Avid DS Nitris 7.6 User guide

Avid DS Nitris 7.6 User guide
Avid® DS Nitris
™
Compositing and Effects Guide
Version 7.6
m a k e m a n a g e m ove | m e d i a ™
Avid
®
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Footage
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GOT FOOTAGE?
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Avid DS Nitris Compositing and Effects Guide • 0130-05576-02A • February 2005
2
Contents
Using This Guide. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Symbols and Conventions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Mouse, Pen, and Keyboard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Customizing the Pen or Mouse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
If You Need Help . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
Avid DS Customer Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
E-mail Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Web Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Upload Utility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Avid Community Forum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
How to Order Documentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Avid Educational Services. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
Chapter 1
Compositing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
Quick Recap: Compositing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
Using the Effects Tree to Composite . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Relationship within the Compositing Layout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
Working with the Layers View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
Adding Layers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
Reordering Layers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
Renaming Layers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
Scrolling Layers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
Navigating Through Layers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
Loading a Layer Effect in the Layers View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
Animating Layers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
Animating the Order of Layers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
Adjusting the Opacity of a Layer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
Animating the Transparency of a Layer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
Removing Layers and External Mattes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
Working with Mattes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
Using Clips with Internal Mattes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
Using Clips without Mattes in the Alpha Channel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
Creating a Matte by Using a Keyer. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
Using the Shapes Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
Creating a Matte on the Timeline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
Creating a Matte on a Layer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
Viewing Mattes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
Using External Mattes in the Timeline and Layers View . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
Using Matte Containers on the Timeline. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
Using External Mattes on Layers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
Combining Mattes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
Working with Masks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
Applying Channel or Pixel Masking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
Using Alpha and Luma as Mask . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
Applying Blending Operations in the Layers View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
Compositing with Premultiplied Images . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
The Science behind Premultiplication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
Importing Source Files with an Alpha Channel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
Setting the Premultiplication Option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
Changing the Premultiplication Setting. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
Applying the Premultiplication Effect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
Automatic Changes to the Premultiplication Setting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
Compositing Clips over a Black Background. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
Unpremultiplying with Color. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
Working with Layered Photoshop Images . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
4
Photoshop Layer Notes and Tips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
Using Photoshop Images . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
Deleting Imported Photoshop Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
Processing Composites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
Processing Layered Clips on the Timeline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
Processing Effect Nodes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
Chapter 2
Using Effects Trees. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
Applying Effects Trees . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
Applying an Effects Tree on a Clip or Track . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
Applying an Effects Tree as a Transition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
Converting a Stack of Effects to an Effects Tree . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
Applying an Effects Tree on a Layer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
Opening the Effects Tree View. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
Working with the Effects Tree . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
Adding Effect Nodes to a Tree . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
Adding Clips to the Effects Tree . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
Adding or Removing Inputs To and From an Effect Node . . . . . . . . . . . 81
Connecting Nodes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
Disconnecting Nodes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
Selecting Nodes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
Collapsing and Expanding Nodes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
Removing Nodes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
Editing an Effect Node . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
Viewing and Bypassing Nodes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
Folding Nodes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
Attracting or Repelling Nodes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
Organizing Nodes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
Renaming Nodes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
Renaming Input Ports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
Displaying Tooltips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
5
Zooming the Effects Tree . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
Using the Birds Eye View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
Saving and Loading Trees. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
Saving an Effects Tree . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
Loading an Effects Tree . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
Using the Effects Tree to Composite . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
Using External Mattes in the Effects Tree . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
Compositing Two Layers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
Compositing Multiple Images . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
Uncompositing Foreground from the Background. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
Combining Separate RGB and Alpha Channels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
Unpremultiplying with Color in the Effects Tree. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
Compositing Multiple Mattes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
Applying Blending Operations in the Effects Tree . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
Mapping Luminance Variations between Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
Chapter 3
Keying. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
About Keying . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
Using the Blue-Green Keyer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
Creating a Basic Matte . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
Fine-tuning the Matte . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120
Creating a Spill Matte . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
Spill Subtraction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
Applying a Spill Subtract on the Timeline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126
Applying a Spill Subtract in the Effects Tree . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127
Using the Chroma Keyer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129
Creating a Basic Matte . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129
Fine-tuning the Matte . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130
Creating a Spill Matte . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132
Using the Difference Keyer Effect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134
Applying the Difference Keyer on Layers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135
6
Applying the Difference Keyer to an Effects Tree . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137
Fine-tuning the Matte . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139
Using the HSL Keyer Effect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141
Creating a Basic Key . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141
Fine-tuning the Key . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143
Using the Linear Luma Keyer Effect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144
Creating a Basic Key . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144
Fine-tuning the Matte . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146
Using the Luma Keyer Effect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148
Creating a Basic Matte . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148
Fine-tuning the Matte . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151
Chapter 4
Color Correcting Images . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153
Setting Up the Color Correction Environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154
Workflow: Color Correcting Images . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155
Color Correction in Avid DS Nitris . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156
Working with Source Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157
Applying and Editing Tape Source Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158
Using the Tape Tool to Apply Source Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158
Using the Avid Explorer to Apply Source Effects. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160
Applying Tape Source Effects on the Timeline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160
Applying Tape Source Effects in the Effects Layout . . . . . . . . . . . 161
Editing Masterclip and Subclip Source Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161
Editing Masterclip Source Effects in the Effects Layout . . . . . . . . 162
Removing Source Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162
Loading Source Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163
Applying a Color Correction Effect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163
Setting the Color Correction Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164
Analyzing Footage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165
Analyzing Images using Histograms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165
Setting Black and White Points of an Image . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168
7
Displaying Pixel Information in the Viewer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168
Setting the Black and White Points. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170
Color Correcting Tonal Ranges in Images . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171
Working with the HSL Controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172
Hue and Saturation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172
Gain, Brightness, Setup, and Contrast . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173
Gamma Corrections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174
Using Levels to Correct Tonal Ranges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176
Input and Output Adjustments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176
Working with the Composite and Luma Tabs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177
Linearizing Film-Based Material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177
Working with LUTs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178
Exporting LUTs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179
Loading LUTs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179
Linearizing Log-based Media . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180
About Softclipping. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181
Color Correcting a Dark Image. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182
Color Correction by Matching Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186
Using the Match Color Chip. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187
The Natural Match Feature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188
Correcting Inaccurate or Deficient Color Channels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193
Channel Blending Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194
Adjusting Curves to Color Correct . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196
Setting Legal Luma, Chroma, and RGB Values. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199
Returning to Default Values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200
Animating with the Color Correction Effect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202
Chapter 5
Transforming Images . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203
Applying a DVE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204
Applying a DVE to a Layer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204
Locking DVEs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207
8
Transforming an Image . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207
Translating an Image . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207
Scaling an Image . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 208
Rotating an Image . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 208
Cropping an Image. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209
Transformation in Layers View and Effects Tree . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 210
Applying a Global DVE in the Layers View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 210
Transform Trees . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211
What are Transform Nodes? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211
What are Rasterization Effect Nodes? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212
What is the Difference between Local and Global Inputs? . . . . . . 213
Working with Transform Trees . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214
Visualization of Sequential DVE Transformations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214
Globally Transforming Multiple Images . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215
Multi-Level Global DVE in the Effects Tree . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 218
Common Transformation Around a Local Axis. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220
Corner Pinning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221
Working with Motion Paths . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 222
Creating a Motion Path. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 222
Editing a Motion Path . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224
Changing the Speed of the Motion Path . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227
Previewing an Animated DVE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 228
Chapter 6
Tracking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 229
Motion Tracking. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 229
Choosing a Tracking Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231
Stabilizing Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231
Tracking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231
Using the Trackers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232
Using Multiple Trackers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233
Selecting a Suitable Reference Point for Tracking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 234
9
Setting the Search Region. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 235
Tracking Composited Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 236
Using the Tracker in the Layers View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 237
Using the Tracker in an Effects Tree . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239
Positioning the Reference Tracker . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241
Positioning the Layer Tracker . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 244
Starting the Tracking Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 246
Cropping Unwanted Parts of Images. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 248
Combining Tracking with Other DVEs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 249
Tracking Shapes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 250
Using the Shape Tracker. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 251
Tracking a Shape . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 251
Tracking Control Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 254
Setting an Offset for the Tracker. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 256
Correcting Tracker Errors when Tracking Shapes Objects . . . . . . . . . 257
Stabilizing Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 257
Using the Stabilizer in the Effects Tree . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 258
Using the Stabilizer in the Layers View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 262
4-Point Corner Pinning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 264
Tracking Difficult Shots. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 266
Offsetting the Tracker . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 267
Correcting Tracker Errors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 269
Chapter 7
Painting and 2D Titling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 271
Workflow: Painting and 2D Titling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 272
Applying Graphics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 275
Setting the Working Resolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 276
Applying Graphics on the Video or Background Tracks . . . . . . . . . . . 276
Applying Graphics as a Source-Generated Effect. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 277
Applying Graphics on the Timeline Effect Track . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 278
Applying Graphics on a Layer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 279
10
Applying Graphics in an Effects Tree . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 280
Using Presets in Graphics. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 281
Loading and Saving Presets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 281
Using Stroke, Text, or Group Presets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 283
Setting Drawing Tool Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 285
Setting the Paint Style . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 285
Setting Brush Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 287
Creating Custom Brushes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 289
Setting the Titling Style. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 290
Setting the Font Properties. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 291
Setting the Masks Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 293
Setting the Time Span Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 294
Defining Color . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 296
Working with Graphics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 299
Checking the Premultiplication Setting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 299
Wireframe Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 299
Wireframe Preview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 300
Drawing Polylines. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 301
Drawing Freehand Strokes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 302
Using the Express Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 304
Drawing Rectangles and Ellipses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 305
Filling Shapes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 306
Using the Magic Wand Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 307
Selecting Graphics Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 309
Grouping Graphics Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 310
Regrouping Objects. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 311
Selecting Objects in a Group. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 311
Cutting and Pasting Objects in a Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 312
Locking Graphics Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 312
Hiding Graphics Objects. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 313
11
Hiding Bounding Boxes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 314
Creating Clusters of Graphics Objects and Vertices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 314
Aligning Graphics Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 315
Editing the Shape of a Stroke . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 316
Selecting Control Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 316
Breaking and Unifying Strokes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 318
Combining and Separating Strokes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 318
Morphing Strokes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 319
Changing the Slope of a Curve. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 320
Changing the Direction of a Stroke. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 321
Reshaping a Stroke . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 321
Chopping Control Points. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 322
Moving a Shape . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 323
Scaling, Rotating, and Skewing a Shape . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 323
Stretching a Shape . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 324
Changing the Opacity of a Stroke. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 324
Working with Titles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 325
Using Text from Other Applications. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 326
Importing HTML Text . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 327
Selecting and Editing Text. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 327
Aligning Text . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 330
Converting Text to Strokes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 331
Searching for Text . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 331
Creating Rolls and Crawls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 332
Creating a Fade . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 333
Creating Handwritten and Type-On Animation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 334
Manipulating Graphics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 336
Editing Graphics Properties. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 336
Cutting, Copying, and Pasting Graphics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 338
Copying and Pasting Shapes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 338
12
Duplicating Graphics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 339
Deleting Graphics. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 340
Changing the Order of Graphics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 341
Transforming Graphics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 342
Moving Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 342
Scaling Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 342
Rotating Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 343
Skewing Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 344
Setting the Transformation Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 344
Tracking Graphics Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 345
Transformation Tracking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 345
Tracking Vertices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 346
Working in Raster Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 347
Raster Mode Caches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 349
Using the GOV in Raster Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 350
Creating Mattes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 351
Creating a Travelling Matte . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 351
Scratch Removal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 353
Blending Frames . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 354
Blending Graphics Objects or Titles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 355
Importing Images . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 356
Importing Encapsulated PostScript (EPS) Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 357
Importing Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 358
Importing Subtitles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 359
The DS Subtitles File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 359
The Header Section of the DS Subtitles File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 360
The Subtitles Section of the DS Subtitles File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 360
Examples of DS Subtitles Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 361
Processing Graphics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 364
13
Chapter 8
Paint Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 367
Clone Effect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 367
Color Blend Effect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 370
Setting the Opacity of a Color . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 371
Defining Color . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 372
Picking a Color from an Image . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 373
Loading and Saving a Color Palette . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 374
Cutout Effect. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 374
Using the Cutout Effect in a Stack. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 377
Comparing the Cutout and Clone Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 378
Dodge and Burn Effect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 378
Noise Effect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 379
Paper Grain Images . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 381
Reveal Effect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 384
Stack Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 385
Chapter 9
3D DVE and 3D Titling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 389
Workflow: Creating 3D DVEs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 390
Workflow: 3D Titling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 391
Working in the 3D World . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 392
Three-Dimensional Space . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 392
XYZ Axes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 392
XYZ Coordinates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 392
XZ, XY, YZ Planes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 393
Global and Local Coordinate Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 393
Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 393
Lights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 394
Setting Preferences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 394
Using a Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 395
Working in Direct View Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 396
Suspending Output to the Output Monitor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 397
14
Displaying Guides . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 398
Showing the Safe Action/Title Areas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 398
Showing Construction Lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 399
Showing the Grid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 399
Showing Objects Viewable Within the Frame . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 400
Working in Wireframe Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 400
Rendering Objects as a Wireframe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 401
Setting the Viewer Quality Level . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 401
Working with the Camera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 402
Viewing Through the Alternate Camera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 403
Snapping the Camera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 404
Viewing a Scene from Different Angles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 404
Manipulating the Camera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 405
Resetting the Camera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 406
Setting the Camera Position. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 406
Defining the Camera Interest . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 406
Setting the Clipping Planes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 407
Selecting a Projection Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 408
Setting the Field of View. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 408
About Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 409
About Drawing Tool Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 410
Manipulating Objects. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 410
Selecting and Deselecting Objects. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 410
Cutting, Copying, and Pasting Objects. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 411
Moving Objects. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 412
Locking and Unlocking Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 413
Reordering Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 414
Positioning Objects at Specific Locations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 414
Aligning Objects Relative to Each Other . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 415
Grouping and Ungrouping Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 416
15
Showing and Hiding Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 417
Changing the Visibility of Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 417
Modifying Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 418
Adjusting the Anchor Point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 418
Scaling Objects. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 419
Resizing Objects. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 419
Rotating Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 420
Renaming Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 421
Setting the Time Span . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 422
Working with 3D DVEs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 423
Creating DVEs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 423
Simulating a Textured Surface Using a Displacement Map . . . . . . . . 424
Applying Profile Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 425
Extruding an Object . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 425
Blurring Moving Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 426
Working with Graphics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 427
Creating Graphics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 427
Creating Squares and Rectangles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 427
Creating Circles and Ovals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 428
Creating Polylines and Curved Shapes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 429
Editing Shapes and Paths . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 430
Selecting and Deselecting Control Points. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 430
Editing a Shape . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 431
Opening and Closing Shapes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 432
Filling Shapes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 433
Removing Segments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 433
Working with Compound Shapes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 434
Creating and Separating Compound Shapes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 434
Combining Shapes within a Compound Shape . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 435
Reversing the Direction of a Shape. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 436
16
Working with Text . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 436
Creating a Text Object . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 437
Using Special or Unicode Characters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 438
Determining a Character’s Unicode Value . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 439
Entering Special and Unicode Characters. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 440
Importing Text . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 440
Text Overflow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 440
Placing the Insertion Point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 442
Resizing a Text Object . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 443
Selecting and Deselecting Text . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 444
Editing Text . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 445
Formatting Text . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 445
Changing Fonts and Font Sizes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 445
Changing the Direction of Text . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 446
Aligning Text into Columns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 446
Adding a Column . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 447
Removing a Column . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 448
Changing a Column’s Width . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 449
Setting All Columns to the Same Width. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 450
Changing a Column’s Text Alignment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 451
Adjusting the Kerning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 452
Adjusting the Leading. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 452
Adjusting the Paragraph Spacing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 453
Adjusting the Text Margins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 453
Controlling Rolling, Crawling, and Path Text . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 454
Creating Rolling or Crawling Text . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 454
Controlling Crawling Speed and Direction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 455
Clipping Text . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 456
Placing and Moving Text on a Path . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 457
Creating and Deleting a Path . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 457
17
Adding Text to a Path . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 458
Removing Text from a Path . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 459
Positioning Text on a Path . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 459
Orienting Text on a Path. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 460
Controlling Object Properties Based on Path Position . . . . . . . . . 461
Working with Surfaces and Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 463
Applying Materials to Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 464
Using a Custom Material for an Object’s Surface. . . . . . . . . . . . . 464
Skipping the Drawing of the Back Faces. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 465
Editing Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 465
Changing the Type of Material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 465
Changing a Material’s Base Color . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 466
Changing a Material’s Opacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 466
Allowing Material to be Affected by Light Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 466
Adjusting the Specular Highlight Color . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 467
Adjusting the Emissive Color . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 468
Adjusting the Shininess of a Material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 469
Simulating a Reflective Surface Using an Environment Map . . . . 469
Controlling the Appearance of Overlapping Surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . 470
Positioning and Tiling a Texture on a Surface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 472
Scaling a Texture on a Surface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 473
Cropping a Texture on a Surface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 473
Rotating a Texture on a Surface. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 473
Controlling How a Texture is Mapped onto a Surface . . . . . . . . . 474
Tinting a Texture. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 474
Working with Lights and Shadows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 475
Adding, Moving, and Deleting Light Sources. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 476
Editing Light Sources. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 477
Turning Light Sources On or Off . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 477
Changing the Light Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 478
18
Using Colored Lights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 478
Changing the Intensity of a Light Source . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 478
Positioning a Light Source . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 479
Adjusting Spot Light Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 479
Identifying Light Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 480
Adding Shadows to Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 480
Showing and Hiding Object Shadows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 481
Changing a Shadow’s Location . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 481
Changing a Shadow’s Appearance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 484
Using Shadows to Simulate Glows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 485
Importing and Exporting Projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 485
Working with Decks and Pages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 486
Deleting Decks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 487
Moving between Pages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 487
Adding Objects to a Page . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 487
Editing Objects within a Page . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 488
Resizing a Deck. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 488
Setting the Output Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 489
Dampening Jittery Text . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 490
Chapter 10
Image Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 491
3D Warp Effect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 491
Generating a 3D Warp Clip . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 494
Loading a New 3D Warp Effect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 495
Creating 3D Warp Effects in SOFTIMAGE|3D . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 496
Template-grid.1-0.dsc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 496
Template-lights.1-0.dsc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 498
Tutorial-grid.1-0.dsc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 499
Linking the Database. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 499
Using the Grid Template . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 500
Using the Light Template. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 502
19
Editing the Model Note . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 503
Saving Your 3D Scene . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 505
AVX Host Effect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 506
Channel Switcher Effect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 508
Color Space Adjustment Effect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 509
Defield Effect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 510
Deflicker Effect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 510
Depth of Field Effect. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 512
Drop Shadow Effect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 515
Field Invert Effect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 518
Fog Effect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 519
Frame Average Effect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 521
Graphics Effect. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 522
Creating Rolls and Crawls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 523
Creating a Fade. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 525
Optical Glow Effect. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 525
Outsource Effect. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 527
Source Generator Effects. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 529
Warp Effect. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 531
Creating Shapes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 532
Joining Shapes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 535
Creating Barrier Shapes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 538
Animating Shapes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 539
Tracking Warped Shapes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 539
Setting the Rendering Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 542
Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 547
20
Using This Guide
Congratulations on your purchase of an Avid DS Nitris system. You can use
your system to create broadcast-quality output incorporating every possible
production element from full-speed, high-resolution footage, to multimedia
artwork and animation, to computer-generated effects and titling.
