The Grammys - American Radio History

The Grammys - American Radio History
May/June 1992 $3.50
serving: recording, broadcast and sound contracting fields
The Grammys
by Murray Allen
magazine
Sound Reinforcement
for the Church
www.americanradiohistory.com
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is a
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May/June
1992
Vol, 26, No, 3
serving: recording, broadcast and sound contracting fields
THE SOUND CONTRACTING ENGINEER
Behind the Scenes at The Motion Picture Academy
6
by Shelley A.
Herman
What's behind the screen at the state -of-the -art Academy Theater
.
THE BROADCAST ENGINEER
Cover Story: A Marathon of Music by Murray Allen
9
All the audio
that was done to broadcast the 1992 Grammy Awards.
THE RECORDING ENGINEER
24
Review: Digital Designs Nearfield Monitor Loudspeakers
by Bruce Bartlett with Jenny Bartlett.
Small but good speakers for your studio.
29
Your MIDI Recording Studio by Bruce Bartlett
Chapter
1
of a soon -to -be book.
THE ELECTRONIC COTTAGE
38
Hot Tips: On Producing Custom Albums by John Barilla
Make your own records and get ahead..
AUDIO
13
f
1
t
ir
CHURCH
New Sound Reinforcement Systems at Saint John The Divine
Episcopal Church by Brad Leigh Benjamin
The third largest church of its kind gets all -new audio equipment.
20
The BrooklynTabernacle: Setting the Standard for Excellence
by Joe Ciccarello
A church grows in Brooklyn in a former theater, and with a lot
of new audio.
About the Cover
DEPARTMENTS
This photo of Aretha
Franklin was sent us by
NARAS and was taken at the
34th Annual Grammy Awards.
The live broadcast was an incredible combination of audio
feeds and cues, all told in Murray Allen's article beginning on
page 9.
2
40
48
51
65
66
Calendar
Buyer's Guide: Power Amplifiers
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Calendar
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MAGNETIC SCIENCES
Tel.: (201) 579 -5773 Telex: 325-449
Fax: (201) 579 -6021
Patrick Watson, Chairman of
the Board of the Canadian Broadcasting Corp.(CBC), will deliver the
keynote address at the 134th
SMPTE Technical Conference
and Equipment Exhibit in
Toronto, Ont., Canada, on November 10. The conference, "Images in
Motion-The Second Century," will
be held November 10 - 13, 1992, at
the Metro Convention Centre.
A 35-year veteran of the broadcast
industry, Watson is well versed in
many facets of motion imaging. A
distinguished Canadian television
journalist, filmmaker, and writer,
he is the author of several books.
The 134th SMPTE Technical Conference and Equipment Exhibit will
explore new areas in image technology, including motion pictures and
television. During the four-day
event, participants will examine
multimedia and the integration of
computer technology via hands -on
workshops, an equipment exhibition, and demonstration. In addition, approximately 100 authors
will explore innovations in motion
imaging and advances in established technologies during the technical papers program.
On November 9, the day before the
conference opens, there will be two
all-day tutorials, "Multimedia
World, "which will serve the needs of
users and supplier of multimedia
application and products, and `The
Post Experience," which will focus
on the creative as well as technical
aspects of post -production. The
Equipment Exhibit will run concurrently with the technical program.
Several tours will highlight the
conference program. Atour of CBC's
new broadcast center is planned, as
well as a trip to the Skydome, where
registrants can observe the largest
indoor television screen currently in
use. A visit to Cinisphere will allow
registrants to view the largest film
format in the world as well as hear
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www.americanradiohistory.com
Larry Zide
Associate Publisher
Elaine Zide
Senior Editor
John Barilla
Editorial Assistant
Edelyn Enerio
Contributing Editors
Bruce Bartlett
Drew Daniels
Robyn Gately
Len Feldman
Shelley Herman
Brent Harshbarger
Randy Hoffner
National Advertising Sales
Manager
David W. Frankel
203 834 -9936
db, The Sound Engineering Magazine(ISSN 00117145) is published bi- monthly by db Magazine Publishing
Company, Entire contents copyright 1992 by db Publishing Company, 203 Commack Road, Suite 1010, Corn mack, NY 11725. Telephone: (516)586 -6530. db Magazine
is published for individuals and firms in professional audio
recording, broadcast audio -visual, sound reinforcementcontracting, consultants, video recording, film sound, etc.
Application for subscription should be made on the subscription form in the rear of each issue. Subscriptions are
$15.00 per year ($28.00 per year outside U S Possessions, $16.00 per year in Canada)and payable in U.S
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Commack Road, Suite 1010, Commack, NY 11725.
Trademarked names are editorially used throughout
this issue. Rather than place a trademark symbol next to
each occurance, we state that these names are used only
in an editorial fashion and to the benefit of the trademark
owner, and that there is no intention of trademark infringe-
ment.
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© 1991 Aphex Systems
The Peabody
Conservatory of Music
Recording Workshops
MIDI AND COMPUTER MUSIC
June
ADVANCED MIDI APPLICATIONS
June 22 -26
McGregor Boyle
AN INTRODUCTION
July 6 -10
Alan
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TO RECORDING TECHNOLOGY
MULTI-TRACK MUSIC
July
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DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION
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John Eargle
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All workshops are Monday-Friday 9 a.m. -4 p.m.
7úition is $380 per workshop and graduate credits are available.
For further information:
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(410) 659 -8136
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DIGITAL
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detail," Bruce Bartlett
DIGITAL DESIGNS
True to the source.
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several conference presentations
that scheduled to take place there.
The traditional conference social
events, including the Welcome Reception, Partner's Program, Honors
& Awards Luncheon, Fellows
Luncheon, and Annual Banquet
will also be offered.
Synergetic Audio Con cepts(Syn -Aud-Con), in its 20th
year oftraining audio professionals,
have announced a 1992 schedule for
their 3 -day audio engineering seminars to be held at their farm in S. Indiana.
The 3 -Day Sound Engineering
Seminars cost $525.00 and will be
held at the Farm -Norman, Indiana on May 21 -23, June 18 -20, July
16 -18, August 20 -22, September 1719, October 15 -17. An Assistant Instructor will be present at each of
the seminars at the farm. Syn-AudCon will also host a 3 -day "on -location" workshop on auralization and
precision equalization on May 1517. Dr. Wolfgang Ahnert of Berlin
and Dr. Eugene Patronis of Georgia
Tech will be the staff, along with
Don & Carolyn Davis(hosts).
The research to be undertaken is
Dr. Ahnert's new binaural head
transfer function compensated
auralization program for the Renkus-Heinz EASE program. This
program enables the listener to
hear what direction reflections are
coming from in buildings that exist
only on the drawing board and the
computer's hard disk.
The second part of this two part
workshop will be research into the
new ACE technique of sound system
equalization. ACE (Accurately Controlled Equalization) is a technique
for precision matching equalizer
sections designed by Dr. Patronis to
detail anomalies measured before
the performance by a new TEF technique and during the performance
by Ariel SYSid used as a source dependent measurement- SDM system. That is, the measurement
accuracy is restricted to the same
frequency range as the program
source.
For more information, contact:
Synergetic Audio Concepts,
(405) 946-4500
12370 W. Co. Rd., 100 N., NorFAX (405) 946-4544
man, IN 47264; phone: 812-9958212, FAX: 812 -995 -2110.
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SPARS members (before May 10)
SPARS members (after May 10)
$195
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Make your check payable to SPARS and send it to: SPARS,
4300 10th Avenue North, Lake Worth, Florida 33461,
or fax with your charge to: 407- 642 -8263
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FOR MORE INFORMATION
about the event and travel and hotel accommodations
contact: Shirley Kaye, Executive Director, SPARS: 407-641 -6648
www.americanradiohistory.com
J
SHELLEY A. HERMAN
Behind The Screen at The
Motion Picture Academy
Academy Awards! OSCARTM!
These words bring to mind the glory and glamour ofHollywood and the movies. At the heart of all this is
the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS), the central organization of the movie industry.
HEADQUARTERSBUILDING
Paramount Pictures, now with
on Beverly Hills' Wilshire
Boulevard, are two world class screening rooms. The
first is the Samuel Goldwyn Theater, seating 1,028 people, with five
screen channels, a sub -woofer sys-
Weddington Productions.
The amplifier -loudspeaker system selected for this renovation is
based on the system developed for
TBS by BGW Systems of Hawthorne, CA, using their Signal
Processing Amplifier with a
unique equalization characteristic
to compensate for screen loss. The
system worked so well for TBS
that Warner Hollywood Studio
IN THEIR
tem, and an extensive surround
system. The second is the Academy
Little Theater seating 67 people,
with three screen channels. These
rooms are the criterion for Academy members and organizations
such as AES, SMPTE, and CAS to
evaluate films, old and new, and
the very latest technical advances
in the art of film making.
As such, they are the world's
standard theaters. This article rips
away the screens to let you know
just what makes these rooms
sound so good.
In 1990, the existing sound systems were renovated and many
new components were installed.
A committee of the industry's finest sound engineers designed the
system: Claus Wiedemann from
The Burbank Studios (TBS, now
Warner Bros. Burbank); John Bonner and Don Rogers from Warner
Hollywood Studios; Clay Davis
from Glen Glenn/Todd AO; David
Gray from Dolby Laboratories, Ed
Anderson from Meridian Studios,
and Mark Lindauer then from
Figure
1.
soon purchased similar systems
for their screening rooms. Word
spread though the industry, finally
resulting in specification of the
system for the Academy theaters.
In addition to the screen loss
compensation, the electronics unit
supplies the necessary crossovers,
time delays, high and low pass filtering, amplifiers, and other circuitry to process and power a
The main stage of the Goldwyn Theater. (Photo courtesy
AMPAS.)
www.americanradiohistory.com
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An exceptional aspect of this
combination is the use of two dual woofer cabinets.
In the past, such a stack would
create an inadvertent line array of
nine to ten feet in length.
This would have the undesirable
effect of severely narrowing the
vertical distribution of the low frequencies, as a result making it difficult to achieve the proper equali-
za,ionanywhere throughout the
auditorium.
To circumvent this problem, consultant John Eargle, of JME Consulting Corp., working with JBL,
suggested driving one dual -woofer
cabinet at the normal 500 Hz crossover frequency and driving the second dual- woofer cabinet at a lower
crossover frequency. In empirical
tests, the committee decided that
325 Hz is the optimum crossover
frequency for the second cabinet.
There is now plenty of low -frequency power below 300 Hz, where
Figure 2. The curtain is open, the film screen is raised, revealing the
speaker systems.
three -way loudspeaker system.
(See Figure 3.)
Each Goldwyn Theater screen
channel consists of a BGW SPA-32E-TBS amplifier driving a special
JBL 4675 loudspeaker That consists of a 2360A/2450J horn/ driver
combination and two 4648 woofer
cabinets, each with. two 2226H low
frequency drivers.
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range. The three -channel signal
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way reproduction plus an additional low- frequency channel at a
different crossover frequency. Additional sub -bass is supplied by
JBL 18 -inch woofer systems driven
by BGW 750 series amplifiers.
The Academy Little Theater has
three two -way systems identical to
the larger room systems, without
the second dual -woofer cabinet.
Using the same amplifiers as are
used in the large room allows interchangability. The third channel
has a mute switch for this purpose.
John Bonner, Co -chair of the
Academy committee responsible
for the new sound system, says
that there is a substantial improvement in both rooms, with extended high- frequency response.
Mr. Bonner's subjective evaluation is that the systems' screen loss compensation has improved
the high frequencies perceived in
the audience well beyond the 8 kHz
typically possible using 1/3 octave
equalization or broader shelving
tone controls.With the excellent reception this system has received,
watch for one coming soon to your
neighborhood theater.
Thanks to Douglas W. Edwards
of the Academy for ensuring that
the facts were all correct.
MURRAY ALLEN
Cover Story:
Marathon of Music the
1992 Grammy Awards Show
A
Nine -hundred and twenty -seven microphones, six-hundred and fifteen console inputs, two-hundred and
forty -four "live" musicians, singers and dancers, twenty -three performances, sixty cues and only forty -one
hours to put it all together and make it sound great!
ON JANUARY 8, 1992, AT A
press conference held
at the Beverly Hilton
Hotel in Los Angeles,
the nominees for the 34th Annual
Grammy Awards were announced.
Following the press conference, the
NARAS (National Academy of Recording Arts and Sciences) Television Committee, which is comprised of members representing
the seven chapter cities and advisors such as myself, Phil Ramone,
and Bill Ivey; officers of NARAS
headed by Michael Greene (President) and members of the production companyincluding Pierre Cossette (Executive Producer), John
Cossette (executive in charge),
Walter Miller (director) and the
writers, Buz Kohan and Bruce
Vilanch, have a lengthy meeting to
decide who we should get to perform on the show. Once again the
ball was rolling. In forty -eight days
we would be broadcasting live The
Grammy Awards Show from Radio
City Music Hall in New York.
the show was only on the air for
one and one -half hours. Our main
truck was a sports truck with a
sports mixer who handled the poFigure
tails.
1.
chum mics and tape playbacks.
Next door we built a recording studio in a church. The live band
played its cues live and I mixed
A view of the interior of the Effanel truck. See the text for de-
BACKGROUND
I mixed my first Grammy Show
in 1973 in Nashville. In those days
Murray R. Allen is president of
Allen & Associates, Chicago and
was the Sound Designer for the
Grammy Awards Show.
www.americanradiohistory.com
and sent the signal from the
church to the sports truck. I always
remember that I had built in over
40 dB of output gain. No matter
how far the sports mixer pulled the
music down, I could always push it
up some more.
Nineteen years later, using true
music trucks and having a feeling
that the show might run close to
four hours,(knowing what kinds of
talent with which I will have to
work), I began to hire the crew. The
crew consisted of seven broadcast
mixers, three in the Record Plant
truck, two in the Greene/Crowe
truck, and two in the Effanel truck.
In addition, there were two monitor mixers, three P.A. mixers, one
room -equalization operator and
ten stage audio personnel. I also
hired the trucks and began to
make provisions for the rental of
extra equipment.
Our next meeting
took place in Los
Angeles on February
10th. At this meeting
all the department
heads, mixers and
key technicians were
present. This was the
day the valley was
flooded...
On February 3rd, all the department heads including audio, lighting stage, design, electricians, carpentry and, of course, video, met in
New York at Radio City Music Hall
with John Cossette, Walter Miller,
Tzvi Small, CBS and the Radio
City Music Hall people. At this
time, we decided where the trucks
were going to park (they took up an
entire city avenue block along 51st
Figure 2. These four Ramsa WR -S -840 consoles handled sound reinforcement for the room and were on the specially -built platform in the
theater. Burns Audio used engineer -mixer Mike Abbott who is seen during a rehearsal
would be built while the Ice Follies
were still performing at Radio City
Music Hall, just prior to our move
in.
Our next meeting took place in
Los Angeles on February 10th. At
this meeting all the department
heads, mixers and key technicians
were present. This was the day the
valley was flooded because of excessive amounts of rain in California. It took some people over three
hours to get to the meeting, while
others just could not make it at all.
At this meeting all stage moves
were discussed. All lighting and
music cues were decided. If anyone
felt a move was impossible, now
was the time to say so, or forever
hold their peace.
On February 19th we sent one
audio man (Don Worsham) out to
supervise the pre -cabling so that
when the trucks parked at close to
midnight, all they would have to do
is plug in. By this day the monitor
platform was finished, and all the
speakers were hung.
PROBLEMS BEGIN
On its way from Los Angeles to
New York, the Greene/Crowe truck
(our main video and audio truck)
Figure 3. Alan Jackson performing Don't Rock the Jukebox during
the live show.
street between Fifth and Sixth
Avenues), where P.A. would be located, when and where we will
hang our sound clusters and where
to place our stage monitor consoles. Stage monitors are always
the most difficult group to find a
place in which to set -up. We decided to build a 40 ft. by 10 ft. platform that would hang from the ceiling stage left.(See Figure 2.) This
www.americanradiohistory.com
ing from the video truck to the rear
of the Effanel truck. (See Figure 1.)
This, and other configuration
changes, added several hours to
\i«
.
t
,,---!
,
the interior truck set -up.
On the morning of the 20th, all
the monitor and P.A. equipment
was moved into their respective
positions at Radio City Music Hall.
t
THE STAGE
.;
{
Alf
Figure 4. Aretha Franklin performs Ever Changing Times. See our
cover for a full -color view.
turned over. We scrambled to get a
different truck. Luckily, Unitel
was able to rearrange their schedule and was able to furnish us with
the Unitel Red Truck as a replacement. Because the two trucks have
different space configurations, we
had to move some of our audio mix-
Figure 5. NARAS President Michael Greene during his presentation.
He spoke of the ongoing and increased nced of music education at primary and secondary school levels.
The Radio City Music Hall stage
contains three elevators that cover
the width of the stage. This is how
we bring up one act and get rid of
another. These elevators are lowered 27 ft. to the basement where
all the set -ups are stored. Early on
the 20th, a Radio City electrician
fell into one of these pits while the
elevator was down. He almost died
that night. At present, he is in a
medically- induced coma to help
with the healing. Last year one of
our sound -crew members fell 6 ft.
into a partially lowered elevator
pit and he is still not back at work.
This rightfully put the fear of God
into our stage crew. I have never
seen these men more nervous.
On the afternoon of the 20th, I
transferred and edited instrumental tracks from nominated records
in the Record Plant truck to be
used as underscores to our pre mention packages. Prior to the live
part of our Grammy Show, there is
an opening show where all the
awards in the categories not covered on the live broadcast are presented to the respective winners.
During the live show these awards
are mentioned along with pictures
of the winners receiving their
award.
The Record Plant truck has a Trident as its main console. During
the show every other truck and
broadcast console comes through
this board. Don Worsham, who operates this console, is in charge of
all the podium mies, all the video
tape playbacks, audience reaction
going into musical numbers and all
the other feeds. This, in fact, is the
final mix before going to air.
RECORD PLANT
TRUCK'S EQUIPMENT
The Record Plant truck also has
a cart playback station. Paul Sandweiss is in charge of this area. Paul
uses a Soundcraft console. He has
eleven cart machines. As each
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nominee is mentioned, Paul plays
the record for which they were
nominated. When the winner is announced he will also play the winner's record again. Paul spends
endless hours transferring these
selections from CD's to carts making sure the quality is maintained.
Paul will also play the bumpers going in and out of commercial.
Carroll Pratt, who is the sweetener for this show, is in the Record
Plant truck. He adds applause and
laughter to our live audience pick
up. During musical numbers that
have "board fades" it is important
to have the audience begin their
applause immediately with the
start of the "fade ". Since you cannot
make a true "board fade" with a live
act, it is important that applause
cover up the final moments going
to silence. If the audience reacts
slowly, So, Carroll jumps in and
saves the day.
IT BEGINS
At 7 PM on the evening of the
21st, we began our pre- record of
bumpers, underscores, and the
themes. We selected Clinton Recording and Ed Rak as mixer to
help us with this chore. Since the
house orchestra spends most of its
time in the basement under the
stage, it is impossible for them to
play many of the cues. This necessitates a pre- record. This year we
had 60 such cues. We finished mixing by 4 AM. I was back at Radio
City by 9 AM on the 22nd to begin
rehearsals.
On this day we rehearsed several
of the acts including Mariah Carey,
Vince Gill and Alan Jackson and
Mary- Chapin Carpenter. We rehearsed until 8 PM, however I had
to go back to the recording studio at
7 PM to finish the pre- records and
rehearse with Dave Grusin. Once
again, we finished mixing at about
4 AM; and, once again I was back at
Radio City by 9 AM for rehearsals
on the 23rd.
During rehearsals each act gets a
sound check and four run throughs. During the sound check
and first run- through I will spend
my time in the house checking on
PA and room equalization. I listen
to the next run -throughs in the
broadcast trucks. At this time I
make any suggestions I feel necessary to obtain better mix and/or
Figure 6. Whoopi Goldberg who had to ad -lib cover for a 20 second delay of an audio cue.
better sound. In some cases I will
even become one of the mixers.
THE EFFANEL TRUCK
In addition to the Record Plant
truck, broadcast audio is also handled by the Effanel truck and the
Unitel truck. The Effanel truck is
owned and operated by Randy Ezzrati. This truck has a SSL Series
G 4000 console with Total Recall.
In addition, the Effanel truck has
many processing devices and tube
equalizers. Randy will record each
act that he is assigned on a Sony
48 -track digital recorder pre -fader
so after the act has finished their
rehearsal, he may further refine
his mix. Hank Neuberger helps
with mixing in this truck.
THE UNITEL TRUCK
The Unitel truck has a large
Auditronics console and four additional Soundcraft consoles. It also
has several submixers and much
processing gear. The house orchestra is mixed in this truck. The head
mixer in this truck is Ed Greene.
We checkerboard the trucks as to
which truck will get which act. For
example, our first act (Paul Simon)
was handled by the Effanel truck.
The second act (Mariah Carey) was
handled by the Unitel truck. The
next act (Seal) was handled by the
Effanel truck, and so on.
Because of the complexity of the
show and the use of different
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trucks we did not get rid of all our
hums and buzzes until mid-day of
the 23rd. Also, because of the time
it took to set up each act, we did not
always get a good sound check, and
in some cases we only had two run throughs.
Rehearsal on the 23rd finished at
8 PM and I had a night off. We
started rehearsal on the 24th at 9
AM and ran until 11 PM. We then
had an audio meeting to go over all
our stage moves and microphone
placements. This finished at midnight.
On show day, the rehearsal began at 10 AM and lasted to 5:30
PM. During the dry run we did not
make a single change on time. Anything that could have gone wrong,
went wrong. I personally like a bad
rehearsal because it makes everyone super sharp for the show. This
turned out to be true.
ON THE AIR
At 8 PM (E.S.T.) we went on the
air live to over 65 nations and 1.25
billion viewers in Stereo Surround
Sound. The show was seamless.
We made all the changes on time
with only one exception which required Whoopi Goldberg (Figure 6)
to stretch for 20 seconds.
When the show went off the air at
midnight (running one -hour long
for a total of four hours) we began
planning for next year's show,
which undoubtedly will be even
more complex.
ai
BRAD LEIGH BENJAMIN
New Sound Reinforcement
Systems At Saint John The
Divine Episcopal Church
Saint John The Divine Episcopal Church in the River Oaks section of Houston, Texas, is the third largest Episcopal
Church in the United States with a congregation of 4,400 and has a sanctuary seating capacity of 750 members.
DESIGNED BY THE ARCHITECTURAL FIRM OF
Hiram, Salisbury, Mackie, and Shamrath,
the church was built in 1953 in the style of
Frank Lloyd Wright using plenty of native
stone and solid oak.
