Steel Reinforced Reactive Powder Concrete
International Journal of Advanced Engineering Research and Science (IJAERS)
[Vol-3, Issue-7, July- 2016]
ISSN: 2349-6495(P) | 2456-1908(O)
Steel Reinforced Reactive Powder Concrete
Athulya Sugathan
Assistant Professor,Department of Civil Engineering, New Horizon College of Engineering, Visvesvaraya Technological
University, Bangalore, Karnataka, India
Abstract— RPC is an emerging technology that lends a
new dimension to the term “high performance concrete”.
It has immense potential in construction due to superior
mechanical and durability properties than conventional
high performance concrete, and could even replace steel
in some applications. The development of RPC is based
on the application of some basic principles to achieve
enhanced homogeneity, very good workability, high
compaction, improved microstructure and high ductility.
RPC has an ultra-dense microstructure, giving advantage
of waterproofing and durability characteristics. It could,
therefore be a suitable choice for industrial and nuclear
waste storage facilities.
This paper presents the
experimental procedure for the design of self-compacting
Reactive Powder Concrete, in which we proposed the mix
proportion with the globally acceptance result of all tests
and the carried out test are slump flow test and V-funnel
test. The mix consists of 85%of cement,15% of silica
fume(as a cement replacement material), Fine
aggregate(river sand), Quartz powder ,4% superplastizer
and varying percentage of steel fibres. The compressive
strength, split tensile strength and flexural strength was
checked on the 3-day, 7-day and 28-day and results are
indicating that the proposed mix can produce selfcompacting reactive powder concrete (Ultra High
Performance Concrete)with higher quality. Ultra Highperformance concretes are made with carefully selected
high-quality ingredients and optimized mixture designs;
these are batched, mixed, placed, compacted and cured to
the highest industry standards. Typically, such concretes
will have a low water-cementing materials ratio of 0.20 to
0.45. Super Plasticizers are usually used to make these
concretes fluid and workable. Ultra High-performance(i)
concrete almost always has a higher strength than high(ii)
performance concrete.
Keywords— Quartz powder, Reactive Powder Concrete,
silica fume, steel fibers and super plasticizer.
I.
INTRODUCTION
Reactive powder concrete (RPC) is ultra-high strength
and high ductile composite material with advanced
mechanical properties. Reactive powder concrete is a
concrete without coarse aggregate, but contains cement,
silica fume, sand, quartz powder, super plasticizer and
steel fibre with very low water binder ratio. The absence
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of coarse aggregate was considered by inventors to be key
aspect for the microstructure and performance of RPC in
order to reduce the heterogeneity between cement matrix
and aggregate.Reactive Powder Concrete, also known as
Ultra-High Performance Concrete, can be even stronger,
with strengths of up to 800 MPa (116,000 PSI) which can
be easily by eliminating large aggregate completely,
carefully controlling the size of the fine aggregates to
ensure the best possible packing, and incorporating steel
fibers into the matrix.RPC is an ultra-high-strength and
high ductility cementitious composite with advanced
mechanical and physical properties. It is a special
concrete where the microstructure is optimized by precise
gradation of all particles in the mix to yield maximum
density. It extensively uses the pozzolanic properties of
highly refined silica fume and optimization of the
Portland cement chemistry to produce the highest strength
hydrates.
This new material demonstrates greatly improved strength
and durability characteristics compared with traditional or
even high-performance concrete. The improved properties
of RPC are obtained by improving the homogeneity of the
concrete by eliminating large aggregates, increasing
compactness of the mixtures by optimizing packing
density of fine particles, and using fine steel fibers to
provide ductility.
II.
TYPES OF REACTIVE POWDER
CONCRETE
The RPC family includes two types of concrete, which
offer interesting implicational possibilities in different
areas they are,
RPC 200
RPC 800
RPC 200 uses a combination of fine quartz, silica, silica
fume and cement to form a cementitious matrix
supporting straight and smooth steel fiber reinforcements.
These steel fibres are generally 13 mm long and have a
diameter of 0.15 mm. The addition of super and hyperplasticizers allow for the cement to be mixed with
approximately the same ease as conventional concrete.
