Documents - North Central Railway

Documents - North Central Railway
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COURSE MODULE
Course No. CE 28: Initial Technician-III
Duration: 13 Weeks
S.
N.
1
CM
No. Subjects
28.1
Electrical & Electronics
2
Effective Days: 75
Sessions
Periods
36
1-106
28.2 Hydraulics, Pneumatics & Mechanical
36
107-189
3
28.3 I.C. Engine & Workshop Technology
36
190-250
4
28.4 Track Machines & Working Principles
36
251-362
5
28.5 P.Way, Establishment, Stores & Rajbhasha
36
363-417
6
28.6 Group Inter Personal Skill Development (GIPSD)
7
418-423
7
28.7 Computer
10
424-443
8
5
Technical Film Show
9
Library
5
10
Visit to CPOH & Track Machines Working Sites
20
11
Examination (Theory/Practical/Viva-voce) & Valediction
17
244
443
T
Note:
1. Eligibility: Directly Recruited Technician-III and such Promoted
Technician-III, who has no exposure of track machines working.
2. Medical Awareness Programme shall be covered under Module No. 28.5.
Faculty for this programme may be drawn from Medical Department.
3. Faculty for GIPSD may be drawn from CBWE, Min. of Labour &
Employment or from Management Institutes.
4. Computer, Technical Film Show and Library periods shall be scheduled
during the afternoon session.
5. To bridge the gap between theory and practical, fortnightly visit to CPOH
for demonstration and giving hands-on training and monthly visit Track
Machines Working Sites for proper understanding of machine working
shall be arranged.
6. Practical demonstration in Model rooms shall be given along with
theoretical sessions as and when required besides Practical sessions
specifically earmarked for Model Rooms.
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& ELECTRONICS SYSTEM
Documents SUB: ELECTRICAL
Duration: 36 Sessions = 72 Periods
Sub-discipline:- Electrical System( Lessons: 03 Sessions:12)
Lesson-I: Fundamentals of Electricity Session-1:Symbols, Basic Concept of Voltage and
Current, Ohm s law, Power law, Resistor: Definition, Unit, Symbol, Power Rating,
Tolerance, Types
ELECTRIC SYMBOLS
Name & Letter
Symbol
Name & Letter
Symbol
Notation
Notation
Fuse Si or e
Resistor
R or r
Variable resistor
or Potentiometer
P or f
Circuit Breaker e
Capacitor(NonPolarised) C or K
Polarize
Capacitor or
Electrolyte
Capacitor C or K
Variable
Capacitor C
Inductor
L
Relay Re
+
-
+
-
Solenoid or Shut
down coil
( s)
Speaker
Galvanometer
(g)
Cell
Ignition Switch
(b)
Battery
Pressure Switch
(b)
Earth OD(OA)
Limit Switch
Ls
P
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GENERAL :
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Electricity cannot be weighed on a scale or measured into a container. But, certain electrical
"actions" can be measured.These actions or "terms" are used to describe electricity;
voltage, current, resistance, and power.
VOLTAGE:
Voltage is electrical pressure, a potential force or difference in electrical charge between
two points. It can push electrical current through a wire, but not through its insulation.Voltage
is measured in volts. One volt can push a certain amount of current, two volts twice as much,
and so on. A voltmeter measures the difference in electrical pressure between two points
in volts. A voltmeter is used in parallel.
Voltage is pressure
CURRENT :
Current is electrical flow moving through a wire. Current flows in a wire pushed by voltage.
Current is measured in amperes, or amps, for short. An ammeter measures current flow in
amps. It is inserted into the path of current flow, or in series, in a circuit.
Current is flow.
A simple relationship exists between voltage, current, and resistance in electrical
circuits.Which can be explain with the help of Ohm s Law.
OHM'S LAW
The current in a circuit is directly proportional to the applied voltage and inversely
proportional to the amount of resistance.
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This means that if the voltage goes up, the current flow will go up, and vice versa. Also, as
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the resistance goes up, the current goes down, and vice versa.
ELECTRIC POWER AND WORK:
Voltage and current are not measurements of electric power and work. Power, in watts, is a
measure of electrical energy ... power (P) equals current in amps (1) times voltage in volts (E),
P = I x E. Work, in watt seconds or watt-hours, is a measure of the energy used in a period of
time ... work equals power in wafts (W) times time in seconds (s) or hours (h), W = P x time.
Electrical energy performs work when it is changed into thermal (heat) energy, radiant (light)
energy, audio(sound) energy, mechanical (motive) energy, and chemical energy. It can be
measured with a waft- hour meter.
Power is the amount of work performed. It depends on the amount of pressure and
the volume of flow.
RESISTANCE:
Resistance opposes current flow. It is like electrical "friction." This resistance slows the flow
of current. Every electrical component or circuit has resistance. And, this resistance changes
electrical energy into another form of energy - heat, light, motion. This property of the
component is called resistance, it s unit is Ohm Ω.
1 Kilo Ohms(KΩ)
= 1000 Ohms
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1 Mega. Ohms(MΩ) = 1,000,000 Ohms = 10 Ohms =1,000 KΩ
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6
Resistance opposes flow.
Resistance is measured in ohms. A special meter, called an ohmmeter, can measure the
resistance of a device in ohms when no current is flowing.
R
R
Symbol:
TYPES OF RESISTOR
Fixed type resistor
Variable type resistor
(Potentiometer)
value of Resistance can be varied
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Carbon composition Resistor
The resistive material is of carbon-clay
composition. The leads are made of
tinned copper. Resistors of this types are
readily available in values ranging from few
ohms to about 22MΩ
Wire wound resistor
In wire wound resistor a length of resistance
wire such as nichrome is used, which is wound on
to a round hollow porcelain core
The ends of winding are attached to there metal
pieces inserted in the core. These resistors are
available from 1Ω to 100 KΩ with wattage rating
upto 200W
Properties of Resistor:
(1)
(2)
(3)
Resistance is directly proportional to the length of conductor & inversely proportional
to cross-sectional area of conductor.
R ∝ l/a
or
R = ρl/a
Where l = Length of conductor
a = Cross sectional area.
ρ = Resistivity.
Resistance depends upon nature of material & rises with rise in temp. in case of
conductors & metals. In case of insulators, resistance decreases with the increase in
temp.
Resistance has no polarity. It can be used in any direction.
POWER RATING :
The power rating of a resistor is given by the maximum wattage it can dissipate without
excessive heat. They are available in 1/8, 1/4 , 1/2, 1, 2, watt. The size of resistos varies with
wattage rating. The size of resistor increases as wattage rating increases.
P=I2R
Where P = Power in Watt
I = Current in Amps
R = Resistance in Ohms
Resistor of appropriate wattage should be selected. Resistors of ¼ watt are widely used .
TOLERANCE:
The tolerance of resistor is a measure of the precision with which the resistor was made. It is
the value in percentage, which may be less or more than the manufactured value of resistor.
Resistors are available in following tolerances 0.1%, 1%, 2%, 5%, 10% and 20%. Generally
resistors of 5% tolerance are used. Where accuracy is required, resistors of .1% to 1% are
used.
SUB-DISCIPLINE:- ELECTRICAL SYSTEM( LESSONS: 03 SESSIONS:12)
Lesson–II: Electrical Components Session-2: Resistor: Color coding, Combination,
Application, Faults & Troubleshooting.
COLOUR CODING OF RESISTORS:
To indicate value of resistors colour coding technique is used instead of printing value
directly on resistors which is followed by all manufacturers. In this technique bands of
colours are printed on resistors generally 4-band and 5-band techniques are used to indicate
value of resistors. 4-band colour coding is explain below.
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4-band colour resistor
1st Band
5-band colour resistor
1st Band
2 nd Band
3rd Band
4th Band
2 nd Band 3rd Band 4th Band
5th
Band
4-Band colour code Table
Colour
Ist & 2nd Band
Digit
3rd Band
Multiplier
Black
Brown
Red
Orange
Yellow
Green
Blue
Violet
Gray
White
Gold
Silver
No colour
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
-
10 0=1
101=10
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
0.1 = 10-1
0.01 = 10-2
-
4th Band
Tolerance
1%
.1%
± 5%
± 10%
± 20%
Mnemonics: As an aid to memory in remembering the sequence of colour codes given
above, the Trainees can remember the following sentence (all the capital letters stand
for colours):
(a) B. B. R O Y in Grate Britain has a Very Good Wife.
0 1 2 3 4
5
6
7
8
9
(b) Bill Brown Realized Only Yesterday Good Boys Value Good Work.
© Bye Bye Rosie Off You Go Bristol Via Great Western.
Examples :-
1st band
Yellow
4
2nd band
Violet
7
3rd band
Orange
103
4th band
Gold
±5%
=
47 kΩ
± 5%
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1 band
2 band
st
nd
Blue
6
3rd band
Brown
101
Gray
8
4th band
Gold
± 5%
=
680Ω ± 5%
In practical electronic circuits, the values of the resistors required may lie
within a very wide range (say, from few ohms to about 20 MΩ ). In most of the circuits, it is
not necessary to use resistors of exact values. Even if a resistor in a circuit has a value which
differs from the desired (designed) value by as much as 20%, the circuit still works quite
satisfactorily. Therefore, it is not necessary to manufacture resistors of all the possible values.
A list of readily available standard values of resistors are given in Table .
Standard values of commercially available resistors:
1.0
Ohms ( Ω )
10
100
Kilohms (kΩ )
1.0
10
100
Megaohms(MΩ )
1.0
10
1.2
12
120
1.2
12
120
1.2
12
1.5
15
150
1.5
15
150
1.5
15
1.8
18
180
1.8
18
180
1.8
18
2.2
22
220
2.2
22
220
2.2
22
2.7
27
270
2.7
27
270
2.7
3.3
33
330
3.3
33
330
3.3
3.9
39
390
3.9
39
390
3.9
4.7
47
470
4.7
47
470
4.7
5.6
56
560
5.6
56
560
5.6
6.8
68
680
6.8
68
680
6.8
8.2
82
820
8.2
82
820
8.2
COMBINATION OF RESISTORS :
a)
Series Connection :A
R1
R2
R total = R1 + R2 + R3 +
b)
Parallel Connection :A
R3
Rn
..+ Rn
B
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R1
R2
R3
Rn
B
1/Rt = 1/R1 + 1/R2 + 1/R3 +
..+ 1/Rn
APPLICATION :
1. It apposes the current so it is used to reduce current in the circuit.
2. To drop the voltage (V = I.R.) and as potentiometer.
3. In timer circuit to set time (T=RC).
4. To set the gain of operational amplifiers.
5. In bulb and heaters.
TROUBLES:
General trouble in resistor is open circuit and it get short rarely.
How to check the Resistor in PCBs:
1.
2.
3.
Select higher Ohmic(MΩ ) range in Multi meter.
At least one terminal of the resistor should be taken out from PCB with the help of
desoldering.
If Multi meter indicates open or short, it is faulty. If it indicates printed value then
resistor is correct.
SUB-DISCIPLINE:- ELECTRICAL SYSTEM( LESSONS: 03
Lesson–II: Electrical Components
and
SESSIONS:12)
Session-3: Capacitor: Definition, Unit, Symbol
Types, Combinations, Application, Faults
Troubleshooting.
CAPACITOR:
Capacitor is a passive component, which can store electrical energy in the form of charge
(Electrons) and release them whenever required .Capacitor s ability to store electrical charge
is called Capacitance . It is represented by
and it s unit is Farad(F) but practically its
small units are used like Micro farad( F), Pico farad (pF) Nano Farad (nF).
1 Farad = 106 Micro farad( F)
1 Farad = 109 Nano farad(nF)
1 Farad = 1012 Pico farad(pF)
1 Micro farad( F)
1 Nanofarad(nF
1 Pico farad(pF)
= 10-6 Farad
= 10-9 Farad
= 10-12 Farad
Construction :-Capacitor consists of two plates of conductive material separated by
insulating material which is called dielectric.
Conductive plates of area A
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Insulator(dielectric) with Dielectric constant of
d Distance between plates
Capacitance of capacitor C
0
Material
Dielectric Constant
Air
1.0
Mica
4.2
Paper
4.7
Ceramic 80
0
A
d
C=
0. A
d
Capicitance of capacitor can be increased by increasing area of plates, decreasing distance
between plates.
Charging and discharging of capacitor :-The process of storing electrical charge(electrons)
is called charging of capacitor. When capacitor release stored energy it is called
discharging of capacitor.
Flow of Current
+
Flow
of
Electro
ns
Flow of
+ ++ + + +
Bulb
electr
ons
--------
Charging of Capacitor
Discharging of Capacitor
TYPES:
Like resistors, capacitors are also fixed type and variable type. Fixed type capacitors are
again of two types, non polarized(Non electrolytic) and polarized (Electrolytic) . Some of
the most commonly used non polarized capacitors are mica, ceramic , paper capacitors .
Polarized capacitors are electrolytic and tantalum capacitors . Variable capacitors are airgang and trimmer capacitors .
Capacitor
Fixed type
Capacitance of these type
capacitors cannot be varied
Variable
Type
Capacitance of
these
type
capacitors can
be varied .
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Non – polarized(Non-electrolytic)
Polarized (Electrolytic)
These capacitors don t have any
polarity consideration they can be
used in any direction .
+
-
These capacitors have +ve & -ve
polarity consideration and should be
used accordingly.
Mica Capacitors
Ceramic
Capacitors
Paper
Capacitors
Polyester
Capacitors
APPLICATIONS:
1.
To store charge and discharge when required.
2.
To pass A.C. signal and block D.C. signals.
3.
To pass UN wanted signals.
4.
In time delay circuits.
5.
In tuned circuits.
COMBINATION OF CAPACITOR:
1.Series Combination :
Suppose C1, C2, C3, Cn capacitors connected in series, then effective capacitance across the
combination will beA
B
C1
C2
C3
1/C total = 1/C1 + 1/C2 + 1/C3 +
Cn
.. + 1/Cn
2.Parallel Combination :
A
C1
C2
C3
Cn
B
C total = C1 + C2 + C3 +
APPLICATION:
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
It is used in filter circuit.
It is used in timer circuit.
It is used as a memory.
.. + Cn
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TROUBLES IN CAPACITORS:
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(1)
(2)
(3)
Short circuiting
Open circuiting
Leakage
SUB-DISCIPLINE:- ELECTRICAL SYSTEM( LESSONS: 03
Lesson–II: Electrical Components
Application,
SESSIONS:12)
Session-4: Inductor: Definition, Unit, Symbol
Types, Combinations,
Faults and Troubleshooting
INDUCTOR :
When current flows through a coil of conductor wire then it generates a magnetic
field. The magnetic field reacts so as to oppose the change in current. This reaction of
magnetic field is called inductance, and the force it develops is called induced emf, and
component producing inductance is called inductor. It is a fine length of wire wound on a
core, frame or air core. Unit of inductance is Henry .
Mili Henry mH = 10-3 Henry
Micro Henry H = 10-6 Henry
Types of Inductor
Fixed type Inductor
Variable Inductor
Variable inductors are used in
tuning circuits of radio frequencies.
AirCore Inductor: When
a coil is wound on a
hollow insulting tube, this
is called air core inductor.
These are used where
small inductance required
.
IronCoreInductor:
When Coil is wound on
iron base, it is called
iron core inductor.These
are used where large
inductance required.
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APPLICATIONS: 1.It is used as solenoid in hydraulic and pneumatic valves to shift spools.
2.In electromagnetic relay to change positions of contacts.
3.It is used as shut down coil in engines.
4.In filter circuits.
5.In oscillator circuits.
6.In tuning circuits.
7.In transformers to step down or step the A.C. voltage.
8.It is used as choke in florescent tubes.
9.It is used in motors and generators.
COMBINATION OF INDUCTORS:
a)
Series Combination :
L t = L1 + L2 + L3 +
b)
+ Ln
Parallel Combination :
1/L t = 1/L1 + 1/L2 + 1/L3 +
.+ 1/Ln
TROUBLES OF INDUCTOR :(1) Short circuit.
(2) Open circuit.
SUB-DISCIPLINE:- ELECTRICAL SYSTEM( LESSONS: 03
Lesson–II: Electrical Components
demonstration,
Capacitor and Inductor
SESSIONS:12)
Session-5: Electronics Model Room for
checking of Resistor,
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In Electronic model room these components are shown and checked with the help of
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multimeters
SUB-DISCIPLINE:- ELECTRICAL SYSTEM( LESSONS: 03
Lesson–III: Auto Electrical
SESSIONS:12)
Session-6: Battery: Definition of Cell & Battery, Types,
Rating, Specific Gravity, Construction
BATTERY :
The battery is the primary "source" of electrical energy on Automotives. It stores
chemicals, not electricity. Two different types of lead in an acid mixture react to produce
an electrical pressure. This electrochemical reaction changes chemical energy to
electrical energy. Battery is the Combination of cells .
CELL:
It converts chemical energy to electrical energy. In cell electrical energy is store in the form
of chemical energy. When battery is connected to any circuit then chemical energy is
converted to electrical energy current flows from +ve to ve terminal.
Symbol Cell:
+
Battery
+
-
-
TYPES :
1. PRIMARY CELL: Non rechargeable cell is called Primary Cell.The chemical
reaction totally destroys one of the metals after a period of time. Small batteries for
Torch and radios are primary cells.
2. SECONDARY CELL: Rechargeable cell is called Secondary Cell .The metals and
acid mixture change as the battery supplies voltage. The metals become similar, the
acid strength weakens. This is called discharging. By applying current to the battery in
the opposite direction, the battery materials can be restored. This is called charging .
Automotive lead-acid batteries are secondary cells
CONSTRUCTION :
1.Case: Container which holds and protects all battery components and electrolyte, separates
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cells, and provides space at the bottom for sediment (active materials washed off plates)
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Translucent plastic cases allow checking .
2.Cover: Permanently sealed to the top of the case; provides outlets for terminal posts, vent
holes for venting of gases and for battery maintenance (checking electrolyte, adding water).
3.Plates: Positive and negative plates have a grid framework of antimony and lead alloy.
Active material is pasted to the grid ... brown-colored lead dioxide (Pb02) on positive
plates, gray- colored sponge lead (Pb) on negative plates. The number and size of the
plates determine current capability ... batteries with large plates or many plates produce
more current than batteries with small plates or few plates.
4. Separators: Thin, porous insulators (woven glass or plastic envelopes) are placed
between positive and negative plates. They allow passage of electrolyte, yet prevent the
plates from touching and shorting out.
5.Cells: An assembly of connected positive and negative plates with separators in
between is called a cell or element. When immersed in electrolyte, a cell produces
about 2.1 volts
(regardless of the number or size of plates). Battery cells are
connected in series, so the number of cells determines the battery voltage. A"1 2 volt" battery has six cells.
6. Cell Connectors: Heavy, cast alloy metal straps are welded to the negative terminal
of one cell and the positive terminal of the adjoining cell until all six cells are
connected in series.
7. Cell Partitions: Part of the case, the partitions separate each cell.
8. Terminal Posts: Positive and negative posts(terminals) on the case top have thick,
heavy
cables connected to them. These cables connect the battery to the
vehicle's electrical system (positive) and to ground (negative).
9. Vent Caps: Types include individual filler plugs, strip-type, or box-type. They allow
controlled release of hydrogen gas during charging (vehicle operation). Removed,
they permit checking electrolyte and, if necessary, adding water.
10. Electrolyte: A mixture of sulfuric acid (H2SO4) and water (H2O). It reacts chemically
with
the active materials in the plates to create an electrical pressure (voltage).
And, it
conducts the electrical current produced by that pressure from plate to plate.
A fully
charged battery will have about 36% acid and 64% water.
SPECIFIC GRAVITY:Specific gravity means exact weight. The hydrometer compares the exact weight of
electrolyte with that of water. Strong electrolyte in a charged battery is heavier
than weak electrolyte in a discharged battery.
By weight, the electrolyte in a fully charged battery is about 36% acid and 64% water.
The specific gravity of water is 1.000. The acid is 1.835 times heavier than water, so
its specific gravity is 1.835. The electrolyte mixture of water and acid has a specific
gravity of 1.270 is usually stated as "twelve and seventy."By measuring the specific
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gravity of the electrolyte, you can tell if the battery is fully charged, requires charging,
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or must be replaced. It can tell you if the battery is charged enough for the capacity,
or heavy- load test.
CAPACITY RATINGS:
The battery must be capable of cranking the engine and providing adequate reserve
capacity. Its capacity is the amount of electrical energy the battery can deliver when
fully charged. Capacity is determined by the size and number of plates, the number of
cells, and the strength and volume of electrolyte.
AMP-HOURS (AH) RATING :
The battery must maintain active materials on its plates and adequate lasting power
under light-load conditions. This method of rating batteries is also called the 20-hour
discharge rating. Original equipment batteries are rated in amp-hours. The ratings of
these batteries are listed in the parts microfiche. The Amp-Hour Rating specifies, in
amp-hours, the current the battery can provide for 20 hours at 80 F (26.7 C) while
maintaining a voltage of at least 1.75 volts per cell (10.5 volts total for a 12- volt
battery). For example, a battery that can deliver 4 amps for 20 hours is rated at 80 amphours (4 x 20 =80).
SUB-DISCIPLINE:- ELECTRICAL SYSTEM( LESSONS: 03
SESSIONS:12)
Lesson–III: Auto Electrical
Session-7 : Working of Lead-acid Cell & Battery.
Maintenance, Testing by Hydrometer and
Load tester
WORKING OF LEAD-ACID CELL & BATTERY :
A lead-acid cell works by a simple principle: when two different metals are immersed in an
acid solution, a chemical reaction creates an electrical pressure.One metal is brown-colored
lead dioxide (Pb02). It has a positive electrical charge. The other metal is gray colored
sponge lead (Pb). It has a negative electrical charge. The acid solution is a mixture of
sulfuric acid (H2SO4) and water (H20). It is called electrolyte.If a conductor and a load are
connected between the two metals, current will flow. This discharging will continue until
the metals become alike and the acid is used up. The action can be reversed by sending
current into the cell in the opposite direction. This charging will continue until the cell
materials are restored to their original condition.
ELECTROCHEMICAL REACTION:
A lead-acid storage battery
can be partially discharged
and recharged many times.
There are four stages in this
discharging/charging cycle.
1. Charged: A fully charged
battery contains a negative plate
of sponge lead (Pb), a positive
plate of lead dioxide (Pb02), and
electrolyte
of
sulfuric
acid(H2SO4) and water (H20).
2. Discharging : As the battery is
discharging,
the
electrolyte
becomes diluted and the plates
become sulfated. The electrolyte
divides into hydrogen (H2) and
sulfate(S04) . The hydrogen (H2)
combines with oxygen (0) from
the positive plate to form more
water(H20).
The
sulfate
combines with the lead (Pb) in
both plates to form lead sulfate
(PbS04)
3. Discharged: In a fully
discharged battery, both plates
are covered with lead sulfate
(PbSO4) and the electrolyte is
diluted to mostly water (H2O).
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4. Charging: During charging,
the chemical action is reversed.
Sulfate (S04) leaves the plates
and combines with hydrogen
(H2) to become sulfuric acid
(H2SO4). Free oxygen (02)
combines with lead (Pb) on the
positive plate to form lead
dioxide (Pb02). Gassing occurs
as the battery nears full charge,
and hydrogen bubbles out at the
negative plates, oxygen at the
positive.
TEST PROCEDURE BY HYDROMETER:
The following steps outline a typical procedure for performing a state-of-charge test:
1 . Remove vent caps or covers from the battery cells.
2. Squeeze the hydrometer bulb and insert the pickup tube into the cell closest to the
battery's positive (+) terminal.
3. Slowly release the bulb to draw in only enough electrolyte to cause the float to rise. Do
not remove the tube from the cell.
4. Read the specific gravity indicated on the float. Be sure the float is drifting free, not in
contact with the sides of top of the barrel. Bend down to read the hydrometer a eye level.
Disregard the slight curvature of liquid on the float.
5. Read the reading of the electrolyte.
6. Record your readings and repeat the procedure for the remaining cells.
LOAD TESTING :
While an open circuit voltage test determines the battery's state of charge, it does not
measure the battery's ability to deliver adequate cranking power.A capacity, or heavyload, test does. A Sun VAT-40 tester is used. If another type of tester is used, follow the
manufacturer's recommended procedure.
The following steps outline a typical procedure for load testing a battery:
1. Test the open circuit voltage. The battery must be at least half charged. If the open circuit
voltage is less than 12.4v, charge the battery.
2. Disconnect the battery cables, ground cable first
3. Prepare the tester:
Rotate the Load Increase control to OFF.
Check each meter's mechanical zero. Adjust, if
necessary.
Connect the tester Load Leads to the battery terminals; RED to positive, BLACK to
negative.
Set Volt Selector to INT 18V. Tester voltmeter should indicate battery open-circuit
voltage.
Set Test Selector to #2 CHARGING.
Adjust ammeter to read ZERO using the electrical Zero Adjust control.
4. Connect the clamp-on Amps Pickup around either tester load cable (disregard
polarity).
5. Set the Test Selector Switch to #1 STARTING.
6. Load the battery by turning the Load Increase control until the ammeter reads 3
times the amp- hour (AH) rating or one-half the cold-cranking ampere (CCA)
rating.
7. Maintain the load for no more than 15 seconds and note the voltmeter reading.
8. Immediately turn the Load Increase control OFF.
9. If the voltmeter reading was 10.0 volts or more, the battery is good. If the reading is
9.6 to 9.9 volts, the battery is serviceable, but requires further testing. Charge and retest. If the reading was below 9.6 volts, the battery is either discharged or
defective.
NOTE: Test results will vary with temperature. Low temperatures will reduce the
reading. The battery should be at operating temperature.
MAINTENANCE OF BATTERY:
Maintenance of battery of battery is done in 50-hour schedule. Which is as under.
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1.
Check the electrolyte level in each cell of the battery (daily). The level should be 10Documents
15 mm above the plates. If not then top up with distilled water.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Check the specific gravity of each cell. It should be 1.180-1.280.
The connection should be tight and clean.
Put petroleum jelly on the terminal.
The vent hole should be cleaned.
The Voltage of battery should be checked by multi meter. It should be 2.1 volt in full
charge condition.
7.
Clean the battery with water.
8.
Check the rubber pad , if found damaged then replace it.
PRECAUTIONS:1.
While removing the connections of battery remove the negative terminal first and then
the positive terminal.
2.
Use proper tools.
3.
Don t take any lighted articles near to the battery.
SUB-DISCIPLINE:- ELECTRICAL SYSTEM( LESSONS: 03
SESSIONS:12)
Lesson–III: Auto Electrical
Working,
Session-8 : Alternator, Regulator, Construction,
Maintenance and Trouble-shooting
ALTERNATOR :
The Alternator converts mechanical energy into electrical energy when the engine is running.
This energy is needed to operate the loads in the vehicle's electrical system as well as charging
the Batteries., it sends current into the battery to maintain the battery's state of charge.
Mechanical energy is transferred from the engine to the alternator by a grooved drive belt on a
pulley arrangement. Through electromagnetic induction, the alternator changes this mechanical
energy into electrical energy. The alternating current generated is converted into direct current
by the rectifier, a set of diodes which allow current to pass in only one direction.
AC5R ALTERNATOR: AC5R alternators with inbuilt 440 Regulators are designed and
matched as battery charging systems for Road Vehicles, Marine and Stationary engines. All
models are basically the same but with minor variations to provide different voltages, cuttingin-speeds, methods of mounting etc. to suit individual requirements. Special finish is given to
machines for Marine application.
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General:
The Alternator is a 3 phase machine of the revolving field and stationary
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armature type. Its output from the stator windings is rectified by means of built-in-silicon
diodes in heat sinks mounted within the slip ring end shield. Output control is effected by
varying the rotor excitation. The machine is self limiting in terms of output current. Cooling
is provided by a radial fan mounted on the drive end of the rotor shaft. The standard machine
is insulated return version. The Regulator is housed in the Alternator itself.
Terminal Arrangement:
The alternator has three terminals i.e. positive terminal,
negative terminal and warning lamp terminal WL .
Rectifier:The rectifier pack comprises of nine silicon diodes, six main out put diodes and
three field diodes mounted on suitable heat-sinks.
Rotor: Forged claw or pressed claw rotors are used. A pair of four fingered claws envelope
the field coil and when finally assembled to the main shaft from the 8 pole imbricated rotor.
The ends of the windings are brought out and connected to two slip rings at the end of the
rotor assembly. The rotor is supported by ball bearings housed on the two end brackets.
Stator:The stator assembly comprises of a pack of laminations housing a three phase
winding in the slots. The stator is held in position by the drive end (D.E.) and slip ring end
(SRE) shields.
In-built Regulator:This is a fully transistorized device with no moving parts, requiring no
service attention. The transistors, diodes and resistors are fixed on a printed circuit base and
then encapsulated. No cutout relay is necessary as the diodes in the alternator prevent reverse
currents from the battery flowing through the stator when the machine is stationary or when
generating less than the battery voltage. As the alternator is self limiting in current output the
regulator has only to control voltage which it does by regulating the alternator field
current.The regulator is housed in the Alternator in between SRE shield and cowl by means
of three studs.
OPERATION OF THE ALTERNATOR:
Initial excitation: When the ignition switch ( or equivalent control switch for diesel
engines) is switched ON a small current flows from the battery through the warning lamp to
the rotor field winding. At this stage the warning light is illuminated and the rotor is partially
magnetized.When the engine is started and the partially magnetized rotor rotates within the
stator windings 3 phase alternating current (a.c.) and rapidly rising voltage is generated.
Self excitation:A portion of generated alternating current (A.C.) is rectified to direct current
(D.C.) by the three field diodes incorporated in the rectifier pack. Output current from the
field (auxiliary) diodes supplement the initial current flowing through the rotor field winding
from the battery, causing an increase in the magnetic influence of the rotor and resulting in
self excitation of the alternator. As the rotor speeds and generated until the Alternator
becomes fully excited.
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Charge indication:During the rise in generated output voltage (reflected at WL terminal) the
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warning lamp is extinguished as the generated voltage applied to one side of the warning
lamp rises above the battery voltage applied to the other side of warning lamp. This normally
indicates that the alternator is the developing its main battery-charging current.
Output Control:The main battery charging current is rectified from a.c. to d.c. by the six
main output diodes in the rectifier pack which function as a full-wave bridge rectifier
circuit.The Alternator output is controlled by the in-built 440 regulator. The regulator
functions as an electronic control switch of the rotor field winding circuit switching the
circuit OFF and ON at a very high frequency to maintain the alternator output voltage
(and so the current ) at a predetermined and safe working limit.
MAINTENANCE:
i)
General: Keep the alternator reasonably clean and ensure that ventilation slots or air
spaces are clear are unobstructed. Check mounting bolts for tightness.
ii)
Belt: Ensure that the driving belt on the alternator is in good condition and is neither
too slack nor too tight. If necessary the fan belt tension should be adjusted to obtain
approximately 1|2 -3|4 deflection of the belt when pressed at midway of the longest point
between pulleys.
NOTE: A slack belt will rapidly wear and because of slip may not drive the alternator
at the required speed. Too tight a belt will impose severed side thrust on the bearings and
seriously shorten their life.
iii)
Battery: Check with a hydrometer the specific gravity of the electrolyte in each of the
battery cells to ensure that the battery is in good condition. Check for the tightness of its
terminals. The specific gravity of the electrolyte should be uniform in all the cells. If the
battery is found to be discharged it should be independently recharged or substituted before
proceeding to further checks.
iv)
Brush Gear: Check brushes once in 20000 kms. Renew the brush and spring
assemblies if the overall length of the brushes are worn to or less than 7.9 mm (0.312 ). If
brushes are satisfactory but require cleaning use a petrol moistened cloth.
v)
Rotor slip rings: The slip ring surfaces should be clean and smooth. If the rings are
burnt or unclean and require refinishing the surfaces may be cleaned with a piece of very fine
emery paper.
vi)
Bearings: Check bearing for every 20,000 kms. And renew if worn.
PRECAUTIONS:
i)
Ensure all connections are secure and clean.
ii)
Ensure that no connection in the charging circuit, including battery, is broken
while the engine is running.
iii)
Observe correct polarity when refitting the vehicle battery or when using a slave
battery to start the engine.
iv) Do not flash the alternator output leads to check its working
v) Disconnect all alternator terminals while carrying out any welding on the vehicle.
vi) Ensure that the alternator is not mounted close to the exhaust manifold without any
protection.
SUB-DISCIPLINE:- ELECTRICAL SYSTEM( LESSONS: 03
SESSIONS:12)
Lesson–III: Auto Electrical
Session-9 : Self starter: Construction, Working,
Maintenance and Troubleshooting
SELF STARTER :
Starting the engine is possibly the most important function of the Machine's electrical system.
The starting system performs this function by changing electrical energy from the battery to
mechanical energy in the starting motor. This motor then transfers the mechanical energy,
through gears, to the flywheel on the engine's crankshaft. During cranking, the flywheel
rotates and the air-fuel mixture is drawn into the cylinders, compressed, and ignited to start the
engine. Most engines require a cranking speed of about 200 rpm.
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Self starter are designed for use on the larger types of engine, where because of the high
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inertia of flywheel and crankshaft, it is necessary for the starter pinion to engage the engine
flywheel before the starter develops full torque, thus avoiding heavy engagement shock and
excessive wear on gear teeth. Engagement between starter and engine is effected by an axial
movement of the complete armature assembly and it is from this movement that the term
Axial starter is derived.
Construction :
The field windings of the machines consist of a main series winding, an auxiliary
series winding and shunt winding. A solenoid operated two stage switch forms an integral
part of the starter and is used to control the starting cycle, so that only a small switch to
handle the solenoid current is required externally.
Working:
When starter switch is operated, the first stage contacts on the solenoid switch close and a
small current passes through the auxiliary field windings, causing the armature rotate slowly.
Simultaneously the complete armature assembly is drawn towards the driving end of the
machine by the magnetic field set up in the winding and the pinion is brought into mesh with
the engine flywheel gear. As the armature nears the end of its axial travel, a tripping disc
operates the trigger on the solenoid switch, causing the second stage contacts to close and
complete the circuit to the main series winding. The starter then exerts its full torque on the
engine. When the starter button is released, the armature is return to its disengaged position
by the coiled spring on the armature plunger.
The auxiliary shunt windings are arranged so as to hold the pinion in mesh until the
starter push button is released; this reduces the number of engagements used to start heavy
engines as the pinion will remain in mesh despite irregular engine firing. The starter is fitted
with an overload clutch interposed in the drive between armature and pinion. The clutch has a
slipping torque of about twice the lock torque of the starter but below the shearing strength of
the pinion teeth and is thus an effective safeguard against the teeth of the pinion being
sheared due to excessive load.Where required oil sealing precautions are taken comprising an
oil seal in the driving end shield and a rubber sealing ring inside the pinion.
Maintenance :
Examine starter to ensure that the mounting bolts are securely fastened and all electrical
connections are clean and tight. The cable should be examined for fractures particularly at the
point where the cables enter the terminal lugs. The cable insulations must be free from signs
of chafing and deterioration due to oil, etc.
Brush Gear- Check that the brush leads are clear of any obstruction likely to impede
movement and see that the brushes are free in their holders by first lifting brush spring and
gently pulling on the brush leads. If a brush is inclined to stick clean the inside of the brush
holder with a clean cloth moistened in petrol. Be sure to replace the brush in its original
position so that the curvature of its contact surface conforms accurately with commutator
periphery.Always ensure that a minimum of .045 clearance is there between the brush
holder throughout. If necessary this can be achieved by rubbing down the brushes using 400
grade emery and a sheet of glass. However, it is emphasized that no attempt should be made
to file the brush boxes to obtain the recommended clearance.
The brush should be well bedded i.e. worn to the commutator periphery over at
least 80 percent of their contact area. If not, lift each brush from commutator and wedge in
position with spring. Wrap a strip of very fine glass paper (do not use emery cloth) or
caborundum paper around the commutator with abrasive side outwards. Lower the brush (or
brushes) in one brush gear arm on to the glass paper and bed to the correct shape by drawing
the glass paper backwards and forwards over the commutator. Raise the finished brushes and
repeat the bedding procedure for the brushes on the other brush gear arms in turn. After
bedding, each brush must be removed from its holder and all traces of dust and abrasive
cleared away, preferably using compressed air or some form of hand bellows. Examine the
brushes to ensure that no particles of abrasive are embedded in their contact surfaces.The
brushes must be renewed if they are worn to approximately 13 m which is half of the original
length or to a point where springs no longer provide effective pressure. It is essential that
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brushes are fitted in complete sets and under no circumstances should brushes of different
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grade be used together. To be sure of obtaining the correct grade brush, always specify
Lucas-TVS Spares (Brush Part No. 9030-698A). This can be bought from any authorized
Lucas-TVS Agent. Replacement brushes must be always bedded before use as described
earlier.
Commutator
The commutator surface should be clean and entirely free from oil any trace of
which should be removed by pressing a dry clean fluff less cloth against the commutator
while the armature is hand rotated. On starters fitted to engines with wet flywheel an
excessive amount of oil may indicate a defective oil seal, in which case the starter must be
removed from the engine and completely overhauled.If the commutator is dirty or badly
discoloured, lift the brushes and wedge in position with their springs. Wrap a strip of very
fine glass paper around the commutator with the abrasive side inwards and draw the glass
paper backwards and forwards over the commutator while slowly rotating ar4mature until
surface is clean. Remove all traces of dust and abrasive using compressed air or hand
bellows.Finally, lower the brushes on the commutator and carefully replace the commutator
cover.
Lubrication
The drive end bearing is lubricated by oil (Telluse 33) from a large reservoir
contained in the drive end shield. Refilling can be done when the starter is dismantled during
overhaul periods. Lubrication of starter components which can be done at overhaul period is
as follows.
LOCATION
LUBRICATION
INSTRUCTION
DE Bearing
Shell Tellus 33
Wick and felt pad saturate before
assy. Top up with 8 ccs. Oil.
Light oil.
Pinion Sleeve & Helix
Shell Telluse 33
Light oil.
Mating inner race
Shell Telluse 33
Saturate before assy.
Felt seal in trip plate
Shell Telluse 33
Grease both sides of plates before
Clutch plate
Caltex Marfax 3HD or assy.
Shell Nerita 3 Grease
Strongly grease the spring and
smear the plunger shaft.
Return spring on armature
Smear with grease.
plunger assy
Inner race fiber thrust Shell Retinax or Shell
washer
Lightly grease the surface.
Alvania 3 grease
DE shaft & pinion bore
Smear with grease.
CE Brg. Bush, Pin and
thrust washer
SUB-DISCIPLINE:- ELECTRICAL SYSTEM( LESSONS: 03
Lesson–III: Auto Electrical
Operation,
SESSIONS:12)
Session-10: Relay: Definition, Construction &
Types, Pindiagrams, Testing
RELAY : - Relay is an electromagnetic device which operation is controlled by electrical
signal when relay operates it provides switching of other electrical & and electro-hydraulic
components i.e relay & solenoids. It works on electromagnetic induction principle ie when
current flows in a conductor in the form of coil it becomes magnet and when current stops it
demagnetizes .
Generally relay have multi contacts. Which are of two types NC (Normally close) and NO
(Normally Open) when relay is OFF some contacts are close which are called normally
closed(NC). Open contacts are called normally open (NO). When relay operates NC contacts
become open and NO contacts become close.
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Different Types of Relays & their Pin Diagrams used in Machines :Documents
ELT - 663:
This relay is 8-Pin relay operated by 24V. This relay has two NC and two NO contacts. This
relay is used in Lining PCB, lifting PCB, Tamping Unit control PCB etc of CSM, Duomatic
& Unimat.
Pin Diagram
1
2
3
4
6
5
Coil
8
7
ELT - 1218:
This relay is 5-Pin relay operated by 24V. This relay has
one NC and one NO contact. This relay is used in
Lighting and horn circuit of CSM, Duomatic & Unimat.
Pin Diagram
5
4
3
Coil
2
1
ELT – 7045:
This relay is 8-Pin relay. There are two types of 7045 relays are available one operates on
24V and other on 12V. These relays have two NC and two NO contacts. These relay are used
in CSM , 09-3X and Unimat .
Pin Diagram
8
Coil
7
6
5
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1
2
3
4
ELT – 7010:
This relay is 11 Pin relay operated by 24V. This relay has three NC contacts & three NO
contacts. This relay is used in Engine panel of CSM, Unimat & Duomatic.
5
6
7
4
8
3
9
2
10
1
11
Coil
ELT – 7002/S4:
This relay is 12 Pin relay operated by 24V. This relay has all NO contacts. This relay is used
as QL (Load relay) to operate solenoids in CSM, 09-3X , Unimat & DGS.
Pin Diagram
12
11
10
9
8
7
Not Used
1
ELT – 7002/S2:
2
3
4
5
6
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This relay is 12-Pin relay operated by 24V. This relay has two NC contacts and two NODocuments
contacts. This relay is used in CSM & Unimat.
Pin Diagram
12
11
10
9
8
7
Not Used
1
23
4
5
6
ELT – 7002/S2-L2:
This relay is 12-Pin relay operated by 24V. This relay has two NC and two NO-contacts
opposite of contacts of ELT-7002/S2 . In This relay pin 6 & 7 are also used for Coil. It is
used in Overslew PCB in CSM & Unimat & Duomatic.
SUB-DISCIPLINE:- ELECTRICAL SYSTEM( LESSONS: 03
Lesson–III: Auto Electrical
demonstration,
SESSIONS:12)
Session-11 : Electronics Model Room for
checking and testing of Relays
In electronic model room different types of relays are shown to the trainees and relays are
checked with the help of multimeters.
SUB-DISCIPLINE:- ELECTRICAL SYSTEM( LESSONS: 03
Lesson–III: Auto Electrical
Faults &
SESSIONS:12)
Session-12: Engine Circuit & Z.F. Circuit: Description,
Functions, Types, Safety Components,
Troubleshooting
ENGINE CIRCUIT:
In the machine operation and safety of Engine is controlled through an electrical circuit
which is called engine circuit. Engine circuit is mainly consists of batteries, selfstarter,
shutdown coil alternator ,safety components(Pressure switch and temperature switch),stopper
switch. Engine starts when it is cranked by selfstarter with the help of batteries and fuel is
supplied by shutdowncoil. During running of engine lub oil pressure and tempreture are
ensured .
FUNCTIONS:
Functions of engine circuit are as under:a) To start the engine.
b) To shut down the engine.
c) To charge the battery.
d) Safety of engine from high water temperature and low lub. Oil pressure.
Operation to start the engine.
a)
Cranking the engine.
b)
Fuel supply system should be ON.
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c)
Safety of engine is to be ensured.
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Ø Against low lube oil pressure (1.5 bar)
Ø Against high temperature.
Ø Emergency stop switch.
Ø If ZF switch is ON then engine will not start.
Types of engine circuit:
1.
Latch type
(2)Non latch type
Latch type: In these circuits hold relays are used as a multi stage safety device. These
circuits gives better performance in terms of better safety.These circuits are provided in
Unimat 2S &3S,09-3X,DGS,WST,BCM.
Non-latch type:The circuit other than latch circuit is known as Non-Latch circuit. These
circuits are provided in Unomatic, Duomatic and CSM
WORKING OF ENGINE CIRCUIT(CSM):1. For starting the engine 24V/180AH is required, two batteries of 12V/180Ah/25 plates
are connected in series. Self starter type B55-24/SL5-24 of 6 BHP is provided to crank
the engine.
2. After performing daily maintenance of engine battery main key should be ON.
3. Engine can be started from both the cabins starter switch are provided in both cabins
working(rear) cabin and front cabin but ignition key(5b9) is provided only in the
working cabin only, which should be ON.
4. Bypass switches no. 5b 58 or 11 b 22 has to be pressed while starting the engine .Before
pulling starter switch(5b8) for cranking bypass switch should be pressed to switch on
shutdown coil(1s6) for fuel supply. By pass switches No. 5b 58 or 11 b 22 has to be
pressed till the lub. oil pressure builds up to 1.5 Kg/cm2 & above after that it can be
released. If lub.oil pressure falls below this level engine will stop because electrical
supply of shutdown coil stops.
5. 7 nos. engine stopping switches are provided scattered all over the machine which cuts
off fuel supply. These can be used in emergency.
6. Two nos. alternators are provided with the engine each of 24V/ 40 Amp. These are used
to supply 24V DC to the indication & lighting system and charging of batteries. Also
these supply power to recorder and GVA.
Safety Components of engine
Ø Against low lube oil pressure switch is provided (1.5 bar)
Ø Against high temperature switch is provided
Ø Emergency stop switch.
Ø If ZF switch is ON then engine will not start by relay 5u5 .
FAULTS & TROUBLESHOOTING :
S.no. Fault
Probable Causes
Remedial Actions
1.
Engine does
not start
1. Batteries
2.Selfstarter
3.
2.
1. Check batteries : Terminals should be tight
and clean , Voltage& gravity . Overaged batteries should be replaced.
2.Check connections and solenoid.
Emergency stop 3.All emergency stop switch should be in
switch is pressed.
release position.
4.
Shut
down 4. Check the electrical supply at coil if it is
mechanism stuck
ok, then lubricate the piston of shut down
coil mechanism with lub oil and operate it
manually. If still not working, then coil
may be defective. Replace it with new
one.
5. Misconnection of 5. Check
starting switch and if any
starting switch.
misconnection is noticed, rectify it.
Engine stops 1. Shut down circuit 6. 1 Check shutdown
fails.
coil,relay13d1`fuse,emergency stopper
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switch lub oil pressure switch,
temperature switch replace if found
defective.
ZF GEARBOX ELECTRICAL CIRCUIT:
ZF Gearbox
is the hydrodynamic gearbox which is provided in CSM,093X,Unimat2S&3S,DGS and WST machines. In this gearbox shifting of gears and safety is
controlled by electrical circuit.This circuit mainly consists of relays, shifter assembly, lockup
device and inductive transducer.
Shifter assembly:- It is brain of the gearbox. Hydraulic fluid is pressurised & supplied from
this unit.Four solenoid valves are provided for various clutch operation. Measuring points are
available for testing.
Gear Train
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
S.N.
Clutches Speed
1
KV
2
I/P
Position
Forward
Solen
oid
M1
KR
Reverse
M4
On
3
K1-3
1st &3rd
M2
On
4
K2-4
2nd &4th
M2
Off
5
KB
FD Slower
M3
On
KI-II
6
KI-II
FD Higher
M3
Off
KB
KR
On
KV
K2-4
K1-3
Working of ZF Circuit :
There are two main switches 5b34 an 11b24 which are responsible for selecting
direction of movement. 5b34 is provided in the rear cabin where as 11b24 is provided in
the front cabin. When we switch on one, it cuts off the other through relays 28d1 and
28d2.
Direction selector relays 28d1 and 28d2 get earth through relay28u2A. Which gets earth
through 1( Working pneumatic, 2) Satellite gear if engaged, 3) Machine working gear is
engaged, trailer gear engaged, 4) ZF filter is choked. 5) ZF temp. is more than 1000C
and 6) ZF pressure less than 10 from 1 to 4 all these action are indicated by LED if not
locked or engaged combined effect of these is indicated by indicator lamp 11 h3.
Mal functioning of any of above seven items will not allow driving which can be
achieved by pressing push button 5b26 or 11b26 which gives direct earth to direction
selecting relays 28d1 and 28d2.
When brake pressure of 3 Kg. or more is applied it acts through a pressure switch and
cuts off earth from gear solenoids M1 and M4. One of which is invariably used either in
forward or in reverse direction.
If any of the gear is engaged and engine is shut off, the engine can only be started after
taking out gear. This action is achieved by providing + from M1 & M4 through terminal
No. G-32 which is connected to starting relay.
Lock up position is achieved through RPM sensing transducer provided on turbine shaft
it is achieved when turbine achieves 80% of the engine speed.
FAULT AND TROUBLE SHOOTING:
S.no.
Fault
Probable Causes
Remedial Actions
1.
No
drive 1.Electrical supply cut 1.If pressure at 65 no. point is 12-14
Transmission
bar, current will be checked with
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2.
off
No function in 1.Cut off switch in
1st & 2nd ON position.
speed.
2.Current not supplied
on
corresponding
solenoid.
the help of Pr.49 test kit i) If no current in above, 5 Amp
fuse may be damaged. Replace
the fuse.
ii) If fuse is Ok, then with the help
of Pr. 78 Test Kit, current on
switch output will be checked. If
no current is found, controller is
defective. Replace the controller.
iii) If current is found on switch,
output cable may be burst which
should be replaced
1. Cut off switch should not be in
operated condition
2. Current at solenoids M1, M2, M3
and M5 will be checked with
Pr.49 Test Kit. Prescribed current
is 0.25 to 0.5 Amp.
3. If current input is OK, control
valve assembly needs repairing.
2. 3.Control valve
assembly
gets
defective.
4.Pressure switch of 4. If current on solenoids as per
coding is not available, it indicate
brake
circuit
wrong coding, then pressure cut
defective.
off switch will be checked by
pressure 49.
If there is no
reaction, pressure switch of brake
circuit is defective.
5. Solenoid defective. 5. If coding is OK but signal is not
coming, then change defective
solenoid.
SUB-DISCIPLINE:- ELECTRONIC SYSTEM(LESSONS:15 SESSIONS:24)
Lesson-I: Fundamentals of Electronics
Session-1: Symbols, Nomenclatures,
Fundamentals of Electronics and Applications, Active components & Passive
components.
Name & Letter
Notation
ELECTRONIC SYMBOLS
Symbol
Name & Letter
Notation
Diode
D or n
Operational
amplifier IC
LED
NOT Gate
Photo Diode
AND Gate
Zener Diode
Zd or Tz
NAND Gate
Symbol
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N-P-N Transistor
OR Gate
NOR Gate
P-N-P Transister
EXOR
Photo Transister
Opto Coupler
OC
EX-NOR
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NOMENCLATURES OF PCBS
EK
Plug In Type PCB
NOMINCLATURES OF DRAWINGS
X
Input To Programmer ( Yellow Led
Indication)
ELT
Connection Type PCB
Q
Out Put From Programmer (Red LEd
Indication)
SV
Power Supply PCB
Q1
Time Delay Out Put Of Programmer
LV
Analog Control PCB
QL
Load Relay Output
V
Digital Control PCB
OR
P
Programmer PCB
AND
A
D.C. Motor Control PCB
--
Not Allowed
MC
Micro Controller PCB
P
Proportional Circuit(Tamping And Satellite
Circuit)
DV
Data Sender And Receiveer
R
Lining Control Circuit
PCB
E
Relay PCB
N
Levelling Control Circuit (Niv)
00,0a,
02
Modifications In PCB
E
Front Input Control Circuit
d,b,z
Connectors of PCB
D
Driving Control Circuit
Z
Hook Control Circuit
F
Multicheck Address
ALC
Automatic Guiding Computer
*ALC
Connectors Of Computer ALC
GVA
Geometric Value Adjustment
Tele
Laser System
PCB
Printed Circuit Board (U)
Introduction to Electronics
(i)
Electronics Engineering
Electronic engineering is the branch of engineering in which we study operation and
application of electronic components and devices.
Electronics = Electron + Mechanics
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(ii)
Electronic devices:A device in which conduction(flow of current) takes place
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due to movement of electrons and holes through semiconductors.
Difference between Electrical and Electronics.
1
Electrical
Electrons are charge carriers. Current is 1
the flow of electrons. The direction of
current is in opposite direction of flow
of electrons
2
Medium isconductive materials .Current
flows through conductors like copper,
aluminum etc.
3 Mainly A.C supply. is used Generally
supply voltage is 220V,440V and in KV
A.C.
4 The supply voltage are single phase,
multi phase or Polly phase.
5 The electrical equipment are bulky and
heavy.
Applications of Electronics
1. Communication & Entertainment
2. Consumer Electronics
3. Defence Applications
4. Industrial Application
5. Medical Sciences
6. Space Exploration
2
3
4
5
Electronics
There are two charge carriers Electron
and Hole. Current flows due to
movement of electrons and holes.
Electron is negative charged and the
hole is positive charged .
Current
flows
through
semi
conductors
like
Silicon
and
germanium etc.
Mainly D.C.supply is used. Generally
supply voltage is 1.5V to 24V D.C.
The supply voltage are Positive or
Negative.
The Electronic equipment are light
and small in size.
TYPES OF ELECTRONIC COMPONENTS:
There are various types of electronic components but they are divided into two categories.
ELECTRONIC COMPONENTS
Passive Components
These components are not able to amplify
and
Or process the electrical signal themselves
e.g. resistor, capacitor, inductor.
etc.
Active components
These components can amplify
process the electrical signal.
Transistors, Diode,
TYPES OF ELECTRONIC COMPONENTS:
There are various types of electronic components but they are divided into two categories.
ELECTRONIC COMPONENTS
lc..
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Passive Components
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These components are not able to amplify
and
Or process the electrical signal themselves
e.g. resistor, capacitor, inductor.
etc.
Active components
These components can amplify
process the electrical signal.
Transistors, Diode,
lc..
SUB-DISCIPLINE:- ELECTRONIC SYSTEM(LESSONS:15 SESSIONS:24)
Lesson-II: Semiconductor Theory .
Session-2: Difference between Conductor, Semiconductor & Insulator. Properties of
Semiconductor, Covalent Bonds, Energy Bands, Types of semiconductor, i.e. Intrinsic,
extrinsic, (P-Type, N-Type).
1
2
Difference between conductor, Insulator and Semi-Conductor
Conductor(Metal)
Insulator
Semi-Conductor
Conductors consist of large Insulators do not consist of Semi-Conductors
have
numbers of free electrons. free electrons. It has a very numbers of free electrons
The free electrons move wide Energy gap (15eV or less than conductors and
randomly inside a solid, and more). Because of this, it is more than insulators. In this
can carry charge from one practically impossible for case, the forbidden energy
point to another. In fact, there an electron in the valence gap is not wide. It is of the
is no forbidden-energy gap band to jump the gap, to order of 1 eV (for
between the valence band and reach the conduction band. germanium, EG = 0.72 eV;
conduction bands. The two Only
at
very
high and for silicon EG = 1.12
bands actually overlap. The temperatures or under very eV). The energy provided by
valence-band energies are the stressed
(electrically) the heat at room temperature
same as the conduction-band conditions, can an electron is sufficient to lift electrons
energies in the metal. It is jump the gap. At room from the valence band to the
very easy for a valence temperature, an insulator conduction band. Some
electron
to
become
a does not conduct because electrons do jump the gap
conduction (free) electron. there are no conduction and go into the conduction
Therefore, without supplying electrons in it. Therefore band. Therefore, at room
any additional energy such as electric current does not temperature, semiconductors
heat or light. A metal already pass through insulators. are capable of conducting
contains a large number of However, it may conduct if some electric current.
free electrons ,there fore they its temperature is very high
are good conductors of or if a high voltage is
electricity.
applied across it. This is
termed as the breakdown of
the insulator.
Conductors have minimum Insulators have maximum Semi-Conductors
resistance
and
positive resistance. There is no resistance
more
have
than
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temperature co efficient ie
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resistance
increases
as
3
effect
of
normal
temperature range. But at
high temp they get break
down.
conductors and less than
insulators.
They
have
temperature is increased.
negative temperature coefficient.
ie
resistance
decreases as temperature is
increased.
Silicon
&
Example:
Gold,
Silver, Example: Mica, Rubber, Example:
copper & Aluminum.
Asbestos, Porcelain & dry Germanium
wood.
SEMICONDUCTOR THEORY:
The most fundamental unit of metal is atom. An atom consists of protons, electrons and
neutrons. Protons and neutrons lie in a nucleus while electrons move around the nucleus in
elliptical orbit.Electrons have Ve charge (-- 1.6 x 10-19 Culombs). Protons have same
positive charge. Neutrons have no charge, it is neutral. Properties of material depends upon
number of electrons and protons in atom. Electrons are arranged in orbital shell around
nucleus.
Atomic Structures of different materials
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ENERGY LEVELS/ BANDS: Since we know that electrons revolve around the nucleus in
different orbits, these orbits have different energy levels, as per their position. Electrons near
to the nucleus have lower energy and tightly bound with nucleus in first shell. Electrons in
outermost orbit have greater energy and they can be easily knocked out of its orbit. Energy
Band Diagram is shown in fig.
Above valency band, there is another band which is called conduction band. In
semiconductors, normally electrons remain in valency band. When an external energy like
temp. & light given to atom, then electrons of valency band gain more energy or we can say
that they are excited. If this energy becomes more than Egenergy Gap (for silicon EG =
1.121eV, and germanium EG = 0.72ev) electron go to the conduction band. In this band,
electrons do not feel any attraction force of nucleus. They can move freely in Conduction
Band work as charge carriers and constitute electrical current. These electrons are
called free electrons. Larger the number of free electrons, larger is the conductivity of
that material.
Conduction Band
Nucleus
Electron
N
Valence Band
Free Electron
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Semiconductors:- Semi-Conductors have four electrons in valence shell. In SemiDocuments
conductors numbers of free electrons are less than conductors and more than insulators.
Because the forbidden energy gap is not wide. The energy provided by the heat at room
temperature is sufficient to lift electrons from the valence band to the conduction band. SemiConductors have resistance more than conductors and less than insulators. They have
negative temperature co-efficient. ie resistance decreases as temperature is increased.
Example: Silicon (Si) & Germanium(Ge) are the semiconductor materials which are
used in electronic components ie diodes, transistors and Ics .
Covalent Bond in Semiconductors :
There should be eight electrons in outermost orbit of an atom. If it is not complete, then
outermost orbit is called valence shell and electrons are called valence electrons. Atoms have
tendency to complete the outermost orbit by sharing of electrons of other atoms of same
element or that of the other element. Atoms of Silicon(Si) and Germanium(Ge) have four
valence electrons in its valence shell. So to complete its outermost orbit, each atom shares
electron from four neighboring atoms and complete its last orbit and forms covalent bond.
Each co-valent bond consists of two electrons, one from each adjacent atom. Both electrons
are shared by two atoms.
Covalent Bonds in Silicon Atoms
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Covalent Bonds in Germanium Atoms
At absolute zero temp. (-2730C), all the valance electrons are tightly bound to the parent
atoms. No free electrons are available for electrical conduction. So semiconductor behaves as
a perfect insulator at absolute zero.
Types of Semiconductor
Intrinsic Semiconductor
Semiconductor
Extrinsic Semiconductor
N-Type semiconductor
P-Type semiconductor
Intrinsic Semiconductor
Semi conductor materials Silicon & Germanium in its purest form are called intrinsic semiconductor.
CHARGE CARRIERS IN INTRINSIC SEMI CONDUCTOR:
At absolute zero temp. (-2730C), intrinsic semiconductors behave like insulators because all
electrons are tightly bound to atoms. So there are no free electrons. At room temp(250C),
electrons in valance band acquire sufficient energy to jump from valance band to conduction
band. Electrons move away from covalent bonds, thus a covalent bond is broken. When an
electron moves away from covalent bond then a vacancy is created which is called
Hole .When a free electron is generated, a hole is also created which has +Ve charge equal
to that of electrons. In other words, holes & electrons are always generated in pairs. The
concentration of holes & free electrons will be equal in intrinsic semiconductors.
Movement of Hole and electron in Intrinsic
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Semiconductor
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CONDUCTION IN INTRINSIC SEMICONDUCTOR:
Semiconductors have two types of charge carriers electron & hole. Electron is ve charge
particle and hole is +ve charge particle.When battery is connected across semiconductor
material i.e. silicon or germanium , the electrons experience attraction force towards the
positive terminal of battery and holes toward negative terminal of battery. The free electrons
move towards positive terminal and holes move towards ve terminal of battery. The
electric current flows through the semiconductor in the same direction as in which the holes
are moving and opposite to the direction of electron movement.
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Total current I = I + I
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e
h
Although two types of charge carriers move in opposite directions, but current due to hole Ih
& current due to electron. Ie are in same direction i.e. they add together and constitutes
current I .
EXTRINSIC SEMICONDUCTORS:When some other material is added with intrinsic
semiconductor as an impurity, then the semiconductor is called extrinsic semiconductor. The
process of deliberately adding the impurities to semiconductor is called doping. So doped
semiconductors are called Extrinsic Semiconductors.
There are two types of extrinsic semiconductors:
(1) N-Type Semiconductor
(2) P-Type Semiconductor
(1) N-Type Semiconductor:-When elements of Vth group (Pentavelent elements i.e.
phosphorus(15), Arsenic(33),Antemony(51) ) are added or doped to semiconductors, then
they are called N-Type Semiconductors.
Since impurity added to semiconductor is very small. So each impurity atom is
surrounded by semiconductor atom . Suppose impurity of phosphorus is added to silicon,
which is shown in fig. atom of phosphorus is surrounded by four atoms of silicon.
Phosphorus has five electrons in its valency band. While silicon has four electrons in its
valency band. Four electrons of phosphorus atom form co-valent bonds with four
neighbouring electrons of silicon atoms. The fifth electron of phosphorus has no chance of
forming a covalent bond , it remains free. this electron acquire energy at normal room temp.
and becomes free from valency band & reaches to conduction band. In other words at room
temperature each impurity atom donates one electron to the conduction band that s why this
type of impurity js called Donar type impurity .
At room temp. electrons of covalent bond also get energy and they break covalent bonds,
pairs of free electrons and holes are generated. There fore nos of free electrons will be more
than the nos of holes . In N-Type semiconductors, electrons are in majority and holes are
in minority. Electrons are called majority charge carriers and holes are called minority
charge carries. It also consists of
+ve immobile ions .
N-Type Semiconductor
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P-Type Semiconductor:When elements of IIIrd group (Trivalent elements i.e.Boron(5),
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Aluminium(13),Gallium(31) Indium(49) ) are added as impurity to semiconductors, such
type of semiconductors are called P-type semiconductors.
Suppose impurity of Gallium is added to silicon. Atom of Gallium is surrounded by silicon
atoms. Gallium atom has three electrons in valency band. These electrons form covalent
bonds with neighbouring electrons of silicon atoms. The fourth covalent bond remains
incomplete because Gallium does not have fourth electron in valency band . So there is a
deficiency of electron in bond. The single electron in incomplete bond has the greater
tendency to snatch the electron from the neighbouring atom. This tendency is so great
that an electron from an adjacent bond having additional energy can jump to occupy vacant
position in incomplete bond.
When electrons jump to fill incomplete bond, A vacancy is created from where electron had
jumped, which has +Ve charge called Hole. The bond in which electron jump to fill vacant
position, it becomes Ve charge ion which is immobile because it is held tightly in the
crystal structure by covalent bond.Since the Gallium atom accepts the electron to complete
covalent bond, so it is called acceptor impurity.
P-Type semiconductors have excess holes which are created due to the addition of acceptor
type impurity , in addition with electron holes pair generated due to breaking of covalent
bonds. There fore nos of holes will be more than the electrons. So P-Type semiconductors
have holes in majority and electrons in minority. It also consists of
-ve
immobile
ions .
P- Type semiconductor
SUB-DISCIPLINE:- ELECTRONIC SYSTEM(LESSONS:15 SESSIONS:24)
Lesson-III: Semiconductor Diode Session-3: Semiconductor Diode: Construction
Working, Forward bias and Reverse bias, V-I Characteristics of P.N. Junction
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SEMICONDUCTOR DIODE:
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P-N junction diode:When we join a piece of P-type semiconductor to a piece of N-type
semiconductor with the help of special technique, A P-N junction is formed. Such a P-N
junction makes a very useful device. It is called a P-N junction Diode or Semiconductor
Diode. The most important characteristics of a P-N junction is its ability to conduct
current in one direction only. In other direction, it offers very high resistance. It is a
unidirectional device.
-ve Ions Holes
Electron
+veIons Electrons Holes
P- Type
N-Type
P
Anode
N
Cathode
P-N Junction
P-N JUNCTION WITH NO EXTERNAL VOLTAGE:
A P.N.-Junction just immediately after it is formed is shown in fig. Its left half is P-type
and right half is N-type. The P- region has Holes in majority , Electrons in minority and
negatively charged immobile ions. The N- region has Electrons in majority , Holes in
minority and positively charged ions. Holes and electrons are the mobile charge carriers,
but the ions are immobile.
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As soon as the PN-junction is formed, the following processes are initiated:
(i) Due to difference in concentration of charge carriers in P and N regions , Holes near
the junction in P- region diffuse into the N region. Where they recombine with free
Electrons in the N- region near the junction.
(ii) Free Electrons from N- region near the junction diffuse into the P- region. These
Electrons recombine with the holes.
(iii) The diffusion of Holes (from P- region to N- region) and Electrons (from N region to
P- region) occurs for a very short time. After a few recombinations of Holes and
Electrons near the junction, a restraining force is set up automatically. This force is
called a Barrier. Further diffusion of holes and electrons from one side to the other is
stopped by this barrier. For a Silicon PN-junction, the barrier potential is about 0.7V,
whereas for a Germanium PN-junction it is approximately 0.3V.
PN-JUNCTION WITH FORWARD BIAS:
When battery or DC supply is connected to the PN-junction diode such a way that the
positive terminal of the battery is connected to the P-side (Anode) and the negative
terminal to the N-side(Cathode) , as shown in (Fig ). In this condition the PN-junction
diode is said to be in forward-biased.
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When the PN-junction is forward-biased, the holes are repelled from the positive
terminal of the battery and are compelled to move towards the junction. The electrons are
repelled from the negative terminal of the battery and drift towards the junction. Because
of their acquired energy, some of the holes and the free electrons penetrate the depletion
region. This reduces the potential barrier. The width of the depletion region reduces and
so does the barrier height. As a result of this, more majority carriers diffuse across the
junction. These carriers recombine and cause movement of charge carriers in the spacecharge region.
For each recombination of free electron and hole that occurs, an electron from the
negative terminal of the battery enters the N-type material near the positive terminal of
the battery, an electron breaks a bond in the crystal and enters the positive terminal of the
battery. For each electron that breaks its bond, a hole is created. This hole drifts towards
the junction. Note that there is a continuous electron current in the external circuit. The
current in the P-type material is due to the movement of holes. The current in the N-type
material is due to the movement of electrons. The current continues as long as the battery
is in the circuit. If the battery voltage is increased, the barrier potential is further reduced.
More majority carriers diffuse across the junction. This results in an increased current
through the PN-junction.
PN-JUNCTION WITH REVERSE BIAS:
When battery or DC supply is connected to the PN-junction diode such a way that the
positive terminal of the battery is connected to the N-side (Cathode) and the negative
terminal to the P-side(Anode) , as shown in Fig. In this condition the PN-junction diode
is said to be in reverse biased.
The holes in the P region are attracted towards the negative terminal of the battery. The
electrons in the N region are attracted to the positive terminal of the battery. Thus the
majority carriers are drawn away from the junction. This action widens the depletion
region and increases the barrier potential .
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The increased barrier potential makes it more difficult for the majority carriers to diffuse
across the junction. However, this barrier potential is helpful to the minority carriers in
crossing the junction. In fact, as soon as a minority carrier is generated, it is swept (or
drifted) across the junction because of the barrier potential. The rate of generation of
minority carriers depends upon temperature. If the temperature is fixed, the rate of
generation of minority carriers remains constant. Therefore, the current due to the flow of
minority carriers remains the same whether the battery voltage is low or high. For this
reason, this current is called reverse saturation current. This current is very small as the
number of minority carriers is small. It is of the order of nano-amperes in silicon diodes
and microamperes in germanium diodes.
Reverse Breakdown - We have seen that a PN-junction allows a very small current to
flow when it is reverse-biased. This current is due to the movement of minority carriers.
It is almost independent of the voltage applied. However, if the reverse bias is made too
high, the current through the PN-junction increases abruptly, the voltage at which this
phenomenon occurs is called breakdown voltage. At this voltage, the crystal structure
breaks down .In normal applications, this condition is avoided. The crystal structure will
return to normal when the excess reverse bias is removed, provided that overheating has
not permanently damaged the crystal.
SUB-DISCIPLINE:- ELECTRONIC SYSTEM(LESSONS:12 SESSIONS:24)
Lesson-III: Semiconductor Diode Session-4:Application of P.N. Junction Diode as Rectifier
- Half wave & Full wave Rectifiers (Centre Tape and Bridg Rectifier),
Polarity Protection Device.
RECTIFIERS: Since Diode is an unidirectional device it operates or conducts only in one
direction so it is used to convert AC to DC. AC to DC converters using diodes are called
rectifiers. Almost all rectifiers comprise a number of diodes in a specific arrangement for
more efficiently converting AC to DC . Rectifiers are of following types.
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Rectifier
Half wave Rectifier
Full wave rectifier
CenterTape Rectifier
Bridge Rectifier
Half wave Rectifer:
In this type of Rectifier only one diode is used, which converts only half cycle of DC, so it is
called Half Wave Rectifier.
As shown in figure during positive half cycle diode D is forward biased. It operates and
passes the positive half cycle in the output. During negative half cycle the diode is in reverse
bias. It does not operate and does not pass negative half cycle to the output.
The diode in this rectifier passes the positive half cycle (only half cycle)or rectify only
halfcycle , so it is called half wave rectifier.It s efficiency is 40.6%.
To get smooth D.C. in output electrolyte capacitor can be connected in parallel as a filter in
the output.
Full wave rectifier: Center Tape Rectifier:
In this rectifier center tape transfer and two diodes D1 & D2 are used.
As shown in figure in positive half cycle diode D1 is in forward bias and diode D2 is in
reverse bias. At this time D1 operates and D2 does not operate. Positive half cycle is passed
on in the output.
During negative half cycle diode D2 is in forward bias and diode D1 is in reverse bias, D2
operates and D1 does not operate. Therefore diode D2 rectify the negative half cycle. By
connecting a capacitor as filter in out put we get smooth D.C.
Efficiency = 81.2%.
Bridge Rectifier:
This rectifier consists of
four diodes D1,D2,D3
and D4 as shown in
figure . During positive
half cycle diode D2 and
D4 are in forward bias ,
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Use of rectifiers :
1.
Half wave
2.
Center tape
3.
Bridge rectifier
- For general purpose.
- For high current use.
- For Audio Vidio use.
Polarity Protection Device
Since diode is unidirectional
device so it is use as polarity
protection device in analog
meters
,relays
and
solenoids,
SUB-DISCIPLINE:- ELECTRONIC SYSTEM(LESSONS:12 SESSIONS:24)
Lesson-III: Semiconductor Diode Session-5:Types of Diodes, Construction, Working
Symbol and Application of Zener Diode, LED, Photo Diode, Opto-coupler.
Types of diode: 1.Zener Diode:
Zener diode is a special kind of diode which is made to work
in reverse bias without damage. It is heavily doped to
working in reverse bias.
.
In reverse bias, it is made to conduct at certain voltage VZ called reverse breakdown voltage.
When reverse voltage reaches to Vz, zener diode conducts. Before this voltage, it does not
conduct. The breakdown occurs due to zener effect, and avalanche effect. When reverse bias
is When reverse bias is increased, the electric field at the junction also increases. High
electric field causes covalent bonds to break. Thus a large number of carriers are generated.
This causes a large current to flow. This mechanism of breakdown is called zener
breakdown.
In case of avalanche breakdown, the increased electric field a uses increase in the velocities
of minority carriers. These high energy carriers break covalent bonds, thereby generating
more carriers. Again, these generated carriers are accelerated by the electric field. They
break more covalent bonds during their travel. A chain reaction is thus established, creating
a large number of carriers. This gives rise to a high reverse current. This mechanism of
breakdown is called avalanche breakdown.
Characteristics are same as the characteristics of diode in
reverse bias.The most common application of a zener diode is
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2
Light Emitting Diode (LED) : This is a special kind of diode. When it is operated it
emits light. It is used in forward bias. In LEDs photo
conductive materials such as gallium phosphate (GaP),
gallium Arsenate (GaAs), Gallium Arsenate Phosphate
(GaAsP) etc are used to emit lights of different colours
such as Red, Green, yellow, Orange, Blue and Infrared
etc.
The operating voltage of LEDs is 1 Volt to 3 Volt and
maximum current rating is 5 to 10 mA. These are used as
indicators, calculators, and watches and intercom.
LED s have a number of advantages over ordinary
incandescent lamps. They work on low voltages and
currents and thus consumers less power. They require no
heating, no warm up time and hence are very fast in action.
Small in size & light in weight.
3.Photo Diodes:-
4.Opto Isolator (Opto- Coupler):-
This is a special kind of diodes, which are made of
photoconductive material (Cadmium sulfide). It operates
when light falls on its junction. It is used in reverse bias. In
reverse bias connection in the absence of light it does not
operate but when light falls on its junction it starts
conduction till the light falls on its junction. Photo diode is
used in alarm system (Fire alarm, Burglar alarm etc).
This is the combination of LED and Photo diode or
photo transistor.When LED glows ,it s light falls on
junction of photo diode or photo transistor then it
also operates it is used for isolation of analog and
digital circuit.
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Identification and testing of diode.
A
K
A
K
A
K
A
K
Note: The marked side of diode is always Cathode side.
Checking of Diode:
Connect the diode to a multi tester in the Ohms Range. The following reading should be
observed.
Forward Bias
- Low resistance
Reverse Bias
- High resistance
If the above condition is satisfied then the diode is in good condition otherwise
replace it.
SUB-DISCIPLINE:- ELECTRONIC SYSTEM(LESSONS:15 SESSIONS:24)
Lesson-IV: Transistor
Session-6: Transistor: Construction, Description of Terminals,
NPN & PNP Transistor, Mode of Connections, Amplifying function,
Applications as Switch & Amplifier, Testing
TRANSISTOR:
When a third doped element is added to PN junction in such a way that two PN junction are
formed, the resulting device is known as transistor.A transistor has three sections of doped
semiconductors. The section on one side is emitter, middle section is base and 3rd section is
collector. These three sections form two junction emitter-base junction and collector-base
junction.
1. EMITTER:Emitter is heavily doped
than base and collector. It is heavily
doped so that it can supply large no. of
holes and electrons. It s area is kept
between that of base and collector.
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TRANSISTOR WORKING:
-
NPN Transistor is shown in figure with electrical connection.
-
Emitter base junction is forward biased by battery VE and collector base junction is
reverse biased by battery VC.
-
Since emitter-base junction is forward biased, so electron from emitter junction diffuse
towards base and holes diffuse towards emitter.
-
Suppose 100 electrons enter from emitter to base. These electrons constitutes emitter
current.
-
Since base is very thin and very lightly doped so assume that only two electrons
recombines with holes.
-
To compensate deficiency of two holes in base, new two holes electrons pair generate due
to battery VE
-
Two electrons come out from base terminal towards +ve terminal of VE battery and
constitute IE current.
-
98 electrons diffuse from base to collector. These electrons experience an attractive
force due to positive terminal of battery Vc.
-
They travel out of the collector terminal and reach the +ve terminal of battery Vc- and
thus constitute collector current. Ic
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DocumentsI = I + I
E
B
c
β = Ic
IE
THREE CONFIGURATION OF TRANSISTOR:
There are three modes of connections of transistor to use in the circuit.
(1) Common Base Configuration
(C.B)
(2) Common Emitter Configuration (C.E)
(3) Common Collector Configuration (C.C)
1. COMMON BASE CONFIGURATION (C.B):
In this configuration base terminal is made common between emitter and collector. Input
signal is applied between emitter-base terminal and output is taken across collector-base
terminal.
Input resistance = very low (20 )
Output resistance = very high (1M )
Gain = α = Ic = Less than 1
IE
USE: Voltage & power amplifier.
2. COMMON EMITTER CONFIGURATION (C.E):
In this configuration emitter terminal is made common between base and collector. Input
signal is applied between base and emitter terminal and output is taken across collector
emitter terminal.
Input Resistance = 1 K (approx.)
Output Resistance = approx 10 K
Gain β = Ic = approx 100
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I
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Use: A good amplifier.
B
3. COMMON COLLECTOR CONFIGURATION (C.C):
In this configuration collector is made common between base and emitted input signal is
applied between base and collector terminal and output is taken across emitter and collector
terminal.
Input Resistance = approx 150K
Output Resistance = approx 800
Gain γ = 1 E = less than 1
1B
Use: In impedance matching and buffers.
TRANSISTOR AS AN AMMPLIFIER IN CE CONFIGURATION:
Transistor as an amplifier in C.E. configuration is shown in Fig Input signal Vs is applied
between base and emitter, output is taken across load resistor RL. During (+) ve half cycle of
the signal the forward voltage across the emitter base junction is increased. Therefore more
electrons flow from emitter to the collector via base. This cause increase in collector current.
This collector current cause greater voltage drop across load resistor RL
During (-) ve half cycle of the signal the forward bias voltage across the emitter-base junction
decreases. Which cause collector current decrease. This results in the decreased output
voltage. Hence an amplified output is obtained across load.
APPLICATION OF TRANSISTOR:
1. As an amplifier to amplify weak signal.
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2. It is used in oscillator circuit.
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3. It is used as a switch
SUB-DISCIPLINE:- ELECTRONIC SYSTEM(LESSONS:15 SESSIONS:24)
Lesson-IV: Transistor
Session-7: Electronics Model Room for demonstration,
checking and testing of Diodes and Transistors.
SUB-DISCIPLINE:- ELECTRONIC SYSTEM(LESSONS:15 SESSIONS:24)
Lesson-V: Transducer
Session-8: Definition, Principle, Classification, Types,
Tamping Depth Transducer, Pendulum, Height Transducer, Encoder: Function
and Calibration
Transducer:
• Transducer is a device which converts mechanical energy into electrical energy.
• In Track Machines Transducers are used to convert track parameters (Cross Level,
Long. level, versine) and Mechanical linear displacement (Tamping Unit, Satellites,
Hook etc.) to electrical signal.
• In machines transducers are potentiometer type which is basically a variable
resistance which shaft is rotated by mechanical arrangement and it generates electrical
signal as per deflection.
TAMPING DEPTH TRANSUDCER:
Tamping depth transducer converts displacement of taping unit to electrical signal at the rate
of 19mv/mm. Output signal of this transducer is ve if fork is above centre mark of the
transducer and it will be +ve if fork is below centre mark. Multicheck address of transducers
are F14 (for LH side ) and F15 (for RH side ). By using these address we can check output of
LH or RH transducer.
Potentiometer
Box
Main Pulley
Guide Rod
Fork
Screws
Potentiometer
(5KΩ)
Idle Pulley
Electrical
Connector
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CALIBRATION OF TAMPING DEPTH TRANSDUCER:
During working when transducer chord wire breaks we have to replace the chord wire.
Detach transducer from machine replace the wire. After replacing wire check stroke of fork
it should be equal both side of center mark of transducer .
Now keep fork of transducer at center mark of
transducer for calibration. Then measure
resistance between 1 & 2 or 2 & 3 terminal of
potentiometer with the help of multimeter. It
should be 2.5 K (half of full value 5 K ). If
resistance is not 2.5 K then loose the screw of
potentiometer and rotate potentiometer to get the
2.5K resistance or value should be equal
between 1 & 2 or 2 & 3 terminals of
potentiometer.
If value 2.5K is obtained. Tighten the screw of potentiometer keeping precautions that
terminals of potentiometer should not touch with screws.
If value 2.5 K
is not obtained by rotating the
potentiometer. Then loose the other three screws of potentiometer
base plate and pullout potentiometer with gear. Now rotate the
gear until same resistance is obtained between 1 & 2 and 2 & 3.
After adjustment fit the potentiometer with base and tightened
the screws.
NOTE:
Three core cable is used for
Transducers which has three wires
Red(+10V), Blue(-10V) and yellow
(output).
There is a 2K
resistance near
potentiometer which comes in series
with output 2nd terminal (centre) of
potentiometer that should be properly
connected in connector. It should not
by pass.
Calibration of Portable Tamping Deptrh Transducer
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After Replacement of wire fit the transducer in the machine , tamping unit should be locked .
Multi check address should be selected (F14 or F15 ),Tamping unit circuit should be on.
In this position output voltage of transducer should be -7.5V, if it is not loose the three screws
of potentiometer ,turn it to get required voltage .after adjustment tight the screws and fit the
cover .
Calibration of Portable Tamping Deptrh Transducer in CSM-3X
In CSM-3X output voltage of transducer in lock condition should be
4.6 Volt, if it is not
loose the three screws of potentiometer ,turn it to get required voltage .after adjustment tight
the screws and fit the cover .
Note:Before calibration of transducers, supply to
potentiometers +10V and 10V from PCB EK813SV should be
checked with the help of multi position selector switch It s output
voltage should be +15V , 15V, + 10V and 10V . If there is
variation in +10V, it should be adjusted by potentiometer P1 and
-10V can be adjusted by P2 in same PCB.
PENDULUM
Pendulum is a transducer which converts cross level error to electrical signal at the rate of 25
mv/mm –ve for LH rail high and +ve for RH rail high .
Pendulum consists of a potentiometer which shaft is attached with pendulum weight .
Pendulum weight swings as per cross level difference therefore potentiometer s shaft also
rotates and potentiometer generates electrical signal . Pendulum also consists of PCB.
Potentiometer generates electrical signal at the rate of 2mv/mm
then PCB amplifies it at the rate of 25mv/mm This PCB consists of adjustment
potentiometers P1 , P2 and P3 .
P1 --- Rigtht Side Cant Adjustment .
P2 -- Left Side Cant Adjustment.
P3 -- Zero Adjustment .
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There are three pendulums used in CSM and CSM -3X , in other tamping machines only
two pendulums are used .
Front Pendulum
This pendulum is mounted on front trolley . It measures cross level of front area before
tamping.
Middle Pendulum
This pendulum is mounted on middle feeler rod . It measures cross level of tamping area .
Rear Pendulum
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This pendulum is mounted on measuring trolley . It measures cross level after tamping .This
pendulum participates in twist correction.
CALIBRATION OF FRONT PENDULUM:
Mechanical Adjustment:
Lower the front trolley on track where cross level should be zero. Now check spirit level it
should be on zero, if it is not zero then adjust check nut of front pendulum to get spirit level
on zero.
Electrical Zero Adjustment:
After mechanical adjustment check output of pendulum at 12b terminal of front input PCB
EK345LV with the help of multimeter if output of pendulum is not zero then adjust
potentiometer P3 in pendulum PCB to get zero volt at 12b.
Right Side Cant Adjustment:
Place 100mm thick shim (Iron piece or wooden piece) under RH wheel of front trolley. Now
measure voltage at 12b with respect to 32 db with the help of multimeter . It should be +2.5V,
if it is not +2.5V then adjust P1 in pendulum PCB. After adjustment remove 100mm shim
from wheel.
Left Side Cant Adjustment:
Now place 100mm thick shim under LH wheel of front trolley. Measure voltage at 12b with
respect to 32 db(OA) with the help of multimeter. It should be 2.5V. If it is not 2.5V then
adjust P2 in pendulum PCB.
CALIBRATION OF MIDDLE PENDULUM:
Mechanical Adjustment:
Lower the middle feeler rod on track where cross level is zero, check the spirit level of
pendulum it should be on zero. If it is not in zero position then adjust check nut of middle
pendulum to bring spirit level in zero position .
Electrical Zero Adjustment:
Select Multicheck address F07, selector switch should be on 2 nd position. Display should
show zero volt ,if it is not zero volt then adjust potentiometer P3 in pendulum PCB to get
zero volt on display.
Right Side Cant Adjustment:
Place 100mm shim under RH side feeler rod and check output of pendulum on display . It
should be +2.5V, if it is not +2.5V then adjust potentiometer P1 in pendulum PCB to get
+2.5V.After adjustment remove shim.
Left Side Cant Adjustment:
Place 100mm shim under LH feeler rod and check output of pendulum on display . It should
be 2.5V, if it is not 2.5V then adjust potentiometer P2 in pendulum PCB to get 2.5V.
Rear Pendulum:
Rear pendulum is fitted on rear feeler rod (Measuring trolley). It measures cross level after
tamping and converts it to electrical signal at the rate of 25mv/mm(-ve if Left rail high).
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Mechanical Zero Adjustment of Rear Pendulum:
Lower the measuring trolley on track where cross level is zero. Check spirit level of rear
pendulum. It should be in centre(zero position). if it is not in centre then adjust check nut of
mounting of rear pendulum to bring spirit level at centre.
Electrical Zero Adjustment:
After mechanical adjustment electrical output voltage of pendulum should be checked.
Select multicheck address FO9 , check voltage on display ,it should be zero volt on zero
track, if it is not zero volt then adjust potentiometer P3 in pendulum PCB to get zero volt on
display.
Right Side Cant Adjustment:
Place 100mm shim under RH side wheel of measuring trolley and select multicheck address
F09. Output of pendulum should be +2.5V if it is not +2.5V (less or more) then adjust
potentiometer P1 in pendulum PCB to get +2.5V. After adjustment remove shim.
Left Side Cant Adjustment:
Now place 100mm shim under LH side wheel of measuring trolley and check output voltage
of pendulum it should be -2.5V if not adjust potentiometer P2 in pendulum PCB.
HEIGHT TRANSDUCER:
Height transducer converts longitudinal level
to electrical signal at the rate of 90mv/mm +ve
for lifting .There are two height transducers
used in tamping machines one for left side and
other for right side rail. Height transducers are
mounted on middle feeler rod. Multicheck
address of Height Transducers are F0D(LH)
and F0E(RH)
CALIBRATION OF HEIGHT TRANSDUCER:
Arrange to make at least 30m track longitudinal & cross level free and provide shim if
necessary to get zero longitudinal level track under all three feeler rods (Front, middle and
rear.
-
Switch on lifting circuit.
-
Keep all input potentiometers (General lift,Cant and Cross level correction
potentiometer etc.) at zero.
-
Satellite should be in zero position.
-
Apply levelling chord tension.
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- Select multicheck address of height transducers F0D or
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F0E
-
Arm of height transducer should be parallel to track in horizontal and output signal
should be 0V, pointer of lift indicator should in midlle position.
-
If arm is not horizontal then adjust height transducer mechanically UP or DN as
required.
- If arm is parallel to track and electrical signal is not zero then adjust potentiometer of
height transducer by loosing screw. Signal should be checked on F0D for Left height
transducer and on F0E for Right height transducer.
ENCODER:
This transducer is used in CSM,
09-3X, and DGS. This transducer converts
displacement of machine to Digital signal at the rate of 1000 Pulse/meter. This is
mounted on front trolley.
SUB-DISCIPLINE:- ELECTRONIC SYSTEM(LESSONS:15 SESSIONS:24)
Lesson-V: Transducer
Session-9: Lining Transducer, Measuring Transducer,
Satellite Transducer, Hook Transducer: Function and Calibration
LINING TRANSDUCER
Lining Transducer measures H1 value of versine and converts it to electrical signal at the rate
of 23.1 mv/mm –ve if fork is deflected to right side & +ve if fork is deflected to left
side. It is mounted on lining trolley . It s multicheck address is F01.
Fork
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CALIBRATION OF LINING TRANSDUCER:
For calibration of lining transducer fix the fork of lining transducer at zero lock position,
select multicheck address F01 in multicheck PCB then display of multicheck should show
0v, if it is not showing zero volt then loose three screws of potentiometer and turn it to get
zero volt . After adjustment tight the screws of potentiometer.
Before calibration of transducer voltage of potentiometer should be checked .It should be
+10V and 10V. If there is any variation, then adjust +10v and 10v in EK813SV of lining
circuit.
MEASURING TRANSDUCER
Measuring transducer measures H2 value of versine and convert it to electrical signal at the
rate of 23.1 mv/mm + ve if fork is deflected to right side and -ve if fork is deflected to
left side. It is mounted on measuring trolley .It s multicheck address is F02.It is used in 4-pt.
lining.
CALIBRATION OF MEASURING TRANSDUCER:
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Measuring transducer converts H2 value of versine to electrical signal at the rate of 23.1
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mv/mm +ve for RH side and –ve for LH side.
Calibration procedure of measuring transducer is same as lining transducer but for calibration
of measuring transducer,4-pt lining and multicheck address F02 should be selected.
SATELLITE TRANSDUCER:
Satellite transducer converts displacement of satellite to electrical signal at the rate of
11mv/mm.
This transducer is used in CSM and CSM-3X .Output of this transducer goes to satellite
control PCB EK24V(in CSM) and EK202V(09-3X) at 6d terminal of these PCBs.
CALIBRATION OF SATELLITE TRANSDUCER IN CSM:
For calibration of Satellite Transducer. Put Machine in working mode, lock the satellite unit
in front zero position. Measure output voltage of transducer or at 6d terminal of EK24V, it
should be +8.2V.If it is not +8.2v, then open the cover of transducer and loose three screws
of potentiometer and adjust it to get +8.2V . After adjustment tight the screws and fit the
cover of transducer and release the satellite from front zero position.
Calibration of Satellite Transducer in CSM-3X
For calibration of satellite transducer in CSM-3X Satellite should be locked in rear position ,
in this position output voltage of transducer should be -8.6 V. If it is not then open the cover
of transducer and loose the screw of potentiometer and adjust potentiometer to get
8.6V at 6d terminal of EK 202V.
HOOK DEPTH TRANSDUCER:
This transducer is provided in points and crossing
machines Unimate-2S &3S in hook control circuit.
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This transducer converts displacement of hook to
electrical signal at the rate of 23mv/mm .Multicheck
address of hook Transducers are F18(L)and F19(R).
CALIBRATION OF HOOK DEPTH TRANSDUCER
For calibration of hook transducer hook should be in up position ,select multicheck address of
hook transducer F18 or F19, in this position output voltage of hook transducer should be -2.2
Volt. If output is not -2.2 V then open the cover of transducer and loose three screws of
potentiometer and adjust it to get -2.2 V.
Lesson-V: Transducer
Session-10: Demonstration, checking and calibration of
Transducers in Electronics model room
SUB-DISCIPLINE:- ELECTRONIC SYSTEM(LESSONS:15 SESSIONS:24)
Lesson-VI: Operational Amplifier Session-11:Definition, Symbol, Function of each
terminal, Open loop, Close loop, +ve feed back, ve feed back, Characteristic, Application as
Buffer, Inverter, Non Inverter, Adder, Sub-tractor, Integrator etc.
OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER:
Operational amplifier is a direct coupled high gain amplifier usually consists of one or more
stage of differential amplifier. It can amplify AC as well as DC input signals. Operational
amplifier also can do mathematical operations such as addition ,subtraction ,multiplication ,
integration and differentiation etc. Commonly it is abbreviated to Op- amp .
SCHEMATIC SYMBOL:
The basic operational amplifier has two input and one output terminal input terminals are
called inverting terminal and non-inverting terminal.
+V(+15Volt)
Inverting
Terminal
−
Output terminal
Non- Inverting
Terminal
+
-V(-15Volt)
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Characteristics Of Ideal Operational Amplifier:
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Input impedance
=
Infinite
Output impedance
Gain
Band width
=
=
=
Zero (0)
Infinite
Flat
Characteristics Of Practical Operational Apmlifier:
Practical operational amplifier has following characteristics:
§
§
§
§
Input impedance = 106 (M )
Output impedance = 75
Gain
= 106
Band width
= Almost flat
Modes of Connections of Operational Amplifier
Open Loop Connection
Negative feedback
This Feedback is provided from Output
terminal to
inverting terminal . This
feedback is used in amplifiers.
Close Loop Connection
Positive feedback
This Feedback is provided from Output
terminal to non- inverting terminal . This
feedback is used in switching application..
1.Buffer Amp :- It is an unity gain Amplifier, which output is equal to Input. This Op-Amp
is used for isolation and impedance matching. In PCBs output of transducers are received
through this amplifier
Vo = Vi
Vi
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2.Inverting Amp :-This Amplifier Inverts the polarity of the input signaland amplifies as per
formula given below.
Vo = - (Rf ) .Vi
Ri
Ri
Rf
Vi
Ex: (i) If Rf
R
ei
e0
=
=
=
100K
10 K
1V
Vo = - Rf . Vi
Ri
Ri = Input Resistor
Rf= Feedback Resistor
Vi = Input voltage
Vo = Output voltage
=
- 1 x (100) = -10V
10
(ii) Rf
=
4K
R
=
2K
ei
=
-3V
C0
=
-(-3) x (4 ) = - (-3) x 2 = 6V
2
3. Non-Inverting Amp :-This Amplifier does not Inverts the polarity of the input signals
and
amplifies as per formula given below.
Vo= (1+Rf ).Vi
Ri
Rf
Ri
Ex. (1) If Rf
R
ei
e0
(2) Rf
R1
ei
Vi
= 10 K
= 5K
= + 2V
Vo= (1+Rf ).Vi
Ri
Ri = Input Resistor
Rf= Feedback Resistor
Vi = Input voltage
Vo = Output voltage
= +2 (1 + 10) = + 6V
5
=
=
=
200K
100K
-4V
e0 = - 4 ( 1+ 200)
=
-12V
100
4.Summing Amp :-This Amplifier add the input signals and amplifies as per formula given
below.
Vo = - ( Rf .V1 + Rf .V2)
R1
R2
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Rf
R1
V1
Vo = - ( Rf .V1 + Rf .V2)
R1
R2
R1&R2 = Input Resistor
Rf
= Feedback Resistor
V1&V2 = Input voltage
Vo = Output voltage
V2
R2
: (1) Rf =
10K
R1
R2
e1
eo =
=
=
=
5K
5K
1V,C2 = 2V
-RF(e1 + e2) = - 10(1+2)
R
5
= - 30 = -6V
5
5.Subtractor :-This Amplifier subtracts the input signals and amplifies as per formula
given below.
Vo = - R4 .(V1 - V2)
(R1 = R2 : R4=R3 )
R1
R4
R2
V2
Vo = V1
R1
R3
R4 .(V1 - V2)
R1
R1&R2 = Input Resistor
R4
= Feedback
Resistor
V1&V2 = Input voltage
Vo = Output voltage
6 INTEGRATOR:
Output of this amplifier is integral of input voltage .This amplifier is also called ramp
generator. This amplifier is used in signal generators to convert square wave to triangle
wave or ramp signal .
7 DIFFERENTIATOR:
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This amplifier perform the differentiation operation . Output of this amplifier is
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derivative of input signal . This amplifier is used in signal generators to convert triangle
wave or ramp signal to square wave .
SUB-DISCIPLINE:- ELECTRONIC SYSTEM(LESSONS:15 SESSIONS:24)
Lesson-VII: Digital Electronics
Session-12:Number system
Hexadecimal, Logic Gates , Basic Idea of Microprocessor.
i.e. Binary, Decimal,
Digital Electronics
Number Systems: There are four system which are often used in digital circuits. These
systems are1. Decimal – It has a base (or radix) of 10 i.e. It uses 10 different symbols to represent
numbers (0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9)
2.
Binary – It has a base of 2 i.e. It uses only two different symbols
(0,1)
3.
Octal – It has a base of 8 i.e. It was 8 different symbols
4.
Hexadecimal – It has a base of 16 i.e. It uses sixteen different symbols
(0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9, A, B, C, D, E, F)
(0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7)
Binary system is extensively used by digital system like digital computer.
Hexa decimal number system is particularly suited for Micro Computer/Microprocessor
based system.
LOGIC GATES
Logic Gates. Are logic circuits which process two or more signals logically. In essence,
they are switches. Depending on the input voltage, the gate or switch will be either on
or off. Inputs and output have only two stage
(Off) or
(On).
The first thing to learn about the different gates is their symbols. A logic gate symbol
is simply a shorthand way of representing an electronic circuit that operates in a
certain way. Understanding the logic symbols can make understanding the operation
of a circuit much quicker and easier than if the circuit were represented by showing
all the transistors, diodes and resistors .
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Name of Gate:Documents
1. OR GATE.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
AND GATE
NOT GATE
EX-OR GATE
NOR GATE
NAND GATE
1. OR GATE:- It has two or more than two inputs and one outputs. If any input is high
(1) the output is high.
TRUTH TABLE
A
Y
B
A
0
0
1
1
B
0
1
0
1
Y
0
1
1
1
2.AND GATE:- It has two or more than two inputs and one out puts. If both the input are
high then only the out put is high.
A
Y
B
A
0
0
1
1
B
0
1
0
1
Y
0
0
0
1
3. NOT GATE: - It has only one input and only one out put. If the input is high then the
out put is low and vise versa.
TRUTH TABLE
A
0
Y
1
1
0
A
Y=A
4 EX-OR GATE: It has two in put and only one out put. If input is different then output
is high.
TRUTH TABLE
A
A
0
B
0
Y
0
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B
Y
0
1
1
1
0
1 1
5.
1
0
NOR GATE: - It has two or more then two inputs and one out put. If any input or
all input is high then out put is low.
TRUTH TABLE
A
Y
B
6.
A
B
Y
0
0
1
1
0
1
0
1
1
0
0
0
NAND GATE: - It has two or more than two in puts and one out put. If any or all
the input are low then output is high.
TRUTH TABLE
A
Y
A
0
0
1
1
B
0
1
0
1
Y
1
1
1
0
B
MICROPROCESSOR :A CPU built into single chip is called a micro processor. It is latest development in the yield
of computer technology. Digital computer whose CPU is microprocessor is called
microcomputer. A microprocessor combined with memorial input out put devices forms a
micro computer. The micro indicates its physical size, not its computing power.
INPUT DEVICE
MICROPROCESSOR
OUT PUT DEVICE
MEMORY
The first microprocessor was introduced in 1971 by INTEL CO. USA. It was a 4bit
microprocessor. 4 bit microprocessor means that the processor makes processing of 4bit
data in parallel at a time. The first INDIAN microprocessor is SCL 6502. it is an 8bit
Microprocessor Manufactured by Semiconductor Complex Ltd. The Number of bit that a
digital computer can process in parallel at a time is called its word length. The Memory
addressing capacity of Microprocessor depends on the width of its address Bus. If a
Microprocessor has n-bit wide address bus it can directly address 2n memory locations.
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Example of Microprocessor such that 8085, 8086, 80186,80286,80486, PENTIUM.
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Memory:
The function of memories is to store program data and results. There are two kinds of
memory:
1.
2.
1.
Semiconductor memories
Magnetic Memory
Semiconductor memories are faster, smaller, lighter and consume less power.
Semiconductor memories are used as the main memory of a computer.
Magnetic memories are slow but they are cheaper than semiconductor memories.
Magnetic memories are used as secondary memory of computer for bulk storage data
and information.
Semiconductor Memory:
(i)
RAM: The read and write memory of a computer is popularly known as RAM.
It is also called R/W memory. Information s can be read from and written into
it during normal operation. It has random access property. RAM stands for
random access memory. The RAM is a volatile memory i.e.. It is contents are
lost when supply is interrupted.
(ii)
ROM: It is a read only memory. It is non volatiles. It is used for permanent
storage. It has also a random access property. The contents of ROM are decided
by manufacturer. Contents are permanently stored in a ROM at the time of
manufacturing.
(iii)
PROM: It is programmable ROM. The contents of PROM are decided by the
user. A special equipment for the programming of PROM is called PROM
programmer.
(iv)
EPROM: It is an erasable PROM. The contents are erased by exposing EPROM
to high intensity short were ultra violet light for 10 to 20 minutes. The user can
not erase the content of a single memory location. The entire contents are
erased.
(v)
E2PROM: It is electrically erasable PROM. They need not to be removed from
Microcomputer board for erasing. A single byte of data or the entire device can
not be erased in about 10MS. Erasing and Programming of E2PROM is much
easier.
SUB-DISCIPLINE:- ELECTRONIC SYSTEM(LESSONS:15 SESSIONS:24)
Lesson-VIII: Electronic Circuits and PCBs:Session-13:Discrete Circuit & Integrated Circuit:
Advantage & Disadvantage, PCBs used in different machines: Description, Name Quantity
and Functions
CIRCUITS:- There are two types of circuits :(i)
(ii)
Discrete circuit.
Integrated circuit.
DESCRET CIRCUIT:- In this circuit Electronic Components like resistor, capacitor, diode
and Transistors are connected with conductor plate (track) on Printed Plates by soldering.
Advantages:(i) Rectification of fault is easy.
(ii) Power rating of ckt is high.
(iii)
Manufacturing is easy.
Dis-advantages:(i)Costlier than I.C.
(ii)Bulky
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(iii)Occupied more space.
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(iv)Soldering problem may arise (dry solder).
2. INTREGRATED CIRCUIT:- In this circuit all the electronic component except
Inductor is connected(constructed) on a silicon chip. The size of component is very
small, so this is done with the help of magnifying lens and computer.
Advantages:(i)
Cheaper than Discrete circuits
(ii)
Light weight.
(iii)
Occupied very less space.
(iv)
No problem of dry soldering.
Dis advantages:
(i)
it is non repairable.
(ii)
If any component of an I.C is damaged then I.C has to be replaced.
(iii)
Less power carrying capacity.
I.C PAKAGING:
(I) dip type( Dual in line pakage) used in our Machine.
(ii) TO TYPE(Top-Hat)
(iii) FLAT TYPE.
(1)
(2)
(3)
I.C SYMBOL: There are consists of either a triangle or a rectangle.
1
12
2
3
4
5
6
TERMINAL NUMBERING:11Anticlockwise from mark position , grooved or nose.
10
9
8
7
PCBs used in Unomatic/Duomatic
Sl.
No.
PCB Part
NO.
1.
EK813 SV00
2.
EK 16 V 00
3.
Function of PCB
Quantity
4 Nos
EK277 LV00
DC to DC convertor
Power supply
24V→±15 & ±10V
Tamping unit UP/DN
control.
Middle pendulum control
4.
EK229 LV00
Track lifting
5.
EK 79 V00
3- stage lifting Regulator
Location
Panel Box
No.
B4 B7 B2
1 2 1
2 Nos
B2
1 No.
B7
2 Nos.
B7
1 No
B7
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6. EK255 LV00
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Auto levelling
1 No
B4
7.
EK217 LV00
Front pendulum control
1 No.
B4
8.
DC Marli Motor control
For levelling Control
2Nos.
B4
9.
