltage, for AC
and DC input
• Flexible and freely configurable measurements
and inputs/outputs (I/Os)
Wide range of applications
• Land-based power plants based on diesel
engines, gas or steam turbines and hydro
turbines
• Marine: electrical propulsion and auxiliary
supply
• Traction: diesel electric locomotives
• Wind: based on direct connected
synchronous machines
• Synchronous motors
Benefits
• Stable and reliable control of your machine
– – Highly integrated and robust AVR for harsh
industrial environments. Stable and accurate
regulation, even with highly disturbed
voltages.
• AVR for various applications
– – Fully configurable I/Os and measurement
inputs, and user-specific configurable field
bus interface, enable easy plant integration.
• Easy operation, monitoring and maintenance
of the system
– – Intuitive and user-friendly commissioning
tool.
• Full support for grid codes
– – Built-in Power System Stabilizer (option),
simulation models and grid code studies
available.
• Efficient product life cycle management
– – Extended life time of your assets, with
minimum costs.
• Professional technical help always within your
reach
– – ABB’s global excitation service network.
With the Cylmate ® System, you can reduce
maintenance and fuel costs – resulting in a short
payback time.
ABB’s Cylmate ® System is a comprehensive
system for the continuous engine performance
measurement and performance monitoring
of large 2-stroke diesel engines. A unique
combination of cylinder pressure and crank
shaft position measurements, in combination
with advanced mathematical modeling of the
engine, provides highly accurate, real-time
data for monitoring and diagnostic analysis.
The quality of this data ensures major benefits
in terms of improved reliability, reductions in
operating costs and minimization of off-hire
costs.
Benefits
• Reduced fuel consumption
• Performance monitoring 24/7 detects and
identifies errors in the engine at a very early
stage
• An optimized engine enables compliance with
environmental regulations
• An engine in good balance avoids thermal
and mechanical overloads by ensuring equal
power distribution between cylinders
• Pressure transducer used in the closed loop
control applications of main engine builders
• Alarm monitoring and trend data recording
provides information crucial to optimizing
maintenance costs
Savings and payback time
A well tuned and balanced engine consumes
less fuel. Using the ABB Cylmate® System, fuel
oil consumption can be reduced by around
1-2%, meaning a payback time of less than one
year.
UNITROL 1000 products are designed for
compliance with worldwide grid codes,
guaranteeing reliable control of the machine,
even during heavy failure conditions on the
network. In addition, UNITROL 1000 products
set an easy-operation benchmark for automatic
voltage regulators. PC-based commissioning,
using the SW CMT1000, enables the customer
to shorten commissioning times and focus on
rapid troubleshooting.
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Detailed
solution
descriptions
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6.1. ABB’s energy efficiency and advisory systems
The common nominator for all the Advisory Systems products is the significance of full scale
measurements. ABB has developed algorithms using multidimensional non-linear regression
model methods to measure and interpret the vessel operations. The algorithms provide much
more accurate results than for example CFD calculations or towing tank tests. Most of the
Advisory Systems products require a three month learning period after installation to fill in
the statistical database. Using this data the solution is then commissioned and the user
interface providing the decision support is turned on.
The statistical model of the vessel provides
very accurate results and moreover, perfect
analysis tools for operations. For example, the
propulsion energy breakdown (Figure 1) can
be calculated with the dynamic trim model.
From this presentation, the user can easily
grasp where energy is used. The voyage view
(Figure 2) shows the user an even more detailed
analysis of the energy usage. In the visualized
example, the vessel experienced heavy weather
conditions with strong winds and higher than
10 meter waves about 30 hours after leaving
the harbor. The graph shows that during these
conditions, more than half of the vessel’s energy
was spent on fighting the forces of nature.
User experience is one of the main design
principles of ABB’s Advisory Systems. The
market has already seen many solutions that
are too difficult to use. All the Advisory Systems
modules have been designed so that they can be
taken into full use with none or minimal training
needs. If training is needed, it can be completed
during the commissioning of the system.
Figure 1: Propulsion energy breakdown showing exactly where the produced energy is consumed
78 | Energy efficiency guide
Figure 2: Propulsion energy breakdown can also be shown in function of time.
Advisory Systems is a modular solution, and the
correct set of modules is defined together with
the customer to fully support the vessel type
and operations in question. All the modules of
ABB’s Advisory Systems can easily be either
retrofitted in operations or installed to a new
building at the shipyard. Retrofitting can be
done without interrupting the operations. Most
of the Advisory Systems’ practises and software
modules can be directly documented as energy
measures in SEEMP (Ship Energy Efficiency
Management Plan) according to IMO definitions.
ABB designs the package together with the
customer and can provide the complete solution
as a turnkey delivery, providing all the required
design, hardware, sensors and interfaces to
other vessel systems. The following chapters
introduce some of these available modules for
efficient and safe operations.
Monitoring tool
With the advanced monitoring tools provided by
ABB’s Advisory Systems, the vessel’s operating
crew and the shipping company’s office
personnel can easily follow the performance
of an individual vessel or the whole fleet.
The vessel’s performance is monitored as
a whole, summarizing it using four different
key performance indicators: cost, energy,
transported goods and optimization level.
Traditional monitoring systems compare the
vessel’s performance to fixed limits. Instead
of this approach, ABB’s solution utilizes an
adaptive target calculation which evaluates
All of ABB’s Advisory Systems
modules can be either
retrofitted during operations or
installed to a new building at
the shipyard.
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Figure 3: EMMA uses adaptive targets to provide the
operating crew with realistic goals
the performance taking in account the speed,
loading conditions, surrounding weather
conditions and other factors affecting the
vessel’s performance. This provides the
operating crew with more realistic targets
and increases their energy awareness. All
the relevant data is also transmitted to a fleet
management tool to enable fleet-level follow-up
and decision support.
Trim optimization
EMMA’s dynamic trim optimization is a good
example of the adaptive and self-learning
algorithm ABB has developed. This solution
advises the operating crew on the vessel’s
optimum trim in all operating conditions
(including variations in conditions such as
speed, draft, water depth, wind and waves).
Depending on the vessel type and operational
profile, the savings potential can be up to 5%
of propulsion energy costs. The user interface
(Figure 4) follows the latest design guidelines in
user experience and works intuitively without
any user input or configuration.
Trim is an important part of voyage optimization
and it is recommended to be used in
combination with speed/RPM optimization.
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Figure 4: EMMA trim optimization user interface
Fleet management
ABB’s Advisory Systems offers a modern cloudbased service for fleet management. With the
EMMA™ Fleet Control tool, the monitored fleet
is clearly summarized and visualized and the
information is easily accessible for all users
via a smartphone, computer or tablet with an
internet connection. With the cloud service, our
customers do not need to worry about servers,
security, databases or backups; ABB takes care
of all this. The cloud service also enables easy
extension; the Fleet Control tool can be initially
taken into use with one vessel and easily scaled
to cover the whole fleet.
Figure 5: ABB’s Fleet management tool shows a clear
overview of the whole fleet
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Speed optimization
A customer’s study shows that, on average,
fluctuations in RPM cause 4.7% losses in
propulsion energy costs. Using EMMA’s speed/
RPM advice, the losses reduced significantly
to only 1%, improving the propulsion energy
consumption by 3.7%. The optimum speed/
RPM profile is calculated using the intended
route, required estimated time of arrival (ETA),
weather forecasts and vessel characteristics.
This information is then presented as a clear
advice for the operating crew. The advised
sailing schedule is updated whenever new
forecasts are available or a new ETA is required.
Speed optimization can also be delivered
together with the stabilizer fin usage advice
module for relevant vessel types. With this
module, even larger energy savings can
be achieved by optimizing the usage of
the stabilizer fins according to the vessel
movements.
Hull cleaning scheduling
EMMA’s advanced data model enables a socalled propulsion power breakdown of the
operating vessel. This data follows every drop of
used fuel oil and shows where it was consumed
(see Figure 1 for an example). However, one
energy consuming item is a bit different from the
others: hull fouling. Instead of varying in function
of speed, loading conditions or weather, it
grows in function of time. If the vessel always
operates approximately in the same sea area,
this growth can be assumed to be almost linear.
Using this data model, ABB has developed
an office-based tool (accessible through
ABB’s Fleet Control tool), which estimates
and forecasts the hull and propeller fouling.
Using the clear report available from the tool, a
cleaning schedule can be justified and the return
of investment easily calculated.
Figure 6: OCTOPUS forecasts showing the heading and
speed under which an operation at sea can be safely
executed
Motion monitoring and forecasting
Especially in heavy weather conditions, the
OCTOPUS tool provides valuable support
for the operating crew. Calculating any sea
keeping attribute, such as rolling, slamming
probability or parametric roll, OCTOPUS offers
a simple user interface (Figure 6) advising the
user on safe speeds, headings and operating
windows. Originally developed as a tool for safe
and economic navigation on board container
vessels, OCTOPUS has since evolved into
a complete vessel motion monitoring and
forecasting system that offers advice on issues
such as the vessel’s DP capability, safe windows
for helideck or crane operations, different
offshore loading/discharging scenarios and
possible speed losses due to weather.
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Figure 7: OCTOPUS forecasts the risks for sloshing for
each individual LNG tank onboard LNG vessels
Figure 8: EMMA’s power plant optimization user interface
Sloshing prevention
The sloshing advisory function is an advanced
extension within OCTOPUS. In case of a risk of
sloshing in the LNG tanks, the system provides
a warning and informs the crew on how to
stay within the set limits and avoid the risk of
sloshing and possible consequential damage.
ABB works together with GTT on sloshing
prevention. GTT specializes in designing and
licensing the construction of cryogenic LNG
storage tanks for the shipbuilding industry.
The risk of sloshing is calculated by combining
the motion measurements or forecasts from
OCTOPUS with GTT’s model test results for
determination of the sloshing criteria. On the
bridge, OCTOPUS then provides the vessel’s
captain with a clear view on how to operate the
vessel so that the risk of sloshing is minimized.
vessel is capable of maintaining her position and
heading in changing environmental and weather
conditions, a forecast can be given hours and
days ahead. This leads to maximized workability
and more productive hours during operations
where the DP system is used.
DP capability forecasting
For vessels equipped with a Dynamic
Positioning (DP) system, OCTOPUS provides
the DP Capability function. This function gives
offshore vessels the possibility to take maximum
advantage of the safe time window for their
weather-sensitive operations. The calculations
are based on thruster properties, measured
environmental conditions and weather forecasts,
which are an integrated part of OCTOPUS. If the
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Benefits of ABB’s Advisory Systems
• A complete energy, fuel and process
monitoring and benchmarking tool.
• Dynamic trim optimization for reducing energy
costs.
• Optimal use of the Dynamic Positioning (DP)
system with DP Capability forecasting.
• Speed/RPM optimization for making the whole
voyage with minimum energy costs.
• Power plant optimization for ensuring the
most economical way to produce the required
power on board.
• Motion monitoring including alarms in case
vessel limits are exceeded.
• Motion forecasting for preventing damages or
losses to cargo.
• The Clean Hull module for reminding
personnel on hull and propeller cleaning
schedules.
• The sloshing forecasting system for preventing
damages within LNG tanks.
Savings and payback time
As an example, a combined solution for
optimizing the dynamic trim and speed/rpm can
easily save up to 7% in propulsion energy costs.
On a large container vessel with a capacity
of 13,000 TEU, this means a payback time
as short as two months. Taking into account
the three-month delivery time and the data
collection period of approximately three months
required before trim and speed optimization is
taken into use, the investment is returned in a
total of eight months.
As an example, a combined
solution for optimizing the
dynamic trim and speed/rpm
can easily save up to 7% in
propulsion energy costs.
Power plant optimization
ABB’s strong expertize in optimizing various
kinds of processes in shore-based industries
such as power plants, pulp factories and paper
mills can also be utilized in marine industries.
Especially on vessels equipped with dieselelectric and hybrid solutions, the operating
crew can affect not only the vessel’s energy
consumption but also the way the required
energy is produced.
EMMA’s power plant optimization includes a
model of all the energy producers on board
and capability to forecast the required load.
It calculates the optimum load between the
various producers, such as diesel generators,
shaft motors, main engine, waste heat
recovery and batteries, and clearly visualizes
this information for the engineers on board
the vessel (see Figure 8) enabling them to
efficiently balance the load between the vessel’s
producers.
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“For us, OCTOPUS-Onboard is indispensable
during offshore construction projects”
Teun Hofman |
Offshore Construction Manager at Jumbo Shipping
Jumbo shipping currently operates a fleet
of twelve specialized heavy lift vessels, with
lifting capabilities varying from 500 to 1,800
tons. Two new K-Class vessels have been
ordered for delivery at the end of 2013.
These vessels have a lifting capacity of
3,000 tons at an outreach of 20 m and will
also be equipped with OCTOPUS-Onboard.
84 | Energy efficiency guide
“We use OCTOPUS-Onboard
on a daily basis to give us the
optimum heading with regards
to crane motions and for the
DP system.”
This is a quote from Teun Hofman, Offshore
Construction Manager at Jumbo Shipping.
The Dutch company Jumbo Shipping operates
multipurpose heavy lift vessels, equipped with
cranes used for heavy-lift cargo transportation
and subsea offshore installation. “When our
vessels are deployed in an offshore construction
project, they operate in DP mode. Due to crane
usage, such operations are highly dependent
on the weather. We use OCTOPUS-Onboard on
a daily basis to give us the optimum heading
with regards to crane motions and for the
DP system. Based on the OCTOPUS motion
forecast, we can accurately determine the
heading in which the least severe motions will
occur. This enables more-accurate planning of
our operations, and gives us a better insight into
the availability and operational window of our
vessels during weather-sensitive operations.”
draft. OCTOPUS-Onboard uses data from
the onboard weather forecast to predict how
the forecast weather conditions will affect the
vessel’s motions.
In order to generate a motion forecast,
Amarcon, a member of the ABB Group,
prepares a 3-D hydrodynamic database that is
used within OCTOPUS-Onboard. This database
contains detailed information on the behavior
of the ship at sea for a range of drafts. By
combining the information on the actual draft
given by the loading computer, and derived from
the location and speed of the vessel, combined
with information from the hydrodynamic
database, OCTOPUS-Onboard can predict the
sea-keeping behavior of the ship at its actual
Teun Hofman, Offshore Construction Manager at Jumbo
Shipping
Jumbo Shipping originally started out in the
late 1950s, as a heavy lift cargo transporter.
Since 2001, the company has also operated
an offshore construction division. Hofman says:
“Jumbo Shipping is increasingly becoming
involved in offshore construction projects.
We are engaged in a broad range of projects,
such as the transportation and installation of
topsides, wind turbine foundations and subsea
manifolds.”
“OCTOPUS enables moreaccurate planning of our
operations, and gives us a
better insight into the availability
and operational window of
our vessels during weathersensitive operations.”
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6.2. Variable frequency drive for cooling systems
Energy efficiency as part of the design
criteria
Until recently, energy efficiency in auxiliary
systems was not considered during the design
process or construction of marine vessels. For
this reason, the systems on existing ships are
not energy efficient and have not been fully
optimized to minimize overall fuel consumption.
Many of the ships currently in production
continue to be built with little emphasis on
energy efficient solutions. Additionally, shipyards
typically do not focus on the long term cost of a
vessel’s ownership. Unless the owners define the
technologies to be included in the specifications,
the ship’s energy efficiencies capabilities will be
limited. To date, most marine installations adjust
for changes in environmental conditions by
inefficient methods, such as by using ‘throttling’
and ‘by-pass loops’.
to run continuously or at full capacity. Where
applicable, electric motors could be fitted
with VFD to operate pumps and fans more
efficiently at partial loads, for example during
slower sailing speeds or with reduced ventilation
requirements. The electric power consumption
of a pump is related to the pump volumetric
flow according to affinity laws. The reduction
of pump speed will affect the system pressure,
Head, to the power of two and the electric
power consumption to the power of three. For
example, a reduction in pump speed of 10% will
reduce power consumption by 27%.
The on board ship systems best suited to
improving energy efficiency are systems with
large pumps and fans, which are not required
On board vessels there are many different
kinds of pump applications. Seawater cooling
pumps, boiler feed pumps, HVAC pumps,
Pumps and fans are vital parts of the
processes on board a vessel
Pumps and fans on board vessels often perform
vital functions. If these are not working, the
vessel is not sailing.
Figure 1: A typical seawater cooling system. Like most pump applications, these pumps are often greatly overdimensioned to handle the most extreme operating conditions with good margin.
T
P
P
SW PUMPS
3x50%
8112/01
SEA
CHEST
(low)
86 | Energy efficiency guide
8111/03
LT
COOLER
8111/02
LT
COOLER
8111/01
DISCHARGE
T
bilge water pumps, lubrications pumps, fire
pumps, waste water pumps and many other
kinds. It is common for pump applications to be
over-dimensioned. This is simply because the
design criterion is set to cope with the extreme
conditions in which the vessel may operate. For
example, the seawater temperature is generally
dimensioned for above normal operating
conditions.
Although it is necessary for a ship to be able
to operate in extreme cases and environments,
everyday operations rarely come close to such
conditions. While the maximum allowed engine
load is typically 75…90% of maximum, heat is
always recovered from the system. Seawater
temperature very seldom reaches the design
value.
A lot of energy can easily be saved by controlling
pumps and fans with a VFD, either standalone
or with a pressure or temperature sensor loop
control. Using a VFD to match the power
demand to the operational conditions is the
most effective method to optimize the on board
systems.
Displacement pumps and centrifugal pumps are
the two most common types of pump used on
ships, but around 80% of all pumps on board
ships are centrifugal pumps. This kind of pump
has the same duty characteristics as a fan.
Fans are used for ventilation in the engine room,
on the car deck, in cargo spaces and in other
places where forced ventilation is needed.
When operating a centrifugal pump or a fan you
can achieve a fairly large reduction in energy
consumption by making just a small reduction in
rpm of the pump.
Cavitations are another important issue when
considering pumps and their dimensioning. If
the pump is too large, the suction capability
will be weak, making the risk of cavitations very
high.
Cavitations appear as a result of evaporation of
the fluid which occurs when the static pressure
drops below the actual steam pressure inside
the pump. Cavitations inside a pump can cause
severe damage to the materials and, particularly,
the impeller is often badly damaged. In some
cases, damage to the impeller can cause the
pump to fail within a couple of months.
When using a VFD to decrease the pump speed
you will also reduce the chance of cavitations,
and the risk of damage to the pump.
By far the most commonly used flow control
in pump applications is throttle control and
by-pass loops to control the temperature. As
a consequence pumps are running at 100%
load continuously, even though the requirement
would actually be about 40% on average.
Using these antiquated control methods is as
ineffective as controlling a car’s speed with the
brakes while the engine is going at full throttle.
In other words, not only does it waste energy
but also accelerates equipment wear.
VARIABLE
SPEED
DRIVES
8112/02
SEA
CHEST
(high)
A reduction of the pump speed
of 10% will save 27% of the
consumed power.
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Reducing emissions doesn’t mean
reengineering your existing vessel
Retrofitting existing vessels with VFD is a task
which demands knowledge of the process to
be modified as well as good system knowledge
of VFD, motors and pumps/fans. Sometimes
it is necessary to replace the existing motor
with a new motor designed for VFD use. This
depends very much on the voltage level and
power demand of the pump. Generally, ABB
random wound motors with a voltage rating
less than 500 V are good for VFD use as such,
whilst other motor types should be checked
case by case for suitability. ABB can provide
expert insight on the cost / benefit trade-off of
replacing motors. Market expansion of energy
efficient motors has in effect reduced the price
of these special motors.
The control method of the VFD depends on
the existing automation system. In some cases
it may be beneficial to install an independent
control system for the modified processes.
The ABB Marine Service can retrofit complete
energy efficient design packages tailored to the
customer’s requirements. These packages may
include ABB’s products, project services and all
site activities.
In vessels built between 1988 and 2008 and
which are still sailing, approximately 2% of
the main sea water cooling systems have VFD
control. By modifying these systems, which is
quite simple, substantial reductions in emissions
and costs can be achieved. Small changes to
the system can make a big impact on emission
reduction.
Figure 2: The diagram shows the power consumption for different flow control methods. The grey area represents the
energy savings generated by using a VFD instead of manual throttling.
100
Recirculation
90
Throttling
Cyclic control
Power required (%)
80
VFD
70
System curve
60
Savings potential
50
40
30
20
10
0
20
88 | Energy efficiency guide
40
Flow (%)
60
80
100
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Marine type approved drive
ABB’s variable frequency drive is type tested
and approved for marine drive applications.
The type approval test is required for essential
applications on board. Essential applications
are those which are related to navigation,
propulsion, safety of the ship and passenger,
cargo and crew. Examples of essential
applications are ballast pumps, bilge pumps,
circulating and cooling water pumps.
ABB’s variable frequency drive is type tested
and approved by:
• DNV (Det Norske Veritas)
• LR (Lloyd’s Register of Shipping)
• ABS (American Bureau of Shipping)
• RINA (Registro Italiano Navale)
• BV (Bureau Veritas)
• GL (Germanischer Lloyd)
Intelligent pump control to further enhance
the energy savings
To further enhance the energy saving potential
in pump and fan applications, ABB have
introduced an Intelligent Pump Control solution
(IPC). IPC is an optional software package for
ABB low voltage variable frequency drives.
Incorporating all of the most common functions
required by pump or fan users, it eliminates the
need for an external PLC and other additional
components. A pump system with fewer
electrical components will be more reliable,
especially in the harsh environment typical of
marine applications. IPC can help save energy,
reduce downtime and prevent pump jamming
and pipeline blocking.
Control logic of level control mode
The key issue is to run pumps with efficiency
speed as far as possible. If the temperature
demand in the cooling circuit varies so that
more cooling water is needed, more pumps are
switched on and they run at efficiency speed.
In a situation where all pumps are running at
efficiency speed and the cooling demand still
increases, all pumps start to run at high speed.
With this method, according to the theory
presented earlier, it is possible to achieve almost
20…30% more energy savings, and keep the
cooling control flexible for highly varying cooling
requirements.
Other benefits with intelligent pump control
Dimensioning a cooling system with parallel
pumps provides redundancy in the system.
With the cooling demand control of the IPC
solution, there is 100% redundancy in the
system. If one of the pumps, motors, or drives
switches off, the system will continue to operate
uninterrupted. Even if the master parallel drive
fails, it takes only 500 ms to activate the backup
drive. This is made possible by a fast fiber
optic connection between the drives. 100%
redundancy in the system ensures continuous
and risk-free operation of the pump system
even in fault situations.