Obtaining a compressive strength of 170MPa when
curing for 28 days at ambient temperature and 230MPa
when curing at 90 degrees Celsius for 6-12 hours after
pre-curing at ambient temperature for 2 days. They found
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International Journal of Advanced Engineering Research and Science (IJAERS)
that the fracture energies varied from 15,000 J/m2 to
40,000 J/m2 depending on the amount of steel fibre added
to the mix. The maximum stress encountered was
approximately ten times greater than the displacement at
the opening of the first crack.
RPC 800 is restricted in its use to small or medium sized
pre-fabricated structural elements such as bridge bearings,
security vaults and waste/transportation vessels. The
composition of RPC 800 proposes by Richard and
Cheyrezy is similar to RPC 200 although steel fibres are
replaced by a stainless steel microfiber, less than 3mm
long. RPC 800 is cured at 250 degrees Celsius after demoulding and a compressive force is generally applied
while in the mould. Richard and Cheyrezy experimented
with the use of steel powder instead of quartz sand and
reached compressive strengths of up to 800MPa and
fracture energies of 1,500 J/m2.
III.
LITERATURE REVIEW
The following literature review discusses the mix
proportion, properties, design, and applications of RPC.
In addition, a brief summary of the modeling of RPC in
compression as well as tension were presented. Also,
some reports from American Concrete Institute (ACI) for
fibre reinforced concrete were presented.
RPC – MIX PROPORTIONS
Dattatreya. J.K., et al., (2007)studied several particle
packing models to develop a mix proportion for the
reactive powder concrete. The optimization of granular
packing of the ingredients was an important factor for
getting enhanced mechanical and durability properties.
The granular packing of materials like silica fume, quartz
powder, standard sand with cement were optimized and
the experimental results were compared with the
theoretical packing models.Plawsky.J. et al., (2002)
explored a new method for dispersing cement in sand to
produce dry premix with better mechanical and physical
properties. The problems in blending the dry materials
and the dispersion of water were identified. In addition,
the understanding of mixing process leads to design the
future generation equipments to produce dense-mortar.
RPC – NON-DESTRUCTIVE TESTS
(RPCGlenn Waher, et al.,(2004) conducted nondestructive tests on reactive powder concrete) using
traditional piezoelectric transducers with center
frequencies of 500 kHz and 1MHz. Also longitudinal and
shear wave velocities were found. These data combined
with mass density were used to determine the modulus of
Elasticity of RPC material. The results were compared
with the static moduli measurements conducted according
to ASTM469. This comparison gives a correlation
coefficient of 0.94 indicating a high correlation by these
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[Vol-3, Issue-7, July- 2016]
ISSN: 2349-6495(P) | 2456-1908(O)
two different of the dynamic and static moduli of
elasticity.
RPC – DURABILITY PROPERTIES
Harish.K.V., et al.,(2008) investigated an ultra high
performance concrete at CSIR-SERC., Chennai. It was
found that the selection of ingredients and curing regime
plays a major role in the enhanced performance of UHPC.
It was found that addition of silica fume increases the
strength of concrete due its high pozzolanic activity. In
addition, the types of curing regime was (normal water,
hot water, hot air) recommended to achieve high
mechanical properties. A mix proportion has been
developed by optimizing the volume of ingredients and
curing regime to produce ultra high strength concrete of
193MPa.
RPC – MECHANICAL PROPERTIES
Kim.D.J. et al.,(2008) investigated the flexural
behaviour of fibre reinforced cement concrete with four
different types of fibres(high strength steel twisted-T,
high strength steel hooked=H, high molecular weight
polyethylene spectra-SP, and PVA fibres) and two
volume fraction contents 4% and 1.2%. The tests were
carried out according to ASTM standards. The T-fibre
specimens showed superior mechanical properties while
the PVA fibre concrete was the inferior one. whereas the
SP-fibre exhibited the highest deflection at maximum
load The test results from both experimental programs
were used to critique the new ASTM standard [C 1609/C
1609M-05], and a few suggestions were made for
improving the applicability of the standard to deflection
for hardening FRCCs.
Cwirzen.A., et al., (2008) developed a new Ultra high
strength mortar(UHS) concrete (both treated and nontreated) and tested for frost durability properties. The 28
day compressive strength varied from 170-202MPa for
heat treated concrete and for non-heat treated Concrete
the strength varied from 130-150MPa. Other tests were
carried out for creep and shrinkage, which showed
improved values when compared with ordinary concrete.