EK 708 A00
or
EK 715 A00
EK335 LV00
Lining control
1 No.
B7
10.
EK290 LV00
Over slew control
1 No
B7
11.
EK 80 LV00
3-stage lining Regulator
1 No.
B7
12.
EK275 LV00
Design lining
1 No.
B4
13.
ELT 631 00
Inter com.
1No.
B4
14.
ELT 1116.00
Semi-auto work
1 No.
B2
P.C.Bs used in 09– CSM
Sl.
No.
PCB Part No.
Function of PCB
Quantity
Location
Panel Box No.
1.
EK812 SV00
DC to DC convertor
27V→ 24V and 12V
1 No.
B20
2.
EK 813SV00
5 Nos.
B4, B6, B10
1 2
2
3.
EK 851SV00
DC to DC Convertor
Power Supply
24V → ± 15V & ±10V
DC to DC converter
24V→ 12 V and 5 V
1 No.
B 19
4.
EK 16 V00
Tamping unit UP /DN control
2 Nos.
B10
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5. EK 24 V00
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Satellite control
1No
B10
6.
EK 28 LV00
Multiplexer
1 No.
B6
7.
EK 99V00
Distance simulator
1 No.
B19
8.
EK 100 V00
Auto Positioning
1 No.
B10
9.
EK110 LV00
Pendulum Compensation
1 No.
B6
10.
EK290 LV00
Over slew Control
1No.
B10
11.
EK 319 LV00
Work drive control
1No.
B6
12.
EK 345LV00
Front input
1 No.
B4
13.
EK346 LV00
Pendulum control
1 No.
B6
14.
EK347 LV00
Track lifting
2 Nos.
B6
15.
EK348 LV00
Satellite compensation
1 No.
B10
16.
EK349 LV00
Lining control
1 No.
B10
17.
EK 501 P00
Programmer PCB
1 No.
B20
18.
EK 552 P00
Time Delay
1 No.
B20
19.
EK 553 P00
Programmer input/output
9 Nos.
B20
20
21.
EL-T 631.00
VT 3005
Intercom
Work drive amplifier
1No
1No
B40
On Chasis
LIST OF PCBs USED IN CSM-3X
Sl.
No.
1.
PCB Part No.
Function
Quantity
EK 805 SV00
1 No
Location
Panel Box No.
B20
2.
EK812SV00
1 No
B 10
3.
EK 813SV00
4.
EK 816SV00
5.
EL-T7155
6.
EK2343LV00
DC to DC Convertor
24V → +5V
DC to DC Convertor
27V→ +24V & +12 V
DC to DC Convertor
24V → ± 15V,±10V
DC to DC Convertor
24V → ± 15V,±10V & +5V
DC to DC Convertor
24V → +16V
Front input
7.
EK 2361 LV00
8.
EK 2140 LV00
2 Nos
B6
B10
1
4 Nos.
1
1 No.
B4, B6, B10, B20
1 1
1
1
B7
1 No.
B4
Lining input
1 No.
B10
Lining output and Over slew
1No.
B10
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EK 3069LV00
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Track lifting
2 Nos.
B6
10.
EK 2351LV00
Pendulum Control
2 Nos.
B6
11.
EK 526MC00
2 Nos
12.
EK 1AP7
Micro controller for Satellite
compensation
Tamping Unit Control
4 Nos
B10 B6
1 1
B6
13.
EK 140V00
Squeezing Control
1 No.
B10
14.
EK 202V
Proportional satellite control
1No
B10
15.
EK2360L00
Drive pump control
1 No
B10
16.
EK 2349LV00
1 No .
B10
17.
EK 193V
Drive speed
machine
Drive control
1No.
B10
18.
EK 207V00
Multiplexer
2 No.
B10
9.
EK 650 P00
Programmer
1 No
B20
20
EK 651P00
Subroutine
5 No.
B20
21
EK 652 P00
Time Delay
6 No.
B20
22
EK 653 P00
Programmer input/output
28Nos
23
EK654P00
QL (Load Relay)
2Nos
B30
B31
16
12
17
B20
24
EK 658P00
Watch Dog
1 No.
25.
EK 602E 00
Relay Plate
3Nos
26
EK150V00
27
EK 2324 LV00
display of
B20
B6
2
B10
1
Auto Positioning 65cm
sleeper
1No
B6
Satellite Lateral Movement
1 No.
B10
PCBs used in Unimat-2S
Sl.
No.
PCB Part No.
Function
Quantity
1.
EK 812 SV00
DC to DC Convertor
1 No.
Location
Panel Box No.
B20
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2.
EK 813 SV00
3.
EK 132 LV00
4.
24V → + 24V and + 12V
DC to DC Convertor
24V → ± 15V&,±10V
4 Nos
B4
1
B6
1
B10
2
2 Nos
B6
EK 2072 LV00
Tamping unit UP/DN
control
Front input
1 No.
B4
5.
EK 2038 LV00
Lining control
1 No.
B10
6.
EK 719 A00
1 No.
B10
7.
EK 144 LV00
1 No.
B6
8.
EK 2041 LV00
2 No.
B6
9.
EK 2042 LV00
D.C Motor Control for
Lining chord follow up
Hook and 3-stage lining &
lifting control
Track lifting (Leveling
control)
Pendulum control
1No.
B6
10.
EK 28 LV00
Multiplexer
1 No.
B6
11.
EK 290 LV00
Over-slew Control
1 No.
B10
12.
EK 502 P00
Programmer
1 No.
B20
13.
EK 552 P00
Time Delay
1 No.
B20
14.
EK 553 P00
Input/Output of Programmer
12 No.
B20
15.
EK 554 P00
QL-Relay
5 Nos.
B10
16.
EL-T 631.00
Intercom
1 No.
B40
Quantity
Location
Panel Box No
PCB’s used in Unimat - 3S
Sl.
No
.
1.
PCB Part No.
Function
EK 813 SV 00
DC to DC Convertor
24V→ ± 15 V and ± 10V
2.
EK 812 SV00
DC to DC Convertor
24V→ +24V and + 12V
1 No.
B20
3.
EK 2072 LV00
Front input
1 No.
B4
4.
EK 2173 LV00
Lining Inputs control
1 No.
B10
5.
EK 2140 LV00
1 No.
B10
6.
EK 2041 LV00
Lining Output& Over Slew
control
Track lifting
2 Nos.
B6
7.
EK 2042 LV00
Pendulum control
1 No.
B6
8.
EK 120 V00
Hook Control
1 No
B6
4 Nos
B4, B6, B10
1 2 1
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9.
EK 140 A00
Proportional squeezing
1 No.
B6
2 Nos.
B6
1 No.
B6
10.
EK 132 V02
11.
EK 28 V02
Tamping Unit UP/DN
control
Multiplexer
12.
EK 502 P00
Programmer PCB
1 No.
B20
13.
EK 552 P00
Time Delay
1 No.
B20
14.
EK 553 P00
Programmer Input/output
13 Nos.
B20
15.
16.
EK 554 P00
EL-T 631.00
QL-relay
Inter com.
5 Nos.
1 No.
B10
B40
SUB-DISCIPLINE:- ELECTRONIC SYSTEM(LESSONS:15 SESSIONS:24)
Lesson-IX: Power Supply Session-14: Need, Types, DC to DC Converter & Regulator,
Functional description of Power supply PCBs EK813SV, EK816SV, EK851SV, Calibration,
Testing & Troubleshooting
POWER SUPPLY PCBs:Power supply source on machine are batteries . Battery give 12
volt output .By connecting two batteries in series we get 24 volt .This 24v is used for
starting of engine , to operate the solenoids, to operate the relay, for programmer .These
batteries are not capable to supply voltage to all above circuit at same time for longer period
. Battery get discharge in short period .It need charging during working for that purpose
alternators are provided in machines.Besides 24volt , ±15V, ±10V,+12V,+5V are also used .
±15V need for operational amplifier supply and calibration potentiometers in PCBs .
±10V is used for transducers and potentiometers in panel box .
+12V is used in programmer PCB .
+5V is used for digital display .
It is not possible to provide separate battery and it charging arrangement for each supply
voltage .
So 24 volt is converted to ±15V , +12v and +5v by DC to DC converters
.DC to DC converters which are used in machine are regulated power supply PCBs .
POWER SUPPLY PCBs USED IN DIFFERENT MACHINES
PCB EK813SV :This PCB converts 24v to ±15v &±10v. This PCB is used in
Uno/Duo. CSM, Unimat2S/3S,09-3X machines.
EK816SV :This PCB converts 24v to ±15v, ±10v &5v.This PCB is used only in 093X machine.
EK812SV :This PCB converts 24v to24v &12v.This is used in CSM/UNIMAT/093X/DGS etc.
EK851SV :This PCB converts 24v to 12v & 5v.This PCB is used in CSM.
EK805SV : This PCB converts 24v to 5v.This PCB is used in 09-3X.
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1. EK813SV: This PCB converts +24V DC to ±15V DC and ±10V DC. ± 15V is used
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for operational amplifier supply and calibration potentiometers in PCBs . ±10V is
used for transducers and potentiometers .
This PCB mainly consists of a power pack which converts +24v to ± 15v .Then + 15v
is converted to 10v by regulator Ic REF 01.Output of REF 01 Ic has less current
capacity ie 15mA . So to increase this current to 40 mA current booster circuit is used
which has output of +10 v with current capacity of 40mA. Output of REF 01 Ic is
converted
to --10v(40mA) by inverter and current booster .This PCB consists of
two adjustment potentiometers P1 and P2. P1is used to adjust +10v and P2 is used to
adjust -10v.There are no arrangement for adjustment of +15v and -15v .
Note --- As per plasser variation in output of EK813SV is permissible upto ± 150mv
.
24V
4db
2d
+15V
2z
-15V
EK813 SV
OD
6db
8db
20db
+10V(40 mA)
-10V(40 mA)
32dbz
Nos of power supply PCB EK813SV used in CSM
In lining control circuit --- ------------------------1no
In leveling control circuit --------------------------1no
In front input circuit
---------------------------1no
In tamping unit and satellite control circuit ---- 1no
In work drive control circuit ---------------------- 1no
Total---------------------- 5nos
EK813SV used in CSM-3X ---2nos
EK813SV used in Duomatic----4 nos
EK813SV used in Unimate ----4nos
2. EK 816 SV: This PCB converts +24V DC to ±15V, ±10V, and +5V. Difference
between EK 816 SV and EK 813 SV is that EK 816 SV has an additional output of
+ 5V for that two power pack are provided in this PCB one power pack converts
+24V to ±15V, other power pack converts +24V to +5V . This PCB also has same
circuit as in EK813SV.There are also two adjustment potentiometers P1 and P2 in this
PCB.P1 for +10v adjustment and P2 for -10v adjustment .There are no adjustment for
+15v and -15v.
There are four EK816 SV in CSM-3X.
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
20U15
6U1
10U3
4U1
In Driving control circuit .
In Leveling + pendulum control circuit .
In Lining control circuit.
In Front Input circuit
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2db
24v
4dbz
EK816SV 32dbz
OD
+15V
To PCB for op Amp.
supply
OA
2z, 18dbz
-15V
8dbz
+10V
20dbz
-10V
16dbz
24dbz
+5V
OD
6dbz
To Transducers &
Potentiometers
To display
EK 812 SV:
This PCB converts + 24V dc to 24V & +12V. This PCB is used for programmer in CSM,
Unimat, & DGS.
In CSM 3X this PCB is used in auto positioning circuit .
+24V
4db
32db
EK812 SV
+24v
+12v
OD
12db,22db
EK 851 SV:
This PCB converts + 24V dc to +12 & +5V this PCB is used in CSM and unimat
EK851SV00 This PCB is also DC-TO-DC converter to 12V and 5V. 12V is used for
Recorder circuit and 5V is used for digital display. The circuit design of this PCB is different
from EK 813SV00.
When P type and N type layer is formed in a chip of semiconductor, they form a barrier
potential of 0.7v for Si and .3v for GC. When an external power supply is applied in forward
bias then this chip of semiconductor (diode) conducts only when applied voltage overcome
this barier voltage. This barrier potential acts as a resistance to drop .7v or.3v depending on
semi conductor material. This draw back of PN junction is used to our advantage, in the D.C.
to D.C conversion. Because each crystal diode drops .7v (Si). So adding a No. of diodes back
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to back we can drop the applied voltage to our required voltage. This EK 851SV00 is
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designed on this principle. In put voltage is 24V DC to 27V DC.The block diagram of this
PCB is shown below:
IC s 7812 &7805 are voltage Regulator (+Ve voltage regulator). These IC s keeps the output
a constant rated voltage. The input for these IC s 7812 &7805 is max.Volt of 1.5 x rated
voltage. Suppose IC No. is 7812,it means, that output of this IC is + 12V.Then input for this
IC shout not exceed 12 ×1.5 = 18V. This 18V.input for 7812. + 18V is achieved by
dropping the battery voltage by means of connecting back to back of silicon diodes.
SUB-DISCIPLINE:- ELECTRONIC SYSTEM(LESSONS:15 SESSIONS:24)
Lesson-IX: Power Supply
Session-15: Demonstration, checking and calibration of PCB
EK813SV in Electronics Model Room
There is a 24 position selector switch (18b4) provided along with digital display (18g4). By
selecting different position we can do different measurement.
Detail of different positions of selector switch are given below:
Position 1
DISPL
To use display as volt meter.With the help of this display we can
measure upto ±15V. We can check signals in side the PCB using
test prob.
Position 2 Multiplex If we want to use multiplexer PCB EK28V to check output of
transducers, input and output of PCBs then selector
switch should be on 2 nd position.
Position 3 N51 (-15V)
Position 4 N50 (+15V)
Output of power supply PCB EK813SV of Position 5 N53
Position 5---(-10V)
leveling circuit.
Position 6 N52 (+10V)
Position 7 D51 (-15V)
Position 8 D50 (+15V)
Position 9 D53 (-10V)
Position 10 D52 (+10V)
Position 11
Position 12
Position 13
Position 14
R51 (-15V)
R50 (+15V)
R53 (-10V)
R52 (+10V)
Position 15
P51 (-15V)
Output of power supply PCB EK813SV of
driving circuit.
Output of power supply PCB EK813SV of
lining circuit.
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Position 16 P50 (+15V)
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P53 (-10V)
Position 18
Output of power supply PCB EK813SV of Position 17
Tamping control circuit.
P52 (+10V)
Position 19 to 24
Spare
SUB-DISCIPLINE:- ELECTRONIC SYSTEM(LESSONS:15 SESSIONS:24)
Lesson-X: Programmer unit and Logic Plan Session-16:Function and Description of
Programmer Unit, Description of different PCBs of Programmer Unit i.e. EK 501P, EK553P,
EK552P, EK554P, Different Parts of Logic Plan
Programmer Unit :
Programmer Unit is the microprocessor based system
which is provided in 09-series machines & Unimat,
DGS for measuring the various electrical signals and
monitoring input and output of microprocessor.
This unit controls functions of machines.
This unit consists of Programmer PCB which has
Processor & Memory(EPROM). Program of
machine is stored in memory
This PCB receives inputs X(yellow LED),when
inputs are same as in Program then outputs
command Q(Red LED) are generated to allow
the functions.
With the help of multi-check we can do(i)
Monitoring of power supplies of different units.
(ii)
Measuring analogue electrical signals coming from different transducers and PCBs.
(iii)
Indication of all inputs and outputs of microprocessor in the form of coloured LEDs.
It consists of the following parts:
1. Logic controller or Programmer PCB :
This PCB consists of Processor & EPROM
(memory IC). Program of particular machine as per
functions is stored in EPROM, this program is
different for different machine i.e CSM, CSM-3X,
Unimat, DGS,
Programmer PCBs used in different machines
CSM
Unimat
DGS
CSM-3X
EK501P
EK502P
EK503P
EK650P
This programmer is EK 501(CSM) P/EK 502P
(UNIMAT) or control unit in the machine which
is programmed as per machine functions. It
receives input signals and generates output signals
as per conditions of Input signal. It consists of
mainly microprocessor and EPROM.
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Input output PCB (I/0 PCB) EK553P:
X
Q
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O 0
O 1
O 2
O 3
O 4
O 5
O 6
O 7
O 8
O 9
O A
O B
O C
O D
O E
O F
1. QL PCB EK 554:
QI
Q
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
A
B
C
D
E
F
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O0
O1
O2
O3
O4
O5
O6
EK553P PCB is Input-Output PCB.
This PCB indicates Inputs & Outputs of
Processor. I/0 PCB has yellow LEDs
with X mark which indicates input to
Processor and red LED with Q mark
which indicates output from Processor.
Each PCB consists of 16 nos. of yellow
& Red LEDs (0 to F).When any input
goes to Processor from switch, pedal
switch , relay ,sensor, limit switch,
transistor then concerning yellow LED
glows. When output comes from
Processor then red LED glows.
QL Relay PCB EK554P:The outputs of I/0 PCB EK553P are only
capable to operate small loads i.e. transistors,
LEDs. EK553P can not operate solenoids
directly.To operate solenoid load relays(QL
relay) are used which are provided on PCBs.
These PCBs are called QL PCBs EK554P.
Output of EK553P operates QL relay in
EK554P and QL relay operates solenoids .
Each PCB consists of 16 Nos. of load relays (0
to F) and 8 fuses. Two relays are connected
with one fuse. QL PCB also consists of yellow
& red LEDs. In normal condition when relay is
de-energized then red LED will glow, yellow
LED remain off. When relay is energized then
yellow LED will glow, red LED becomes OFF.
If solenoid connections are open or no
connection to QL relay then both yellow and
red LED will glow simultaneously.
Time Delay PCB EK 552 P
In the machine in different functions (tamping cycle) certain
time delay is required which are provided by time delay
PCB EK552P .
Time delay outputs are denoted by Q1 . This PCB has Eight
nos of yellow & red LEDs.
When time starts yellow LED glows, and when time is over
then red LED glows. This PCB consists of 8 nos of
potentiometers by which time can be adjusted .
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MEANING OF MARKS PRINT ON LOGIC PLAN:
X
Q
Q
1
QL
__
-
INPUT TO MICROPROCESSOR ( YELLOW LED INDICATION)
-
OUT PUT FROM MICROPROCESSOR (RED LED INDICATION)
-
TIME DELAY OUT PUT OF MICROPROCESSOR
-
LOAD RELAY OUTPUT
-
OR
-
AND
NOT ALLOWED
.
Session-17:Demonstration of Programmer unit & Logic Plan in Electronics Model Room
SUB-DISCIPLINE:- ELECTRONIC SYSTEM(LESSONS:15 SESSIONS:24)
Lesson-XI: Multi-check/ Multiplexer PCB Session-18:Description of Multi-check PCB
EK28V and demonstration of measurements.
MULTIPLEXER/Multicheck PCB EK28V:This PCB is used to check, signals of transducers,
potentiometers, inputs and outputs of PCBs. This PCBs receives around 28 measuring
signals. But this PCB is connected with only one digital display (18g4). Each signal has it s
address by feeding address in this PCB we can see that signal in digital voltmeter. For
feeding address this PCB consists of three red switch designated as 0, 1, 2. 1 and 2 switch
have red LED indication. It also consists 16 small blue switch with yellow LEDs designated
as 0 to 9 and A to F.
Signals which are connected with multiplexer PCBs are designated by
METHOD OF USE OF MULTIPLEXER PCB:
If we want to use the multiplexer PCB EK28V to check signal of transducer or PCB.
Multiposition selector switch (18b4) should be on 2 nd position, display should be ON .
Suppose we want to check the signal of lining transducer which address is F01.
F
F indicates this is
measuring Signal
connected to
Multiplexer PCB
0
1
Station selection.
blue
switch
should be pressed
Pre selection
Red switch
should be pressed.
(i)
First press
red switch
(ii)
Now press
blue switch.
Now signal of lining transducer will appear in digital voltmeter.
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MULTICHECK ADDRESS OF DIFFERENT SIGNALS IN CSM
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Measuring Point (Connected to multiplexer)
Pre-selection (Red switch 0,1,2,)
Station (Blue switch O to F)
F
O
I
For using multi check, keep selector switch in Panel No. 18 on 2nd position and then feed the
address of Transducer signal then signal will display on digital indicator.
List of address of different transducers and potentiometers and signal from PCB and their rate
of signals are given below:
&
PCB s OUT PUT SIGNAL
S.No.
Multicheck
Address
FOO
Transducers , Input Potentiometers &
PCBs
SIGNAL
Rate of Signal
-Versine value from Front cabin
mv/mm
FO1
-Lining Transducer Signal
23.1 mv/mm
FO2
-Measuring Transducer signal
23.1 mv/mm
FO3
-Satellite Compensation Value for lining
50 mv/mm
FO4
-Lining Control value
0.5 v/mm
FO5
-Over slew value potentiometer
0.5 v/mm
FO6
`
50 mv/mm
-Slew value potentiometer
50
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-Working Area(middle) Pendulum signal
25 mv/mm
FO8
-Super elevation potentiometer
50 mv/mm
FO9
-Rear pendulum signal
25 mv/mm
FOA
-Settlement compensation value
FOB
-Cross level correction value
1
v/mm
`
200 mv/mm
FOC
`
-Satellite compensation value for lifting
187 mv/mm
FOD
-Height Transducer signal(Left)
90 mv/mm
FOE
-Height transducer signal (Right)
90 mv/mm
FOF
-Lifting value signal(Left) indication
2 v/mm
F10
-Lifting value signal (Right) Indication
2 v/mm
F11
-
Zero Point adjustment (Lifting) left
2 v/mm
F12
-
Zero point adjustment (lifting )right
2 v/mm
F13
-
Tamping depth selector signal
25 mv/mm
F14
-
Tamping depth transducer (LH)
19 mv/mm
F15
-
Tamping depth transducer (RH)
19 mv/mm
F16
-
Lifting signal (Left)
1 v/mm
F17
-
Lifting signal (RH)
1 v/mm
F1B
-
Working drive speed actual
2V=2km/h
F1D
-
Satellite transducer signal
23 mv/mm
F20
-
Cross level signal (Front RH)
50 mv/mm
F21
-
Cross level signal(Front LH)
50 mv/mm
F22
-
General lift value
50 mv/mm
F24
-
Zero Adjustment potentiometer ( lining)
2 v/mm
SUB-DISCIPLINE:- ELECTRONIC SYSTEM(LESSONS:15 SESSIONS:24)
Lesson-XII: Tamping Unit Control Circuit UNO/DUO/ CSM/3X /Unimat
Session-19:Functional Description of Tamping Unit Control Circuit, Different Positions of
Tamping Unit & their Description, Current of Proportional valve
FUNCTIONS OF TAMPING UNIT CONTROL CIRCUIT:
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1) This circuit controls the UP/DN movement of tamping unit.
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2) It controls the lowering & lifting speed of tamping unit.
3) It controls the target depth of tamping tools.
4) It controls the squeezing time.
TAMPING UNIT CONTROL PCBS IN DIFFERENT MACHINES :
In UNO/DUO/CSM :-EK 16 V 00.
In UNIMAT2S/3S :-EK 132V00.
In 09-3X
:-EK 1AP700.
In New Duo/MPT :-EK 176V00
TAMPING UNIT (PROPORTIONAL) CONTROL CIRCUIT OF CSM
PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARDS:
10u5
power supply board
EK 813 SV 002
10u6
proportional control 1.h.s.
EK 16V-00 (02)
10u7
Proportional control r.h.s.
EK-16V-00 (02)
TRANSDUCERS:
1f14
Depth transducer 1.h.s. 1f15
Depth transducer r.h.s.
Switches:
1x10
Tamping bank lowering pedal.
1x11
Working drive pedal
2x19
Tamping system ON
2x1A
Penetration assist OFF
2x27
Auto cycle 1 x position.
2x28
Auto cycle 2 x position.
2b43
Both tamping units manual lift.
51x1D
Only left hand tamping unit.
51x1E
Only right hand handing unit.
DEPTH SELECTOR:Before tamping proper tamping depth should be selected. This depth
depends upon types of sleepers and rail. Tamping depth is fed in depth selector. Depth
selector converts depth to electrical signal at the rate of 25mv/m. This depth selector consists
of small PCB. There are three potentiometers in depth selector PCB.P1.P2 and P3. Signal of
depth selector can be checked at multicheck address F13.
DEPTH SELECTOR CALIBRATION:
(1)
Select Zero depth in depth selector i.e. all three
digit should be set to zero. Now select
multicheck address F13 in multiplex PCB and
keep selector switch in 2 nd position Now
display should read 0V. If it is showing some
value then adjust potentiometer P3 to get zero
volt.
(2)
Now select 300mm depth in depth selector
then. Output of selector should be 7.5V if it is
not 7.5V, then adjust P1.
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(3)
Now select 399mm depth in depth selector output
of depth selector in display should be
9.975V if it is
not, adjust potentiometer P2.
DIFFERENT POSITIONS OF TAMPING UNIT :1.Upper Position:
The upper position should be set at approximately 40mm before the upper working
position (100mm above the zero point), which can be adjusted by P11 if necessary. In this
position green LED illuminates and relay Re6 energizes.
2. Middle Position:
When the tamping banks reaches approximately 100mm below the zero point, the relay
Re3 energizes and illuminating the yellow L.E.D. This position is used to initiate lifting
and lining. This position can be adjusted by P4
3. Lower Position: When the tamping banks reach approximately 30mm before the lower
position (top of tamping tools 10-12mm below sleeper), illuminating the red L.E.D. and
energizing relay Re4 and squeezing starts. This position can be adjusted by P10.
Current of Proportional Valve
To monitor the current drawn by the tamping bank solenoids, there is a gauge fitted with a
switch on box B18. By turning the switch 18b3 to position 1, the left hand tamping bank
solenoid current is displayed on gauge 18g3. By turning the switch to position 2 the right
hand side in monitored position 3 monitors the, satellite proportional current By turning
switch 18b3 to position 1 or 2, connects the gauge to terminal 10bof 10u6 or 10u7; the other
side of the gauge connects to earth. This places the gauge across a 1 ohm resistor (R76)
which is measured by the gauge 18g3 which is a voltmeter. Therefore with 750 mA following
through the resistor, there will be a volt drop of 750 mV across if which is displayed as a
percentage on the gauge 18g3, i.e. 750 mV = 750 mA = 100%.
Current of Proportional Valve in Different Machines
Machines
Lowering Current Lifting Current
Basic Current
Duomatic/WST/CSM
650mA
600mA
250mA
Uno/Unimat/09-3X/MPT
600mA
550mA
250mA
Calibration Potentiometer
P7
P12
P8
SUB-DISCIPLINE:- ELECTRONIC SYSTEM(LESSONS:15 SESSIONS:24)
Lesson-XII: Tamping Unit Control Circuit UNO/DUO/ CSM/3X /Unimat
Session-20:Calibration, Troubleshooting & Fault finding
CALIBRATION/ADJUSTMENT POTENTIOMETERS IN PCB EK16V & EK132V :
P1
Zero depth Adjustment
P4
Middle position adjustment
P7
Lowering speed adjustment (Max. lowering current adjustment)
P8
Basic current adjustment (33% = 250mA)
P9
Upper cut off point adjustment
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P10 Lower position adjustment
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P11
Upper position adjustment
P12
Max lifting current adjustment (Lifting speed adjustment)
P13
Target depth adjustment
Note: P3, P5, P6 potentiometers are used in ramp generator circuit to adjust the ramp.
These potentiometers should not be adjusted at site.
ADJUSTMENT POTENTIOMETERS IN PCB EKIAP7 :
P1 - Zero depth adjustment potentiometer .
P4 - Middle position adjustment (Starting of lifting and lining).
P7 Maximum current(600mA) adjustment of proportional valve for lowering (Lowering
speed adjustment of tamping unit) .
P8 Minimum current (250mA) adjustment of proportional valve for lowering of tamping
unit.
P10 Lower position adjustment (starting of Squeezing ).
P11 Upper position indication adjustment .
P12 - Maximum current(550mA) adjustment of proportional valve for lifting(Lifting speed
adjustment of tamping unit) .
P13 Target depth adjustment .
P17 - Minimum current (250mA) adjustment of proportional valve for lifting of tamping
unit.
P18 Amplification for tamping unit lowering .
P19 Amplification for tamping unit lifting .
P21 Target depth value adjustment .
P22 Tamping unit upper working position 1 (150mm) adjustment .
P23 - Tamping unit upper working position 2 (80mm) adjustment .
TROUBLE SHOOTING FLOW CHART OF TAMPING UNIT CONTROL CIRCUIT
OF CSM.
In starting when tamping cycle 1X is selected and pressing tamping pedal both tamping unit are not
going down.
Check lowering command of tamping unit Q10 for (LH) and Q11for (RH) in programmer coming
or not when pressing pedal.
Q 10 and Q11 are coming
Q10 and Q11 are not coming.
Check hydraulic system pressure.
Check circuit breaker (18e3) of tamping
unit circuit .check 24v. check power
supply pcb EK813SV it s voltage ±15v
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Select proportional valve current indicator in
panel B18 for LH or RH side and press the
pedal if there is no deflection in current
indicator then check fuse 2A in EK16V
replace it if blown . If fuse is ok then check
relay Re-1, Re-2 & Re-5 and replace one by
one. Relay Re 2 should be replaced first.
Check voltage +24V at coupler of proportional
valve. If there is no +24V on proportional
valve then check resistance 7r3 (LH) and 7r4
for RH side.
If +24V is coming on proportional valve now
operate proportional valve manually then T /Unit
should go down if it is not going down then
prop. Valve is defective repair or replace it.
Transistor(BDW 63) in PCB may be defective If
this transistor is in spare replace it other wise
replace PCB EK16V.
Check X19 should come in programmer
it is tamping system ON input .If
switch 2X19 is ON but X19 is not
coming then this switch may be defective
replace it switch.
Check coupler of transducer and
slipping of wire replace if broken and
calibrate the transducer.
Check 2k resistance in transducer
replace it if defective .
Check X10 while pressing the pedal,
if X10 is not coming then check
pedal switch replace if defective.
B
B
Check X3E should not come in programmer.
It is lining without tamping switch . 2X3E should
not ON
Check X5A and X5B should not come.These are
Tamping Unit lock indication if coming then check
limit switch of tamping unit lock , these should be
repaired/replaced.
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Check X13 for LH side and X14 for RH side coming
or not these are upper position indication, if not
coming then calibrate upper position in PCB EK16V
by potentiometer P11.If no effect of calibration then
replace relay Re6 in same PCB
Check X22 should not come in programmer.
This is the satellite rear position indication, if it
is coming even satellite in front position then
repair or replace rear position limit switch.
Check X1B, this is satellite middle position
indication .If it is not coming then calibrate it at
340mm by potentiometer P4 in EK24V. If noeffect
of calibration then replace relay Re3 in same PCB
If Q10 and Q11 are still not coming then see Logic
plan in detail and check all condition of lowering
of tamping unit.
During Tamping , Tamping Unit remain in lower position.
Check QOD in programmer , this is tamping cycle complete out put .
NO
Check supply +24v, circuit breaker 18e3
output voltage of EK813SV ±15V and
±10V . If output voltage of this PCB are
not coming then check fuse in PCB
replace if it is blown. If it is ok Replace
PCB EK813SV .
Is
QOD
Coming
YES
Operate
proportional
valve
manually if tamping unit is not
going Up then check piston rod
may broken, Proportional valve
may defective.
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Check chord wire slipped or broken replace
it if broken or slipped.
If tamping unit is going up manually
, Check fuse (2A) in EK16V.
Replace if it is blown check +24V
on proportional valve if there is no
+24V on proportional valve then
check resistance 7r3(LH) and 7r4
(RH) , if it is defective replace it.
Check X 17 & X18 in programmer, these are
lower position indication . If not coming
check , you are working on hard bed
tamping tools are not going at target depth
and tamping cycle is not complete.
If it is not hard bed and lower position
indication X17for LH side or X18 for RH are
not coming then calibrate lower position by
potentiometer P10. If no effect of calibration
then replace relay Re4 in EK16V
Check relay Re1, Re2 & Re5 , replace
them one by one. Re2 should be replaced
first
Check Q69 in programmer it is squeezing
time complete output. If not coming then
squeezing time selector or squeezing time
PCB may be defective replace it.
Still tamping unit is in lower position then
replace PCB EK 16V.
If QOD still is not coming then see logic plan
in detail for other conditions of tamping
cycle complete.
No squeezing during tamping.
Check Q01 is coming or not. When tamping
reach in lower position
NO
Check you are working on hard
bed. Tamping tool are not going at
target depth there for X 17 and
X 18 are not coming.
Is
QO1
coming
YES
Check QL 22 relay and fuse for small Sq. LH side.
Check QL 23 relay and fuse for small Sq. RH side
Check QL 5C relay and fuse for Big Sq. LH side
Check QL 5D relay and fuse for Big Sq. RH side
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If there is no hard bed still X 17 or X
18 is not coming then calibrate lower
position by P4 , X 17 or X 18 should
come 30 mm before target depth. If
no effect of adjustment then replace
relay Re4.
FAULT
CAUSES
Tamping tools are not going Calibration out.
at proper depth.
REMIDIAL SECTION
Calibrate depth transducer
calibrate PCB EK16V for
zero depth by P1 and for
target depth by P13.
Lowering speed slow
Check current of proportional Calibrate lowering current of
valve for lowering, it should proportional valve by P7 in
be 650mA.
PCB EK16V.
Slow lifting speed.
Check current of proportional Calibrate lifting current of
valve for lifting, it should be proportional valve by P12 in
PCB EK 16V.
600mA.
SUB-DISCIPLINE:- ELECTRONIC SYSTEM(LESSONS:15 SESSIONS:24)
Lesson-XIII :Front Input Circuit: UNO/DUO/ CSM/3X /Unimat
Session-21:Functional Description of Front Input Circuit, Front Input Potentiometer, Slew,
Versine, General Lift, Basic idea of ALC, GVA and Laser Lining etc.
FRONT INPUT CIRCUIT :This circuit receive inputs from front cabin and transmits to
lining & levelling circuit.The parts of front input circuits are as under:1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Input potentiometers :-Versine,Slew,General lift potentiometers.
Front Pendulum.
Front Input PCB.
Laser lining.
Computer(ALC, GVA)
Front-input PCBs :
UNO/DUO/
:-EK 17/255/275LV00
CSM
:-EK 345LV00.
UNIMAT2S/3S
:-EK 2072LV00
09-3X
:-EK 2343LV00
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Versine potentiometer
Front Input
PCB
Slew Potentiometer
General Lift
Potentiometer
Front Pendulum
Laser & Computer
INPUT POTENTIOMETERS IN FRONT INPUT CIRCUIT:
(i)VERSINE POTENTIOMETER:
This potentiometer is provided in front cabin in
panel B4 .This potentiometer is used to feed
versine value in 3-pt lining and Vm value in 4pt lining . This potentiometer converts versine
value to electrical signal at the rate of 50
mv/mm, + vc for RH side, -ve for LH side.
(ii)SLEW POTENTIOMETER :
This potentiometer is also provided in front
cabin in panel B4 .This potentiometer is used to
feed slew value . It converts slew(Offset value
in design lining) value into electrical signal at
the rate of 50 mv/mm +ve for RH side and ve
for LH side.
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(iii) GENERAL LIFT POTENTIOMETER:
This potentiometer is provided in front
cabin in panel B4. It is used to feed genral
lift value. It converts general lift value to
electrical signal at the rate of 50 mv/mm
+ve for lifting.
ALC:INTRODUCTION:Win ALC is the next generation of the well proven Plasser ALC track alignment
computers. Since the first Plasser PC MSDOS based ALC was introduced in 1992
approximately 300 units have been fitted to machines world wide. The program is not tailor
made for one specific country but contains all the main elements for world wide applications.
The program for the ALC has constantly been updated from the first edition with new
features being added as an ongoing situation. The PC based ALC program had been taken
to the limit of the MASDOS operating system so it is a natural progression to change the
operating environment to WINDOWS 95, this removing the restrictions of the MSDOS
memory limitations and enabling a multi tasking environment that will be already familiar to
the majority of people today.
The Win ALC system is designed as an addition to enhance and improve the existing
PLASSER tamping machines lining and lifting systems. It can be fitted as a bolt on to an
older machine or normally is fitted when the machine is built.
TECHNICAL DESCRIPTION OF SYSTEM:
The WIN-ALC system comprises of 4 distinct main parts:
1.
The Computer or PC
2.
The Display or Monitor
3.
The keyboard (also fitted with the pointing device, the mouse)
4.
The distance measuring wheel or encoder
Technical data:
System unit
PLASSER Built Dedicated PC :Intel Pentium 100 MHZ
16 Mbytes Memory
70 Ns Starting time
3 ½ 1.44MB Floppy Disc drive
959 MB IDE-BUS
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WORKING IN GEOMETRY, MEASURING RUN.
The ALC has two methods of enhancing the tampers track alignment systems. Geometry
method and the Measuring and compensation method. In the geometry method the target
track geometry is entered into the computer along with design data. For this method of
working the exact design and geometry information must be known. A measuring run is not
carried out as the computer will automatically input the correct lining and lift information
calculated from the data entered.
The Measuring method is used where the track data is not known.The data for the track is
obtained via a measurement run using the machines measuring system prior to working.
During or after the measurement any data that is known can be entered e.g. fixed points, cant,
radii, etc. After computation by the ALC computer the tamper is set to work with the
ALC automatically entering the computed lift and line data.
ALC Geometry Method:
The geometry method of operating the ALC is used when all of the target data for a
section of track is known. The data is loaded into the computer at any time prior to work. A
measuring run is not used in calculations as all data has been entered, although measuring
runs can be made before and after work as a benchmark.
Sequence of Operation
BEFORE ARRIVING AT WORK SITE
(preferable)
Obtain site details, geometry, location etc.
Enter site geometry into a computer running the
Win ALC program
Save the file
Tamping machine arrives on work site (Either end
of site)
Computer is turned on, ALC program started
Machine set up in the normal way
Previously saved track Geometry called into the
ALC program
Tamping carried out using the inputs from the
ALC
Measuring
Method:
computer
to operate
the lift and line
A measuring run can be made prior
to working and saved for
comparison at a later date.
A measuring run can be made after
working and saved for comparison
at a later date.
THE “MEASURING” METHOD : The measuring method is used where the track
data is not known. The data for the track is obtained via measurement run using the machines
measuring system prior to working. During or after the measurement any data that is known
can be entered e.g. fixed points, cant, radius, etc. After computation by the ALC the tamper
is set to work with the ALC automatically entering the computed lift and line data.
Sequence of Operation:The machine can either measure in the working direction or in the
reverse. If the track is measured in the working direction, the tamping machine must reverse
back to the start of the work site before commencing tamping. There is a fast measuring
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drive key switch on the front and rear driving desks. These enable the machine to use the
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second gear of the main drive to make the measuring run.
Performing a Measuring Run:
The machine is set up for normal working, although this is not necessary to have the tamping
banks running. The tamping banks slew switch on the B2 panel should be set to automatic. If
it is on manual the fast measuring function will be disabled. It is advisable to drive the
machine for a short distance using the normal working drive. Thus checking that the lifting
and lining system is in working order before the start of the measuring run by avoiding errors
at the start of the measuring run, due to poor bogie alignment or incorrect pre-loading.
It is important to select the correct float rail. If the wrong rail is selected, the design for the
lift will not be correct. It is also a good idea to mark the position of the machine on the rail
before the start of the measuring run, so that the machine can be repositioned accurately at
the start position after the measuring run has been completed (Forward measuring run). The
lining system has to be set to 3-point. Use the can switch to select the datum rail for the
longitudinal height recording. The reference rail for the versine recording is selected by
turning on the lining system and selecting the required pre-load.
End of Measuring Run:At the end of the measuring run return the key switch to the normal
position. The computer will automatically produce a run in from the old track geometry to
the new target geometry at the beginning and end of the measuring run. The measuring run
should therefore only cover the length of rail on which the work has to be carried out.
Sequence of Operation
AT WORK SITE
Position machine at end, where tamping is to finish.
Switch on ALC computer.
Set up machine in normal manner. (With tamping
banks on auto lateral movement)
Select measure from ALC computer
Mark the position on the track of the machine
Using the Driver Measuring key, drive the machine at
10kmph
Enter positions of known changes of geometry.
At end of measuring run stop, compute the measured
run and save data.
The data that was saved could be used by another
machine of the same type running Win ALC.
Using the measurement that was
:just made
:made on a previous day
:made by another machine
Start tamping the ALC inputs the lift and line values.
At the end of tamping a new measuring run can be
LASER LINING SYSTEM:
made for comparison at a later date.
If site was previously
measured by another
machine.
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Laser Lining System in CSM & 09-3X:
09-3X machine is provided with a laser lining system that can be used to extend the
measuring system on straight track. Laser lining is used on straight track in 3-Pt mode to
remove long misalignment or false curve. The laser system consists of laser gun and laser
receiver. The laser trolley which consists of laser gun is placed in front of the machine up to
300 meter(200m in CSM) away. The receiver on the machine is adjustable so that it follows
the laser beam and the position is detected by a transducer that provides an input to the lining
system equivalent to the off set of the front end of the cord. As the machine is working it
moves up to the laser trolley until the distance is a minimum of 20 meters away
SUB-DISCIPLINE:- ELECTRONIC SYSTEM(LESSONS:15 SESSIONS:24)
Lesson-XIV: Lining Control Circuit, UNO/DUO/ CSM/3X /Unimat
Session-22: Functional Description of Lining Control Circuit and Lining PCBs
LINING CONTROL PCBs OF DIFFERENT MACHINES
CSM:
Lining PCB
Front Input PCB
Over slew PCB
Power supply PCB
Satellite compensation PCB
CSM-3X:
Lining input PCB
Lining Output
& Overslew PCB
Front Input PCB
Satellite compensation PCB
Power supply PCB
DUOMATIC:
Lining PCB
Overslew PCB
Front input
3-stage Lining
Power Supply
-
EK 349 LV
EK 345 LV
EK 290 LV
EK 813 SV
EK348 LV
-
EK 2361 LV
EK 2140LV
-
EK 2343 LV
EK 526 MC
EK 816SV
-
EK 335 LV
EK 290 LV
EK 275 LV
EK 80V
EK 813 SV
UNIMATE 2S:
Lining PCB
Over slew
Front input
3-stage Lining
Power supply
UNIMATE-3S:
Input Lining PCB
Output & overslew PCBFront input PCB
Power supply
UNIMAT COMPACT:
Input Lining PCB
Output & over slew PCBFront input PCB
Power supply
-
EK 2038 LV
EK 290 LV
EK 2072LV
EK 144V
EK 813 SV
EK 2173LV
EK 2140 LV
EK 2072 LV
EK 813 SV
EK 1.1/17 LV
EK 2140 LV
EK 3049 LV
EK 813 SV
LINING SYSTEM OF CSM
Printed Circuit Boards:
4u5
........ Front Input PCB
10u1 ........ Satellite Compensation PCB
10u2 ........ Lining Control PCB
10u3 ........ Overslew Control PCB
10u4 ........ Power Supply PCB
Transducers:
1f01 ........ Lining Transducers
1f02 ........ Measuring Transducers
Potentiometers:
2f05 ........ Overslew value
2f24 ........ 0 Point Correction
4f1
........ Versine Adjustment
4f4
........ Slew
Switches:
........
........
........
........
........
EK-345LV-00-(02)
EK-348LV-00(02)
EK-349LV-00(02)
EK-290LV-00 (02a)
EK-813SV-002
........
........
........
........
20k Ohms
20k Ohms
10k Ohms
10k Ohms
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........................
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2b12
........................
2x39
2x3B/3C
2x4E/4F
4b4
........................
........................
........................
........................
Overslew ON-OFF
2 Step Lining
3 Point Lining ON
Manual Lining Left or Right.
Datum Left or Rights
Positive or Negative for Versine Correction.
LINING SYSTEM OF UNIMAT
Printed Circuits:
10u1
Power Supply
EK-813SV-002
10u2
Analogue Circuit
EK-2039LV-00(02)
10u3
Overslew Circuit
EK-290LV-00a(02a)
10u4
Rear Cord Follow Up
K-719A-00(02)
4u5
Front Input Interface
EK-2039-LV-00(02)
4u7
Laser Lining Control
EK-715A-00(02)
Switches:
22b1
Overslew On-Iff
22x10
Lining System on & Automatic Start
23x2F
Manual lining to left
23x30
Manual lining to right
22x4B
2 step lining on
22x11
3 point lining on
4b4
Lining versine director
Inputs:
1f21
Lining versine transducer
1f22
Measuring versine transducer
1f1
Rear cord follow up transducer
22f4
O-correction potentiometer (±5mm)
4f1
Lining adjusting value
4f4
Front cord displacement
22f05
Overslew value
SUB-DISCIPLINE:- ELECTRONIC SYSTEM(LESSONS:15 SESSIONS:24)
Lesson-XIV: Lining Control Circuit, UNO/DUO/ CSM/3X /Unimat
Session-23: Basic concept of 3 Point Regulator / 3 Stage Regulator, calibration,
troubleshooting & Fault finding
3-Stage Lining: 3-Point Regulator EK80V:
3-Stage regulation is used in UNO/DUO & Unimat machines because in this machines servo
valve is not used for lining. PCB EK80V is used in UNO/DUO EK144V is used with
solenoids in Unimat-2S.
This PCB has 3 stages of lining.
1.
From 0 to .5 mm no lining.
2.
From 0.5 mm to 3mm slow lining.
3. From 3 mm on wards fast lining.
lining error signals are received from lining PCB as per magnitude of error signal (voltage)
this PCB takes decision whether to actuate slow or fast lining .in slow lining only one
solenoid operate and in fast lining two solenoids are operated.
CALIBRATION OF LINING PCB EK349LV:
P1 - Adjustment of Max.Cuurent for servo valve (Max 15mA)
P2 - Amplifier factor for servo valve
P3 - O-point adjustment for servo valve
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P4 - Galvanometer deflection Adjustment.
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P5 - 0-point 3- point lining r.h. side datum Adjustment.
P6
P7
P8
P9
P10
P13
P14
P16
P18
P17
P19
P20
1.
-
0-point 3- point lining l.h. side datum Adjustment.
0-point 4- point lining r.h. side datum Adjustment.
0-point 4- point lining l.h. side datum Adjustment.
Adjustment lining transducer, lining chord shifted to the right.
Adjustment lining transducer, lining chord shifted to the left.
Adjustment measuring transducer, lining chord shifted to the left.
Adjustment measuring transducer, lining chord shifted to the right.
Calibration of Null(0)-potentiometer (+-5mm)
Adjustment lining value(slew) front (4 point lining)
Adjustment lining value (slew) front (3 point lining)
Versine value-curves correction
Compensation-satellite movement
The calibration procedure of EK349LV is explained below:
Before starting calibration inputs in front cabin slew and versine potentiometer
should be kept on zero.
Zero adjustment potentiometer should keep on zero.
Satellite should be locked at front zero position.
Datum potentiometers P5 to P8 should keep at center.
LINING TRANSDUCER VALUE ADJUSTMENT (LH SIDE):
3-point lining should be ON.Set 180 mm Value in versine potentiometer and turn
toggle switch to RH side in front cabin.Now keep the fork of lining transducer at 180mm in
LH direction. Deflection of lining galvanometer should be zero if not then adjust
potentiometer P10 to get pointer of galvanometer at center(zero).
2.LINING TRANSDUCER VALUE ADJUSTMENT (RH SIDE):
Now turn direction of toggle switch of versine potentiometer towards LH side. Keep
fork at 180mm in RH direction then deflection of pointer should be zero if pointer is not
at zero then adjust by P9 to get deflection of pointer at center(zero)
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3. VERSINE RATIO ADJUSTMENT (LH SIDE):
Lining Transducer
242mm
Measuring Transducer
200mm
Select 4- point lining.
Move fork of measuring transducer LH
side and keep at 200mm
(H2 = 200mm)
Now keep fork of lining transducer at
242mm in same direction .
(H1 = ixH2)
(H1 = 1,21 x 200 = 242mm)
In this condition deflection of
galvanometer should be at center, if it is
not at center then adjust P13 .
VERSINE RATIO ADJUSTMENT (RH SIDE):
242mm
-
Move fork of measuring transducer RH side and keep at 200mm.
Now move fork of lining transducer and keep at 242mm in same direction.
In this condition deflection of galvanometer should be at center, if not adjust P14
to get deflection at center.
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Versine ratio depends upon distance between bogies since these.
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Distance are different for different machine therefore versine ratio is also different for
different machines.
UNOMATIC/DUOMATIC:
UNIMAT 2S:
UNIMAT – 3S :
CSM-3X:
i
=
1.33
i
i
i
=
=
=
1.33
1.6
1.49
Function of Relays in EK349LV:
Re1&Re2 : 3-Pt. Lining relay
Re3 : Right side Datum relay
Re4 : Automatic lining relay
Re5 : Manual lining left
Re6 : manual lining right
Re7 ;Bypass valve relay.
TROUBLE SHOOTING FLOW CHART OF LINING CONTROL CIRCUIT OF CSM
NO Lining during tamping
Check Q0A,Automatic lining
command coming or not during
tamping.
Is Q0A
coming
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NO
Check X3D should come in programmer
.Automatic lining switch
2X3D switch should be ON.If it is ON still
X3D is not coming then check this switch
,replace if it is defective .
Check +24v of lining circuit ,Circuit
breaker ,Power supply PCB EK813SV if
±15v and ±10v are not coming then check
fuse in this PCB if it is ok then replace this
PCB.
Check X24 and X25 from track sensors
should come or these sensors should by
pass in this condition X2F should come.
YES
Check manual lining LH or RH side is
working or not If manual lining is working
then check automatic lining ON relay Re4
in EK349LV, replace if defective.
If manual lining LH or RH is also not working then
check fuse in power supply PCB EK 813SV of lining
circuit. If fuse is Ok but ± 15v and ±10 v are not
coming then replace this PCB .
Check bypass valve fuse and bypass valve relay
Re7 in EK349LV
Check coupler of servo valve and bypass valve
Check X30 should come. This is from switch
2X30 which enable lining and leveling in
middle position of tamping unit.
Check X4E or X4F left side datum or
right side datum should applied.
1. Manual lining Lh side is not working
Check deflection in servo indicator if pointer is not
deflecting during tamping then PCB EK349LV
may be defective replace it. If pointer is deflecting
but no lining then servo valve may be defective
replace it.
4 . Right side datum not working .
Check X3B in programmer when operating manual
lining switch, if not coming then replace this
switch
Check X4F in programmer if not coming then check
datum switch , replace if defective .
Check manual lining LH relay Re5 in Ek349LV
replace if defective
If X4F is coming then check Relay QL39 and fuse
,replace which is defective
2. Manual lining RH side is not working
Check X3C in programmer when operating manual
lining switch, if not coming then replace this
switch
Check manual lining LH relay Re6 in Ek349LV
replace if defective
If Relay QL39(7002/S4) and fuse is OK then check
coupler of datum pneumatic solenoid (1s271), if
coupler is ok then check solenoid , repair/replace if
defective .
5. No deflection in lining galvanometer when switch
ON the lining system and giving deflection to lining
Check +24v of lining circuit ,Circuit breaker Power
supply PCB EK813SV if ±15v and ±10v
are not coming then check fuse in this PCB if it is ok
then replace this PCB.
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Left side datum not working .
Check X4E in programmer if not coming then
check datum switch , replace if defective .
Check somebody has shifted the position of switch
S1in the PCB EK349LV which is used to isolate the
output circuit from input .
If X4E is coming then check Relay QL38 and fuse
,replace which is defective
If Relay QL38(7002/S4) and fuse is OK then check
coupler of datum pneumatic solenoid (1s270), if
coupler is ok then check solenoid , repair/replace if
defective .
Check somebody has shifted position of switch S1 in
over slew PCB EK290LV, which is used
to ground
the signal of lining transducer .
Check connection of lining galvanometer if it is OK
then lining galvanometer may be defective replace it.
6. In 3-pt. and 4pt. Lining machine is not doing lining
Calibration of lining circuit may be disturb. Check and calibrate all
inputs to lining circuit one by one i.e lining transducer , measuring
transducer slew potentiometer ,versine potentiometer , zero
adjustment potentiometer ,satellite compensation value.
Datum adjustment may be disturb .Calibrate LH side and RH side
datum in 3-pt and 4pt lining
In 4-pt lining versine ratio may be disturb .Calibrate it for LH side
and RH side.
Servo valve may be disturb .Check and Calibrate mechanical and
electrical NULL of servo valve.
SUB-DISCIPLINE:- ELECTRONIC SYSTEM(LESSONS:15 SESSIONS:24)
Lesson-XV: Leveling & Lifting Control Circuit of UNO/DUO/ CSM/3X /Unimat
Session-24: Functional Description of Leveling Control Circuit and leveling PCBs,
calibration troubleshooting & Fault finding
LEVELLING SYSTEM
PCBs which are used in leveling circuit of different machine are given below:
CSM:
Leveling
& Lifting Control
Circuit
of LV
CSM
Lifting PCB
EK 347
Front input PCB
EK 345 LV
Pendulum Control PCBEK 346 LV
Satellite compensation PCB- EK 348 LV
Power supply PCB EK 813 SV
UNIMAT – 2S:
Lifting PCB
Front input PCB
Pendulum Control PCB3-Stage Lifting
Power supply PCB -
EK 2041 LV
EK 2072 LV
EK 2042 LV
EK 144 V
EK 813 SV
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PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARDS:
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1u48 Distance Measuring
Encoder
TRANSDUCERS:
1fOD Levelling Transducer L.H.S.
1fOE Levelling Transducer R.H.S.
1f07 Middle Pendulum
1f09 Rear Pendulum
1f13 Front Pendulum
-
5 k ohms
5 k ohms
POTENTIOMETERS:
4f3
Basic Lift Setting
4f5
Cross Level Adjustment Tower
19f31 Settlement Compensation
88f1 Cross Level Digital
Leveling & Lifting Control Circuit of CSM:
Levelling System: Printed Circuit Board:
10u5 Levelling System Power Supply
10u6 Levelling Control Left
10u7 Levelling Control Right
10u8 Pendulum Control Rear
4u4
Power Supply Tower
4u5
Front Analogue Interface
Transducers:
1f00 Levelling Transducer Left.
1f0E Levelling Transducer Right
1f07 Pendulum Rear
1f13 Pendulum Tower
1f25 Laser (Lift right) not fitted at present
1f26 Laser Lift left
232f11 Zero adjuster left
22f12 Zero adjuster right
23f08 Required cross level rear
22f09 Settlement Compensation value
23f0B Zero correction left (plain line)
52f0B Zero correction left (S & C)
EK-813SV-002
EK-2041LV-00(02)
EK-2041LV-00(02)
EK-2042LV-00(02)
EK-813SV-002
EK-2039LV-00(02)
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51f0C Zero correction right
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4f3
Lift Setting Tower
4f5
Required cross level tower
Switches:
23b3 High Rail selector rear
22b6 Gain control right
22b7 Gain control left
23b4 Cross level direction rear
4b7
Cross level direction front
Calibration Potentiometers in lifting PCB of CSM EK-347 LV
P1 - Calibration Height Transducer (Op4/12, 1V/mm)
P2 - O-adjustment for Analog system (all inputs to 0)
P4 - Compensation value satellite movement for input lifting value in front.
P5 - Super-elevation Error correction front feeler rod (Error ratio)
P8 - Amplifier factor for servo
P9 - O-point(Null) of servo valve
P10 - Max current(15mA) for servo valve
P11 - Lifting value front by error ratio through shifting of O-point lifting printed circuit
board
P6 - Correction leveling system by pendulum rear feeler rod
Function of relays in lifting PCB of CSM EK-347 LV
Re1 : On for lifting indicator bulb.
Re2 : Automatic lifting.
Re3 : M annual lifting
Re4 : Manual Lowering
TROUBLE SHOOTING OF LEVELLING CIRCUIT OF CSM
No lifting during tamping
Check Q06 and Q07 in programmer , auto lifting
command for LH and RH side respectively .
NO
YES
Are Q06
and Q07
coming
Check X2E in programmer .This is from
Check +24v and circuit breaker of
leveling circuit .Check output voltage
Ek813SV which should be ±15v and ±10
volt . If these voltage are not coming then
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SUB: HYDRAULICS, PNEUMATICS & MECHANICAL
Duration: 36 Sessions = 72 Periods
Sub-discipline: Hydraulics (Lessons: 16 Sessions: 21)
Lesson-I: Fundamentals & Hydraulic Symbols
Session-1: Introduction, Advantages of Hydraulic system, Hydraulic Symbols.
___________________________________________________________________________
INTRODUCTION:The word hydraulics originates from the Greek. This is made of two
words-hydor and aulos. Hydor means water and aulos means pipe i.e. flow of water through
pipes. Today the term hydraulic commonly refers to Power hydraulics in which fluid is
used under controlled pressure to do work. Hydraulic power is used in every branch of
industry in a machine tool, missiles, man made satellite, boat, planes, cranes, lifts, track
machines etc. So fluid is most versatile means of transmitting power & modifying motions. A
fluid is infinitely flexible. It can easily change its shape, it can be divided into parts to do
work in different locations, it can move rapidly in one place and slowly in another place. No
other medium has the same accuracy, positiveness & power in minimum of volume &
weight. It is the science of forces and movements transmitted by means of liquids i.e.
generation of forces and motion using hydraulic fluid. It is a part of hydromechanics.
Hydromechanics
Hydrostatics
Hydrodynamics
(Force effect through pressure area)
(Force effect through mass acceleration)
Hydraulic fluid contains two energy: (1) Kinetic energy (2) Potential energy.
Basically hydraulic fluid obeys:
ADVANTAGES OF HYDRAULICS:
1. Variable Speed: The actuator of a hydraulic system can be driven at variable speeds
by varying the pump delivery or using a flow control valve.
2. Reversibility: An actuator can be reversed instantly while in full motion without
damage. A four way directional valve or a reversible pump provides the reversing
control.
3. Overload Protection: The pressure relief valve in hydraulic system protects it from
overload damage. When the load exceeds the valve setting, pump delivery is directed
to tank.
4. Self Lubrication: In most hydraulic components internal lubrication is provided by
the fluid. Pump elements and other wearing parts slide against each other on a film of
fluid.
5. Cooling: Circulation of the fluid through lines and around the walls of the reservoir
allow the fluid to give up the heat that has been generated in the system.
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6. Sealing: In many instances the fluid is the only seal against pressure inside the
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hydraulic component. In DC valve there is no seal between the valves spool and the
body to minimize leakage. The close mechanical fit and the viscosity of the oil
determine leakage rate.
7. Easy to Install and Handle: Hydraulic components can be easily installed and
handled due to less weight and size in compare to mechanical system.
8. Portable: Hydraulic plant can be used in mobile application.
9. Compactness: Hydraulic components can provide high power output with very small
weight and size.
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HYDRAULIC SYMBOLS:
Single Pump
Double Pump
Variable Pump
Return Line
Pressure Line
Pilot Line
Uni-Directional Motor
Bi-Directional Motor
Variable Motor
Stop Cock
Filter
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Cooler
4/3 Way Valve
4/2 Way Valve
Servo Valve or Proportional Valve
Single Acting Cylinder
Double Acting Cylinder
Relief Valve
Check Valve/ Non-Return Valve
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SUB-DISCIPLINE: HYDRAULICS (LESSONS: 16 SESSIONS: 21)
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Lesson-II: Hydraulic Oil, Hydraulic Tank
Session-2: Functions and Properties of Hydraulic oil, Functions and Parts of Hydraulic tank.
Proper selection and care of hydraulic fluid for a machine will have an important effect on
machine performance and on the life of the hydraulic components. Any liquid is essentially
incompressible and therefore will transmit power instantaneously in hydraulic system. The
most common liquid used in hydraulic system is petroleum based oil. Oil transmits power
readily because it is only very slightly compressible, a negligible amount in most systems.
The most desirable property of oil is its lubricating ability.
FUNCTIONS:
1. To transmit power from one point to another
2. To lubricate moving parts
3. To cool or dissipate heat
4. To seal clearance between parts
5. Cushioning of oscillations caused by pressure jerks.
6. Corrosion protection.
7. Scuff removal.
PROPERTIES:
1.1 Suitable viscosity:-viscosity is measure of fluid s resistance to flow. If a fluid flows
easily, its viscosity is low. Fluid flows with difficulty have a high viscosity. Some
methods of define viscosity are: absolute viscosity, kinematic viscosity, and relative
viscosity and SAE numbers. Kinematic viscosity is the most common way of
measuring viscosity. It is measured by the amount of time needed for a fixed volume
of oil to flow through a capillary tube. The unit for kinematic viscosity is mm2/sec or
centistokes.
Too high a viscosity increases friction, resulting in
1. High resistance to flow
2. Increased power consumption due to friction loss
3. High temperature caused by friction
4. Increased pressure drop due to resistance
5. Possibility of sluggish or slow operation
6. Difficulty in separating air from oil in reservoir.
Too low a viscosity resulting in
1. Internal leakages increases
2. Excessive wear and even seizure may occur under heavy load due to break
down of oil film between moving parts
3. Pump efficiency may decrease causing slower operation of the actuator
4. Leakage losses may result in increased temperatures.
1.2 Anti-rust and anti-corrosive:-rusting is the chemical union of steel with oxygen.
Corrosion is chemical union between a metal and acid. Corrosion occurs as the acid
acts on the metals. Rusting is caused by air bubble in the system. It is usually not
possible to keep air and atmosphere born moisture out of hydraulic system. They
contaminate the system and promote wear. There are several ways of preventing rust
and corrosion. The best way is that hydraulic system may work at proper temperature
and pressure. A fluid should be filtered properly
1.3 Oxidation resistance :- Fluid oxidation is the chemical reaction of the fluid with air
which forms new substances or compounds, when hydraulic oil oxidized, it form
gum, sludge. Some of these soluble compounds are acids which bites the metallic
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components in the system. It is the most common factor that reduces the fluid life.
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These contaminants close the orifice, increases wear and tear and causes valves to
stick. The best control is through the good maintenance.
1.4 Resistance to foaming:- A small air bubble get entrapped during course of suction and
delivery of released oil from circuit. Air also enters through vent hole and mixes with
oil and affects the efficiency. Air also causes heating of the oil and hydraulic
assemblies. Return pipe should be located well below in the hydraulic tank.
1.5 Low pour point: Pour point is the lowest temperature at which a fluid will flow.
Beyond this it becomes so thick that it won t flow any more.
Method of identifying hydraulic oil:
One important method of identifying hyd. oil is the specification of viscosity class. The ISO
standard and new draft of DIN 51524 explain that the viscosity classes lay down the
minimum and maximum viscosity of hyd oil at 400C
ISO
VISCOSITY CLASSES
ISO VG 10
ISO VG 15
ISO VG 22
ISO VG 32
ISO VG 46
ISO VG 68
ISO VG 100
ISO VG 150
KINEMATIC VISCOSITY (MM 2 /S) AT 400 C
MIN
MAX
9.0
13.5
19.0
28.8
41.4
61.2
90.0
135
11.0
16.5
24.8
35.2
50.6
74.8
110.0
165
Qualities of hydraulic fluid:
1. Lowest possible density
2. Minimal compressibility
3. Viscosity not too low
4. Good viscosity temperature characteristics.
5. Good viscosity-pressure characteristics.
6. Good aging stability.
7. Low flammability.
8. Good material compatibility.
HDRAULIC TANK
FUNCTIONS: The reservoir in the hydraulic system fulfils several task-1. Acts as intake and storage reservoir for the hydraulic fluid required for the operation
of the system.
2. Dissipates heat.
3. Separates air, water and solid materials.
4. Supports a built
in or built
on pump and drive motor and other hydraulic
components such as valves, accumulator etc.
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Suction line
Return line
Breather
Cover plate
Return filter
TO PUMP
Max
Sight glass
Suction
filter
Mi
Drain plug
Baffle plate
Oil is cooled & air
separated out by the time
it reaches inlet
Return flow is directed outward
To tank wall
PARTS:
♦ Baffle plate: - It separates pump inlet line and return line. It is usually about 2/3 of the
total height of the tank lower corner of the plate may be cut away to permits
circulation. Thus the baffle plate
1. Prevents local turbulence
2. Allows foreign material to settle to the bottom.
3. Give the fluid an opportunity to free of entrapped air.
4. Helps heat dissipation.
♦ Inlet and Return line:-Most line of the tank terminates below the oil level. The line
connections are often sealed. This prevents dirt from entering through these openings.
Pumps inlet and return line must be below the oil level otherwise oil may be aerated
and foaming may start. Connections above the oil level must be tightly sealed to
prevent the entry of air in the system.
♦ Air breather: - An air breather is installed at the tank to vent air to the atmosphere and
also atmosphere air exerts pressure on the oil surface through air breather, so
screening element of air breather should be cleaned regularly.
♦ Sight glass: - This is provided to see the oil level in the hydraulic tank and oil is filled
accordingly.
♦ Drain plug: - It is provided at the bottom of the tank to drain oil from tank at the time
of cleaning the tank. Generally magnetic drain plug is provided to trap iron particles
present in the oil.
♦ Return filter: - It is provided on the top of the tank. It traps contaminants present in oil
which is returned from the hydraulic circuit to tank.
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SUB-DISCIPLINE: HYDRAULICS (LESSONS: 16 SESSIONS: 21)
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Lesson-III: Hydraulic Filter and Hydraulic Cooler
Session-3: Functions, Types, Importance of filtration, function of Hydraulic Cooler,
Maintenance aspects.
FUNCTION & IMPORTANCE OF FILTRATION:
About 75% of hydraulic maintenance is caused by dirty oil. Dirt can cause untold damage to
the entire system. The use of a filter is an important stage in keeping dirt cut off the system
and hence reducing hydraulic maintenance.
Filter is a device whose primary function is retention, by some porous medium, of insoluble
contaminants from a fluid. Porous medium simply refers to a screen of filtering material that
allows fluid to flow through it but stops other materials by porous medium. A simple screen
or wire strainer is rated in microns for filtering fineness or a mesh number or its nearest seive
number. The higher the mesh or sieve number, the finer the screen. When a filter is specified
as so many microns, it usually refers to the filter s nominal rating and its value is in microns
such that a 10 micron filter can trap particles having size more than 10 micron. So filters are
of great significance in hydraulic systems for the reliable functioning and long service life of
component.
It is the task of the filter to reduce the contamination to an acceptable level in order to protect
the various components from excessive wear. It is necessary to use correct grade of filter and
a contamination indicator is required in order to check the efficiency of the filter. Systems are
often flushed using economical filters before commissioning.
TYPES:
1. Inlet strainer & filter:- Strainer is installed on pump inlet lines inside the tank, it is
relatively course as filter being constructed of fine mesh wire. A 100 mesh strainer is
suitable for thin oil, protects the pump from particles above about 150µ in size. There
are also inlet line filters usually mounted outside the tank near pump inlet. A fine
filter (unless it is very large) creates more pressure drop that can be tolerated in on
inlet line of a pump.
The filter must pass the full pump volume within the permitted inlet vacuum for that
pump. The filter must provide bypass flow which is still with in that limit where the
filter element is blocked. Inlet filters should be used only to prevent large particles
from entering the pump & causing catastrophic failure.
2. Pressure line filter:- This filter can trap much smaller particles than inlet line filter.
Such a filter is used where system components such as valves are less dirt tolerant
than the pump. The filter traps fine contaminants from the fluid as it leaves the pump
and also protects the system in the event of a catastrophic failure of the pump.
Pressure line filters must be able to withstand the operating pressure of the system as
well as any pump pulsation.
3. Return line filter:- These filters can also trap very small particles before the fluid
returns to the tank. Return line filter is necessary in a system with a high performance
pump which has very close tolerance & usually cannot be sufficiently protected by an
inlet line filter. Full flow return filter should have enough capacity to handle max.
return flow without opening the bypass valve (non return valve) the performance of
any return line filter depends on magnitude of flow and pressure changes.
The term full flow applied to a filter means that all the flow into the filter inlet port
pass through the filtering element. In most full flow filters there is a bypass valve
preset to open at a given pressure drop to divert flow past the filter element. This
prevents the element from being subjected to excessive pressure which could cause
collapse. The bypass opens when total flow can no longer pass through the
contaminated element without raising the pressure.
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FILTERING MATERIALS:
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There are two basic classifications of filtering material viz. (1) Absorbent (2) Adsorbent.
1. Absorbent filter: Absorbent filter medium traps particle by mechanical means.
Absorbent media are divided into two basic types viz. surface & depth. Surface media
is most commonly used for coarse filtration. These are usually used with strainers.
These are made of closely woven fabric. Depth media are generally used for finer
filtration and are made of a wide range of materials. It has layers of a fabrics or fibers
which provide paths for the fluid to flow through. These are usually used with filters.
Particles collect on a number of surfaces arranged in layers.
2. Adsorbent filter: Such a charcoal & fuller s earth should be avoided in hydraulic
system, since they may remove essential additives from the hydraulic fluid.
SOURCES OF CONTAMINATION:
1. Built-in contamination: Hydraulic system manufacturers generally are careful to
provide internally clean products but, in spite of these efforts, new equipment usually
contains some built-in contamination. These contaminants might include burrs, chips,
flash, dirt, dust, fibers, sand, moisture, pipe sealants, weld splatter, paints and flushing
solutions.
2. Ingress or environmental contamination is contamination that is added to the
hydraulic system during servicing or maintenance (or from lack of maintenance) or is
introduced to the system from the environment surrounding the equipment. Dirt
contamination during operation owing to wear, ingress via seals and tank ventilation,
filling up or changing hyd. fluid, exchanging components, replacing hoses.
3. Self-generated contaminations- This type of contamination is created internally
within the system by the moving parts of hydraulic components. These contaminants
are produced by wear, corrosion, cavitations and decomposition and oxidation of the
system fluid. Every internal moving part within the system can be considering a
source of self-generated contamination for the entire system.
CONTAMINANTS CONTROLS: Contaminants can be controlled in following ways
i. Preventing contamination by keeping the system tight and using proper air and
fluid filtration devices and procedures.
ii. Establishing fluid change intervals so the fluid will be replaced before it
breaks down. If necessary the fluid can be tested in the laboratory at specific
intervals to help establish the frequency of change.
iii. Keeping the reservoir filled properly to take advantage of its heat dissipating
characteristics and to prevent moisture from condensing on inside walls.
iv. Repairing all leaks immediately.
v. The filters must provide sufficient dirt holding capacity for an acceptable
interval between element changes
Beta Ratio: The beta ratio is also known as filtration ratio, is a measure of the particle
capture efficiency of a filter element. It is therefore a performance rating.
x=
Number of particles in upstream
Number of particles in downstream
Where,
x= size of particle in micron
Let no. of particles in upstream=5000, no. of particles in downstream=1000, x=10µ, then
Beta Ratio,
10=
5000 = 5
1000
Now, particle capture efficiency of filter 10 = (1- 1/ ) X 100 = (1-1/5) X 100= 80%.
So the particular filter tested is 80% efficient at removing 10 micron and larger particles.
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SUB-DISCIPLINE: HYDRAULICS (LESSONS: 16 SESSIONS: 21)
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Lesson-IV: Hydraulic Hose and Fitting.
Session-4: Functions, Types, Hose specification: DIN, SAE & EN standards, Hydraulic
Fittings,
Precautions
during
mounting
Hydraulic
Hoses
and
Fittings.
___________________________________________________________________________
FUNCTION:Piping is a general term which embraces the various kinds of conducting lines
that carry hyd. oil between components plus the fittings or connectors used between the
conductors. Flexible hoses are mostly used in track machines to carry hyd. oil from one point
to another. These offer more convenience in making connections and servicing. These are
used when the hyd. lines are subjected to movement. Hoses are fabricated in layers of
synthetic rubber and braided fabric or wire braids. Wire braided hoses permit high pressure.
The inner layer of hose must be compatible with hyd. oil used. The outer layer is usually of
rubber to protect braid layer. Low pressure hoses i.e. suction and return line hoses are
reinforced with single wire braid while medium and high pressure hoses have double or
multiple wire braid.
TYPES:
1. Suction Hose: This hose is provided between tank and pump. This is low pressure
hose and has single wire braid. Dash no. of hoses used in suction line are 32, 48 and
64.
2. Pressure Hose: This hose is provided between pump and actuator. This is medium
and high pressure hose and has double wire braid or multiple wire braid. Dash no. of
hoses used in pressure line are 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 16 and 20.
3. Return Hose: This hose is provided between actuator and tank. This is low pressure
hose and has single wire braid. Dash no. of hoses used in return line are 6, 12, 16, 20,
24 and 32.
HOSE SPECIFICATION
i. EN (European Norm )- EN 853- 1 SN-Single wire braid, 2 SN-Double wire braid
ii. DIN ( Deutsch Industry Norm ) DIN 20022-2 Wire braid, DIN 20023- spiral wire
iii. SAE ( Society pf Automotive Engineers ) -100R1 single wire braid, 100R2 two
wire braid, 100R5 single wire braid, 100R9 4 spiral wire reinforced.
SAE 100R1:
Type A: This hose shall consist of an inner tube of oil resistant synthetic rubber, a single
wire braid reinforcement, and an oil and weather resistant synthetic rubber cover. A ply or
braid of suitable material may be used over the inner tube and/or over the wire
reinforcement to anchor the synthetic rubber to the wire.
Type AT: This hose shall be of the same construction as Type A, except having a cover
designed to assemble with fittings which do not require removal of the cover or a portion
thereof.
SAE 100R2:
The hose shall consist of an inner tube of oil resistant synthetic rubber, steel wire
reinforcement according to hose type as detailed below, and an oil and weather resistant
synthetic rubber cover. A ply or braid of suitable material may be used over the inner tube
and/or over the wire reinforcement to anchor the synthetic rubber to the wire.
Type A: This hose shall have two braids of wire reinforcement.
Type AT: This hose shall be of the same construction as Type A, except having a cover
designed to assemble with fittings which do not require removal of the cover or a portion
thereof.
SAE 100R5:
The hose shall consist of an inner tube of oil resistant synthetic rubber and two textile
braids separated by a high tensile steel wire braid. All braids are to be impregnated with
an oil and mildew resistant synthetic rubber compound.
SAE 100R9:
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Type A: This hose shall consist of an inner tube of oil resistant synthetic rubber, 4-spiral
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plies of wire wrapped in alternating directions, and an oil and weather resistant synthetic
rubber cover. A ply or braid of suitable material may be used over the inner tube and/or
over the wire reinforcement to anchor the synthetic rubber to the wire.
Type AT: This hose shall be of the same construction as Type A, except having a cover
designed to assemble with fittings which do not require removal of the cover or a portion
thereof.
Hose Parameters:
i. Dash size- Pipes are represented generally in dash no. E.g. 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 16, 20, 24,
32, 48, 64.
ii. Inside diameter- Inner dia. of hose=dash no. ÷ 16 (in inches)
iii. Reinforcement over diameter
iv. Maximum working pressure
v. Minimum bend radius
vi. Burst pressure
Hose failure due to:
1. Using wrong hose for the job.
2. Improper assembly & installation.
3. External damage.
4. Faulty hose.
5. Faulty equipments.
PRECAUTIONS WHILE MOUNTING HOSES:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
The hose should be provided in the end filling properly.
It should be made long enough without tension.
It should be avoided to exceed the min bend radius.
Twisted hose should not be installed.
At vibrated place the hoses should be secured with proper packing.
FITTINGS:
Hose fittings may be either reusable (screw-together, bolt-together, etc.) or non reusable
(crimp or swage). It is recommended that hose fittings have a swivel nut or an SAE split
flange on each end so that hose assembly does not have to be turned or twisted for proper
installation.
Two types of fittings are manufactured for hoses:
1. Swaged type or crimped type- which is non reusable.
2. Detachable type which has as socket and threaded nipple. This fitting can be used
again and again until hose wear out or damages. The socket grips the hose & a nipple
is inserted into this hose & screwed into the socket. This gives a firm strong
attachment of the hose to the fittings.
PRECAUTIONS WHILE PROVIDING FITTING ON HOSE:1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
The place of work should be cleaned first.
Rubber and wire cuttings should not be left in pipes.
Before providing fitting compressed air should be passed through pipes.
The other end of the pipe should not be left loose on the ground.
After preparing the pipe compressed air should be passed through pipes to remove
any foreign material remaining inside.
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SUB-DISCIPLINE: HYDRAULICS (LESSONS: 16 SESSIONS: 21)
Documents
Lesson-V: Hydraulic Seal and
Ring Session-5: Functions, Types, Precautions during
providing hydraulic Seals, Causes of
Failure..
___________________________________________________________________________
FUNCTION:
Seals are required to maintain pressure, to prevent fluid loss and to keep out contamination.
Excessive leakage any where in a hydraulic circuit reduces efficiency and result in power
loss. Mostly hydraulic components are built with operating clearances which allow a certain
amount of internal leakage for lubrication purpose. Additional internal leakage occurs when
component begins to wear. Internal leakages may cause temperature rise of hydraulic oil.
TYPES:
There are various types of seals used in hydraulic components.
(a)
(b)
Positive seals
These prevent even a minute amount of fluid from getting
past.
Non positive seals These allow a small amount of material leakage, such as the
clearance of a spool in its bore to provide a lubricating film.
(C) Dynamic seals
(d)
Static seals
These are installed between parts which do move relative to
one another, thus one of the part must rub against seal.
Therefore, these seals are subject to wear.
A seal that is compressed between two rigidly connected
parts like flange joints. These do not wear fast and usually
remain trouble free.
O-Ring Seals:
Probably the most common seal in use in modern hydraulic equipment is the O-ring. And Oring is a molded, synthetic rubber seal which has a round cross-section in the free state. The
O-ring is installed in an annular groove machined into one of the mating parts. At installation,
it is compressed at both the inside and outside diameters. However, it is a pressure-actuated
seal as well as a compression seal. Pressure forces the O-ring against one side of its groove
and outward at both diameters. It thus seals positively against two annular surfaces and one
flat surface. Increased pressure results in a higher force against the sealing surfaces. The Oring, therefore, is capable of containing extremely high pressure. O-rings are used principally
in static applications. However, they are also found in dynamic applications where there is a
short reciprocating motion between the parts. They are not generally suitable for sealing
rotating parts or for applications where vibration is a problem.
Backup (Non extrusion) Rings:
At high pressure, the O-ring has a tendency to extrude into the clearance space between the
mating parts. This may not be objectionable in a static application. But this extrusion can
cause accelerated wear in a dynamic application. It is prevented by installing a stiff backup
ring in the O-ring groove opposite the pressure source. If the pressure alternates, backup rings
can be used on both sides of the O-rings.
T-Ring Seals:
The T-ring seal is used extensively to seal cylinder pistons, piston rods, and other
reciprocating parts. It is constructed of synthetic rubber molded in the shape of a
, and
reinforced by backup rings on either side. The sealing edge is rounded and seals very much
like an O-ring. Obviously, this seal will not have the O-ring s tendency to roll. The T-ring is
not limited to short-stroke applications.
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Lip Seals:
Lip seals are low-pressure dynamic seals, used principally to seal rotating shafts. A typical lip
seal is constructed of a stamped housing for support and installation alignment, and synthetic
rubber or leather formed into a lip which fits around the shaft. Often there is a spring to hold
the lip in contact with the shaft. Lip seals are positive seals. Sealing is aided by pressure up to
a point. Pressure on the lip (or vacuum behind the lip) balloons it out against the shaft for a
tighter seal. High pressure cannot be contained because the lip has no backup. In some
applications, the chamber being sealed alternates from pressure to vacuum condition. Double
lip seals are available for these applications to prevent air or dirt from getting in and oil from
getting out.
Cup Seals:
A cup seal is a positive seal used on many cylinder pistons. It is pressure actuated in both
directions. Sealing is accomplished by forcing the cup lip outward against the cylinder barrel.
This type of seal is backed up and will handle very high pressures. Cup seals must be
clamped tightly in place. The cylinder piston actually is nothing more than the backing plate
and retainers that hold the cup seals.
Piston Rings:
Piston rings are fabricated from cast iron or steel, highly polished, and sometimes plated.
They offer considerably less resistance to motion than leather or synthetic seals. They are
most often found on cylinder pistons.
One piston ring does not necessarily form a positive seal. Sealing becomes more positive
when several rings are placed side by side. Very high pressures can be handled.
Choice Of Seal:
A seal should have effective performance which has become a challenge of the high working
pressure and fast cylinder speed. The choice of the seal is guided by following:i. Surface finish
ii. Loads
iii. Temperature
iv. Pressure
A seal may be of very good quality, but its surface life does not depend merely on seal
material but is greatly influenced by surface finish and method of installation.
SEAL MATERIAL:- PTFE (Poly Tetra Fluoro Ethylene) SEAL
The material did not exhibit any change whatsoever when subjected to practically all known
chemicals and its surface was so smooth that hardly any foreign substances remained.
Moisture and solar radiation (sunshine) caused neither volumetric change nor disintegration
and brittleness. The crystalline change associated with the melting point of the material starts
at 3270C without there being any typical thermoplastic liquefaction. For the above reasons,
process technology similar to powder metallurgy is utilized. PTFE powder is compressed into
blocks or rods, sintered and then mechanically machined to the required shapes. Based on
experience over the last 30 years, the materials industry has developed PTFE types that for
certain defined applications can also thermo-plastically processed. The possibility of
compounding i.e. matching physical properties to specific applications through the addition
of fillers, is an important factor for the use of PTFE in the manufacture of seals and guide
elements. In-spite of its remarkable properties, pure unmixed PTFE has limited use for
applications where high mechanical loading is required due to its tendency towards cold
extrusion (creep)
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The influence of filler materials is particularly illustrated by:
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Ø Improvement in the flow strength.
Ø Reduction of friction and wear.
Ø Increase in strength.
Ø Increase in thermal shape stability.
Ø Increase in hardness.
The most important standard fillers are:
Ø Glass fibers
Ø Carbon/Graphite
Ø Molybdenum disulphide (MOS2)
Ø Bronze
Ø Polymers
Ø Pigments
Special characteristics of PTFE:
At low temperatures : Even at -2690C (boiling point of Helium) PTFE still has residual
extensibility, so that it can also be used under extreme conditions, e.g. in space. The
temperature-dependent elongation or shrinking that occurs as with other plastics is reduced
by the fillers.
At high temperatures: PTFE has exceptional thermal resistances, so that it can be used at
temperatures up to 2690C (dependent on working conditions). Fillers have no influence on the
PTFE s own thermal resistance. Most of the fillers are stable up to 4000C, so that they do not
restrict high temperature use.
PRECAUTIONS DURING PROVIDING HYDRAULIC SEALS:
1. A special driver should be used for inserting lip-type shaft seals.
2. Cup seals must be clamped tightly in place.
3. Several piston rings are placed side by side for more positive sealing.
4. The packing is compressed by tightening a flanged follower ring against them.
5. There should be no dent mark on groove where seal is to be provided.
6. Seal of proper size should be used.
7. The operating temperature should always be kept well within the temperature range of
the seals being used. At very low temperatures, a seal may become too brittle and at
too high temperature, a seal may harden, soften or swell.
8. Seal must be lubricated prior to installation, otherwise the seal will wear quickly and
leak.
CAUSES FOR SEAL AND ‘O’ RING FAILURES
1
Freedom to roll
2
Reduced contact area
3
High temperature
4
Poor rubbing surface
5
Eccentricity
6
Side loads
7
Excessive stretching
8
Poor quality of rubber.
Unsatisfactory groove shape and not following the
groove completely causes early wear and leakage.
Due to unsatisfactory design causes single point
contact causing early wear and leakage.
Attacking the rubber material causing early damage.
Unclean surface, scratches on cylinder surfaces cause
seals& O-rings to wear very fast.
Cause loading one side only, due to which the seals
wear on one side and get damaged.
Cause loading one side only, due to which the seals
wear on one side and get damaged.
Less in size as such O-ring have to be stretched too
much causing early wear and sometimes even breaking.
Seals wear due to poor quality of rubber and improper
hardness.
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SUB-DISCIPLINE: HYDRAULICS (LESSONS: 16 SESSIONS: 21)
Documents
Lesson-VI: Hydraulic Pump
Session-6: Definition, Functions and Classification, Working and Construction of
Vane pump & Gear pump, Axial Piston Pump.
___________________________________________________________________________
DEFINITION:
Pump is a device which converts mechanical energy into hydraulic energy. Basically pump
creates flow from hydraulic tank to system.
FUNCTION:
The hydraulic pump in a hydraulic system converts mechanical energy in a drive unit into
hydraulic energy (pressure energy).The pump draws-in hydraulic fluid due to partial vacuum
and drives it out into a system of lines. The resistances encountered by the flowing hydraulic
fluid cause a pressure to build up in the hydraulic system. Thus the fluid pressure in a hyd.
system is not predetermined by the pump. It builds up in accordance with the resistances in
extreme cases until a component is damaged. In practice it is prevented by installing a
pressure relief valve directly after the pump or in the pump housing at which the max
operating pressure recommended for the pump is set.
CLASSIFICATION:
PUMP
NON POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT PUMPS
PUMPS
CENTRIFUGAL
PUMP
VANE
POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT
PROPELLER
PUMP
GEAR GEROTOR LOBE
RADIAL
AXIAL
PUMP PUMP
PISTON
SCREW
PUMP
PUMP
Displacement:
RECIPROCATING
PUMP
PUMP
PISTON
PUMP
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The flow capacity of a pump can be expressed as displacement per revolution or output in
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GPM. Displacement is the volume of liquid transferred in one revolution. It is equal to the
volume of one pumping chamber multiplied by the number of chambers that pass the outlet
per revolution. It is expressed in cubic inches per revolutions.
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EXTERNAL GEAR PUMP:Documents
The pump consists of drive gear and a driven gear and closed in closely fitted housing. The
gears rotate in opposite direction and mesh at a point in housing between inlet and outlet
ports as the teeth of gear separate, fluid is drawn into the inlet chamber, due to partial vacuum
the fluid is trapped between the gear teeth and housing and carried through two separate paths
around the outlet chamber. As the teeth re-mesh, fluid is forced through the outlet port. Close
fit of the gear teeth within the housing is required to provide a seal between inlet and outlet
ports, minimizing internal leakage. High pressure at pump outlet imposes an unbalanced load
on the gears and bearing supporting them. Most gear pump are fixed displacement pump.
Internal leakage increases with wear. However the units are fairly durable and more dirt
tolerant than other type.
VANE PUMP:
Basically this pump consists of a cam ring and a splined drive shaft carrying a slotted rotor.
In each slot of rotor vane is fitted which is free to slide. Thus following the ring profile as the
rotor rotates. The vanes are held against the ring contour by a combination of centrifugal
force and system pressure. Since system pressure is not usually present until the pump
develops flow, centrifugal force is necessary to eject the vanes when the unit is started. Once
the pump is in operation fluid at system pressure is directed to each rotor slot to hold the
vanes against the ring contour. The vanes divide the area between the rotor and cam ring into
a series of varying size of chambers. The pump inlet is situated in that part of pump where the
chambers are expanding in size and the vanes are moving outward from rotor. Fluid is drawn
into the pump by the partial vacuum, caused by this expansion. At the pump outlet the
chambers are reducing in size, the vanes moving inwards and the trapped fluid being forced
through the outlet port..
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AXIAL PISTON PUMP:Documents
The circular arrangement of a piston is located parallel to the drive shaft in a fixed housing.
The pistons run in a cylinder barrel which is firmly attached to the drive shaft by means of a
key. The piston ends are of ball and socket design and run on slipper pads. These are held on
a swiveling swash plate by means of holding discs. On the fixed displacement model the
swash plate form a part of the housing and therefore has a fixed swash angle. On the variable
displacement model the swash plate is built into the housing and can be swashed to angle of ±
150 from centre. The piston travels a stroke relative to the swash angle which determines the
pump displacement. When the swash plate is in centre position i.e. vertical to the drive shaft,
the piston stroke and thus the pump displacement are zero. Swashing the pump over center
changes the direction of flow without changing the direction of rotation. Control of the axial
piston pump via inlets in a port plate. At in any one time four of these moving pistons are
connected via these inlet ports with the tank side. Further four pistons are connected with the
pressure side and displace fluid. A charge pump is mounted on the same shaft of the axial
piston pump. This pump draws oil in from the hyd. tank and supplies it to the hydrostatic
loop to keep it charged. The charge pump relief valve is set at 30 bar. The either ports of the
axial piston pumps are known as low pressure port and high pressure port and denoted by a
letter
&
. In either sides pressure relief valve is provided which is set at certain
pressure to suit that hydraulic circuit. Such relief valves are called cross relief valves.
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SUB-DISCIPLINE: HYDRAULICS (LESSONS: 16 SESSIONS: 1)
Documents
Lesson-VI: Hydraulic Pump.
Session-7: Precautions during mounting, Troubleshooting, Aeration & Cavitation
PRECAUTIONS FOR INSTALLING HYDRAULIC PUMPS:
1) Clean entire oil from tank, remove scaling paint, dirt etc. flush it with fresh oil.
2) Clean the filter (choked filter may cause cavitation.)
3) Check suction and return lines for air Leakages, loose connection and loose connection in
delivery will cause fluid leakage.
4) Sealant tape and shellac with pump should be used while providing fittings on the pump.
5) While assembling direction of rotation should be checked carefully.
6) Suction and delivery ports to be kept in desired directions.
7) All the bolts, O-rings should be properly fitted at proper torque.
8) All blades should be properly fitted. Keeping attention on their direction.
9) All bolts should be properly tightened at a uniform pressure.
10) Oil seal and bearing should be properly fitted.
11) Driving shaft should not be eccentric to the pump shaft.
12) All joints and pipe connection should be preferably applied with hard grease.
13) There should be no seepage form the pipes and pump premises should remain dry.
14) Start the pump at low r.p.m. preferably not more than 1000 r.p.m.
15) Run the pump at this rpm for about 20 min.. and then apply pressure to it.
16) observe the sound if it is taking air the sound is unpleasant and abnormal, at this stage
stop the pump and check for air leakage.
17) If suction pipe is getting squeezed it means suction is choked, stop the pump and check
filter and suction pipe.
18) After applying pressure if there is no sound, see heating effect on the pump this should be
normal.
19) Now the pump is ready for working.
20) Do not start pump immediately after filling the tank a period of at least 12 hrs. so that
entrapped air may escape from the oil. Normal recoupment of oil should also be done
after working hours.
21) During severe winter the pump must run idle before putting load, for 15-30 min., so that
cavitation effect due to high viscosity at lower temperatures is avoided.
22) Max. running temperature of hydraulic fluid for day of working must not cross 800 C.
AERATION:Aeration occurs on account of presence of air in dissolved and free form in the
hydraulic oil and renders the oil spongy. Air is always present in small quantity in the oil say
up to 10% but this increased inclusion of air in oil reduces its lubricating properties and
ultimately reduces the life of the pump.
CAUSES:The following are the reasons of air inclusion in the oil.
1. Low oil level in the reservoir causes whirl pool at the intake and air is sucked by the
pump along with the oil.
2. Restrictions in inlet pipe cause pressure to drop, which helps suction of air into pump.
3. If the return pipe opens above the hydraulic oil level in the reservoir it accompanies
foaming in the tank and air inclusion.
4. Turbulent flow (intake and return) also causes air inclusion.
5. If the filter cartridge joint is not perfectly sealed or there is any void in the suction
line, the pump sucks air through the same.
6. Leaking pump shaft seal, cylinder rod seals or other leaking unnumbered connections
in the intake line cause aeration.
EFFECTS OF AERATION:Aeration causes lack of lubrication, erodes the end plates of
pump and vane tips are also worn out earlier. The vanes bounce and cause irregular ripples on
the inner side of the cam ring. Wearing of these fast moving parts create excessive clearance
between the end plates and rotor as well as between vanes/blades and cam ring and ultimately
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the pressure drops. The pump stops functioning properly and can not build up pressure thus
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the pump reaches a premature death.
CAVITATION:It is a sort of vacuum created in the hydraulic oil which breaks the fluid into
layers or cavities and the fluid does not fill the line perfectly. It can occur equally in pump,
motor or cylinder etc.
CAUSES:The following are the probable causes of cavitations in the pump and other
hydraulic equipments:1. Filter is clogged.
2. Sharp bend in the suction line.
3. Obstruction in suction line.
4. High viscosity hydraulic oil used in machine.
5. Pump inlet is too high above the oil level in the tank.
6. Tank, if not ventilated properly-oil shrinks in volume as it cools.
7. The load is more than the delivery of the pump.
EFFECTS OF CAVITATION:The effects in case of cavitations are similar to those
occurring in aeration i.e.
i. Erosion of end plates.
ii. Rippled cam ring.
iii. Worn-out vanes tips and loose in slots.
iv. Pitting in the cam ring near inlet port.
TROUBLE SHOOTING :
PROBLE M
CAUSES
REMEDIES
1. Pump not delivering 1. Pump driven in wrong 1. We can check the pump rotation
oil.
wrong direction.
by hand priming, pour the oil in
intake port and rotate the shaft and
see if the oil is coming from outlet
or not. If not change the direction
by repositioning the cam
ring
turned by 900.
2. Intake filter or pipe
2. Clean or replace the faulty one.
choked.
3. Oil level too
low in
3. Fill the tank with hydraulic
the tank.
oil.
4.
LESSONPump
shaft or rotor
4. Replace the pump shaft9orHYDRAULIC
rotor broken.VALVESbroken.
5. Air traps in suction 5. Check the
suction line and replace line.
2). Pump making noi- 1). Oil level too low.
hhuhkhytytytyryuyut
se.
1). Fill the tank with hydraulic level
that more air influence is prevented.
2). Restricted or partially 2). Clean or replace the intake
clogged intake filter or filter or line. Suction filter should
line.
be changed in time.
3).Tank is not vented
3).Air breather screening element
properly.
should be cleaned regularly, so that
atmospheric pressure exert effectively on the oil surface in tank and
good suction may take place
4).Viscosity of oil too
4).Use proper grade oil. In winter
high.
Season oil becomes thick so no free
flow takes place, warm up the oil
by starting pump for few minutes.
5).Air leak at pump
5).Check for any loose connection or
intake pipe joints.
joint and tighten them.
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3). Bearing failure.
1). Chips or other contaminants.
2). In adequate lubrication.
3).Pump running too
fast.
4).Excessive or shock
loads.
1). Replace bearing and check source
of contaminants.
2). Excessive heating of oil should
be avoided.
3). Adjust the R.P.M of prime mover
4). Excessive load due to operating
pressure may damage bearing so
reduce operating pressure.
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SUB-DISCIPLINE: HYDRAULICS (LESSONS: 16SESSIONS: 21)
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Lesson-VII: Pressure Control Valve Session-8: Working and Construction of Relief Valve
& Unloader valve, Pressure reducing
valve, Trouble shooting.
HYDRAULIC VALVES:In hydraulic systems, energy is transferred between the pump and
the consuming device along appropriate lines. In order to attain the required values force or
torque, velocity or rpm and to maintain the prescribed operating conditions for the system,
valves are installed in the lines as energy control component. These valves control or regulate
the pressure and the flow rate. In addition each valve represents a resistance.
RELIEF VALVE:
It is found in virtually every hydraulic system. It is a normally closed valve connected
between the pressure line and the tank. Its purpose is to limit pressure in the system to a
preset maximum by diverting some or all of the pump s output to tank when the pressure
setting is reached.
Relief valve consists in two sections (1). Cover section which includes poppet, spring, and
adjusting screw & vent connection. (2). Body section which contains the piston, spring& seat.
The valve pressure setting is determined by the adjusting screw position which varies the
heavy spring compression. The balanced piston is normally held against the set by the light
spring. System pressure is present in lower chamber of piston and also passes to the upper
chamber through a pilot line. With system pressure less than the valve setting the pilot poppet
is held against its seat by spring force. Pressure in both chambers equalizes and the piston is
hydraulically in balance and held against its seat by the light spring.
When system pressure exceeds the heavy spring setting and forces the poppet away from its
seat. Fluid then flows through poppet seat to tank port. The pressure in upper chamber is
limited by the setting of the heavy spring. When pressure in lower chamber exceeds upper
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chamber sufficiently, pressure unbalance overcomes the force of the light spring and lifts the
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piston. Excess fluid then flows past the bottom of the piston to tank. When system pressure
drops below the valve setting, the popper reseats. Control flow through pilot line stops and
pressures in both chambers are again effectively equalized. The light spring then forces the
piston towards the seat when the balanced piston is closed against its seat, the unloading
stops. The pump delivery now goes to the system.
Venting: Relief valves can be vented to unload pump delivery to tank in the manner
connect a shutoff valve to the vent port of the main relief valve. This removes pressure at the
top of the balanced piston. Pressure in the lower chamber overcomes the light spring, unseats
the balanced piston and diverts all the delivery of pump to tank.
UNLOADER VALVE:
An unloader valve is used in accumulator charging circuit to (i) limit max. pressure and. (ii)
unload the pump when the desired accumulator pressure is reached. In construction, it
contains a compound, balance piston relief valve, a check valve to prevent reserve flow from
the accumulator & a pressure operated plunger which vents the valve at the selected pressure.
Normally, the relief valve piston is in balance and is held seated by its light spring. Flow is
through the check valve to the accumulator/system. When preset pressure has been reached,
the relief valve poppet has unseated limiting pressure above piston and on the poppet side of
the plunger. Further increase in system pressure acting on the opposite end of the plunger has
caused it to force the poppet completely off its seat, in effect, venting the relief valve and
unloading the pump. The check valve has closed permitting the accumulator to maintain
pressure in the system.
Because of the difference in area between the plunger & poppet seat (approx. 15%), when
pressure drops to about 85% of the valve setting, the poppet & piston reseat & the cycle is
repeated.
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TROUBLE SHOOTING IN UNLOADER VALVE:
Documents
Sl.No. FAULT
1
No pressure in the circuit
REASON
1. Defective pump
REMEDIES
Check the pump
and replace if
required
2. Leakage in the system Check the leakage
and rectify the
fault
2
3
4
Pump O.K. no leakage in the
system,still no pressure
Pressure does not rise to
required value even after
complete tightening the
control knob
Unloader does not unload
1.Choked up orifice of
main spool
2.Secondary stage vent
open to tank
3.Safety valve at Zero
setting
1.Worn out pump is not
able to push the fluid
against set resistance.
Clean the orifice.
Close the vent
Set safety valve as
per value written
in the circuit.
Replace the
pump.
2. Leakage in the system Check the leakage
and rectify the
fault.
3. Leakage at seat of ball Check the seat and
in control head
ball. If defective
replace it.
4. Safety valve setting
Set safety valve
lower than unloader 10-15 % higher
valve setting
than unloader
setting.
1. Nil or low nitrogen
Check pressure
pressure in the accum- recharge the
ulator
accumulator
2. Punctured bladder
Change the
bladder.
3. Leakage in the system Locate fault and
rectify the
leakage.
4. Less delivery from
Replace the pump
pump than demand of
the circuit.
5. Partial leakage at ball Replace the ball
seat in control head
and seat.
6. Wrong connection of
control head spool
from the system.
Correct the
connection.
7. Vent line of unloader Connect line to
connected to return line. drain line.
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TROUBLESHOOTING IN RELIEF VALVE
Documents
___________________________________________________________________________
Sl. No. FAULT
REASON
REMEDIES
1
No pressure in the circuit
1.Defective pump
Check flow with
flow
the Meter and
replace pump if
Required.
.
2.Leakage in the system Arrest the leakage.
2.
3.
Pump OK & no leakage in sys.
still no pressure.
Pressure does not rise to
required value even after
complete tightening the
control knob.
1.Choked up orifice of
main spool
.
Take out the spool
and clear the
orifice.
2.Secondary stage vent
open to tank
Close the vent
1.Excessive clearance
Replace the
in pump matching parts pump.
due to wear
2. Leakage in the system Check the leakage
& rectify the
fault.
3. Leakage at poppet seat Check the seat and
poppet,if defective
Replace it.
4. Under size valve in
Provide proper
relation to flow of pump. size valve.
4.
Valve sticks
PRESSURE REDUCING VALVE:
1. Valve stressed.
Loosen bolts and
tighten uniformly.
2. Oil temperature too Warm up system by
low.
starting
hydraulic
system.
3. Piping stressed.
Providing
proper
bends in piping.
4. Drain line under Install
line
or
pressure.
separate from return
line.
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Pressure reducing valves are normally open pressure controls used to maintain reduced
pressure in certain portions of the system. They are actuated by pressure sensed in the branch
circuit & tend to close as it reaches the valve setting thus preventing further build-up.The
pilot op. pressure reducing valve has a wider range of adjustment & generally provides more
accurate control. The op. pressure is set by an adjustable spring in the pilot stage in the upper
body. The spool is hydraulically balanced through an orifice in its centre and the light spring
holds it in the wide open position.When pressure has reached the valve setting and the pilot
valve is diverting flow to the drain passage limiting pressure above the spool. Flow through
the orifice in the spool creates a pressure difference that moves the spool up against the
spring force. The spool partially closes the outlet port to create a pressure drop from the
supply to the branch system.
TROUBLE SHOOTING:
Sl.
Problems
Causes
Remedies
No.
1.
Valve flutters
1. Valve seat defective
Exchange parts
2. Pilot control defective
Repair pilot control
3. Oil speed too high
Install valve of greater nominal
size
4. Wrong oil grade
Respect oil recommendations
5. Dirt in system
Flush system if needed pickle
and flush out
6. Damping defective
Repair valve or change spring
2.
Valve sticks
1. Valve stressed
Loosen bolts and tighten
uniformly
2. Oil temperature too low
Warm up system through pump
or install heating
3. Piping stressed
Incorporate balancing bends
4. Drain line lacking or under
Install line or separate form
pressure
return
5. Dirt in system
Flush system or if needed
pickle and flush
6. Wrong oil grade
Respect oil recommendations
7. Water condensation in
Check cooler and check system
system
for condenser effect
8. Oil gumming
Clean spool and if needed
change oil
9. Body parts wrongly fitted
Observe assembly sequence in
service instructions
10. Wrong seals
Replace seals prescribed
3.
