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School Food
Guidelines
The School Food Guidelines booklet is designed for school
administrators, caterers and other providers of school meals
and snacks. It includes information on the foods that are the
most healthy, nutritious and suitable for the students in your
school.
These guidelines are to be used alongside your official school
district nutrition policy. Your district’s policy statement will
determine how and when the full guidelines will be
implemented.
The companion binder, Healthy Students Healthy Schools
Resource Manual, contains information to help you develop
and administer your school’s policy.
For more information on the School Food
Guidelines contact your Regional nutritionist
through your school’s public health nurse.
Material from the following publications was used in preparation of these guidelines.
Eat Smart! School Program: www.eatsmart.web.net • Feeding the Future: School Nutrition Manual
www.calgaryhealthyregion.ca/schoolnutritionhandbook • Call to Action: Creating a Healthy School
Nutrition Environment: www.osnpph.on.ca • Healthy Schools, Healthy Children Nutrition Guidelines:
www.porcupinehu.on.ca/schools/school_health.html
Contents
2
3
TAKE THE GUESSWORK
OUT OF GOOD NUTRITION
6
HOW TO TIPS FOR HEALTHY EATING
9
INTRODUCING THE SERVE MOST/SERVE
MODERATELY SYSTEM
10
HEALTHY FOOD CHOICES FOR
OUR SCHOOLS CHART
14
HEALTHY IDEAS FOR ALL OCCASIONS
17
PREPARING FOOD SAFELY
CANADA’S FOOD GUIDE TO
HEALTHY EATING
• Basis of Canada’s Food Guide (CFG) ........................................................3
• Focus on the four Food Groups....................................................................3
• Be smart about servings .................................................................................4
• How to encourage eating more fruits and vegetables..........................6
• How to prepare lower fat foods...................................................................6
• How to read nutrition labels .........................................................................8
• Why did we classify the foods in this way? ..............................................9
• Rationale for Food Categories ....................................................................12
• Foods not included in the Serve Most/Moderately System..............13
•
•
•
•
Three cheers for healthy events!................................................................14
Quick fixes for healthy vending snacks ...................................................14
Snack Ideas.......................................................................................................15
Tasty Menu Math: Combination Dishes ..................................................16
• Food Safety Chart ...........................................................................................18
• PLUS the complete
Canada’s Food Guide to Healthy Eating ............................................19/20
1
Take the Guesswork Out of
Good Nutrition
nes
i
l
e
d
i
u
G
ay!
These
Use the Serve Most/Serve Moderately
System at Your School
Y
ou already know the importance of
healthy eating. You know that good
nutrition helps children and teenagers
grow, stay healthy and be active. You know it
helps prevent certain diseases, like type 2
diabetes, osteoporosis, heart disease, obesity,
dental cavities and some cancers. Plus, healthy
eating helps your students learn and do well in
school!
Use ere, Every D
Everywh
nacks
and s
ing
t, lunch
s
a
f
k
nd vend
a
a
e
r
n
b
e
r
e
o
t
◆F
ria, can
e cafete
h
t
In
◆
etings
es
ncil me
u
o
c
machin
l
o
ations
o
l celebr
and sch
o
f
f
o
a
h
t
c
s
s
t
◆A
nts and
ms
orts eve
p
s
t
lassroo
c
A
d
◆
n
a
s
ff room
ies
thers
◆ In sta
g activit
in
is
a
get-toge
r
d
y
n
it
u
n
f
u
r
◆ Fo
d comm
arent an
p
r
o
F
◆
But how do you make sure the students at
your school are getting the healthiest foods
possible every day?
Good news! We’ve taken the guesswork out of
good nutrition with the Serve Most/Serve
Moderately System, based on Canada’s Food
Guide to Healthy Eating (CFG). The system is
a complete, detailed set of food guidelines for
every serving situation in your school, from
cafeteria menus to vending machine snacks
and more.
We’ve taken foods commonly served or sold in
schools, and grouped them according to their
nutritional value. We’ve listed dozens of food
choices from all four food groups in a
colourful centrefold chart.
At last, healthy ideas are always close at hand!
It’s never been easier for your entire school
community to eat well and stay healthy…
now and for life!
2
Food Allergies
Food guidelin
es in this boo
klet are
general. Som
e restrictions o
n foods
offered in a sc
hool will be n
ecessary if
there is a stud
ent with a life
threatening
food allergy at
tending the sc
h
ool. Check
with the scho
ol principal fo
r guidelines o
policy regardin
r
g food allergie
s.
Yo
u
r
public health
nurse may also
be able to
offer advice an
d assistance o
n maintaining
an allergy awar
e environmen
t.
Canada’s Food Guide to
Healthy Eating (CFG)
Basis of CFG
Canada’s Food
Guide to Health
y Eating is bas
on five core gu
ed
idelines. They
ar
e
the key
messages for h
ealthy Canadia
ns over two ye
of age:
ars
1 Enjoy a VAR
IETY of foods.
2 Emphasize ce
reals, breads, o
ther grain
products, vege
tables and fruit.
3 Choose low
er-fat dairy pro
ducts, leaner
meats and foo
ds prepared w
ith little or no
4 Achieve and
fat.
maintain a hea
lth
y body weight
by enjoying re
gular physical
activity and
healthy eating.
5 Limit salt, al
cohol and caff
eine.
T
he Serve Most/Serve Moderately System is
based on Canada’s Food Guide to Healthy
Eating. With its four food groups and endless
healthy possibilities, Canada’s Food Guide is still
the country’s best resource for helping you make
great healthy food choices every day. At home
and in school, you can use the familiar rainbow
guide to create healthy menus for breakfast,
lunch, dinner and snack times.
Remember: no one food provides all of the
nutrients needed for good health. Bananas, for
example, contain potassium, but little iron.
Cooked, dried beans contain iron but no vitamin
C. So mix it up before you serve it up! Use CFG
to create great flavour and nutritious
combinations to get your students and staff
excited about healthy eating today!