The sanctuary, typical of a cathedral -type structure,
is a very long, narrow building. From the back of the
Figure
1.
chancel to the rear of the balcony, it's 120 feet in
length. The structure is 50 feet wide. The acoustics
however, are extremely good and not as reverberant
as one would expect from an edifice filled with such
hard surfaces. The irregular, multi -surfaced, native
stone, in conjunction with frequent use of random
wood beams, and random-style windows in keeping
Saint John The Divine and its bell tower.
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with genre of Frank Lloyd Wright,
serve as diffusion for potential excess reflections.
The original sound system was basically a distributed system. There
existed a couple of small chambers
on two front walls and several flush
mounted speakers in the ceiling.
Saint John's had been wanting to do
a complete refit of their sound system for some time and had a number
of audio contractors come in and examine the possibilities. Nearly all of
the contractors suggested a central
cluster suspended front and center
above the chancel area for a primary
sound reinforcement system, but
Saint John's was adamantly opposed. So proud are they of the sanctuary's architectural design that
they have an aesthetics committee
whose job it is to oversee any refurbishment or modifications proposed
for the sanctuary. Their function is to
guarantee that proposed construction or modifications don't compromise the aesthetics of the sanctuary.
There exists a large stained glass
window in the rear of the chancel
area, rising all the way to the peak of
the ceiling which is some 50 feet
high. There was no way Saint John's
would accept a central cluster because no matter how it was suspended, it would obscure the view of
the stained glass window. A central
cluster was therefore, completely
unacceptable.
ENTER THE CONTRACTOR
Figure 2. The main chancel seen before (top photo) and after (bottom
photo) Crescendo's installation.
Crescendo Sound Systems was the
lone contracting firm offering an alternative to a central cluster.
Founded in 1963, Crescendo Sound Systems has devoted its expertise exclusively to the design and installation of custom sound reinforcement systems for
houses of worship. With over 1500 church installations to their credit, Crescendo Sound has consistently accommodated the most exacting of architectural nuances by virtue of their custom cabinet
building division and skilled crafts people. Billy S.
Hilbun, Founder, and John Spillyards, owner of Crescendo Sound Systems listened to the concerns of the
Saint John's staff and considered the options.
"We approached the Saint John's staff with the concept of a side dispersion throw system in a mono configuration, utilizing enclosures on either side of the
chancel. Although the enclosures would appear to be a
stereo system, we preferred to run in mono for a variety of reasons. First and foremost, we surmised the
space in the sanctuary vulnerable to comb filtering
which would detract from the sound. Also, the church
does not use the sound system for tape -based playback or elaborate music performance. It is used primarily for sound reinforcement of speech from mono
sources, namely, the Rectors. A mono configuration
would provide more than adequate intelligibility and
audio recording quality for the purpose of archiving
church services."
"Proposal of a side dispersion throw system and the
fact that Crescendo has a custom cabinet shop were
really the selling points to the church staff and aesthetics committee," continues Spillyards. "We could
easily blend the enclosures into the architectural style
of the sanctuary and that was of prime importance in
their eyes.
They were almost more concerned with the aesthetics than the actual engineering so our goal from day
one was to give them a system that was as invisible as
possible while meshing seamlessly to the aesthetics of
the room."
THE DESIGN
Saint John's sound system was designed by Crescendo's Billy Hilbun. The Chief Engineer on the installation was Floyd Arp. The first phase of the installation commenced during March of 1991. The staff
www.americanradiohistory.com
was so pleased with the results that
Crescendo was asked to design and
install a similar system in Saint
John's Fellowship Hall during the
month of September. The sanctuary
install, however was far more elaborate and challenging in its many details.
"We built two large, trapezoidal type cluster enclosures for placement on two side wing walls of native stone on either side of the
chancel," comments John Spillyards.
"The enclosures were matched to the
random styles of the sanctuary's traditional Wright-type windows. We
constructed the cabinets from oak
and stained them to match the treatment of the windows."
The clusters are approximately six Figure 3. This console desk matches the pews.
feet high, four feet wide and three
feet deep. Loudspeaker components
include two E -V HP640 60 X 40
trans planar horns, each with an Ethat it required very high directivity," says Spillyards.
V DH1A compression driver, and one E-VTL606AX
`The resultant coverage was extremely smooth."
low frequency 15 -inch woofer system per enclosure.
The two horns were deployed in a long throw /short
"One of the job's unique challenges was the mountthrow configuration. `The room is so long and narrow
ing of the enclosures on the irregular surface of the native stone walls," adds Spillyards. "When Floyd Arp
tried to mount them on the wall and make them fit
Figure 4. A closeup of one of the speaker enclosures. Note how it matches the window styles.
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Generates and accepts SMPTE and MIDI
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flush with the wall, he ended up having to chisel the native stone flat
with special grooves for the units to
fit into.
The church wouldn't let him use a
hammer drill because of the dust so
he had to chisel it by hand. It took
awhile
long while but it worked
just fine and the enclosures looked
great. As a matter of fact, Rector,
Laurens A. Hall said the room
looked better with our enclosures
than it had before without them."
The chancel area is almost 40 feet
deep. Facing the chancel, one views
the Pulpit to the far left, and a lectern to the far right, between which
are two prayer desks facing one another. Directly behind the desks are
two antiphonal choir lofts facing one Figure 5.Overview of console area.
another on either side of the chancel's center aisle. Behind the lofts at
the rear of the chancel is the altar. To
the left is the baptistry room and
above that is a loft for the organ
chamber. Custom built, E- V- loaded
8-inchcoaxial monitors with compression horn/drivers were designed
and built for various locations on the
chancel where they were mounted
on the inside walls at various intervals. Measuring 15 X 12 X 8- inches,
the woodwork on the enclosures was
designed to match the areas of coverage including the altar and the baptistry room. A pair of wedge -style
floor monitors were constructed to
serve the orchestra.
A mixing desk made of light oak is
located in the balcony and closely
matches the wooden pews. The custom built desk is 6 feet wide x 42 Figure 6.The console also has a tape desk patch panel.
inches high x 36 inches deep.
Though the desk resembles a roll
tower. The system utilizes eight ceiling speakers and
top, it employs a piano -hinge lid. Inside the desk is an
two wall mount speakers for a total of ten enclosures
Allen & Heath SR424 24- channel mixing board and
powered by two existing TOA 80 watt amplifiers alpatch bay for tape machines and auxiliary signal routready owned by the church and interfaced into the
ing. An accompanying rack is stored in a service area
system. The amps, located in the aforementioned
off to the side of the balcony. The rack contains all of
rack, deliver 70 -volt power throughout the immediate
the power amps, and signal processing gear supportarea and surrounding campus.
ing the entire installation including a distributed
Saint John's is the proud owner of a one hundredmonitor system fanning out to several remote locafoot -high bell tower inside which resides a manual
tions. The rack is configured with a QSC MX 1500
Carillon system. The operator rides an elevator to the
power amplifier, three QSC MX 700 power amps,
top of the tower where he operates the tower bells
graphic equalizers including a DOD R231 and DOD
from a manual keyboard. In many churches, Carillons
R835 crossover for the mains, and a DOD R830
are operated via remote digital playback systems lographic equalizer for the monitors. The MX 1500
cated at the organ console, or via automated digital
drives the 1f units of the two main clusters in a dual
playback systems utilizing a timer or some variety of
mono configuration, while the MX 700s drive the
memory device. St. John's preferred to go the trachorns and monitors. The equalizers are used to comtional root. "Actually," comments John Spillyards, "the
pensate for acoustic anomalies intrinsic to the sanctutraditional method was to have Quasi Moto climb the
ary.
tower and pull the ropes by hand so this is more of a
modern traditional approach requiring an actual perAn interesting aspect of the installation is the distrison in the tower."
bution system fanning out to nurseries, a gift shop,
the library, an office, the Fellowship Hall and the bell
-a
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With this approach, a monitor was
required for the operator in the
tower in order to receive his cues. An
enclosure had to be installed and fed
from the distribution system, "and
that meant one of our guys had to
climb an emergency escape ladder
100 feet up into the tower, pulling
the speaker cable up behind him,"
says Spillyards. "It was a sizeable
job and required some bravery to
make the climb."
"The wire runs were rather interesting throughout the entire job,"
continues Spillyards. `The runs
were very long and we had to compensate for that in a lot of locations.
The physical act of pulling the wires
was quite extensive. The mic line
runs averaged over three hundred Figure 7. Choir mics, pulpit and two prayer desks.
feet apiece. Speaker lines ran two
hundred feet. The distribution runs
were phenomenal. One run alone
mic_d in a way that's completely unobtrusive so we
was over five hundred fifty feet."
used the AT871."
"Inside the sanctuary, our technicians used a crawl
"Above the antiphonal choir split into two groups on
space on top of an air conditioning chase which runs
either side of the chancel aisle, we hung four AT853
length of room to make the cable runs from the balminiature condenser mics," continues Spillyards.
cony /mix desk position to the chancel area," adds Spillyards. `There was no other conduit, and with a solid
wood ceiling, there was no other way to get the wires
from front to the back of the sanctuary but to crawl
through the two foot crawl space up high in the sanctuary. We snaked the cables down through a bunch of
equipment rooms to the basement and up underneath
the stage with West Penn 291 mic cable, and 225, 226,
Gene Perla
and 273 speaker cables."
Routing the wires under the balcony to the mixing
Bernard Fox
desk was somewhat of an acrobatic feat because there
were four right angles in the chase. It was too small to
Peter Fitzgerald
crawl through so the technicians had to fish the wires
Richard Fitzgerald
through which took a lot of time and patience. They
a
string
atrigid,
flexible
wire
with
used fish tape
tached. Once the wire was snaked through the maze,
the cables were attached to the string and pulled
to announce
Are
through the tight quarters.
the opening
`The microphones on this installation were 100 -percent Audio -Technica," says Spillyards. "Remember the
of their new state of the art,
big issue was aesthetics so we chose to use the Audio Fully Digital
Technica UniPoint Series for invisibility and because
we're so impressed with the way UniPoint micromulti -track music &
phones perform in church applications. Of course the
sound effects production
UniPoint microphone is almost a given for most any
church installation at this point no matter who's doing
recording facility.
the job and we're no exception. We used four AT1031
miniAT831
wireless diversity systems teamed with
ature condenser lapel microphones for the Rectors. At
Chief Engineer-Dan Tramon
the pulpit and the lectern we installed AT857QML 19inch gooseneck microphones. At the two prayer desks
we put the AT857QM's- shorter versions of the pulpit
and lectern mics. At the altar we used an AT871
boundary microphone. It serves the same function as
a PZM -an invisible, flat surface pickup mic. The
424 West 45th St. New York. NY 10036
members of the congregation take communion at the
Tel 212- 757 -5679 Fax 212-265-1250
altar. Most of the clergy have wireless systems. If
there are any other clergy at the altar, they need to be
-a
proud
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"We had to have special cables made because they
were 50 foot drops from the ceiling. They don't impede
anyone's view of the stained glass at all. That was
never an issue because they're located far enough
from the center aisle outside the line of sight to the
glass. They are so tiny and the cable is only 28 gauge.
Against the backdrop of native stone, the AT853's are
barely discernable and the cords look like black
-
threads."
"We contracted with Crescendo Sound to install a
sound system in our main
sanctuary and we are quite
pleased with the finished
product,"
"Hanging those mics was a nerve- racking experience though," adds Splillyards. `The church owns a
genie lift for changing light fixtures. Our guys had to
ride that thing up 40 feet to hang those mics. One
strong breeze and they'd have been history"
8. Main altar with the stained -glass windows behind. A choir mic is seen at right.
Figure
"We're using the Audio Technica Unipoints now for
all of our installations," comments John Spillyards.
`They're extremely sensitive and have the best diaphragm in the industry. To my knowledge, they're the
first series of microphones designed specifically for
church applications. They work so well and they're so
attractive that we've used them again and again. In
this case not only was quality of sound important, but
aesthetics were given equal consideration so we went
instantly to Audio-Technica Unipoints and it never
even occurred to us to use anything else."
MORE WORK
`The church has just been thrilled with the system,"
adds Spillyards. They were so pleased, they had us
come back and install a system in the fellowship hall.
They already had a classic ceiling distribution system
in place with a little mixer/amp used for speech and
announcements. They wanted a music performance
system as well."
The Fellowship Hall is one hundred feet wide and
fifty feet deep. The ceiling goes from twenty -five feet
high at one point and cants down to ten foot high at
the rear of the room. The ten -foot wall is all glass and
it was necessary to control the reverberation in this
type of environment so as to avoid unwanted reflections. 'We actually cut into the twenty -five foot walls
and recessed two chambers for speaker enclosures,"
says Spillyards. `Behind the wall where we made our
cuts, there was an air handling room behind one cut
and a return air plenum behind the other.
We assembled two enclosures utilizing E -V HP940
90 X 40 horns driven with E -V DH1A compression
drivers, and an E -V TL606AX low- frequency unit.
Mounting the enclosure in the air handling room was
easier. Mounting the second enclosure above the return air plenum, however, took a little bit of gymnastics but it worked. The fronts of the enclosures appear
flush with the wall of the fellowship hall where we
covered them with grill cloth."
Crescendo built a five -foot wide rolling mix desk
with a fifty -foot snake and terminated all signals to
the wall. This system is for fellowship concerts or performances. The mobile desk rolls out from wall. The
snake uncoils from inside the desk. A 16-channel TOA
mixing board is powered with QSC amps, and processed through a DOD graphic equalizer and crossover.
All power and signal processing gear is self-contained
in the desk. It is a simple matter to roll the desk out to
a central mix location in the hall, turn it on, and connect the snake to a custom junction box at the wall.
'We contracted with Crescendo Sound to install a
sound system in our main sanctuary and we are quite
pleased with the finished product," comments Business Administrator of Saint John The Divine Episcopal Church, Mollie DeVries. "At our request, they
were able to blend the speakers they mounted on our
walls with the sanctuary architecture and the aesthetic value is wonderful. The sound system itself
adds wonderful presence to services and we were so
pleased that we contracted with them to install a
similar but smaller system in our fellowship hall, and
we've worked with them on two different occasions.
They're wonderful people to work with and we've,e
joyed our business association tremendously."
d
,
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The ELAR Audio Library
Handbook of
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to canned sound for 600. Chapters: HighFrequency Speaker Systems, Mid -Frequency Speaker Systems, Low -Frequency
Speaker Systems, Dividing Networks, Central Loudspeaker Arrays, Distributed Systems, Paging Systems, Microphones, -All
this and more.
The New Recording Studio Handbook by
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This includes the latest in the many kinds of
noise reduction, analog recording, digital
recording from multi -track to R -DAT, what
they are and how you use SMITE and
MIDI time codes, signal -processing equipment, microphones and loudspeakers
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JOE CICCARELLO
The Brooklyn Tabernacle:
Setting the Standard for
Excellence
There was a time when the world's greatest music originated from the church. It employed or commissioned composers such as Johann Sebastian Bach and George Frederic Handel to fill its cathedrals with
music that would glorify God.
THE CHURCH WAS COMMITED TO
the biblical mandate to
"Sing unto the Lord a new
song. Play skillfully...."
Psalm 33:3. It thereby set the
standard for music and the arts.
Today, the church falls short of
the stature it once held as the purveyor of the arts. But there is however, a resurgence especially
among biblically-based churches to
utilize music and the arts in expressive worship and outreach.
The growth of the Christian music
industry is one indication that the
church is desiring to raise a standard of excellence that the world
will take seriously.
One church which is doing just
that is the Brooklyn Tabernacle in
New York. With a membership in
excess of 6,000, the Brooklyn Tabernacle places a strong emphasis
on praise and worship and therefore, music plays a central role in
the life of the church. Some of the
top names in Christian music come
to the Tabernacle every year to
sing with the famed Brooklyn Tabernacle Choir. The choir has nine
Joe Ciccarello is the Music Director for a 500 -member church, the
Christian Victory Center in
Hempstead, NY He has a Masters of Arts in Communication
from Regent University.
albums to its credit and yearly
sells out Radio City Music Hall.
With a music program of this caliber we decided to take a closer look
at their approach to audio.
The Brooklyn Tabernacle's present sound system was designed
and installed by The Top in Sound
located in Andersen, Indiana. With
the aid of computers, system designer Bill Gillette, selected the
components to create the sound for
the 1,500 -seat auditorium. At the
center of this semi -circular converted theater, hangs a cluster of
Electro -Voice speakers. (See Figure 1.) The four-Sub woofers are
EV- TL3512's. Each cabinet contains an 18 -inch driver. Mid range
frequencies are handled by 2 EVTL806 DX's. Each cabinet contains
two -12 -inch drivers. Four E -V
horns loaded with DH 1-A drivers
cover the high end and come in the
long and short throw varieties.
Three of the long throw E -V horns
HP640's, fan out to cover the sides
of the auditorium and middle balcony while the single short throw
horn-HP -940, fills the middle and
front floor. Finally, the left and
right balconies are each reinforced
by another E -V cabinet. Each contains a 15 -inch driver and a horn.
Due to the overhang of the balcony
and the position of the center duster, six Yamaha FX 20s were added
to cover this dead spot (see Figure
2). Another area where fill was
www.americanradiohistory.com
needed was directly in front of the
stage. During their present renovation, four Bose 402s have replaced the Yamaha FX2Os because
of wider frequency response.
THE POWER
The power amps assigned to the
center cluster, front fill and monitor system are located under the
stage. The signal coming from the
main house console is first sent directly through a White 27 -band
graphic EQ and then into a E -V
EXQ3- 3 way crossover. From
there, the high frequencies sent to
the four horns are powered by a
Crown Microtech 600 stereo
amp-two horns per side. A Crown
Microtech 1200 powers the two
mid range cabinets and a second
Crown Microtech 1200 drives the
four sub woofers. The signals sent
to the front fill is first routed
through a Yamaha GQ 1031 BII
graphic EQ and then powered by
another Crown Microtech 600. The
fill under the balcony is first sent
through a Yamaha 1/3- octave
graphic EQ and then a Yamaha
SPX 90 delay under the stage before it is powered by a Microtech
600.
Finally, the signal sent to the satellite balcony speakers is treated
identically to the center cluster, except that it is sent through a delay.
It first goes through a White 27-
band EQ then to a Yamaha SPX 90
set at 0.53 second delay then into a
E -V XEQ2 2 -way crossover and
then powered by a Crown Micro tech 600.
LAYOUT AND
MONITORING
Sometimes the best -designed
churches are ones that were not
originally designed as such. Many
churches are finding that converted theaters provide the basics
for a great sanctuary. Good acoustics, seating that provides easy
viewing of the stage, and existing
power to handle sound and lighting
requirements, make theaters easily convertible to church use.
Brooklyn Tabernacle takes good
advantage of these assets. The
natural ambient response is between 1.5 -2 seconds giving it a live
sound but with negligent echo,
thanks to padded pews and carpeting (not to mention 1,500 bodies).
Above the stage, hang fourteen
acoustic clouds, which were added
to help project the sound of the
choir forward. The semi-circular
design and shallow ground floor
makes even the farthest balcony
seats feel relatively close to the
stage. The stage area is large
enough to accommodate the 200
voice choir (standing only), a 6 -8
piece band, soloists and special
dramatic presentations. Two glass
booths are located above and behind the choir. One serves as an
isolated room for brass and reed
players while the other houses the
monitoring console (see Figure 3). I
was particularly impressed with
the rhythmic tightness of the band
and especially the clarity and fullness of the drums. Upon closer examinations I discovered that they
were all electronic MIDI pads, except for cymbals. The advantages
of using MIDI drums in a close setup situation such as this are two-
Figure
1.
This cluster hangs in the center of the converted theater.
MONITORING SYSTEM
One of the unique features of
Brooklyn Tabernacle's sound system, and another example of their
commitment to excellence, is their
monitoring system. Most churches
would consider it a luxury to have
four separate mixes on stage. This
system features nine-with a capacity for ten -with effects! The
monitoring console is a Soundtrac
MCX series 32 X 10. This console is
located in its own room above and
behind the choir in full view of the
head sound person in the balcony.
Figure 4 shows a simple diagram of
the monitoring set up on stage.
Four of the nine monitor feeds are
sent as line -level outputs because
the piano, keyboards, drums and
organ have powered monitors on
stage. A six-point intercom system
is wired between two locations on
stage, brass booth, monitor room,
house console and security room.
There is nothing more frustrating for a musician or singer trying
to communicate with a sound person (in sign language no less) when
you're having a problem with your
Figure 2. These Yamaha FX2Os cover the dead spot under the balcony.
fold:
1. With the choir and band literally surrounding the drums, an
acoustic set would cause all kinds
of leakage problems into the sensitive choir miss. Electronic midi
drums (with the exception of cymbals) are virtually silent eliminating any bleeding
2. The band and choir can play
with greater precision because of
their physical closeness.
www.americanradiohistory.com
monitor mix. An intercom system
such as this might be an added expense, but is well worth it in the
long run.
MICROPHONES
The church owns a varied selection of microphones. The following
is a list of the types and their uses:
Ten Audio Technica AT 853. Used
strictly for micing the choir.
Twelve
Sennheiser ME -80.
Original shotgun choir mics. More
directional (than ÁT853) to get
past cymbals and rhythm section.
Also used for smaller choral
groups.
Seven Shure SM 58. Widely used
all- purpose vocal mics.
Six Electro -Voice PL 77 -B. Used
on percussion and horns because of
added frequency response at high
end.
One Samson Wireless Lavalier
BT3. Used for dramatic presentations, Bible studies and preaching.
Figure 3. This isolated glass booth houses the monitoring console.
1
Samson Wireless Handhold
(BT2). Vocal or speech (upon re-
quest).
Two Crown PCC160. Low profile
floor mic for dramatic presenta-
tions and
groups.
Figure
children's
signing
4. Legend: 1-drum monitor; 2-TOA powered monitor, piano; 3-TOA powered monitor, organ; 4A- JBL
4602B; 4B-E-V ceiling monitor; 5A-JBL 4602B; 5B-E-V ceiling monitor; 6-Peavey 112 HS; 7-Keyboard powered monitor; 8- Yamaha S2115H; 9- Yamaha S2115H; 19- spare.
17
Pulpit
www.americanradiohistory.com
One Audio Technic ATM 33R.
Used for micing the hi -hat or the
drums.
One Crown PZM (pressure zone
microphone) used to mic the grand
piano.
Two Meyer M -600. Used to mic
the Leslie speaker cabinet.
The remainder of the instruments which are not miced on
stage, go direct using Pro Co direct
boxes. Fifty -four XLR input jacks
are on stage (which include ten
dedicated choir mics) and an additional 4 are available in the brass
booth.
MAIN CONSOLE &
EFFECTS
Located in the front middle balcony is the control center for the
sound and lighting systems. It features 2 mixing consoles, a patch
bay and a host of EQ's, effects and
tape decks that would send most
church sound people into raptures!