Valve does not 1. Valve spring broken
Change spring
function
2. Valve sticks
Establish cause and repair
defect
4.
Valve
1. System temperature too high Observe maximum pressure
overheats
2. Oil speed too high
Install valve of greater nominal
size
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SUB-DISCIPLINE: HYDRAULICS (LESSONS: 16 SESSIONS: 21)
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LESSON-VIII: Direction Control Valve Session-9: Function and Types such as Spring
centered valves; Spring offset valves, Check valve, POC valve, Trouble shooting.
FUNCTION:There are several types of valves in hydraulic system. Some are used to limit
and regulate the pressure, while other controls the direction of fluid flow. The direction of
pressurized fluid is controlled by D.C. valve and thus the direction of movement. They can be
simple check valve, more complicated pilot and solenoid operated valves. It can be manually
or automatically operated. Valve body has a precision machined bore in which a very close
tolerance spool is suspended on a film of hydraulic fluid. Spool lands and body cavities are
designed to divide the bore openings into separate chambers. Ports in the body lead into this
chambers so that spool positions determine which ports are opened or closed.
TYPES:There are three types of D.C. valves:1. Spring centered valve.
2. Spring offset valve.
3. Pilot operated valve.
Spring centered valve:
This valve is provided with spring and centering washer at each end of spool. The spring and
washer centre the spool with in the valve body when solenoids are de-energized where it is
necessary to stop or hold an actuator at some mid point in its travel, a 3 position valve is
used. The third position is achieved by centering springs. Flow conditions in this centre or
neutral position are determined by the work requirement of the system.
Spring offset valve:
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These valves use one solenoid only. Spring returns the spool to offset position when the
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solenoid is de-energized.
Pilot operated valve:
In larger valves much force is required to shift the spool which can not be shifted by 24 V
D.C. Therefore pilot operated D.C valve is used. This valve is operated by pilot pressure
against either spool end. The pilot oil furnished from a small 4 way valve i.e. is pilot valve
which is actuated by solenoids. Thus we may control high flow rates with low solenoid
power. Pilot valve or master valve is mounted on top of the larger slave valve . The normal
position of pilot valve is A B to T.
NON RETURN VALVE (CHECK VALVE):
Non-return valves block the flow in one direction and permit free flow in the other. As there
must be leaks in the closed direction, these valves are always of poppet design and are
constructed according to the following basic principle.
The sealing element (generally a ball or cone) is pressed against an appropriately shaped seat.
The valve is opened by volumetric flow in the flow direction, the sealing element being lifted
from the seat.
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PILOT OPERATED CHECK VALVE:
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Pilot operated check valve designed to permit free flow in one direction and to block return
flow until opened by a pressure signal. This valve is used to support vertical cylinders which
come downwards due to leakage in D.C valve. Normal position of D.C valve is always A B
to tank. It is a variation of directional poppet valve and commonly used in hydraulic system.
It works on the principle that in order to allow and additional flow over the valve seat in
opposite direction a small cylinder with a piston and piston rod acts on the closing part and
lifts it from the seat when pressured the area ratio between control piston and valve seat is the
deciding factor for the operation of valve.
LOGIC VALVE (CARTRIDGE VALVE):
Refinements in hydraulic system development have led to greater use of manifold blocks. A
manifold block greatly reduces the number of fittings required for the interconnecting lines
between components in a system. This eliminates many potential leakage points and reduces
fluid waste from leakage. A cartridge valve is inserted into a standardized cavity in a
manifold block and held in place with either self-contained screw threads or a cover secured
with bolts to complete the cartridge valve design concept.
Cartridge valves are two types: (1) Slip-in cartridge valves and (2) Screw-in cartridge
valves.
Advantages of Cartridge valve:
Cartridge valves provide several advantages over conventional line-or subplatemounted spool-type directional, pressure, and flow control valves. In many applications, the
advantages include:1. Greater system design flexibility.
2. Lower installed cost.
3. Smaller package size.
4. Better performance and control.
5. Improved reliability.
6. Higher pressure capability.
7. More efficient operation.
8. Elimination of external leakage and reduction of internal leakage.
9. Greater contamination tolerance.
10.Faster cycle times.
11.Lower noise levels.
Operation of Slip-in Cartridge Valves:
These valves are used in hook lifting-lowering circuit of Unimat machine. Most Slip-in
cartridge valves are poppet type elements that are normally controlled by another valve to
provide a complete hydraulic function. These valves are similar to poppet check valves and
consist of an insert assembly that slips into a cavity machined into a manifold block. A
control cover bolted to the manifold secures the insert within the cavity. The insert includes a
sleeve, a poppet, a spring and seals.
The cartridge valve insert can be viewed as the main stage of a two-stage valve. It has
two main flow ports,
and
. Drilled passages in the manifold connect the
and
ports to other cartridge or to the operating hydraulic system. Similarly, a drilled pilot passage
in the manifold connects the control port
as desire.
Notice the orifice in the drilled passage between the
port and the spring chamber
AP . The purpose of this orifice is to reduce the speed at which the valve poppet opens and
closes. Various orifice sizes are available to optimize or tune cartridge response in relation to
that of the entire hydraulic system. The hydraulic system designer can select the orifice size
that provides maximum operating speeds with minimum hydraulic shock.
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PRECAUTIONS DURING MOUNTING D.C. VALVE:
Documents
1. On solenoid operated D.C. valve make sure that the electrical ground is connected to
the valve that prevents the possibility of shock hazards developing if a coil were to
short out to the frame
2. The number of bends in tubing should be kept to a minimum to prevent excessive
turbulence and friction of oil flow. Tubing must not be bent too sharply the
recommended radius for bents is three times more than the pipe inside diameter.
3. The selection of valve should be according to the circuit.
4. The normal configuration of valve should be checked. Pour hydraulic oil in P port and
check the position of A, B and T port.
5. O Ring should be checked on the grooves provided between valve and base plate.
TROUBLE SHOOTING
PROBLEM
1.Valve spool stick.
CAUSE
REMEDIES
1). Dirt in the system.
1). Disassemble, clean and re- assemble
2).Body parts wrongly fitted.
2). Fit properly. Clean
3).Rusting due to water
3). Clean or replace if required.
Condensation
4). Solenoids not operated 4). Check electrical supply and source
5). Spool is stressed.
5).Check surface, clean, tighten the bolts.
Oil film should be available between
valve body and spool.
2.Solenoid not function- 1).Faulty electrical circuit. 1). Check and rectify.
ing
2).No current.
2). Check the electrical wires and
supply.
3).Coil burnt out.
3). Replace
3.Leakage in valves
1).Connections not sealed 1).Check and rectify.
2).Wrong seals
2).Replace by proper size.
3).Defective valves, cracks 3).Repair or replace.
.
4. Valve overheats
1) System pressure too
high
2) Wrong oil grade
3) Dirt in the system
4) Faulty electric circuit
5) Spool defective
in body.
Reduce pressure setting
Use proper grade oil
Flush system and clean the valve
Check electric circuit
Repair spool
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SUB-DISCIPLINE: HYDRAULICS (LESSONS: 16 SESSIONS: 21)
Documents
Lesson-IX: Proportional Valve, Servo Valve and Flow Control Valve .
Session-10: Function and Troubleshooting.
FUNCTIONS Of PROPORTIONAL VALVE:
Ø Proportional valves control and vary pressure, flow, direction, acceleration and
deceleration.
Ø They are adjusted electrically are actuated by proportional solenoids.
Ø Output flow is proportional to the input signal.
Ø By varying the input signal solenoid adjusts the spool movement to vary the flow
through the valve.
Ø To control the speed of the spool a gradually increasing or decreasing signal (a ramp
function) is fed to the control amplifier and thus we get a smooth, shock free
movement.
Ø Used for Tamping unit lifting-lowering and satellite drive.
Ø Maximum voltage 24V DC, current range-250mA to 750mA
Ø For Tamping Unit Lowering current-650mA
Ø For Tamping Unit Lifting current-600mA
Working of Proportional Valve:
D.C conventional valves are Yes or No type valve. These valves are completely
OFF or ON type that means either the ports will be completely closed or completely
opened and these types of valves are known as finite positioning valves. During operation the
movement of actuator is not controllable.
To get a controlled and measured amount of actuation, other types of valves known as
proportional valves has been introduced and such valves are known as infinite positioning
valves. These valves are also known as direction cum flow control valve. To get measured
amount of correction or actuation and accordingly the movement of spool of the valve is
proportionate to the current. It means what ever amount of correction or actuation we need.
That only will be done. Neither this will be less nor will be more.
In this valve how much amount of current flow through coil, proportional amount of
fluid will pass through it. It means its operation is proportional to signal it receives i.e. as
movement will be such that it corresponds to the controlling signal. Higher the amounts of
signal, higher the actuation. Lower the amount of signal, lower the actuation will be. So we
need a proportional movement and proportion actuation.
The amount of movement of the spool in either direction is electrical from an
electrical i/p signal. This signal is converted via an electrical amplifier to a current signal to
the relevant solenoid the force generated moves the main spool against the main spring. The
positional transducer then ascertains the actual position of spool and fills this back as a
voltage signal to the amplifier. The input signal and actual values are then compared
electrically. From these two values a signal is generated and fed to the solenoid in order to
give a defined position to the main spool. The main spool has metering slots cut into it which
give a progressive flow characteristic.
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TROUBLESHOOTING OF PROPORTIONAL VALVE:
Documents
Sr.No.
Trouble
1.
Spool sticks
Causes
a) Spool stressed
b) Dirt in the system
c) Body parts wrongly fitted
d)
e)
f)
g)
2.
3.
Wrong seals
Oil temperature too high
Spool defective
Return pipe under high
pressure
Proportional valve does a) Proportional solenoid
not function.
defective
b) Electric circuit faulty
c) Proportional filter
clogged
d) No current
Proportional valves
overheat.
a) Oil temperature too high
b)
c)
d)
e)
Wrong oil grade
Dirt in the system
Faulty electrical circuit
Spool defective
Rectification
Loosen union and tighten
uniformly.
Clean the valve and flush
the system.
Dismantle valve, observe
assembly sequence and
reassemble.
Replace seals prescribed.
Check cooling circuit.
Repair or replace.
Dismantle the connection
and clean. If required lead
pipe separately to tank.
Replace.
Check circuit & PCB.
Replace.
Check electrical
installation.
Check cooling circuit,
reduce pressure setting.
Use recommended oil.
Flush system.
Check and rectify.
Repair or replace.
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FUNCTIONS OF SERVO VALVE:
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Ø
Ø Servo valve is a directional valve that may be infinitely positioned to control of both
Ø
Ø
Ø
Ø
Ø
Ø
Ø
Ø
Ø
Ø
Ø
Ø
Ø
Ø
Ø
Ø
Ø
Ø
Ø
Ø
Ø
Ø
the amount and the direction of the flow. A servo valve coupled with the proper
feedback sensing devices provides very accurate control of the position, velocity, or
acceleration of an actuator.
Small input signal causes a large output of hyd. Power.
A low power control signal can produce output of several hundreds horse-power.
In airplanes, jet planes servo valves are used for fast response.
Used in lifting and lining circuit in 09 CSM, 09-3X, Unimat-3X, new Duomatic.
For track lifting 2nos and for alignment- 1no servo valve is provided.
Voltage-3V DC, Current-15mA.
Contaminated oil is not desirable.
Maintain the oil cleanliness to NAS-5 class.
Before installing the servo valves flush the system.
Filter should be replaced in non-contaminated atmosphere.
Null should be adjusted properly, if null gets disturbed.
Working of servo valve:
Servo valve consist of an electrical torque motor, nozzle flexure tube, flapper and sliding
spool. In the torque motor there are upper and lower pole plates, permanent magnet and an
armature. The armature is supported for limited movement by a flexure tube. The flexure tube
acts as a seal between the electromagnetic and hydraulic portion of the valve. The coils
surround the armature one on each side. The flapper is rigidly attached to centre of armature.
The flapper extends down inside and passes between two nozzle tips and flapper. Flapper
motion varies the nozzle openings. The pressurized oil is supplied to each nozzle through a
filter and inlet orifices. Differential pressures caused by flapper movement between the
nozzles are applied to the ends of the valve spool. Due to nozzle area difference force
develops accordingly more on one side and spool is shifted and
may connect A or B
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depending upon our requirement. A feed back wire is deflected by spool movement so that
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feed-back torque is applied to the armature.
Input signal in the torque motor coils causes clockwise or anticlockwise torque on the
armature. This torque displaces the flopper between the two nozzles. Thus pressure difference
is created due to area difference in nozzle and moves the spool either left or right. The spool
displacement causes a force in feed back wire, which opposes the input signal torque. Spool
movement continues until the feed-back wire force equals the input signal force. So the spool
stops and remains displaced until electrical input changes to a new level. The actual flow
from the valve to the load will depend upon the load pressure. In neutral position leakage rate
is 0.005 cc/sec.
TROUBLESHOOTING OF SERVO VALVE:
Sr.
Fault
Causes
No.
1.
Servo valve spool sticks.
a) Feed tube dirty
b) Fine filter dirty
c) Mechanical return sticks
d) Valve stressed
2.
Servo valve does not
function.
a) Electric circuit defective
b) Rotary magnet system
defective
c) No differential current
d) No pressure
e) Oil gummy
f) Oil temperature too high
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
High null basis (High
input current required to
maintain the hydraulic
cylinder stationary)
Out flow obtain from one
part only
Low flow gain (Problem
in getting high speed)
High threshold (jerky,
hunting motion)
Servo valve overheats.
g) Servo filter clogged
a) Incorrect Null
adjustment
b) Partially plugged inlet
orifice assembly
c) Partially plugged filter
element.
d) Partially plugged Nozzle
Plugged inlet orifice
Check system for dirt and
clean filter.
Check system for dirt and
clean filter
Valve should be dismantled.
Loosen unions and tighten
uniformly
Check electric circuit.
Repair system or replace
torque motor.
Check electrical installation.
Check pump and relief valve.
Clean valve, flush system and
change oil if needed.
Check cooling circuit, check
for any line restrictions and
reduce pressure setting.
Replace filter.
Readjust the null.
Clean the inlet.
Replace the filters element.
Servicing required.
Clean inlet orifice.
Plugged button filter
Replace the filter element.
Sticky spool
Servicing.
a) Wrong current
b)
c)
d)
e)
Rectification
Mechanical return sticks
System pressure too high
Wrong oil grade
Dirt in system
Check current use servo valve
tester.
Needs opening valve.
Reduce pressure settings.
Respect oil recommendations.
Flush the system.
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FLOW CONTROL VALVE :By controlling the rate of flow in a hydraulic circuit, it s
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possible to control the speed of hydraulic cylinder or motors. A more typical method is to use
a flow control valve. By varying the size of opening, one can vary the amount of oil entering
the cylinder and thus control its speed. Three factors affect flow rate: pressure, fluid
temperature, and orifice size. If any one of these factors is increased, the flow rate increases.
TYPES:Control of flow in hydraulic circuits can be accomplished with a meter-in circuit, a
meter-out circuit or a bleed-off circuit.
Meter-In circuit:
In meter-in operation, the flow control valve is placed between the pump and actuator.
In this way, it controls the amount of fluid going into the actuator. Pump delivery in excess of
the metered amount of diverted to tank over the relief valve.
Meter-in circuit can only be used with opposing loads. If the load tends to run away, it
would pull the cylinder piston ahead of the oil supply; and since the exhaust flow has a free
path back to tank, the meter-in circuit could not prevent the load from running away.
Meter-Out circuit:
The flow control is on the outlet side of the cylinder to control the flow coming out.
This is known as a meter-out circuit. If the flow control were closed completely, the oil could
not exhaust from the cylinder and it could not move. Regulating the size of the opening
controls the flow rate and thus the speed of the cylinder. Although metering into the cylinder
is fine with an opposing load, but if the load tends to run away, a better way is to meter out.
In fact, a meter-out circuit works if the load pushes or pulls.
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Bleed-Off circuit:
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The flow control is simply bleed off the main line to control cylinder speed. For
instance, with the flow control completely closed, the full flow from the pump would go into
the cylinder. However, the moment the flow control is opened up, some bleed off of that
pump delivery occurs and the cylinder starts to slow down. Adjusting the size of the opening
will bleed off any amount necessary to control how fast the cylinder moves. In the case,
unlike the meter-in or meter-out circuits, there is no excess flow going over the relief valve
and the pump operates at only the pressure that is needed to move the work load on the
cylinder, which saves energy. The bleed-off circuit will not prevent a load from running
away. As with meter-in circuit, it can be used with opposing loads only.
TROUBLESHOOTING IN FLOW CONTROL VALVE:
Sr.No. Fault
1.
Device does
not function
Causes
a) Device stressed
b) Seat defective
c) Throttle valve defective
d) Non-return valve sticks
e) Fine throttle-valve sticks
f) Compensator mechanism
defective
g) Piston sticks
h) Spring broken
i) Corrosion on setting
mechanism
j) Wrong choice of device
Rectification
Loosen bolt and tighten
uniformly.
Exchange seat.
Exchange cone.
Check cone and seat, if needed
exchange it.
Exchange restrictor
Disassemble controller and
exchange defective parts.
Check system for dirt,
exchange piston.
Exchange spring.
Clean if needed change.
Install controller of correct
nominal size.
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SUB-DISCIPLINE: HYDRAULICS (LESSONS: 16 SESSIONS: 21)
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Lesson-X: Accumulator Session-11: Functions, Types, Working of Bladder & Diaphragm
Type Accumulator, Charging of Accumulator.
INTRODUCTION:
Unlike gases, which are compressible and can be stored for a period of time, hydraulic fluids
are usually incompressible. Accumulators provide a way to store these fluids under pressure.
Hydraulic fluid enters the accumulator chamber and acts on a piston or bladder area to either
rise the weight or compress a spring or a gas. Any tendency for pressure to drop at the
accumulator inlet forces fluid back out into the system.
In many hydraulic circuits, the demand of pressurized oil is not constant. The demand of
pressurized oil may be temporarily so great that pump cannot supply it alone and one or
several motions will be starved of oil and machine will slow down or the system pressure will
drop or both. One way is the large pump may be provided to supply the maximum demand
need by the system. But it is expensive in both, the initial and running cost. The better way is
to use a pump which can supply the average demand of oil and put one or more accumulators
in the system. The pump can recharge the accumulator during the idle period.
FUNCTIONS:
1. It acts as an emergency unit. In case of sudden power loss e.g. pipe or joint failure,
pump breakdown etc. the accumulator can provide sufficient energy to complete an
operational cycle.
2. As a leakage compensator. Oil reserve for maintaining pressure to compensate
leakage losses and to maintain pressure for longer period.
3. As an anti vibration device. It prevents pressure knocks and unpleasant operating
noise resulting from system. Rapid valve closer can produce shock waves resulting
in over pressurization of pipes, joints, valves, etc. The accumulator can neutralize or
reduce the shock.
TYPES:
11..
22..
33..
44..
55..
Weight type
Spring type
Piston type
Bladder type
Diaphragm type
WORKING OF BLADDER OR DIAPHRAGM TYPE ACCUMULATOR:
Operation of an accumulator is automatic. A combination of oil (which is non-compressible)
and nitrogen gas (which can both expand and compress) make the accumulator work. When
the oil pressures rises, incoming oil compresses the gas. When oil pressure drops, the gas
expands forcing out oil. The gas is separated from the oil by bladder. This prevents mixing
of the gas and oil and keeps gas out of the hydraulic system. Oil forces the bladder to
compress until the resistance of gas is equal to oil pressure. When the hydraulic system needs
oil, the compressed gas inside the bladder forces oil to maintain the system flow. The bladder
is precharged through the valve core with nitrogen gas. The other end of accumulator
contains the oil valve which connects the hydraulic circuit. A rubber sealing ring is provided
near at the oil valve to protect the bladder during operation.
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QUICK CHECK FOR NITROGEN PRESSURE:
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1. Start the engine so that hydraulic pump supplies pressurized oil to the accumulator.
2. Close the pressurized oil supply to the system.
3. Connect the pressure gauge provided in the circuit (driving cabin) to indicate the
hydraulic pressure.
4. Stop the engine immediately and keep on watching the pressure gauge. The gauge
needle starts coming down slowly.
5. The pressure gauge needle stops momentarily at a place (pressure) and then
immediately comes down to zero.
6. The pressure shown by the gauge needle at this momentary stoop over accumulator
which should not be less than 80 atmospheres.
CHECKING AND FILLING WITH CHARGING UNIT:
Make sure that Hydraulic pressure is released from the system before attempting to fill or
check the Accumulator for Nitrogen.
PROCEDURE:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Remove the protecting cap from top of accumulator.
Remove the closing nipple from the Accumulator gas valve.
Close the venting screw on the charging unit. Turn the handle fully clockwise.
Turn the spindle on filler head fully anticlockwise.
Connect the filler head to the gas valve and by turning knur clockwise.
Connect the charging unit to nitrogen bottle and tighten nut.
For checking only nitrogen bottle is not necessary. On new types of charging units a
check valve prevents a gas return flow from the accumulator.
8. Turn the spindle on filler head gently clock wise.
9. Read the existing nitrogen pressure in the accumulator on pressure gauge.
10. If a recharging is necessary, open the bottle valve gently until a filling pressure of
90 atm is reading. Shut the bottle valve properly again.
11. Open gently the venting screw on the charging until the required pressure 80 atm is
reading on the pressure gauge. Shut the venting screw properly again.
12. Remove the charging unit from the nitrogen bottle.
13. Turn the spindle on filler head fully anticlockwise.
14. Release nitrogen pressure left in the charging unit by opening the venting screw.
15. Disconnect the charging unit from the gas valve on the accumulator.
16. Check the sealing of the gas valve.
17. Fit the closing nipple on to the gas valve and also the protecting cap.
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SUB-DISCIPLINE: HYDRAULICS (LESSONS: 16 SESSIONS: 21)
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Lesson-XI: Hydraulic Cylinder
Session-12: Function, Types and Parts
FUNCTIONS:Cylinders are drive components which converts hydraulic power in to
mechanical power. They generate linear movement through the pressure on the surface of the
movable piston. Cylinders are linear actuators.
Construction:A hydraulic actuator constructed of piston or plunger operating in a cylinder
housing or tube by energy laden liquid is known as cylinder. The piston of a cylinder is
provided either with seals or piston ring to impart sealing effect with inner surface of the
cylinder tube and stands for the efficiency of the cylinder. The efficiency of a cylinder is
reduced as soon as the seals/rings start wearing resulting in internal leakage of the fluid. The
rod of the piston is also provided with seal and scraper arrangement to stop out flow of liquid
form cylinder and wiping out dust etc., from the piston rod.
The cylinder barrel/tube is generally seamless steel tube which has been cold worked and
steel piston rod is highly polished usually hard chrome plated to resist puffing and scoring.
This piston is generally made out of brass or cast iron.
The seals provided are made out of oil and heat resistant synthetic rubbers like Nit rile, Neopreen and Buna-N. For high temperature working Viton is much suitable. These days
polyurethane finds good use in manufacture of seals which are not only heat and oil resistant
but wear very slowly which reduces maintenance problem to the minimum.
TYPES:
1. Ram type: It is perhaps simplest actuator. It has only one fluid chamber and exerts
force in only one direction, most are mounted vertically and retract by the force of
gravity on the load. Ram type cylinders are used in elevators jacks and automobile
hoists.
2. Single acting cylinders: A single acting cylinder has only one port allowing
pressurized oil for its actuation. The return stroke of the piston or plunger is achieved
either by gravitational action or spring force releasing the oil back to the tank. The oil
flow in single acting cylinder is controlled by reversing directional control valve.
3. Double acting cylinders: A doubling acting cylinders has got two ports through
which oil flow is controlled by directional control valve (generally solenoid valve) in
such a way that if one of the two ports is connected to the in flow of liquid from pump
the other is connected for back flow to tank and vice-versa. Such cylinders are called
differential cylinders.
4. Telescopic cylinders: A telescopic cylinder is used where collapsed length must be
shorter than could be obtained with a standard cylinder upto 4 to 5 sleeves can be
used.
5. Double rod cylinders: Cylinder has two equal power stroke. Such cylinders are
called non-differential cylinder as they have equal areas on either side.
CYLINDER CUSHION:
Cylinder cushion are often provided either or both ends of a cylinder to slow it down near the
end of stroke to prevent the piston from hammering. Deceleration begins when the tapered
cushion ring or plunger enters the cap and begin to restrict exhaust flow from the barrel to
port. During the final fraction of the stroke the exhaust oil must discharge through an
adjustable orifice. The cushion feature also includes a check valve to by pass the orifice
during its return stroke.
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ESSENTIAL PARTS OF A CYLINDER:
1. BARRELS: Barrels are usually seamless tubings, honed to a fine on the inside, bore to be
parallel and without longitudinal scratches. Other wise oil will leak from one side to other
during working due to high working pressure and frequent bursting of seals will occur.
2. PISTON: Piston usually made of cast iron or steel, incorporate seals to reduce leakage
between it and cylinder barrel. Step cut automotive type piston rings are used where some
leakage can be tolerated.
3. END CAPS: The end caps plug the barrel ends and provide cylinder ports. These are
secured with the help of tie bolts.
4. SEALS: Various types of seals are used in the cylinder to prevent leakage and
contaminants.
CYLINDER MOUNTINGS:
The main function of a cylinder mount is to provide a means of anchoring the cylinder. There
are variety of ways to mount the cylinder including the tie rod, bolt mount, flange, trunnion,
side lug and side tapped, and clevis. Rod ends are generally, threaded for attachment directly
to the load or to accept a clevis, yoke or similar coupling device.
CYLINDER RATINGS:
The ratings of a cylinder include its size and pressure capability. Main features arei. Piston diameter
ii. Piston rod diameter
iii. Stroke length
Cylinder speed, the output force available, and the pressure required for a given load all
depend on the piston area, when extending the rod. When retracting the rod, the area of the
rod must be subtracted from the piston area.
To find the speed of a cylinder when size and gpm delivery are known, use the following
formula:
Speed (Inches Per Minute) =
GPM X
231
Effective Piston Area in Sq. In.
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SUB-DISCIPLINE: HYDRAULICS (LESSONS: 16 SESSIONS: 21)
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Lesson-XII: Hydraulic Motor Session-13: Definition, Working of Vane motor, Gear motor
and. Axial Piston motor, Troubleshooting.
DEFINITION:Hydraulic motor converts the movement (Kinetic energy and pressure
potential energy) of a stream of hydraulic fluid in the continuous rotating force or movement.
More specifically the kinetic energy of a fluid is converted into the kinetic energy of a fluid is
converted into the kinetic energy of a rotating shaft in a hydraulic motor. The output of the
shaft is the point where the motor is connected to the machine or device to be operated. The
pressure of the fluid admitted to the motor determines its force or output. Motor s rating is
represented in torque, GPM, cubic inches/rev A hydraulic motor converts hydraulic energy
into mechanical energy. It is a rotary actuator. In construction it is almost some as hydraulic
pump. The gear s, rotor are pushed by pressurized fluid and torque is developed i.e.
continuous rotating motion is developed hydraulic motor s are externally drained Hydraulic
motors are rated according to displacement (size),torque capacity, speed and maximum
pressure limitations.
CLASSIFICATION OF HYDRAULIC MOTORS:
Hydraulic motors can be classified by application into three categories:
(1) High Speed, Low Torque Motors (HSLT)-in line piston motor , bent-axis
motor vane motor and gear motor.
(2) Low speed, High Torque Motors (LSHT)-internal gear motor, vane rolling
motor radial piston motor and axial ball piston motor.
(3) Limited Rotation Motors (Torque Actuators)
TYPES OF MOTORS:
1.Gear motors including external and internal (gerotor and rolator or orbital) motors
2.vane motors including unbalanced, balanced, fixed, variable and cartridge (high
performance) types
3.piston motors-including in-line, bent-axis, and radial motors (fixed, variable and cam
type)
4.screw motors5.Torque Generators including
WORKING:
1. Gear motor:
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A gear motor develops torque through pressure on the surfaces of gear teeth. The two
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gears mesh and rotate together, one gear coupled to drive shaft. The displacement of a
gear motor is fixed and is equal to volume between two teeth multi plied by number
of teeth. Generally gear s are not in balance with respect to pressure at the outlet
result in high side loads on the shaft and gears as well as the bearings. Gear motor s
are simple and more dirt tolerant.
2. Vane motor:
In vane motor torque is developed by pressure on exposed surface of rectangular
vanes, which slides in and out of slots in a rotor to drive shaft. As the rotor turns the
vanes follow the surface of cm ring, carrying the fluid from inlet to outlet. In
operation pressure under the vanes also holds them in contact with cam ring some
devices are used to hold the vanes, may be spring clips or small springs beneath each
vane pushing it out.
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AXIAL PISTON MOTOR:
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The axial piston motor is an energy converter with an axial piston arrangement in a barrel
shaped body in swash plate-design motor circular arrangement of 9 pistons is located parallel
to the drive shaft in a fixed housing. The pistons run in a cylinderal barrel which his firmly
fixed to the drive shaft by means of a key. The piston ends or of burn and surface design and
run on slipper pads. These are held on a swiveling but not rotating swash plate by means of
holding discs. On the fixed displacement model the swash plate forms a part of the housing
and therefore has a fixed swash angle which determines the pump displacement. The function
of hydraulic motor is the reverse of that of the pump. Energy laden fluid is directed to the
hydraulic motor while fluid is being directed at atmospheric pressure from a tank to the pump
which then receives a specific amount of energy via the drive motor and the fluid is supplied
to the system as pressure fluid. By charging the direction of the active components of this
pressure fluid, hydraulic energy is converted into mechanical energy (as a torque) via the
driven shaft (31). The energy- free fluid is now returned from the hydraulic motor to the tank.
On this particular design too, 4 pistons are pressurized 4 are connected to the tank, and 1 is in
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an intermediate position. The bores in the pistons leading to the ball and socket serve to
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reduce the high surface pressure in the ball and socket and on the sliding disc that is to say
they serve to provide a hydro-static bearing. For special applications these hydraulics motors
can also be equipped with any of the control and regulating devices
BENT AXIS DESIGN MOTOR:
The axial piston motor of bent axis design is an energy converter which converts the energy
of the input fluid via a rotary movement into a torque on the driven shaft. The output speed is
proportional to the displacement on the so called swept volume, and the torque is
proportional to the operating pressure for to be more to the pressure drop between the inlet
and outlet. As a rule motors with fixed displacement that is with a fixed swivel angle are
used. Variable displacement units are, however, used in some applications.
The rotary group takes from of a complete interchangeable unit and consists of the angled
barrel type body with output shaft, supported in the housing by robust bearings.
Pressure oil is supplied via the spherical port plate and those pistons not connected, the
hydraulic energy being transmitted to the driven shaft by means of the stroke and output force
of 3 pistons are converted into a torque. The now energyless fluid is returned to the tank by
means of the return stroke of the 3 pressure unloaded pistons. The seventh piston remains in
the crossover position. Due to the spherical design of the port plate torque free bearing of the
barrel body is always given, even with maximum loading, the resulting forces in the motor
housing being fully absorbed.
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MOUNTING PRECAUTION:
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1. Motor s rating should be according to the work load.
2. All hydraulic connections must be tight. Loose connections will permit air to be
drawn into the system causing noisy and erratic operation or will permit the
hydraulic fluid to leak out.
3. Incoming and outgoing ports should be kept in desired direction.
4. All mounting screws should be properly tightened to prevent misalignment of shaft
connections.
5. Shaft connecting devices such as keys, collars, etc. must be properly seated to avoid
slippage and possible shearing of the shaft.
6. Tubing must not be bent too sharply. The minimum radius for bends is three times
the inside diameter of the tube.
7. Sometimes motor is mounted indirectly to work load using pulleys and V-belts or
chain or spur gear arrangements. Because of slippage possibilities flat belts must not
be used. It is important to check for correct alignment and excessive belt tension.
This is necessary to prevent excessive side loads imposed on the drive shaft
bearings.
TROUBLE SHOOTING:
PROBLEMS
1. Motor not running
2. Slow motor operation.
CAUSES
1. No incoming pressure
REMEDIES
1. Check pump and relief
valve.
2. Shaft seizure due to 2. Align correctly the shaft
misalignment.
with work load.
3. Shaft seizure due to 3. Check load and load
excessive load.
capacity of motor.
4. Too much play in the 4. Replace bearing.
shaft.
5. Oil spill at motor.
5. Check if port plate is in
contact.
6. O-ring on port plate 6. Replace O-ring.
effective.
7. Motor type too small.
7. Replace for larger type.
1. Inlet pressure too low.
1. Increase pressure by
setting relief valve.
2. Motor parts defective
2. Replace defective parts.
3. Oil temperature too high.
3. Check for line restrictions,
wrong fluid viscosity and
also check cooling circuit.
4. Outlet pressure too high
4. Check outlet line
5. Port plate does not make 5. Disassemble motor and
contact.
repair.
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Complete Lesson-XIII: Demonstration of Hydraulic Transparent Models
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Session-14: Hydraulic motor, D.C. Valves, Cylinder, Accumulator, Pressure Gauge, Pressure
control valves, Flow control valve, Check Valve, Pilot Operated Check Valve etc.
Demonstration of internal detail of working of above said components is done and explained
Lesson-XIV: Practical Disassembly & Assembly of Hydraulic Components in Model Room
Session-15: Vane pump and Vane motor.
Session-16: Axial Piston pump.
Session-17: D.C. valve, Proportional valve, Servo valve.
Session-18: Relief valve and Unloader valve.
Lesson-XV: Hydraulic Circuits.
Session-19: Constant pressure circuit, Closed loop circuit, Regenerating circuit of 3X, CSM, DUO,
Unimat.
Lesson-XVI: Demonstration of Hydraulic Equipment Sets.
Session-20: Demonstration of Hydraulic circuits using FluidsimH Software & Work exercises.
Session-21: Demonstration of Hydraulic circuits using FluidsimH Software & Work exercises.
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SUB-DISCIPLINE: PNEUMATICS (LESSONS: 04 SESSIONS: 05)
Lesson-I: Pneumatic Symbols, Session-22: Pneumatics symbols and Application of air on
Track machines
PNEUMATIC SYSTEM:-The word pneumatic has been derived from Greek word. Which
refers to flow of air and now a days it includes flow of any gas. In a system under pressure.
The pneumatic power is used in industry, workshop and machine to perform various jobs.
Broadly speaking the pneumatic power is covered under the heading fluid power. One of
which is hydraulic which utilizes water or oil for power transmission and other is pneumatic
system that uses gas or compressed air by transmitting the force on track machine we are
concerned with the compressed air for pneumatic system. The most common source of
pneumatic is compressor which is responsibly for developing compressed air and its
utilization for various purposes on machine.
PNEUMATIC SYMBOLS:
Compressor
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APPLICATION OF PNEUMATIC POWER:1. Application of brakes.
2. Locking & unlocking of tamping unit, lifting unit, boogies.
3. Lifting and lowering of different bogies.
4. Clapper cylinder.
5. Pneumatic horn.
6. Lubricating system.
7. Application of datum.
8. Wiper.
9. Tightening of leveling / chord/ lining/ chord.
10. Filling the diesel tank.
11. Spray painting.
12. Engaging / disengage pinion to satellite gear.
13. Engaging / disengage the dog clutch
for work drive in CSM /UNIMAT.
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SUB-DISCIPLINE: PNEUMATICS (LESSONS: 04 SESSIONS: 05)
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Lesson-II: Pneumatic Components, Session-23: Working and maintenance of Air
Compressor, Cooling Coil, Safety valve, Air dryer, Water separator, Air oiler, DC Valve,
Cylinder and Pneumatic hoses.
AIR COMPRESSOR:Compressor is a machine which converts air at atmospheric pressure
into high pressure by changing its volume. There are two types of compressor
1). Reciprocating Compressor.
2). Rotary compressor.
Compressor can be driven by an electric motor or by a diesel/ petrol engine, which serves as a
prime mover to the pneumatic power unit.
Reciprocating compressor:-A reciprocating compressor can be single or multiple piston
compressors. The more the number of piston in a compressor. the more powerful a
compressor is. The multi piston cylinder block of a compressor has crank shaft having same
number of crank connection has the number of piston and cylinder in it. The crank shaft is
connected to the prime mover .With each cylinder. there are two ports known as inlet and
exhaust port depending on their functions. The compressor unit is provided with a sump for
storing the oil in it for lubricating and cooling of various components of compressor
assembly.When the crank shaft of compressor rotates and the piston of air compressor takes
an inward stroke, atmospheric pressure being higher than the pressure in the compressor
cylinder, the flow of air takes place through the inlet port when the crank rotates further and
piston moves forward stroke, the inlet valve closes and exhaust port opens thus sending the
compressed air to the system/ air container ( air tank ). The compressor reduces the volume of
air thereby increasing its pressure.
If the compressor is a multi stage, one piston sends compressed air to another cylinder and
thus to tank. The capacity of a compressor is depending upon the number of cylinder in it.
The term single or multistage depends upon the no. of stages or steps that a reciprocating
compressor uses to compress air to its final pressure. Single stage compressors are more
economical for a pressure below 100 psi but for higher operating pressure multistage
compressors are more beneficial.
The capacity of a compressor is defined as volume of air displaced per minute. In FPS ( Foot
pound system ) is denoted by CFM ( Cubic ft min ) and in M.K.S is LPM (Liter per min ).
COOLING COIL:-As the compressed air has get its temperature risen due to compression,
the temperature has to be brought down. This is done by cooling coil which is a helical
copper tube by which the cooling coil comes in contact with atmospheric air and therefore the
compressed air inside the cooling coil cools down.
PRESSURE VALVES:Pressure control valves are elements which predominantly influence
the pressure or are controlled by the magnitude of the pressure. They are divided into the
three groups:
1. Pressure regulating valve
2. Pressure limiting valve
3. Pressure sequence valve
PRESSURE REGULATING VALVE:The role of this valve is to maintain constant
pressure even with fluctuating supply. The input pressure must be greater than the required
output pressure.
PRESSURE LIMITING VALVE:The pressure limiting valves are used mainly as safety
valves (pressure relief valves). They prevent the maximum permissible pressure in a system
from being exceeded. If the maximum pressure has been reached at the valve inlet, the valve
outlet is opened and the excess air pressure exhausts to atmosphere. The valve remains open
until it is closed by the built-in spring after reaching the preset system pressure.
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PRESSURE SEQUENCE VALVE:The principle on which this valve acts is the same as for
the pressure limiting valve. If the pressure exceeds that set on the spring, the valve opens.
AIR DRYER:-Condensate (water) enters into the air network through the air intake of the
compressor. The accumulation of condensate depends largely on the relative air humidity.
The relative air humidity is dependent on the air temperature & the weather condition.
The service life of pneumatic system is considerably reduced if excessive moisture is carried
through the air system to the components. Therefore it is important to fit the necessary air
drying equipment to reduce the moisture content to a level which suits the application & the
components used.Drying of the compressed air is a achieved by leading the air flow from
compressor through a desiccant granulate (Means of adsorption). The granules are of
reticulate molecular structure, thus achieving an active surface being large enough to absorb
the moisture out of the air. The drying agent is a granular material (gel) consisting almost of
silicon dioxide.
WATER SEPERATOR:
The presence of moisture results in the following types of after effects on the pneumatic
components and the system is badly affected.
1. Rusting & corrosion.
2. Formation of emulsion.
3. Reduction in lubricating property of oil.
4. Choking of small orifices, valves and system.
So it is imperative that the moisture from the air is removed to avoid crippling of the system.
The first step in process of compressed air after pressure regulation is its filtration or
removal of moisture contents which is harmful not only that it may result in rusting but also it
may form emulsion with lubricating oil which will block the pneumatic assemblies. The air
under pressure enters through inlet of a specially designed water separator having provision
for baffle and quite zone. The water droplets are thrown from air stream by virtue of their
centrifugal force when they strike the deflector with louvers at the entrance. The water
collected at the bottom of quite zone is drained out through the drain tap provided at the
bottom or by removing the transparent bowl container.
AIR OILER:There are certain pneumatic tools and equipments which require lubricated air
to reduce wear and corrosion and there are certain other components which do not tolerate oil
in the air stream. The importance of lubrication can be well imagined as it not only decreases
friction but also prevent corrosion of pneumatic assemblies and simultaneously increases the
efficiency.There are two types:
1. OIL FOG LUBRICATOR:It has a transparent bowl which is filled with oil according to
consumption. It has a siphon tube dipping in it which open upon a needle valve. When the air
under pressure passes through the venturi section, it is atomized and causes the follow of oil
in the form of oil fog (1 drop/10 cu. ft/min) which lubricates the parts through which it
passes.
2. CONSTANT DENSITY LUBRICATOR:It is very simple in construction. A transparent
bowl serves as an oil container in which dips the lower end of the siphon pipe having filter
attached to its bottom. Air under pressure enters from inlet pore to the container and keeps
the oil under constant pressure (regulated by pressure regulator).
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D.C. VALVES:Direction control valves used in pneumatic system are similar to those used
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in hydraulics. Their primary function is to direct flow of air from one place to another in the
system. DC valves are devices which influence the path taken by an air stream. Normally this
involves one or all of the following:
Ø Opening the passage of air and directing it to particular air lines.
Ø Canceling air signals as required by blocking their passage.
Ø Relieving the air to atmosphere via an exhaust port.
DC valve is characterized by its number of controlled connections or ways, the number of
switching positions and the method of actuation.
Designs are categorized as follows:
1. Poppet valves
1.1. Ball seat valve
1.2. Disc seat valve
2. Slide valves
2.1. Longitudinal slide valve (spool valve)
2.2. Longitudinal flat slide valve
2.3. Plate slide valve.
POPPET VALVES:With poppet valves the connections are opened and closed by means of
balls, discs, plates or cones. The valve seats are usually sealed simply using flexible seals.
Seat valves have few parts which are subject to wear and hence they have a long service life.
They are insensitive to dirt and are robust. The actuating force, however, is relatively high as
it is necessary to overcome the force of the built-in reset spring and the air pressure.
SLIDE VALVES:In slide valves, the individual connections are linked together or closed by
means of spools, flat slide or plate slide valves.
AIR RECEIVER/CONTAINER:Before discussing an air receiver, let us be clear in mind
that unlike liquids (which are virtually impressible) is readily co9mpressible. That is why a
large quantity of air can be stored in a comparatively smaller vessel or container. The more
the air in a container, the higher is the pressure and stronger should be the container to with
stand that pressure.
CYLINDERS:A pneumatic cylinder converse compressed air pressure into mechanical
linear force. When the compressed air enters on of the ports of the cylinder, it transmits
movements to the piston and its rods and becomes mechanical force to do some work. The
flow rate of the pneumatic power determines the piston speed and output in horse power.
PIPING, HOSES AND FITTINGS:Piping is an important part of pneumatic system. It is
not only to transmit the pneumatic power to various components, but also to keep it clean and
free from contaminants. The pipes utilized on the machines should be flexible and strong
enough to withstand the working pressure of the system.
As a thumb rule, the testing pressure of a pipe should be double that of working
pressure and bursting pressure double that of the testing pressure.
The working pneumatic pressure on track machine varies between 6.5 7.0 kg/cm2.
The inside diameter of pneumatic pipe is 6.3 mm and 12.6 mm are used for general
transmission and brake system of the machine.
Lesson-III: Pneumatic Circuits and Troubleshooting.
Session-24: Pneumatic Working circuits and Brake circuits, Failure Analysis and
Troubleshooting of Pneumatic assemblies.
Lesson-IV: Pneumatic Circuits,
Session-25 Demonstration of Pneumatic circuits using FluidsimP Software & Work exercises.
Session-26: Demonstration of Pneumatic circuits using FluidsimP Software & Work exercises.
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SUB: HYDRAULICS, PNEUMATICS & MECHANICAL
Duration: 36 Sessions = 72 Periods
Sub-discipline:- Mechanical (Lessons: 10 Sessions: 10)
Lesson-I: Power Transmission
Session-27: Block Diagram, Types of Power Transmission, Mechanical Transmission,
Chain, Pulley, Cardon Shaft.
belt,
POWER TRANSMISSION
PCB
Rear Gear Selector
Front Gear Selector
38x17
A
Pump
Z.F. Gear
Box
CS
Engine MWM
232
TBD-V12
38 x 22
C/S
A
Funk
Gear
Box
Pump
38x17
20 x 14
C S
Pump
90LPM
PTO
Distribution GB
C/S
C/S
C/S
C/S
Satellite
Gear Box
AXLE
GEAR
BOX
Motor
Satellite Bogie
Driving Bogie
Running
Bogie
POWER TRANSMISSION
In mechanical Engineering, the word power transmission is widely used term in all types of
transmission applicable involved mechanical arrangement. The following are the various
mechanical power transmissions generally available in day to day working which are given as
under:
Belt transmission
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Chain drive transmission
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Pulley drive transmission
Gear drive transmission
‘V’ BELT TRANSMISSION:
This is the Mechanical Power Transmission method in which
belts are used and the power is
transmitted from one point to the another. In this method power transmission is affected on
account of wear and tear and slippage etc. Generally following are the different categories of
belts used in transmission in machines, A-33, A-34, A-41 & A-42 etc..
VEE BELTS
RUBBER BELTS:
Rubber belting is one of the important medium of transmission of mechanical power.
They are trapezoidal in X section.
The vee belts are designated by suffices letter A. B. C. & D which standard dimensions followed
universally by all belt manufacturers.
(i) Installation & Maintenance:
1.
Check pulley groves for damage, dent make, burs and excessive wear before mounting the
belts.
2.
Check drive and driven units for alignment.
3.
Move the drive unit towards driven unit to mount the belts in groove.
4.
Avoid excessive and un even tension.
5.
All ways use pulley with larger dia.
6.
Check for pulley groves angle and proper positioning of belt.
7.
Check the belt tension daily.
8.
If it is required to be change a belt in a multi belt drive unit, change all the belts with new
set.
9.
During storage, keep the belts hanging.
10. Store the vee belt in cool and dry place.
(ii) Chain Drive Transmission:
This is the method of power transmission in which chain is used for transmitting power
from one end to another. In this method chain is interlinked and power transmission takes
place. In track machines, following are the applications of chain drives such as simplex
chain, duplex chain of PQRS machines, cutting chain of BCM etc.
(iii) Pulley Drive Transmission:
This is also a method of power transmission in pulleys is used and we get mechanical
advantages by the fixed support following figure:
Rigid Support
H
E
T=E
L = Load
Sting =
(Single movable pully)
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(iv)
(v)
Load
As per the figure: An inextensible Sting of negligible Mass-Passes around the grooved
rim of the pulley. One end of the sting is tied to a hook
at a rigid support and the
effect
is applied at its free end.
The tension
acts on the string on both sides of pulley as shown in the above figure.
Load is balanced L = T+T = 2T and effort E = T.
Mechanical advantage = Load L
Effort E
therefore
MA = 2T = 2
T
So by applying an effort equal to half the load (in ideal situation) i.e. single movable
pulley acts as a Force multi pliers) P
Gear Drive Transmission:
In this method of power transmission Gears are used for transfer of power from one point
to another. More teeth of Gears are meshed to each other. There are two gears which are
connected to each other one is drive gear and the another driven gear. Depending upon
no. of teeth, Gear Ratio is decided. The arrangement of gears on drive and driven gear
can be such that driven gear can rotate faster or slower.
Cardon Shaft Transmission:
In this method power transmission is achieved through different cardon shafts and
accordingly power is transmitted from end to the another. Different sizes of cardon shafts
are used on different track machines.
PRECAUTIONS DURING FITMENT OF CORDON SHAFT:
Shaft should be dynamically balanced
Male portion
Long
Female portion
Short
In road vehicle
Male portion in the direction of driving.
In Track Machine
Male portion in towards working direction.
To avoid the dropping of cordon shaft cradle is provided.
-
Arrow mark on male and female portion should be in line. If there is no arrow mark then
yoke should be in same plane for both male & female.
-
In female shaft, there is through hole from yoke centre to other end, so that excess grease
may come out, other wise this will act as a solid part.
Bolts should be fit tightly, bolts should be of proper size.
Greasing in X (cross) and splines should be done after 50 Hrs.
Play in splines and yoke should be checked every 50 Hrs.
Nylon locked type nuts should be use.
-
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SUB-DISCIPLINE:- MECHANICAL (LESSONS: 10 SESSIONS: 10)
Lesson-II:Gear Box and Clutch Assembly in UNO/DUO
Session-28: Working, Construction and Maintenance practices of Main gear box, Clutch
assembly, Reversing gear box, Six speed gear box and distributor Gear Box.
.
______________________________________________________________________________
GEAR BOX AND CLUTCH ASSEMBLY IN UNO / DUO
MAIN GEAR BOX, SIX SPEED AND REVERSING GEAR BOXES:
The track machines are driven/traveled from one station to another station by means of either
hydraulics system or mechanical. System. In mechanical system of traveling, Gear Boxes are
used. In Duomatic old, Unomatic and other machines various Gear Boxes are used such as main
gear box directional Gearbox reversing gear box, reduction gear boxes and six speed Gear Boxes
etc.
Following are the Gear Boxes used on 08-Duomatic machine.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Main Gear Box = 1 No.
From engine the power comes to this gear box. This gear box distributes the power in three
directions:
Main power to reversing and Six speed gear box.
RH side for operating Hydraulic pump 38 x 17 GPM
38 x 22 GPM
L.H. side for operating hydraulic pump 38 x 17 GPM
Reversing Gear Box 1 No.:
In this gearbox arrangement has been provided to drive the machine in either direction at
the same speed.
Six Speed Gear Box 1 No.:
This gear box is used to achieve different gear ratio and speed from 1st to 6th .
Differential distributor Gear Box 1 No.:
(Power is transmitted from different distributor gear to both Axle Gearbox.
Axial Gear Box 2 Nos.:
Power transmission to axle by crown tail pinion arrangement is the out come of machine
movement.
MECHANICAL GEAR BOXES USED ON 08-DUOMATIC MACHINE:
Main Gear Box: 1 No.
From engine the power comes to this gear box. This gear box distributes the power in three
directions
1.
2.
3.
1.
2.
3.
Main power to reversing and six peed gear box.
RH side for operating Hydraulic Pump
38 x 17 GPM
38 x 22 GPM
L.H. side for operating Hydraulic Pump 38/17 GPM
Reversing Gear Box: 1 No.
In this gear box arrangement has been provided to drive the machine in either direction at
the same speed.
Six Speed Gear Box: 1 No.
Through this gear box we achieve different gear ratios & speed i.e. from 1st to 6th.
Differential Distributor Gear Box: 1 No.
Power transmission from differential distributor gear box to both axle gear boxes.
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Axle Gear Box: 2 No.
Power transmission to axle by crown-tail pinion arrangement & machine moves.
MAINTENANCE PRACTICES OF GEAR BOXES:
The modern track machines are very complex and costly assets. Even one day down time
is very costly. Increased availability of machines result in more output with good quality at
cheaper ratio.
As this is a mechanical gear box, lot of wear and tear takes place on amount of its
movement the gear box should be filled with the proper graded oil i.e. SAE-C-90 and while
working with this machine as mechanical gear boxes are provided, it is to be ensured that when
machine is required to be operated, whenever we want to put the machine in working mode i.e. at
the time of engagement of hydraulic pump, first of all the engine should be stopped and the
lever is to be operated for engagement of working pumps,. Similarly when the work is over it is
to be ensured that engine is stopped and the lever is operated to disengage the working pump for
travelling mode.
This should also be ensured that no dust or dust is allowed to enter the gear box as ti is
very much harmful for the smooth functioning of Main Gear Box directional gear box or Six
Speed Gear Box.
During assembling this factor should also be taken into consideration.
ENGAGER BODY FOR DUOMATIC MACHINE PART NO. G – 70-11
Engager body shall be manufacture out of EN-353 engager body shall be slide fit with crown
gear and drive shaft components found suitable in visual inspection as well as correct from the
dimensional characteristics minimum one engager body of each lot should be taken randomly for
its chemical testing
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MAINTENANCE OF REVERSING AND SIX SPEED GEAR BOXES:
The track machines are driven/traveled from one station to another station by means of either
hydraulics system or mechanical system. In mechanical system of traveling, Gear Boxes are
used. In Duomatic old, Unomatic and other machines various Gear Boxes are used such as main
gear box directional Gearbox reversing gear box, reduction gear boxes and six speed Gear Boxes
etc.
For reversing gear box proper lubrication has to be ensured and proper matching of gears to be
provided so that there is no problem with regards to the movement of the machine. Proper
maintenance schedule has to be observed as per the manual laid down for this purpose.
For six speed gear box it is also to be ensured that proper clearance of gears are maintained and
proper backlash along with the proper matching of gears are in co-operated. As per the laid down
procedure for schedule maintenance, six speed gear box maintenance to be done accordingly.
Distribution Gear Box (Its construction and maintenance practices):
This is the Gear box use for the purpose of power transmission in different track machine and
with the help of this distributor gear box power is directed and distributed to different directions
with the help of cardon shaft as per requirement. As this gear box is subjected to maximum wear
& tear due to mechanical arrangement of gears, maximum care should be taken with respect to
its maintenance as well as changing of the gear oil provided for the gear box. Attention should
also be paid with regards to the contamination because if contamination is entrapped in the gear
box, it will damaged the gear box.
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SUB-DISCIPLINE:- MECHANICAL (LESSONS: 10 SESSIONS: 10)
Lesson-III: Driving and Running Axle Session-29: Function, Parts and Maintenance aspects,
setting of crown & tail pinion.
Driving and Running Axle:Driving axle is the power axle this axle has the arrangement of
Crown & Peinion Assembly. Wheel is pressed and 50 Tonne load. There is arrangement of axle
gear box assembly. In axle gear box assembly roller bearing NU-2220 or NU-2224 is provided.
The driving axle being powered axle gets power through cardon shaft transferred through flying
over. Schedule maintenance of the axle is to be carried out by greasing of axle gear box housing
as per requirement. All new Track Machines working in Indian Railways are powered axles.
They have been provided with the hydraulic motors for power transmission.
Driving Axle
X End
Y End
Running Axle:
Running axle is normally known as idle axle and it is not a powered axle. Running axle has
arrangement of Axle & Wheel only. Wheel pressing is carried out in the axle to complete the
whole assembly. Wheel is pressed at 50 tonne load. There is no crown and pinion arrangement in
running axle. There is axle box assembly provided on running axle. This consists of roller
bearing NU-2220 or NU-2224 alongwith the distance pieces. Under the maintenance schedule
the axle box bearing are greased through bearing grease periodically. As per latest circular of
Track Machine Manual the driving axle and running of different machines such as BCM,
Unimat, CSM & DGS are required to under go Ultrasonic testing for their better performance.
Crown and Tail Pinion Assembly:
Clean axle and bevel gear check the bevel gear bore with boring gauge for taper and ovality, to
be removed by grinding the above defect.
To hold the axle vertically by a Crane with a device fixed to the locking taped holes. Check with
spirit level that the device is perfectly vertical.
Heat the bevel gear placed on a cylindercal support perfectly leveled with spirit facing down
ward to about 2200C with anyactelene flame so that after its bore 0./mm larger than the diameter
of bevel seat on the axle. Cool the axle from around bevel seat if possible. Introduce the axle
from the above fill the bearing collar touches the bevel. After 5-10 minutes, bevel gear will be
tight on the axle. For proper meshing of (Crown bevel gear, shims are provided for wheel proper
alignment.
SUB-DISCIPLINE:- MECHANICAL (LESSONS: 10
SESSIONS: 10)
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Lesson-IV: Z. F. Hydro- dynamic Gear Box.
Documents
Session-30: Function and Construction,
Precautions during working and Maintenance aspects, Failure Analysis and Troubleshooting
______________________________________________________________________________
Working Principle of Z.F. Gear Box: (Zahnrad Fabric – Friedrichshafen:
The power transmission in various tamping machines have been associated with
mechanical methods of transmission of transmission as envisaged by Plasser & Theurer. Gone
are the days when we were utilizing mechanical gear boxes such as six speed gear boxes,
directional gear boxes etc. but with the past experiences it has been observed that such
mechanical gear boxes have typical arrangement of gear-train etc. which were not only subjected
to wear and tear but also at the same times it tends to more-failure and more maintenance.
So, in order to eliminate all such things new conception for power transmission is the
Generation of Z.F. Gear Box.
ZF is a German Nomenclature
ZF stands for Zaharaid Fabrick
Original ZF is 4WG.65II WK
Abbreviations are:
4
Speed
WG
Hydro-dynamic fluid
65
Input Torque
II
Electric Shift
WK
with converter clutch
Gear box oil Ultra -10
Capacity
Approximately 45 Ltrs.
Manufacturers –
BP
Actuma Super with ultra 10W
10C
Servo ultra 10
HP
HP auto transmission fluid.
Various Parts of Z.F. Gear Box:
Torque Converter:Torque Converter is a special type of fluid coupling. It is very much
effective when the engines speed is increased. At idle speed it does not transmit any power and
keeps as slipping. Thus the vehicle is declutched automatically in manual transmission if the
driver does not declutched property the engine stops. This problem is overcome in automatic
power transmission. In this case need is to idle the engine only within the converter the oil is the
medium of the power transmission. At about 80% of pump speed i.e. impeller the turbine
becomes one and the turbine movement becomes equal to the pump movement.
Some of the toque converters are provided with a converter clutch W.K. which locks the
turbine with impellor and then prevents the slip and improves the fuel efficiency. The torque
converter then acting as a fluid clutch. It consists of three main parts.
1.
Impellor
2.
Stator
3.
Turbine.
1.
2.
Impellor – It is a depend having curved blade to its inner face and attached to engine fly
wheel. As the fly wheel turns the impellor also turns and throws the oil with a certain
velocity. The velocity and mass being projected which is actually responsible for turning
the unit. The oil escaping from the impellor wheel enters to the turbine wheel giving the
direction of movement.
Turbine – Turbine is attached to the driven-unit i.e. input of gear box and faces of impellor
on account of which the oiler projected from the pump causes the turbine to run. The
turbine shaft runs the gear system.
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Stator – It is a curved fine wheel mounted on a free wheeling device between the impellor
and turbine. As the fluid leaves the turbine, the fluid would be thrown back to the pump in
reverse direction i.e. opposite to that of rotation of pump. Thus, it requires more power to
drive it. The oil coming from the turbine is directed by the stator vanes in a direction which
is favourable to the directions of moving of pump. The stator (reaction member) following
the turbine wheel has the task of redirect against the oil which is streaming out of the
turbine and direct it to the correct streaming direction to the pump wheel. The stator
receives a reaction movement due to this reversing motion. Thus it improves the efficiency
of converter. Also the oil in favourable direction gets added up with the oil which would
normally had been projected by the pump and thus multiples the torque. As the turbine
speed increase the direction of oil coming from turbo charges. Thus the oil direction does
not appose the impellor movement. Also of the direction of oil is such that the stator
direction is reversed. The stator stepson free wheel and allowing the oil to flow in the
required direction.
As the conversion is increasing the correspondence with the speed difference between
pump wheel and turbine, therefore the maximum. Conversion takes place when the turbine
wheel is not moving with increasing output speed, the torque conversion gets decreased.
The out put speed is automatically adopted to required output movement of the torque
converter.
A gear pump of capacity volts/minutes circulations oil to converter and used for shifting of
gears. Gears pump supplies pressurized oil of pressure (10-12 bar) for actuation of clutches.
This oil is controlled by electrically operated solenoid valves which get current from PCB
and is operated by electric solenoid which get current from PCB and is a function of engine
rpm and turbine speed.
Gear shifting is operated by electrical solenoid which are provided on top of the gear (M1
M2, M3 & M4.
Power transmitted through torque converter to selected gears.
Current consuming of each solenoid is equal to 0.25A 0.5A.
Function of the Gearbox:
Driving of machine in case of traveling.
Providing the input of mechanical energy to hydraulic pumps.
Transmit the engine power to different units of machine.
Main Assemblies:
Torque Converter
Gear Train
Shifter Assembly
Selector Lever
Power Take Off
Final Drive
Special Features:
It is a hydrodynamic Gearbox.
Gearbox is electrically controlled.
It has separate hydraulic system.
No clutch paddle is required.
Medium of power transmission is fluid.
No movement of gears as in mech.Gbox
More than 2500 types of components.
Torque Converter:
It is initial power receiver.
Medium of power transmission is fluid.
Impeller, turbine and turbine are main parts.
Pressurized fluid is acting over moving impeller blades.
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PRECAUTIONS DURING WORKING AND MAINTENANCE ASPECTS:
Documents
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
Z.F. Hydrodynamic gear box should be handled by a skilled & trained workman only
with a special emphasis on cleanliness.
It is preferable to keep special tools recommended by OEM for limited maintenance
operations to be carried out at field or else similar indigenized tools must always be made
available in the machine.
Use only recommended brand of Locktites, i.e.:
270 No. for nuts & bolts
574 No. for Sealant (Liquid Gasket)
641 No. for Bearing surface.
Replace oil ULTRA-10/SAE 15-W-40 (as the case may be) after every 500 hrs. of
working. During oil replacement, strainer should be checked for any accumulation of
impurities over magnetic rod.
Ring over strainer must be replaced at the time of oil
change.
Check the oil level weekly:
(a) While the machine is in horizontal plain.
(b) Keep transmission in neutral position.
Cold level at 400C &
1000 RPM
Lower mark.
0
Hot level at 80 C &
1000 RPM
Upper mark
Where 800C is not achieved, checking at 400C for lower mark will serve the purpose.
Replacement of pressure filter (25 micron) at the interval of 250 hours of working.
Replace the filter along with oil in case of buzzer alarm heard for choking of filters.
Check external connections at regular interval for their tightness.
Operation of gear shifting should not be done below:
1200 r.p.m. of the engine.
Towing speed restriction of 10 Kmph should be followed; otherwise it may lead to the
damage of gearbox. Connecting two machines for block operation should not be done.
Shifting of gear should be carried out at the proper time. Any delay or early shifting will
reduce the gearbox life in long run.
Proper Time for Lockup indication
Indicator is not provided in operating panel, gears are being shifted only based on
experience and assumptions. A LED connection may be provided in cabins as has been
provided in SPURT car. CPOH can provide circuit diagram if desired.
Frequent variation of speed should be avoided.
Z. F. key should be put off only after stopping of machine as two clutches out of seven
clutches remain engaged even in neutral position and counter speed of the wheel through
cardon shaft will affect those clutches which may damage the frictional bearings and
slippage of clutch may occur.
If for any reason external impurities enter the gearbox, working of machine should be
stopped and after rectification of defect complete oil should be replaced. In that case
clean the gearbox as much as possible including torque converter.
Pressure cut off switch should be checked for its functioning at 2.5 bar. Early or late cut
off may reduce the life of the costly Z.F. gearbox.
In case of any obstruction while moving, r.p.m. should be reduced and brakes should be
applied below the cut off pressure i.e. 2.5 bars. Avoid the excessive application of brake
above 2.5 bars.
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Good maintenance practices :
Documents
ZF Hydrodynamic gearbox should be handled by a skilled & trained workman only with a
special emphasis on cleanliness. It is preferable to keep special tools recommended by OEM for
limited maintenance operations to be carried out at field or else similar indigenized tools must
always be made available in the machine.
Use only recommended brand of Locktites, i.e.:270 No. For nuts & bolts.
574 No. for Sealant (Liquid Gasket).
641 No. for Bearing surface.
Replace oil ULTRA-10 / SAE 15-W (as the case may be) after every 500 hrs. of working.
During oil replacement, strainer should be checked for any accumulation of impurities over
magnetic rod.
Ring over strainer must be replaced at the time of oil change.
Check the oil level weekly:
(a) While the machine is in horizontal plain.
(b) Keep transmission in neutral position.
(c) Cold level at 40oC & 1000 RPM - Lower mark
(d) Hot level at 80oC & 1000 PM - Upper mark
Where 80oC is not achieved, checking at 40oC for lower mark will serve the purpose.
Replacement of pressure filter ( 25 micron) at the interval of 250 hours of working.
Replace the filter along with oil in case of buzzer alarm heard for choking of filters.
Check external connections at regular interval for their tightness.
Operation of gear shifting should not be done below:1200 r.p.m. of the engine:
Towing speed restriction of 10 Kmph should be followed: otherwise it may lead to the damage
of gearbox. Connecting two machines for block operation should not be done.
Shifting of gear should be carried out at the proper time. Any delay or early shifting will reduce
the gearbox life in long run.
Proper Time for Lockup indication:
Indicator is not provided in operating panel, gears are being shifted only based on experience and
assumptions.A LED connection may be provided in cabins as has been provided in SPURT Car.
CPOH can provided circuit diagram if desired. Frequent variation of speed should be avoided.
ZF key should be put off only after stopping of machine as two clutches out of seven clutches
remain engaged even in neutral position and counter speed of the wheel through cardon shaft
will affect those clutches which may damage the frictional bearings and slippage of clutch
may occur. If for any reason external impurities enter the gearbox, working of machine should be
stopped and after rectification of defect complete oil should be replaced. In that case clean the
gearbox as much as possible including torque converter.
Pressure cut off switch should be checked for its functioning at 2.5 bars. Early or late cut off may
reduce the life of the costly ZF gearbox.
In case of any obstruction while moving, r.p.m. should be reduced and brakes should be applied
below the cut off pressure I.e. 2.5 bars.
Avoid the excessive application of brake above 2.5 bars.1-MAIN PRESSURE HAS GONE
TO ZERO AND MOVEMENT F THE MACHINE STOPPED
SUB-DISCIPLINE:- MECHANICAL (LESSONS: 10
SESSIONS: 10)
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Lesson-V: Funk Gear Box, Reduction Gear Box and Satellite Axle Gear Box
Documents
Session-31: Working, Construction and Maintenance practices.
______________________________________________________________________________
FUNK GEAR BOX
Funk gear box is a mechanical gear box used for the purpose of power transmission. This has got
the gear arrangement in such manner that with the help of a common shaft input power is taken
and the power is transmitted in to two opposite directions. For example hydraulic pumps being in
two opposite directions get power from one common input and pumps (LHS & RHS) can be
driven in to two different directions.
REDUCTION GEAR BOX:
It is a mechanical gear box use for power transmission in Track Machine. This gear box is used
whenever we want to run the working unit at lower speed. Gear trains are selected as according
to match the speed of the working unit. This gear box is used mainly in the working mode when
the machine works during sleeper to sleeper movement.
Maintenance practices for the maintenance of reduction gear box there is a need of oil changing
as per the prescribed manual. This should also be ensured that dust and dirt should not entrapped
in the gear box as otherwise it will damaged the gear box and their will be no smooth operation
of the gear box.
WORKING AND CONSTRUCTION OF SATELLITE AXLE GEAR BOX:
In 09-CSM machine, Plasser and Theurer provide a Continuous machine movement along with
tamping for achieving more out put. For this purpose, tamping and lifting unit has been provided
on Satellite frame which moves independent of machine movement. While tamping, main
Machine moves continuously and the Satellite unit Stops for each tamping cycle and go distantly
again and again. For the movement of Satellite frame, we use a satellite gear box which takes
mechanical Energy through a hyd. Motor. Satellite gear box is a very sophisticated gear box and
engaging of two big and small Spur gear depends upon Pneumatic Pressure. If Pneumatic
Pressure is less than 2.5 bar then it will affect gear box as well as out put. In order to avoid long
idling and long life of Satellite gear box. Following points are to be help in mind during
operation.
PRECAUTIONARY STEPS TO AVOID FAILURE.
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i)
ii)
iii)
iv)
It is to be ensured that Pneumatic Pressure should not be less then 2.5 bar.
Engaging and disengaging of both Spur Gears should be 100%.
Satellite brake of 5 bars should act properly while tamping.
Longitudinal Transducer limit switch should be in working order, limit switch connection
should be in NO Position.
v) 32mm, 25mm pin Rocker Bearing GE-25, link plate, torque plate, Gear Box top housing
must not any play.
vi) Proximatic Switch (1422k) should be set properly according to fork Position after ensuring
100% engaging and disengaging of both spur gears.
vii) There should not be any play between fork hole and guide rod. Pneumatic cylinder and
shifter rod should be tightened along with the check nut.
viii) Pneumatic cylinder and valve should work properly and get it cleaned periodically.
ix) Rubbing block and brake gap should not be more than 3mm.
x) The seal of satellite brake cylinder should be checked regularly and replaced after every
1000hrs if required.
xi) Booster cylinder should be in working condition and pressure should not be less than 40
bar(40-60 bar)
xii) According to Track condition Machine speed should co-inside with satellite
movement.(Machine Speed 1.2km/hr)
SUB-DISCIPLINE:- MECHANICAL (LESSONS: 10
SESSIONS: 10)
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Complete Lesson-VI: Tamping Unit
Documents
Session-32: Function and Parts, Precautions during
working & repairing. Maintenance schedule , setting of bearings and spacers on vibration
shaft, Failure Analysis and Troubleshooting.
TAMPING UNIT FUNCTIONS & PARTS: Tamping Unit/Bank:
The tamping unit is the most important mechanical assembly of the machine in addition to the
Diesel Engine (which has been dealt separately). There are various designs of tamping banks
suiting different types of machines and track requirements e.g. single sleeper tamping. Double
sleeper tamping, switches and crossing etc., whatever type of machine it may be, M/s plasser &
Theurer has world wide patent for its non-synchronous design of tamping banks. Which are
discussed one by one.
Vibration Shaft:
100
Steel bush + NJ 219
NJP28.6
90
80
70
60
6220CB
NJ29
NU2220
All Dimensions ARE in MM
1.1
Tamping Bank For Tamping TSingle Sleeper
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The mainliner universal machines having this tamping bank are designated 06-16 type. Non-
Documents
synchronous constant pressure-vibration tamping is achieved by 8 tamping tools on each bank,
arranged in pairs, in side and outside the rails, on both sides of the sleepers. The machine
operates with a total of 16 tamping tools.
Non-synchronous feed adjustment results in all tamping tools exerting the same pressure on the
ballast bed, regardless of the in-feed movement. There is complete force equilibrium between
tool pairs, and uniform specific surface pressure on all tamping tools. The pairs of tamping
tools move completely independently, according to the resistance encountered in the ballast bed.
During the in-feed action of the tamping tools, resistance builds up in front of each individual
tool pair. When the resistance has reached the level of the chosed tool in-feed force, the tool
pairs concerned come to rest. The other tamping tools continue to work until they too exert the
same force on the ballast bed.
The plasser & Theurer non- synchronous constant pressure tamping system therefore guarantees
completely uniform tamping of the sleeper bearing surface.
The tool blades are corrugated and have a spade shaped edge. This means that they adapt more
more easily to the grain of the ballast, and deal with a wider tamping zone. Due to the spadeshape of the blades the tools encounter less penetration resistance.
The vibration is generated by a hydraulically driven eccentric shaft. Connecting rods (hydraulic
cylinders) are supported on the shaft conveying the eccentric movement to the swing arms,
which in turn vibrate the tamping tools.
Speed of rotation of
Vibration shaft approx
: 2,100 rev/min.
Vibration of tamping
Tools approx
: 35 cycles.
Amplitude of vibration
: 10 mm.
1.2
Tamping Bank For Tamping two Adjacent Sleepers
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The double headed tamping machines are of the type mainliner Duomatic 06-32 series.
Two independent tamping banks are laterally movable on horizontal guide columns for
automatic centering above the rails, allowing a perfect tamping even on curves. Each
machine has 32 tamping tools arranged in pairs for the simultaneous tamping of two
adjacent sleepers.
A uniform compaction of the sleeper bearing surface is achieved by non-synchronous
constant pressure vibration tamping. The design of the tool plates vibration frequency,
etc., are similar to that of the 06-16 tampers.
The simultaneous tamping of two adjacent sleepers increases the output., as compared to
that of machines with a single tamping bank. Tamping machines with double-sleeper
tamping banks are therefore considerably more economic in operation than those with
single tamping banks. The generally track layout achieved with these machines is better
than achieved tamping for individual sleepers. The output of double-headed tamping
machines being greater, they are preferred by railway administrations even when used by
contractors, as traffic restrictions and expenditure on personnel is lower than that which
would be used for double the number of single-headed tamping machines.
Speed of rotation of vibration shaft
: 2,100 rev/min.
Vibration of vibration
: 10 mm.
1.3
Tamping Bank for Switches and Crossing
The tamping machines with these banks have the type designation mainliner unviers al 2
W 75.
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One tamping bank per rails is equipped with 4 titable tamping tools. This disposition
allow the tamping of all parts of the 5 & C layout. Even such parts as frogs, switch
blades, etc. can be under-gripped by swinging in the tools. The non-synchronous feed
adjustment of the tamping tools is by hydraulically produced vibrations.
For tamping double sleepers the opening width of the tamping clamps is increased. The
tamping tools have a large surface and are manufactured of wear resistant manganese
steel. Tamping tools with extra wide plates can be used for tamping plan track. The
tamping banks are raised and lowered by hydraulic cylinders. The tamping banks can
work independently.
The tamping banks can also be equipped with tool spades to apply on a larger area. The
sleeper can then be tamped once with vertical tools and once with tools slightly tited
outward so.
Rotations of vibration shaft :
Appox 2, 100 rev/mins.
Vibration of tamping tools :
Approx 35 cycles.
Amplitude of vibrations
:
Approx 10 mm.
Trouble Shooting and Failure Analysis:
Trouble in Tamping Unit
1. Wear and tear of tamping tools.
Solution
1. Repair, welding and replacement of tamping
Tools
2. Play developed in the Tamping Arm.
2. Requirement of Replacement of Tamping after
certain specified time.
3. Leakage in the radial seal of tamping arm 3. Replacement of Radial Seal of tamping arm
(955mm pin)
(955m pin)
4. Breakage of Cover bolt 16 x 35 of small 4. Replacement of cover bolt of 16 x 35 of small
squeezing cylinder.
squeezing cylinder.
5 Shearing of piston screw of squeezing 5. Replacement of bearings of Tamping Unit.
cylinder.
6. Seizure of bearings of Tamping unit.
6. Replacement of bearings of Tamping Unit.
7. Breakage of Vibration shaft of Tamping 7. Replacement of vibration shaft of tamping unit.
clip.
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Vibration Shaft:
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100
Steel bush + NJ 219
NJP28.6
90
80
70
60
6220CB
NJ29
NU2220
All Dimensions ARE in MM
Trouble Shooting and Failure Analysis:
Trouble in Tamping Unit
2. Wear and tear of tamping tools.
Solution
1. Repair, welding and replacement of tamping
Tools
2. Play developed in the Tamping Arm.
2. Requirement of Replacement of Tamping after
certain specified time.
3. Leakage in the radial seal of tamping arm 3. Replacement of Radial Seal of tamping arm
(955mm pin)
(955m pin)
4. Breakage of Cover bolt 16 x 35 of small 4. Replacement of cover bolt of 16 x 35 of small
squeezing cylinder.
squeezing cylinder.
5 Shearing of piston screw of squeezing 5. Replacement of bearings of Tamping Unit.
cylinder.
6. Seizure of bearings of Tamping unit.
6. Replacement of bearings of Tamping Unit.
7. Breakage of Vibration shaft of Tamping 7. Replacement of vibration shaft of tamping unit.
clip.
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SUB-DISCIPLINE:- MECHANICAL (LESSONS: 10
SESSIONS: 10)
Session-33: Function, Assembly and
Lesson-VII: Lifting and Lining Unit, Bearings
Maintenance aspects.
__________________________________________________________________________
Lifting and Lining Unit:The track lining equipment and the roller lifting unit are complied.
Two double-flanged rollers and one horizontal hydraulic cylinder on each unit line the track.
When the combined lifting and lining unit have been lowered the 8 lifting rollers as well as the 4
lining rollers roll along holding the rails.
The track is lined by the lining cylinders moving the two tool carriers in the required direction.
The lining force acts on the track on four points by the flanges of the ling rollers. The track is
moved into the correct piston without impact. As lifting and lining are also carried out
simultaneously and the combined unit is arranged immediately in front of the tamping bank, the
track is is tamped in its corrected position.
The Leveling, tamping and lining machines of the mainline universal series are equipped with
the combined unit for simultaneous lifting and lining of the track.
The lifting force is applied centrally over each rail without support on the ballast. Two pairs of
rollers grip each rails under the head from inside and out side. This means that the track is lifted
on four points. Because of the clamp like arrangement of the lifting rollers, and of the vertical
lifting roller of the vertical lifting roller of the vertical lifting force, no tilting moment is
conveyed to the rail and therefore no excessive loads exacted on the rail and therefore no
excessive loads exacted on rail fastenings. In moving forward, the clamps remain closed, rolling
under the rail top without touching the fastenings. The clamps also over-roll joints, fish-plates,
welds, etc., without having to open. For tracks where the closed roller clamps cannot roll clear
(e.g. bull head track) a special automatic control device is provided, which opens the clamps
when the machine moves forward to close them again when the machines reaches the next
tamping spot.
GENERAL INFORMATION
The sequence of dismantling the lifting and lining unit is basically the versed sequence of its
assembling.Utmost cleanliness is to be observed all through out the dismantling, repair and
reassembling. Before repair the lifting and lining unit is to be cleaned with an adequate cleansing
agent.When repair is carried out on a unit which is mounted to the machine the site is to be
protected against dropping dirt.Before reassembling thoroughly clean all parts, replace used
washers and remove sealing from sealing surfaces trim all burr and similar roughness. Replace
by new ones damaged and worn parts.A competent machine is to assess which of the parts
submitted to normal wear are to be re-used. Washers, sealing rings, locking plates split pins and
the like are to be replaced in case they were damaged during dismounting.No clips, or splinters
or other foreign matters are to be left in the housing.Observe during reassembling the indicated
torque and adjusting date. Screws and nuts for which no torque is indicated are tighghtended
according to standard charts.
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The numbers indicated in these instructions (e.g. 1/A,B) mean.
Documents
1
=
number of figure
A,B =
position
Numbers not followed by letters refer to the illustration as a whole.
V.B. =
Numbers of devices used.
13.0
ASSEMBLING THE LIFTING ROLLER CLAMP ASSEMBLY
Hold lifting disc (1/1) in vice and insert adjusting spring (1/23) into shaft using a hammer
of plastic material or of aluminum.
Drive to the bushing of plastic material (1/7) into the clamp sleeve (1/2) by means of
device (VB 815) insert the intermediate ring (1/25) and secure against torsion by means
of the clamping sleeve (1/24).
Grease the plastic bushing (1/7) and drive pre assembled clamp sleeve (1/2) in the shaft
of the lifting disc (1/1)
Subsequently insert the greased axial pressure plate (1/10), the pressure bushing (1/3) and
the plastic bushing (1/8), in using device (VB815)
Secure plastic bushing (1/8) by seeger ring (1/16).
Degrease nut (1/11) and thread of lifting disc shaft (1/1) coat them with loctite and
tighten the nut.
1.
Lift disc
2.
Clamp sleeve
3.
Pressure bushing
5.
Clamp lever
7.
Bushing of plastic
8.
Material
10.
Axial pressure plate
11.
Nut
12.
Protector
16.
Seeger ring
21.
Plug screw
23.
Adjusting spring
24.
Clamping sleeve
25.
Intermediate ring.
BEARINGS:Functions, types, bearing clearances and maintenance aspects :Bearings are required while transmitting rotary power from the source to the points of its usages
through various linkages to reduce friction, undue power losses, to give even support to the
rotating unit and to avoid setting up of undue vibrations in the rotating member thus increasing
life of the unit, by reducing wear. Various types of bearings have been developed by bearing
industries in the world for use on various machines and working units to suit to various loads,
RPM, condition of working like vibration, jerks, etc. Various weathering condition like sun, dry
wet, hot, cold or chemically contaminating atmosphere. There are generally the following types
of bearings available.
Bush bearings.
Ball bearings.
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Roller bearings
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Needle roller bearings.
Thrust bearings.
Spherical bearings
Tapper roller bearings.
Special bearings (Rocker bearings)
Use of Bearings on Track Machines:
On track machines use of various types of bearings on their working units like tamping units
lifting units, scrapping chains, ballast regulating units etc. is made e.g. besides this bearings are
used in the following assemblies.
Wheels and axles.
Gear boxes.
Axle gear bogies.
Various bogies.
Pumps & Motors.
Radiator fans.
Engines, etc.
Numbering of Bearings:
Each bearing is given certain No. as per International standardization organizations ISO as per
their diameters Plan for ball and roller bearings for other bearings different methods are used.
Bearing Number with series: (Example Of 62 Series)
Bearing up to 17 mm dia, bore the number are given as under:
SEREIS NO.
DIA
SERIES NO.
DIA
3 mm
623
9 mm
629
4 mm
624
10 mm
6200
5 mm
625
12 mm
6201
6 mm
626
15 mm
6202
7 mm
627
17 mm
6203
8 mm
628
20 mm
6204 From 20 mm on wards.
Last Nos. when multiplied by 5 given the bore dia of bearing..
Selection of Bearings:
Many factors have to be considered like.
1. Loads (Radial and axial)
2. RPM
3. Vibration
4. Shocks
5. Reversal of directions.
6. Atmospheric conditions (Clean dusty) full of chemicals.
7. Space to fit bearings.
8. Precision required in running.
9. Lubricating conditions
10. Quite running.
11. Temperatures while running.
12. Ease of mounting and dismounting
13. Clearance required in a bearing.
Bearing Clearance:Bearing internal clearance is defined as the total clearance through
which one bearing ring can be moved relative to the other this is indicated by shelters from C1 to
C5.
Mounting and dismounting of bearings:
Before mounting any bearing the shaft or housing should be checked for proper tolerances for
fits etc. if this is not observed the bearing may fail prematurely.
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For providing bearings on a shaft interference fit the bearing should be heated in a oil bath tub
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and provided.
For providing bearing in a housing the bearing may be cooled in ice.
The bearing should be mounted square.
Lubrication paths should always be available if not these should be provided.
fixing of bearings should preferably be done in dust free atmosphere.
Axial location of bearings must be done as interference fit alone is generally not adequate for the
axial location of bearing. As a rule therefore some suitable means of axially securing the ring is
needed.
Bearing Technology
1. History Of Bearing:Bearing is a great invention of mankind. Even primitive man knew the
use of balls and rollers for carrying heavy materials since when Egyptian pyramids were
constructed . Recorded facts are available that in 1558,a Frenchman applied rollers to well
bucket for drawing by reducing water the labour to great extent.
Pre-historic instances reveal that chariot was the most important asset of Assyrian Empire used
for carrying weapons and soldiers in the war. The chariot axle used to get damaged by friction
and hot axle trouble even with a load of four soldiers and a little weapons. The soldiers had an
earnest desire to develop less friction chariots and their wish was granted in the later half of the
nineteenth century when bearings were introduced.
In 19th century a huge stone weighing 1000 tones and eight meters high used as a base of
Russian czar peter I s statue was carried to its site by use of bronze balls.
Today this industry is so advanced that hundreds of bearings in thousands of sizes are available.
Right from the simplest machinery like bicycle using balls for reducing friction to the most
complicated rockets and satellites launched so far, utilize bearings for speed and service to the
mankind and it is the best way to overcome friction.
2. Bearing Materials:The material for race ways and rolling elements have very small contact
surface which are repeatedly subjected to stresses, must be such as to withstand wear and high
elastic limits and high fatigue limits.As a rule, high carbon chrome bearing steel Grade SAE
52100 or EN-31 is used for races and rolling material.
2.1 Chemical Composition
Grade
SAE 52100
C
0.95
to
1.10
Cr
1.30
to
1.60
Mn
0.50
Si
0.15
to
0.35
P
0.025
S
0.025
Other bearing steels depending upon the methods of heat treatment involved are as following.
Specification
Bearing Hardness
EN-31
HRC = 58-64
EN-32 & EM-207
HRC = 58-64
EN-9K
HRC 55
EN-43D
EN-42E
EN-43
4. Selection of Bearing:The bearings are selected keeping in view the equivalent load, desired
life and operating speed or r.p.m. as discussed earlier. Tables showing load factor and r.p.m. are
available for selection of bearing size for a desired life. The following table can be used as guide
for calculating bearing. life of different machine.
S. No.
01.
02.
03.
Group of Steel
Tool Steel
Case Hardening
Flame/Induction Hardening
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5. Recommended Life Value
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Type of machine
Life Lh in Operating hrs.
Infrequently operated machines Apparatus, devices,
500
Demonstration gear.
Machine intended for brief operation lifting gear,
4,000
8,000
Domestic equipment, hand tools.
Machines on intermittent operation: conveying
8,000
15,000
Equipment, infrequently operated machine tools,
Agricultural machinery.
Machines for I-shift operation:
15,000 .30,000
Machines tools, ventilators, countershafts, general
Production machinery, extruders.
Machines on continuous operation:
30,000 60,000
Pumps, compressors.
Machines on continuous operation with high production
100,000
Capacity:
Paper machines, textile machinery
NOTE: It will be seen from above table that the Track Machines fall in the Category of
Machines on intermittent operation having life Lh = 8000 15000 operating hrs.
6. Bearing Construction:
Every Bearing has four main constructional features:
Inner race
Outer race
Balls/Roller/Needle.
Cage
The race (Outer & inner) provide the path for rolling elements for their smooth and
frictionless motion that is why the bearings are termed as antifriction bearings also. The
rolling elements (Ball/Roller/Needle) are sometimes mounted on the inner race where as in
some cases on outer race. The rolling elements are kept intact, equally spaced and in one
plane by a cage which can be pressed or fabricated type depending upon the manufacturer s
design.
6.1 Specification Of Cage:
The cages are specified as follows and find their asses in industry/machinery as per
requirement. The cage not only keep the rolling elements in position but also retain grease for
their lubrication which if lost, the bearing is damaged and or results in over heating and
caesura
S. No.
Code
Cage Material.
1.
F
Steel cage
2.
L
Light alloy cage
3.
M
Brass cage
4.
TM
Plastic cage
5.
J
Sheet Steel cage.
These days even Aluminum cages are also provided by the manufacturers.
7.
RADIAL AND AXIAL CLEARANCES: The radial or axial clearance ofa bearing is
the amount by which the two races may be moved from one end position to the other radialy or
axially.
7.1
RUNNING CLEARANCE:Running clearance may be defined as the clearance of the
mounted bearing produced as a result of fitting conditions and operating temperature. In other
words:
Radial clearance
>
Running clearance
Radial clearance
Mounting tolerance = Running clearance
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In order that the running clearance of a radial bearing always has the correct value to ensure an
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efficient function bearings are available with reduced or enlarged radial clearance for special
conditions.
7.2
CLEARANCE SYMBOL:
Symbol
C2
Radial clearance normal
C3
C4
C5
7.3
Clearance Classification
Radial clearance smaller than normal
Radial clearance larger than normal
Radial clearance larger than C3
Radial clearance larger than C4
Radial Clearance of Deep Groove Ball Bearing With Cylindrical Bore:
Bored
(mm)
Radial clearance (In units of 0.001mm)
C2
Normal
Over
Incl
Min.
Max.
Min.
2.5
10
7
2
10
18
9
5
18
24
10
5
24
30
11
5
30
40
11
6
40
50
11
6
50
65
15
8
65
80
15
10
80
100
18
12
100
120
20
15
120
140
23
18
140
160
23
18
160
180
25
20
180
200
30
25
Radial Clearance of Cylindrical Roller
Interchangeable Components:
Bored
(mm)
Over
18
24
30
40
50
65
80
100
120
140
160
180
Incl
24
30
40
50
65
80
100
120
140
160
180
200
Radial clearance
C2
Normal
Min. Max. Min. Max.
0
30
10
40
0
30
10
45
0
35
15
50
5
40
20
55
5
45
25
70
5
55
30
80
10
60
35
85
10
65
35
90
10
75
40
105
15
80
50
115
20
85
60
125
25
95
65
135
C3
Max.
Min.
13
8
18
11
20
13
20
13
20
15
23
18
28
23
30
25
36
30
41
36
48
41
63
46
61
53
71
63
Bearings With
C3
Min.
25
30
35
40
45
55
65
80
90
100
110
125
Max.
55
65
70
75
90
105
115
135
155
165
175
195
C4
Max.
Min.
Max.
23
25
18
33
28
20
36
28
23
41
33
28
46
36
30
51
43
38
61
51
46
71
58
53
84
66
61
97
81
71
114
91
81
130
102
91
147
117
107
163
Cylindrical Bore and
C4
Min.
35
40
45
55
65
75
90
105
115
130
150
165
Max.
65
70
80
90
105
125
140
160
180
195
215
235
C5
Min.
55
60
70
85
100
115
145
165
185
-
Max.
85
90
105
120
140
165
195
220
250
-
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Radial Clearance Specified for High Temperature:
Operating temperature
120-1500C
150-1800C
Over 1800C
Radial clearance
C3
C4
Greater than C4
8.
Classification of Bearings:
There are three main classification of bearings e.g.
Ball bearing
Roller bearing
Needle bearing
They are further classified as follows:
I. Ball bearings:
Rigid Ball Bearings,Deep groove ball bearings, Angular contact, Double row-self aligning
Thrust Ball bearings,Single Thrust,Double/Duplex thrust.
II. Roller Bearing:
Cylindrical roller bearing,Spherical roller bearing,Taper roller bearing
III. Needle Bearing:
Needle cage, Inner Race, Shell type needle bearing, Needle bearing with hard shoulder.
Needle bearing without shoulder, Adjustable needle bearing, Self aligning, Cam follower
type needle bearing, Roller follower needle bearing, Thrust Needle roller bearing
Flat cages.
Maintenance Aspects of Bearing:
9.
Lubrication of Bearings: Rolling bearing generally require a minimum of lubrication as
the load is transferred under rolling friction. Primarily sliding friction occur only on the guide
surfaces of the cages, but the quality of lubrication is never-the-less a decisive factor in the life of
an antifriction bearing as the main function of lubricant is to prevent corrosion, wear and over
heating.
9.1
Importance of Lubrication:The lubrication plays very important role in antifriction
bearings and serve various purposes as below:
It reduces friction and wear.
It prevents corrosion
It acts as coolant
It works as noise damper
It acts as dirt remover
It acts as seal/sealent also
It acts as retainer for rolling element.
NOTE: Lack of lubrication is one of the most common reasons for premature bearing
death.
9.2
Type of Lubrications:There are three types of lubrications commonly in use for
antifriction bearings.
9.3
Grease Lubrication:
Properties of various types of greases are reproduced below for guidance of the users.
Type
of Calcium Sodium Aluminum Barium Lithium Benton Silica
Grease
gel
Non soap base greases.
Name
of Cup
Fiber
Mobile
Multi
Grease
Grease
Grease
Grease
purposes
Greases
Evenly
Evenly
Evenly
Evenly
Evenly
Fiber
Outward
Evenly
butter
butter
out or thread like fiber out butter
appearance
butter
like
like
like
butter
like
like
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Dropping
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85
160-
85
175
175
70
125
80
135
135
More
More
than 200 than 200
125
125
Good
Poor
Good
Good
Good
Fair
Poor
Fair
Poor
No
Change
No
Change
0
point C
Maximum
Temp.
Recommended
0
C
Water
resistance
Mechanical
stability
When heated
above 1200C
and
then
cooled
Fair to Fair to Poor to fair
good
good
Bleeding No
Jelly like
Change
Poor to Excellent
fair
No
No
Change
Change
9.4
Dry Lubricants:
Dry lubricants are recommended for operating temperatures above 2500C under normal
operating conditions there is no advantage in using them even when used in conjunction
with grease or oil.
10.
Maintenance of Roller Bearings Axle Boxes:
Normally we do not require any maintenance except inspection and re-lubrication which
is done at 6000-10000 miles (or 96000-160000 Kms). However depending upon the
dynamitic conditions, if it is necessary lubricate the bearing earlier. Provision for grease
nipple should be kept if possible.
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SUB-DISCIPLINE:- MECHANICAL (LESSONS: 10
SESSIONS: 10)
Lesson-VIII:BCM Assemblies
Session-34:
Working,
Construction
and
Maintenance practices of Excavation Chain, Conveyor Belts and Screens.
__________________________________________________________________________
BCM Assemblies:
1.
Excavating Chain
Shovel or main link
82 Nos.
Intermediate link
82 Nos.
Chain finger
5 Nos. in each shovel total 410 Nos.
Chain bolt
2 Nos.
Cutter Bar
1 No.
Dredger drum
1 No.
Wear Plates
56 Nos.
Corner Roller
5 Nos.
Chain Speed
1.8mmt
2.4 mt/mt
2.7 mt/mt
3.4 mt/mt
Length of cutter bar
2.0 meter
Height of Cutter bar
250mm
Screening Unit:1st
80mm size
2nd
50 mm size
3rd
32 mm size
Screening Drum:This is responsible for creating vibration. Vibration is done through hydraulic
motor. It is a bi-directional motor which gives bi-directional movement to the cutting chain.
Track Lifting & Lining Unit:This is used for the purpose of lifting and lining. Lifting is
through a centralized hydraulic cylinder. Track can also be slewed as per requirement.
Maintenance Practices of Excavating Unit:As excavating unit consists of shovel, intermediate
link round shaft chisel.
head bolt, chain bolt etc. due to vibration bolt may shear up so proper
attention to be done with respect to the taper and ovality. In addition to this worn out round shaft
chisels should be replaced.The teeth of dredger drum may get worn out. So it should be replaced
after a certain period say 25 Km. or so.
Originally the cutting chain is provided with carbide tip as it is much more wear resistant. So
these are to be replaced after 60 Km. progress and so on.
There are following conveyor belts provided on machine.
1.
Main conveyor belt
1 No.
2.
Distributor conveyor belt
2 Nos.
3.
Waste conveyor belt
1 No.
Above are rubber materials, so due to their movement they are subjected to wear and tear.
While working it must be ensured that there is no wear or tear or damaged occurred to the belts.
So they need to be replaced. Some times the belts are joined through vulcanization process.
Screen Maintenance Following are the Various: Screens provided on BCM.
1.
80mm
9 pieces
2.
50 mm
9 pieces
3.
32mm
9 pieces
Due to excessive vibration at 380 bar, the screen get damaged. For this, there is need of welding
of these screens. Screens are welded through welding plant and
clamp is also done for the
purpose of proper fastening. The maintenance of screen is very much important from machine
point of view for smooth working of BCM.
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SUB-DISCIPLINE:- MECHANICAL (LESSONS: 10
SESSIONS: 10)
Lesson-IX- Lubrication
Session-35: Oil and Lubricants used in different gear boxes, Tamping unit, Lifting unit, Screen drum etc., types and their capacities.
LUBRICATION:
Oil and lubricants used in different gear boxes, Tamping Unit, Lifting Unit Screen drum and
their capacity. Following are the various oil & lubricants used in machines.
Gear Box
Tamping Unit
Grease for Tamping Unit
Grease for Axle
Main gear box of BCM
Screen drum for BCM
Axle Gear Box
Dredger drum
Turn table
Turn
-
C90 20 lts.
SS-100 Hyd. Oil
RR3
Bearing grease
Hyd. Oil HLP68
Hyd. Oil HLP68
Hyd. Oil HLP 68
Amola 100
Hyd, oil
70 lts.
45 Lts (each axle)
25 lts.
15 lts.
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SUB-DISCIPLINE:- MECHANICAL (LESSONS: 10
SESSIONS: 10)
Lesson-X: Maintenance Schedules
Session-36: Maintenance Schedules and IOH/POH of machines
Maintenance Schedules of Track Machines
Following are the various schedule maintenance of different machines given as under:
BCM
FRM-80
UNO/DUO
CSM/09-3X
Schedules
Unimat/MPT
DSG/BRM
Engine Running
Duration
Engine Running
Duration
Hours
Hours
Daily
1hr.
Daily
1hr.
Schedules- I
50hrs.
2hrs.
50hrs.
2hrs.
Schedules-II
100hrs.
1 Day
100hrs.
1 Day
Schedules-III
200, 400, 600, 2 Days
200, 400, 600, 2 Days
Schedules-IV
800hrs.
800hrs.
1000,
3000, 7 Days
1000,
3000, 7 Days
Schedules-V
5000hrs.
5000hrs.
2000, 4000hrs.
45 Days
2000, 4000hrs.
45 Days
Schedules-VI
6000hrs. (POH)
90 Days
6000hrs. (POH)
90 Days
Schedules-VII
Schedules-VIII
Schedules- I
Schedules-II
Schedules-III
Schedules-IV
Daily
50hrs.
100hrs.
200hrs.
1000hrs.
1hrs.
2hrs.
1 Day
2 Days
7 Days
Schedules-V
2000hrs. (IOH)
45 Days
Schedules-VI
4000hrs.
((POH)
-
60 Days
TRT
Engine
Running
Hours
Daily
50hrs.
200hrs.
500hrs.
1000hrs.
(IOH)
6000hrs.
(POH)
-
-
-
Schedules
Schedules-VII
Schedules-VIII
PQRS
Engine Running Duratio
Hours
n
1hrs.
5hrs.
1 Day
7 Days
7 Days
T-28
Duration
Engine
Running
Hours
Daily
50hrs.
100hrs.
150hrs.
200hrs.
-
-
300hrs.
-
-
500hrs.
-
-
1500hrs.
-
Duratio
n
OVERHAULING OF MACHINES :This can be said without any fear of contradiction that lot of wear
and tear takes place on account of machine working and as machines are subjected to wear and tear,
failures are bound to take place, so in order to prevent the failures of machines, schedules have been
framed which are followed and then chances of failures are reduced. The various schedules have been
incorporated in the track machine manual-2000 depending upon the type of machine which reduces
down time of machines and this are known as preventive maintaining but this is not sufficient to meet
the requirement of machines and accordingly with the certain passage of time and specified working
hours of machines after which, other than schedules, machine are taken to zonal or central periodical
overhauling workshop for conveying out IOH/POH of machines which are given as under for good
health of machine. Yard stick of IOH/POH of machines.
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POH of machines:Overhauling of tamping Units, Gear Assembly, axle assembly and lifting lining
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assembly for unit change either at shop floor or field.Post POH service to zonal railway and
performance monitoring of overhauled.Development of Expertise, Standardization/documentations and
dissemination of knowledge with respect to overhauling of assemblies.Study of Interchangeability of
components and subassemblies.Study of failures, finding out remedial measures, troubleshooting and
development of maintenance practices.Procurement of stores and equipments required for POH and their
inspection.Inspection and testing of machines/assemblies received prior to and after POH.Study of new
imported machines and preparations of inventory list with complete series of machines. (machine wise)
and checking for changes with reference to old series of machines.Development of drawings and
material specification for manufacturer of spares.Providing shop floor training regarding maintenance of
machines.
SUB: INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE & WORKSHOP TECHNOLOGY Duration: 36
Sessions = 72 Periods
Sub-discipline:- INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE
(Lessons: IX
Sessions: 22)
Lesson-I: General
Session-1: I.C. and its classification and Main Systems of I.C. Engine
ENGINE: - Engine is a device which converts one form of energy in to another form.
HEAT ENGINE: - Converts heat energy in to mechanical energy. Heat energy is obtained from
combustion of fuel. Chemical energy in fuel is converted in to heat.
INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE: - Those heat engines in which fuel is burnt inside the
engine cylinder is called internal combustion engine. EX :- Diesel engine, Petrol engine, Gas
engine.
EXTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE: - Those heat engines in which fuel is burnt out side
the engine cylinder is called external combustion engine. EX: - Steam engine, Steam turbine.
CLASSIFICATION OF I.C. ENGINES: - Engines may be classified as given below:1. On the basis of fuel used:(i) Petrol Engine
(ii) Diesel Engine
(iii) Gaseous Engines.
4. On the basis of Method of ignition
of fuel:
(i) Spark ignition engine
(ii) Compression ignition engines.
2. On the basis of no. of strokes
per working cycle:(i) 2- Stroke Engines.
(ii) 4- Stroke Engines
5. On the basis of method of cooling:
(i) Air Cooled engine
(ii) Water cooled engine.
3. On the basis of working Cycle:(i) Otto- Cycle Engines.
(ii) Diesel cycle Engines
(iii) Dual cycle Engine.
6. On the basis of no. of cylinders:(i) Single cylinder engine
(ii) Multi-cylinder engine.
MAIN SYSTEMS OF AN I.C ENGINE: - Followings are the main systems of an I.C engine:1. Air supply system.
2. Fuel supply system.
3. Lubricating system.
4. Cooling system.
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1. Air Supply System:- In this system we shall study about requirement of air, Air cleaner,
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drawbacks of choking of air cleaner, Turbocharger, After cooler and importance of after cooling
etc.
2. Fuel Supply System:-In this system we shall study about functions of the system,
classification, fuel injection pumps, injectors, Mico-Bosch and Cummins P.T. fuel supply
system, cetane no., knocking of fuel etc.
3. Lubricating System: - In this system we shall study about properties of lubricating oil, oil
additives, viscosity rating, lubricating circuit, components of lubrication system, Blow bye,
reasons of low lubricating oil pressure and high oil consumption etc.
4. Cooling System:-In this system we shall study about different methods of cooling, Drawbacks
of overcooling and reasons of over heating etc.
Sub-discipline:- INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE
(Lessons: IX
Sessions: 22)
Lesson-II: Constructional Details of Engine Session-2: Cylinder, Cylinder head, Piston and
Piston Rings, Connecting rod & Crankshaft
Engine Construction
The main parts of the engine are as follows: 1.
2.
3.
4.
Cylinder block and crankcase
Cylinder head
Oil pan /c sump
Piston
8. Crankshaft
9. Flywheel
10. Camshaft
11. Valve and valve mechanism
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1. Cylinder Block and Crankcase
It forms the basic framework of the engine. Cylinder block houses the engine cylinders and
crank case supports crankshaft and camshaft. Most engines have cylinder block and
crankcase as a single casting. Some big engines have separate crankcase and cylinders are
fitted (bolted) separately with the crankcase.