Focus on the Four Food Groups
Grain Products
Whole grains provide dietary fibre that is
important for keeping regular and for possibly
helping to prevent certain types of cancer.
Whole grain and enriched grain products
provide energy, iron and some B vitamins. It is
important to make lower fat choices from the
Grain Products group more often.
Note: Check “How to Read Nutrition Labels”
on page 8 to see a sample Nutrition Facts
panel that shows the amount of fat and other
nutrients in a serving.
Vegetables and Fruit
Key nutrients found in this food group are fibre,
vitamin A, vitamin C, folate, iron and
magnesium. We can enjoy fresh, frozen, canned
or dried fruits and vegetables and 100% fruit
and vegetable juices, for meals and snacks.
Canada’s Food Guide to Healthy Eating
recommends that we choose dark green and
orange vegetables more often.
Note: Check “How to Encourage Eating More
Fruits and Vegetables” on page 6.
You’ll find a copy of Canada’s Food Guide (CFG)
to Healthy Eating in the back of this booklet.
3
Milk Products
Children, youth and adults need the calcium
and other nutrients provided by choices from
this food group. Milk Products such as lower
fat white or chocolate milk, lower fat yogurts
and lower fat cheeses are easy recess and
meal choices to offer at school. Milk and
yogurt with a fat content of 2% or less MF
(milk fat) and cheeses with 20% or less MF
are considered lower fat milk products. The
School Milk Program at your school provides
an easy and economical way for students to
get some of those milk servings.
Meat and Alternatives
Canada’s Food Guide to Healthy Eating
recommends that we choose leaner meats,
poultry and fish, as well as dried peas, beans
and lentils more often. Foods in the Meat and
Alternatives food group provide protein, iron
and other nutrients. The fat content of meats
varies widely. Processed meats such as
salami, bologna, pepperoni, wieners, etc. are
higher fat, higher salt foods. Fish, poultry and
lean cuts of beef, pork and lamb are better
choices (cooked with little or no added fat).
Serve meat alternatives such as dried peas,
beans and lentils more often.
Note: Check “Tasty Menu Math” on page 16
and ”How to Prepare Lower Fat Foods” on
page 6 for ideas.
4
“Other Foods”
“Other Foods” do not fit into any of the four
food groups. They are either high in fat, sugar
and/or salt and/or have little or no nutritional
value. Examples of foods that are all or mostly
fat are oil, butter, margarine, lard, shortening,
mayonnaise and regular salad dressing.
Some foods that are mostly sugar are candy,
soft drinks, slushies and fruit drinks.
Some foods high in fat and also salt are
potato chips, corn chips and cheezies.
Some “Other Foods” can be used in small
amounts to add flavour and enjoyment to
meals and snacks. They include herbs, spices
and condiments like ketchup, pickles and relish.
Most “Other Foods” should not be used often
because they provide fewer of the nutrients
needed for growth and development. These
foods can fill children’s stomachs so that they
do not have room for the nutritious foods they
need.
Water
Water is not counted as part of any of the
four food groups, so Health Canada’s 1997
“Using the Food Guide” places it in “Other
Foods”. But water itself is a nutrient, and
thus is an important part of healthy eating.
“Using the Food Guide” states: “Always
satisfy your thirst.
Choose water
often and
be sure to drink
more in hot
weather or
when you are
very active.”
Be Smart About Servings
Knowing how much to eat from each food
group is key. The number of servings needed
depends on your age, body size, activity level,
whether you are male or female and if you are
pregnant or breastfeeding. Canada’s Food
Guide to Healthy Eating recommends the
number of servings we should have every day
from each food group.
But what does it mean by “a serving”? Unless
you are told certain measurements like cups
and tablespoons, or sizes like medium or large,
or amounts like 1 or 2, a serving could be any
amount you choose. You may choose more
food than you need or less than you need. At
other times you may be given oversized
servings of food. If you eat more than your
body needs for the activities in your day, you
store the extra energy (calories) as body fat. If
you eat less, you do not have the energy or
vitality to enjoy your daily activities. Canada’s
Food Guide to Healthy Eating includes
information on the portion or amount of food
in a serving.
group”. If we know the size of 1 serving, for
example 2 – 3 oz of lean meat or 1 cup of
beans, it will help with planning the amounts
of food that need to be prepared for the
school meal. A parent can use the
information to see what food groups and how
many servings s/he is providing in her/his
child’s lunch consisting of a tuna sandwich, an
orange and a milk.
How can we use information
on serving size?
A school healthy eating policy may state that
meals offered to students should contain “1
serving from the Meat and Alternatives food
SUGGESTIONS FOR HOW MUCH TO EAT AT SCHOOL
FOOD GROUPS
GRAIN PRODUCTS
Choose whole grain and
enriched products more
often
VEGETABLES
AND FRUIT
Choose dark green and
orange vegetables and
orange fruit more often
MILK PRODUCTS *
Choose lower fat milk
products more often
MEAT AND
ALTERNATIVES
Choose leaner meats,
poultry and fish, as well
as dried peas, beans and
lentils more often
Recommended number of servings per day from each food group in Canada’s Food Guide to Healthy Eating
5 - 12
5 - 10
2 – 4*
2–3
Below is a suggested number of servings, during school hours, from each food group, depending on
age and activity level (healthy food choices can be from home, canteen and/or cafeteria)
2-4
2-4
1–2
1
*In the Milk Products food group, children 4 – 9 years need 2 – 3 servings per day, youth 10 – 16 years need 3 – 4
servings per day and adults need 2 – 4 servings per day. Pregnant and breastfeeding women need 3 – 4 servings per
day.
(See Canada’s Food Guide to Healthy Eating for serving sizes)
5
“How To” Tips for Healthy Eating
P
roviding healthy choices in your school doesn’t
have to be a challenge. The Serve Most/Serve
Moderately System is a great way to stay on track.