A number of tests were carried out to establish the
correlation between the water demand wetting time, mix
composition, rheological and the mechanical properties.
Quarz micro-fillers were used to improve the packing
density. The study of hybrid concrete beams indicated the
formation of low strength transition zone between the
UHD and Normal strength concretes.
RPC-DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS
Lai.J and Sun.W.(2010)conducted experiments to find
the spalling strength of Reactive Powder Concrete(RPC)
using Hopkinson bars. RPC specimens with different
dosages of steel fibres were subjected to impact of the
projectile at the free end. The compressive waves and
reflected tensile waves were recorded. Also a finite
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International Journal of Advanced Engineering Research and Science (IJAERS)
element analysis were carried out by simulating using the
material model JHC (JOHNSON HOLMQUIST
CONCRETE) (LSTC 2003) and found suitable.
RPC – APPLICATIONS
Chin – Tsung et al.,(2007) proposed a Reactive powder
mortar(RPM) of flow value 200% and compressive
strength of 75MPa for repair and rehabilitation. Series of
tests like slant shear, rebar pull out, tensile tests were
performed and the results were compared with the
cylinders repaired with epoxy resins. The strength of
cylinders with RPM mortar was higher while the slant
shear strength is almost equal to that of epoxy resin.
BOOKS AND REPORT
Ivan Markovic (2006)inthe research project presented
for his Ph.D. thesis developed an innovative type of fibre
concrete, with improved tensile and ductile properties.
The concrete mixture was combined with short and long
fibres (13mm and 30mm long fibres). The short fibres are
straight and long fibres were hooked. All-important
aspects like compressive tests, pullout tests for single
fibres, flexural tests, and uniaxial tensile tests were
carried out for various combinations of fibres. A new
analytical model for bridging cracks by fibres were
developed and successfully implemented for tensile
softening response of HPC. Also, the utilization of HPC
in the Engineering Practice was discussed, including a
case study on light prestressed long-span beams made of
HPC.
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
IV.
ADVANTAGES OF RPC
As fracture toughness is higher, RPC exhibits high
ductility.
Since RPC is an Ultra dense micro structure,
porosity and permeability is less and therefore can
be used for waste storage holding facility.
RPC has limited shrinkage, increased corrosion
resistance and so can be used inaggressive chemical
environments.
Its superior strength combined with higher shear
capacity results in significant dead load reduction
and limitless structural member shape.
Its superior strength combined with higher shear
capacity results in significant dead load reduction
and limitless structural member shape.
With its ductile tension failure mechanism, RPC can
be used to resist all stresses except direct primary
tensile stresses. This eliminates the need for
supplemental shear and other auxiliary reinforcing
steel.
RPC improve seismic performance reduces inertia
loads with lighter members. Reduced cross sections
of members provides higher energy absorption.
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Low and non-interconnected porosity reduces mass
transfer, making penetration of liquid/gas or
radioactive elements nearly non-existent.
V.
LIMITATIONS OF RPC
The least costly components of conventional
concrete are basically eliminated or replaced by
more expensive elements.
The fine sand used in RPC becomes equivalent to
the coarse aggregate of conventional concrete
The Portland cement plays the role of the fine
aggregate and the silica fume that of the cement of
conventional concrete.
The mineral component optimization alone results in
a substantial increase in cost over and above that of
conventional concrete (5 to 10 times higher than
HPC)
Applying pressure to mix and applying heat
treatment in the field has got technological
difficulties and cost.
RPC should be used in areas where weight savings
can be realized
Since RPC is in its infancy, the long-term properties
are not yet known.
VI.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
RPC is composed of similar modulus of elasticity and
size increasing homogeneity reducing differential tensile
strain. The material having the largest particle size in
RPC is sand. It composed of very fine powders (cement,
sand, quartz powder, steel aggregates and silica fume),
steel fibers (optimal) and a superplasticizer. The
superplasticizers, used at its optimal dosage, decrease the
water to cement ratio (w/c) while improving the
workability of the concrete. A very dense matrix is
achieved by optimizing the granular packing of the dry
fine powders. This compactness gives RPC, ultra-high
strength and durability
• Cement
Cement is binding material for production of primary
hydrates. Its particle size ranges from 1µm to 100µm.