Ø
Ø
Ø
There are inbuilt oil galleries for circulation of
lubricating oil.
Water-cooled engines have inbuilt passages for
flow of cooling water. Air cooled engines have
fins outside of the cylinders for cooling.
Big engines have separate liners placed inside
the cylinder bores, which are replaced when
worn out.
Material: - Cast Iron
2. Cylinder Head
The top of the cylinder block is covered by cylinder head. It has combustion chamber and
holes for fitting injector and valves. There are inbuilt galleries for flow of lubricating oil. In
water-cooled engines, there are also passages for flow of water.
In air-cooled engines, there are fins outside the head for cooling. The cylinder head is
bolted to the top of the cylinder block with a gasket in between them.
Material: Cast Iron.
3. Oil pan / Sump
It is the lowest part of the engine. It stores oil for engine lubrication system. There is a drain plug
at the bottom of the oil sump.
Material: - Steel sheet or Aluminum.
4. Piston
Piston transfers the power obtained from
expansion of gases to the crankshaft via
connecting rod. It is equipped with rings.
. Material: - Aluminum Alloy
5. Piston Rings
Piston rings are fitted into the grooves of the piston.
There are two types of piston rings-
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Complete(a) Compression ring
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(b) Oil Control rings
Compression rings are used to maintain good
seal between the piston and the cylinder wall.
These rings seal the air as it is compressed
and also the combustion pressure. Oil
control rings scrape off excessive oil from
the cylinder wall and return it to the oil
sump. It also maintains an oil film on the
cylinder wall.
Minimum two compression rings and one oil
control ring are fitted in 4-stroke engines. An
oil control ring is fitted into the lower groove
of the piston. Piston rings are split having
lapped,
angled
or
butt
joints.
Material: - Cast iron alloy
6. Piston Pin or Gudgeon Pin: It
connects the piston and the small
end of the connecting rod.
Material: Steel Alloy (Case
hardened)
7. Connecting Rod
It joins the piston pin with the crank pin of the crankshaft. Small end of the connecting rod is
connected to the piston pin and the big end to the crank pin. Connecting rod converts the linear
motion of piston into rotary motion of the crankshaft.
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MATERIAL: FORGED STEEL.
8. Crankshaft
Crankshaft is the part on to which reciprocating motion of the piston is converted into rotary
motion. A crankshaft consists of
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.
Crank Pins
Webs
Balancing Weight and
Main Journal
Crankshaft has drilled oil galleries though which oil can flow from the main bearing to
connecting rod (C.R) bearing. The rear end of the crankshaft carries flywheel and the front end
carries a gear, vibration damper and fan belt pulley.
Material: - Steel Alloy
Sub-discipline:- INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE
(Lessons: IX
Sessions: 22)
Lesson-II: Constructional Details of Engine Session-3: Flywheel, Camshaft and Sump, Inlet
and Exhaust valve, Push rod, Rocker arm, Valve clearance, Valve operating mechanism
9.
Flywheel
Flywheel is a heavy steel wheel attached to the rear end of crankshaft. During power
stroke the engine tends to speed up and during other three strokes it tends to slow down. The
Flywheel stores power during power stroke and releases during other three strokes to keep the
engine running at the constant speed. It also controls the engine vibration.
Flywheel is also used as a part of clutch mechanism. Flywheel also has teeth to mesh with selfstarter during starting.
10. Camshaft
Camshaft is a shaft on which cams are mounted. Cam is a device, which changes rotary
motion of the camshaft into linear motion of the follower or lifter. A camshaft has a number of
cams along the length. There are two cams for each cylinder, one to operate the inlet valve and
the other to operate the exhaust valve.
In addition, the
camshaft has an
eccentric
to
operate the fuel
feed pump and a
gear to drive the
oil pump.
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The crankshaft drives the camshaft. The camshaft gear has teeth twice of crankshaft gear teeth.
Gear ratio =
Nos. of teeth on crankshaft gear.
Nos. of teeth on camshaft gear
=
1:2
Thus camshaft turns at half the speed of the crankshaft.
There should be a definite relationship between crankshaft
and camshaft. There are marks on crankshaft gear and
camshaft gear, which are matched during assembly to
maintain the definite relationship between the two.
Note: - In Cummins Engines, there are three cams for each cylinder on camshaft. One cam
operates inlet valve, second operates injector and third operates exhaust valve. Also there is no
eccentric, because these engines have no fuel feed pump.
11. Valve and Valve Operating Mechanism
Valve: - Valve is a device to open and close a passage. There are two valves for each cylinder
an inlet valve and another exhaust valve. Air enters to the cylinder through the inlet valve and
the burnt gases escape through the exhaust valve. When closed, the valve must seal the
combustion space tightly.
Inlet valve is subjected to less heat and is made of nickel chromium alloy steel.
Exhaust valve is subjected to severe heat and is made of silicon chromium alloy steel.
Silchrome steel has very high resistance to heat.
The angular face is ground on the valve head to make an angle of 45 0 or 300 to match
the angle of valve seat in the cylinder head.
Valve Operating Mechanism:
Cams mounted on a camshaft
operate valves. The crankshaft
drives the camshaft. As the cam
rotates it lifts the valve tappet,
which actuates the push rod.
The push rod rotates the
rocker arm about a shaft called
rocker arm shaft. The rocker
arm pushes down the valve to
open the passage.
Valve - Tappet Clearance: A slight clearance is kept between the valve stem and rocker arm
called valve tappet clearance. This clearance allows for expansion of the valve stem as the engine
becomes heated. If sufficient clearance is not given, the valve will not seat properly, when the
engine becomes heated, which will cause power loss. The exhaust valve has more clearance then
the inlet valve due to more heating. Valve-tappet clearance is adjusted by means of an adjusting
screw on the rocker arm.
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12.
Accessories: These are the parts, which are used for better working of the engine.
Air cleaner: It is used to allow clean air entrance into cylinders for fuel combustion.
Oil filter: It screens impurities from the lubricating oil so that only clean oil will circulate
throughout the engine.
Fuel filter: It screens impurities from fuel i.e. HSD so that clean fuel will flow through fuel
pump and will go for combustion inside the cylinder.
Oil pump: It is used to supply pressurized oil into the lubricating circuit for engine lubrication.
13. Other Parts
Fuel pump: It supplies pressurized fuel to the fuel circuit.
Injector: It is fitted into the cylinder to supply fuel in atomized and vaporized form.
Vibration damper: While engine is
running, winding and unwinding effect
comes on crankshaft during power
stroke. This winding
unwinding
effect develops torsional vibration due
to which crankshaft may break. To
damp down (control) this torsional
vibration, vibration damper is used.
It is simply a small flywheel. It is mounted at the front end of the crank shaft.
Sub-discipline:- INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE
(Lessons: IX
Sessions: 22)
Lesson-II: Constructional Details of Engine.
Session-4: Demonstration of Engine
components in I.C. Engine Model Room
1. To identify, Locate fitment position in engine and realize working of
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
Cylinder,
Cylinder head,
Sump,
Piston,
Piston rings,
Connecting rod,
m.
n.
o.
p.
q.
r.
Rocker arm,
Valve,
Valve operating mechanism,
Injector,
Air cleaner,
Oil filter,
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2. a) To locate the valve clearance position.
b)
To realize why valve clearance is generally more on exhaust valve?
3. To count Nos. of teeth on crankshaft gear & camshaft gear and to verify speed ratio.
By observation,
T1= Nos. of teeth on crankshaft gear.
T2= Nos. of teeth on camshaft gear.
Suppose,
N1= Speed of crankshaft gear
N2= Speed of camshaft gear
Speed ratio = N1/ N2
We know that N1/N2= T2/T1
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Hence,
Speed ratio
= T2/ T1
=
4. To count nos. of teeth on crankshaft gear & P.T. pump gear (or Mico-Bosch fuel injection
pump gear) and to verify speed ratio.
( Proceed same as Sr. no. 3.)
Sub-discipline:- INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE
(Lessons: IX
Sessions: 22)
Lesson-III: Basic Terminology and Working Principle of I.C. Engine.
Session-5: T.D.C.,
B.D.C., Swept volume, Clearance volume, Compression ratio, Stroke length, Cylinder bore,
Firing orders, Working Principle of 4-stroke Diesel Engine
Basic Terminology:
Top Dead Centre (TDC): The upper most extreme point beyond which piston can not go in
upward directions.
Bottom Dead Centre (BDC): The bottom most extreme point beyond which piston can not go in
downward direction.
Stroke: The complete movement of piston in one direction, i.e. either from TDC to BDC or from
BDC to TDC is known as stroke.
Stroke Length (L): Distance between TDC & BDC.
Bore (d): The diameter of engine cylinder. It is measured in mm or inches.
Clearance Volume (Vc): The volume of cylinder above TDC.
Swept Volume or stroke Volume or Displacement Volume (Vs): The volume of cylinder
between TDC and BDC is called swept volume.
Compression Ratio: It is the ratio between the volume of air inside the engine cylinder when
piston is at BDC (Vs + Vc) and the volume after compression when piston is at TDC (Vc)
Or,
C.R (r) = Vc + Vs
Vc
Vs = Swept volume = d2 L (Volume between TDC & BDC)
4
Vc = Clearance volume. (Volume inside the cylinder when piston is at TDC)
d = Bore
L = Stroke Length
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Vc
TDC
Vs
Swept Volume
BDC
FIRING ORDER: - The sequence in which the power impulses occur in an engine is called the
firing order. The firing order is selected as a part of the engine design to obtain the best engine
performance.
Firing order of 6 cylinders NT 743C, NTA 855, KTA1150 Cummins Engines and HA
694 Kirloskar Engine, ALU 680 Ashok Layland Engine is: 1 - 5 - 3 - 6 - 2 - 4
Firing order of 12 cylinders MWM-TBD-232 V12, MWM-TBD-234 V12 engine is:
A1 - B2 - A5 - B4 - A3 - B1 - A6 - B5 - A2 - B3 - A4 - B6
1
-
Firing order of 12 cylinders BF12L 513C Dutez engine is:
8 - 5 - 10 - 3 - 7 - 6 - 11 - 2 - 9 -
4 - 12
WORKING PRINCIPLE OF 4-STROKE DIESEL ENGINES:
In our track machines, 4 stroke diesel engines are used. In 4 stroke diesel engine one working
cycle completes in 4 strokes of piston or 2 revolutions of crank shaft. Working Principle of 4
stroke diesel engine can be explained as follows:Suction Stroke: - In suction stroke, suction or inlet valve opens. Piston moves from TDC to
BDC and vacuum is created inside the engine cylinder. In this process, fresh air will enter inside
the engine cylinder at atmospheric pressure. At the end of suction stroke inlet valve is closed.
Compression Stroke: - In this stroke both valves remain closed. Piston moves from BDC to
TDC compressing the air. Compression of air takes place according to adiabatic process, PV =
constant. In this process pressure and temperature will increase gradually up to 28 bars and
5500C respectively. At the end of compression stroke, fuel is injected through injector in the
combustion chamber.
Power Stroke: - The self ignition temperature of diesel is 4400C. The diesel in the combustion
chamber burns and burning gases expand. The burning gases push down the piston from TDC to
BDC. Thus power is delivered at the crank shaft.
Exhaust Stroke: - Exhaust valve opens. Burnt gases go out by self pressure through the exhaust
valve. Piston moves from BDC to TDC and pushes out the remaining gases. At the end of the
stroke, exhaust valve gets closed.
Thus one working cycle gets completed in 4-strokes of piston or two revolutions
of crank shaft or one revolution of camshaft.
From Graph: Suction Stroke:
At point 0 à Inlet valve opens.
Process 0-1 àPiston moves from TDC to BDC. Due to piston
movement, vacuum is created inside the engine
cylinder. Due to this vacuum, fresh air enters
inside the engine cylinder. Theoretically it is
assumed that atmospheric air enters at constant
pressure.
At Point 1 à Inlet valve closes.
Compression Stroke:
Process 1-2àPiston moves BDC to TDC. Adiabatic
compression of air according to law PV = C,
takes place.
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Power Stroke:
At Point 2
à
Point 2-3
à
Point 3
Process 3-4
à
à
Injection of fuel starts. Fuel injection pr. = 180 bar. Self
ignition temperature of diesel is 440°c, so it starts burning.
It is known as Heat addition process at constant pressure . Fuel is
injected in the cylinder. Piston moves from TDC towards BDC.
Fuel cut off point.
Adiabatic expansion of flue gases takes place. Piston moves to the BDC
due to the force exerted by the expanding flue gases.
Exhaust Stroke:
At point 4
à
Process 4- 1 à
Exhaust valve opens.
Exhaust gases go out (Heat rejection at constant volume). Pressure drops
inside the engine cylinder up to atmospheric pressure.
Process 1- 0 à
Piston moves from BDC to TDC. Exhaust of flue gases takes place at
atmospheric pressure.
At Point 0
à
Exhaust valve closes.
Sub-discipline:- INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE
(Lessons: IX
Sessions: 22)
Lesson-IV: Air Supply system of Diesel Engine. Session-6: Requirement of Air, Types of Air
cleaner, Cleaning and checking of Dry type Air cleaner. Draw backs of choking of Air Cleaner.
REQUIREMENT OF AIR:
For Combustion of diesel inside the engine cylinders sufficient quantity of air should be
available. For complete combustion of one liter HSD, 12,500 to 14000 liter fresh air at NTP is
required. Only 22 23% O2 is available in atmospheric air which is used for burning of fuel. If
less air is available then burning of fuel will be incomplete and instead of CO2, CO will form. To
supply air of proper quality (dry, cool, clean & fresh) in sufficient quantity inside the engine
cylinders is the function of air supply system.
Main components of the Air Supply System are as follows:
1. Air Cleaner
2. Hump Hose
3. Vacuum Indicator
4. Turbo Charger
5. After Cooler
6. Inlet Manifold
7. Exhaust Manifold
8. Silencer (Muffler)
AIR CLEANER:
Air contains dust and dirt. If the air is not filtered before its entrance into the engine
cylinders, the dust and dirt particles will seriously damage the engine. These dust and dirt will
mix with the lubricating oil and form abrasive pastes, which will quickly wear the piston, rings,
cylinder wall, bearings, valve guides and other relatively moving parts. This wear will cause high
lubricating oil consumption, increased blow by and reduce engine components life. The purpose
of air cleaner is to remove these harm full dust and dirt particles from the air. It not only cleans
the air but also muffles the noise resulting from air entrance to the inlet manifold and valve ports.
It also arrests the flame in case the engine back fires.
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TYPES OF AIR CLEANER: Two types of Air Cleaner
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1. Oil bath type air cleaner
2. Dry (paper) type air cleaner
Oil Bath Type Air Cleaner: It is a heavy duty
air cleaner. It consists of a wire-mesh filter
element saturated with oil. At the bottom, there
is an oil pan. the operation of air cleaning is
carried out in two stages. In the first stage, the air
strikes on the oil surface and then lift upward
reveres into the filter element. The dust particles
penetrate into the oil surface and get absorbed by
it. In the second stage the partially cleaned air
passes through the wire-mesh filter element, in
which the remaining dust particles are retained.
This type of air cleaner is cleaned periodically. The wire-mesh filter is removed, cleaned
in petrol and dried by air. Oil in the pan is also replaced.
Dry Type Air Cleaner:
It consists of a specially pleated paper element over which a fine mesh screen is provided for
strengthening. By placing the pleated element, a large filtering surface is provided and yet
restriction to air flow is minimal. The element is enclosed in a silencing chamber.
The element should be cleaned periodically. With a dry type air cleaner, a filter
restriction indicator (Vacuum Indicator) is often found mounted into the clean air side of the
system. When an air cleaner is not chocked, it looks transparent and if becomes chocked then it
will give red indication.
Pre-cleaner:
Pre-cleaner is fitted on the air cleaner to arrest the thick dust and soil particles. On the engine
which work in very unsafe atmosphere (dusty atmosphere), Pre cleaners are essentially required.
Pre-cleaner has screen which arrests the thick soil and straw. After filtering through the screen,
the air enters in the pre-cleaner body and revolves by strips fitted on the angle. Due to revolving,
thick dust and soil separates and settles down at the bottom. A glass bowl is fitted at the bottom
of the pre-cleaner. The bowl is cleaned periodically after filling by dust.
CLEANING OF DRY TYPE AIR CLEANER:
1. Only outer element is cleaned and never clean inner element.
2. Air should be applied from inside to outside and not in reverse direction.
3. Pressure of air should be 3.5 bar to 4.5 bar.
4. Nozzle dia should not be less than 0.8mm
5. Nozzle should not come in touch with paper element. It should remain approx. 1 away.
6. Tapping of air cleaner on the rigid surface is not allowed.
CHECKING OF DRY TYPE AIR CLEANER:
1. Bring the air cleaner in dark room.
2. Glow a bulb of 100W inside the air cleaner.
3. Light rays should not come out through the side of air cleaner. It should work like a lamp
shade; otherwise it is damage to be rejected.
DRAW-BACKS OF CHOCKING OF AIR CLEANER
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Air cleaners are used to clean the air. If air cleaner is choked then following problems
will arise:
1. Incomplete combustion of fuel
Fuel will not burn properly and instead of carbon-dioxide, carbon-monoxide will form
and engine will give black smoke.
2. Dilution of Lubricating Oil:
As the fuel will not burn properly it will accumulate on piston. This accumulated fuel will
leak through the piston rings and cylinder liner into the oil sump and mix with the lubricating oil
causing dilution of it.
3. Increase Wear and Tear
Due to dilution of lubricating oil improper lubrication will take place and wear and tear
of different engine parts increases.
4. Chocking of injector Holes
Due to un-burnt fuel and hence more carbon particles, injector holes may chock. Due to
which the fuel cannot be injected in proper pattern.
5. Chocking of Silencer
Due to more carbon particles in exhaust, silencer also may choke.
Sub-discipline:- INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE
(Lessons: IX
Sessions: 22)
Lesson-IV: Air Supply system of Diesel Engine. Session-7: Supercharging, Turbocharger and
After cooler, Importance of After cooling, Demonstration in I. C. engine model room
SUPER CHARGING: The process of supplying air to the engine cylinder above atmospheric
pressure is called super charging. In a naturally aspirated engine, the piston-cylinder draws air
equal to its stroke volume. The pressure inside the cylinder is less than the atmospheric pressure
during the suction stroke. But in a supercharged engine, the air is forced into the cylinder at a
pressure higher than atmospheric (at least 6 PSI).
TURBOCHARGER: Turbo charger is a device which is used to supply air inside the engine
cylinders at more than atmospheric pressure. It is connected between air cleaner and inlet
manifold. It is driven by the exhaust gases of the engine.
Construction and Working of Turbocharger: A turbo charger consists of a turbo wheel
(turbine) and a centrifugal blower impeller (compressor wheel), separately enclosed in casings
but mounted and rotating on a common shaft. It is mechanically independent of the engine
except that its turbine is connected with exhaust manifold and the impeller with the after cooler
or inlet manifold. The turbine portion should be made of heat resistance material.
The turbocharger is fitted between the air intake and exhaust system. Exhaust gases pass
from the engine exhaust manifold to the turbine and rotates the wheel. The rotating motion of
turbine is transferred through a common shaft to a compressor wheel. The compressor wheel
then sucks air from the air cleaner and pushes it into the intake manifold under pressure. The
actual pressure is measured in inches of mercury (Hg) and is dependant upon the engine, turbo
design and power requirements.
Care: Turbo charger rotates by the exhaust gases at rpm of 1,25,000 to 1,40,000 approx. Bearing
design and precise balancing of the whole rotating assembly are, therefore, of the greatest
importance in ensuring a long useful life for the unit.
Turbo-compressor performance is sensitive to the presence of dirt and other harmful
deposits. Special attention should be paid to air filtration when a turbocharger is fitted. Deposits
should never be allowed to build up on the compressor as they would cause unbalance, and in
most designs provision is made for cleaning the compressor without dismantling the
turbocharger.
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The main care with the turbocharger is that the engine should not be stopped at full rpm.
Before stopping, it should be run 3 to 5 minutes at idle rpm. If we do not do so, the lubricating
oil supply to the turbocharger shaft bearings stops with the engine stop, but the turbocharger
shafts keeps on rotating for a considerable time at high rpm. Thus due to no lubrication, its
bearings become red hot and the unit may get damaged. Also oil seal may get damaged due to
overheating which will result in oil leakage to the impeller side.
Advantageous features of the turbocharger are:
1. By supplying more air more fuel can be injected for combustion inside the combustion
chamber and therefore more power is obtained.
2. Better control over the air/fuel ratio at all engine speeds reduces the degree of smoke
emission.
3. Having more air at lower speeds enables better fuel combustion and gives lower torque
speeds.
4. A pressurized air manifold helps reduce combustion noise.
5. Turbocharger speed is controlled by the exhaust system and atmospheric back pressure.
Engine working at high altitudes would normally suffer from lack of oxygen due to less air
density. As the atmospheric pressure is less at altitude the back pressure in the exhaust
system is less and the resistance to turbine shaft rotation is less. This results in the
turbocharger shaft rotating at a faster speed forcing more air into the combustion chamber
and thereby compensating for the lack of oxygen.
AFTER COOLER (INTERCOOLER): After cooler is a device, which is used to cool the air
coming out from turbocharger before entering into the engine cylinders. After cooler are of two
types:
(i) Air to Air type Used in Deutz Engine (BCM machine) model BF 12L 513C.
(ii) Air to water type Used in MWM & Cummins engines.
IMPORTANCE OF AFTER COOLING: In turbocharged engine, air coming from the
turbocharger gets heated due to which its density decreases. Due to increase in temperature the
density of air will decrease which is not desirable. In we cool the air in after cooler before it
enters in to the engine cylinder, the density will increase. For limited vol. inside the engine
cylinder, we can supply more air inside due to which more fuel will burn and we get more
power. In this way output of the engine will increase.
INLET MANIFOLD: The inlet manifold is used to carry air into the engine cylinders through
inlet valves. It is made of Al or C.I and its inside surfaces are smooth, so that there should not be
obstruction to the passing air. It is bolted with cylinder head with a gasket at each joint to prevent
air leakage.
EXHAUST MANIFOLD: It is similar to inlet manifold. It is made of C.I. It is fitted with
cylinder head with asbestos gasket in between them. It collects the exhaust gases from the
cylinder and sends to the silencer (muffler).
SILECER (MUFFLER): Muffler is used
1. To reduce the noise of exhaust gases.
2. To reduce the temperature of the exhaust gases.
3. To trap the unburnt gases and burning gases.
4. To arrest spark.
Mufflers maintain some back pressure in the exhaust gases. This is necessary for the
engine. At the start of suction stroke, Exhaust valves are open along with inlet valve for some
time. If inlet gases have no restriction then they will enter rapidly and cool the exhaust valve
very fast. Due to this rapid cooling exhaust valve may get bent. So this pressure is required to
prevent the exhaust valve from rapid cooling.
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Silencer Types: Straight Flow: In this silencer exhaust gases come out through the holes of a
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pipe and re-enter into the holes of another pipe and then go out.
Reverse Flow Type: In this type of silencer there are three or four segments connected by pipes
with each other. These pipes are not in a line. Exhaust gases move forward and reverse inside the
silencer.
Flexible Pipe: Exhaust manifold is connected with the engine and vibrates with it. Exhaust
silencer is hanging with the chassis. A flexible pipe is fitted in between muffler and exhaust
manifold to prevent the vibrations from reaching to the muffler.
Rain Cap: The engine in which exhaust pipe is fitted vertically; the rain drops may enter the
cylinder head and combustion chamber through the pipe. If it is not prevented it will rust the
valves and piston rings. In such engines rain cap is fitted over the exhaust pipe. If rain cap is
damaged then exhaust pipe should be covered by a jar while the machine is stable.
DEMONSTRATION IN I. C. ENGINE MODEL ROOM
1. To demonstrate the air system components: Dry type air filter, Wet type air filter,
Turbocharger, Inlet manifold, Aftercooler, Exhaust manifold, Silencer (Muffler) etc.
2. To explain the working of turbocharger and its components.
3. To sketch the block diagram of air flow circuit.
Sub-discipline:- INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE
(Lessons: IX
Sessions: 22)
Lesson-V: Fuel Supply system of Diesel Engine. Session-8: Functions and classification of
Fuel supply system, Mico-Bosch fuel supply system, Block diagram, Fuel Injection Pumps,
Injectors and Filters.
FUNCTIONS OF FUEL SUPPLY SYSTEM
1. Storing of fuel.
2. Filtering the fuel
3. Delivering the fuel to pump
4. Injecting fuel into engine cylinder
5. Regulating the engine speed.
CLASSIFICATION OF FUEL SUPPLY SYSTEM
1. Air Injection System: In this system liquid fuel is injected with compressed air. This system
is less reliable, less efficient and requires an air compressor. Due to this reason the system has
become obsolete.
2. Solid Injection System: In this system only the liquid fuel is injected and there is no need of
compressed air. There are two types of solid injection system in use:
a) Individual pump system (Mico-Bosch fuel supply system)
b) Common rail fuel injection system (Cummins P.T. fuel supply system)
a) Individual Pump System (Mico-Bosch fuel supply system)
Working Principle: In this system fuel is drawn from the tank by a fuel feed pump and send to
the fuel injection pump through fuel filters. The fuel injection pump (FIP) will pressurize the fuel
individually for each cylinder and send to the corresponding injectors through high pressure
pipes. The high pressure fuel goes to the injector at the time of injection. The injector injects fuel
at approx. 180 bar to the engine cylinder in atomized and vaporized form. Extra fuel is returned
by the fuel injection pump to the diesel tank. Also a leakage line from the injector goes to the
diesel tank. The system contains following components:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Diesel Tank
Fuel feed pump
Fuel filter
FIP
Injector
Leakage Line
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Fuel Feed Pump: Plunger type fuel feed pump is used in Mico-Bosch fuel system.
Working: There is a spring on the plunger of the pump. This spring forces the plunger against
the tappet. There is an inlet and outlet valve. When plunger lifts due to spring force a vacuum is
created in the suction chamber and diesel is sucked, simultaneously the diesel is forced out from
the pressure chamber. When the tappet presses the plunger due to eccentric movement, the fuel is
forced to the pressure chamber. In this way diesel is sucked from the tank and send to injection
pump. If the tank level is lower than the engine level, this pump is used to suck the diesel from
the tank and send to the fuel injection pump.
Fuel Filter: In Mico-Bosch fuel system mainly two filters are used.
a) Primary filter and
b) Secondary filter
Primary filter is made up of felt or cloth and the secondary filter is made up of paper. In
many cases a pre-filter is also used. This is made of bronze mesh.
Fuel Injection Pump:
This is used in Mico-Bosch fuel system to build up a
high pressure in fuel for injection. FIP also meters the correct
quantity of fuel according to varying load and speed
requirements and delivers it at the correct time to the engine
cylinder. Injection sequence is produced in FIP. There are
individual plungers driven by cams of a camshaft in the FIP.
The plunger reciprocates in the barrel. The plunger has a
rectangular vertical groove and helical groove. The delivery
valve is lifted off its seat under the pressure of the fuel against
the spring. The fuel from the delivery valve goes to injector.
When the plunger is at the bottom of its stroke the
supply port and spill port are uncovered, the fuel from fuel
feed pump after filtration is forced into the barrel. Now the
plunger is pushed up by the cam movement and both the ports
are closed. On further movement of plunger, the fuel above it
is compressed which lifts the delivery valve and fuel goes to
the injector. The plunger raises up still further and at a
particular moment, the helical groove connects the fuel on the
upper part of the plunger to the spill port. Consequently the
fuel goes out and there is a sudden pressure drop due to which
the delivery valve falls back on its seat under the spring force.
Thus pressure in the delivery pipe drops and discharge from
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Injector:
The fuel injector is used to inject a small volume fuel in a fine spray
to the combustion chamber. It consists of needle valve which is
pressed on its seat in the nozzle by a spindle or plunger. The
pressurized fuel enters in the injector body from the high pressure
pipe. The fuel passes through drillings to a point just about the
nozzle seat. The needle valve is lifted from its seat by pressure of
the fuel and the injection takes place. When the injection pressure
falls below the spring pressure the valve gets closed. This action
sets of an oscillation in the valve which consequently breaks fuel
into small particles. Fuel leakage through the needle valve stem
enters the upper part of the injector and is returned to the pump
suction side or fuel tank. Fuel leakage provides lubrication for the
valve stem.
Sub-discipline:- INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE
(Lessons: IX
Sessions: 22)
Lesson-V: Fuel Supply system of Diesel Engine.Session-9: Cummins PT Fuel supply system,
Difference between Mico Bosch and Cummins PT Fuel supply system, Air lock.
b) Common rail fuel injection system (Cummins P.T. fuel supply system)
Operating Principle:
This system was designed by Cummins engineers for Cummins diesels. The identifying
letter P.T. is abbreviation for Pressure-Time . The operation is based on the principle that
amount of fuel injected depends upon pressure of fuel and time available for the filling diesel
into injector cup.
The PT pump is driven by cam shaft gear at crank shaft speed. The PT pump draws fuel
from the diesel tank through water separator and fuel fitter. The PT pump delivers fuel to the fuel
manifold through shutdown valve at a pressure of 200 300 PSI. From fuel manifold, fuel goes
to the injector and returns to the tank. The injector plunger is actuated by cam mechanism at the
time of injection. Travel of plunger opens path for the diesel to the injector cup for a few degree
rotation of cam shaft. Fuel pressure and the length of time the metering orifice is exposed to the
fuel inlet, determines the quantity of fuel which fills in the injector cup. Then the cam
mechanism pushes down the injector, resulting in injection at the pressure of approximately 180
bar.
The Cummins PT Fuel system consists of following components.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Diesel Tank
Water separator
Fuel Filters
P.T. Pump
Fuel Manifold
Injector
Return Line
P.T. Pump:
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Now, PTG Fuel pump is used. It is called a governor control pump because, governor
assembly controls pressure regulation and engine RPM. Fuel flow through the P.T pump is as
under:
The gear pump transfers fuel from the fuel tank through the filter screen into the pressure
regulator plunger cavity. The fuel further divides into two directions:
a) By one path the fuel acts on the pressure regulator by pass plunger and returns to the gear
pump suction.
b) In the second path the fuel flows through throttle, where it can proceed through two paths
i) Idle fuel path and
ii) Manual controlled path
At idle speed, the manual controlled fuel path is closed and the fuel flows through the
idle fuel path from the idle port in the governor. At intermediate speed and full speed fuel passes
through both the paths. The PT pump governor exercises final control over engine speed. The
fuel coming through throttle flows through the open shutdown valve to the fuel manifold.
Injector: The PT Injector performs to important functions:
i) It meters the right quantity of fuel into the injector cup.
ii) It injects the metered amount of fuel through the spray holes in the combustion chamber.
There are two types of Cummins injector. The flanged injectors are used in engines equipped
with fuel manifold. The cylindrical injectors are used in engines, equipped with drilled fuel
passages.
DIFFERENCE BETWEEN MICO-BOSCH & CUMMINS P.T. FUEL SUPPLY SYSTEM:
MICO BOSCH
1 Separate reciprocating pump (plunger
& barrel) are used for each engine
(each) cylinders.
2 Fuel injection pump will supply the
fuel to the injector only at that
particular time when cylinder is ready
to receive the fuel.
3 As soon as injector receives the fuel, it
injects the fuel to the engine cylinders.
4 Final Fuel injection pressure is built
up in the fuel pump and injector only
injects the fuel in the form of fine
spray.
5 The opening & closing of injector
takes place because of high pressure
of fuel to be injected.
6 No need to provide push rod & rocker
arm for operation of injectors.
CUMMINS
A low pressure gear pump is used for all engine
cylinders.
Gear pump will continuously supply the fuel to the
injectors.
Injectors receive the fuel continuously, but it is injected
at that particular time, when cylinder is ready to receive
fuel. For remaining time it is returned back to the tank.
As injector receive the fuel at very low pressure (200 to
300 PSI) at which it is not possible to inject it into the
engine cylinder. The pressure of fuel before injecting
into the engine cylinder is increased up to final
injection pressure (App. 180 bar) in the injectors. In this
way injector increases the pressure & breaks the fuel in
fine particles. After that fuel is injected. Hence the
injectors of Cummins PT fuel supply system are also
called unit injectors.
Opening & closing of injector takes place in the same
fashion as that of valves (Inlet & outlet.)
Push rod & rocker arm are provided for opening &
closing of valves.
REMOVING AIR LOCK: If due to any reason air enters into the fuel system lines then it
becomes impossible to start the engine. The air present in the fuel lines blocks the passage and
the fuel can t be delivered to the engine cylinders. Air may enter into the engine cylinder due to
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low HSD oil level in the tank, when the machine negotiates over a curve and the level of HSD oil
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falls below the opening of suction pipe in the tank. It may also enter due to loose connections or
any small hole in the fuel lines in between the tank and fuel pump.
Also the air may enter into the fuel supply system while changing the
filters. This air is to be removed for proper functioning of fuel supply system. For removing the
air from the fuel supply system, following method is adopted:
In Mico-Bosch fuel supply system 1. Loose vent-screw provided on the body of the fuel filters and fuel injection pump.
2. Do hand priming by fuel feed pump hand operated lever.
3. Priming will be done till oil free form air bubbles starts to come through the first vent screw
in the fuel flow direction.
4. As soon as the fuel free from air bubbles starts coming out through the first vent screw in the
fuel flow direction, tighten the vent screw.
5. Repeat the step 3 & 4 for the remaining vent screws facing the fuel flow direction in
sequence.
In this way air is removed from the system.
In Cummins P. T. fuel supply system 1. Loosen/ remove the bleeding screw provided on the shutdown valve.
2. Prime the engine by self starter to force out the entrapped air until the fuel free from air starts
flowing trough the bleeding screw.
3. As soon as the fuel free from air bubbles starts coming out through the bleeding screw,
tighten the screw.
4. Sometimes if it is suspected that fuel filter has become empty, it is filled by H.S.D. by
loosing and taking out the output pipe and simultaneously loosing the input pipe for air
removal. Then P.T. pump suction line is filled by H.S.D. and connection is restored to
normal. Now steps 1, 2 and 3 are done.
5. Sometimes in place of priming the engine, P.T. pump suction line after filling by H.S.D. is
blown by mouth to force out the entrapped air.
In this way air is removed from the system
Sub-discipline:- INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE
(Lessons: IX
Sessions: 22)
Lesson-VI: Fuel Supply system of Diesel Engine. Session-10: Demonstration in I.C. Engine
Model Room.
1. To demonstrate the components of Mico-Bosch fuel supply system.
2. To draw the fuel flow circuit of Mico-Bosch fuel supply system.
3. To demonstrate the components of Cummins PT fuel supply system.
4. To draw the fuel flow circuit of Cummins PT fuel supply system.
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Sub-discipline:- INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE
(Lessons: IX
Sessions: 22)
Lesson-VII: Lubricating system of Diesel Engine. Session-11: Concept of lubrication and
functions of Lubricating oil, Properties of Lubricant and Lubricating circuit.
CONCEPT OF LUBRICATION: Whenever two metallic surfaces move over each other,
irregularities on the two surfaces interlock with each other due to which friction is produced.
When metal surfaces are in direct contact to each other the friction produced in between them is
called solid friction. When a film of lubricating oil is interposed between the two surfaces, the
friction produced is called fluid friction. If the lubricants between the two surfaces do not cause
complete separation, the friction produced is called boundary friction.
To supply lubricating oil between the moving parts is called
lubrication and the system used is called lubrication system.
FUNCTIONS OF LUBRICATING OIL:1. To reduce friction between moving parts.
2. To reduce wear and tear of moving parts.
3. To provide cooling effect.
4. To provide cushioning effect. It absorbs shocks, between bearings and other moving parts.
5. To produce cleaning action, during its circulation.
6. To provide a sealing action. It helps the piston rings to maintain an effective sealing in the
cylinder against high-pressure gases.
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PROPERTIES OF LUBRICATING OIL:-
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1.Viscosity: Viscosity means resistance of lubricating oil to flow. The viscosity of oil is
specified as the time in seconds that it takes for a given amount of oil to flow by gravity
through a standard size orifice at a given temperature. The viscosity of the oil varies
inversely with temperature. The oil with minimum variation is preferred.
2.Flash Point: The lowest temperature at which the lube oil will flash when a small flame is
passed across its surface is called flash point. The flash point of the oil should be sufficient
high to avoid flashing of oil vapors at temperatures occurring in common use.
3.Pour Point: The minimum temperature at which the oil flow starts is called pour point. The oil
cannot be used for lubrication below this temperature .So the pour point of the oil should be
less than the lowest temperature encountered in the engine.
4.Corrosion Resistance: Corrosion means destruction of a solid body by chemical action. The
oil should not have any tendency to corrode to engine parts.
5.Cleanliness: Lubricating oil must be clean. It should not contain any dust/dirt particles so that
the crankcase and oil lines are kept clean.
6.Physical Stability: The lubricating oil must be stable physically at the lowest and highest
temperatures prevailing in the engine.
7.Chemical Stability: At high temperatures the oil should remain chemically stable. There
should not be any tendency for oxide formation. The oil should not decompose to form
carbon particles.
8.Adhesiveness: The property due to which the oil particles stick with metal surfaces is called
adhesiveness. Oil should have good adhesiveness.
9.Film Strength: It is the property due to which the oil retains a film between two surfaces even
at high speed and temperature. The film between moving parts should not break.
LUBE OIL ADDITIVES: Additives are mixed in the oil to impart those desired properties. These additives are as follows: 1. Viscosity-index improver: - To maintain a more uniform viscosity over the wide range of
operating temperatures.
2. Pour point depressant: - To reduce the pour point of the oil.
3. Oxidation inhibitors: - To reduce oxidation of the oil caused by high temperatures.
4. Corrosion inhibitors: - To inhibit corrosion due to the formation of acid at high temperatures.
5. Anti Rust: - To prevent rust formation on internal parts during shutdown periods.
6. Antifoam: - To control foaming and prevent air bubbles from entering the oil pump.
7. Detergent/Dispersants: - To prevent the formation of deposits of Carbon, gum and dirt,
detergent additives are used. Like ordinary hand soap, it losses and detach the deposits. The oil
then carries the loosened material away. The larger particles drop to the bottom of the crankcase,
but smaller particles tend to remain suspended in the oil. These impurities are flushed out when
the oil is changed.
A dispersant is added to the oil to prevent the particles from clotting, and to keep them in finely
divided state. Without dispersant, the small particles will tend to form large particles which
might block the oil filter and passages.
8. Extreme pressure additives: - Lubricating oil may be subjected to very high pressures in
bearings and valve trains. To prevent the oil from squeezing out, extreme pressure additives are
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put into the oil. They react chemically with metal surfaces to form very strong, thin and slippery
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film. Thus they help the oil by providing protection during moments of extreme pressure.
Viscosity rating (SAE NUMBER) :
SAE stands for Society of Automotive Engineers . The oils which are used for winter have
suffix
(Ex.- SAE 15 W) and their viscosity test is made at 0° Fahrenheit (-18° Celsius). The
oils without suffix
(Ex. - SAE 40) are used for summer and their viscosity test is made at
210° Fahrenheit (99 C).
These day s multigrade oils are available. These oils undergo minimum change in viscosity with
temperature.
Example: SAE 15 W 40: This oil has the same viscosity as SAE 15W at 0 F and as SAE 40 at
210 F.
SAE No.
10 W
20 W
20
30
Viscosity at 0 F (Say boltseconds)
12
48
-
Viscosity at 210 F (Say boltseconds)
45 to 58
58 to70
Oil grade Temperature range
15 W 40
-10 C and above
20 W 40
0 C and above
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Accessory Drive
Main Rifle
Drilling (Gallery)
Main Bearing
Connecting Rod
Turbocharger
Oil Cooler
Cam Follower
Camshaft
Bypass Filter
Full Flow Filter
Scavenge Pump
Pressure Regulator
Piston Cooling
Pump
Oil Pump
Oil Pan
LUBRICATING CIRCUIT (Lubricating oil flow schematic)
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Sub-discipline:- INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE
Documents
(Lessons: IX
Sessions: 22)
Lesson-VII: Lubricating System of Diesel Engine Session-12: Different types of Lubricating
systems, Oil pump, Relief Valve, Filters, Oil Cooler, Strainer, Oil Pressure Gauge, Oil Pressure
Indicating light.
DIFFERENT TYPES OF LUBRICATING SYSTEMS:1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Petroil system
Splash system
Pressure system
Semi pressure system
Dry sump system
1. Petroil System: In this system lubricating oil is mixed into the petrol, while filling in the
petrol tank. When the fuel goes into the crank chamber during the engine operation, the oil
particles go deep in to the bearing surfaces and lubricate them. The cylinder wall, piston rings,
piston pin and crankshaft are lubricated in the same way. This system is adapted in 2-stroke
petrol engine.
2. Splash System:
In this system oil is stored in a sump. A
scoop is made in the lowest part of the
connecting rod. When the engine runs the
scoop dips in the oil once in every revolution
of crankshaft and causes the oil to splash on
the cylinder walls. This action effects the
lubrication of cylinder walls, piston rings,
crankshaft, and big end bearings.
4. Semi Pressure System: It is the combination of splash system and pressure system. Some
parts are lubricated by splash system and some parts are lubricated by pressure system.
5. Dry Sump System: In this system the oil is stored in a separate tank from where it is fed to
the engine. This system is used in aircrafts because its engine position keeps on changing.
3. Pressure Lubricating System:
In this system engine parts are lubricated under
pressure feed. Lube oil is stored in a sump. Oil
pump draws oil through a strainer and delivers it
to the main gallery through a filter at a pressure
of 1.0Kg/cm2 4.0 Kg/cm2. The oil from the
main gallery goes to the main bearings. After
lubricating them, some of the oil falls back to the
sump, some is splashed to lubricate cylinder
walls and the remaining goes through a drilled
hole to the crankpins. From crankpin it goes to
the piston pin through a hole in the connecting
rod web, where it lubricates the piston rings
A separate oil line goes from the oil gallery for lubrication of camshaft and
timing gears. The valve tappets are lubricated through a hole from the main gallery to the tappet
guide surfaces. An oil pressure gauge at the panel indicates the oil pressure in the system.
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PARTS OF LUBRICATING SYSTEM
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1. Oil Sump: Oil sump is the bottom most part of the crank chamber. It provides a covering for
the crankshaft and stores oil in it. It contains a drain plug at its bottom to drain out the oil.
2. Strainer: Oil strainer is simply a wire mesh screen. It is attached to the inlet of the oil pump.
The strainer retains dirt or grit in the oil.
3. Oil Pump: It supplies oil under pressure to the engine parts for lubrication. It is generally
located out side the crankcase. Different types of the oil pumps used for engine lubrication are as
follows: - 1. Gear pump 2. Plungers pump 3. Rotors pump 4. Vane pump.
Gear Pump: It consists of two meshed spur gears
enclosed in housing. There is very little clearance
between the gear teeth and housing. One gear is drive
gear getting power through its shaft from camshaft or
crankshaft. The other gear is free to revolve on its own
bearing. When the pump is in action, the oil enters
between the gear teeth from the inlet side, carried
around between the gears and pump housing and forced
out through the outlet side.
This type of pump is used almost universally due
to simplicity in construction. It can deliver oil at a
pressure about 1.0 4.0 Kg/cm2. A pressure relief
valve is also provided in many oil pumps to relieve the
excess pressure.
4. Oil Filter: Oil filter is used to filter out the dirt/grit particles from the engine oil. There are
two types of lube oil filters: i) Full flow type and ii) Super bypass type
5. Oil Cooler: Oil cooler is provided to cool the lube oil in heavy-duty engines, where oil
temperature becomes quite high. The viscosity of oil decreases with the temperature raise and oil
film may break at high temperature.
The oil may be cooled either by cold water or by air
stream. Water type oil cooler contains tubes in which
oil circulates. The water circulates out side the tubes in
the casing of the cooler. The heat of the oil is carried
away by the circulating water. In air type cooler there
are fins around the tubes to increase the cooling surface
area. Air stream passes around the tubes and takes away
the heat from the tubes and fins.
6. Oil Level Indicator: The level of the oil in the sump is checked by a dipstick. Before starting
the engine, oil level should be checked. The oil level should be between
and
mark of the
dipstick.
7. Oil Pressure Gauge: Oil pressure gauge indicates the oil pressure during engine operation.
Normally one electrical type oil pressure gauge is fitted on the driving panel and another
mechanical type oil pressure gauge is fitted near the engine at instrument panel.
8. Oil Pressure Indicating Light: There is an oil pressure indicating light (Red LED/ Yellow
LED) provided at the driving panel. This light glows when oil pressure becomes down from the
minimum setting. It gives warning about decreased oil pressure.
Oil Pressure Rating: -1. At idle speed: - Min. 1.5 kg/cm2 2. At rated speed: - Min 2.5 kg/cm2.
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Sub-discipline:- INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE
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(Lessons: IX
Sessions: 22)
Lesson-VII: Lubricating System of Diesel Engine. Session-13: Blow bye, Crank case
ventilation, Reasons of Low lubricating oil pressure and high Oil consumption. Demonstration
in I.C. Engine Model Room
BLOW BYE: - The escaping of burnt gases (combustion products) from combustion chambers
to the crank case chamber through cylinder walls is known as blow bye.
CRANKCASE VENTILATION
The products of combustion contain manly nitrogen, water and carbon dioxide. Sulphuric acid
may also be present due to sulphur content in the fuel. The product of combustion may leak into
the crankcase. The crankcase ventilation removes all these unwanted gases and sulphuric acid
particles. It prevents the lubricating oil from being dilute and corrosion of crankcase metals due
to acid formation.
REASONS FOR LOW LUBRICATING OIL PRESSURE
1. Less oil in the sump.
2. Loose connections in the oil lines.
3. Too weak relief valve spring.
4. Excessive clearance in the bearing due to which oil may leak rapidly from bearing ends.
5. Oil filter may be clogged.
6. Oil pump may be worn.
7. Faulty pressure gauge.
REASONS FOR HIGH LUBE OIL CONSUMPTION
1. Loose connections in oil filter lines.
2. Worn oil seal at front or rear main bearings.
3. Worn rear oil seal of camshaft.
4. Broken or improperly installed oil pan, valve cover and timing gear cover gaskets.
5. Cylinder and head distortion due to improper tightening of the cylinder head bolts.
6. Worn out oil control rings.
7. Out of round cylinders.
8. Loose bearings.
9. Excessive clearance in intake valve guides.
10. Excessive oil pressure.
11. Clogged oil breather.
12. High speed and high temperatures of engine, which reduces oil viscosity causing more oil
flow. Hence more oil leaks and more oil burns.
PRECAUTIONS WHILE CHANGING LUBRICATING OIL
1.
Oil should be drained when engine is hot. In hot condition, oil becomes thin and flows
easily resulting in complete drain.
2.
Drain plug should be kept open for sufficient time to ensure complete drain.
3.
Lube oil filters and filter sealing rings also should be replaced with oil change.
4.
Oil grade to be replaced should be same. If oil grade/brand is different, flushing of engine
should be done with same new oil.
5.
Before filling oil, drain plug should be tightened.
6.
Oil level should be kept at
mark of dipstick.
7.
Filter-cane should be filled with new oil.
8.
After running of engine for few minutes, stop the engine and after 30 minutes, oil level
should be checked and toped up.
9.
Oil leakage should be checked and made fit.
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If centrifuge is provided in the lube oil system (MWM, Deutz engines), it should be
11.
cleaned.
Torn the filter paper and check for any metal particles.
DEMONSTRATION IN I.C. ENGINE MODEL ROOM
1. To Demonstrate lubricating system components such as
1. Strainer
2. Oil pump
3. Relief valve
4. Inline Lube Oil filters
5. Super bypass filter
6. Oil Cooler etc.
2. To demonstrate lube oil flow circuit.
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(Lessons: IX
Sessions: 22)
Lesson-VIII: Cooling system of Diesel Engine. Session-14: Necessity of Cooling, Different
methods of Engine cooling, Air Cooling system, Water Cooling system.
Necessity of Cooling:During combustion of air-fuel mixture, enormous amount of heat is produced and the
temperature of burning gases may be reached up to 2500 c. The temperature is so high that it will
cause: a) Pre-ignition of the charge,
b)
Break the lubricating film between the moving parts,
c)
Weld the moving parts or
d)
Any mechanical breakage of the engine parts.
So this temperature must be reduced to 200 c -250 c, at which the engine my work
efficiently. However, too much reduction in temperature will lower thermal efficiency of the
engine .Thus the purpose of the cooling system is to keep the engine at its most efficient
operating temperature at all engine speeds and driving conditions.
The cooling system is so designed that it prevents cooling until the engine
reaches to its normal operating temperature. When the engine warms up, the cooling system
begins to function. It cools rapidly when the engine is to hot, and it cools slowly or not at all
when the engine is cool or is warming up. Engines are designed to operate in a definite
temperature range which will ensure correct clearances between parts, promote vaporization of
the fuel, keep the oil at its best viscosity and prevent the condensation of harmful vapours.
DIFFERENT METHODS OF ENGINE COOLING:- The following methods are mainly
employed for engine cooling: 1. Air cooling
2. Water cooling
AIR COOLING SYSTEM:- In this method, heat is dissipated directly to the air after being
conducted through the cylinder walls. Fins and flanges on the outer surfaces of the cylinders and
heads serve to increase the area exposed to the cooling air, and so raise the rate of cooling.
Advantages of air cooling:1. Lighter in weight due to absence of radiator, cooling jackets, and coolant.
2. No topping up the cooling system.
3. No leaks to guard against.
4. Antifreeze, corrosion resistance not required.
5. Engine warms up faster than the water cooled engines.
6. Can be used in areas where there is scarcity of water.
Disadvantages: 1. Less efficient cooling, because co-efficient of heat transfer for air is less than that of water.
2. Not easy to maintain even cooling all around the cylinder, distortion of the
cylinder may take place.
3. More noisy operation.
4. It can be used only where the cylinders are exposed to air stream
Cooling fins: The fins are usually made of about the
cylinder wall thickness at their routes, tampering down
to about one half the root thickness. The length of
fins varies from one quarter to one third of the cylinder
diameter. The distance between the two fins centers is
about one-quarter
to one third of their length. The total
.
length of finned cylinder barrel is from 1 to 1.5 times
the cylinder bore. Another experimental consideration
is to allow 1,400 to 2400 cm2 of cooling fins area per
horse-power.
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2. WATER COOLING SYSTEM: - In this method water is circulated through water jackets
Documents
around each of the combustion chambers, cylinders, valve seat and valve stems. The circulating
water, when passes through the engine jackets in the block and cylinder head, takes heat of the
combustion. When it passes through the radiator, it is cooled by air drawn through the radiator by
a fan and by air flow developed by the forward motion of the vehicle. After passing through the
radiator, the water again goes in the engine jackets. The normal operating water temperature of
the engine should be 71°c to 88°c, but the most suitable temperature is assumed to be 82°c for
water cooled engines.
Components of the water cooling
method: 1. Radiator
2. Water Pump
3. Water Manifolds
4. Water jackets
5. Thermostat
6. Fan
7. Temperature gauge.
1. Radiator: Radiator is device to provide large amount of cooling
surface to the large amount of air, so that the water
circulating through it is cooled efficiently. It consist of
an upper tank and a lower tank and between them a
series of tubes. The upper tank is connected to the water
outlets from the engine jacket by a hose pipe, and the
lower tank is connected to the jacket inlet through the
water pump. Water passes through the tubes. Fins are
placed around the tubes to improve heat transfer. Air
passes around the tubes, between the fins, absorbing
heat from the water. If any tube is clogged the cooling
effect of the tube is lost.
Radiator is usually made of copper and brass because of their high heat conductivity.
The various sections of the radiator are almost completely joined together by soldering.
2. Water pump: - A pump is used to increase the velocity of the circulating water. An impeller
type pump is fitted between the cylinder block and radiator. Pump is driven by the engine by a
belt or gears. The impeller shaft is supported on one or more bearings. A seal prevents water
from leaking out around the bearings.
3. Water Manifolds:
4. Water jackets: - Water jackets are cast into the cylinder blocks and heads. Jackets are the
passages through which water circulates around the cylinders, valve ports and seats, combustion
chambers and any other hot parts that require cooling.
5. Thermostat: - Thermostat valve is used to regulate the circulation of water in system to
maintain the normal working temperature of the engine parts. The thermostat valve automatically
works in the cooling system. When the engine is started from cold, the thermostat valve prevents
the flow of water from engine to radiator, so that the engine readily reaches to its normal
working temperature. Generally it starts opening and allowing water to the radiator at 74 degree
centigrade and opens completely and allows whole water through the radiator at 85° centigrade.
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Thermostat works on the principle- a heat unit operating a valve.
Wax- element thermostat: A copper cover is filled with wax and sealed. When temperature rises, the wax expands and
operates the valve. When temperature reduces wax contracts and spring closes the valve.
6. Fan: - A fan is mounted behind the radiator. It is either fitted on the water pump shaft or
separately driven by belts or hydraulic motors. The fan draws air through the radiator for
cooling.
7. Temperature Gauge: - A temperature gauge is mounted on the instrument panel. There are
two types of temperature indicators:1. Mechanical type.
2. Electrical type.
Closed system: - The circulation of water is closed in the system under pressure. The boiling
point of the water is raised by keeping it under pressure. A relief valve is provided in radiator
filler cap to prevent excessive pressure causing leaks. A vacuum valve is also provided in the cap
to admit air when the pressure in the system falls below that of the atmosphere due to the
condensation of steam vapours on cooling.
The relief valve is generally set to open at pressure of 0.55 to 1.10
2
2
kg/cm . A 1.10 kg/cm valve would provide a boiling point of about 125 degree Celsius. By
raising the boiling point of the coolant, the cooling capacity of the system is raised.
Corrosion inhibitor: - A corrosion inhibitor should be used in the cooling system to prevent the
formation of rust and scale. Nalcool-2000 is used in MWM (Greaves) engines and coolant
additive concentrate (CAC) is used in Cummins engines as a corrosion inhibitor. The water and
corrosion inhibitor ratio by volume is 30:1 for Nalcool-2000 and 15:1 for Coolant additive
concentrate. Also premixed coolant is available for top-up in Cummins engines.
As much as possible distilled water should be used for cooling. Clean tap-water also may be
used. But water from rivers, canals etc, which are mostly dirty, should not be used.
Draining cooling system: - A drain plug is provided at the bottom of the radiator and also a
drain plug is provided on the right side of the cylinder block. Remove the radiator cap to break
any vacuum that may have developed.
Note: - If the coolant is lost from the system and the engine becomes overheated, do not refill the
system immediately. Allow the engine to cool or refill slowly while the engine is running,
otherwise there is danger of cracking the cylinder block and head.
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(Lessons: IX
Sessions: 22)
Lesson-VIII: Cooling system of Diesel Engine. Session-15: Drawbacks of over cooling and
reasons for over heating, Demonstration in I.C. Engine Model Room.
DRAW BACKS OH OVER COOLING:1. Thermal efficiency is decreased because more heat losses through the cylinder walls.
2. Combustion efficiency is decreased due to poor vaporization of fuel which results in loss
of power and black smoke.
3. Mechanical efficiency is decreased because viscosity of lub. Oil increases and hence
more piston friction is encountered.
4. Engine runs noisy due to excess clearance between moving parts.
5. Lube oil is diluted because incomplete burnt fuel escapes through the cylinder walls to
the sump.
6. Sludge develops in sump.
Though more cooling improves volumetric efficiency, but the overall efficiency is
decreased.
SUMMARY OF COOLING SYSTEM TROUBLES:
Troubles
Possible causes
1. external leakage
2. Internal leakage
3. Poor circulation
4. OVER HEATING
5. Over cooling
6. Corrosion
a) Loose hose clips.
b) Defective rubber hose.
c) Damaged radiator seams.
d) Loose core plugs.
e) Damaged gaskets.
f) Leak at the water temperature gauge.
a) Defective cylinder head gasket.
b) Cracked cylinder wall.
c) Loose cylinder head bolt.
a) Restriction in system.
b) Insufficient coolant
c) Inoperative water pump.
d) Loose fan belt.
e) Inoperative thermostat.
a) Poor circulation due to any reason.
b) Thermostat doesn’t opens properly.
c) Dirty oil sludge in the engine.
d) Low lube oil level.
e) Lube oil too thick. Low lube oil level.
f) Lube oil too thick.
g) Radiator fins chocked.
h) Incorrect ignition timing.
i) Incorrect valve timing
j) Tight bearing.
k) Clogged exhaust system.
l) Dragging brakes.
a) Defective thermostat.
b) Faulty temperature gauge.
a) Excessive impurity in water.
b) Incorrect quality / quantity of corrosion resistant
additive.
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For coolant to be used on Cummins Engines: pH value- 8.5 to 10.5
For coolant to be used on MWM Engines: pH value- 8.0 to 10.0
DEMONSTRATION IN I.C. ENGINE MODEL ROOM
1. To demonstrate Air Cooling System components.
2. To demonstrate Water Cooling System components.
3. To study working of Thermostat.
4. To draw water flow circuit of the model engine.
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(Lessons: IX
Lesson- IX: Maintenance Steps. Session-16: Maintenance Schedules.
Sessions: 22)
MAINTENANCE SCHEDULES OF CUMMINS ENGINES (KTA 1150-L AND NTA 855L) AS PER 09-3X CSM OF RDSO
SCHEDULE – I (TO BE DONE DAILY)
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
(iv)
Check the engine oil level for both engines and top up if required.
Check coolant level in radiator for both engines.
Check and prevent the water leaks, if any.
Check the air cleaner vacuum indicator for both engines. If indicator is red, the
outer filter is to be cleaned.
(v) Check the tension of V-belts and correct it, if required for both engines.
(vi) Drain the air tanks after the day s work.
(vii) Drain the water separator before starting the engine.
(viii) Record the maximum engine temperature of the day s work.
(ix) Clean the engine and premises.
(x) Check fuel level in Diesel tank.
(xi) Check oil pressure of both the engines on load after two hours working.
(xii) Check the oil leakage from fuel line.
(xiii) Check the oil pressure at idle RPM.
SCHEDULE – II (TO BE DONE AFTER 50 HOURS OF ENGINE RUNNING)
(i) Check the condition of V- belts.
(ii) Check the condition of brake shoes.
(iii) Check electrolyte level and Specific Gravity of batteries.
(iv) Clean the outer air filter element.
(v) Drain the water bowl of diesel tank.
SCHEDULE – III (TO BE DONE AFTER 100 HOURS OF ENGINE RUNNING)
(i) Check high water temperature safety device.
(ii) Check low lube oil pressure safety device.
(iii) Check the throttle control linkage
(iv) Examine the mounting bolts of the engine.
SCHEDULE-IV (TO BE DONE AFTER 200 HOURS OF ENGINE RUNNING)
(i) Change the engine oil.
(ii) Change lube oil filter element.
(iii) Change fuel filter element.
(iv) Lubricate the bearings of all the engine pulleys with grease.
(v) Change super lube. oil by-pass filter element.
(vi) Clean crank case breather.
(vii) Clean the mesh of radiator by pressurized air.
(viii) Replace the outer and inner engine air cleaner element.
Note: Item no. (i), (ii), (iii) and (v) will be done after 250 engine hours.
Item no. (viii) will be done after 500 engine hours.
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SCHEDULE-V
(TO BE DONE AFTER 1000, 3000 and 5000 HOURS OF ENGINE RUNNING)
(i) Change worn out water hoses.
(ii) Overhaul the self starter.
(iii) Overhaul the alternators.
(iv) Overhaul the injectors.
(v) Overhaul the fuel injection pumps.
(vi) Replace the rocker cover gaskets.
(vii) Clean the engine radiator externally.
(viii) Clean the diesel tank.
(ix) Clean the cooling coil.
(x) Replace the batteries on condition basis.
(xi) Check the water pump pulley.
(xii) Check coolant for PH value.
(xiii) Change the filter cartridge of air dryer
SCHEDULE-VI (IOH)
(TO BE DONE AFTER 2000 and 4000 HOURS OF ENGINE RUNNING)
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
(iv)
(v)
Top overhauls the engines, if required.
Overhaul the air compressor.
Replace all the water hoses.
Overhaul the water separator and air oiler.
Overhaul the air unloader.
SCHEDULE-VII (POH)
(TO BE DONE AFTER 6000 HOURS OF ENGINE RUNNING)
(i) Overhaul or replace the engine.
(ii) Overhaul the radiator fan drive assembly.
(iii) Replace the engine mounting pads.
(iv) Check the engine damper for dynamic balance.
(v) Replace the water separator and air oiler.
(vi) Replace the air unloader.
(vii) Check and clean the cooling coil.
(viii) Test the air tank for rated air pressure
IMPORTANT
(i)
Premixed CAC will be used for toping up the radiator.
(ii)
API CF-4 15W40 lube oil to be used in engine.
(iii)
Engine oil pressure should be minimum 1.5 kg/sq.cm at idle & 2.5 kg/sq.cm on load at
rated RPM after two hours working.
(iv)
RPM of engine radiator fan should not be less than 1600 for proper cooling.
(v)
Radiator may be replaced if it is blocked more than 20% during service or
badly leaking and not economical to repair.
(vi)
Tension of V-belt will be checked at center of belt and it should not be more than 15mm.
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DocumentsMAINTENANCE SCHEDULES OF DEUTZ ENGINE
MODEL BF 12 L 513 C AS PER BCM RM-80 OF R.D.S.O
Schedule – I (To be done daily)
1. Check level of the lube oil and top up, if required.
2. Check fuel level and top up if required.
3. Check for any oil leakage from the fuel pump, injectors, fuel supply, and return pipes.
4. Check engine oil pressure after warming up(a) at idle speed
( min. 1.5 kg/sq.cm)
(b) on rated speed
( min. 2.5 kg/sq.cm ).
5. Check & correct the tension of alternator V-belt.
6. Check the contamination indicators (pilot lamps) for dry type air filter.
7. Record the maximum engine temperature of the day.
8. Clean engines and their premises.
9. Check the functioning of engine clutch.
Schedule II (To be done after 50 engine hours)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Clean air cleaner element (outer) with 1.5 bar pressure of dry air.
Change oil in the wet type air filter.
Clean the fins of engines and air charge cooler.
Clean batteries plug connections and apply petroleum jelly.
Check electrolyte level in batteries and specific gravity
i. [Minimum specific gravity = 1.24].
Schedule III (To
be done after 100 engine hours)
1. Clean fuel pre-filter (wire mesh).
2. Change the twin stage fuel filter element.
Schedule IV (To be done after 200 engine hours)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Change engine oil.
Change lube oil filters.
Check tappet clearances and adjust if required.
Check engine hoses for leakage and condition and do needful.
Grease clutch drive shaft bearings.
Check clutch fluid level in container.
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Schedule
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
V (To be done after1000, 3000, 5000 engine hours)
Lubricate the accelerating mechanism with oil.
Check high pressure fuel pipes clamps.
Clean the diesel tanks.
Decarbonise cooling coil and check the fittings.
Replace the crank case breather element.
Change dry type air filter element.
Test engine temperature indicator.
Change batteries, if required.
Schedule VI (To be done after 2000, 4000 engine hours)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
Check engine timing and do needful.
Check and clean air reservoir.
Check the air compressor. Overhaul if necessary.
Replace V-belts on condition basis.
Overhaul the alternator and starter.
Clean turbocharger and do needful.
Check anti vibration mountings of the engine and change, if required.
Calibrate the fuel injection pump.
Calibrate the fuel injectors.
Schedule VII (To be done after 6000 engine hours)
1. De-carbonise the engine heads.
2. Check crank shaft and cam shaft end play.
3. Overhaul the air compressor.
4. Change air inlet hoses.
5. Overhaul blower assembly.
6. Change all the high pressure fuel pipes, pipe clamp, flexible fuel hoses and rubber hoses.
7. Overhaul turbo charger.
8. Change shaft seals and bearings of the clutch drive shaft assembly.
9. Check the exhaust manifold for any defect and clean the same.
10. Change shut down valve on condition basis.
11. Replace twin filter body.
12. Replace cooling coil.
13. Change anti-vibration mountings of the engine.
14. Renew the engine wiring with temperature proof wires.
15. Change engine safety system, if required.
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(Lessons: IX
Sessions: 22)
Lesson- IX: Maintenance Steps. Session-17: Adjustment of Valve (Tappet) clearance.
Valve Clearance:
The intentional gap in between the Rocker arm & valve stem (or cross head in case of Cummins
Engines) is known as valve clearance.
Position for valve Clearance adjustment
When both the valves are fully closed then there will be maximum gap in between the valve stem
& Rocker Arm, at that time valve clearance is to be adjusted.
When the piston of any cylinder is at TDC or near TDC in compression stroke, at that time valve
clearance should be adjusted because at that time there will be maximum gap in between valve
stem & Rocker Arm.
We can identify the correct position of piston by the following method:
i)
In case of engine fitted with Mico Bosch Fuel supply system.
(a)
Remove Injector of cylinder no. (1) & insert a rod which will rest on the piston. Now
rotate the fly wheel in the direction of rotation. With the movement of fly wheel & the piston,
rod will also lift. There will be a point up to which the rod will lift & then it goes in down ward
direction. The point, at which it happens, is TDC. Now check whether it is TDC of compression
stroke or exhaust stroke. If it is at TDC of compression stroke then the rocker arm of inlet &
exhaust valve will not press the valve stem & both the rocker arm will be loose. If it is TDC of
exhaust stroke then both the rocker arm will be in contact with valve stems.
If piston is at TDC of exhaust stroke then rotate the fly wheel by one complete
revolution. Now it will reach at TDC of compression stroke.
(b)
There is another method to identify the correct position of piston. Loosen the delivery
pipe of cylinder no. (1) from the fuel injection pumps and rotate the fly wheel in the direction of
rotation. When the piston of that cylinder is about to reach at TDC in compression stroke, the
fuel starts coming out from the delivery pipe. This is the correct position to adjust the valve
clearance because at that time both the valves are fully closed.
(ii)
In case of engines fitted with Cummins P.T. fuel supply system such as NT-743 C, NTA855-L and KTA 1150-L engines, there are 3 push rods & 3 rocker arms for each cylinder, one
for inlet valves, one for exhaust valves & middle one for the operation of injectors. Just before
completing the compression stroke when cylinder is ready to receive the fuel, first of all the
middle rocker arm, which is provided for injector, starts lifting & then it comes down words.
During the movement of this rocker arm, both the valve will be fully closed & there will be
maximum gap in between the rocker arm & cross head (valve clearance is the gap between the
rocker arm & cross head). At that time we can adjust the valve clearance.
In few engines there are marking on the fly wheel or drive pulley, according to which we can
adjust the valve clearance.
To adjust the valve clearances, after bringing the piston at correct position loosen the lock nut of
adjusting screw which is provided on the push rod.
Place filler gauge of sufficient thickness in the gap & adjust the adjusting screw by screw driver.
Now tighten the lock nut.
Having adjusted the valve clearance of cylinder no.(1), rotate fly wheel in the direction of
rotation by 7200/n (n = No. of cylinders). If it is 6 cylinder engine then rotate by 7200/6 = 1200 in
the direction of rotation i.e. 1/3 rev. of crank shaft & get next cylinder, according to firing order,
ready to adjust the valve clearance.
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In this way adjust valve clearance one by one of all cylinder according to firing order by
rotating the fly wheel by 1/3rd revolution.
Valve Clearance:
Inlet Valve
Cummins engines
MWM Engine
Deutz Engine
Kirloskar Engine
Exhaust Valve
0.014
0.2 mm
0.2 mm
0.15 mm
0.027
0.2 mm
0.3 mm
0.15 mm
ADJUSTMENT OF VALVE TAPPET CLEARANCE IN MWM 232 & 234 V-12
ENGINES:
Firing Order of MWM TBD-232 & 234, V-12 Engines:
A1,
A6,
B2,
B5,
A5,
A2,
B4,
B3,
A3,
A4,
B1
B6
Procedure – As per Operation & Maintenance Manual:
1.
2.
3.
4.
Remove rocker covers of all
bank cylinders.
Check the condition of the rocker Lever adjusting screw threads and locknut threads. If
the threads are damaged, replace respective adjusting screw or locknut.
Rotate the crankshaft in direction of rotation i.e., anti-clockwise viewed from flywheel
side until intake valve of A1 cylinder is just closed. Mark the position and then rotate
the crankshaft further by 180 degrees which signifies No. A1 piston is approximately at
Top Dead Centre in compression stroke.
Set intake and exhaust valve clearance to 0.2mm (0.008 ). Install rocker cover of A1 to
indicate the completion of tappet setting.
NOTE:
a)
While adjusting the valve clearance the right hand rocker lever is exhaust and left side is
intake.
b)
Rocker lever or valve which aligns with exhaust manifold exit is exhaust rocker lever or
exhaust valve and the remaining is intake valve.
Continue to rotate the crankshaft in D. O. R. i.e. anti-clockwise until intake valve of A2
cylinder is just closed. Further rotate the crankshaft by ½ turn (1800) and set valve clearance to
0.2mm (0.008 )
Follow the same procedure:
For
A3,
A4,
A5
&
A6.
After the completion of
bank tappet adjustment, move to
bank and commence with B1
cylinder and follow the same procedure as followed in
bank.
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(Lessons: IX
Sessions: 22)
Lesson- IX: Maintenance Steps. Session-18: Adjustment of Injection timing and testing of
Nozzles.
ADJUSTMENT OF INJECTION TIMING:(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
(6)
Place the pump on the foundation and tighten its foundation bolt by hand.
Loose the bolts of pump coupling.
Rotate the engine and bring the piston of one no. cylinder at T.D.C of compression
stroke. Generally one no. cylinder is nearest to radiator. At this time, check the T.D.C
mark on flywheel by inspection hole of flywheel housing.
Rotate the engine a little in reverse direction and bring the INJ mark on Flywheel in
coincidence with the pointer of inspection hole, so that the injection will start before
the T.D.C of piston.
Open the inspection plate of fuel pump and rotate the pump in its direction of rotation
till the one no. plunger starts lifting.
In this position tight the engine coupling with pump coupling.
Now rough timing has been set and for fine adjustment, do the following
works:-
(7)
(8)
(9)
(10)
(11)
(12)
(13)
(14)
(15)
(16)
(17)
(18)
(19)
(20)
(21)
(22)
(23)
Remove delivery valve holder, delivery valve, spring peg seat and joint washer.
Fit spill cut-off at the place of holder.
Connect fuel inlet line with pump.
Do hand priming and fill the fuel gallery of pump.
When gallery becomes full, remove the air through vent screw till the clear diesel starts
coming.
Bring the control lever or control rack in full position.
Loose the fine adjustment bolt on pump coupling.
Rotate the coupling by hand as much as its movement for fine adjustment. Stop rotating
when diesel stops coming out through spill pipe. Remember that plunger should be in
lifting position, not in down going position.
Tight the fine adjustment bolt at this time.
Unscrew the spill cut-off pipe and fit the delivery valve and its parts after cleaning in
diesel.
Fit all injection pipes after cleaning.
Tight the pump foundation completely and check the coupling bolt and adjusting bolt.
Fit the inspection cover of pump.
Fill lubricating oil in injection pump and governor as per manufacturer; oil is filled in
mechanical governor, not in pneumatic governor.
Keep injector pipe loose at injectors and rotate the engine by self starter. When the
diesel starts coming through the pipes, then tight the pipes at injectors.
Self start the engine and after warming up adjust idle speed by stop screw.
Diesel should not leak through pipes, filters or bleeding screw.
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TEST AND ADJUSTMENTS OF INJECTORS
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These tests are done on injector testing machine to test an injector:
1. Pressure test.
2. Leak-off test.
3. Spray test.
1. Pressure test: - Clamp the injector on the tester and operate the tester pump. Note the
reading of the dial indicator at which the injector nozzle starts spraying. It gives pressure
reading. It should be the same as recommended by the company. If it is less, then tighten the
adjusting screw of the injector. If it is more, then loosen the adjusting screw. Repeat the
process until the correct pressure reading is obtained. Finally, tighten the lock nut.
2. Leak off test: - Clamp the injector
on the tester and built up the
pressure about 150Kg/cm2 by
operating the tester pump. Keep this
pressure for about 10 seconds. If the
pressure drops, it shows that there is
leakage in the injector. Check the
nozzle seat and nozzle valve needle
and nozzle body. Correct the seat
and needle by grinding and lapping,
and after that again do the leak off
test.
3. Spray test: - Spray test is also done on the same injector testing machine. While operating the
tester pump, see carefully the spray. It should not like a current of oil or with drops splitting
away, but it should be fully atomized.
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Lesson- IX: Maintenance Steps.
(Lessons: IX
Sessions: 22)
Session-19: Troubleshooting of Engines.
TROUBLE SHOOTING OF CUMMINS ENGINE AS PER PLASSER MAKE WORSITE
TAMPERS (08-32) OF RDSO
S.
No.
1.
Faults
Probable Causes
Engine does
not start
1. Emergency stop
Emergency stop switch should be in release
switch is pressed.
position.
2. No fuel in the tank. 2. Fill fuel in the tank and bleed air from
fuel system as given in following steps:
3. Shut down
mechanism is stuck
4. Air in fuel system.
5. Governor is stuck.
6. Misconnection of
starting switch.
7. Valve clearance is
not proper.
8. Weak batteries.
Remedial Actions
i) Loosen the bleed plug on the fuel filter and
operate the priming pump until the fuel emerges
free of bubbles. Tighten the bleed plug.
ii) Then loosen banjo plug on injection pump
and operate the priming pump until fuel emerges
free of bubbles. Tighten the banjo plug.
3. Check the electrical supply at coil. if it is ok,
then lubricate the piston of shut down coil and
mechanism with lube oil and operate it
manually. If still not working, then coil may be
defective. Replace it.
4. Bleed air from fuel system as explained in
item no. 2 above.
5. Replace the complete fuel injection pump.
6. Check starting switch and if any
misconnection is noticed, rectify it.
7. Adjust the valve clearance as given in engine
manual.
8. Check electrolyte level in the batteries.
Terminals should be clean and the charging
system should be working. Over-aged
batteries should be replaced.
9. Injectors not
properly functioning.
10. Valves not
seating properly.
2.
Engine
running too
hot.
1. Coolant level too
low.
2. Defective
thermostat
9. Remove defective injectors and get them
overhauled/calibrated or replace them with new
one.
10. i) Check the valves spring and replace the
broken spring if any.
ii) Lap the valves.
iii) Lap the valve seat, if
required.
1. Check coolant level and top up to the mark in
the filler neck.
2. Check thermostat as given in the
following steps:
i) Drain cooling water and catch it for reuse.
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2.
Engine
running too
hot.
2. Defective thermostat
3. Defective water pump.
4. V-belt for water pump
needs adjustment.
5. Oil cooler not working
properly.
6. Valve clearance is not
proper.
7. Air filter is choked.
8. RPM of coolant fan is
too low.
3.
Engine
misfiring
6. Adjust the valve clearance as explained in engine
manual.
7. Clean the air filter.
8. Adjust the RPM of the motor to 1600. Check
hydraulic system and change pump and motor if
necessary.
9. Get the radiator cleaned.
10.Radiator cap missing or
worn out
11. Water hose too old.
1. Dirty fuel filter.
10. Fit new cap.
3. Air in fuel system.
4. Defective Injector.
Excessive
engine
smoking.
iv) By short-circuiting and radiator
opening,
check whether the thermostat opens fully. If not, then
install new thermostat.
3. Check/repair the water pump.
4. Check the V-belt tension. To adjust, release the
guide pulley and regulate tension in the belt. Then
tighten the guide pulley.
If required, replace the V-belt.
5. Repair / replace the Oil Cooler.
9. Water radiator choked.
2. No / less fuel in tank.
4.
ii) Loosen hose clamps, pull back hoses and then
remove thermostat.
iii) Heat the water in container to approx. 85o C
and place thermostat in it. Maintain
temperature of water by agitating
5. Valve clearance is not
proper.
6. Fuel injection timing not
proper.
1. Engine oil level too
high.
2. Defective injector
3. Valve clearance is not
proper.
4. Air in fuel system.
5. Clogged air cleaner.
6. Excessive carbon on
11. Replace the water hose.
1. Check fuel filters and if necessary Change it filter.
2. Fill fuel in the tank and follow steps as given in s.
no.1, item no.2.
3. Bleed air from the fuel system as explained in s.
no.1, item no.2.
4. Remove the defective injector and get them
overhauled/calibrated/ replace with new one.
5 Adjust valve clearances as given in engine manual
6. Adjust the timings.
1. Check oil level. For this, draw dipstick and clean
with lint-free cloth. Return dipstick, wait a little until
the oil has wetted the dipstick. Then remove the
dipstick again and check oil level.
2. Follow the s.no.1, item no.9.
3. Follow the s. no.1, item no.7.
4. Follow the s.no.1, item no.2.
5. Clean the element or change if required.
6. De-carbonise the engine.
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Documentscylinder head and piston.
5.
Engine
stops
7. Engine overloaded.
1. No fuel.
2. Air in the fuel system.
3. Valve clearances are not
proper.
4. Governor is stuck.
5. Overheating of engine
6.
7.
8.
Engine
knocking
Output of
the engine
too low
Oil pressure
low.
9.
Oil film
present in
crank case
ventilation
10 Engine
.
speed is
irregular.
11 Fuel
.
consumptio
n too high.
7. Check and reduce the load.
1. Fill fuel in the tank and follow the steps as given in
s. no. 1, item no.2.
2. Bleed air from fuel system as explained in s.no.1,
item no.2.
3. Adjust the valve clearances as explained in s.no.1,
item no.7 above.
4. Replace complete fuel injection pump.
5. Take remedial action as given in s.no.5 below.
6. Shut down circuit fails.
1. Incorrect Injector
setting.
2. Mechanical damage to
piston/cylinder.
3. Valve clearance is not
proper.
4. Fuel injection timing is
not proper.
1. Dirty fuel filters and
fuel line.
2. Air in fuel system.
6. Check the electrical circuit and repair as required.
1. Remove the faulty injector and get it reset or
replace it with new one.
2. Get the engine top overhauled.
6. Improper compression
7. Governor is stuck.
6. Engine needs to be top overhauled.
7. Replace the complete fuel injection pump.
1. Dirty lube oil filter.
2. Oil control valve not
working.
3. Dirty oil cooler
1. Replace the lube oil filter.
2. Repair the control valve or replace it.
3. Adjust the valve clearance as given in engine
manual.
4. Correct the timings.
1. Check the fuel filters and if necessary change it.
2. Bleed the air from system as explained in s. no.1,
item no.2.
3. Defective Injectors.
3. Remove the defective injectors and get them
overhauled or replace with new one.
4. Valve clearances are not 4. Adjust the valve clearances as given in engine
proper.
manual.
5. Air filter choked.
5. Clean the air filter element or replace if required.
3. Clean the oil cooler.
1. Incorrect compression.
2. Lube oil brands.
1. Engine needs to be top overhauled
2. Use lube oil of proper brand and grade as
recommended by the OEM.
1. Air in fuel system
1. Bleed air from the system as explained in s. no.1,
item no.2.
2. Replace complete fuel injection pump.
1. Use proper grade and quality lube oil.
2. Governor is stuck.
1. Use of incorrect lube oil
brand.
2. Incorrect setting of
Injector.
3. Incorrect engine timing.
4. Clogged air filter.
2. Overhaul/ Replace the defective injectors.
3. Get the engine timing reset.
4. Clean the air filter.
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12 Lube oil
.
consumptio
n too high.
1. Incorrect lube oil brand.
2. Poor compression
3. Oil filter dirty.
5. Engine needs to be top overhauled.
1. Use proper grade and quality lube oil as
recommended by OEM.
2. Engine needs to be top overhauled.
3. Replace the filter.
Sub-discipline:- INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE
(Lessons: IX
Sessions: 22)
Lesson- IX: Maintenance Steps. Session-20, 21 & 22: 1 day visit to TM Workshop, PD/MGS.
(A) To see & note down the various components of a dismantled I. C. Engine available at TM
Workshop, PD/ MGS; such as
1.
2.
3.
4.
Deutz Engine
MWM Engine
Cummins Engine
Kirloskar Engine etc.
(B) To see & note down the various components of Workshop Machines available at TM
Workshop, PD/ MGS; Such as
1.
2.
3.
4.
Lathe Machines
Radial drill Machine
Shaper
Planner etc.
(C) To see & note down the various components of Track Maintenance Machines available at
TM Workshop, PD/ MGS; Such as
1. SBCM
2. BCM
3. BRM
4. Plain Track Tampers
5. Points & Crossing Tampers
6. Track Laying Machines etc.
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SUB: INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE & WORKSHOP TECHNOLOGY
Duration: 36 Sessions = 72 Periods
Sub-discipline:- WORKSHOP TECHNOLOGY
(Lessons: 06
Sessions: 14)
Lesson-I: Welding and Related Processes
Session-1: Types of Welding, Gas Welding, Arc
Welding and Electrodes, Related Processes: Soldering, Brazing etc.
Introduction: Welding is a process of joining similar metals by application of heat with or
without application of pressure and addition of filler material.
TYPES OF WELDING: Modern methods of welding may be classified under two broad
heading: (1) plastic welding and (2) fusion welding. They are also called pressure welding, and
non-pressure welding, respectively.
In the plastic welding or pressure welding, the pieces of metal to be joined are
heated to a plastic state and then forced together by external pressure. This procedure is used in
forge welding, resistance welding, thermit welding, and gas welding, in which pressure is
required.
In the fusion welding or non-pressure welding, the material at the joint is heated
to a molten state and allowed to solidify. This includes gas welding, are welding, thermit
welding, etc.
Arc Welding Machine:
Both direct current and alternating current are used for electric arc welding, each having
its particular applications; in some cases either is suitable. D.C. welding supply is usually
obtained from generators driven by electric motor or if no electricity is available by internal
combustion engines. For ac welding supply, transformers are predominantly used for almost all
arc welding where mains electricity supply is available. They have to step down the usual supply
voltage (200-400 volts) to the normal open circuit welding voltage (50-90 volts). A 100 to 200A
machine is small but portable and satisfactory for manual welding of average work.
With direct current the greater heat is generated at the positive pole of the arc, and in metalarc welding, it has been the general practice to connect the work to the positive pole of the D.C.
generator and the filler rod to the negative pole, in order to melt the greater mass of metal in the
base material. On the other hand, certain types of modern electrodes due to their coating and
material properties, are connected advantageously to the positive pole of the generator. The
electric energy consumption per kg of deposited metal in a.c. welding is from 3 to 4 kWh while
for D.C. welding it is as high as 6 to 10 kWh.
Arc Welding Current and Voltage:
Open circuit voltage (no load voltage), i.e., the voltage needed to strike the arc, is higher
than the arc voltage in order to facilitate easy starting of the arc. With direct current, the opencircuit voltage must be at least 30 to 35V.
The following Table gives a survey of permissible intensities of current:Diameter of Electrode Cross-sectional area
Mean Total A
Intensity Per mm2
mm
of electrode mm2
A/mm2
14.3
45
3.14
2
14.3
70
4.90
2.5
12.7
105
8.29
3.25
11.1
140
12/56
4
9.4
180
19.63
5
8.3
235
28.27
6
5.9
310
50.26
8
WELDING RELATED PROCESSES
SOLDERING
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Soldering is the method of uniting two or more pieces of metal by means of a fusible alloy or
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metal, called solder, applied in the molten state. Soldering is divided into two classifications: soft
and hard.
Soft soldering is used extensively in sheet-metal work for joining parts that are not exposed to
the action of high temperatures and are not subjected to excessive loads and forces. Soft
soldering is also employed for joining wires and small parts. The solder, which is mostly
composed of lead and tin, has a melting range of 150 to 350 0C. A suitable flux is always used in
soft soldering. Its function is to prevent oxidation of the surfaces to be soldered or to dissolve
oxides that settle on the metal surfaces during the heating process.
The different compositions of solder for different purpose are as follows :
1. Soft solder lead 37 percent, tin 63 percent.
2. Medium solder lead 50 percent, tin 50 percent.
3. Plumber s solder lead 70 percent, tin 30 percent.
4. Electrician s solder lead 58 percent, tin 42 percent.
Hard soldering employs solders which melt at higher temperatures and are stronger than those
used in soft soldering. Silver soldering is a hard soldering method, and silver alloyed with tin is
used as solder.
BRAZING
Brazing is essentially similar to soldering, but it gives a much stronger joint than soldering. The
principal difference is the use of a harder filter material commercially known as spelter, which
fuses at some temperature above red heat, but below the melting temperature of the parts to be
joined. Filler metals used in this process may be divided into two classes: copper-base alloys,
and silver-base alloys.
Silver alloys (silver and copper or silver, copper and zinc) having a melting range of 600 to
8500C are suitable for brazing any metals capable of being brazed. They give a clean finish and a
strong ductile joint.
The parts to be joined by brazing are carefully cleaned, the flux applied and the parts clamped in
position for joining. Borax is widely used flux, but many proprietary brands are available. They
are then heated to a temperature above the melting point of the spelter to be used, and molten
spelter is allowed to flow by capillary action into the space between the parts and to cool slowly.
The actual heating may be done in a number of ways. Torch brazing in which heating is done by
a blow torch is very common. Furnace brazing, particularly in controlled atmospheres, is a
favourite for production. Induction heating is useful to confine the heat to the joint, if general
heating must be avoided. Resistance brazing is done on some small parts in production.
Immersion brazing is used in large scale production. The parts are cleaned and fluxed, clamped
together, and then immersed into a tank of molten spelter.
SUB-DISCIPLINE:- WORKSHOP TECHNOLOGY (LESSONS: 06
SESSIONS: 14)
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Lesson-I: Welding and Related Processes
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Session-2: Procedure for welding of tamping
tool and defects in Tamping Tool welding.
PROCEDURE FOR WELDING OF TAMPING TOOL
After continuous working of Tamping tool, these tools need reconditioning as the tools are worn
out, maximum 20% wear in X-section area is allowed, for the purpose of recondition of Tamping
tools. Hard facing electrodes are used; with the help of hard facing electrode a layer of sufficient
thickness matching with the parent surface is made. The reconditioning work is done by electric
Arc welding.
Following precautions should be observed while welding the Tamping Tool
1. Before recondition of tool, surface should be cleaned properly. It should not contain
grease or oil.
2. While reconditioning of Tamping tool, positive supply is give to Electrode and negative
supply is given to the tool.
3. A small gap of 2 to 4 mm between Anode and Cathode (Electrode and Work piece
maintained.
4. Hard facing electrode should be used for reconditioning of Tools; mild steel should not
be used.
5. One welding layer should be cooled up to hand bearing, and then another layer should be
welded.
DEFECTS IN TAMPING TOOL WELDING
1. Incomplete penetration It occurs due to improper cleaning of surface.
2. Lack of fusion Due to improper Electrode.
3. Under cutting It happens due to high current and more Arc gap.
4. Slag inclusion.
5. Porosity.
6. Burnt metal.
7. Cracks.
SUB-DISCIPLINE:- WORKSHOP TECHNOLOGY (LESSONS: 06
SESSIONS: 14)
Lesson-I: Welding and Related Processes
Session-3: Welding of BCM turret gears, main
links, intermediate links and cutter bar and grinding operation.
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SUB-DISCIPLINE:- WORKSHOP TECHNOLOGY (LESSONS: 06
SESSIONS: 14)
Lesson-II: Bench Work and Fitting Session-4: Various Tools, their uses and Bench work.
COMMON HAND TOOLS
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1. Hammers: - Hammers are of following types :- (i) Ball peen hammer(ii) Cross peen
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hammer(iii) Claw hammer(iv) Double face hammer(v) Mallet hammer or Soft hammer.
2. Vice: - It consists of one fix jaw and another movable jaw; jaw plates are fixed to the jaws by
set screws and replaced when worn out. Jaw plates have cross-cut for gripping the job. The size
of the vice is known by the width of its jaws. The width suitable for common work varies from
80 to 140mm, the maximum opening being 95 to 180mm.
3. Screw Driver: - It consists three main parts: - (i) Handle (ii) Shank (iii) Blade or tip
According to length of shank, screw drivers are of various sizes. According to shape the screw
drivers used on machine are - (a) Standard screw driver. (b)Philips screw driver.
Safety precautions:-1. Small jobs should not be kept in hand while using screw driver.
2. Don t use screw driver with oily hand.
4. Pliers: - Following pliers comes in our use-(i) Combination pliers (ii) Long nose pliers
(iii) Side cutting pliers (iv) Adjustable pliers(v) Circlip pliers (External and internal)
5. Spanner and Wrenches: - These are of following types: - (i) Open ended spanner (ii) Box
Type spanner (iii) Adjustable spanner (iv) C-Spanner
(i) Open ended spanner: - These are of two types (a) Single ended spanner (b) Double ended
spanner.
(ii) Box type spanner: - These are of following types: - (a) Ring spanner (b) Socket spanner
(c) Tubular spanner.
(iii) Adjustable spanner: These are of following types: - (a) Screw wrench (b) Pipe wrench
(iv) C-Spanner: - This is used for opening and tightening of round nuts. There are single or
double slots in the round nuts, by which the nuts can be opened or tightened.
6. Allen key: - There are six sides on these spanners and are used for opening and tightening the
Allen screw or Allen bolts. These are available in inch and mm sizes.
7. Stud extractor: - This is used for removing broken bolts or studs.
8. Chisels: -(i) Hot chisel
(ii) Cold chisel: - This is used in workshop for cutting cold irons.
This is made of high carbon steel. As per requirement of job it is also made of tool steel or cast
steel.
9. Hacksaw: - It consists two main parts- (i) Frame
(ii) Blade: - Blades are generally made of high carbon steel,
high speed steel or low alloy steel and tempered.
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Precautions: -
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(i) A cut should be marked by a triangular file.
(ii) Hacksaw should be driven slowly at the start.
(iii) Force should be more in forward stroke and less in return stroke.
(iv) During end of cut, job should be held by hand at one end and hacksaw
should be driven slowly.
(v) Drive 40-50 strokes in one minute.
(vi) Blade should be driven in full length.
(vii) Blade should be driven straight.
(viii) Force should be applied according to material.
10. Files: - According to shape or section files are of following types:-1. Hand files 2.Flat files 3.
Half round files 4.Triangular files 5. Square files 6. Round files 7. Knife edge files 8. Needle file
set.
Precautions: - (i)
Make sure that the handle is firmly fixed to the file.
(ii)
Job surface and file surface should be free from any oil or grease.
(iii)
Files are brittle hence should be placed carefully.
(iv)
Files should be operated in full length on the job.
(v)
Any rust on the job surface should be cleaned by file nose.
(vi) Files should not be operated too fast on the job.
11. Drill: - It is made of High carbon steel: - For soft metals. High speed steel: - For hard
metals. Twisted fluted drill is used for metal works. Lip angle for general work is 118°.
Precautions: - (i) Cutting edge of drill should be sharp. Blunt cutting edge should be ground on
grinder to make sharp. The length of the both cutting edges should be kept equal.
(ii) Before drilling make a mark on the job by centre punch.
(iii) Drill should be tightened properly by key in the chuck.
(iv) Small diameter drill should be given more speed and less pressure.
(v) Coolant should be used during drilling.
. 12. Taps: - There are generally three taps in a set
(i) Rougher Tap (Taper Tap): -6-8 threads are
ground in taper.
(ii) Intermediate Tap (Medium Tap): - 3-5 threads
are ground in taper.
(iii) Finisher Tap (Bottoming Tap): - 1-2 threads are
ground in taper.
Tap Wrench: - It is a tool for holding the tap. It is also called a tap handle.
Tap-Drill size: - Drill size should be proper in accordance with tap size for exact cutting of
threads.
Formula: - T.D.S = T.S-2d
Where,
T.D.S = Tap drill size
D = 0.61p
T.S = Tap size
Thumb rule: - T.D.S= T.S*0.8
P = Pitch= 1/Thread per inch
Precautions: - (i) Hole size should be proper in accordance with tap size.
(ii) Taps should be operated in correct sequence of rougher, intermediate and
finisher.
(iii) Tap should be moved quarter round back for half round forward.
(iv) Tap handle should be kept balance.
13. Scrapers: - Three types of scrapers are mostly used: (i) Flat scrapers.
(ii) Half round scrapers.
(iii) Triangular scrapers.
SUB-DISCIPLINE:- WORKSHOP TECHNOLOGY (LESSONS: 06
SESSIONS: 14)
Lesson-III: Measurement and Inspection.
Session-5: Standards of Measurement,
Classification of Measuring Instruments and Linear Measurement
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MEASUREMENT AND INSPECTION:
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A measuring instrument is any device that may be used to obtain a dimensional or surface
measurement. While a gauge is intended for quickly checking parts in production that is to
determine whether or not a dimension is within its specified limits. A gauge usually does not
reveal the actual size of dimension.
Standards of Measurement: International standard meter has been defined in terms of a
wavelength of light, being the length equal to 1650 763.73 vacuum wave lengths of orange
radiation of Krypton-85.
Line and End Standards:
The length standard can be classified as the line standard and end standard. In the length
standard, the unit of length is defined as the distance between the centers of engraved lines as in
a steel rule, whereas in the end standards it is the distance between the end faces of the standard
as in a micrometer.
Classification of Measuring Instruments:
1.
Precision Instruments:
Precision instruments are those which have the ability to measures parts within an accuracy
of 0.01mm or more.
2.
Non-precision:
Non-precision instruments are limited to the measurement of parts to a visible line
graduation on the instrument used, such as a graduated rule or scale.
External Micrometer:
The essential parts of the instrument are as follows:
1.
Frame: The frame is made of steel, cast steel, malleable cast iron or light alloy.
2.
Hardened anvil: The anvil shall protrude from the frame for a distance of at least 3mm in
order to permit of the attachment of a measuring wire support.
3.
Screwed spindle. This spindle does the actual measuring and possesses threads of 0.5mm
pitch.
4.
Graduated sleeve or barrel. It has datum or fiducial line and fixed graduations.
5.
Thimble. This is a tubular cover fastened with the spindle and moves with the spindle. The
beveled edge of the thimble is divided into 50 equal parts, every fifth being numbered.
6.
Ratchet or friction stop. This is a small extension to the thimble. The ratchet slips when
the pressure on the screw exceeds a certain amount. This produces uniform reading and
prevents any damage of distortion of the instrument.
7.
Spindle clamp or clamp ring. This is used to lock the instrument at any desired setting.
Reading: The graduation on the barrel is in two parts, namely one above the reference line and
the other below. The graduation above the reference line is graduated in 1mm intervals. The first
and every fifth are long and numbered 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25. The lower graduations are
graduated in 1 mm intervals but each graduation shall be placed at the middle of the two
successive upper graduations to be read 0.5mm.
The micrometer screw has a pitch of 0.5mm, while the thimble has a scale of 50 divisions
round its circumference. Thus, on going through one complete turn, the thimble moves forward
or backward by one thread pitch of 0.5 mm and one division of thimble is 0.01 mm.
SUB-DISCIPLINE:- WORKSHOP TECHNOLOGY (LESSONS: 06
SESSIONS: 14)
Lesson-IV: Limits, Fits and Surface Quality. Session-6: Interchangeability, Limits, Fits,
Allowances, Tolerances and Surface finish.
LIMITS, FITS AND SURFACE QUALITY
INTERCHANGEABILITY:
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But it is not always possible, particularly in mass production, to keep the exact measurement.
Given sufficient time, any operator could work to and maintain the sizes to within a close degree
of accuracy, but there would still be small variation. It is known that if the deviations are within
certain limits, all parts of equivalent size will equally fit for operating in machines and
mechanisms. Certain deviations are, therefore, recognized and allowed to ensure
interchangeability of mating parts, coupled with the desired degree of tightness or looseness on
assembly. When a system of this kind has been worked out, so that one component will assemble
correctly with any mating component, both being chosen at random, the system is called an
interchangeable system, sometimes called a limit system or a system of limits and fits.
If interchangeability is not achieved, selective assembly will be required; that is each part
must be selected to fit its mating part. Selective assembly is costly and should be avoided
wherever possible.
1.
The basic size is the size in relation to which all limits of variation are determined. This is
fixed up by the designer from its functional considerations.
2.
The nominal size is the size specified in the drawings as a matter of convenience. The
nominal size is used primarily for the purpose of identification of a component, and is
never used in the precision measurement of parts.
3.
The actual size of a dimension or part is its measured size. An actual size of a ready part
will, therefore, always deviate from one specified in the drawing, i.e., from the nominal
or basic size. But the difference between the basic size and actual size must not exceed a
certain limit.
Deviation and Zero Line:
The algebraic difference between size (actual, maximum, etc.) and the corresponding
basic size is called the deviation.
The upper deviation is the algebraic difference between the maximum limit of size and
the corresponding basic size.
The lower deviation is the algebraic difference between the minimum limit of size and
the corresponding basic size.
Tolerances of Parts:
Tolerance on a dimension is the difference between the maximum limit of size and
minimum limit of size. The tolerance, however, is equal to the algebraic difference between the
upper and lower deviations and has an absolute value without sign.
There are two basic ways of specify tolerance: (1) bilateral and (2) unilateral, tolerances.
Bilateral tolerances are used where the parts may vary in either direction from the desired or
nominal size. The dimension 25+0.05 is n example of bilateral tolerance. It is not necessary that
the variation should be equal. -0.05
Unilateral tolerances are used where it is important for the dimension to vary in only one
direction.
In example 40+0.0 3 the basic size is 40mm, the upper deviation is 0.03mm, the
-0.02
lower 0.02mm. Hence, the
maximum limit size is (40+0.03) = 40.03mm, the minimum
limit size being (40-0.02) = 39.98mm. Therefore, the tolerance in this case is (40.03-39.98) =
005mm.
FITS, ALLOWANCES, CLEARANCES AND INTERFERENCES:
One which enters into the other is known as the enveloped surface or male part, and the other in
which one enters is the enveloping surface or female part. The enveloped surface of a cylindrical
part is considered as a shaft whiles the enveloping surface as a hole. The dimensions
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corresponding to them are called a shaft diameter and a hole diameter. In the case of a key and its
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keyway, the key represents a shaft, while the keyway represents a hole.
Fits: The relation between the two parts where one is inserted into the other with a certain degree
of tightness or looseness is known as a fit.
Allowance: An intentional difference between the hole dimensions and shaft dimension for any
type of fit is called the allowance.
An allowance may be either a positive (+) or a negative (-) amount according to the type of fit
required. If the conditions are such that the shaft is smaller than the hole we say that there is
positive allowance, but if the shaft is larger than the hole we say that there is negative allowance.
Types of fit:
Clearance Fits: In a clearance fit there is a positive allowance between the largest possible shaft
and the smallest possible hole. With such fits the minimum clearance is greater than zero. Such
fits give loose joints, i.e. there must be same degree of freedom between a shaft and a hole.
Clearance fits may be subdivided as: (1) Slide fit, (2) Easy slide fit, (3) Running fit, (4) Slack
running fit and (5) Loose running fit.
Interference Fits: In an interference fit there is a negative allowance or interference between the
largest hole and the smallest shaft, the shaft being larger than hole. Interference fits may be
classified as: (1) Shrink fit (2) Heavy drive fit and (3) Light drive fit.
Transition: Fits: The use of transition fits does not guarantee either an interference or a
clearance, i.e., any pair of parts mating with a transition fit may fit with interference, while
another pair with the same fit may have a clearance fit.
Transition fits may be classified as: (1) force fit, (2) tight fit, (3) wringing fit, and (4) push fit.
SUB-DISCIPLINE:- WORKSHOP TECHNOLOGY (LESSONS: 06
SESSIONS: 14)
Lesson-V: Workshop Machines. Session-7: Lathe Machines, Different Lathe Machines
Operations
LATHE
The first useful form of lathe was made by H. Moudslay (British) in 1800. Lathe was the first
useful machine which came into existence as a useful machine for metal cutting. Lathe is a
machine tool which holds the work between two rigid and strong supports the work piece
revolves and tool is fed against the work. The work revolves about its own axis to cut the desired
material.
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MAIN PARTS OF A LATHE:-1.Bed 2.Head stock 3.Tail stock 4.Carriage 5.Feed Mechanism
6.Legs.
Bed: - The bed of the lathe is the base on which different fixed and operating parts of the lathe
are mounted. It provides inverted guide ways for well guided and controlled movement of the
operating parts (Carriage) . It withstands various forces exerted on the cutting tool during
operation .Bed is made of cast iron alloyed with nickel and aluminum.
Head Stock: - Head stock is housing for the driving pulleys and back gears. The head stock is
secured at the left end of the lathe bed. It provides mechanism for work rotation at multiple
speeds. It contains a hollow spindles and mechanism for driving and altering the spindle speed.
Tail Stock:-The tail stock is located on the ways at the right end of the bed. It has two main
uses: - (1) It supports the other end of the work (2) It holds tool for performing operations such
as drilling, reaming, tapping etc.
To accommodate different lengths of work the tail stock is slided to
a desired position and is clamped. The tail stock spindle can be moved forward and reverse by a
hand wheel.
Carriage: The carriage of a lathe serves the purpose of supporting, guiding and feeding the tool
against the job during the operation. It consists of several parts:(a) Saddle (b) Cross slide (C) Compound rest (d) Tool post
(e) Apron
Saddle: It is the part of carriage which slides
along the bed ways and supports the cross
slide, compound rest and tool post.
Cross Slide: It is mounted on the saddle and
moves in a direction normal to the axis of
main spindle. It may be operated by hand;
cross feed may be given by power feed
through apron mechanism.
Compound Rest: It is mounted on the cross slide and carries a graduated circle base. The circle
is graduated on the cross slide in degrees and compound rest may swivel to any angle on
horizontal plane on the circular base. The upper part of the compound rest called compound slide
can be moved by a feed screw.
Tool Post: It is the top most part of the carriage and it is used for holding the tool.