This guide contains all the task-oriented instructions, conceptual information,
and reference material you need to use the effects and compositing features of
your system.
This guide is intended for all Avid DS Nitris users, from beginning to
advanced.
n
The documentation describes the features and hardware of all models.
Therefore, your system might not contain certain features and hardware that
are covered in the documentation.
Symbols and Conventions
Avid documentation uses the following symbols and conventions:
Symbol or Convention
Meaning or Action
n
A note provides important related information,
reminders, recommendations, and strong suggestions.
c
A caution means that a specific action you take could
cause harm to your computer or cause you to lose data.
w
A warning describes an action that could cause you
physical harm. Follow the guidelines in this document
or on the unit itself when handling electrical
equipment.
Using This Guide
Symbol or Convention
Meaning or Action
>
This symbol indicates menu commands (and
subcommands) in the order you select them. For
example, File > Import means to open the File menu
and then select the Import command.
t
This symbol indicates a single-step procedure.
Multiple arrows in a list indicate that you perform one
of the actions listed.
Margin tips
In the margin, you will find tips that help you perform
tasks more easily and efficiently.
Italic font
Italic font is used to emphasize certain words and to
indicate variables.
Courier Bold font
Courier Bold font identifies text that you type.
Bold font
Bold indicates a user interaction.
Ctrl+key or mouse action
Press and hold the first key while you press the last
key or perform the mouse action. For example,
Shift+Alt+C or Ctrl+drag.
Mouse, Pen, and Keyboard
You can use a two-button mouse (with wheel) or a pen and tablet. The left and
right mouse buttons perform different operations. Unless otherwise stated, use
the left mouse button.
The mouse and pen operate slightly differently. All the procedures in this
guide are documented for the mouse. You can, however, easily use a pen or
the keyboard. The following table shows the terms relating to the mouse, pen,
and keyboard.
22
This Term
Means This with a Mouse Means This with a Pen
Click
Quickly click and release the Tap the tablet once with the tip of
left mouse button. Always use the pen, or touch the pen to the tablet
the left mouse button unless
with enough pressure to click.
otherwise stated.
If You Need Help
This Term
Means This with a Mouse Means This with a Pen
Double-click
Click the left mouse button
twice rapidly.
Quickly tap the tablet twice in the
same screen pixel or press the F5
key to go from single to doubleclick.
Right-click
Quickly click and release the
right mouse button.
Press the top portion of the switch
on the side of the pen or press the F6
key to go from left to right-click.
Drag
Click and hold the left mouse
button or the wheel while you
move the mouse.
Press the pen to the tablet while
moving the pen.
Alt+key,
Press and hold the first key while you press the second key. For
Ctrl+key,
example, “Press Alt+F1” means to press and hold the Alt key while
Shift+key, etc. you press the F1 key.
Customizing the Pen or Mouse
By customizing the pen, you can adjust the click pressure, switch functions,
and other features. For information on customizing the pen, refer to the
documentation provided with your Avid DS Nitris system.
You can also customize the mouse. For example, you can select left-handed
configuration or change the double-click speed. For information on
customizing the mouse, refer to the Windows online Help.
If You Need Help
If you are having trouble using Avid DS Nitris:
1. Retry the action, carefully following the instructions given for that task in
this guide. It is especially important to check each step of your workflow.
2. Check for the latest information that might have become available after
the documentation was published in one of two locations:
-
If release notes are available, they ship with your application.
-
If ReadMe files are available, they are supplied in your Avid
application folder. ReadMe files are also available from Help.
23
Using This Guide
3. Check the documentation that came with your Avid application or your
hardware for maintenance or hardware-related issues.
4. See “Avid DS Customer Support” on page 24.
5. For Technical Support, please call 800-800-AVID (800-800-2843).
Avid DS Customer Support
The following sections describe various Avid DS Customer Support options.
E-mail Support
The e-mail address for Avid DS Customer Support is: [email protected]
You can use it for sending bug reports, usability questions, and avidds.cab
audit reports for system analysis. All e-mails are logged in the support
database and assigned a case number. Send one support request per e-mail.
n
It is mandatory that you include your SID number in the body of your e-mail
message for verification of your maintenance contract and case logging.
Otherwise, response will be delayed.
Web Support
The Avid DS Support Center at http://www.softimage.com/avidds provides
quick access to a wide range of resources from the Avid DS teams and user
community. Downloads, including presets, drivers, and Quick Fix Engineering
(QFE), provide the latest solutions for use with your Avid DS system. Online
documentation, tutorials, and Knowledge Base articles ensure that you get the
most out of your work with Avid DS. It's like having a dedicated Avid DS
Customer Support engineer sitting at your desk!
Upload Utility
For troubleshooting purposes, you can upload your files for Avid DS
Customer Support personnel to examine. You can upload a project's archive,
media files, or other necessary data. Simply zip the files that you need to
upload and use a short name (for easy retrieval), such as archive.zip or
Case274877.zip.
24
How to Order Documentation
To upload your files:
1. Go to the Avid web site at http://www.softimage.com/avidds.
2. Select Contact > Upload Tool.
3. Once the file upload is complete, send an e-mail to [email protected]
to inform Avid DS Customer Support as there is no automatic notification
when a file is uploaded on the FTP server. Please provide the complete
and exact file name (case sensitive) to retrieve.
Avid Community Forum
Although the Avid DS community forum is frequently monitored by Avid
employees, it is not part of the official support channels. You are invited to
send your support requests to any of the above channels when required.
If you have an e-mail account, you can join the worldwide network of Avid DS
users exchanging ideas. The mailing list has proven to be quite useful for
users, and there is a constant stream of new subscribers.
To subscribe, send an e-mail to [email protected] with the
following text in the body of your message: subscribe ds. You can get further
information on using the automated list server by e-mailing
[email protected] with “help” as your message.
You can also join other Avid forums on the Avid web site at
http://www.avid.com. Select Support > Forums.
How to Order Documentation
To order additional copies of this documentation from within the
United States, call Avid Sales at 800-949-AVID (800-949-2843). If you are
placing an order from outside the United States, contact your local
Avid representative.
25
Using This Guide
Avid Educational Services
For information on courses/schedules, training centers, certifications,
courseware, and books, please visit www.avid.com/training or call Avid Sales
at 800-949-AVID (800-949-2843).
26
Chapter 1
Compositing
The Compositing chapter of the Avid DS Nitris Getting Started Guide
introduces you to the basics of compositing, compositing methods, and the
compositing layout. It also covers basic compositing concepts such as the
composite container clip and layer effects. It is important that you read and
understand the Compositing chapter of the Avid DS Nitris Getting Started
Guide and complete the provided tutorials before working on the procedures
in this chapter.
This chapter introduces the Effects Tree as a compositing method and covers
advanced compositing topics such as premultiplication, working with
Photoshop files, and processing.
Chapter 1 Compositing
Quick Recap: Compositing
Here is a quick recapitulation of the Compositing chapter of the Avid DS Nitris
Getting Started Guide. Below are answers to basic questions, which you
should know by now, that will help you understand the material presented in
this chapter.
Question
Answer
What is Compositing?
The layering of two or more images together to form one new integrated image.
What is a matte?
A grayscale image that defines the transparency of an image when it is
composited over another. It lets you isolate and protect specific parts of the
image while compositing.
What is the difference between An internal matte is part of the image that is stored in the alpha channel. An
an internal matte and an
external matte can either be created from scratch by using an effect such as the
external matte?
keyer, provided as a separate clip, or come from another image. For more
information, see “Working with Mattes” on page 39.
What is a composite container
clip?
A clip on the timeline that lets you layer video clips. An opened container clip
displays the video clips on multiple tracks and the result is a single clip on the
top timeline of the Editing layout. You can apply effects on individual clips
inside the container or on the entire composite container clip.
Remember that when compositing with layers, you are working within a
composite container clip as soon as you switch to the Compositing layout.
What is the Layers view?
The Layers view is part of the Compositing layout. It displays the content of the
composite container clip in a layer format and lets you reorder layers, animate,
add effects, and apply blending operations. For more information, see “Working
with the Layers View” on page 32.
What are the 4 effects that you •
can apply to a layer?
•
What is the result area?
28
Color Correction
DV
•
Graphics
•
Keyer
The result area is the part of the Layers view that displays the final composite of
all layers both for RGB and alpha channels.
Using the Effects Tree to Composite
Using the Effects Tree to Composite
In the Avid DS Nitris Getting Started Guide you learned about two methods of
compositing.
•
Simple track compositing which lets you composite in the Editing layout
by adding video tracks to the timeline and placing clips on the video
tracks. An advantage of using this method is that when compositing you
can see your clips in context of the timeline.
•
Compositing using layers which lets you work in the Compositing layout
with composite container clips and the Layers view. The Layers view has
a great advantage in that it provides a visual interface when layering your
clips. It is also useful when importing Photoshop files as each
“Photoshop” layer occupies its own layer in the Layers view as a linked
image file in Avid DS Nitris. For more information, see “Working with
Layered Photoshop Images” on page 65 and “Working with the Layers
View” on page 32.
The third method is compositing with the Effects Tree. The Effects Tree in the
Compositing layout is a powerful tool that lets you create and manage
complex multi-layered effects and composites.
It shows the relationship between effects and images in a pictorial format. It is
made up of nodes: the graphical representation of the input images, and the
resulting output. Nodes are joined by connectors, which connect input and
output ports.
Input node
Connector
Effects nodes
Port
Output node
•
Input nodes represent the source image from a track in the Layers view or
from a clip and its effects on the timeline.
•
Effects nodes represent each effect applied or added to the Effects Tree.
Each effect node reads an input image, processes the image, and gives a
specific output image as the result.
•
Output nodes represent the output image of the Effects Tree. The result
of all the nodes is fed to the output node which is displayed in the viewer.
29
Chapter 1 Compositing
n
You can build and apply an Effects Tree to a clip, track, layer, or as a
transition. Each method has its advantages. For more information. see “Using
Effects Trees” on page 73.
There are a number of advantages for using the Effects Tree:
n
•
You can have complex interactions between layers
•
Ability to add multi-input effects. You can apply any combination of
image effects in the Effects Tree.
•
You can reuse the treatment of an element repeatedly within a composite
•
You can apply blending operations by using the Composite node—see
“Applying Blending Operations in the Effects Tree” on page 111.
Tip: To work more quickly in the Effects Tree, use the keyboard shortcuts.
Select Help > Keyboard Shortcuts. You can also set the default preferences for
your Effects Tree in the User Preferences dialog box. Select File > User
Preferences (Effects Tree property page).
For more information, see “Using Effects Trees” on page 73.
Relationship within the Compositing Layout
It is important that you understand the relationship between the different
elements of the Compositing layout in order to work efficiently without
getting lost within the layout.
It is made up of 3 significant parts that interact with each other:
30
•
The composite container timeline
•
The Layers view
•
The Effects Tree
Relationship within the Compositing Layout
The result area and the viewer
displays the final composite of all
your layers and Effects Trees
The order the images appear in the
Layers view corresponds to the
order of the images on the timeline
of the composite container
Adding an image to the Layers view or to
the Effects Tree as input, adds a new track
in the timeline of the composite container
You can build an Effects Tree per layer letting
you combine multiple images on one layer,
which serves as the input to the layer above it.
n
Adding layers to the Layers view adds a new track on the timeline, but not in
the Effects Tree and vice versa. Similarly, adding an image as input in the
Effects tree adds a new track on the timeline. For more information, see
“Adding Layers” on page 32 and “Adding or Removing Inputs To and From
an Effect Node” on page 81.
31
Chapter 1 Compositing
Working with the Layers View
In the Layers view, you can work with video images independently of each
other. For example, you can animate, track, apply effects, or apply opacity per
layer.
For more information on the Effects Tree, see “Working with the Effects Tree”
on page 79.
Adding Layers
When you create a composite container clip for compositing, the clips that you
select are automatically added as layers in the Layers view. You can create
additional layers by placing clips on new tracks on the timeline.
To add layers, do one of the following:
t
Drag a clip from a bin to the Layers view.
The clip forms a new layer in the composite and is placed on a track. Any
other clips that you add to this track on the timeline are also part of that
layer.
t
From a bin, drag a clip to the timeline ribbon of the timeline.
Timeline ribbon
The track forms a new layer in the composite. Any other clips that you add
to this track on the timeline are also part of that layer.
n
32
If you don’t want to immediately add a clip to a layer, right-click while
dragging a clip from a bin to the timeline ribbon. This will create a track on
the timeline. This is especially useful if you want to create mattes on the
timeline and assign them later as external mattes to layers in the Layers view.
Working with the Layers View
Reordering Layers
Layers are composited from the bottom to the top. You can change the order of
the layers at any time during the compositing session. You can also change the
resulting matte by reordering the external mattes of a layer.
To reorder layers, do one of the following:
Layer
button
n
t
Drag the Layer button to a new position on the Layers view.
t
Right-click a layer and select one of the following:
-
First to move the matte to the left most position.
-
Left to move the matte one position to the left.
-
Right to move the matte one position to the right.
-
Last to move the matte to the right most position.
If you don't want to animate layers when you reorder them, deselect the
Autokey button before changing the order of your layers.
Renaming Layers
Layers and tracks are named according to the name of the first clip on the
track. Layers are also named consecutively as you add them, beginning with
L1 (layer). Each layer RGB thumbnail contains the name of the layer, as well
as the name of its corresponding track on the timeline.
As you add tracks or layers, you can rename them. If you rename a track, its
new name will also be updated in the Layer RGB thumbnail.
n
Although the track name is displayed in the Layer RGB thumbnail, you can
only rename it from the Track or Layer Name property editors. For more
information, see “Changing Track Properties” on page 772 of the
Avid DS Nitris Editing Guide.
Layer name
Track name
33
Chapter 1 Compositing
To rename a layer:
1. Right-click an empty area of a layer and select Layer Name.
2. In the Layer Name dialog box, type a new name, and click OK.
Scrolling Layers
As you add more layers to your composite, the layers at the bottom of the
timeline scroll off the bottom of the Layers view. Similarly, as you add more
matte functions to a layer, they scroll to the right or left of the screen. You can
scroll the layers vertically and horizontally to display any layers or mattes that
may be hidden from view.
Vertical scroll bar
Horizontal scroll bar
To scroll layers vertically:
1. Click the textured gray area (vertical scroll bar) to the left of the
layer controls.
