Congratulations, Dorothy!
Congratulations, Dorothy!
Battery Overview
Steve Garland
Kyle Jamieson
Outline
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Why is this important?
Brief history of batteries
Basic chemistry
Battery types and characteristics
Case study: ThinkPad battery technology
Motivation
• To exploit properties of batteries in lowpower designs
– Protocols (Span , MAC layer)
– Hardware (Cricket)
– Example: n cells; discharge from each cell,
round-robin fashion [Chiasserini and Rao,
INFOCOM 2000]
Battery (Ancient) History
1800
1836
1859
1868
1888
1898
1899
Voltaic pile: silver zinc
Daniell cell: copper zinc
Planté: rechargeable lead-acid cell
Leclanché: carbon zinc wet cell
Gassner: carbon zinc dry cell
Commercial flashlight, D cell
Junger: nickel cadmium cell
Battery History
1946
1960s
1970s
1990
1991
1992
1999
Neumann: sealed NiCd
Alkaline, rechargeable NiCd
Lithium, sealed lead acid
Nickel metal hydride (NiMH)
Lithium ion
Rechargeable alkaline
Lithium ion polymer
Battery Nomenclature
Duracell batteries
9v battery
Two cells
A real battery
More precisely
6v dry cell
Another battery
The Electrochemical Cell
e−
consumer
salt bridge
oxidation
at zinc
anode
ZnSO4
CuSO 4
Half Cell I
Half Cell II
reduction
at copper
cathode
The Electrochemical Cell (2)
• Zinc is (much) more easily oxidized than
Copper Zn 
→ Zn 2+ + 2e − ( I .)
Cu 2+ + 2e − 
→ Cu ( II .)
• Maintain equilibrium electron densities
• Add copper ions in solution to Half Cell II
• Salt bridge only carries negative ions
– This is the limiting factor for current flow
– Pick a low-resistance bridge
The Electrochemical Series
Most wants to reduce
(gain electrons)
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Gold
Mercury
Silver
Copper
Lead
Nickel
Cadmium
But, there’s a reason
it’s a sodium drop
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Iron
Zinc
Aluminum
Magnesium
Sodium
Potassium
Lithium
Most wants to oxidize
(lose electrons)
Battery Characteristics
• Size
– Physical: button, AAA, AA, C, D, ...
– Energy density (watts per kg or cm3)
• Longevity
– Capacity (Ah, for drain of C/10 at 20°C)
– Number of recharge cycles
• Discharge characteristics (voltage drop)
Further Characteristics
• Cost
• Behavioral factors
– Temperature range (storage, operation)
– Self discharge
– Memory effect
• Environmental factors
– Leakage, gassing, toxicity
– Shock resistance
Primary (Disposable) Batteries
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Zinc carbon (flashlights, toys)
Heavy duty zinc chloride (radios, recorders)
Alkaline (all of the above)
Lithium (photoflash)
Silver, mercury oxide (hearing aid, watches)
Zinc air
Standard Zinc Carbon Batteries
• Chemistry
Zinc (-), manganese dioxide (+)
Zinc, ammonium chloride aqueous electrolyte
• Features
+ Inexpensive, widely available
– Inefficient at high current drain
– Poor discharge curve (sloping)
– Poor performance at low temperatures
Heavy Duty Zinc Chloride Batteries
• Chemistry
Zinc (-), manganese dioxide (+)
Zinc chloride aqueous electrolyte
• Features (compared to zinc carbon)
+ Better resistance to leakage
+ Better at high current drain
+ Better performance at low temperature
Standard Alkaline Batteries
• Chemistry
Zinc (-), manganese dioxide (+)
Potassium hydroxide aqueous electrolyte
• Features
+ 50-100% more energy than carbon zinc
+ Low self-discharge (10 year shelf life)
± Good for low current (< 400mA), long-life use
– Poor discharge curve
Alkaline-Manganese Batteries (2)
Alkaline Battery Discharge
Lithium Manganese Dioxide
• Chemistry
Lithium (-), manganese dioxide (+)
Alkali metal salt in organic solvent electrolyte
• Features
+ High energy density
+ Long shelf life (20 years at 70°C)
+ Capable of high rate discharge
– Expensive
Lithium v Alkaline Discharge
Secondary (Rechargeable)
Batteries
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Nickel cadmium
Nickel metal hydride
Alkaline
Lithium ion
Lithium ion polymer
Lead acid
Nickel Cadmium Batteries
• Chemistry
Cadmium (-), nickel hydroxide (+)
Potassium hydroxide aqueous electrolyte
• Features
+ Rugged, long life, economical
+ Good high discharge rate (for power tools)