Apron: It is the hanging part in front of the carriage. It serves as housing for a no. of gear trains
through which power feed can be given to the carriage and cross slide.
Legs: They are the supports which carry the entire load of the machine over them.
Centering: The centering is the process of making the longitudinal axis of job coinciding with
the axis of chuck.
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LATHE
OPERATIONS:
Facing: In this operation feeding of the tool is perpendicular to the axis of rotation of the job. By
this operation ends of a job is machined to produce a flat surface perpendicular to the axis.
Turning: Turning is the operation of removing excess material from the work piece to produce a
cone shaped or cylindrical surface. Various turnings are as follows:
Straight Turning: In this operation the job is rotated about the lathe axis and the tool is fed
parallel to the lathe axis. The straight turning produces a cylindrical by removing excess metal
from the work piece.
Taper Turning: Taper turning means to produce a conical surface on the job. In this operation
job rotates about the lathe axis and the tool is fed at an angle to the lathe axis.
Chamfering: It is the operation of beveling the extreme end of work piece. This is done to
remove the burrs to have a better look, to pass the nut freely on the threaded work piece.
Thread Cutting: It is the most important operation performed on a lathe. The principle of thread
cutting is to produce a helical groove on job surface by feeding the tool longitudinally when the
job is rotated by a chuck.
The longitudinal feed should be equal to the pitch of the thread to be cut per
revolution of the work piece.
Knurling: It is the process of embossing a diamond shaped pattern on the surface of a work
piece. The operation is performed by a special knurling tool. The tool is held rigidly on the tool
post and the rollers are pressed against the revolving work piece to squeeze the metal against the
multiple cutting edges, producing depressions on the surface of work piece.
Some other operations are: 1. Drilling 2.Reaming 3.Tapping 4.Boring 5. Parting off etc.
Following operations are performed by using special attachments:
1. Grinding
2.Milling
SUB-DISCIPLINE:- WORKSHOP TECHNOLOGY (LESSONS: 06
SESSIONS: 14)
Lesson-V: Workshop Machines. Session-8: Drilling and Boring Machines
DRILLING
Drilling machine is used for generating holes in a
work piece. The hole is generated by the rotating
edge of a cutting tool, known as drill. The drill
exerts pressure on the job clamped on the table and
rotates generating holes.
Types of drilling machine
1. Portable drilling machine
2. Sensitive drilling machine
3. Upright drilling machine
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5. Gang drilling machine
6. Multiple spindle drilling machine
7. Automatic drilling machine
8. Deep hole drilling machine
The principle parts of a drilling machine are explained below.
Base: The base is the part of the machine on which
vertical column is mounted.
Column: The column is a vertical member of the
machine which supports the table and head containing
all driving mechanisms. At the face of the column, rack
teeth may be cut for vertical movement of the table.
Table: The table is mounted on the column and is
provided with T-slots for clamping the job directly on
its face. The table may have 3 types of adjustment i.e.
vertical adjustment, circular adjustment about its own
axis and radial adjustment.
Head: The head is mounted on the top of the column and houses the driving and feeding
mechanism for the spindle .The head may have vertical adjustment for accommodating different
height of job.
Spindle and drill head assembly: The spindle is a vertical shaft which holds the drill. It receives
its motion from the top shaft. The spindle has vertical adjustment for setting the drill on the job.
Spindle drive and feed mechanism: The spindle drive mechanism incorporates an arrangement
for obtaining multiple speed of the spindle. The feed is effected the vertical movement of the
vertical movement of the drill into work.
Drill Material:
1.High speed steel.
2. Carbon steel.
Drill Size: In metric system drills are nominated by their mm size. These are manufactured
commonly from 0.2 mm to 10 mm. In British system drills are nominated by their inch size.
Tap- Drill Size:
Dia. of hole, D = T- 2d
Where T = Dia of tap
d = depth of thread = 0.61p
p = pitch of thread
REAMER:-Reamer is a tool used for enlarging/finishing the hole previously drilled to give an
accuracy of dimension. It is a multi tooth cutter which gives the removal of metal in relatively
small amount.
BORING MACHINE
Boring machine is used to bore holes in large and heavy parts, which are practically impossible
to hold and rotate in an engine lathe or a drilling machine. These parts are engine frames, steam
engine cylinders, machine housing etc.
Types Of Boring Machines:2. Vertical boring machine.
1. Horizontal boring machine.
(a) Vertical turret lathe.
(a) Table type.
(b) Standard Vertical boring machine.
(b) Floor type.
3. Precision boring machine.
(c) Planer type.
4. Jig boring machine
(d) Multiple head type.
(a) Vertical milling machine type.
(b) Planer type.
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1. Horizontal Boring machine: - In this machine work is supported on a table which is
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stationary and the tool revolves in a horizontal axis.
Parts of a horizontal Boring Machine:Bed: - The bed is that part of the machine
which is fitted on the floor of the shop and has
a box like casting. It supports the columns,
tables and other parts of the machine.
Head stock supporting column: - The
column provides support to the head stock and
guides it up and down accordingly by the
guide ways provided on the face of the
column.
End supporting columns: - The end supporting column houses the bearing block for supporting
a long boring bar. The column may be adjusted on the slide ways of the bed towards or away
from the spindle for supporting different lengths of boring bars or it may be moved at right
angles to the spindle as in the case of a floor type machine.
Head stock: - The head stock mounted on the column supports drives and feeds the tool. The
head stock may be moved up and down on the column for setting the tool for different height of
the work. The head stock and the end supporting bearing block are raised or lowered in unison
by the help of screws.
Saddle and Table: - The table supports the work and is therefore provided with T-slots for
clamping the work or for holding various devises. The saddle permits the work to be moved
longitudinally on the bed .The table may be moved crosswise on the saddle. These movements
may be slow or rapid.
Boring Bar: - The boring bar supports the cutter for boring operations on jobs having large bore
diameters. For short holes the bar may be supported on the head stock spindle end only, where as
for long work the bar is also supported on the column bearing block.
Size of a Horizontal Boring Machine: -The size is specified by diameter of its spindle in mm.
The diameter of spindle varies from 75 to 355mm.Other important dimensions are:-Motor horse
power, column heights, size of the table or size of the floor plate ,spindle speeds, feeds and
length of feeds, floor space, weight of machine etc.
2. Vertical boring machine: - The work rotates on a horizontal table about a vertical axis and
the tool is stationary except for the feed.
3. Precision boring machine: -The machine uses single point tools to machine surfaces rapidly
and accurately. Cemented carbide and diamond tipped single point tools are operated at very
high speed to produce accurately sized holes with a fine surface finish .The machine may be
horizontal or vertical type.
4. Jig boring machine: - These machines are used for production of jigs, fixtures, tools and
other precision parts which require high degree of accuracy. The machine accuracy is very high
within a range of 0.0025mm.
SUB-DISCIPLINE:- WORKSHOP TECHNOLOGY (LESSONS: 06
SESSIONS: 14)
Lesson-V: Workshop Machines. Session-9: Shaper and planer
SHAPER
WORKING PRINCIPLE:-The job is rigidly held in a vice or clamp directly on the machine
table. The tool is held in the tool post mounted on the ram of the machine. This ram reciprocates
to and fro. In doing so the tool cuts materials in the forward stroke. Return stroke is called idle
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stroke because no material cutting takes place in that stroke. The job is given an indexed feed in
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a direction normal to the line of action of cutting tool.
The time spent in return stroke is obviously a waste. We cannot make this time equal to
zero, but it can be reduced. A mechanism called Whitworth Quick Return Mechanism is fitted in
the shaper to reduce the time wastage during return (idle) stroke.
MAIN PARTS OF SHAPER MACHINE:
1. Base 2. Column 3.Cross rail.
4. Table 5. Ram 6. Tool head
7. Vice.
CUTTING TOOL MATERIAL:
1. High Speed Steel
2. Carbide Tipped tools for
hard materials.
PLANER
WORKING PRINCIPLE: - The work is rigidly held on the work table of the machine. The
tool is held vertically in the tool head mounted on cross-rail. The work table together with the job
is made to reciprocate past the vertically held tool .The indexed feed, after each cut, is given to
the tool during the idle stroke of the table. The machine may comprise side tool posts also. This
is used to machine side surfaces of the job.
The fundamental difference between a shaper and a planer is that in
planer, the job which is mounted on table reciprocates past the stationary cutting tool and the
feed is supplied by the lateral movement of the tool, but in shaper the tool which is mounted
upon the ram reciprocates and the feed is given by the crosswise movement of the table.
MAIN
PARTS:
1. Bed
2.Table
3. Column / Housing
4. Cross rail 5.Tool head
6. Controls
SUB-DISCIPLINE:- WORKSHOP TECHNOLOGY (LESSONS: 06
SESSIONS: 14)
Lesson-V: Workshop Machines. Session-10: Milling Machine and Gear Cutting
MILLING MACHINE
It is a machine tool that removes metal as the work is fed against a rotating multiple tooth cutter.
The cutter rotates at a high speed and because of multiple cutting edges; it removes metal at a very
fast rate. The machine can also hold more than one cutter at a time.
TYPES OF MILLING MACHINES:
1. COLUMN AND KNEE TYPE:
2. Manufacturing and fixed bed type milling
machine
3. Planer type milling machine
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(a) Hand milling
(b) Plain milling
(c) Universal milling
(d) Omniversal milling
(e) Vertical milling
1. COLUMN AND KNEE TYPE:-Table is mounted on the knee casting. Knee casting is
mounted on the vertical slide of the main column. The knee is vertically adjustable on the
column to accommodate works of various sizes. These machines are classified according to the
various methods of supplying power to the table, different movement of the table & different
axis of rotation of the main spindle.
Main Parts: Base, Column, Knee,
Table, Over Hanging, Arm, Front
Brace, Spindle, Arbor
MILLING CUTTER:-The milling
cutters are revolving tools having
one or several cutting edges equally
spaced on the circumference of the
cutter. Milling cutters are classified
as:
1. Solid cutters
2. Tipped solid cutters
3. Inserted teeth cutter.
4. Arbor type cutter
5. Shank type cutter
6. Right hand cutter
7. Left
hand cutter
8. Straight teeth cutter
9. Helical teeth cutter
10. Standard milling cutter
11. Special milling cutter
CUTTER MATERIALS:
1. High Speed Steel
2. Super High Speed Steel
3. Non Ferrous cast alloys
etc.
GEAR CUTTING
Gears may be manufactured by casting, stamping, machining or by powder metallurgical
process, but the most common and accurate method is machining. The different methods of
production of gears by machining are as follows:1. Formed cutter method :-(a) By a formed disc cutter in a milling machine.
(b) By a formed end mill in a milling machine.
(c) By a formed single point tool in a shaping or planning machine.
(d) By a formed cutter in a shear speed gear shaper.
(e) By a formed cutter in a broaching machine.
2. Template Method in a gear cutting machine.
3. Generating method :- (a) By a rack tooth cutter in a gear cutting machine.
(b) By a pinion cutter in a gear cutting machine.
(c) By a hob cutter in a gear cutting machine. (d) By a bevel gear generator.
1. Formed cutter method: - A single point cutting tool or a milling cutter has the same form of
cutting edge as the space between the teeth being cut is used. The method uses simple and cheap
tools in conventional machines.
Disadvantages: - (1) Accuracy is very poor. (2) The production capacity is very low.
(a)Gear cutting by formed disc cutter:-The method involves the mounting of a gear blank at
the end of a dividing head spindle fitted on the table of a horizontal, column and knee type
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milling machine and then feeding the work past a rotating, formed, peripheral type of cutter
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mounted on the horizontal arbor of the machine.
(b)Gear cutting by a formed end mill: - The end mills having cutting edges formed to
correspond to the tooth space of a gear employed to cut a spur, helical or a herring bone gear in a
milling machine. The end mills are used to cut gears of large module from 20 mm and larger
where ordinary disc type cutters are unsuitable due to excessive pressure required.
(c)Gear cutting by a formed single point tool: - A single point cutting tool having cutting
edges formed to correspond to the tooth space of a gear is employed to cut a spur or a bevel gear
in a shaping or a planning machine by using the shaper centre.
(d)Gear cutting by shear speed process: -The shear speed process involves the production of
all the teeth on a gear simultaneously by a ring of formed blades arranged on the periphery of the
gear blank. Each blade having formed cutting edges cuts one tooth space and the number of
blades on the cutter equals the number of tooth spaces on the gear. The shear speed process is the
quickest method of producing external and internal spur gears, splines toothed clutches, ratchet
wheels etc.
(e) Broaching gear teeth:- A broaching tool having formed cutting edge is employed for
producing internal gears of accurate shapes on a broaching machine.
2. Template gear cutting process:- The template gear cutting process involves the production
of a gear tooth profile by a single point cutting tool which is reciprocated and made to follow a
guided path by a template whose profile corresponds to the shape of the gear tooth being cut.
After one tooth is finished, the blank is indexed by the usual manner. The template method is
employed for producing very large spur gear teeth and for cutting accurate bevel gears.
3. Generating methods: - The generating methods of gear production enable to cut
mathematically correct tooth profile by means of relative motions between the cutters and the
gear blanks. The principle of generating process is based on the fact that any two involute gears
of the same module will mesh together. If out of two mating gears one is used as a cutter and is
made to reciprocate or fed continuously along the entire width of the gear blank, while still
rotating as a mating gear, so that the pitch surface of the cutter rolls without slipping on the pitch
surface of the gear, an accurate tooth profile can be generated. As the principle of generating
gears is based upon involute system, cycloidal gears cannot be produced by this method. The
gears may be generated by a rack cutter, pinion cutter or a hob.
(a)Rack cutter generating process: - The rack cutter generating process is also called shaping
process. In this method, the generating cutter has the form of a basic rack for the gear to be
generated. The cutting action is similar to a shaping machine.
(b)Pinion cutter generating process:-The pinion cutter generating process is fundamentally the
same as the rack cuter process, and instead of using a rack cutter it uses a pinion to generate the
tooth profile.
(c)Gear hobbing: - Hobbing is a process of generating a gear by means of a cutter, called a hob,
that revolves and cuts like a milling cutter. In gear hobbing, the gear blank is first moved in
towards the rotating hob until the proper depth is reached. The action is the same as if the gears
were meshing with a rack. As soon as the proper depth is reached, the hob cutter is fed across the
face of the gear until the teeth are complete, both gear and cutter rotating during the entire
process.
(d)Bevel gear generating process: - The fundamental of bevel gear generating process involves
the rolling of a bevel gear blank on a crown wheel.
SUB-DISCIPLINE:- WORKSHOP TECHNOLOGY (LESSONS: 06
SESSIONS: 14)
Lesson-V: Workshop Machines. Session-11, 12 & 13: Workshop visit to Plasser India.
1.
To note down the various components of the Track Maintenance Machines being
assembled at M/s Plasser India Pvt. Ltd. and to understand the manufacturing process.
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To see & note down the various components of Workshop Machines available at M/s
Plasser India Pvt. Ltd. Such as
i)
ii)
iii)
iv)
v)
Lathe Machines
Radial drill Machine
Shaper
Planner etc.
Cropping machine
3.
To visualize inert gas welding.
4.
To visualize the hydraulic pipe end fittings crimping process.
5.
To visualize and note down any other production activities.
SUB-DISCIPLINE:- WORKSHOP TECHNOLOGY (LESSONS: 06
SESSIONS: 14)
Lesson-VI: Threads
Session-14: Different types of threads.
THREAD:
The helical groove cut on an internal or external cylindrical surface is called thread. The thread
on internal cylindrical surface is called internal thread and that on external cylindrical surface is
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called external thread. According to movement, threads are of two types: - 1. Right hand threads
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2. Left hand threads.
Terms of Screw Threads:Major
diameter, Minor diameter, Pitch diameter
.
Pitch Dia. = Major Dia. single Depth of thread
Pitch: - It is the distance measured parallel to the axis, between a
point on one thread form and a corresponding point on the
adjacent thread form, i.e. form crest to crest or root to root
Lead: - It is the distance measured parallel to the axis from a
point on a thread to a corresponding point on the same thread
after one revolution. It is also described as the distance moved by
a Nut in the axial direction in one complete revolution. The lead
is equal to the pitch in case of single start threads, twice in double
start thread; thrice in triple start thread etc.
Crest, Root, Flank or side
Angle of thread: - It is the angle between the
flanks measured on an axial plane.
Helix angle: - The angle of inclination of thread is
called helix
Depth of thread, Number of thread, Crest,
Root, Flank or side
Angle of thread: - It is the angle between the flanks measured on an axial plane.
Helix angle: - The angle of inclination of thread is called helix
Depth of thread, Number of thread
Types of threads:-1.
- Thread 2. Square Thread 3. Acme Thread 4. Worm Thread
5.
Knuckle Thread
6. Buttress Thread.
1. ‘V’-Thread: - These threads are in
shape. According to thread angle these are of
following types:(a)British standard Whitworth thread or B.S.W:-Included angle of this thread is 55° and
routes and crests are rounded. The theoretical depth D=0.96P, where P= pitch of the thread; 1/6
of the theoretical depth is rounded off at the top and the bottom. This thread was invented by Sir
Joseph Whitworth in 1841.
(b)British standard fine thread:-These have the same with worth profile (included angle 55°)
but their pitches are finer and hence the depths smaller. Thus they have larger effective and core
diameters than the B.S.W threads. B.S.W threads are generally used automobile and aircraft
work.
(c)British Association thread: - This is a very fine thread. This thread is used for nominal
diameter less than 1/4 or 6mm such as instruments, watches, radio etc. The included angle is 47
½ °. 0.236 of the theoretical depth is rounded off at the top and at the bottom, leaving the actual
depth equal to 0.6P.
Theoretical depth, D = 1.136P
Actual depth, d = 0.6P.
(d) British Standard Pipe thread: - These threads are used for gas, steam or water pipes. They
are specified by the bore of the pipe and not by the out side diameter. Thus, the out side diameter
of a thread pipe having a 1 normal diameter bore, is 1.309 . The pipes of 1 to 6 diameters have
the same number of threads per inch, viz. 11. These threads are cut taper ¾ per foot. The
included angle is 55°.
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(e)American national thread (Seller’s thread):- It has an included angle of 60°. One-eighth of
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the theoretical depth is cut-off parallel to the axis of the screw at the top and at the bottom.
Therefore, the crests and the roots of this thread are parallel.
Theoretical depth, D = 0.866P
Actual depth, d = 3/4 D = 0.649P
(f)International Standard thread (Unified thread):This is the I.S.O basic profile recognized in two series
based on inch and metric systems of measurements. In
this form, the external thread (on a bolt) varies slightly
from the internal thread (inside a nut). The angle of the
thread is 60°. Roots of both-internal and external threads
are rounded, while the crests are cut parallel to the axis
of screw. The root of the internal thread is rounded
within the depth of D/8.
The maximum depth of engagement between the
internal and external threads is 5/8D
(g)Metric Thread: - The Bureau of Indian standards has recommended the adopting of Unified
screw thread profile based on metric system and has designated it as Metric thread. In this
system pitch of the thread is fixed (not thread per unit length.).These threads are designated by
the letter M followed by nominal diameter and pitch in mm. Ex: - M10X1.5
2. Square thread: - This thread has its flanks or sides normal to the axis. The depth and the
thickness of the thread are each equal half of the pitch. The thread is much stronger than the
threads. It is generally used for power transmission in jacks, vice etc.
3. Acme thread: - This thread is a modification of the square thread - thicker at the root and less
thick at the crest, hence stronger at the root. The thread angle is 29°.
Depth, d = 0.5P + 0.25 mm
Thickness at the crest = 0.3707P.
It is particularly used where the nut, which is made in two parts, is required to engage or
disengage from a screw at frequent intervals such as in lead screw of the lathe.
4. Worm thread: - This is like an acme thread with the difference that depth of thread is some
what more.
5, Knuckle thread: - It is formed by rounding off the corners of the square thread to such an
extent that it has a completely rounded profile. Its section comprises of semicircles of radius R =
0.25P
Depth d = 0.5P
This thread can withstand heavy wear and rough usage. They are used in coupler of railway
carriage and electrical bulbs.
6. Buttress thread: - This thread is a combination of the triangular and the square threads. One
flank of the thread is perpendicular to the axis of the screw. The angle between its two flanks is
45°. The theoretical depth is equal to the pitch. One-eighth of which is cut off parallel to the axis
at the crest and at the root. This thread is suitable only when the force acts entirely in one
direction. It is used commonly in screw of bench vice.
Theoretical depth D = P
Actual depth d = ¾ D = 0.75P
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SUB :-TRACK MACHINE & WORKING PRINCIPLE
Duration- 36 Sessions = 72 Periods
Sub discipline-Track Machine (Lessons-01 Sessions-01)
Lesson-I: History of Track Machine and their Types
Session-1:History of Mechanization on Indian Railways introduction of Track Machines
in chronological order.
Historical Development of Track Maintenance:
1950-80: From manual methods to full mechanization - From the very beginning the railways
were aware of the importance of track maintenance. Nevertheless, it was not until 1950s that
machines were developed to do the work. Initially, between 1950 and 1980, efforts were
concentrated on mechanizing heavy manual, and on reducing construction costs.
1950-1960: Mechanization of the heavy duty works - Tamping and Cleaning of ballast.
1960: Development of multi-functional machines - Several work processes combined in one
machine, starting with the first leveling and tamping machine and followed by the combined
leveling, tamping and lining machine for plain track, switches and crossings.
1965: Increased working speeds - Introduction of the first double sleeper tamping machine and
the hydraulic high performance ballast cleaning machine
1967 Introduction of complete machine systems - The mechanized maintenance train MDZ and
the high speed track relaying train SUZ, the first track renewal using the assembly line method
(not working on Indian Railways).
Since 1971: Further improvements in performance and quality - By designing on-track
machines as standard railway vehicles followed by further improvements in the quality of work
resulting from the use of electronics, laser technology, computers and automatic work sequences.
Brief History of introduction of Track Machines Worldwide:
World over first mechanical off-track tamper was tried out around 1920, which was doing
packing only. First On-Track Tamper was produced by Matissa of Switzerland which was
founded in the year 1945. It produced and marketed only one type of tamper, model B-60.
Plasser and Theurer established their works at Linz Austria in the year 1953 and produced their
first hydraulic tamping machine HGL for use on Austrian Federal Railways. They came into
regular production line for the first tamping machine VKR 01 in Cantilever design from 1955
onwards. Further, evolution of track machines is given below:
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• 1960:
First leveling & tamping machine VKR 04
•
1962:
First switch tamping machine with tilting tamping tools WE 75
•
1963:
First automatic lining machine with two chord measuring technique
•
1964:
First hydraulic ballast cleaning machine RM 62
•
1965:
First two sleeper tamping machine Duomatic
•
1970:
First leveling & tamping machine in 07 series
•
1972:
First leveling, lining & tamping machine for switches 07-275
•
1973:
First welding machine K355APT
•
1975:
Dynamic Track Stabilizer - a new technology for stabilization of tracks
•
1983:
First continuous action tamping machine 09 CSM
•
1996:
First continuous action 3 - sleeper tamping machine came into existence
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INTRODUCTION TO ON-TRACK MACHINES ON INDIAN RAILWAYS:
Documents
MAX. RATE OF
MANUFAC
NO.
TYPE
MODE
YEAR OF
OF M/C
1
Super
Lining
Control
Tamper
Universal
Tamper
Tamper
single
sleeper
Tamper
Double
Sleepers
Continuo
us
Tamping
Machine
Tamping
Express
Three
Sleepers
Tamper
Double
Sleepers
Tamper
Double
Sleepers
Russian
Tamper
Double
Sleepers
Points &
Crossing
Tamper
SALIENT
FEATURES
DRIVI PROGRE
SS /
NG
SPEE EFFECTI
VE HOUR
D
KMP
H
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Tie Tamping Machines – Plain Track Tamping Machine
4
40
400 to 500 Double
chord
06-161968
Plasser
&
sleepers
lining.
SLC
Theurer,
Obsolete.
Austria
L NO.
INTRODUC
TION ON
IR
TURER
OF
WHE
ELS
06-16USLC
08-16Unomati
c
1972
-do-
4
40
1985
-do-
8
60
08-32Duomati
c
09-32CSM
1986
-do-
8
60
1989
-do-
8+2
60
09-3XCSM
2000
-do-
8+4
60
08-32New
Duomati
c
08-32C
Fully
Imported
2003
-do-
8
60
2008
-do-
-do-
-do-
VPR02M-18
2004
Metex,
Russia
8
60
500 to 600
sleepers
800
to
1000
Sleepers
-do-
Single
chord
lining.
One end driving
due to
Mechanical Gear
Box.
to -do-
1400
1600
Sleepers
2200
to ZF Gear Box.
Satellite unit.
2400
Both end
Sleepers
driving.
2800
to Two Engines.
ALC & Laser.
3500
Sleepers
1800
Sleepers
-do-
2000
Sleepers
ZF gear Box,
ALC. Both end
driving.
No ALC, PCB
819,
Fast
Locking
and
unlocking.
Computer in
Front Cabin.
Tie Tamping Machines – Points & Crossing Tamping Machine
07-2751984
-do4
40
1 Turnout Tool tilting 850
Unimat
in 90 min.
outside
&50
inside.
Obsolete
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Points & 08-275-
Documents
2S
Crossing
1990
-do-
8
60
1 Turnout
Third (Working)
cabin in the
middle.
Cantilever for
3rd rail lifting.
T/Unit can be
turned up to
8½0.
4 Tamping unit
with 2 split head
tools
&
2
telescopic arms
that can be
slewed out to
L.H or R.H side
up to 3300 mm
from
track
centre.
Synchronous 3rail lifting and
4-rail tamping.
Tamper
Unimat
Points &
Crossing
Tamper
08-2753S
Unimat
1993
-do-
8
60
1 Turnout
Points &
Crossing
Tamper
08-4754S
Unimat
2009
-do-
10
60
1 Turnout
TYPE OF
M/C
MODE
L NO.
1
2
Multi
Purpose
tamper
Unimat
Compact
-M
Dynamic
Track
Stabilizer
DGS62N/62PLS
Ballast
Cleaning
Machine
BCM
MAX. RATE OF SALIEN
DRIVI PROGRES
T
NG
FEATUR
S/
SPEED EFFECTI
ES
KMPH VE HOUR
3
4
5
6
7
8
Tie Tamping Machines – Multi Purpose Tamper
1998
-do8
60
1 Turnout Provision
Jib
or
600 of
sleepers on Crane.
For Spot
Straight
Attention.
No Lifting
Rollers.
Dynamic Track Stabilizer
1990
-do8
60
1 to 2 Km. To
consolidat
e track by
Controlled
Settlement
1Pass =
0.1
Million T.
Ballast Handling Machines
1970
Matissa,
8
40
Obsolete.
Switzerland
YEAR OF
INTRODUC
TION ON IR
MANUFACT
URER
NO.
OF
WHEE
LS
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Ballast
Documents
RM-80
Cleaning
1989
Machine
KBC600
Plasser &
Theurer,
Austria
8
40
650 Cum.
Kershaw, USA
Ballast
Cleaning
Machine
for Points
& Crossing
RM-76
1992
Plasser &
Theurer,
Austria
8
40
550 Cum.
Shoulder
Ballast
Cleaning
Machine
FRM-80
1992
Plasser &
Theurer,
Austria
12 (8
Dr. + 4
Run.)
40
550 Cum.
KSC600
FRM-85
1986
12
40
550 Cum.
TYPE OF
M/C
MODE
L NO.
YEAR OF
INTRODUC
TION ON IR
MANUFACT
URER
NO.
OF
WHEE
LS
1
Ballast
Regulating
Machine
2
BRM
66-4
BRM
C56-3
3
1989
4
Kershaw, USA
5
4
Shoulder
Ballast
Cleaning
Machine
2004
Kershaw, USA
Plasser &
Theurer,
Austria
Deep
screening
of plain
track.
New M/cs
also for
Points &
Crossings.
2 Engines.
Hydrostati
c drive.
Deep
screening
of T/Out
as well as
plain
track.
Hydrostati
c drive
Hydrostati
c drive.
Waste
Conveyor
provided
at
front
side.
Engine
shifted to
rear side.
Centre
Plough
provided.
MAX.
RATE OF SALIENT
DRIVI PROGRES FEATUR
NG
ES
S/
SPEED EFFECTI
KMPH VE HOUR
6
7
8
50
1 Km.
Profiling
&
Dressing
60
of Track.
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PBR-40R
Hydrostati
c drive.
2008
Plasser &
Theurer,
Austria
4
Track Relaying Machines
4
Plasser &
Theurer,
Austria
Track
Relaying
Machine
PQRS
2000-I
(5T) &
201(9T)
1972
Track
Relaying
Train
Machine
for Turn
out
Renewal
TRT
P-811S
1989-90
T-28
1992
Mobile
Flash Butt
Welding
Plant
K-355
APT
1987
Rail
Grinding
Machine
SX-11
1990
Loram,
USA
Air
&
Vacuum
Excavation
Machine
RAIL
VAC
10000/
4800
-
Plasser &
Theurer Austria
Tamper
Corporation,
USA
Ameca. Italy
60
2 km
Front/Shou
lder
Plough and
sweeper
unit
5
1st hr
=
20P
2ndhrs.=
17P
3rdhrs
=
14P
1 Km. in 2
Hr. 40 Mts.
5T load 9m panel.
9T load 13m
panel.
Welded
with gap
3mm, rail
are
shorted by
32-35mm.
8 Grinding
stones on
each
rail.Microprocessor
controlled
hydraulic
system.
Removes
corrugatio
n
Installatio
n or repair
of cable
drainage
pipes &
other
undergrou
nd
equipment
,
Train
5
4
10
For
CTR/TSR
.
Depends on For
complete
site
conditions. renewal of
turnout.
60
-
8
60
-
-
-
Special Purpose Machine
8
Plasser &
Theurer,
Austria
25m3/Hr
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SUB DESCIPLINE- TAMPING MACHINES (LESSIONS-06 SESSIONS-08)
Documents
Lesson-I: 08-Unomatic / Duomatic Session-2: Main features, Main assemblies and components,
Working Principle and Power Transmission
08 UNO –DUOMATIC:
MAIN FEATURES:
Ø 2 Bogies Of 2 - 2 Axles
Ø Main Gear Box Mechanical ( 6 Speed Gear Box )
Ø Fully Electronics Control M/C
Ø Tamping Unit Up/Down Proportional Control
Ø Single Chord Lining System.
Ø Maximum Permissible Speed 60kmph
Ø Output Uno -800 100 Slipper/ Hour Duo 1400 1600 Slipper/ Hour
TECHNICAL DATA:
Ø Gauge
1676 mm
Ø Over All Length
18710 mm
Ø Height Above Rail Level
3285 mm
Ø Width
3050 mm
Ø Wheel Dia
710 mm
Ø Weight
40 Ton
VARIOUS ASSEMBLIES:
CHASIS:
It is welded construction out of steel girders, channel and sheets etc.
UNDER CARRIAGE: M/C is equipped with two-2 axles bogies with axles.
ENGINE:
Kirloskar Cummins Dieses Engine, Six Cylinder Vertical Water Cooled,
Turbo Charger Modern N .T. 743 C. Output: 243 HP At 2000 RPM.
TAMPING UNITS: Unomatic Model Have 16 Tools And Duomatic Model Has 32 Tools.
HYDRAULIC SYSTEM: DUOMATIC :
PUMP: -
:(1)
(2)
(3)
3 DOUBLE PUMPS
38 × 17 GPM COMBINED DELIVER TO SYSTEM
PRESSURE OF 120 TO 140 BAR.
38 × 17 GPM
38 GPM = VIBRATION (ONE SIDE) PRESSURE 150 BAR
17 GPM = COUNTER PRESSURE 35 BAR
38 × 22 GPM
38GPM = VIBRATION ANOTHER SIDE PRESSURE 150 BAR
22 GPM = HYDRAULIC COOLER MOTOR PRESSURE
50BAR
UNOMATIC: -
3 DOUBLE PUMPS
(1). 38 × 17 GPM =DELIVER TO SYSTEM PRESSURE
ADJUSTED 120 -140 BARS
(2) 20 × 17 GPM
20 GPM = VIBRATION (ONE SIDE) PRESSURE 150 BAR
17 GPM = HYDRAULIC OIL COOLER PRESSURE 50 BAR
(3). 20 × 22 GPM or 20 × 17 GPM
20 GPM = VIBRATION ANOTHER SIDE PRESSURE 150 BAR
17 GPM = HYDRAULIC OIL COOLER PRESSURE 50 BAR.
HYD MOTOR = 5 NOS
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Vibration Motor
Documents
Driving Motor
Hydraulic Oil Cooler Motor
= 2 Nos
= 1 Nos
= 2 Nos
ACCUMULATOR: - 32 liters capacities, N2 pressure 85 bars for system pressure are produce
on both Uno and Duo. Two 1.6 liter capacity N2 pressure 20 bar for counter pressure are
provided on Duo only.
PROPORTIONAL VALVE: - 2NOS FOR TAMPING UNIT UP/DOWN CONTROL
SOLONOID VALVE: - UNO - 16 NOS
DUO - 18 NOS
HAND OPERATED VALVE: - 01 NO
CYLINDERS : UNO -30 NOS DUO = 38 NOS
HYDRAULIC OIL COOLERS: 02 NOS
SUCTION FILTERS: 03 NOS
RETURN FILTERS: 02 NOS
PRESSURE FILTERS: 01 NO
PRESSURE CONTROL VALVE: 09 NOS
PRESSURE REDUCING FILTER: 03 NOS
FLOW CONTROL VALVES:08 NOS
PNEUMATIC SYSTEM:
COMPRESSOR
=
UNLOADER VALVE
=
AIR TANK
=
BRAKE CYLINDER
=
CYLINDER
=
01 NO 500 LITER/MINUTE
01 NO PRESSURE ADJUSTED 7 BAR
02 NOS CAPACITY 100 LITER EACH
02 NOS DIA 12 INCH EACH
43 NOS OFF SIZES.
DRIVING SYSTEM:
1. Run Drive - 6 Speed Gear Box Is Provided For Driving Station To Station.
2. Work Drive - Hydraulic motor is provided for work drive at constant speed.
2. Tamping Unit:This is first tamping machine on which proportional valves are provided for
smooth and jerk less up and down.
3. Lining : This is first tamping machine on which single chord lining (4 point and 3 point
lining) systems are provided.4 point lining is called smoothening mode and 3 point is called
precision mode.
design lining is possible in every mode for which offset value is feeded.
4. Levelling :Double chord follow up systems are provided on this series machine.In this method
one rail is kept base line and other line is cant line.Cant side chord follow up base line to
maintain the level of the chord with the help of front pendulum. This machine is design for
cross-level correction.
the leveling may be done by proportional mode or design mode.
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POWER TRANSMISSION :
Documents
P3
P2
Clutch
6 Speed GB
R/GB
BELT
A
ENGINE
A
MAIN
GEAR
BOX
Axle
GB
Distribution
Gear Box
PTO
P1
M
Running Bogie
Axle
GB
Driving Bogie
ELECTRONIC PCBs :
SR.NO.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
PART NO.
EK813SV00
EK255LV00
EK708/715A00
EK217LV00
EK275LV00
EK 16V00
ELT1116
EK335LV00
EK290LV00
EK80V00
EK229LV00
EK277LV00
EK79V00
ELT631.00
FUNCTION
DC-DC CONVETER
FRONT AUTO LEVELLING
M MOTOR DRIVE
FRONT PENDULUM CONTROL
DESIGN LINING
TEMP UNIT UP-DOWN CONTROL.
SEMI AUTO WORK
LINING
OVER SLEW
3 STAGE LINING
TRACK LIFTING
MIDDLE PENDULUM CONTROL
3 STAGE LIFTING
INTERCOM
QUANTITY
4 NOS.
1 NOS.
2 NOS.
1 NO
1 NO
2 NOS.
1 NO
1 NO
1 NO
1 NO
2 NOS.
1 NO
1 NO
1 NO
ELECTRICAL SYSTEM
1
BATTERY 12 V/180 AH
= 2 NOS. Combined In Series
2
ALTERNATOR 53 A/27 V
= 2 NOS.TVS Lucas Make
3
SELF STATER
=2 NOS.
4
MARRELLY MOTOR(WIPER MOTOR) = 2 NOS.
5
PENDULUM(MECHANICAL+ ELECT) = 2 NOS.
6
HEIGHT TRANSDUCER
= 2 NOS.
7
LINING TRANSDUCER
=2 NOS
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SUB DESCIPLINE- TAMPING MACHINES (LESSIONS-06 SESSIONS-08)
Documents
Lesson-II: 09-32-CSM
Session-3: Main features, Main assemblies &
components.
09 -32 CSM
MAIN FEATURES:
Ø MACHINE HAVE TWO PARTS I.E. MAIN FRAME & FRAME SATELLITE
Ø MAIN GEAR BOX ZF -- (4 SPEED GEAR BOX).
Ø PROGRAMMABLE LOGIC CONTROL (PLC) MACHINE.
Ø AUTOMATIC DATA DEEDING BY COMPUTEC (GVA) ONLY FIVE MACHINE.
Ø LASER LINING (ONLY ON 5 MACHINE)
Ø LINING & LIFTING SERVO CONTROL.
Ø FULLY AUTO WORKING.
Ø DATA RECORDER, (AFTER WORK) 3- CHANNELS.
Ø TWIST CORRECTION.
Ø MAXIMUM PERMISSIBLE SPEED 60 KMPH (BY RDSO)
Ø OUTPUT ---- 2200 TO 2400 SLEEPER / HR.
Ø MULTICHECK SYSTEM.
GENERAL DATA:
Ø OVERALL LENGTH
-27640 MM
Ø HEIGHT ABOVE RAIL LEVEL
-3600 MM
Ø WIDTH
-3040 MM
Ø WHEEL DIA
-730 MM
Ø TOTAL WEIGHT
-64 TON
Ø MINIMUM RADIUS WORKING
-100 M
MAIN UNITS:
1. SATELLITE -2. MAIN FRAME
3. ENGINE
4. TAMPING UNITS (DUO TYPE)
5. LIFTING & LINING UNITS
6. Z. F GEAR BOX.
WEIGHT 14 TON
WEIGHT 50 TON
MWM 232 TBD 12 V @ 473 BHP
32 TOOLS
4 SPEED GEAR BOX.
HYDRAULIC SYSTEM:
PUMP
5 PUMP (4 DOUBLE PUMPS + 1 VARIABLE PUMP)
1. DOUBLE PUMP =38×22 GPM COMBINED FOR SYSTEM PRESSURE ADJUST120-140 BAR
2. DOUBLE PUMP = 38 × 17 GPM
38 GPM = VIBRATION (ONE SIDE) PRESSURE150 BAR.
17 GPM = HIGH PRESSURE 150 BAR
3. DOUBLE PUMP = 38× 17 GPM
38 GPM = VIBRATION (ANOTHER SIDE) PRESSURE 150 BAR;
17 GPM = COUNTER PRESSURE 35 BAR.
4. DOUBLE PUMP = 20 × 17 GPM OR 20 × 114 GPM
20 GPM = 2 HYDRAULIC COOLERS MOTOR PRESSURE 50BAR
17 GPM = RADIATOR + Z. F.OIL COOLER PRESSURE 50 BAR.
5. VARIABLE PUMP. = 90 LPM DRIVING PRESSURE 210 BAR
CHARGING PRESSURE 30 BAR.
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MOTORS: -
Documents
8 NOS
VIBRATION MOTOR
DRIVING MOTOR
HYDRAULIC OIL COOLER MOTOR
Z. F. + RADIATOR MOTOR
ACCUMULATOR: -
= 2 NOS
= 2 NOS
= 2 NOS
= 2 NOS
4 NOS
1. 32 LITRE CAPACITY N2 PRESSURE 85 LITER FOR SYSTEM PRESSURE -1NO
2. 20 LTS CAPACITY N2 PRESSURE 100 LITER FOR HIGH PRESSURE
-1NO
3. 1.5 LTS CAPACITY N2 PRESSURE 20 LITER FOR COUNTER PRESSURE- 2NOS
PROPORTIONAL VALVES: TAMPING UNITS UP/DOWN CONTROL
SATELLITE MOVEMENT
SERVO - VALVE
LIFTING
LINING
SOLENOIDS: CYLENDRS: SUCTION FILTER =
RETURN
FILTER =
PRESSURE FILTER =
=
=
3 NOS
= 2 NOS
= 1 NO
3 NOS
2 NOS
1 NO
22 NOS SOLENOID VALVE
50 NOS
3 NOS
2 NOS
3 NOS
PNEUMATIC SYSTEM:
TWIN CYLINDER COMPRESSOR CAPACITY 600 CM/MINUTE
UNLOADER VALVE
= 1 NO PRESSURE ADJUST 7 BAR
AIR TANK
= 2 NOS CAPACITY 100 LITER EACH
BRAKE CYLINDER FOR MAIN MACHINE
= 2 NOS DIA 12 INCH.
BRAKE CYLINDER FOR SATELLITE
= 2 NOS DIA 8 INCH.
PRESSURE CYLINDER
= 56 NOS OFF SIZES.
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SUB DESCIPLINE- TAMPING MACHINES (LESSIONS-06 SESSIONS-08)
Documents
Lesson-II: 09-32-CSM
Session-4: Working Principle and Power Transmission.
WORKING PRINCPLE
DRIVING SYSTEM: WORK DRIVE: - During work machine is driven by variable pump with variable speed 0 to 2
kmph. but satellite drive is proportional drive. the speed of satellite varies
with
the main frame speed.
RUN DRIVE: - Hydro dynamics gear box (zf) is provided on the machine.
LINING: -
Single chord lining system is provided on CSM .on few machine (only 5
machines) laser lining systems are provided.
LEVELING: -
On this machine fixed chord double chord leveling system is provided. This
machine is designed for the twist correction for that rear pendulum is given.
RECORDER: - 3 channel recorders are provided on each machine to record the parameters i.e.
versine, cross level and lift value after work.
GVA: to
Geometrical value assessment computer is provided on only first five CSM.
computer feeds the required data to the machine automatically with respect
distance. Linear feeding is only possible in this method.
POWER TRANSMISSION:
P3
ENGINE
Reduction
Gear Box
ZF
GEAR
BOX
M
Funk
Gear
Box
P4
P5
P1
P2
PTO
M
Running Bogie
Satellite Bogie
Distribution
Gear Box
Driving Bogie
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ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONICS
Ø
Ø
Ø
Ø
Ø
Ø
Ø
Ø
BATTERY 12 V/ 180 AH
=
ALTERNATOR 28V/55A
=
SELF STARTOR
=
PENDULUM
=
HIEGHT TRANSDUGER
=
LINING TRANSDUCER
=
TAMPING DEPTH TRANSDUCER =
DISTANCE ENCODER
=
2 NOS COMBINED IN SERIES
2 NOS BOSH MAKE
1 NO
3 NO.
2NOS
2NOS
2 NOS
2 NOS
NAME OF PCB:
Sr. NO.
PART NO.
FUNCTION
QUANTITY
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
EK813SV00
EK812SV00
EK851SV00
EK345LV00
EK24V00
EK28V00
EK16V00
EK347LV00
EK346LV00
EK348LV00
EK349LV00
EK290LV00
EK319LV00
EK99V00
EK110LV00
EK501P00
EK552P00
EK553P00
ELT631
DC to DC Converter
DC to DC Converter
DC to DC Converter
Front Input
Satellite Drive
Multiplexer
Tamping Unit UP/DOWN Control
Track Lifting
Pendulum Control
Satellite Compensation
Lining Control
Overslew
Work Drive Control
Distance Simulator
Pendulum Compensation
Programmer
Delayed Output
Input/Output
Intercom
5 Nos
1 No
1 No
1 No
1 No
1 No
2 Nos
2 Nos
1 No
1 No
1No
1 No
1 No
1 No
1 No
1 No
1 No
9 Nos
1 No
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SUB DESCIPLINE- TAMPING MACHINES (LESSIONS-06 SESSIONS-08)
Documents
Lession –III: 08-275 UNIMAT Session-5: Main features, Main assemblies & components.
08 – 275 UNIMAT
MAIN FEATURES: Ø
Ø
Ø
Ø
Ø
Ø
Ø
Ø
Ø
Ø
THIS MACHINE HAS GOT 16 TAMPING TOOLS .WHICH CAN BE TILTED.
MAIN GEAR BOX
-ZF
THREE CABINS I. E FRONT , REAR & WORKING
PLC CONTROL
MULTICHECK SYSTEM
TWO OPERATORS REQUIRED IN WORKING CABIN.
DOUBLE CHORD FIXED LEVELING SYSTEM.
HOOK BLOCK FOR LIFTING
MAXIMUM PERMISSIBLE SPEED 60 KMPH
MAXIMUM OUTPUT 90 MINUTE/ T.O.
GENERAL DATA
Ø
Ø
Ø
Ø
Ø
Ø
Ø
OVERALL LENGTH
HEIGHT ABOVE RAIL LEVEL
WIDTH
WHEEL DIAMETER
TOTAL LOAD
LINING BASE
LEVELING BASE
--------
19170 MM
3500 MM
3020 MM
730 MM
44000 KG
20600 MM
12210 MM
MAIN ASSEMBLY:ENGINE -- CUMMINS NT 855 L 320 HP @ 2000 RPM
Ø CHASSIS
-Ø MAIN GEAR BOX -- Z F GEAR BOX
Ø TAMPING UNITS - WITH TILTING ARRANGEMENT
Ø LINING AND LIFTING - MONOBLOCK WITH SEPARATE LIFTARRANGEMENT.
Ø DISTRIBUTION GEAR BOX
Ø REDUCTION GEAR BOX.
HYDRAULIC SYSTEM
PUMPS - 3 DOUBLE PUMPS ARE PROVIDED
1. D/PUMP 38×22 GPM COMBINED FOR THE SYSTEM PRESSURE.120- 140 BAR.
2.
DOUBLE PUMP - 20 × 17 GPM
20 GPM = VIBRATION (ONE SIDE) PRESSURE 150 BAR
17 GPM = 3 HYDRAULIC COOLERS MOTOR PRESSURE 150
BAR
3
DOUBLE PUMP
20×22 GPM
20 GPM = VIBRATION (ANOTHER SIDE) PRESSURE 150 BAR.
22 GPM = HIGH PRESSURE. 150 BAR.
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MOTOR: - 7 MOTORS ARE USED ON THIS MACHINE.
VIBRATION MOTOR
DRIVING MOTOR
HYDRAULIC OIL COOLER
Z F COOLER MOTOR
-
2 NOS
2 NOS
2 NOS
1 NO
ACCUMULATOR:TWO ACCUMULATORS BLADDER TYPE.
1. 32 LITERS CAPACITY NITROGEN PRESSURE 85 BAR FOR SYSTEM PRESSURE.
2. 20 LITERS CAPACITY NITROGEN PRESSURE 100 BAR FOR HIGH PRESSURE.
PROPORTIONAL VALVE:TWO NOS FOR TAMPING UNIT UP/DOWN CONTROL.
SOLENOIDS: -
43 SOLENOIDS.
CYLENDERS: -
57 CYLINDERS OFF SIZES.
PNEUMATIC SYSTEM.
1. COMPRESSOR
=
1 NO CAPACITY 500 CUM/MINUTE
2. PRESSURE TANK
=
2 NOS CAPACITY 100 LITER/ INCH
3. BRAKE CYLINDER
=
2 NOS.
4. CYLINDER
=
48 NOS OF SIZES
5. SOLENOID
=
12 NOS
DIA. = 12 INCH.
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SUB DESCIPLINE- TAMPING MACHINES (LESSIONS-06 SESSIONS-08)
Documents
Lession -III :08-275-UNIMAT Session -6:Working Principle & Power Transmission
WORKING PRINCPLE
DRIVING:
RUN DRIVE: - BY HYDRODYNAMICS (ZF) IV SPEED GEAR BOX.
WORK DRIVE: - BY HYDRAULICS MOTOR WITH CONSTANT SPEED.
LINING:
SINGLE CHORD LINING SYSTEM.
LEVELLING:- DOUBLE CHORD FIXED TYPE SYSTEM AND CROSS-LEVEL
RECORDING
REAR PENDULUM IS PROVIDED.
RECORDER
2- CHANNEL RECORDER IS USED TO RECORD CROSS LEVEL AND
VERSINE AFTER THE WORK.
POWER TRANSMISSION:
ENGINE
P3
ZF
GEAR
BOX
Reduction
Gear Box
M
P2
PTO
M
Running Bogie
P1
Distribution
Gear Box
Driving Bogie
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ELECTRIC SYSTEM.
1. BATTERY 12 V/ 180 AH
= 2 NOS COMBINED IN SERIES.
2. ALTERNATOR 28 V/55A
= 2 NOS BOSCH MAKE.
3. SELF STARTER
= ONE
4. PENDULUM
= 3 NOS
5. HEIGHT TRANSDUCER
= 2 NOS
6. VERSINE TRANSDUCER
= 2 NOS
7. TAMPING DEPTH TRANSDUCER
= 2 NOS
8 LINING CHORD FOLLOW UP COMPENSATION = 1 NO
TRANSDUCER
PCB
15 DIFFERENT TYPE PCB (MAIN)
Sr. NO.
PART NO.
FUNCTION
QUANTITY
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
EK813SV00
EK2072LV00
EK28V00
EK132V00
EK144V00
EK2041LV00
EK2042LV00
EK2038LV00
EK290LV00
EK719A00
EK502P00
EK552P00
EK553P00
EK554P00
ELT631.00
DC to DC Converter
Front Input
MULTIPLEXER
Tamping Unit UP/DOWN Control
Hook + Three Stage Regulator
Track Lifting
Pendulum Control
Lining Control
Overslew
Lining Chord Follow up
Programmer
Delayed Output
Input/Output
QL Plate
Intercom
4 Nos
1 No
1 No
2 Nos
1 No
2 Nos
1 No
1 No
1 No
1 No
1 No
1 No
11 Nos
5 Nos
1 No
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SUB DESCIPLINE- TAMPING MACHINES (LESSIONS-06
Documents
SESSIONS-08)
Lesson -IV : 08-275-3S UNIMAT
Session-7: Main features, Main assemblies & components, Working Principle and Power
Transmission, Difference between 2S & 3S Unimat.
08 – 275 – 3S UNIMAT - 3S
MAIN FEATURES
Ø ALL FOUR BOGIES ARE POWERED.
Ø TAMPING UNIT CAN BE RUNNING 8 EACH SIDE.
Ø 3RD RAIL LIFTING ARRANGED ALSO.
Ø LINING AND LIFTING: - SERVO VALVE
Ø SQUEEZING: - PROPORTIONAL VALVE
Ø MAX. PERMISSIBLE SPEED: - 60 KMPH.
Ø OUTPUT: - 60 MINUTE/T.O.
GENERAL DATA
Ø OVER ALL LENGTH
Ø WIDTH
Ø WHEEL DIA
Ø L. CHORD LENGTH
Ø LEVELING CHORD
Ø WEIGHT
= 22305 MM
= 3550 MM
= 730 MM
= 22.60 M
= 15.58 M
= 64 TONNES
MPT-2000
MAIN FEATURE
i.
ii.
iii.
It can tamp plain track as well as point and crossing.
It has a small 1 tonne capacity crane for loading and unloading 4 No. Rail pieces of about
6.5 metres long.
It can carry 20 workers to site of work.
GENERAL DATA
LENGTH
WIDTH
HEIGHT
DISTANCE BETWEEN BOGIE PIVOTS
WHEEL DIA
WEIGHT
ENGINE CUMMINS
SPEED POTENTIAL
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
20.270 M
3.100 M
3.700 M
12.000 M
0.730 M
46 TONNES
KT 855
80 KMPH
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SUB DESCIPLINE- TAMPING MACHINE (LESSIONS-06 SESSIONS-08)
Documents
Lession –IV: 08-275-3S UNIMAT Session -8:Working Principle & Power Transmission
WORKING PRINCPLE
DRIVING:
RUN DRIVE: - BY HYDRODYNAMICS (ZF) IV SPEED GEAR BOX.
WORK DRIVE: - BY HYDRAULICS MOTOR WITH CONSTANT SPEED.
NORMALLY TWO MOTORS ARE WORKING BUT ON GRADIENT THIRD MOTOR IS
APPLIED
LINING: SINGLE CHORD LINING SYSTEM WITH PNEUMATIC FOLLOW UP SYSTEM
LEFT OVER ERROR IS VERY LESS (FR = FD/7.6) .
LEVELLING:- DOUBLE CHORD FIXED TYPE SYSTEM THIRD RAIL LIFTING
ARRANGEMENT IS GIVEN WHICH CAN LIFT ADJACENT RAIL AND PACKED
MANUALLY .
POWER TRANSMISSION:
ENGINE
P3
ZF
GEAR
BOX
Reduction
Gear Box
M
P4
P1
P2
PTO
Distribution
Gear Box
M
M
Running Bogie
NAME OF PCBs & THEIR FUNCTIONS: 08-275-3S:
S. No. PCB Part No. Function
1.
EK 813 SV 00 DC to DC Convertor 24V→ ± 15 V and ± 10V
Driving Bogie
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
1 No.
1 No.
1 No.
1 No.
2 Nos.
1 No.
1 No.
1 No.
2 Nos.
1 No.
1 No.
1 No.
13 Nos.
5 Nos.
1 No.
EK 812 SV00
EK2072 LV00
EK2173 LV00
EK2140 LV00
EK2041 LV00
EK2042 LV00
EK 120 V00
EK 140 A00
EK 132 V02
EK 28 V02
EK 502 P00
EK 552 P00
EK 553 P00
EK 554 P00
EL-T 631.00
DC to DC Convertor 24V→ +24V and + 12V
Front input
Lining Inputs control
Lining Output& Over Slew control
Track lifting
Pendulum control
Hook Control
Proportional squeezing
Tamping Unit UP/DN control
Multiplexer
Programmer PCB
Time Delay
Programmer Input/output
QL-relay
Inter com.
Qty.
4 Nos.
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ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS:FOR UNIMAT-3S:
Documents
1. BATTERY
=4 NOS. (12V/180AH-2 NOS, 12V/40AH 2 NOS)
2. ALTERNATOR 28 V/55A
= 2 NOS BOSCH MAKE.
3. SELF STARTER
= ONE
4. PENDULUM
= 2 NOS
5. HEIGHT TRANSDUCER
= 2 NOS
6. VERSINE TRANSDUCER
= 2 NOS
7. TAMPING DEPTH TRANSDUCER = 2 NOS
Differences between unimat 2S & 3S
UNIMAT -08-275-2S
UNIMATE -08-275-3S
1. Cummins engine water cooled , model 1. MWM engine water cooled , model TBD232 v-12 with 473 H.P at 2000 rpm
NTA-855 L six cylinder with 320 H.P at
2. Two turbochargers
2000 rpm
3. Two radiators and two water pumps
2. One turbocharger
4. Two batteries of 12 v / 20AH in additions 2
3. One radiator and one water pump
no.s 12 v 220 AH
4. Two batteries of 12 v / 180 AH
5. Inter communication system is not 5. Inter communication system is provided in
all the three cabin
provided in the driving cabin
6. Automatic chord follow up system by 6. Automatic chord follow up system by
pneumatic power.
electrical power.
7. Three hydraulic motors for work drive
7. Two hydraulic motors for work drive
8. Two separate valves are used each for 8. Servo valves are used for lifting and lining
operations
slow & fast movement of lifting & lining
9. Three double pumps of 38/17 GPM. 25/25
operations
GPM. And 20/14 GPM are provided and
9. Three hydraulic pumps of 38/22 GPM,
one axial piston pump
20/22 GPM and 20/17 GPM Are provided.
10. Pump 38-22 GPM : used for system at 135- 10. Pump 38-17 GPM : used for system at 135150bar
150 bar
11. Pump 20-22 GPM : 20 GPM pump 11. Pump 25-25 GPM : for vibration motors
LH & RH at 150bar vibration motors are of
vibration at 150 bar and 22 GPM high
22 GPM capacity
pressure system of 150 bar
12. Pump 20-17 : 20GPM pump for vibration 12. Pump 20-14 for drive of cooler and engine
radiator fans
at 150 bar 17 GPM for cooling circuit
13. Two return & three pressure filters
13. Two return & One pressure filter
14. The t/units can be rotated through 8.5
14. Tamping units moves laterally only
degrees on both the sides.
15. Fail safe brake arrangement is not provided
16. No emergency brake-up is provided for 15. Fail safe- brakes are provided.
locking tamping unit. Lifting unit etc. in 16. Back-up system is provided.
case of shut-down or hydraulic pump 17. Recorder is not provided.
18. Only two pendulums have been provided.
failure
17. Recorder is provided to record track 19. Lining unit frame work is in two pieces
20. Can lift third line synchronous with main
parameters
line but cannot tamp. Manual katcha
18. There are three electrical pendulums one
packing has to be done.
each on front tower. Working cabin and
recorder
19. Lining unit frame work is in piece
20. Cannot lift third rail. Jacking has to be
done with kutcha packing
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08-475-4S UNIMAT:
Documents
-
Main Features:
2 bogies of 2-2 Axles & one idle axle.
Z.F. Gear box.
Fully automatic tamping cycle (plain track).
(Adjustment automatic system) SJA systems.
ALC system.
Maximum permissible speed 60 km/hrs..
Toeing speed 100kg/hrs.
3rd Rail Lifting & 4th Rail tamping arrangement.
Out put one turn out/hrs.
Intercom in all cabins
General Data:
Overall length 28370mm
Width 3000mm
Height 3743mm
Axle 5Nos.
Wheel diameter 920mm
Total Weight 84100 Kg.
Main Units:
Tamping Unit In 4 parts & each contains 4 tilt able tools.
Lining & Lifting Unit 4T tool
ZF Gear Box 4 speed
Engine 2 Nos.
(1) Cummins KTA-1150L 350Wat 2100RPM
(2) Additional Engine Kirloskar 6.8KW
Tamping Unit: Tamping Unit in 4 parts & each contains 4 tilt able tamping tools. The two
outer tamping unit parts can be slewed laterally 200mm to the inside & 1500mm to the outer
side.
The two tamping unit parts can be slewed on guide columns 200mm to inside & 640mm
to the out side of the machine.
Each tamping unit parts can tilt 8½0.in either side.
Each tamping tool can tilt 150 inside & 850 out side.
Proportional valves are provided for smooth and jerk less up and down movement of tamping
units .
Lining : In this machine single chord lining (4 point and 3 point lining) systems are provided.4
point lining is called smoothening mode and 3 point is called precision mode.
design lining is possible in every mode for which offset value is feeded.
Levelling :Double chord levelling systems are provided on this series machine. In this method
one rail is kept base line and other line is cant line. Cross level is maintained with the help of
pendulums. This machine is design for cross-level and longitudinal level correction.
the leveling may be done by proportional mode or design mode.
Driving:
Run Drive
By Hydrodynamics (ZF) IV Speed Gear Box.
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Work Drive Three Hydraulic Motors are provided. Machine work in constant speed.
Documents
Fuel Tank Capacity 3000 ltr. + 1 additional tank of 900 ltr. Capacity.
POWER TRANSMISSION :
ENGINE
P
3
ZF
GEAR
BOX
P1
P
M
M
M
Axle 5
Distributi
on Gear
Box
Axle 4 Axle 3
Engine KT-1150L 350KW 2100RPM
ZG ZF Gear Box Model 4WG 65II
Distribution Gear Box WN-75 200/1800
MX Hydraulic Motor Hy 916N800
P1 = Hydraulic Triple Pump Hy 832 x 24-14-14L
P2 = Hydraulic Triple Pump Hy 832 x 20-14-14L
P3 = Hydraulic Triple Pump Hy 832 x 38-22-14RE
Hydraulic System:
1. Hydraulic Pumps
2. Hydraulic Pumps
3. Hydraulic Pumps
4. Gear Pumps
Hy 832 x 24 x 14 x 144 1 No.
Hy 832 x 38 x 22 x 14RE 1 No.
Hy 832 x 38 x 14 x 14Li 1 No.
Hy 711 x 08 RE 1 No.
Hydraulic Motors:
1. For Driving 3 Nos.
Axle 2
Axle 1
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2. For Vibration 4 Nos.
Documents
3. For AC = 2 Nos.
4. Engine Radiator 1 No.
5. With Small Engine 1 No.
6. Cooler + ZF Cooler - 3
Hydraulic Filter:
Suction filter
Return flow filter
Filter Elements
Filter
Filter
Filter
Filter (Diesel)
Hys-501-460-150H 3 Nos.
Hys-501-330-10A/H 1 Nos.
Hyd-501-32-10ES 2 Nos.
Hyr-508-05-01 3 Nos.
DL-40-60E 2 Nos.
Hyd-501-225-25 1 No.
Hyd-506-10-30 1 No.
Accumulator:
1. 85 bar
1. 85 bar
32 ltr capacity 2 Nos.
20 ltr capacity 1 No.
Special Valve:
Servo Valve
Proportional Valve
3 Nos.
4 Nos.
Hydraulic Pressure
Vibration Pressure 185bar
Squeezing Pressure 130-140bar
Big Squeezing 150bar
AC
- 10bar
Cardon Shaft – 5 Nos.
Pneumatic System:
Two cylinder compressor
Use (i) For Brake System
(ii) Lifting & Lowering of Trolleys
(iii) For locking of trolleys
(iv) For warming device.
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SUB DESCIPLINE- TAMPING MACHINE (LESSIONS-06
Documents
SESSIONS-08)
Lesson-V:09-3x Tamping Express Session-8: Main features, Main assemblies & components
Working Principle.
09 - 3X TAMPING EXPRESS
MAIN FEATURES:
Ø LATEST VERSINE OF CSM
Ø PROGRAMMABLE LOGIC CONTROL (PLC) MECHANISM.
Ø COMPUTER
Ø ALC: - FOR AUTOMATIC DATA FEEDING
Ø 3.BOGIES OF 2 2 AXLES (INCLUDING SATELLITE BOGIE)
Ø 2 ENGINES OF CUMMINS NT 855 & KTA 1150
Ø MAXIMUM PERMISSIBLE SPEED 60 KMPH (BY RDSO)
Ø OUTPUT 2700 SLIPPER/HOUR
GENERAL DATA:
Ø OVERALL LENGTH
Ø WEIGHT
Ø WIDTH
Ø DISTANCE BETWEEN BOGIE PIVOTS
Ø WHEEL DIA
Ø TOTAL WEIGHT
-------
22940 MM
4090 MM
2900 MM
15700 MM
730 MM
830 TONNES
MAIN UNITS:
Ø FOUR TAMPING UNITS
Ø ENGINE: TWO ENGINES ARE PROVIDED KTA 1150L AND NT 855
Ø SATELLITE HAVING TWO AXLES WITH HYDRAULIC BRAKES
Ø ZF GEAR BOX WITH FOUR SPEED
Ø DIFFERENTIAL GEAR BOX
HYDRAULIC SYSTEM:PUMP 6 DOUBLE PUMP AND ONE VARIABLE PUMP.
1. Double pump
2. D/ Pump
3. D/Pump
4. D/Pump
5 D/Pump
6 D/Pump
7. Variable Pump:
38×22 GPM Combined for system pressure adjust 130 bar.
35×25 GPM = 01 No.
35 GPM = Vibration + 2nd tam/ v Pressure 150 bar
17 GPM = ZF Cooler motor + Radiator of KTA 1150 L
35 ×17 GPM = 01 No
35 GPM = Vibration (another side) pressure 150
17 GPM = Counter pressure for big cylinder and small Cylinder.
35 X 17 GPM
35 GPM = Vibration of tamping unit
17 GPM = Hydraulic coolers
38 X 25 GPM Combined for the system pressure 130 bar
35 X 17 GPM
35 GPM = Vibration of tamping unit
17 GPM = Hydraulic cooler motor drive
Capacity 125 LPM for continuous drive
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WORKING PRINCPLE
DRIVING SYSTEM: WORK DRIVE: During work machine is driven by variable pump with variable speed 0 to 2
kmph. but satellite drive is proportional drive. the speed of satellite varies with
the main frame speed.
RUN DRIVE: - Hydro dynamics gear box (ZF) is provided on the machine.
LINING: Single chord lining system is provided on 3x. alc is provided on this machine for
measuring run and automatic data feeding .
LEVELING: - On this machine double chord fixed type leveling system is provided. this machine
is designed for the twist correction for that rear pendulum is given.
RECORDER: - ALC is provided for recording the datas during the measuring run mode.
POWER TRANSMISSION:
ENGINE
P3
ZF
GEAR
BOX
Reduction
Gear Box
M
P1
P
PTO
M
Distribution
Gear Box
M
Running Bogie
Satellite Bogie
Driving Bogie
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Sr. NO.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
PART NO.
EK813SV00
EK816SV00
EK812SV00
EK805SV00
EK2343LV00
EK2361LV00
EK2140LV00
EK526MC
EK3069LV00
EK2361LV00
EK1AP7-02
EK2360LV00
EK140V00
EK650P00
EK651P00
EK652P00
EK653P00
EK654P00
EK2324LV00
FUNCTION
DC to DC Converter
DC to DC Converter
DC to DC Converter
DC to DC Converter
Front Input
Lining Control
Auxiliary Lining
Satellite Compensation
Track Lifting
Pendulum Control
Tamping Unit UP/DOWN
Drive Pump Control
Squeezing Control
Programmer
Subroutine
Time Delay
Input/Output
Load Relay PCB
Satellite Control
QUANTITY
2 Nos
4 Nos
1 No
1 No
1 No
1 No
1 No
1 No
2 Nos
1 No
4 No
1 No
1 No
1 No
5 Nos
6 Nos
28 Nos
2 Nos
1 No
ELECTRICAL SYSTEM:
BATTERY: FOUR BATTERIES ARE PROVIDED
TWO BATTERIES OF 12V/200AH
TWO BATTERIES OF 12V/70AH FOR ALC AND PROGRAMMER
ALTERNATOR: THREE ALTERNATORS
TWO ALTERNATORS ARE MOUNTED ON ENGINE I. CURRENT RATING
120A, BOSCH MAKE
ONE ALTERNATOR IS MOUNTED ON ENGINE II. CURRENT RATING
40A, LUCAS MAKE
SELF STARTER: TWO SELF STARTERS ARE PROVIDED ONE ON EACH
DEPTH TRANSDUCER: FOUR NUMBERS
HEIGHT TRANSDUCER: TWO NUMBERS
LINING TRANSDUCER: TWO NUMBERS
PENDULUM: THREE NUMBERS
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Documents
Lesson-VI: WST Session-9: Main features, Main assemblies & components, Working Principle
and Power Transmission..
MAIN FEATURES:
Ø ZF HYDRODYNAMIC GEAR BOX IS PROVIDED INSTEAD OF MAIN GEAR BOX,
DRIVE CLUTCH, REVERSING GEAR BOX, 6-SPEED GEAR BOX, PTO
ASSEMBLY.
Ø TWO TRIPLE HYDRAULIC PUMP & ONE DOUBLE PUMP PROVIDED.
Ø ONE EMERGENCY PUMP PROVIDED FOR BACK-UP SYSTEM.
Ø TWO HYDRAULIC MOTORS ARE PROVIDED FOR WORK DRIVE.
Ø CENTRAL LUBRICATION SYSTEM IS PROVIDED.
Ø SERVO VALVES ARE PROVIDED OR LINING & LIFTING
Ø THE PROGRESS IS RELATIVELY MORE.
Ø AIR DRYER IS PROVIDED IN PNEUMATIC SYSTEM.
Ø CUMMINS ENGINE NTA855-L 380HP (280 KW) IS PROVIDED INSTEAD OF NT743C IN OLD MODEL.
GENERAL DATA:
Ø
Ø
Ø
Ø
Ø
Ø
Ø
OVERALL LENGTH
GAUGE
HEIGHT FROM RAIL LEVEL
WIDTH
WHEEL DIA (NEW)
WHEEL DIA (WORNOUT)
MAXIMUM PERMISSIBLE SPEED (OWN POWER)
(TRAIN FORMATION)
= 18940MM
= 1676 MM
= 3350MM
= 2900MM
= 730MM
= 680MM
= 75 KM PH.
= 80 KMPH.
MAIN UNITS:
ENGINE: CUMMINS NTA 855L HP: 380 HP @ 2100 RPM
CHASIS: Sturdy welded construction of welded steel girders and sheet provide utmost stability.
UNDER CARRIAGE: The machine is equipped with 2 axle bogies with rigid axles i.e. front &
rear bogie.
SUSPENSION: It is done by bonded metal-rubber springs between axles & bogie frame and two
rubber spring disc between bogies and machine frame, provides sufficient absorption of
vibrations and smooth running of the vehicle.
AXLE BEARINGS: Axles are supported by means of cylindrical roller bearings (02 Nos. on
each side) (NJ 2224 & NJP 2224) outside the wheels in separate bearing housing.
BRAKES: Pneumatic operated block brakes are applied on all wheels. During travel drive,
brakes are operated by hand controlled valve i.e. brake valve. During work drive hydraulic
operated brakes are operated automatically by working control.
DRIVE POWER TRANSMISSION: ZF hydrodynamic gear box model No. 4WG 65 II WK is
provided to drive the machine in traveling mode
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DRIVING:
Documents
RUN DRIVE: -
BY HYDRODYNAMICS (ZF) IV SPEED GEAR BOX.
WORK DRIVE: - TWO HYDRAULIC MOTORS ARE PROVIDED. MACHINE WORKS IN
CONSTANT SPEED.
LINING:
SINGLE CHORD LINING SYSTEM.
LEVELLING:-
DOUBLE CHORD FIXED TYPE SYSTEM AND CROSS-LEVEL
TAMPING UNIT: DUOMATIC TYPE (32 TOOLS) PROVIDED ON THE MACHINE
POWER TRANSMISSION:
ENGINE
P3
ZF
GEAR
BOX
Reduction
Gear Box
M
P2
PTO
M
Running Bogie
P1
Distribution
Gear Box
Driving Bogie
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ELECTRONIC PCBs:
Sr. NO.
PART NO.
FUNCTION
QUANTITY
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
DC to DC Converter
Front Input
MULTIPLEXER
Tamping Unit UP/DOWN Control
Track Lifting
Pendulum Control
Lining Control
Overslew
Programmer
Delayed Output
Input/Output
QL Plate
Intercom
DC to DC Converter
4 Nos
1 No
1 No
2 Nos
2 Nos
1 No
1 No
1 No
1 No
1 No
11 Nos
5 Nos
1 No
1 No
EK813SV00
EK2039LV00
EK28V00
EK176V00
EK2041LV00
EK2042LV00
EK2286LV00
EK2195LV00
EK600P00
EK652P00
EK653P00
EK554P00
ELT631.00
EK805SV00
ELECTRIC SYSTEM.
1. BATTERY
(12 V/ 180 AH)
= 2 NOS COMBINED IN SERIES.
2. ALTERNATOR (28 V/55A)
= 2 NOS BOSCH MAKE.
3. SELF STARTER
= 1 NO
4. PENDULUM
= 2 NOS
5. HEIGHT TRANSDUCER
= 2 NOS
6. VERSINE TRANSDUCER
= 2 NOS
7. TAMPING DEPTH TRANSDUCER = 2 NOS
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SUB DESCIPLINE-BALLAST HANDLING MACHINE (LESSONS-04 SESSIONS-04)
Documents
Lesson-I: BCM: RM-76
Session-10: Main features main units and their functions,
Working Principle.
INTRODUCTION:
Ballast cleaning machine is to carry out cleaning of ballast by removing muck ,thereby
improving drainage of track and elasticity of the ballast bed. basically the machine its excavates
and picks up ballast by means of cutter chain and carries it to a set of vibrating screens where
muck is separated and thrown out.
three types of ballast cleaning machines are available on indian railways
1. Plain Track Ballast Cleaning Machine RM80
2. Point And Crossing Ballast Cleaning Machine RM76
3. Shoulder Ballast Cleaning Machine SBCM (FRM80)
RM76 - MAIN UNITS:
EXCAVATION UNIT
It consists of a excavating chain of 82 scraper shovels and 82 intermediate links. scraper shovel is
fixed with 2 scraping fingers.
DISTRIBUTING UNIT
It consists of two ballast distributor belts on both sides of track to distribute clean ballast at
desired locations.
MUCK DISPOSAL UNIT
This throws away the muck outside track through waste conveyor belt.
SCREENING UNIT
This consists of three sets of screens and the total screen area is 21 m2. the unit has three square
meshes of size 80 mm, 50 mm and 36 mm. the screens vibrate with hydraulic power.
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RM76 :
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GENERAL DATA:
ENGINES
LENGTH OVER BUFFERS
WIDTH
HEIGHT ABOVE RAIL TOP
BOGIE PIVOTS SPACING
WHEEL DIA
TOTAL WEIGHT
SPEED
DEUTZ-BF12L 513C 396 HP AND 221 HP
24730 MM
3130 MM
4015 MM
19500 MM
900 MM
71 TONNES
40 KMPH
POWER TRANSMISSION:
BLOCK DIAGRAM OF POWER TRANSMISSION IN RM76
ENGINE
CONTROL
VALVE
PUMP GEAR BOX
PILOT
VALVE
PUMP
MODULE
BRAKE
VALVE
BRAKE
VALVE
M
M
AXLE
GEAR
BOX 3
AXLE
GEAR
BOX 4
M
AXLE
GEAR
BOX 2
AXLE
GEAR
BOX 1
M
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WORKING PRINCIPLE:
The excavating chain designed in pentagon shape cuts the ballast bed and carries the ballast and
muck through the chain guides to the screening unit. The freely vibrating screen with linear vibration
effects separation of ballast and muck. Underneath the vibrating screen, the muck falls on a conveyor
belt which then carries this muck to a slewable conveyor belt (which can be folded also during
travel). This slewable belt is called waste conveyor and it throws the muck outside the track. The
cleaned ballast is led directly on to the distributor conveyor belts and from there, it is distributed over
the entire ballast profile.
CAPABILITY OF MACHINE:
It is capable of disposing off muck along cess at a distance of more than seven metres from the centre
of track. Lifting of track upto 100 mm and slewing upto +300 mm can be achieved.
The machine can deep screen 1 in 12 turnout in 1 hour, 30 minutes and can deep screen plain track
upto 140-150 metres per effective working hour.
PRECAUTIONS DURING WORKING:
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.
v.
vi.
When the machine reaches site, the cutter bar should be lowered in the trench, both ends of
cutter bar shall be connected to guides through links. For subsequent work, cutter bar is left
under the track.
When the machine starts working, cutter bar scarifies the ballast. Links of rotating chain push
ballast in the inclined guides and lead the ballast to screening unit. One person on either side
should move with the machine to watch for any obstruction to cutter chain, so as to arrange
for stoppage of the machine immediately. Thereafter, the necessary corrective action should
be taken.
Screening should be stopped well before expiry of traffic block to permit proper closing of the
work and packing before resumption of traffic.
If the machine stops moving during work, it should be ensured that gates for clean ballast
below screen are instantly closed. otherwise, the screened ballast will get heaped up at one
place.
Utmost caution should be observed while manipulating movement of waste conveyor to avoid
hitting against electrical mast/signal post. Safety switch provided to sense the mast should,
therefore, be kept ON .
All the staff working with the machine should wear safety helmets and masks to avoid
inhaling dust.
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SUB DESCIPLINE - BALLAST HANDLING MACHINE (LESSONS -04 SESSIONS -04)
Lesson-II: BCM: RM-80 Session-11: Main features main units and their functions, Working
Principle.
BCM: RM-80 : MAIN FEATURE:
1. This machine is for plain track ballast cleaning.
2. Machine is powered by two independent power units
3. Front engine powers for all conveyor belt drives, lifting movement and driving.
4. Rear engine powers for excavations, chain drive and screen drive.
5. The chain speed is variable between 2.4 to 4 m/sec.
MAIN UNITS & THEIR FUNCTIONS
EXCAVATING UNIT
The excavation chain is guided in two slanted lateral channels and one horizontal channel. The top of
the lateral guides are pivoted to the machine frame and hydraulically adjusted. The lower part of the
chain guide is parallel to the machine body and is made of wear resistant steel. For protection against
dust, noise and for safety reasons, the lateral guides are covered with solid rubber sheets which open
by hinges.
At the beginning of work at a site, the cutter bar is inserted underneath the sleepers and connected to
the lateral guides by quick action locks. Hydraulic hoists are provided for easy handling of the cutter
bar. At the end of work at a particular site, the cutter bar is removed.
SCREENING UNIT
The screening unit consists of three vibrating sieves of the following square mesh sizes:
Upper screen: 80 mm
Middle screen: 50 mm
Lower screen: 36 mm
The vibrations are provided by the hydraulically driven rotating fly weights. In super-elevated curves,
the entire unit is hydraulically adjusted by the operator to keep it horizontal.
CONVEYER SYSTEM FOR DISTRIBUTION OF BALLAST AND DISPOSAL OF MUCK
The distributing conveyors receive the cleaned ballast and distribute it evenly across the entire
surface of track right behind the excavating chain.
From underneath the screening unit, the waste drops to the conveyor belt which carries it to a
hydraulically adjustable belt controlled from the cabin. The waste can be discharged outside the track
by means of the tilting waste conveyor.
TRACK LIFTING AND SLEWING UNIT
A track lifting and slewing unit is located next to the cutter bar for adjusting the excavation depth and
for avoiding the obstacles.
RECORDING UNIT
This is for recording the track parameter after the work.
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POWER TRANSMISSION:
ENGINE
(REAR)
ENGINE
(FRONT)
CONTROL
VALVE
CONTROL
VALVE
PUMP GEAR BOX
PILOT
VALVE
PUMP GEAR BOX
PUMP
MODULE
PILOT
VALVE
PUMP
MODULE
BRAKE
VALVE
BRAKE
VALVE
LINE VALVE BLOCK
M
M
AXLE
GEAR
BOX 3
AXLE
GEAR
BOX 4
AXLE
GEAR
BOX 1
AXLE
GEAR
BOX 2
M
TECHNICAL DATA:
ENGINES
LENGTH OVER BUFFERS
WIDTH
HEIGHT ABOVE RAIL TOP
BOGIE PIVOT SPACING
BOGIE WHEEL BASE
DEUTZ-BF 12L 513C, 453 HP, 2 NOS
30600 MM
3050 MM
4015 MM
22200 MM
1830 MM
DIAMETER OF WHEELS:
A) POWER
B) IDLE
900 MM
700 MM
SPEED:
A) SELF PROPELLED
B) IN TRAIN FORMATION
40 KMPH
30 KMPH
TOTAL WEIGHT
MAXIMUM AXLE LOAD
91 TONNES
18.5 TONNES
M
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WORKING PRINCIPLE:
The excavating chain designed in pentagon shape cuts the ballast bed and carries the ballast and
muck through the chain guides to the screening unit. The freely vibrating screen with linear vibration
effects separation of ballast and muck. Underneath the vibrating screen, the muck falls on a conveyor
belt which then carries this muck to a slewable conveyor belt (which can be folded also during
travel). This slewable belt is called waste conveyor and it throws the muck outside the track. The
cleaned ballast is led directly on to the distributor conveyor belts and from there, it is distributed over
the entire ballast profile.
PRECAUTIONS DURING WORKING:
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.
v.
vi.
When the machine reaches site, the cutter bar should be lowered in the trench, both ends of
cutter bar shall be connected to guides through links. For subsequent work, cutter bar is left
under the track.
When the machine starts working, cutter bar scarifies the ballast. Links of rotating chain push
ballast in the inclined guides and lead the ballast to screening unit. One person on either side
should move with the machine to watch for any obstruction to cutter chain, so as to arrange
for stoppage of the machine immediately. Thereafter, the necessary corrective action should
be taken.
Screening should be stopped well before expiry of traffic block to permit proper closing of the
work and packing before resumption of traffic.
If the machine stops moving during work, it should be ensured that gates for clean ballast
below screen are instantly closed. Otherwise, the screened ballast will get heaped up at one
place.
Utmost caution should be observed while manipulating movement of waste conveyor to avoid
hitting against electrical mast/signal post. Safety switch provided to sense the mast should,
therefore, be kept ON .
All the staff working with the machine should wear safety helmets and masks to avoid
inhaling dust.
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SUB DESCIPLINE - BALLAST HANDLING MACHINE (LESSONS -04 SESSIONS -04)
Documents
Lesson-III: FRM-80
Session-12: Main features main units and their functions, Working
Principle
FRM-80 : MAIN FEATURES:
This machine is for cleaning of shoulder ballast to improve the drainage of track. This machine is
similar to RM80.
This machine is provided with two excavating cutter chain, one on each side
Each chain excavates and pick ups the shoulder ballast and direct to a set of vibrating screening
MAIN UNITS:
Ø Excavating wheel and scarifier
Ø Hopper assembly/bucket
Ø Screen drive assembly
Ø Broom assembly
Ø Conveyor system
Heavy duty scarifier breaks up the mud pockets underneath the sleeper ends to allow the track to
drain. The ballast is transferred to the screening unit by the excavating wheel having
hoppers/buckets. The reclaimed ballast is distributed back to shoulder area of the ballast profile.
The machine completes the job by shaping the reclaimed ballast with the built-in shoulder
regulator wings and then finally sweeps the sleepers by broom.
TECHNICAL DATA:
ENGINE
LENGTH OVER BUFFERS
WIDTH 3135 MM
HEIGHT ABOVE RAIL TOP
DEUTZ TBD-234V-12, 470 HP
CUMMINS VTA-1710L, 515 KW
39470 MM
4260 MM
BOGIE PIVOTS SPACINGS:
A) FRONT AND MIDDLE BOGIES
B) MIDDLE AND REAR BOGIES
15000 MM
16000 MM
BOGIE WHEEL BASE
WHEEL DIAMETER
MAX. AXLE LOAD
TOTAL WEIGHT
1830 MM
900 MM
20.0 TONNES
80 TONNES
SPEED:
A) SELF PROPELLED
B) IN TRAIN FORMATION
40 KMPH
30 KMPH
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POWER TRANSMISSION:
Documents
P1
P2
P5
GEAR
BOX 1
ENGINE
Cummins
VTA -1710L
P4
P1
WN80.2600F
2224 RPM
P8
GEAR
BOX 2
P3
P2
P5
P10 P9
WN80.2600F
2354 RPM
P6 P7
P6
P1-Cutter chain Pump (Axial Piston Type)-HY704X90R/EL/A350BAR=02 NO.
P2-Drive Pump (Axial Piston Type)-HY704X180L/EL/A380BAR=02 NO.
P3-Water Cooler + Two Oil Cooler Pump (Double Vane Pump)-HY830X08.05 L1=01 NO.
P4-Clutch Pump (Double Vane Pump)-HY830X06.06 RE=01 NO.
P5-Excavating Belt Pump (Axial Piston Type)-HY709X28 R=02 NO.
P6-Distributor Belt Pump (Axial Piston Type)-HY709X28 L=02 NO.
P7-Brush Box + General System Pump (Double Vane Pump)-HY830X7.06 RE=01 NO.
P8-Screen Drive Pump-HY712X60 L=01 NO.
P9 & P10-Main Conveyor + Waste Conveyor Pump-HY709X71 (65) R/FED=01+01=02 NO.
(Axial Piston Type)
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SUB DESCIPLINE - BALLAST HANDLING MACHINE (LESSONS -04 SESSIONS -04)
Documents
Lesson – IV: BRM
Session-13: Main features main units and their functions, Working
Principle.
MAIN FEATURES:
1. Regulation of ballast to proper profile
2. Transfer of ballast from center to outwards either on both sides or on the desired side
3. Transfer of ballast from one side to the other or to the center.
4. Sweeping the sleepers and cribs
5. Cleaning the fasteners after ballast regulation
6. Transfer of surplus ballast from the place it is excess to the place it is deficient (optional)
7. The machine operates in either direction
MAIN UNITS AND THEIR FUNCTIONS:
1. ENGINE:
MODEL-CUMMINS- NT 743, 232 HP @ 1800 RPM
NO. OF CYLINDERS-6, FIRING ORDER 1-5-3-6-2-4
BORE-130 MM, STROKE-152 MM
2. Wings-LHS & RHS (shoulder plough) these are made of wear resistant steel assembled with
pieces and fully operated hydraulically. These ploughs are provided one on each side. These are
pressed down keeping margin for ballast profile and held firmly against the shoulder for
achieving the desired ballast profile in new paces. The plough blades can be adjusted along with
the plane of the shoulder angle in conjunction with the centre plough. Large heaps of ballasts at
sides are raked up to the track. Shoulder plough angle varied from about 70o to 0o from the cabin
as desired. On Kershaw ballast regulating machine the shoulder plough is in trough shape. It can
be locked up side down to the top frame of the machine. This trough shaped plough is lowered
sideways and activated with hydraulic cylinder.
To pull ballast from bank slopes, this plough can be bend to suit the site.
3. CENTRE PLOUGH :On Kershaw machine the plough has been provided in the front of the
machine there are two templates operated independently by hydraulic cylinder. A number of
shifting operations may be executed with the centre plough.
4. BROOM (SWEEPER CONVEYOR SYSTEM) :The sweeper unit consists of rotating drum
fitted with flexible hyd. Hose pieces of designated length and mounted inside a steel plate
housing. While rotating it throws surplus ballast via a guiding duct on to two lateral conveyors.
These takes to a steep conveyor belt which takes it to a Hooper for collection. Broom is rotated
by hydraulic motor.
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TECHNICAL DATA:
MODEL 66-4
ENGINE
LENGTH OVER BUFFERS
WIDTH
HEIGHT ABOVE RAIL TOP
WHEEL BASE
WHEEL DIA
AXLE LOAD
CUNNINS MODEL, NTA 743P DIESEL ENGINE,
265 HP @ 1800 RPM
10389 MM
3166 MM
3617 MM
4725 MM
838.2 MM
10.66 TONNES
SPEED:
A) SELF PROPELLED
B) IN TRAIN FORMATION
50 KMPH
40 KMPH
MODEL 56-3
ENGINE
LENGTH OVER BUFFERS
WIDTH
HEIGHT ABOVE RAIL TOP
WHEEL BASE
WHEEL DIA
AXLE LOAD
SPEED:
A) SELF PROPELLED
B) IN TRAIN FORMATION
CUNNINS MODEL, NTA 743P DIESEL ENGINE,
250 HP @ 1800 RPM
12344 MM
3122 MM
3810 MM
5791 MM
832.0 MM
12.97 TONNES
60 KMPH
40 KMPH
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Lesson-I: PQRS
Session-14:
Main features main units and their functions, Yard
Activities, Fabrication of Panels, Rake Formation, Amenities at Base Depot..
.
MAIN FEATURES:
i.
The damage to the concrete sleepers is avoided because of mechanized handling of the
sleepers by PQRS equipment.
ii.
The work done is of better quality, as the track obtained has better alignment and the
sleepers are laid to correct spacing.
iii.
The concrete sleepers can be laid radially on curves with the help of PQRS equipment,
which is not possible in manual relaying.
iv.
No pre-fabrication of panels is necessary as the work of laying the sleepers at the correct
spacing and linking of track is done directly at site.
v.
The double handling of the concrete sleepers is avoided as the BFRs loaded with concrete
sleepers are taken directly to the site.
vi.
Deep screening can be done ahead of relaying with the help of ballast cleaning machine
in shadow blocks, thereby giving clean ballast cushion below the track.
vii.
The track can be packed with heavy on track tie tampers immediately following the
track relaying equipment, thereby giving better quality of track and restoring the speed to
normal in a lesser time.
viii.
The requirement of labour is very much less, thereby not affecting the progress of work
due to seasonal shortage of labour.
ix.
The method may work out to be economical on a long term basis, particularly if long
blocks are available and there is shortage of labour.
MAIN UNITS AND THEIR FUNCTIONS:
1. SIDE FRAMES:The machine contains two vertical side frames that house two vertical sliding
frames.
2. BRIDGE:Sliding frames are joined together with horizontal cross frame known as bridge. The
motive power, hydraulic and electrical assemblies are installed over the bridge. The whole bridge
is raised/lowered to facilitate lifting of panels.
3. SLEEPER GRIPPER:On the underside of the bridge, gripper to pick up sleepers is provided.
Gripping of sleepers by its end is done by two angles welded to the gripper.
4. RAIL CLAMPS:On the end side of the frame, scissors type clamps are provided to hold the
rails/panels.
5. TURN TABLES:To facilitate turning of portal crane for placing it on the BFR and off
tracking in mid section, a turn table is provided. On the BFR, a wooden platform is provided to
support the turn table.
YARD ACTIVITIES:
i.
Unloading of PSC sleepers from the rake and stacking.
ii.
Fabrication of new panels.
iii.
Unloading of released panels from PQRS rake.
iv.
Dismantling of released panels.
v.
Loading of pre-fabricated new panels.
vi.
Formation of PQRS rake.
vii.
Maintenance of machines.
viii.
Dispatch of released material.
ix.
Loading/unloading of ballast, if the Base Depot is also to be used as ballast depot.
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FABRICATION OF PANNELS:
Documents
i.
Concrete sleepers are laid by portal cranes almost at correct spacing and minor
ii.
iii.
iv.
adjustment about spacing is done manually.
The rails in suitable lengths are then placed in position and fixed to sleepers with proper
fittings and fastenings.
For the sake of easy handling the Pre-assembled panels are of 9.1 metre length so that one
portal crane of 5 tonnes capacity can handle one panel conveniently.
These fabricated panels are loaded in 3 to 4 tier to form a PQRS Rake including empty
BFRs.
RAKE FORMATION:A complete material train having the following rake is taken to site along
with one loco motive:
1. Engine
2. Camping coach
3. BFR carrying the portal cranes
4. BFR (As required) loaded with new fabricated panel
5. 2 empty BFRs for released panel.
AMENITIES AT BASE DEPOT:
i.
For smooth working, the Base Depot should have at least three sidings of 500 metres each
connected to a shunting neck of 350 metres.
ii.
Of these, at least two sidings should be provided with auxiliary track for movement of
portal cranes.
iii.
It is desirable to illuminate the Base Depot so that the activities listed in item (i) above
can be undertaken safely at night.
iv.
To strengthen depot working, it is desirable to install a few hand-operated/motorized
gantry cranes moving on auxiliary tracks in addition to the third portal crane in the depot.
v.
Some of these gantry cranes can be of 6.5 metres height from rail level to facilitate repair
of portal cranes.
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Lesson-I: PQRS
Session-15: Working Principle, Auxilliary Track and Mode of working.
.
WORKING PRINCIPLE:
1. Panels are fabricated with new sleepers and service rails in a Base Depot. These panels
are loaded on BFRs in 3 or 4 layers.
2. The existing rails in track are cut in lengths of 13 m.
3. Auxiliary track is laid to proper line and level with the new rail panels, if rail renewal is
also to be carried out as part of track renewal. Otherwise, service rails are used for
making auxiliary track.
4. PQRS rake is brought to site of relaying after getting proper traffic and OHE block.
5. Following three methods of laying of new panels are used depending upon site
conditions:
Ø Pulling the PQRS rake
Ø Pushing the PQRS rake
Ø Parting the PQRS rake
6. Portals are unloaded on the auxiliary track.
7. Old panels are removed and loaded on PQRS rake, ballast bed is scarified manually and
new panels are laid at site by using portal cranes.
8. Proper ramp is provided at the beginning and at the end of the day s work.
AUXILIARY TRACK:
i.
Auxiliary track should be laid at 3400 mm gauge keeping the centre line same as that of
main line track.
ii.
CST-9 plates or wooden blocks of size 560 X 250 X 125 mm should be used at 1.5 to 2.0
metres distance for laying the auxiliary track.
iii.
The length of the auxiliary track should match with the daily progress of work.
iv.
The level of auxiliary track should be same as that of existing main line track and must
have proper longitudinal and cross levels to avoid derailment of portal cranes.
v.
In no case, the auxiliary track should be more than 50 mm higher than the existing track.
MODE OF WORKING:
PULLING METHOD:When engine leads in the direction of work and the work is done in the
leading direction, it is called pulling.
PUSHING METHOD:When engine is opposite to the direction of work and the work is done in
trailing direction, it is called pushing.
TRAIN PARTING METHOD:In case of non availability of proper length of auxiliary track
PQRS rake is parted in two portions at site, and it is called Train Parting. In this case, lot of
time is wasted for parting and coupling and therefore this method is not very economical.
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SUB DESCIPLINE – TRACK LAYING MACHINES (LESSONS – 04
Documents
Lesson – II: TRT
SESSIONS - 04)
Session-16: Main features main units and their functions, Yard
activities, Modified BRHs & Rake Formation, Working Principle & SRs after relaying.
MAIN FEATURES:
i.
There is no need to prefabricate panels.
ii.
No auxiliary track is to be laid.
iii.
Concrete sleepers loaded on BRHs are directly taken to site and relayed one by one.
iv.
New rails unloaded at site on shoulders and duly paired or fishplated are exchanged with
old rails along with sleeper renewals.
MAIN UNITS & THEIR FUNCTIONS:TRT consists of the following:
BEAM CAR (22.34m Length):The beam car is hinged with handling car and has one common
bogie and one independent bogie. Below this car, all the working units like old sleeper pickup,
dynamic plow, sleeper, flipper, indexing wheel, new tie conveyor, self guiding roller for guiding
in and guiding out rails, are provided. If sleeper spacing is to be changed, this can be achieved by
changing the indexing wheel. Sled is hung from this car when not in use.
HANDLING CAR (21.05m Length):This car has one independent bogie and one common
bogie with beam car. All the conveyors are provided on this car.
POWER CAR (14.81m length):This is a four axle vehicle. TRT power unit is provided on half
the length of this car and remaining half is utilized for loading of sleepers. Power unit is
Cummins NTA-855 turbo-charged, 6 cylinder diesel engine, maximum rating 360 hp at 2100
rpm, continuous rating 295 hp at 1800 rpm.
YARD ACTIVITIES:
i.
Ensure proper selection of Base Depot site. The Base Depot for TRT should be centrally
located (30-40 kms. Lead) in the area of working.
ii.
Provide sufficient stock of new sleepers, elastic rail clips/fastenings, liners and rail pads
in the Base Depot.
iii.
Ensure proper line and level of auxiliary track for 3400/3700 mm gauge for portal
working.
iv.
30 nos. BFRs should be modified for one set of TRT. 160 sleepers are loaded in one BFR
and about 1500-2000 sleepers should be loaded as required during block.
v.
Load rail fastening like elastic rail clips, liners and rail pads as required during block.
MODIFIED BRHs:
On both side of BFR, for running of gantries, plates are welded, which makes gantry track. The
gauge of this track is kept 3050 mm. Due to this modification these BFRs are called modified
BRH.
RAKE FORMATION:
Empty BRH
Power Car
Beam Car
Handling Car
BFR for p/clips
& Liners
Loco
Loaded BRHs
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In working direction, first vehicle is locomotive which is used to take the TRT rake, then we
Documents
provide 1 or 2 empty BRH & then loaded BRH, on which new PRC sleepers are loaded. The
number of loaded BRH depends on the traffic block.
As we know it very well that the progress of TRT is app. 10 sleepers per effective minute. Hence
we can calculate the number of sleepers required for the block. 80 minutes is deducted for total
block time for reaching at site, clearing section and setting & closing of diff. units. Remaining
time is effective time. On one BRH 160 sleepers ( 20X4X2) are loaded.
WORKING PRINCIPLE:
i.
Removal of fastening: the fastenings of old rails to sleepers are removed in advance of
track renewal work.
ii.
Placement of new rails: the new rails are placed in advance on either side of the track
duly welded or fish plated at a distance of 1.5 metres from the track.
iii.
Positioning of the track: the main vehicle is now positioned on the track to be renewed.
The design of the machine is such that with the help of guidance sled , the machine is
located in the track at three points: the front and rear bogies and the sled at the centre. The
guidance sled rests on the old sleepers at the point made free by the removal of the old
rails. This design ensures an accurate reproduction of the old track layout without the
need for an external machine guidance system.
iv.
Lifting of old rails: the old rails which are already free from fastenings, are lifted and
properly guided, with the help of Rail lifting and guidance frame. The machine
continuously lifts the old rails and deposits them on either side of the track.
v.
Picking up of old sleepers: the old sleepers are picked up with the help of sleeper pick up
system and these are placed upright on the conveyor system. With the help of chain
conveyor belts, the old sleepers are carried and stored on the train in stacks of 4 layers
separated by Dunn age with the help of handling gantry.
vi.
Leveling & Compaction of ballast bed: Following the old sleeper pick up position is a
vibratory plough and compactor. This plough levels the ballast ready to accept the new
sleepers.
vii.
Laying of new sleepers: The new sleepers are already stacked on the train in wagons.
New sleepers are now placed automatically at a specified distance by using a wheel of
specific circumference. The wheel send a signal after each revolution to the sleeper
spacing mechanisms giving accurate sleeper positioning. Because of the unique geometry
of this mechanism, the system ensures that sleepers are laid square and at specified
distance.
viii.
Laying of new rails: The new rails, which are already lying along the track, are then lifted
and put in the position on the sleepers.
ix.
Fixing of insulators & elastic rail clips: Attached behind the P811 S machine is a wagon
containing elastic rail clips and insulators. Two labours place these adjacent to each
sleeper. Two additional labours then position the rail clips and insulators in the correct
position on the sleeper. Following this wagon is a clip applicator which fits the elastic rail
clip into position, thereby, capturing the rail.
x.
Picking up of old rails: the final operation is to remove the old rails. It is necessary prior
to rail pick up to cut the rail into 39m lengths for proper handling. There wagons towed
by utility vehicle (UTV), containing a mobile crane then pick up the old rails and place
them onto the wagons for transporting to the depot.
SRs AFTER RELAYING:
First day relaying & tamping
Second day, second tamping & welding
Third day, third & final tamping
Fourth day
: 40 kmph
: 60 kmph
: 80 kmph
: Full Speed
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SUB DESCIPLINE – TRACK LAYING MACHINES (LESSONS – 04 SESSIONS - 04)
Documents
Lession – III: T-28 Session-17:
Main features main units and their functions, Working
Principle
MAIN FEATURES:
i.
These are special bridge trains with adjustable span and height.
ii.
These are equipped with crawlers and rail beams.
iii.
These can lift and handle turn-outs as well as plain tracks.
MAIN UNITS & THEIR FUNCTIONS:
The important assemblies of T-28 are
I. Portal Cranes:
The portal crane permits adjustment of span and height and is equipped with both circular and
flanged wheels. A set of two cranes can lift and handle a complete turnout. It can also be used to
handle normal track. When working with a set of two portal cranes, the connection is provided
by the turnout or track portion which is being handled.
II. Trolleys:
The trolleys are used to transport the turnout assembly on track. The motorized trolleys have the
facility to move laterally by 300 mm on either side and lift vertically by 300 mm. one such
trolley is placed below each of the crossing portion and switch portion and is used for shifting the
turnout laterally or vertically for clearing any obstructions e.g. signal post, OHE mast, platform
etc while transporting the turnout.
III. Jib Crane:
Pre-stressed concrete (PSC) sleepers for turnouts require careful handling to avoid damages
during loading/unloading, assembling and laying. The sleepers loaded on BFRs are unloaded
either at assembly depot or in yards near to the site of laying. Thereafter the PSC sleepers have to
be spread at proper spacing for linking of turnout assembly. The jib crane is used for unloading
and placement of PSC sleepers.
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SUB DESCIPLINE – DYNAMIC TRACK STABLIZER (LESSONS – 1 SESSIONS - 01)
Documents
Lesson – I:DTS/DGS Session-18:
Main features main units and their functions, Power
Transmission
MAIN FEATURES:
Ø Elimination of initial differential settlements which are caused by the impact of passing
trains.
Ø The track geometry achieved by tamping machines is retained for a longer duration.
Ø Homogenous structure of ballast bed is built up.
Ø Lateral track resistance increases resulting in enhanced safety against track buckling.
Ø Speed restrictions are relaxed faster.
MAIN UNITS & THEIR WORKING:
STABILIZER UNITS:
The machine has two dynamic stabilizer units which run on the track beneath the main frame,
make contact with the rail heads through eight flange rollers on the inside and four roller discs on
the outside. The two synchronized vibration units cause the track to vibrate horizontally. The
frequency is adjustable from 0 to 45 Hz from the cabin. Two centrifugal force, independent of
the frequency, can be up to 320 kN.
RECORDING AND MONITORING SYSTEM:
A proportional chord-leveling device enables controlled settlement of the track. A steel chord is
spread over each rail between the sensor rods which are jointed to the inside axles of the bogies.
They form the reference base of the recording system of the longitudinal level. By means of a
sensor rod between the stabilization units, on which a recording value transmitter is attached to
the left and rigt hand side, the settlement is recorded and monitored.
TECHNICAL DATA:
ENGINE:
(OLD STOCK)
(NEW STOCK)
LENGTH OVER BUFFER
WIDTH
HEIGHT ABOVE RAIL
BOGIE PIVOTS SPACING
BOGIE WHEEL BASE
WHEEL DIAMETER
WEIGHT
AXLE LOAD:
(I) FRONT AXLE LOAD
(II) REAR AXLE LOAD
SPEED:
(I) SELF PROPELLED
(II) IN TRAIN FORMATION
DEUTZ-BF-12L-513C
460 BHP (AIR COOLED)
KTA-1150L FROM KCL
473 BHP AT 2200 RPM
17250 MM
2800 MM
3790 MM
12000 MM
1500 MM
730 MM
57 TONNES
14.5 TONNES
14.0 TONNES
60 KMPH
50 KMPH
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POWER TRANSMISSION:
Documents
P3
ENGINE
ZF
GEAR
BOX
P1
P2
M
Distribution
Gear Box
M
PTO
Reduction
Gear Box
NAME OF PCB’S AND THEIR FUNCTION:
PCBs used in DGS (New)
1.
Levelling Control (L&R) EK 2186LV
2.
Peak Value measuring
EK2155LV
control
3.