VFD mounted on a pump is
by far the most efficient way
to change the duty point of a
pump system, and reduce the
power consumption.
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Pump and fan applications
on board suitable for VFD
There is huge potential for retrofitting
existing ships with new fuel-reducing
technologies. For example, only around 2%
of the global fleet is currently equipped with
variable frequency drives for their seawater
cooling pumps, which means that 98%
of the fleet is missing an opportunity to
reap high fuel savings and environmental
rewards.
The anti-jam function enables the drive to
perform preventive maintenance on the pump.
When the function is triggered, the pump is
run at high speed and then either reversed or
stopped in a sequence of user-defined cleaning
cycles. This helps to prevent congestion through
the build-up of particles inside the pump. The
trigger parameters (high current, run-on-time,
external input and every start) are set by the
user.
When operating with liquids containing particles
there is always a risk that pipelines will get
blocked – especially when running with smooth
control and/or slow speeds. With Level Control
fast mode fast ramp in starting creates a flush
effect which keeps the pipelines clear. When the
pumps are running, they are always operating
at close to the nominal point where the risk of
pipeline problems is reduced due to higher flow.
Pump priority control balances the operating
time across all of the pumps in the system over
a long time period. This facilitates maintenance
planning and can boost energy efficiency by
operating pumps at close to their best efficiency
point. In a system where the consumption rate
is higher during the sea voyage, for example,
the drive can be programmed to operate higher
capacity pumps during the sea voyage and
smaller units at harbor time.
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On board pump and fan applications suitable
for VFD
• Seawater pumps
• High and low temperature cooling water
pumps
• Boiler feed pumps
• Bilge water pumps
• Waste water pumps
• Engine room ventilation fans
• Cargo area fans
• Air handling units, such as air conditioning
systems on board cruise ships and passenger
vessels
• Hotel auxiliary system pumps and fans (mainly
in passenger vessels)
Savings and payback time
ABB’s VFD solution reduces a ship’s energy
and fuel consumption, bringing savings in
operational costs. Based on affinity laws, a
linear reduction of pump or fan speed leads to a
cubic reduction of electric power. Consequently,
a 10% reduction of pump speed can save 27%
of the energy cost related to the pump.
ABB’s VFD solution typically has a 6-18 months
payback time.
Major benefits from installing a VFD
• Soft starting – no high starting currents
causing disturbance on the network.
• No process disturbance due to voltage drops;
no trips of other electrical devices connected
to same bus.
• No excessive thermo-mechanical stress on
the motor; longer lifetime of the motor.
• Immediate start-up without warming-up
delays (e.g. steam turbines).
• Controlled and smooth start-up.
• Accurate process control – flow based on
production need.
• Mechanical wear of piping is minimized.
• Risk of cavitations in the pump is minimized.
• Passenger comfort (in air conditioning
application).
• Reliability/technical improvement.
• Environmental compliancy.
• Lower energy bills.
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6.3. Variable frequency drive to control HVAC
systems
Cooling systems play an important part in air conditioning systems, since they supply air
handling units (AHU) with chilled water. This water is circulated in the cooling coil located
inside the AHU, in order to cool the supply air temperature. Figure 1 gives an overview of
an HVAC (heating, ventilation and air conditioning) system, with an AHU and central cooling
system.
Central cooling system, chiller
Central cooling systems can be divided into
two major categories: vapour compression
refrigeration cycle chillers and absorptioncycle chillers. These two methods rest on the
same basic working principle, but use different
refrigerants and a different compression
method. While a vapour compression system is
based on mechanical force (compressor) used
to raise the pressure and the temperature of
the refrigerant, an absorption-cycle chiller uses
external heat to do the same.
Figure 1: A typical HVAC system with an AHU and central
cooling system.
Vapour compression refrigeration cycle chillers
are the most commonly used method onboard
ships. Absorption type chillers can be used in
combination with waste heat from steam and/or
high temperature (HT) cooling processes.
A vapour compression chiller has the following
main components:
• Compressor
• Condenser
• Expansion or flow control device
• Evaporator
A compressor is used to compress refrigerant
gas into a higher-pressure and highertemperature gas. The condenser then cools
down the gas and condenses it into liquid. The
liquid is then routed through the expansion
valve, where it undergoes a reduction in
pressure and temperature. After this, the cold
mixture is routed through the evaporator,
where the liquid refrigerant is returned to gas
form. Finally, the refrigerant gas enters the
compressor and the cycle continues. A diagram
of a vapour compression chiller can be seen in
figure 2.
In the vapour compressor process, it is
important to understand that the refrigerant can
exist in gas and liquid form, depending on the
temperature and pressure of the refrigerant.
The refrigerant will phase change from liquid
into gas or gas into liquid at the saturation
temperature. A large amount of energy is
exchanged during the phase change of the
refrigerant. The saturation temperature is
proportional to pressure, meaning that if the
92 | Energy efficiency guide
30°C
Condenser water
35°C
T
T
Condenser
Discharge temperature
P
Discharge pressure
P
Oil pressure
High pressure side
Low pressure side
EXPANSION DEVICE
COMPRESSOR
P
Suction pressure
Evaporator
7°C
Chilled water
12°C
Figure 2: Diagram for vapour compression chiller
pressure is high, the saturation temperature
will also be high and vice versa. It is important
to understand this, since the compressor
compresses the refrigerant gas to match the
condenser saturation pressure, in such a way
that the refrigerant gas can condense at a
temperature equal to that at which water exits
the condenser. Based on this, it is easy to
understand why the compressor is controlled
according to the discharge pressure and how
the power required by the compressor is
linked to the water temperature as it exits the
condenser.
System design
The central cooling system design can be
either direct or indirect. In a direct system,
the refrigerant directly transports heat from
the cooled space to the space in which heat
is released. In an indirect system, a heat
exchanger is used to transfer heat between
the primary circuit and one or two secondary
circuits (condenser side or/and evaporator
side). An indirect system with secondary circuits
requires heat exchangers and circulation
pumps for these secondary circuits. Simplified
examples of direct and indirect systems can
be seen in figure 3. The most common system
on board a ship is an indirect system, where
the condenser is cooled via a seawater cooling
circuit.
A central cooling system might also have more
than one compressor in one chiller unit, or
multiple chillers within the cooling system, either
in series or in parallel. A chiller with multiple
compressors is called a multi-stage chiller.
A variable chilled water flow and condenser
water flow
A variable flow of chilled water and condenser
water is achieved by varying the speed of the
condenser pump and chilled water pump. The
chilled water side can also be divided into
primary and secondary sides, with their own
circulation pumps. Primary and secondary
circuits are more typically used when the central
cooling system serves a group of areas with
large cooling loads.
Energy efficiency guide | 93
Condenser
Condenser
Condenser water pump
Heat exchanger
Heat exchanger
Evaporator
More often than not, a constant pressure
system is over dimensioned for the need in
hand, considering the fouling margins, and
the pressure in the system is kept stable using
manually controlled valves. Applying a VFD with
fully opened valves, based on using the VFD
to control pressure, is viewed as more energy
efficient.
Savings in chilled water pumps are based on
controlling the flow of the system, by using
balancing valves, rather than a throttling system,
to control the speed of the pump. The actual
94 | Energy efficiency guide
power requirement of the circulation pumps is
calculated based on the flow rate and pressure
over the pump, according to the following
formula:
P = q x dP
In a piping system where the flow is controlled
by controlling the speed of the pump, the flow
rate and the power requirement of the pump
follow affinity laws, as described below:
Q1
Q2
Where q is the volume flow rate of the pump
and dP is the pressure difference over the
pump.
The given pump power is theoretical and takes
no account of efficiencies. On the other hand,
no account is taken of the fouling margins of
the piping design either, due to which using
theoretical power as the base for the saving
estimation is viewed as justified.
Energy savings of up to 30% can be achieved
by using VFD to control the pumps, rather than
controlling the process with balancing valves.
Onboard a ship, the chiller, particularly the
condenser side, is dimensioned based on the
100
80
60
P1
P2
=
( )
N1
3
N2
40
20
0
Applying a VFD to the seawater cooling pump,
which ensures that the seawater flow rate is
kept above the minimum flow rate approved by
the chiller manufacturer (to avoid laminar flow
and scaling), can reduce the flow by as much as
40%.
Figure 3: Direct system on the left and indirect system on the right
Consideration could be given to using variable
frequency drives (VFD) on the chilled water side,
in both variable flow and constant pressure
systems.
ship’s operating profile. For example, on a cruise
ship cruising on the Caribbean, the condenser
side must be dimensioned to a relatively high
seawater temperature, typically 32 – 35°C. When
the same ship cruises on European waters or
in a colder climate, the temperature at which
the water enters the system is lower than
the dimensioned temperature, leaving room
for variable flow in the seawater entering the
condenser.
Chilled water pump
Evaporator
Consideration should be given to a variable
flow on the chilled water side in cases where
the cooling load varies significantly. Differential
pressure measurement is used to control the
chilled water pumps, in order to secure an
adequate water flow, even at the system’s
remotest cooling coil.
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Power (%HP) (%kW)
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=
n1
n2
and
P1
P2
=
( )
n1
3
n2
Where Q is the flow rate of the system, n is the
running speed of the pump and P is the pump’s
power requirement.
The affinity laws state that the power
requirement increases by the velocity cubed,
meaning that while even a small increase in
speed requires much more power, a modest
speed reduction can yield significant energy
savings. Figure 4 illustrates how a pump or fan
running at half speed consumes only one-eighth
of the power of one running at full speed – by
reducing the motor speed by 20 per cent, the
required power can be lowered by up to 50 per
cent.
0
20
40
60
80
100
Speed (%RPM), Flow (%GPM or %CFM)
Figure 4: A pump or fan running at half speed consumes
only one-eighth of the power
Compressor types
Many types of compressors are available, with
a range of characteristics. Compressors are
typically divided, based on the compression
mechanism used, into two broad categories:
positive displacement and dynamic
compressors. While both of these categories
include several styles of compressor, the most
commonly used ones in HVAC are shown in
figure 5.
Positive displacement compressors physically
compress the vaporised refrigerant into higher
pressures and smaller volumes, by reducing
the volume of the compression chamber, while
dynamic compressors increase vaporised
refrigerant pressure, by the continuous transfer
of kinetic energy to the refrigerant, using a
rotating impeller.
Positive displacement compressors are relatively
constant torque applications, while dynamic
compressors are varying torque applications.
Energy efficiency guide | 95
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Compressor types
Positive displacement
Reciproacting
Rotary
Rotary
Orbital
Dynamic
Centrifugal
Scroll
Figure 5: Different types of compressors used in HVAC
The most commonly used compressors for
onboard HVAC chillers are screw compressors,
although the centrifugal type of compressor is
becoming more common in new installations, due
to the flexibility it brings to part load conditions,
together with its variable speed (with VFD).
Screw compressor
A screw compressor is a positive-displacement
compressor that compresses using two
meshing helical screws, known as rotors.
Screw compressors used in air conditioning
and refrigeration applications are divided into
two distinct screw compressor types: singlescrew and twin-screw. A single-screw has only
one main rotor, which works with a pair of gate
rotors. Twin-screws have two helically grooved
rotors that mesh closely together.
A screw compressor does not require suction
and discharge valves and, in comparison to
a reciprocating
compressor, is
considered compact,
simple and reliable.
Screw compressors
are also capable
of producing high
pressure ratios at
low suction pressure,
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meaning that a wide range can be achieved with
a single stage compressor.
same casing, while a single stage compressor
has only one impeller.
Capacity control of screw compressors
Compression in screw compressors is obtained
through a direct volume reduction, based on
pure rotary movement. This means that capacity
control of screw compressors can be achieved
relatively simply, by varying the speed of the
screw. The traditional speed modulation method
has been suction throttling, achieved by opening
and closing either a slide, slot or lift valve
connected to compressor suction. Because a
slide valve is most energy-efficient under a part
load, it is also the most common solution. With a
slide valve, it is possible to start the compressor
unloaded and to run it at part loads, with a range
of approximately 10% to 100%.
Capacity control of centrifugal compressor
Several methods exist for the capacity control
of centrifugal compressors. Each method has
its own advantages and disadvantages. Two of
the most common methods are speed variation
and prerotation vanes, also known as inlet guide
vanes. Prerotation vanes modulate capacity
by altering the direction of the refrigerant
flow entering the impeller. Capacity control
using variable speed is more economical than
prerotation vanes, in applications where the
pressure requirements vary under a part load.
Variable speed control alone cannot reach areas
with low flow and high head, because at low
flow the compressor is unable to overcome the
required lift causing the compressor to surge, in
which case the refrigerant begins to flow back
and forth inside the compressor. In practice, a
combination of speed variation and prerotation
vanes is typical, because this combines the
advantages of both control methods.
A screw compressor can only be rotated in
one direction. This means that a cut-off valve is
needed to stop the refrigerant flow, due to the
pressure difference after shutdown.
Centrifugal compressor
Centrifugal compressors, sometimes called
turbo compressors, are dynamic compressors,
meaning that they use a rotating impeller to
transfer kinetic energy to refrigerant. This
kinetic energy is then converted into a pressure
increase by slowing the flow of the refrigerant
through a diffuser.
Centrifugal compressors are most suitable
for large refrigerant volumes at relatively low
pressure. Higher
pressure ratios
require multiple
stages, which add
to their costs.
A multistage
compressor has two
or more impellers
mounted in the
The capacity control of centrifugal compressors
is based on measurement of the chilledliquid temperature, which is usually placed in
thermal contact with the exiting chilled water.
Consideration must be given to the starting
torque, although on many occasions prerotation
vanes or suction throttling can to some extent
be used for torque reduction.
Applying a VFD to a centrifugal compressor
When installing a VFD on a compressor, it is
important to take account of all of the above
facts. This is fairly simple when the chiller is
being installed in a new installation. However,
since it is known that chillers are a major
consumer of energy onboard ships, major
interest has arisen in using more efficient means
to retrofit existing chillers.
Retrofitting an existing chiller is a demanding
process. Chiller manufacturers typically play
an important role in retrofits, by modifying
the control logic of the compressor. Such
modifications make sense in applications (ships)
with large chillers.
In the case of a ship with a cooling load profile like
to that in graph 1, we can calculate the difference
between power consumption when the same
chiller unit is, or is not, equipped with a VFD. The
chiller unit cooling capacity is 4,700 kW.
As can be seen from the graphs, there are
differences in energy consumption, generating
additional savings in the already energy-efficient
compressor type.
Annual energy consumption without a VFD
is 6,242 MWh, whereas the same chiller with
VFD consumes 4,700 MWh, generating annual
energy savings of 1,540MWh. Converted into
fuel, this energy consumption is equivalent to
around 300 mt of fuel annually, providing a
payback time of around two years.
Because compressor performance depends
on so many factors, applying a variable speed
drive to a compressor requires knowledge of the
application in question.
Air Handling Units
Fans use approximately 40% of all electricity
consumed by HVAC systems. Contrary to
textbook advice on the proper procedure for
the selection of fans, in practice the fans in
existing HVAC systems have very low overall
efficiency. In Sweden, ECiS AB (Energy
Concept in Sweden) carried out performance
measurements of 767 fans in existing HVAC
systems, between the years 2005 and 2009.
The average total efficiency was only 33%.
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Today’s best fans include an electric motor
based on brushless direct current (DC)
technology, also known as electronically
commutated motors (EC motor), with an
integrated frequency converter for stepless load control and an impeller with low
aerodynamic losses. Fans should be directdriven, i.e. the fan impeller should be directly
mounted on the electric motor shaft. EC
motors are not yet available for higher flow and
pressure ranges, for which the best available
motor technology is AC electric motors with an
efficiency rating of IE3 when used with a VFD.
Cooling load [kW]
Graph 1: Cooling load profile of a ship
8000
7000
6000
5000
4000
3000
2000
1000
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Month
8
9
10
11
12
10
10
5
5
0
0
1
3
5
7
9
11
Cooling load [kW]
COP, mean
Graph 2: Mean COP versus loading profile
Time
Without VFD
With VFD
Cooling load [kW]
1000
10
500
5
0
0
1
3
5
7
9
11
Time
Without VFD
With VFD
98 | Energy efficiency guide
Cooling load [kW]
Cooling load [kW]
Energy demand, monthly
[MWh]
Graph 3: Energy demand versus loading profile
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According to existing regulations on fans, the
efficiency of fans must be given as the total
efficiency of the fan assembly, i.e. including
losses related to all components in the
assembly: the electric motor, the VFD, the belt
drive (if given), the aerodynamic design, and the
efficiency of the fan wheel.
Today, many AHUs installed on board ships use
belt-driven motors for the supply and exhaust
fan, in combination with one speed or twospeed motors. While two-speed motors provide
greater flexibility in controlling the speed of
the fan, the efficiency of a two-speed motor
is relatively low. In addition to the two-speed
configuration of the motor, guide vanes can
be used to control the air flow. Of course, this
reduces the flow, but at the expense of the low
overall efficiency of the AHU.
The number of air handling units onboard a ferry
varies between 15–40, depending on the size
of the ship. In a cruise vessel, the number of air
handling units can be as high as 70. Based on
these figures, it is easy to see that such devices
represent a large proportion of total energy
consumption in HVAC systems. Such units
function 24h a day, 7 days a week.
System design
In ships, an HVAC system maintains the desired
air quality by controlling the temperature,
pressure, humidity, air change and carbon
dioxide (CO2) content. These properties are
effectively controlled by an air handling unit.
AHUs feature supply and return air fans used
to feed air into, and extract it from, the area
in question. Air quality is measured using
appropriate sensors located within the air ducts
and throughout the ship. Measurements from
these sensors determine the required fresh air
flow.
inlet guide vanes and two-speed motors, huge
potential exists for increasing energy efficiency,
by installing VFDs on both the supply and
exhaust fans. Speed control of VFDs should be
based on a control strategy similar to that of the
existing system. The speed reference can be
temperature, pressure or CO2, depending on the
area that needs to be cooled and ventilated. All
of the various references can easily be used to
control the speed of the VFD.
Figure 7: Main components in an Air Handling Unit
Cooling and heating coils are located within the
AHU. These coils are connected to a pre-heating
or re-heating system, which use a combination of
pumps, fans and compressors. Incoming fresh air
passes over these coils and is warmed or cooled,
depending on the room’s air quality requirements.
Using VFD for the speed control of fans provides
an effective way of improving air quality and
optimising energy use. Using ABB standard
drives for HVAC provides users with ready-made
macros for the most common HVAC applications,
such as pumps, fans and condensers.
Supply and return fans in air handling units
Supply and return fans can run at a constant
speed, providing the desired static amount of
fresh air flowing into the building. They can also
run at a variable speed keeping, for instance,
the pressure in the area constant or providing a
certain flow of fresh air into the area, depending
on the measured air property inside. Sensors
measuring various air properties inside the ship
can be connected directly to the I/O of the ABB
standard drive for HVAC.
Many control strategies exist for air handling
units, but no standard solution is available
for increasing energy efficiency in such
applications. If the existing installation uses
Benefits
• Accurate process control, based on the
actual operating conditions rather than the
theoretical design point of the process.
• Solutions for retrofitting existing cooling
circuits
• Running motors at a reduced speed lowers
energy consumption
• Precise control of air quality creates a
healthier and more comfortable environment
• Smooth control reduces mechanical stress on
pumps, fans and compressors, and leads to
reduced maintenance costs
Savings and payback time
• Installing VFDs on chilled water pumps and
the evaporator cooling side provides accurate
control and energy consumption, based on
process demand. In most cases, the typical
payback time is less than one year, with
savings averaging between 30–40% of total
power consumption.
• When used in place of inlet vanes and twospeed motors, VFDs installed in supply and
exhaust fans always generate energy savings.
The payback time is less than one year
• In theory, installing a VFD on a centrifugal
compressor can reduce power consumption
by as much as 25%. This very much depends
on the control strategy of the chiller plant.
The investment cost for a chiller upgrade
is relatively high, with a payback time of
between 2–2.5 years.
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6.4. Winch control with variable frequency drive
Dedicated drives for marine and offshore
applications
ABB’s winch control program enables the ABB
variable frequency drive (VFD) range, rated from
0.55 kW to 5,600 kW to be used in different
winching control configurations found on board
ships, offshore oil or gas platforms and in
harbors.
Built-in brake choppers connect the DC bus
voltage to an external resistor which converts
braking energy into heat. Low harmonic drives
meet the strictest harmonic standards; no
additional filtering equipment is needed to ensure
power supply quality. Regenerative drives can
recover energy from a process and feed it back
into the network, thus saving energy.
Avoiding hydraulic system inefficiencies
ABB variable frequency drive with special inbuilt
winch control program is a profitable solution
compared to the traditional and costly hydraulic
winch controller. The VFD solution for winch
control has significantly lower maintenance
costs and performance inefficiency together
with better overall system reliability.
speed slack rope when letting out the ropes,
thereby speeding up operating time in the handmooring control mode.
• Peak torque protection prevents damage to
the rope. It detects severe tightening of the
rope and immediately sends a signal to adjust
the speed, thereby protecting the rope and
the winch system from overload.
ABB variable frequency drives are certified for
marine applications, enabling stepless speed
and torque control of:
• Anchor winches
• Mooring winches
• Ro-Ro (roll on, roll off) quarter ramp winches
• Towing winches
A key feature of the ABB variable frequency
drive is its direct torque control (DTC) motor
control platform.
Compared to hydraulic control of winch
systems, an AC drive provides substantial
power and energy savings when continuous
running of a hydraulic pump is not required.
Additionally, hydraulic systems use oils which
pose a pollution risk to the environment. An AC
drive based electrical winch control system can
eliminate this risk.
Auto-mooring: Following the hand-mooring
procedure, and with the rope already pretensioned, auto-mooring can be enabled. This is
a speed control application with torque limitation
which provides smooth stepless mooring. Predefined auto-mooring modes are available as
follows:
• Time control – auto-mooring rope tension
control is based on a programmable remooring time interval.
• Load cell sensor – auto-mooring rope tension
control is based on real measured status.
• Constant on – auto-mooring rope tension
control is always on, without closing the
mechanical brake and stopping the winch
motor.
DTC enables the drive to deliver full torque
at zero speed, with or without the need for
a feedback encoder. This is an advantage
because the harsh environment on a vessel’s
open deck can often damage an encoder or
interfere with the feedback signal to the motors.
Winch interface for control stands
The winch can be controlled from control
stands located on port, starboard and upper
deck of the vessel. The electrical interface
supports either traditional inputs and outputs
(I/O) or fieldbus gateways commanded by a
programmable logic controller (PLC). Four
control stands can be supported: three via
digital I/O and a fourth via a fieldbus gateway.