2. When the hand button appears, drag up or down to view additional layers.
To scroll layers horizontally:
1. Click the textured gray area (horizontal scroll bar) above the
view switcher.
2. When the hand button appears, drag left or right to view additional mattes
on the layer.
Navigating Through Layers
When working with multiple layers in the Layers view, you can navigate
through the layers. This is handy when you have an Effects Tree per layer that
you want to edit.
34
Working with the Layers View
To navigate through layers:
1. Click a layer in the Layers view.
2. Do one of the following:
t
Shift + Right Arrow (>) to move to the next layer.
t
Shift + Left Arrow (<) to move to the previous layer.
Loading a Layer Effect in the Layers View
When working in the Layers view, you can replace the Key effect by loading
an effect from the Keyer property editor.
To load a new layer effect:
1. Click a layer in the Layers view.
2. Click the Key effect.
3. In the Blue-Green Keyer property editor, click the Load Preset button.
4. In the Load Preset dialog box, select an effect and click OK.
The Key effect in the Layers view is replaced with the loaded effect. The
Key button is also replaced with an Fx button.
5. Click the layer effect button to edit the properties of the effect.
35
Chapter 1 Compositing
Animating Layers
When compositing clips in a container clip, you can animate the order of the
layers in the composite, as well as the transparency of each layer. Once the
animation is created, you can process the clip to view the animated frames in
real time.
You can adjust the animated properties or remove the animation at any time,
and animate the process of creating animation using the Autokey button. For
more information, see “Editing Animation” on page 1049 and “Setting
Keyframes Automatically” on page 1022 of the Avid DS Nitris Editing Guide.
Animating the Order of Layers
The Autokey button at the bottom of the Layers view lets you change the order
of the layers over time. When the layer ordering has been animated, this button
turns red.
To animate the order or appearance of the layers:
1. Use the transport controls to advance the clip to a frame in which you
want the animation to begin.
2. Reorder your layers by dragging the track button of a layer to a new
position.
3. Click the Autokey button at the bottom of the Layers view to set
a keyframe.
When a keyframe is set, the Autokey button turns red. If the position
indicator is on a frame that is not a keyframe, the button turns green.
4. Advance to the next frame in which you want to change the layer order
and change the layer’s order.
Once an initial keyframe has been set, you no longer need to click the
Autokey button as keyframes are created automatically when you change
the layer’s order (simulating Autokey behavior).
5. Continue adding as many keyframes as needed.
36
Working with the Layers View
Adjusting the Opacity of a Layer
There are two ways available for adjusting the opacity of a layer: Opacity, the
default, which is applied before a composite and Mix, which is applied after
the composite. Right-click the Layer menu and select either option. For more
information, see “Layer Menu” in the Help.
Use the opacity controls to decrease or increase the opacity of a layer to make
it more or less transparent when composited over other layers.
To adjust the opacity:
1. Do one of the following:
t
Drag the opacity slider up or down.
t
Click in the Opacity Level indicator, type a value and press Enter.
Opacity
level
Opacity slider
2. Select the check box to the left of the Opacity Level indicator to apply the
opacity to a layer.
37
Chapter 1 Compositing
Animating the Transparency of a Layer
The Autokey button at the bottom of the Layers view lets you animate the
transparency levels of a matte over time. When a layer has been animated, this
button turns red.
To animate the transparency of a layer:
1. Use the transport controls to advance the clip to a frame in which you
want the animation to begin.
2. Click the Autokey button at the bottom of the Layers view to set a
keyframe.
When a keyframe is set, the Autokey button turns red. If the position
indicator is on a frame that is not a keyframe, the button turns green.
3. Adjust the opacity control on one or more of the layers by moving the
slider or entering a value in the Opacity text box.
4. Click the Autokey button again.
Depending on the accuracy you need, you can move frame by frame or set
larger intervals between animated points.
You can also adjust the opacity of a layer in the Effects Tree using the
Composite effect node. For more information, see “Compositing Two Layers”
on page 100.
Removing Layers and External Mattes
If you want to remove a layer from the composite, you can easily delete it
from the Layers view without deleting the clips on the tracks. You can also
remove any external mattes that you no longer want, but you cannot remove
the original matte.
To remove a layer from the composite:
t
On the Layers view, right-click a layer and select Remove Layer.
To remove external mattes:
t
Right-click the external matte of a layer and select Delete.
The external matte is removed from the layer.
38
Working with Mattes
Working with Mattes
The information in each pixel of an image is comprised of four channels (or
components): R, G, B, and A (the alpha channel). When compositing, the
alpha channel is very important. It specifies the transparency of each pixel,
allowing portions of the foreground image to reveal or block out the
background image when two images are overlaid.
There are three instances:
•
The clip already has a matte in its alpha channel which is preserved when
capturing.
•
The clip does not have a matte and in order to use it for compositing you
are required to create one in its alpha channel.
•
You are provided with a matte clip to use for compositing. This clip is
known as an external matte.
Using Clips with Internal Mattes
When you capture material, you can preserve the clip’s matte in the alpha
channel and immediately use it for compositing.
In the example shown here, the simple compositing method has been used to
layer two video tracks in the Editing layout. The video track that is being used
as the foreground in the composite has a clip with an internal matte.
Clip with matte in alpha channel.
Video track
used as the
foreground
Video track
used as the
background
The result in the viewer. The
composite is possible because
the overlaid clip contains a
matte in its alpha channel.
39
Chapter 1 Compositing
When compositing using the video tracks in the Editing layout (simple track
compositing) and you apply a DVE or Picture-in-Picture effect to a clip, a
matte is automatically created using the parameters you specify in the DVE
property editor.
DVE effect
Foreground
video track
Once you create the composite, you can enhance it by adding effects, such as
color correction, blurs, graphics, and so on.
n
On video tracks, you cannot apply a Matte Composite operation with external
mattes nor can you adjust the transparency or animate the order of the layers.
If you need to perform any of these tasks, build your composite within a
composite container clip. For more information, see “Using Composite
Container Clips” on page 283 of the Avid DS Nitris Getting Started.
Using Clips without Mattes in the Alpha Channel
Every foreground clip must have a matte in its alpha channel to form a
composite. When you import or capture clips in Avid DS Nitris, each clip will
have an alpha channel. If the captured clip does not have a matte in its alpha
channel, you must create one using a number of effects such as the keyer,
matte, or graphics effect, in order to use it in a composite.
Clips that do not have a matte will have a full (white) alpha channel when you
view the alpha channel. For more information, see “Viewing Mattes” on
page 43.
You can create a matte on the timeline or the Layers view.
40
Working with Mattes
Creating a Matte by Using a Keyer
Keying creates a matte by keying a matte on the foreground clip based on the
RGB, HSL, or YCbCr color values. You can then composite the foreground
clip over a background clip, as shown here:
Blue-Green keyer effect.
Video track with
foreground clip
The result in
the viewer
Video track with
background clip
For more information, see “Keying” on page 117.
Using the Shapes Tools
By using the shapes tools in the Matte effect property editor, you can create
mattes on material that do not have mattes. You can also further use it to cleanup the alpha channel of a matte.
Foreground clip with a matte effect
Foreground clip
Resulting composite
Background clip
Matte created with
the shapes tool
41
Chapter 1 Compositing
To use the shapes tool to create a matte:
1. Apply a matte effect to the clip.
2. Select the Shapes tab.
3. In the Shapes Creations, select a tool.
4. Draw the shape.
5. To view the matte that you created, right-click the viewer and select
Alpha Component > Matte.
The layer’s matte is displayed as a grayscale image.
For more information, see “Creating Mattes” on page 351.
Creating a Matte on the Timeline
When you want to composite an image on a video track and the image does
not have a matte in its alpha channel, you can create one using a keyer, matte,
or graphics effect.
To create a matte on the timeline:
1. Right-click a clip and select Add Clip Effect.
2. From the Load Preset dialog box, select a keyer, the Matte effect, or the
Graphics effect.
t
Keyer effects such as the Luminance or Chroma keyers extract the
alpha component based on the luminance or color thresholds in an
image—see “About Keying” on page 117.
t
The Matte effect lets you touch up an existing matte, or create one
from scratch—see “Matte Effect” in the Help.
t
The Graphics effect lets you create your own matte—see “Painting
and 2D Titling” on page 271.
3. To view the matte that you created, right-click the viewer and select
Alpha Component > Matte.
The layer’s matte is displayed as a grayscale image.
42
Working with Mattes
Creating a Matte on a Layer
You can create use the Layers view to create mattes on each layer which are
combine to produce a final composite. You can further use the matte blending
operations, see “Applying Blending Operations in the Layers View” on
page 52.
To create a matte on a layer:
1. On a layer in the Layers view, click the Key button.
The Blue-Green Keyer property editor is displayed by default.
n
Tip: To load a different keyer, click the Load Preset button and select a
different keyer from the \Keyer folder.
2. Create your matte by keying out specific luminance or chrominance
values.
The matte is displayed in the Layer Alpha thumbnail.
Layer Alpha thumbnail
Key button on the layer
A checkmark beside the Key button indicates that the key is activated.
When the key is deselected, it is not used in the overall composite until
you select it again.
Viewing Mattes
While creating your matte, it is a good idea to view the matte from time to
time.
To view the matte, do one of the following:
t
In the Viewer tools, click the Viewer Alpha (Full) button.
t
Right-click the viewer and select Alpha Component > Matte.
t
When using any keyer effect, go to the Key property page and select the
Output Matte option.
The layer’s matte is displayed as a grayscale image.
43
Chapter 1 Compositing
n
Tip: You can also combine mattes and change how layers are composited
using blend and matte operations. For more information, see“Applying
Blending Operations in the Layers View” on page 52
Using External Mattes in the Timeline and Layers View
An external matte is a matte taken from one clip and applied to another.
External mattes may already exist with a clip or you can create one by adding
a keyer effect on the clip. You can also use the alpha or RGB component of
another clip as the external matte. In the example for “Using the Shapes
Tools” on page 41, the matte created can be applied to another clip as an
external matte. Sometimes, you may be provided with a matte clip that you use
for compositing.
There are three methods for adding external mattes: using matte containers,
using the Layers view, and using the Effects Tree. For the Effects Tree method,
see “Using External Mattes in the Effects Tree” on page 98.
RGB clip
without a matte
Composite result
Background clip
External matte clip
Using Matte Containers on the Timeline
The greatest advantage of using this method is that you can work entirely in the
Editing layout.
The matte container lets you layer video clips on two fixed tracks: the Fill and
Matte tracks. It allows you to combine separate RGB channels of an image with an
alpha channel that was created from channels of another image.
44
Working with Mattes
It has the following properties:
•
The two tracks labeled Fill and Matte are fixed
•
Tracks cannot be added or deleted
•
Although the tracks can be renamed and recorded, they way they are
connected cannot be changed
•
Matte containers are real-time and hardware real-time
•
Like the composite container, when it is closed, the result is displayed as a
single clip on the top timeline.
To add an external matte using the matte container:
1. Right-click a clip in the Avid Explorer that you want to use as the
background and drag it to a video track in the timeline.
2. Create another video track.
3. Right-click the clip without a matte in its alpha channel that you want use
as the foreground to the second video track.
4. Create a matte composite using one of the following methods:
n
t
Right-click the clip that you want to use in the matte container and
select Create Matte Container.
t
Click the Container button in the Toolbar and select Matte
Container
You can only create a matte container from a single clip selection.
5. Click the Viewer Alpha (Full) button to see the alpha channel of the clip.
Notice that there is not matte on the alpha.
6. Right-click the external matte clip in the Avid Explorer and drag it to the
Matte track of the matte container.
45
Chapter 1 Compositing
7. Click the Viewer Alpha (Full) button to see the alpha channel of the clip.
Notice that there is a matte on the alpha channel which has been derived
from the external matte clip.
8. Step out of the container to return to the Editing layout and to see the final
composite.
n
Tip: From inside the matte container, use the Reconnect Viewer button in the
Viewer Tools to connect to the top timeline. For more information, see
“Reconnect Viewer Menu” in the Help.
9. To set matte’s properties, right-click the matte container and select Matte
Properties. This option is also available when working inside the matte
container. select this option when inside the container.
n
If you get a halo or black outline after compositing, you should check the
premultiplication settings. For more information, see “Compositing with
Premultiplied Images” on page 55.
Using External Mattes on Layers
You can add as many external mattes as you wish to each layer in the
composite. You can also combine or blend them using matte blending
operations to produce the desire effect. The mattes are blended in the order in
which the appear. For more information, see “Applying Blending Operations
in the Layers View” on page 52.
n
46
Tip: You can also combine mattes in an Effects Tree by using the Matte
Composite or Key Combiner effect. For more information, see “Compositing
Multiple Mattes” on page 109 and “Key Combiner (Alpha or Luma)” in the
Help.
Working with Mattes
To add an external matte to a layer:
1. If you are in the Editing layout, make sure that the background clip on the
timeline is selected and switch to the Compositing layout.
This clips forms a layer in the Layers view.
2. From the Avid Explorer, drag the clip without a matte in its alpha that you
want to use as the foreground to the Layers view.
The result of the composite does not
show background because the
foreground clip does not have a matte
A new layer is formed in the Layers view and a new track is created with
the clip in the timeline.
3. Right-click the external matte clip in the Avid Explorer and drag it to the
timeline ribbon of the timeline. When you see a shadow over the timeline
ribbon, release the clip.
The clip is automatically placed on a new track on the timeline, but does
not form a layer in the Layers view.
4. Click the track button of the external matte and drag it to the Layer Alpha
thumbnail.
47
Chapter 1 Compositing
Composite
result
External
alpha
Track button
The clip’s matte is added to the right of the layer’s existing matte. The two
mattes are combined with the default matte composite operation (Min.)
and the results are displayed in the Layer Alpha thumbnail.
A layer with an external matte
Matte Expand
Layer Alpha
Matte controls
Original Alpha
External Matte
5. To change the matte operation between the mattes, right-click the Matte
control and select an operation—see “Applying Blending Operations in
the Layers View” on page 52.
n
Tip: If the mattes are partially obscured by the viewer, use the horizontal scroll
bar at the bottom of the Layers view to see the external mattes.
6. Right-click the External Matte thumbnail (of this newly added matte) and
select one of the following:
48
-
Alpha to use the external clip’s alpha component as a matte.
-
RGB to create a matte based on the RGB components of the external
clip.
Working with Masks
Combining Mattes
You can add an unlimited number of external mattes to a layer, and then
combine them to produce the desired result. When you add several mattes to a
layer, the mattes are combined using Boolean logic.
To combine mattes on the same layer:
1. On the layer, make sure the two mattes to be combined are arranged next
to each other.
2. Right-click the Matte Controls button between the two mattes and select
a blend operation.
The combined matte appears in the Layer Matte thumbnail.
Matte expand
Layer matte
Matte controls
Original matte External matte
For more information, see “Matte Controls Menu” in the Help.
Working with Masks
A powerful feature when compositing is the ability to apply an effect to certain
channels (channel masking) or to certain pixels using a mask (pixel masking).
Masks are an image, portion, or component of an image that defines where an
effect will be applied. They can come from the current image’s alpha channel,
or from an external clip’s R,G,B, luma, or alpha channel.
For example, on the Masking property page of an effect, if you select the red
channel in the Process box, and the alpha channel in the Mask box, then the
effect will only be applied to the red channel using the alpha channel of the
input clip as a mask.
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Chapter 1 Compositing
Applying Channel or Pixel Masking
When using channel or pixel masking when 8-bit precision is used,
SuperBlack and SuperWhite information (full YCbCr range) is not preserved:
Effects are set to 8-bit precision when:
•
In the Options property page, the Precision has been set to Auto with the
sequence’s preference Precision set to 8-bit
•
In the Options property page, the Precision has been set to 8-bit
•
Using some DS effects that do not support 16-bit or 32-bit/Float precision
(such as Impressionist or Painterly effects).
•
Using some third-party effects that do not support 16-bit or 32-bit/Float
precision.
The following example shows you the results using a combination of channel
and pixel masking:
Original image
50
Working with Masks
Blur applied to RGB channels
(channel masking)
Blur applied to red channel only
(channel masking)
Blur applied to RGB channels, using alpha
as a mask (channel & pixel masking)
Image’s alpha channel
To apply channel or pixel masking:
1. On the Masking property page of an effect, select the channels on which
you want the effect to be applied from the Process box.
Pixel
masking
options
Channel
masking
options
2. From the Mask box, select one of the following:
-
None to apply the effect to the entire image.
-
Alpha to apply the effect using the clip’s alpha channel as a mask.
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Chapter 1 Compositing
-
Mask Input to apply the effect using a matte from another image or
effect in an Effects Tree only.
3. From the Process box, select the channels on which to apply the effect.
Using Alpha and Luma as Mask
When compositing images in the Layers view or the Effects tree, you can
apply a number of blending operations. For more information, see “Applying
Blending Operations in the Layers View” on page 52. You can use the alpha or
luma in the foreground image to mask the blending operation against the
background.