Servo control vibration
EK 2683LV
4.
Servo control working
EK2684LV
drive
5.
Safety drive circuit
EK182LV
6.
Relay circuit
EK603E
7.
Processor PCB
EK650PX
8.
Input-Output
EK653P
9.
QL
EK654P
10.
Time delay
EK657P
11.
Power supply
EK813SV
12.
Power supply
EK805SV
13.
Servo adjustment
VT3005
14.
Encoder PCB
ELT 5348
15.
Distance delayed
EK152.00
Analogue value
16.
Measurement Display
ELTELT5353
PCB
&ELT5354
17.
Servo Adjustment
VT3005G5032-A822
Running Bogie
Driving Bogie
PCBs used in DGS (Old)
Levelling Control (L)
EK 2031LV
Levelling Control (R)
EK2032LV
Amplitude control
Pendulum compensation
EK 2033LV
EK97V
Power supply
Encoder PCB
Processor
Input-Output
QL
Measurement Display PCB
EK813SV
ELT5034
EK501P
EK553P
EK554P
ELT 5144
SUB DESCIPLINE – QUALITY CONTROL (LESSONS – 03 SESSIONS - 03)
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Lesson-I: Tamping Machines
Session-19:Pre-requisites, Pre-tamping Operations,
Documents
Operations during tamping and Post tamping Operations.
PRE-REQUISITES:
i.
A minimum cushion of 150 mm of clean ballast is recommended for the proper
functioning of the machine. Adequate ballast should be available in shoulders and cribs to
allow for required lift (about 20 mm in each tamping operation) and retention of packing
after tamping.
For this purpose, planning and execution of deep screening of ballast as well as training
out of ballast should be done well in advance.
ii.
Sanction of Commissioner of Railway Safety for working of the concerned tamping
machine shall be available.
iii.
Traffic blocks of adequate duration shall be planned.
iv.
The sleepers shall be uniformly spaced.
PRE-TAMPING OPERATIONS:
i.
Field survey should be carried out to determine existing profile of track and to decide the
general lift. In case of design mode working, the survey should be done as per guidelines.
ii.
The beginning and the end of curves/ transition curves should be marked on sleepers.
Super-elevation and slew should be marked on alternate sleepers to act as guide for the
operator.
iii.
Ballast shall be heaped up in the tamping zone to ensure effective packing. However,
sleeper top should be visible to the operator and the ballast should not obstruct the lifting
rollers.
iv.
Hogged, battered and low joints shall be attended.
v.
Low cess should be made-up.
vi.
Track drainage should be improved for better retentivity of packing. Pumping locations
should be attended. Rounded ballast should be replaced with clean and angular ballast.
vii.
Deficient fittings and fastenings should be made good and all fittings and fastenings like
fishbolts, keys, cotters, loose jaws, elastic rail clips, pads etc should be properly
tightened. Worn out fittings should be replaced.
viii.
Broken and damaged sleepers shall be replaced.
ix.
Sleepers should be squared, correctly spaced and gauge corrected.
x.
Destressing of rails, adjustment of creep, expansion gaps in joints, buffer rails and SEJs
etc, if necessary, shall be carried out.
xi.
Guard rails at the approach of bridges and check rails shall be removed temporarily.
xii.
All obstructions such as rail lubricators, signal rods and cable pipes which are likely to
obstruct the tamping tools should be clearly marked and made known to the operator
before the start of work.
xiii.
Wooden blocks and joggled fishplates shall be removed temporarily ahead of tamping.
xiv.
In electrified sections, the earthing bond should either be removed or properly adjusted
for tamping.
OPERATIONS DURING TAMPING:
i.
The gap between top edge of the tamping blade and the bottom edge of the sleeper in
closed position of the tamping tool should be adjusted depending upon the type of rail and
sleepers. The gap for different types of sleepers will be as under:
a.
Metal sleeper
: 22-25 mm
b.
Flat bottom sleeper
: 10-12 mm
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The tamping (squeezing) pressure should be adjusted according to the type of sleeper as
Documents
under:
a.
CST-9 sleeper
: 90-100 kg/sq.cm.
b.
ST or wooden sleeper
: 100-110 kg/sq.cm.
c.
PSC sleeper
: 110-120 kg/sq.cm.
iii.
Care should be taken to ensure that tamping tools are inserted centrally between the
sleepers into the ballast to avoid damage to sleepers. The number of insertions of the
tamping tool per sleeper varies with the type of sleeper and the amount of track lift to be
given. While tamping, following guidelines should be adopted:a.
CST-9 sleepers and steel trough sleepers may require double insertion before
passing on to the next sleeper.
b.
Wooden sleepers require one insertion upto 20 mm lift and two insertions for lifts
above 20 mm.
c.
One additional insertion for joint sleepers will also be required.
d.
Concrete sleepers require one insertion upto 30 mm lift. Two insertions may be
required for lifts above 30 mm.
iv.
For maintenance packing, squeezing time of 0.4 second to 0.6 second should normally be
adequate. Higher squeezing time may be required for track with caked up ballast.
v.
The machine should have full complement of tamping tools. The tamping tools should
not be loose or worn out. The wear on the tool blade should not be more than 20% of its
sectional area.
vi.
A ramp of 1 in 1000 shall be given before closing the day s work and obligatory point.
The next day s work shall begin from the point of commencement of previous day s
ramp.
vii.
If work is to be done during night, sufficient lighting at work site should be ensured.
viii.
Care shall be taken to provide for slew and lift compensation as necessary. Heavy slewing
or lifting should normally be done in steps of not more than 50 mm. for LWR/CWR
track, the relevant provisions of LWR manual shall be adhered to.
ix.
During tamping, the parameters of tamped track should be checked immediately after
tamping for cross level and alignment, and necessary corrective action should be taken.
POST TAMPING OPERATIONS:
i.
Checking and tightening of loose fittings.
ii.
Replacement of broken fittings.
iii.
The ballast shall be dressed neatly. Proper consolidation of ballast between the sleepers
shall be done.
iv.
Final track parameters should be recorded with the help of recorders provided on the
tamping machine. A copy of this record should be kept with the Section Engineer
(P.Way) and the recorded values should not exceed the following limits:Parameter
Not more than 10 peaks per Any peak exceeding this value
km to exceed this value
Alignment
+ 4 mm
+ 6 mm
Cross level
+ 6 mm
Unevenness
6 mm
10 mm
If the recorder is not available, then track parameters of at least four stretches of 25 sleepers each
per kilometer of tamped track should be recorded. In addition, the versines and super-elevation of
curves shall be recorded for atleast ten stations at a specified chord length.
v.
While working in LWR territory, the provisions of Manual of Instructions on Long
Welded Rails 1996 should be followed.
vi.
The fixtures like check rails removed during pre-tamping operation should be restored.
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SUB DESCIPLINE – QUALITY CONTROL (LESSONS – 3 SESSIONS - 03)
Documents
Lesson-II: BCM
Session-20:Pre-requisites, Operations prior to deployment, Operations
during
Traffic Block and Post Block Operations.
FOR BCM & SBCM:PRE-REQUISITES:
i.
The cutter bar will cut the formation and form channel under the track if minimum 250
mm ballast cushion (caked and clean) is not available. If the availability of cushion is
less, the track can be temporarily lifted up to 100 mm by BCM itself during working. If
this temporary lifting is inadequate, the track shall be lifted up to desired level in
consultation with Traction Distribution branch in electrified areas.
ii.
Since the cutter bar moves continuously below the track, the machine can not work if
there is any lateral or vertical infringement. For such locations, either some special
preparations are required or work has to be done manually.
iii.
Since the setting and closing time of the machine is longer, a block of at least four hours
is necessary to effectively utilize the machine.
iv.
Adequate arrangements for supply and training out of ballast shall be ensured.
v.
While working in LWR territory, provisions of Manual of Instructions on Long Welded
Rails-1996 should be followed.
OPERATIONS PRIOR TO DEPLOYMENT:
i.
Foot by foot survey of the section shall be conducted to see the condition of track
components, ballast, cess width and availability of land for waste disposal.
ii.
Requisite survey shall be carried out and the longitudinal profile and alignment shall be
finalized as per the relevant provisions in the Indian Railways Permanent Way Manual1996 and Schedule of Dimensions-1939.
iii.
Depth of cutting/magnitude of lifting of track should be decided on the basis of proposed
rail level. The longitudinal section showing formation level, existing and proposed rail
levels should be plotted on a graph sheet. Otherwise, aid of computer along with suitable
software may be taken. The final rail level shall be transferred on pegs or traction masts.
iv.
The pockets of ballast beyond the reach of cutter chain shall be transferred in its cutting
width before commencement of deep screening.
v.
It should be ensured that there is no obstruction in the width of 4100 mm to avoid
infringement to cutter chain. Rail pegs of LWR, creep posts etc should be removed. Pucca
drain wall, if infringing, should be dismantled, alternatively the track can be slewed
temporarily.
vi.
In electrified section, distance of mast foundation from track centre will have to be
accurately measured to ensure free movement of cutting chain.
vii.
Any signal rodding or cable which is likely to interrupt the work should be temporarily
removed.
viii.
Approaches to bridges which can not be screened by the machine should be screened
manually in advance of the machine working.
ix.
Level crossings should be opened in advance so as to enable machine to work.
x.
Sleepers should have all the fittings intact so that no sleeper becomes loose and come in
the way of cutter chain while the ballast is being excavated. The broken tie bar and ST
sleepers should be replaced.
xi.
Gas cutting equipment should be available at site to cut any obstruction like rail pieces,
pipes etc, which might get entangled with cutting chain.
xii.
Spoil disposal units should be attached with the machine while working in station yards,
cuttings or multiple lines section where dumping of the spoil along the cess is not
feasible. If waste is to be disposed off across any adjacent track, the adjacent track shall
also be blocked for traffic.
xiii.
A trench of 30 cm depth and one metre width should be made for lowering cutter-bar by
removing one sleeper or re-spacing of sleepers.
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OPERATIONS DURING TRAFFIC BLOCK
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.
v.
vi.
When machine reaches site, the cutter bar should be lowered in the trench, both ends of
cutter bar shall be connected to guides through links. For subsequent work, cutter bar is
left under the track.
When the machine starts working, cutter bar scarifies the ballast. Links of rotating chain
push ballast in the inclined guides and lead the ballast to screening unit. One person on
either side should move with the machine to watch for any obstruction to cutter chain, so
as to arrange for stoppage of the machine immediately. Thereafter, the necessary
corrective action should be taken.
Screening should be stopped well before expiry of traffic block to permit proper closing
of the work and packing before resumption of traffic.
If the machine stops moving during work, it should be ensured that gates for clean ballast
below screen are instantly closed. Otherwise, the screened ballast will get heaped up at
one place.
Utmost caution should be observed while manipulating movement of waste conveyor to
avoid hitting against electrical mast/signal post. Safety switch provided to sense the mast
should, therefore, be kept ON .
All the staff working with the machine should wear safety helmets and masks to avoid
inhaling dust.
POST BLOCK OPERATIONS:
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.
v.
At the end of work, about five sleeper spaces are left without ballast. These should be
filled manually with the clean ballast.
The vertical and lateral clearances for OHE, signal post and any other structure should be
checked and adjusted before clearing the BCM block.
Ballast recoupment activity should synchronize with deep screening activity so as to
enable raising speed to normal after necessary packing.
One watchman should be posted at the location where cutter bar and chain are left
whenever considered necessary.
It is desirable that one round of tamping along with DTS should be carried out
immediately after deep screening to resume traffic at a speed of 40 kmph.
The combining of BCMs, training out of ballast and DTS in the same block should be
considered for opening of track at 40 kmph while clearing the block.
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SUB DESCIPLINE – QUALITY CONTROL (LESSONS – 03 SESSIONS - 03)
Documents
Lesson-III: PQRS, TRT & T-28
Session-21:Pre-requisites, Operations prior to
deployment, Operations during Traffic Block and Post Block Operations.
PRE-REQUISITES:
i.
A well organized and properly laid out Base Depot is the back bone of relaying by portal
cranes. Smooth functioning of the Base Depot will ultimately reflect in efficiency and
productivity of the relaying work. The Base Depot is required to cater to the following
activities:a. Unloading of PSC sleepers from the rake and stacking.
b. Fabrication of new panels.
c. Unloading of released panels from PQRS rake.
d. Dismantling of released panels.
e. Loading of pre-fabricated new panels.
f. Formation of PQRS rake.
g. Maintenance of machines.
h. Dispatch of released material.
i. Loading/unloading of ballast, if the Base Depot is also to be used as ballast depot.
ii.
It is desirable to locate the Base Depot at a central place such that the distance of remotest
work site on either side does not exceed 60-70 kilometers. At the same time, the site
selected should be accessible by road, there should be electric power supply and watering
facilities. The Base Depot may have facility of entry and exit on both sides from the
running line.
iii.
For smooth working, the Base Depot should have at least three sidings of 500 meters each
connected to a shunting neck of 350 meters. Of these, at least two sidings should be
provided with auxiliary track for movement of portal cranes.
iv.
It is desirable to illuminate the Base Depot so that the activities listed in item (i) above
can be undertaken safely at night.
v.
To strengthen depot working, it is desirable to install a few hand-operated/motorized
gantry cranes moving on auxiliary tracks in addition to the third portal crane in the depot.
Some of these gantry cranes can be of 6.5 meters height from rail level to facilitate repair
of portal cranes.
OPERATIONS PRIOR TO DEPLOYMENT
i.
The requisite survey shall be carried out and the longitudinal profile and alignment shall
be finalized as per relevant provisions in the Indian Railways Permanent Way Manual
1986 and Schedule of Dimensions-1939.
ii.
Track may be deep screened one or two days in advance of relaying.
iii.
Auxiliary track should be laid at 3400 mm gauge keeping the centre line same as that of
main line track.
iv.
The level of auxiliary track should be same as that of existing main line track and must
have proper longitudinal and cross levels to avoid derailment of portal cranes. In no case,
the auxiliary track should be more than 50 mm higher than the existing track.
v.
Removal of ballast from the crib and shoulders up to the bottom level of the sleepers
should be ensured.
vi.
Full fittings of the old sleepers should be ensured to avoid their falling off while lifting
released panels.
vii.
All broken sleepers should be removed or replaced.
viii.
In case a level crossing is to be encountered, it should be opened in advance.
ix.
Proper planning and insertion of Switch Expansion Joints at correct locations should be
ensured.
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Cutting of LWR/SWR to single rails should be ensured for lifting released panels.
Documents
Otherwise, replace the existing running rail by service rails for the stretches which are to
xi.
xii.
be relaid during the next day.
Temporarily disconnect or remove any other permanent obstructions.
The following equipments should be available during working:
a. One set each of rail cutting and gas cutting equipment.
b. Two sets of rail closures of the each rail section being laid, in various sizes from
0.5 m to 3 m lengths.
c. 4 sets of junction fish plates with bolts.
OPERATIONS DURING TRAFFIC BLOCK
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.
v.
vi.
vii.
viii.
ix.
After the train has reached the site, first of all the portals are unloaded from BFR on the
auxiliary track.
Both the portals have to go to that point from where the work has to be started.
Both portal cranes will lift the released panel and keep them on empty BFR.
After the old track is removed, the ballast section is leveled up manually and brought to
the required level.
In second round, both the portal cranes will come without new panel and pick up old
panels.
In third round, both the portal cranes will bring pre-fabricated panels and lay these panels
on working place.
These operations are repeated until the last panel is laid.
At the end of block, proper ramp is provided.
Block is then cleared as the thus the track is already linked.
POST BLOCK OPERATIONS:
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.
v.
vi.
vii.
viii.
ix.
Clearance of track from any obstructions before removal of traffic block.
Complete track fittings including their correct positioning and tightness.
Proper lifting, packing, ballast regulating and compaction/stabilization of track to raise
the speed of the different stretches.
Training out of adequate quantity of ballast over the newly relayed track to full ballast
section.
Picking up of left over released materials.
Dismantling of auxiliary track and relaying the same in advance for the next day s work.
Restoration of cables and other fixtures e.g. guard rails on bridges and check rails on level
crossings which were removed temporarily.
Tie tamping machines, BRM and Dynamic Track Stabilizer should be deployed to enable
raising of speed to normal.
Provision of SEJs as per approved plan, in-situ welding of panels and distressing of LWR
should be done after welding of panels.
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FOR TRT:OPERATIONS PRIOR TO DEPLOYMENT:
Documents
i.
Base Depot
a. Ensure proper selection of Base Depot site. The Base Depot for TRT should be
centrally located (30-40 kms. Lead) in the area of working.
b. Provide sufficient stock of new sleepers, elastic rail clips/fastenings, liners and rail
pads in the Base Depot.
c. Ensure proper line and level of auxiliary track for 3400/3700 mm gauge for portal
working.
d. 30 nos. BFRs should be modified for one set of TRT. 160 sleepers are loaded in one
BFR and about 1500-2000 sleepers should be loaded as required during block.
e. Load rail fastening like elastic rail clips, liners and rail pads as required during block.
ii.
All corroded and broken steel/CST-9 sleepers should be marked.
iii.
There should be no infringement within one metre of sleeper ends.
iv.
Adequate ballast should be available before relaying operations start.
v.
Deep screening should be carried out in advance wherever feasible.
vi.
Check-rails of level crossings falling in the range of work should be removed in
advance.
vii.
New rails should be unloaded, paired, fishplated or welded in one piece and set at
about 1.5 metres from track centre.
viii.
All longer wooden sleepers from joints be either removed or cut to size in advance.
ix.
Interlaced sleepers of height different from remaining sleepers should be removed.
x.
In case of CST-9 sleepers, gauging should be done in advance to avoid hitting of
sleepers by sled assembly during lifting of CST-9 sleepers.
xi.
Seven wooden sleepers should be laid in track at a location five sleepers behind the
rail cut and ballast around them removed for easy placement of plow.
xii.
The new location should be planned that it matches with the new rail end for
threading at the start of work.
xiii.
At location where relaying is to start, two rail pieces of 7.3 metres length are cut and
connected together using well greased fishbolts to enable quick opening during block.
xiv.
Plan the location of cut in the old track at the closing of work site so that it matches
with the rail end of new rail panel.
xv.
Ensure availability of S&T staff to connect any wire/rodding disturbed during the
block, and OHE staff for opening of temporary bonds and bonding back after the
work.
xvi.
Ensure earth bonding of new rail panels.
xvii.
Ensure removal of alternate keys in case of CST-9 sleepers and inside alternate keys
in case of ST sleepers.
xviii.
Existing small nos. of PSC sleepers should be replaced with wooden sleepers to avoid
loss of time while working.
xix.
High temperature distressing of the old track should be carried out as provided in
Manual of Instructions on Long Welded Rails-1996.
OPERATIONS DURING TRAFFIC BLOCK
i.
Shield hydraulic pipes and other moving parts of the TRT so that in case of any mishap,
these do not hit OHE mast.
ii.
Take OHE block, if staff is required to climb on top of the machine for repairs etc, in case
of any breakdown.
iii.
Ensure proper track protection at the site of work, look-out men and hooter in good
working order to give warning for train approaching on the other line.
iv.
Utmost caution should be taken while lowering and raising Clamp in order to avoid
infringement to the adjacent line.
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POST BLOCK OPERATIONS:
Documents
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.
v.
vi.
Ballasting of the track should be done immediately after track relaying operation.
Then, Ballast Regulator, Tie Tamping machine and Dynamic Track Stabilizer should be
deployed to enable raising of speed to normal in shortest possible time.
In-situ welding of isolated joints should be done before restoration of speed to normal.
Switch Expansion Joints should be provided at locations as per approved LWR/CWR
plans.
Check rails should be provided at Level Crossings after final tamping of the track.
Destressing of LWR should be done immediately after welding the rail panels to long
welded rails.
FOR T-28:
PRE-REQUISITES:
PRE-BLOCK OPERATIONS:
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.
v.
vi.
vii.
viii.
ix.
x.
xi.
xii.
New turnout should be assembled using Jib Crane near the site of turnout to be replaced.
The fittings of assembled turnout should be complete and properly tightened. If suitable
location is not available nearby, assembly may be done away from site and then
transportation can be done with the help of trolleys. Infringements on the way should be
checked and movement with slewing accordingly may be planned.
The assembled turnout should be loaded on trolleys for transportation.
Rails on either side of existing turnout should be of the same section as that of new
turnout.
Deep screening of turnout portion should be done. Ensure required cushion and proper
drainage. Rail levels should be taken for sufficient length on either side of turnout.
Proposed rail profile should be plotted both for main line and loop line.
Point machines should be disengaged and turnout should be non-interlocked before taking
up its replacement.
Ballast from crib and shoulder of sleepers should be removed up to sleeper bottom for full
turnout length.
60 wooden blocks, each approximately 60 cm long, should be kept ready for facilitating
passage of crawler on the obstacles.
4 nos. of rail pieces, each 70 cm long, should be kept ready for housing below the rail
wheels of the crane.
Jumpering of both ends of the turnout should be done by electrical staff before lifting and
removing of existing turnout.
Adequate arrangements should be made for protection of the line involved and adjacent
lines while the machine is working.
Fishbolts should be lubricated and worked to facilitate easy removal during block.
Location where clamp of each crane will hold the crossing and switch portions for lifting
should be marked on the assembled turnout.
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OPERATIONS DURING TRAFFIC BLOCK
Documents
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.
v.
vi.
vii.
viii.
Immediately after getting traffic block, the fishbolts of existing turnouts should be
opened.
Both cranes should be traversed and brought in position for handling the existing turnout
at the demarcated position.
Old turnout should be lifted by cranes and traversed to suitable location for further
dismantling after the block.
The cranes should be traversed to the pre-assembled concrete sleeper turnout and both the
cranes should be taken to demarcated positions on turnout.
Simultaneously, the gangs should scarify the ballast from the location where the turnout
has been removed. The ballast bed is lowered to accommodate extra height in case of
concrete sleepers.
The crawler side frame of the cranes should be spread suitably in stages to accommodate
the length of the turnout sleepers on their demarcated locations for each crane.
Pre-fabricated turnout should be held by the cranes. The cranes with the turnout be
traversed across in stages and brought to the location of laying. The turnout is laid in
position and fishplates are bolted to the existing track.
One crane is traversed on the track and the second is utilized for final alignment of
turnout. After placing the turnout, gangs should fill back the ballast manually.
POST BLOCK OPERATIONS:
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.
v.
Ballast deficiency should be made good by putting additional ballast. Profiling and
boxing of ballast should be done.
The turnout should be tamped with the help of UNIMAT machine. Both alignment and
levels should be corrected while tamping the turnout.
The turnout may be interlocked and point machine engaged immediately after laying the
turnout.
Damage to the cess during machine operation should be made good.
Provision of proper earthing points should be ensured by the electrical staff.
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CompleteSUB DESCIPLINE – MAINTENANCE SCHEDULE (LESSONS – 04 SESSIONS - 04)
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Lesson – I: Tamping Machines Session-22: Maintenance schedules of Tamping machines
MAINTENANCE SHEDULES OF TAMPING MACHINES:
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xix.
SCHEDULE-I
(TO BE DONE DAILY)
DURATION-ONE HOUR
Check and top up the hydraulic oil tank, if required.
Check the level of tanks for lubrication of guide columns and top up with hydraulic oil, if
required.
Lubricate eye and fork end of every squeezing cylinder with grease.
Change the worn out tamping tools.
Check the tightness and infringement of tamping tools with one another.
Check locking device of all units.
Lubricate all the lining roller pins with grease.
Check leakages from hydraulic hose connections.
Check for any air leakage from the system.
Check the air brake pressure.
Check for any unusual sound from machine.
Record the maximum hydraulic temperature of the day s work.
Observe the leakage from all gear boxes.
Check the level of tank for lubrication of tamping arm and main bearings.
Check the level of main gear box.
Lubricate the vibration shaft bearing with grease.
Check the tightness of cardon shaft bolts.
Check the brake application.
SCHEDULE-II
(TO BE DONE AFTER 50 HOURS OF ENGINE RUNNING)
DURATION-TWO HOURS
Check the condition of brake shoes.
Check the oil level of all gear boxes and top up, if required.
Lubricate the axle gear box flange cover with grease.
Lubricate the guide bushing of front and rear feeler with engine oil
Grease all cardon shaft.
Grease flange of driving axle.
Lubricate all link rods, pivots and rocker bearing of all assemblies.
Grease lifting/lining unit assembly.
Check the tightness of 55 mm and 35 mm pin.
Check bolts/welding of holding brackets of tamping units.
Check nuts and bolts of suspension block of tamping units.
Check/clean air breather of tamping units and gear boxes.
Lubricate the feeler rods with grease.
Clean and lubricate the guide rods of lining trolley with engine oil.
Lubricate all other moving parts except above with oil or grease.
Check and clean the air oiler and fill up with new hydraulic oil.
Check air leakage from pneumatic system.
Check all lights for proper functioning.
Check the bolts of cover plate of squeezing cylinders for tightness.
SCHEDULE-III
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(TO BE DONE AFTER 100 HOURS OF ENGINE RUNNING)
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DURATION-ONE DAY
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Inspect the hydraulic pumps for any abnormal sound.
Inspect the hydraulic motor for any abnormal sound.
Inspect the water separator for proper functioning.
Lubricate the tamping unit lateral adjusting cylinder guide rod with grease.
Examine the expiry date of the fire extinguisher.
Check tightness of tamping unit lifting/lowering cylinder piston rod.
Inspect main gear box cover through inspection window.
Check hydraulic system pressure.
Check vibration pressure.
Check squeezing pressure.
SCHEDULE-IV
(TO BE DONE AFTER 200, 400, 600 & 800 HOURS OF ENGINE RUNNING)
DURATION-TWO DAYS
Replace the hydraulic oil of reservoir for lubrication of vibration shaft main bearing.
Lubricate the pre load cylinder of front tightening, lining and measuring trolley with
grease.
Lubricate the lifting cylinder of lining and measuring trolley with grease.
Replace the proportional valve filter element.
Replace the return line filter element.
Change the oil of distributor gear box.
Change the oil of drive intermediate shaft and main gear box.
Change the oil of six speed gear box.
Change the oil of reversing gear box.
Change the oil of axle gear boxes.
Change suction filter.
SCHEDULE-V
(IOH)
(TO BE DONE AFTER 1000, 3000 & 5000 HOURS OF ENGINE RUNNING)
DURATION-7 DAYS
Send the hydraulic oil for chemical testing.
Clean the hydraulic oil tank.
Clean the hydraulic oil through 10µ if found OK in chemical testing otherwise fill new
oil.
Check the bearings of all the axles and lubricate with grease.
Check the condition of meggi springs and replace them if required.
Recondition the worn out wheels of all trolleys, if required.
Check bearing of trolley wheels and lubricate them with grease.
Clean and check the air reservoir for rated air pressure.
Overhaul/Replace the tamping units, if required.
Overhaul/Replace the lifting units, if required.
Replace the hydraulic hoses, which are damaged.
Replace the seals of leaking hydraulic cylinders.
Overhaul all the transducers.
replace the defective transducer fork.
Thoroughly clean all the panel boxes with pressurized air.
Check the wire connections in panel boxes.
Replace the missing or defective lights.
Calibrate the sensing trolleys.
Strengthen the machine frame where cracks have been developed.
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Test the machine on track for all functions.
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xxi.
Replace the brake shoes.
SCHEDULE-VI
(IOH)
(TO BE DONE AFTER 2000 & 4000 HOURS OF ENGINE RUNNING)
DURATION-45 DAYS
Replace the seal of brake cylinders.
Clean and repair the hydraulic oil cooler, if it is blocked more than 20% or badly leaking.
Check the hydraulic motors for rated delivery and replace if required.
Replace the damaged and chocked pneumatic pipes.
Overhaul all the pneumatic valves and change unserviceable ones.
Replace the seals of all pneumatic cylinders.
Check the machine wheels for tyre defects. Reprofile or replace if required.
Replace the defective switches and potentiometer.
Calibrate the machine on track for all functions.
SCHEDULE-VII
(POH)
(TO BE DONE AFTER 6000 HOURS OF ENGINE RUNNING)
DURATION-90 DAYS
i.
Replace all hydraulic pumps.
ii.
Replace all the hydraulic motors.
iii.
Check and recharge the hydraulic accumulators.
iv.
Replace the hydraulic cylinders on condition basis otherwise replace all the seals.
v.
Replace all the D.C. and pilot operated valves.
vi.
Get calibrated the proportional valve, if possible, otherwise replace it with new ones.
vii.
Replace all pressure control valves.
viii.
Check the functioning of all stopcock and flow control valves, if anyone found defective
then replace it with new ones.
ix.
Replace all hydraulic hoses along with crimped fittings.
x.
Clean the hydraulic tank. Inside to be painted with approved quality paint.
xi.
Flush the complete hydraulic system.
xii.
Replace all pneumatic hoses.
xiii.
Test the air tank for rated air pressure.
xiv.
Replace all pneumatic valves.
xv.
Replace the pneumatic cylinders on condition basis, which were creating the frequent
trouble during work. Otherwise replace seals only
xvi.
Overhaul the brake cylinders and replace the seals if cylinder is o.k.
xvii.
Overhaul the sensing trolleys.
xviii.
Re-profile all the trolley wheels.
xix.
Replace the axle bearings.
xx.
Overhaul all the gear boxes.
xxi.
Overhaul the cardon shafts.
xxii.
Repair or replace the defective PCB s.
xxiii.
Check the limit switches and replace on condition basis.
xxiv.
Overhaul the pendulums.
xxv.
Overhaul the panel boxes and provide thimbles as required.
xxvi.
Replace the defective switches and indicator lights.
xxvii.
Check and replace the defective LED s of solenoids if required.
xxviii.
Calibrate all the potentiometers for zero correction.
xxix.
Calibrate the machine in all respects.
xxx.
Paint the complete machine with approved quality paint.
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SUB DESCIPLINE – MAINTENANCE SCHEDULE (LESSONS –0 4 SESSIONS - 04)
Lession – II:BCM & FRM Session-23:Maintenance schedules of RM-76, RM-80, FRM-80 and
FRM-85.
SCHEDULE-I
TO BE DONE DAILY
(DURATION-ONE AND HALF HOURS)
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.
v.
vi.
vii.
viii.
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Check hydraulic oil level in tank and top up if required.
Check oil level in vibration screen drum.
Check proper locking of all units.
Check the function and condition of conveyor belt, belt tension, scrapers of conveyors and
look out for damages.
Check anti collision device of waste conveyor and cutting unit.
Screening mesh should be checked in order to have proper size of ballast.
Check for any unusual sound from machine.
Check air brake pressure.
Check and lubricate corner rollers of excavating chain.
Check the safety screw, scraper fingers and safety bolts of the excavating chain.
Check the connection between connecting elbow and cutter bar.
Check brake parts of idling bogie and powered bogie.
Check for any air leakage.
Check leakage in hydraulic circuit and do needful.
Check tightness of cardon shaft bolts.
Record the max. hydraulic oil temperature of the day.
Check for proper axle clutch pressure.
Lubricate the cutting chain and excavating conveyor bearing.
Check for any rubbing of hoses and loose clamping etc.
Check and top up bottle for lubricating conveyor chain and ensure that lubrication system is
working properly.
Check the safety items, emergency tools and spares.
Check the filter indicators of axle gear box clutch.
Check the filter indicator of suction filters.
Check the ballast distributing chutes.
Clean the slots next to the joint of the hydraulic cylinders.
Check oil level of pneumatic lubricator.
SCHEDULE-II
TO BE DONE AFTER 50 ENGINE HOURS
(DURATION-TWO HOURS)
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ii.
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Check brake linkage and lubricate the pivots and gear teeth of hand brake with grease.
Check guide rollers of conveyor belts.
Check the condition of the cutter chain and replace worn-out parts.
Lubricate axle gear box flange cover of driving bogie with grease.
Lubricate screen guide plates with grease.
Lubricate all cardon shaft with grease.
Lubricate bearing for main and distributing conveyor chain and adjust if required.
Clean complete machine.
Check wear on ballast distribution chutes.
Inspect wear plates of chain trough.
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Top up the bottle for lubrication of king pin pivot.
Clean excavating conveyor sliding frame.
Check the tension of excavating conveyor chain and adjust if required.
Grease guide columns, plow pivots broom units and sliding planes of cutter unit.
Check rubber bearing fitted under screen meshes and change if broken.
Check all working lights and do needful.
Check brake shoe clearance and adjust if required.
Check the oil level and top up both main gear boxes, if required.
Check oil level of axle gear boxes and top up, if required.
Lubricate the chain guide of excavating chain.
Check the oil level of conveyor belt gear box A1 and B1.
Check oil level of main gear box.
SCHEDULE-III
TO BE DONE AFTER 100 ENGINE HOURS
(DURATION-ONE DAY)
Check all the idler rollers of conveyor for free rotation.
Check guide rollers and bushes of cutter chain.
Check bushes, pressure separating rings and grooves of axle clutch shaft.
Check the functioning of back up system.
Check the condition of torque arm bearing.
Lubricate all cardon shaft.
Check brake lining and brake block play
SCHEDULE-IV
TO BE DONE 200 ENGINE HOURS
(DURATION-TWO DAYS)
Check function of all limits switches.
Check up rubber element of torque plate suspension and do needful.
Check the excavation chain sprocket and change if required.
Clean breather filter of hydraulic oil tank.
Change the filter s of axle gear box clutch.
Repair ballast screens.
Replace scraper shovel and intermediate links, if required.
Lubricate hand brake gear with grease.
Change oil in the axle gear boxes and replace clutch filter.
Change oil in the main gear boxes.
Change oil in the waste conveyor gear box.
Check the clutch pressure and adjust if required.
Clean the hydraulic oil with the help of hydraulic pump for about one hour.
Change hydraulic suction and return filters.
Check and lubricate the sleeper scraper.
Check filter of hydraulic tank.
Check the function of the lifting device, Clean and lubricate.
Check the support rollers of the conveyor belts and lubricate them.
Check draw bars and lubricate it.
Check and lubricate pivot and side bearing of bogie.
Replace the filter cartridge and granule element of air dryer.
Change oil of conveyor belt A1 and B1.
Check the main supply cable.
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SCHEDULE-V
TO BE DONE AFTER 1000, 3000 & 5000 HOURS
(DURATION-7 DAYS)
i.
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vii.
viii.
ix.
x.
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Check meggi spring and change oil required.
Lubricate the axle bearings of the bogies with grease.
Clean and lubricate sliding surfaces and bolts of torque supports with oil.
Change oil in screen drive drum and replace filter element.
Change hydraulic oil on condition basis through lab test.
Change the chute wear plates.
Check shock absorber fro proper functioning and do needful.
Check universal joints for play and replace if required.
Replace all conveyor belts on condition basis and overhaul the driving stations.
Overhaul the complete plow.
Replace the worn out broom sticks, if required.
Repair the missing and defective hand tools.
Clean water separator.
Check tappet clearances and adjust if required.
Check the cover plate bolts of all hydraulic cylinders.
Lubricate the turn table with grease.
Check foundation bolts of brake cylinders.
Check all pressure settings.
Check wear of brake shoes.
Check condition of trough plates and replace if required.
Change the chute wear plates.
Check condition of hydraulic and pneumatic hoses and replace as required.
Check the functioning of pressure switch of axle clutch and adjust if required.
Check wheel and axle cracks by magnifying glass.
Replace the defective lights.
Paint the screen area and chain trough.
Replace excavating belts, supports pipes and chains of excavating units & acrylic strip.
Replace distributing conveyors and waste conveyor.
Replace main conveyor, support pipes and chains. And replace acrylic strip.
SCHEDULE-VI
TO BE DONE AFTER 2000 & 4000 ENGINE HOURS
(DURATION-45 DAYS)
i.
Check wheel tyre defects and do needful.
SCHEDULE-VII
TO BE DONE AFTER 6000 ENGINE HOURS
(DURATION-90 DAYS)
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.
v.
Check hydraulic pumps, valves, motors in the test bench for rated output and replace if
necessary.
Clean the hydraulic oil tank. Paint the surface of tank with approved quality of paint and fill
new oil.
Change scraper rubber plates of excavating unit.
Change the rear frame, chute box and wing frame.
Overhaul the gearboxes.
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Check the bogie pivot for wear and attend as necessary.
Change the scraper pads and skirt rubbers of all conveyors.
Check all the direct acting and pilot operated direction valves and change if necessary.
Check all the pressure control valves and change if necessary.
Check all the stopcocks and flow control valves and change if required.
Check shock absorber and replace/repair as necessary.
Replace defective switches and potentiometers.
Repair/replace screen frame.
Overhaul screen vibration drum and replace bearings.
Replace bearing of cutting chain drive gearbox.
Replace bearing of excavating unit.
Check the wheel tyre profile.
Check the brake system.
Replace pneumatic cylinder seals or cylinders as required.
Replace all the hydraulic hoses along with clamps.
Check all hydraulic cylinders, change if necessary.
Clean hydraulic oil cooler.
Replace air unloader.
Test air tank.
Check all pneumatic valves and change if necessary.
Check all the pneumatic cylinders and do needful.
Change all the brake shoes.
Check the axle bearing and grease them. Change if required.
Change mounting pad of all gearboxes.
Overhaul the bogies.
Check the calibration of all the indicative instruments and replace the defective ones.
Replace all the limit switches on condition basis.
Check the LED of all solenoids.
Overhaul all the panel boxes.
Arrange insulation test of main cables and replace the defective ones.
Provide missing thimbles.
Replace the defective PCBs.
Strengthen the machine frame where cracks have developed.
Flush the complete system.
Fill new oil after replacing return line and suction filters.
Check the function of all assemblies.
Test the machine for one week before it is put for actual working in section on regular basis.
Overhaul the cutting unit.
Replace excavating belts, supports pipe and chains of excavating units &b acrylic strip.
Replace distributing conveyors and waste conveyor.
Replace main conveyor, support pipes and chains. And replace acrylic strip.
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SUB DESCIPLINE – MAINTENANCE SCHEDULE (LESSONS – 04 SESSIONS - 04)
Lesson – II:DTS & BRM
Session-24: Maintenance schedules of DTS & BRM.
MAINTENANCE SCHEDULES OF DTS:
SCHEDULE-I
TO BE DONE DAILY
(DURATION-ONE HOUR)
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.
v.
vi.
vii.
viii.
ix.
x.
xi.
xii.
xiii.
xiv.
xv.
Check tightness of cardon shaft bolts.
Check leakage from all gear boxes and do the needful.
Check vibration frequency and adjust it if necessary.
Drain water separator.
Check air-brake pressure on locking position.
Check for any air leakage and do the needful.
Check brake system before going into section for its effectiveness.
Check leakage in hoses, valves and joints. Rectify if required.
Check hydraulic oil level in tank and do the needful.
Record the max. hydraulic temperature of the day.
Check for any rubbing of hoses, loose clamping etc. and do the needful.
Check for any unusual sound from any section of machine.
Ensure proper functioning of parking brakes.
Clean complete machine.
Check all hydraulic and pneumatic pressures.
SCHEDULE-II
TO BE AFTER 50 ENGINE HOURS
(DURATION-TWO HOURS)
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.
v.
vi.
vii.
viii.
ix.
x.
xi.
xii.
xiii.
xiv.
xv.
xvi.
xvii.
xviii.
xix.
Lubricate the king pin pivots of driving and idle bogies with grease.
Check and top up oil of axle gear box, Drive intermediate shaft, ZF gear box, distribution gear
box and vibration gear box
Lubricate both axle guides/Stabilizing unit rollers with grease.
Lubricate clamp pivot pins with grease.
Lubricate link rod bearings with grease.
Lubricate roller clamp housing with grease.
Lubricate front, middle and rear feeler roller guide bushes and guide pulleys.
Check bolts and nuts of all hydraulic cylinders.
Check wear on brake shoes and do needful.
Adjust the gap between brake shoes and wheels, if required.
Check horizontal swing of the unit.
Lubricate the stabilizing unit guide column.
Lubricate axle gear box flange cover with grease.
Lubricate guide pulleys.
Lubricate front and rear tightening trolley lifting cylinder pivot.
Lubricate front and rear tightening trolley preload cylinder pivot.
Check working of stabilizing unit derailment protection mechanism.
Lubricate the guide rod sleeve of vibration unit.
Check all locking device for proper functioning.
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SCHEDULE-III
TO BE DONE AFTER 100 ENGINE HOURS
(DURATION-ONE DAY)
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.
Grease all cardon shafts.
Lubricate both brake linkage and torque arm pivot.
Clean hydraulic oil cooler by blowing air from opposite direction.
Check all working lights, push buttons, switches etc. and do needful.
SCHEDULE-IV
TO BE DONE AFTER 200 ENGINE HOURS
(DURATION-TWO DAYS)
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.
v.
vi.
vii.
viii.
ix.
x.
xi.
xii.
xiii.
xiv.
Change suction and return line filter elements.
Change proportional filter element.
Check pneumatic valves for proper functioning and change if required.
Grease sliding surfaces, guide column surface and bolts of torque supports.
Check foundation bolts of brake cylinders. Tighten them if required.
Replace the oil of ZF-gear box.
Replace the oil filter of ZF-gear box.
Change the oil of working drive clutch.
Change oil of distributor gear box.
Change oil of axle gear box.
Change the oil of drive intermediate shaft.
Change the oil of vibration gear box.
Check all the spares and tools for emergency.
Check for safety items.
SCHEDULE-V
TO BE DONE AFTER 1000 ENGINE HOURS
(DURATION-7 DAYS)
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.
v.
vi.
vii.
viii.
ix.
x.
xi.
xii.
xiii.
xiv.
Change grease of hand brake gear.
Grease the axle bearings of the bogies.
Change hydraulic oil. (Before replacement, check quality through lab test).
Check leakage from all hydraulic cylinders and replace the seals on condition basis.
Check condition of roller clamps and do the needful.
Check function of opening and closing cylinder for roller clamps.
Check function of lifting cylinders of vibration unit.
Replace defective lights.
Check meggy springs and replace if required.
Check wheel tyre defects and do needful.
Inspect all electrical connections and do the needful.
Check meggy flexi washer of axle gear box, torque plate for damage. Replace if required.
Lubricate hand brake gear with grease.
Repair the defective hand tools or replace them.
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SCHEDULE-VI
TO BE 2000 HOURS
(DURATION-45 DAYS)
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.
v.
vi.
vii.
viii.
Replace damaged hoses along with clamps.
Clean the hydraulic oil tank. Paint the surface of tank with approved quality of paint.
Thoroughly clean all panel boxes.
Provide missing thimbles.
Replace defective switches and potentiometers.
Replace defective indicative instruments.
Check the function of all assemblies after maintenance.
Test the machine for one week near the workshop before it is put for normal working in
section on regular basis.
SCHEDULE-VII
TO BE DONE AFTER 6000 ENGINE HOURS
(DURATION-90 DAYS)
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.
v.
vi.
vii.
viii.
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x.
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xxiii.
xxiv.
xxv.
xxvi.
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xxviii.
xxix.
xxx.
Replace all the hydraulic hoses along with clamps.
Check all hydraulic pumps and motors on the test bench for rated output. Replace if
necessary.
Check all hydraulic cylinders change if necessary.
Clean hydraulic tank, inside surface is to be painted with approved type of paints.
Fill new oil after replacing all the hydraulic filters.
Clean hydraulic oil cooler. If it is blocked more than 20% during service or badly leaking, it
should be replaced.
Check all the direct acting and pilot operated direction valves and change if necessary.
Check all the pressure control valves and change if necessary.
Check all the stop cocks and flow control valves and change if required.
Flush the complete system.
Change all pneumatic valves.
Check all the pneumatic cylinders and change on condition basis.
Check brake cylinder bore for corrosion. If corroded, the inner bore should be chrome-plated
and ground to standard size.
Change all the brake shoes.
Strengthen the machine frame where cracks have developed.
Check the wheels for any tyre defects. Reprofile or change if required.
Check the axle bearing and grease them. Change if required.
Change mounting pad of all gear boxes.
Overhaul all the gear boxes except ZF-gear box.
Replace the cardon shaft or these may be overhauled.
Replace the shaft coupling and holding nuts & bolts on condition basis.
Overhaul the driving and idle bogies. Replace the defective parts.
Replace the defective PCBs.
Check the calibration of all the indicative instruments.
Arrange insulation test of main cables and replace the defective ones.
Overhaul the panel boxes.
Change all the defective switches and lights.
Check the LED of all solenoids and replace if required.
Replace all the limit switches.
Check tightness of the frame of stabilizing unit.
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xxxi.
xxxii.
xxxiii.
xxxiv.
xxxv.
xxxvi.
xxxvii.
xxxviii.
xxxix.
Change stabilizing unit roller.
Check stabilizing unit guide column. Change if required.
Change clamp pivot pins.
Change link rods with their bearings.
Overhaul derailment protection mechanism.
Check chassis side members, cross frames, buffer beams and welded joints etc. if damaged, it
should be repaired.
Check bogie side frame, springs, shock absorbers, wheel s torque supports, shackles, brakes
and rod linkage. If any damage is noticed, it should be changed.
Check all electrical and emergency switches and do the needful.
Attend complete painting of the machine.
MAINTENANCE SCHEDULES OF BRM:
SCHEDULE-I
TO BE DONE DAILY
(DURATION-ONE HOUR)
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.
v.
vi.
vii.
viii.
ix.
x.
xi.
xii.
xiii.
xiv.
xv.
xvi.
xvii.
xviii.
xix.
xx.
xxi.
xxii.
Check oil leakage from both the main gear boxes.
Check tightness of cardon shaft bolts.
Check oil level of axles gear boxes and top up, if required.
Check air brake pressure.
Check for air leaks, after shutdown the engine and do the needful.
Check leakage in Hydraulic circuit and do the needful.
Check hydraulic oil level in tank and top up if required.
Record the maximum hydraulic temperature of the day.
Check for any rubbing of hoses, loose clamping etc. and do the needful.
Check all hydraulic pressure for rated settings and adjust if necessary.
Check functioning of power pack/emergency backup pump.
Check the tightness of sweeping elements on broom.
Check chain for proper deflection.
Check for any unusual sound from machine section.
Check all the spares and tools for emergency.
Check safety items.
Ensure proper functioning of parking brakes.
Check all locking devices for proper functioning.
Grease rollers, universal joints and propeller shaft coupler.
Check level of two-speed transmission fluid. Drain/flush/clean magnetic drain plug and refill
with recommended oil.
Clean complete machine.
Check all the functions of machine before block working.
SCHEDULE-II
TO BE DONE AFTER 50 HOURS OF ENGINE RUNNING
(DURATION-TWO HOUR)
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.
v.
Grease axle gear box flange cover of bogies.
Check gear oil of transmission gear box.
Lubricate all cardon shafts with grease.
Check all pressure control valves for rated setting.
Check bolts and nuts of all hydraulic cylinders.
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vi.
vii.
viii.
ix.
x.
xi.
xii.
xiii.
xiv.
xv.
xvi.
xvii.
Lubricate the wing ballast box pivot pins with grease.
Lubricate the wing lift frame, brake arm and wing pivot with grease.
Lubricate wing mounting with grease.
Lubricate the broom reel bearing with grease.
Check conditions of room wheel bearing, bushes and grease it.
Check broom drive chain housing for oil level. Fill up if required.
Check for water in oil. If water is present, check cover seal and repair. Drain and refill with
new oil.
Check wear on brake shoes. Adjust gap between brake shoe and wheels.
Check all grader blade for proper tightness and replace if required.
Lubricate the hopper door hinges with grease.
Lubricate the lift frame locks front and rear.
Lubricate the brake arms with grease.
SCHEDULE-III
TO BE DONE AFTER 100 HOURS OF ENGINE RUNNING
(DURATION-ONE DAY)
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.
v.
vi.
vii.
viii.
ix.
x.
xi.
Lubricate hand brake gear with grease.
Lubricate all cardon shafts.
Clean filters of axle gear box clutch.
Lubricate bogie pivot bearing and clutch lever shaft.
Lubricate guide column surface and bolts of torque supports.
Check foundation bolts of brake cylinders.
Lubricate the broom chain and plough rollers with grease.
Check condition of broom sticks and do needful.
Check tightness of chains fitted with broom unit.
Check working of the manual lever arrangement for disconnecting engine to gear box
working.
Check hinges of wing assembly for cracks and do needful.
SCHEDULE-IV
TO BE DONE AFTER 200, 400, 600 & 800 HOURS OF ENGINE RUNNING
(DURATION-TWO DAYS)
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.
v.
vi.
vii.
viii.
ix.
x.
xi.
xii.
xiii.
xiv.
xv.
xvi.
Check function of shock absorber.
Lubricate hand brake linkage.
Change oil in the axle gear boxes. Replace clutch filter.
Check condition of hydraulic and pneumatic hoses. Replace if required.
Check effectiveness of the brake both manually and pneumatically.
Change pump drive oil.
Check all working lights, push buttons, switches etc. replace the defective/missing ones.
Check working of water separator.
Check all pressure gauges for proper working.
Check foundation and bracket bolts of compressor.
Lubricate the bearing of sweeping element with grease.
Check broken/crack brake shoes and do the needful.
Check universal joint for play and replace if required.
Check hydraulic pressures.
Change oil in the axle gear boxes. Replace clutch filter.
Change oil of main gear box.
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xvii.
xviii.
xix.
Change return line filter element.
Change Suction filter element.
Replace the oil of transmission gear box.
SCHEDULE-V
TO BE DONE AFTER 1000, 3000 & 5000 HOURS OF ENGINE RUNNING
(DURATION-7 DAYS)
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.
v.
vi.
vii.
viii.
ix.
x.
xi.
xii.
xiii.
xiv.
xv.
xvi.
Grease axle bearing of the bogies.
Flush and drain entire hydraulic oil from the system.
Grease sliding surfaces.
Change air cleaner filter above the hydraulic tank.
Send the hydraulic oil fro chemical testing and refill it after filtering it by 10µ porta filter if
found O.K. otherwise, replace with new oil.
Clean breather and magnetic drain plug.
Clean the hydraulic tank.
Check function of shock absorber.
Grease the bogie pivot.
Replace defective lights.
Change sensors if required.
Replace defective seals of pneumatic cylinder, pipe joints and hoses, if required.
Check pneumatic cylinders for their proper working.
Check revolution of the sweeping unit. It should be 244 rpm.
Check condition of idler sprocket for its correct revolution and proper functioning of broom.
Check wheel tyre defects and do needful.
SCHEDULE-VI
(IOH)
TO BE DONE AFTER 2000 & 4000 HOURS OF ENGINE RUNNING
(DURATION-45 DAYS)
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.
v.
vi.
vii.
viii.
ix.
x.
xi.
xii.
xiii.
xiv.
xv.
xvi.
Check all gear boxes and repair, if required.
Check the wheel tyre profile and do the needful.
Replace old hoses along with clamps on condition basis.
Clean the hydraulic oil tank. Paint the surface of tank with approved quality of paint and fill
new oil.
Thoroughly clean all panel boxes.
Replace defective switches and potentiometers.
Replace defective indicative instruments.
Replace defective pneumatic cylinders.
Replace damaged hoses.
Replace pneumatic valves, if required.
Overhaul broom reel bearing and bushes.
Overhaul broom chain.
Change all fittings of rubber elements if found defective.
Change worn out rubber pads provided at broom.
Repair/replace missing and defective hand tools.
Check function of all assemblies after IOH.
SCHEDULE-VII
TO BE DONE AFTER 6000 HOURS OF ENGINE RUNNING
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(DURATION-90 DAYS)
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.
v.
vi.
vii.
viii.
ix.
x.
xi.
xii.
xiii.
xiv.
xv.
xvi.
xvii.
xviii.
xix.
xx.
xxi.
xxii.
xxiii.
xxiv.
xxv.
xxvi.
xxvii.
xxviii.
xxix.
xxx.
xxxi.
xxxii.
xxxiii.
xxxiv.
Strengthen the machine frame where cracks have developed.
Check the wheels for any tyre defects. Re-profile or change if required.
Check the axle bearing and grease them. Change, if required.
Change mounting pad of all gear boxes.
Overhaul all the gear boxes.
Replace/overhaul the propeller shafts.
Overhaul the bogies.
Dismantle the clutch assembly. Inspect all parts for wear/damage etc. and replace defective
parts.
Replace all the hydraulic hoses along with clamps.
Replace all hydraulic pumps and motors.
Check all hydraulic cylinders. Change, if required.
Clean hydraulic tank, inside surface is to be painted with approved type of paints.
Replace the hydraulic oil.
Check all the pressure control valves and change, if required.
Check all the stopcocks and flow control valves and change, if required.
Flush complete hydraulic system.
Test air tank for rated pressure.
Check all pneumatic valves and change, if required.
Check all the pneumatic cylinders and do the needful.
Check brake cylinder bore and do the needful.
Change all the brake shoes.
Check calibration of all the indicative instruments.
Arrange insulation test of main cables and replace the defective ones.
Overhaul the panel boxes.
Change all the defective switches and lights.
Change sensors, if required.
Change worn out sweeping element.
Change bearing of the broom unit.
Replace blade graders.
Replace chains fitted for broom unit in order to correct revolution of unit.
Check the bogie pivot for wear and attend as necessary.
Change oil pump of drive gear box.
Paint complete machine with approved paint.
Test the machine working for one week near POH Workshop, before it is put for actual
working in the section on regular basis.
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SUB DESCIPLINE – MAINTENANCE SCHEDULE (LESSONS –0 4 SESSIONS - 04)
Lesson – IV:UNIMAT
Session-25:Maintenance schedule of 2S & 3S-Unimat.
MAINTENANCE SCHEDULES OF 08-275 2S & 3S:
SCHEDULE-I
TO BE DONE DAILY
(DURATION-ONE HOUR)
POWER TRANSMISSION:
Ø Check in running condition (at 1000 rpm), the oil level of ZF gear box (Servo-Ultra 10-W)
and top if required, after stopping.
Ø Check oil level of axle gear boxes through sight glasses & top up. (G.OIL SAE90).
TAMPING BANKS:
Ø Check & top up oil level of tank for lubrication of main pin bearing of 55 mm dia and monitor
while working. (Oil same as hydraulic oil used on the machine).
Ø Check & top up oil level of tank for lubrication of guide columns.
LIFTING & LINING UNIT:
Ø Check locking and unlocking of lifting and lining unit.
Ø Grease all lining rollers.
Ø Check for oil leakage from pipes.
MEASURING DEVICES:
Ø Apply lube oil on bush bearing.
Ø Lubricate all ball & socket, pivot joints.
Ø Lubricate all ball & socket, pivot joints of trolleys.
ELECTRICAL:
Ø Check all lights, to be in working order.
Ø Check battery charging from ammeter. It should be positive.
Ø Check all PCB s. They should be properly housed in sockets.
HYDRAULIC:
Ø Check hydraulic hoses and valves for leakage.
Ø Check hydraulic oil level in tank and top up if required.
Ø Check all system pressure.
PNEUMATIC:
Ø Drain air reservoirs after the day s work.
Ø Top up air oiler.
Ø Check pressure on Dual Air Pressure Gauge.
GENERAL:
Ø Clean complete machine.
Ø Check for any unusual sound from tamping units, gear boxes, engine & hydraulic pumps.
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SCHEDULE-II
TO BE DONE AT 50 P & C OF WORK DONE OR APPROX. 50 ENGINE HOURS
(WHICHEVER IS EARLIER)
TAMPING UNIT:
Ø Check and tighten shoe plate bolts of guide column.
Ø Check and tighten squeezing cylinder cover plate bolts.
Ø Lubricate radial tilting guide plates and rollers.
TRACK LIFTING & LINING UNIT:
Ø Grease lining cylinder pivots.
Ø Grease rail clamp pivot pins.
Ø Check and tighten clamp roller locking bracket bolts.
Ø Grease the following points of the 3rd rail lifting unit (UNIMAT-3S)
a. Cylinder pivot pins
b. Rope pulley
c. Sliding plate
d. Rollers
e. Telescopic slide
MEASURING DEVICES:
Ø Grease pendulum bridge pivots.
Ø Check for play in feeler rollers of middle trolley.
Ø Check lifting transducer carrier rod, for excessive wear or damage.
Ø Check tension of wire cord for leveling & lining.
PNEUMATIC:
Ø Check foundation bolts of brake cylinders.
Ø Clean water separator filter.
Ø Check function of water oiler.
HYDRAULIC:
Ø Check all hoses for twisting, rubbing and replace leaking hoses.
Ø Check functioning of tank level indicator, tank breather and temperature sensor.
Ø Clean the fins of ZF Gear Box and System Oil Coolers, by blowing air in opposite direction.
DRIVING AND IDLE BOGIE:
Ø Grease king pin pivot of drive & idle bogies.
Ø Grease axle gear box flange cover of driving bogie.
Ø Grease torque arm pivots of driving bogie.
Ø Grease link rods.
POWER TRANSMISSION:
Ø Check and tighten bolts of cardon shafts.
Ø Check for oil leakage of other gear boxes.
Ø Check oil level of working drive reduction gear box and top up.
Ø Grease all cardon shafts.
ELECTRICAL:
Ø Clean battery plugs.
Ø Clean battery terminals and apply petroleum jelly.
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SCHEDULE-III
TO BE DONE AFTER 100 P & C OF WORK DONE OR APPROX. 100 ENGINE HOURS
(WHICHEVER IS EARLIER)
MISCELLANEOUS:
Ø Change proportional valve filter element.
Ø Change servo valve filter element.
Ø Check calibration of cross level.
Ø Check calibration of lining.
Ø Check calibration of tamping unit depth.
Ø Check universal joints of Cardon Shaft for play and replace in case of excessive play.
Visually examine for fracture, distortion & twist of splines of Cardon Shaft.
Ø Grease hand brake gear.
SCHEDULE-IV
TO BE DONE AFTER 250 P & C OF WORK DONE OR APPROX. 250 ENGINE HOURS
(WHICHEVER IS EARLIER)
MISCELLANEOUS:
Ø Change gear oil of hydraulic drive reduction gear box.
Ø Check oil of intermediate drive shaft.
Ø Change Z-F Gear Box filter.
Ø Change oil of axle gear boxes.
Ø Inspect all cardon shafts.
Ø Change vibration shaft housing oil
Ø Change suction filter (after 500 hours during alternative Schedule)
Ø Change inner and outer elements of air cleaner filter.
Ø Grease water pump bearing and pulley bearings.
Ø Clean diesel tank.
Ø Check RPM of the engine radiator fan.
SCHEDULE-V
TO BE DONE AFTER 625 P & C OF WORK DONE OR APPROX. ONE YEAR
(WHICHEVER IS EARLIER)
MISCELLANEOUS:
Ø Check bearings of all axles and grease them.
Ø Check meggy springs and replace, if required.
Ø Check wheel discs tyre defects and take necessary remedial action.
Ø Check backlash of drive axle pinions.
Ø Recondition worn-out wheels of all trolleys.
Ø Check bearings of trolley wheel and grease them.
Ø K and clean air reservoir.
Ø Inspect wires of all transducers.
Ø Replace/overhaul taming unit, if required.
Ø Change batteries.
Ø Overhaul water pumps.
Ø Recondition roller clamps and lining rollers.
Ø Check hooks vertical/horizontal guide bushes and replace if necessary.
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SCHEDULE-VI
IOH AFTER
A) 1250 P & C OR 2 YEARS WHICHEVER IS EARLIER
B) 2500 P & C OR 4 YEARS WHICHEVER IS EARLIER
HYDRAULIC:
Ø Check the hydraulic pumps for rated delivery on the test bench and replace if it is less than the
demand of circuit.
Ø Check the hydraulic motors for rated torque and replace, if required.
HOSES:
Ø Replace the Hydraulic hoses which are damaged by external abrasion & corrosion.
Ø Replace the hoses which have developed cracks in external and internal plies.
PNEUMATIC
Ø Clean cooling coils.
Ø Replace/overhaul air unloader.
MECHNICAL:
Ø Replace/overhaul the tamping units if required.
Ø Overhaul the lifting units.
Ø Overhaul the trolleys and wheels of all the feeler rollers.
Ø Strengthen the machine frame, where cracks have developed.
ELECTRICAL:
Ø Thoroughly clean all panel boxes.
Ø Provide missing thimbles.
Ø Replace defective switches and potentiometers.
Ø Replace defective indicative instruments.
Ø Replace the batteries.
GENERAL:
Ø Check the function of all assemblies after IOH.
Ø Calibrate the sensing equipments.
Ø Test the machine for one week near the workshop, before it is put for work in regular section.
Ø Update lo book entries indicating all the works done till on date.
Ø Update the Machine history book.
SCHEDULE-VII
POH AFTER 3750 P & C OR APPROX. 6 YEARS WHICHEVER IS EARLIER
(OR)
ON CONDITION BASIS WITH SPECIAL PERMISSION FROM COMPETENT
AUTHORITY
HYDRAULICS:
Ø Change all Hydraulic pumps, motors and cylinders.
Ø Replace all hydraulic hoses.
Ø Clean hydraulic tank, inside to be painted with approved quality of paint.
Ø Fill new oil after replacing return line and suction filters.
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PNEUMATIC:
Ø Replace cooling coil, air unloader.
Ø Test air tanks.
Ø Replace water separator and air oiler.
Ø Change all pneumatic hoses & valves.
Ø Change pneumatic cylinders, brake cylinders and clapper cylinders.
Ø Overhaul the air compressor.
Ø Change all the brake shoes.
MECHANICAL:
Ø Replace tamping units.
Ø Overhaul the lifting units.
Ø Overhaul the trolleys, wheels & feeler rollers.
Ø Strengthen machine frame where cracks have developed.
Ø Axles may be replaced if the bearings are loose on the journal.
Ø Replace the propeller shaft or these may be overhauled.
GENERAL:
Ø A diesel driven portable filter should be installed on the machine.
Ø Through the above power pack, emergency back up system should be provided on the
machine.
Ø Update all log books entries, recording all the works done till on date.
ELECTRICAL:
Ø Replace the defective PCBs.
Ø Replace the limit switches.
Ø Calibrate all the indicative instruments.
Ø Overhaul the pendulums.
Ø Overhaul all the transducers.
Ø Calibrate the machine for lifting and alignment on zero setting for leveling and alignment.
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SUB DESCIPLINE – IRTMM (LESSONS – 01 SESSIONS - 03)
Lesson-I:Introduction to IRTMM and RDSO TM Reports
Session-26: Ch1: Track Machine Organisation & Duties of AEN, SSE, Operator & Technician..
TRACK MACHINE ORGANISATION:
The organization shall be under the overall charge of Chief Track Engineer (Machines) of the
Railway who shall be reporting to the Chief Engineer through Chief Track Engineer. The
organization shall be responsible for the following functions:
i.
Field operation of track machines,
ii.
Repair and maintenance of machines,
iii.
Supervision and technical services including training, and
iv.
Planning and deployment of machines.
To carry out each of the above functions, chief Track Engineer (Machine) shall be assisted by one or
more Deputy CE (Machine). As given below:
CHIEF ENGINEER/TMC
DY. CE/TMC/HQ
(OR)
XEN/TMC/HQ
DY. CE/TMC/L
XEN/TMC
AXEN/TMC I
AXEN/TMC II
DUTIES OF AEN:
GENERAL:
The Assistant Engineer is responsible for maintenance and efficient working of all the track machines
in his charge.
IMPORTANT DUTIES:
Ø Inspection and maintenance of all machines.
Ø Ensure adherence to stipulated maintenance schedules.
Ø Ensure availability of necessary staff for operation.
Ø Ensure achievement of stipulated target.
Ø Ensure adequate availability of consumables and spares.
Ø Initiate proposals and plans for major schedule of work.
Ø Ensure co-ordination with other units of engineering department.
Ø Verification of store.
Ø Ensure maintenance of various records.
Ø Ensure availability of tools.
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TRAINING OF PROBATIONERS
STAFF MATTERS
All the section engineers and other staff working under him receive proper training in maintenance
practice.
SERVICE AND LEAVE RECORDS
WITNESSING PAYMENTS TO STAFFS
KNOWLEDGE OF RULE & REGULATION
INSPECTION BY HIGHER OFFICERS
INSPECTION OF MACHINE BY ASSISTANT ENGINEER
Ø Inspection of machines by the Assistant Engineer shall be carried out in detail covering
necessarily the following aspects and keep in view the Check List Maintenance Schedule
issued by RDSO:
Ø Health of engine.
Ø Condition of hydraulic, pneumatic, electrical and electronic systems.
Ø Condition of transmission/brake system.
Ø Performance of the machine.
Ø Staff accommodation.
Ø Availability of the spares with the machine.
EXECUTION OF WORKS
DUTIES OF (SENIOR) SECTION ENGINEER/TMC:
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.
v.
vi.
vii.
viii.
ix.
x.
The (Senior) Section Engineer/Track Machines shall be responsible for the satisfactory
operation, maintenance and productivity of the machines under his charge and quality of
work.
He shall be well acquainted with the working systems, operating instructions, maintenance
schedules, specifications of the oils/lubricants to be used, critical components etc of machines
under his charge.
He shall have thorough knowledge of the rules and regulations and procedures concerning his
work and duties as laid down in this Manual, G&S Rules, IRPWM, Engineering Code and
other departmental codes, extant orders and circulars issued from time to time.
He shall have in his possession up-to-date copies of the rule books/documents/manuals
pertaining to the safe, efficient and trouble-free working of the machines and also other codes
and books applicable and needed for the day-to-day working.
He shall maintain the records pertaining to the machines under his charge and submit the
prescribed returns regularly.
He shall ensure discipline among the staff working under his within the framework of rules
and endeavour to keep their moral high and look after their welfare.
He shall ensure proper handing over/taking over of the charge when transfer/change of
portfolio is effected.
He shall plan and ensure timely execution of the maintenance schedules of the machines
within the specified time.
He shall keep himself abreast of the various methods and techniques of reconditioning of
components and availability status of spares at the Base Depot for efficient recommissioning
of the machine during breakdowns.
He shall investigate major failure of the machine critically for corrective actions/remedial
measures and for fixing responsibilities in case of failures occurring due to lapses of staff.
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xi.
He shall be conversant with the provisions in various Service Agreement/Contracts and
organize the visits of Service Engineers (scheduled or breakdown).
DUTIES OF MACHINE OPERATORS:
Each machine shall be under the direct charge of Section Engineer/Junior Engineer hereinafter called
the operator. He shall ensure the following:
i.
Operation and maintenance of the machine.
ii.
Carrying out pre-block maintenance and making the machine fit for working.
iii.
Initial setting out for the block working and closing the work of the machine including
ramping in/ramping out of general lift to the track as in case of tie-tamping machine.
iv.
Proper functioning of all the systems and components and keeping a watch on the
controls/indicators/gauges.
v.
Taking precautions for special Design Mode operations such as curve slewing etc in case of
tamping machine.
vi.
Posting of fitters/khalasis at respective places around the machine for monitoring the work of
various systems, carrying out during block maintenance (greasing, oiling, tightening of bolts
etc.) and also to attract attention of the main cabin Operator and assist him in the event of any
problem of malfunctioning of the machine or due to track obstructions.
vii.
He shall ensure safe working of the machine and staff.
When there are more than one Operators on the machine, the senior-most Operator shall be the
Machine Incharge. In addition to his normal work as an Operator he shall be responsible for the
following functions in which he will be assisted by other Operators/staffs:
i.
Carrying out the prescribed schedule of maintenance and keeping proper records of the same.
ii.
Safe custody, accountal and replacement of the spares, Tools & Plants and consumables
issued for the machine and returning of released spares to base depot for
reclamation/condemnation.
iii.
Keeping systems of the machine in working condition and ensuring the target output, duly
maintaining quality.
iv.
Maintaining log books and other records, sending daily and other periodical
reports/statements using appropriate fastest mode of communication.
v.
Liaisoning with the Divisional Officials for efficient working of his unit, coordination with
the Permanent Way staff and planning daily programme of machine work and interacting with
the Permanent Way staff for working in design mode, slewing of curve etc.
vi.
Actively associating during visit of firm s Service Engineer, furnishing of such information as
may be needed for proper examination of the machine and taking necessary follow up action.
DUTIES OF TECHNICIAN:
The main functions of Track Machine Fitters/Mechanics are:
i.
To attend to the daily and weekly maintenance schedules of machine and record the
compliance in log book.
ii.
To extend help during other maintenance schedules/service checks by the Service Engineers.
iii.
To keep in his custody the various tools and equipment necessary to attend repairs and ensure
their working condition.
iv.
To remain vigilant during movement and working of machine and to inform the operator of
any abnormalities.
v.
To guide and supervise the semi-skilled/unskilled staff in attending to the
maintenance/repairs.
vi.
To ensure safety of the machine and men from approaching trains on adjacent lines.
vii.
Any other work assigned to him by the machine incharge.
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SUB DESCIPLINE – IRTMM (LESSONS – 01 SESSIONS - 03)
Documents
Lesson – I: Introduction TO IRTMM And RDSO TM reports Session-27: Ch 4 & 5: Rules for
Movement & Working of Track Machines and Planning, Operation & Monitoring of Track
Machines.
RULES FOR MOVEMENT:
GENERAL:
Ø Track machines are self propelled machines. These machines shall be worked as a train
except when attached in the rear of a train, they will be treated as part of that train.
However, when self propelled, there is no need of guard or breakevan.
Ø When more than one machines are required to work within the same block section, they
may be allowed under one authority. In such situation, all the track machines must leave
and enter the section simultaneously one after another keeping adequate distance among
them and with proper authority.
Ø In case of run through movement from one station to another, upto three machines may
be allowed under one authority to enter in a section with ruling gradient not steeper than 1
in 100. For gradients steeper than this only one machine shall be allowed at a time.
Ø Whenever the track machines are working in an integrated traffic block where other
railway agencies are also working, the relevant instructions for integrated block working
should be followed.
INCHARGE OF MACHINE:
Ø Each machine shall be under the direct charge of Section Engineer/Junior Engineer
(Machine) hereinafter called the Operator . Number of railway staff on driving cab of
each machine shall not exceed five. The operator shall have valid competency certificate.
Ø The track machine shall work under the direct supervision of an Engineering official, not
below the rank of Section Engineer/Junior Engineer (P.Way), who will be responsible for
taking the traffic block and for protection of the line while working and also timely
clearance of block after completion of work.
COMPETENCY OF OPERATOR:
Ø The operator shall be fit in A-3 medical category. If wearing spectacles, he shall carry and
extra pair while on duty.
Ø The operator shall undergo training in train working rules at the Zonal Training
Centre/IRTMTC, Allahabad. On successful completion of training, he shall be examined
and if found competent, shall be issued with the competency certificate by Dy. Chief
Engineer incharge of the machines which shall be valid for three years and shall be kept
in the personal custody of the operator. The certificate shall be produced promptly when
required.
Ø The operator shall apply to the Dy. Chief Engineer incharge of machines well in advance
of the date of expiry for renewal of the competency certificate. The officer shall renew
the certificate for further period of three years at a time after holding a test. The operator
shall, however, be required to go for a Refresher Course in Zonal Training
Centre/IRTMTC, Allahabad, within a period of 6 years.
SAFETY EQUIPMENTS:
The following safety equipments must be available in good working condition in the machine:
i.
Two red and one green hand signal flags,
ii.
Two tri-colour hand signal lamps,
iii.
Two chains with padlocks,
iv.
Two clamps with padlocks,
v.
Twelve fog signals (detonators) in a tin case,
vi.
A copy of the working time table of the section where the machine is working,
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vii.
G&SR book with upto date amendment slips,
Documents
viii.
One 4 cell flasher light,
ix.
x.
xi.
xii.
xiii.
xiv.
xv.
xvi.
xvii.
One portable field telephone,
Two banner flags,
One first aid box,
Two skids,
Petromax/LPG lamps,
Safety helmets for all machine staff,
Protective clothings, safety shoes and safety gloves,
Track Machine Manual, and
Accident Manual
HEAD & TAIL LIGHTS:
Each track machine must be equipped with prescribed head and tail lights, marker lights and
flasher lights as per GR 4.14, 4.15 & 4.16 and SRs thereof.
The following equipments should be available on the machine during block working to meet the
exigencies:
i.
Fire extinguisher
one
ii.
Hooter (manual)
two
iii.
Jack 50 t
two
iv.
Wooden blocks
four
v.
Crow bars
four
vi.
Trifor (3t)
four
vii.
Hydraulic hand pump
one
viii.
Emergency pneumatic/hydraulic
hose of sizes suiting different machines
(complete with end fittings)
one
ix.
Wire rope with close loops at
both ends 2 metres & 9 metres for BCM
-one each
RULES FOR OPERATION:
GENERAL:
Ø When the track machines are stabled at a station, necessary precautions against rolling
down such as pinning down hand brakes, chaining and provision of skids, shall be taken.
Ø No track machine shall be moved between a running line and the siding/stabling line
without the written permission of Station Master on duty in the form of shunting
order/shunt signals.
Ø When the track machine is required to move from one block station to another block
station, the operators shall run the machine only with proper authority to proceed.
SINGLE LINE SECTION-WORK AND PROCEED:
Ø Station master will obtain line clear, take off dispatch signals and issue special caution
order indicating the number of machines permitted and the work in block section,
Junior/Section Engineer (P.Way) shall move thereafter with token if any, shunting key,
OPT form etc, ensuring piloting if due. He shall travel in the last machine, in case
proceeding ahead.
Ø One completion of the work, the machines will be received by lowering reception signals.
Ø Station porter shall display green signal at the foot of first stop signal till the last machine
enters the station.
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last machine has cleared the block section. The Junior/Section Engineer (P.Way) shall
certify the fitness of track, then only the Station Master will clear the line for normal
trains.
SINGLE LINE SECTION-WORK AND RETURN:
WITH TOKEN TABLET INSTRUMENTS:
Ø Station Master will obtain line clear from station in advance, lower last stop signal, issue
special caution order indicating the number of track machines permitted to work within
the block section, the station where they will return etc.
Ø On completion of the work, the machines will be received by lowering reception signals.
Ø Station porter shall display green signal at the foot of first stop signal till the last machine
enters the station.
Ø At the station, the token and the special caution order etc, shall be handed over after the
last machine has cleared the block section. The Junior/Section Engineer (P.Way) shall
certify the fitness of track, then only the Station Master will clear the line for normal
trains.
WITH TOKENLESS BLOCK INSTRUMENTS:
Ø Station Master will block back the section, take out the shunting key, issue a special
caution order indicating the number of track machines permitted to work within the block
section to Junior/Section Engineer (P.Way).
Ø On completion of the work, the machines will be received by lowering reception signals.
Ø Station porter shall display green signal at the foot of first stop signal till the last machine
enters the station.
Ø At the station, the shunt key and the special caution order etc, shall be handed over after
the last machine has cleared the block section. The Junior/Section Engineer (P.Way) shall
certify the fitness of track, then only the Station Master will clear the line for normal
trains.
DOUBLE LINE SECTION-WORK AND PROCEED:
VIA RIGHT DIRECTION:
Ø Station Master will obtain line clear from station in advance, lower last stop signal, issue
special caution order indicating the number of track machines permitted to work within
the block section, the station where they will return etc.
Ø On completion of the work, the machines will be received by lowering reception signals.
Ø Station porter shall display green signal at the foot of first stop signal till the last machine
enters the station.
Ø At the station, the special caution order etc, shall be handed over after the last machine
has cleared the block section. The Junior/Section Engineer (P.Way) shall certify the
fitness of track, then only the Station Master will clear the line for normal trains.
VIA WRONG DIRECTION:
Ø Station Master will take the line clear from station in rear on block telephone indicating
the number of track machines which will work from that station upto the next station,
prepare paper line clear ticket, issue special caution order. Both will be handed over to
Junior/Section Engineer (P.Way) who shall travel on the last machine.
Ø The machine shall be piloted out of the station with a written authority by the Station
Master after all the facing points are correctly set and locked and trailing points are set
correctly.
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Complete Ø After completion of work, the operator will stop the machine at the first stop signal of the
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right line or last stop signal of the wrong line (which they are running) at the next station.
Ø The Station Master will send a railway staff in uniform to pilot them into the station on a
written authority.
Ø After all the machines reaches the other end of the block section, Junior/Section Engineer
(P.Way) will return the paper line clear ticket, special caution order to Station Master. He
will also certify that the track is fit and then only the Station Master will close the line
and normal train running can be resumed.
DOUBLE LINE SECTION-WORK AND RETURN:
VIA RIGHT DIRECTION:
Ø Station Master will block forward the section. He will take out the shunt key if available
and issue special caution order to the Junior/Section Engineer (P.Way) along with the
shunt key.
Ø In addition , requisite written authority will be issued for passing the last stop signal at
danger.
Ø After completion of work, the operator will stop the machine at the first stop signal of the
right line or last stop signal of the wrong line (which they are running) at the next station.
Ø The Station Master will send a railway staff in uniform to pilot them into the station on a
written authority.
Ø After all the machines reaches the station, Junior/Section Engineer (P.Way) will return
the paper line clear ticket, special caution order to Station Master. He will also certify that
the track is fit and then only the Station Master will close the line and normal train
running can be resumed.
VIA WRONG DIRECTION:
Ø Station Master will block back the section. He will take out the shunt key if available and
issue special caution order to the Junior/Section Engineer (P.Way) along with the shunt
key.
Ø The machine shall be piloted out of the station with a written authority issued by the
Station Master.
Ø On completion of the work, the machines will be received by lowering reception signals.
Ø Station porter shall display green signal at the foot of first stop signal till the last machine
enters the station.
Ø At the station, the special caution order and shunt key, shall be handed over after the last
machine has cleared the block section. The Junior/Section Engineer (P.Way) shall certify
the fitness of track, then only the Station Master will clear the line for normal trains.
PLANNING:
GENERAL:
i.
Working of all track machines in a zonal railway shall be centrally controlled and
managed by the Chief Track Engineer in-charge of track machines hereinafter called CTE
(MC).
ii.
In drawing the programme, the following aspects shall be taken into consideration:
Ø Base depot locations,
Ø Loco requirements and loco power availability,
Ø Block requirements and block availability,
Ø Ballast needs and supply prospects,
Ø Speed restrictions,
Ø Working season,
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Ø Output of individual machines,
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Ø Effective availability of machines, taking into account slots for POH/IOH, on line
iii.
iv.
v.
repairs, etc,
Ø Priorities/targets for completion of projects/works,
Ø Coordination with and requirements of S&T and TRD branches, and
Ø Any other factor having a bearing on machine utilization.
The divisions and construction units on receipt of the draft deployment plan shall initiate
all preliminary works such as development of base depots, execution of contracts,
arranging blocks, ballast collection, procurement of consumables like diesel oil etc. so
that no time is wasted once the machines reach site.
The machines on arrival in the divisions/construction units shall be deployed as per the
approved deployment programme, their progress closely monitored, works completed in
time and machines handed over to the next worksite as per programme.
The concerned Sr. DEN/DEN shall arrange for expeditious movement of machines as per
the approved programme. Timely completion of preparatory works in the section/division
where the machine is due to arrive, shall be ensured.
PROJECT WORKS:
i.
The quality of relaying will be better by using PQRS cranes.
ii.
Keep Panel assembling locations or base depot as close as possible to the work site.
iii.
Adequate availability of service rails and labour for allied activities shall be ensured for
uninterrupted working of machines.
iv.
The initial standards of ballast cushioning, track linking and packing shall be such as to
ensure safe and efficient working of on-track machines.
v.
The availability of a gang to work along with tampers, spot calculation of versines for
design lining and advance work for design mode of tamping for longitudinal surface with
a knowledgeable supervisor are essential for the working of machines.
vi.
Adequate availability of critical spares and consumables and a mobile workshop with a
welding plant and gas cutting equipment shall be ensured.
vii.
A separate Imprest for urgent requirement of spares and undertaking on the spot repairs
shall be kept handy to help intensive utilization of machines.
viii.
An SEN/AEN exclusively nominated may monitor the working of machines and
coordinate with Construction branch for safe, efficient and uninterrupted working of
machines.
INTER RAILWAYS DEPLOYMENT:
i.
Inter-Railways transfer of machines will be done with the approval of Railway Board
only.
ii.
When machines are deployed to work in other railways for short duration, the Owning
Railway shall send the machine staff required for their working.
iii.
The Railway receiving the machine shall associate its staff to pilot the machine
movement in its jurisdiction.
iv.
The requirements of oils and consumables shall be supplied by the railway using the
machines.
v.
The user railway shall be responsible for the optimum utilization of the machines and
keep appropriate records for future use.
vi.
Output of the machine shall however be reported by the Owning Railway only in its
performance report.
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OPERATION:
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i.
The machine staff and P.Way staff shall work as a team towards the common goal of
ensuring optimum utilization of the machine and manpower.
The machine staff shall ensure adequate attention to the machine in time as prescribed in
RDSO manuals and manufacturer s manuals in respect of their machines and keep the
machines ready for availing stipulated blocks.
The machine shall be berthed in the sidings safely as stipulated in the G&SR and the
P.Way staff shall arrange for watchman for the machine during the non-working shift.
The machine incharge on arrival shall check up the condition of the machine and report
any unusual features observed by him such as disturbance to the machine at the berthing
place, missing of parts etc and initiate appropriate action as per extant rules.
The machine incharge and Junior Engineer/Section Engineer (P.Way) shall jointly inspect
and finalize the week s. work in advance and discuss the day s programme and share with
each other all information required for the working.
The Junior/Senior Engineer (P.Way) of the section shall be responsible for the block
working of the machine.
The Junior/Senior Engineer (P.Way) of the section shall be responsible for all the
machine related track works.
The Junior/Senior Engineer (P.Way) of the section shall be responsible for arranging
necessary lighting etc for night works with the association/involvement of other
divisional staff such a Signal/OHE etc.
It should be ensured by the machine incharge that no person climbs to the top of any
machine without OHE block in electrified sections.
The machine incharge shall ensure that all precautionary measures are taken for safety of
the staff while working on double/multiple line block section against the danger of trains
moving on adjacent lines. The Junior/Section Engineer (P.Way) should provide Lookoutmen at the site of machine working as per requirements.
SM will liaison with Section Controller/Controller to ensure that at the end of work, the
machine is brought to the base station and placed in the nominated berthing line at the
earliest to enable post block maintenance of the machine being undertaken.
ii.
iii.
iv.
v.
vi.
vii.
viii.
ix.
x.
xi.
MONITORING OF TRACK MACHINES:
TRACK MACHINE CONTROL:
A Track Machine Control office shall function in the headquarter of railway under control of JA
Grade/Sr. Scale officer of the Track Machine Organization to co-ordinate between the divisions
and headquarter, as also between field units and the base depot/zonal workshops.
FUNCTIONS OF TRACK MACHINE CONTROL:
i.
Contacting the Divisional Engineering Controls for obtaining and recording the daily
progress details, to co-ordinate between the divisions and headquarter, as also between
field units and the base depot/zonal workshops.
ii.
Recording details of failures.
iii.
Recording assistance required.
iv.
Obtaining next day s programme etc.
v.
Communicating essential instructions from HQ to division/field units.
REPORTS AND DOCUMENTS:
I.
T.M. ORGANIZATION S REPORTS:
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A daily performance report compiled by the Track Machine Control based on the
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information collected from all divisional engineering controllers/field staff. A register
shall be maintained by Track Machine Control for serving as a Master Record for all
relevant data.
A daily report from the machine incharge to SEN incharge of field incorporating block
details, performance, schedules done/overdue, consumables/spares used, repair and
failure, shall be made out and submitted every ten days.
The machine incharge will submit a report to Dy. CE/SEN incharge on every breakdown
of the machine resulting in failures exceeding half an hour on the proforma.
Monthly Appreciation reports from the machine incharge on performance furnishing:
a. Number of days worked
b. Number of days no t worked with reasons
c. Blocks availed
d. Target
e. Output
f. Reasons for less output
g. Other remarks
h. Consumables/spares used and cost thereof
i. Failures/repairs with spares and cost particulars
A summarized monthly performance report from SEN/AEN/MC (line) showing schedules
of inspections done, health of machine, failure analysis, adequacy of allied track works
etc of the machines under their control to Headquarter/Dy. CE/CE (Machines).
A summary of availability of each machine for a period of 3 years shall be maintained at
the machine and Zonal Depot showing at a glance the availability, breakdowns, schedule
repairs and POH of machine.
ii.
iii.
iv.
v.
vi.
II.
DIVISIONAL REPORTS:
i.
A daily report from the P.Way incharge to the Divisional Engineering Control giving the
following details:
a. Block details
b. Output kms
c. Ineffective time
d. Remarks on quality of work
ii.
A monthly report giving
a. Details of blocks availed
b. Output
c. Reasons for deficiencies etc.
shall be prepared by the Divisional Engineer incharge of the section.
iii.
A monthly joint report from the Section Engineer incharge of the section and the machine
incharge furnishing the details of work done by the respective machine shall be sent to
SEN/MC and Sr. DENs concerned.
iv.
A monthly joint report signed by Sr. DEN and Sr. DOM should be submitted to CTE
(Machines) giving position of blocks demanded, the blocks actually made available and
the blocks actually utilized.
MONITORING SYSTEMS:
Monitoring of machine work involves the aspects of the following:
Ø Performance
Ø Failure
Ø Consumption of oils and consumables
Ø Consumption of spares
Ø Cost of machine working and financial control
Ø Tamping cycle
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SUB-DISCIPLINE: IRTMM
(Lessons: 01,
Sessions: 03)
Documents
Lesson-I: Introduction to IRTMM and RDSO TM Reports. Session-28: Brief on other Chapters
of IRTMM and RDSO TM Reports.
BRIEF ON OTHER CHAPTERS OF IRTMM:
Chapter-6: Periodical Repair And Maintenance Of Machines: This chapter deals with types
of maintenance schedules, types of workshops, central periodical over hauling workshop
(CPOH), intermediate overhauling workshops/zonal base depot, satellite depot, mobile
workshop-cum-transport van and camp coach workshop.
Chapter-7: Duties Of Divisional Officers And Staff Incharge Of P.Way: This chapter deals
with the duties of incharge SSE/SE/JE (P.Way), duties of Assistant Engineer (Open Line) and
duties of Sr. DEN/DEN.
Chapter-8: Staff Requirement And Other Infrastructural Facilities: This chapter deals with
the requirement of staff for machine working, training of track machine personnel and other
infrastructural facilities such as storage & carriage facilities for fuel and oil, transport of spare
parts, communication facilities, etc.
Chapter-9: Stores: This chapter deals with store depot, inventory control, procedure for
procurement of materials, procedure regarding approved suppliers of indigenous spares,
procedure for inspection and acceptance of materials, cash imprest, emergency purchase,
purchase of items for which DG S&D rate contract exists, purchase of items through running rate
contract, annual maintenance contracts, other modes of repairs through contracts and inventory
management.
S.
No.
1
2.
3
4.
LIST OF TM REPORTS ISSUED BY RDSO UPTO 30.06.2009
Maintenance Schedule
Inspection Check List
Trouble Shooting
Name of
Machines Report No. Date of issue
Report
Date of
Report
Date of
No.
issue
No.
issue
09-CSM
TM-69(F)
22/27.07.04
TM-74(F)
10.12.04
TM-62(F)
10.03.04
Unimat
TM-80(F)
01.03.05
TM-71(F)
2/6.09.04
TM-99(F) 31.03.2006
BCM
TM-77(F)
18.01.05
TM-73(F)
4/8.11.04
TM-42(F) 30/31.01.02
FRM-80
TM-79(F)
22.02.05
TM-91(F)
21.09.05
TM-47(P) 30.7/2.8.02
5.
DGS
TM-90(F)
31.08.05
6.
7.
8.
9.
BRM
T-28
PQRS
MP
TM-87(F)
TM-102(F)
TM-101(F)
TM-100(F)
20/28.06.05
23/31.08.06
28.07.06
30.06.06
10.
11.
12.
DUO
UNO
TRT
TM-84(F)
TM-83(F)
TM-104(F)
13/17.05.05
06.05.05
31-10/
13.11.06
13.
09-3X
TM-85(F)
27/1-5/6.05
14.
WST
TM-130(P)
31/03 (08-32)
02/.04.09
15.
FRM-85
TM-119(P)
25.03/
01.04.08
16.
UTV
TM-121(F)
21.07.08
Note: F = FINAL
P = PROVISIONAL
TM-92(F)
28.10/14.11
.05
TM-96(F)
01.02.06
TM-103(F)
11.10.06
TM-108(F ) March-07
TM-105(F)
06.12.06/
27/28.12.06
TM-111(F)
29.06.07
TM-76(F)
22.12.04
TM-107(F) 23/27.02.07
TM-106(F)
TM-129(F)
19/25.01.07
March-2009
Draft
25/26.03.08
TM-127(P)
6/12.02.09
TM-41(P)
22.01.02
TM-70(F) 29.7/5.8.04
TM-110(F)
26.04.07
TM-128(P) 12/13.03.09
Not issued
TM-89(F)
TM-88(F)
TM-93(P)
18.7/30.8.05
14.07.05
Nov.-2005
Not issued
TM-117(F)
29-02/
05.03.08
Not issued
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SUB DESCIPLINE – WORKING PRINCIPLE (LESSONS – 02 SESSIONS - 08)
Documents
Lesson-I : Lining Session-29: Principle of Lining, Single chord system, Type of lining i.e. 4
Point & 3 Point lining.
PRINCIPLE OF LINING:
Ø
Ø
Ø
Ø
Ø
Ø
Machine measures only one rail and rectify that rail i.e. datum rail.
Other rail is fixed with the sleeper hence that is also rectified.
If there is a gauge problem that will remain there.
During alignment machine corrects versine.
The versine of straight track is zero and
Versine on curved track depends on radius of curves, measuring chord length and
measurement method.
SINGLE CHORD SYSTEM:
On UT machine double chord lining system was used. In this system, two chords i.e. long chords
and short chords was used for measuring the versine. But in single chord lining system, one
chord is used to measure the versine. This system is used in all machine except UT.
TYPE OF LINING:
In single chord system there are two methods of lining.
.
Lining
4-Point
System
Smoothening
Mode
3-Point
System
Design
Mode
Fix Point
Mode
Design
Mode
Laser
Mode
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SUB DESCIPLINE – WORKING PRINCIPLE (LESSONS – 02 SESSIONS - 08)
Documents
Lesson-I :Lining
Session-30: Principle of 4 Point lining & Left over error.
FOUR POINT LINING SYSTEM:
•
GEOMETRICAL PRINCIPLE OF 4 - POINT LINING SYSTEM:
• In a circular curve, two Versines of a chord are related in a ratio, depending on the
measuring point distance. This Versine ratio is independent of the radius of the circular
curve and is always constant. It is also valid for a straight, which may be considered as a
curve with infinite radius. In 4 - point lining system, the track is measured at 4 points (A,
B, C & D) and Versines at two points are compared (B & C) to control the lining. The
existing errors are reduced or eliminated by means of the Hydraulic Lining System.
From the above figure,
Existing Versine
H1
=
AC x CD
2R
Theoretical Versine H2
=
AB x BD
2R
Versine Ratio
i
=
H1
= AC x CD
H2
AB x BD
H1
i
x
H
=
2
• Hence, lining is done at Point C until Versine H1 is in the correct ratio to H2 (H1 = i x
H2) at Point B. Versine Ratio ‘i value’ for different machines, is as under:
Machine
i Value
08-UNO-DUO
= 1.33
08-275 UNIMAT
= 1.35897
08-275-3S
= 1.62241
MP-2000
= 1.395122
WST
= 1.3292
09-32 CSM
= 1.2157
09-3X TAMPING EXPRESS
= 1.507
• The points A & B always remain on the corrected track and the Versine H2 at Point B
represents the measuring base. Point D always remains on the disturbed track. Lining is
done at Point C. H2 and H1 are separately measured by measuring and lining bogies of the
machine, respectively. H2 is fed in PCB where it is multiplied with constant i and
becomes H2 x i . Thus H2 x i and H1 are then fed in difference amplifier and if the
alignment is OK both will be equal and reading on the dial will indicate zero. If alignment
is not OK, the difference of the two will be indicated on the dial as well as the current
will flow to lining solenoids, the alignment will be corrected till both H2 x i and H1 are
equal or the ratio H1/ H2 = i, is maintained. The schematic diagram is as under:
ERROR =
THEORATICAL VERSINE (H2) ~
EXISTING VERSINE (H1)
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CALCULATED BY PCB
•
MEASURING TRANSDUCER
LINING TRANSDUCER
ERROR REDUCTION ACCORDING TO THE 4 - POINT LINING SYSTEM:
Ideal line = 1
Before lining = 2
After lining = 3
• In the above figure, Points A & B are on the already lined track behind the machine.
The front end of the chord, Point D is on the disturbed position with lining error FD,
resulting in new Versine H2. Point C is now lined until H1 is in the correct ratio to H2.
Depending on the measuring point distances (Error reduction ratio ‘n’), an error
remains at lining Point C, which is called Left over error or Residual error ‘FR .
Error reducing ratio, n
AD x BD
=
AC x BC
Left over error
FR
=
FD / n
For 08-Machine
FR
=
FD / 6
n = (20 x 15) / (10 x 5) = 6
•
•
n depends on Bogie distances, which is as under for different machines:
Machine
n - value
08-UNO/DUO
=6
08-275 UNIMAT
= 6.42720
08-275 UNIMAT
= 7.61997
08-32 WST
= 5.7411
9-32 CSM
= 6.27692
09-3X TAMPING EXPRESS
= 6.47
This error reduction ratio is valid under the presumption that the Points A and B are
on the perfect alignment. Proceeding with further lining, points A and B are
positioned at the remaining errors and determine therefore a new base for the
following measuring and lining operation. These errors are reduced and adapted to
another which results in a considerable improvement of the alignment.
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SUB DESCIPLINE – WORKING PRINCIPLE (LESSONS – 02 SESSIONS - 08)
Lesson-I :Lining
Session-31: Calculation of Vm value on Transition & Reverse Curve,
Toggle switch Direction, Non-suitability of 4 Point lining on Straight, Vm value feeding at Reverse
& Compound curve.
RVE
DIRECTION OF WORK
END OF
TRANSITION
DIRECTION OF
START OF ADJUSTMENT
TRANSITION
UA
STRAIGHT
UE
VM
TRANSITION “L”
Chord
TTP1 Length
Chord
Length
CTP1
CALCULATION OF VM VALUE ON TRANSITION CURVE:
The constant versine ratio (i) applied only to tracks with the constant curvature (Straight or circular
curve). But when there is change in curvature, the constant versine ratio remains no more applicable.
As on example, let us consider a case of the machine entering from straight to transition.
Machine measure the versine H2 at the measuring bogie and the versine H1 at the lining bogie. Had
the machine been on a regular curve the relationship
H1 = 1.33 x H2 would have been true.
For the changing curvature, we actually have
H1 = 1.33 x H2 + V
Therefore, even though the curvature of the transition is true the machine still experiences an Error
V. Therefore, we have to apply some adjustment at the lining bogie to compensate versine for V.
Maximum versine compensation is called Vm value.
Vm value = Constant;
R = Radius of curve L = Length of Transition.
RxL
The procedure of applying V for the different situations is calculated by above formula and
distributed in the machine cord length. The tables are also available with each machine. V value is
feeded when machine enters from straight to transition, transition to curve, curve to transition and
transition to straight. The direction of versine compensation is decided by toggle switch as per
following rule:
DIRECTION OF TOGGLE SWITCH:
IF MACHINE IS INTERING:
(i)
High radius to low radius = outside
(ii)
Low radius to high radius = inside
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CALCULATION OF VM VALUE ON REVERSE CURVE:
For the reverse curve or compound curve the value of V is decided as under:
Say R1 & R2 are the radius of the two curves and V1 & V2 are the corresponding adjustment for the
individual curve (page no. 4 & 5)
1.
If the R1 is bigger that R2, the net adjustment, V0 will be V0 = V2-V1 or V0m = V2m-Vm,
2.
The applicable of adjustment will start as soon as the front tightening starts entering the
transition.
This during coco king 1/6 of the error will be left and therefore it is called smoothening lining of
some procedure is available with which it is possible to give exact location of various points like
beginning & end of transition and amount of fault at a particular location established with some
permanent works these, by shifting front and f the chord by the amount of fault. We can achieve
exact alignment.
But in the field it is difficult to obtain correct reference marks as such generally smoothing system is
adopted which is fairly accurate for smooth running of trains.
If we are tamping constructed line we can always, lay a parallel reference line from which difference
can be calculated for feeding into the machine to achieve exact alignment.
NON-SUITABILITY OF 4-POINT LINING ON STRAIGHT:
On Straight Track H2 is zero hence machine corrects versine at C with respect to H2 as
H1 = 1.33 x 0 = 0
If at any point FD = 12mm
then FR = FD/6 i.e. 12/6 = 2mm.
On next sleepers H2 = 2mm
H1 = 1.33 x 2 = 2.66m
again H2 = 2.66mm\
then H1 = 1.33 x 2.66 = 3.53
As per above calculation if machine is leaving any error that will again accumulates. Hence machine
forms a false curve. Therefore 4 point is not suitable for straight track.
FEEDING METHOD OF VM VALUE AT REVERSE AND COMPOUND CURVE:
CURVE 1
TRANSITION
R1 BIGGER THAN R2
DIRECTION OF WORK
CTP1
R1
CURVE 2
V0 = V2 – V1
END OF
TRANSITION
DIRECTION OF
START OF ADJUSTMENT
TRANSITION
UA
STRAIGHT
R2
UE
V0
TRANSITION “L”
Chord
CTP2 Length
Chord
Length
CTP3
CTP4
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SUB DESCIPLINE – WORKING PRINCIPLE (LESSONS – 02 SESSIONS - 08)
Lesson-I :Lining
Session-32: 3 Point lining & Left over error, Calculation of
value,
Method of feeding
value.3 POINT LINING:
THREE POINT LINING SYSTEM:
•
GEOMETRICAL PRINCIPLE OF 3 - POINT LINING SYSTEM:
H1 = (BC x CD) / 2R
• The Versine H2 at Point B is not measured. The track is measured at three points. The
lining Versine H1 at point C is specified according to the curvature. Lining commences until
the Theoretical Versine H1 is achieved. Using the 3-point system, the chord is generally fixed
at point B, which results in a reduction of the distance A-B.
ERROR =
THEORETICAL VERSINE
–
EXISTING VERSINE
CALCULATED BY PCB
FED BY MAN OR COMPUTER
MEASURED BY M/c
•
ERROR REDUCTION ACCORDING TO THE 3 - POINT LINING SYSTEM
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• Point B is on the already lined track behind the machine. The front end of the chord, point
D is at the lining error FD. Point C is lined until H1 corresponds with the specified Theoretical
Versine. Specifying the Theortical Versine, H1 shifts Point C in a position which corresponds
with the required radius R. The remaining error FR = FD / n, is a result of the ratio of the
measuring point distances. Proceeding with the lining, Point B is at the remaining error and
influences therefore the next measurement.
• n(3- Pt) - value for different machines is as under:
Machine
8-UNO/DUO
08-275 UNIMAT
08-275 UNIMAT -3S
08-32 WST
09-32 CSM
9-3X TAMPING EXPRESS
n(3- Pt) - value
=3
= 3.12
= 3.297
= 2.91
= 3.138
= 3.04
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Calculation of ‘V’ value for each machine.
FOR CSM IN 3-POINT LINING
VERSINE FOR SECTIONS A, B, C AND D IN TRANSITION CURVES WITH
STRAIGHT CURVATURE
Constant
sections A
&C
R = XL =
Meter after
OA/OE
Versine in
curve H =
BC X CD
2R
Versine
section
A=
Constant
RXL
Versine
section
C=H-A
Constant
sections
B&D
R = XL =
Meter after
OA/OE
Versine in
curve H =
BC X CD
2R
Versine
section
A=
Constant
RXL
Versine
section
C=H-A
HV = 23617
RXL
HV = 23617
R
0
425
3399
11417
27191
53107
90534
135455
153120
TP/CTP
UA/UE
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
14.75
195238
148428
104167
65004
33489
12170
2362
48
0
TP/CTP
UA/UE
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
14.75
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B
C
Hv
H
A
Hv
D
A=B=C=D=14.75 M
Step 1:
Step 2:
Step 3:
Method 1:
Calculate the value of H (as above chart).
Calculate versine value of sections A, B, C & D (as above chart).
For the calculation of Hv value there are two methods:
HV = CONSTANT mm/metre
RXL
Method 2: Versine at starting of B Versine at the end of A mm/metre
Transition length machine chord length
Step 4:
The calculation of versine is for two metres interval as above. This may be divided for
alternate sleeper.
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SUB DESCIPLINE – WORKING PRINCIPLE (LESSONS – 02 SESSIONS - 08)
Lesson-I :Lining
Session-33: Design lining, Laser lining and measuring run
method, Potentiometers & their calibration.
•
Maintenance of track geometry to desired parameter is very important for the safe and
smooth running of trains. Track machines have facilities of measurement and rectification of
track defects for achieving design geometry. 5 CSMs & all 3x machines are also equipped with
Automatic Guide Computer (ALC) for track geometry measurement and LASER Sighting
System (LSS) for lining besides other features for design tamping. However, only few machines
are working in design mode mainly due to the inadequate knowledge of field staff. On NCR,
there is not much problem of leveling due to stable formation and good initial laying. Hence, this
Circular is to enrich knowledge of Design lining among field staff. Smoothening mode lining
details are also given in Annexure-I.
DESIGN LINING
•
Modern Track Machine always corrects Versine during Alignment correction using
single chord. Machine measures only one rail i.e. Datum rail and rectify it. Other rail is fixed
with the sleeper, hence that is also rectified. Four trolleys are provided for alignment
measurement. In design lining, only three trolleys are used. The trolleys are pneumatically
pressed against Datum rail and transducer provided on lining trolley measures offset of
alignment at C i.e. distance between lining chord and center of lining trolley. After measuring the
offset, track is slewed so much that specified Versine is achieved at lining trolley, which is zero
for straight track and certain value on curved track.