Anchor control
Ready-made control logic provides stepless
speed control of the anchor, whether it is being
raised or lowered. Slip detection and anchor-in
protection are also provided as safeguards for
anchor movements.
Mooring control
When mooring a vessel to a harbor or pier,
the tension within the mooring ropes can be
controlled either manually or automatically.
Hand-mooring: The control logic can be
configured to allow the operator to control the
winch manually from the harbour using stepless
speed control. The logic also allows for high
100 | Energy efficiency guide
The rope tension set-point can be a fixed internal
parameter value or it can be sent via external
digital- and analog input signals. The actual rope
tension can also be defined without any sensor
with the help of unique torque measuring logic.
Power control
The power control function limits the speed of
the winch depending on the load. With a very
light load, for example, the winch can run at
high speed whereas, if there is a heavy load
then the speed can be limited. The speed is
adjusted according to a series of cross points
located on the forward and reverse power
curves. These cross points, each of which has a
speed and torque connection, can be identified
by the user, by way of power control parameters
within the winch control program.
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Case m/s Mariella, Viking Line
Cost efficient winch retrofit using variable frequency drive
Ro-Ro control
Ro-Ro quarter ramp control logic is used for
raising or lowering the ship’s vehicle access
ramp. Special protection is provided to slow
down the speed and torque before parking the
access ramp in the upper end position.
With the Ro-Ro access ramp in the loading
position, the special holding and tension control
mode can be used.
Mechanical brake control logic and torque
memory
The winch control program features integrated
brake control logic to control the winch
motor’s external disk or drum brake. The brake
control logic utilizes torque memory and premagnetizing to open and close the mechanical
brake safely and reliably.
The brake control logic, together with the DTCcontrolled winch motor, enables the drive to
hold the winch machinery stationary until the
mechanical brake takes over.
Adaptive programming
Function block programming within the drive
enables the user to change or modify the readymade winch control program application to their
customized platform.
Master-follower for winch motors working
together
When several winch motors are connected to
the same machinery, the ready-made masterfollower arrangement supports the speed and
torque control mode with load sharing mode.
Motor heating
The drive’s DC injection function can be enabled
by the winch operator to provide controlled
winch motor heating. This function keeps winch
motors dry when they are in standby mode and
is beneficial for open-deck motors.
102 | Energy efficiency guide
Major benefits from installing a variable
frequency drive
• The ideal solution for retrofits – the existing
winch motor, motor cable and operator
control can be reused.
• Space saving on the deck – simplified winch
arrangement.
• Lower noise level.
• Reduced maintenance costs – Soft starting
reduces startup current peaks. Smooth
stepless speed and torque control reduce
stress on the whole mooring system.
• DTC (Direct Torque Control) eliminates the
need for a pulse encoder, increasing the
reliability of the winch system.
• Safe and accurate anchor and mooring winch
control throughout the whole speed range.
• Cost reduction compared to closed loop
systems.
• Environmentally friendly solution – Oil-free
operation with fully electronic equipment.
• Reduction of mechanical wear.
• External programmable logic controller
(PLC) not needed because the winch control
program includes winch operation and
protection functions.
• Multi I/O functionality allowing three different
control stands to be connected directly to the
drive.
• Anchor-in or anchor-slowdown protection
reduces the speed as the anchor approaches
its end position. Slip protection operates
between the winch drum and winch motor.
• The peak torque protection in hand-mooring
function detects severe tightening of the rope
enabling immediate speed adjustment to
protect the rope and the winch system from
overload.
• Mechanical brake control with torque memory.
• Easy start-up and maintenance of drive
system.
• Adjustable auto-mooring provides accurate
rope tension control and eliminates the need
for load cells on the ropes.
“The old system is breaking the motors, when
we are in the harbor, when we have torque
control; it’s going on and off all the time. It’s full
ahead or nothing.” says Jonas Rautelius, the
ship’s electrician describing the existing threespeed mooring control system.
When the ship arrives in port, the ship’s
winches keep it secure to the dock so that the
passengers can safely board and depart the
ship. The ship’s six winches, in operation since
1985, use a three-speed control system with
three winding, direct-on-line (DOL) motors and
an external mooring controller and load sensor
in the gearbox.
Existing control
Using this system to moor the ship, winch
operators watch the rope until it is taut,
adjusting the speed of the winch accordingly.
Each speed change made to the winch (low,
middle, or high speed) results in a direct-online start of one of the motor’s windings. DOL
starting and the high torque demands of the
mooring operation place substantial stress
on the winch system. As a result, rotors on
the winch motors would periodically break. In
addition, the age of the winches makes finding
spare parts more difficult. Typically, some spare
parts have long delivery times, especially motor
parts.
The contactors used to start the motors directon-line are also prone to failures, adding to the
maintenance of the ship. If the winch is hauling
in the rope and a contactor fails, it is possible
for the rope to continue to spin around the
winch’s drum, uncontrolled, until the main power
is disconnected.
m/s Mariella
Built
1985
Length 176.9 m
Width 28.4 m
With room for 2,500 passengers and 450
cars, a disco, a casino, restaurants and
shopping, Viking Line’s cruise ship the m/s
Mariella is a floating family entertainment
experience providing service between
Helsinki and Stockholm.
Viking Line
Today Viking Line has seven vessels which
sail between the Finnish mainland, Åland
Islands and Sweden as well as between
Finland and the Baltic states. Operations
include passenger services, recreation and
cargo carrier services.
“The best thing is that we don’t
have to touch it anymore.” says
Jonas Rautelius, the electrician
from m/s Mariella. “It’s easier;
winch operators can just put
the auto-mooring control on
and leave the winch. With
the old system, they had to
constantly see if the rope was
tight.”
Energy efficiency guide | 103
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Case m/s Mariella, Viking Line – cost efficient winch retrofit using variable frequency drive
Cost efficient modernization with ABB drives
After contacting ABB, Viking Line decided to
evaluate and test ABB’s proposed solution
on one winch. Using the ship’s drawings from
1985, ABB specified the ACS800-01 marine
certified industrial drive with the built-in winch
control program. This allowed the m/s Mariella
to keep the existing three-winding motor, motor
cable, and operator control stands. “It was quite
cheap to do it like this” says Jonas. “This is a
big factor in deciding to do the rest.” The drive’s
IP55 enclosure permitted it to be mounted
directly to the wall of the ship.
Figure 1: The existing winch motor, motor cable, mechanical disc brake and operator control stand were reused.
Measuring torque allows auto-mooring
without load cell sensors
Because the drive uses ABB’s direct torque
control (DTC), it does not rely on external
sensors such as a load cell sensor in the
gearbox or encoder on the motor. DTC allows
open-loop control of the winch motor and
this permitted the m/s Mariella to reuse the
existing winch motor without having to install
an encoder. The winch control program in the
drive uses DTC and patented winch application
torque measuring logic to measure the rope’s
tension and to calculate the required torque at
every start without a load cell sensor.
Figure 2: Rope tension is maintained automatically using
time control sequences without a load cell sensor
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Case m/s Mariella, Viking Line – cost efficient winch retrofit using variable frequency drive
Easier operation
With the ABB solution, as the ship arrives in
harbor, the winch operation starts with the drive
in hand-mooring control to quickly and smoothly
let out the rope at a high speed. When the rope
is connected to the harbor, the winch hauls
in the slack rope quickly. The winch control
program’s peak torque protection function
automatically stops the hand-mooring operation
when the torque limits are reached. Winch
operators then switch to auto-mooring mode. In
auto-mooring mode, time control sequences are
used to continually monitor the rope’s tension,
automatically making adjustments as needed to
keep the ship secure.
“The best thing is that we don’t have to touch
it anymore.” says Jonas. “It’s easier; winch
operators can just put the auto-mooring control
on and leave the winch. With the old system,
they had to constantly see if the rope was tight.”
Cost efficient retrofit
• Improves reliability
• Reduces maintenance
• Reuses existing winch motor
• Reuses existing motor cable
• Reuses existing operator control stand
• Replaces contactor control
• Eliminates external load cell sensor
• Eliminates auto-mooring unit
• Integrated brake control
• Soft starting eliminates start-up peaks
• Smooth stepless speed and torque control
• Improves operator experience
• Marine certified hardware (ACS800-01)
• Wall mounted drive
• Adaptive programming in the drive is used to
match existing signals to drive controls
Integrated mechanical brake control
Brake control is integrated into the winch’s
brake circuit through a relay output on the drive.
The drive ensures the disc brake is closed
before stopping the drive’s torque control. When
opening the brake, the sequence is reversed,
the drive determines and brings the motor to the
needed torque to hold the rope’s tension, and
then releases the brake.
Significant savings with
variable frequency drive.
Figure 3: Built-in auto-mooring with mechanical brake
control keep the ship securely docked
104 | Energy efficiency guide
Figure 4: The wall mounted ACS800 industrial drive with
built-in winch control program replaced contactors for
smooth, trouble free starting.
Electrical winches offer significant savings
over the conventional hydraulic winch
configuration, as well as significant benefits
in environmental issues. The vessel’s crew
also benefits from considerably reduced
noise levels on deck.
Energy efficiency guide | 105
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6.5. Onboard DC Grid
The Onboard DC Grid concept provides a
highly efficient power distribution and electric
propulsion system suitable for a wide range of
vessel types. These include offshore support
vessels, tugs, ferries, yachts and tankers with
low voltage onboard and power systems up
to 20 MW. A typical ABB electrical propulsion
system essentially retains all of the proven
products that are already being used in today’s
electric propulsion vessels, including the AC
generators and inverter modules. However,
the main AC switchboards and propulsion
transformers are no longer required. The result
is a more flexible power and propulsion system,
which will enable equipment weight savings of
up to 30% and will cut fuel consumption and
emissions by up to 20%.
Design principles
The factors that have led ABB’s designers to
adopt this alternative method of DC power
distribution are:
• Most of the total power onboard a vessel is
used for propulsion and thrusters. This power
must be supplied as a DC input to the variable
frequency inverter that controls the speed of
the motor. Distributing the power as DC rather
than AC allows the losses in the switchboard
and transformer to be eliminated from this
power flow.
• When diesel-electric generators run
at a constant speed, fuel efficiency is
compromised. In a DC distribution system
diesel-electric generator speed can be varied
to achieve optimum fuel efficiency at every
power level.
Figure 1: Comparison of onboard AC and DC power distribution
106 | Energy efficiency guide
Optimization and ruggedness
Each power source and consumer on the
Onboard DC Grid is considered to be an AC or
DC “island” where the only connection between
them is the DC bus. This yields two advantages:
• Each power source and consumer can be
controlled and optimized independently.
• The complex interactions that can arise
between units which share an AC connection
will never occur. By design, even under fault
conditions, there should be no unwanted
interaction between consumers fed by the
Onboard DC grid.
Fit for the future
The Onboard DC Grid is an open power
platform which can easily be reconfigured. For
example, new consumers and power sources
of different types can be added, power levels
can be changed and other modernizations can
be made. Alternative energy sources which will
emerge during a typical vessel lifetime of 20+
years will be easier to adopt in a vessel with
Onboard DC Grid; they will not be bound to an
AC system, nor will they require redesign of a
main switchboard. To the ship owner this means
a more flexible and competitive vessel.
Energy storage
Energy storage can be included in the Onboard
DC Grid solution to improve the system’s
dynamic performance. Diesel-electric generators
are slow to react to large, quick load changes.
By using batteries or super capacitors to
provide power for a short time, the ship‘s
control capabilities can be improved. This
will especially benefit vessels with Dynamic
Positioning. Energy storage can also be used
to absorb rapid power fluctuations produced by
the diesel-electric generators, thereby improving
the fuel efficiency.
Simplicity
Quite simply, the Onboard DC Grid is just
an extension to the multiple DC-links which
already exist in all propulsion and thruster
drives, and which usually account for more
than 80% of the electrical power consumption
on electric propulsion vessels. The Onboard
DC Grid retains all of the good and well proven
products which are already in use in today’s
electric ships, such as the AC generators,
inverter modules and AC motors. However, all
main AC switchboards and transformers are no
longer needed. This results in the most flexible
Figure 2: Transformation of a generic electric propulsion system from AC to DC
Energy efficiency guide | 107
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power and propulsion system to date. The main
innovations of the Onboard DC Grid are the
design and control of the protection system and
optimized energy flow.
Configuring the Onboard DC Grid
There are several ways of configuring the
Onboard DC Grid, from a multidrive approach
(Figure 3) to a fully distributed system (Figure 4).
In the multidrive approach all of the converter
modules are situated together within the same
location as the existing main AC switchboard. In
the distributed system each converter module
is located in close proximity to the respective
power source or load.
The main AC switchboard and all thruster
transformers are discarded. With Onboard DC
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Grid all generated electric power is fed directly
or indirectly via a rectifier, into a common DC
bus that distributes the electrical energy to the
consumers. Each main consumer is fed from the
DC bus by a separate inverter unit. The 220 V
AC distribution (for example, “hotel load”) will be
fed using island converters which are specifically
developed to feed clean power to these more
sensitive circuits. Further converters for energy
storage can be added to the grid. This energy
storage could for example be batteries or super
capacitors for smoothing power variations.
The main benefits of this approach are an
efficiency increase of up to 20%, space and
weight savings of up to 30%, and flexibility
for placement of electrical equipment. This
increases the cargo space and provides a more
Figure 3: Onboard DC Grid; multidrive approach
Figure 4: Onboard DC Grid, distributed approach
functional vessel layout, where the electrical
system is designed around the vessel functions
rather than vice-versa.
Traditionally, the main challenges with DC
distribution have been in achieving full selectivity
and equipment protection comparable to AC
distribution. AC currents are by nature far
simpler to break because of their natural zero
crossing every half cycle. DC circuit breakers
do exist but are more complex, expensive and
larger than comparable AC circuit breakers.
By designing the Onboard DC Grid ABB has
considered the whole concept and layout from
a totally new perspective. Keeping in mind class
rules and regulations as the frame, the design is
based on two main principles:
108 | Energy efficiency guide
• Equipment shall be protected in case of
failures.
• Proper selectivity shall be ensured such that
safe operation will be maintained after any
single failure.
The Onboard DC Grid is a new electric power
distribution concept that, while utilizing the
existing well-proven AC generators and motors,
opens up new possibilities for improving
efficiency and saving space. The efficiency
improvement mainly results from the fact
that the system is no longer locked at a fixed
frequency (usually 60 Hz on ships), even though
a 60 Hz power source could still be connected
to the Grid. The freedom to independently
control each power consumer opens up
numerous ways to optimize fuel consumption.
Energy efficiency guide | 109
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Today, almost all energy on electric ships is
produced by combustion engines, most of
which operate on liquid oil (HFO/MDO), some on
gas (from LNG mainly), and some with Dual Fuel
capability (liquid fuel or gas). When operating
these engines at constant speed the fuel
consumption is lowest when the engines are
working within a very narrow operating window
at around 85% of rated load. With the possibility
to adjust the engine speed, the operating
window can be extended down to about 50%
load without any increased fuel consumption
(Figure 5).
In the most distributed implementation of the
Onboard DC Grid, each power converter will be
located as close as possible to the respective
consumer or producer. Each production unit
may have an integrated rectifier mounted
directly in the unit itself or alternatively the
rectifier could be in a separate cabinet close
by. There is no need or reason to collect these
units in a centralized “switchboard room” as in a
classic design.
Since the main AC switchboard with its
AC circuit breakers and protection relays
is omitted from the new design, a new
protection philosophy has been devised which
fulfills class requirements for selectivity and
equipment protection. A key requirement
has been to minimize the use of expensive
and space consuming DC circuit breakers.
Proper protection of the Onboard DC Grid is
therefore achieved by a combination of fuses
and controlled turn-off of semiconductor
Figure 5 : Engine fuel tests at variable speed (the color scheme indicates Specific Fuel Oil Consumption (SFOC) in g/kWh .
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Equipment
Quantity
Rating
Weight Traditional
Generators w / aux
4
2500 kVA
38000 kg
39000 kg
Main AC switchboard
1
690 VAC
4450 kg
0 kg
Main DC distribution
1
1000 VDC
0 kg
2400 kg
Distribution AC
1
450 V / 230 V
14490 kg
16530 kg
Propulsion drives
2
3500 kVA
31980 kg
13680 kg
Thruster drives
3
1200 kVA
26600 kg
13750 kg
115520 kg
85360 kg
Grid
Total
Table 1: Comparison of weights for installed electrical equipment for an example PSV. Traditional AC concept vs.
Onboard DC Grid.
power devices. Since all energy producing
components have controllable switching devices
(thyristor rectifiers for AC producers and DC/
DC converters for DC producers) the fault
current can be blocked much faster than can
be achieved with traditional circuit breakers and
protection relays.
Efficiency
Figure 5 shows the test results of fuel
consumption as a function of applied torque
and RPM for a small test engine. It can be
clearly seen from this graph that it is possible to
run this type of engine with the lowest possible
fuel consumption at different loading levels. This
is especially beneficial for vessels operating
in Dynamic Positioning, where the average
electric thruster loads are normally low due
to low propeller speeds and normal weather
conditions, but where the number of running
engines is higher than really needed for safety
reasons. Also the electrical efficiency will be
improved due to fewer installed components (no
main switchboard and thruster transformers).
However, the biggest fuel saving potential
arises from the ease with which energy storage
devices, like batteries or super capacitors,
can be added to the system. The technology
in this area has developed significantly in
110 | Energy efficiency guide
Weight Onboard DC
the last decade and is expected to develop
further. Energy storage will help the engines
to smooth out load variations caused by the
thrusters and other large loads. The installation
of energy storage and, together with other
benefits of Onboard DC Grid, the total yearly
fuel consumption reduction could be as high as
20%.
The exact savings will obviously depend on
vessel type and operation profile, but as an
example, a Platform Supply Vessel (PSV) with
dynamic positioning capabilities is one ship type
that has the potential to utilize the full capability
of the new Onboard DC Grid.
Weight and space layout
One obvious benefit with Onboard DC Grid is
the reduced weight and footprint of the installed
electrical equipment. The exact figures will vary
depending on the ship type and application;
however a summary of a study done for a PSV
is shown in Table 1.
The figures in Table 1 show the weight savings
by comparing installed HW only. Further savings
are expected as a result of more flexible
equipment placement. We believe that a more
functional vessel with increased space for
payload can be achieved with careful design.
Energy efficiency guide | 111
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Increase the efficiency by up to
20% and reduce the footprint
of electrical equipment by up to
30%.
Operation
The Onboard DC Grid enables new ways of
thinking about operational optimization. As the
system is flexible by combining different energy
sources such as engines, turbines and fuel
cells, there is huge potential to implement a real
energy management system, which takes into
account variations in fuel prices and availability
of different fuels. This kind of optimization may
still be some years away, but with the Onboard
DC Grid the vessel is prepared to incorporate
electricity-producing energy technologies that
may become available within the next decade.
With today’s technology, it is possible to solve
many of the traditional challenges of dynamic
positioning operation by running engines at part
load. For safety reasons, in the most severe DP
operations today, the electrical plant is most
often operated as a 2-split configuration. This
allows the vessel to maintain its position even
if one side of the power plant fails. However,
running in split mode does not make the most
of electric propulsion in general because total
optimization of running engines is not possible.
With Onboard DC Grid, split mode operation
can be more efficient because the engine speed
can be adjusted and optimized to the required
load without having to change the number of
generators in operation.
Protection and safety
As previously stated the protection philosophy is
based on a combination of fuses and controlled
switches. In short; fuses are used to protect
and isolate inverter modules in case of serious
module faults. The same philosophy is applied
to the current low voltage frequency converters.
In addition, input circuits isolate the inverter
modules from the main DC bus and afford
full control of reverse power, both in fault and
normal conditions (as for example in propeller
braking mode). This means that faults at a
single consumer will not affect other consumers
connected to the main DC distribution system.
In the event of severe faults on the distributed
DC bus itself, the system is protected from
generators by means of a controllable thyristor
rectifier which also doubles as a protection
device for the generator. Isolators are installed
in each circuit branch in order to automatically
isolate faulty sections from the healthy system.
In summary, the Onboard DC Grid fully complies
with rules and regulations for selectivity and
equipment protection. Furthermore, any fault
current will be cleared within maximum 40 ms.
This means much lower Onboard DC Grid fault
energy levels when compared to traditional AC
protection circuits where fault durations can
reach up to 1 s. This low energy fault protection
scheme enables the Onboard DC Grid system to
be used for applications up to at least 20 MW.
Benefits
The Onboard DC Grid system is a new way of
distributing energy for low voltage installations
in ships. It can be used for any electrical ship
application up to at least 20 MW and operates
at a nominal voltage of 1,000 V DC. The power
distribution can be arranged where all cabinets
are in a single line up (multidrive approach) or
can be distributed throughout the vessel by
using a short-circuit proof DC bus.
Figure 6: Dina Star, the first vessel with Onboard DC Grid.
Benefits for the ship owner
• Up to 20% fuel saving when taking full
advantage of all of the features, including
energy storage and variable speed engines.
• Reduced methane slip for gas engines at low
load.
• Reduced maintenance of engines as a
consequence of more efficient operation.
• Improved dynamic response by using energy
storage, which may give a better Dynamic
Positioning (DP) performance with lower fuel
consumption or more accurate positioning.
• More functional vessel layout because electrical
components can be placed more flexibly.
• A system platform that enables simple “plug
and play” retrofitting possibilities to adapt to
future energy sources.
112 | Energy efficiency guide
Benefits for the shipyard and designers
• More flexible placement of electric
components.
• Reduced footprint and up to 30% weight
saving of electrical equipment
• Less cabling and connections, thanks to the
use of bus ducts and fewer components.
Even though the use of bus ducts is a
relatively new type of installation work for many
shipyards, several benefits can also be listed for
this. These include: Reduced cross section, no
bending radius, and significant reduction of fire
load compared to traditional cables.
Savings
Onboard DC Grid enables a saving in equipment
footprint and weight of up to 30% together with
a reduction of fuel consumption and emissions
of up to 20%.
Onboard DC Grid
A significant step forward in electric
propulsion increasing vessel efficiency
by up to 20%
The Onboard DC Grid will allow any new DC
energy source, such as batteries and fuel
cells, to be simply plugged into the system.
Vessels using electric propulsion and diesel
engines as their primary power source will
then be able to maintain optimum energy
efficiency in the future as new technology,
regulations and fuel prices change over
the next 20 years. This will protect your
investment in the long term, and in the short
term the Onboard DC Grid will save space,
completely eliminate some components and
reduce fuel consumption and emissions by
up to 20%.