Now here are some “How To” tips to help you, your
students and your staff make healthier food choices
every day.
HOW TO ENCOURAGE EATING MORE FRUITS
AND VEGETABLES
◆ Offer 100% fruit juice or vegetable juice, for example
– apple, orange, grapefruit, pineapple, tomato, V/8.
One Vegetables and Fruit group serving of juice is 1/2
cup. Some single serve containers may give more
than 1 serving.
◆ Include a vegetable and/or fruit as part of any daily
special meal offer.
◆ Offer a fresh fruit or raw vegetable or canned fruit
cup in the school canteen and cafeteria.
◆ Offer 100% fruit juices and fruit cups in the
vending machine.
◆ Set up a salad bar - start with once per month or
once per week.
◆ Try new vegetables like baked sweet potato,
vegetable stir fry (Chinese cabbage or bok choy, bean
sprouts, peppers, etc.), spinach salad with low fat
dressings and toppings, etc.
6
◆ Offer homemade vegetable soups that
provide 1-2 servings from the Vegetables
and Fruit food group.
HOW TO PREPARE LOWER FAT FOODS
These tips can be used by your school food
committee, your school caterer or at home
when planning meals:
◆ Cook with little or no added fat, where
possible – use a non-stick fry pan or grill
or lightly spray with cooking oil.
◆ Meat, fish and poultry can be poached,
steamed, stewed, baked, roasted, broiled,
barbequed or grilled without added fat.
◆ Keep meat, fish and poultry portions
between 2 – 3 ounces, which is equal to 1
serving of the Meat and Alternatives food
group.
◆ Use leaner cuts of meat and drain any fat
that comes off when cooking.
◆ Trim off all visible fat on meat and skin on
poultry.
◆ Use low fat/low calorie sauces for flavouring
or prepare a low fat gravy.
◆ Use low fat salad dressings.
◆ Use smaller amounts of lower fat salad
dressing in sandwiches and sandwich fillings
like egg, tuna, chicken salad, etc.
◆ If refrigeration space and cooling pans are
available, make soups and stews a day
ahead, chill, and before reheating, remove
any fat that has hardened on top.
◆ Serve meat alternatives such as baked beans
or homemade pea soup (only small amounts
ham or salt beef), bean burritos,
vegetable/lentil/barley soup more often.
◆ Serve vegetables without creamy sauces or
added butter or margarine.
◆ Mash potato with lower fat milk and only a
small amount of non-hydrogenated
margarine.
◆ Offer baked potatoes in place of French fries
and include special toppings like salsa, lower
◆
◆
◆
◆
fat sour cream or sprinkling of lower fat
cheese and/or vegetarian “bacon” bits.
Use “home prepared” oven baked, seasoned
potato strips or wedges.
Serve salad dressings on the side. Use low
fat/fat-free salad dressings.
If coleslaw is mixed before serving, use
smaller amounts of low fat dressing.
If a recipe calls for shortening or lard, replace
with non-hydrogenated margarine or oil. (This
tip doesn’t lower the amount of fat in the
recipe, but it makes it a better kind of fat.)
Tasty Tip
Washed fruits
and vegetable
s are easier
for children to
eat if they are
cut into
portions. Try o
range wedges,
melon
wedges, a sm
all bunch or co
ntainer of
grapes, 1/2 ban
ana, carrot co
ins or sticks,
turnip sticks, ce
lery sticks, zucc
hini rings or
sticks, brocco
li or cauliflower
pieces (with
low fat dip, if
desired).
7
HOW TO READ
NUTRITION LABELS
Did you know Canada has a new system for
providing nutrition information on food labels?
By 2006 most prepackaged foods will have
Nutrition Facts panels so that nutrition
information on the food is easier to find and
easier to read. Consumers can compare
similar foods and make wise food choices.
The Nutrition Facts are based on a specific
amount of food – the “serving” or “serving size”.
The serving size is shown by the word "per"
The
Serving
Size
The Nutrition
Facts label lists
Calories (energy)
& 13 core
nutrients. Some
labels may
list more.
8
followed by the amount in the serving, for
example, “125 mL” or “1/2 cup” or “90 grams”
or “3 crackers” or “I (single) package”, etc. It is
important to remember the serving size when
you read the information on the label and
compare the food to another food. The
information on the label is only for that amount
or serving of food.
Use the information on the Nutrition Facts label
to compare the fibre and sugar content of
breakfast cereals. Remember to check the
serving size first! The label is also handy for
checking on the nutrient value of snack foods.
The % Daily
Value tells you
at a glance if there
is a lot or
a little of a
nutrient in that
serving size of
the food.
The number
after the nutrient
is the actual
amount of the
nutrient in that
serving size of the
food. Even if the
amount of
nutrient is zero,
it is listed.
Introducing the Serve
Most/Serve Moderately System
C
anada’s Food Guide to Healthy Eating
can help you make the best food
choices for your school. Sometimes it is
easy to decide if a food is nutritious, but
sometimes it is not as easy. Even some
nutritious foods have higher amounts of fat,
sugar and/or salt. It is helpful to have
guidelines so you can make better choices.
That’s where the Serve Most/Serve Moderately
system comes in.
The main centerfold in this booklet lists foods
commonly served at school.
Why did we classify foods in this way?
This page gives general information on why
foods have been put in the different categories
of “Serve Most” and “Serve Moderately.” The
chart on page 12 gives more detailed
explanations about some specific foods.
Each food belongs to one of the four food
groups. It is then further classified into one of
two categories:
Serve Most
Serve Moderately
SERVE MOST/SERVE MODERATELY
All foods served or sold in school must come from the “Serve Most/Serve
Moderately” categories, with the majority of items (greater than 50%) from the
“Serve Most” category for each food group on a daily basis.