Lining Chord
I
B
I
a
B = Measuring trolley
I
C
C = Lining trolley
D
b
D = Front tightening trolley
•
In the lining process Front trolley always remains on disturbed track and Measuring
trolley always remains on corrected track. Because of misalignment in track at front trolley, front
end of the chord will be out of its correct position equal to the alignment defect at that point. Due
to incorrect position of the front end proportional alignment error will remain after lining. Left
over error at C, FR = FD/n(3-Pt), where FD = Lining offset at front trolley and n(3-Pt) = BD/BC
= (a+b)/a.
•
GEOMETRICAL PRINCIPLE OF 3 - POINT DESIGN LINING SYSTEM:
1 = Perfect alignment
2 = Before lining
3 = After lining without error input
4 = Lining Value
5 = Actual position of the lining chord
6 = Theoretical position of the lining chord
7 = After lining with error input
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•
For a perfect alignment of the track according to fixed points, the existing error FD, which
is measured at the front end of the chord, is adjusted to the opposite direction, and is
automatically and in the right proportion transmitted to the lining Versine by means of the lining
control. Thus, the lining error is transmitted, relatively reduced, to the cut off point on the lining
trolley C. Therefore radius and angular position are corrected perfectly. In design lining this error
is eliminated by shifting front end of the chord equal to alignment defect at that point. In Modern
Track Machine, proportional electric signals are relayed through Lining PCB to lining unit and
track is lined accordingly.
Slew at C = Specified Theoretical Versine at C ~ (Lining offset measured by
transducer at C + Proportional signals corresponding to lining offset
at D)
= H ~ (H1 + FC) where FC = FD / n(3-Pt) and Left over error FR = Zero
•
DETERMINATION AND ADJUSTMENT OF LINING ERRORS:
•
MANUAL SYSTEM:
•
Surveying Design Lining Offset By Long Chord:
• In terms of Guidelines on Survey for Alignment Correction as contained in Item No.
6.0 of Ann 5.3 to IRTMM, the lining errors are to be determined by measuring offsets at
every 5 m intervals on 40 m chord on straight track and at every 10 m intervals on 20 m
chord on curves track and marked on the track. The required slew at every alternate
sleeper is worked out by interpolating the offsets, taking note of the obligatory points and
ensuring that there are no infringements to moving dimensions. The slews are then
marked on alternate sleepers. During the lining operation these values are transmitted to
the lining value adjustment. An example on Field measurement for design lining offset
by long chord is given in Annexure-II.
•
Surveying Design Lining Offset By Theodolite:
• The long-wave track geometry faults become significant with the increase in speed of
trains. Assuming the typical natural frequency of vehicular oscillation to be 1 Hz, the
critical track geometry fault wavelength even in speed range upto 160km/h is upward of
40 m. While working on straight track, the most preferable chord length for alignment
correction is in the order of 60 80 m.
• For achieving such chord length, if the Theodolite with the standard tripod stand is
used it takes about 10-12 minutes for centering, leveling and measurements. In the
saturated high density routes, so much time is not available and whenever a train
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approaches, the Theodolite is required to be removed and reset. It is even difficult to
ensure verticality of Ranging rod at target.
• For making it more practicable, fast and efficient, some specially designed
gadgets, as given below may be developed, which makes the direct slew
measurement with Theodolite quite easy. Using these gadgets, a chord of upto 1 km
may be taken between 2 good points, which is the line of collimation of Theodolite at
a fixed lateral distance from gauge face of reference rail of existing track and the
slew measurements at every 5 m intervals are directly measured on specially
designed Satellite with reference to the line of collimation. The equipments and
specially designed gadgets used are as under:
• Theodolite: Normal Theodolite.
• Scaled Sliding Table: It may be made of wood or metal with 1.85 m Length and
0.45 m Height. On upper side, one horizontal graduated table is fixed in which a plate
is mounted on which Theodolite slides laterally to keep it at any required lateral
distance from the reference rail. A lug is provided similar to that provided in gaugecum-level. Touching Hook is on left side of the sliding table stand to bypass the burr
on rail. SST will be perpendicular to rail, when both lugs are touching reference rail.
• Satellite: It may be prepared from existing gauge-cum-level. In middle portion of
the vertical face towards Theodolite, a teethed scale made of luminous red strip is
pasted for a length 20 cm either side of zero (centre) point. The height of triangular
teeth is 10 mm and distance between the two apexes of teeth is 10mm. This is further
divided into 5 equal parts by 4 nos. of black horizontal lines to give a least count of 1
mm. Alternatively, the Satellite may be made like the Target described below with a
movable vertical arm of length 30 cm and height 45 cm in ‘reverse T shape’ ,
painted white with a black vertical central line pointer towards Theodolite and a
Satellite scale (30 cm Steel scale with Least Count – 1mm) on the upper side at
either ends starting at 15 cm distance from the centre point on which the vertical
arm slides laterally. During survey, this movable vertical arm is sighted and
brought in line with the alignment of line of collimation of Theodolite and Target.
The shifting of movable vertical arm from centre point is read from Satellite scale
and deviation is directly recorded as slew at that point.
• Target: It may be made of wood. One end of its horizontal board ensures
reference rail contact and zero point has a fixed vertical pointer of 0.75 m height
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painted white and has got a red vertical central line passing through zero point
towards Theodolite.
•
• VHP Sets: One each at Theodolite, Satellite and Target i.e. total 3 Nos.
Method of Working:
•
Preliminary Works:
o a) Marking of stations at 5 m apart at the centre of track.
o b) Selecting good point at about ½ to 1 km apart. These good points
should have their position in the mean alignment of the existing track.
•
Slew Recording:
o Step 1 – Check squaring of SST with reference rail by touching it s both
the notches on gauge face.
o Step 2 – Set the Sliding table at zero point, place Theodolite and level it.
o Step 3 – Sight the Target and fix the line of collimation.
o Step 4 – With the alignment of line of collimation, read deviation at
Satellite scale by seeing through telescope of Theodolite.
o Step 5 – Take and record deviations of subsequent stations till the
readings are visible with the telescope of Theodolite.
o Step 6 – Leaving satellite on last recorded station, SST is shifted on
second last recorded station.
o Step 7 – Slide SST as per slew reading of the station on which it is shifted,
place Theodolite, level it at site the target again so that initial line of
collimation is maintained for further measurement of slews. Repeat the
steps till Slews of each stations at 5 m apart are recorded for full length.
•
•
An example on Field measurement for design lining offset by Theodolite is
given in Annexure-II.
LASER SIGHTING SYSTEM:
• 5 CSMs and all 3x machines are provided with a LASER Sighting System (LSS) that
can be used to extend the measuring system on straight track. LASER lining is used on
straight track in 3-point mode to remove long misalignment or false curve. The LASER
system consists of LASER gun (transmitter) and LASER receiver. The LASER trolley
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which consists of laser gun is placed in front of the machine up to 300 m away. The
receiver mounted on the front tightening trolley is adjustable so that it follows the
LASER beam and the position is detected by a transducer that provides an input to the
lining system equivalent to the offset of the front of the chord. As the machine is working
it moves up to the LASER trolley until the distance is a minimum of 20 m away. LASER
system operates fully automatically and is able to cope with distances of up to 300 m. But
LASER lining is only applicable for straight track. Important details are given below:
• By means of a special device, the LASER beam is fanned vertically in such a way
that, the eventual change in track height has no influence on the system.
• By means of an automatic follow up control, the LASER receiver is always
positioned at the centre of the LASER beam and therefore determines the input of the
slewing values.
•
• The distance of the LASER gun from the machine is also dependent on the
ambient conditions (rain, snow, fog, high ambient temperature). In good ambient
conditions (clear, dry air) the lining distance can be extended considerably.
Working Sequence of Design Lining with the Laser Sighting System:
• Phase 1: When the design lining commences the front end of the chord with the
LASER receiver is shifted by the amount of the error FD in the direction of the
THEORETICAL alignment, whereby the follow up control is switched off. If the lining
errors exceed certain amount, a transition is necessary for the new alignment. LASER
transmitter is positioned as far as possible from the machine, adjusted laterally over the
amount of the lining error F, aimed at the LASER receiver and fixed in this position.
• Phase 2 and 3: The design is set; the follow-up control is switched on. The track is
lined at point C and matches exactly with the line of sight.
• Phase 4 and 5: The machine drives forward and the front end of the chord is matched
up again with the line of sight. The machine is ready for the next lining operation.
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ANNEXURE-II
A. FIELD MEASUREMENT FOR DESIGN LINING OFFSET BY LONG CHORD
•
Surveying and Marking of Slews without any Infringement to SOD:
Ø Surveying should be done between two good points, which may be on well maintained
obligatory points i.e. girder bridges, level crossings, points & crossings, permanent
structure etc, with the centre line of track on the design or original theoretical position.
Ø In case of any shift in alignment of the centre line at obligatory points from the design or
original position, the centre line must be brought to design or original theoretical
position, manually for a minimum track length of 50m before surveying.
Ø The lining errors are to be determined by measuring offsets at every 5 m intervals on 40
m chord on straight track and at every 10 m intervals on 20 m chord on curves track and
marked on the track.
5mm
5mm
BRIDGE
0mm
10mm 10mm
S7
S8
S9
S10
LEVEL CROSSING
S1
S2
S3
S4
S5
S6
0mm
10mm
10mm
5mm
S11
0mm
5mm
Ø The required slew at every alternate sleeper is worked out by interpolating the offsets.
The slews are then marked on alternate sleepers and Design tamping done by feeding the
slew values to Slew Potentiometer in the Front tower.
LEVEL
CROSSING
BRIDGE
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 ------ 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 -------- 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0
•
Surveying and Marking of Slews in case of Infringement to SOD:
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Complete Ø If the required slew is infringing the SOD viz OHE Mast etc, the slew has to be worked
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out taking note of the obligatory points and ensuring that there are no infringements to
moving dimensions as shown below.
EXISTING TRACK
BRIDGE
LEVEL CROSSING
OHE MAST
INFRINGING
PROPOSED TRACK
Required Slew Values Infringing SOD
EXISTING TRACK
BRIDGE
LEVEL CROSSING
FINAL SLEW
ELECTRIC POLE
Final Slew Values With No SOD Infringement
Ø The final worked out slews are then marked on alternate sleepers and Design tamping
done by feeding the slew values to Slew Potentiometer in the Front tower.
B. FIELD MEASUREMENT FOR DESIGN LINING OFFSET BY THEODOLITE
•
Surveying and Marking of Slews without any Infringement to SOD:
Ø Preliminary Works and Slew Recording Steps are already given in the Circular. However,
the following procedure may be followed for Permanent (Girder Bridges, Fixed Structure
etc.) and Temporary Obligatory points (Level crossings etc):
Ø In case of any shift in alignment of the centre line at Permanent obligatory points
(Girder Bridges, Fixed Structure etc.)from the design or original theoretical position,
the centre line must be brought to design or original theoretical position, manually for
a minimum track length of 50m before selection of good points.
Ø Either the Permanent obligatory points or any other points at about ½ and 1 km apart
having their position in the mean alignment of the existing track are taken as good
points. Thereafter, the Working Method as given in the Circular is followed.
Ø Temporary Obligatory points (Level crossings etc) should be opened out and may be
shifted to the extent possible after ensuring that there are no infringements to moving
dimensions as shown below.
Ø Any shifting of Temporary Obligatory points should be approved by the ADEN.
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TEMPORARY
OBLIGATORTY
POINT
PERMANENT
OBLIGATORY
POINT / GOOD POINT
BRIDGE
PERMANENT
OBLIGATORY
POINT / GOOD POINT
LEVEL CROSSING
LEVEL
CROSSING
BRIDGE
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 ------ 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0
ST0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 -------- 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
121
ST1
ST2
ST1
MEASURING RUN METHOD:ALC MEASURING METHOD:
The measuring method is used where the track data is not known. The data for the track is
obtained via measurement run using the machines measuring system prior to working. During or
after the measurement any data that is known can be entered e.g. fixed points, cant, radius, etc.
After computation by the ALC computer the tamper is set to work with the ALC
automatically entering the computed lift and line data.
SEQUENCE OF OPERATION:The machien can either measure in the working direction or
the reverse. If the track is measured in the working direction, the tamping machine must reverse
back to the start of the work site before commencing tamping. There is a fast measuring drive
key switch on the front and rear driving desks. These enable the machine to use the second gear
of the main drive to make the measuring run.
PERFORMING A MEASURING RUN:Set up the machine for normal working, although
there is not necessary to have the tamping banks running. The tamping banks slew switch on the
B2 panel should be set to automatic. If it is on manual the fast measuring function will be
disabled. It is advisable to drive the machine for a short distance using the normal working drive.
Thus checking that the lifting and lining system is in working order before the start of the
measuring run by avoiding errors at the start of the measuring run, due to poor bogie alignment
or incorrect pre-loading. It is important to select the correct float rail. if the wrong rail is selected,
the design for the lift will not be correct. It is also a good idea to mark the position of the
machine on the rail before the start of the measuring run, so that the machine can be repositioned
accurately at the start position after the measuring run has been completed (Forward measuring
run). The lining system has to be set to 3-point. Use the can switch to select the datum rail for the
longitudinal height recording. The reference rail for the versine recording is selected by turning
on the lining system and selecting the required pre-load.
END OF MEASURING RUN:At the end of the measuring run return the key switch to the
normal position. The computer will automatically produce a run in from the old track
geometry to the new target geometry at the beginning and end of the measuring run. The
measuring run should therefore only cover the length of rail on which the work has to be carried
out.
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CALIBRATION
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OF
VERSINE
POTENTIOMETER(4f1):
This potentiometer converts versine value to electrical signal
at the rate of 50mv/mm +ve for RH side and –ve for LH
side. For calibration of versine potentiometer select
Multicheck address F00. Select
value in versine
potentiometer then output voltage of versine potentiometer
should be zero on display. If not , loose the screw of digital
counter and take out the counter and now rotate shaft of
potentiometer to get zero volt on display. Now set all digits
to zero of counter then fit counter on shaft of
potentiometer.When voltage of versine potentiometer is
checked at multicheck address F00 then polarity will be ve
for RH and +ve for LH side.
Before starting calibration +10V & -10V to this
potentiometer should be checked and adjusted by
potentiometer P1 & P2 in EK 813SV of front input .
CALIBRATION OF SLEW POTENTIOMETER(4f4):
This potentiometer is provided in front cabin on panel
B4.This potentiometer converts slew value to electrical
signal at the rate of 50mv/mm +ve for RH side and ve for
LH side.For calibration of this potentiometer , keep slew
potentiometer at zero position then output voltage should
be zero, if not then take out the knob of potentiometer then
rotate the shaft of potentiometer to get zero volt. Then by
matching the knob at zero position fit on shaft of
potentiometer. When voltage of slew potentiometer is
checked at multicheck address F06 then polarity will be
ve for RH and +ve for LH side. Before starting calibration
+10V and 10V should be checked . If there is any
variation then adjust by P1 & P2 in EK813SV of front
input .
GENERAL LIFT POTENTIOMETER (4f3):This potentiometer is provided in panel no. B4 in
front cabin. This potentiometer converts given general lift value to electrical signal at the rate of
50mv/mm output of this potentiometer can be checked at multicheck address F22.
For calibration of this potentiometer keep general lift potentiometer on zero and check output of
this potentiometer with the help of multi meter it should be 0V. If there is some signal on zero
position first take out knob of potentiometer now rotate shaft of potentiometer to get zero volt.
Now fit knob on shaft by matching zero position.
SUPER ELEVATION POTENTIOMETER(2f08):This potentiometer is provided in B2 panel
in working cabin this potentiometer is used do feed super elevation or cant values on curves.
This converts cant values to electrical signal at the rate of 50mv/mm.output of this potentiometer
can be checked at multicheck address F08.For calibration of this potentiometer. Set zero value in
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this potentiometer.. Select multicheck address F08 then check voltage on display. It should be
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0V if there is some voltage then remove digital counter set it to zero and also set shaft of
potentiometer to get zero volt on display then refit digital counter on shaft.
DEPTH SELECTOR CALIBRATION:
(1)
Select Zero depth in depth selector i.e. all three
digit should be set to zero. Now select
multicheck address F13 in multiplex PCB and
keep selector switch in 2nd position Now
display should read OV. If it is showing some
value then adjust potentiometer P3 to get zero
volt.
(2)
Now select 300 MM depth in depth selector
then. Output of selector will be 7.5V if it is
not6 showing 7.5V, then adjust P1.
(3) Now select 399m depth in depth selector
output of depth selector in display should be
9.975V if it is not, adjust potentiometer P2.
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SUB DESCIPLINE – WORKING PRINCIPLE (LESSONS – 02 SESSIONS - 08)
Lesson-II: Leveling
Session-34: Types of leveling system, Double chord system, General
lift, ramp in & ramp out, Criteria for selection of Base line
•
Tamping Machine corrects the leveling error in the following two modes:
§
§
•
Proportional or Compensation mode- In this mode, General lift over the Base rail is
generally fixed and smoothening action takes place. Longitudinal level and Cross-level
are not completely corrected and the Machine leaves some error. Only short wave defects
are removed. Details are given in Annexure-I.
Design or Precision mode- In this mode instead of General lift, the target heights are fed
over the Base Rail to rectify 100% error. All long wave and short wave defects are fully
removed. This PCE Circular is to enrich knowledge of Design Levelling.
Levelling and Lifting System consists of two chord wires one for each rail, stretched tightly
from Front tower (F) to Rear tower (R). Tamping machines rectify level defects in track by
lifting it with reference to these levelling chords. Height Transducers are mounted on Middle
feeler rods (M), which rest on track at the place where tamping is actually done and these are
also lifted when the track is lifted. Both rails are controlled separately. For Cross-level/Superelevation correction, Pendulums (P) are provided. Only CSM & 3x are designed for twist
correction also. Schematic diagram is given below:
Chord Wire
P
P
Chord Wire
R
M
R
•
F
M
F
Height transducers provided on Middle feeler rod measures the gap between its zero level and
chord wire. Base rail is lifted to eliminate this gap and other rail is lifted to bring specified
cant between two rails, which is kept zero in straight track and a certain value on curved track.
Values of unevenness and cant are fed through potentiometers.
Levelling chord
R
M
F
a
b
R = Rear measuring point M = Measuring & correction point F = Front measuring point
•
In levelling process, front tower always remains on unlevelled track and rear tower on
levelled track. Because of level defects in track at front trolley, front end of the chord goes out
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of its correct position equal to level offset at that point. Due to incorrect position of the front
end of chord proportional level error remains after levelling.
• Thus, the leveled track at M is having
Level error = LF*a/(a+b) = LF/r, where LF = Level offset at front tower &
r = Reduction Ratio = (a+b)/a
•
Bogie Distances and Reduction Ratio for different machines are as under:
Bogie Distance (m) UNO/DUO UNI-2S UNI-3S O9-CSM MP-2000
09-3X
RM (a)
4.04
3.32
4.85
3.90
5.10
4.56
MF (b)
9.64
8.89
10.73
8.90
9.05
10.67
RF (a+b)
13.68
12.21
15.58
12.80
14.15
15.23
Reduction Ratio (r)
3.326
3.678
3.212
3.232
2.775
3.333
•
In Design levelling, this error is eliminated by raising or lowering front end of the chord
equal to level offset at that point. In CSM, UNIMAT and 3x, chord wire is not physically
shifted but electronic signals are relayed through microprocessor to leveling unit and
track is lifted accordingly.
General Lift: The amount of lift, which is given to track while tamping to cover all undulations over
the Base Rail, is called General Lift. It is decided on the magnitude of the dips/peaks
generally available in the track. General Lift should always be more than the largest of dips
which shall be ascertained by P.Way supervisor in advance.
§
It is given to the Base Rail. General Lift is the algebraic difference of higher and lower
point of Base rail + 5mm. At one time, General Lift value should not exceed 50 mm.
If more than 50 mm lift is required, it can be achieved by lifting two times.
To be Lifted
5 mm
Existing Track
§
While giving the General Lift, ramp in of 1:1000 and also while closing the work ramp
out of 1:1000 should be given to the track for smooth transition.
To be lifted
1
1
1000
Existing Track
§
1000
For Curves, when the existing Super-elevation (SE) is less than equilibrium SE, General
Lift will be equal to track irregularities over the Base Rail (Inner Rail + 5mm) and when
the existing SE is more than equilibrium SE, General Lift will be the track irregularities in
the Base Rail + max difference between existing and equilibrium SE.
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Base Rail: For carrying out attention to longitudinal profile, one rail is kept as Base or Datum Rail.
Machine corrects Cross-level w.r.t. Base Rail, which should be selected as under:
§
On straight track in single line and middle track in multiple lines, higher/less disturbed
rail is kept as Base Rail.
§ On straight track in double line, non-cess rail is kept as Base Rail.
§ On curves, inner-rail is kept as Base Rail.
§ In Plasser Tampers, direction of Cant Selector Switch is to be always kept opposite to the
Base Rail.
In Russian Tamper, Base Selector Switch is provided for selecting Base Rail.
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SUB DESCIPLINE – WORKING PRINCIPLE (LESSONS – 02 SESSIONS - 08)
Lesson-II: Leveling
Session-35: Double chord follow up system & fixed chord system, Proportional leveling, Error
reduction ratio, Method of feeding of Cant on CSM, Method of feeding of Cant on other machines
T
YX
R
Y
YX
X=
L
L
R
X
B
A
A
FRONT
TOWER
C
CB
C
CONTACT
BOARD
B
MEASURNING
BOGIE
5M
15 M
(DIMENSIONS HAVE BEEN ASSUMED IN THIS EXAMPLE )
AB
=R
CB
L
AB
=
=R
X
CB
L
X=
R
AS THIS MACHINE MAX. AHEAD TO NEXT POSITION
AND SUPPOSE A TOTAL LIFT OF `Y'
HAS BEEN GIVEN ON FRONT TOWER,
TOTAL ACTUAL LIFT AT C.B. OR T.U. CAN BE WRITTEN.
Y-X
T= X+
R
T = TOTAL LIFT AT A PARTICULAR SLEEPER
X = ACTUAL LIFT ACHIVED ON PREVIOUS SLEEPER
Y = LIFT GIVEN TO FRONT TOWER AT THAT POINT
R = RATIO OF DISTANCE
PROPORTIONAL LEVELLING SYSTEM
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The tamping machines with non-displaceable front end of the leveling chords are equipped
with a proportional levelling and lifting system for measuring and correcting the track geometry.
1.
Measuring of the Longitudinal Profile:
1.1
The track is measured at three locations per rail:
- At the front of the machine (location
) for determination of the actual level and the
front measuring reference point.
- In the area of the tamping units (location
) for the proportional control of the
hydraulic track lifting system.
- At the rear of the tamping units (location
) on the already corrected track for
determination of the rear measuring reference point.
1.2
A chord is stretched above each rail between the reference points
and
which forms
two, independent from each other, measuring references for the longitudinal level.
1.3
Measuring transducers are mounted on the feeler rod of the centre measuring device. The
control arms of the transducer are connected with the leveling chord. Proportional to the level
of the track at point
the measuring transducers send electronic signals for the automatic
control of the track lifting servo hydraulic system.
2.
Measuring of the Cross Level:
At the measuring points
and
the cross level is measured by means of pendulums.
2.1
The difference between the THEORETICAL and the measured ACTUAL cross level at the
front measuring point
is automatically transmitted to the lifting adjustment, corresponding
to the side.
2.2
During the lifting and tamping operation the cross level is checked at the centre measuring
point
(in the area of the tamping units).
2.3
The measuring of the cross level at the rear measuring point
(optional) serves several
functions:
a) Checking the cross level of the track which has been lifted and tamped immediately
beforehand.
b) Recording of the cross level by means of an electronic recorder.
3.
Input of the Lifting Values: The adjustment of the track lifting takes place at the front
reference point
and is automatically and in the right proportion transmitted to the cut off
points of the measuring transducer mounted on the centre measuring device
. The
leveling system may be used for the following methods:
3.1
Compensating method:
Without having the track surveyed, a required lifting value is selected. Existing longitudinal
errors are reduced and the cross level errors are eliminated.
3.2
Precision method:
The track has to be surveyed beforehand and the lifting values of one rail are marked on the
sleepers. During work the lifting values are set manually.
ERROR REDUCITON:
S. No.
Dist
1
Reduction
Ratio
08
DUO/UNO
3.326
08 UNI-2S
08 UNI-3S
O9 CSM
MP-2000
3.678
3.212
3.232
2.775
METHOD OF FEEDING OF CANT ON CSM: FEEDING OF CANT. VALUE IN CURVE:
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CTP1
CTP2
TTP1
TTP2
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
JE/P.Way will write down cant value of curve on the sleeper near inside rail seat of outer rail.
Total cant value should be distributed through out the transition length in such a way that it is
Zero at TP & Max. at CTP.
Generally when the tamping machine enters into the transition position, the machine operator
start feeding cant value according to the value written on the sleeper.
In front cabin cant potentiometer is not provided, hence operator will not feed the value.
Once machine completed entered into transition, the cant value which is written on the sleeper at
measuring bogie is feeded.
Similarly when front cabin reached at CTP1 the remaining bogie is stile in transition portion i.e.
working has not reached at full cant value.
Similarly when machine reached at CTP2 suddenly the cant value will be reduced to the value till
TTP2 as per written on the sleeper when the front tower reached at TTP2 then although the
reaching of cant value digital reached at zero but reduced it in ergative till measuring bogie
reached at TTP2. no raise the cant value equal to zero.
.METHOD OF FEEDING OF CANT ON OTHER MACHINES:
METHOD OF FEEDING OF CANT ON OTHER MACHINES:
Feeding of Cant Value in Curve:
CTP1
CTP2
TTP1
TTP2
Working Direction
•
In all tamping machines, generally there are two digital potentiometers for feeding the
Cant value, one at front tower and another at working cabin except CSM in which there is
only one potentiometer in working cabin.
•
Cant value is written by JE/P.way on the sleeper near inside rail seat of outer rail.
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•
Total cant value should be distributed through out the transition length in such a way that
it is Zero at TTP and Max. at CTP.
•
There is incorrect practice of feeding of Cant value wrongly in the field i.e. when
tamping machine enters into the transition portion, the operator in the front cabin starts
feeding cant value according to the value written on the sleeper. As soon as cant value
is fed in front cabin when it is at TTP, the lifting starts and cant rail is also lifted. Since,
lifting is not required till measuring trolley reaches over TTP, it creates hump.
•
So the operator of front cabin should not feed any cant value till the working cabin
reaches over TTP. Thereafter, whatever value is written on the sleeper in front of the front
cabin should be fed by the operator in the front cabin.
•
When front cabin reaches at CTP1, the working cabin is still in transition portion i.e. it has
not reached at full cant value. The operator in the front cabin should keep on feeding the
Cant value at the same rate till the working cabin reaches at CTP1. Thereafter, the operator
in the front cabin should instantaneously reduce the Cant value to Max. Cant written on
the sleeper.
•
Similarly when the front cabin reaches at CTP2, the cant value should be kept as Max.
Cant till the working cabin reaches at CTP2, when suddenly the cant value is reduced to
the value as written on the sleeper in front of the front cabin.
•
When the front cabin reaches at TTP2, although the cant value becomes zero at TTP2, but
the cant value should be fed at the same rate by changing the direction of the toggle switch
i.e. negative cant value is fed, till working cabin reaches at TTP2, when suddenly the cant
value is brought to zero.
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SUB DESCIPLINE – WORKING PRINCIPLE (LESSONS – 02 SESSIONS - 08)
Lesson-II: Leveling
Session-36: Function of Pendulum- Front, Middle, Rear
Pendulum & Twist correction, Method of data feeding on Tamping Machines - Manually and by
Computer (GVA&ALC)
There are three pendulums used in CSM and CSM -3X , in other tamping machines only two
pendulums are used .
Front Pendulum:This pendulum is mounted on front trolley . It measures cross level of front
area before tamping.
Middle Pendulum :This pendulum is mounted on middle feeler rod . It measures cross level of
tamping area .
Rear Pendulum :This pendulum is mounted on measuring trolley . It measures cross level after
tamping .This pendulum participates in twist correction.
METHOD OF DATA FEEDING ON TAMPING MACHINES( MANUALLY):
GENERAL LIFT:The value of general lift is decided by survey i.e. peak value plus 5 mm. This
value is fed in general lift potentiometer in one to thousand ratio. In case of design mode target
height is feeded in place of general lift.
SUPER ELEVATION:The value of cant is zero for the straight track. But cant value is feeded
in super elevation potentiometer whatever retain on the track on the circular curve this is
constant but in case of transition this value varies. The cant value is retain on the sleeper of the
track on the outer side.
GEOMETRY VALUE ASSESSMENT (GVA):
It is a small computer which eliminates the feeding of adjustment values from tables and
marking on sleepers. The locations of main points of curve i.e. starting of transition, end of
transition, transition length, radius, super elevation and vertical curve data etc are fed into the
computer.
The attention of the Operator is not distracted by adjustment operation, mistake in calculation is
avoided and therefore, the higher progress is achieved with improved quality.
AUTOMATIC GUIDING COMPUTER (ALC):The system have two modes, (i) geometry
mode
and
(ii) measuring mode
In geometry mode parameter of curve is feed in computer ALC. WinALC software draw the
curve as per parameters on screen then curve is corrected accordingly.
In measuring mode the parameters are measured first then mean value of each parameters i.e.
versine, longitudinal level are taken and displayed by the computer. The correction is done by
the computer as percentage of correction is fed by operator by seeing the position of the track
after the correction. This is almost same to the design mode.
SUB: P.WAY, ESTABLISHMENT,ACCOUNTS,STORES & RAJBHASHA
Duration: 36 Sessions = 72 Periods
Sub Discipline -Track Technology (Lessons: 13 Sessions: 26)
Lesson-I: Introduction to Railway Organization Session-1: History of Railways,Zonal
Railways Divisions,Production Units
History of Railways and General Features :
History of Railways:
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The history of railways is closely linked with the growth of civilization of mankind. In
15th century stone slabs or wooden baulks were laid flush with the road surface for carriage of
heavy goods loaded on carts and drawn by animal. These were called Tram ways . These Tram
ways were extensively used in 16th century in mines in central Europe for carriage of coal and
other minerals.
The timber bulks were replaced by iron plates to reduce wear and these were called Plate
ways . These iron plates were also substituted in course of time by angle irons to give lateral
support or better safety. The present railway track is a gradual evolution from these Plate ways.
The first public railway in the world was opened to traffic on 27th September, 1825, when
the first train made its maiden journey between Stockton and Darlington in U.K.
The maiden trip on Indian Soil of the first train consisting of one steam engine and 4
coaches was made on 16th April 1853, when it traversed a 21 mile stretch between Bombay and
Thana in 1.25 hours time. Starting from this humble beginning, the Indian Railways system has
grown up today into a giant net work consisting of 63221 route Kms.
The Indian Railways run about 13.000 trains every day, serving about 7.031 railway
stations and carry about 5112 million passengers and about 581 million tonnes of goods traffic in
a year. For moving this traffic, the Indian Railways deploy about 1441.000 (14.41lakh)
employees and maintain 7,817 locomotives consisting.
.
Railway Board:
The responsibility of the administration and management of the Indian Railways rests
with the Railway Board under the overall supervision of the minister for railways. The Railway
Board consists of Chairman, financial commissioner for railways and five other functional
members.
The other members of the railway Board are separately incharge of matters relating to
staff, Civil Engg., Traffic, Mechanical Engg. & Electrical Engg. They function as ex-officio
secretaries to the Government of India. The board members are assisted by additional members,
executive directors & directors.
Zonal Railways:
The entire railway system has been divided into 16 zones. Zonal headquarters of each
railway are given as below:
S. No.
Railway
Zonal Headquarters.
1
Central Railway
Mumbai V.T.
2
Eastern Railway
Colcutta
3
East Central Railway
Hazipur
4
East Coast Railway
Bhubneshwar
5
Northern Railway
New Delhi
6
North Central Railway
Allahabad
7
North Eastern Railway
Gorakhpur
8
North Frontier Railway
Maligaon (Guwahati)
9
North Western Railway
Jaipur
10
Southern Railway
Chennai
11
South Central Railway
Secunderabad
12
South Eastern Railway
Colcutta
13
South East Central Railway Bilaspur
14
South Western Railway
Banglore (Hubli)
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15
Western Railway
16
Mumbai Churchgate
Jabalpur
West Central Railway
Production Units:
Apart from Zonal Railways there are six production units as given below:
S.
No.
1.
2.
3.
4
Name of Unit
Headquarters
Chittranjan Locomotive Works Chittranjan
(CLW)
Diesel
Locomotive
Works Varanasi
(DLW)
Integral Coach Factory (ICF)
Parambur
5
Diesel
Component
Works Patiala
(DCW)
Rail Coach Factory (RCF)
Kapurthala
6.
Wheel& Axle Plant (W&AP)
Bangalore
Functions
Manufacture of Electric
Locomotives
Manufacture of Diesel
Locomotives.
Manufacture
of
Coaches
Manufacture of Diesel
components
Manufacture
of
Coaches
Manufacture of Wheel
& Axles
Divisions:
Zonal Railways work on divisional system. Each division has around 800 to 1500kms of
track. There are 67 divisions on Indian railways. Each division works under the overall Control
of Divisional Railway Manager (DRM) who is assisted by ADRM. In Engineering the division is
headed by Sr. Divisional Engineer(C) and he is assisted by Sr.DEN/DENs. Each Sr. DEN/DEN
is incharge of around 1100 ITKM & has 2-3 ADENS to assist him in maintenance of P. Way &
Works. Zonewise break up of divisions over Indian Railways is listed as below:
S. No.
Railway
1.
Central
Railway
3.
East Central
Railway
5.
Northern
Railway
7
North
Eastern
Railway
Division
Mumbai
Bhusaval
Nagpur
Pune
Solapur
Danapur
Dhanbad
Mugalsarai
Sanastupur
Sonpur
Delhi
Ferozpur
Ambala
Moradabad
Lucknow
Izzatnagar
Lucknow
City
Varanasi
S. No.
2.
Railway
Eastern Railway
4.
East
Railway
6
North
Railway
8
North Frontier
Railway
Division
Howrah
Asansol
Malda
Sealdah
Coast Khurda Road
Sambalpur
Waltair
Central Allahabad
Agra
Jhansi
Alipurdwar
Katihar
Lumding
Rangia
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9
North
Western
Railway
Jaipur
Ajmer
Bikaner
Jodhpur
10
11
South
Central
Railway
12
13
South East
Central
Railway
Western
Railway
Secunderab
ad
Hyderabad
Guntkal
Guntur
Nanded
Vijayawada
Bilaspur
Nagpur
Raipur
Mumbai
Vadodara
Ratlam
Ahamedaba
d
Rajkot
Bhavnagar
15
14
16
Tinsukia
Southern Railway Chennai
Madurai
Palghat
Truchechirapa
lli
Trivendrum
South
Eastern Adra
Railway
Chakradharpu
r
Kharagpur
Ranchi
South
Western Hubli
Railway
Bangalore
Mysore
West
Central Jabalpur
Railway
Bhopal
Kota
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SUB DISCIPLINE-TRACK TECHNOLOGY (LESSONS: 13 SESSIONS: 26)
Lesson-I: Introduction to Railway Organisation Session-2: TT Organisation on Indian Railways
, Organisation at Hd. Qtr. Level and Divisional Level,CPOH and Bridge Workshop
TT Organization on Indian Railways :
The organization shall be under the overall charge of Chief Track Engineer (Machines) of the
Railway who shall be reporting to the Chief Engineer through Chief Track Engineer. The
organization shall be responsible for the following functions:
v.
Field operation of track machines,
vi.
Repair and maintenance of machines,
vii.
Supervision and technical services including training, and
viii.
Planning and deployment of machines.
To carry out each of the above functions, chief Track Engineer (Machine) shall be assisted by
one or more Deputy CE (Machine). As given below:
CHIEF ENGINEER/TMC
DY. CE/TMC/HQ
(OR)
XEN/TMC/HQ
DY. CE/TMC/L
XEN/TMC
AXEN/TMC I
AXEN/TMC II
DUTIES OF AEN:
GENERAL:
The Assistant Engineer is responsible for maintenance and efficient working of all the track
machines in his charge.
IMPORTANT DUTIES:
Ø Inspection and maintenance of all machines.
Ø Ensure adherence to stipulated maintenance schedules.
Ø Ensure availability of necessary staff for operation.
Ø Ensure achievement of stipulated target.
Ø Ensure adequate availability of consumables and spares.
Ø Initiate proposals and plans for major schedule of work.
Ø Ensure co-ordination with other units of engineering department.
Ø Verification of store.
Ø Ensure maintenance of various records.
Ø Ensure availability of tools.
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TRAINING OF PROBATIONERS
Documents
STAFF MATTERS
All the section engineers and other staff working under him receive proper training in
maintenance practice.
\SERVICE AND LEAVE RECORDS
WITNESSING PAYMENTS TO STAFFS
KNOWLEDGE OF RULE & REGULATION
INSPECTION BY HIGHER OFFICERS
INSPECTION OF MACHINE BY ASSISTANT ENGINEER
Ø Inspection of machines by the Assistant Engineer shall be carried out in detail covering
necessarily the following aspects and keep in view the Check List Maintenance Schedule
issued by RDSO:
Ø Health of engine.
Ø Condition of hydraulic, pneumatic, electrical and electronic systems.
Ø Condition of transmission/brake system.
Ø Performance of the machine.
Ø Staff accommodation.
Ø Availability of the spares with the machine.
EXECUTION OF WORKS
DUTIES OF (SENIOR) SECTION ENGINEER/TMC:
xii.
xiii.
xiv.
xv.
xvi.
xvii.
xviii.
xix.
xx.
The (Senior) Section Engineer/Track Machines shall be responsible for the satisfactory
operation, maintenance and productivity of the machines under his charge and quality of
work.
He shall be well acquainted with the working systems, operating instructions,
maintenance schedules, specifications of the oils/lubricants to be used, critical
components etc of machines under his charge.
He shall have thorough knowledge of the rules and regulations and procedures
concerning his work and duties as laid down in this Manual, G&S Rules, IRPWM,
Engineering Code and other departmental codes, extant orders and circulars issued from
time to time.
He shall have in his possession up-to-date copies of the rule books/documents/manuals
pertaining to the safe, efficient and trouble-free working of the machines and also other
codes and books applicable and needed for the day-to-day working.
He shall maintain the records pertaining to the machines under his charge and submit the
prescribed returns regularly.
He shall ensure discipline among the staff working under his within the framework of
rules and endeavour to keep their moral high and look after their welfare.
He shall ensure proper handing over/taking over of the charge when transfer/change of
portfolio is effected.
He shall plan and ensure timely execution of the maintenance schedules of the machines
within the specified time.
He shall keep himself abreast of the various methods and techniques of reconditioning of
components and availability status of spares at the Base Depot for efficient
recommissioning of the machine during breakdowns.
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He shall investigate major failure of the machine critically for corrective actions/remedial
xxii.
measures and for fixing responsibilities in case of failures occurring due to lapses of staff.
He shall be conversant with the provisions in various Service Agreement/Contracts and
organize the visits of Service Engineers (scheduled or breakdown).
DUTIES OF MACHINE OPERATORS:
Each machine shall be under the direct charge of Section Engineer/Junior Engineer hereinafter
called the operator. He shall ensure the following:
viii.
Operation and maintenance of the machine.
ix.
Carrying out pre-block maintenance and making the machine fit for working.
x.
Initial setting out for the block working and closing the work of the machine including
ramping in/ramping out of general lift to the track as in case of tie-tamping machine.
xi.
Proper functioning of all the systems and components and keeping a watch on the
controls/indicators/gauges.
xii.
Taking precautions for special Design Mode operations such as curve slewing etc in case
of tamping machine.
xiii.
Posting of fitters/khalasis at respective places around the machine for monitoring the
work of various systems, carrying out during block maintenance (greasing, oiling,
tightening of bolts etc.) and also to attract attention of the main cabin Operator and assist
him in the event of any problem of malfunctioning of the machine or due to track
obstructions.
xiv.
He shall ensure safe working of the machine and staff.
When there are more than one Operators on the machine, the senior-most Operator shall be the
Machine Incharge. In addition to his normal work as an Operator he shall be responsible for the
following functions in which he will be assisted by other Operators/staffs:
vii.
Carrying out the prescribed schedule of maintenance and keeping proper records of the
same.
viii.
Safe custody, accountal and replacement of the spares, Tools & Plants and consumables
issued for the machine and returning of released spares to base depot for
reclamation/condemnation.
ix.
Keeping systems of the machine in working condition and ensuring the target output,
duly maintaining quality.
x.
Maintaining log books and other records, sending daily and other periodical
reports/statements using appropriate fastest mode of communication.
xi.
Liaisoning with the Divisional Officials for efficient working of his unit, coordination
with the Permanent Way staff and planning daily programme of machine work and
interacting with the Permanent Way staff for working in design mode, slewing of curve
etc.
xii.
Actively associating during visit of firm s Service Engineer, furnishing of such
information as may be needed for proper examination of the machine and taking
necessary follow up action.
DUTIES OF TECHNICIAN:
The main functions of Track Machine Fitters/Mechanics are:
viii.
To attend to the daily and weekly maintenance schedules of machine and record the
compliance in log book.
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To extend help during other maintenance schedules/service checks by the Service
x.
xi.
xii.
xiii.
Engineers.
To keep in his custody the various tools and equipment necessary to attend repairs and
ensure their working condition.
To remain vigilant during movement and working of machine and to inform the operator
of any abnormalities.
To guide and supervise the semi-skilled/unskilled staff in attending to the
maintenance/repairs.
To ensure safety of the machine and men from approaching trains on adjacent lines.
Any other work assigned to him by the machine incharge
SUB DISCIPLINE-TRACK TECHNOLOGY (LESSONS: 13 SESSIONS: 26)
Lesson-II: Railway Track Session-3: Constituents of Railway Track. Requirements of Good
Railway Track, Classification of Routes. Different Gauges.
1. TRACK:It is also called permanent way. It basically consists of two parallel rails having
specified distance in between them and fastened to sleepers which are embedded in the layer
of ballast, which is spread over formation.
Rail are joined to each other longitudinally by fish plates and fastened to sleeper by various
fittings. Sleepers are placed at a specified distance and are held in position by embedding in
the ballast.
Gauge:
The perpendicular distance between inner faces of rail is called gauge. It Is
measured 13mm below from rail top.The Indian Railways operate in three different gauges
mainly Broad Gauge (1676mm), Metre Gauge (1000mm), Narrow Gauge (762mm & 610mm)
wide. The broad gauge accounts for nearly 50% followed by metre gauge 43% of the total route
length. The gauge of track in India is measured as the minimum horizontal distance between the
running or gauge faces of two rails 14mm below from top of rail.The standard gauge is 1435mm
DIFFERENT GAUGES ON INDIAN RAILWAY:
(i) B.G. (broad gauges) : - 1676 mm
(ii) M.G.(Meter gauges) :- 1000 mm
(iii) N.G. (Narrow gauges):- 762 mm
(iv) Specific Narrow Gauge:-610 mm
(v) Standard Gauge
:- 1435 mm (Foreign Railways)
2. COMPONENTS OF TRACK:
Following are the main components of the track:(1)
Rails
(2)
Sleepers
(3)
Fitting & Fastenings
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(4)
Ballast
(5)
Formation
In earlier days, temporary track used to be laid for carrying earth and other building
material for construction of railway line, which used to be removed subsequently.
Permanent way is called to distinguish the final track constructed for movement of trains
from the temporary track constructed to carry building materials etc.
3. REQUIREMENT OF GOOD TRACK:
A permanent way or track should give comfortable & safe ride at maximum permissible
speed with minimum cost. For achieving the above objectives a good permanent way should
have the following characteristics:(i)
(ii)
(iii)
(iv)
(v)
(vi)
(vii)
(viii)
The gauge should be correct and uniform.
The rail should have perfect cross-level.
The alignment should be straight and free of kinks.
The gradient should be uniform and as gentle as possible.
The track should be resilient and elastics in order to absorb shocks and vibrations
of running trains.
The track should have good drainage so that the stability of the track is not
affected due to water logging.
The track should have good lateral strength, so that it can maintain its stability
due to variation of temperature and other factors.
There should be provision for easy replacement and renewals of various track
components.
CLASSIFICATION OF ROUTES:
Broad Gauge Routes:All the B.G. routes of Indian Railways have been classified based on
speed criteria as given below:
(A) Group ‘A’ Lines:
These are meant for a sanctioned speed of 160 KMPH. In this
category the
following lines falls:
1.
2.
3.
4.
New Delhi Howrah by Rajdhani Exp. Route.
New Delhi Bombay By Frontier Main or Rajdhani Route.
New Delhi Chennai Central By Grant Trunk Route.
Howrah Mumbai VT - via Nagpur.
(B) Group ‘B’ Lines:
These are meant for a sanctioned speed of 130 KMPH .
(C)
Group ‘C’ Liens:
These include suburban section of Mumbai, Delhi ,Chennai and Kolkota
(D) Group ‘D’ special:
Section where traffic density is very high or likely to grow substantially in future and
sanctioned speed is 100 Kmph at present.
Group ‘D’ Lines:
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Sections where Max
m
speed is100 Kmph.
(E) Group ‘E’ Special:
Sections where traffic density is very high or likely to grow substantially in future and at
present the maxm. Sanction speed isles than 100 Kmph.
Group ‘E’ Lines:
These includes other sections and Branch line.
Classfication of M.G. Routes
Depending upon the importance of route, traffic carried and Maxm permissible speed. M.G.
routes are classified in three categories as Q.R. and S. routes.
(1) ‘Q’ Routes:
These routes consists of routes where the maxm permissible speed will be more than 75
Kmph. And the traffic density will be more than 2.5 GMT. Maxm speed do not exceeds 100
Kpmh. As Bangalore-Miraz route.
(2) ‘R’ Routes:
These routes will have a speed potential of 75 Kmph. and the traffic density will be more
than 1.5 GMT. Routes have further been sub-divided into 3 category depending upon the
volume of traffic as follows:
(a) R1: Where the traffic density will be more than 5 GMT.
(b) R2: In between 2.5 GMT to 5 GMT
(c) R3: 1.5 GMT
2.5 GMT
(3) ‘S’ Routes:
These routes will be the routes where speed potential will be less than75 Kmph and where
the traffic density is less than 1.5 GMT. These will consists of other routes which are not
covered in
, R1 , R2 and R3 routes.
Routes have been further subdivided into 3 routes as S1, S2 and S3 etc.
SUB DISCIPLINE-TRACK TECHNOLOGY (LESSONS: 13 SESSIONS: 26)
Lesson-III: Rails Session-4: Functions, Types & Standard Rail Section, Standard length,
Rolling marks & UTS..
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Formation:Formation is the prepared flat earth surface on which track ballast is laid. Formation
may be with or without sub-ballast. Top of formation is provided with a cross slope of 1 N 40 to
drain off the water quickly.
Sub Grade: A formation without sub-ballast is called as sub-grade.
Types of Formation: Formation may be of following typesFormation in embankment: Formation prepared by depositing the soil over ground level is
called formation in embankment.
Formation in cutting: Formation prepared by excavating the soil below ground level is called
formation in cutting.
Zero fill formation: Formation where the track is laid on ground level is called zero fill
formation.
Function of Formation:
(i)
To provide a smooth & uniform bed for laying of track.
(ii) To bear the static and dynamic loads transmitted to it through ballast section.
(iii) To facilitate drainage
(iv) To provide stability to the track.
Width of Formation:Width of formation depends on the number of tracks to be laid and the
gauge.The minimum width of formation required to be provided on straight track for single
line/double line, embankment/cutting for BG as well as MG, on new construction and gauge
conversion shall be as underStraight Track:
Double Line (m)
Gauge
Formation
Single Line (m)
Existing Line
New Construction
BG
Embankment
6.85
11.58
12.155
Cutting
6.25
10.98
11.555
MG
Embankment
5.85
9.81
Cutting
5.25
9.21
NG
Embankment
3.70
7.32
Cutting
7.01
7.01
Note: (i) The above formation width in cutting does not include the requirement for drain and
width of berm.
(ii) These widths are for sections where concrete sleepers have been provided or proposed
to be provided.
Width of formation on curved track:On curves, the actual formation width on single/double
lines and track centres to be adopted on double lines should be decided by the Chief
Administrative Officer (Const.) after giving due consideration to the following(i)
Width of ballast shoulder:In case of LWR/CWR track the width of ballast shoulder on
outside of curve shall be 500mm in place of 350mm, extra width of formation shall be
taken into account for single line and 300mm for double line.
(ii) Due to extra clearances on double line: On account of the effect of super elevation,
increase in track centres on curves with corresponding increase in formation width shall
also be taken into account
Formation profiles The recommended track centre distance shall be as under:
(i) On BG
(a) For existing track 4.725m
(b) For new constructions and gauge conversion, doublings 5.305
(ii) On MG 3.96m
Cess: The width of formation beyond toe of the ballast to the end of formation is called cess.
This additional width beyond ballast toe provides stability to formation. The level of cess
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is measured with respect to top of rail and should be ensured in accordance with ballast
profile for different types of sleepers.
Height of Formation and side Slopes:The height of formation depends upon the ground
contours and gradients. Side slopes of the formation is dependent on the shearing strength
of soil and its angle of repose. In case of clayey & sandy soil normally the side slope is 2:1
(Horizontal: Vertical) for the formation in embankment and a slope of 1:1 in cutting or
even sleeper in case of rock.
(1)
RAILS:Rails are similar to steel girder placed end to end at gauge distance to provide
continuous of leveled surface for train move.
(2)
FUNCTIONS OF RAILS: Following are the main functions:(i)
Rails provides continuous and leveled surface for movement of trains.
(ii)
It provides a path way which is smooth and has very lessfriction like 1/5th of
road.
(iii)
The rails serves as a lateral guide for running of wheels.
(iv)
The rail wear various types of stresses such as vertical load, braking forces, and thermal
stresses due to temperature etc.
(v)
Rails carry out the functions of transmitting load to a large surface area of formation
through sleeper and ballast.
(3)
TYPES OF RAIL:Various types of rails are:(1) Double Headed Rail (D.H. Rails):Originally these rails were used having identical
heads on both the sides, so that these may be used on both the sides.
(2) Bull Headed Rail (B.H .Rails):The shape of these rails is similar to D.H.R. and only
difference is that its head has more metal to allow wear & tear, so that it may run for long
life.
(3) Flat Footed Rails (F.F.Rails):These rails are having inverted
cross-section and can
be directly fixed to the sleeper with the help of spikes. These rail have been standardized for
use in Indian Railways. These rails have more economical design giving greater strength &
Lateral stability.
Standard Length of Rail:Theoretically longer the rail, lesser are the number of joints and
fittings and lesser should be the cost of construction and its maintenance. Longer rails are not
only economical but give smoother and comfortable riding of trains. The length of rails is
however, restricted due to the following factors.
(i) Lack of facilities for transport of longer rails particularly on curves.
(ii) Difficulties in handling of long rails.
(iii) Uneconomical in manufacturing very long rail.
(iv) Difficulties in having a bigger expansion joint for long rails.
(v) Heavy internal thermal stresses in long rails.
Taking the above factors limit consideration. Indian Railways have standardized 13
metres rail length previously (42 ft. for Broad Gauge and 12 meters previously 39 fit) for MG
and NG track. Indian Railways are also planning to use 26 meters long and even longer rails on
its system.
Every rail rolled has a brand on its web, which is repeated at interval such:
IR 90R-TISCO-II 1985-Basic BASSEMER
The abbreviations used indicates
(i) IR
:
Indian Railways
(ii) 90R
:
Weight and type of section; 90 ibs/yard rails as per revised British
specifications.
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(iii) TISCO :
Tata iron and Steel Company
(iv) If 1985 :
Month and year of manufacture; Feb. 1985
As per IRS/T-18-88, the brand marks are being revised and these will be as follows:
IRS-52kg-710-TISCO-11 1991
OB
The explanation for various new abbreviations is as given below:
(i)
IRSE-52-kg : Number of IRS rail section i.e. 52 kg or any other section.
(ii)
710
: Grade of rail section i.e. 710 or 880.
(iii)
TISCO
: Manufacturer s name i.e. Tata Iron & Steel Co. or any other
firm.
SUB DISCIPLINE-TRACK TECHNOLOGY (LESSONS: 13 SESSIONS: 26)
Lesson-IV: Sleepers Session-5: Functions, Types & Sleeper Density, Requirements of PRC
sleepers- their advantages and disadvantages
SLEEPERS: Sleepers are transverse ties on which rails are laid:
1.
Functions of Sleeper:(1) Holds rails to correct gauge and alignment.
(2) Give a firm and even supports to rails.
(3) Transfer the load evenly from rails to the wide area of ballast.
(4) Act as an elastic medium between rail and ballast to absorb shocks and vibrations of
moving loads.
(5) It provides longitudinal and lateral stability to permanent way.
2. Types of Sleepers:
i) Wooden sleeper
ii) Steel sleeper
(a) Cast iron steel sleeper
(b) Steel trough sleeper
iii) Concrete Sleepers
(a) Mono block concrete sleeper
(b) Twin block
3. Sleeper Density: It is the no .of sleepers used per rail length.
Length of each rail = 13m (B.G.), 12m (M.G.)
Sleeper density is expressed as M + X or N + Y
Where M or N is the length of rails in meters or Yards respectively and X and Y is the variable
no. For example:
In B.G. the no. of sleeper per rail length for a sleeper density M + 7 will be 20 or 1540 sleepers
per kilometer of rail.
Sleeper
density
No. of sleeper
per kilometer
Exact c/c spacing required
as per calculation
C/c spacing to be provided in
the filed
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M+8
M+7
M+4
1660/Km.
1540/Km.
1310/Km.
60.24 cm
64.93 cm
76.33 cm
L.W.R.
60
65
-
S.W.R.
66
78
4. REQUIREMENTS OF AN IDEAL SLEEPERS:
The ideal sleeper should normally fulfill the following requirements:
i)
ii)
iii)
iv)
v)
vi)
vii)
viii)
The initial cost as well as maintenance cost should be minimum.
The weight of sleeper should be moderate, so that it is possible to handle it easily.
The design of sleeper and fastenings should be such that it is possible to fix and
remove the rails easily.
The material of sleeper and its design should be such that the sleepers do not break or
get damaged while packing below the sleepers.
The sleeper should be such that it is possible to maintain and adjust gauge properly.
The sleeper should have sufficient bearing area.
The design of sleeper should be such that it is possible to have track circuiting.
The sleeper should have anti-sabotage and Anti-theft quality.
CONCRETE SLEEPER :
The use of concrete sleepers on Indian Railways becomes necessary due to following
reasons.
i)
ii)
iii)
Scarcity of good quality of timber.
High cost of maintenance in wooden and steel sleepers.
Introduction of high speed and heavier axle loads.
ADVANTAGES OF CONCRETE SLEEPERS:
(i) Concrete sleepers being heavy, gives greater strength and stability to track and are
suitable specially for LWR/CWR due to great resistant to buckling .
(ii)
Concrete sleepers with elastic fastening provide a track which can maintain better gauge
,cross level and alignment and retains packing well.
(iii) Concrete sleepers have flat bottom therefore they are best suited for modern method of
maintenance.
(iv) These can be used in track circuited areas or track circuited section.
(v)
These have longer service life approx 50 years.
(vi)
It has anti-sabotage and anti-theft quality.
(vii) Not susceptible to fire hazard.
Disadvantages:
1. Being heavy, their handling and maintenance is difficult and mechanical means
to be adopted for this.
have
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2.
3.
They get heavily damaged in the case of derailment as they are brittle and hard.
Nil scrap value.
TYPES OF CONCRETE SLEEPER:
PRC
Pre stress mono block
Twin block ordinarily reinforced
Concrete sleeper
concrete sleeper.
Pre-tensioned
Post tensioned
SUB DISCIPLINE-TRACK TECHNOLOGY (LESSONS: 13 SESSIONS: 26)
Lesson-V: Fastenings Session-6: Rail to Rail fastenings, Rail to Sleeper fastenings.
Track fittings are of two types:(1)
Rail to rail fittings
(2)
Rail to sleeper fittings.
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RAIL TO RAIL FITTINGS:
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These fittings are used for tieing one rail to another longitudinally in same horizontal and vertical
plane. One of the main fittings of such types of rail is fishplate. Fishplate is called, so as its
section looks like a fish.
TYPE OF FISHPLATE:
Fishplates are of following two types:
i) Ordinary fishplate
ii) Combination fishplate.
(i) Ordinary Fishplate:
These plates are having I-section. These are used to connect similar line section together,
such as 90R rail to 90R rail and 60 Kg rail to60 Kg rail.
(ii) Combination Fishplate:
These are used for connecting the rail length of two different rail sections. Such as 90R rail to
52 Kg rail, 52 Kg rail to 60 Kg rail. The combination fishplates are designed so as to suit
the two rail sections.
No expansion gap is kept at such joints so as to give more strength. A common top table
and gauge face of the two rail section is available with the help of the Junction fish plates or
combination fish plates in-spite of varying depth & thickness of the section.
ELASTIC FASTENING: Fastenings are subjected not only to severe vertical, longitudinal and
lateral forces also to heavy vibrations. With increasing load and speed, their effect become more
and more severe, with the result that the conventional rigid fastenings are not able to withstand
these and start working loose.
Therefore some such fastenings are to be adopted which are able to withstand shocks and
vibrations. Elastic fastenings possess all these qualities.
i) E.R.C. (Elastic Rail Clip or Pendrol):
It is made out of a round steel spring bar 20.6 mm of dia and has a typical shape. It exerts toe
load on the foot of the rail, of around 710 Kg to 1100 Kg, when fitted with proper rubber pad
and liner.
ii) Rubber Pad:It is an integral part of an elastic fastenings. It is provided between rail and
sleeper to absorb or dampers the vibrations and shocks and provides a cushioning effect
between the bottom of rail and sleeper. It is made of special quality of rubber and has
longitudinal groove in both sides.
iii) Liner:These are used with concrete sleepers and are provided between the toe of the pendrol
clip and rail foot. These are of two types:
(a) Steel Liner: It is used on non circuited track areas.
(b) Insulating Liner: These are used on track Circuited areas/sections.
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SUB DISCIPLINE-TRACK TECHNOLOGY (LESSONS: 13 SESSIONS: 26)
Lesson-VI: Points & Crossings Session-7:Functions & Important terminology.
POINTS & CORSSINGS:
Functions:-Points and X-ing are provided to transfer a vehicle from one track to other. The
points which consist of a pair of switches gives the facility of diverting and X-ing provides gap
in the rails to be crossed by flanged wheel. A complete set of point and X-ing along with lead
rails is called turnout. It is designated or called as R.H. and L.H. turnout depending upon
direction of traffic diverted by it.
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SUB DISCIPLINE-TRACK TECHNOLOGY (LESSONS: 13 SESSIONS: 26)
Lesson-VI: Points & Crossings
Session-8: Constituents of Turnout.
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CONSTITUENTS OF POINTS AND CORSSING:
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1. Tongue Rail:It is the tapered moveable rail made up of high carbon and manganese steel to
withstand wear. It is connected to lead rail at its thicker end.
2. Stock Rail:It is the running rail against which the tounge rail operates.
3. Switch:
switch.
A pair of tounge rail and stock rail with necessary connections and fittings form a
4. Points:A pair of tounge rails along with their stock rails are termed as points.
5. Turn Out:It is an arrangement of point and X-ing with lead rails by means of which rolling
stock (Vehicles) may be diverted from one track to another track.
6. X-ING:X-ING is introduced at the junction where two rails X-each other. It permits the
wheel flange of railway vehicle to pass from one track to another track.
SWITCHES:There are two types of switches:
1. STUB SWITCH:In this type of switch no separate tounge rail is provided and some portion
of the track is moved from one side to another side. These are obsolete now.
2. SPLITS WITCHES:It has a pair of stock rail and a pair of tounge rail split switches are of
two types:
(a) Loose Heel Type: In this type, the switch rail or toung rail finishes at the heel of the switch.
In order to enable the free end of the toung rail to be moved, two bolts of the heel block are
kept loose.
(b) Fixed Heel Type: In this type of switch, tounge rail does not end at heel of the switch, but it
extends further. The movement of the tounge rail is made on account of the flexibility of
toung rail by increasing its length.
TOE OF SWITCHES: Depending upon the mode of machining of toe of switches, they may be
of the following type.
(1) UNDER CUT SWITCH:This is the type of switch the foot of the stock rail is machined to
accomodate toung rail.
(2) OVER RIDING SWITCH:In this type of switch the stock rail has the full section and the
toung rail is planned to 6mm thick edge which over rides the foot of the stock rail.
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SUB DISCIPLINE-TRACK TECHNOLOGY (LESSONS: 13 SESSIONS: 26)
Lesson-VI: Points & Crossings
Session-9: Switch Angle, Flange way clearance, Heel
divergence, Throw of switch.
1. Switch Angle:
It is the angle between the gauge faces of stock rail and tounge rail at theoretical toe of
switch (TTS). This angle depends upon heel divergence and length of tounge.
2. Flange Way Clearance:
It is the distance between adjoining faces of running rail and wing rail/check rail near the xing. It is meant for providing clearance for the passage of wheel flange. Limiting value are:
Maxm
Minm
B.G
48
44
M.G.
44
41
51
57 mm
At L /X-ING
3. Heel Divergence:
It is the distance between gauge faces of stock rail and tongue rail at heel joint.
4. Throw of switch:
It is the distance through which the tongue rail moves laterally at the toe of the switch for
movement of trains limiting value are:
Maxm
Minm
B.G.
115
95
M.G.
100
89
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SUB DISCIPLINE-TRACK TECHNOLOGY (LESSONS: 13 SESSIONS: 26)
Lesson-VI: Points & Crossings Session-10: Types of Crossings, Crossing number &
Main constituents of Built-up Crossing.
TYPES OF CROSSING:
A. ON THE BASISOF CROSSING ANGLE CROSSINGS MAY BE DIVIDED INTO:
(i)
Acute Angle Crossing:An acute angle crossing or V-crossing is in which the intersection
of two gauge faces form an acute angle.
(ii)
Obtuse Angle Crossing:In this crossings gauge faces form on obtuse angle at the point
of intersection.
(iii)
Square Crossing:In this case two gauge faces intersect each other at 90.
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B. FROM THE MANUFACTURING POINT OF VIEW CROSSINGS CAN BE TWO
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TYPES:
(i) Built up Crossing:In this crossing two wing rails and nose are assembled together with the
help of bolts and distance blocks. These are being used broadly on Indian Railways.
(ii) Cast Manganese Steel Crossing:In this crossing no bolts are there. This piece is one piece
cast crossing which needs very little maintenance.
CROSSING NUMBER
Number and angle of crossing:A crossing is designated either by the angle the gauge faces
make with each other or more commonly by the number of crossing represented by
. There
are three methods of measuring the number of crossing and the value of
depends upon the
method adopted. The methods.
Right angle method: This is the method used on Indian Railways. In this method, the
measurement of N is taken along the base of a right angled triangle. This method is called Coles
method.
N
Cot a = 1
or
N = Cot a
Speed on the Turnouts:The design of the turnouts and permissible speeds are closely linked
with each other as the forces coming on the turnout are dependent on the speed. The turnouts on
IR are curved without the superelevation and transition hence the speed on the turnouts is
restricted due to comfort, safety and the maintainability criteria.
Upgradation of speeds on Turnouts and loops upto 30 kmph: Speed in excess of 15 kmph
shall be permitted on turnouts laid with ST or PRC sleepers only. All turnouts on running loops
shall be laid with curved switches. With minimum rail section being 52 kg. All rail joints on
these turnouts shall be welded to the extent possibly. Permissible speeds on curved switches ten
sw1 shall be as under:
1.
1 in 8½ sw
1.5 kmph.
2.
1 in 8½ symmetrical split with curved switch.
30 kmph
3.
1 in curved switch
30 kmph
Position of sleepers at Points & Crossing: The sleepers are normally kept perpendicular to
track. At points and crossings a situation arises when sleepers have to cater for the main line as
well as for turn out portion. Longer sleepers are used for some length of the track for this
purpose.
Session-11: Yard Visit to see various constitutes of Turn-out.
SUB DISCIPLINE-TRACK TECHNOLOGY (LESSONS: 13 SESSIONS: 26)
Lesson-VII: Welding of Rails Session-12: Evil effects of Rail joints.
WELDING OF RAIL
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NECESSITY OF WELDING:
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The rail joint is the weakest link in a railway track and therefore causes certain maintenance
problem.
Following are the evil effects of rail joint:
i)
ii)
Due to moving load s in pact on the joint ballast under the joint sleeper get loosed.
The life of rail, sleepers and fastenings gets effected adversely. The rail ends
particularly get battered and hogged and chances of rail failure at joint increases.
iii)
Lot of noise pollution is created due to rail joint, making the rail travel
uncomfortable.
iv)
Due to a rail joint, there is a danger of removal of fish plates and rails by the
miscreants and chances of subotage increases.
v)
Due to rail joint, there is excessive wear and tear of track components and rolling
stock.
vi)
Pressure of rail joints, results in increased fuel consumption.
vii)
25% extra labour is required for maintenance of joints.
Due to these evil effects of rail joints we go for welding of rail joints.
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SUB DISCIPLINE-TRACK TECHNOLOGY (LESSONS: 13 SESSIONS: 26)
Lesson-VII: Welding of Rails Session-13: Different types of welding
The various types of rail welding techniques are as follows:
(1)
OXY
acetylene welding
(2)
Electric arc welding.
(3)
Electric are welding
(4)
Flash butt welding
(5)
Alumino -thermit welding
(1)
Oxy Acetylene or Gas Pressure Welding:
In this type of welding necessarily heat is produced by a combination of oxygen and
Acetylene gas. The rail ends to be welded are brought together and heat is applied through
a burner. Temperature upto 12000C to14000C is achieved, so that the metal of the rail ends
get melted and fusion takes place ,welding the rail ends together.
(2)
Electric Arc Welding:
In this method the heat is created by the passage of electric current across a gap between
two conductors. About 35000c temperature is achieved, causing the two rail ends weld
together.
(3)
FLASH BUT WELDING:
In this method heat is generated by electric resistance. The two rail ends are brought
together, so that they almost touch each other. The electric energy is switched on, thereby
allowing an electric current of about 5 volt and 35000 ampere to pass between faces of two
rails; lot of flashing takes place and considerable heat is generated rising the temperature
from 10000c-15000c. At this time the rail ends are pressed together causing welding of the
rails.
(4)
ALUMINO – THERMIT WELDING:
This is the only form of site welding. Its principle is that when a mixture of finely divided
aluminium and iron oxide called thermit mixture is ignited a chemical reaction takes place
with evaluation of heat, producing iron and Aluminium oxide. The iron released from the
reaction is in molten condition (24500c), which is poured in the gap between the two rails,
welding the rail ends together. The equation which follows is:
2Al + Fe2O3
.
> Al2O3 + 2Fe + heat
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Session-14: Yard visit
SUB DISCIPLINE-TRACK TECHNOLOGY (LESSONS: 13 SESSIONS: 26)
Lesson-VIII: Track Renewals Session-15: Classification of Track Renewals
TRACK RENEWALS:
Permanent Way Renewals:
Classification of Renewals
(1) All track renewals can be classified generally into one of the following categories:
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
(6)
(7)
(8)
(9)
(10)
(11)
(12)
Complete Track Renewal (Primary) abbreviated as C.T.R. (P)
Complete Track Renewal (Secondary) abbreviated as C.T.R. (S)
Through Rail Renewal(Primary) abbreviated as T.R.R. (P)
Through Rail Renewal (Secondary) abbreviated as T.T.R. (S)
Through Sleeper Renewal (Primary) abbreviated as T.S.R. (P)
Through Sleeper Renewal (Secondary) abbreviated as T.S.R. (S)
Casual Renewals.
Through Turn-out renewal (TTR)
Through Fitting renewal (TER)
Through Weld renewal (TWR)
Through Bridge timber renewal (TBTR)
Scattered renewal
(1)
Primary renewals are those where only new materials are used and secondary renewals are
those where released serviceable materials are used.
Scattered Renewal- In this case, unserviceable rails, sleepers and fastenings are replaced by
identical sections of serviceable and nearly the same vintage track components. These are
carried out in isolated locations and not more than 10 rails and/or 250 sleepers in a gang
beat in a year. Such renewals are a part of normal maintenance operations.
Casual renewal In this case, unserviceable rails, sleepers and fastenings are replaced by
identical sections of serviceable and nearly the same vintage or new track components.
These are carried out in isolated locations of continuous but small stretches. Such renewals
are not a part of normal maintenance operations and cannot be covered under scattered
renewals.
(1)
(2)
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Factors Governing Permanent Way Renewal: Criteria for Rail Renewal The following are to be
Documents
considered in connection with the criteria of rail renewals:
Incidence of rail fractures/failures. Wear on rails. Maintainability of track to prescribed
standards.
•
Expected service life in terms of Gross million tonnes carried.
•
Plan based renewals.
(a) Incidence of Rail Fractures/Failures – A spate of rail fractures on a particular sections
having 5 withdrawals of rails per 10km. in a year due to fracture and/or rail flaws
detected ultrasonically failing in the category of IMR & REM will have priority while
deciding rail renewals. In case the rail failures at fishplate/welded joints are predominant, end cropping with or without welding could be considered.
(b) Wear on Rails – (i) Limiting Loss of Section- The limiting loss in rail section, as a
criterion for recommending rail renewals shall be as under:
Guage
B.G.
M.G.
Rail Section
52 kg./metre
90 R
75 R
60 R
Loss in section in percentage
6
5
4.2
3.25
Rail wear may be determined by actual weighment, taking rail profiles at ends after
unfishing joints and taking rail profiles with special profile measuring gadgets.
(ii)
Wear due to corrosion – Corrosion beyond 1.5mm in the web and foot may be taken as
the criterion for wear due to corrosion. Existence of the localised corrosion such as corrosion
pits, specially on the underside of the foot, acting as stress raisers from the origin of fatigue
cracks and would necessitate renewals.
(iii)
Vertical Wear – When the reduction of the depth cf the rail head reaches a point beyond
which there is a risk of wheel flanges grazing the fish-plates, such rails should be renewed. The
limits of vertical wear at which renewals are to be planned are given as below.
Vertical Wear
Gauge
B.G.
M.G.
Rail Section
Vertical Wear
60 Kg/metre
52 Kg/metre
90 R
13.00 mm
8.00 mm
5.00 mm
90 R
60 R
4.50 mm
3.00 mm
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Lateral wear is to be measured at 13 to 15 mm, below the rail top table. Worn rail profile
should be recorded and superimposed over new rail profile to find out the lateral wear.
(b)
(i)
(1)
(2)
Maintainability of track to prescribed standardsThere may be cases, where renewals may be necessary on the following considerations viz.
Poor running quality of track in spite of extra maintenance labour engaged for maintaining
the same,
Disproportionate cost of maintaining the portion of track in safe condition.
(ii)
The condition of rails with regard to hogging/battering, scabbing and wheel burns and other
conditions such as excessive corrugation of rail as can be ascertained by visual inspections,
with affects the running quality of track, and make the track maintenance difficult and
uneconomical, should be taken into account while proposing renewals.
(iii) Renewals of rail due to hogged and battered rails ends should be considered only if other
remedies have not been found to be effective.
(c) Renewals on consideration of service the life in terms of total G.M.T. of traffic carried
The rail shall be planned for through renewal after it has carried the minimum total traffic
as shown belowGauge
Rail Section
Total G.M.T. carried for
Total GMT carried
T.12 Med. Manganese Rails
for 90 UTS rails.
800
550
B.G.
60 Kg/m
525
350
52 Kg/m
375
250
90 R
150
75 R
M.G.
125
60 R
SUB DISCIPLINE-TRACK TECHNOLOGY (LESSONS: 13 SESSIONS: 26)
Lesson-IX: Maintenance of Track Session-16: Provisions on Works incidental to Regular
Track Maintenance with thrust on Deep Screening.
System of Track Maintenance:
1.
System to be adopted – The track should be maintained either by conventional system of
track maintenance or by 3-tier system of track maintenance.
2.
Details of Maintenance Works –
(a) In both the systems, track requires to be overhauled periodically with the object of restoring
it to best possible condition, consistent with its maintainability. Periodicity of overhauling
depends on several factors, such as type of track structure, its age, volume of traffic, rate of
track deterioration, maximum permissible speed, system of traction, condition of formation
etc. Irrespective of the system of track maintenance adopted, it is obligatory to overhaul
specified lengths of gang beat annually. The length of the section to be overhauled shall be
such that complete overhauling of track will be accomplished within a specific period
(normally 3 to 5 years).
(b) Immediately after cessation of mansoon, the run down lengths should be quickly attended
to, to restore the section to good shape. After this is done overhauling/through packing of
track should be taken in hand. After completion of one cycle of systematic through
maintenance, track should be attended to wherever required.
(c) In any system of maintenance it is necessary to allot certain number of days in a week for
picking up slacks to ensure that whole gang length is in safe condition for passage of
trains.
Through Packing:
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Conventional Maintenance By Beater Packing – General: Through packing shall consist of
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the following operations in sequence. The length of track opened out on any one day shall not be
more than that can be efficiently tackled before the end of the day:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
(f)
(g)
(h)
Opening of the road.
Examination of rails, sleepers and fastenings.
Squaring of sleepers.
Slewing of track to correct alignment.
Gauging.
Packing of Sleepers.
Repacking of joint sleepers.
Boxing of ballast section and tidying.
Through packing is best done continuously from one end of a gang length towards the other.
Track Maintenance by Machines:
General – Mechanical maintenance of track involving use of on track machines should be
planned, on long continuous lengths.
Systematic Overhauling:
(1) Sequence of Operations – Overhauling should consist of the following operations in
sequence:
(b) Shallow screening and making up of ballast.
(c) All items attended to, while doing through packing.
(d) Making up the cess.
(2) Shallow Screening and making up of Ballast.
(a) For good drainage periodical screening of ballast is essential.
(b) In the case of manual maintenance, the crib ballast between sleepers is opened out to a
depth of 50 to 75mm. below the bottom of sleepers, sloping from the centre towards
sleeper end. For machine maintained section, the crib ballast in the shoulders should be
opened out to a depth of 75 to 100mm. below the bottom of sleepers, sloping from the
centre towards sleeper end. The ballast in the shoulders opposite to the crib as well as the
sleepers is removed to the full depth. A slope is given at the bottom sloping away from
the sleeper end. The ballast is then screened and put back. Care should be taken to see
that the packing under the sleepers is not disturbed and the muck removed is not allowed
to raise the cess above the correct level.
(c) Two contiguous spaces between sleepers should not be worked at the same time.
(d) Screening should be progressed in alternate panels of one rail length. In no circumstances
should several rail lengths of track be stripped of ballast.
(e) Where drains across the track exist, they should be cleaned and filled with boulders or
ballast to prevent packing from working out and forming slacks.
(f) After screening, full ballast section should be provided, extra ballast being run put
previously for the purpose. Work should be commenced after making sure that the ballast
will not be seriously deficient. Deficiency, if any, should be shown in the central portion
of sleeper and this also should be made up soon.
(3) Through packing of track The detailed operations are described in Para 224. Through
packing may be done either by conventional beater packing, or by using machines.
(4) Making up of Cess Cess when high should be cut alongwith overhauling and when low
should be made up. A template should be used for this purpose.
(5) General Overhauling should be completed before the end of March. In the case of L.W.R.
territory, the provisions in L.W.R. Manual should be followed.
(6) Screening in Welded area In the case of S.W.R. area screening may be carried out at rail
temperatures and conditions.
3-tier System of Track Maintenance:
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3-tier System of track maintenance shall be adopted on sections nominated for mechanized
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maintenance. This shall consist of the following 3 tiers of track maintenance.
(i) On-track machines (OMU)
(j) Mobile Maintenance Units (MMU)
(k) Sectional Gangs.
Picking up Slacks – Slacks usually occur on stretches of yielding formation on high banks and
cuttings, on approaches of bridges, on badly aligned curves, where ballast is poor in quality or
quantity or where drainage is defective. Attention to slacks should be need based, need for the
same being determined by inspections and results of track recording. Picking up slacks shall be
done where the alignment is kinky or top level is uneven and the track has to be restored to
normal condition quickly. The quantum of work turned out by a gang during the day will depend
on the extent of slacks. In all cases sighting is done, the defects assessed and marks made on
sleepers to be dealt with in chalk. The marked sleepers should then be dealt with as in through
packing care being taken to see that the packing of adjacent sleepers does not get disturbed. In
case a large percentage of sleepers needs attention in a rail length, the entire rail length should be
attended to. The marking of defects shall be as indicated below:
Defects
Symbol
Place of indication
On the sleeper inside gauge face.
C-2
Cross levels
On the sleeper outside the gauge face
H or P
Loose packing
On the sleeper inside the gauge face.
O±
Gauge
On the rail web on gauge face side.
Unevenness
On the foot of rail inside the gauge
Alignment
face.
It is imperative that when joints are picked up, at least three sleepers on either side of the
joints are packed. Picking up slacks may be done, by conventional method or by off-track
tampers. In the case of a low joint, the fishplates should be slightly loosened and the joint tapped,
so that the rail ends are, rendered free and are capable of being lifted. After the joint is
thoroughly packed the fishplates should be tightened again.
Works Incidental to Regular Track Maintenance:
Deep Screening of Ballast:
(a) It is essential that track is well drained for which screening of ballast should be carried out
periodically. Due to presence of bad formation, ballast attrition, excessive rain fall and
dropping of ashes and ore, ballast gets chocked up and track drainage is impaired. In such
situations, it becomes necessary to screen the entire ballast right up to the formation
level/sub-ballast level. Further through screening restores the resiliency and elasticity of the
ballast bed, resulting in improved running quality of track. Such screening is called Deep
screening , as distinguished from the shallow screening, which is done, during overhauling.
(b) Deep screening should be carried out in the following situations by providing full ballast
cushion:
(1) Prior to complete track renewal.
(2) Prior to through sleeper renewal.
(3) Where the caking of ballast has resulted in unsatisfactory riding.
(4) Before converting existing track, fish plated or SWR into LWR or CWR; or before
introduction of machine maintenance, unless the ballast was screened in recent past.
(5) The entire track must be deep screened atleast once in ten years.
(c)
(d)
The need for intermediate screening between track renewals may be decided by the Chief
Engineer depending on the local conditions.
At the time of deep screening, formation treatment should be carried out along with the
deep screening.
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(e) In case of the bad formation, formation treatment should be carried out along with the deep
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screening.
The work of deep screening should be carried out continuously from one end of the section
to the other.
With Manual Packing: The details of the work to be carried out in stages on various days, after
the starting of the screening operation and the speed restriction recommended to be imposed are
shown in Table.
According to the above schedule normal Sectional speed can be resorted on the 21st day.
Table-I Proposed Schedules for Deep Screening (Manual Packing)
Details of Work
Day of Work Speed Restrictions and their
length
Broad Gauge
Metre Gauge
1
Deep Screening and Initial packing
2
20 Km. p.h.
20 Km. p.h.
First through packing
3
Second through packing
Picking up slacks as required
4
5
6
45 Km. p.h.
30 Km. p.h.
7
8
9
10
Third through packing
(f)
Picking up slacks as required
Third through packing
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21 onwards
75 Km. p.h.
60 Km. p.h.
Normal
Sectional Speed
Normal
Sectional speed
With Machine Packing: The details of the work to be carried out in stages on various days,
after the start of the screening operations and the speed restriction recommended to be imposed
are indicated in the schematic representation in Table II.
According to this schedule, normal sectional speed can be resumed on the tenth.
Table – II Proposed Schedules for Deep Screening (Machine Packing/B.G.)
Details of Work
Deep Screening with Initial packing
First machine packing
Picking up slacks as required
Second machine packing
Day of Work
1
2
3
4
5
6
Speed Restrictions and their length
20 Km. p.h.
45 Km. p.h.
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Picking up slacks as required
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Third through packing
7
8
9
10 onwards
75 Km. p.h.
Normal Sectional Speed
The period mentioned in the schedules shown above is the minimum and can be suitably
increased to suit local condition of the track consolidation.
SUB DISCIPLINE-TRACK TECHNOLOGY (LESSONS: 13 SESSIONS: 26)
Lesson-XI: Maintenance of Track Session-17: Provisions on Maintenance of Track in Track
Circuited Areas as contained in IRPWM.
Maintenance of Track in Track Circuited Areas:
Track Circuit:
Is an electrical circuit formed along running rails. It s function is to indicate presence or
absence of a train on a portion of track. When track is not occupied track relay is energized & in
case of occupation, track relay is de-energized. The following precautions shall be taken while
working in track circuited areas-
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Incharge Sectional P. Way Engineer shall instruct the staff not to place across or touching
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
two rails in the track, any tool or metal object which may cause short circuiting.
All gauges, levels, trolleys and lorries used on the track circuited length shall be
insulated.
Steel or C. 1 pipes used for carrying water gas under the track shall be placed sufficiently
below the rails to prevent any short circuiting.
While carrying out track maintenance, care shall be taken to ensure that no damage of
track circuit fittings like bond wires bootlegs, jumped wires etc. tales [;ace/
Use of steel tape should be avoided.
Pulling back of rails in track circuited areas shall be done in the presence of S&T staff.
Proper drainage shall be ensured in yard to avoid flooding of track during rains., where
watering of coaches is done. It would be desirable to provide washable concrete aprons
on platform lines.
Ballast shall be kept clean through out the track circuited length and care shall be taken to
ensure that ballast is kept clear of rails i.e. 50mm from under side the foot of rail.
Min. ballast resistance per Km. of track < 20 ohms in the station yards and < 4 ohms in
block sections.
SUB DISCIPLINE-TRACK TECHNOLOGY (LESSONS: 13 SESSIONS: 26)
Lesson-IX: Maintenance of Track
Session-18: Provisions on Maintenance of Track in
Electrified Areas as contained in IRPWM & Precautions during Machine working
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(1) General Knowledge of Engineering Staff –
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(a)
Every engineering official working in electrical traction area shall be in possession of a
copy of rules framed for the purpose of the operation of the Traction Power
Distribution system pertaining to Engineering department and ensure that staff working
under him are also acquainted with the rules. He will ensure that rules pertaining to
carrying out engineering works are strictly observed.
(b) All electrical equipment, every power line or cable shall be regarded as being live at
all times. No work shall be commenced adjacent to any electrical equipment except on
authority issued in writing by a competent official of the Electrical Department to the
effect that the equipment has been made dead and earthed.
(2) Defects in a Overhead Equipment: Defects or break-downs in the overhead equipment
including track and structure bonds noticed by the Engineering staff shall be reported
immediately to the Traction Power Controller. When defects in the overhead equipment that
are likely to cause damage to pantographs or trains, are noticed and it is not possible to
convey information to Station Masters or signalmen to enable them to issue caution orders,
the line shall be protected by the staff noticing such defects according to General Rule 3.62.
(3) Traction Bonds – In electrified area the return current fully or partially flows through the
rail. To ensure a reliable electrical circuit continuity and also to ensure proper earthing in
case of leakage of current, various types of traction bonds as described below are provided at
suitable places and maintained by the Electrical Traction Department(b) Longitudinal Rail Bonds – In the case of D.C. traction system, practically the whole
return current flow through the rail. Therefore, two flexible copper bonds offering
minimum resistance to the flow of current are provided at each rail joint under the fishplates. Two solid lugs at the two ends of the copper bonds are inserted in holes drilled at
the two rail ends between the fish bolt holes and are pressed by using a bend press to
rivet them firmly to the rail. On points and crossings and at junction fish-plates where
continuity bonds of the above type can not be provided due to space constraint,
continuity of return current path is achieved by using mild steel straps or G.I. wire ropes.
Absence of such bonds may cause unsafe working condition and in extreme cases may
damage the rail ends.
(c) Cross Bonds (D.C): Cross bonds are provided between adjacent tracks at regular
intervals to reduce resistance of the current to the minimum. Such cross bonds are also
known as transverse bonds.
(d) Structure Bonds: All Structures supporting overhead equipment either in A.C. or D.C.
track circuited areas are connected to the running rails for ensuring good earthing. Failure
of insulator or leakage of current switches off the supply from the sub-station so that men
coming in contact with supporting structure etc. do not get electric shock. Removal or
tampering of such bonds can, therefore, result in unsafe conditions. Since the structures
are grouted in concrete, they are likely to become charged in case such bonds are kept
disconnected. Similarly other steel structures such as foot-over bridges, sheds, etc., in the
vicinity of O.H.E. lines are also connected to rails through similar structure bonds.
Special Instructions to Staff Working in Traction Area:
(1) Need for Precautions – Precautions are required to be taken on account of following:(d) Proximity of a Live Conductor – The risk of direct contact with live O.H.E. is ever
present while working in electrified sections such as for painting of steel work of
through spans of bridges and platform cover.
(e) Build up of potential due to return current in rail. – The return current in the rails
may cause a potential difference(i) Between rail and the surrounding mass of earth.
(ii) Between two ends of a fractured rail.
(iii) Between the two rails at an insulated joint.
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(iv) Between earth and any other metallic mass.
(2)
The following precautions should, therefore, be taken while working in traction areas:(a) No work shall be done within a distance of two metres from the live parts of the O.H.E.
without a permit-to-work .
(b) For work adjacent to overhead equipment the Engineering Inspector shall apply to the
proper authority sufficiently in advance for sanctioning the traffic and power block
required.
The Traction Power Controller through Traction Foreman will arrange to isolate and
earth the section concerned on the date and at the time specified in consultation with the
Traffic Controller. He shall then issue permit-to-work to the Engineering Inspector.
On completion of the work the Permit-to-work should be cancelled and Traction
Power Controller advised, who will then arrange to remove the earth and restore power
supply.
(c)
No part of the tree shall be nearer than 4 mts from the nearest live conductor. Any tree
or branches likely to fall on the live conductor should be cut or trimmed periodically to
maintain the safety clearances. The responsibility for wholesale cutting of the trees, i.e.
cutting of tree trunks, will rest with the Engineering Department. In the electrified
territories, however, the cutting of the trees shall be done by the Engineering
Department in the presence of authorized TRD staff to ensure safety and satisfactory
completion of the work. The day-to-day trimming of the tree branches, wherever
required, to maintain the 4m safety clearances from OHE shall be done by the
authorized TRD staff and Supervisors.
In case of dispute, the decision whether to cut or trim a tree, shall be taken through a
joint inspection of Engineering and Electrical officials.
The modalities to be adopted for cutting/trimming of the trees i.e. contractually or
departmentally, may be decided by the respective departments based on local
conditions. Accountal and disposal of trees cut wholesale will be done by the
Engineering Department. While the disposal of the trimmed tree branches will be the
responsibility of the TRD Department. The expenditure for cutting/trimming of trees to
maintain safe clearance of OHE, shall be debited to revenue grant of TRD
Department.
(d) No fallen wire or wires shall be touched unless power is switched off and the wire or
wires suitably earthed. In case the wires drop at a level crossing, the Gatekeeper shall
immediately make arrangements to stop all road traffic.
(e) Work on Station roofs and Signal Gantries- Staff working on station roofs and signal
gantries and similar structures adjacent to Live Overhead Equipment shall not use any
measuring tapes, tools and materials when there is a possibility of their being dropped
or carried by wind on to the live overhead equipment.
(f) Earth Work For excavation work adjacent to tracks, the following action is taken:(i)
(ii)
In D.C. traction areas, intimation should be given in writing sufficiently in advance to
the concerned Traction Distribution Officer to enable him to depute the Traction staff
to be present in order to prevent possible damage to the traction underground feeder
cables witch are always located near the running lines.
In A.C. traction area, intimation should be given to the concerned officers of the
Electrical General services and also S & T Department, since all the S & T and
Electrical lines are cabled of account of Electrical Induction.
In all A.C. and D.C. traction area, cable markers showing location of cables are
provided by the Traction Department. In addition, the cables are protected by tiles
and bricks, and during excavation if workmen come across such tiles or bricks in an
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arranged manner, they should at once report the matter to the higher officials. Any
further excavation should be carried out only in the presence of the authorized staff of
Electrical Traction and or S & T Department as the case may be.
(g) Alteration to Tracks – The relative alignments of the centerline of the track with
respect to the alignment of the contact wire must be maintained within the specified
tolerances. This applies to both horizontal and vertical clearances. Slewing or lifting of
track must nt be done outside the agreed maintenance limits, unless the position of the
contact wire is altered at the same time. Adjustment of cant has a magnified effect of
the horizontal displacement of the centerline of the track with respect to the alignment
of the contact wire.
Horizontal clearances to structures within the limits laid down in the Schedule of
Dimensions must be maintained. For Slewing or alternations to track involving
adjustment of contact wire (outside the agreed maintenance limits) sufficient notice
should be given to the traction staff so that they arrange to adjust the overhead
equipment.
(h) Alterations to Track bonding: All bonds removed by the staff of the Engineering
Department shall be replaced by the staff of the Engineering Department and all such
removals and replacements shall be reported to the Assistant Electrical Engineer,
Traction Distribution in-charge, concerned without delay.
(i) Working of Cranes: No crane shall be worked except on the authorized permit-towork . In every case of working a crane, arrangement should be made for the presence
of authorized overhead equipment staff to ensure that all safety precautions are taken.
(j) Inspection of Tunnels: For inspection of roofs and sides of a tunnel, the overhead
equipment shall be rendered dead . Special insulated apparatus shall be rendered
dead . Special insulated apparatus should be used if sounding the unlined portions to
locate loose rock in the roof and sides, is required to be carried out, when the overhead
equipment is live .
(k) As far as possible closed wagons shall be used for material trains. In case open or
hopper wagons are used, loading and unloading of such wagons in electrified tracks
shall be done under the supervision of an Engineering Official not below the rank of a
Permanent Way Mistry, who shall personally ensure that no tool or any part of body of
the workers comes within the danger zone i.e., within 2m. of O.H.E.
(l) Steel tapes or metallic tapes with woven metal reinforcement should not be used in
electrified tracks. Linen tapes are safer and, therefore, should be sued even though they
are not accurate.
(m) The top foundation blocks in electrified structures should be kept clear of all materials.
SUB DISCIPLINE-TRACK TECHNOLOGY (LESSONS: 13 SESSIONS: 26)
Lesson-X: Engineering Restrictions & Indicators Session-19: Categories of Engineering
Works, Engineering Fixed Signals/Indicators: Temporary and Permanent
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Engineering Indicators:
Engineering Indicators may be classified in two categories as below:
Temporary Engineering Indicators:
These indicators are used in connection with execution of some engineering work and
removed as soon as the work is over. These indicators are flood lit at night. Retroreflective indicators need not to lit at night. Significance of each indicator is given as
below:
(i) Caution Indicator – This cautions the driver to get ready to reduce the speed.
Caution indicator shall be provided at 800m in rear of the speed indicator and at
1200m where the trains are required to stop dead as in this case more braking
distance is required by driver. This shall consist of 1400mm long, 400mm wide. Fish
tailed at one end and pointed at the other having 130mm dia holes 2 nos. for showing
yellow lights at night . The board shall be painted yellow & black. Height of the
board (bottom of the board) shall be 2.0M from rail level post will have 300mm high
bends of white & black. Indicator shall be used in case of permanent as well as
temporary restrictions. Temp. Engg. Indicator shall display at night 2 yellow lights
to approaching trains or provided with fluorescent tape luminous paint or retroreflective indicators (need not to lit at night.
(ii) Speed Indicator – It indicates to the driver to reduce the speed as indicated. This
shall be provided 30M in rear from the point of commencement of speed restriction.
Indicator shall consist of an equilateral triangular board with 1 meter sides having
yellow base, 300mm high and 40 mm thick figures in black indicating the speed at
which the train may proceed. The board shall be provided on a 2.0m high post (from
the rail level to bottom of the board) painted with 300mm high white and black
bands Indicator shall be illuminated at night by fixing a hand signal lamp in front of
it or provided with luminators.
(iii) Stop Indicator – It indicates to the driver to stop the train short of indicator.
Indicator shall be provided 30m m in rear of the commencement of stop dead
restriction. This shall consist of a rectangular board 1400mm x 400 mm in size
having 130mm dia holes 2 Nos. for showing red lights at night painted with red and
white vertical strips or provided with fluorescent tape luminous paint or retro
reflective indicator. The board shall be fixed 2.0 meter high from rail level to the
bottom of the board) painted with 300 mm high bands of white & black.
(iv) Termination Indicator – The indicates that the driver to resume normal; speed and
last vehicle has cleared the restricted zone. This indicator shall be fixed at a distance
equal to the longest length of passenger/goods train running in the section beyond
the restricted zone.
The indicator shall be in accordance with the diagram &shall consist of one meter
dia disc painted yellow bearing 250mm high and 40mm thick letter T P and T.G. in
black. The board shall be painted with 25mm thick black band at the circumference.
It shall be fixed on a post 1650mm high (from rail level to the bottom of the disc)
and shall be painted with 300mm high bands of black & white. The indicator shall be
lighted at night by a fixed hand signal lamp or provided with fluorescent tape
luminous paint or retro reflective indicator.
Permanent Speed Restriction Indicators:
(i) These indicators are same as mentioned above but used at the locations requiring
permanent speed restriction (less than maximum sanctioned speed) such as weak
bridge, sharp curve, weak formation turn out etc. As these restrictions last beyond
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the currency of the working time table hence mention of such restrictions are made
in the working time table. Indicators provided are not lit at night.
(ii) Siding Boards Siding boards indicating speed restriction are provided at facing of
an outlying siding letter
is painted in 300 mm height with black paint on 1 metre
dia circular board having yellow base. These boards are provided in addition to
caution & speed indicator where maximum sanctioned speed of the section does not
exceed 59 kmph.
Indicators (General):These indicators are provided either to give audible warning by the
driver to ensure safety or shunting operation.
Whistle Indicator (W):Whistle Indicators shall be provided at 600 m in rear of the places
where the view of driver is obstructed by cutting or tunnel or curves and where it is
necessary to give audible warning at the approach of a train to those working on the
track.
Whistle Indicators for Level Crossing (W/L):
These indicators shall be provided at
the approaches of all unmanned
class level crossing or manned level crossing where
the view is not clear on either side for a distance of 600 metres and those which have
normal position open to road traffic. Bilingual whistle boards shall be provided at 600 m
distance along the track from the level crossing to give audible warning by the drivers of
approaching trains to the road users.
Shunting Limit Boards:
Board shall be 600 x 1000 mm in size painted yellow with
a black cross on top and shunting limit written in black below it.
Works at Times of Poor Visibility: No work which may cause obstruction to the
passage of train shall be undertaken during foggy or tempestuous weather impairing
visibility except in case of emergency. When such works are undertaken 2 detonators, 10
m apart shall be fixed 270 m in rear of caution indicator and caution hand signal
exhibited to approaching trains.
Speed Restriction: In case where the trains are required to pass with restricted speed
from site of work, the following temporary Engineering Indicators shall be
exhibited.
(i) Caution Indicator – At 800m in rear of the obstruction.
(ii) Speed Indicator – At 30m in rear of the obstruction.
(iii) Termination Indicators for passenger & goods train – At a place from where the
driver may resume normal speed, which is the length of longest passenger/goods
train running in the section.
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SUB DISCIPLINE-TRACK TECHNOLOGY (LESSONS: 13 SESSIONS: 26)
Lesson-X: Engineering Restrictions & Indicators
Session-20: Emergency Protection of track: Single Line & Double Line, Detonators & Flare
Signals.
Whenever in consequence of an obstruction to line or any other cause it becomes necessary to
stop approaching train by railway official, he shall plant a danger signal in rear of the spot and
proceed with all haste in the direction of an approaching train on double line or likely to
approach first on single line showing danger hand signal (red flag by day and red light by night)
to a point 600m on BG and 400 m on MG/NG from the obstruction. He shall fix one detonator
over the rail. (Preferably supported by the sleeper underneath), after which he shall proceed
further to a point not less than 1200m on B.G. and 800 m on MG/NG from the obstruction and
fix 3 detonators 10 m apart. He shall take stand at a place not less than 45 m away from the last
detonator from where he can obtain a good view of the approaching train. In case if no train is
visible then he shall fix. 3 detonators on line and pick up intermediate detonator (provided at 600
m) continuing to show the danger hand signal and reach to the site of obstruction. In case of
single line the track will be protected from other side in the similar manner.
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SUB DISCIPLINE-TRACK TECHNOLOGY (LESSONS: 13 SESSIONS: 26)
Lesson-XI: Railway Curves Session-21: Necessity of curves: their types, TTP, CTP &
Transition lengths..
Necessity of curves
Curves are provided to bypass obstacles, to have longer and easier gradients or to route the line
to obligating or desirable locations.
CLASSIFICATION OF CURVES:
1.
Simple Curve:
In this curve radius is uniform through out its length.
2.
Compound Curve:
This type of curve is made of two or more curves with different radii but same flexure.
3.
Reverse Curve:
This type of curve is made of two curves having opposite flexure with no straight in
between or straight not less than 50m.
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SUB DISCIPLINE-TRACK TECHNOLOGY (LESSONS: 13 SESSIONS: 26)
Lesson-XI: Railway Curves Session-22: Radius, Degree, Versine and Field
Measurement..
RELATION BETWEEN DEGREE AND RADIUS OF CURVE:
A curve is designed either by its radius or by its degree. The degree of a curve
subtended at its center by a chord of 30.5.m or 100 ft.
is the angle
2π R distance 360 0
1 distance
360
2 πR
30.5 distance 360 x 30.5
2 πR
D = 1748 = 1750
R
R
D = 1750/R or RD = 1750
VERSINE:
If a chord is stretched between two points on a curve, the perpendicular distance at any point
between the chord and curve is called versine at that point.
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PWI uses 20m chord. Stations are 10m apart. At every station STN No. (station Number),
Documents
SE(Super-elevation) and V(versine) is written on sleeper.
Ex.
SYN No. 10
SE
- 15mm
V
- 9mm
RELATION BETWEEN VERSINEAND CHORD LENGTH:
Here
C- Chord length
V- Versine
2R- Dia of circle.
From theorem we know that
C x C = V (2R-V)
2
2
or, C2 = 2VR
V2
4
V being very small V2 is negligible.
C2 = 2VR
4
V = C2
8R
SUB DISCIPLINE-TRACK TECHNOLOGY (LESSONS: 13 SESSIONS: 26)
Lesson-XI: Railway Curves Session-23: Super-elevation: Cant deficiency, Cant excess, Cant
gradient, Equilibrium cant.
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SOME DEFINITIONS:
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Super-elevation or Cant (Ca):
Super-elevation or cant is the difference in height between the outer rail and inner rail on a curve.
It is provided by gradually lifting the outer rail above the level of inner rail. The inner rail is
considered as the reference rail and is normally maintained as its normal level.
Functions of super-elevation are:
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
NOTE:
To have a better distribution of load on both the rails.
To reduce the wear and tear of rails and rolling stock.
To neutralize the effects of lateral forces.
To provide comfort to passengers.
In transition portion super-elevation increases, versine increases. In circular portion,
both become constant.
RELATION BETWEEN SUPER-ELEVATION, SPEED AND RADIUS ON A CURVE:
EQUILIBRIUM SUPER ELEVATION:
Let Radius of the curve = R
Velocity on curve = V
Super-elevation
=C
Mass
=m=W
G
Now,
Centrifugal force on the rolling stock
F = MV2 = WV2
R
gR
In ∆CAB, tan Q = AB = F = V2 - (1)
AC
Again in ∆
W
tan Q = A
AC
gR
= C - (ii)
G
Where G = Dynamic gauge = Perpendicular Distance between centers of two rails.
= 1750 (BG)
= 1058 (MG)
From equation (i) & (ii)
C = V2
G
gR
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Or C = GV2
Documents
GR
Or C = GV2 = mm
127R
NOTE: Super-elevation is provided in formation.
Maxm permissible cant 165mm (BG) By the order of C.E. in station area for nominated
stock maxm cant = 185mm.
Cant may be given by three methods.
1. Inner rail base rail.
2. Outer rail base rail
3. Outer rail is lifted equal to ½ cant and inner rail is downed equal to ½ cant.
EQUILIBRIUM SPEED:It is the speed at which the effect of centrifugal force is exactly
balanced by the cant provided.
Maximum Permissible Speed:This is the highest speed which may be permitted on a curve
taking into consideration the radius of curvature, actual cant, cant deficiency, cant excess and
length of transition. When the maxm. permissible speed of the curve is less the maxm. Sectional
speed of the section of a line, permanent speed restriction becomes necessary on such curves.
Cant Deficiency (Cd):Cant deficiency occurs when a train travels around a curve at a speed
higher than the equilibrium speed. It is the difference between the theoretical cant required for
such higher speed and the actual cant provided.
Cant Excess (Cc):Cant excess occurs when a train travels around a curve at a speed lower than
equilibrium speed. It is the difference between the actual cant provided and the theoretical cant
required for such lower speed.
|
CH |_____________VH
Ceg|______ Cd_______Va
CL|____ Ce_________VL
|
|___________________
CANT GRADIENT AND CANT DEFICIENCY GRADIENT:
These indicate the amount by which cant or deficiency of cant is increased or reduced in a given
length of transition.
For ex: A gradient of 1 in 1000 means that cant or deficiency of cant of 1mm is attained or lost in
every`1000mm of transition length.
Cant deficiency gradient
=
50mm: 100m
=
50mm: 100 x 1000mm
=
1: 2000mm.
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RATE OF CHANGE OF CANT OR CANT DEFICIENCY:
Documents
This is the rate at which cant or cant deficiency is increased while passing over the transition
curve.
For example: 35 mm/sec. Means that a vehicle when traveling at a maximum permitted speed,
willl experience a change in cant or deficiency of cant of 35mm in each second of travel over the
transition.