Optimum cement properties are C3S: 60% C2S: 22% C3A:
3.8% C4AF: 7.4%
• Fine aggregates (river sand or natural sand)
Coarse aggregates are replaced by fine sand. It gives
strength to the concrete. Maximum size of sand is 600µm.
Size ranges from 150µm to 600µm. It eliminates
mechanical chemical and thermo mechanical failures.
• Quartz powder
Its particle size ranges from 5µm to 25µm. It must be in
crystalline form.
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International Journal of Advanced Engineering Research and Science (IJAERS)
• Silica fume
Silica fume is used for filling voids and enhance rheology
and for production of secondary hydrates. Its particle size
ranges from 0.1µm to 1µm . Steel fibers
It should have good aspect ratio and should be able to
improve ductility. Its length ranges from 13mm to 25mm.
It should be straight.
• Super
plasticizer
(Sulfonated
napthaleneformaldehyde)
A copolymer of acrylic ester (CAE), a polynaphtalene
Sulfonate (PNS) and a employed for the purpose. These
admixtures are synthetic polymers polymelamine
sulfonate (PMS) are normally.
VII.
PRILIMINARY INVESTIGATION
Table .1: Components of RPC and Their Properties
Sl.
no
Sample
Specific
gravity
Particle size range
3.15
31 µm – 7.5 µm
2.2
5.3 µm – 1.8 µm
2.7
5.3 µm – 1.3 µm
2.65
0.6mm – 0.3 mm
Length: 30 mm and
diameter:0.4 mm
2.36 mm – 0.15 mm
4.
Cement,
OPC, 53grade
Micro silica
Quartz
powder
Sand
5.
Steel fibres
7.1
6.
River sand
2.61
1.
2.
3.
Table.2: RPC Mix Proportion
Material
Cementitious material
(cement=85%,
silica fume=15%)
Fine aggregate
(river sand)
Quartz powder
Steel fiber in %
Superplasticizer
(sulfonated
napthaleneformaldehyd
e)
in %
•
•
•
RPC
Mix proportion
RPCS RPCSF
F1
2
RPCS
F3
1
1
1
1
1.02
1.02
1.02
1.02
0.22
-
0.22
0.5
0.22
1.0
0.22
1.5
4
4
4
4
RPC= Plain RPC without steel fibers
RPCSF1= RPC with 0.5% steel fiber
RPCSF2= RPC with 1% steel fiber
RPCSF3= RPC with 1.5% steel fiber
COMPONENTS
Sand
Cement
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SELECTION
PARAMETER
Good hardness
Readily
available and
low cost.
C3S: 60% C2S:
22% C3A: 3.8%
C4AF: 7.4%
Quartz powder
Fineness
Silica fume
Very less
quantity of
impurities
Steel fibers
Good aspect
ratio
Super plasticizer
Less retarding
characteristic
FUNCTION
Gives
strength
Binding
material,
Production
of primary
hydrates
Max.
reactivity
during heattreating
Filling the
voids,
Enhance
rheology,
Production
of secondary
hydrates
Improve
ductility
Reduce w/c
PARTICLE
SIZE
150 µm to
600 µm
1 µm to 100
µm
5µm to
25µm
0.1µm to
1µm
Length
13mm to
25mm
Dia. 0.15 –
0.2 mm
Polyacrylate
based
VIII. MIXING SEQUENCE
An important factor for studying new cementitious
materials is the mixing procedure (Geiker et al.,2007).
This influence is often neglected and might bea source of
error when analysing experimental results. Since RPC is
composed of very fine materials, the conventional mixing
method is not appropriate and mixing method cannot be
the same.The following sequence in mixing RPC is based
on some previous studies (Bonneau et al.,
1997;Feylessoufi et al., 2001; Morin et al., 2002; Chan
and Chu, 2004; Lee and Chisholm, 2005; Shaheen and
Shrive, 2006), as well as trial-and-error approaches:
• Dry mixing powders (including cement, quartz sand,
crushed quartz and silica fume) for about
3minutes with a low speed of about 140 rpm (1
minute at a constant speed of 1800 rpm if the high
speed mixer is used). Addition of half volume of
water containing half amount of superplasticizers.
• Mixing for about 3 minutes with a high speed of about
285 rpm (applicable to both types of mixers).
• Addition of the remaining water and superplasticizers.