Energy efficiency guide | 113
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6.6. Hybrid power plants enabled by batteries
Figure 2: Battery system connected through a DC/DC converter to a DC link
DC
Battery system
Battery
When using a battery-based energy storage system in a diesel-electric power plant, it
must be possible to control the load sharing between the battery system and the diesel
generators. The battery system can be connected either to the common DC bus in a
multidrive variable frequency drive system or directly into a DC grid power distribution
system.
DC
DC/DC converter
MCC
Need for power backup of
safety essential equipment;
eg, steering, cooling pumps
DC
Figure 1: Cell performance of a lithium ion battery
(Corvus Energy)
SLPB 125255255H 1.0C = 70.0A
Charge :
CC-CV. 0.5C, 4.2V, 3.5A Cut-off @ 23ºC ± 3ºC
Discharge : CC. 0.5C, ~ 10.0C, 2.7V Cut-off @ 23ºC ± 3ºC
4.4
0,[email protected]%5oC
4.2
0,33C
1,0C
3,0C
8,0C
4.0
Voltage / V
3.8
0,5C
2,0C
5,0C
10,0C
3.6
3.4
3.2
3.0
[email protected]%5oC
2.8
2.6
2.4
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
Discharge capacity / Ah
114 | Energy efficiency guide
70
80
DC-link/
DC-distribution
Island Inverter
Distribution transformer
Variable speed drives
Need for power backup of safety and operation
essential equipment;
Energy storage of regenerative braking energy;
Smoothening of power consumption in case of cyclic
load variation;
e.g. drilling drawwork
DC
AC
Inverter
When using batteries as part of the power
source for the VFD systems, the voltage
variation of the battery can be compensated
for through the use of DC/DC converters,
which boost the changing battery voltage level
up to the required DC link voltage. The DC/
DC converter also enables the control of direct
power load sharing between the battery system
and the diesel generator (Figure 2). However,
in high-power battery energy storage systems,
the DC/DC converter contributes significantly to
the size and cost of the overall battery energy
storage system and can cause additional
losses.
An alternative configuration is to connect the
battery directly to the DC link (Figure 3).
In such a system, the battery voltage
determines the DC link voltage and all the
power consumers have to be rated according
to the variation of the DC link voltage. This
mainly affects the current and voltage rating
of the power components in the system as
these must be able to convert or produce
the required power at both the maximum and
minimum voltage levels. Load sharing between
the battery system and the diesel generators,
as well as battery charging/discharging, has to
be controlled by the AC/DC rectifier units, which
feed power into the DC link system.
AC
DC
Diesel generator
Rectifier
Thruster/propulsion
Need for power backup to keep positioning and
heading;
Smoothening of power consumption in case of fast
cyclic load variation
DC
AC
Inverter
Figure 3: Battery system directly connected to a DC link
Battery system
MCC
Need for power backup of
safety essential equipment;
eg, steeting, cooling pumps
DC
AC
DC-link/
DC-distribution
The main power consumers in a diesel-electric
power plant are usually the variable frequency
drive (VFD) systems, including, for example,
propulsion thrusters and cargo and drilling
AC
drives. Modern VFDs are based on voltage
source converter technology, which uses a
relatively constant DC voltage intermediate
circuit. To guarantee full performance of the
VFD, the DC link voltage has to stay above
certain defined levels.
Battery
The voltage at the battery terminals varies
depending on their state of charge (SoC) and
the charge or discharge current. The variation
in voltage depends on the battery chemistry.
For a lithium ion cell, the variation can be up
to 20-25% between typical operation points of
[email protected]% SoC and [email protected]% SoC, where
C is the rated discharge current (Figure 1).
Furthermore, unlike with other power sources
such as diesel generators, there is no way of
controlling a battery that enables direct power
sharing.
Island inverter
DC
AC
Inverter
Distribution transformer
Variable speed drives
Need for power backup of safety and operation
essential equipment;
Energy storage of regenerative braking energy;
Smoothening of power consumption in case of cyclic
load variation;
e.g. drilling drawwork
AC
DC
Diesel generator
Controlled
rectifier
DC
AC
Thruster/Propulsion
Need for power backup to keep
positioning and heading;
Smoothening of power consumption
in case of fast cyclic load variation
Inverter
Energy efficiency guide | 115
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In applications with a high C-rate discharge
current, the natural droop of the battery voltage
can be used for load sharing between a diesel
generator set and the battery. The voltage
droop (cell voltage versus discharge current) is
relatively linear but changes with the SoC of the
battery (Figure 4).
Battery voltage droop
4,2
Cell voltage [V]
4
3,8
3,6
3,4
3,2
3
0
2
4
6
8
10
C rated discharge
Cell voltage @ 10Ah
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Benefits:
• Reduced fuel consumption.
• Reduced emissions.
• Improved dynamic response of the power
plant.
• Increased power plant availability due to the
instantaneous availability of energy backup
source.
The marine market is evaluating
concepts based on the use
of hybrid power plants with
energy storage systems.
Voltage droop based load sharing is an effective
and robust method for parallel operating power
sources. With the DC voltage common for both
the battery and the rectifier, each unit supplies
the amount of power which corresponds to its
applied droop curve. As the load on the DC link
increases, the DC voltage drops.
Cell voltage @ 50Ah
Figure 4: Battery voltage droop
Example:
Battery nominal [email protected] = 960V
Battery natural voltage [email protected] = 10%
980
C
on
t ro
960
lle
d
re
ct
940
ifi
oo
dr
p
cu
rv
e
900
Ba
tte
ry
dr
DC-voltage [V]
er
920
oo
880
p
cu
By implementing a voltage droop control
algorithm in the rectifier control system, the
output voltage of the rectifier can be adjusted to
control the power flow in both the battery and
the AC/DC rectifier and consequently between
the battery and the diesel generator (Figure 5).
The natural droop curve of the battery is only
quasi-static and changes with the SoC. With
current and SoC feedback from the battery
management controller, a load sharing controller
can adjust the voltage reference and droop
curve settings of the droop controller in the
controlled rectifier. By adjusting the voltage
reference and droop curve setting in the
droop controller, not only can the load sharing
between the battery and diesel generator be
controlled, but also the battery charging.
DC Voltage Feedback
Voltage
Reference
PI
+
Rectifier
Control
Rectifier
Droop
Power Feedback
rv
e
860
Load Sharing Control
20
40
60
80
100
Load [%]
Figure 5: Voltage droop based load sharing
116 | Energy efficiency guide
Battery SoC&Current Feedback
Battery
Management
Voltage reference and droop can be
adjusted by Load Sharing Control System
Figure 6: Contolled rectifier voltage droop control
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6.7. Variable frequency drive for shaft generator
(PTO/PTI)
Shaft generators are commonly used to produce electrical power for the ship’s network, in
vessels equipped with a conventional propulsion system, where a mechanical shaft is driven
by a slow or medium speed engine. Shaft generators are used to reduce the loading of diesel
generator sets, by generating power in parallel with them, or to provide all of the required
power, which enables the shutdown of the auxiliary engines.
If the vessel is equipped with controllable pitch
propeller (CPP), while maneuvering in port
a shaft generator is typically used to supply
power to the thrusters, since the power output
of diesel generator sets is usually insufficient to
meet high power demand from the thrusters.
However, the system’s design often places
restrictions on how and under what conditions
the shaft generator can be used to generate
electricity. This depends on a number of factors
associated with onboard configuration, such as:
• Mounting arrangement of the shaft generator
(at the front end of the engine, the side of the
engine, or aft of the engine)
• Connection of the shaft generator; via a step
up gear or directly onto the propeller shaft.
• Propeller system of the vessel; fixed pitch
propeller (FPP) or controllable pitch propeller
(CPP)
• Operational profile of the vessel
Shaft generator types
Generally speaking, there are three types of shaft
generator arrangements on board a vessel.
• Shaft generators without frequency control
–– The simplest and thereby the cheapest
shaft generator
–– Since the AC generator frequency depends
on the rotation speed, these generators
must be run at a constant RPM
–– Floating frequency is basically possible (i.e.
between 50 and 60 Hz)
–– Cannot be run parallel with diesel generator
sets, even with CPP
–– Narrow operational window, depending on
the propeller system/type.
118 | Energy efficiency guide
• Shaft generators with frequency control by
electrical means
– – An AC generator supplying the static
inverter system is utilized in the vast
majority of cases, although alternative
methods are also available
– – Synchronous or asynchronous generator &
motor/alternator set
– – Full generator output is available at a wider
range of main engine rotation speeds
– – In most cases, parallel running with
generator sets is possible
• Shaft generators with frequency control by
mechanical means
– – A few installations, where a constant
frequency is obtained using a variable ratio
epicyclical gearbox
– – Advantages and investment cost are more
or less the same as for electrical alternatives
– – The main disadvantage is the complexity of
the gearbox hydraulic control system, which
tends to be less reliable than electrical
frequency control
The challenge
When aiming for lower fuel consumption, one of
the most efficient methods involves decreasing
the required propulsion/shaft power by reducing
the vessel speed. However, a reduction in
vessel speed sets limitations on shaft generator
systems not equipped with frequency control.
Limited flexibility without frequency control
Around 70% of world’s merchant fleet
comprises slow speed engine powered vessels;
most of these are equipped with FPP. Many
of these vessels are equipped with shaft
generators without frequency control. Such a
combination does not allow flexible use of the
shaft generator.
2-stroke engine with FPP – no flexibility in
using the shaft generator
These vessels are typically oceangoing,
operating on long-distance voyages at low
speeds. On such vessels, the shaft generator is
mainly used on open seas, in order to generate
power for the hotel and cargo load.
Since the frequency of the electrical power
produced by the shaft generator depends on
the rotation speed, the main engine RPM must
be kept constant. These systems are designed
for operation of the shaft generator at or close
to the vessel’s design speed, at which the
propulsion system has optimum efficiency. If the
vessel’s operational profile changes significantly
(with an emphasis on lower speeds) or if the
vessel shifts to slow steaming, due to the
resulting fall in the main engine’s RPM the shaft
generator cannot be used for power production.
2-stroke engine with CPP – limited flexibility
in using the shaft generator
These vessels are typically oceangoing vessels,
in which the shaft generator is operated at a
constant engine RPM at varying vessel speeds.
The shaft generator is mainly used to generate
power for the hotel and cargo load, and for
thrusters during harbor maneuvering.
With CPP, the classic approach to maintaining
vessel speed is based on operating the vessel
according to the combinator curve, a pre-set
combination of propeller pitch and engine/shaft
RPM i.e. so-called combinator control. This
enables the highest possible efficiency during
propulsion. However, due to a variable main
engine RPM; the shaft generator cannot be
used with combinator control.
In the case of CPP equipped vessels, instead
of using combinator control, it is possible to
maintain the vessel’s speed by altering only the
propeller pitch and keeping the main engine
RPM constant. This enables use of the shaft
generator at reduced vessel speeds. However, a
constant RPM mode has several disadvantages
compared to combinator control, leading
to higher running costs. Using a constant
RPM mode with CPP leads to higher fuel
consumption by the main engine, because the
shaft generator is used for power production.
Another major drawback lies in the fast rotating
propeller with a low blade pitch. This leads to
inefficiency in propulsion, causing additional
losses and, in the worst case scenario,
cavitation of the propeller.
How to improve flexibility in shaft generator
operation
A major improvement can be made in the shaft
generator’s operational flexibility, by retrofitting a
variable frequency drive (VFD) in order to control
the output of the shaft generator. In the case
of FPP, use of a shaft generator is not tied to
the ship design speed/constant main engine
RPM, since the VFD enables the system to be
designed in such a way that full shaft generator
output is available across a wider range of main
engine rotation speeds.
In the case of CPP, VFD enables running the
main engine and propeller with combinator
control at lower speeds too. This maintains
optimum propeller efficiency and fuel
consumption.
Most existing shaft generators can be modified
and retrofitted to include the VFD, in order to
increase their operational flexibility.
The system can be used to produce benefits in
addition to increasing the operating window of
the shaft generator, as illustrated in Figure 1.
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CPP
Combinator
• Variable RPM
• Variable Pitch
• Fixed RPM
• Variable Pitch
• Fixed RPM
• Variable Pitch
Prime mover Load
Combinator
Mechanic
Mechanic
Electric
Electric
Electric
Mechanic
Boost
Propulsion Load
Figure 1: The various operating modes of the onboard
shaft generator
Fully electric propulsion
In the case of low speed operation, such
as standby or awaiting a port call, the shaft
generator, now working as an electrical motor
(Power Take-In (PTI)), can be used as a
propulsion motor, drawing its electrical power
from the auxiliary engines. The main engine can
be stopped.
Normal operating conditions
In normal operating conditions, regardless
of whether or not the vessel is operating at
its design speed, the shaft generator and
VFD can produce the required electricity
for the vessel. Use of ABB’s VFD solution
enables island operation, whereby the shaft
generator generates the entire electric load
itself. Alternatively, parallel mode, involving a
combination of shaft generator and onboard
auxiliary engines, can be used.
120 | Energy efficiency guide
“Parallel hybrid”
An alternative to the full electrical solution
is a combination of mechanical and electric
propulsion systems – the so-called hybrid
propulsion system. Because electrical and
mechanical propulsion systems work in parallel
through the gearbox, this is also known as the
“parallel hybrid”. This mode is most beneficial
when the complete power plant is built bearing
this mode in mind. The advantages of a retrofit
are questionable, since the existing main engine
is already dimensioned based on the design
criteria. Using this mode also enables full use
of the waste heat recovery system (WHRS),
because excess power from the steam can be
used to power the propulsion system.
Shore-to-ship electrical connection
The auxiliary engines of ships run in ports
produce SOX, NOX, CO2 and particle discharges,
as well as noise and vibration. These pollutants
have a negative health and environmental
impact on the surrounding communities.
With the ABB VFD solution for shaft generators,
ships can shut down their auxiliary engines
while berthed and plug into an onshore power
source, thereby eliminating emissions into the
local surroundings. The ship’s power load can
be transferred to the shore-side power source,
in a secured and automated manner, without
disrupting onboard services.
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Depending on the ship’s operating conditions,
electricity production from the different power
sources will vary. The goal is always to maximize
the use of cost-effective green energy sources.
Operating modes
The shaft generator/motor has two different
operating modes. In Power Take-In (PTI) mode,
the generator is used as a propulsion motor
for boosting the main engine, and in Power
Take-Off (PTO) mode it is used as an electricity
generator. Automatic switching between these
modes maximizes the use of green energy from
the WHRS and shaft generator/motor system.
Whenever the WHRS generates more electricity
than the vessel can consume, or when the
main engine requires extra power, the system
operates in PTI mode, feeding energy into the
drive shaft of the vessel’s propulsion system.
When demand for onboard electricity rises, the
shaft generator/motor automatically switches
to PTO mode, feeding power into the vessel’s
electricity grid. Power produced by this
generator, which is already rotating on the main
shaft, is much more energy-efficient than power
generated by auxiliary generator sets.
Figure 2: A typical system configuration for a container vessel with WHRS
and a shaft generator/motor system
VFD for shaft generators as part of a new
ship design
Based on ABB’s power concept for large
container vessels, in addition to the main diesel
engine, three power generators are used:
the power/steam turbine generator, the shaft
generator/motor and the auxiliary power plant,
normally consisting of three or four generator
sets.
Energy efficiency guide | 121
Power
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Shaft generator/motor in PTI
mode. Consuming excess
power from electrical power
system which is delivered to
propulsion plant.
Shaft generator/motor in PTO
mode. Delivering additional
power to the electrical power
system by using power from
the propulsion plant.
Time
Available Power from WRS
Vessel Electrical Power Demand
Figure 3: The operational modes of the shaft generator
Benefits
Using a shaft generator with a VFD for power
production is economical, environment-friendly
and provides a range of advantages. This is not
limited to new builds – major improvements can
also be made to the efficiency and operational
flexibility of an existing shaft generator system
by retrofitting it with a VFD.
• A power source which, under most
conditions, generates much cheaper energy
than auxiliary diesel generator sets
• With CPP propulsion, VFD installation allows
efficient use of combinator mode instead of
fixed speed operation, thus reducing propeller
losses significantly on partial propeller loading
conditions.
• With a VFD, it is possible to utilize the shaft
generator at a wide range of main engine
RPMs, enabling operational flexibility:
– – Nominal voltage and frequency output from
the shaft generator can be maintained
– – For improved efficiency, main engine shaft
power can be used to produce electricity
over the entire operating area,
– – Generating power for ship network via the
shaft generator alone reduces the need to
use auxiliary generators
– – Flexibility in PTI/PTO function
– – Parallel running with generator sets is
possible
– – Increased efficiency from optimal operation
of the propeller with CPP
– – Lower noise levels
– – Improved energy efficiency reduces
emissions
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The ABB shaft generator with a VFD solution provides an energyefficient and low-emission method of generating electricity,
tailored and optimized for individual vessels. This solution is
designed to reduce energy consumption and greenhouse gas
emissions in existing systems.
Figure 4: ABB industrial drive, ACS800-07-2320-7
Savings
Although the benefits vary from vessel to vessel
and are dependent on the operating profile, the
payback time can be short and the reduction in
the vessel’s environmental footprint significant.
122 | Energy efficiency guide
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6.8. Improved fuel efficiency with waste heat
recovery system
What Is WHRS
A waste heat recovery system (WHRS) is a
combination of equipment installed on board to
assist the vessel’s main propulsion machinery
to recover a part of the energy contained in
the fuel that cannot be efficiently utilized by the
main engine. Without WHRS, that energy would
be lost as heat into the atmosphere and sea
water. The technical details of the WHRS can be
tailored to suit each application, but typically the
following main components are provided (details
shown in Figure 1):
• Dual-pressure exhaust gas boiler
• Turbine unit generator with a vacuum
condenser
• Exhaust gas power turbine
• Boiler feed water heater(s) from main engine
scavenging air and/or jacket water
• Propeller shaft generator/motor with a
frequency converter
• An electric system and power management
system for the distribution and control of the
power generation and flow
Recovery of the waste heat begins in the
exhaust gas boiler (Figure 2). Compared with
conventional exhaust gas boilers, the dualpressure exhaust gas boiler of the WHRS
is designed to efficiently generate steam
with characteristics that make it suitable for
electricity generation.
thermal energy of the steam into mechanical
energy to run the generator. When its thermal
energy has been used, the steam exits the
turbine and condenses in the sea-water-cooled
vacuum condenser attached below the steam
turbine. This condensate water is collected into
a de-aerating feed water tank and pumped back
into the exhaust gas boiler. On its way there, the
condensate recovers heat from the main engine
jacket, cooling water and/or the main engine
scavenging air by flowing through the respective
heat exchangers. This part of the process is
called feed water heating. The entire circulation
process of the steam and condensate water
is closed and the quality of the steam and the
condensate is monitored.
For optimum efficiency, steam is generated at
two pressure levels; high and low. Both the
high and low pressure steam flows are then led
through the ship’s steam piping system to a
condensing steam turbine, which is connected
to a generator. The turbine then converts the
Figure 2: Exhaust gas boiler
How does the WHRS work?
The mechanical efficiency of the main engine is
close to 50%. The rest of the energy contained
in the fuel consumed by the engine is not
converted into shaft power, but is lost, mainly
as heat and friction. The WHRS is designed to
recover as much energy from these losses as is
economically viable.
Figure 1: Waste heat recovery system process flow and main component diagram
9
r
3
q
2
4
e
w
8
5
1
u
7
y
6
t
1 Main engine
2 Turbochargers
3 Exhaust gas boiler
4 Steam turbine
5 Vacuum condenser
6 De-aerating feed water tank
7 Feed water heater (ME jacket water)
8 Feed water heater (ME scavenging water)
9 Boiler steam drum, low pressure
q Boiler steam drum, high pressure
w Exhaust gas power turbine
e Turbine unit generator
r Switchboard
t Transformer
y Shaft generator / motor frequency
converter
u Shaft generator / motor
124 | Energy efficiency guide
Figure 3: Power turbine
Energy is also mechanically recovered from the
exhaust gas flow of the main engine. Part of the
exhaust gas flow is diverted into a power turbine
(Figure 3), which is connected to a generator.
This part of the process runs the power turbine,
which is similar to the turbine-side of the main
engine turbocharger and thereby complements
the steam turbine’s generating capacity.
Through the WHRS, the
recovered energy, which
typically amounts to about 10%
of the main propulsion’s shaft
power, is converted back to
mechanical work.
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to utilizing a frequency converter between the
shaft generator/motor and the ship’s electric
network. As a result, the energy recovered in
the steam turbine and the power turbine can
be directly utilized as mechanical power on the
propeller shaft. On the other hand, in slowspeed situations where the ship’s electricity
consumption exceeds the amount recoverable
from waste heat, the shaft generator/motor
feeds the ship’s main network, thereby utilizing
the main engine’s increased efficiency.
Figure 4: Waste heat recovery system with power turbine
The steam turbine and the power turbine can
be installed in two different configurations. They
can be installed either on the same bed frame
with one common generator or on separate bed
frames with dedicated generators (Figure 4).
The choice between these two configurations
can be made based on the ship’s engine room
layout as well as what is technically the most
feasible approach. In both configurations, the
turbines are connected to the generator through
a reduction gear. With the common generator
configuration, the power turbine and generator
connection is also provided with a special
freewheeling clutch that enables automatic
engagement/disengagement depending on the
operating conditions.
126 | Energy efficiency guide
On ships with two main engines, a configuration
with two power turbines, one for each main
engine, can also be considered. In special
cases, a WHRS with only a steam turbine and
generator or only a power turbine and generator
can be provided, but these options provide a
lower heat recovery capability.
The propeller shaft generator/motor maximizes
the utilization of recovered energy. When
provided with a highly flexible variable frequency
drive, the shaft generator/motor can convert
electricity into additional propulsion shaft power
and vice versa, a change in functionality that is
achieved seamlessly without any interruption
to the operation. Primarily, this flexibility is due
Where and when can the WHRS be used?
The WHRS can be applied to any propulsion
plant with sufficient power output to make the
investment economically viable. There is a clear
economy of scale here: the bigger the main
engine output, the more waste heat can be
recovered. The power level above which the
WHRS becomes economical depends on the
price of fuel and the required payback time,
and it should be validated by making detailed
calculations as to the system efficiency. As an
indication, however, given various parameters
prevailing at the beginning of 2012, ABB
estimates that it would be economically
feasible to use WHRS on board container ships
that utilize main propulsion machinery with a
mechanical output of 20 MW or more.