SERVE MOST
SERVE MODERATELY
These foods are:
◆ generally low in added fat and/or
sugar and/or salt
◆ sources of nutrients (e.g. vitamins,
minerals, protein and fibre)
◆ found within one of the four food
groups of CFG
◆ whole grains, vegetables and fruit,
lower fat milk products and lean
meats and alternatives
These foods are:
◆ sometimes lower in fibre and/or higher in fat,
sugar, salt and/or calories, generally as a result
of processing. Some of these foods are difficult
to classify because of the differences in brands
and/or their method of preparation and the
portion size offered (e.g. commercial cake-style
muffin vs. whole grain muffin with reduced fat
and sugar)
◆ sources of nutrients (e.g. vitamins, minerals and
protein but generally lower in fibre)
◆ found within one of the four food groups of CFG
9
Healthy Food Choic
Grain Products
Samples of 1 serving are 1 slice of bread,
1/2 cup/125 mL cooked spaghetti or 1/2 bagel
Serve Most
◆ Whole grain:
- Bread
- Roll/bun
- English muffin
- Bagel
- Pita bread
* 6 g sugar or less and at least 2 g fibre/standard serving (check label)
Serve Moderately
◆
◆
◆
◆
◆
◆
◆
◆
◆
◆
◆
◆
◆
◆
◆
◆
◆
◆
**
Samples of 1 serving are 1 medium apple or potato,
1/2 cup/125 mL 100% juice or 1/2 cup/125 mL vegetable
Serve Most
- Tortilla
- Crackers (3 g fat or
less/20 g serving)
- Macaroni/pasta shapes/
noodles/spaghetti,
whole grain - cooked
◆ Cereal *, cold/ready-to-eat
◆ Cereal *, hot/cooked
◆ Rice, whole grain/brown
- boiled or steamed
◆ Enriched, white:
- Bread
- Roll/bun
- English muffin
- Bagel
- Pita bread
Vegetables & Fruit
- Tortilla
- Crackers (5 g fat or less/
20 g serving)
- Macaroni/pasta shapes/
noodles/spaghetti - cooked
◆ Potato, baked, boiled, or mashed with little or
no added fat
◆ Sweet potato, baked
◆ Vegetables, fresh or frozen
◆ Vegetables, canned
◆ Vegetables, stir fried with little or no added fat
◆ Vegetable soup, homemade, (
if made with canned
soup or dry soup mix/base)
◆ Fruit, fresh or frozen, unsweetened
◆ Fruit, canned in juice
◆ Applesauce/fruit blends, unsweetened
◆ Juice, 100% fruit or vegetable juices, unsweetened
◆ Frozen fruit juice bar (100% fruit juice,
unsweetened)
◆ Salad (tossed, coleslaw, any fruit or vegetable), low fat
dressing
◆ Dried fruit
◆ Fruit leather or fruit/vegetable bar (100% dried fruit
and/or vegetable, no sugar added)
Serve Moderately
Cereal**, cold/ready-to-eat and not sugar coated
◆ Salsa
(brands vary; check the label; if not over 480 mg
Cereal**, hot/cooked
sodium per 1/2 cup, would be classified in the Serve Most
Rice, converted/parboiled or enriched - boiled or steamed
category)
Fried rice
◆ Vegetable Soup, canned
Taco shell, baked, not fried
◆ French fries
100 g or 3 oz.
Barley
◆ Hash browns
85 g or 21/2oz. or 1/2cup or 2 patties
Brewis (no fat)
◆ Vegetables in cream sauces
Bread stuffing
◆ Fruit, canned in light syrup
Bread sticks/Melba toast
◆ Juices, 100% fruit juices, sweetened
Tea biscuit, small
Pancakes/waffles
Touton, small
These foods are higher in salt/sodium and are found
Muffin, high fibre, low fat,
mainly in the Serve Moderately category. If a food in
small to medium
Serve Most is marked with this symbol, because it has
Graham crackers
been prepared in a certain way, then that product
Rice cakes
would be moved to Serve Moderately.
Popcorn, plain or light
These foods are higher in fat, so it is recommended
Pretzels
that schools offer no more than 1 choice per food
Cereal/granola bars, not dipped
group per week of these foods.
(5 g fat or less per bar)
Check with your school
These foods are sweet and tend to stick to teeth,
for guidelines and policies
6 g sugar or less/standard serving
increasing the risk of tooth decay unless teeth are
(check label)
brushed soon after the food is eaten. When these
foods are eaten with meals, rather than snacks, the
risk of tooth decay is lower.
CAUTION
FOOD
ALLERGIES
ces for Our Schools
Milk Products
Samples of 1 serving are 1 cup/250 mL milk (any kind),
3/4 cup/175 mL yogurt or 2 cheese slices
Serve Most
Serve Most
◆ Milk, white, 2% or less MF
◆ Yogurt, 2% or less MF, 14g sugar or less
◆ Cheese, hard, lower fat (20% or less MF) such as
cheddar, mozzarella, swiss, parmesan
◆ Cheese strings, 20% or less MF
◆ Soup, made with milk, 2% or less MF, (
if made
with canned soup or dry soup mix/base)
◆ Smoothies, commercial or homemade (2% or
less MF white milk or unsweetened yogurt
blended with unsweetened fruit)
◆ Dried peas, beans, lentils cooked or canned,
(
if canned)
◆ Baked beans, (
if canned)
◆ Pea soup, (
if made with ham or salt meat)
◆ Beef, pork, lamb, chicken or turkey (skinless),
lean - baked, grilled, roasted, stir fried
◆ Beef, ground, lean
◆ Hamburger pattie (lean meat)
◆ Chicken leg or breast (skinless), baked or grilled
(not battered or fried)
◆ Pre-sliced meat - chicken, turkey, beef
◆ Fish, fresh or frozen, baked or grilled (not battered or fried)
◆ Tuna or salmon, canned in water
◆ Eggs, poached, hard cooked, or scrambled with
little or no added fat
◆ Peanut butter
◆ Nuts and seeds (
if salted)
◆ Vegetarian meat substitute
◆ Tofu
Serve Moderately
◆
◆
◆
◆
◆
◆
◆
◆
◆
◆
◆
◆
◆
◆
◆
◆
◆
◆
◆
Milk, white, 3.5% MF whole, homogenized
Milk, flavoured, 2% or less MF, 35g sugar or less
Hot chocolate, made with milk, 2% or less MF
Hot chocolate, made with water from instant
mix (has less calcium than hot chocolate to which
you add your own milk)
Yogurt, 2% or less MF, 14g sugar or greater
Yogurt & yogurt drinks sweetened, 2% or less MF
Yogurt tubes
Cheese, regular (higher fat, more than 20% MF)
Cheese slices, processed
Cheese spread
Cheese, cottage, 2% or less MF
Smoothies, commercial or homemade, sweetened
Soy beverages, calcium fortified
Milk puddings (low fat types are preferred)
Custard
Ice milk or soft serve
Frozen yogurt
Ice cream, low fat or fat free (without added candy,
cookie pieces, etc.)