The main console is a Soundcraft
series 500 (see Figure 5). It features 32 inputs, 8 outputs, 6 auxiliary buses and 4 bands of EQ, 2
sweepable and 2 fixed. Immediately to its left is another smaller
console, 1 Yamaha 1204 x 4 board
singularly used to mix the 10 -12 incoming choir mics. Gene Wooten,
B.T.'s soundman likes to mix the
choir mics down to 3 subs (soprano,
alto & men). He then takes the single output from the Yamaha and
routes it through a Rane SP15
notch filter to knock out any feedback. On occasion Gene will also
patch in a Rane RE -27 EQ with
spectrum analizer. With this device he can visually see, via multicolored LEDs which one of the 27
bands is causing the feedback and
then drops it out. From there the
choir signal is sent to the main
board. With 6 auxiliary buses
available at each of the 32 channels, various effects can be added.
The following is a list of effect devices and their uses:
Roland SRV 2000. Used for reverb on main vocals.
ART DRT 24. Reverb for snare
Yamaha SPX -90. Reverb and delay
Alesis midiverb. Spare
The main vocal mix used for
speaking and lead vocals is sent
through a DBX 263X. This de -esser
filters out the highly sibilant fre-
Figure 5. This Soundcraft Series 500 is the main console with an auxiliary Yamaha 1204 X 4 at the left.
quencies around 3200 Hz while
maintaining clarity. According to
Gene, his "most life saving piece of
gear" is the Symetrix 522 dual
channel compression/limiter. He
uses the left channel for the main
speaking and singing mic. Gene explains that no matter how fast you
ride a slider the compressor/limiter
will do it better. He sets the ratio at
2:1 with a quick attack time and a
moderately fast release time. On
the right channel Gene compresses
the bass guitar. With the wide variety of styles played, this device
guards against popping without
killing the punch. He sets the ratio
at 2:1 with semi -slow attack and
fast release times. In the tape deck
department the church is evolving
to DAT (digital audio tape) but
presently uses two machines-one
for playback, one for recording. The
playback machine which is used
for vocal accompaniment tracks is
a Nakamichi MR-2. The recording
deck is an Akai GX-912. A separate
room above the balcony (formerly a
projection booth) serves as a recording and duplication room. Its
sole function is to record and duplicate tapes of the pastors' sermons
and make it available to the
church.
TRAINING
Gene Wooten serves as the head
of sound at the Brooklyn Tabernacle. His main responsibilities include mixing the choir and main
www.americanradiohistory.com
Sunday services and training a volunteer staff of twelve. Training a
person, from beginning to end,
takes about six months. Gene ideally prefers people with some formal training in music or electronics or both but will train anyone
who is committed to serving the
Lord and willing to learn.
The first three months are spent
in studying the design of the system and learning how to properly
set up and tear down. The trainee
then begins shadowing the operator and observing for as long as
needed. With Gene's approval he or
she starts mixing the easier services and training is completed.
Most choose to specialize in
either house or monitor mixing. A
staff of twelve sound people may
seem like a lot for a church but
with two singing groups going out
every weekend to prisons, half-way
houses and outdoor rallies (in addition to regular weekly services),
these twelve people get quite a
workout. Gene's assistant Marilyn
Moreno maintains a weekly schedule to ensure proper coverage at all
meetings and events.
Most churches may never reach
the size of the Brooklyn Tabernacle, or have the budget to buy all of
their equipment, but if churches
would commit to equip and train
themselves properly, the tradition
of excellence which characterized
the church would continue.
kid
BRUCE BARTLETT with JENNY BARTLETT
Review: Digital Designs
Nearfield Monitor
Loudspeakers
The DD6a speaker, DD261a speaker and DDBP12 Subwoofer.
LOOKING FOR AGOOD NEARFIELD
monitor speaker? Digital
Designs has been producing professional nearfield
monitors for several years now
with periodic upgrades. Here's the
scoop on their latest models.
The DD6a speaker uses a 6.5in. woofer and a 20 mm tweeter in
a small cabinet.
The DD161a is the same but
with a slightly larger cabinet for
deeper bass.
The DD261a is the same but
with two woofers for still- deeper
bass and higher output capability.
The DDBP12 bandpass 12 -in.
studio bass monitor is a subwoofer
for use with the monitors listed
above.
All the models are of sealed-box
design with low -mass, high strength cones. These features are
claimed to give the tightest possible bass and excellent transient response. According to Digital Designs, the bass is accurate, not
exaggerated.
The 6.5-in. woofer uses a mineral-filled polypropylene cone
which is coupled to a compliant
rubber suspension. The cone is extremely light for quick reaction to
the incoming signal, and is internally damped to prevent ringing.
As for the motor structure of the
drives, the design intent was to use
a shorter coil length in a longer
magnetic gap-an "underhung
coil ". According to the manufacturer, this provides more linear vibration with less distortion compared to conventional long-coil
short-gap designs. The woofer
voice coil can withstand high tern peratures and the tweeter is ferro fluid cooled. Magnetically-shielded
versions are available for use near
video monitors.
The crossover design is minimal
to prevent phase shift and non-uniform group delay. Around 3500 Hz,
the woofer rolls off acoustically at
12 dB/octave, so no crossover corn ponents are used to roll off the
woofer. A simple one -stage crossover keeps lows out of the tweeter.
Internal solder connections are silver.
The woofer and tweeter are time corrected or signal- aligned; this
sharpens transients and smooths
the response around the crossover
frequency. On the back of the cabinet are gold -plated binding -post
connectors. In the DD261a, connector polarity is indicated by
small red and black rings at the
base of the posts. Also on the back
of the DD261a is a toggle switch labeled "accurate /mid- boost." The
mid -boost position is meant to
simulate a Yamaha NS1OM near field monitor.
To improve the stereo imaging,
the speakers are sold in mirror-image pairs with small front baffles.
Several design features prevent
diffraction and reflection effects
which can color the tone quality
and degrade transient response.
For example, cabinet edges are
rounded, tweeters are mounted
off-center, and the grille is sonically invisible. The woofer and
tweeter are mounted as close towww.americanradiohistory.com
gether as possible to simulate a
true point source.
The monitors present a handsome, professional appearance.
Cabinet finishes are available in
black or oak.
PUBLISHED
SPECIFICATIONS
Digital Designs supplied these
specifications for the DD6a:
Frequency response: 68 Hz -20
kHz ±2 dB.
Impedance: 4 ohms.
Sensitivity: 88 dB SPL/watt/meter.
Power handling: 60 watts.
Dimensions (H,W,D, inches): 12
X 8.5 X 8.5.
Shipping weight (lbs): 28 /pair.
Price: $365/pair.
Specs for the DD161a:
Frequency response: 52 Hz -20
kHz ±2 dB.
Impedance: 4 ohms.
Sensitivity: 88 dB SPL/watt/meter.
Power handling: 100 watts.
Dimensions (H,W,D, inches):
13.5 X 9 X 10.
Shipping weight (lbs): 33 /pair.
Price: $520.00 /pair.
Specs For The Dd261a:
Frequency response: 48 Hz -20
kHz ±2 dB.
Impedance: 8 ohms.
Sensitivity: 88 dB SPL/watt/
meter.
Power handling: 200 watts.
Dimensions
(H,W,D,
inches):
18.5 X 10 X 13.5.
from the coil to the motor structure. The motor structure is venti-
DD6a LISTENING TEST
Before making any measurements, I listened to the various
models both with and without the
subwoofer. I did not have the
Specs for the DDBP12:
DD161 for testing. Speaker placeVoice -coil diameter: 2.5 -in.
ment was in the middle of my conDriver Fs: 19 Hz.
trol room, 3 feet apart and 3 feet
Power handling: 200 watts RMS.
from me, at ear height just over the
Sensitivity: 92 dB SPL/ watt/memixing console. I played compact
ter.
discs on a Magnavox/Phillips
Impedance: 4 ohms per channel.
CDB610 CD player through a
Weight: 70 lbs.
Crown PL -4 power amp (260
Speaker weight: 16 lbs.
watts /channel into 4 ohms).
Frequency response: 5 dB down
The first group of tests was of the
at 32 Hz; 10 dB down at 24 Hz.
DD6a, the small model with one
Dimensions: 16 X 16 X 24.
woofer. When listening, I aimed
Finish: Black textured paint.
each speaker straight ahead,
Price: $770.00 to $900.00 derather than at me, because the
pending on options.
sound on axis was too bright or sizzly. On the CD The Nightfly by
DDBP12 SUBWOOFER
Donald Fagen, the music is given a
forward, bright sound. Cymbals
Using a 12 -in. cone driver, the
are airy and sweet.
DDBP12
sub All instruments are
woofer was declearly defined. Alsigned to provide
though the bass
extremely accudoes not go deep, it
rate, tight, and
is usable, and very
well -controlled
tight. The stereo
bass; as well as
stage is wide
high durability to
slightly beyond the
cope with the dewith
speakersmands of studio
very sharp imaging.
use.
More bright, crisp
Using the same
sound is heard in
longshort -coil,
the CD Ivory Coast
gap design as the
by Bob James. Lots
nearfield
moniof clarity and prestors, the sub is inence here. Although
tended to mainthere's not enough
tain control of the
bass to balance the
voice coil even
highs -the speaker
with long excurseems to lack body
sions. According to
or
fullness-the
Digital Designs,
kick drum sounds
the voice coil never
very tight.
leaves the mag1. The DD161a is at left, theDD6a is at top
g
P right and the
On Telarc's regap. You can Figure
cording of The Fire EQ -in a bass boost DD261a is at bottom right.
bird by Stravinsky,
without making
the beginning bass the cone bottom
two subwoofer connectors per
drum roll is absent. The woofer
out.
channel. They feed a single driver
breaks up on loud bass -drum
Digital Designs has taken special
with dual voice coils. This clever
whacks, but this is a tiny speaker.
care to prevent voice -coil overheatdesign results in a combined mono
It's very easy to follow individual
ing. Overheating a voice coil causes
signal for the deep bass, without
instrumental lines. The overall toseveral problems: As coil temperaany extra circuitry needed.
nality is clinical rather than warm.
ture goes up, coil resistance rises.
Other connectors include a pair
Imaging is palpable on most inThis reduces the coil current,
of binding posts for each satellite
struments, even with this spacedwhich reduces sound output. Then
speaker, 4 or 8 ohms.
microphone recording.
if you turn up the power amp to get
All the following recordings were
The sub can be ordered without a
more sound level, the coil heat
auditioned with the subwoofer
rises again. To prevent this overcrossover for electronic- crossover
added. When I hook up the sub heating, the metal structure
applications. Mono versions are
woofer, the deep throb of the bass available if you want to use one
around the voice coil is black-anosubwoofer per channel.
drum roll comes in, adding weight.
dized to efficiently transfer heat
Shipping weight (lbs): 29/each.
Price: $698/pair.
lated so that cool air pumps
through the driver.
The enclosure design is innovative, using an acoustic bandpass
rather than an electronic band pass. That is, the enclosure itself
acts as the crossover, hence the
name "bandpass enclosure." There
is no electronic crossover to cause
phase shifts. The physical design of
the woofer enclosure is a sealed
back chamber and a vented front
chamber. You can't see the cone; all
you see is a port on the front baffle.
Constructed of high- density fiber
board, the subwoofer cabinet is internally braced for solidity. Its surface is finished to resist water and
marring. All mounting hardware
uses threaded inserts for strength.
On the back of the cabinet are
-
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DD6a FREQUENCY RESPONSE
DDI61a FREQUENCY RESPONSE
-18
!
TDS
NAG
-30
dB
-48
-58
i
liMan
1.1
FRON
WM
68
1
30 8
FREQUENCY
in Hz,
Log
28888.8
DD6a ENERGY TIME CURVE
T
DD261a FREQUENCY RESPONSE
TECHRON
Figure 2. Full -space anechoic response of the DD6a.
Although the small satellites still
break up on the bass -drum hits,
the sound is more realistic. I feel
that the sub is well integrated with
the satellites. The tonal balance is
improved -more of a whole,
smoother, less top -heavy. You'll
hear palpable, woody pizzicatos
and breathy flutes.
With its deep bass and trombones, the recording Chorus by
Eberhard Weber is difficult for
most speakers to reproduce without tubbiness. But the DD6a/sub
combination sounds very tight in
the bass, never bloated. At high listening levels, however, the DD6a
starts to blur or distort the trombones. The speaker is not meant
for really loud monitoring. You can
hear tiny gradation in the volume
of the brushed snare, which is reproduced with great presence. In
fact, you can almost see the wires
in the brushes!
Unplugged, the new all- acoustic
by Paul McCartney and
friends, is reproduced with very
sharp imaging. The tonality is
bright or top -heavy, sometimes sizzly, with harsh sibilants in the vocals. However, the dobro is given a
realistic twang. In this recording,
an acoustic bass guitar was played
rather than an upright bass, and
you can easily hear the difference
with the DD6a.
CD
In Appalachian Spring with
Leonard Bernstein conducting,
you can hear detailed production
noises, such as rustling in seats
and breathy flutes. The strings
have a sheen that verges on strident. This is a lively speaker, not a
reticent one. It's easy to hear that
the orchestra was close-mic'ed. At
high volume, the speaker adds a
little grunge.
Figure
3.
Digital Design's published response curves, 200 -20 kHz (see
text).
DD261a LISTENING TEST
The following recordings were
played over the DD261a dual woofer monitors with the DDBP12 subwoofer. Since the DD261a
sounded best when aiming at me,
that's how I listened to them.
McCartney's CD Unplugged
sounds clean, with less -harsh sibilants than in the DD6a. The center
image is extremely sharp, and the
speakers reproduce all the crispness of live guitars. Still, the
DD261a does not sound harsh,
twangy, or etched. When I change
the "accurate /mid-boost" switch to
mid -boost, the sound becomes
slightly colored or honky but still is
listenable.
I performed several
mixes using the
DD261a/subwoofer
combination as
monitors. Listening
fatigue was low, and
the mixes translated
well to other speaker
systems.
modulation noise in the recording.
The DD261a definitely handles the
trombones better than the DD6a;
there's less distortion or blurring.
With the subwoofer disconnected,
the deep bass notes lack weight or
power, but still sound full.
On The Firebird by Stravinsky,
there's a fuller, mellower tonal balance than you hear with the DD6a.
Coloration is minimal. You can
hear details such as key clicks in
the woodwinds. When the bass
drum hits some loud whacks,
there's less distortion than with
the DD6a.
Ivory Coast by Bob James sounds
well balanced tonally. Compared to
the DD6a, the DD261a sounds
smoother, more listenable, and
prettier. Any colorations are well
controlled; there's no boxy effect.
You can clearly separate the many
instruments in this recording.
Great job!
Figure 4. The energy time curve
of the DD6a.
a
-10
-28
ETC
-38
PIRG
The DD261a provides a very uniform bass response with the CD
Chorus by Eberhard Weber.
There's no evidence of "one -notebass." The speaker reveals some
R2
411
-58
T1NE
n
Milliseconds
18.876
TECHRON
www.americanradiohistory.com
393
3
197
-IR
ARSE
Dogs
-197
-20
28
-3931
38.8
FO
HAG
MAG
-38
REDUENCY
in Hz.
REDUENCY
in
Log
20800.0
-30
6.
dB
dB
96
X2
smile
TDS GR
DELAY
¡Secs
-58
-58
FROM,
8.66
-40
-4H
FROM
-68
1
30.8
FREQUENCY
in Hz,
Log
28888.6
-60
MINIM
t
0
Figure 5. Full -space anecoic frequency response of the DD261a.
Solid lineAccurate response;
dashed line: Mid-Boost response.
Appalachian Spring also sounds
better with the DD261a. The sound
is fuller, less sizzly, more natural.
Strings are still a bit strident.
Finally, I played the new Dire
Straits CD, On Any Street, and was
treated to an exciting experience.
It's a full, rich, warm sound, with
deep throbbing toms and bass.
Cymbal taps sound airy and clean.
You can easily hear each element
in the mix. The dobro is striking in
its detail. Overall, the effect is seductive and captivating.
I performed several mixes using
the DD261a/subwoofer combination as monitors. Listening fatigue
was low, and the mixes translated
well to other speaker systems.
Mixing was relatively easy because the sound was so clear. Since
the bass reproduction was not
boomy, I could hear whether or not
my recorded bass was boomy. In
fact, some acoustic guitars I had recorded using different monitors
sounded tubby with the DD261a.
This alerted me to roll off some
lows on the guitars, and the result
was a better mix. The tightly focused imaging made panning a
breeze. I noticed that the sub could
take a lot of low- frequency boost
without audible distortion.
MEASUREMENTS
I measured the speakers with a
Bruel & Kjaer 4156 lab-calibrated
microphone and a Techron TEF
System 12 analyzer. I placed the
microphone 1 meter away, on -axis
to the tweeter, and I measured
from 333 Hz up to exclude any
room reflections. To test the low frequency response up to 333 Hz, I
BBB
IME in Milliseconds
18.876
Log
20080.8
TECHRON
TECHRON
TECHRON
Figure
Figure 7. Phase response (top
and group delay (bottom) of the
DD261a.
measured the woofer's near-field
response 1/4 -in. away. This is the
same as its half-space response in
the far field. Then I subtracted 6
dB at low frequencies to yield the
full-space response.
Figure 2 is the anechoic fre-
sharp, with minor cabinet reflections occurring 12 dB and 22 dB
6. Energy time curve of
the DD261a.
Figure
8. Anechoic frequency response of the DDBP12 subwoofer
quency response of the DD6a in full
space. It measures 62 Hz to 18 kHz
5 dB. Peaks around 4 kHz and 13
kHz contribute to the bright, sizzly,
sometimes strident sound heard in
the listening tests. But they also
add clarity and definition.
Designer Jesse Langford told me
that the speaker's frequency response is flatter even at 10 degrees
off axis.
He said that you can aim the
speaker to tailor its high- frequency
response (or to compensate for
your degree of hearing loss!) Figure
3 shows Digital Design's measurements of their new models, 15 degrees off-axis, with the microphone
placed midway between the woofer
and tweeter.
Shown in Figure 4, the Energy
Time Curve of the DD6a is very
good. The direct -sound spike is
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down.
Figure 5 shows the anechoic frequency response of the dual-woofer
DD261a in full space. It measures
48 Hz to 20 kHz ±4 dB. The rise
around 4 kHz adds some presence
and definition.
In Figure 6 we see the Energy
Time Curve of the DD261a. It's
similar to that of the DD6a, with
delayed reflections about 12 and 22
dB down from the direct -sound
spike.
Figure 7 shows the phase response and group delay of the
DD261a. This is the best group -delay performance I've seen: less
than 0.2 msec over most of the
audible range. This measurement
verifies the excellent transient response of the speaker.
Finally, Figure 8 is the subwoofer
frequency response supplied by
Digital Designs. It's essentially a
well- damped bandpass from about
34 Hz to 110 Hz.
SUMMARY
The strong points of the Digital
Designs DD6a and DD261 are
their extraordinary clarity and detail, sharp imaging, well -controlled
transient response, and tight bass.
Since the speakers are necessarily
small, some blurring or distortion
becomes audible on loud peaks.
Coloration is low but, to my ears,
tends toward too bright in the
DD6a. The DDBP -12 subwoofer
blends well with the satellites,
adding weight and power without
any muddiness. Digital Designs
continues to offer improved performance in their speaker line, a
group of monitors with accurate
and detailed reproduction.
.
g.
t
Your MIDI Recording Studio
by Bruce Bartlett
ELAR Publishing Co. is proud to present this comprehensive book on MIDI recording. Your MIDI
Recording Studio is written in the clear, easily understood style that has become Bruce Bartlett's hallmark.
Among the many subjects in the book are:
Explanation of MIDI
MIDI
Equipment
Sampling
Keyboard and Digital -Audio Workstations
Sequencing
MIDI Software
Recording and Recorders
Keeping the System in Sync.
Automated Mixing and DAT Mastering
MIDI
Troubleshooting
Your MIDI Recording Studio is sure to become a reference standard in your audio library. This limited time
offer is your opportunity to own this sure -to-be best seller at this special price
ELAR PUBLISHING CO. INC. 38 Pine Hill Lane Dix Hills NY 11746
am enclosing $19.95 (plus $2.50 in USA/$3.50 elsewhere) for
Your MIDI Recording Studio by Bruce Bartlett
This is a special pre -publication price, will be $28.50 after publication
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BRUCE BARTLETT
Chapter
Your MIDI Recording Studio
The book will be available this year and will contain fifteen or more chapters, addenda, and a MIDI glossary, as
well as a detailed index. Please also note that new photographs are being prepared but were not ready for this advanced chapter printing. They, of course, will be in the book.
MIDI STUDIO EQUIPMENT
In your own home, you can make professionalsounding records or sound tracks without any musicians but yourself, simply by playing a piano -style
keyboard. The tools that help you do this comprise a
home MIDI studio. This is a group of electronic musical instruments and devices used to compose, perform, and record music.
MIDI stands for Musical Instrument Digital Interface. It is a system for connecting electronic -music devices together so they can communicate with each
other and stay synchronized.
The home MIDI studio is a wonderful system for
composers or arrangers who want to hear how their
songs might be performed by a group of musicians. If
you're a musician who enjoys working alone, you can
also use this system to create records, video sound
tracks, music for commercials, or background music
for spoken -word recordings.
At home you can record your performances on computer disk, take the disk to a professional studio, and
have your disk play music on the studio's expensive
MIDI equipment.
EQUIPMENT OVERVIEW
Every recording studio, whether conventional or
MIDI, has these components:
Musical instruments.
Multi-track recorder -records each instrument's
performance on a separate track.
Mixer -combines the multiple tracks to 2 -track
stereo.
2 -track recorder-records the stereo mix from the
mixer.
Monitor system -power amplifiers and speakers
that let you hear what you're playing and recording.
Let's consider the musical instruments in a MIDI
studio. Most of the instruments are electronic rather
than acoustic. These might include:
A synthesizer
piano -style instrument that electronically simulates various musical instruments.
piano -style instruA sample -playing keyboard
ment that plays digitally recorded notes of real instruments.
A drum machine -an electronic device that simulates a drum set and other percussion.
-a
-a
Now let's look at the multi -track recorder. In a MIDI
studio, you record the instruments mentioned above
with a multi -track sequencer (Figure 1 -1). This device
records performance gestures, such as keypresses on
a piano -style keyboard, into computer memory. Un-
I
I
Figure
1 -1.
I
I
1
I
I
I
1
l
I
1
A sequencer.
like a tape recorder, a sequencer does not record
audio. Instead, it records which notes you pressed,
when you pressed them, and so on. A tape recorder records the sounds you play; a sequencer records the actions you perform.
A sequencer can record 8 or more tracks, with each
track containing a performance of a different instrument. Three types of sequencers are available:
A stand -alone sequencer
A sequencer circuit built into a keyboard instrument
A computer running a sequencer program.
The MIDI studio has a few more components. One is
a multi -track tape recorder to record acoustic instruments and vocals. You also need a mixer, which combines the audio signals from all the tracks (both sequencer and tape) into a 2- channel stereo mix. You
record this mix onto a 2 -track recorder. The recording
made on that machine is the end product: your finished composition.