To use the Alpha or Luma as Mask:
1. In the Layers view, right-click the blending operation under the Layer
RGB thumbnail.
2. Select Use Alpha as Mask or Use Luma as Mask.
n
If you are working with a Composite effect node in the Effects Tree, use the
alpha or luma as a mask options by right-clicking the blending operation.
Applying Blending Operations in the Layers View
When compositing clips using the Layers view or the Effects Tree, you can
apply blending operations between the RGB and alpha components of the
image or the matte. You can also apply blending operations to external mattes
on a layer.
The operations differ between the RGB and alpha channels. Most RGB
operations that you select are automatically applied to the alpha channel. You
can, however, change the alpha operation separately. On a layer, the two
images or mattes are combined with the default operation (Over) and
displayed in the result area. For more information, see “Interlayer Alpha Menu
and Interlayer RGB Menu” in the Help.
52
Applying Blending Operations in the Layers View
Result area
Layer operations for RGB
and alpha channels.
n
In the Effects Tree, the blending operations are available in the Composite
node. To combine multiple mattes in an Effects Tree, use the Matte Composite
effect. For more information see “Compositing Multiple Mattes” on page 109.
To apply blend operations on a layer:
t
Right-click the RGB or alpha operator between the two layers on which
you want to apply the operation, and select an operator from the menu.
The results of the composite appear in the result area at the top of the
Layers view.
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Chapter 1 Compositing
Blend Operations
To apply external matte operations on a layer:
1. Right-click the matte controls between the mattes and select an operator.
Matte controls
2. Right-click the External Matte thumbnail and select RGB or Alpha.
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Compositing with Premultiplied Images
External matte set to Alpha
External matte set to RGB
Compositing with Premultiplied Images
Images that contain an alpha channel could be either premultiplied or not.
Premultiplication is a mathematical process where the RGB channels of an
image are multiplied with their corresponding alpha channel values.
How can you tell if an image has already been premultiplied? It’s best to check
with the artist if the image was premultiplied or not. But if you cannot do this,
you may be able to tell by looking at the RGB and alpha channels of the
image, or the results after the image is composited with another.
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Chapter 1 Compositing
A premultiplied source is one which the RGB channels have been multiplied by
the alpha channel. If both the RGB and alpha channels contain black in the
same areas, it’s a good indication that the image is premultiplied.
RGB channels
Alpha channel
A non-premultiplied source is one which the RGB channels are independent from
the alpha channel. If the black areas of the alpha channel and the same areas of the
RGB channel are different, it’s a good indication that the image is not premultiplied.
RGB channels
Alpha channel
The Science behind Premultiplication
Having premultiplied images simplifies the compositing process as it avoids
the additional operation of multiplying the RGB channels with the alpha
channel. If Avid DS Nitris is given the correct indication about a premultiplied
image, then the proper result is obtained when it is placed over the
background. The soft edges blend well with the background and there are no
noticeable artifacts.
If the incorrect indication is given, then Avid DS Nitris either applies the
premultiplication operation again on an image that is already premultiplied, or
does not apply it at all on an image that should be premultiplied.
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Compositing with Premultiplied Images
The following table shows the results of composited images with different
premultiplication settings. Keep in mind that the actual compositing operation,
called Over, is as follows:
(RGB Foreground × α) + (1 -α) × RGB Background = Result
Type of material
Set to
Result
Premultiplied
Premultiplied
Correct.
Since you informed Avid DS Nitris that the RGB channel has
been multiplied with the alpha channel, it will not perform the
premultiplication.
Operation: [Foreground x α] + (1 -α) × Background
Premultiplied
Not premultiplied
Incorrect.
These results may cause a black line to appear around the edge
of your image where it should be transparent and antialiased.
Operation: [Foreground × α] × α + (1 - α) × Background
The alpha channel is multiplied twice.
Not premultiplied
Not premultiplied
Correct.
Since you informed Avid DS Nitris that the RGB channel has
not been multiplied with the alpha channel, Avid DS Nitris will
do the premultiplication.
Operation: [Foreground] × α + (1 - α) × Background
Not premultiplied
Premultiplied
Incorrect.
These results can cause transparent areas of the foreground to
be displayed much brighter than they should.
This happens because you informed Avid DS Nitris that the
image is already premultiplied when in fact it is not, causing
the entire foreground to be added to the background rather than
just areas specified by the alpha channel.
Operation: [Foreground] + (1 - α) × Background
The RGB channel is not multiplied by alpha channel. Therefore
the foreground gets “ADDed” to the background.
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Chapter 1 Compositing
n
You can force a multiplication between alpha and RGB channels for those
effects or clips that have an unpremultiplied alpha on video tracks. You must
select the Force Premultiplication Output option in the Sequence Preferences
dialog box. If you select this option, all effects will no longer be real-time
playable. For more information see “Video Property Page (Sequence
Preferences)” in the Help.
Importing Source Files with an Alpha Channel
When using computer-generated images or sequences in your composites, it’s
important to indicate if the source has been premultiplied or not when you
import the source file into Avid DS Nitris. You can set and change the
premultiplication
The alpha channel of the circle has
a matte that has softness around
the edges (transparency).
If the premultiplication setting is
If the premultiplication setting is
incorrect, dark areas appear around correct, there is no dark halo.
the edges of the circle when
composited over a background image.
Setting the Premultiplication Option
You can always set the option before importing to avoid getting unexpected
results or artifacts in your composite.
To set the appropriate premultiplied option:
1. Select View > Multi-Instance Views > Capture Settings.
2. In the Media Capture panel, select the Keep Alpha option.
3. If the source is premultiplied, select the Premultiplied Alpha option.
4. If the source is not premultiplied, deselect Premultiplied Alpha.
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Compositing with Premultiplied Images
Changing the Premultiplication Setting
If you get unexpected results after compositing an imported image, such as a
halo or black outline, it may be because the premultiplication setting
is incorrect. You can change the premultiplication setting after you import the
file.
To check the premultiplication setting:
1. In the Avid Explorer, right-click the clip and select Properties from the
Avid DS Nitris menu.
2. On the File Info tab, check if the Premultiplied Alpha option is selected.
To change the premultiplication setting in the Layers view:
1. If you are compositing in the Layers view, right-click the layer that
contains the image whose premultiplication setting you want to change.
By default Auto is selected. This indicates that the material will be
composited according to the clip’s premultiplication setting.
2. Select Premultiplied or Not Premultiplied from the menu.
n
Tip: If you are compositing directly on the top timeline, you can apply the
Premultiplication effect on the clip to change the setting. In the
Premultiplication effect, the Modify Image option will change the outgoing
image's RGB pixels by premultiplying or unpremultiplying the image as
necessary. For more information, see “Applying the Premultiplication Effect”
on page 59.
To change the premultiplication setting in an Effects Tree:
1. If you are using the Composite node in an Effect Tree, select the
Premultiply tab.
2. Select the input that corresponds to the source file that you want to change
and change the Premultiplication setting.
Applying the Premultiplication Effect
The Premultiplication effect lets you change a clip’s premultiplication setting.
When you import material into Avid DS Nitris, you should specify whether
the material is premultiplied or not. However, if you didn’t set the
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Chapter 1 Compositing
premultiplication when you imported the material or a clip’s premultiplication
was incorrectly set, you can use the Premultiplication effect to change the
clip’s setting.
It also lets you change a clip’s premultiplication without having to first create
a composite container clip. You can use this effect to change an outgoing
image’s RGB pixels by premultiplying or undoing the premultiply in the
image as necessary.
You can apply the Premultiplication effect to clips, tracks, or trees.
To apply the Premultiplication effect:
1. Apply the Premultiplication effect to a clip, track, or tree.
2. From the effect’s property editor, select one of the following:
-
Premultiplied to flag the clip as premultiplied.
-
Not Premultiplied to flag the clip as not premultiplied.
-
Auto to maintain the clip’s current premultiplication state.
Original image (note line around balloon)
Premultiplication effect
3. Select the Modify Image option if you want to change the outgoing
image’s RGB pixels by premultiplying or unpremultiplying the image
as necessary.
For example, if you choose Premultiplied in the Premultiplication State
box, as well as the Modify Image option, then the RGB channel values
will be multiplied by the alpha channel values to produce a premultiplied
outgoing image. This option is useful when you work with
unpremultiplied images and you need to add premultiplied information,
such as antialiased text.
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Compositing with Premultiplied Images
When undoing the premultiplication, Avid DS Nitris attempts to remove
the influence of the alpha channel from the RGB channels. This option is
useful when working with a premultiplied image and you need to modify
the alpha channel information separately from the RGB channels.
4. On the Masking property page, indicate whether or not you are using a
mask for the effect. By default, the effect is applied to the RGB channels.
You can derive masks from the alpha of the input clip or an external matte
from another clip.
5. On the Options property page, select the appropriate options.
Click the Help button for detailed information on the Premultiplication
properties.
Automatic Changes to the Premultiplication Setting
An image is no longer premultiplied after you modify the RGB or alpha
channels separately. When dealing with a premultiplied source, you may have
to perform the operations specified in the following table:
Scenario
Solution
Applying an effect to a clip that modifies the
alpha channel only (by selecting the Process
Alpha option and deselecting the Process RGB
options on the Masking property page)
•
Make sure the effect processed the RGBA channels by
checking Masking property page
•
“Unpremultiply” the image using the procedure below
Applying a graphics effect to a clip or layer, and “Unpremultiply” the image before applying the Graphics
apply strokes only to the alpha or only to the
effect
RGB channels
Applying a key (with the Keep Original Alpha Select the Force Premultiplication option from the Key
option on) or matte effect to a clip
property editor (Matte property page)
Applying an external matte to a premultiplied
source in the Layers view
Before you apply the external matte, change the
Premultiplication setting to Non-premultiplied
To “unpremultiply” an image:
1. Apply the Premultiplication effect to the source clip—see “Applying the
Premultiplication Effect” on page 59.
2. On the General property page, select the Not Premultiplied option.
3. Click the Modify Image button.
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Chapter 1 Compositing
Compositing Clips over a Black Background
You can composite a single layer or several layers over a black background.
Whether you are using one or several layers, the bottommost layer will always
be composited over black when the Force Premultiplied Output option is
selected. Avid DS Nitris provides a simple method in which you can achieve
this without having to first create a black background clip.
n
Tip: If you want to composite against black in the video track, select the Force
Premultiplied Output option in the Sequence Preferences dialog box. If you
want to composite against black using the Composite effect node, double-click
the node and in the Composite property editor, select the Force Premultiplied
Output option.
To composite clips over a black background using layers:
1. From the timeline, select a clip.
2. From the taskbar, click the Compositing button.
A composite container clip is created and the Compositing layout is
displayed. A layer is also created from the clip.
3. If the clip doesn’t have a matte, create one using a keyer, DVE, matte, or
graphics effect.
4. Add more clips and layers to your composite.
5. Right-click an empty area of the Layers view deselect the Force
Premultiplied Output option, if it’s not already deselected.
The bottommost layer is composited over a black background.
Force Premultiplied Output is
deselected.
62
Force Premultiplied Output is
selected.
Compositing with Premultiplied Images
Unpremultiplying with Color
Often you will use clips that have been created in other applications such as
Adobe Photoshop or Adobe After Effects. If the captured clip consists of a
foreground image (and its matte in the alpha channel), which has been
composited and premultiplied with a color background, you can apply the
Unpremultiply with Color effect. It recovers the original foreground image
colors, especially in the semi-transparent and motion blur regions, keys out the
background color and premultiplies it with a black background color, so you
can use the clip for other compositing operations.
This effect can also be applied to the Effects Tree. For more information, see
“Unpremultiplying with Color in the Effects Tree” on page 107.
To unpremultiply with color on the timeline:
1. Using the simple track compositing method, composite the background
and foreground clip on the timeline.
The foreground image
with a matte in its alpha
channel
Background image
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Chapter 1 Compositing
The composited result is displayed in the viewer.You’ll notice that dark
areas appear around the edges of the text. When you view the matte, you
will notice the softness around its edges.
A halo around the text indicates
unwanted artifact
The alpha channel of the text has
a matte that has softness around
the edges.
2. Click the track’s Solo button to only view the foreground image.
Track Solo
button
3. Apply an Unpremultiply with Color effect to the foreground image.
The Unpremultiply with Color property editor is displayed.
4. From the Effects List, select Original Color.
The Original Color property editor is displayed.
5. Click the Color Picker button.
The cursor changes to the eyedropper cursor.
6. In the viewer, select the color that you want to remove and replace with
black.
7. Click the track’s Solo button off to see the result in the viewer.
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Working with Layered Photoshop Images
Working with Layered Photoshop Images
When you capture a layered Photoshop image into Avid DS Nitris, each layer
is an individual linked image file, and the layered result is imported as a
sequence in the Avid Explorer. All applied blending or layer operations in
Photoshop are maintained in the new Avid DS Nitris sequence. For more
information, see “Capturing from Layered Adobe Photoshop Files” on
page 57 of the Avid DS Nitris Capture and Output Guide.
When you place a Photoshop sequence on the timeline, the composite is
recreated in a composite container clip. When you open the container clip,
layers are displayed in the Layers view and on the timeline. DVEs are applied
to each clip to position them according to the original Photoshop image, and
the opacity of each layer is adjusted to match the opacity levels in the original
Photoshop image.
n
Tip: Layers that were hidden in the original Photoshop file will be displayed
as part of the composite in Avid DS Nitris. After importing the file, you can
mute the layers that you don’t want to use in the composite.
Layers in Photoshop
Opacity settings
are matched in
Avid DS Nitris.
Text layers are
rasterized.
Layer effects are
ignored in
Avid DS Nitris.
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Chapter 1 Compositing
Photoshop layers in Avid DS Nitris
Opacity settings are matched
All layers are visible
DVE applied
to each clip
Outer glow layer
effects are ignored
In Avid DS Nitris, the following Photoshop features are supported:
Feature
Support in Avid DS Nitris
Color spaces
RGBA 8, 16-bit and grayscale (converted to RGBA 8-bit
images)
Text layers
Text is rasterized on import
Shape layers
Shapes are rasterized on import
Blending modes
Normal only
Photoshop Layer Notes and Tips
When you work with Photoshop layers in Avid DS Nitris, there may be times
when you don’t get the same results as those in Photoshop. Try the following:
66
•
Import only RGB or grayscale images.
•
In Avid DS Nitris, try unmuting the background if it contains transparent
areas and/or export the alpha channel.
Working with Layered Photoshop Images
•
In Photoshop, apply layer masks to the layer before you import them
into Avid DS Nitris.
Here are some points to consider when working with Photoshop layers.
•
Remember that text or shape layers are rasterized when you import them
into Avid DS Nitris.
•
When the layered Photoshop file is recreated in Avid DS Nitris, the
Output Frame Size option for each DVE is turned off by default to
minimize the size of the sequence. This may create some hard edges on
blur and drop shadow effects. To remove these hard edges, open the DVE
property editor for that clip and select the Output Frame Size option.
•
Remember that effects are applied in a specific order. The order will affect
the outcome of your shot. For layered Photoshop images, you should
always apply effects after the DVE if you don’t want your material to
suffer from hard edge cropping. For more information, see “Processing
Composites” on page 68.
Using Photoshop Images
Once you have imported the layered photoshop images, you can apply effects
to each layer.
To start using the Photoshop image:
1. Drag the Photoshop sequence to the timeline, and click the Container
Clip button.
Container clip
button
The composite container clip is displayed in the Compositing layout. On
each clip, a DVE is applied, positioning them according to their position
in the Photoshop file.
2. Mute the layers that you don’t want to appear in the composite.
3. You can blend operations between layers and create effects on each layer.
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Chapter 1 Compositing
Deleting Imported Photoshop Files
If you no longer need the sequence and master clips associated with the
Photoshop file, you can delete them along with the corresponding media at
any time.
To delete the imported Photoshop file:
1. Select the folder that was created when you imported the file.
2. Right-click the folder and select Delete Clip & Unused Media.
A message box is displayed, prompting you to confirm deletion of the
Targa files in the \Linked Layers folder.
3. Click Yes to free up the maximum amount of disk space.
The sequence, master clips, and Targa files are deleted.
Processing Composites
Most of the composites, effects, and effect nodes that you apply must be
processed to see the results during a real-time playback.
Avid DS Nitris processes each layer independently. It then combines the
results from all layers to process the final composited image for each frame in
your sequence.
Processing is done by selection. You can process the entire sequence or a
specific object in the sequence. Processing can also occur at different stages in
your sequence. When you process a sequence with complex effects,
Avid DS Nitris creates caches at incremental levels. This allows you to make
changes to your effects at any level without having to reprocess the entire
sequence.
When processing the DVE effect, you may notice a slight difference in the
quality of the realtime and the processed DVE. The difference may be more
pronounced for DVEs that are partially processed (part of the clip is realtime,
part is processed). In these cases, it is strongly recommended that you process
the entire effect in order to remove the boundary between the realtime portion
and the processed portion of the effect.