Ice cream, plain (without added candy, cookie
pieces, etc.)
Other Foods
Other Foods do not belong in any of the four
food groups, and some are higher in fat, sugar,
salt and/or calories. When eaten in moderation,
foods in the "Suitable for Use in Small Amounts"
category can add interest to meals without adding
too much extra fat and/or sugar and/or salt.
Meat & Alternatives
Samples of 1 serving are 2 to 3 oz (50 to 100 g) cooked meat or
fish, 1 or 2 eggs or 1 cup/250 mL cooked dried beans or lentils
Serve Moderately
◆
◆
◆
◆
◆
◆
◆
◆
◆
◆
◆
◆
Ham
Corned beef/pastrami
Pre-sliced meat - lean ham , back bacon
Meats, canned, flaked (sodium-reduced types are preferred)
Wieners
Pepperoni stick/hot rods
Sausages
Processed meats like bologna, salami, pepperoni,
etc. (fat-reduced types are preferred)
Bacon
Chicken wings
Eggs, fried or devilled
Meat, fish, poultry, fried
SUITABLE ANYTIME
◆ Water ◆ Herbs
& spices
SUITABLE FOR USE IN SMALL AMOUNTS
◆
◆
◆
◆
Honey, jam, jelly – 1 tbsp/15 mL
Syrups – 2 tbsp/30 mL
Whipped cream – 1-2 tbsp/15-30 mL
Non-dairy whipped toppings
– 1-2 tbsp/15-30 mL
◆ Butter – 1 tsp/5 mL
◆ Ketchup, mustard 1-2 tbsp/15-30 mL
◆ Relish, pickles – 1-2 tbsp/15-30 mL
◆ Margarine (non-hydrogenated) – 1 tsp/5 mL
◆ Sour cream (low fat) – 2 tbsp/30 mL
◆ Mayonnaise-type dressing (low fat)
1-2 tsp/5-10 mL
◆ Cream cheese (low fat) – 2 tbsp/30 mL
◆ Salad dressing (low fat) – 2 tbsp/30 mL
◆ Gravy, lower fat, homemade,
canned or powdered – 2 tbsp/30 mL
Rationale for Food Categories
Here is more general information on why foods have been put in the
different categories of “Serve Most” and “Serve Moderately”. This chart also
gives more detailed explanations about some specific foods.
GRAIN PRODUCTS
◆ grain products in the
“Serve Most” list are
whole grain and provide
a source of fibre (at
least 2 g/standard
serving) and are low fat
(3 g or less/standard
serving).
◆ cereals, cold/readyto-eat (RTE), or
hot/cooked, in the
“Serve Most” list should
contain at least 2 g
fibre, and no more than
6 g sugar/standard
serving (30 g serving for
cold cereals)
◆ cereals, cold/ready-toeat (RTE), or
hot/cooked, in the
“Serve Moderately” list
contain less than 2 g
fibre/standard serving,
but should contain no
more than 6 g
sugar/standard serving
(30 g serving for cold
cereals).
12
VEGETABLES
AND FRUIT
◆ dried fruits, e.g. raisins,
stick to the teeth and are
best eaten as part of a
meal, rather than at snack
time.
◆ French fries and hash
browns are high in total
fat, so it is recommended
that schools offer no more
than 1 choice of these
foods, once per week.
French fries that come
frozen, ready for oven
heating, have already been
deep fat fried and should
be baked/heated in the
oven instead of a deep fat
fryer.
◆ 100% juice is indicated on
the label by the words
“juice”, “concentrated juice”
(e.g. “frozen concentrated
orange juice”) or “juice
from concentrate” (e.g.
“apple juice from
concentrate”).
◆ “fruit” drinks, ades,
cocktails, beverages and
punches are not included
because they contain
additional sugars, water
and flavourings which are
not present in 100% fruit
juice.
◆ juice serving size should
be limited to 250 mL,
which is equal to 2
servings from the
Vegetables and Fruit group,
or 125 mL which is equal
to 1 serving.
MILK PRODUCTS
◆ “MF” means “milk fat”.
◆ milk products in the
“Serve Most” list are
sources of calcium and
are lower in fat per
serving.
◆ milk products in the
“Serve Moderately” list
are higher in fat and/or
sugar but are still
sources of calcium (e.g.
chocolate milk, part of
the school milk program,
has the same nutrients
as white milk, but
contains added sugar
and flavouring, and thus
is in the “Serve
Moderately” list).
◆ cream cheese does not
provide as much calcium
as other types of cheese,
and is a higher fat
cheese, and is therefore
not included in this food
group.
◆ cottage cheese is not a
significant source of
calcium, but does
provide other important
milk nutrients and is
lower in fat; it is included
in the “Serve Moderately”
list.