ABB estimates that it would
be economically feasible
to use WHRS on board
container ships that utilize main
propulsion machinery with a
mechanical output of 20 MW or
more.
Another consideration in determining the
economic viability of the WHRS is the operating
profile of the propulsion plant. Ships with a
relatively stable operating profile, especially
with higher propulsion loads, have the biggest
potential for savings. The more the vessel
operates with high loads, the shorter the
payback time for the WHRS will be. The WHRS
is not run in port or in maneuvering situations,
so the smaller these periods are in the ship’s
overall operating profile, the greater the
economical potential of the WHRS will be.
To date, WHRS have typically been installed on
deep sea container vessels and very large crude
oil carriers (VLCCs), both equipped with a twostroke engine propulsion plant.
The WHRS functions only when the main engine
load exceeds a certain limit. This limit depends
on the system design for each project, but is
typically about 40% of the main engine MCR for
an ABB WHRS. The propeller shaft generator/
motor can be used in any speed range. The
shaft generator/motor can be optimized to give
100% output power at a specified main engine
load, for example 80% of the main engine MCR.
Optimizing the specifications during the design
phase allows for maximum flexibility in the
recovery and utilization of waste energy during
the ship’s operation.
Is the WHRS complicated and does it require
special skills?
The basic technologies used in the WHRS have
existed for decades and the systems available
today do not incorporate any new technologies,
such as fuel cells. The reason why it has now
become more feasible to make use of the
WHRS technology is primarily due to improved
component design, increased fuel costs, a
greater awareness of the importance of energy
efficiency and the need to reduce emissions.
What turns a conventional auxiliary steam
Energy efficiency guide | 127
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Ships with a relatively stable
operating profile, especially
with higher propulsion loads,
have the biggest potential for
savings.
system into a modern WHRS is basically the
increased capacity of auxiliary steam production
and the conversion of the steam’s thermal
energy into electricity instead of other purposes
such as heating.
Exhaust gas boilers and auxiliary steam
systems are standard equipment on practically
every ship. The steam turbine is installed
on an integrated standalone bed frame and
requires little maintenance between scheduled
overhauls. The power turbines’ technology is
similar to the main engine turbochargers, and
therefore their maintenance procedures are
basically equivalent. The overhauling period of
the propulsion machinery is not affected and the
WHRS components need only similar intervals
between overhauls.
Since ABB offers the whole integration of
the WHRS, the functionality of the complete
system can be optimized already at the design
phase. After startup, the operation of the
WHRS is controlled by local and centralized
automation systems and the loading of the
units is controlled and adjusted automatically
by the power management system. In addition,
an advisory system is available for a thorough
evaluation of the WHRS and for adapting it
if needed when faced with new operating
conditions.
Why start using WHRS now?
The use of WHRS has become more
economically viable due to the rise in fuel costs
over the past decade, and as a result, the
payback time for the system has shortened.
Future restrictions and penalties for CO2
emissions enhance the attractiveness of
WHRS even further. The improved efficiency
of propulsion machinery with WHRS gives the
operators a competitive edge over those with
conventional propulsion machinery and provides
them with a reduced carbon footprint and other
environmental benefits.
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Benefits
• Energy efficiency increased by 10%
• Reduced CO2 emissions
• Flexibility and redundancy in power plant
operation, for example less operating hours
for auxiliary engines at sea if so desired
Savings and payback time
The savings provided by the utilization of WHRS
and the payback time of the investment vary
from one application to another. The initial cost
of the WHRS will eventually be covered by the
fuel savings made during the operation of the
vessel. The WHRS can be optimized to meet the
required level of efficiency and tailored for the
specified propulsion plant. Based on these main
parameters, a payback time can be estimated
in advance, relative to the prevailing cost of fuel
and the operational profile of the ship.
Figure 5: The energy efficiency of a large two-stroke diesel engine can be increased by 10% using WHRS
Shaft power output:
49% energy
efficiency
The WHRS package offered by ABB uses wellproven technology that customers have had
experience with for many years. The steam
system-related components have been selected
from manufacturers that are highly respected in
their field of expertise. In delivering a complete
package, ABB provides a single point of contact
for all customer communication during a WHRS
project. In addition to the WHRS package, ABB
can also supply the power management system,
integrated automation system, main electric
network and propulsors required for the project.
WHRS: electric power
production ≈ 5%
Exhaust gas
Scavenger
Jacket water
Lubricating oil
Energy in fuel:
100%
128 | Energy efficiency guide
Radiation
Energy efficiency guide | 129
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6.9. Diesel electric auxiliary propulsion system
B
A
A
B
Figure 3: The rotor structure of the induction motor is
simple and robust.
Figure 1: Overall principle of the shaft-installed electrical auxiliary propulsion system. The propulsion drive
including the brake resistor (A) is fed from the auxiliary
generator. The feeder may require a transformer to match
the voltages. The drive feeds the auxiliary propulsion motor (B) when the main propulsion engine is disconnected
from the shaft.
need to be taken into account when calculating
shaft forces and vibrations. To avoid thrust
loading of the EAP motor bearings from the
propeller shaft, the axial tolerance of the EAP
bearings is designed to be wider than in the
thrust bearing of the shaft line.
When the main propulsion engine is not utilized
and the clutch is open, the EAP motor can be
driven in the EAP mode by utilizing the same
If there is room available between the gearbox
and the propeller shaft support bearings in
propeller shaft installations, one robust option
for fuel savings is to consider adding the
propulsion electrical motor into the shaft line
itself. In such installations, the electrical motor
is a part of the shaft, connected to it from both
ends. ABB has pre-designed a few options
from its proven standard motor portfolio to
be available for new building and retrofitting
purposes.
In normal operation, the vessel utilizes the main
propulsion engine as before, but now through
the electrical auxiliary propulsion motor. In this
operation, the EAP motor rotates freely as a
part of the shaft, not providing power into the
system. When operated with the main engine,
the EAP motor’s interference to the system
consist mainly of minor additional rolling losses
of the EAP motor bearings and the rotating
mass of the EAP motor’s rotor. These factors
130 | Energy efficiency guide
input reference signals as used by the main
engine or by utilizing an additional dedicated
reference signal. In this mode, the EAP motor
is controlled by an EAP drive that provides a
smooth slow speed operation range without
main engine losses. The drive is fed from
the electrical network (or from battery) and
it includes the needed protection against
blackouts and other damages to the equipment.
Even though the specific fuel oil consumption
(SFOC) is normally higher for auxiliary engines
and induction motor efficiency is not very good
at low speeds, EAP still presents remarkable
potential for fuel savings. This is due to the
fact that the total consumption of auxiliary
engines (total direct fuel consumption + engine
auxiliaries’ fuel consumption) is typically much
less than the total consumption of the main
propulsion engines. From the fuel savings
perspective, this option becomes especially
interesting when auxiliary engines are running
during normal operation and there is room to
increase their load by addition from EAP.
Pre-designed motor parameters:
Figure 2: Four different motor sizes from ABB’s AMI motor
family are pre-designed to meet the typical requirements
of electrical auxiliary propulsion motors. The special
features of such motors are as follows:
• IM1002, shaft end available on both ends of the motor.
• Increased shaft diameter.
• Maximized torque carrying capability of the shaft
(double key on both cylindrical shaft ends).
• Bearing solutions allowing ±8mm axial tolerance.
• Fan cooling for slow RPMs.
Direct electrical
Shaft diameter
Maximum transfer torque
Shaft height (shaft middle
auxiliary propulsion
[mm]
through motor [kNm]
from the bottom)
with / without key
[mm]
Direct EAP 400
110
30 / 30
400
Direct EAP 450
125
45 / 62
450
Direct EAP 500
140
52 / 90
500
Direct EAP 560
180
105 / 165
560
Direct electrical
Forged shaft material
Motor shaft length
Minimum speed without
auxiliary propulsion
[mm]
[mm]
forced lubrication *
Direct EAP 400
42Crmo4 or similar
2420
110
Direct EAP 450
42Crmo4 or similar
2620
70
Direct EAP 500
42Crmo4 or similar
3000
60
Direct EAP 560
42Crmo4 or similar
3550
110
* Forced lubrication is an available option
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Direct electrical
Available power in
Torque rating of motor
Motor efficiency at 180 RPM
auxiliary propulsion
180 RPM / 660 VAC [kW]
[kNm]
[%]
Direct EAP 400
110
5.8
87.8**
Direct EAP 450
230
12.1
88.7**
Direct EAP 500
350
18.5
91.7**
Direct EAP 560
420
32.8
90.7**
** Guidance value. To be verified for each supply individually.
Motor performance must be evaluated in
the speed range defined by the main engine
inefficiency. The basic philosophy of auxiliary
propulsion is to operate in the propeller speed
areas where the use of main propulsion is not
efficient.
Above is a table showing motor performances
in a 180 rpm situation, which represents an
example operation point of 5-6 knots. Each
evaluation should include the estimation of
the needed propeller speed in the target slow
speed operation of the vessel. Theoretically, the
auxiliary propulsion motor efficiency improves
while the motor speed increases, and therefore
it is recommended that the propeller pitch/
power curve is re-designed for the EAP mode
taking into account also the propeller and
propulsion efficiencies.
A
C
B
Figure 4: Overall principle of the gear-installed electrical auxiliary propulsion system. The propulsion drive
including the brake resistor (C) is fed from the auxiliary
generator. The drive feeds the auxiliary propulsion motor
(B) when the main propulsion engine is clutched from the
shaft. The gear ratio of the reduction gear (A) allows for
smaller and lighter motor sizes than possible in direct
installations.
132 | Energy efficiency guide
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More power may be taken from the motor by
increasing the revolutions. This results in more
current via the supplying drive and the motor
winding. Therefore, the EAP drive selection
should mainly be made based on the current
rating of the motor.
The EAP drive, which is a standard ABB
ACS800 low voltage drive, needs to be
equipped with special software that is suitable
for EAP use or with a propulsion control unit
for more complex installations. The drive
technology is selected according to the network
parameters:
• either with diode supply and brake resistor,
when network braking of regenerative is
not chosen due to low network load and
harmonics are tolerated / filtering is possible
• or with low harmonics active front-end and
feed transformer (this transformer is always
needed for high frequency interference
isolation)
High speed electrical auxiliary propulsion
When the size and weight of the installation
are critical design factors, electrical auxiliary
propulsion can be implemented with a highspeed induction motor that is connected to
the reduction gear (in case there is an input
possibility).
In small vessels where geared electrical auxiliary
propulsion is often the only possibility for
efficiency updates, the most demanding design
challenge is typically the auxiliary power source.
If there is room for a new power source to be
installed and its weight is tolerated, high speed
EAP components are often easier to fit in.
In normal operation, the vessel utilizes the
main propulsion engine as before. In this
operation, the EAP motor, which is a standard
ABB motor, rotates freely as a part of the shaft,
not providing power into the system. When
operated with the main engine, the EAP motor’s
interference to the system consists mainly of
minor additional gear and rolling losses. Also
the EAP motor’s weight and vibrations need
to be taken into account when designing the
system update. To minimize mechanical stress
to the system, the first option is to consider
installation where the motor is flange-connected
to the gear and supported from the motor foot.
The code for this type of installation is IM2001,
but evaluation of the installation also requires
support from the gear manufacturers who are
the experts with their own designs.
When the main propulsion engine is not utilized
and the clutch is open, the EAP motor can
be driven. The same input reference signals
as used by the main engine or an additional
dedicated reference signal can be used. In this
mode, the EAP motor is controlled by the EAP
drive, which provides a smooth slow-speed
operation range without main engine losses. The
drive is fed from the electrical network (or from
battery) and it includes the needed protection
against blackouts and other damages to the
equipment.
Even though the specific fuel oil consumption
(SFOC) is normally higher for auxiliary engines,
EAP still presents remarkable potential for
fuel savings and plenty of comfort benefits.
The slow speed solution greatly improves the
induction motor efficiency and often covers
also additional gear losses. The fact that the
total consumption of auxiliary engines (total
direct fuel consumption + engine auxiliaries’
fuel consumption) is typically much less than
the total consumption of the main propulsion
engines makes the EAP saving potential
interesting.
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The following pre-designed high-speed electrical auxiliary propulsion systems are available:
High speed electrical
Available power in
Torque rating of motor,
Motor efficiency at
auxiliary propulsion
1800 RPM / 400 VAC
cylindrical shaft end with
1800 RPM
[kW]
key [Nm]
[%]
High speed EAP 50
50
350 (shaft Ø60mm)
94.3*
High speed EAP 100
100
668 (shaft Ø65mm)
95.5*
High speed EAP 150
150
990 (shaft Ø65mm)
96.1*
High speed EAP 200
200
1230 (shaft Ø65mm)
96.3*
* Guidance value. To be verified for each supply individually.
High speed electrical
Motor weight [kg]
Motor dimensions [mm]
auxiliary propulsion
High speed EAP 50
High speed EAP 100
High speed EAP 150
High speed EAP 200
Connection flange
diameters [mm]
500
950
1000
1160
L: 875 (+fan 300) **
Ø Inner 450, outer 550
H: 605
8 * Ø19 (45°, 500mm)
L: 1204 (+fan 300) **
Ø Inner 550, outer 660
H: 852
8 * Ø23 (45°, 600mm)
L: 1315 (+fan 300) **
Ø Inner 550, outer 660
H: 852
8 * Ø23 (45°, 600mm)
L: 1315 (+fan 300) **
Ø Inner 550, outer 660
H: 852
8 * Ø23 (45°, 600mm)
Drive type
The high-speed electrical auxiliary propulsion
system is a combination of standard, robust
ABB motors and the EAP drive, also a standard
ABB ACS800 low-voltage drive that is equipped
with special software, suitable for EAP use.
Benefits to the vessel owner
• New operational mode for the vessel.
• Fuel savings.
• Reduced noise and vibration in low speed
operations.
• Increased comfort.
• Increased redundancy.
• New fueling and energy generation options.
• Standard and proven products, supported
worldwide.
Slow speed operation is
possible without the main
propulsion motors.
Benefits to the shipyard / designer
• Simple installation.
• Reduced gear stress (in case of shaft line
installation).
• Risk reducing by gear output removed (in
case of shaft line installation).
• Gear/support for motor (sensible) installation
not needed (in case of shaft line installation).
• Ready design options available.
• Slow speed noise targets can be described
without main propulsion engines.
Savings and payback time
Consider electrical auxiliary propulsion if your
vessel operates in slow speeds (0-6 kn) and
utilizes CPP propulsion with main propulsion
engines. Electrical auxiliary propulsion enables
you to fully change your operations to be much
more economical. The payback time of such
savings is typically very short, but the change
requires project-specific evaluation.
** Fan is needed for zero speed cooling.
High speed electrical
Drive weight +
Drive dimensions +
auxiliary propulsion
brake resistor weight
brake resistor dimensions
[kg]
[mm]
34 + 14
H: 739 W: 265 D: 286
High speed EAP 50
ABB ACS800-01-70
H: 600 W: 300 D: 345
High speed EAP 100
67 + 25
H: 880 W: 300 D: 399
ABB ACS800-01-120
H: 1320 W: 300 D: 345
High speed EAP 150
400 + 30
H: 2130 W: 830 D: 646
ABB ACS800-02/07-210
H: 1320 W: 300 D: 345
High speed EAP 200
500 + 30
H: 2130 W: 830 D: 646
ABB ACS800-02/07-260
H: 1320 W: 300 D: 345
134 | Energy efficiency guide
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6.10. Small power propulsion solution
The content of the requests coming to ABB
Marine is often very similar. Two needs are
repeated often:
• The vessel owner wants to have an electrical
propulsion system, but the shipyards do not
have anything to offer in the requested size.
• Mechanical propulsion installed on board the
vessel is very efficient and compact for full
speed operations, but as the vessel usage
has changed to run more on the partial loads,
the existing installation is no longer working
efficiently.
This input is of course nice for the electrical
propulsion manufacturer, but it also presents
many difficulties. The system design has to
tackle the challenges caused by the system’s
additional weight, the hull form defined by the
mechanical propulsion and the utilization of the
maximum amount of existing equipment.
In case of retrofitting an existing ship, the
following rough guidance can be given
according to the vessel size:
• If your vessel is less than 30 meters long,
please read the chapter on auxiliary electrical
propulsion (AEP) carefully. You will probably
face challenges in fitting electrical propulsion
in with the power production plant. Therefore,
as an alternative, AEP can also provide a big
improvement and can be more easily installed
on your vessel. Read also the following
guidance for 30-60 meter long vessels.
One word of warning: do not downgrade
propulsion power too much if you decide to
modernize your vessel. You still need to be
able to control the vessel in rough conditions
and that should define the minimum
requirements for dimensioning the propulsion;
the motor has to have sufficient torque ability!
Do not base your dimensioning on the speed
requirement only!
• If your vessel is 30-60 meters long, you have
a relatively good chance of finding a 2+1
main engine configuration, which brings you
most of the benefits of electrical propulsion
system (see concept B in the following text).
Be prepared to make some sacrifices in the
vessel’s maximum speed.
• If your vessel is over 60 meters long, we
should be able to find you a solution.
For new building projects, finding a solution
is easy if the hull is designed for electrical
propulsion. If the hull is already designed for a
mechanical propulsion system, see if a design
where the shaft is less tilted and closer to the
horizontal is possible. This way the propeller
efficiency can be increased significantly to
win back the additional resistance caused by
increased weight. Typical electrical propulsion
shafts are installed at an angle of 0-2 degrees
and most of them have the installation angle of
less than 8 degrees.
Configuration options
Below are some configuration examples that
represent the most typical requests received
by ABB. These are not the only options, but
it is good to keep in mind that smaller vessels
do not normally have specialists or dedicated
electricians in their crew. Also, these examples
do not focus on the possibility of having some
regenerative energy from the propeller; unlike
land vehicles, vessels should not be operated in
a manner which generates brake energy. If they
are, there you have immediate savings potential.
To start with, here are the three basic concepts:
A.Replacing the mechanical propulsion with
electrical propulsion
B.Electrical propulsion with auxiliary plant
backup
C.Power plant principle
All of these concepts have the following
common guidance:
• Axial forces of the shaft line need to be
handled using thrust bearing. To allow more
flexibility in the selection of the motor bearing,
individual thrust bearings are recommended
to tackle these forces and to carry the
weight of the shaft. With this kind of thrust
bearing installation, the recommended motor
installation configurations are as follows:
Unlike land vehicles, vessels
should not be operated in
a manner which generates
brake energy. If they are, there
you have immediate savings
potential.
136 | Energy efficiency guide
–– In vessels without strict comfort class
requirements:
»» Fixed motor installation to the hull + fixed
installation to the shaft + sleeve bearing
selection (axial movement of the shaft
thrust bearing is less than that of the
motor bearings).
»» Fixed motor installation to the hull +
flexible installation to the medium speed
CPP-propelled shaft, with the minimum
speed of ±160 RPM + sleeve bearing
selection (coupling to tolerate axial
movements at both sides above the
bearing tolerances).
–– In vessels with comfort class requirements:
»» Flexible installation to the hull + flexible
installation to the shaft + sleeve bearing
selection (+ roller bearing for axial forces
if needed). This option is possible for slow
FPP-propelled and medium speed CPPpropelled configurations.
»» Flexible or fixed installation to the hull
+ flexible coupling to the shaft + roller
bearings. This option is available for slow
speed shafts.
• We recommend that our customers select
standard electrical propulsion motors to
guarantee better and more reasonable
maintenance. We also propose standard
cooling solutions . If space is not a critical
design issue, it is often an easy solution for
the shipyard to install water-cooled motors.
In such a case, ABB recommends IC86W
motors. The cooler can be located on top of
the motor according to the original design, or
the motor can be equipped with a side cooler.
Optionally, air cooled motors (IC416) are also
available.
Energy efficiency guide | 137
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CONCEPT A
7
7
G
3~
G
3~
6
5
5
2
RBU
=
3
2
1
138 | Energy efficiency guide
3
M
3~
CONCEPT B
7
7
G
3~
6
5
5B
2
2
G
3~
6
=
3
2
1
1
M
3~
9
2
4
=
M
3~
=
=
RBU
additional 15% temperature raise reserved
for disturbance losses.
• In case there are other consumers in the same
network with the propulsion system (concept
C), we recommend that you allow ABB to help
you in the pre-design. The preliminary power
factor specification for the main generator is
cosφ=0.90 or above.
• In case the propulsion system is separated
from the electrical network, one and two
engines can be used to run both the
propellers. This is achieved by connecting the
DC links of the drives. It is good to note that
to fulfill SOLAS requirements, this connection
must be kept open for redundant propulsion.
For SOLAS-classified vessels, we recommend
selecting concept C.
• In case of the power plant principle (concept
C), the one or two engine operation is handled
by a feeder switchboard. In this configuration,
also the auxiliary plant is included in the
fuel optimization by controlling the available
propulsion power to keep the engines in the
optimal loading range.
=
Figure 3: Concept A - Replacing the mechanical propulsion with electrical propulsion. The system components are
presented in the above picture. The included remote control system delivers the captain’s order to the propulsion
control application. The application then calculates the order reference to the drive and controls the electrical motors’
speed accordingly. The propulsion control application handles the generator protection and the power safety limitation
according to the number of running engines. The generator voltage in this concept is typically 380 - 690 VAC.
RBU
• In case the propulsion system is the only load
on the generators, a generator with a very
high power factor design (cosφ=0.95) can
be selected. The generator has to tolerate
the disturbances generated by the frequency
converter (information about the converter
type and its line-side connection group
must be made available to the generator
manufacturer who has to take the load into
account in the generator design).
– – In case the vessel operation does not
require the ship’s speed braking faster
than is allowed by the propulsion main
diesel engines, the drive can be designed
with network braking ability. In this design
selection, the generator design should have
an additional 5% temperature raise reserved
for disturbance losses.
– – In case the vessel operation requires speed
braking with propeller (most common case),
the drive is designed with brake resistors
that absorb the regenerative energy from
the propeller. In this design selection, the
main generator design should have an
=
1
M
3~
Figure 1 & 2: An ABB motor with a
top air-to-water cooler IC86W (left)
and a motor IC416 (right) with an
additional forced-air cooling fan for
slow speed.