• Mixing for about 10 minutes with a high speed of
about 285 rpm (8 minutes at a constant speed of 1800
rpm if the high speed mixer is used).
• The whole mixing process takes about 12 to 16
minutes.
Table.3: Selection Parameter
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International Journal of Advanced Engineering Research and Science (IJAERS)
IX.
MATERIAL SELECTION
9.1.Silica Fume
A highly reactive silica pozzolan is an essential
component of reactive powder concrete, performing three
vital roles for which it needs the following properties:
• It must be sufficiently fine to pack closely around
the cement grains, improving the density of the
composite matrix and minimizing the potential for
voids between the particles.
• It should possess considerable pozzolanic activity,
such that the non-cementing portlandite crystals [Ca
(OH)] generated by hydration of the cement react
with the silica to form additional C–S–H gel,
reinforcing the binding of the composite. 3. The
particles should have a basically spherical shape to
act as a lubricant within the fresh mix, improving its
ability to flow and be cast into moulds.
Conventionally, the reactive silica used for RPC has
been silica fume, which is an industrial by- product
of the manufacture and purification of silicon,
zirconia and ferro-silicon alloys in submerged-arc
electric furnaces. Escaping gaseous SiO oxidises and
condensates as extremely fine (0.03 – 0.2 μm)
spherical particles of amorphous silica, neatly
fulfilling the requirements listed above. One of the
potential drawbacks of RPC production in New
Zealand is the absence of a domestic source of silica
fume: importing this material is an expensive
proposition, both because of high demand and an
inconveniently light bulk density of 200 – 300 kg/m,
complicating shipping and handling.
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and is primarily included in cement due to its role as a
flux during the calcination process. Consequently, most
RPC made with commercially-available cement employs
an ASTM Type V,sulfate-resistant blend, which is
formulated specifically for low C3A content
9.3.QUARTZ FINES
For RPC mixes designed to be cured at temperatures
exceeding 90ºC, including autoclaving at elevated
pressures, additional silica is necessary to modify the
CaO/SiO ratio of the binder. In these cases powdered
quartz flour with a mean particle size of 10 – 15 μm was
employed..
9.4.FINE AGGREGATE
The majority of mixes were produced using high purity
silica sand widely used for foundry casting and mouldmaking with a near mono-sized particle size distribution.
9.5.STEEL FIBERS
To enhance the RPC ductility, some mixes were produced
with micro-fibres of straight carbon Steel wire, 13 mm in
length and 0.2 mm in diameter, with a minimum on-thewire tensile strength of 2,000 MPa.
9.5 SUPER-PLASTICISER
The very low w/b (cement + silica fume) ratios used in
RPC are only possible because of the fluidizing power of
high-quality third generation super-plasticizing agents.
ViscoCrete-5 was selected as the most suitable for use.
This is described as an aqueous modified carboxylate,
designed specifically for ultra-high water reduction
applications such as self-compacting concrete. To
minimize any air-entrainment effects due to the highdosage rates necessary, 1% Pronal 753S defaming agent,
was also added to the super-plasticizer before us.
X.
TESTS ON FRESH RPC MIX
10.1 Slump flow test
The slump flow is used to assess the horizontal free flow
of SCC in the absence of obstructions. It was first
developed in Japan for use in assessment of underwater
concrete. The test method is based on the test method for
determining the slump. The diameter of the concrete
circle is a measure for the filling ability of the concrete
Table.4: slum and v-funnel values
Fig.1: Silica fume
9.2 CEMENT
Due to the very high cement factor, the choice of cement
can be an important factor in the performance of RPC.
Based on published practice, the ideal cement has a high
C3S and C2S (di- & tri-calcium silicate) content and very
little C3A (tri-calcium aluminate). This is understandable
because C3A has little intrinsic value as a binding agent
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Test
type
Slum
p flow
test
vfunnel
test
Water
cemen
t ratio
0.34
% of
superplastici
zer
4%
Limits
(standar
ds)
650850mm
Achiev
ed
values
690mm
0.34
4%
14-44
seconds
42
second
s
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| 2456-1908(O)
Fig.2: Slump Cone
10.2. V-Funnel Test
V-funnel
funnel test is used to determine the filling ability (flow
ability) of the concrete.
XI.