◆ the serving size for milk
is 1 cup (250 mL).
◆ the serving size for
cheese is 11/2 oz/50 g/
50 mL, or 2 regular
cheese slices.
◆ the serving size for
yogurt is 3/4 cup (175 g/
175 mL).
MEAT AND
ALTERNATIVES
◆ meat product items in
the “Serve Most” list
are good sources of
protein and other
nutrients and are lower
in fat.
◆ meat product items in
the “Serve
Moderately” list are
foods that are generally
higher in fat and/or
salt, but do provide
some of the nutrients
found in the Meat and
Alternatives food group.
◆ nuts and seeds are
high in fat, but also
provide important
nutrients; limit serving
size to 1/4 cup/2 oz./
50 mL.
◆ if the sodium content
of a food is greater
than 480 mg per
standard serving,
it is indicated by
◆ recommended daily
Upper Limit intake of
sodium for children
aged 4 to 8 years is
1900 mg and for
children aged 9 to 13
years is 2200 mg
(teens & adults is 2300
mg/day).
Foods That are Not Included
in the Serve Most/Serve
Moderately System
T
hese foods are generally low in nutrients
and may be high in fat, sugar, salt,
caffeine and/or calories. They tend to be
highly processed foods that often are deep fat
fried, or are high in hydrogenated/trans fats.
These foods do not contribute to a healthy
school nutrition environment.
◆ Banana chips (dried)
◆ Battered & fried or breaded & fried
meats, fish and poultry e.g. fish nuggets or
sticks, chicken nuggets, pogo sticks
◆ Battered & fried or breaded & fried
vegetable products e.g. onion rings
◆ Cakes/cupcakes
◆ Candy, chocolate bars, gum
◆ Cereals (more than 6 g sugar/
standard serving)
◆ Cheese puffs and other cheese
flavoured crisps
◆ Cookies
◆ Crackers (more than 5 g fat/20 g serving)
◆ Croissants
◆ Eggnogs
◆ Egg rolls
◆ Energy bars or meal replacement bars
◆ Energy drinks
◆ “Fruit” drinks, ades, cocktails, beverages
and punches
◆ Fruit gels/jelly dessert
◆ Granola bars, dipped
◆ Ice cream treats, with added candy, cookie
pieces, etc.
◆ Instant dry soup mixes and single serve
soup mixes
◆ Instant noodles
◆ Marshmallows
◆ Milkshakes
◆ Pastries, donuts, pies
◆ Popcorn, sweetened or buttered
◆ Popsicles
◆ Potato chips/corn chips/wheat chips,
more than 3g fat per 60g serving
◆ Potted meat
◆ Scrunchions
◆ Sesame snaps
◆ Sherbet
◆ Soft drinks/diet soft drinks (pop)
◆ Sports drinks
◆ Tea, coffee, iced tea
13
Healthy Ideas for All Occasions
THREE CHEERS FOR HEALTHY EVENTS!
I
f it’s time to show some school spirit, it’s
also time to show your healthy spirit! When
your school gets together to celebrate or
connect with the community, be sure to
always serve healthy snacks and beverages.
Need some ideas? Just take a look at the easy,
nutritious choices on this list, and add them to
the agenda at your next sports event, parentteacher meeting, student or school council
meeting. They’re also great for concerts,
special lunch days or special snack days.
◆
◆
◆
◆
◆
◆
◆
◆
◆
◆
◆
◆
◆
◆
◆
◆
◆
◆
◆
◆
◆
◆
Vegetable trays with low fat dip
Fruit trays, with or without low fat dip
Low fat regular or mini muffins
Pretzels
Popcorn, light
Bread sticks
Whole grain bagels, plain or toasted
Whole grain breads, plain or toasted –
try new types like rye, pumpernickel
Sandwiches made with
different whole grain breads
CAUTION
Pita pockets
FOOD
Wraps
ALLERGIES
Pizza wedges or mini pizzas Check with your school
for guidelines and policies
try vegetable or Hawaiian
(rather than salami/
pepperoni), and use lower fat cheese
Seeds – sunflower or pumpkin
Nuts (
if salted)
Cheese cubes or strings
(20% or less MF)
Yogurt (2% or less MF)
Yogurt tubes (2% or less MF)
Yogurt drinks (2% or less MF)
Fruit or vegetable juices, 100%
Fruit leather or fruit/vegetable bars,
100% dried fruit and/or vegetable,
no sugar added
Water
Milk, white or flavoured, 2% or less MF
14
◆ Hot chocolate, made with 2% or
less MF milk
◆ Smoothies (2% or less MF milk or yogurt
blended with fruit chunks)
◆ Salad bar (offer a variety of vegetables and
salads, dips)
◆ Potato, white or sweet, baked, with lower
fat topping (e.g. salsa, light sour cream)
◆ Meatballs, lean meat, in low fat sauce
QUICK FIXES FOR HEALTHY
VENDING SNACKS
Think you can’t get a nutritious snack from a vending
machine? Think again! It’s easy to junk the junk food
and fill them up with some of these healthy choices.
Talk to your vendor about the options available to your
school.
Check “Snack Ideas” on page 15 for more foods that
can be adapted for use in vending machines.
◆
◆
◆
◆
◆
◆
◆
◆
◆
◆
Bottled water
Vegetable and fruit (100%) juices
Individual fruit cups (unsweetened)
Cheese snack packs with pretzels or
bread sticks
Individual packages of melba toast, low fat
crackers and bread sticks
Cereal bars (lower fat)
Granola bars (lower fat)
Nuts and/or seeds (
if salted)
Pretzels
Fruit leather or fruit/vegetable bars,
100% fruit and/or vegetable, no sugar added
These foods are higher in salt/sodium
These foods are sweet and tend to stick to teeth, increasing the risk
of tooth decay unless teeth are brushed soon after the food is eaten.
When these foods are eaten with meals, rather than snacks, the risk
of tooth decay is lower.