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Processing Composites
The operations in the Compositing layout are processed in the following order:
1
An effect applied to a clip
inside the container clip.
2
Effects Tree
Effect nodes applied
to the Effects Tree
3
External mattes are processed from right to left.
4
Layer effects are
processed from
bottom to top
5
Composite and blend
operations are processed
between layers from
bottom to top. The opacity
of the matte is factored
into the process.
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Chapter 1 Compositing
Processing Layered Clips on the Timeline
When you layer clips on the timeline, whether it’s on the Editing layout or
inside a container in the Compositing layout, the timeline ribbon will change
color to indicate that processing is required. If the color is red, then you must
process the clips in order to play them in real time. For more information, see
“When is Processing Needed?” on page 923 of the Avid DS Nitris Editing
Guide.
n
Tip: You can preview the resulting composite before processing all frames in
the sequence. To view the sequence frame by frame, press Ctrl and click Play
in the transport controls.
To process the composite:
1. Select an object or specific time span on the timeline.
2. In the timeline controls, click the Process button.
Process button
Highlighted areas of
timeline ribbon indicate
unprocessed section of
the sequence.
3. Select the appropriate options from the Processing Options dialog box.
4. Click OK to begin processing.
A progress indicator appears at the bottom of your desktop to show the
status of the process.
A progress indicator appears at the bottom of your desktop to show the
status of the process. You can Cancel the process at any time, or press the
spacebar on your keyboard.
n
You can process the container clip while it is open or closed.
For more information, see “Processing Effects” on page 921 of the
Avid DS Nitris Editing Guide.
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Processing Composites
Processing Effect Nodes
As you add effect nodes to the Effects Tree, you will notice that the timeline
ribbon is highlighted indicating whether processing is required. One of the
methods of processing quickly in the Effects Tree is by adding a cache before
processing the entire or a section of the tree.
When working with large trees, it is a good idea to add cache nodes between
effect nodes to process the effects. This will let you play the effects up to the
cache node in real time. For more information, see “Using Cache Nodes in the
Effects Tree” on page 943 and “Creating Caches at Any Level” on page 938 of
the Avid DS Nitris Editing Guide.
To process a node:
1. Right-click a connector between two nodes and select Add Cache
and Process.
A cache node is added to the tree and the Processing Options dialog box is
displayed.
Cache node (indicated in yellow)
added in Effects Tree
2. In the Processing Options dialog box, select the appropriate options.
n
To process more than one cache node at a time, add the cache nodes to the
cache list and then select the Cache List option from the Processing Options
dialog box.
3. Click OK to begin processing.
4. A progress indicator appears on the bottom of the desktop to show the
status of the process.
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Chapter 1 Compositing
72
Chapter 2
Using Effects Trees
Effects Trees are useful in creating and managing complex composites. This
chapter describes how to apply and use effects trees to composite.
Chapter 2 Using Effects Trees
Applying Effects Trees
You can apply an Effects Tree on a clip or track on the timeline or on a Layer.
You can also apply an Effects Tree as a transition on the timeline. You can also
work directly in the Effects Tree of the Compositing layout. For more
information, see “Working with the Effects Tree” on page 79.
Applying an Effects Tree on a Clip or Track
You can build a quick Effects Tree on a clip or track when you want to apply
an unlimited number of effects on a single clip or track.
To apply an Effects Tree to a clip or track:
1. Apply a clip or track effect to a clip or track—see “Applying Effects” on
page 200 of the Avid DS Nitris Getting Started.
2. From the effect’s property editor, click the Load Preset button.
The Load Preset dialog box is displayed.
3. From the Load Preset dialog box, select Effects Tree.
An Effects Tree is applied to the clip or track, and the Effects Tree
property editor is displayed.
4. From the Effects Tree property editor, click the Expand button.
The Effects Tree view is displayed with the input as the clip or track on
which you have applied the effects tree. You can now add effect nodes to
the tree. For more information, “Working with the Effects Tree” on
page 79.
Effects Tree
applied to clip
Effects applied in tree
Input from clip
74
Applying Effects Trees
Applying an Effects Tree as a Transition
With Effects Trees you can apply a transition between two clips that is
composed of multiple effects.
n
If you build an Effects Tree on the top timeline, you can only have one image
input when it is applied as a clip effect or a single-sided transition. You can
have two image inputs when they are applied as a two-sided transition.
To apply an Effects Tree as a transition:
1. On the timeline, select the edit point between two overlapping clips.
2. Apply a transition, such as a dissolve or wipe—see “Understanding Image
Transition Effects” on page 893 of the Avid DS Nitris Editing Guide.
3. From the transition’s property editor, click the Load Preset button.
The Load Preset dialog box is displayed.
4. From the \Image Transitions folder, select Effects Tree Transition.
An Effects Tree is applied as a transition and the Effects Tree property
editor is displayed.
5. From the Effects Tree property editor, click the Expand button.
The Effects Tree view is displayed.
6. Add effects to the tree by right-clicking on an empty area of the view and
selecting Add Effect.
7. From the \Image Transitions folder, select a transition effect.
In the following example, a Morph transition was added as the transition
in the Effects Tree.
8. Connect the inputs to the effect—see “Connecting Nodes” on page 81.
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Chapter 2 Using Effects Trees
Effects Tree applied as transition
Clip inputs
Transition effect
Converting a Stack of Effects to an Effects Tree
When working on the timeline, you may find yourself with stacks of effects on
clips, track, or the timeline. To save on screen real estate, you can convert
these stacks to an Effects Tree. Another advantage for converting a stack of
effects to an Effects tree is that you can save the entire stack as a preset, which
you can load to another Effects Tree.
You can also select effects on clips, track, and the timeline that you want to be
in an Effects Tree.
To convert a stack of effects on a clip to an Effects Tree:
1. Select the clip or move.
2. Right-click the clip and select Convert Effects Stack to Tree.
The stack of effects is replaced by one effect bar: the Effects Tree bar.
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Applying Effects Trees
n
Tip: To convert the stack of effects of more than one clip, select the clips and
press Ctrl+9. An Effects Tree bar will replace the stacks on all selected clips.
3. Double-click the Effects Tree bar to open its property editor.
4. Click the Expand button.
The Effects Tree view is displayed.
5. Optional: Save the effects in the Effects Tree as a preset. For more
information, see “Loading and Saving Presets” on page 281.
To convert a selection of effects to an Effects Tree
1. Holding down the Ctrl key and select the effects that you want to be
convert to an Effects Tree.
n
The effects need not be of one type; you can select clip, track or timeline
effects for conversion.
2. With the Ctrl key is still pressed, right-click and select Effects to Tree.
The selected effects are replaced by one effect bar: the Effects Tree bar.
n
Tip: After you make the selection, press Ctrl+9 to convert only the selected
effects to an Effects Tree.
3. Double-click the Effects Tree bar to open its property editor.
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Chapter 2 Using Effects Trees
4. Click the Expand button.
The Effects Tree view is displayed.
n
The new Effects Tree bar occupies the total duration of the stack of effects.
If there is an effect in the stack that has a Mix to Color effect before the
conversion to the Effects Tree and has a shorter duration than that of the new
Effects tree bar, the Mix to color effect will not be preserved. As seen in the
effect’s property editor, the Mix to Color will be changed to Mix to Input so as
to preserve its duration.
Applying an Effects Tree on a Layer
With Effects Trees, you can composite multiple inputs on a layer, and add an
unlimited number of effects to these inputs. You can even add Effects Trees to
more than one layer.
n
When you combine an Effects Tree with other effects on a layer, the tree acts as
an input to the other effects. For example, if you create an Effects Tree and
also use the Color Correction effect on the layer, then the Effects Tree acts as
the input to the Color Correction effect and so on, working upwards through
the effects on the layer.
To apply an Effects Tree to a layer:
1. Select a clip on the timeline and click the Compositing button in the
taskbar.
2. In the Compositing layout, select a layer in the Layers view.
The Effects Tree view for the selected layer is displayed.
Within the Effects Tree you can now add inputs and effects to the Effects
Tree. For more information, see “Adding or Removing Inputs To and
From an Effect Node” on page 81 and “Adding Effect Nodes to a Tree” on
page 79.
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Working with the Effects Tree
Green button
indicates an Effects
Tree on a layer
Timeline tracks input
into Effects Tree
n
Tip: Each layer can have its own Effects Tree. To view the Effects Tree on a
layer, right-click the layer and select Effects Tree (layer).
Opening the Effects Tree View
You can open an Effects Tree view for any effect on the timeline or on a layer.
To open the Effects Tree view, do one of the following:
t
On a clip or track, press Ctrl while you double-click the effect bar above a
clip/track.
t
On a layer, right-click the layer and select Effects Tree (layer).
Working with the Effects Tree
In the Effects Tree, you can add unlimited effects, switch one input for
another, delete effects, fold nodes, copy trees, and save tree presets. You can
also save tree presets which you can apply to other clips or Effects Trees.
Adding Effect Nodes to a Tree
After you have accessed the Effects Tree view and decided where to apply
your Effects Tree (on a clip, track, or layer), you can begin adding effects to it.
Effects are represented as nodes in the Effects Tree view.
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Chapter 2 Using Effects Trees
To add effects to the Effects Tree, do one of the following:
t
Right-click an empty area of the Effects Tree view, and select Add Effect.
In the Load Preset dialog box, select an effect.
t
From a toolbar, drag a preset and place it in an Effects Tree view. When
you drag a preset from a toolbar or the Avid Explorer and place it on top
of a highlighted connector, the preset is automatically inserted between
the connected nodes.
t
From the Avid Explorer, navigate to the \FactoryPresets folder. Select one
or more presets and drag them to an Effects Tree view.
The effects are placed in the tree in the order in which you selected them.
n
Tip: You can select multiple effects in the Avid Explorer (Ctrl-click) and then
press Ctrl while you drag them to the Effects Tree. The effects are added to the
tree already connected to one another, and in the order in which you selected
them.
After you have added nodes to an effects tree, you can connect them together.
For more information, see “Connecting Nodes” on page 81.
Adding Clips to the Effects Tree
When you add clips to the Effects Tree, you are essentially adding input nodes
that represent the image. Note that you will not be able to view the input node
unless it is connected to the output node. When adding more than one clip, you
can composite them using the Composite effect node which you must in turn
connect to the output node—see “Compositing Multiple Images” on page 100.
Input nodes
representing
clips or images
Effect Node
To add an input node, do one of the following:
t
From the Avid Explorer, select a clip and drag it to the Effects Tree view.
To select more than one clip, use the Ctrl or Shift keys to select.
New inputs are added to the Effects Tree and new tracks are added to
the timeline.
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Working with the Effects Tree
t
From the timeline of the Compositing layout, drag a track to the Effects
Tree view.
The new input node is added to the Effects Tree view.
Although you can add multiple inputs to the Effects Tree, they won’t be
visible in the viewer until connected to the output node.
Adding or Removing Inputs To and From an Effect Node
You can add or show inputs (ports) in the effect node. You can also remove or
hide any input. For example, the DVE effect node shows the Foreground and
Background ports by default. You can add or show the Local and Transform
inputs when you want to use them.
n
When working with dynamic effect nodes such as the composite container or
the 3D DVE node, you can add multiple inputs (or ports) to the node.
To add or remove inputs or ports to an effect node:
1. Right-click the effect node and select Add/Remove Inputs.
2. Select the input or port that you want to show or hide.
Connecting Nodes
When you want to connect nodes, you can use kissing, twanging, sticky
connection, or dragging from an output port.
To connect nodes, do one of the following:
t
Starting position
Kissing: Drag a node’s input port over the output port of another node, so
it “kisses” the edge of the second node, and hold for a fraction of a
second.
Button turns blue when connected
While holding the mouse button down, you can drag the newly connected
node to another node and connect it to that one as well.
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Chapter 2 Using Effects Trees
“Kissing” second node
t
Final result
Twanging: Drag a node over an existing connector.
The existing connector snaps or “twangs” to the input and output ports of
the node.
n
Tip: If you don’t release the mouse button, you can move the node away from
the connector and no connection will take place. Even though you haven’t
made a permanent connection, the results are displayed in the viewer. This is
handy to quickly see how an effect may affect your tree. If the node has
multiple ports, you can drag the node through the connector until it connects
to the desired input.
t
82
Sticky connection: Click a node’s output port and release the mouse
button. The connector becomes “stuck” to the pointer. You can move the
pointer over another node’s input port and click to connect it.
Working with the Effects Tree
Click node’s output port
t
Release mouse button and move
away from node. The connector is
“stuck” to the pointer.
Click node’s input port
Dragging from an output port: Drag a node’s output port towards the
input port of another node.
A connector is displayed from the output port and turns blue to indicate
the output is connected. As you get close to the input node, the connector
snaps to it. If it doesn’t, it is probably because the input node is invalid.
Click output node
Drag to input node
Disconnecting Nodes
To disconnect nodes, you can rip, click a connector, click and drag a connector
from an input port, or drag the input port.
To disconnect nodes, do one of the following:
t
Ripping: Click a node and “shake” or “rip” it away from the other nodes,
or press R and drag a node away from another node or connector.
The selected node is placed where you release the mouse button. If there
were other nodes connected to the selected node, then the connector will
be joined between the two.
t
Click anywhere on a connector.
The selected connector turns white. When you release the mouse button,
the connector is removed.
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Chapter 2 Using Effects Trees
t
Click and drag connector: Click the connector that is attached to the
input port and drag it away from the node.
The connector is removed.
To switch one input for another, do one of the following:
t
Disconnect the current input node and connect the new input node to
the effect.
t
Click a track button and drag it over an input node.
If the image contributes to the composite, the viewer and layer thumbnails
are updated.
n
You cannot switch the primary input.
Selecting Nodes
There are many ways to select nodes in an Effects Tree.
To select a node:
t
Click a node’s title bar.
The selected node becomes highlighted.
To select multiple nodes, do one of the following:
84
t
Right-click an empty area of the view and select Select All.
t
Hold down the Ctrl key and click the nodes (if a node was already
selected, it becomes deselected).
t
Drag a selection rectangle around several nodes.
t
Right-click a node and select Select Proceeding Nodes or Select
Subsequent Nodes to highlight all nodes before or after the
selected node.
Working with the Effects Tree
Collapsing and Expanding Nodes
You can collapse nodes if you want to hide the inputs and effects associated
with them.
View of nodes when collapsed.
View of nodes when expanded.
To collapse a node:
t
Right-click a node and select Collapse.
The selected node is collapsed, which is useful when a node contains
several inputs and you want hide them to maintain as much space as
possible in the view.
To expand a node:
t
Right-click a node and select Expand.
The selected node is expanded.
Removing Nodes
You can only delete input nodes when an Effects Tree is applied on a layer.
Also, you cannot delete the primary input node (usually input 1).
n
Tip: You can also replace effect nodes with another. However, an effect node
can only be replaced with an effect that has the same number of inputs.
To remove a node:
t
Right-click a node(s), and select Delete.
The node(s) are removed from the Effects Tree. Any connections to other
nodes are also deleted.
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Chapter 2 Using Effects Trees
To reset an Effects Tree:
t
Right-click an empty area of the view and select Reset All.
All nodes and effects are removed except for the input and output nodes.
Editing an Effect Node
When you open an effect’s property editor from an Effects Tree, you can edit
any effect in the tree. If you have multiple effects in your Effects Tree, you can
select which property editor you want to view.
To edit an effect in an Effects Tree:
t
Double-click an effects node in the tree.
The effect’s property editor is displayed. You can now edit the effect using
the parameters in the property editor. You can also select other effect
nodes in the tree directly from this property editor’s Effect list:
Effect list
n
Effects Trees of folded nodes are not displayed in the Effects list. However,
once you expand the Effects Tree view, you can see them in the tree. Doubleclick the expanded node to display its property editor.
To add an effect to the Effect list:
t
86
Right-click an effect and select Expose.
Working with the Effects Tree
The effect is displayed in the Effect list. This is useful if you build a
complex tree, but don’t want to expose its properties in the Effect list. If
you don’t want to expose the properties, deselect this option.
Viewing and Bypassing Nodes
When your Effects Tree grows, it is handy to view or bypass certain nodes in
the tree. For example, you may want to view the output of your tree without a
certain effect. In this case, you can bypass the effect node that you don’t want
to see.
Another example is when you apply several effects and you want to see the
result up to a certain point. In this case, you can view the node previous to that
point. You can only view one node at a time.
You can also select to view nodes in separate viewers. This is handy, for
example, if you want to match the colors in one clip with those of another.
To bypass a node:
1. Select the effects that you want to bypass.
2. Right-click a node and select Bypass.
You can also hit B on your keyboard.
The node’s output port turns orange, and the viewer updates to display the
tree without the effect that you bypassed. Bypassed nodes will not
be processed.