TESTS ON HARDENED RPC
Once concrete has hardened it can be subjected to a wide
range of tests to prove its ability to perform as planned or
to discover its characteristics if its history is unknown.
For new concrete this usually involves casting specimens
from fresh concrete and
nd testing them for various
properties as the concrete matures. The ‘concrete cube
test' is the most familiar test and is used as the standard
method of measuring compressive strength for quality
control purposes. Concrete beam specimens are cast to
test for
or flexural strength and cast cylinders can be used
for tensile strength. Specimens for many other tests can
be made at the same time to assess other
properties,e.g.Drying shrinkage, thermal coefficient,
modulus of elasticity.
11.1 COMPRESSION TEST
Table.5: Compression Test Result
No of
days
of
curing
Plain
RPC
(Mpa)
3 days
36
RPC
with
0.5%
steel
fibres
(Mpa)
40
7 days
88
90
94
97
28
days
124
135
141
146
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RPC
with
1.0%
steel
fibres
(Mpa)
46
RPC
with
1.5%
steel
fibres
(Mpa)
49
compressive strength in mpa
compression test results
160
140
120
100
80
60
40
20
0
124
88
90
146
141
135
97
94
46
49
36
40
plain
RPC
RPCSF1 RPCSF2 RPCSF3
3 days
7 days
28 days
Graph1 Compressive Strength VS Number of days of
curing
11.2. SPLIT TENSILE TEST
Table.6: Split Tensile Test Result
Time
Plain
RPC
RPC
with
0.5%
steel
fibres
RPC
with 1.0%
steel
fibres
RPC
with 1.5%
steel
fibres
3
days
3.8Mpa
4.1Mpa
4.4Mpa
5Mpa
7
days
7.2Mpa
8.7Mpa
9.1Mpa
9.6Mpa
28
days
9.1Mpa
9.7Mpa
10.1Mpa
10.6Mpa
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International Journal of Advanced Engineering Research and Science (IJAERS)
FLEXURAL STRENGTH
split tensile strength test
18
10
9.7
8.7
9.1
8
10.1
9.1
16
7.2
6
4
10.6
9.6
FLEXURAL STRENGTH
split tensile strength in mpa
12
4.4
4.1
3.8
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4.8
2
14
15.9
15.4 15.3
14.8 14.9
14.3 14.2
13.6
13.4
12.9
12.4
12.2
12
10
8
6
4
2
0
0
Plain
RPC
plain RPC RPCSF1 RPCSF2 RPCSF3
3 days
7 days
28 days
3 days
Graph 2 Split Tensile Strength VS Number of days of
curing
11.3.Flexural Strength Test
Table.7: Flexural Strength Test Results
No of
Days
of
curing
Plain
RPC
(Mpa)
RPC
with
.5%
steel
fibres
(Mpa)
RPC
with 1%
steel
fibres
(Mpa)
RPC with
1.5% steel
fibres
(Mpa)
3 days
12.2
12.4
12.9
13.4
7 days
13.6
14.2
14.9
15.3
28
days
14.3
14.8
15.4
15.9
7 days
28 days
Graph 3 Flexural Strength VS Number of days of curing
XII.
APPLICATIONS OF RPC
• RPC's properties, especially its high strength
characteristic suggests the material might be good for
things needing lower structural weight, greater structural
spans, and even in seismic regions, it outperforms normal
concrete. Below are a few examples of real-world
applications, though the future possibilities are endless.
• First bridge that used RPC was a pedestrian bridge in
Sherbrooke, Quebec, Canada. (33,000 psi ~230MPa) It
was used during the early days of RPC production. Has
prompted bridge building in North America, Europe,
Australia, and Asia.
• Portugal has used it for seawall anchors
• Australia has used it in a vehicular bridge
• France has used it in building power plants
• Qinghai-Tibet Railway Bridge
• Shawnessy Light Rail Transit Station
• Basically, structures needing light and thin components,
things like roofs for stadiums, long bridge spans, and
anything that needs extra safety or security such as blast
resistant structures
•
•
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RPCSF1 RPCSF2 RPCSF3
XIII. 13.RESULT &DISCUSSION
Addition of steel fiber at particular volume fraction
is found not to affect the workability of RPC. RPC is
easily mixed with steel fibers, although while
casting some of the samples, workability of
RSFRPC mix can be improved by using lower
percentage of fibers.