2
4
=
2
1) PROPULSION ELECTRICAL MOTORS
2) PROPULSION DRIVES
3) PROPULSION BRAKE RESISTORS
4) DC-LINK CONNECTOR AND PROTECTION BOX
5) GENERATOR FEEDER ISOLATORS
6) MAIN GENERATORS
7) MAIN ENGINES
RBU
6
G
3
~
8
3
1) PROPULSION ELECTRICAL MOTORS
2) PROPULSION DRIVES
3) PROPULSION BRAKE RESISTORS
4) DC-LINK CONNECTOR AND PROTECTION BOX
5) GENERATOR FEEDER ISOLATORS
6) MAIN GENERATORS
7) MAIN ENGINES
8) TRANSFER SWITCH (normally always open)
9) HOTEL LOAD AGGREGATOR
10) ELECTRICAL CONSUMERS
10
Figure 4: Concept B – Presenting electrical propulsion with auxiliary plant backup. The system components are presented in the above picture. The difference compared to Concept A is the possibility to use one of the main engines as
a backup of the auxiliary aggregator. When switch 8 is closed, switch 5B is opened and the maximum power available
for the propulsion motors is the production of one main generator. The generator voltage in this concept is selected to
meet the requirement of the electrical consumers (10).
Energy efficiency guide | 139
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CONCEPT C
7
7
G
3~
6
G
3~
6
5
5
8
2
5
5
2
2
=
=
RBU
9
5
3
2
1
=
=
9
RBU
5
3
1) PROPULSION ELECTRICAL MOTORS
2) PROPULSION DRIVES
3) PROPULSION BRAKE RESISTORS
4) DC-LINK CONNECTOR AND PROTECTION BOX
5) SELECTIVE FEEDING BREAKERS
6) MAIN GENERATORS
7) MAIN ENGINES
8) SWITCHBOARD WITH TIE-BREAKER
9) HOTEL LOAD TRANSFORMERS
(EARTHED SCREEN BETWEEN PRIMARY AND
SECONDARY WINDINGS)
1
M
3~
M
3~
Figure 5: Concept C – Power plant principle. The system components are presented in the above picture. One or more
engines are used to feed the propulsion and auxiliary network. In this concept, the propulsion system disturbance is
now connected to the rest of the electrical network. This is solved either by installing a low harmonic drive and galvanic
separation by means of earthed-screen transformers or by installing a 6-pulse frequency converter and filtering in
the electrical network. To avoid any responsibility issues, the propulsion designer should be responsible for the total
electrical design of the system. The generator voltage in this concept is freely selected from standard steps at 380-690
VAC.
140 | Energy efficiency guide
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Benefits for the owner
• Possibility to run one, two or more common
engines with two propellers with relatively
good efficiency throughout the vessel’s speed
range, especially at lower speeds.
• New operational modes for the vessel.
• Fuel savings.
• Reduced noise and vibration in low speed
operations.
• Increased comfort.
• Increased redundancy.
• New fueling and energy generation options.
• Standard and proven products, supported
worldwide.
• New sources of energy can be utilized.
Benefits for the shipyard / designer
• Day 1 material availability for the main
component dimensions.
• Support from the system designers.
• Simple installation.
• Hull design does not need to follow the
propulsion engine and shafting (the main
engines do not have to be side-by-side
either).
• Flexible location of equipment.
• No gear boxes.
• Industrial risk levels due to standard product
offering.
• Slow speed noise targets can be achieved
easier with small engines.
Savings and payback time
Consider electrical propulsion option if
your vessel does not follow the pattern of
continuous full speed operations. Dieselelectrical propulsion system makes it possible
for the vessel to stay moving longer, for longer
distances and with a higher comfort level. This
makes diesel-electrical propulsion system a
different concept compared to the noisy but
fast-moving mechanical version and comparing
these two in parallel a bit of a challenge.
When the concepts were compared in the
operation profile of a less than 50-meter yacht,
the study outcome reflected the same result as
in the whole small vessel segment: compared
to mechanical propulsion, electrical propulsion
brings savings at the same cruising speed,
extends the cruising time (at 25 Kn from 15
hours to 17,7 hours) but the vessel’s maximum
performance (top speed) was reduced from
31 Kn to 27 Kn in order to keep the weight
within allowed limits. Therefore the savings
by the concept selection are clear and have a
defined payback time, but they also require the
owner to make selections regarding the vessel’s
operational requirements.
Energy efficiency guide | 141
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6.11. Azipod® propulsion
Efficiency and availability
Azipod technology was introduced in 1990. The
first cruise vessel installation on the Fantasyclass vessel Elation in 1998 showed remarkably
positive results with high efficiency and excellent
maneuverability. The new technology provided
ship designers with greater freedom to optimize
the ship’s general arrangement.
After processing further knowledge from
experience and getting a better understanding
of the system’s behavior in operation, the scope
of development was widened to cover larger
systems.
Design improvements
At first the improvements were mainly
concentrated on shaft bearings and seals.
While the basic mechanical design remained
the same, the focus was to provide improved
lubrication conditions and to improve seals to
prevent any leakages into the lube oil or into the
sea.
After collecting several years of operational
experience with wider knowledge of system
behavior, improvements were broadened
to include processes like better control of
manufacturing, delivery and operational
processes, and general quality control.
known, proven technologies for components
and design. As an example of the latter, sliding
bearings were selected for thrust bearings.
142 | Energy efficiency guide
Azipod XO
The outer shaft seal was also completely
redesigned to provide similar benefits: reliability
and maintainability. The seal system enables
advanced condition monitoring to a degree not
seen elsewhere in the market.
For larger models the seal can be changed from
inside the pod. The seal is designed for a fiveyear lifetime and to be replaced during normal
dry-dockings, but in case of an emergency
situation this can also be done with the vessel
afloat.
The fully electric steering gear was originally
designed for smaller Azipod sizes, but it was
the right time to introduce it for larger open
water unit sizes to replace conventional electrohydraulic steering gear. The main reasons
for this step were that it reduced energy
consumption and noise, as well as cutting the
amount of oil in the installation, in order to make
it more environmentally friendly. Electric steering
gear is now installed on recent Azipod deliveries
for open water conditions.
Figure 1: Azipod operating hours and on duty percentage
Azipod operating hours and on duty percentage
8,000,000
100.0%
Oper hours
7,000,000
99.9%
On duty %
0
99.2%
2012
99.3%
2011
1,000,000
2010
99.4%
2009
2,000,000
2008
99.5%
2007
3,000,000
2006
99.6%
2005
4,000,000
2004
99.7%
2003
5,000,000
2002
99.8%
2001
6,000,000
2000
Time for redesign
After several generations of updates from the
original design, it was seen that a concurrent
redesign would be necessary to be able to
combine all identified improvement ideas. The
first such development project addressed
the larger open water unit series, which was
subsequently given the identifying type code
Azipod XO where X stands for “next generation
Azipod” and O means that it is mainly made
for vessels that will operate in open water
conditions. In this research and development
project ABB Marine decided to utilize well-
Latest developments
New profile and geometry
optimisation for Solstice
and Genesis Class
New profile on strut
and fin on last vessels of
Voyager Class
> 9%
Added fin
Radiance Class
First cruise liners
Elation, Paradise
> 20%
First generation Azipod propulsion
7.5% − 9%
Fantasy class diesel electric conventional shaftline propulsion system
1997
1999
2001
2005
2009
2012
Figure 2: Propulsion efficiency has been improvedby several steps in design optimization
Improved fuel efficiency
The propulsion efficiency of Azipod propulsion,
when originally installed on cruise ship Elation
back in 1997, improved by some 9 percent,
when comparing identical sisterships with
traditional shaftlines. Since then, the propulsion
efficiency has been improved by several steps in
design optimization (Figure 2).
One major hydrodynamic improvement was
gained early by installing a fin under the Azipod
to reduce rotational flow losses generated by
the propeller. In the next steps, the Azipod strut
design was modified by making it slimmer and
more optimal for operation in the propulsion
environment. Finally, with the Azipod XO, the
propeller hub and motor module diameters were
reduced and the unIt is entire hull was optimized
with the help of CFD and model testing.
During 2011, ABB introduced an additional
package to improve Azipod propulsion efficiency
further. This package consists of an asymmetric
lower fin and crossed plates (X-tail) that are
integrated in the aft cone. The asymmetric lower
fin will improve efficiency up to 1 percent by
reducing the losses from the propulsion system
and the X-tail will further increase efficiency by
up to 1.5 percent by reducing the rotational flow
losses at the aft cone section. These changes
can also be made as a retrofit installation on
open water units. The first retrofit work with
asymmetric fin and X-tail was done in 2011
during the vessel’s normal dry docking.
Also in 2011, ABB launched a method of
optimizing the energy efficiency of Azipod
installations on board vessels. This was based
on the finding that further fuel consumption
savings can be reached by optimizing the toe
(steering) angle of the Azipod units dynamically,
in addition to the angle optimization already
undertaken at the vessel design stage. This
package has the acronym ADO from the words
Energy efficiency guide | 143
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The propulsion motor
technology in Azipod units is
selected so that it will achieve
high efficiency throughout the
entire propeller speed range.
“Azipod Dynamic Optimizer”. Fuel consumption
is estimated to be reduced further by up to 1.5
percent using ADO.
The overall improvement in propulsion efficiency
has been above 10 percent over the course of
the existence of the Azipod, with a more than 20
percent gain when compared to the shaftlines
being used back in the mid 1990s. However, it
is fair to acknowledge that there have also been
improvements in shaftline propulsion during
this time. Even so, a recent comparison test at
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Marin showed that Azipod propulsion compared
to a fixed shaftline propulsion design still had
a 6-8 percent lead what regards to propulsion
efficiency. Furthermore, these tests were made
before the introduction of asymmetric fin, X-tail
and ADO, which can improve the efficiency of
the Azipod system overall by up to four percent.
Operation experience
With regards to fuel savings and ship
maneuverability, the expectations set by
ship operators have typically been fulfilled
or exceeded by the Azipod. Ship captains in
particular have expressed satisfaction with the
ease of operation and the maneuverability of
their ships. Concerning energy efficiency, some
operators have claimed fuel savings of more
than 20 percent, compared with their vessels
operating with conventional propulsion.
Seven million operating hours with Azipod
propulsion have resulted in the largest pool of
experience in how podded propulsion systems
should be designed, used and maintained for
trouble-free reliable operation.
During the two decades ABB has established a
unique position being the only company that has
in-depth and in-house product and integration
knowledge, with a responsibility covering the
whole concept from hydrodynamics, mechanics,
electronics, cooling to operating, maintenance
and services, as well as the integration of the
complete electrical and control system.
144 | Energy efficiency guide
Nowadays, Azipod propulsion and thruster units
are designed for five years dry-docking and
maintenance intervals. For some applications
a longer maintenance interval of even up
to 10 years has proven supportable. This
conclusion is based on results drawn from a
well documented operational and maintenance
history. Today, there are some 100 vessels
using Azipod propulsion. It has been selected
for a wide range of ship types and operations;
such as cruise ships, icebreakers and ice-going
cargo vessels, ferries, megayachts, offshore
supply vessels, research vessels, wind turbine
installation vessels and drilling rigs.
The advantage of having data
available from a large number
of operating units as well as a
wide range of test results from
models and full size units has
been essential for continuous
development.
Energy efficiency guide | 145
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Azipod XO
Currently, there are more than 60 passenger vessels equipped with Azipod® units in
operation. Cumulative running hours for the total fleet is above 6 million.
Our premium propulsion solution for the medium
voltage propulsion system – the Azipod ®
propulsion – has been improved. The old open
water VO generation has faced improvements in
the total efficiency, maintainability of the unit and
safety of the operation and work inside.
Special attention in the new-generation Azipod®
has been paid on the reliability and efficiency,
which have already been in a class of their own.
The target has been to extend the docking
interval and increase the maintainability from
inside. The thrust pad and propeller seals can
be changed from inside in models XO 2100 and
above.
The unique efficiency of Azipod® units is based
on the following characteristics:
1. The pulling propeller eats from the
homogenous field of water. The propeller is
therefore loaded equally and there are no
disturbing and resisting components in front
of the propeller. Also the wake field behind the
propeller is close to optimal.
2. The propeller positioning is optimized to
the hull shape. In this aspect, the hull form of
an Azipod ® vessel differs from the shaftline
hull, since this optimal positioning of the
propeller allows more hull optimization based
on the hydrodynamic evaluation. The propeller
positioning and the hull form are designed
together with the shipyard or design offices. The
Azipod® projects are always evaluated case-bycase for the best final result.
3. The propulsion motor is a synchronous motor
which meets the requirements of the ship’s
propulsion motor in large passenger vessels.
4. The propulsion drive is a voltage source
inverter, which brings in the unique level of
efficiency on the system level and combines
with the ship-level requirements of the total
vessel energy management.
The efficiency of the Azipod® is on a unique
level. Compared to a similar shaftline vessel,
the ship’s resistance is 10 percent lower in
the design optimized for Azipod ®. The unique
hydrodynamic efficiency is finalized with the
top-performance technical solutions inside the
vessel and Azipod ® unit – the synchronous
motor controlled by modern drive technology.
Azipod® XO family ranges with main rating.
For a project with ABB Azipod®, contact us
for the assistance and information or visit our
website for more information.
The steering system in the new design is
electrical. This eases the yard work by leaving
out the piping and flushing, and increases the
comfort onboard.
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Azipod CO
Azipod XO as CRP
The efficient low voltage permanent magnet synchronous motor is cooled directly to the sea.
Additional cooling arrangements are not needed. On the power range of 1300 – 4500 kW, the
Azipod® CO is the easiest and most efficient propulsion selection for small and medium size
passenger vessels that are operated below the speed of 21 knots.
The Contra Rotating Propulsion (CRP) principle
is a very efficient way to place an additional
propeller behind the main propeller and gain
hydrodynamic benefits from this arrangement.
The main propeller is either diesel-mechanical or
diesel-electrical.
The standardized manner of production and
simplicity of the installation allow the pulling
propeller to be located optimally. This results in
the best efficiency of the unit.
The installation work is easy and alignment
work at the yard is not needed. Azipod® CO
is delivered in two modules which are boltLocal
steering
panel
Slewing
bearing
Electric
steering
motors
connected to the hull. The propeller is designed
for each project individually to meet the hull
form requirements.
For a project with ABB Azipod® CO, contact us
for the assistance and information or visit our
website for more information.
Slip ring
The propellers are designed as a pair and
therefore each project is always of individual
design.
For a project with ABB Azipod® CRP, contact
us for the assistance and information or visit
our website for more information.
In the ‘sea-highway’ type of operational profile,
this arrangement has proven to bring energy
savings in a scale which does not have a
comparison.
Main
terminal
box
STEERING
MODULE
PROPULSION
MODULE
Strut
Motor
• Pressurized casing
• Stator
• Rotor and shaft
• Thrust bearing
• Propeller bearing
• Shaft seals
• Maintenance brake
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Propeller
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6.12. Azipod® hydrodynamics upgrade
Background of Azipod
The ABB Azipod is an azimuthing electric
podded drive used in diesel-electric vessels.
The Azipod unit is fixed in a pod outside
the ship, and combines the functions of a
propulsion motor, main propeller, rudder and
stern thruster. This innovation was introduced in
1990, in a pilot installation for a Finnish fairway
maintenance vessel, and was later installed in
some ice-going vessels and ice breakers. The
first cruise vessel installation was performed
in 1998 on a Fantasy-class cruise ship, the
“Elation”. Compared to previous Fantasy-class
vessels, the “Elation” displayed remarkably
positive results, including high efficiency and
excellent maneuverability. The technology also
provided ship designers with greater freedom to
optimize the ship’s general structure.
Figure 1: X-tail and asymmetric fin installed during dry docking in 2011. The tests confirmed a 2.8% improvement in
efficiency.
The first Azipod units installed in the “Elation”
yielded an approximately 7– 9 percent reduction
in the required propulsion power, compared
to older Fantasy-class vessels equipped with
the more traditional shaftline arrangement. A
major hydrodynamic improvement was gained
early on, by installing a fin under the Azipod
to reduce rotational flow losses generated
by the propeller. The lower fin also provided
an efficient way of reducing steering system
loads, by decreasing the azimuthing counter
torque. In the subsequent steps, the Azipod
strut design was modified by making it slimmer
and more optimal, for operation in a propulsion
environment. Finally, with the introduction of
the new Azipod XO product family, the propeller
hub and motor module diameters were reduced
and the entire hull optimized with the help
of CFD and model testing. All in all, Azipod
hydrodynamic improvements, from the first units
to Azipod XO, have represented an improvement
of 9 percent on the “Elation” results.
Azipod hydrodynamics upgrade
During 2011, ABB introduced an additional
retrofit package to further improve the Azipod’s
propulsion efficiency. This package consists
of an asymmetric lower fin and crossed plates
(X-tail) integrated with the aft cone.
The asymmetric lower fin improves efficiency
up to 1 percent, by reducing losses from the
propulsion system, while the X-tail can further
increase efficiency by up to 1.5 percent, by
lowering the rotational flow losses from the aft
cone section. These changes can be performed
as a retrofit installation for open water units
during dry docking. Due to different design and
load conditions, such modifications are not
applicable to ice-going vessels.
Toe angle
The total savings potential of
the Azipod hydrodynamics
upgrade can be up to 4 percent
in propulsion power
150 | Energy efficiency guide
Figure 2: The optimal toe angle between the Azipod units
varies dynamically, depending on the operating conditions. The Azipod Dynamic Optimization system has a
savings potential of up to 1.5 percent.
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Azipod hydrodynamics
upgrade
The already high hydrodynamic efficiency
of the Azipod propulsion system can be
improved with an upgrade package. Power
required for propulsion can be reduced by
up to 4 percent, by installing the Azipod
hydrodynamics upgrade – a system which
reduces rotational losses from the propeller
flow and optimizes the toe angle between
the Azipod units. The reduced power
requirement applies to the vessel’s entire
speed range, not only its top speed. The
Azipod hydrodynamics upgrade consists of:
• An asymmetric fin
• An X-tail
• The ADO – Azipod toe angle dynamical
optimization system
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The first retrofit work with an asymmetric fin and
X-tail was performed in 2011, on the “Radiance
of the Seas” during the vessel’s normal dry
docking. In order to achieve a firm verification
of the results, the same measurements were
performed for two similar vessels before and
after dry docking. The first vessel was refitted
without the modifications and second one
was equipped with them. Both vessels were
subjected to the same scope of hull cleaning
and painting during dry docking. Finally, the
figures were verified and approved, together
with the customer and a third party. The results
confirmed a 2.8 percent reduction in fuel
consumption for propulsion.
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The ADO was installed on “Noordam” in 2010.
After the commissioning phase, the system’s
performance was tested and a 1.5 percent
reduction in propulsion power achieved with the
system switched on, compared to when it was
switched off.
The total savings potential of the Azipod
hydrodynamics upgrade, including an
asymmetric lower fin, X-tail and ADO can be
up to 4 percent, the savings effect covering the
entire speed range of the vessel, not only its top
speed.
Benefits
• Lower fuel consumption due to reduction in
required propulsion power
• Lower emissions due to reduction in fuel
consumption
Savings and payback time
The improvement in hydrodynamic efficiency
reduces the required propulsion power, with
the savings effect occurring across the vessel’s
entire speed range, not only when it is operating
at top speed. The typical payback time for the
Azipod hydrodynamics upgrade is less than 24
months.
In 2011, ABB also launched a system called
the Azipod Dynamic Optimizer (ADO). This is
a method of optimizing the energy efficiency
of Azipod installations onboard vessels. The
system is based on the finding that further
fuel consumption savings can be achieved by
dynamically optimizing the toe (steering) angle
of the Azipod units, in addition to the static
angle optimization already performed at the
vessels’ design stage. Because the optimum
toe angle depends on the vessel’s trim, ballast,
speed, weather conditions etc., it varies
dynamically. The ADO can be installed during
the new building phase or as a retrofit when the
vessel is afloat. It is estimated that using the
ADO represents a savings potential of up to 1.5
percent.
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6.13. Marine automation modernizations and
energy efficiency
Decades of experience and high specialized expertise in designing automation retrofits and
upgrading solutions for any size of Marine application project (small, medium and large).
The modernization package includes everything required to achieve the completion of the
upgrade project faster and more effectively, from the first ship audit to the project’s final
delivery. Our technical competences guarantee the completion of the plant’s modernization
process, reducing the operation downtime to a minimum.
Based on our powerful automation platform
System 800xA, marine industry customers can
reap the benefits of safer, more reliable and
energy efficient operation of vessels, with a
lower environmental impact.
Figure 2: Fully
integrated solution, compliant
with IEC61850.
Maximum solution flexibility
• Device integration based on open standards
• Seamless control applications, including
safety
• Reduced system footprint based on a single
system
• Single plant interface, integrated operation
and maintenance
Figure 1: ABB´s system platform provides a common environment for vessel process control, safety supervision, PMS
and propulsion control
System 800xA – state-of-the-art technology
with a global presence
System 800xA is ABB’s extended automation
system, with thousands of installations already
performed worldwide. 800xA facilitates a
single-system approach to vessel automation,
encompassing all control and monitoring
functions onboard a ship – including those
normally handled by separate dedicated
systems. Tight integration means that
one and the same system can cater for
operations, engineering, asset management,
safety, information and power management
solutions, depending on the scope of the
retrofit. Investments and operational costs are
reduced, while the versatility and flexibility of
System 800xA meets each ship or rig’s unique
requirements.
Integrated safety system saves space and
reduces training needs
System 800xA improves availability while
increasing the overall operational efficiency of
154 | Energy efficiency guide
a vessel, by providing a common environment
for process control, safety supervision, power
management and propulsion control. Within this
environment, System 800xA offers a complete
Safety Instrumented System (SIS) solution,
complying with the IEC 61508 and IEC 61511
standards and covering not only the logic
solver, but also entire safety loops, including
field instruments, central controllers and field
actuators.
Integration of electrical equipment increases
uptime and overall energy efficiency
ABB is leading the trend in integrating process
automation and power management systems.
System 800xA is fully compliant with the IEC
61850 standard, enabling the integration of
process control, electrical systems, power
generation and distribution into one and the
same system, on the same vessel. This creates
savings throughout the system lifecycle, thanks
to a smaller footprint, lower power consumption
and a reduced risk of blackouts.
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Executions of retrofit projects
are typically carried out within
standard planned dry-dock
shutdowns, without causing
extra operational downtime
Human interfaces for faster and easier
decision-making
On any vessel, in order to make quick, safe
and intelligent decisions, the people in charge
of operations need access to all of the relevant
information. System 800xA’s ability to integrate
a vessel’s various systems into a single operator
environment promotes collaboration and lays
the foundation for operational excellence. All
information is available in one place – regardless
of its place or system of origin – and is easy
to retrieve through intuitive navigation. This is
invaluable in critical situations.