Snack Ideas
Snacks
Use the Serve Most/Serve
Moderately System for Healthy
Snack Choices, Too!
Snack foods are an important part
of the food a child eats in a day
and should be as nourishing as
the foods offered for school
breakfast and lunch. It is
important to note that many of the
extra calories in traditional snack
foods come from added fat.
Children and youth should be
given the opportunity to make
healthier lower fat snack choices.
Snack foods should come from the
“Serve Most Snacks” or “Serve
Moderately Snacks” lists. The
majority should come from “Serve
Most Snacks”.
The following ideas are suitable for
snacks in canteens and some are
suitable for vending machines.
These snacks can also be offered
at special occasion events. The
serving size is not listed, but it is
better to provide the smaller
portioned products.
Note: Check the label* on the
food package to determine the
amount of fat and sodium per
serving.
(*See “How to Read Nutrition
Labels” on page 8).
Snacks with this
symbol are
CAUTION
higher in
FOOD
sodium/salt.
ALLERGIES
Check with your school
for guidelines and policies
SERVE MOST
SERVE MODERATELY
GRAIN PRODUCTS
◆ Cereal, cold/ready-to-eat 6 g
sugar or less and at least 2 g
fibre/standard serving (check
label)
◆ Cereal, hot/cooked 6 g sugar or
less and at least 2 g fibre/
standard serving (check label)
◆ Crackers, whole grain, low fat
◆ Popcorn (air popped/light
microwavable)
◆ English muffin or 1/2 bagel
whole grain, plain or toasted
GRAIN PRODUCTS
◆ Cereal, cold/ready-to-eat 6 g sugar
or less/standard serving (check label)
◆ Cereal, hot/cooked 6 g sugar or
less/standard serving (check label)
◆ Cereal bar/Granola bar (lower fat
and non-dipped)
◆ Tea biscuit or scone, small
◆ Touton
◆ Muffin, lower fat, including low fat
mix
◆ Waffle, frozen
◆ Bread sticks
◆ Cereal/pretzel mix
◆ Rice cakes, rice crackers
◆ Pretzels, hard or soft
◆ Cheese snack packs with pretzels
or bread sticks
◆ English muffin or 1/2 bagel
enriched white, plain or toasted
These foods have nutritional value
and can be served as snacks
anytime. To be included in the
“Serve Most Snacks” list, a grain
product should contain 3 grams or
less of fat per standard serving size.
VEGETABLES AND FRUIT
◆ Juice, 100% fruit or vegetable
juices, unsweetened
◆ Frozen 100% juice bars,
unsweetened
◆ Fruit, fresh – whole or cut in
cubes/slices, with or without low
fat dip
◆ Fruit, canned in juice
◆ Applesauce/fruit blends,
unsweetened
◆ Vegetables, cut in circles, strips,
flowerettes, etc.
◆ Vegetables and lower fat dip
These foods have nutritional value but are
higher in fat and/or sugar and/or salt.
Use as snacks less often. To be included in
the “Serve Moderately Snacks” list, a grain
product should contain no more than 5
grams of fat per standard serving size.
VEGETABLES AND FRUIT
◆ Juice, 100% fruit or vegetable,
sweetened
◆ Fruit, canned in light syrup
MILK PRODUCTS
◆ Milk, white, 3.5% MF
◆ Milk, flavoured, 2% or less MF
◆ Hot chocolate made with 2% or
MILK PRODUCTS
less MF milk
◆ Milk, white, 2% or less MF
◆ Hot chocolate, made with water
◆ Yogurt, unsweetened, 2% or
from instant mix (has less calcium
less MF
than hot chocolate to which you add
◆ Cheese, hard, 20% or less MF,
your own milk)
packages or cubes
◆ Yogurt, more than 2% MF
◆ Cheese strings, 20% or less MF
◆ Yogurt and yogurt drinks,
◆ Smoothies, commercial or
sweetened, 2% or less MF
homemade (2% or less MF
◆ Yogurt tubes
white milk or unsweetened
◆ Cheese, regular (higher fat, more than
yogurt blended with
20% MF)
unsweetened fruit)
◆ Cheese slices, processed
◆ Cheese spread
MEAT AND ALTERNATIVES
◆ Ice milk or soft serve
◆ Nuts, plain or spiced
◆ Frozen yogurt
(Serve Moderately if salted)
◆ Ice cream, plain low fat, fat free
◆ Seeds like sunflower or pumpkin ◆ Milk puddings, ready-to-serve, low fat
◆ Soy nuts
◆ Peanut butter
MEAT AND ALTERNATIVES
◆ Tuna/salmon snack kits
◆ Beef/pork jerky
15
TASTY MENU MATH
ADD UP SOME GREAT COMBINATION DISHES
When foods from 2 or more food groups are combined, a
“combination food” is made. Simple… and nutritious! Combination
foods may contain part of a serving (as based on CFG) from a food
group or may contain more than 1 serving from a food group.
For example, a serving of spaghetti with meat sauce and parmesan
cheese could be 1 cup of cooked spaghetti (2 Grain Products), 1/2
cup meat and tomato sauce (1/2 Meat and Alternative and 1
Vegetables and Fruit) and 2 tablespoons grated parmesan cheese
(1/2 Milk Products).
A soft tortilla wrap could be one 7” tortilla (1 Grain Products), 2 oz.
cooked seasoned chicken strips (1 Meat and Alternatives) and 1/2
cup vegetables like lettuce, tomato, green pepper and onion (1
Vegetables and Fruit).
Don’t forget to round it up!
If a combination food does not include all the food groups or if one
food group is low, add a serving of the missing food group; for
example, a carton of milk with the wrap would provide a meal with
all 4 food groups. Be sure that most of your meal choices come
from the Serve Most category rather than the Serve Moderately
category.
The list of combination dishes and meals is limited
only by your imagination.
is!