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1
I
I
I
I
1
1
l
I
I
1
L
Figure
1 -2.
Figure
A sound generator.
Figure 1 -2 shows a simple MIDI studio made of the
components just mentioned. The synth, drum machine and sequencer are connected by special cables
that carry MIDI signals. These signals allow the devices to communicate with each other and play in
sync. We'll cover MIDI in the next chapter.
RECORDING PROCEDURE
Here is the basic procedure for recording with a
MIDI studio: 1. Play drum rhythms on a drum machine, and record them with the drum machine's
built -in sequencer.
2. While listening to the drum machine playback,
perform music on a synthesizer or sample -playing
keyboard, and record your performance with a sequencer connected to the keyboard.
3. Check this sequencer recording by playing it back
through your synthesizer. The sequencer activates
the synthesizer to play the same notes you played,
much like a player piano.
4. Play the synth and drum- machine parts together.
While listening to them, record vocals or acoustic instruments on the multi-track tape recorder. A special
sync tone on tape synchronizes the MIDI instruments
with the tape parts.
5. After every part is recorded, play the multi -track
tape. The sync tone activates the sequencer and drum
machine so that everything plays together, in synchronization.
6. Use a mixer to blend the audio signals from the
synthesizer, drum machine, and tape recorder. The resulting music sounds like a band playing.
The sequencer in this system lets you edit your music with extraordinary control. For example, you can
fix wrong notes, change tempo without changing
pitch, record a performance one note at a time, copy
and rearrange song sections, and change synthesizer
sounds after the performance is already recorded.
1
-3. A
synthesizer.
sounds such as a synthesized piano, bass, snare drum,
or choir. These sounds (timbres) are called patches or
programs. A multi-timbral synthesizer can play two or
more patches at once.
A synthesizer is limited in its number of voices-the
total number of notes it can play simultaneously. For
example, an 8 -voice synth can play up to eight notes at
the same time, whether with one patch or eight.
Sample -playing keyboard: A keyboard instrument that plays pre- recorded notes of real instruments (Figure 1 -3). Each note, called a sample, is digitally recorded in computer memory. A sample might
be a flute note, a bass pluck, a drum hit, or a person
yelling.
When you press a key on the keyboard, the sample
plays. The higher the key you press, the higher the
pitch of the reproduced sample. Thus you can select a
sampled instrument and play chords and melodies
with that instrument's sound.
Samples are recorded with a device called a sampler.
Two examples are the Roland S -330 and Akai 51000.
Often a sampler is built into a sampling keyboard,
which both records and plays samples.
Sound module (sound generator or tone generator): A device that generates a variety of sound
timbres, either synthesized or from samples. Some examples of sound modules are the Yamaha TG77,
Figure
1 -4.
MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS
Let's look more closely at the electronic musical instruments used in a MIDI studio:
Synthesizer (Figure 1 -3): A keyboard instrument
that creates sounds electronically with oscillators
(tone generators). Synthesizers produce various
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A drum machine.
TG33, and TG55; Kawai PHm MIDI Sound Module
and the Roland Sound Canvas SC-55.
You play a sound module either from a sequencer or
from a master keyboard. This master keyboard could
be the one built into a synth or a sample -playing keyboard. Or it might be a keyboard controller, a pianostyle keyboard without sound generators.
Drum machine (Figure 1 -4): a device that plays
built -in samples of various percussion instruments,
including a drum set. It also records and plays back
drum patterns that you play or enter with built -in
keys or drum pads. Some examples are the Alesis SR16 and HR-16:B drum machines, the Korg S3 Rhythm
Workstation, and the Roland Human Rhythm Composer. You may not need a drum machine if you have a
sample -playing keyboard with drum sounds.
Having covered the electronic musical instruments,
let's look at the other components in the MIDI studio.
Multi -track tape recorder: a device used in a
MIDI studio mainly for recording vocals and acoustic
instruments. A 4-track recorder is sufficient for a
budget studio; a more elaborate studio might use an 8track recorder (either open-reel or cassette). Two 8track cassette units are the Tascam 238 and the TOA
MR -8T. Alesis makes an ADAT 8 -track digital audio
tape recorder selling under $4000.
A multi -track tape recorder does not have inputs for
microphones, so it must be used with a mixer that has
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O O O O O O O O O O O O O
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Figure
1 -6.
A mixer.
is built into a recorder, as in the Tascam 644 recorder mixer.
Mixer (Figure 1 -6): a unit that blends several different audio signals into a single stereo signal. For example, you might mix the signals of a synthesizer,
sound module, drum machine, and multi -track tape
recorder.
A MIDI studio requires one of three types of mixer:
1. A mixer with mic inputs
2. A line mixer without mic inputs
3. Arecorder -mixer with extra line inputs.
Which should you choose?
If you use a multi -track tape recorder in your studio (rather than a recorder -mixer), you need a mixer
with mic inputs. That's because a multi -track recorder
does not accept mic signals directly.
If you use a recorder -mixer, you do not need a separate mixer with mic inputs because they are built into
the recorder -mixer. In this case, a line mixer or keyboard mixer is adequate to mix the tape tracks and
MIDI instruments. Some examples of line mixers are
the Roland M -120, Yamaha KM802, Fostex 2016, Tascam MM1, and Korg KMX -122. They provide control
of volume, panning, and effects (described later).
1 -5. Sansui WS -X1 6 -track recorder -mixer
(courtesy Sansui clo KDS Technologies).
Figure
Figure
1 -7.
A 2 -track recorder.
microphone inputs. An alternative is a recorder -mixer
(Figure 1 -5), which combines a mixer and multi -track
cassette recorder in a single portable package. Some
recent examples are the Sansui WS -X1, Fostex 280,
Yamaha MT3X, and Tascam 644 and 688 Midistudios.
Tape synchronizer: You need this device if you
want to use a multi -track tape recorder in your studio.
A tape synchronizer forces the sequencer tracks to
play in sync with the tape tracks, so that the music recorded on both devices plays together at the same
tempo. The tape synchronizer also makes the sequencer start at the same place in the song that you
start the tape. An example is the Tascam MTS -30
MIDI Tape Synchronizer. Sometimes a tape-sync unit
0000
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If you use one of the new recorder -mixers with extra line inputs (such as the Tascam 644 and 688
Midistudios), you can do it all with the recorder -mixer.
2 -track recorder (Figure 1 -7): a device that records the output of the mixer: the stereo mix of all
your sound sources. The tape made on this recorder is
the final product. The recorder can be open-reel, cassette, DAT (Digital Audio Tape cassette), a video cassette recorder (VCR) with VHS -Hi Fi, or a VCR with a
digital audio adapter.
SYNTHESIZER
o
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NI!
has built -in MIDI ports; the Yamaha is an IBM -compatible portable unit with MIDI and SMPTE connectors (explained later).
The computer can also be used with other music -related software:
A voice -editor program lets you manipulate the parameters that make up a MIDI instrument's patches
or sounds.
A sample editor displays a sample's waveform (signal voltage vs. time) on your computer screen and lets
AUDIO OUT
AUDIO IN
i mol
i
III II III II III II III 11 III
MIDI OUT
i
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° EFFECTS
MIDI
IN
01
MONITOR
Figure
1 -8.
An effects unit.
Effects (Figure
signal processors that modify
sounds sent through them to add sonic interest or spaciousness. Some examples of effects are reverberation, echo, chorus, and compression. MIDI effects
units can be controlled via MIDI commands (described later). Some recent effects units are the Alesis
Microverb III and Yamaha FX1000.
1 -8):
Power amplifier and speakers, or powered
speakers: monitoring systems which let you hear
what you're performing and recording. While you can
use headphones or your home stereo system for monitoring, most MIDI studios use close -field monitors.
These are small speakers placed about 3 -feet from you
and 3 -feet apart. This arrangement places them far
from the walls and floor, which generally results in
weak bass. However, close -field monitors are designed
to compensate for this effect, so they produce good
bass from about 70 Hz up.
Some examples are the Ramsa WS -A10, Boss MA12, JBL Control 1, Kawai KM -20, Yamaha MS202,
and Fostex 6301B. They start at about $150 a pair.
OPTIONAL COMPUTER EQUIPMENT
Personal computer system: a computer, disk
drive, monitor screen, and perhaps a printer. Generally, the computer is used to run a sequencer program,
which replaces a stand-alone sequencer device. Compared to a sequencer with its tiny LCD screen, the
computer monitor screen displays much more information at a glance, making editing easier and more
intuitive.
Some popular computers for music composing are
the Commodore Amiga, 64 and 128; IBM and IBM
compatibles; Apple Macintosh; Atari ST, Stacy and
Mega, and Yamaha Cl Music Computer. The Atari
you modify it.
A librarian enables you to transfer patches between
MIDI instruments and your computer, rename or rearrange the patches, and store them to disk.
A notation program converts your sequenced performance to standard musical notation and prints it.
Integrated Sequencer /Digital Audio Recording software lets you combine sequences with digital-audio
recordings made on a computer hard disk.
MIDI computer interface: an electronic device
that plugs into a user port or slot in your computer,
and converts MIDI signals into computer signals and
vice versa. You need this only if you're using a computer in your system.
Hard disk drive: This computer peripheral is for
digital audio recording. It offers higher sound quality
than a multi -track tape recorder, but costs more. The
hard disk drive is used with digital -audio recording
software.
MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT
Audio cables: cables that carry audio signals.
They are used to connect the audio outputs of synthesizers, sound modules, sample -playing keyboards, a
drum machine, and a tape recorder to your mixer line input connectors. Synthesizer audio outputs are low impedance unbalanced, and are used with cables having 1/4 -in. phone plugs.
MIDI cables: cables that carry MIDI signals, connecting MIDI devices to each other with 5 -pin DIN
plugs. MIDI cables connect synths, sound modules,
sample-playing keyboards, drum machines, and computers so that they can communicate with each other.
Power outlet strip: a row of electrical outlets to
power all your equipment. It's a good idea to have
surge protection in the strip.
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Figure 1 -9. The Roland W-30 Workstation (Courtesy of Roland Corporation)
Microphone (optional): a device that converts
sound into an electrical signal. You use a microphone
for recording vocals and acoustic instruments on tape,
or for recording your own samples.
Mic stand: for positioning the microphone.
Equipment stand: a system of tubes, rods, and
platforms that supports all your equipment in a convenient arrangement. It provides user comfort, allows
shorter cables, and saves floor area for other activities.
THE KEYBOARD WORKSTATION
A keyboard workstation combines several MIDI studio devices in a single package. For example, a
workstation might include a keyboard, drum machine, sample -player, synth, and sequencer in one
portable chassis. Some keyboard workstations include a disk drive to store sounds and performances.
The all -in-one keyboard workstation is compact and
simple because it omits wires, and costs less than a
Figure 1 -10. The Korg M -1 Digital Music Workstation (Courtesy of Korg Inc.)
group of connected equipment. However, separate
components are generally more flexible and powerful.
Although a keyboard workstation seems complete,
you also might need a multi -track tape recorder or recorder -mixer to record vocals and acoustic instruments.
Two examples of keyboard workstations are the Roland W-30 (Figure 1 -9) and the Korg M -1 (Figure 110). Their features and functions are described in
later chapters. Some other prominent models are the
Roland D -20, Kurzweil K250, Ensoniq EPS and SQ80, and E -mu Systems Emulator III.
The Roland Studio M combines in one box a 16 -track
sequencer, tone generators, mixer, tape -sync function,
and automated mixing function. Add a keyboard controller and a multi -track tape recorder, and you have a
complete MIDI studio.
All the MIDI equipment described here is sold at
pro-audio dealers and music stores. Later chapters
describe which features to look for when you're shopping for MIDI equipment.
This is the first chapter of the forthcoming ELAR Publishing Company's "Your MIDI
Recording Studio" by Bruce Bartlett. See page 28 for information on how to advance -order
this new book.
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This excellent video is targeted at first -time users and musicians new to the field of sound reinforcement. However, the video contains insider tips and sophisticated approaches to
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This book tells how to position
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JOHN BARILLA
THE ELECTRONIC COTTAGE
HOT TIPS: ON PRODUCING CUSTOM ALBUMS
It used to be that making a
"custom album" was almost a dirty
word in this business. You know an
artist wasn't professional enough
to land a recording contract, so he
or she (with the financial help of a
few compassionate friends) sought
a studio where they could have an
album recorded, duplicated and
packaged-and then of course, sell
it out of their cars at gigs. The
product was usually expected to
sound like a demo -replete with
noise, cheesy sounds and the
vagueness of tracks that had been
bounced too many times. It had
something ofthe stigma associated
with struggling poets who pay to
be published by some fly-by -night
vanity press.
But thankfully, things have
changed in recent years. Doing a
custom album is no longer synonymous with second best, and many
artists have found it to be a legitimate vehicle for propelling their
careers into a wider arena.
Case in point: A couple of years
ago I created a neat sounding demo
of a song I had written, which
ended up catching the ear of a
young, relatively unknown artist
in Nashville. The artist was not
signed by any record company at
that time, but he had enough sense
to recognize a good song when he
heard it. He found himself some financial backers, and went into the
studio and cut my song-along
with nine others, and released it as
a custom cassette album on his
proprietary label.
For several months, the album
went nowhere, but it did come to
the attention of a major record
company who bought up the multitrack master, remixed it and re -released it. My song was the single
and it ended up charting at #11
nationally. So you see, a well -produced custom project can, at very
least, be a stepping stone to a
higher career track. It can open
doors that have previously been
closed to the artist.
-
WHY IS THAT SO?
To answer that question we have
to consider the fundamental role of
economics in the music business.
The custom project
full-blown
-a
quasi- master production -simply
eliminates the record company's
need to invest money in an unknown quantity. Over the past 15
or so years, talent development
budgets have gotten scarcer than
hen's teeth for several reasons:
For one, the record companies
themselves made lots of bad investments, in the early days of "talent scouting" they signed everybody they could
to see what
would fly in the market place. But
those halcyon days seem to be
gone. Rising manufacturing costs,
audiences with little discretionary
money and a far less ingenious talent base have led all the major
companies to tighten their belts
and invest predominantly in time tested mega- stars, rather than dubious new talent. A wise move for
just
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the record companies, but bad
news for budding new artists.
The A &R departments at record
companies probably ought to share
some of the blame for this economic decline, for they have often
squandered their own money. Another case in point comes from an
associate of mine who operates a
management company for musical
artists. The management company
represented an artist who was
known not for his songwriting, but
for his magnificent associations as
a sideman with several well known musical acts. On the
strength of this, he was signed to a
major label and received a rather
hefty recording budget. But two
years and $250,000 later, the record company found that they had
not one single usable track worthy
of release. Needless to say, they
dropped the artist from their roster, but it cost them a quarter of a
million dollars to find out how
shallow his talent really was.
In light of this, it is easy to see
how custom projects have become
much more interesting to record
labels. After all, it allows them to
see an artist in a fully- developed
fashion: no guesswork, no economic risks. A person who puts out
a quality custom album is likely to
be more than a "two -song wonder",
a nice voice or a pretty face.
Instead that person has demonstrated artistic depth, perseverance, and the ability to attract a
certain amount of investment capital. That person is worthy of a
.
closer look.
Of course, selling out to a major
label is not the only purpose in putting together a custom release.
Setting up an independent label is
the course that many clients
choose; and for some, it can be a
profitable one. It's easy to get lost
in the gloss of wanting a `hit" to
validate oneself as an artist, but
many people have found a viable
income from custom releases that
never hit the charts or get much
airplay.
Case in point: One independent
company in the Pacific northwest
has become known for the synthesized instrumental music made by
its owner and a small group of his
friends. His main sales avenue is
direct mail marketing to a slowly
increasing group of loyal fans. A
woman from Long Island has garnered for herself a sizeable audience for her children's music-all
without major record company involvement. Both are making a decent living doing original music,
without needing a day gig. It's far
from stardom, but some people feel
they can live without the adulation. I believe this decentralized,
populist style of record making is
catching on and people who can offer efficient, economical and comprehensive production services to
independent artists will also be
able to profit from this trend.
ENTER, THE
ELECTRONIC COTTAGE
Who is in a better position to offer
quick reasonable custom album recording than the local electronic
cottager? With only a moderate investment in facility and equipment, your overhead is low enough
to offer these enterprising artists a
deal they can afford. And if your
profile is typical, you are probably
part musician, part producer and
part engineer, and patient enough
to offer a personalized service
helping the client at every stage of
the process:-from choosing songs
down to deciding on a layout for a
cassette label. Remember, for
many of your clients, it will be the
first time they are doing such an
extensive project. Your willingness
to involve yourself from start to finish may be the decisive factor in
landing the project. Even if you
aren't expert at every stage of the
-
process, simply holding your cli-
ent's hand and walking them
through every stage will enhance
your value in their eyes.
You will have to be a bit of a `renaissance person" to do this job, but
the knowledge you need can be
learned as you go. Granted, you'll
make a few mistakes along the
path, but if you never promise
more than you can deliver, you
won't make an enemy. After a few
times through the process, you will
become adept at all facets of custom album production and your
services will become all the more
comprehensive and valuable. Now
let's do a thumbnail sketch of the
process, highlighting some important things that you should be
aware of.
THINGS TO
REMEMBER
In other articles, I have pointed
up the importance of mastering the
final production dub that leaves
your studio. It is not expedient to
expound on that again here, except
to say that it is an important service that will save your budget-conscious clients money. It will assure
that the only service required of
the company you choose to do your
duplication is a simple machine -tomachine transfer: no EQ, no level
matching, etc. On -line time (where
aesthetic decisions must be made)
is expensive and may be prohibitive when working with a modest
budget. Your client will appreciate
having a production master that
does not need modification.
While cassette duplication is
straightforward, the process for
compact discs is a little different: it
always requires an intermediary
stage. This process, known as
"glass mastering" is where the production master-in whatever format you present it-is first transferred to a Sony 1630 formatted
U -Matic master (the industry
standard) where certain necessary
timing and indexing codes are
added. Then the information on
the 1630 tape is burned-in (with a
laser) to the actual glass master,
from which metal stampers are
made to mold the actual CDs. Most
of this process is transparent to
you -in other words, you needn't
the masbe concerned about it
ter you present is suitable for
-if
www.americanradiohistory.com
transfer as is. If however, you are
using a consumer DAT recorder (as
opposed to a professional DAT),
you may find that the sampling
rates are incompatible for a direct
digital -to- digital transfer. The CD
preparation facility can provide
you with sample-rate conversion
(from the 48 k rate down to the conventional 44.1 k of CDs); but this is
quite expensive. I know the purists
will balk at this, but the simple and
economical solution is to borrow or
rent a professional DAT machine
and transfer the album using the
analog output of your consumer
deck into the analog input of the
pro deck. While it's understood
that a direct digital transfer obviates the extra stage of digital to
analog conversion, the practical reality is that even an audiophile
would be hard put to tell the differ ence-so long as the machines
were short -wired to each other and
not run through a console or any
additional processors. For cassettes (which is your most common
medium for custom albums) no
such wrangling is usually required; most cassette duping facilities are willing to run both 48 k and
44.1 k DAT masters, as well as
analog recordings.
Another angle that you can serve
your clients is helping them organize the graphics layout for the custom album cover. For an extra fee,
most duping facilities will handle
the actual finished mechanical layout and printing; but it will simplify things immensely if they are
given a rough layout indicating the
size and arrangement of headlines,
notes, photos, logos, etc. Duping
houses can usually supply you with
templates of both cassette and CD
inserts, so that you can quickly and
easily indicate placement.
CONCLUSION
Finally, the artist will probably
need a promotional package to go
along with the custom album.
Items included may be a bio, an
itinerary of recent performances
and a photo, all housed in a conventional pocket binder.
If you are a decent writer or photographer you might want to try
providing these services to the client yourself. The intimacy and convenience of having all their needs
catered to under one roof will ensure that your clients see you as
truly valuable resource.
N
w
Introduction to the
Charts
We've tried to make the charts of amplifiers as self-explanatory as possible, with
slanting headlines on each column that explain what we wanted to show you.
These charts represent entirely what each of the respective manufacturers have
sent us in response to our (sometime repeated) requests. You will also see that
there are numbers of blank sections within the charts. If they don't have a specification available, we can't list it. But note that many do not have anything under
the Features column. This column is where we have invited each manufacturer to
state, in as few words as possible, what is special about the product. You can
safely assume, then, that when this column is blank, it is because the manufacturers told us nothing.
Note also that we ask for amplifier continuous power not only at the traditional 8
and 4 ohm resistive loads, but also at 2 ohms. As you know, when you parallel
speakers, the load is halved. Accordingly, in the real worlds of studio monitors and
headphone lines, and the even more real world of performance and stadium systems, effective loads back to an amplifier can well be 2 or 3 ohms. Since modern
solid -state amplifiers can handle such loads successfully, we ask each manufacturer for this specification. Note that not all give it. It's, therefore, safe to assume
that if it is missing, the amplifier may not be reliable at low loads.
Distortion at normal and full power ratings is also specified. While many amplifiers today can boast of almost vanishing distortion, remember that if you will be
pushing an amplifier hard up against its rated power and beyond, distortion will
then be rising rapidly. No audio product is really made to be abused, and amplifiers are no exception.
One group of important specifications deals with dimensions and weights. Amplifiers, particularly high -power ones, are not lightweights. A few racks can have
weights adding up rapidly.
Finally, the price. What we have asked each manufacturer for is the suggested
retail price. Different retail dealers establish their own.
On to the charts...
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1200
2
800
1350
1950
20-20k
0.05
0.05
0.25
S
025
20-20k
+-0.25
1.9
20-20k
+-0.25
1.5
20-20k
+-0.25
1,5
20-20k
+0.25
1.5
5.25
68
$2,699.00
Fully modular, soft Gipping, led display
$1249.00
Signal/clip indicators, led display option
$1,039.00
As 1100 model above
$829.00
Signal/clip indicators
$349 00
UL and UA listed
19
15
1100
2
525
850
1100 20 -20k
0.05
0.05
.025
0.25
5.25
39
19
13
900
2
350
590
775
20-20k
0.05
0.05
0.25
0.25
5.25
34
19
13
600
2
270
425
20-20k
0,05
0.05
0.1
0.1
5.25
33
19
12
ALMS CORPORATION
RA100
2
75
05
20-20k
100
0.19
20 -20k
0.5
3.5
1
15
19
requires no tan,
8.5
Short circuit protected.
ALTEC LANSING CORPORATION
9441A
2
75
10-50k
100
0
1
0.1
0.1
0.1
10-50k
+0;
0.75
1.75
100 watts per channeV4 ohms at 0.1% thd.
18
19
1
12.8
94448
2
200
20-20k
300
0.05
0.05
0.1
0.1
10-90k
0.78
5.25
Balanced XLR/barrier strip inputs,
level controls on back panel,
300W bridged into 8 ohms.