Safeguarding your investment and assets
For maritime customers, being able to preserve
investments in hardware, engineering and
intellectual property is paramount. System
800xA helps control lifecycle costs, while
adding new features and technology to
Figure 3: Asset management
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existing installations on the vessel. Predictive
maintenance is the key to avoiding unplanned
downtime. As the assets on the vessel
themselves – motors, switchgears, valves etc.
– become smarter, System 800xA can use the
related data to supervise and predict when
maintenance is needed. This enables operators
and maintenance personnel to know when
and what action to take. Of course, ABB also
ensures the secure supply of spare parts.
Automation and power integration
• Unified integration of all plant equipment
• Automation and Power solutions from ABB
– optimized tight integration with ABB Marine
electrical deliveries
• Essential to optimal and safe operation of the
electric power plant and prime movers
• Advanced functions for blackout prevention,
through fast load reduction and load shedding
(e.g. related to electrical propulsion)
• Optimized footprint by utilizing direct and safe
bus communication to ABB protection devices
(e.g. IEC61850)
• Can be fully integrated with the IAS, using
the same hardware platform while providing
the operating crew with the same operational
principles and look-and-feel (HMI)
Figure 4: Energy efficiency together with variable
frequency drives
Complete energy-efficiency retrofit packages
ABB provides specialized solutions and services
for energy efficiency projects onboard vessels.
These bring remarkable energy savings.
This represents a fast track to savings, with an
average lead time of a few months from initial
on-board surveys to when savings kick in.
Energy efficiency plays the key role in CO2
emission reductions, accounting for up to 53%
of such reductions.
In pump and fan applications onboard vessels,
use of VFD can cut the energy consumption for
such applications by as much as 60%.
156 | Energy efficiency guide
Benefits for the ship owner
• Systems run closer to peak efficiency,
reducing waste and consumption
• Higher output and quality per unit of energy
used
• Ability to manage environmental impact
• Maximize Investment Protection
• Turnkey Projects, one vendor takes full
responsibility for the total solution (control
application design, implementation,
installation, commissioning and process
optimization)
• Minimize plant re-wiring and re-documentation
costs
• Modular solutions allowing customers to
decide when to evolve
• Plant-wide Operator Effectiveness, cost
effective operation with fewer operators
• Reduced maintenance costs
• Improved power control and availability
• Added value solutions with newest technology
options:
• Extended range of Connectivity and Field
buses (Profibus, Profinet, IEC-61850, HART,
etc.),
• Alarm Management and Audit Trail
• Full Integration between Automation and
Electrical Power Plant
• Remote Connectivity
• Advanced Diagnostics and Advisory solutions
• Asset Management Optimizations
Integration of electrical equipment increases
uptime and overall energy efficiency
ABB is leading the trend in integrating process
automation and power management systems.
System 800xA is fully compliant with the IEC
61850 standard, enabling the integration of
process control, electrical systems, power
generation and distribution into one and the
same system, on the same vessel. This creates
savings over the entire system lifecycle, thanks
to a smaller footprint, lower power consumption
and reduced risk of blackouts.
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6.14. Shore-to-ship power
The continued expansion of global trade has drawn the attention of several regulatory
parties, including the IMO/MARPOL and EU, to the problem of pollution caused by ships.
Tough environmental legislation has been issued, forcing the shipping industry to seek ways
of reducing this negative impact. As a response to increasing environmental regulations
within the marine industry, ABB, a technology pioneer in High Voltage installations for marine
applications, has come up with a shore-to-ship power solution.
This fully integrated system helps to reduce
emissions in ports, by connecting ships to
the port’s electricity grid via a shore-to-ship
power connection. A seamless automated
power transfer of the ship load is secured,
from the onboard power plant to the onshore
source and back. This enables ships to shut
down their diesel-generator sets, used to
create onboard electric power, and plug into
an onshore power source while berthed. Most
ships’ power generation units operate at a
frequency of 60 Hz, whereas the local grid
in most parts of the world is 50 Hz. ABB’s
static frequency converter constitutes a safe,
economic and efficient solution which converts
grid electricity to the appropriate load frequency.
To comply with demanding requirements set
on port emissions, both ship owners and ports
need innovative technologies. Shore-to-ship
power is an investment which both reduces the
environmental burden and saves money in the
long-term.
ABB Shore-to-ship connections comply with
international standards
After years of participation in the IEC committee,
and effective technical guidance work within
the related work group, ABB is one of the
first companies on the market to supply a
high voltage shore connection compliant with
international rules. This is crucial due to the
nature of the shipping industry, in which the ship
to be connected up is constantly on the move.
International regulation requirements for the
system
• High Voltage Shore Connection (HVSC) by
IEC, ISO and IEEE.
• IEC ISO IEEE 80005-1
• The ABB Shore-to-ship concept complies with
all major ship classification societies:
–– Lloyds, released 2009, rules for onshore
power supplies
–– DNV, RINA, GL
Connection- and disconnection sequence
The full sequence for connecting or
disconnecting a vessel to shore power includes
the following steps:
• Vessel arrives in port.
• Power cables and control cables are
connected.
• The last running engine is synchronized with
the shore power grid.
• After the shore connection circuit breaker is
closed, the generator is off-loaded and the
engine is stopped.
• Before the vessel departs from the port, the
first engine is started and synchronized with
the shore power grid.
• After the load is transferred to the generator,
the shore connection opens.
• Power cables and control cables are
disconnected and the vessel is ready for
departure.
IMO (environmental) rules
Sulphur limit
1.0% in SECA
2009
2010
Sulphur limit
0.1% on all ships
when more than
2 hours in port
(directive
2005/32/EC)
Sulphur limit
3.5% globally
2011
2012
Sulphur limit
0.1% in SECA
2013
Sulphur limit
0.1% on all ships
when more than
2 hours in port in
Greece (directive
2005/32/EC)
158 | Energy efficiency guide
2014
2015
California
requirements:
60% of fleet may
operate aux
engines for max
3 hours
Sulphur limit
0.5% globally
2016
2017
2018
California
requirements:
70% of fleet may
operate aux
engines for max
3 hours
2019
2020
California
requirements:
80% of fleet may
operate aux
engines for max
3 hours
Installation example 1: Ship with electric Azipod® propulsion. Shore Connection system with shore connection panel
located outside the main switchboard room. Cable connectors front-mounted in a cabinet. Typical solution for cruise
vessels.
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Main components
The MV shore connection consists of the
following main components:
• MV shore connection panel with or without
socket(s) for connecting the portable or fixed
power cable(s) from the shore side.
• Necessary control and protection equipment.
• Automation interface between the shore and
ship installation.
• The existing main switchboard is equipped
with (an additional cubicle and) circuit breaker,
including the necessary control devices.
Installation example 2: Ship with diesel-electric propulsion. The shore connection system is configured, with the shore
connection panel located outside the main switchboard room. An onboard cable drum lowers the cable down to the
quay for onshore termination. Typical solution for container vessels.
• Cable reel (typical for container vessels)
• AVR (automatic voltage regulator), i.e. Unitrol
1000
• Governor system, i.e. DEGO III
The MV shore connection panel
• Finished cabinet solution, with both a power
module and a control module.
• Developed in accordance with the rules of
major classification societies
• It may be supplied with cable connectors
located in the front, or with openings for cable
entry through the cabinet floor.
Options
• 800xA power management system with
integrated shore to ship power system
• Step down transformer to match the shore
voltage level with the ship’s voltage
• HMI to operate the shore to ship power
system
Sockets and plugs are standardized for the
following vessel types
• Cruise vessels
• Container vessels
• RoRo and RoPax vessels
Figure 1: Example of the MV shore connection panel
Figure 2a: Patton & Cooke plugs and sockets
Figure 2b: Cavotec plugs and sockets
Installation example 3: Ship with diesel machinery and a low voltage electric system. The shore connection panel is
located outside the main switchboard room with cable connectors mounted on the front. An onboard transformer steps
down the power from high to low voltage. Typical solution for ferries, Ro-Ro/Ropax vessels.
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The step down transformer
• Step down transformer for low voltage vessels
• Vacuum cast coil dry transformers
• Marine approved, with air or water cooling
• Flexible in terms of transformer dimensions
• High mechanical strength
• Tested to withstand severe environmental
conditions
The main switchboard feeder panel
• The shore connection feeder can be a part of
the vessels main switchboard.
• Alternatively, an additional feeder can be
installed within an existing spare position
inside the vessels main switchboard.
• Or, a finished cabinet solution equipped as a
complete, so called, generator panel can be
connected to the vessels main switchboard by
fixed cables or bus bars.
• Installation has to be tailored case by case.
Figure 3: Example of step down transformer
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Cable management systems are
standardized for the following vessel types
• Cruise vessels
• Container vessels
• RoRo and RoPax vessels
Automation solutions
• Standardized solution based on the 800xA
platform
• Operator interface by 800xA
• Hardware
– – AC800M controller
– – S800 remote I/O units
• Low end interface solution based on the
AC500 controller
– – Interface between the existing ship’s
automation and shore-to-ship systems
– – AC500 controller
– – S800 remote I/O units
• Both solutions are in accordance with all
major classification societies
Figure 4: Example of a low voltage shore connection feeder
Figure 5: Examples of cable management systems
Benefits
ABB Shore-to-ship power supply solutions
enable customers to comply with the
environmental requirements set by regulatory
authorities such as the IMO, European Union
and individual states and governments.
The ABB Shore-to-ship power supply solution
for ships in port is a practical and effective
means of reducing pollutants, noise and
vibrations for the crew and local community. In
some cases, the solution also provides energy
and maintenance cost reductions.
With ABB Shore-to-ship
power supply solutions, ships
can shut down their auxiliary
engines while berthed and plug
into an onshore power source,
thereby eliminating emissions
into the local surroundings.
• Turnkey supply of complete system –
including port side
• Safety, based on ABB’s experience, knowhow and crew training
• Type approved equipment provides high
reliability
• Flexible arrangement for most vessel types
• Fast installation – minimal disruption to ship
services
• Availability of ABB worldwide service network
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6.15. Shaft torque and power metering
Principle of torque measurement
Torque measurement is performed using ABB’s
tried and tested, robust and reliable Torductor
torque transducer. This is the only transducer
on the market that is truly contactless, with no
devices glued or clamped onto the shaft.
Figure 1: The core of the Torductor® 500 shaft torque and
fuel efficiency metering system: Torque transducer QGTA
101
The Torductor excites the steel in the shaft using
magnetic fields, which emanate from the steel
in a certain pattern. When under mechanical
stress, the exit pattern of the magnetic fields
changes, see the figure below. Points N and
S are the magnetic poles that excite the steel,
while points A and B are the sensing poles. The
Torductor measures this change and processes
it into torque data.
Accuracy and stability
While the absolute accuracy of any
measurement is clearly important, a
measurement’s long-term stability can matter
even more. Any system which tends to drift
becomes less accurate over time and needs
recalibration. In the case of the Torductor
system, this problem simply does not exist.
The ABB Torductor system measures the
magnetic properties of the shaft, which are
constant. Hence, after a single calibration,
the system is ready for many years of reliable
service. The level of accuracy depends on the
calibration method – 2% is commonly achieved.
Stability is at least within 0.5% over ten years.
Simple installation of torque transducer
The ring-shaped transducer fits around
the propeller shaft, leaving an air gap of
approximately 1.5 mm. It does not make any
contact with the shaft, meaning that there are
no moving parts apart from the shaft itself.
The transducer only requires a simple bracket,
as presented on figure 3. For easy mounting, it
consists of two halves bolted onto the bracket
and then bolted together to form a closed ring.
The wiring only involves one 4-core cable.
The transducer only requires 250 mm of free
length and constant cross section from the
shaft. It works equally well on solid or tubular
shafts.
Figure 3: Torductor installation
The Torductor® 500 system
The Torductor is primarily a torque measuring
device. It measures the torque in a rotating
propeller shaft, together with the shaft RPM,
and calculates the shaft power and the energy
produced by the shaft.
Magnetic fields in stress
free shaft surface
Magnetic fields in shaft
surface under stress
If fuel flow instruments are available in addition,
they can be connected to the Torductor
system and will calculate the Specific Fuel Oil
Consumption (often referred to as the SFOC).
Benefits
• Instant and accurate monitoring of main
engine performance
• Robust contactless torque sensor
• Requires only 25 cm of free shaft
• Excellent, long term stability: 0.5% in 10 years
• Counters included for total shaft revolutions,
energy, consumed fuel
• Storage of noon data
• Support for EEOI reporting
• Torque level contacts, e.g. over torque
• Modbus connections via RS-485 or Ethernet
for remote data logging
164 | Energy efficiency guide
Figure 2: Torductor principle
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SFOC calculation
With increasing fuel prices, propulsion
engine performance has evolved into a key
performance indicator. The associated figure
is the SFOC, Specific Fuel Oil Consumption,
expressed as grams of fuel needed for each
kilowatt (g/kWh). A lower SFOC indicates a
better performance in propulsion machinery.
All of this contributes to unrivalled dependability and long-term repeatability. You can rely on the readings the system
gives you
Thanks to its simplicity and robustness, it is
virtually insensitive to moisture and dirt. It works
in a wide temperature range.
Because of its contactless operation, the
Torductor has an excellent long-term stability of
less than 0.5% over 10 years.
Fuel consumption reporting
Without additional instrumentation, the
Torductor will calculate propeller shaft torque,
speed, power and kWh. To facilitate the
reporting of fuel oil consumption, the Torductor
can process data from several types of speed
logs and fuel flow transmitters, and store noon
data for easy production of noon and end-ofvoyage reports.
Recording these data will assist in producing
meaningful Energy Efficiency Operational Index
(EEOI) reports, which form part of Ship Energy
Efficiency Management Plan (SEEMP), which
became mandatory for all ships from January
1st 2013.
For the greatest accuracy, ABB offers Coriolis
type instruments (Figure 4), which require no
compensation for temperature and density.
If volume transmitters are used, the fuel’s
temperature is also processed and the density
must be entered via the operator interface.
Figure 4: CoriolisMaster FCB330 & 350 Coriolis Mass
Flowmeters
Hull fouling
Nowadays, advanced energy management
systems are available, such as ABB’s EMMA™
Advisory Suite, equipped with advanced
algorithms to determine increased hull
resistance caused by fouling. Compensating
for weather conditions and draft, shaft torque
trends can be used to determine the optimum
time for hull cleaning. If the hull and propeller
are cleaned at the right time, huge cost savings
can be created.
Torsional vibration
With a maximum of 30 samples per second, the
torque in the propeller shaft can be visualized at
different shaft angles. Any misfiring of a cylinder
can be detected instantly.
Graph 1: An example of hull performance loss
The power plotted here is relative to
8,000 SHP. This increase was needed
to keep the fouled ship at the same
service speed. The peak indicates a
penalty of around 30%.
Various transmitters can be connected, such
as 4…20 mA representing a continuous flow, or
impulse transmitters, emitting one impulse for a
certain quantity of fuel. Inputs are available for
each engine driving the propulsion shaft.
166 | Energy efficiency guide
Energy efficiency guide | 167
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Graph 2: An example of how the vessel’s speed changes with the trim, at three different drafts
Trim optimizing
For optimal fuel consumption, the vessel must
be trimmed optimally. However, the optimal
trim is not the same for each draft. Using the
Torductor, small trim changes underway can be
observed, to identify the lowest shaft power at a
certain RPM and pitch.
Figure 5: An example of Torductor system layout
System layout
The complete system consists of:
• An ABB Torductor torque transducer with
speed sensor, adapted to the size of the
propeller shaft. See the figure below.
• A central processing unit 600 x 600 x 250
mm. This unit should be installed in the vicinity
of the shaft.
• A touch screen operator interface unit
• Interface for connection to fuel flow sensors
• Interface for connection to RS-485 or
Ethernet network.
Figure 6: Dimension drawing of torque transducer QGTA 101
Commissioning
After installation, a single calibration is needed
for recording the transducer’s output at various
torque values. This is done during sea trials,
where performance measurements are usually
carried out to establish the vessel’s baseline
condition. The Torductor is then lined up with
these data.
All parameters are entered via the operator
interface and are stored in a permanent
memory. In order to prevent unintended
changes, this data can only be accessed by
technical staff.
168 | Energy efficiency guide
Energy efficiency guide | 169
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6.16. High efficiency motors
High motor efficiency
ABB motors offer maximum energy efficiency.
Increased efficiency reduces the power
required to operate a motor. Reduced power
requirements allow the use of smaller generators
and less fuel. These advantages come together
to reduce the customer’s initial investment
cost and ongoing operating expenses.
Combined with variable speed drives, high
efficiency motors provide optimum speed and
torque control. This helps customers in the
marine industry to further reduce their energy
consumption, operating expenses and harmful
emission levels.
Low voltage motors
ABB’s low voltage motors portfolio covers an
output range from 0.12 up to 1,000 kW. In
recent years, development of Minimum Energy
Performance Standards (MEPS) has represented
a trend aimed at reducing energy consumption
and levels of greenhouse gas emissions. The
latest major MEPS came into force in the
European Union and cover LV motors from 7.5
up to 375 kW, and up to 1,000 V, intended
for 50 and 60 Hz operation. These motors
are classified based on their energy efficiency
performance, from the lowest level of IE1 up to
IE4, and these levels are specified in the IEC
standard IEC 60034 and IEC 60034-31.
Today’s EU MEPS have defined IE2 (high
efficiency) as the minimum level, while IE3 or IE2
operated with VFD will become mandatory in
2015. Similar types of MEPS currently account
for 70% of the low voltage motors market.
Figure 1: IEC 60034 and IEC 60034-31 define the efficiency classes for low voltage motors.
End users benefit from these standards, since
they ensure that energy efficiency comparisons
between motors are possible. This is due to
the manufacturers having to comply with the
same standards when defining, measuring and
publishing motor efficiencies.
In addition to lower energy consumption, ABB’s
highly efficient motors are more reliable, since
they minimize losses. Losses in electric motors
are dissipated by heat, vibration and noise.
The mechanical and electrical design of highly
efficient motors is optimized, which means lower
temperature rises, cooler running, reduced
temperatures in stator windings and bearings, and
a lower noise level. Cooler running and a reduced
stator winding temperature guarantee trouble-free
running over the 30-year design lifetime, since
every increase of 10 Kelvin in the stator winding
reduces its lifetime by half. On the other hand,
reduced bearing temperatures mean longer recreasing intervals and less maintenance, since
every 15-Kelvin decrease in bearing temperatures
doubles the re-creasing interval.
ABB motors are based on decades of
experience in the manufacture of typical marine
applications such as fans, pumps, cranes,
winches, compressors and thrusters. All of
these are vital when operating a vessel, and
motors must meet the highest quality, availability
and various standards. When selecting motors
for quadratic torque applications such as fans
and pumps, VFD should always be considered
as the control method, to ensure optimally low
cost of ownership.
High voltage induction motors
ABB’s high voltage induction motors consist of
two main product lines, cast iron and modular
welded frame constructions. Cast iron motors
cover an output range up to 2,250 kW and 11.5
kV. The output range of modular welded frame
series reaches up to 23 MW and 13.8 kV.
170 | Energy efficiency guide
Figure 2: Sea water cooling pumps with ABB high
efficiency low voltage motors.
ABB’s HXR-series cast iron motors are custom
designed to provide an ideal match with the
customer’s specific application. Innovative,
TEFC (totally enclosed fan cooled) HXR motors
are the right choice for applications requiring
dependable, high efficiency motor power that
cannot be provided by standard products.
ABB’s high voltage HXR motors are used in a
wide variety of processes across the marine
industry. Typical applications include pumps,
fans, blowers, compressors, conveyors and
ship thrusters. Versions classified for hazardous
areas are available for use within the marine,
chemical, oil, gas and related sectors.
Basic specification
• Totally enclosed fan-cooled cast iron
construction, horizontal or vertical
• 100 to 2,250 kW at 50 Hz
• 150 to 3,000 HP at 60 Hz
• Shaft heights: 355-560 mm 14.5-22.0 inches
• Voltages from 380 V to 11,500 V
• IP55/IP56, IC411/IC416
• TEFC/TEAO
• Standards IEC, NEMA, CSA...
• Motors for marine applications (LRS, DNV, BV,
GL, ABS...)
• Motors for classified areas
• Motors for VSD
Energy efficiency guide | 171
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ABB high voltage modular induction motors
are designed to operate at the highest levels
of efficiency, reliability and availability, in the
toughest and most demanding applications.
These high-performance motors are available
with all types of options, enclosures and
cooling arrangements. They comply with all
international standards, are optimized for
variable speed control, pass through the most
stringent of testing procedures at each stage
of production and can be configured for the
broadest range of applications, such as pumps,
fans, compressors, conveyors, thrusters and
propulsion.
Typical efficiency levels for 4-pole HXR motors
Output
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Figure 4: ABB low voltage motors.
Efficiency %
kW
100% Load
75% Load
500
96.7
96.7
630
97.0
97.0
710
97.1
97.1
800
97.2
97.2
900
97.3
97.3
1000
97.2
97.3
1250
97.4
97.5
1400
97.6
97.6
2000
97.9
97.9
ABB’s testing program is far above the
ordinary level. It is one of the many factors
that differentiate an ABB motor from others
Figure 3: Modular welded frame motor AMI 500 in a thruster application controlled with VFD.
on the market. Nothing is omitted from ABB
testing procedures: they embrace noise levels,
vibration, torque and temperature, as well as all
individual components as they progress through
the production process. When the motor is
assembled, we conduct a full-scale operating
test and measure all critical values. This can
be done in our factories, at different loads
and in combination with transformers, variable
speed drives and other electrical equipment.
The test report is handed over immediately
after the conclusion of the tests. We also
perform customized tests to measure special
characteristics. All ABB tests are carried out in
accordance with international standards and
third-party certifications, such as those issued
by LR (Lloyd’s Register), BV (Bureau Veritas),
DNV (Det Norske Veritas) and ABS (American
Bureau of Shipping).
Benefits
• High availability of motors, throughout low
temperature rise
• High quality, lower maintenance, longer
lifetime
172 | Energy efficiency guide
• Highest output from the smallest size; space
and weight savings
• Fully compatible with various starting
methods, DOL, Y/D, auto-trafo, soft starter,
variable frequency drive
• Meeting the highest efficiency requirements,
especially in all load points
• Wide range of motors already approved by
the major classification societies
• Worldwide technical support
• Degrees of protection up to IP56 for open
deck
Savings and payback time
ABB offers a broad range of motors already
fulfilling the IE4 efficiency performance standard
specified in IEC 60034 and IEC 60034-31.