To view a node:
1. Select the node whose output you want to view.
2. Right-click a node and select View.
The output of the selected node is displayed in the viewer and the effect’s
output port turns green.
n
Tip: If your Effects Tree starts getting large, it’s a good idea to add a cache
node between some of the effects and process them. This will save you time
and let you play the effects up to the cache node in real time. For more
information, see “Creating Caches at Any Level” on page 938 of the
Avid DS Nitris Editing Guide.
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Chapter 2 Using Effects Trees
To view an effect in a floating viewer:
t
Right-click a node and select Open Viewer.
The output of the node (with any applied effects) is displayed in its
own viewer.
Folding Nodes
When working with large Effects Trees, it can be difficult to navigate the tree
and locate your effects. “Folding” nodes into a new Effects Tree node can help
organize your view.
All output connections for folded nodes can’t be reconnected when:
•
You select effects that have their output ports connected to two different
nodes and try to fold them. Since a folded node only has one output port,
only one of the output ports of the effects inside the folded tree will be
connected to the output.
•
You select nodes that aren’t in a series (for example, you have three effects
and you select 1 and 3) and fold them; connection to the input node will
be lost.
In these situations, you will be prompted to undo the folding to regain all
connections.
n
88
Tip: In your user preferences, you can make new nodes automatically fold and
group when they’re added to the Effects Tree, and automatically expand
existing nodes when you position the pointer over them. Select File > User
Preferences (Effects Tree property page).
Working with the Effects Tree
To fold nodes:
1. In an Effects Tree, select the nodes you want to fold or group.
Selected nodes
2. Right-click one of the selected nodes and select one of the following:
-
Fold Minimal
-
Fold All
The selected nodes are placed in a new Effects Tree with a red border, which only displays
the inputs that are directly connected to the effect that feeds the new Effects Tree.
Fold Minimal
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Chapter 2 Using Effects Trees
The selected nodes are placed in a new Effects Tree with a red border, which
displays all inputs, both connected and unconnected, from each effect.
Fold All
To unfold nodes:
t
Right-click the folded Effects Tree and select one of the following:
-
Unfold
The nodes are placed in the parent Effects Tree.
-
Unfold and Repel
The nodes are placed in the parent Effects Tree. Any nodes that were
close to the folded are repelled away from the nodes as they are
unfolded.
Attracting or Repelling Nodes
When you have many nodes in an Effects Tree, sometimes it’s easier to focus
on a group of nodes by pushing other nodes away from the group. You can
repel or attract nodes to/from selected nodes.
Nodes are attracted or repelled by an amount that is a factor of the size of the
selection. If you select a bigger node, then nodes will be repelled or attracted
farther than if you select a smaller node.
n
90
Tip: You can set the amount at which nodes are repelled in the User
Preferences dialog box. Select File > User Preferences (Effects Tree property
page).
Working with the Effects Tree
To repel nodes:
1. In the Effects Tree, select the nodes that you want to remain stationary.
2. On your keyboard, press the equal (=) key.
All nodes in the tree are pushed away from the selected nodes.
n
Keep in mind that when you select nodes, they must fall together within a
square region to be repelled/attracted. For example, if you have four nodes
positioned in two rows and you select two nodes diagonally, then attracting
and repelling will not work.
To attract nodes:
1. In the Effects Tree, select the nodes that you want to remain stationary.
2. On the keyboard, press the minus (–) key.
All nodes in the tree are pulled closer to the selected nodes.
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Chapter 2 Using Effects Trees
Organizing Nodes
When creating complex effects using the Effects Tree, you may end up with a
large number of nodes all over the Effects Trees workspace. To work more
efficiently and to have a clear idea of which node is connected to which, it’s
best to organize your Effect Tree as you work.
There are two ways of organizing nodes:
•
Arranging all nodes in the Effects Tree in a more coherent or structured
manner displaying all the input, effect, and output nodes.
•
Sorting a selected number of nodes, or a branch of the Effects Tree, to
display how they are connected.
If you have not selected any node(s), then organizing the branch will
rearrange itself around the output node. Unlike the Organize All Nodes
option, you will notice that the nodes are not framed. Instead, the focus is
on the selected nodes. To frame the Effects Tree, select the Frame All
option.
n
92
Tip: To save vertical space in the Effects Tree, you can use the Densely
Organize All Nodes or Densely Organize Branch options. For more
information, see “Effects Tree Menu” in the Help.
Working with the Effects Tree
To organize nodes in the Effects Tree:
t
Right-click the Effects Tree and select one of the following:
Command
Shortcut
Organize Branch
Shift + ]
Organize All Nodes
Shift + [
Densely Organize Branch
[
Densely Organize All Nodes
]
Renaming Nodes
When you add several similar effects, such as color correction, it may become
difficult to differentiate between each effect. Renaming the effect nodes makes
it easier for you to locate them in a tree.
n
You cannot rename input or output nodes. However, since the second part of
an input port’s name in an Effects Tree is derived from a track, you can
rename the track. The name will be propagated to the input node.
To rename an effect node:
1. Do one of the following:
t
Right-click the node and select Rename Effect.
t
Alt + click the name.
2. Enter a new name for the node.
Renaming Input Ports
You can rename an input port’s name using the input’s name to help you
determine the node from which an input originates.
To rename node input ports, do one of the following:
t
Right-click a node’s input port name, and select Rename Input.
t
Alt + click the input port name.
t
Right-click a node and select Use Input Names.
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Chapter 2 Using Effects Trees
The name of the node connected to the input port is appended to the input
port’s name and number. For example, if a Blue-Green keyer is connected
to Input 1 of a Composite node, then the input port’s name will be
displayed as Input 1 - Blue Green Keyer when you select this option from
the Effects Node menu.
n
Tip: You can set the Use Input Names option as the default in the User
Preferences dialog box. Select File > User Preferences (Effects Tree property
page).
Displaying Tooltips
Tooltips are handy when you’re working with a zoomed-out tree and the node
or input names are difficult to see. You can display tooltips on nodes, node
input names, and connectors. You can also determine how quickly tooltips are
displayed when you position the pointer over these objects.
To display tooltips on nodes, connectors, and node inputs:
1. Select File > User Preferences.
2. On the Effects Tree property page, select one or more options from the
Tooltip Settings box.
Zooming the Effects Tree
Zooming the Effects Tree lets you focus on one part of your tree, which may
be useful in complex trees with many effects.
To zoom the Effects Tree:
t
Position the pointer over a node from which you want the Effects Tree to
zoom in or out and do one of the following:
-
Press Z+right-click the Effects Tree and drag right or left.
-
Press Z and drag a selection around the nodes you want to zoom in.
Press Z and click in the Effects Tree to go back to the original size.
-
Press Alt+Z to zoom in on the Effects Tree or press Alt+X to
zoom out.
The Effects Tree incrementally zooms in or out each time you press
the key commands.
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Working with the Effects Tree
n
n
Tip: You can set the amount at which the incremental zoom takes place by
selecting the Steps option in the Mouse Zoom box in the User Preferences
dialog box. Select File > User Preferences (Effects Tree property page).
When you apply an Effects Tree to a clip or track, it can only use one input:
from the clip or track. If you want to create a multi-input effect, apply an
Effects Tree on a layer.
Using the Birds Eye View
The Birds Eye view lets you interactively move an Effects Tree to see nodes or
effects that are outside the current view.
To use the Birds Eye View:
1. Right-click an empty area in the Effects Tree view and select Birds Eye
View.
Close view
1
Darker region indicates
there are more nodes
and/or effects outside the
Effects Tree view.
2
2. Drag your cursor over the light-colored region in the Birds Eye View to
reveal more nodes and effects.
The open hand changes to a closed hand to show that you’re dragging the
view. The Effects Tree moves accordingly to display more nodes and
effects.
3. To close the view, click the Close button in the top-right hand corner.
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Chapter 2 Using Effects Trees
Saving and Loading Trees
Once you create a complex tree, you can save it as a preset and reuse it in an
existing tree or apply it as a clip or track effect. When you save a tree, all the
nodes that comprise the tree including the source (input), effects, and output
are saved with the tree.
You can also add an Effects Tree preset to an existing tree or replace the tree
with a preset.
Saving an Effects Tree
After creating an effects tree, you can save it as a preset. If you want to apply
an Effects Tree preset to a clip or track, it can only have one input.
To save an Effects Tree as a preset:
1. Do one of the following:
t
On a clip, track, or transition, double-click the Effects Tree effect bar.
t
In an Effects Tree view, right-click an empty area and
select Properties.
The Effects Tree property editor is displayed.
2. In the Effects Tree property editor, click the Save Preset button.
3. In the Save Preset dialog box, select a folder, type a name and description
for your preset, and click OK.
The preset is saved in the folder you selected.
n
If you try to save an Effects Tree from an effect’s property editor, only the
current effect will be saved as a preset. Make sure you select General from the
Effect list before you save the Effects Tree.
Loading an Effects Tree
Before loading an Effects Tree, you may want to view it first.
To view an Effects Tree:
1. Double-click the Effects Tree preset node.
The Effects Tree Preset property editor is displayed.
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Working with the Effects Tree
2. In the Effects Tree property editor, click the Expand button.
The Effects Tree view is displayed in a floating window.
To load an Effects Tree:
1. Right-click an empty area of an Effects Tree view and select Add Effect.
The Load Preset dialog box is displayed.
2. Browse through the folders and select a preset.
The Effects Tree preset is added to the current Effects Tree view. It looks
like any other effect node.
3. Connect the preset node to the tree.
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Chapter 2 Using Effects Trees
Effects Tree preset
Using the Effects Tree to Composite
The Effects Tree can be used to composite multiple images and combine
multiple effects. Some artists prefer this method because it visually maps out
the nodes of the tree. This section includes examples of how the Effects Tree
can be used to composite images.
Using External Mattes in the Effects Tree
An external matte is a matte taken from one clip and applied to another.
External mattes may already exist with a clip or you can create one by adding
a keyer effect on the clip. You can also use the alpha or RGB component of
another clip as the external matte. In the example for “Using the Shapes
Tools” on page 41, the matte created can be applied to another clip as an
external matte. Sometimes, you may be provided with a matte clip that you use
for compositing.
There are three methods for adding external mattes: using the Effects Tree,
using the Layers view, and using matte containers. For the Layers view and
matte container methods, see “Using External Mattes in the Timeline and
Layers View” on page 44.
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Using the Effects Tree to Composite
RGB clip
without a matte
Composite result
Background clip
External matte clip
To add an external matte to the Effects Tree:
1. In the Effects Tree, add Composite effect node and connect it to the
background as shown here:
2. Drag the clip that you want to use as the foreground to the Effects Tree.
3. Drag the external matte clip to the Effects Tree.
4. Add the Key Combiner - Luma effect (\Tree Effects folder) to the tree
and connect the nodes as shown here:
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Chapter 2 Using Effects Trees
You are using the Luma channel of your external matte as a source for the
alpha and combining this alpha channel with RGB channels of the clip
(TextRGB)
n
If you want to combine the alpha channel with the RGB channels of the clip
using the alpha channel of the matte as the source for the alpha, use the Key
Combiner - Alpha effect. You can also open the Key Combiner property editor
and select the source from which to map the output image’s alpha channel.
Compositing Two Layers
The Over effect is a real-time effect which lets you composite two images.
To composite two layers:
1. In the Layers view, click a layer to display its Effects Tree.
2. Right-click in the Effects Tree and select Add Effect.
3. From the \Tree Effects\Blending Operations folder, select Over.
4. Connect the input nodes to the Over node as follows:
5. In the Options property page, select the appropriate options.
6. Click OK to begin processing.
7. A progress indicator appears on the bottom of the desktop to show the
status of the process.
Compositing Multiple Images
In an Effects Tree, the Composite effect node lets you composite upto 64
images. Open the Composite node's property editor to get a visual interface of
the input images, which is similar to the Layer’s view.
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Using the Effects Tree to Composite
Compositing is from bottom to top, so the order the images appear in the
Composite effect property corresponds to the order of the images on the
timeline of the composite container represent the output image of the Effects
Tree. The result of all the nodes is fed to the output node which is displayed in
the viewer.
Output shows the result
of the composite
L1 input corresponds to
the bottommost layer
Blending
Operations
In the composite effect node, you can mix and apply blending operations
between images. You can also ensure that the result of the composite has valid
RGBA colors. This is very useful when the inputs you are using are derived
from a .psd file. You should select the Clamp to Valid Color option to
maintain any blending operations that were originally performed in
Photoshop.
You can also set the premultiplication state for each input. For more
information on premultiplication, see “Compositing with Premultiplied
Images” on page 55.
When you use several Composite effects or use a Composite effect with a
layer or other effects in the same tree, you may need to export the effect’s
alpha channel in order for it to be correctly composited.
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To apply the Composite effect:
1. In the Layers view, click a layer to display its Effects Tree.
2. From the \Tree Effects folder, select the Composite effect.
3. Connect the input nodes to the Composite node, and the output node from
the Composite node to the Output node.
If your inputs already have mattes, then you’ll see the composited result in
the viewer. If they don’t have mattes, you can create them using any of the
keyer, matte, or graphics effects. You can also add an external matte to an
input using the Matte Composite effect. For more information, see
“Working with Mattes” on page 39.
n
Tip: By default, the Composite effect node opens with only two inputs. To
automatically create new inputs ports in the Composite node, hold down the S
key when connecting input nodes to the Composite node. To quickly add input
ports to the Composite node, press down the A key and the D key to delete
input ports.
4. Double-click the Composite node to display the Composite
property editor.
5. On the General property page, set the following properties:
-
Output premultiplication settings
-
Opacity and mix settings
-
Required inputs to the correct premultiplication setting.
By default, all clips are set to Auto, which will maintain the clip’s
current premultiplication setting.
-
n
blending operations between inputs
If the output does not display the results you expect, the premultiplication
setting of the image was probably incorrectly set when it was imported. On the
General property page change the input’s premultiplication setting. For more
information, see “Changing the Premultiplication Setting” on page 59.
6. On the Masking property page, specify whether or not to use a mask for
the effect. By default, the effect is applied to the RGB and alpha channels.
You can derive masks from the alpha of the input clip or an external matte
from another clip.
7. On the Masking property page, set the Mix Parameter to blend the result
of the effect with the original input or a color.
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Using the Effects Tree to Composite
8. On the Options property page, select the appropriate options.
Click the Help button for detailed information on the Processing options.
Uncompositing Foreground from the Background
You can recover the original foreground from the background image by
applying the Uncomposite from Bgnd effect in the Effects Tree. You can then
use the clip for other compositing operations. You must have a matte in your
alpha channel and the clean plate of the original background.
In the following example shows you how the foreground image, the text is
uncomposited from the original background and then composited over a
different background.
Original image
The foreground composited over a
new background
To uncomposite the foreground image from the background:
1. Drag the clip that you want to use to the timeline and switch to the
Compositing layout.
2. If the matte is available as an separate clip, you will need to combine it
with the color channels using the Uncomposite with Bgnd effect. To do
this, add the matte clip to the tree and connect using a Key Combiner Luma effect.
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3. Add the original background to the Effects Tree.
4. Add the Uncomposite From Bgnd effect and connect as shown here:
The result is shown in the viewer.
The foreground image is
now uncomposited from
the gradient background
5. Add a new background image to the Effects Tree.
6. To composite the foreground image on the new background, add the Over
effect in the Tree Effects\Blending Operations folder.
The result is shown in the viewer.
Combining Separate RGB and Alpha Channels
You can combine separate RGB channels of an image with an alpha channel
that was created from the channels of another image. The Key Combiner
(Alpha or Luma) effect is useful for this operation when you:
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Using the Effects Tree to Composite
•
Want to use an external matte as a clip’s alpha channel, or
•
Produce a logo or text in another application in which the RGB and alpha
channels have been exported separately and you want to combine them in
Avid DS Nitris.
When applied as a clip or track effect, only the RGB input is used. The Key
Combiner effect is useful when you want to invert an image’s alpha channel or
fill the alpha channel so that it’s opaque. Filling the alpha channel reduces
processing time and disk space.
n
With Avid DS Nitris Editor, you can apply this effect as a tree effect, however,
you will not be able to view the nodes within the Effects Tree.
To combine separate RGB and alpha channels:
1. Create an Effects Tree on a layer.
2. Add the image that you want to use as the alpha channel’s source.
3. Add the image that contains the RGB channels that you want to combine
with an alpha channel.
RGB
Key
Combiner
RGB image (Input 1)
Alpha
Key Combiner result
(RGBA image)
RGBA image (Input 2)
4. Add the Key Combiner effect to the tree and connect it as shown here:
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Chapter 2 Using Effects Trees
Background image
Composited result
RGB
Alpha
Key Combiner
result
The RGB image is combined with the alpha channel. You can apply more
effects to the RGBA image or composite it over another image as shown
in this example.
5. Open the Key Combiner - Luma property editor.
n
If you use the Key Combiner effect as an input to a Composite node and the
output does not display the results you expect, change the input’s
premultiplication setting in the Composite property editor. For more
information, see “Changing the Premultiplication Setting” on page 59.