34
19
0, -3
12,75
9442A
2
100
10 -50k
150
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
10-50k
+0, -3
.775
10-90k
.790
5.25
Balanced XLR/barrier strip inputs,
level controls on back panel,
powered accessory sockets.
Balanced XLR/banier strip inputs,
level controls on back panel,
32
19
11
9446A
2
600
20-20k
650
0
05
0.05
0.01
0.1
5.25
+0, -3
ARX SYSTEMS
52
19
See oti ad on page 2
SS1200
2
425
625
20-20k
0.02
0.04
SS600
2
250
350
20 -20k
0.02
0.04
SS300
2
100
150
20-20k
0.02
0.04
less
than
less
than
0.1
0.1
less
than
less
than
0.1
0.1
less
than
less
than
0.1
0.1
less
than
less
than
0.1
0.1
less
than
less
than
0.1
0.1
20-20k
+ -0.4
20-20k
+-0.4
20-20k
+-0.4
33
0.775
or 1.6
0.775 26
or 1.6
0.0775 15
3-65k
+0, -3
1.73
5.25
3 -85k
1.54
5.25
$999.00
Balanced inputs. 2 fans,phase reverse,
switchable bridge, all mosfet.
As above.
$679 00
Jack input, XLR output, fan cooled.
78
17.5
16.3
$2,199.00
Twin power supplies, balanced inputs w/looping XLRs and 1/4 in.
50
$1.539.00
$1.342.00
BGW SYSTEMS
GTA
2
360
625
1000 20-20k
GTB
2
300
450
425
750F /G
350/350A
200
6500T
2
2
2
2
300
200
450
425
20 -20k
20-20k
325
100
100
20 -20k
20 -20k
20-20k
150
less
than
0.05
less
than
0.05
less
than
0.05
0.03
less
than
0.05
less
than
0.05
0.03
less
than
less
than
0.05
less
less
than
0.05
3-100k
than
0.05
less
than
0.05
less
than
less
than
3-85k
0.1
0.1
less
than
0.05
less
less
than
0.1
7500T
2
200
20-20k
300
less
than
0.1
8500T
2
300
450
425
20-20k
less
than
0.1
0.03
0.01
less
than
0.03
than
01
+0, -3
19
14.3
55
3-85k
+0,-3
1.5
3 -65k
1.18
5.25
0.92
1
7
19
15
+0, -3
75
0.9
3.5
status indicators.
$1.699.00(F) LED status indicators, thermostat
$1.849.00(G)fan control, 850 w/2 ohm single channel,
(G) stereo 50 dB range metering.
11.9
28
S599 00
Barrier strip inputs/outputs w/
1/4 in. TRS, optional XLR balanced inputs, rearmounted level controls
$849.00
Barrier strip inputs/outputs
w/ 1/4 in. TRS, optional XLR balanced
input. rear mounted level controls.
$1.299.00
Same, with 850 watts 2 ohm single
channel.
14
19
51.1 99.00
19
+0,-3
12.9
1.18
5.25
36
19
+0, -3
12.4
2020k
1.6
5.25
+0, -2
0.1
www.americanradiohistory.com
Balanced inputs w/looping XLRs and
1/4 in. TRS, fan cooled, large LED
LED status indicators, convection
S1.349(.00A) cooled, balanced inputs w/looping
XLRs and 1/4 in. TRS.
100W /Channel in one rack space,
$999.00
balanced XLR and 1/4 in. TRS ínputs, LED status indicators.
34
19
11.8
-85k
+0,-3
1
TRS.
50
19
13
BIAMP SYSTEMS (ADVANTAGE DIVISION)
Advantage
40
2
0.05
65
00.08
0.5
20-20k
+0,-0.5
CPA -130
3.5
f
22
Stereo/mono bridge, front or rear controls
peak indicators,passive cooling.
19
10
Advantage
200
2
325
0.3
20-20k
1
CPA -650
5.25
+0,-0.5
33
650W- bridged mono,front/rear controls,
peak indicators,passively cooled.
19
11
Advantage
60
0.05
2020k
0.08
D-60
3.5
10.2
+0,-0.5
Available as 060ED with a 9 -band egalizer.
with 9-band eq and 2-chan mixer. f
15
11
BRYSTONRRYSTON VERMONT
2BLP
2
3B
4B
50
100
2
2
less
than
less
than
less
0.01
0.01
0.01
less
than
less
than
less
0.01
than
0.01
0.01
less
than
0.01
.01
2020k
0.01
2020k
than
less
than
0.01
20-
0.01
01
20k
"
less
0.01
less
than
.01
7B
0.01
1
-100k
0.75
than
0.01
1.75
18
S775 00
Full twenty year warranty on
.all units
30
$1,3.75.00
Modular construction.
19
10
1
-100k
1.0
2.25
19
9
1
-100k
1-100k
1.25
2.25
19
13.5
45
$2,095.00
All triple good plater contacts.
1.0
225
45
$2,195.00
All discrete.
21
51
19
13.5
CARVER CORPORA ION
P1200
2
450
0.1
0.5
20-20k
3.5
250.00
19
12.75
PT1250
2
0.5
0.1
20-20k
11
+0; .5
19
51.500.00
10.75
PT1800
2
0.1
0.5
1.5
PT2400
2
0.1
0.5
5
M120
2
0.1
0.5
20-20k
40
60
2 -120k
46
19
Bridged mono operation, 70V direct
drive, operation -dual detachable
power cords, fully modular.
Same
12.75
5.20 52
19
12.75
$560.00
10
19
+0,-.5
12
M300
110
2
150
4 -70k
0.5
0.1
20-29k
+0,-.5
11
20-20k
23
+0,-.5
19
20-20k
11.56
24
+0, -.5
19
$680.00
19
12
M600
M900
2
200
350
2
300
5 -80k
1110
0.5
0.1
5 -80k
0.5
0.1
Bridged mono operation-70V direct
drive operation, remote/sequential
power on-LED power meters-XLR.
Has 70V direct drive operation,
LED power meters, XLR, TRS inputs
clipping eliminator circuit.
$820.00
$995.00
Bridged mono operation, headphone
jack -XLR, TRS, barrier strip ininputs -clip indicators.
Bridged mono operation, headphone
jack -XLR, TRS, barrier strip inputs -LED power indicators.
Remote/sequential power on/off
circuit- convection cooling
bridged mono operation XLR.
Same, with fan cooling.
-
11.56
CARVN
FET
300
1
500
20-20k
05
.05
20 -20k
37
1000( W)
4
FET 450
2
$679.00
10
Mosfet circuitry, speaker guard
protection. short circuit current
limiting thermal shut off switch.
32
$499.00Same
19
125
450
20-20k
.05
.05
20 -20k
19
10
FET
401(W)
150
300
400
20-20k
less
than
less
than
0.1
0.1
0.015
0.025
20-20k
S399.00
Has 9 band graphic equalizer,
thermostatic protection.
5880.00
Isolated X- former-coupled (bypassable),fan.
$1,188.00
Same as above.
19
1
to
CREST AUDIO, NC
Fcv220
110
2
60-18k
0.015
-
0.025
60 -18k 0.775 3.5 42
+0, -3
19
14
Fcv440
2
220
60-18k
0.015.
0.015
0.025
0.025
60-18k
www.americanradiohistory.com
0.775 3.5
50
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20-20k
120
0.015
0.015
0.025
0.025
20-20k
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14
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3.5
33
$768.00
UL listed, fan cooled.
$966.00
UL listed, fan coiled.
$1,398.00
As directly above.
$1,674.00
As above.
$1.750.00
Tailored for mid and high freq.
applications.
$1,390.00
As directly above.
$1,295.00
PIP
19
11.5
u1901
225
2
300
400
20-20k
0.015
0.025
0.025
0.025
20-20k
0.775
3.5
40
19
0.775
3.5
42
+0, -0.5
14
u11201
280
2
450
20 -20k
0.015
0.0.015
0.025
0.025
20-20k
19
+0, -0.5
14
330
u12401
20-20k
580
0.015
0.015
0.025
0.025
20-20k
0.775
3.5
+0,-0.5
61
19
16.5
4601
2
300
425
20.20k
0.015
0.015
0.012
0.02
20-20k
+0, -0.3
1.03
20-20k
0.9
3.5
52
19
16
3301
2
220
330
400
20 -20k
0.015
0.015
0.0 25
0.025
3.5
+0, -0.3
49
19
16
CROWN NTERNIMONAL PIC.
MA600
2
235
340
410
20-20k
05
05
.05
.05
20-20k
.725
3.5
39
$1,595.00
,Q compatible, ODEP, IOC, balance(
XLR input, front panel level, SPI indicator
air cooling ground isolation switch.
As above
$1,995.00
As above.
$2,895.00
As above.
$790. 00
P.I.P and IQ compatible, grounded bridge
70 -V direct mode,bridged mono, ODEP,
$1,050.00
As directly above.
S1.550.00
As above
$1.990.00
As above.
810.0 0
Available with precision stepped
attenuators. Has rear mounted
level controls and octal crossover socket(
51,04 0.00
Same
19
0.01
16
MA1200
2
320
495
200
20-20k
.05
05
.05
.05
20-20k
0.775
0.01
+-0.1
20-20k
9.775
0.01
+ -0.1
20-20k
0.775
3.5
44
19
16
MA2400
2
520
820
1100
20 -20k
05
05
.05
.05
3.5
51
19
16
MA3600
2
1165
1655
1800
20-20k
0.05
0.05
0.1
0.1
3.5
56
19
+ -0.1
16
CT200
2
100
20 -20k
155
.05
.05
.05
.05
20-20k
0.775
3.5
21
19
0.1
IOC,balanced input barrier block connect
16
CT400
2
210
230
20 -20k
05
05
.05
.05
20-20k
0.775
3.5
31
19
0.1
16
CT800
305
20-20k
410
.95
05
.05
.05
20-20k
0.775
5.25
46
19
0.1
16
CT1600
2
540
20-20k
850
.05
05
.05
.05
20-20k
.775
7
57
19
0.1
16
ELECTRO-VOICE
AP2300A
2
100
10 -50k
150
AP2600A
2
200
300
7 -85k
AP3200
2
400
600
10-90k
7300A
2
25C
425
500
7 -85k
less
than
less
than
20-20k
than
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
less
than
less
than
less
than
less
than
20-20k
.775
5.25
.03
.03
.05
.01
less
than
less
than
less
than
less
than
20-20k
.775
5
.05
.05
02
.01
less
2
400
600
10-90k
.03
.03
less
than
less
than
.05
.05
05
less
than
02
51.890.00
15.75
.775
5.25
.775
5.25
01
less
than
.10
20-20k
1
60
85
10-40k
.005
01
10 -40k
39
19
12.75
52
81.0 40.00
Each amp individually measured and
certified for power and distortion.
51.830.00
Same
$500 00
Has 60 watts per channel, balanced
1/4 in. and XLR inputs, lateral
mosfet outputs, level controls.
Has 120 watts per channel, balanced 1/4 in. and XLR inputs,
19
1
15.75
1.1V
3.25
-5
or
1
120
200
4 -40k
.005
.025
4 -40k
18
19
2
P2400
39
19
12.75
.25 52
OF ROCKFORD CORPORATION
HAFLEFi
P1200
850
S
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32
19
19
20-20k
0.03
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5.25
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less
1.2
5.25
9.5
27
19
or
www.americanradiohistory.com
$630 00
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1.5
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51.200.00
40
19
14
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lateral mostet outputs. I
Yields 325 watts per channel,
balanced inputs, lateral mosfet outputs, front panel level controls.
JBL PROFESSIONAL
6290
SR6615
SR6630
SR6650
2
300
150
2
2
2
600
150
300
300
500
20-20k
250
500
650
20-20k
20-20k
20 -20k
less
less
less
less
less
than
less
than
less
20-20k
1.1
than
than
+0,-1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
less
than
less
than
less
than
+0, -1
than
19
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
17.5
7
63
51,65 0.00
Balanced bridging input circuitry, full complementary
driver and output circuitry.
$645. 00
Has 2 rack space unit, variable
speed fan, rear to front coring
system,.
Has 2 rack space unit, modular
power supply and amp channels,
balanced XLR and 1/4 in. phone input.
19
14
1.1
3.5
32
less
less
than
than
less
than
+0, -1
than
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
less
less
less
+0,-1
than
than
than
than
19
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
17.5
less
less
than
0.05
less
than
0.05
less
than
0.05
less
than
0.06
less
than
0.05
less
than
0.05
less
than
0.05
less
than
0.06
20-20k
than
0.05
20-20k
than
0.05
20-20k
than
0.05
20-20k
than
0.06
0.01
20-20k
1.1
3.5
$895. 00
34
19
17.5
1.1
3.5
42
$1 19 5.00
Has 2 rack space unit, bridgeable
to 1000 watts into 8 ohms,.
$620. 30
U.L. listed and cames five year
PANASONIC PROFESSIONAL AUDIO SYSTTBNS
WP9055
WP-
2
50
10 -85k
less
than
2
100
10 -85k
150
less
9110
WP9220
2
WP9440
2
200
10 -85k
300
350
10 -60k
less
less
0.05
less
than
0.05
less
than
0.05
less
than
0.06
+4
+4
1.75
19
dBv
18.9
13.13
28.6
18.9
15.06
38.6
18.9
15.06
75
18.9
19.13
3.5
dBv
+4
525
dBv
+4
5.25
dBv
0.775
7
-
limited parts and labor warranty.
$699. 30
Same
$899. 00
Same
$1,81 0.00
Same
S99.9
half -rack width, rear -mounted level
controls, 1.4 jack inputs.
PEAVEY ELECTRONICS CORPORATION
IPA 70 PLUS
2
20-20k
30
IPA 250
2
70
125
20-20k
20-20k
0,01
1
5.25
1
150
20-20k
150
0.5
;
20-20k
1
19
+1,-2
IPA300T
1
300
300
300
40-20k
0.19
40-20k
1
13,4
4-1
IPS 400
2
120
200
10 -50k
0.05
5-50k
9
8.25
26
$499. 99
19
+-1
IPA150T
10
525
+-1
11.5
26
15.50
4.5
40
$498. 75
Distortion Detection Circuitry (DDT).leds
indicate DDT, separate channel level
controls.
Level control, selectable subsonic filter,
balanced XLR.
$749. 75
As above plus 70V line output.
$874.' 39
Barrier -strip in/out, bridgeable, level
controls.
$1,04', 3.99
As above.
$598.
Has 1/4 in and barrier strip
19
1
5.25
+0,-1
5.75
40
19
12.4
IPS 800
2
240
400
10 -50k
0.05
5-50k
1.4
5.25
+0,-1
45
19
14.4
CßC AUDIO PRODUCTS NC.
MX
700
2
1100
2
150
225
350
5 -65k
01
.025
0.1
0.1
20 -20k
1.0
3.5
0.25
25
19
12
1200
1400
2
2
50
100
200
70
150
300
90
250
450
5 -100k
5-60k
5 -65k
01
01
.01
0.01
.025
.025
0.I
o.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
20 -20k
20-20k
20 -20k
1.0
+0,-1
1.75
12
525
24
1
19
1
5.25
9.5
34
1
1
19
9.5
www.americanradiohistory.com
$568.
19
$598.00
$798.
inputs, fan cooled, compact
package.
Has 1/4 in., XLR, and barrier
strip input- headphone jacks,
Iront.
Has 1/4 in. XLR, and barrier strip
inputs, optional fan cooling, rear
gain controls.
Has 1/4 in. XLR and barrier strip
inputs, fan cooled, rear gain controls.
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Dual mono design, tan cooled, 1/4
in. barrier strip inputs.
$1,098
19
1
300
a
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,,s,1,:4
ii
20k,`i
as
17.9
50
$1,488.00
Dual mono, front removable
channel modules, convection cooled.
19
1
15.9
3800
2
375
600
850
8-300k
.01
.025
0.1
0.1
20-20k
1
-.n-
525
$1,958.00
Same
64
19
17.9
$2,298.00
Open input architecture,
44
$99
75
19
15.9
EX
2
720
1100
1400
8-100k
01
0.05
0.1
0.1
20-20k
1.,0
525
4000
RANE CORPORATION
MA6
6
100
150
150
20-20k
0.1
0.07
0.1
0.07
5-50k
+0,-3
0175
5.25
speaker connectors, ad-
vaned thermal mgmt. system..
Built -in limiter on each channel, level
controls, auto bridging.
OC
19
11
RENKIJSHENZ, NC.
P-2500
2
400
600
700
20-20k
0.025
0.05
20-20k
1.2
3.5
1.1
3.5
+0, -5
$2,09 1.50
Chip -Guard protection.servo-controlled
variable -speed tan.
$1,530.00
As above.
2.13
9.5
5.63
$130 00
Balanced mic input, unbalanced
17
17
10.87
27
$49.9
Gold RCAinputs, semi -torroidal power
supply, MOSFET amp.
$469.'' 15
As above, linear power supply.
$759 15
As above, phase control regulated powe
supply.
48.5
19
16
P-2000
2
300
500
600
0.015
20-20k
0.025
20-20k
+0, -5
45.5
19
16
SHURE BROTHERS, NC. See Ou" Ad On The Back Caver
210
1
6
100 -15k
10
3
100-
40mV
2.75
15k
SOUNDCRAFTSNETI
A100
2
60
10-100k
60
0.05
0.05
0.05
0.05
20-20k
1.25
1.75
1.25
525
+ -0.1
A200
2
125
10-100k
190
0.05
0.05
0.05
0.05
20-20k
17
+ -0.1
A400
2
205
300
450
10-100k
0.05
0.05
0.05
0.05
20-20k
line in -put, ext. 12V power.
1.25
5.25
10.87
30
17
+-0.1
10.87
PM860
2
210
315
450
20-20k
05
008
.05
.05
20-20k
5
20
$599.
)0
8.5
Has high current design to allow
stability with 2 ohm loads.
14
450X2
2
210
315
450
20-20k
05
.008
.05
.05
20-20k
1.2
5.25
28
$849.
High current MOSFET amp with
balanced or unbalanced inputs.
$1,59 3.00
Same
$1.39 3.00
Multi -channel MOSFET, 2, 3 or 4
19
900X2
2
375
675
900
20-20k
05
008
.05
.05
20-20k
1.22
5.25
11.75
59
19
16.5
300X4
2,
3
600
205
900
450
20 -20k
05
.05
.008
.05
20-20k
1.0
5.25
SOUNDTECH
2
channel mode indicators, front
panel- mounted circuit breakers.
14
4
PL150
60
19
300
55
1.23
007
15-30k
75
1.75
17
$419, 90
19
19
tors, protection circuit.
Built -in 9 band graphic EQ, clip,
protect, power and temp. LED indi-
16
cators protection circuitry.
8.5
PL250M
1
113
200
300
1.28
007
18-31k
3.5
30.8
$449. 90
PL500
2
165
250
20-20k
.007
1.23
3.5
39
19
16
$599. 90
PL1000MP
4
165
210
20-20k
.007
1.23
3.5
59
$1,09 9.90
19
16
PA50B
2
25
50
50
5 -100k
0.04
0.03
20 -20k
1
1.7
www.americanradiohistory.com
Single rack space, clip, protect,
powe- and bridge/mono LED indica-
3.5
5279. 00
Clip, protect, power, temp. and
bridge/mono LED indicators, pro-
tection circuity,
Four channels, clip protect. power
temp. and bridge /mono LED indicators. Protection circuitry.
Same, and balanced version also
ae
PA100U
2
50
90
100
PA100B
2
50
90
100
PA -1200
2
250
400
600
5-100k
3 -180k
0.08
0.04
20-20k
1
1.7
0.07
0.04
20-20k
1
1.7
0.06
20 -20k
less
than
0
PA-1600
2
350
500
600
15-45k
750
3.5
15
$324 00
$359 00
$999. 00
19
1
features level controls and clipping indicators.
Switch mode power supply design
reduces size and weight. Set up
for unbalanced signals.
Same, and setup for balanced or
unbalanced; balanced version features
level control and clipping indicators..
Fully dual-monaural design utilizing switch mode power supply.
12.53
1
0.01
8.5
6.2
5.5
8.5
10.2
5.5
8.5
10.2
0.1
20 -20k
0.775
3.5
17
S1,49 9.00
19
16
STUDER REVC O( AMERICA, NC.
B242
2
200
300
20-20k
0.01
0.01
20-20k
1.55
18.4
+0, -0.3
A68
2
150
250
0.1
30 -15k
+0. -0.5
40
$2.90 ).00
6
14.2
30-15k
19.5
+0.0.5
46
$995 00
5.5
13.5
MOSFET drive and special bipolar
power transistors, two power
transformers, mono bridgeable.
Fully complementary from input to
to output, mono bridgeable.
SUM
SPL7450
2
275
450
10 -50k
less
1
0.03
1
than
0.05
2150
SPL6000
150
2
170
250
5.25
38
19
14
25
3.5
3.5
25
$899. )0
15
5-40k
+0,-3
0.1
300
5-50k
+0 -3
0.05
5 -50k
0.625
Two speed fan, compressor, male
and female XLR input connectors
and balanced 1/4 in.
$599. 99
19
0.625
+0, -3
$699. JD
19
25
SYMETRIX
220
2
20
20
20-20k
02
.03
20 -20k
.5
1.75
9
$349. )0
Stereo, 2- channel or mono-bridged
operation. Balanced XLR/balanced
and unbalanced 1/4 in. inputs.
$995. 10
High -power stereo operation with
500W/channel, or 1,000W in bridged
mono operation- forced air cooling.
XLR and 1/4 in. input jacks, binding post and 1/4 in, output jacks forced air cooling.
XLR and 1/4 in. input jacks, binding post and 1/4 in. output jacks compact and lightweight.
Same
19
12
P-1030D
2
100
150
0.02
0.05
0.03
0.01
20-20k
+0, -2
+4dB
20-20k
+0,-2
+4dB
525
39.8
19
13.75
P-1060D
P-1090D
2
2
200
300
300
0.02
450
0.02
0.05
0.05
0.03
0.03
0.01
0.01
20-20k
525
442
5.25
13.75
48.5
19
+4dB
+0, -2
19
13.75
YAMAHA CORPORATION OF AMERICA
P2700
P2350
2
2
350
175
500
250
10 -50k
10-50k
less
less
less
than
0.03
less
than
0.03
P2075
2
50
75
10-50k
less
than
0.05
than
than
0.05
10-50k
than
0.05
10-50k
than
0.003
10-50k
than
0.05
10-50k
than
0 .01
0.01
less
than
0.05
less
less
than
0.05
P2160
PC4002M2
2
4
80
30
125
700
10 -40k
10 -100k
less
less
less
than
0.03
less
than
.005
10-50k
less
than
0.05
less
www.americanradiohistory.com
123
.23
1.23
1.23
5.25
18.88
17.25
5.25
18.88
11.25
3.878
18.88
14.38
3.44 23
18.88
$795. )0
$395. 10
$595.