NOTE: Sectional speed is determined by commissioner Railway Safety (CRS)
Maxm. Degree
Gauge
Radius
B.G.
10
0
175m
M.G.
160
109m
N.G.
400
44m
LIMITED PARAMETERS CONCERNING CURVES:
S. No. ITEM
1.
B.G.
Maximum cant.
,
M.G.
route 165mm
&
- 140mm
N.G.
90mm(100
with
permission of C.E.)
2.
Maxm
cant 75mm (In spl. Cases 100mm 50mm
deficiency
with nominated rolling stock
and permission of C.E.)
40mm
3.
Cant Excess
65mm
-
4.
Maxm
gradient
cant In 720 (1 in 360 in exceptional 1:720
cases with permission of C.E.)
-
5.
Rate of change Desirable 35mm/sec.
of cant
Maxm 55mm/sec.
75mm
35mm/sec.
TRANSITION CURVE:
A transition curve is an easement curve on which the change in degree of curvature and gain of
super-elevation are uniform throughout its length, starting from zero at the tangent point to the
specified value at the circular curve.
Y = X3
6RL
Indian railways mostly use cubic parabola for transition curve.
R→ Radius in meter
L → Length of transition curve in meter
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OBJECTIVES OF TRANSITION CURVE:
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1. To decrease the radius of curvature gradually in a planned way from infinity at straight to
that of the circular curve to help the vehicle to negotiate a curve smoothly.
2. To enable the vehicles to negotiate a curve smoothly ensuring a gradual increase or
decrease of centrifugal forces.
3. To enable the vehicles to negotiate a curve smoothly ensuring a gradual increase or
decrease of centrifugal forces.
GAUGE WIDENING AT CURVES:
For smooth running of a vehicle with rigid wheel base on sharp curves it is necessary for the rear
axle to come in line of radius. A constant out ward thrust acts on the front axle, till the rear axle
does not come in the line of radius due to which a vehicle tries to widen the gauge which is not
safe. Therefore for such a curve it is necessary to widen the gauge.
SAFE SPEED ON CURVES
MAXm PERMISSIBLE SPEEDON FULLY TRANSITIONED CURVE:
(1) Vm =
0.27 (Ca + Cd) R
(3) Vm =
0.347
(3) Vm =
3.65 (R-6)
-
(Ca + Cd)R
B.G.
-
-
N.G.
But not more than 50 KMPH.
LENGTH OF TRANSITION:
It is maximum of the following:
(1) L =
0.008 Ca x Vm (Based on rate of change of cant)
(2) L =
0.008 Cd x Vm (Based on rate of change of cant deficiency)
M.G.
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(3) L =
Documents
0.72 C
a
(Based on cant gradient)
Where Ca → cant actual
Cd → cant deficiency
Vm→ Maxm permissible speed on a curve.
Session-24: Yard visit.
SUB DISCIPLINE-TRACK TECHNOLOGY (LESSONS: 13 SESSIONS: 26)
Lesson-XII: Track Tolerances Session-25: Different Track Parameters and their service
tolerances
TRACK TOLERANCES: Safety in train operation and desired level of riding comfort to
passengers is primarily based on track geometry and its standard of maintenance. Maintenance of
high standard of tolerances in track is influenced by various factors of track design, manufacture
laying and maintenance. In addition to if stable formation suitability and adequacy of ballast,
good fastenings, and effective condition of other track components also pay a big role. Loss of
track geometry in directly proportional to loss in track foundation. Therefore in actual practice it
is not possible to obtain a flawless and perfect track parameters governing the track geometry.
The limits by which the track parameters vary may be defined as the track tolerances.
Track Parameters:
The tolerances are generally laid down for the following track parameters(i)
Unevenness - Difference in the longitudinal levels over a fixed base is called
unevenness and is generally measured over a base of 3.6m for left & right rail
separately.
(ii) Gauge Variation – This is measured as the deviation from the nominal gauge which
is 1676 mm for BG & 1000 mm for MG Gauge is the minimum horizontal distance
between running faces of two rails.
(iii) Cross Level Difference – This is measured in terms of relative difference in the level
of two rail tops measured at the same point.
(iv) Twist – It is the rate of change of cross level per unit length. Twist is determined by
measuring the cross level at two points over a fixed base say 3.6 m and divide the
cross level difference by the base length. Normally it is denoted in mm/mtre.
(v) Alignment Variation – This is measured in terms of variation in versines taken on
successive chords of fixed length of 7.2 in with overlaps of ½ chord on left & right rail
separately.
Tolerances Under Loaded or Floating Condition:
As regards unevenness, cross level and twist these parameters differ appreciably in
loaded condition vis-a-vis in floating condition. Where as gauge & alignment almost
remain unaffected.
Important of Tight Tolerances:
Keeping day by day increase in traffic density and higher speeds in view track must be
maintained to close tolerances. It will be more economical to control and reduce the illeffects of badly maintained track by enforcing tight tolerance in the track which can be
obtained by machine maintenance than by providing a heavier track structure to increase
its strength large tolerances in track cause heavy oscillations in the vehicles and these are
retransmitted to the track causing progressive deterioration.
Types of Track Tolerances:
The purpose of controlling track irregularities is to keep the track in safe and smooth
running conditions. With increase in track irregularities vibration of vehicles exceed.
Efforts to keep track irregularities within close tolerances lead to high maintenance cost.
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Therefore it is beneficial for the Railways Administration to lay down track tolerances
which give most cost-effective solutions, depending upon their purpose, track tolerances
are classified as below:
New Track Tolerances:
These tolerances are prescribed for laying new track and also meant for testing the quality
of newly laid track. Since the material is new and track laying is done independent of
traffic blocks, the tolerances prescribed for new track are the closest.
The following limits of track geometry should be observed as a desirable initial standard
for track laying with new materials.
(a)
(b)
(c)
S. No.
1
2
As recorded by track recording car – The track parameters should generally
conform to category
values.
As recorded by portable acceler – meter/OMS-2000
Vertical or lateral
acceleration value should be within 0.15 g.
As measured in floating condition – The track parameters should conform to the
following standards-
Parameter
Gauge
Expansion gap.
3
Joints
4
5
6
Spacing of sleeper
Cross level
Alignment
7
Longitudinal level
Particulars
Sleeper to Sleeper variation
Average gap worked out by recording 20
successive gaps.
i) Low joints
ii) High joints
iii) Squareness of joints on Straight
With respect to theoretical spacing
To be recorded on every 4th sleepers
On straight on 10M chord
On Curves
Radius 600m on 20M chord
(Variation over theoretical versine)
Radius < 600mm on 20M chord
(Variation over theoretical versine)
Variation with reference to approved
longitudinal level
Value
2mm
± 2mm
Not permitted.
Not more than 2 mm
± 10mm
± 20mm
± 3mm
5mm
10mm
± 50mm
Maintenance Tolerances:
These are the tolerances which are set for bringing back the track geometry to the desired
standards after every maintenance operation cycle. The tolerances depend not only upon
the track structure but also on the tools/equipments used, method of maintenance
adopted, supervision of maintenance adopted, supervision available and such other
factors. These tolerances are set arbitrarily to assess the results of maintenance.
Northern Railway has however laid down the following tolerances for maintaining the
track with tie tamping machinesUnevenness
3mm over a base of 3.6m
Alignment
2mm over a base of 7.2m
Cross level
2mm.
In case of manual maintenance also the above tolerances can be obtained.
Index Tolerances:
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S. No.
1
2
3
Parameter
Cross Level
Alignment on 7.2m chord
Sleeper to sleeper variation in gauge
Index Tolerance
3mm
3mm
2mm
SUB DISCIPLINE-TRACK TECHNOLOGY (LESSONS: 13 SESSIONS: 26)
Lesson-XIII: Schedule of Dimensions Session-26: Different Schedules, Standard
Dimensions, Loading Gauge, ODC.
Schedule of Dimensions:
Present Schedule of Dimensions:The present SOD revised in the year 2004 consist all the
dimensions in metric units. All the dimensions in FPS units have been deleted. The following
modifications have been done in the SOD of 1973:
Schedules:
Revised SOD of year 2004 contains only two schedule i.e. Schedule-1 & Schedule-II.
Schedule-I: Consists of those items which are mandatory and have to be observed on all
1676mm gauge on Railways in India. This also contains certain selected items of scheduleII of 1973 version of SOD. In this schedule, dimensions have been classified under two
heads namely for Existing works i.e. the works existing before the issue of new SOD
year 2004 and for New works which would include new constructions, additions of new
lines/structure, gauge conversion and doubling except the alterations to points & crossing
siding, building etc. Any deviations to the dimension of new works will require prior
sanction of CCRS/CRS.
Schedule-II: Consists of items included in Schedule-III of 1973 version of SOD.
In addition to above the appendix dealing with extra clearances required on curves have
been modified to suit maximum speed of 160 Kmph and maximum SE of 165mm as per
high speed, Rajdhani and Shatabdi routes with other parameters kept as earlier. Correction
slips issued from time to time to SOD of 1973 have been incorporated in revised SOD of
year 2004.
Chapter Wise Details of Contents in Schedule of Dimensions:
Chapter
Schedule
Details of Contents
I
General
1
Spacing of tracks curves bridge, rails, building and
structures, interlocking and signal gears tunnels,
through semi through girder bridges and safety
refuges formation width gauge on straight and curves.
II
Station Yards
1
Spacing of tracks, platforms, buildings & structures,
points and crossings, length of sidings.
1
Water tanks and Water Cranes, workshops and
III
Workshop &
running sheds.
Station
machinery
IV(A) Rolling stock
1
Wheel and axles, height of floors, buffers & couplings
(C&W)
wheel base & axles base and length of vehicles, max
moving dimensions, loading gauge for goods
IV(B) Rolling stock
1
Maximum future moving dimensions, loading gauge
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(3660mm
wide stock)
IV(C) Rolling Stock
(Locomotives)
V
V(A)
Electric
traction (DC)
Electric
traction 25KV
AC 50 Cycles
AC
50
Cycles
Schedule
for goods.
1
Wheels and axles, buffer & couplings, max. moving
dimensions,
max.
moving
dimension
for
Locomotives.
Electrical Clearances
II
Existing infringements of schedule 1 which may be
permitted to continue on 167mm gauge railways.
Loading Gauge:
Loading gauge represents the maximum width and height to which a rolling stock viz,
Locomotive, Coach or Wagon may be built or loaded.
On Indian Railways maximum height and width of rolling stock prescribed as per loading
gauge is as followsMaximum Height
4565mm
Maximum Width
3250mm
Construction gauge is decided by adding necessary clearance to the loading gauge so that
vehicles can move safely at prescribed speed without any infringements. Various fixed
structures on the railways like bridges; tunnel and platform sheds etc. are built as per
construction gauge so that the sides and top remain clear of the loading gauge.
Standard Moving Dimensions:
Construction of rolling stock (Loco, carriage and wagon) and movement of conventional
rolling stock is based on certain standard moving dimensions provided in the SOD.
Sometimes very large consignments which when loaded on ordinary or special wagons
exceed the standard moving dimensions, their transportation development of industries in
a region etc.
Indian Railways have evolved a standard procedure to enable quick movement of such
consignments with certain restrictions regarding day or night movement, speeds loading,
lashing & packing conditions depending upon the minimum clearance available to fixed
structures on the routes required to be traversed. Such consignments are called Out of
Gauge or Over Dimension Consignments.
Over Dimensioned Consignment (ODC):
When a consignment whose length, width and height is such that one or more of them
infringe the standard moving dimension at any point during the run, then the consignment
is called as Over Dimensioned Consignment (ODC). The movement of ODC has been
standardized on Indian Railways and each zonal railway keeps the upto date list of
infringements.
In case of loaded consignment extra clearance of 75mm for bounce in the vertical
direction on a straight track shall be accounted for between consignment & fixed
structure. But in case of curved track the following additional factors shall be taken into
account.
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1. Horizontal Clearance
2. Vertical Clearance
Allowance for lean due to super elevation and overhead
due to curvatures additional lurch on curves.
Vertical tilt to be added to the height of consignment.
Classification of ODCs:
Taking into account of extra clearance as indicated above, oversized consignments are
classified into following three classes
(i)
Class ‘A’ – Permitted out of gauge loads or O.D.C.
These loads which exceed the maximum moving dimensions but do not ingringe
any fixed structure on the route by a net cerance of 150mm and above and gross
clearance of 225mm and above.
(ii)
(iii)
Class ‘B’ – Exceptional out of gauge loads or ODC.
Where the net clearance ranges from 75mm to less than 150mm and grss
clearance of 225mm.
Class ‘C’ – Extra-orinary out of gauge loads or ODC
Where the net clearances are less than 75 mm and gross clearance less than
150mm.
SUB DISCIPLINE - ESTABLISHMENT(LESSONS: 04 SESSIONS:04)
Lesson-I: Leave Rules Session-27: Various types of Leaves, Eligibility etc.
Various types of Leaves
Q.
By which Leave rules Rly. Employees are governed ?
Ans. Rly. employees are governed by Liberalized Leave Rules (LLR) also know as CPC
(Central Pay Commission) Leave Rules.
Q.
When these rules came into existence ?
Ans. Since 1st February, 1949.
Q.
What kind of Leave are admissible ?
Ans. The following kinds of Leave are admissible:I.
LAP (Leave on Average pay)
II.
LHAP (Leave on Half Average pay)
III.
Commuted Leave
IV.
C.L. (Casual Leave)
V.
S.C.L. (Special Casual Leave)
VI.
Compensatory Casual Leave
VII. Extra ordinary Leave
VIII. Leave not due
IX.
Maternity Leave
X.
Hospital Leave
XI.
Special Disability Leave
XII. Study Leave
I.
Q
Ans.
Q.
Ans.
LAP (LEAVE ON AVERAGE PAY)
How much LAP is admissible in a Calendar year ?
30 days to all Railway servants except employees serving in a Railway School.
Whether L.A.P. is credited in advance ?
Yes.
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How L.A.P. is credited to leave A/c ?
Ans.
Q.
Ans.
Q.
Ans.
Q.
Ans.
Q.
Ans.
Q.
Ans.
Q.
Ans.
In two installments in a calendar year, on 1st day of January and on 1st day of July @ of
15 days each.
How many L.A.P. ,s are credited in the half year of appointment, retirement, removal and
dismissed or death in service ?
At the rate of 2.1/2 days per month.
Upto what extant L.A.P. can be accumulated ?
Upto 300 days, thereafter it will Lapse.
Whether L.A.P. can be prefixed or suffixed to holidays ?
Yes.
II. LAP (LEAVE ON HALD AVERAGE PAY)
How much L.H.A.P. is admissible in each completed year of service ?
20 days.
How L.H.A.P. is credited ?
In two installment of 10 days each on 1st Jan. and 1st July every year.
How much L.H.A.P. can be granted in the half year of appointment, retirement, removal,
dismissal or death ?
At the rate of 5/3 days for each completed month of service.
III.
Q.
Ans.
Q.
Ans.
Q.
Ans.
Q.
Ans.
Q.
Ans.
Q.
Ans.
Q.
Ans.
Q.
Ans.
COMMUTED LEAVE
What is Commuted leave ?
Commuted leave is a leave granted on Medical Certificate not exceeding half the amount
of leave on half average pay.
IV. CASUAL LEAVE (C.L.)
What is Casual leave ?
Casual leave is a leave admissible to Railway Servants in all groups (i.e. A.B.C.&D) and
is granted to enable them to attend to sudden/unforeseen needs/requirements.
Whether it is a recorded Leave ?
No
Whether C.L. may be prefixed or suffixed ?
Yes
Whether Sundays, Holidays, Closed days and Weekly offs falling within C.L., will count
as C.L. ?
No
Whether C.L. can be combined with any other leave ?
No except Compensatory C.L. to Group
&
Staff.
Whether C.L. can be granted for half day ?
Yes.
V. SPECIAL CASUAL LEAVE (S.C.L.)
For what purposes Special Casual leave is Granted ?
Special Casual leave is Granted for the following purposes:(i)
For participation in sports events/Tournaments of National and
International importance.
(ii)
For Scouting work.
(iii)
For participation in Cultural activities like Dramas & Music Competitions.
(iv)
For attending meeting of Unions/Federations.
(v)
Fir attending meetings if Technical/Scientific Institutions.
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(vi)
Fir attending meetings/conferences of medical institutions by Doctors.
(vii)
(viii)
(ix)
Q.
Ans.
Q.
Ans.
Q.
Ans.
Q.
Ans.
Q.
Ans.
Q.
Ans.
Q.
Ans.
For attending Republic Day parade.
For attending Courts as Jurors or Assessors.
For attend to work connected with running/administration of Rly. men s
co-operative Societies.
(x)
For attending to work connected with running/administration of Rly.
men s co-operative Societies
.For attending Annual Training Camp of Territorial Army.
(xi)
For appearing as Defence Helper in departmental enquiries.
(xii)
For casting vote in elections of Lok Sabha or Assemblies to employees
residing at a place where the date of polling is different from that at the
place working.
(xiii)
For voluntary donation of blood.
(xiv)
For promoting small family norms under the Family Welfare programme
(xv)
For unavoidable absence due to Bandhs, Curfew, dis-location of train
services or other disturbances.
Upto what extent Special Casual leave can be granted ?
It may be sanctioned to the extent of actual time Spent in the events subject to a
maximum of 30 days in a calendar year to be extended upto 90 days by G.M. in case of
participation in sports events of national and international importance.
VI. COMPENSATORY CASUAL LEAVE (C.C.L.)
What is C.C.L.?
C.C.L. is a Leave granted to the Ministerial Staff and Group
Staff in offices,
excepting supervisors for attending office on Sundays, Closed days, Weekly offs and
holidays.
Whether C.C.L. can be prefixed or suffixed with C.L., Sundays and holidays?
During which period C.C.L. can be availed?
How many C.C.L. s can be availed at one time?
Three
VII. EXTRA ORDINARY LEAVE (E.O.L.)
Under what circumstance. E.O. is granted?
E.O.L is granted under the following special circumstances:(i)
When no other leave is admissible.
(ii)
When other leave is admissible, but the employee applies in writing for the grant
of such Leave.
To what extant E.O.L. is granted to Permanent or Temporary Employees?
(i) To Permanent employees
Upto a maximum of 5 years in one spell together
with all kinds of leave
(ii) To Temporary employees
Upto 3 months without Medical Certificate upto 6
months with medical Certificate. Upto 18 months for
treatment of cancer, Mental illness, T.B. Leprosy.
Whether E.O.L. can be combined with any other leave.
Yes, except C.L.
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Whether Leave salary is admissible during E.O.L.?
Ans.
Q.
Ans.
Q.
Ans.
Q.
Ans.
Q.
Ans.
Q.
Ans.
Q.
Ans.
Q.
Ans.
Q.
Ans.
Q.
Ans.
Q.
Ans.
Q.
Ans.
Q.
Ans.
No
VIII.
LEAVE NOT DUE
What is leave not due ?
It is leave on half average pay granted in advance of earning on medical Certificate with
prospect to returning on duty after availing leave.
To whom is granted ?
To both permanent & Temporary employees, except teaching staff.
What is the Quantum of Leave ?
360 days maximum to Permanent employees during entire service and 360 days to
Temporary Railway employees suffering from T.B., Cancer, Mental ailment and
Leprosy.
IX.
MATERNITY LEAVE
Who are eligible for grant of Maternity Leave ?
Female Railway employees, including apprentices with less than two surviving Children.
What is the Quantum of leave ?
(i) 135 days from the date of commencement.
(ii) 6 weeks in case of mis-carriage including abortion. Total period restricted to 45
days in the entire service.
(iii) In further continuation, leave may also be granted (including commuted leave upto
60 days and leave not due) upto a maximum of 1 year, if applied for without
production of medical certificate.
(iv) In further continuation also, Leave may be granted for illness of female employee
and also in case of illness of newly born child beyond one year.
(v) A male Railway Servants (includings an apprentice) with less than two surviving
children is also eligible for Maternity Leave for a period of 15 days during the
confinement of his wife.
Whether Maternity Leave is a recorded Leave?
No
Whether it may be combined with any other leave?
Yes.
Whether it is granted to Female Casual labour with temporary status?
Yes.
X.
PATERNITY LEAVE
Who are eligible for grant of Paternity Leave ?
A male Railway Servants (includings an apprentice) with less than two surviving children
is eligible for Paternity Leave for a period of 15 days during the confinement of his wife.
Whether Paternity Leave is a recorded Leave?
No
Whether it may be combined with any other leave?
Yes.
Whether it is granted to Male Casual labour with temporary status?
Yes.
XI.
Q.
HOSPITAL LEAVE
Under what circumstances Hospital Leave is granted?
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Ans. It is admissible to the Group
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or
employees while under treatment for illness or
injuries met directly due to risks incurred in the course of official duties even if injuries
incurred due to carelessness of employee.
Upto what extent leave is admissible?
May be granted for such period, as the authority granting if considers necessary and
certified by the authorized medical attendant.
Whether there is any maximum limit?
Ans. No, the amount of leave granted by G.M. is un-limited.
Whether it may be combined with any other leave?
Yes, provided on combination, the total period of Leave does not exceed 28 months.
What leave salary is payable during leave?
Equal to leave salary on Average pay for the first 120 days and equal to leave salary o
Half Average pay for remaining period.
XI.
Q.
Ans.
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Q.
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Q.
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Q.
Ans.
Q.
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Ans.
SPECIAL DIS-ABILITY LEAVE
What is special dis-ability leave?
The leave is granted when an employee is disabled by injury inflicted internationally in
consequence of due performance of his official duly or official position.
To whom admissible?
Both to permanent and temporary employees.
What is Quantum of Leave?
As certified by authorized Medical Attendant.
Whether there is any maximum limit?
Yes, Shall in no case exceed 24 months in respect of one dis-ability.
Whether this Leave may be combined with any other leave?
Yes.
What Leave salary is granted during Leave?
For the first 120 days, equal to leave salary on Average Pay-for the remaining period
equal to leave salary on Half Average Pay.
Whether in the case of employees governed by W.C. Act, the amount of leave salary shall
be reduced by the amount of compensation payable?
Yes.
XII.
STUDY LEAVE
Under what circumstances study Leave is Granted?
This may be granted for study in following cases:(i)
To under go a special course of study consisting of higher studies of Technical
subject having a direct and close connection with the sphere of his/her duty in or
outside India.
(ii)
For a course of training or study tour certified to be of definite advantage to Govt.
and related ti sphere of duty.
(iii)
For study, not closely or directly connected with the work of railway employee
but which is capable of widening his/her mind and improve his/her abilities as civil
servant.
(iv)
For pursuing a course of Post Graduate study in Medical Science in India by
Medical Officers if it shall be valuable in increasing efficiency of medical officer in
performance of his/her duties.
(v)
For post Graduate study in Medical Science outside India if Director General
Railway Board certifies such study will be valuable in increasing the efficiency of
such Medical Officer in performance of his/her duty.
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Ans.
XIII.
EX-INDIA LEAVE
What is Ex-India Leave?
Ex-India leave is an authorized leave which can be availed out of India.
Absence beyond 5 years
Q.
How is the period of absence beyond 5 years to be regularized?
Ans.
In case a Railway Employee remain away from work beyond 5 years it becomes an
unauthorized absence, since rules permit authorized absence upto 5 years. Regularization
of period of absence beyond 5 years has to be regularized by Railway Board. Every
Railway Employee become liable for action under D&AR for any unauthorized absence.
SUB DISCIPLINE - ESTABLISHMENT(LESSONS: 04
SESSIONS:04)
Lesson-II: Pass Rules
Session-28: Various types of passes, Eligibility etc.
.
Pass Rules
Eligibility for Various Type of Passes:
(1) Group A&B(Gazzated)
(2)
First Class A
Group B(Non Gazzated) &Group C
(a) Those appointed prior to 01-08-69
(i) Employees drawing Pay of Rs 5000/-or more in the scales the maximum of which is
6000/First Class
(ii) All other employees
Second/sleeper class
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(b) Those appointed from to 01-08-69 to 31-03-87
(i)
(ii)
Employees drawing Pay of Rs 5375/-or more in the scales the maximum of which is
7000/-or more First Class
All other employees
Second/sleeper class
Eligibility for Various Type of Passes:
(c) Those appointed from 01-04-87 to 01-02-99
(i) Employees drawing Pay of Rs 7250/-or more First Class
(ii) The employees in the scales, the Minimum of which is 6500/(iii) All other employees
(d) Those appointed after 01-02-99
(i) Employees in the scales the minimum of which is 6500/(ii) Employees drawing Pay of Rs 7600/-& above
First Class
(iii) In the Scales of 5000-8000/5500-9000,Pay>7250<7600/
(iv) All other employees
(3)
All Group D Employees:
Note: The second class A pass holders can travel by 3rd AC.
First Class
Second/sleeper class
First class
Second Class A
Second/sleeper class
Second/Sleeper class
Definition of the Family:
As per the pass rules, the family consists of the following members.
(1)
Husband/wife of the employee.
(2)
Son below 21 years of age &fully dependent on the employee.
(3)
Son above 21 years of age if he is studying in a recognized institute or he is doing
research without Scholarship or he is working as a trainee under a chartered accountant or
he is disabled as per the medical certificate given by the doctor.
(4)
Unmarried daughter of any age
(5)
Widow daughter if dependent on the employee
(6)
Divorce daughter if dependent on the employee.
Definition of dependents
As per the pass rules the dependent members are.
If father of the employee is not alive:
(1)
Mother including divorce mother
(2)
Unmarried/widow sister
(3)
Brother/step brother below 21 years of age if he is living with the employee &dependant
on the employee.
(4)
Disabled brother of any age.
(5)
Brother studying in the recognized Institute.
(6)
Divorce daughter if dependent on the employee.
Note: A person will be treated as dependent if his total earnings from all the sources are less
than 15% of the emoluments of the employee.
Definition of the attendant:
Any person who is in personal service of the employee.
Some of the serving &Retired employees have a misconception that they can take any known
person/relative as an attendant. This has been clarified by the Board.
The attendant can travel in second class along with the employee. In case the attendant can not
travel in the same train such as Rajdhani/ shatabdi,then separate pass in second class can be
issued to the attendant.
Definition of the guardian:
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The meaning of the guardian should not be taken in legal terms.
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Any adult family member/relative/paid nurse/ governance/attendant can be guardian of a child to
accompany him. If no body from the above is available then the pass of the guardian can be
issued to any other person with the approval of G M.
Type of passes:
(1) Duty pass
(2) Privilege pass
(3) School pass
(4) Post retirement Pass
(5) Residential card pass
(6) Special pass
Duty Passes:
These passes are issued to the Railway servants to travel on duty. These can be in the form of
(1) Metal pass
(2) card pass
(3) check pass
Card pass:
It is given to the employees who are required to travel frequently. It is issued for travel over a
certain period of time say 01 year. It can be renewed every year if required. Its availability
should be limited to that area in which the frequent travel is required. Photograph should be
pasted on the card pass.
Check duty pass:
It is given to the employees for general travel on duty. The availability of check pass should be
enough to cover the duty period.
Transfer & Kit pass:
Check pass is given to the employees & his family for travel on transfer to new place of
posting. Separate passes can be issued for the employee & his family if the family travel
afterwards. The transfer pass is given of the same class as the privilege pass.
Kit pass is given for carrying house holds/car e. t. c.
Privilege pass:
(A)
Gazatted officers: 6 sets of passes in a year.
Staff: 1 set of pass up to 5 years service &3sets of pass after 5 years service.
P T Os:
(A)
4 sets of P T Os in a year to all the employees.
School pass:
School pass is issued to the children of the employee studying at some other station. These are
issued on the basis of the certificate issued by recognized schools. In a year,6 one sided passes
can be issued for the student. These are issued if there is a leave of at least 03 days in the school
or school is suddenly closed due to other reasons.
The school pass is issued from the station where the school is situated to the HQ of the employee
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or from the school to that station other than the HQ of the employee where any one of the parent
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stays due to some reasons or from the school to some other station provided the distance of that
station is less than the residence of father/mother & it is beneficial to employee.
Post retirement passes:
Residential card passes:
This pass is issued to the employees who live away from their work place. These are issued for
those sections where this facility was provided prior to 14-01-1953.
Special passes:
(1) For medical treatment: If the medical facilities are not available at the station where the staff
is posted, then a pass shall be issued to him for a station where the medical facilities are
available.
(2) For Taking Part in the sports: These passes are issued to the players for taking part in the
sporting events organized by Railway Board & other recognized sporting events.
(3) For the scouting activities: These passes are issued to the staff who are office bearers of
scouting association or rovers or rangers or cubs or bulbuls or scout or guide for taking part
in the camps etc.
(4) Settlement pass: On retirement the employee issued a pass for journey from the station of
his retirement to the station where the employee has settled. In case of death of the
employee, this pass is given to the widow.
(5) For attending the courts as a witness the passes are given to the employees.
(6) Passes to suspended employees: If the suspended employee has been given permission to
leave the H Q then passes can be issued as follows
(a) Group A &B officers: 3 sets of his privilege passes, if the officer has already taken 3 sets
then NIL.
(b) Group C &D staff: 1 set of his privilege passes, if the staff has only one set in his account
then-NIL.
(7) P T Os to the suspended employees:3 sets to all category of the employees. the PTOs
already availed to be deducted from these 3 sets.
(8) Powers to issue passes to the suspended employees
(a) Group A &B officers: General Manager
(a) Group C &D staff: DRM or Dy HOD
(9) School passes are not affected by suspension.
(10) Passes to the physically challenged employees: The pass is issued along with an attendant.
Punishment for misuse of Pass/PTO:
Misuse of pass: The misuse of pass/p t o is a severe offence. Necessary charge sheet shall be
issued & action shall be initiated against the employee for imposing a suitable punishment
commensurate with the offence.
Punishment for loss of Pass/PTO:
(1)
For Railway employees:
(a)
Duty/residential card pass
First class/first class A/white pass Rs 35/Second class
Rs12.50/Trolley pass
Rs 50/(b)
Duty check pass/privilege pass
First class/first class A/white pass Rs 10/Second class:
Rs 5/Punishment for loss of Pass/PTO:
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For non-Railway employees/non Railway organizations/ Honarium individual passes.
(a) Card pass
First class
Rs 150/Second class
Rs75/(b) Duty check pass
First class: full fare but Maximum of
Rs 50/-& minimum of Rs 10/Second class: full fare but maximum of
Rs 30/-& minimum of Rs 5/Punishment for loss of Pass/PTO:
(3)
ForG R P/P&T/Railway Magistrate:
(a) First class/first class A/white pass Rs 35/(b) Second class
Rs12.50/Punishment for loss of Pass/PTO:
(4)
Post retirement cheqe pass:
(a) First class/first class A/white pass Rs 25/(b) Second class
Rs 10/(5)
For not putting dates on privilege/duty cheque pass after commencement of journey:
(a) First class/first class A/white pass
(b) Second class
Rs 25/Rs10/-
SUB DISCIPLINE - ESTABLISHMENT(LESSONS: 04 SESSIONS:04)
Lesson-III: D&A Rules
Session-29: Minor & Major Penalties.
D & A R (1968
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1.
Penalties:
Two groups of penalties are laid down under rule 6 of D&AR 1968 viz major and minor
penalties.
1.1 Minor Penalty:
Are those where a Simple procedure is followed as laid down in the D&AR 1968 except
where with holding of increment with cumulative effect for any period or with holding of
increment exceeding 3 years without cumulative effect or effecting the pensionary benefits
adversely, an inquiry.
1.1.1 Minor Penalties:
i)
Censure - Though this is one of the lightest punishment and there is no loss to the
employee yet it can affect his merit when considering his suitability for higher promotion.
ii) With-holding of promotion for a specified period – This penalty should be imposed only
when an employee is due promotion in near future.
iii) Recovery from pay of the whole or part of any pecuniary loss caused to the Govt. by
negligence or breach of orders.
iii-a) With-holding of privilege passes or PTOs or both This penalty deprives an employee
only from the traveling facilities and not any monetary loss. Whenever this penalty is to be
imposed the number of sets of passes and PTOs to be withhold should be clearly indicated
and not the period.
iii-b) Reduction to a lower stage in time scale of pay for a period > 3 years, without cumulative
effect & without adversely affecting the pension. In case if it is felt necessary to impose a
penalty for > 3 years with cumulative effect & affecting pensionary benefits adversely
enquiry becomes a must.
iv) Withholding of increments of pay for a specified period with further directions as after the
expiry of such period, this will or will not have the effect of postponing the future
increments of pay.
1.2
Major Penalty:
Major penalties are those where a detailed procedure as laid down in article 311 of the
constitution of India is a must to be followed.
1.2.1 Major Penalties:
i)
Reduction to a lower sate in the time scale of pay for a specified period with further
directions as a whether on the expiry of such period this will or will not have the effect of
postponing the future increments of pay while imposing this punishment it should clearly
be mentioned. The number of stages by which the pay of the employee has been reduced,
the period for which reduced and whether this is to have cumulative effect or otherwise.
ii) Reduction to a lower time scale of pay, grade, post or service with or without future effect
with further directions regarding conditions of restoration to the grade, post or service from
which the railway servant was reduced and his seniority and pay on such restoration to that
grade, post or service.
iii) Compulsory retirement – This penalty should be imposed on an employee when it is felt
that the employee should not be retained in service any more and where the gravity of
offence is such that it does not warrant removal or dismissal from service. In case of
compulsory retirement the employee looses his job only and also does not place any bar on
future employment in Govt. service.
iv) Removal from Service – This shall not be a disqualification for future employment under
the government or railway administration.
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Dismissal from service – Shall ordinary be a disqualification for future employment under
the government or railway administration.
Railway Service Conduct Rules:
1. Short Title –These rules may be called the Railway Services (Conduct) Rules, 1966 and
come into force at once.
2. Definitions – In these rules, unless the context otherwise requires:
i) gazetted officers holding posts in the Railway Board, the President;
ii) other gazetted officers, the Railway Board;
iii) non-gazetted officers in the Railway Board, the secretary, Railway Board.
iv) Other non-gazetted officers in offices directly under the administrative control of the
Railway Board, the Heads of the officers concerned; and
v) Other non-gazetted officers, the General Managers of the Railway Administrations
concerned.
3.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
General – (1) Every Railway servant shall at all times:
i) maintain absolute integrity;
ii) maintain devotion to duty; and
iii) do nothing which is unbecoming of a Railway servant.
(i) Every Railway servant holding a supervisory post shall take all possible steps to ensure
the integrity and devotion to duty of all Railway servants for the time being under his
control and authority;
(ii) Every Railway servant shall, in the performance of his official duties, or in the exercise
of powers conferred on him, act otherwise than in the best judgment except when he is
acting under the direction of his official superior.
(iii) The direction of the official superior shall ordinarily be in writing, and where the issue
of oral direction becomes unavoidable, the official superior shall confirm it in writing
immediately thereafter, and
(iv) A Railway servant who has received oral direction from his official superior shall seek
confirmation of the same in writing as early as possible whereupon it shall be the duty
of the official superior to confirm the direction in writing.
Promptness and Courtesy.
Observance of Government policies.
Prohibition of sexual harassment of working women.
Employment of Near Relatives of Railway servants in Private Undertaking enjoying
Government Patronage.
Taking Part in Politics and Elections.
Joining Associations or Union by Railways Servants.
Demonstration.
Connection with Press or other Media.
Criticism of Government
Evidence before Committee or any other Authority.
Unauthorized Communication of Information.
Subscription – No Railway servant shall except with the previous sanction of the
Government or of the competent authority ask for or accept contributions to or otherwise
associate himself with the raising of any funds of other collections in cash or in kind
pursuance of any object whatsoever.
Gifts Save as otherwise provided in these rules, no Railway servant shall accept or permit
any member of his family or any person acting on his behalf to accept any gift.
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16. Dowry.
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17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
31.
Public Demonstrations in honour of Railway servants.
Private trade or Employment.
Sub-letting and vacation of Govt. accommodation/
Investment, Lending and Borrowing.
Insolvency and Habitual Indebtedness.
Movable, Immovable and Valuable Property.
Vindication of Acts and Character of Railway servants.
Canvassing of Non-official or other Influence.
Restriction regarding Marriage.
Consumption of Intoxicating Drinks and Drugs.
Prohibition regarding employment of children below 14 years of age.
Interpretation.
Delegation of Powers.
Repeal and Saving.
Obligations to abide by all Administrative Instructions.
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SUB DISCIPLINE - ESTABLISHMENT(LESSONS: 04 SESSIONS:04)
Lesson-IV: HOER
Session-30: Classification and Duty roster.
.
Hours of Employment Rules (H.O.E.R.):
In order to regulate the hours of employment and periodic rest to the railway employees,
the rules were incorporated in the Indian Railway Act by an amendment in 1930 & hours
of employment rules were issued finally in 1961.
1.8.1. Application:
Hours of employment means the time during which an employee is at the disposal of
the employer. This includes effective or continuous work and periods of inaction when
the worker must be present on duty, although not exercising physical activity always. It
does not include the recognized intervals. These rules are applicable to all the staff
except(i) Categories of staff governed by the factories act, the Indian Mines Act or the Indian
Shipping Act.
(ii) R.P.F. staff.
1.8.2 Classification:
The railway employees are classified in the following 4 categories
(i) Intensive – Only that staff is declared as Intensive whose work is of strenuous
nature involving continuous concentration of mind or hard manual labour with little
or no periods of relaxation. The statutory hours of duty for his category are 45 hours
a week on the average in any month where as rostered duty hours are 42 and they
must have a minimum of 30 consecutive hours of rest in a week.
(ii) Essentially Intermittent – The staff whose daily hours of duty include periods of
in-action aggregating to 6 hours or more (including one such period of < one hour
and two such periods of < ½ an hour each) during which although they are required
to be on duty but not called upon to display either physical activity or sustained
attentions, are declared as essentially intermittent such as waiting room bearers,
sweepers, bhistees etc. The statutory hours of duty for E.1. staff are 75 hours in a
week where as rostered duty hours are 72. They must avail a minimum of 24
consecutive hours of rest including a full night.
(iii) Excluded – A railway employee is said to be in excluded category if he belongs to
anyone of the following category• Staff of Railway schools imparting technical training or academic education.
• Certain staff of medical department such as assist. Surgeons, matrons, sister
incharge mid-wives etc.
• Staff employed in confidential capacity.
• Armed guards
• Supervisory staff such as inspectors, superintendents foremen, chargemen etc.
For excluded staff no statutory limit for the hours of employment has been seen
prescribed but duty of Railway administration is to see that employees do not come
across with unreasonable conditions.
(iv) Continuous – The employees who are neither classified as intensive nor essentially
intermittent nor excluded are classified as continuous such as guards, drivers,
T.T.Es, Clerks, typist, Gangmen etc. Statutory hours of working for this category
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are 54 in a week on average in a month where as rostered hours of duly are 52. The
staff must be allowed a rest 30 consecutive hours each week.
SUB DISCIPLINE STORE ( LESSONS: 01 SESSIONS: 03)
Lesson-XXXII: Introduction to Engg. Stores& Inventory Control
Session-31: Stock heads of Accounts, Disposal of released and surplus materials.
Stores
1.1
Necessity:
Stores are required to carryout the day to day repairs of track, buildings or structures.
Subordinate incharge is the custodian of stores, its proper accountal and submission of
returns etc.
1.2
Classification of Stores:
Stores are broadly classified in following three categories –
(i)
Imprest stores
(ii)
Surplus stores
(iii) Charged off stores
1.2.1 Imprest Stores:
These are the items kept as standing advance for the purpose of meeting day to day
requirement for repairs, maintenance and operation of rolling stock including consumable
stores such as cotton waste, oils and grease etc. are termed as imprest stores so long as
they are under the control of executive units. Normally after assessing the monthly
requirement of consumption three months quantity is sanctioned by their controlling
heads and the same may be drawn from stores depot.
Imprest stores may be –
(a) P. Way
(b) Other than P. Way Include rail clusters, emergency girders, pipes, specials (water
supply fittings) cement etc.
1.2.1.1 Special Features of Imprest Stores:
•
Scale of imprest stores is fixed by Chief Engineer in consultation with the
Divisional Engineer of the section, keeping in view the track/building structure.
•
Stores are stacked separately and displayed by a board.
•
Stores should not be transferred to other stock holder unless permitted by Divisional
Engineer in case of emergency.
1.2.1.2 Submission of Returns:
Returns shall be submitted every quarterly i.e. ending March, June, Sept. & Dec. by 5th of
the following month. Returns ending Sept. & March are designated as half year ending
returns in which the return shall be submitted for all the items whatever are bome on
imprest ledger irrespective of the fact whether transaction has been done or not where as
in case of quarter ending returns i.e. ending June, Dec., return shall be submitted in
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favour of only those items in which the transaction has been made. The return shall be
prepared by the stock holder counter signed by ADEN of the sub-division and submitted
in the division in two copies. Out of which one copy of the return will be submitted to
DEN/Sr.DEN of the section and another copy to store depot where posting shall be done
in the ledger of stock holder through ledger cards and recoupment of the material shall be
effected through the stores van or wagons obtained from the operating department.
1.2.2 Surplus Stores:
Stores which are surplus to our requirements and include materials received from
renewals, replacements or from dismantled works. Surplus stores should be kept as
minimum as possible by returning all second hand serviceable material o DS-8.
1.2.2.1 Submission of Returns:
Returns shall be submitted every quarterly but the return shall be submitted to the
divisional authorities in 3 copies duly signed by ADEN of the sub Divisional out of
which one copy will be submitted to DEN/Sr. DEN of the section, another copy to store
depot and 3rd copy to track supply officer (T.S.O).
1.2.3 Charged Off Stores:
These are the stores which have been charged to the final heads of revenue working
expenses but still in the custody of that department and will be issued to the consuming
subordinates as and when required. Charged off stores are classified as below.
1.2.3.1 Consumable Stores:
Cotton waste, K. Oil, soap, duster etc. are classified as consumable stores. Monthly scale
of consumption is fixed by DEN of the section with the approval of C.E. Return for
consumable stores to be submitted half yearly.
1.2.3.2 Petty Stores:
Building material such as ballast, bricks, surkhi, lime, sand cement etc. are classified as
petty stores to carryout day-to-day repairs. No. scale is fixed for building material
required for maintenance.
1.2.3.3.Material at site stores (MAS):
Stores which are obtained for specific work are classified as MAS stores. These are
requisitioned by DEN of the section and supply of material is taken directly at/near the
site. These stores are kept outside the account of any other category of stores. The left
over material is transferred else where and taken into account. Returns for MAS stores
shall be submitted quarterly.
1.2.3.4 Tools & Plants:
Scale of T&P is fixed by the Chief Engineer in consultation with DEN of the section. A
total requirement of subordinate s labour and a small reserve will form the basis for scale.
Return of the T&P shall be submitted in the division by the close of financial year every
year in the month of April. If replacement of worn out, damaged or lost articles is
required a requisition for the same shall be submitted to the division with an explanation
of the circumstances in which the replacement is applied for.
1.3
Dead Stock:
All the furniture & plant of office and rest house under the control of a subordinate is
categorized as dead stock. The items should be numbered and a brief description written
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in dead stock register to avoid replacement. All the items of dead stock should be verified
by stock should be verified by stock holder every year where as 20% items of dead stock
shall be checked by ADEN every year Dead stock return shall be submitted to Divisional
Engineer in the month of April each year.
SUB DISCIPLINE – STORE ( LESSONS: 01 SESSIONS: 03)
Lesson-XXXII: Introduction to Engg. Stores& Inventory Control
Session-32: Indenting procedure, Issue note and Write-off statement.
2.1
Issue Note:
This form is used when some material is issued to some other stock holder. It is prepared
in 5 copies, original copy is kept as office copy, four copies are given with material to the
receiving authority. Consignee will send 2nd & 3rd copy duly verified to the issuing
authority. Consigner will send the verified copy to DAO and consignee will also send 4th
copy of issue note to D.A.O. keeping the 5th copy as o/c.
2.2
Pairing of Issue Note:
Pairing is done by Accounts department after receiving the copy of the issue note from
indenter as well as from issuing authority, if tallied will be filed otherwise query will be
done from the issuing authority.
2.3
Red Issue Note:
When any material which is booked either by passenger or goods train, is lost due to
some theft, the consignee will inform the Station Master regarding the less quantity
received. In case the material lost is traced out in due course it will be given to the
consignee otherwise red issue note for the quantity which is lost or short will be given to
Station Master of delivery station or traffic staff. Material is then written off after
conducting the enquiry by stores & traffic department.
2.4
Numerical Ledger:
Due to computerization of stores accounting of ordinary stores have been reclassified on
the basis of trade group and end use, now to save clerical man hours and to have error
free accounting system, stores have been codified with 8 digits. The first two digits
denotes major group, next two digits denote their sub group, next three digits relates to a
particular item & last one is called check digit .
2.5
Engineering Plant Reserve:
The purpose of engineering plant reserve is to avoid losses from forced sales of
serviceable and useful plant left over from special works. The plant and machinery such
as welding machine, truck, Jeep, boiler, compressor etc. Whatever has been purchased
against sanctioned estimated works is disposed of and completion report is drawn. Since
its value obtained will be far less, such material is sent to general store (without DS-8). A
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committee of 3 persons is nominated by Chief Engineer to inspect the plant and valuation
is done. Now this assessed depreciated value is credited to previous work in which these
were procured and CR is drawn. Depreciated value and cost of repair shall be the value of
plant which will be debited to the work going to be undertaken.
SUB DISCIPLINE – STORE ( LESSONS: 01 SESSIONS: 03)
Lesson-XXXII: Introduction to Engg. Stores& Inventory Control
Session-33: Stock verification and Inventory Control Technique.
3.1
Stock Verification:
Stores are verified by stock verifiers of the accounts department as per programme
decided jointly by officers of engineering & stores department, besides the surprise
verification by inspecting officials of engineering, vigilance department etc..
3.2
Object of Stock Verification:
• Updating of ledgers
• Material as available on ground should tally with the book balance.
• Not only the numbers but also the material on ground should tally with the
specification & description shown in numerical ledger.
• To know the shortage and excess of material.
• To check the standard of upkeeping of stores.
• To check the material which is not in use for long time.
• Whether quantity of T&P is as per scale.
3.3
Frequency of Stock Verification:
The stores shall be verified as per following frequency
Material at site (MAS)
Once a year
Imprest stores
Once in 2 years
T&P
Once in 3 years
3.4
Departmental Stock Verification:
Each stock holder is supposed to do the verification of his store once in 6 months at his
own accord. He may do so by verifying certain items every month provided te whole
stock is verified during 6 months i.e. prior to April and October every year before
submitting the half yearly returns. The ADEN s verification of stock with stock holder
should be confined to important items of charged off stores, surplus stores and the items
which are liable to deteriorate in addition to imprest stores.
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Overhauling of Stock:
After completion of stock verification, ledgers of stock holders are scrutinized by
Inspector stores Accounts (I.A.S.). It is seen that stores indented & supplied by stores are
properly accounted. Stock sheets having irregularity if any is submitted to Accounts
Officer, then he takes up the matter with controlling officer.
3.6
Stock Sheet:
If the physical balance or stock agrees with the book balance, no stock sheet need be
prepared. The official concern will merely make an entry in the ledger card bin card to
show that the physical balances agree with the book balances. The entry should be
initialed by the official making the entry & the official incharge of the ledger section. In
case of access shortage of stock the official should prepare department stock verification
sheet on form no. 1260-S. Stock sheet for irregularities if any is prepared in 4 copies.
Original copy is sent to Accounts Officer. Explanation of the stock holder is recorded on
2nd & 3rd copy and submitted to Divisional Engineer/Sr. Divisional Engineer who retains
3rd copy and forwards 2nd copy to Accounts Officer for further action. 4th copy is kept as
office copy by stock verifier.
4.1
Stock and Non-stock Items:
4.1.1 Stock Items:
Stock items are those items which have regular turnover and required in day-to-day
working frequently & atleast 2 times in a year. Annual consumption is likely to be more
than Rs. 2000. As regards the procurement of stock items, the demand is sent by
consignee, items are recognized by P.L. Number.
4.1.2 Non-Stock Items:
Non stock items are those items which do not have regular turn over, not required
frequently. These items are planned by the users department. The requirement with
complete specification, detailed description of items is submitted to their feeding stores
depot on requisition form No. S-3102. One requisition is prepared for one item only in
duplicate. Carbon copy is kept by indenting officer.
As the procurement of items always take some time, advanced planning should be done.
The demand is sent by consignee, last purchase particulars if any are given on requisition,
the items are procured as per details given by consignee.
5.1
Inventory Control:
In Railways the demands are mainly for(i) Maintenance activities.
(ii) Production activities in Railway Workshops
(iii) For projects or works
Materials required by Railways are manufactured for the specific use of Railways & not
normally required by other users hence sufficient time is required by the manufacturer to
produce the items on receipt of contract and if not possible to procure these items as &
when required. Any failure to supply the vital items immediately on demand brings the
Railway operation to a stand still. Also it is not advisable to procure items in bulk which
will result in blocking of large capital. Hence there is no need for inventory control to
maintain lowest levels of stocks with highest service levels. Inventory control also aims
at reducing the inventory carrying cost which comprises:•
Cost of physical storage of inventory
•
Interest on money locked up in inventory
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•
Opportunity cost
•
•
•
the capital could have been used in profitable way but blocked
in inventory.
Obsolescence & depreciation.
Cost involved in stock verification
Pilferage and other losses.
SUB DISCIPLINE - MEDICAL AWARENESS PROGRAMME
(LESSONS: 01
SESSIONS:02)
Lesson-I: Medical Awareness Programme
Session-34: Family Welfare, AIDS, Family Management & First Aid.
By Doctor Called as visiting faculty
SUB DISCIPLINE - RAJBHASHA(LESSONS: 01
SESSIONS:02)
Lessons: 1 Rajbhasha Session-35: Constitutional Provisions, Official Language Act 1963,
Official Language Rules 1976.
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ljdkj us jktHkk"kk ds :i esa fgUnh dks Lohdkj fd;k gS ftldh fyfi nsoukxjh gksxh rFkk ljdkjh
izk;kstuksa ds fy, vadksa dk :i Hkkjrh; vadksa dk vUrjkZ"Vªh; :i gksxkA
jktHkk"kk og Hkk"kk gS ftls la?k vFkok dksbZ jkT; vFkok ljdkj fof/k }kjk vius ljdkjh
dkedkt esa iz;ksx ds fy, Lohdkj dj ysa A og fdlh jkT; esa ,d ls vf/kd Hkh gks ldrh gS A
lafo/kku dh v"V~e lwph esa 'kkfey lHkh 22 Hkkjrh; Hkk"kk,Wa] jk"VªHkk"kk,Wa
dgykrh gS A ;g Hkk"kk,Wa fofHkUu iz;kstuksa ds fy, mi;ksx dh tkrh gS A
jktHkk"kk fu;eksa ds vuqikyu dh n`f"V ls Hkkjrh; HkwHkkx dks 3 {ks=ksa esa ckWaVk
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>kj[k.M] fnYyh rFkk vaMeku ,ao fudksckj }hi lewg A
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¼[k½ x {ks= & 'ks"k lHkh jkT; vkSj dsUnz 'kkflr izns k A
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SUB DISCIPLINE - RAJBHASHA(LESSONS: 01 SESSIONS:02)
Lessons: 1 Rajbhasha
Session-36: Policy Guidelines & Instructions..
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fuEufyf[kr rhu ikB~;Øe gSa&
izcks/k & ;g izkjfEHkd ikB~;Øe gS vkSj bldk Lrj izkbejh Ldwy dh fgUnh ds Lrj ds cjkcj gS
izoh.k & bldk Lrj fefMy Ldwy dh fgUnh ds Lrj ds cjkcj gS A
izkK & bldk Lrj gkbZLdwy dh fgUnh ds Lrj ds cjkcj gS A
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fuEu izdkj gSa&
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vaxzsth esa f}Hkk"kh tkjh fd;s tkus pkfg, A
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10- ckaXyk
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12- ey;kye
13- laLd`r
14- flU/kh
15- fgUnh
16- dksad.kh
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17- usikyh
18- ef.kiqjh
19- Mksxjh
20- eSfFkyh
21- laFkkyh
22- cksM+ks
dsUnzh; ljdkj ds dk;kZy; ls {ks= ^d* o ^[k* esa fdlh jkT; ;k la?k jkT; {ks= ds
i=kfn ekewyh rkSj ij fgUnh esa gksrs gSa vkSj ;fn buesa ls dksbZ Hkh i=kfn vaxzsth esa Hksts
tkrs gSa rks muds lkFk mudk fgUnh vuqokn Hkh Hkstk tkosxk A ysfdu {ks= ^x* esa fdlh jkT;
;k la?k jkT; {ks= fdlh dk;kZy; ;k O;fDr dks i=kfn vaxzsth esa gksxsa A
DISCIPLINE: - GIPSD
(Lessons: 07, Sessions: 07)
Lesson-I: Communication. Session-1: Communication Skills and Importance in Railway
Organization.
What is Communication?
Communication is the transfer of information from a sender to a receiver with the
information being understood by the receiver.
It is the means by which organized activity is unified.
It may be looked upon as the means by which social inputs are fed into social systems.
It is also the means by which behavior is modified, change is effected, information is
made productive, and goals are achieved.
Communication Skill
Communication skill is the technique by which more and more information are
dispatched and received.
Importance of Communication in Railway
As we know for better work culture, Communication is the powerful tool in any
organization and Railway is not exception. In Railway there are different branches which
are in function and for effective, progressive and productive working there is permanent
need of better communication. In Railway organization as because of better
communication we could know about progress and short comings by means of better
method of communication.
Type of Communication
1. One way Communication
2. Two way Communication
One Way Communication
This is the communication which flows from upward to downward only. Here order is
passed from upward to downward. Hence it is known as One Way Communication. Here
only one dispatches and other receives.
Two Way Communications
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This is the communication which flows on either side and it is the method by which
receiver also sends message to the dispatch. This method is very much useful and there is
wider scope of communication. In present mode of organization, Two Way
Communication is widely used.
Effective Communication
Make sure you clarify our ideas before communicating
Test the real purpose of each communication
Be mindful of the physical and human setting whenever you communicate
Consult with others, wherever appropriate, in planning communication
Always consider in any communication overtones, as well as the basic content, of your
message
Create an opportunity to convey something of help or value to the receiver
Always follow up your communications.
Communicate with tomorrow in mind as well as today.
Make your actions support your communications
Strive not only to be understood but to understand- be a good listener.
DISCIPLINE: - GIPSD
Lesson-II: Work Culture.
(Lessons: 07, Sessions: 07)
Session-2: Work Culture.
WORK CULTURE:
Culture has been defined as that set of important understanding that member of a
community or organization share in common. Still another definition of culture is the complete
set of behavior and belief of a people.
In any organization we need a co-ordinate and sense of job conscious attitude for better
productivity and each and every individual must recognize his work, feel proud for the same.
Organizational culture is the most important part of organizational life and an important
managerial consideration. The individual should create awareness among themselves for better
understanding, perform duty with positive attitude, sincerely, devotion and honestly and he must
realize the work as a religion and pay due respect to it and act accordingly, this is known as work
culture. In present scenario work culture plays a very important role in nation building. If every
individual develop a sense of work culture then there is no doubt that organization will
prosperous.
Edger Schein has suggested that there are a number of basic underlying assumptions
around which culture paradigms from:
1.
Humanity’s Relation to Nature: at the organizational level, do the members
view the relationship of the organization to its general environment as one
dominance, submission, harmony, finding an appropriate niche, or something
else.
2.
The Nature of Reality and Truth: The linguistic and behavioral rules that
define what is real and what is not truth is ultimately determined, and whether
truth is revealed or discovered.
3.
The Nature of Human Nature: What does it mean to be Human , and what
attributes are considered to be intrinsic or ultimate? Is human nature good, evil,
or neutral?
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4.
The Nature of Human Activity: What is the right
think to do? What is work
and what is play?
5.
The Nature of Human Relationships: What is the right way for people to
relate to each other? Is life cooperative or competitive; individualistic, group
collaborative, or communal: based on tradition lineal authority, law, charisma,
etc?
DISCIPLINE: - GIPSD
(Lessons: 07, Sessions: 07)
Lesson-III: Inter Personal Relations. Session-3: Need for Inter Personal Relations in Railway
Organization
Inter Personal Relation in Indian Railway
Actually to say Inter Personal Relation is based upon human value and human touch. In
any organization human behavior and value plays a very important role to build up a foundation
of healthy work culture and amicable work environment. In Railways which is also a vast
organization, there is also a need of good human relations and human values in between workers
to workers, workers to management.
By adopting good human relations, human touch and human behavior, we can solve most
of our problems and there by developing well working environment.
For example if a man has got some domestic problem etc then organization should
handle the situation by providing human approach and sympathy to the particular for creating
good work culture and efficiency.
Need For Inter Personal Relation
To day s world is full of challenges and to meet the challenge in day to day working in
organization inter personal relation are required to be made strong enough for better
human relation to build up a good work culture and productivity by putting in maximum
effort in the improvement of human relation.
DISCIPLINE: - GIPSD
(Lessons: 07, Sessions: 07)
Lesson-IV: Motivation.
Session-4: Motivation Skills.
Motivation
Motivation can be defined as the processes that account for an individual s intensity,
direction, and persistence of effort toward attaining a goal.
n The three key elements in our definition are intensity, direction, and persistence.
n Intensity is concerned with how hard a person tries.
n
High intensity is unlikely to lead to favorable job-performance outcomes unless the effort
is channeled in a direction that benefits the organization.
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Motivation has persistence dimension. This is a measure of how long a person can
maintain his effort.
Motivated individuals stay with a task long enough to achieve their goal.
Motivation Skill: It is the skill by which in any organization man is inspired to do more and
more work and productivity is increase because man loves happily.
How to Identify Motivation in Others:
n Energy
n Commitment
n Staying Power
n Skill
n Single-Mindedness
n Enjoyment
n Responsibility
The Golden Rule of Motivation:
You will never inspire others unless you are inspired yourself.
Example is the great seducer.
Hall marks of Good Example.
Act in the open.
Be spontaneous.
Be expressive.
Be self effacing (No trumpets)
DISCIPLINE: - GIPSD
(Lessons: 07, Sessions: 07)
Lesson-V: Attitude Building. Session-5: Important of Positive Attitude.
n
ATTITUDES The term attitude frequently is used in describing people and explaining their behavior. For
example- He has a poor attitude. I like her/his attitude. Our workers turn out poor quality
products because they have poor attitudes. More precisely, an attitude can be defined as a
persistent tendency to feel and behave in a particular way towards some objects. For example
Ram does not like working in
The Importance of positive attitude
(1) Increase productivity.
(2) Fosters team work.
(3) Solves problems.
(4) Improves quality.
(5) Makes for congenial/cordial atmosphere.
(6) Breeds loyalty.
(7) Increase profits.
(8) Better relationship with employers, employees and customers.
(9) Reduces stress.
(10) Helps a person become a contributing member of society and an asset to the country.
(11) Makes for a pleasing personality.
(12) Wastage control/cost control the night shift. He has a negative attitude towards his work
assignment.
DR. WALTER DOYLE STAPLES:
Attitudes are the result of choices you make decisions to believe or not believe in particular
aspects of your life. For example- some people choose to adopt firm beliefs in honesty, integrity,
resourcefulness, efforts and respect for fellow human beings.
There are three basic components
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Documents(1) Emotional
(2) Informational
(3) Behavioral
(1) The emotional components- it involves the person s feelings or affect positive, neutral or
negative about an object. The expression of emotions- either positive like customer service
representative, negative like Police Officer or neutral like a academic administrator or public
servant.
(2) The informational component -consists of the beliefs and information of individuals has
about the object. It makes no difference whether this information is real or correct.
(3) The behavioral components-consists of a person s tendencies to behave in a particular way
towards an object. Only behavioral components can be directly observed.
Factors that determine our attitude:
(1) Environment
(2) Experience
(3) Education
Environment
Home -Positive or negative influence
SchoolOffice or Work place (Supportive or over critical supervisor)
Media: (Television, Newspapers, Magazines, Radio, Movies)
Culture background
Religious background
Traditions & beliefs
Social environment
Political environment
Experience:
Behavioral change & attitude depends on sound experience of different areas
Education:
Through formal & informal education both we gain the knowledge. Proper use of knowledge
skill & assertive behaviors give force to positive attitudes. Knowledge is power.
STEPS TO BUILD:
STEP-I
STEP-II
STEP-III
STEP-IV
STEP-V
STEP-VI
STEP_VII
STEP-VIII
Change focus, look for the Positive.
Make a habit of doing it now.
Develop an attitude of gratitude.
Get into a continuous education program.
Build a positive self esteem.
Stay away from negative influence.
Learn to like the things that need to be done.
Start tour day with a positive
POSITIVE ATTITUDE:
(1) The adjustment function: Attitudes often help people adjust to their work environment.
Well treated employees develop a positive attitude.
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(2) The Ego- defensive function: Attitude also helps them to defend their self images. For
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example decisions of older managers are continuously challenged by a younger manager.
(3) The value expressive function: Attitudes provide expressing their values. For example a
manager who believes strongly in the work ethic will reflect this value of work ethic.
(4) The knowledge function Attitudes help supply standards and frames of references that allow
people to organize and explain the world around them.
Barrier to changing attitude:
(1) Prior commitments
(2)Insufficient information's
Attitude can be changed through:
(1) Providing new information.
(2) Continuous education programme.
(3) Use of fear.
(4) Resolving discrepancies.
(5) Influences of friends & peers.
(6) The co-opting approach
(7) Do it now habit.
DISCIPLINE: - GIPSD
(Lessons: 07, Sessions: 07)
Lesson-VI: Team Work.
Session-6: Team Work and Team Building
Team Work
In this system of all work in a coordinated and composite manners if any one fails then
another man backs up and fulfils the objectives with out any problem and void ness is not
felt.
CORE COMPETENCIES OF A LEADER/Team Building
v
Team work is the sine-qua-non for excellence in performance.
v
It is like an orchestra playing at a concert-there can not be music without Harmony.
v
Samgachchadhvam Samvadaddhvam Samvo Manansijantaam
(Let us move together, let us speak together-Rig Veda)
v
Synergy
v
Identification with the organization and with the employees
v
Shared vision
Team Building (Characteristics of effective teams)
v
Active participation
v
Open Communication
v
Informal Climate
v
Clear Roles and work Assignments
v
Style Diversity
v
Self-Assessment.
DISCIPLINE: - GIPSD
(Lessons: 07, Sessions: 07)
Lesson-VII: Self Development.
Session-7: Self Development
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SUB-DISCIPLINE:- COMPUTER ( LESSONS: 04
SESSIONS:10)
Lesson-I: History & Basics of Computer Session-1: History of Computer, Hardware and
Software, Parts of Computer and their functions, Operating Systems of Computer .
HISTORY OF COMPUTERS:
The abacus is the earliest known calculating device. It was probably first used in China
2000 or 2500 years ago. It consist of a rectangular wooden frame with rods carrying
round beads.
The first Mechanical calculating machine was made in 1642 by the great French
mathematician, Blasé Pascal (1623-62). He was son of the tax superintendent in Paris. To
help his father with tax calculations, Pascal invented the calculator at the age of 18.
Charles Babbage differential machine: - In 1823, Charles Babbage (father of computer), a
professor at Cambridge university, developed the concept to design a calculating machine
called engine which could store data and perform arithmetic operation.
Mark-I: - in 1944 Howard professors developed automatic calculating machine which
called mark-I digital calculator. IBM (international business machine) corporation built
this computer.
Electronic numeric integrator and calculator (ENIC): - the first electronic computer fit in
1945 by a team of professor at university of Pennsylvania called (ENIC) it was heavy
machine consisting of 18,000 vacuum tubes, 70,000 resisters, 10,000 caisitor,60,000
switches and having large size occupying 15,000 squire feet of space.
Universal automatic computer (UNIAC): This is first computer made by a private company called IBM.
In 1969 Intel was commissioned by a Japanese calculator company to produce an
integrated circuit, a computer chip, for its line of calculators.
Instead of "hardwiring" the logic of the calculator into the chip he created what is now
called a microprocessor, a chip that can be programmed to perform the operations of a
calculator; i.e., a computer on a slice of silicon.
Generations of computers
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First Generation: --1942 to 1955
Electronic component:- vacuum tube
Advantages:- Helped in calculation and computational work.
Disadvantages: -Big size, very costly, slow speed, high power requirements, and no
operating system.
Second Generation: - 1955 to 1964
Electronic component:- Transistors
Advantages: - Smaller size, less cost.
Disadvantages: - No operating system
Third generation: -1964 to 1972
Electronic component:- Iintegrated circuits(IC)
Advantages:- Used operating system and high level language
Disadvantages:- Initial problem with manufacturers
Fourth generation: -1972 to onward
Electronic component:- Microprocessor chips for CPU and memory(VLSI)
Advantages: - low cost, excellent speed and reliability.
Disadvantages:-less powerful than main frame needed
Classification of computer: - On the basis of size:
1: - Super Computer: - Computer system character by very large size and very high
processing speed are called supper computer. Super computers are mainly being used for
weather forecasting computational build dynamics, remote sensing, bio-medical
application. Example param-10000 (the fastest computer of world ,made in India)
2. Mainframe Computer: - A large computer system that has capability to support more
powerful peripheral device and technical.
3. Mini Computer: - A reliability best but small and compare to mainframe is a mini
computer the smallest category of the computer. Consisting of microprocessors and
associated storage and output input devices.
4. Personal Computer: - PC is so named because it is designed for personal use. IBM for
most computer manufacturing company in the world.
Hard ware and software :
Hard ware: - All the parts of a computer that we can see or touch are hardware i.e.
monitor ,CPU,mother board ,other PCBs ,input and output devices .
Software: - Set of instructions and collection of Data which make the computer work is
called software .Without software, the computer will do nothing. The computer hardware
on its own has no intelligence and therefore must be supplied with instructions to
performs a task .There are two types of Software:
(1)System software (2)Application software
(1)System software: -The software that runs the computer is called System software . It
is the most important software which consists of Operating System and Utilities
(2)Application software: - These programs are designed to enable the computer to
accomplish a specific task.For example Microsoft Word, Excell, Powerpoint.
Data : A collection of raw facts is called Data. Computers organize and present data in a
meaning full way.
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Input and Input Devices :Data is provided by the user, User can give numbers,words,
sound or pictures as input. The parts of computer we use to give the input are called Input
devices. Keyboard, mouse, scanner mic. Are example of input devices.
Process : the work done by the CPU on the given DATA is called processing.CPU is the
brain of the computer. Like we use our brain to solve problems similarly computer solves
the problem using its CPU.
Output and output devices : processed or meaningful data is called output.The output is
either displayed on the monitor or printed on the paper. The parts of the computer system
which give output from the CPU are called output devices.Monitor,Printer are example of
output devices .
COMPUTER
Computer is an electronics device which perform a
number of tasks ie Arithmetical & logical
operations. It can accept and store data, process it
and can produce the output. A computer works very
fast and is very accurate .
PARTS OF A COMPUTER
Computer Consists of following parts
The Computer ,The Monitor,The Keyboard ,The Mouse The Floppy Diskette Drive
The CD-ROM Drive, Peripherals
CPU :CPU is actually a small electronic device inside the computer mounted on
motherboard. Central Processing Unit(CPU) carries out all calculations and comparisons
and sends it to the relevant output device . Microprocessor is used in CPU.
It has two parts.
1. ALU(Arithmetic Logic Unit) : It performs all arithmetic
ALU
CPU
and Logical functions such as addition, subtraction, multiplication
and division .
2. CU(Control Unit): Functions of all other parts of a
Computer are controlled by the control unit .
Monitor :The Computer Monitor is the video display unit consists of a television picture
tube(CRT) to display the inputs and outputs.
Keyboard: The Keyboard is the primary input device used to communicate with the
computer. A computer keyboard closely resembles a conventional typewriter keyboard
with the addition of numerous keys that are used specifically for computing functions. All
keys are arranged like those on a type writer .There are some extra keys with the
keyboard of a computer like Control (ctrl) and altar (alt) key which have special functions
associated with it in combination with other keys.
Mouse: - A mouse is a pointing device, which rolls on a small rubber ball or with optical
and light arrangement which has two or three buttons on the top. The mouse is another
input device used to point at objects on the computer monitor and select them named for
the resemblance of the wire coming out of it and a mouse's tail, the mouse was introduced
to computing in the early 1980's when Macintosh created its graphical user interface
(GUI). Using the mouse and keyboard in combination allows the computer user
substantial latitude in how to accomplish a wide variety of tasks.
Basic mouse operations: -
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Click: - Press and release the left button on the mouse.
Double click: - Click the left button of the mouse twice rapidly.
Drag and drop: - Holds down the left mouse button while you are moving the mouse
and release it at the desired position.
Point: - Move the mouse.
Computer Memory: The memory of computer stores data and instructions. There are
two types of memory :1.Internal Memory
2.External Memory
Internal Memory: A computer needs to store data before processing it Data is stored in
internal memory of computer. It is known as the primary memory. There are two types of
Internal
memory (1) ROM (2) RAM
ROM (Read Only Memory):It is the permanent memory chip that is put in the computer
when it is manufactured. It is provided on motherboard , the information can be used by
computer for its functions but can not be changed .
RAM (Random Access Memory): RAM (Random Access Memory) is the place in a
computer where the operating system, application programs, and data in current use are
kept so that they can be quickly reached by the computer's processor.
RAM is much faster to read from and write to than the other kinds of storage in a
computer, the hard disk, floppy disk, and CD-ROM. The data in RAM stays there only as
long as computer is running. When computer is turned OFF, RAM loses its data. When
computer is turned ON again, operating system and other files are once again loaded
into RAM, usually from hard disk.
External Memory : Storage Devices: - External memory is needed because as soon as
the computer is turned off, RAM loses it s data .This is why it is important to save data
from RAM to external memory or storage device. Different types of storage devices are
explained below
(i)Hard disk: - It is a group of large metal or plastic disks permanently sealed in a
container. Read-write heads and access mechanisms are also in built within the container
are not generally removed from their disk drives. Smaller size of Winchester disk is used
in mini computer and PCs. the capacity of hard disk is about 40 G.B to 180GB or more.
(ii) Floppy disk: - Floppy disk is widely used storage device. Floppy diskettes are
normally used as a temporary storage containers or transportation media for data. Now
days two sizes of disk are commonly available- 5.25 inches and 3.5 inches A standard
floppy diskette can hold 1.44 MB of computer data. These disks are economical and very
flexible to use. Floppy disks are not as reliable or fast as the internal storage device. They
are also the primary vector of virus infection in the computer .
(iii) CD-ROM(Compact disk ROM): - The Compact Disk-Read Only Memory (CDROM) disk is most commonly used storage device and has become the primary storage
medium of data and distribution medium for software to consumers. It is a small optical
disk in which laser beam is used to store and read information. It consists of concentric
circles containing millions of pits and plateaus which correspond to on/off bits of data.
CD-ROM are two types CD-R and CD-RW.
CD-R: This type of CD-ROM is "Read Only" ie. they are recordable disks. Data can be
written on them only once.
CD-RW : They are re-writable CDs. Data can be written on them again and again.
OPERATING SYSTEMS FOR COMPUTERS:
An operating system is a set of program that runs on a computer to simplify the use of the
computer for the user. The operating system manages the use of peripheral devices such as
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Documents
and display the results. In order to carry out these functions the operating system has to
require a systematic structure for the inputs and outputs; there is a definite structure to files
and there is a systematic way in which the files are stored on the data storage devices.
Without an operating system a computer is not able to perform tasks.
TYPES OF OPERATING SYSTEM
MS DOS
WINDOWS(95,97,98,2000,XP,Vista)
UNIX
LINEX
WINDOWS Operating System : The Windows is an advanced, most capable , popular and user
friendly operating system invented by Microsoft company. This operating system uses a
graphical interface(pictures or icons instead of text).
Components of Windows:
The desktop: -This is the large, background area of the Windows screen, from where we can
access different component of Windows.
Changing pattern of desktop: *Using the right mouse button click on the empty area of the desktop.
*Select properties.
*Click the down arrows on the scroll bar right of the pattern box.
*Select one of the patterns then click ok.
Control panel: Ø It customizes the window environment.
Ø Choose start→settings →control panel.
The icon: -Icons are the small pictures on the desktop, which represents the programs and
executable files.
Changing the icon: *Right clicks the desktop and chooses the properties from context menu.
*Click effect tab.
Start Button: The Start button lets you know quickly open your programmes and documents
Menu bar: -This has the list of programmes .
Scroll bar: -Helps to move through the document that does not fit within the window.
The title bar: *The upper band of every window is known as the title bar.
*You can not move the window around your desktop in case it is not maximized
*The title bar is highlighted when the window is active.
*You can have a number of applications open at a time but can work with just one.
The task bar: -It is the rectangular bar that appears at the bottom of screen.
Hiding the task bar: *Using the right mouse button click on the empty area of the taskbar.
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*Select properties.
Documents
*Click on task bar option tab.
*Select the auto hide and then click ok.
Setting the date and time: v Double click on the date/time icon.
v Select the digits for the month in the date box.
v Click the up down to select the month.
v To change the time repeats the same process.
v Click ok button.
Loading screen saver: Click the down arrow to the right of the drop down list box named screen saver.
q Select one of the screen savers from the list.
q Click preview.
q The selected screen saver appears
Creating a folder: q
v From the tree pane select the directory under which you want to create a sub directory
v Choose file →new →folder
v Type the name of the new directory and press enters.
Deleting a directory: ü Select the directory.
ü Choose file → delete.
ü If you want to delete the file or the folder. Click yes in the dialog box.
File commands: Moving: v Select the file to be moved and then drag them as a group to the new destination.
Or
v Select the file to be moved.
v Choose edit→ cut.
v Select the directory where it has to be moved.
v Choose edit → paste.
Copying: v Select the file to be copied.
v Hold the CTRL key. Drag the selection to destination.
Or
v Choose edit→ copy.
v Select the directory where it has to be copied.
v Choose edit → paste.
Renaming files: Ø Select the item to be renamed.
Ø Choose file → rename.
Ø Current name get selected, type in the new name.
Ø Press enters or clicks out side the file name.
Word pad: v It is used to create documents of any disc.
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v Clicks start button→program→accessories→word pad.
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Starting paint: -
Original artwork can be created and moved into other window applications as follows.
q Click start button →program →accessories →paint.
Calculator: q
Ø It is used to solve mathematical problems.
Ø Click start button→program→accessories→calculator.
Notepad: ü It is used to review and edit sort text files.
Ø Click start button→program→accessories→notepad.
Deleting files: v Select the files.
v press Del or choose file→delete
v Click yes buttons in the delete dialog box.
Accessories→Notepad
Wordpad
Calculator
Entertain
Games
Paint
Short cuts that is used in windows:
1. Ctrl+a
select all
2. Ctrl+x
cut
3. Ctrl+v
paste
4. Ctrl+c
copy
5. Ctrl+s
save
6. Ctrl+n
new
7. Ctrl+o
open
8. Ctrl+p
print
9. Ctrl+z
undo
10. Ctrl+y
redo
11. F1
help
12. Ctrl+l
left align
13. Ctrl+r
right align
14. Ctrl+e
center align
15. alt+f4
close window
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16. Ctrl+b
Documents
bold
17. Ctrl+I
italic
18. Ctrl+u
underline
SUB-DISCIPLINE:- COMPUTER ( LESSONS: 04
Lesson–II: Microsoft Office Session-2: MS Word
SESSIONS:10)
Microsoft Office:
Microsoft Office is very popular and widely used application software suite which consists of
different application software i.e Word, Excel, PowerPoint, Access etc
MS Word:
Microsoft Word is all you need for typing letters, documents, reports etc. Very easy to learn, the
user-friendly.
Starting MS- WORD
Start
Program
MS-Word
OR
Click on the icon of micro soft word on the desktop.
COMPOMENTS OF THE WORD SCREEN
Title bar.
Vertical scroll bar.
Horizontal scroll bar.
Vertical scroll bar
Menu bar
Formatting and standard tool bar
Status bar
Opening a new document
Select file
new
Click general tab and select blank document
Or
Select office 97 templates option button.
Opening an existing file
Choose fileopen
Choose the file to be opened and click on the open button.
Moving information
Select the text
Select edit
cut
Place the cursor where the text has to be copied.
Select edit > paste.
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Copying information
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Select the text
Select edit
copy
Place the cursor where the text has to be copied.
Select edit
paste
Inserting special characters
Choose insertsymbol
Undo
Choose edit undo
Repeat
Choose editrepeat
Creating the dictionary custom dictionary
Choose toolsoptions
Select the spelling and grammar tab.
Click dictionaries button
Choose new button
Select the directory where the dictionary is to be stored.
Choose save button.
Changing font and font size
Select the text for formatting.
Choose format font.
Click on the font tab.
Click on the down arrow of the font color of the font.
Indents and line spacing
Place the insertion paint in the paragraph, which has to be indented.
Choose formatparagraph
Click on the indents and spacing tab.
Enter the distance to indent in the left and right boxes.
Setting margins
Position the cursor where, margin settings have to be changed.
Choose file page setup
Click to desired dimension boxes.
Change paper size and orientation by switching to paper size tab.
Paper orientation
Click file page setup paper size.
 Choose portrait or landscape in the orientation group box.
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Headers and Footers
Documents
Choose page setup margins tab and set marring of header and Footer in the from edge box.
To enter a header that repeats on all pages choose.
 View  Header and Footer.
Enter the text for the header in the header text box.
Borders and shading
Select the portion of the document, which requires boudoirs.
 Choose format  borders and shading.
Click on the borders tab.
In the setting area choose any one of the setting.
In the style box you can choose the of line the color of the line and the width of the line.
 On the page border tab, choose the type ok border to be application.
On the shading tab, choose the type.
Views
Word offers six unique views.
Print preview
 It is used to see the entire page at a reduced size
 Choose file  print preview
Web layout view
It is designed to be used while creating a web page Irwin reading document on the screen.
Choose view web layout
Normal view
It is default document used box typing, editing and for mating
 Choose view  normal view
Out line layout view
It is used to look at the structure of the document.
Creating tables
Move the cursor to the place where the tables are to be inserted.
Choose tables button from the standard tool bar or choose insert table from table menu.
Set the number of row and column.
 Choose ok button
Choose table auto format
Choose table insert table.
 Click the auto format button in the insert table dialog box or click table  table auto format
Format list box and preview box is used to select the list-suited format.
To apply borers, shading, font color select from format .to applies area.
To choose rows and columns to apply special formatting. Select the check boxes in the apply
special formats to area.
Click on ok button.
Hyper links
It is connection betweentwo document or parts of same document and is connected use.
To create a hyper link
Open the word document in which the hyperlink is to be insert.
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Open the file the contains text or graphics.
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Click insert hyperlink.
Select the object to which the hyperlink will jump in the destination file.
Hold the right mouse button and drag the selection where you want the hyperlink.
Choose create hyperlink here.
SUB-DISCIPLINE:- COMPUTER ( LESSONS: 04
Lesson–II: Microsoft Office Session-3: MS Word
SESSIONS:10)
Practical demonstration of different components & Tools of MS Word in computer room
SUB-DISCIPLINE:- COMPUTER ( LESSONS: 04
Lesson–II: Microsoft Office Session-4: MS PowerPoint
SESSIONS:10)
MS PowerPoint:It is a sophisticated presentation graphics package used to create presentation
using Auto content wizard.
STARTING POWER POINT
• Choose start ØprogramsØMS. Power Point
CREATING PRESENTATION USING AUTO CONTENT WIZARD
• Start power point.
• Start auto content wizard.
• Select auto content wizard button.
• Click the next button.
• After some information the presentation is created.
CREATING PRESENTATION USING DESIGN TEMPLATE:Choose template option. New presentation dialog box appears from which the template is
selected.
New slide dialog box appears with a list of 24 pre-designed slide layouts.
CREATING PRESENTATION USING BLANK WIZARD:• Start power point
• Select the block presentation.
• Choose the ok button.
A COMPLETE PRESENTATION INVOLVES: Ø Creating the presentation.
Ø Applying a presentation design
Ø Formats slides.
Ø Add objects to the presentation.
Ø Apply transitions, animation effects.
Ø Rehearse and add slide timings.
Ø Present the presentation.
OPENING AN EXISTING PRESENTATION
1. This opens up an existing presentation.
2. Select the name of the file from the menu under file name fox.
OUTLINING TOOLBAR
1. Select view ØtoolbarØoutlining
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2. Click o.k.
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INSERTING A NEW SLIDE
1. Click insertØnew slide.
2. Select the slide layout and click o.k.
DELETING A SLIDE
1. Selected the slide in the out line view
2. Choose editØdelete slide and choose o.k.
PRINTING THE PRESENTATION
1. Click file Ø print.
2. Select the slides to be printed from the print ranger box and click o.k.
SAVING THE PRESENTATION
1. Choose file Ø save.
2. View the name to the presentation and click save.
CLOSING THE PRESENTATION
1. Choose close command from the file menu.
OR
2. Click on the presentation close button
FORMATING TEXT
TO MAKE TEXT WORD.
1. Select the text tool on the droning toolbar.
2. Set the texts width.
3. The typed text will wrap inside the box.
SHADOW TEXT
1. Add a shadow behind the text
2. Choose formatØfont.
3. Select shadow in the effect box and choose o.k. Button.
ADDING A SHADED BACKGHROUND TO SLIDES
1. Choose format Øbackground.
2. Select on option in the shade box from the background dialog box.
3. Choose apply or apply to all.
APPLYING DESIGNS TO SLIDES
1. Choose format Ø apply design template.
2. Choose the template name to the entire preview.
3. Double click the selected template to apply to all slides.
POWER POINT OBJECTS
(Select an object)
1. Touch any visible part of on object and click the left button of the mouse.
2. To choose all the objects choose editØ select-all.
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DE- SELECT AN OBJECT
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1. H0ld down the shift key and click the mouse button.
GROUPING JOBJECTS
1. Create a group by selecting more than one object.
2. Select the attributes to all the objects in a group.
UN GROUPING REGROUPING OBJECTS
1. Select the group by clicking on a grouped object.
2. Choose Draw Øungroup or Regroup.
MOVING AN OBJECT
1. Select the object or border and drag the outing to a new location.
ALIGINIG OBJECTS
1. Choose drawØ align.
2. Select the type of command from. FormatØalignment.
ADDING CLIPART
1. Click the insert clipart button on the drawing toolbox.
OR
2. Double click a clipart placeholder on an auto layout.
OR
3. Choose insert ØpictureØ clipart.
RECORDING A CLIPART OBJECT
Ø In the slide, select the clipart object.
Ø Click the Recolor picture button on the picture Tool bar.
Ø Choose to change color or fills.
Ø Click and choose a new color bar each color to be changed.
FORMATTING INDIVIDUAL CHART OBJECTS
Ø Select the object in the chart.
Ø Right click and choose formatØ object.
Ø Set options on each dialog fox and click o.k.
WORD ART
Ø Special effects can be added to the text
Ø Choose insert Ø picture Øword art
INSERTING A GRAPH
Ø Click insertØ objects.
Ø Select through the data on the data sheet and choose editØclear.
Ø Enter the data in the data sheet.
Ø Close the data sheet by clicking on the close button.
SOUND AND MOTION CLIPS
Ø Open the slide.
Ø Choose insert Ømovies and soundØsounds.
Ø In the clip art dialog box, select the sound or motion clip.
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Ø Click insert clip to insert object.
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Ø Double click on the icon or object to play the sound or motion clip.
CRATING HYPEARLING TO ANOTHER SLIDE
Ø In slide view select the text.
Ø Choose slide show Øaction settings
Ø Choose the hyperlink option.
Ø From the hyperlink drop down list select the slide to be linked select a slide and click o.k.
Ø Choose of to create the hyperlink.
INSERTING AN EXCEL CHART
Ø Clicks on the chart in excel and choose editØ copy.
Ø Switch back to power point and click on the graph placeholder on the slide and choose editØ
paste.
Ø Creating notes.
Ø Involves cover age chapter typing your notes and designing the look of the presentation
choose viewØ notes pages select the notes box by clinking inside and start typing.
ANIMATION EFFECTS
Ø Selects the object and choose slide showØ custom animation.
Ø In the entry animation and sound group box on effects which can be applicable to the object
are displayed
Ø On clicking the preview button the preview of effects are displayed
Ø Click on o.k.
SUB-DISCIPLINE:- COMPUTER ( LESSONS: 04
Lesson–II: Microsoft Office Session-5: MS Power Point
SESSIONS:10)
Practical demonstration of different components & Tools of MS Power Point in computer room
SUB-DISCIPLINE:- COMPUTER ( LESSONS: 04
Lesson–II: Microsoft Office Session-6: MS Excel
MS Excel :
Ø M.S. Excel is as window based spread sheet.
Ø Excel can graphic objects.
STARTING EXCEL :Ø Click start → Programs → Micro soft excel
Ø Double click the icon of M.S. Excel on the desk top.
OPENING A NEW WORK BOOK :Ø Select File → New.
Ø In the General tab, select the work book and click on ok.
PRINTING A NEW WORK BOOK:Ø Select File → Print
Ø Choose the number of copies and page numbers to be printed.
Ø Click on preview button to view the matter.
Ø Under print what select what to print and click ok.
ADJUSTING MARGINS IN PRINT PREVIEW :Ø It displays the current margin settings.
Ø Choose File → Print Preview.
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Ø Click the margin button.
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Ø Drag the margins you wish to change to its new location.
CHANGING PAGE SETUP :Ø You can adjust the setting per page number, paper margin and size of paper.
Ø Choose File → Page setup.
Ø Click the page tab.
Ø Change setting for scaling, paper size, print quality and first page number and click ok to
apply.
Ø EDITING THE WORK SHEET :Ø Activate the cells whose values needs to be edited.
Ø Double click the cell or press F2 to change the data.
INSERTING ROWS AND COLUMNS :Ø Select an entire row by clicking on the row number.
Ø To select consecutive rows click on the first row and with mouse button pressed drag it to the
last row.
Ø Select Insert → Rows.
Ø Similarly select the columns.
Ø Select Insert → Columns
DELETING ROWS AND COLUMNS :Ø Select the rows or columns.
Ø Select edit → Delete
Deleting Cells: v High lights the cells.
v Choose Edit →Delete.
v Choose the direction in which the adjoing cell have to be moved in the delete dialog box.
v Click OK button.
Cut ,Copy And Paste: ü Select the data to be moved.
ü Choose Edit → Cut or Copy.
ü Select the first cell , row or column where the data is to be placed.
ü Select Edit→ paste.
Using Drag And Drop: v Select the source cell or cells.
v Point any edge of the selection.
v The moue pointer changes to an arrow.
v To move the selection drag drops it in the new location.
v To copy the selection holds the CTRL key while dropping the selection.
Headers And Footers: v Headers and footers appear at the top and bottom of the page respectively .
v Choose File → Page set up.
v Select the header / Footer option from the page setup dialog box.
v Click the drop down list of header/footer.
v Press enter to return to the page set up dialog box.
NAMING A WORK SHEET:• Double click the sheet table to select it.
• Type a new of the work sheet and press enter.
SELECTING WORK SHEETS :• Click the sheet tab.
• To select more than one work sheet hold the CTRL Key.
• To select all work sheets right on any tab and choose select all sheets.
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UNGROUPING WORK SHEETS :-
Documents
• Right click on any group worksheet tab and choose ungrouped sheets.
INSERTING AND DELETING WORK SHEETS :• Choose Insert → Work sheet to insert a new work sheet.
• Choose Edit → Delete sheet to delete the work sheet.
COPYING AND MOVING WORK SHEETS :♦ To mouse within the same work book .Drag the sheets tab to the new location and drop it.
♦ Hold down the CTRL key while dragging to copy the work sheet.
♦ To move or copy between work book.
♦ Select the work sheet.
♦ Choose edit → move or copy.
♦ Select the name of the work sheet.
♦ Click create a copy to copy it and click ok.
COLUMNS WIDTH AND ROWS HEIGHT :♦ Click on the column letter to make it active.
♦ Select Format → Column
♦ Click on width option.
♦ Type in the require size.
♦ Similarly rows height can adjusted by selecting format → Rows.
CELL FORMATING :♦ High light the cells.
♦ Choose Format → Cells
CREATING A CUSTOM FORMAT :§ Select the cells.
§ Choose format → Cells.
§ On the number page of format cells dialog box chosen custom from category list.
§ Click of to apply the custom format.
AUTO FORMATTING :§ It applies a standard format to all or part of a work sheet.
§ Select the portion of the work sheet which is to the formatted.
§ Choose format → Auto format.
§ Choose the format from the auto format dialog box.
§ Choose the options button to show formats to apply.
§ Click ok to apply the selected formats.
CONDITIONAL FORMATING :§ Formats can be applied to selected cells based on a condition.
§ Select the cells.
§ Choose Format → Conditional formatting.
§ Choose cell value is, or formula is.
CONDITIONAL FORMATING CONTINUES :§ Select a conditional operator.
§ In the condition text box enter a value cell reference or formula.
§ Click the format button.
§ Set up a format for this condition and click ok.
TYPES OF CELL REFERENCES :§ Relative referencing.
§ Absolute referencing.
§ Mixed referencing.
USING NAMES IN FORMULA :q Click on the point in the formula where the cell reference is to be included.
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q Click Insert → Name.
Documents
Select paste option from name submenu.
Select the name of range to be used in formula and click ok.
CREATING NAMES FROM A ROW OR COLUMN OF TEXT :q Select the range to be named.
q Choose Insert → name create.
q Select the row or column that contains
q Tables to be used in the create names text box.
q Click ok to apply names.
OPENING AN EXISTING FILE :• Click File → Open.
• Click on the file name and then click on open.
SAVING A WORK BOOK :♦ Select file → Save.
♦ Click on the save button.
CREATING NAMES FOR RANGES :§ Select the cell or range of cells that is to be named.
§ Choose Insert → Name
§ Select define option from name sub menu.
§ In the names in work book text box, type a name and click add.
§ Edit the range coordinates it required from refers to text box.
§ Click on add button to create to create the name.
§ Click on ok.
LINKING WORK BOOKS :q Open both dependent and source work book.
q In the dependent work book enter the formula.
q Open the window menu and select the source workbook.
q In the source, work book select the cell where the formula is to be included.
q Finish creating the formula in a normal process.
FINDING RECORDS BASED ON CRITERIA :v Choose Data → Form.
v Click on the criteria button and in the field type in the criteria condition.
v Click the find next button.
v To find additional records click find next button.
v Click close button when finished.
CREATING A NEW DATA BASE FROM A FILTERED SUBSET :Ø Filter the active data base to create a filtered subset.
Ø Select the filtered data base including the column tables.
Ø Choose edit → Copy.
Ø Press enter to paste the data base.
FUNCTIONS :ü They are built in special program which accept data and return a value after performing
calculation.
THE FUNCTION WIZARD :• Select the cell in which the function is to the inserted.
• Select Insert → Function.
• Select the function category from the paste function dilog box select the paste function dialog
box select the function available from the right side.
AUTO CALCULATE: ♦ It is used if the result is not be stored in a cell.
q
q
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♦ Select the range of cells containing the numeric values.
Documents
♦ Right click on the status bar.
♦ Select the calculation to be form. performed on the selected cells.
♦ The result is displayed on the status bar.
COMMONLY USED FUNCTION :§ Date and time functions.
§ Logical function.
§ Statically function.
§ Math magical function.
§ Text function.
GOAL SEEK :q It is used to find out the result of a formula if one variable is changed.
q Select the cell, having formula having value to be edited.
q Choose tools → Goal seek.
q Click into value text box and type in the new value.
q Click the by changing cell box and type cell address of cell whose relative value is to be
changed.
q Click on ok.
q Goal seek dialog box appears giving the result.
q Click on ok to change the value and cancel to ignore the result.
CREATING A CUSTOM FILTER :v Gives access to other ways to set entries.
v Choose Data → Filter → Auto filter
v Choose custom from filter criteria drop down list.
v Set the operation type for the first criterion from the custom auto filter dialog box.
v Set the operation type for the first criterion.
v Enter or select first criterion from the drop down list.
v Set an operator and enter or select the second criterion.
v Set and for a range, set or to filter for move.
v Click ok to apply the custom filter.
FILTER :Ø It is used to see only the records you need.
Ø Select the cells to be filtered.
Ø Choose Data → Filter → Auto filter
Ø Click on the fitter arrow on the cell where filtering is required.
Ø Choose from the options of the list of criteria drops downs.
Ø Select an item in the criteria list to filter all other data.
Ø The all option shows all the records.
Ø To all option shows all the records.
Ø To remove the filters choose
Data → Filter → Auto filter
PIVOT TABLE :ü It is used to create cross tabulated data.
ü Select the data base to used.
ü Choose Data → Pivot table and pivot report.
ü Select M.S. Excel list or data base and click on next button.
ü Select the data and then click on next button.
ü Click the finish button on pivot table and pivot chart wizard.
ü To add a field select any cell and choose Data → Pivot table and pivot chart report.
ü Click the layout button to open the layout dialog box.
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ü Add fields and click ok to finish.
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CREATING SEPARATE PIVOT TABLE BASED ON VALUE :• Arrange the pivot table layout so that the field to be sued to separate the table is in page area.
• Select any cell right click and choose show pages.
• Choose the field for which separate pivot table is to be created and click ok.
LINKING WORK SHEET :♦ Open the source work book.
♦ Select the source cell.
♦ Select edit → Copy open the target worksheet click on cell where you want the link.
♦ Choose edit → Paste special.
♦ Select all from paste option button on and name from operations button.
♦ Click on paste link button.
SUB-DISCIPLINE:- COMPUTER ( LESSONS: 04
SESSIONS:10)
Lesson–II: Microsoft Office Session-7: MS Exel
Practical demonstration of different components & Tools of MS Excel in computer room
SUB-DISCIPLINE:- COMPUTER ( LESSONS: 04
SESSIONS:10)
Lesson–III: Internet &E-mail Session-8: Internet & Web-surfing, e-mail and demonstration for
making e-mail ID
INTERNET: The Internet is the worldwide, publicly accessible network of interconnected
computer networks that transmit data by packet switching using the standard Internet
Protocol (IP).
It is a "network of networks" that consists of millions of smaller domestic, academic,
business, and government networks, which together carry various information and services,
such as electronic mail, online chat, file transfer, and the interlinked Web pages and other
documents of the World Wide Web.
Practical demonstration of different components & Tools of Internet explorer,e-mail &
making e-mail ID in computer room.
SUB-DISCIPLINE:- COMPUTER ( LESSONS: 04
SESSIONS:10)
Lesson-IV:Automatic Guide Computer (ALC) Session-09 Introduction of Automatic Guide
Computer (ALC) & its Hardware.
ALC:INTRODUCTION:Win ALC is the next generation of the well proven Plasser ALC track alignment computers.
Since the first Plasser PC MSDOS based ALC was introduced in 1992 approximately 300
units have been fitted to machines world wide. The program is not tailor made for one specific
country but contains all the main elements for world wide applications. The program for the
ALC has constantly been updated from the first edition with new features being added as an
ongoing situation. The PC based ALC program had been taken to the limit of the MASDOS
operating system so it is a natural progression to change the operating environment to
WINDOWS 95, this removing the restrictions of the MSDOS memory limitations and enabling a
multi tasking environment that will be already familiar to the majority of people today.
The Win ALC system is designed as an addition to enhance and improve the existing
PLASSER tamping machines lining and lifting systems. It can be fitted as a bolt on to an older
machine or normally is fitted when the machine is built.
TECHNICAL DESCRIPTION OF SYSTEM:
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The WIN-ALC system comprises of 4 distinct main parts:
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1.
The Computer or PC
2.
The Display or Monitor
3.
The keyboard (also fitted with the pointing device, the mouse)
4.
The distance measuring wheel or encoder
Technical data:
System unit
PLASSER Built Dedicated PC :Intel Pentium 100 MHZ
16 Mbytes Memory
70 Ns Starting time
3 ½ 1.44MB Floppy Disc drive
959 MB IDE-BUS
The Computer:
LED FUNCTIONS
POWER : on, when computer is running
BACKUP: on, when Computer supplied by the internal power supply (see power supply)
BATTRY: on low voltage limit of the power supply, EXIT program and switch.
OFF Computer, is the light still ON, the supply voltage is too low and the computer will be
switched OFF automatically.
HARD DISK: on, when hard disc used.
The display:
1=
SUN VISORS
2=
VISOR LOCKING NUTS
3=
QUICK RELEASE TILT ADJUSTMENT
4=
TILT ADJUSTER LOCKING HANDLE
The display tilted to optimize the viewing angle for individual operators:
The Mouse:
Built into the keyboard is a unique and versatile mouse the Micro Module. MicroModule
emulates all of the functionality of a standard two-button mouse. To control the cursor direction
and speed, just place your finger on the Mini your finger on the Mini joystick and gently rock in
the direction you want the cursor to move. Press softly for slower movements; press harder for
fast movements. The primary click button is on the left of the Mini Joystick. It is equivalent to
the left click button on a conventional mouse. The secondary click button is located on the right,
and is equivalent to the right click button of mouse.
The distance measuring wheel:Located on front bogi
The ALC Power Supply:
The main power supply is taken from external batteries (24VDC), which are charged by the
machine s electric system. In case of low voltage or failure of the main power supply, it will be
switched over automatically to an internal UPS supply in the computer. The control lamp
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CompleteBATT will come on. Failing main power supply will also causes the screen to non-function.
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The external system charges the batteries of the internal power supply automatically.
Attention: To avoid discharging the batteries, the computer should not be used for very long
periods without running engine. The operating voltage dropping to the lower limit will be
indicated by the control-lamp BACK UP . In this case switch off the computer and start engine.
If the BACK UP LED is on with the engine running the main power supply.
SUB-DISCIPLINE:- COMPUTER ( LESSONS: 04
SESSIONS:10)
Lesson-IV: Automatic Guide Computer (ALC) Session-10: Introduction of WinALC Software
WORKING IN GEOMETRY, MEASURING RUN.
The ALC has two methods of enhancing the tampers track alignment systems. Geometry
method and the Measuring and compensation method. In the geometry method the target track
geometry is entered into the computer along with design data. For this method of working the
exact design and geometry information must be known. A measuring run is not carried out as the
computer will automatically input the correct lining and lift information calculated from the data
entered.
The Measuring method is used where the track data is not known.The data for the track is
obtained via a measurement run using the machines measuring system prior to working. During
or after the measurement any data that is known can be entered e.g. fixed points, cant, radii, etc.
After computation by the ALC computer the tamper is set to work with the ALC
automatically entering the computed lift and line data.
ALC Geometry Method:The geometry method of operating the ALC is used when all of the
target data for a section of track is known. The data is loaded into the computer at any time prior
to work. A measuring run is not used in calculations as all data has been entered, although
measuring runs can be made before and after work as a benchmark.
Sequence of Operation
BEFORE ARRIVING AT WORK SITE
(preferable)
Obtain site details, geometry, location etc.
Enter site geometry into a computer running the
Win ALC program
Save the file
Tamping machine arrives on work site (Either end
of site)
Computer is turned on, ALC program started
Machine set up in the normal way
Previously saved track Geometry called into the
ALC program
Tamping carried out using the inputs from the
ALC
Measuring
Method:
computer
to operate
the lift and line
A measuring run can be made prior
to working and saved for
comparison at a later date.
A measuring run can be made after
working and saved for comparison
at a later date.
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THE “MEASURING” METHOD : The measuring method is used where the track data
is not known. The data for the track is obtained via measurement run using the machines
measuring system prior to working. During or after the measurement any data that is known can
be entered e.g. fixed points, cant, radius, etc. After computation by the ALC the tamper is set
to work with the ALC automatically entering the computed lift and line data.
Sequence of Operation:The machine can either measure in the working direction or in
the reverse. If the track is measured in the working direction, the tamping machine must reverse
back to the start of the work site before commencing tamping. There is a fast measuring drive
key switch on the front and rear driving desks. These enable the machine to use the second gear
of the main drive to make the measuring run.
Performing a Measuring Run:
The machine is set up for normal working, although this is not necessary to have the tamping
banks running. The tamping banks slew switch on the B2 panel should be set to automatic. If it is
on manual the fast measuring function will be disabled. It is advisable to drive the machine for a
short distance using the normal working drive. Thus checking that the lifting and lining system is
in working order before the start of the measuring run by avoiding errors at the start of the
measuring run, due to poor bogie alignment or incorrect pre-loading.
It is important to select the correct float rail. If the wrong rail is selected, the design for the lift
will not be correct. It is also a good idea to mark the position of the machine on the rail before
the start of the measuring run, so that the machine can be repositioned accurately at the start
position after the measuring run has been completed (Forward measuring run). The lining system
has to be set to 3-point. Use the can switch to select the datum rail for the longitudinal height
recording. The reference rail for the versine recording is selected by turning on the lining system
and selecting the required pre-load.
End of Measuring Run:At the end of the measuring run return the key switch to the normal
position. The computer will automatically produce a run in from the old track geometry to the
new target geometry at the beginning and end of the measuring run. The measuring run should
therefore only cover the length of rail on which the work has to be carried out.
Sequence of Operation
AT WORK SITE
Position machine at end, where tamping is to finish.
Switch on ALC computer.
Set up machine in normal manner. (With tamping
banks on auto lateral movement)
Select measure from ALC computer
Mark the position on the track of the machine
Using the Driver Measuring key, drive the machine at
10kmph
Enter positions of known changes of geometry.
At end of measuring run stop, compute the measured
run and save data.
The data that was saved could be used by another
machine of the same type running Win ALC.
If site was previously
measured by another
machine.
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Using the measurement that was
:just made
:made on a previous day
:made by another machine
Start tamping the ALC inputs the lift and line values.
At the end of tamping a new measuring run can be
LASER LINING SYSTEM:
made for comparison at a later date.
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