– Relatively low energy density
– Toxic
NiCd Recharging
• Over 1000 cycles (if properly maintained)
• Fast, simple charge (even after long storage)
C/3 to 4C with temperature monitoring
• Self discharge
10% in first day, then 10%/mo
Trickle charge (C/16) will maintain charge
• Memory effect
Overcome by 60% discharges to 1.1V
NiCd Memory Effect
Nickel Metal Hydride Batteries
• Chemistry
LaNi5, TiMn2, ZrMn2 (-), nickel hydroxide (+)
Potassium hydroxide aqueous electrolyte
• Features
+ Higher energy density (40%) than NiCd
+ Nontoxic
– Reduced life, discharge rate (0.2-0.5C)
– More expensive (20%) than NiCd
NiMH Battery Discharge
NiMH Recharging
• Less prone to memory than NiCd
• Shallow discharge better than deep
Degrades after 200-300 deep cycles
Need regular full discharge to avoid crystals
• Self discharge 1.5-2.0 more than NiCd
• Longer charge time than for NiCd
To avoid overheating
NiMH Memory Effect
NiCd v NiMH Self-Discharge
Secondary Alkaline Batteries
• Features
– 50 cycles at 50% discharge
– No memory effect
– Shallow discharge better than deeper
NiCd v Alkaline Discharge
Lead Acid Batteries
• Chemistry
Lead
Sulfuric acid electrolyte
• Features
+ Least expensive
+ Durable
– Low energy density
– Toxic
Lead Acid Recharging
• Low self-discharge
– 40% in one year (three months for NiCd)
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No memory
Cannot be stored when discharged
Limited number of full discharges
Danger of overheating during charging
Lead Acid Batteries
• Ratings
CCA: cold cranking amps (0F for 30 sec)
RC: reserve capacity (minutes at 10.5v, 25amp)
• Deep discharge batteries
Used in golf carts, solar power systems
2-3x RC, 0.5-0.75 CCA of car batteries
Several hundred cycles
Lithium Ion Batteries
• Chemistry
Graphite (-), cobalt or manganese (+)
Nonaqueous electrolyte
• Features
+ 40% more capacity than NiCd
+ Flat discharge (like NiCd)
+ Self-discharge 50% less than NiCd
– Expensive
Lithium Ion Recharging
• 300 cycles
• 50% capacity at 500 cycles
Lithium Ion Polymer Batteries
• Chemistry
Graphite (-), cobalt or manganese (+)
Nonaqueous electrolyte
• Features
+ Slim geometry, flexible shape, light weight
+ Potentially lower cost (but currently expensive)
– Lower energy density, fewer cycles than Li-ion
Battery Capacity
Type
Capacity
(mAh)
2850
Density
(Wh/kg)
124
1600
80
NiCd AA
750
41
NiMH AA
1100
51
Lithium ion
1200
100
Lead acid
2000
30
Alkaline AA
Rechargeable
Discharge Rates
Type
Alkaline
Voltage
Peak Optimal
Drain
Drain
1.5 0.5C < 0.2C
NiCd
1.25
20C
1C
Nickel metal
1.25
5C
< 0.5C
2
5C
0.2C
3.6
2C
< 1C
Lead acid
Lithium ion
Recharging
Type
Alkaline
Cycles Charge Discharge Cost per
(to 80%)
time per month
kWh
0.3% $95.00
50 (50%) 3-10h
1500
1h
20%
$7.50
NiMH
300-500
2-4h
30%
$18.50
Li-ion
500-1000
2-4h
10%
$24.00
300-500
2-4h
10%
Lead acid 200-2000
8-16h
5%
NiCd
Polymer
$8.50
• Source: IBM datasheet
• Relatively-constant
discharge
60
50
40
30
20
10
Sleeping
Average
0
Maximum
Energy Consumption (W)
Example: IBM ThinkPad T21
Model 2647
Lithium-ion Batteries in
Notebooks
• Lithium: greatest electrochemical potential,
lightest weight of all metals
– But, Lithium metal is explosive
– So, use Lithium-{cobalt, manganese, nickel}
dioxide
• Overcharging would convert lithium-x
dioxide to metallic lithium, with risk of
explosion
IBM ThinkPad Backup Battery
• Panasonic CR2032 coin-type lithiummagnesium dioxide primary battery
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Application: CMOS memory backup
Constant discharge, ~0.1 mA
Weight: 3.1g
220 mA-h capacity
IBM ThinkPad T21 Main Battery
• Lithium-ion secondary battery
• 3.6 A-h capacity at 10.8V
• Back-of-the-envelope calculations from
workload shown earlier:
– Maximum: 47 minutes
– Average: 2 hours, 17 minutes
– Sleep: 19 hours?
References
• Manufacturers
www.duracell.com/OEM
data.energizer.com
www.rayovac.com/busoem/oem
• Books
T. R. Crompton, Battery Reference Book, Newnes, 2000
D. Berndt, Maintenance-Free Batteries, Wiley, 1997
C. Vincent & B. Scrosati, Modern Batteries, Wiley, 1997
I. Buchmann, Batteries in a Portable World, www.buchmann.ca
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