10
14
1.23
7.95
18.88
18
$2,79 1.00
High power "audiophile" monitor
amp with calibrated meters.
Addr'esses
AB International Electronics,
Carvin
Inc.
1155 Industrial Avenue
Escondido, CA 92025
1830 -6 Vernon Street
Roseville, CA 95678
Alesis Corporation
3630 Holdrege Avenue
Los Angeles, CA 90016 -4304
Crest Audio, Inc.
150 Florence Avenue
Hawthorne, NJ 07506
QSC Audio Products Inc.
1926 Placentia Avenue
Costa Mesa, CA 92627
Rane Corporation
10802 47th Avenue West
Mukilteo, WA 98275
Renkus-Heinz, Inc.
P.O. Box 1000
17191 Armstrong Avenue
Irvine, CA 92714
Elkhart, IN 46515 -1000
Shure Brothers, Inc.
Oklahoma City, OK 73126
Electro -Voice
ARX Systems
600 Cecil Street
Buchanan, MI 49107
222 Hartrey Avenue
Evanston, IL 60202-3696
Altec Lansing Corporation
P.O. Box 26105
P.O. Box 0842
Silverado, CA 92676 -0842
BGW Systems
Box 5042
Hawthorne, CA 90251 -5042
Biamp Systems(Advantage
Division)
14270 NW Science Park Drive
Portland, OR 97229
Bryston/Bryston Vermont
979 Franklin Lane
Maple Glen, PA 19002
Carver Corporation
20121 48th Avenue West
Lynnwood, WA 98046
Crown International, Inc.
Hafler Professional/Division
SoundCraftsmen
2200 South Ritchey Street
Anaheim, CA 92705
of Rockford Corporation
5910 Crescent Boulevard
Pennsauken, NJ 08109
SoundTech
JBL Professional
1425 Elm Hill Pike
Nashville, TN 37210
P.O. Box 2200
8500 Balboa Boulevard
Northridge, CA 91329
Panasonic Pro Audio Systems
6550 Katella Avenue, 17A -7
Cypress, CA 90630
Peavey Electonics
Corporation
711 A Street
Meridian, MS 39301
www.americanradiohistory.com
255 Corporate Woods Parkway
Vernon Hills, IL 60061
Studer Revox America, Inc.
SUNN
7975 N. Hayden Rd.
Scottsdale, AZ 85258
Symetrix
4211 24th Avenue West
Seattle, WA 98199
Yamaha Corporation of
America
P.O. Box 6600
Buena Park, CA 90622
NEW PRODUCTS
closure measuring 26 1/2-in. tall, by
18 1/4 -in. wide and 14- 1/2 -in. deep
with a 22 1/2 degree cabinet pitch.
NEARFIELD MONITOR
The loudspeaker features steel
edges with integral rigging points
and a built -in stand adaptor. It
weighs 75 lbs and is optionally offered with a hand-laminated glass
fiber exterior or an "invisible" gray
Manufacturer: Tascam
Price: ATS -500 is $799.00; IF-500
is $550.00
Circle 51 on Reader Service Card
WIRELESS MIC SYSYTEM
finish.
Manufacturer: Community Light
& Sound, Inc.
Price: $1,340.00
Circle 50 on Reader Service Card
TAPE SYNCHRONIZER
The N- Series FB "Fatboy" loudspeaker utilizes a 3 -way Wavefront
Coherent design incorporating a
long -excursion subwoofer unit. This
nearfield system was built
ex-
pressly for A/V contractors, nightclubs, entertainment systems and
any application requiring a strong
bass from a single enclosure. The
Fatboy is operable between 45 Hz
and 18 kHz, has an impedance of 8
ohms and produces 124 dB of maximum continuous SPL at 1 meter.
The speaker has a proprietary 12in. long- excursion woofer at the
cabinet's bottom end. Ferro -fluid
cooled and supported by a triple -spider and cast frame, the woofer receives frequencies up to 200 Hz.
Above this level, signals are directed to dual 6 1/2 -in. horn-loaded
midrange drivers until 1800 Hz, at
which point a single high- frequency
driver with a 1 -in. exit and a titanium diaphragm takes over. It is
electronically controlled and protected by the FB System Controller
and it can be either bi -amped by using the sub-output of the controller,
or can be operated as a passive away system. In the latter configuration it can be operated with other
subwoofers. The speaker is housed
in a black -carpeted trapezoidal en-
The ATS -500 has been added to
broaden the line of synchronizers.
The unit supports all the necessary
functions of the professional environment. They include: built -in
time code generator with external
reference capability, offset function,
wide -band reader (ideal for code only master set -ups) and Jam Sync.
The unit is user friendly with Auto Calibrating and does not require
the mastering of hidden screens or
functions. It will synchronize any
two of Tascam's serial interface
transports and with the addition of
an IF -500 serial -to- parallel interface, also work with any common
parallel interface VTR or ATR. The
built -in time code generator is capable of all common frame rates and
may be referenced to an external
composite video signal. The offset
function has an Auto mode or allows
manual entry of offset values. The
three synchronizer modes are
Chase, Phase and Chase & Phase,
thus providing the user with flexibility necessary when working with
outside source material.
www.americanradiohistory.com
The 551 VR Two Channel Wireless Video Microphone System features two user switchable VHF operating frequencies, surface mount
technology (SMT), the companding
noise -reduction circuitry makes
possible a dynamic range of 120 dB.
The system includes the HT -10 a
wireless, handheld mic featuring a
tapered balanced design and rugged all metal case; the ultra compact
SX/LT 30 lavalier bodypack transmitter which features two user selectable channels plus SMT, a mini
XLR connector to accept any electret condenser lavalier mic and a
road ready, all metal case. Both the
mic and transmitter feature a
Transmitter ON/OFF switch, Audio
ON/OFF switch, level trim and low
battery LED. This system provides
an operating range ofmore than 200
feet and up to 1,500 feet, line of
sight. Besides allowing the videographer the ability to place the mic
where the action is, the system
eliminates camcorder noises, ambient sound and unwanted environmental sounds such as wind or
background noise. The system is ultra compact, in an all metal case, included belt clip, as well as a bal-
anced audio output jack and
headset output, removeable rubber
duck antenna and it is compatible
with virtually all camcorders and
video cameras.
Manufacturer: Nady Systems,
Inc.
Price: Under $500.00 with
bodypack transmitter and mini
XLR connector for lavalier mic.
Circle 52 on Reader Service Card
the EXF 16 high frequency compression driver. It also utilizes an all new
Linkwitz Riley 24 dB passive crossover to ensure phase coherence
through the crossover region. It is
available in two versions, as the
standard PowerMax 1 and the 1F
for flown applications.
Manufacturer: ARX Systems
Price:
Circle 55 on Reader Service Card
MINI SUPERCARDIOD
BROADCAST CONSOLE
The 850 series broadcast console
was designed to serve as a sweetening console for Workstations or as
an on -air console. This unit evolved
from the 800 series, introduced in
1991, but as a primarily on -air
board. This console has as part of its
capability includes either signal
processing or input pre -selection
physically above and electrically inline with each input module. As
with all the other consoles, this console is configured to the customer's
individual needs.
Manufacturer: Auditronics, Inc.
Price: depending on
configuration.
Circle 54 on Reader Service Card
FULL -RANGE SPEAKER
This is an arrayable speaker system designed for applications requiring high performance and intelligibility from a small full -range
package.Extremely efficient low end coupling when arrayed with another system, the R -2T and its 12inch cone transducer provides solid
low -end response to 50 Hz. The
high-end driver is a 2 -inch compression unit with a 60 by 40 degree
horn. The dispersion is suitable for
near -field and medium -throw applications. The horn is also rotatable, facilitating horizontal or vertical placement. Available with or
without handles and infrastructure
rigging, the R -2T is ideal for theaters, worship centers and music
sound reinforcement.
Manufacturer: Clair Brothers
Audio Systems, Inc.
Price:
Circle 57 on Reader Service Card
RTA SOFTWARE
The M 424 series microphone is
a miniature supercardioid dynamic
mic incorporating TG -X technology
via the use ofrare earth neodymium
magnets. Although physically
small, 1 1/2-in. long and 5/8 of an inch
in diameter, it provides high sensitivity, tight polar pattern, fast transient response plus the ability to
withstand exposure to high SPL
sound sources. This mic is also
available in a pre- mounted slim
profile gooseneck version as the
SHM 424.
Manufacturer: Beyerdynamic
Price: $139.95
Circle 56 on Reader Service Card
TRAPEZOIDAL SPEAKER
"we1Aild
lliltillin{IF
Designed to provide audio pro-
fessionals with the power to per-
form Real Time Analysis (RTA) with
either the TEF 20 or TEF 20HI, the
new Sound Lab RTA software
greatly expands the working role of
the latest generation of TEF products. With Sound Lab RTA, measurements can be made at 1, 1/2, 1/3,
1/6, and even 1/42 octave bands, while
collected data can be viewed in 3, 6,
or 12 dB per division increments.
For storage purposes, six sets of
non -volatile memory are provided.
Once data is stored, it can be manipulated by the user to obtain overlays, or it can be compared to a
standard with the use of a difference
mode. An independent module of
Sound Lab, RTA works in conjunction with other TEF 20 capabilities
to supply wide -ranging sound
analysis tools in a single, easy -touse package. As an example of the
synergistic capabilities available,
imagine being able to set a delay
line, check coverage, measure intelligibility, and then switch to RTA to
do equalization.
The PowerMax 1 full range loud-
speaker features the HPB12 high
excursion low frequency driver and
www.americanradiohistory.com
Compatible with IBM PC host
computers, Sound Lab RTA meets
all ANSI band requirements for an
extended
1/3 octave real -time
analyzer. Its graph-style display
can be adjusted to show dashes or
bars, while measurements can be
frozen on the screen as well. Additionally outfitted with a peak hold
which holds the highest peak instantaneously, it has a response
time averaging from 171 milliseconds in the fast mode to 10 seconds
in the long mode.
Manufacturer: Techron
Price: $300.00
Circle 58 on Reader Service Card
NEW DIVERSITY AND
NON-DIVERSITY
WIRELESS
Suited for professional audio applications ranging from gymnasiums and houses of worship to classrooms, boardrooms, auditoriums,
and live theatre, the new diversity
WT-870 and non -diversity WT-770
wireless microphone systems are
VHF high -band units operable between 168 MHz and 216 MHz. Featuring a rack -mountable design,
each system's receiver is outfitted
with removable front panel covers
which conceal two tuner ports.
These ports readily accept frequency specific tuner modules
which can be installed or removed
according to setup requirements. To
prevent RF interference and virtu-
ally eliminate ambient RF noise,
the WT-870 and WT -770 systems
are equipped with a proprietary
double squelch circuitry, which consists of a tone- key circuit and a
noise squelch. The tone -key circuitry reduces external RF interference by enabling the microphone to
simultaneously transmit both the
audio signal and a high frequency
side -band (or tone -key) signal. In
turn, the receiver will not accept any
audio signal unless the tone-key signal is present, thereby insuring controlled operation. A complement to
the tone -key circuitry, the noise
squelch automatically mutes noise
which exceeds a predetermined
stand -mount antenna, rack mounting accessories, and more. Measuring 8.3 inches wide by 1.9 inches
high and 11.02 inches deep overall,
both receivers can be mounted side by -side to supply 4-channel capabilities in a single rack space.
Manufacturer: TOA Electronics,
Inc.,
Price: WT- 870 -$1,142.00; WT-
770- $884.00
Circle 59 on Reader Service Card
level to further ensure that the
audio signal remains as clean and
transparent as possible. Another
feature shared by the WT-870 and
the WT -770 systems is a specially designed compander circuit which
compresses audio signals within the
transmitter to a specific ratio, and
then expands them back to their
original state at the receiver. By
routing the signal in this fashion,
the compander circuit boosts dynamic range and the signal -to -noise
ratio to levels normally obtained
only by hard -wired systems. Located on the front panel, controls
and indicators for both systems consist of a power switch, on/off indicator, volume knob, and LED indicators for signal presence and line
level. Standard balanced XLR connectors are provided for each output
channel, while a 1/4 -inch phone jack
is supplied at a mixed output. An additional DC input jack is also available on both receivers to facilitate
an alternate power supply of 12 Vat
250 mA (minimum). Each receiver
comes with a single tuning panel in-
stalled. Additional tuning panels
are offered optionally, along with a
dipole antenna, whip antenna,
BROADCAST R-DAT
Conceptually the D780 is designed for broadcasting requirements. As a front loader with optional rack mounting brackets, this
recorder can be integrated in the
studio as free -standing or in a rack.
For searching, high spooling speeds
up to 400 times play speed are available. Alocator with nine user -definable addresses and a tenth address
that is always the most recent start
command are provided. There is
also an auto -cue function for automatically placing the tape at the
start of modulation. Absolute time
is recorded. A special quick-start option is achieved by reading into special memory approximately 7 seconds of the recording around the
start point. Four different fader
start points are also available.
Manufacturer: Studer
Cost: $7,400.00
Circle 60 on Reader Service Card
New Products are edited from information supplied by the respective manufacturers.
If you want your new product listed in this section, send the release, include the suggested list price and there
be a photograph or diagram included.
must
Send them to New Products department, db Magazine, 203 Commack Road, Suite 1010, Commack NY 11725.
www.americanradiohistory.com
Historical Perspectives
These pages, reproduced from our 1977 December
and 1978 January issues are reprinted because of
their historical importance, in this our 25th year of
publication.
HAROLD LINDSAY
Magnetic Recording
Part
1
A tantalizing proposition- reproduce a machine with no
information regarding its electronics.
marks one hundred years since the
invention of the first demonstrable sound recording devices, and thirty years since an event that
profoundly influenced the development and acceptance of magnetic sound recording-the first radio
show to be aired in the United States from a magnetic recording of acceptable professional quality. This event was
to revolutionize broadcasting transcription practice.
Early in the evening of May 16, 1946 my wife Margery
and I drove the 35 miles north from Redwood City,
California to San Francisco to attend an Institute of Radio
Engineers (now known as I.E.E.E.) meeting to be held
in Studio A of the NBC /ABC complex. Little did we
realize as we set out that this event would serve to change
the whole course of our lives and many others as well.
The speaker of the evening was John T. (Jack) Mullin
and his subject the "Magnetophon." This was to be the
first public presentation in the United States of this remarkable recording device, which had been first demonstrated in August 1935 at the Radio Exhibition in Berlin,
Germany. The device, developed by Germany's A.E.G.,
in conjunction with I.G. Farben, used tape consisting of
carbonyl iron powder coated on cellulose acetate. In JanuTHE YEAR 1977
Harold W. Lindsay, a distinguished audio pioneer
and internationally recognized authority on
magnetic recording, helped lead Ampex Corporation
to success and growth and is currently special
consultant to that company's magnetic tape division.
ary, 1938 the German Reichs -Rundfunk -Gesellschaft had
adopted the Magnetophon and magnetic tape as the future
standard for radio broadcast recording in Germany.
Further refinements in machines as well as tape continued throughout the war and somewhat beyond its end.
In all, three different types of tape were produced along
with at least six different models of the Magnetophon.
It is nothing short of astonishing that while researchers
here were still struggling with steel tape and wire recorders,
our wartime enemies were fully a decade ahead of usand we didn't even know it. People engaged in the audio
professions in this country were not even aware of the
advancements that had taken place overseas until after
the war's end. Only then did military intelligence and
communications personnel take an interest in this "new"
technology and recognize its potential.
By that time, Germany's industrial capacity was in a
state of near collapse. At least two of the "Magnetophone
Union" factories had been bombed out, and production
of recorders and tape was at a virtual standstill. One of the
last operating factories to produce type "L" tape used in
the machines was confiscated and shut down by Russian
occupation forces.
Therefore, the machines on which Jack Mullin demonstrated the use of magnetic tape were exceedingly rare,
representative of what had become an extinct species.
And the tape on which they depended was rarer still;
there was no possible way of getting more. The fact that
Jack Mullins later shared some of his precious tape with
the people from Ampex will always be remembered with
gratitude.
MULLIN'S DEMONSTRATION
The studio in San Francisco was packed to the foyer.
We could sense the feelings of anticipation and excitement
www.americanradiohistory.com
ing point in my life. Mr. Poniatoff explained that with
the end of their war-time contracts in view, he and the
people at Ampex were anxious to find a post -war product
to help them stay in business They were considering studio type turntables, but felt they should have some consulting
expertise to assist in the final decision. Mr. Poniatoff
proposed that I serve in a part time consulting capacity
to Ampex in this matter of new product selection. I accepted, and a series of meetings ensued.
AMPEX CONTACTS MULLINS
Original prototype Ampex playback head (enlarged
3.5X). This is the actual head that was proportioned
to allow mounting in Mullin's Magnetophon head
housing for proof of performance.
as the crowd viewed the puzzling
array of sound equipment crowding the stage. Jack Mullin opened his presentation with a slide -illustrated technical description of the
Magnetophon. Then came the demonstration.
Previously recorded musical numbers were played back
while, intermittently, live music from a small jazz combo
in an adjacent studio was switched with an A/B switch
back and forth from live to tape. No one, but no one, in
that audience of critical ears was able to detect a difference between live and tape. This brought forth a standing ovation from the spellbound listeners. Equally amazing was the demonstration of the fascinating capabilities
of tape editing, including a one -minute stretch of program
containing twelve splices, none of which was detected by
the listeners.
A deluge of questions followed the formal presentation,
and Jack fielded the queries in fine academic fashion.
Adjournment brought a crush and jam of the technically
inclined to the lecture platform for a close look at the
fantastic Magnetophon.
Margery and I waited until the crush had thinned out
before inspecting the equipment. Quite overcome with excitement, I burst out to Jack, "I've got the feeling this
development is going to change the lives of millions of
people. That's what I'd like to do someday-work with
magnetic recording."
Jack smiled as he shook my hand. "I hope you do. If
I can be of any help, look me up." As we parted, little
did I realize that this offer, so lightly made, would be taken
up in earnest only six months later.
My first contact with the Ampex Company came in
September, 1946 while I was working in the engineering
department of the Dalmo Victor Company in San Carlos,
on the San Francisco Peninsula. Forrest Smith, general
manager of Ampex, frequently visited Dalmo Victor in
connection with the precision permanent magnet motors
and generators Ampex had been supplying to Dalmo for
assembly in the APS -6 airborne radar for Sperry Gyroscope and the U.S. Navy.
Mr. Smith and I became quite friendly. Then one day
he surprised me with a message from his employer,
Alexander M. Poniatoff, asking to meet with me at my
earliest convenience for a technical discussion. The meeting arranged for the following week became another turn-
After many weeks of discussion and review I finally
conjured up enough nerve to suggest to Mr. Poniatoff that
he consider looking into the German Magnetophon with
the idea that the design be upgraded where possible and
adapted to suit radio broadcast practice in the United
States. His response was immediate and favorable, which
was typical of Mr. Poniatoff when presented with a new
and intriguing idea. I described the May 16th I.R.E. meeting to him and when I related Jack Mullin's parting comment, Mr. Poniatoff was fast to interrupt: "Let's phone
him!"
Jack was cordial but apologetic. He was all packed
and ready to depart for Los Angeles to attend the annual
convention of the Society of Motion Picture Engineers
(SMPE -there was no "T" for television then). He suggested that Mr. Poniatoff try to make plans to come down
to this affair where he could meet Jack and see the equipment demonstrated. After hasty arrangements, Mr.
Poniatoff was on his way.
He returned with a display of enthusiasm for the tape
recorder, which unmistakably meant Ampex was about
to enter a new field. His first comment, directed to me,
was, "I want you to become a full -time member of Ampex
and assume responsibility for the development of our first
magnetic recorder." How could I refuse? My wish had
become a reality.
THE DEVELOPMENT PROJECT
On the 10th of December, 1946, not quite eight months
after that memorable I.R.E. meeting we were on our way
toward the development of a magnetic tape recorder. None
of us in our wildest dreams could have visualized the full
Ampex's first products. Precision permanent magnet
motors (left) and generators (1944- 1946).
www.americanradiohistory.com
Partial view of top -plate showing cast Meehanite head
housing with gate forcibly extended beyond its regular
open position permitting view of magnetic heads.
Note alloy inner shield cans. Far left head is
play -back with laminated shield can. Also shows
straight -line threading path of tape.
impact of what lay ahead, but I remember saying to Mr.
Poniatoff, "If we succeed, one day people will be beating
on our door to get these products."
At the outset of the development project, the immediate
challenge was where to start and how to divide the work
load. In fact, the division of labor was quite simple. There
was Myron Stolaroff, the electrical engineer who had done
much of the design work on the radar motors and generator, and myself. That was the entire engineering team at
my disposal as project leader!
A good suggestion as to the best starting place came
from Jack Mullin, whom we had phoned for advice. Based
on his experience with the Magnetophons he had found
there was no question that the most critical part of the
entire recorder rested in the design and construction of the
magnetic heads, especially the play -back head. With this
in mind, he urged us to attempt a play-back head design
and to construct a model for performance tests. Success
with this should give encouragement to continue the whole
project; but should we fail we would he better off dropping
the idea of ever producing a magnetic recorder!
In proposing these early head tests, Jack of course
realized that we would be in no position to perform them
without the availability of an already operable recorder,
so he kindly extended an invitation to test our head design, when ready, on one of his two Magnetophons. By
designing our play -back head so that at least its mounting requirements would be adaptable to the Magnetophon's
head housing, we would he able to make performance
tests using the German erase and record heads.
View illustrating plug -in feature of magnetic head
assembly. Slotted cap screw at left of head gate covers
hole for editing pencil insertion over playback gap.
to the W. A. Palmer Studios in San Francisco, where Jack
Mullin and Bill Palmer had been using the Magnetophons
for over a year in their commercial film production.
The first tests were to be subjective listening tests using
the best master taped material in the Palmer studio. We
listened critically to this as it was played back with the
normal Magnetophone head, using their best monitoring
equipment. After replacing the German reproduce head
with the Ampex prototype and rewinding the test material,
we were ready.
I have always remembered that next moment, just
before pressing the start button, as one of the most anxious
Author Lindsay checking out Model 200 (January 1948).
THE MOMENT OF TRUTH
In the spring of 1947, after several months involving
construction of lamination dies, a hydrogen annealing
furnace, core stacking and lapping fixtures, and many
tedious hours of stamping, stacking, hand lapping and
winding, we were at the point of final assembly and
static testing. We believed we had gone as far as we
could without tape -we were ready for that long sought,
but now almost frightening moment of truth, the final
test. I phoned Jack and set a date. The following evening
found an excited but nervous Ampex group on its way
www.americanradiohistory.com
times in my entire life -so much hung in the balance:
a dismal failure or the beginnirg of an exciting future.