Addition of steel fibers does not affect the
finishibility of RPC outer surface of concrete after
casting was as smooth as plain RPC.
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International Journal of Advanced Engineering Research and Science (IJAERS)
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•
•
•
•
•
Marginal increase in bulk density and marginal
decrease of flow of concrete was observed due to
addition of steel.
Ultimate compressive strength of SFRPC is 30%
higher may be because of more confined and dense
concrete.
Improved by readjusting the doses of plasticizers
more workable concrete can be obtained and
strength can be improved. This is very obvious as
compressive strength of RPC is primarily affected
by the property of matrix and not due to the
influence of the fibers.
Split tensile strength of RPC with steel fiber in
comparison to plain RPC is found 50% more
respectively addition of fibers is significantly
affecting the splitting tensile strength.
Under four point loading arrangement used for
flexural strength testing, the failure occurs in middle
third portion of the specimen, in case of plain RPC,
failure is sudden, without show in the first cracking
load. While in the case of RPC with steel fiber
beam, the first crack could be seen easily .Cracks
start slowly from the bottom layer of the specimen
and as the load increases, the crack propagates up to
the top layer of the specimen.
Flexural strength of RPC with steel fiber in
comparison to the plain RPC is found to be 60%
higher respectively. Here addition of fibers
significantly increases the flexural strength of RPC.
Steel fiber contained RPC specimens failed in
ductile manner under static loading because of the
effective bridging action of fibers across the tensile
cracks. Thus it can be assumed that the structural
components made of FRPC would give ample
warning before the failure, which is never expected
for plain RPC.
XIV.
CONCLUSION
The above experimental program leads to emphasize the
effects of steel fibre on properties of fresh and hardened
steel fiber reinforced ultra high performance concrete. It
is observed from the results that the presence of steel fiber
increases the overall performance of the ultra high
performance concrete. The enhancement in engineering
properties has clearly shown in all the above mentioned
experiments. Basically the superiority of the selfcompacting concrete mainly lies in the strength and
durability characteristics of the ultra high performance
concrete mixture. The main objective of the present
investigation was to study the behavior of steel fiber
reinforced self compacting ultra high performance
concrete under loading. Preliminary investigation was
also conducted to arrive at an optimum dosage rate of
www.ijaers.com
[Vol-3, Issue-7, July- 2016]
ISSN: 2349-6495(P) | 2456-1908(O)
steel fibers. The fresh and hardened properties of
SFRPSCC specimens were also studied and compared the
results with that of ordinary ultra high performance self
compacting concrete. The conclusions of the present
investigation and the scope for the future work are
presented in this paper. Addition of steel fibers has
increased ultimate load than that of conventional RPSCC
beams under flexure.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
I would like to extend my most profound gratitude and
deepest thanks to my students, Chaitanya,Shrayas
Krishnamurthy,Ranjith Ganesh& Milan, Department of
CivilEngineering, NHCE, BANGALORE for their
assistance ,commitment and encouragement throughout
the entire period of the research project. Their Dedication
and continuous assistance enabled me to remain focused
on the research investigation from the beginning of the
project to the very end for all the time spent on
coordinating and supervising the whole thesis.
REFERENCES
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1996.
[2] Brain
Paulson.
EFNARC,
Secretary
General,“Specifications and Guidelines for SelfCompactingConcrete”, February 2002.
[3] Nan Su, K.C.Hsu, H.W.Chai. A Simple mix
designmethod for self-compacting concrete, cement
andconcrete Research 2001.
[4] Okamura, H.; Ozawa, K.; and Ouchi, M., “SelfCompacting Concrete,” Structural Concrete 1, 2000
[5] Okamura
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„Self-Compacting
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PerformanceConcrete‟, Concrete International, ” Vol.
19, No.7, pp.50-54, July 1997.
[6] M.S. Shetty. “Concrete technology (theory
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[7] Subramanian S. and Chattopadhyay D.‟Experiments
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TheIndian Concrete Journal, January 2002, pp 13-20.
[8] IS 456-2000 Code of practice for plain and
reinforcedconcrete (3rd revision).
[9] IS 10262-1982 Code of Practice for concrete
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[10] M.L.Gambhir.
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[11] IS 2386(PT7) – 1963 Methods of test for aggregates
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[12] IS 516-1959 Method of test for strength of concrete.
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