How Sweet it, but it can be one
16
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Baked Custa
◆
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◆ Fresh Fru
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◆
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it Sa
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◆ Fresh Fru
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◆ Fresh Fru
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D
ca Pudding
with Yogurt
◆ Rice/Tapio
er fat milk)
ade with low
◆ Fruit Cups
(m
ce or
ft Serve
◆ Applesau
Ice Milk/So
◆
gurt
Fruit Blends
◆ Frozen Yo
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u
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Y
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◆ Flavou
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◆
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◆ Milk Pudd
once per wee
The following are some
suggestions for lunches and
special events:
◆ Meal salads (e.g. mandarin orange
chicken, chef, spinach, taco)
◆ Burritos (bean, meat)
◆ Cabbage rolls
◆ Sandwich bar (a variety of breads,
wraps, bagels, and fillings such as
vegetables, lean meats, and salad
fillings made with low fat salad
dressing)
◆ Macaroni and cheese
◆ Quesadillas
◆ Salad bar (variety of lettuce,
vegetables, other toppings and low
fat salad dressings)
◆ Submarine sandwiches (lower fat
meat and cheese with vegetables)
◆ Chili and bun
◆ Casseroles (e.g. chicken rice, made
with broth or lower fat cream
sauce)
◆ Curried meat/chicken/fish and
rice
◆ Falafel
◆ Grilled cheese sandwich
◆ Hamburgers/grilled
chicken breast burgers
◆ Kebab skewers/pork souvlaki
◆ Pasta with meat sauce
◆ Pizza (e.g. lower fat meat,
vegetarian, lower fat cheese,
Hawaiian)
◆ Rice bowls (e.g. teriyaki chicken)
◆ Sloppy Joes
◆ Soft tortilla wraps
◆ Soup station, with crackers or buns
◆ Stew
◆ Tacos (low fat baked shell, lower fat
toppings)
◆ Taco salad (low fat baked taco
shell, green salad, taco meat)
◆ Vegetable stir fry with rice
Preparing Food Safely
I
t is important to practise safe food handling
when preparing and serving foods at school
(or at any time). Failure to properly
prepare, store or serve foods could lead to
very serious illnesses from ingesting diseasecausing bacteria like Salmonella,
Campylobacter, or E.coli. Cafeterias and
canteens, where food is sold, must be licensed
as complying with the Food Premises
Regulations, as enforced by inspectors from
the Department of Government Services.
The following points should be considered
when planning to offer school meals:
◆ Kitchen facilities must be used for the
purposes of food preparation only.
◆ It is recommended that at least 1 employee
and/or volunteer, who has taken a food
safety course, should be on site when
meals are prepared and served.
◆ Keep the number of food handlers and
servers at the lowest manageable number,
and prohibit unauthorized people from
entering the kitchen area.
◆ Sufficient refrigeration space must be
available to keep perishable foods (e.g.
milk, eggs, meats, fish, poultry) at 4˚C
(40˚F) or lower.
◆ Sufficient equipment must be available to
keep hot foods at 60˚C (140˚F) or higher.
◆ Thermometers must be supplied for
checking cooling, and cooking
temperatures.
◆ A separate sink with supplies (liquid soap
and paper towels) must be provided for
hand washing only. Hands should be
washed frequently!
◆ At a minimum, a double-compartment sink
for washing and disinfecting (typically with
a dilute bleach solution) utensils and dishes
is needed.
Points to remember when food is consumed
or prepared outside of the cafeteria:
In the classroom: Desks and counters should
be cleaned before being used to serve food.
Students should wash their hands with soap
and water before preparing and eating food.
Foods from outside suppliers: Take-out foods
must arrive hot if they are served hot and cold
if they are served cold. They should be served
within 1/2 hour after arriving at the school.
Outdoor events: If food is prepared at BBQ’s
or picnics, use coolers containing ice or ice
packs to keep cold foods cold, and serve hot
foods promptly. Food must also be protected
from insects and dirt.
17
FOOD SAFETY CHART
Remember!
FOOD
TEMPERATURE
GUIDE
Safe food is food that
is served clean and fast,
hot or cold. The following
food safety tips will help
you to avoid causing
food-borne illness:
(Taken from the Food Retail and Food Services Code, 2001)
ACTIVITY
CLEAN
hands, surfaces (including
microwave ovens) and utensils
frequently.
COOK
all meats, poultry, fish and eggs
to the proper internal
temperature, as listed in the
table to the right. (Use a
thermometer to check the
temperature.)
CHILL
all perishables and leftovers
promptly to reduce the growth
of bacteria. Thaw frozen foods
in a refrigerator, cold water, or
a microwave oven, not at room
temperature.
SEPARATE
raw meats, and raw fruits and
vegetables by using separate
cutting boards; raw food and
prepared foods by using
separate cutting boards.
Store raw meats below readyto-eat foods, on lower
refrigerator shelves, to prevent
dripping.
TEMPERATURE NEEDED
REFRIGERATION..............................................................4oC (40oF) or less
FREEZING .............................................................minus 18oC (0oF) or less
COOKING:
Food mixtures containing Poultry, Eggs, Meat, Fish, or other
potentially hazardous foods ..........................Internal Temperature of
74oC (165oF) for 10 minutes
Pork, Lamb, Veal, Beef
(whole cuts).............................Internal Temperature of 70oC (158oF)
Poultry..................................................................Internal Temperature of
85oC (185oF) for 15 seconds
Stuffing in Poultry .................................................................74oC (165oF)
Ground Meat...........................................................................70oC (158oF)
Eggs ..............................................................63oC (145oF) for 15 seconds
Fish..............................................................................................70oC (158oF)
REHEATING ................................................................................74oC (165oF)
HOT HOLDING..........................................................................60oC (140oF)
COOLING ....................................60oC-20oC (140o-68oF) within 2 hours
20oC-4oC (68oF-40oF) within 4 hours
Notes
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