The tape whipped up to spoed; we were stunned, entranced, suspended in an eternity of mere seconds. Then
cheers and hand shakes and clapping-the sounds of a
wild celebration. Our ears had just told us what measurements later confirmed -we had outperformed the Magnetophon head. We were destined not to failure, but to
fame.
We followed the playback head with a successful record
head and finally one for erase. These head successes and
Alexander Poniatoff's unbending courage and confidence
served to carry us through the very difficult months
ahead, months when finances would dwindle to the near
vanishing point, plus loss of credit, inability to get supplies when needed, weeks without pay checks and experimental and developmental reverses. Nevertheless, in the
face of all these obstacles we continued, stubbornly unwilling to give up.
During these rough months Jack Mullin was helpful in
many ways and on many occasions, allowing us to examine
the mechanical portions of the Magnetophon, but never
the electronics. This puzzling situation was later explained
when we were told of his previous commitment and contract with Col. Richard Ranger who was also hoping to
produce a domestic version of the German recorder. Jack
had made certain improvements in the electronic circuitry which were to he exclusively used in the Rangertone
equipment.
While unable because of these commitments to show
us any of the electronic assembly beyond the front panel.
Jack did, however, help us in many ways. His moral
support, encouragement when going was rough, loan of
a number of reels of German "L" type tape when he had
precious little on hand, design suggestions, and last but
certainly not least, his promotional efforts in Hollywood
on behalf of our forthcoming product were vital to us.
THE TAPE CRISIS
As development of the prototype model of the Ampex
200 reached the tape pulling stage, we began to get very
uneasy feelings. Up to now, Jack Mullins had been sharing
his slender stock of type "L" tape with us. But the sources
of the tape were no longer in existence. If we didn't develop a tape to go in our machine, we'd he all ready for
production with no place to go.
But fate was moving along with us. One day a gentleman came into our office, introducing himself as a
representative of Audio Devices, an eastern manufacturer
of disc recording blanks. They'd heard through the grapevine about our project and wondered whether we would
cooperate with them in using our new machine to test
some new tape they were developing. Needless to say, we
were more than happy to oblige.
It seems almost incredible, but a few weeks after the
Audio Devices arrangement had been made, we again
had an unannounced visitor. This man seemed to be in
a great rush, somewhat nervous. In a hurried manner, he
explained that his firm in the middle west believed that
there was a great future for magnetic recording. They'd
embarked on an intensive project to develop an acceptable
tape product. However, like Audio Devices, they were
stymied because they didn't have suitable recording equipment on which to test their tape. They also wanted to
use our new equipment.
Threading the 14 "-diameter open -faced "reel." Reel
held 5400 ft. 0.002" thick tape. Torque /threading pin
mounting circle dimensions have carried over to
present day N.A.B. Standard Hubs as inside (hub
bore) driving s lots.
Recessed push -button control center. Buttons of
Lucite were illuminated, recessed to reduce chances
of mis- cueing.
Front view with cabinet doors opened. Note modular
electronic assembly on vibration -isolated base.
Removable modules are (left to right) power supply,
control logic assembly, record module, and playback
module.
Without identifying the other company, we told him
about our previous arrangement.
He was not shaken. "Why not help us both? The results
can easily be kept confidential. Furthermore, if you have
www.americanradiohistory.com
an acceptable unit, but it was also a fantastic opportunity
for recognition and the establishment of credibility. There
was an ominous mandate: we must not fail.
The Crosby people visited us at Ampéx and, satisfied
with what they saw in a partially completed machine,
encouraged us to notify them when it was finished and
to bring it to Hollywood to Crosby's "listening room" at
ABC /NBC Radio Center for demonstration.
THE CROSBY CONNECTION
Capstan drive sub -assembly removed from top -plate.
two tape sources, this will double your chances of arriving at the marketplace in time with tape."
This aspect of the proposal was too tempting: we couldn't
turn it down. As he rushed to leave I called after him,
"Pardon me sir, may we have the name and address of
your company for our records ?"
He replied, "I come from Minneapolis, and my company
makes pressure sensitive tape products labeled 3M."
MODEL 200 STEAMROLLERS
As mid -summer 1947 arrived, the Model 200 project
was accelerating. Six- and seven -day work weeks, as well
as many around -the-clock sessions were stepping up progress, but not without their toll on the participants. By
this time (July) trials of Mr. Mullin's reworked Magnetophons were also accelerating at ABC /NBC's Radio
Center in Hollywood. We had heard of the misfortune
Col. Ranger suffered when the "Rangertone" failed in its
comparative demonstration with the Magnetophon (held
in the NBC recording department).
However, Jack Mullin's successful demonstrations for
NBC and ABC as well as for the Bing Crosby /Philco
radio show people had served to stir up great interest in
the potential use of professional quality magnetic tape
recording equipment for broadcast applications.
The next step would be an actual trial on the air, and
the Crosby people were in a position to benefit handsomely from its successful use. They were willing to go
ahead but had two principal concerns. With the failure
of the Rangertone unit, who would supply the needed
equipment for back -up should the German machine wear
out, and where would be the source of new magnetic tape
when the German "L" tape was eventually consumed by
splicing operations?
Jack Mullin called us long distance and explained that
since the Rangertone fell by the wayside the Crosby and
Philco people were anxious for Ampex to succeed. It
seemed we were being put on the spot to quickly produce
After conferring with Jack Mullin, the Crosby /ABC
people decided to go ahead with the Magnetophon taping
of the Philco show. That decision was based on Mullin's
assurance that he felt Ampex would produce an acceptable recorder within a reasonable period. The decision
called for initially recording on tape, editing, and performing a single -generation dub to a Scully cut disc from
which the program would be broadcast. It was hoped
that when the additional recorders were available, the
operation might be ultimately expanded to the use of tape
playback directly to the network.
In August Jack Mullin set up his two Magnetophons in
a small studio in the NBC building and started recording
and editing an average of one show a week.
In the meantime, there was rapid progress on tape
development. Audio Devices and 3M were moving along
on somewhat parallel paths. Both concerns were supplying test samples at frequent intervals to Ampex for evalution. 3M also supplied samples to Jack Mullin with the
assurance that they were most anxious to cooperate in
any way possible to help make the application of magnetic tape practical. Both firms arrived at the marketplace
with acceptable tapes in time for use on the first Ampex
machines.
Toward the end of August, our prototype Model 200
had reached the stage of final testing. We phoned Jack
and a date was set for early in September for the Crosby
demonstration. During the course of final testing and adjustment, a decision was made for a slight alteration in
the record and bias circuits. To our dismay we experienced
severe degradation of signal quality in the record mode.
We feverishly worked night and day in an effort to restore
the original circuits and performance, but to no avail. Our
date at Radio Center was less than a week away and it
appeared that we would have to cancel out. We needed
more time to rectify our error.
In desperation we phoned Jack Mullin and explained
our situation. His first question was, "Will it play back ?"
On being assured that the playback performance was excellent he implored us not to cancel the appointment. This
was one of those rare opportunities which might never
come again.
TAPE SPEED
It was now that a decision made some eight months
previously was to pay off. In our early discussions with
Jack with respect to transport design direction, the question of tape speed was considered. It was thought that in
the interest of interchangeability of recorded tapes between the Magnetophons, with their 76.2 cm /sec tape
velocity, and the Model 200, that we should adopt the
same speed. A simple conversion from the metric provided an answer of 30.0 inches per second. This speed
was adopted in our design and it has continued as a
reference base for tape speeds throughout the industry's
expansion.
This simple decision made it possible to demonstrate
our prototype on a playback -only basis in Hollywood, using
excerpts from the Crosby show tapes as source material.
The Ampex 200 was set up in Crosby's listening room at
Radio Center, and to our surprise the event turned out
www.americanradiohistory.com
MAGNETIC RECORDING: HIGHLIGHT SUMMARY
1898
1900
1907
1912
1918
1920
1921
1927
1928
The Danish physicist Valdemar Poulsen introduced the "Telegraphone," first of the early
magnetic recording and reproducing devices
of practical design. Danish Patent No. 1260,
British Patent No. 8961.
U.S. Patent 661,619 issued to V. Poulsen
covering the "Telegraphone."
U.S. Patent 873,033 issued to V. Poulsen and
P.O. Pedersen covering the principle of d.c.
bias.
Dr. Lee De Forest's invention of the vacuum
tube.
Leonard F. Fuller was issued a patent covering the use of high frequency current for
erasure of magnetic recordings.
Dr. Kurt Stille of Germany recognized the
real value of magnetic recording as applied
to a variety of uses.
U.S. Patent application by W. L. Carlson and
Glen W. Carpenter for the use of d.c. bias
on a wire telegraphone. This was finally issued
as Patent No. 1,640,881 in 1927.
J. A. O'Neill granted U.S. Patent No.
1,653,467 covering powdered recording media.
December 20, 1927.
Dr; Fritz Pfleumer, German Patent No.
500,900, January 31, 1928, British Patent No.
333,154, August 5, 1930, covering application
of magnetic powders to paper or plastic backing media. Seeking technical help for the
development of his idea he approached the
German electrical company Allgemeine Elektrizitats Gesellschaft (A.E.G.) of Berlin.
PATENTS
V. Poulsen
8,961
541
V. Poulsen
British Patent
British Patent
British Patent
British Patent
British Patent
British Patent
288,680
319,681
331,859
333,154
Danish Patent
1,260
Fritz Pfleumer
V. Poulsen
1898
Richeouloff
Kurt Stille
Kurt Stille
Fritz Pfleumer
1928
German Patent 500,900
German Patent
*
Braunmuhl /Weber
*(Published in U.S., U.S. Property Custodian Ser. No.
413,380) 1934
U.S. Patent
U.S. Patent
U.S. Patent
U.S. Patent
341,287
661,619
720,621
789,336
U.S. Patent
U.S. Patent
836,339
873,033
S.
Tainter
V. Poulsen
W. A. Rosenbaum
V. Poulsen,
P. O. Petersen and
Carl Schou
P. O. Pedersen
V. Poulsen &
P. O. Pedersen
1935
1938
1938
1946
U.S. Patent
1899
1903
1928
1930
1930
1930
B.
1931
A.E.G. in turn interested I.E. Farbenindustrie Aktiengellschaft of Ludwigshaven in
the project. Concurrently with the tape development at I.G. Farbenindustrie the A.E.G.
carried on a project resulting in a product
to be known as the "Magnetophon."
Ludwig Blattner, a German, exploited Dr.
Kurt Stille's ideas and introduced the steel
tape "Blattnerphone" to the British Broadcasting Co. where it was used for radio transcription purposes.
The A.E.G. developed the Magnetophon using
tape consisting of carbonyl iron powder
coated on cellulose acetate. It was publicly
demonstrated in August 1935 at the Radio
Exhibition in Berlin. The eight models displayed were sold during the show.
In January, German Reich-Rundfunk- Gasellschaft adopted the Magnetophon and magnetic tape as the future standard for radio
broadcast recording in Germany.
His "Telegraphic Patent Syndikat" obtained
rights to various magnetic recording patents,
along with some of its own, and issued
licenses for commercial exploration.
Dr. Hans -Joachim von Braunmuhl re-discovered a.c. bias and patented it.
May 16, 1946, Institute of Radio Engineers
(now I.E.E.E.) San Francisco Chapter local
meeting featuring John T. (Jack) Mullin as
speaker of the evening. Subject: "The German
Magnetophon Magnetic Tape Recorder."
1886
1900
1903
1905
1906
1907
to be much more demanding than we had been led to
believe in the planning discussion. Early in the day playbacks were made for the Crosby principals and crew,
and while they were in progress a waiting line began
to form outside. It was composed of engineers and technical people from all over the area -from the networks,
disc recording studios, and the motion picture industry,
as well as others. The word had gotten around and they
873,078
U.S. Patent
873,083
U.S. Patent
U.S. Patent
873,084
900,304
U.S. Patent
U.S. Patent
U.S. Patent
U.S. Patent
900,392
1,213,150
1,459,202
1,640,881
(A.C. Biasing)
U.S. Patent
1,653,467
U.S. Patent
1,758,531
U.S. Patent
2,213,631
U.S. Patent
U.S. Patent
U.S. Patent
U.S. Patent
U.S. Patent
U.S. Patent
U.S. Patent
U.S. Patent
2,235,132
2,351,004
2,468,198
2,619,454
2,643,130
2,778,637
3,052,567
3,761,311
P. O. Pedersen &
Poulsen
O. Pedersen &
Poulsen
Poulsen
O. Pedersen &
Poulsen
G. Kirkegaard
H. C. Bullis
Leonard F. Fuller
W. L. Carlson &
Glen W. Carpenter
J. A. O'Neill
Pfanhouser
H. S. Heller &
L. G. Butler
D. E. Wooldridge
Marvin Camras
H. S. Heller
P. P. Zapponi
Kornei
G. Eash
Gabor et. al.
Perrington et. al.
V.
P.
V.
V.
P.
V.
1907
1907
1907
1908
1908
1915
1918
1927
1927
1930
1941
1941
1949
1952
1953
1957
1962
1973
were not about to miss what they were inadvertently helping to shape into an informal first showing of an exciting
new product. The demonstration room was small, with
room enough for only 12 -15 guests per playing, and the
demos went on all day!
As the last of the admiring visitors left, we of the Ampex
crew were left in a state of amazement. We had fully
anticipated that among that continuous stream of tech-
www.americanradiohistory.com
Tiiteiaarr
sa
Wednesday, July 2E, 194E
Here's the machine that put Bing Crosby on tape...
-1c::8-"`Ì'"`MAGNETIC
9'he ability of the .Ampex 31agnetie Tape Recorder to maintain its
unique high -let el of fidelity has Leen fully demonstrated oter the
past season on the Crosby program. This "true -to-life" reproduction
is the result of engineering iunprotetnents by the Ampex C
pang
on the high -quality Cennau magnetic tape machines.
The Anwrican Broadcasting 1:
pany has purchased 2.4 %mites rrrorders to slate and is using them from 15 to 18 hours a day in con-
TAPE RECORDER
tinuous commercial network opera ' . The results, from the stand.
point of quality and reliability, hate been unlelietably satisfactory,
and the cost of ABC's recording operation has been reduced substantially. There is no waste of material as with discs; there are no
discards; and editing on tape is made simply with a pair of scissors.
Based on average operation and personnel voids, the full price of
this machine will he sated in a snry short time. U' rile fur loll details.
EXCLUSIVE DISTRIBUTORS
1.:1141
A esl of the
of the Rockies:
Ruckus:
AUDIO & VIDEO PRODUCTS CORP.
BING CROSBY ENTERPRISES, INC.
Filth tremor, .3 roa York 22,
Trlrphoae Piusa 9 -6031
9028 Sunset Boulevard, Hollywood 46, California
Telephone Crestricts 11171
1411
.3'.
Y.
Our first advertisement.
nical experts, at least one engineer would have said, "The
playback is beautiful, but how about a demonstration
of recording!"
A few days after our return to Redwood City, some
representatives of Crosby Enterprises called on us. Their
comment, "We assume that you know you have taken
Hollywood by storm," served to open the subject they
had in mind: "Now, what are your plans for marketing it ?"
MARKETING
In a somewhat naive manner, we had to admit that we
had been so preoccupied with development that there had
been no discussion of such plans; as a matter of fact, I
think most of us believed that the marketing might in
some mysterious way take care of itself.
This seemed to be just the sort of answer they were
expecting. They had a proposal: would we be interested
in their representing us in the eleven western states as our
distributors?
After a short discussion we agreed and signed the contract they had brought along. And then another document
appeared from a hidden pocket
signed order for twenty
recorders! These (and ultimately four others) were to be
for the American Broadcasting Co. Some were to be installed at each of three locations -New York, Chicago,
and Hollywood, and all were to be ready in their respective
installations by April 25, 1948.
A few days passed before we re
°red from the
-a
euphoria induced by this event and were able to start
in earnest on the task of planning for our first production
run of Model 200s, which of course included parts and
material ordering. It was at this point that we became
abruptly aware of a serious shortcoming.
Ampex was almost completely devoid of working capital! There were not sufficient funds to purchase the materials and parts necessary to go into production, and the
local banks were not ready to make loans for such a wild
enterprise.
But good fortune was with us again. Quite unexpectedly
an envelope with a Hollywood postmark brought us a
check for $50,000 -with no strings attached or collateral
requirements. The signature it carried: Bing Crosby.
REFERENCES
Mullin, John T. "Creating the Craft of Tape Recording"
HIGH FIDELITY MAGAZINE, April 1976, pp. 62-67.
Angus, Robert "The History of Recording" (six installments)
MODERN RECORDING, 1976, (ends Aug. /Sept.).
Mullin, John T. "The Birth of Tape" BILLBOARD, July 4,
1976.
Lane, Basil "The Thin Brown Line" STUDIO SOUND,
June 1977, pp. 72, 73, 74, 76, & 78.
Eisenberg, Norman "High Fidelity Pathfinders -The Men
Who Made An Industry" Alexander M. Poniatoff (16th in a
series) HIGH FIDELITY MAGAZINE, September, 1977, pp.
72 -73.
www.americanradiohistory.com
HAROLD LINDSAY
Magnetic Recording:
Part 11
From Todd-AO to digital recording; one thing
led to another.
published last month detailed the beginnings of the fledgling Ampex Company and how
its ailing finances during the development of the
first American tape recorder were solved by a
check bearing the signature of Bing Crosby... .
The first two Model 200 machines assembled went to
Jack Mullin to help relieve the much overworked Magnetophons. The twenty machines for the A.B.C. installations were operated in their key locations for time- delayed
broadcasting of network shows across the country. Their
performance in this first application is best related in the
following letter which was sent to Mr. Poniatoff at the close
of the season:
ART ONE,
. commencing April 25, 1948, and continuing through
September 25, 1948 (a total of twenty -two weeks), the
American Broadcasting Company in Chicago recorded on
the Ampex, approximately seventeen hours per day. For
thse 2618 hours of playback time the air time lost was less
than three minutes, a truly remarkable record. We believe
Harold W. Lindsay, a distinguished audio pioneer
and internationally recognized authority on
magnetic recording, helped lead Ampex Corporation
to success and growth and is currently special
consultant to that company's magnetic tape division.
a large share of this successful operation was due to
the use of the Ampex tape recorder manufactured by your
company.
We wish to thank you for your splendid cooperation in
supplying us with this fine piece of equipment capable of
withstanding the severe conditions imposed during our delaved daylight saving time program.
Very truly yours,
Frank Marx. V.P. in charge of
engineering
American Broadcasting Company
that
In all, 112 Model 200's were manufactured. At about the
halfway point in their production (the fall of 1948), we
had acquired enough experience and knowledge, as well as
input from our customers, to realize that we should consider the design of a new model. The Model 200 had
served to demonstrate conclusively that magnetic recording
had a lasting place, not only in radio broadcasting, but as
a more convenient and flexible means of mastering recordings for phonograph record manufacturers.
In creating, this first product in a field new to us, the
key premise in our design philosophy was "uncompromising quality and unsurpassed reliability." In our intense
desire to assure that these elements were not jeopardized
we found ourselves with a product that was somewhat
over -designed.
With our newly developed knowledge and skills, especially in the matter of magnetic head design, we were in a
www.americanradiohistory.com
position to produce a recorder to follow the 200 at
the price; it could also be substantially smaller in
and operate at half the tape speed (15 in. /sec.). It
thought that the lower operating cost of 15 in. /sec.
the reduced physical size would appeal also to users
smaller monitoring and control rooms.
half
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MODEL 300
In November, 1948, we set to work on a new project,
the result of which was to be our Model 300. Tape speed
would be halved and the dimensions reduced, but performance and reliability kept as close to the 200 standards as
possible. By halving the tape speed, we could reduce the
reel size and tape length and still maintain the playing
time of the Model 200. This new 101/2 -inch reel, with
later modifications, eventually became the NAB standard.
This challenging assignment was pursued on an all -out
basis and the first production run was conducted in July
of 1949 when fifty units were manufactured. The first machine off the line went to our good friend Jack Mullin.
The response in the market place was beyond our most
hopeful expectations. As a result, we were now faced with
a new set of problems -how to supply an unending rush
of orders. The "300" was an immediate success, and within
the first few years of the design's long lifetime in the
market place it was to be found in all of the major radio
networks as well as widely used in the smaller nets and
individual stations. The big name phonograph label record
manufacturers were all using the "300" for mastering and
editing.
The basic design of the "300" remained virtually unchanged throughout its lifetime until the late '60s; its solid
state version was introduced in 1966. In all, somewhere
around 20.000 Model 300s were manufactured during
this time.
The Model 300 received recognition in October 1950
when the publication Electrical Manufacturing presented
to Ampex a Certificate of Award for "outstanding achievement in product development, design and engineering."
As noted earlier it had been decided in embarking on
the "300" development project to lessen the over -design
of the "200." Our goal was reduced size, weight and cost.
An Ampex alignment tape circa 1948. This is probably
the first professional alignment tape made in this
country. Ampex made these tapes available to
purchasers of Model 200 machines. Photo from
Jack Mullin's product museum, as shown at a recent
AES Convention.
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The Ampex 300 appeared in early 1949, running at
15 in. /sec. speed (also 7.5) and at both reduced size
and price from the 200. This was the first ad. Note
the specs.
while retaining reliability and outstanding performance.
Fortunately. the Model 300 retained a certain amount of
over -design, which some two years later. in 1950, proved
to our great advantage.
MODIFICATIONS
By 1950, after the first year of "300" production, Ampex
started to receive requests to supply special modifications
of the basic "300" to be used, not for normal audio purposes, but for data recording in industrial, military and
scientific research. These highly specialized applications
were so tempting to us that we succumbed and entered
headlong into a development program which spurred us
into the new field of instrumentation data recording.
This is where the "excess" capability of the original
"300" design paid off. We were able to modify the transport to handle tape speeds from 17/s in. /sec. to well over
120 in. /sec. By this time our skills in magnetic head design
and fabrication had advanced sufficiently to enable us to
produce narrower gap reproduce heads and multi- channel
heads with acceptable crosstalk.
MODEL 3200 DUPLICATOR
These developments enabled us to introduce the Model
3200 tape duplicator system (based on Model 300 modifications), consisting of a high speed tape master playback
machine feeding banks of slave recorders. Thus it became
possible as well as practical to duplicate master tapes at
reasonable cost for retail sales of prerecorded high fidelity
tapes.
For instrumentation applications we also introduced
frequency modulation recording, as well as pulse code
modulation systems. We were then in a position to supply
www.americanradiohistory.com
impressive demonstration. Our demo of three stereophonic playback, using theater-type loudsystems, satisfied our visitor, who finally confessed
name was not Edwards at all, but Mike Todd!
Mr. Todd was so impressed with what he had seen (and
heard) that he made an on- the-spot decision to select
Ampex to produce the sound system for the Todd -AO
motion picture system (a further improvement on the
Cinerama development).