6. On the Alpha property page, map the output image’s alpha channel to one
of the following: alpha, luma, red, green, fill or clear.
7. On the Masking property page, select an option if you want the Key
Combiner to use a mask. You can also set the Mix Parameter to blend the
result of the effect with the original input or a color.
8. In the Options property page, select the appropriate options.
9. Click OK to begin processing.
10. A progress indicator appears on the bottom of the desktop to show the
status of the process.
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Using the Effects Tree to Composite
Unpremultiplying with Color in the Effects Tree
Often you will use clips that have been created in other applications such as
Adobe Photoshop or Adobe After Effects. If the captured clip consists of a
foreground image (and its matte in the alpha channel), which has been
composited and premultiplied with a color background, you can apply the
Unpremultiply with Color effect.
It recovers the original foreground image colors, especially in the semitransparent and motion blur regions, keys out the background color and
premultiplies it with a black background color, so you can use the clip for
other compositing operations.
For more information on premultiplication, see “Compositing with
Premultiplied Images” on page 55.
To unpremultiply with color in the Effects Tree:
1. Drag the background clip to the timeline and switch to the Compositing
layout.
2. Add the foreground clip to the Effects Tree. If you are using an external
matte, add the matte clip and connect both clips to a Key Combiner effect
node.
3. Add a Composite effect node and connect as shown here:
The composited result is displayed in the viewer. You’ll notice that dark
areas appear around the edges of the text containing the colors from the
original background. When you view the matte, you will notice the
softness around its edges.
4. Double-click the Composite node to open its property editor.
5. Select the foreground image and click its Solo button. This will enable
you to work with the Unpremultiply with Color effect on the foreground
image displayed in the viewer.
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6. Add the Unpremultiply with Color effect between the foreground image
and the Composite effect node.
7. Double-click the Unpremultiply with Color effect.
The Unpremultiply with Color property editor is displayed.
8. From the Effects List, select Original Color.
The Original Color property editor is displayed.
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Using the Effects Tree to Composite
9. Click Color Picker.
The cursor changes to the eyedropper cursor.
10. In the viewer, select the color that you want to remove and replace with
black.
11. In the Composite property editor, click the Solo button of the foreground
image off to see the result.
Compositing Multiple Mattes
The Matte Composite effect lets you composite multiple mattes together.
These mattes are combined in the order in which they appear using various
matte compositing operations.
You can use the R, G, B or alpha channel from an image or effect as the inputs
to the Matte Composite effect. In the example below, two RGB images are
composited together using the Matte Composite effect. The alpha output of
this effect is then combined with the RGB channels of the sky using the Key
Combiner effect, and then composited over the car image.
You can also choose to use a separate matte as a mask for the composited
mattes. The Matte Composite effect behaves in the same manner as when you
apply an external matte to a layer. For more information, see “Using External
Mattes in the Timeline and Layers View” on page 44.
n
With Avid DS Nitris Editor, you can apply this effect as a tree effect, however,
you will not be able to view the nodes within the Effects Tree.
The following example shows you how external mattes are added to an
Effects Tree.
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Chapter 2 Using Effects Trees
External
mattes
(input from
timeline
tracks)
Input external mattes using Matte Composite effect
External mattes added to layer
To composite multiple mattes:
1. Apply the Matte Composite effect to an Effects Tree.
The effect’s node is added to the tree.
2. Add the images that you want to use as mattes to the Effects Tree.
Each image is displayed as an input node in the tree.
3. Connect each input to the Matte Composite node.
4. On the General property page, select the channel that you want to use in
the composite, as well as the matte compositing operation you want to
apply between each input. The default operation is Min. You can also use
an invert of the RGB or alpha channels.
5. On the Masking property page, select one of the following from the Mask
box:
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None to not use any external matte.
Using the Effects Tree to Composite
-
Alpha to use the alpha channel from the background (input 1). The
composited mattes are applied using the alpha channel from the
background as a mask.
-
Mask Input to use the matte from an external source when you
connect it to the Mask Input of an effect in the Effects Tree. The
composited mattes are applied using the matte from another image or
effect.
You can also use the alpha, the luminance of the RGB, the separate red,
green, or blue channels, or an invert of any of these as the input for the
external matte.
6. On the Options property page, select the appropriate options.
7. Connect the output of the Matte Composite effect to the input of another
image or effect.
Click the Help button for detailed information on the Processing options.
Applying Blending Operations in the Effects Tree
The Composite effect node lets you apply blending operations between input
images.
By default, the blending operations are set to Over and the result is displayed
in the Output area. You can apply the operations independently on the RGB
and alpha components of each input.
Most operations that you select for the RGB channels are automatically
applied to the alpha channel. You can, however, change the alpha operation
separately. These operations are the same as those found on each layer.
For more information, see “Interlayer Alpha Menu and Interlayer RGB Menu”
in the Help.
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Chapter 2 Using Effects Trees
Output area
Blending operations for
RGB and alpha channels.
To apply blending operations in the Effects Tree do one of the following:
t
Right-click the RGB or alpha operator between the two layers on which
you want to apply the operation, and select an operator from the menu.
The results of the composite is displayed in the Output area.
t
From the \Tree Effects\Blending Operations folder, drag a blending
operation preset to the Effects Tree.
The blending operation is automatically applied between the layer, and the
result is displayed in the Output area.
n
112
You can use the alpha or luma in the foreground image to mask the blending
operation against the background. Select Use Alpha as Mask or Use Luma as
Mask from the Interlayer RGB menu.
Using the Effects Tree to Composite
Blending operation in the Effects Tree
Result in the
Output area
Blending operation
automatically applied
Mapping Luminance Variations between Clips
The flicker effect lets you map the variations in the luminance of one clip to
another clip. This effect is useful if, for example, you have a background clip
with flickering fire and you want to composite another clip (a man) on top that
doesn’t have the flickering. You can map the luminance variations from the
fire to the man.
n
With Avid DS Nitris Editor, you can apply this effect as a tree effect, however,
you will not be able to view the nodes within the Effects Tree.
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Chapter 2 Using Effects Trees
Original
Luminance in face changes to
match luminance in fire
To use the Flicker effect:
1. Place the clip you want to use as a reference on the timeline. This is the
clip (fire) whose luminance values you want to map to another clip.
2. Create a composite container clip.
The Compositing layout is displayed.
3. Click the layer to display the Effects Tree.
4. From the Avid Explorer, drag the clip (man) to which you want to apply
the luminance values to the Effects Tree.
The clip is added as an input node in the Effects Tree.
5. Add the Flicker and Composite effects to the Effects Tree.
6. Connect the nodes as follows:
7. Double-click the Flicker node.
The Flicker property editor is displayed and a small selection rectangle
(the luminance box) is displayed in the viewer. Since you want to map the
luminance values of the background clip to the man clip, only the
background clip is displayed. To view the man clip separately, deselect the
Output Reference option.
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Using the Effects Tree to Composite
8. On the Black property page, position the luminance box over an area
containing the level of black to which you want to choose as a reference.
n
Tip: You can also draw a new luminance box in the viewer by clicking in the
viewer and dragging over an area.
9. Click Set as Reference Frame.
The black luminance is set and the property editor displays the reference
luminance swatch, as well as the timecode for the chosen frame.
10. Verify each frame in the clip to determine if the luminance box is in the
correct position. If the area you set for the reference frame moves from
frame to frame, you need to move the luminance box in each frame so that
it covers the same area.
11. Set a keyframe on the frames on which you reposition the luminance box.
12. Repeat steps 8 to 11 for the White property page, if required.
13. On the Masking property page, select the channels on which you want to
apply the effect. The effect is applied only to areas of the image where the
alpha channel is not black. You can derive masks from the alpha of the
input clip or an external matte from another clip.
14. On the Options property page, select the appropriate options.
Click the Help button for detailed information on the Processing options.
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Chapter 2 Using Effects Trees
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Chapter 3
Keying
Keying lets you combine a foreground image over a background image using a
matte. This chapter describes how to use Avid DS Nitris keyers.
About Keying
Applying the keyer as a clip or track effect on a video track lets you composite
clip over another clip on a background track underneath it. Applying the keyer
to layers or trees lets you create a more complex composite, such as multiple
keys on multiple layers. When keying, you can use a matte that is already
combined with the foreground image, or create your own using any of the
Avid DS Nitris keyers. You can create a key based on HSL, YCbCr, or RGB
color values or on luminance values.
Chapter 3 Keying
Using the Blue-Green Keyer
The Blue-Green Keyer effect lets you create a matte based on a blue or green
background color. Once the matte is created, you can composite the clip over
another one. If you want to key out a background color other than blue or
green, use the HSL or Chroma keyer.
The following example shows you how a matte is created for a woman who is
filmed against a green screen and composited over a medieval glowing
background.
Creating a Basic Matte
Once you apply the keyer, you can create a basic matte and then fine-tune it
using the Blue-Green Keyer property editor.
To create a basic matte:
1. Apply the Blue-Green Keyer effect to a clip, track, or layer, or in an
Effects Tree.
The Blue-Green Keyer property editor is displayed.
2. On the Key property page, select the Keep Original Alpha option if your
image has an existing matte that you want to keep.
3. Right-click the viewer and select Comparison Buffer > Use
Comparison Buffer or press Alt+1 (one). Using the comparison buffer,
you can view a snapshot of the image as it is currently and then compare
the results to the key as it progresses—see “Using the Comparison
Buffer” on page 968 of the Avid DS Nitris Editing Guide.
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Using the Blue-Green Keyer
4. Right-click the viewer and select Comparison Buffer > Grab or
press Alt+2.
5. Resize the comparison buffer, so you can view the edge of the lady’s
dress.
The image is saved. This lets you view the current image with an image
later in the key process.
6. Press Alt+1 to turn off the comparison buffer for now.
7. Click Pick Key Color.
The cursor changes to the eyedropper cursor when you move it over
the viewer.
Pick cursor
8. In the viewer, click the color that you want to key out.
A matte based on the selected color is created. This color is displayed in
the color swatch beside the Pick Key Color button.
9. Click the Output Matte button to see the initial matte created by the
keyer.
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Chapter 3 Keying
10. On the Options property page, select the appropriate options.
Click the Help button for detailed information on the Processing options.
Fine-tuning the Matte
The Blue-Green Keyer property editor contains several property pages from
which you can fine-tune your matte, crop the image, create a garbage matte,
track the garbage matte, create a spill matte, and apply spill correction.
To fine-tune the matte:
1. In the Blue-Green Keyer property editor, select the Key tab.
2. Adjust the Cleanup controls to increase or decrease the threshold between
the foreground and background. Higher values remove more foreground.
3. Adjust the Foreground Presence controls. Higher values remove
semitransparency from the foreground image.
Semitransparent areas
are removed.
4. On the Matte property page, select the Output Matte option to display
the matte in the viewer.
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Using the Blue-Green Keyer
Since all the changes you make are applied to the matte and not the RGB
channels, you should display the matte while you work.
5. Adjust the opaque and transparent areas of the matte by doing the
following:
t
Click the Pick BG button and then click the background areas of the
matte in the viewer.
Semitransparent areas of the background become transparent. You
can continue clicking the viewer to force more areas to become
transparent.
t
Click the Pick FG button and then click the foreground areas of the
matte in the viewer.
Semitransparent areas of the foreground become opaque. You can
continue clicking in the viewer to force more areas to become opaque.
Many times it is necessary to switch between picking the foreground
and background, so some areas that should be transparent don’t
become opaque and opaque areas don’t become transparent.
n
Tip: Use the sliders to adjust semitransparent areas making them transparent
or opaque.
6. Deselect the Output Matte option to view the progression of the key.
7. Press Alt+1 to turn on the comparison buffer.
Now you can see the edges and compare them to the original image. As
you can see, there’s some softness around the edges that need to be
removed.
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Chapter 3 Keying
8. In the Size box, click the Apply button.
9. Shrink the size of the matte until there is no more green around the edge
of the lady’s dress.
10. Turn off the comparison buffer.
11. On the Shapes property page, select the Output Matte option.
12. Use the graphics tools on this property page to create a garbage matte.
You can also apply a blur to the shape, or fill the inside or outside of the
shape. In this example, two rectangles were drawn with Fill Inside set to 0.
These rectangles cover the garbage on both sides of the lady. You can also
animate the shapes on this property page if the garbage matte obscures
your image at any point.
13. If the image moves or scales, you may need to animate the shapes in the
garbage matte. You can do this by tracking the shapes to the object or
other objects—see “Using the Shape Tracker” on page 251.
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Using the Blue-Green Keyer
Creating a Spill Matte
The spill matte is derived from a selected key color. Any areas of the
foreground image that contain black or gray are replaced by the spill replace
color. For example, if an area has black, then 100% spill replace color is
applied. If an area has 50% gray, then 50% spill replace color is applied.
To create a spill matte:
1. In the Blue-Green Keyer property editor, select the Spill Matte 1 tab.
2. Make sure the Apply option is selected (by default it is selected) to apply
the spill matte to the image.
3. Select the Output Spill Matte option to view the spill matte.
n
Make sure that the Output Matte option is deselected on the Matte property
page or you won’t see the spill matte.
4. Use the Softness and Threshold controls to adjust the spill matte.
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Chapter 3 Keying
The Softness slider adjusts the range between transparent and opaque
areas of the spill matte. The Threshold slider adjusts the spill correction
area.
5. On the Spill Matte 2 property page, use the controls to further adjust
the matte.
6. On the Spill Replace property page, use the controls to adjust the amount
and hue of spill color in an image’s RGB channels.
7. Deselect the Output Spill Matte option to see how the image is
composited and to view the spill.
In this example, there is green spill around the edges of the woman, as
well as in her dress.
Green spill
Enlarged area
showing spill.
8. To select a hue to replace the spill hue, do one of the following:
t
Click the Pick Hue button and click a color in the viewer.
t
Drag the color selector in the color wheel to the hue and saturation
that will replace the current spill hue and saturation.
9. Fine-tune the replacement color using the Hue and Saturation controls.
10. Use the Luma Gain controls to multiply the original luminance by the
value you select. A value of 100 represents the original luminance.
11. Use the Luma Brightness controls to add to the original luminance by the
value you select. A value of 0 represents the original luminance.
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Spill Subtraction
Spill Subtraction
After keying out a color background with any Keyer effect, a colored fringe
may remain around the foreground image. To quickly remove this “leftover”,
you can apply the Spill Subtract effect. It lets you “subtract” the contribution
of the background color from the spill areas to recover the original foreground
color once an initial key matte has been extracted.
Note the following:
•
You can only use the Spill Subtract effect directly after applying a Keyer
effect and if there are unwanted artifacts around the foreground image.
•
The clip on which you are applying the Spill Subtract effect must have a
matte; an internal or external matte.
•
You cannot use the Spill Subtract effect if Spill Correction or Spill
Replacement stages have already been applied. If any of the color
channels of the foreground image have been manipulated with other
techniques, you will not achieve the best results.
•
If you are working with a Blue-Green Keyer or Chroma Keyer effect,
make sure that the Apply option in the Spill Replace property page and
the Force Premultiplied option in the Matte property page are not
selected.
The following example shows you how the Spill Subtract effect is applied on
the timeline and Effects Tree to remove the green area left behind after a BlueGreen Keyer is applied to the foreground image.
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Chapter 3 Keying
Applying a Spill Subtract on the Timeline
You can apply the Spill Subtract as a clip, track, or timeline effect.
To apply the Spill Subtract effect on the timeline:
1. On the timeline, select the foreground clip on which a Keyer effect has
been applied.
2. From the toolbar, select Video Effects > Spill Subtract.
The Spill Subtract effect is applied on top of the Keyer effect and its
property editor is displayed.
3. Click the track’s Solo button to only view the foreground image.
4. From the Effect’s List, select Original Color.
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Spill Subtraction
The Original Color property editor is displayed.
5. Click Color Picker.
The cursor changes to the eyedropper cursor.
6. In the viewer, select the color that you want to subtract. This color is the
original background color you picked to generate the initial key matte.
7. Click the track’s Solo button off to see the result in the viewer.
Applying a Spill Subtract in the Effects Tree
You can apply the Spill Subtract effect as an effect node in the Effects Tree.
To apply a Spill Subtract effect in the Effects Tree:
1. On the timeline, select the clip to be used as the background image.
2. From the taskbar, click the Compositing button.
A composite container clip is created from the clip, which is placed in the
Layers view.
3. From the Avid Explorer, select the foreground clip and drag it to the
Effects Tree.
4. From the \Tree Effects folder, add the Composite effect and composite the
foreground over the background image.
5. Apply the Blue-Green Keyer effect to key out the background color.
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Chapter 3 Keying
6. From the \Image Effects folder, add the Spill Subtract effect and connect
after the Blue-Green Keyer effect as shown here:
7. Double-click the Spill Subtract effect to open its property editor.
8. Do one of the following:
t
Click the track’s Solo button in the timeline to only view the
foreground image
t
Open the Composite property editor, select the foreground image, and
click its Solo button.