ABB’s solutions consist of IE4 induction motors,
the IE4 synchronous reluctance motor and
drive package, and permanent magnet motors.
For low voltage motors, the payback time is
typically 2-3 years in the case of a replacement.
When considering a new investment, the
typical payback time for a higher IE efficiency
performance class is less than one year.
Energy efficiency guide | 173
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6.17. Diesel engine speed regulation
The DEGO III governor system is a fully digital system, tailor-made for diesel engines and
turbines. A number of hardware and software versions are available, covering almost any
application. Some of these applications are described below in more detail.
Rpm
Main Engine 1
DEGO III
Governor
Multi-tacho system
The governor system contains a so-called 4
channel multi-tacho system. This system takes
account of oscillation i.e. vibration-like speed
fluctuations that occur between the engine and
propeller shaft, or the engine and generator.
Torsional vibration is often a concern in power
transmission systems using rotating shafts or
flexible couplings, where it can cause failures if
not controlled.
When the fuel pump of the engine responds
to the upward and downward rotational speed
of the motor adhering to the shaft, it will
reinforce such oscillation. Based on the multitacho system, the governor system measures
the revolutions of the engine and generator,
using the average of these measurements
when controlling the fuel pump. Without this,
oscillation could damage the flexible coupling.
Integrated synchronizing
The governor system can control the
synchronization of two engines driving one
propeller shaft. The strokes of two six-cylinder
in-line engines are synchronized, for example,
to reproduce the sequence of a twelve cylinder
engine. This reduces vibration. Such engines
could also be run synchronously, but that would
simply increase the vibration. On cruise vessels
in particular, such a result would be highly
undesirable. To achieve the desired sequence
of cylinder strokes, the second engine must be
run in the right sequence and the exact RPM,
in relation to the first engine already coupled.
Then, the engine is coupled – clutched – into
the gearbox. Besides the propeller shaft, this
gearbox often drives either one or two shaft
generators.
174 | Energy efficiency guide
This type of system is widely used on cruise
ships, because it enables efficient propulsion.
When a cruise ship is slowly sailing from one
island to another at night, use of one engine
is sufficient. However, when a faster speed is
required, the chief engineer can clutch in the
second engine. Electric power distribution is
rendered more flexible by the fact that the shaft
generators can also be separately clutched in
and out.
Fuel
Propeller
Shaft
Generator
Power
Meter
Ships’s Grid
Average
Power
Meter
DEGO III
Governor
Shaft
Generator
Propeller
Fuel
Rpm
Main Engine 2
Figure 1: Load sharing principle; optimal stability is
achieved
Figure 2: Calibrated feed forward - block diagram. This function is applied in DEGO III governor on Van Oord’s dredger
Geopotes 15, which is introduced on chapter 4, work boats section.
Governors
INDIVIDUAL
PID
PORT MASTER
PID
STARBOARD MASTER
FUEL
FUEL
SERVO
SERVO
Actuators
Clutches
Gearbox
Load sharing
In the case of electrical propulsion, a power
management system distributes the load among
different diesel generators. When a second
generator is added to the switchboard, this
load is divided evenly on both diesel generators
after synchronizing. ABB’s electronic governor
system is equipped with a network interface
interconnecting and controlling up to 28 diesel
engines for power generation. Such a network
is used to exchange operational data and
allows load sharing between units. This ensures
smooth control, maintaining the governor’s
responsiveness in critical situations, such as
sudden loss of load or over speed.
Figure 3a: Load rejection without feed forward
Figure 3b: Load rejection with feed forward
Energy efficiency guide | 175
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Commissioning, fault tracing and monitoring
Commissioning and fault tracing, as well as
monitoring of the governor functions, are made
easy by the Windows based PC commissioning
tool, DEGO Aid. All versions of Windows are
supported, up to Windows 8. Each configuration
can be created and copied. In addition, a
library is available with parameters for the most
common diesel engines. To facilitate the tuning
of the governor, the software also features
a virtual oscilloscope and historical trending
displays.
Features
The governor system is programmed prior to
delivery, with the specific engine and application
data based on the diesel engine specification
and the application specification. Further
parameter settings and modifications can be
made during commissioning, by means of a
common PC connected via the serial interface.
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Common to all applications
• Mean value of two speed sensors is
processed
• Actuator driver integrated with the control unit
• Speed setting selectable for analogue or
increase/decrease signals
• LCD, 4 lines showing RPM, fuel, control mode
and alarms
• Manual back-up fuel control with increase/
decrease
• Load and speed tuned/adapted PID regulator
with I-limit
• Overspeed suppression and supervision
• Different types and brands of actuators can
be controlled using the DEGO III
• ASAC actuators are available from 70 Nm to
400 Nm
Figure 5: DEGO III programming aid
Figure 4: DEGO III programming aid – Speed Control Loop – Normal and Slow Mode
Propulsion applications
• Torque and smoke limits
• Slow mode function, reducing fuel
consumption and maintenance
• Multi engine configurations:
–– Master – slave or droop loadsharing
–– Loading and unloading programs
–– External load balance setting
176 | Energy efficiency guide
Generator control applications
• Soft start, reduced emissions, idle running
• Loading and unloading of engines
• Speed droop, isochronous and load control
modes of operation
• Fast response to load changes due to feed
forward feature
• Split bus bar operation
Energy efficiency guide | 177
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Optional
• Second actuator drives (VIT, V-bank)
• VIT – Variable Injection Timing - algorithm with
fuel setting
• 4-Channel multi-tacho system
• Cylinder lubrication control
• Critical RPM blocking and alarm
• Synchronized fuel pump control
• Misfire detection
• Shaft generator control
• Declutch control
• Engine and propeller synchronization
Figure 6: DEGO III governor control units QHFQ 11x,
QHFQ 552 and DEGO Aid
In isochronous mode, the load-sharing and
feed-forward system compensates for major
load changes, resulting in only minor changes
in frequency and load sharing, until the engine
itself forms a limitation. In addition, complex
bus bar configurations can be handled, even in
isochronous mode.
The speed droop mode provides a back-up
mode; in case of malfunctions in the system e.g.
power measurement or inter-communication.
In this mode, load sharing is accomplished
through modification of the speed settings.
The load control mode is used in the following
situations:
• Operation using a municipal grid
• Running of an engine on pre-defined power
e.g. after engine overhaul
• Turbine operation at a certain base-load
• During loading up and loading down of an
engine
In this mode the output power is pre-set from
en external source. A number of interlocks
provide a safeguard ensuring that load control
is possible. If a condition is suddenly lacking,
controlled transfer to isochronous mode occurs.
178 | Energy efficiency guide
Benefits
• Up to 28 control units can communicate with
each other and act as a single system
• Load and speed tuned/adopted PID regulator
with I-limit
• Guided commissioning and setup by means of
the comprehensive DEGO Aid software
• Different types of actuators – both electrohydraulic and electric – can be controlled
• VIT – Variable Injection Timing – algorithm with
fuel quality setting for achieving greater fuel
efficiency
Figure 7: ASAC 200 actuator
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oil limit
SPEED SETTING
CONTROL
RAMP
FUNCTION
+
-
MAX
LIMITS
TORQUE
SPEED MEASURING
MANUAL
SUMMA
FUNCTION
SPEED
<6%
FILTER
FILTER
FILTER
FILTER
FREQUENCY
CONVERTER
FREQUENCY
CONVERTER
FREQUENCY
CONVERTER
FREQUENCY
CONVERTER
FREQUENCY
DIVISION
FREQUENCY
DIVISION
FREQUENCY
DIVISION
FREQUENCY
DIVISION
PULSE
PICKUPS
ACTUATOR
BRAKE
MANUAL
>1
MONITOR
INTERNAL
POS
T
ALARM
FAILURE
To MAN/B&W MBD
PRESS.
TRANSM.
INC.
CURRENT
CONTROL
ACTUATOR
SPEED
+
ACTIVATION
WEIGHTING
POWER
STAGE
I-GAIN
ADAPTATION
FUEL
SMOKE
P-GAIN
D-GAIN
I-GAIN
TRACKING
POWER AMPLIFIER
P-GAIN
M
I
N
D-GAIN
I/D
MODE
SLOW
MODE
POSITION SERVO
P-GAIN
ZONE
M
MANUAL
DEC.
Figure 8: DEGO III – function block diagram
Benefits propulsion control
• Torque and smoke limits
• Slow mode function – reducing fuel
consumption and maintenance
• Excellent load-sharing in multi engine
applications
• Back-up control bypassing the governor in
fixed propeller applications
• Engine Synchronization
• Shaft Synchronization
Benefits generator control
• Soft start – reducing emissions
• Integrated synchronizing and power
management
• Fast response to load changes due to feed
forward action
• A special version – QHFQ 552 – is available
with an additional interface board, designed
for installations with minimum PMS functions
Savings and payback time
DEGO III not only reduces fuel consumption
and maintenance, creating savings in operating
costs, but also cuts exhaust emissions. Even
greater fuel efficiency can be achieved with
the optional VIT - Variable Injection Timing
algorithm. Controlling the timing of fuel injection
into the cylinder is the key to minimizing
the engine’s emissions and maximizing its
fuel efficiency. Bringing forward the start of
injection, results in higher in-cylinder pressure
and temperatures and greater efficiency.
However, it also creates elevated engine noise
and NOX emissions, due to higher combustion
temperatures.
Energy efficiency guide | 179
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6.18. Automatic voltage regulator
UNITROL 1010 and UNITROL 1020 are the latest automatic voltage regulators (AVR) in the
UNITROL 1000 product family, for generators and motors with exciters up to an output of 50
megawatts. These regulators set new standards in functionality, reliability and connectivity.
Benefits
• Stable and reliable control of your machine
– – Highly integrated and robust AVR for harsh
industrial environments. Stable and accurate
regulation, even with highly disturbed
voltages.
• AVR for various applications
– – Fully configurable I/Os and measurement
inputs, and user-specific configurable field
bus interface, enable easy plant integration.
• Easy operation, monitoring and maintenance
of the system
– – Intuitive and user-friendly commissioning
tool.
• Full support for grid codes
– – Built-in Power System Stabilizer (option),
simulation models and grid code studies
available.
• Efficient product life cycle management
– – Extended life time of your assets, with
minimum costs.
• Professional technical help always within your
reach
– – ABB’s global excitation service network.
Figure 1: Block diagram of UNITROL 1020
Hardware
The UNITROL 1010/1020 automatic voltage
regulator unit includes the most advanced
microprocessor technology, together with IGBT
semiconductor technology (Insulated Gate
Bipolar Transistor).
180 | Energy efficiency guide
The UNITROL 1010 provides a nominal
excitation current of up to 10 A, while the
UNITROL 1020 reaches 20 A.
Both devices are sufficiently vibration and
pollution resistant to be mounted directly inside
machines.
Energy efficiency guide | 181
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Basic
In addition to all of the functionality of the LIGHT
version, the BASIC version covers the following:
• Modbus TCP
• Rotating diode monitoring
• VDC mode: Reactive load sharing for up to 31
machines in island operation
• Dual channel/monitoring: Enables dual
channel operation based on self-diagnostics
Control software
The UNITROL 1000’s software includes all of
the functions necessary for modern excitation
systems. ABB offers three off-the-shelf software
packages.
Light
The LIGHT version covers essential functionality
for cost sensitive applications, where limited
software functionality is required.
• Regulator control modes: Bumpless transfer
between all modes
– – Automatic voltage regulator (AVR)
– – Field current regulator (FCR)
– – Power factor regulator (PF)
– – Reactive power regulator (VAR)
• Limiters: Keeping synchronous machines in a
safe and stable operation zone
– – Excitation current limiter (min./max.)
– – PQ minimum limiter
– – Machine current limiter
– – V/Hz limiter
– – Machine voltage limiter
• Voltage matching
Full
In addition to all of the functionality of the BASIC
version, the FULL version covers the following:
• Synchronization: Fast and reliable built-in
synchronizer.
• Event logger: Up to 500 events are stored in a
non-volatile memory.
• Data logger: A data log of 12 signals can
be saved automatically in the non-volatile
memory.
• Real-time clock: For accurate time stamped
events and data logs.
Figure 2: Software packages for UNITROL 1010/1020
Software function
Light
Basic
(Configurable SW)
Full
(Configurable SW)
Option
UNITROL 1010
UNITROL 1020
BASIC+
BASIC
BASIC+
FULL
FULL+
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Modbus TCP
•
•
•
•
•
•
Rotating diode monitoring
•
•
•
•
•
•
VDC mode
•
•
•
•
•
•
Dual channel / monitoring
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
LIGHT
BASIC
AVR/FCR/PF/VAR
•
Limiters
Voltage matching
Synchronization
SYNCHRONIZATION
PSS
•
•
•
•
Data logger
•
•
Real-time clock
•
•
182 | Energy efficiency guide
•
SYNCHRONIZATION
Event logger
Power system stabilizer
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•
Figure 3: Commissioning and maintenance tool CMT1000
Power System Stabilizer (PSS)
The FULL software version can be
complemented with the power system stabilizer
function. Compliant with standard IEEE 421.52005 2A / 2B, the PSS improves the stability
of the generator across the highest possible
operation range.
Commissioning and maintenance tool
CMT1000
CMT1000 is a commissioning and maintenance
tool for the UNITROL 1000 product family. This
tool is used to setup all parameters and tune
the PID, in order to guarantee stable operation.
The CMT1000 software enables the system’s
extensive supervision, which helps the user
to identify and locate problems during on-site
commissioning.
UNITROL 1000 products are designed for
compliance with worldwide grid codes,
guaranteeing reliable control of the machine,
even during heavy failure conditions on the
network.
In addition, UNITROL 1000 products set an
easy-operation benchmark for automatic voltage
regulators. PC-based commissioning, using the
SW CMT1000, enables the customer to shorten
commissioning times and focus on rapid
troubleshooting.
The CMT1000 is connected to the UNITROL
1000 via a USB or Ethernet port, whose
Ethernet connection allows remote access from
over 100 meters.
Energy efficiency guide | 183
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6.19. Two stroke diesel engine performance
monitoring
Cylmate® – a diesel engine performance
monitoring system
Bearing in mind the rising importance of
performance information, the Cylmate® System
is designed to provide the real-time information
required by electronically controlled engines,
for the optimization of engine operation through
closed loop control of the combustion process.
The Cylmate ® System introduces a new level of
engine performance management.
The Cylmate® System is a powerful tool,
developed by ABB for diesel engine performance
monitoring. This system, which fits both marine
and power plant applications, is designed to
withstand marine environmental conditions
and fulfills the requirements of classification
societies. Combustion pressure is measured,
Figure 1: Cylmate® System
continuously and in parallel, in each cylinder
under all load conditions. The Cylmate® analysis
and monitoring functions ensure avoidance of
the risk of mechanical or thermal overload of
individual cylinders, or of the engine itself. In
addition, cylinder conditions can be optimized
and the engine can easily be balanced and tuned
in order to improve its running performance.
With the Cylmate® System, you can reduce
maintenance and fuel costs – resulting in a short
payback time.
Cylmate® Pressure
Transducers, with a 5-year
warranty
The Cylmate® System is suitable for both newbuild and retrofit installations. An increasing
number of ship owners only require a shop test
to understand the advantage of using Cylmate®.
For the first time, live snapshot recordings and
logging of all engine and combustion data,
under all load conditions, are possible.
Cylmate ® system – key components
The Cylmate ® System consists of a Pressure
Transducer on each cylinder and an Angle
Transducer on the engine flywheel, all of which
are connected to the Cylmate ® Transducer
Bus. The Controller collects all measured
data within each engine working cycle, via
the Transducer Bus. In real time, a built-in
mathematical engine model computes the
crank shaft deflection, in order to identify the
correct TDC angle and piston position for all
cylinders. All combustion parameters, such as
Pmax, a-Pmax, Ptdc, MIP, Indicated Power, are
logged and monitored for each stroke and can
be displayed in trend diagrams. Any deviation
from normal performance is presented as an
alarm. Evaluated data, alarms and events
are transmitted, via an Ethernet LAN, to the
Cylmate ® Operator Station, as well as to
superior systems, if connected.
Save money by tuning and controlling
combustion pressure stroke-by-stroke.
Cylmate® Pressure Transducers used on
electronically controlled diesel engines enable
improved energy efficiency and lower the risk of
off-hire costs.
Figure 2: Cylmate® Pressure Transducer, with a 5-year
warranty
Cylmate ® pressure transducers, with 5-year
warranty
The unique and reliable Cylmate® Pressure
Transducer has proven its maintenance and
calibration-free performance during years of
continuous operation. Its measuring accuracy
is unaffected by clogging or heat flash from
combustion gases, a common problem for
membrane-based pressure transducers. For
the Cylmate ® Pressure Transducer, we give a
warranty period of 5 years.
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Pressure transducer used in
closed loop control applications
by main engine builders
Cylmate ® pressure transducers in closed
loop control applications
Cylmate ® Pressure Transducers can also be
used stand-alone and by engine builders
for the closed loop control of fuel injection.
Cylmate ® Pressure Transducers secure reliable
operation, stroke-by-stroke, year-after-year. The
maintenance and calibration-free performance
of the unique and reliable Cylmate® pressure
sensor has been proven in years of continuous
operation. 5 years warranty.
Recognized, verified and proven
Cylmate ® System has received the CIMAC
President’s award and is recognized as the
leading solution for engine performance
monitoring by ship owners, yards and engine
builders. Over the years, the Cylmate®
System has proven its outstanding reliability in
numerous installations, while its accuracy has
been demonstrated in engine shop tests.
Cylmate® pressure
transducers in closed loop
control applications
Benefits
• Reduced fuel consumption
• Performance monitoring 24/7 detects and
identifies errors in the engine at a very early
stage
• An optimized engine enables compliance with
environmental regulations
• An engine in good balance avoids thermal
and mechanical overloads by ensuring equal
power distribution between cylinders
• Pressure transducer used in the closed loop
control applications of main engine builders
• Alarm monitoring and trend data recording
provides information crucial to optimizing
maintenance costs
Savings and payback time
A well tuned and balanced engine consumes
less fuel. Using the ABB Cylmate® System, fuel
oil consumption can be reduced by around
1–2%, meaning a payback time of less than one
year.
Fuel oil consumption can be
reduced by around 1– 2%
Cylmate® pressure transducers can also be
used stand-alone, and in the closed loop
control of fuel injection by engine builders.
Cylmate ® pressure transducers secure
reliable operation, stroke-by-stroke, yearafter-year. The maintenance and calibrationfree performance of the unique and reliable
Cylmate ® pressure sensor has been proven
during years of continuous operation.
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7
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How to proceed
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7 How to proceed
The Ship Energy Efficiency Management
Plan (SEEMP) and ABB Marine Services
SEEMP provides a possible approach to
monitoring ship and fleet efficiency performance
over time, and some options to be considered
when seeking to optimize a ship’s performance.
In the case of SEEMP, the goal is to increase
energy efficiency, reduce total fuel costs and
lower emissions into the air.
ABB’s Energy Efficiency services, such as the
energy efficiency audit, provide a good start
in taking a systematic approach to increasing
awareness, as well as finding savings in the
places that make most sense to you. The
services created by ABB will fully support a ship
or company specific SEEMP plan.
While the ultimate operation of a ship involves
technical measures, services such as energy
efficiency audits and training play a key role in
achieving greater operational efficiency.
Energy Efficiency –
The Other Alternative Fuel
Fuel efficient
Optimized ship
Hull and
Machinery and
Improved
Energy
operation
handling
propulsion
equipment
Cargo
conservation
handling
and awareness
✔ Improved
✔ Optimum trim
✔ Hull resistance
✔ Propulsion
system
voyage planning
Summary
In the face of high bunker costs, soft freight
rates and the hefty price tag attached to
upcoming environmental regulations, a familiar
feeling is creeping into the decision-making
process: the feeling of being “damned if you do,
doomed if you don’t.”
Per-Anders Enkvist, associate partner with
McKinsey & Company, tells us that “For every
year you wait, you not only lose that year, but
you lock yourself into a high-carbon world for
the next 14 years to come.” In other words,
he explains, the expectation is that, across
various sectors, the average concentration of
greenhouse gas emissions will peak at 5 ppm
(parts per million) higher for every year we wait,
not at 2 or 3 ppm, which is the current annual
increase.
Because ships are built for a much longer
lifetime than 14 years, Enkvist’s example is easy
to place in the context of the maritime sector.
Every ship being built today will be operating
during what we hope will be the peak year for
greenhouse gas emissions.
Energy efficiency plays the most important role
in CO2 emission reductions, accounting for up
to 53% of overall such reductions.
Cargo handling ✔ Energy
optimization
Management
optimization
✘ Weather routing
Optimum ballast ✔ Propeller
management
✔ Just-in-time and ✔ Optimum
improved fleet
propeller and
management
propeller inflow
✔ Auxiliary engine
✔ Fuel type
systems
✔ Waste Heat
Recovery
✔ Use of
renewable
energy
considerations
✔ Speed
optimization
Optimum
use of rudder
✔ Auxiliary
systems
and heading
✔ Shore to ship
power when at
port
control systems
(autopilots)
✔ Optimized shaft
power
✔ ABB Marine have solution available to improve the energy efficiency in this area
✘ ABB Marine can provide a partner solution in delivery
190 | Energy efficiency guide
✔ Training and
awareness
ABB Marine and Cranes is represented in more than 20 countries globally. In each
region we have dedicated resources to energy efficiency and SEEMP implementation.
Please contact your local ABB Marine representative for more information.
www.abb.com/marine
Energy efficiency guide | 191
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Contributors and writers to the guide
Editorial Board
Heikki Bergman
Edward Carney
Henrique Pestana
Jan-Erik Räsänen
Alf Kåre Ådnanes
Project Manager
Pertti Jurva
Marketing and Communications
Miia Lintunen
Writers
Heikki Bergman
Tim Ellis
Robert Glass
Ton Haasdijk
Jukka Ignatius
Pertti Jurva
Lars O Karlsson
Eero Laakkonen
Jyrki Leino
Rudolf Moeckli
Gianluca Ormino
Henrique Pestana
Jacqueline Rolffs
Jan-Erik Räsänen
Niina Stenius
Andree Underthun
Jukka Varis
Markus Virtasalo
Klaus Vänskä
Kees de Waard
Frank Wendt
192 | Energy efficiency guide
Table of contents | Solutions/products | Passenger vessels | Dry Cargo vessels | Tankers | Oil & Gas | Work boats
Contact us
For further information, please visit
www.abb.com/marine
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