While working on the Todd -AO project. Ampex developed a four -track multi- directional sound system which
was introduced in 1953 and was featured in the first Cinemascope film, The Robe. Two years later, Oklahoma! was
premiered with Ampex six -track sound: it was literally
an Oscar -winning performance. Other design advances
emerged, and by 1967 Ampex had installed sound systems
in theaters around the world.
In 1967 we introduced a solid state, improved version
of our wide screen multichannel systems. But these systems, though widely acclaimed, remained on the market
for only about two years. The interest in super -wide screen
presentations was diminishing and sales were dropping off.
Ampex had to face facts and retire from the motion picture sound business.
very
channel
speaker
that his
a
The author (left) with Alexander M. Poniatoff at the
introduction of the Ampex ATR -100.
record /reproduce equipment covering a wide range of data
requirements from direct current levels and digital coded
information, to high frequency signals well above the
audio range. This capability resulted in Models 301. 302.
303/311. and others. Instrumentation magnetic tape recording was here to stay and Ampex was to remain as an
important influence on the growth of this new technology.
Entrance into the instrumentation field did not de -emphasize our efforts in the audio field. New audio models
were forthcoming. The 400 series, which had been first
manufactured late in 1949, was upgraded to become the
401 but turned out to be the least successful of the early
introductions, having a relatively short life in the audio
market place. In 1952, Model 350/351 was first introduced
and became a very popular professional recorder. evolving
through the years and a number of revisions.
CONSUMER AUDIO
Let us look back now on an earlier year-1954. It was
in this year that Ampex introduced the Model 600, intended initially for the professional market as rack -mounted
modules or as a single case portable assembly. This recorder became the second Ampex product to achieve distinction by receiving an award for design excellence and
has become the Ampex audio product wtih the greatest
total sales volume.
The adaptation of this design to produce the Model 612
brought about the company's entry into the consumer audio
field. The 612 was shown at the Ampex booth at the National Association of Music Merchants Show in the summer of 1955 and created broad interest as the world's first
stereophonic music system for home use. Subsequently
Ampex established a consumer division. separate from
professional audio and continued with a long series of
A new
model appeared in 1950. This is an Ampex 400.
the first portable machine designed to professional
standards. It was also the first machine to provide for
both the level and microphone input. It operates at
7.5 or 15 in. /sec. speed. Photo from Jack Mullin's
product museum as shown at a recent AES Convention.
THE MYSTERIOUS VISITOR
It was at this time (1952) that an interesting incident
occurred at Ampex. Mr. Poniatoff received a phone call
from a New York banker who stated that an important
visitor would soon be coming to our facilities. Though he
could not disclose the identity of the mysterious guest or
the purpose of his visit. he did indicate that it could result
in important new business for Ampex.
On arriving, the visitor introduced himself as "Mr. Edwards," without bothering to disclose why his large gold
cuff links and tie pin carried the initials "M.T."
Early in the conversation that followed, "Mr. Edwards"
inquired whether the people at Ampex had seen Cinerama
(the initial public screenings had occurred just before the
visit) and if we could record sound on photographic film
prints with magnetic striping.
His next inquiry, whether Ampex had done any work in
stereophonic sound recording, was effectively answered by
www.americanradiohistory.com
product introductions for a period of sixteen years before
phasing out of what had become a highly competitive
market place.
To cover all of the consumer products developed through
that period is beyond the scope of this article. However
the following account has such historic significance that
it is included.
FOUR -TRACK STEREO TAPE
In attempting to develop interest in home music appli-
cations for prerecorded tape, Ampex, in introducing the
stereophonic Model 612, had by 1957 come to the realization that tape could not compete price-wise with phonograph records unless higher tape packing density could be
achieved. The resulting engineering effort brought forth in
1958 the four -track stereophonic head. With the introduction of this new head Ampex hoped to coax tape duplicators into immediately bringing out four -track prerecorded tapes, and thereby stimulate sales of stereo tape
recorders. The idea didn't take hold, so Ampex decided
to take the initiative and enter the duplicating field. The
importance of such a facility to the developing home music
industry is suggested by the fact that within eighteen
months following Ampex's introduction of four -track
stereo heads, 750,000 tape recorders had been sold by
major manufacturers!
In June 1959, Ampex formed United Stereo Tapes (later
Ampex Stereo Tapes) and acquired duplication rights for
some of the leading phonograph record labels. These ineluded Verve, MGM, Warner Bros., Mercury, and later
London. Elk Grove Village, a suburb of Chicago, became
the company's custom duplication center. Equipment consisted of Ampex 3200, and later ADM -500 and AD -150
duplicators. Through the years this facility has developed
into one of the largest and most complete establishments
of its kind.
During the decade 1955 -1964. Ampex audio engineering
personnel found themselves under heavy pressure to carry
on the development programs in which they had become
involved. These were the consumer product lines, tape
duplication equipment and motion picture sound systems.
For the most part new pro.iuct introductions in professional audio had slowed down.
Only two new professional recorders were introduced
in this period; the PR -10 in 1959 and the MR -70 in 1964.
The PR -10 enjoyed good acceptance and was continued
until its successor, the AG -500, was marketed in 1967.
The MR -70, an outstanding design concept for its time,
was to have been a state -of- the -art recorder at its introduction, incorporating many mechanical refinements and the
best that advanced tubes and nuvistors had to offer. Unfortunately, the development project was timed badly, starting too late to put the recorder in the market place before
the onset of the solid -state audio era.
The last of the 350 series, the AG -350 (with transistor
electronics), became the basis for the design of a new
line of very successful recorders, the AG -440, released in
1967. The years 1967 and 1968 brought many new product
introductions. During this time the AG -500, AG -440, AG440-8, AG -600, the 3400, and the large (12, 16 & 24- track)
multichannel AG -1000 and MM -1000 machines were
released.
The years 1974 and 1975 were without new audio product introductions and some concern was shown in the
industry; was Ampex about to give up its position of
leadership in professional audio? What was not known by
outsiders at the time was that this two -year stretch was
devoted to perfecting products to be announced in 1976.
a new and improved multitrack, the MM -1200, a highly
perfected portable, the ATR -700, and a state -of- the -art
analog audio recorder, the ATR -100.
The public display and demonstration date for the latter
unit was the May 4, 1976 opening of the 54th Convention
of the Audio Engineering Society in Los Angeles.
ORRADIO INDUSTRIES
It is pertinent at this point to recall an event in 1949,
although at the time it was not related in any way to
Ampex. It was destined in years ahead, however to play
a prominent part in the affairs of the company.
We have already referred to the two German Magnetophons that had been sent home after World War II by
John T. Mullin and how they influenced Ampex's entrance
into the field of magnetic recording. Somewhat paralleling
this development was the establishment of ORRadio Industries in Opelika, Alabama, in 1949 by Major Herbert
Orr. Orr had also sent home a war souvenir Magnetophon
and had, in addition, acquired a formula for making tape.
Ten years later the firm, then known as Orr Industries,
producing Irish brand tape, was acquired by Ampex and
eventually became the magnetic tape division.
From this point forward the Ampex tape division placed
increasing emphasis on tape development and improvement
of manufacturing processes along with the development of
a responsive marketing organization. All of this over the
Harold Lindsey died in April of
1982 ending his extraordinary
career wih Ampex
I was priviledged to know him. I
commissioned the original
articles and can think of no
finer tribute than this reprint of
this two -parter.
Larry Zide, editor/publisher
MULTICHANNEL RECORDERS
The decade which followed 1967 to the present brought
great emphasis on engineering large multichannel recorders and high speed duplication equipment. Duplicators appeared in 1969 with the BLM -200, in 1971 the CD -200
and in 1972 the AD -15. Introduced in 1973 was the multichannel MM -1100.
www.americanradiohistory.com
years added up to wide acceptance and the winning of an
important share of the tape market.
ATR -100
The acquired skills of tape design, formulation ,and
processing which allowed the tailoring of a new product to
specific performance parameters paid off in a big way
during the development of the ATR -100. For now Ampex
had the advantage of being a company with design skills
in both recorder and tape technologies. The result was the
introduction of the ATR -100 and Ampex 456 Grand
Master tape as "go together" products. One was designed
to be used with the other to bring out the maximum performance of each in true synergistic relationship.
History had repeated itself, for just forty years before.
the German A.E.G. & I.G. Farben companies had teamed
up with their respective skills to create the Magnetophon
and its tape.
As we pause at the close of this commemorative year.
it may be useful to survey the state of our knowledge and
accomplishment, and address the question: Just how far
have we come in these past thirty years? Perhaps some
insight can be derived from a simple comparison of the
performance specifications of two products representative
of then and now, i.e. the Model 200 and the ATR -100.
DIGITAL VS. ANALOG
As I look over my shoulder at some thirty -plus years of
trying to meld art and science in this expanding industry.
a thought keeps recurring: in a rapidly evolving technology, today's state -of- the -art can he ancient history by
Already the industry is looking to digital audio recording. Digital -to- analogue conversions of 15 bit /50 kHz
scan and greater need no longer be regarded as "humptydumpty" propositions. It is now possible to make the analogue-digital conversion and put all the pieces together
properly. High performance systems are at hand and these
most certainly will find their first use in super -critical mas-
tering applications.
Will analogue audio recording survive the challenge of
the digital assault? As a practical and relatively simple approach, analogue recording should continue unretarded in
its amazing growth. Its position in the industry should be
strengthened through supportive interaction with the newer
technology rather than being reduced to obolescence. We
can all recall that the advent of magnetic tape did not spell
doom for the disc, but instead helped greatly in its revitalization.
In the foregoing we have glanced hack some thirty years.
At this point do we dare guess what may lie ahead over a
similar period?
Other audio recording possibilities have already suggested themselves. Vastly improved optical and electron
beam recording systems are just around the corner. But
where will the next giant step take us? We should not overlook the progress which has already taken place in the
development and miniaturization of magnetic core memories. With their almost limitless potential as memory storage
devices, there are exciting possibilities for magnetic recording /playback static systems, sans -tape, where motion
stability will no longer be a concern, when the only moving
system elements will be magnetic lines of force and electrons.
tomorrow.
REFERENCES
Model 200 vs. ATR -100: Comparative Performances
Measurement
Ampex
Model 200
ATR -100
Ampex
Overall Frequency
Response at (ñ, 30
in /sec
Within ± dB
30 to 15 kHz
Within ± 0.75 dB
200 Hz -20 kHz
Within at 2.00 dB
35 Hz-28kHz
Signal-to- noiseratio taken at 30
in /sec AES
full- track.
30 Hz to 15 kHz
Unweighted
over 60 dB
30 Hz -18 kHz
System Distortion
Using 3M Co.
Type 55 Tape
4% intermodulation distortion at
peak meter reading
with "harmonic"
distortion not
exceeding 5%
10 dB above peak
meter reading.
Using Ampex 456
(Grand Master)
tape SMPTE
"Undetectable
NAB rms
unweighted at
30 in/sec 0.03c
Fluuer
&
Wow
1
wow and flutter
content even in the
most susceptible
Unweighted
77 dB
intermodulation
distortion < 1.0%
at recorded flux
level of 370
nWb /m(OVUI
program material"
Speed Accuracy
± 0.03%
±0.03%
Rewind Time
5.400 ft. (0.002"
thick tape) (36 min.
P.T.) 1.75 minutes
2400 ft. (0.0015"
thick tape)
2.7 minutes
Hickman, C. N. Sound Recording on Magnetic Tape. Bell
Laboratories Record. Vol. 16, April 1937, pp 165 -177
Pulling, M. J. L. B.1.O.S. Final Report No. 951. January 1946
Menard, James Z. F.I.A.T. Final Report. 705. January 1946
Ranger, Richard H. Further Studies in Magnetophones and
Tapes, F.1.A.T. Final Report No. 923. May 1947
Chinn, Howard A. "Magnetic Tape Recorders in Broadcasting."
Electronic Engineering 1947 pp 393 -395.
Drenner, Don V. R. "The Magnetophon," Audio Engineering,
October 1947
Bigwood, R. F. "Applications of Magnetic Recording in Network Broadcasting" Audio Engineering, July 1948
Lindsay, Harold and Stolaroff, Myron. "Magnetic Tape Recorder of Broadcast Quality." Audio Engineering. October
1948
Lindsay, Harold W. "Precision Magnetic Tape Recorder for
High- Fidelity Professional Use." Electrical Manufacturng.
October 1950 (12th Annual Product Design Awards Number)
Tinkham, Russell J. "Anecdotal History of Stereophonic Recording." Audio, May 1952 pp 25 -31 and 91 and 93
Begun, S. J. Magnetic Recording. Chapter 1, History of Magnetic Recording (with bibliography) Rinehart & Company.
New York 6th Edition, 1955
Camras, Marvin. "Early Experiences with Stereotape Recording."
I.R.E. Transactions on Audio, July -Aug. 1957 pp. 96 -111
Tall, Joel. Tehniquer of Magnetic Recording, Chapter 1, "The
Development of Magnetic Recording," Macmillan Company,
New York 1958.
Mooney Jr., Mark. "The History of Magnetic Recording, HiFi Tape Recording, Vol. 5, No. 4, Feb. 1958 pp 21 -37
Zimmermann, Paul A. Magnetic Tapes, Magnetic Powders.
Electrodes. Vol. 4 of series published by the Archives of
Badische Anilin & Soda -Fabrik AG (BASF) 1969
Mullin, John T. "The Birth of the Recording Industry" Billboard, Nov. 18, 1972 pp 56, 58, 59, 77 and 79
Paige, Earl. "A Trail -Blazer In Magnetic Recording, Billboard,
Nov. 18, 1972
Lane, Basil. "75 Years of Magnetic Recording," Wireless World
(Four Installment Article) with bibliography, March, April.
May & June 1975
www.americanradiohistory.com
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800/227 -4323
Closing date is the first
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preceding the date of
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DAVIDSON ELECTRONICS
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753 -01 97
Authorized Service For
Yamaha, Crown, Tascam, Fostex,
QSC, Carver, A &HB,
Soundcraft,JBLand more!
BY APPOINTMENT ONLY
nstantly- Effective BODYGUARD The Magnum Powered Pepper
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HAND-HELD TEST
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P.O. Box 679
Medford, NY 11763
Allow 3 -4 weeks for
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Note: This offer is void where prohibited by law. This offer is not intended for sale to minors.
THESE UNITS ARE DESINGED FOR FIELD
USE, THEY ARE HOUSED IN A RUGGED
ALUMINUM CASE. BATTERY OPERATED,
EACH COMES WITH A HARD CARRYING
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OSC.1
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FM-1
LSI -1
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LOW DI STORIION SINE WAVE GENERATOR
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DISTORTION ANALYZER
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SESCOM INC.
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Quantity discounts are:
3X -15 %; 6X -30%.
,
ALL CLASSIFIEDS,
MUST BE PREPAID.
Lr
handling.
Checks and money orders only
-no C.O.D. /credit cards
The Right Response Company
wording "Department
XX" plus $1.50
additional for postage
and handling.
4
( ¡I
fects.
Price:
Rates are $1.00 per
word with a $25.00
minimum. Boxed ads
are $40.00 per column
inch. db Box Numbers
are $8.50 additional for
2100 WARD DRIVE HENDERSON. NV
U S
A
(ORDERS)800-634- 3457 (TECHNICAL HELP)
702 -565 -3400 FAX 702 -565 -4828
8901 S12A9
www.americanradiohistory.com
Send copy to:
db, The Sound
Engineering Magazine,
203 Commack Road,
Suite 1010, Commack,
NY 11725.
PEOPLE, PLACES
Grammy Award winners Li-
onel Richie and Michael Masser, as well as ASCAP, BMI, the
National Academy of Songwriters,
the Society of Composers and Lyricists and Los Angeles Chapter of
Recording Arts and Sciences sponsor scholarships for UCLA Ex-
tension's certificate programs
in music and film scoring.
"Thanks to the generosity of these
outstanding individuals and prestigious organizations, musicians
with the talent and ambition to
succeed in the music industry now
have the opportunity to be supported in their study at UCLA Extension," said Ronnie Rubin, head
of UCLA Extension's Arts Department.
The Lionel Richie Songwriting
Scholarship was established for
students enrolled in UCLA Extension's Certificate Program in Song writing, a career training sequence
that is presented in cooperation
with the National Academy of
Songwriters (NAS) and the Society
of Composers and Lyricists. The
award covers the candidacy free
and full tuition for all courses in the
program and membership fee in
NAS. One recipient is selected each
year. Applications are now being
accepted through December 1,
1992.
Michael Greene, President
and CEO of the National Academy of Recording Arts & Sciences announced that Los Angeles has been chosen as the host city
for the 35th Annual Grammy
Awards. After a two-year absence,
the presentation of the music industry's most prestigious awards is
returning to Los Angeles with one
important change. For the first
time in the Academy's history, the
show will be broadcast live from an
arena, The Great Western Forum.
Eastern Acoustic Works has
Beverly
BrignoloSeidler to the position of Director
named
of Sales Operations. `Ms. BrignoloSeidler brings with her over fifteen
years of experience in managing
HAPPENINGS
trade shows, facilities expansion
and internal operations," commented EAW President Ken
Berger. "We're very pleased to
have her join EAW, and we're confident that her skills and experience
will help us maintain and enhance
our level of customer service
throughout this period of rapid
growth. Beverly Brignolo- Seidler
joins Eastern Acoustic Works from
Solutions Systems, a PC soft-
ware company. She has also managed sales and marketing activites
for Kurzweil Music Systems,
and others.
BASF Corporation Information Systems announced it will re-
structure its North American magnetic
media
business.
`The
restructuring is part of a worldwide effort by BASF to improve
profitability in the magnetic media
business," said Dr. Hans Schmidt, Group Vice President of
BASF Corporation Information
Systems(headquarters for BASF's
North American magnetics business). To take advantage of economies of scale and to place production close to BASF's research and
development headquarters, professional audiotape production at the
Bedford, Massachusetts, plant will
be discontinued by the end of April.
Production for that product line
will be concentrated in BASFs
European sites." This will require a
reduction in our workforce in Bedford of 170 people," Dr. Schmidt
said. "We deeply regret this will be
necessary. We are providing severance packages based in grade and
length of service that will also include continuation of health and
life insurance and outplacement
counseling. Additionally, we will
assist employees in trying to find
jobs within the BASF organization
and in the local area."
The executive management of
.
Yamaha Corporation of Amer-
ica(YCA) has announced two organizational changes.
John Gatts, general manager of
the Audio, Guitar and Synthesizer
www.americanradiohistory.com
(AGS) Division, has been named
new Business Development Manager, with responsibilities encompassing the entire company.
Concurrent with Mr. Gatt's appointment, Ron Raup, senior vice
president of YCA, will assume additional responsibilities as General
Manager of the AGS Division.
`These appointments are considered vital for the company's continued growth," said Mr. Masahiko
Arimoto, YCA President. `The extensive experience each ofthese individuals possesses will serve them
well in achieving their goals."
`Big" Ed Learned's upcoming
West Africa Tour Schedule with the
Holmes Brothers has been set in
May 1992.
May 3 - May 8 Niamey, Niger
May 8 - May 11 Bamako, Mali
May 11- May 15 Ouagadougou,
Burkina Faso
May 15 - May 18 Lome, Togo
May 18 - May 21 Cotonou, Benin
May 21 - May 25 Conakry,
Guinea
May 25 - May 28 Freetown, Sierra Leone
He has promised us a major article upon his return.
Veteran composer /producer
Kelly Bryarly has joined the staff
of Music Annex Recording Studios in Menlo Park, CA. According
to Music Annex Studio Manager,
Charles Albert, "Kelly's arrival
enables Music Annex to offer a
complete solution to clients who require music scoring in addition to
the audio recording, mixing and
production services we already offer. His outstanding compositional,
instrumental and orchestration
skills give his scores a very fresh
sound." Bryarly states, "I'm very
excited about my move to the Music Annex Recording Studios. The
resources available at the Music
Annex greatly widen what I offer
my clients. In addition to a dedicated scoring suite, having five different studios means I can accommodate any size project from an
orchestra to a solo guitar."
We're making the laws of physics
work harder than ever.
If you think it's easy to develop full performance from
an enclosure this size (3.4 ft.3), just listen to any other
ultra -compact system.
If you already have, you've probably decided it's
impossible for anything this small to combine high output with high definition. In that case, you really should
hear our new KF300 Series.
These are true 3-way designs -unheard of in this size
class, but a fundamental principle in all EAW full -range
systems. An advanced midbass horn and ultra -rigid
carbon -f_ber cone driver cover the entire _nidband, producing over 130 dB SPL with lower distortion tharcomparable two -way systems. The custom -designed
woofer uses a Eat wire wound voice coil and massive,
optimally aLgned magnet structure to achieve ex eptional
efficiency and surprisingly impressive bass.
True 3 -way design also makes the KF300 Series a
genuine Virtual ArrayTM system. Horizontal coverage is
uniform from 400 Hz all the way to 18 kHz, and precisely
matched to the enclosure angles of two KF300i's arrayed
with our new SB330 subwoofer. The result is consistent,
predictable coverage without comb filtering, lobing or
hot spots.
Circle
11
The KF300 seres includes a variety 3f hardware configurations and powering options, suci as the horizontal
AS300 enclosure, resigned for distnbuled ssterrss. Each
version delivers coherent output, aor-acllcd directivity
and wide full pourer bandwidth in caucert sound fill
coverage, tleatrcal systems, dance _1Lbs corporate
theater and other demanding apptcaions.
The MX300i :CET (Closaly
Eletronic Processing) sa previd Saerloac protectian,
taactei ics for the KE3COi.
..F excursion control. phase ctnpensatioc and idealized crosova
It was no smaL task to make so line do so much.
But at EAW, we insist that even our smaller systems
embody big ideas.
2EAW
EASTERN ACOUSTIC WORKS
One Main Street, Whitinsville, MA 01588
Fax (508) 234 -8251
(508) 234 -6158 i (800) 992 -5013
on Reader Service Card
www.americanradiohistory.com
Being born into a famous
.
family is no free ride.
Standards are high.
Expectations are great.
So when Shure unveiled its L Series Wireless Microphones a
few years ago,we knew they had to be better than good.
They were. In fact, the L Series has emerged as one of the
most affordable, trouble -free lines in the business. One that
includes nearly every kind of wireless - from hand -held to lavalier
to instrument systems - with both
diversity and non - diversity receivers.
The all -new, L 11 body -pack transmitter is a prime example.
With its WP
P
compact surface mount construction,
T.Jp'fo
the L11 is the smallest unit in its class.
Battery life is 40 to 50% greater. And
its crystal clear output signal lets you
operate more systems simultaneously than ever before.
Of course, the L 11's reliability is a given. After all, we have a
family reputation to uphokE
For information on the L Series of wireless
microphones and accessories, call 1- 800- 25- SHURE.
The Sound of the Professionals®... Worldwide.
THE SHURE. WIRELESS
The Only.
Lives
Its Name.
.
L4 DIVERSITY WIRELESS
POWER
j
www.americanradiohistory.com
ON
_
R
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