9. From the Effect’s List, select Original Color.
The Original Color property editor is displayed.
10. Click Color Picker.
The cursor changes to the eyedropper cursor.
11. In the viewer, select the color that you want to subtract.
12. Deselect the Solo button to see the result in the viewer.
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Using the Chroma Keyer
Using the Chroma Keyer
The Chroma Keyer effect lets you create a matte based on color. If you want to
create a matte based on a blue or green background color, use the Blue-Green
Keyer effect.
In the following example, the Chroma Keyer effect was used to create a matte,
which in turn was used to change the color of the sky from bright blue to aqua
using the Color Correction effect.
Before
After
Creating a Basic Matte
Once you apply the keyer, you can create a basic matte and then fine-tune it
using the Chroma Keyer property editor.
To create a basic matte:
1. Apply the Chroma Keyer effect to a clip, track, layer, or tree.
The Chroma Keyer property editor is displayed.
2. On the Key property page, select the Keep Original Alpha option if your
image has an existing matte that you want to keep.
3. Click the Pick Key Color button.
4. In the viewer, click the color that you want to key out.
A matte based on the selected color is created. This color is displayed in
the color swatch beside the Pick Key Color button.
5. Click the Output Matte button to see the matte.
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Chapter 3 Keying
Since all changes you make are applied to the matte and not the RGB
channels, you should display the matte while you work.
6. On the Masking property page, specify whether you’re using a mask for
the effect or not. By default, the effect is applied to the RGB and alpha
channels. You can derive masks from the alpha of the input clip or an
external matte from another clip.
7. On the Options property page, select the appropriate options.
Click the Help button for detailed information on the Processing options.
Fine-tuning the Matte
The Chroma Keyer property editor contains several property pages from
which you can fine-tune your matte, crop the image, create a garbage matte,
track the garbage matte, create a spill matte, and apply spill correction.
To fine-tune the matte:
1. In the Chroma Keyer property editor, select the Key tab.
2. From the Tune box, adjust the Chroma Tolerance controls. Lower values
add more foreground; higher values remove more foreground.
3. Adjust the Gain and Lift controls. Gain lets you add more opacity to the
matte, and Lift adds more transparency to the matte.
4. On the Matte property page adjust the opaque and transparent areas of the
matte by doing one of the following:
t
130
Click Pick BG or Pick FG, and then click background and
foreground areas of the matte in the viewer.
Using the Chroma Keyer
t
Use the controls to adjust semitransparent areas, making them
transparent or opaque.
5. Use the Size controls to increase or decrease the size of the matte.
6. Use the Blur controls to adjust the softness of the blur and the degree to
which it is applied to your matte.
n
Tip: If you want to force the outgoing image to be premultiplied, select the
Force Premultiplied option. This option is useful when you need to touch up
an existing premultiplied image’s alpha channel and keep the image
premultiplied, or when you want to see the results of the keyer effect without
first compositing it.
7. On the Crop property page, use the controls to crop the image from the
top, bottom, left, or right edges. The crop is applied to the R, G, B, and
alpha components.
8. On the Shapes property page, use the graphics tools to create a garbage
matte. You can also apply a blur to the shape, or fill the inside or outside
of the shape.
n
Tip: If the image moves or scales, you may need to animate the shapes in the
garbage matte. You can do this by tracking the shapes to the object or other
objects. For more information, see “Using the Shape Tracker” on page 251.
9. On the Matte property page, select the Invert Matte option.
Since the sky requires color correcting, you need to invert the matte.
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Chapter 3 Keying
Creating a Spill Matte
The spill matte is derived from a selected key color. Any areas of the
foreground image that contain black or gray are replaced by the spill replace
color. For example, if an area has black, then 100% spill replace color is
applied. If an area has 50% gray, then 50% spill replace color is applied.
To create a spill matte:
1. In the Chroma Keyer property editor, select the Matte tab.
2. Deselect the Output Matte option.
To see the spill matte, you must turn off the matte.
3. On the Spill Matte 1 property page, select the Apply option (by default it
is selected) to apply the spill matte to the image.
4. Select the Output Spill Matte option to view the spill matte.
The spill matte is derived from the selected key color. Any areas of the
foreground image that contain black or gray will be replaced by the spill
replace color. For example, if an area has black, then 100% spill replace
color is applied. If an area has 50% gray, then 50% spill replace color is
applied.
5. From the Tune box, adjust the Chroma Tolerance controls. Lower values
add more foreground; higher values remove more foreground.
6. Adjust the Gain and Lift controls. Gain lets you add more opacity to the
matte, while Lift adds more transparency to the matte.
7. On the Spill Matte 2 property page, adjust the following controls to finetune the spill matte:
-
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Map to apply post-process mapping to the spill matte, so that the
semitransparent areas fully opaque or fully transparent.
Using the Chroma Keyer
-
Size to increase or decrease the size of the matte.
-
Blur to apply a post-process blur to the spill matte.
8. Deselect the Output Spill Matte option.
Since the next steps are to adjust the amount and hue of spill color, you
need to view the RGB channels.
9. On the Spill Replace property page, use the controls to adjust the amount
and hue of spill color in an image’s RGB channels. To select a hue to
replace the spill hue, do one of the following:
t
Click the Pick Hue button and select a color from the viewer.
t
Drag the color selector in the color wheel to the hue and saturation
that will replace the current spill hue and saturation.
10. Fine-tune the replacement color using the Hue and Saturation controls.
11. Adjust the Luma Gain controls to multiply the original luminance by the
value you select. A value of 100 represents the original luminance.
12. Adjust the Luma Brightness controls to add to the original luminance by
the value you select. A value of 0 represents the original luminance.
To color correct the sky:
1. Deselect the Output Spill Matte option, so you can view the changes you
make to the RGB channels.
2. Apply a color correction effect on top of the Chroma Keyer effect.
The Color Correction property editor is displayed.
3. On the Masking property page, do the following:
t
In the Mask box, click the Alpha button.
t
In the Process box, make sure that the R, G, and B options are
selected.
The effect is applied only to areas of the image where the alpha channel is
not black. If the matte is not adjusted properly, you can go back to the
Chroma Keyer effect and adjust it further.
4. On the Basic property page, adjust the Hue to select a new color for the
sky.
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Chapter 3 Keying
Using the Difference Keyer Effect
The Difference Keyer effect lets you create a matte based on the difference
between the foreground and reference clips. The foreground clip contains an
image that you want to isolate, while the reference clip contains a background
similar to the foreground clip. When you apply the Difference Keyer effect,
only the isolated image in the clip is retained.
When you apply the Difference Keyer as a layer effect, you must first set up
the composite by placing the clips on tracks and layers. Once you set up the
composite, you can apply the Difference Keyer effect to the foreground clip
and then create a basic matte. You can fine-tune the matte using the Difference
Keyer property editor.
In an Effects Tree, you connect the foreground and reference clips to the
Difference Keyer node, and then use a Composite node to composite the
output of the Difference Keyer node with the background clip.
The property editor has the same property pages as when you apply the
Difference Keyer to a layer, but without the Reference property page. This is
because the Difference Keyer node has two inputs, so the Reference property
page isn’t required. It contains several pages from which you can fine-tune
your matte. You can, for example, fine-tune the key by adjusting the Spill
Correction and Pre-blur values. You can also apply a post-process blur and
adjust the matte's function curve values.
In the following examples, the Difference Keyer effect is used to create a
matte for the hands, so that they can be composited over the flowers
background.
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Using the Difference Keyer Effect
Applying the Difference Keyer on Layers
In this example, the Difference Keyer was used to create a matte for the hands
by applying the effect on a layer.
To apply the Difference Keyer effect on layers:
1. On the timeline, select the clip to used as the background image.
2. From the taskbar, click the Compositing button.
A composite container clip is created from the clip, which is placed in the
Layers view.
3. Drag the clip to be used as your foreground clip from the Avid Explorer to
an empty area of the Layers view.
A track on the timeline and a layer in the Layers view is created for
the clip.
4. From the Avid Explorer, right-drag the clip to be used as your reference
clip to the timeline ribbon.
The clip on the timeline is placed above the foreground clip without
adding it as a layer.
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Chapter 3 Keying
5. In the Layers view, select the foreground layer and click Key.
The Blue-Green Keyer property editor is displayed by default.
6. Click the Load Preset button.
7. From the Load Preset dialog box, select the Difference Keyer from the
\Keyer folder.
8. Select the Reference property page.
9. From the timeline, drag the track that contains the reference clip to the
reference thumbnail.
The reference clip is displayed in the reference thumbnail. The Difference
keyer computes the difference between the reference clip and the selected
layer, and creates a matte on the layer.
Composite after the
Difference Keyer effect
is applied.
Reference clip in
reference thumbnail.
Background clip
Foreground clip
Reference clip
10. Fine tune the matte further to create the results you want—see “Finetuning the Matte” on page 139.
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Using the Difference Keyer Effect
Applying the Difference Keyer to an Effects Tree
In this example, the Difference Keyer was used to create a matte for the hands
by applying the effect to an Effects Tree.
To apply the Difference Keyer effect to an Effects Tree:
1. On the timeline, select the clip to used as the background image.
2. From the taskbar, click the Compositing button.
A composite container clip is created from the clip, which is placed in the
Layers view.
3. Click the layer to make sure it’s active.
The Effects Tree for the layer also becomes active.
4. In the Avid Explorer, press Ctrl and click the clips to be used as your
foreground and reference clips, and drag them to an empty area of the
Effects Tree view.
Tracks on the timeline and nodes in the Effects Tree view are created for
the clips.
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Chapter 3 Keying
Foreground clip
Reference clip
5. Right-click an empty area of the Effects Tree view and select Add Effect.
The Load Preset dialog box is displayed.
6. From the \Keyer Effects folder, select the Difference Keyer effect.
The effect is added as a node in the Effects Tree view.
7. Connect the foreground clip to Input 1 on the Difference Keyer node, and
the reference clip to Input 2.
8. Add a Composite node, located in the \Tree Effects folder, to the tree and
connect the nodes as follows:
The Difference Keyer effect computes the difference between the
reference clip and the selected layer, and creates a matte on the layer.
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Using the Difference Keyer Effect
Fine-tuning the Matte
The Difference Keyer property editor contains several property pages from
which you can fine-tune your matte, crop the image, create a garbage matte,
track the garbage matte, create a spill matte, and apply spill correction.
To fine-tune the matte:
1. In the Difference Keyer property editor, select the General tab.
2. Select the Keep Original Alpha option if your image has an existing
matte that you want to preserve.
3. Select the Output Matte option to output the matte as an RGB image.
This option also lets you switch the viewer’s display between the matte
and the RGB channels.
4. From the Pre-blur box, select the Apply option and use the controls to
adjust the amount of blur to be applied. By default, a Fast (uniform) blur is
applied. This type of blur decreases the amount of time required to
process the effect.
n
When you use the Pre-blur controls on the General property page, make sure
the Same as Processing option on the Options property page is selected. This
will ensure that the pre-blur is applied to individual fields.
5. On the Map property page, make sure the Apply option is selected, so that
changes are applied to the matte.
6. Adjust the opaque and transparent areas of the matte by doing one of
the following:
t
Adjust the Clip Low and Clip High controls.
Clip Low forces semitransparent areas of the background to become
more transparent. Clip High forces semitransparent areas of the
foreground to become more opaque.
t
Click Force (Opaque or Transparent) and select an alpha value
from the viewer.
7. Adjust the function curve further by interactively manipulating it on the
function curve graph.
8. On the Matte property page, select the Apply options from the Blur box to
apply a blur to the matte.
9. Use the Radius and Amount controls to adjust the blur.
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Chapter 3 Keying
10. From the Size box, select the Apply option to apply the Shrink/Grow
effect to the matte.
n
When you use the Size controls on the Matte property page, make sure the
Same as Processing option on the Options property page is selected. This will
ensure that the shrink/grow effect is applied to individual fields.
11. Use the Shrink/Grow controls to adjust the size of the matte.
12. Deselect the Output Matte option.
Since you will work on the spill color correction, you no longer need to
see the matte.
13. On the Spill property page, click Pick Spill Color, then select the spill
color in the viewer.
14. To select a hue to replace the spill hue, do one of the following:
t
Click Pick Replace Hue and click a color in the viewer.
t
Drag the color selector in the color wheel to the hue and saturation
that will replace the current spill hue and saturation.
15. Fine-tune the replacement color using the Hue and Saturation controls.
16. Use the Luminance Offset and Threshold controls to add or subtract
luminance to or from the original luminance value and to adjust the spill
correction area.
17. Use the Softness controls to create a softer transition between the
replacement color and adjacent colors in the RGB image.
n
Spill correction in the Difference Keyer is only effective if you are keying out
blue or green screen shots.
18. On the Masking property page, specify whether you’re using a mask for
the effect or not. By default, the effect is applied to the RGB and alpha
channels. You can derive masks from the alpha of the input clip or an
external matte from another clip.
19. On the Options Property page, select the appropriate options.
Click the Help button for detailed information on the Processing options.
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Using the HSL Keyer Effect
Using the HSL Keyer Effect
The HSL Keyer effect lets you create a matte based on the hue, saturation, and
luminance (HSL) values of an image. Once the matte is created, you can
composite the clip over another one. You can also use the HSL Keyer effect to
key out specific areas of an image.
Creating a Basic Key
Once you apply the HSL Keyer effect to a clip, track, layer or tree, you can
create a basic key and then fine-tune it. Regardless of how you applied the
keyer, the steps required to create a key are the same. However, if you applied
the keyer using a graphics effect, you’ll need to perform a few preliminary
steps before you can create the key.
To create a basic key:
1. Apply the HSL Keyer effect to a clip, track, layer, or Effects Tree.
The HSL Keyer property editor is displayed.
2. In the viewer, press Shift and drag over the portion of the image that you
want to key out.
The specified color range is removed from the image.
Selecting an area to be keyed.
Use the following shortcuts when keying out mattes:
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Chapter 3 Keying
To
Do this
Select pixels
Click and drag
Make a rectangular selection
Hold down Shift and drag
Select the pixels in roll area (fall-off regions)
Hold down Ctrl and drag
You can also enter values in the HSL Keyer property editor.
3. View the output of the matte by right-clicking the viewer and selecting
Alpha Component.
n
Tip: Select the 75% transparency to view both the matte and the image as you
extract color ranges. If you applied the keyer on a video track, be sure to solo
the track, so you only see the output of the matte for the keyer.
4. Continue making rectangular selections over areas that are still
not transparent.
Each time you drag over the color to be keyed, the current frame is
processed and the viewer immediately displays the results.
5. To view the final matte, right-click the viewer and select
Alpha Component > Matte.
The resulting matte is shown in the viewer.
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Using the HSL Keyer Effect
6. To display the RGB image, turn off the alpha component by right-clicking
the viewer again and select Alpha Component > Off.
You can now see any underlying layers in the composite.
n
Tip: If you applied the keyer on a video track, be sure to deselect the Solo
button on the track.
Fine-tuning the Key
The HSL Keyer property editor contains several property pages from which
you can fine-tune your matte, crop the image, create a garbage matte, track the
garbage matte, create a spill matte, and apply spill correction.
To fine-tune the key:
1. In the HSL Keyer property editor, select the Matte tab.
2. Select the Apply option from the Blur box to apply a blur to the matte.
3. Use the Radius and Amount controls to adjust the blur.
4. From the Size box, select the Apply option to apply the Shrink/Grow
effect to the matte.
n
Tip: When you use the Size controls on the Matte property page, make sure the
Same as Processing option on the Options property page is selected. This will
ensure that the shrink/grow effect is applied to individual fields.
5. Use the Shrink/Grow controls to adjust the size of the matte.
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Chapter 3 Keying
6. On the Map property page, select the Apply option.
This property page lets you apply post-process mapping to the matte
generated by the HSL keyer. By modifying the function curve, you can
adjust areas of the matte according to their degree of transparency.
7. On the Masking property page, specify whether you’re using a mask for
the effect or not. By default, the effect is applied to the RGB and alpha
channels. You can derive masks from the alpha of the input clip or an
external matte from another clip.
8. On the Options property page, select the appropriate options.
Click the Help button for detailed information on the Processing options.
Using the Linear Luma Keyer Effect
The Linear Luma Keyer effect lets you create a matte based on the luminance
values of an image. If the background you want to key out does not contain
chrominance information but only luminance information (such as white,
blacks and grays), then use the Linear Luma keyer to create the matte. The
Linear Luma keyer is simpler to use and faster than the Luma keyer.
In the following example, the Linear Luma keyer was used to create a matte
for the man on a white background in order to composite him over the
medieval background.
Creating a Basic Key
Once you apply the Linear Luma keyer, you can create a basic key and then
fine-tune it. Whether you applied the keyer to a clip, track, layer, or tree, the
steps required to create a key are the same
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Using the Linear Luma Keyer Effect
To create a basic key:
1. Apply the Linear Luma Keyer effect to a clip, track, layer, or
Effects Tree.
2. On the Key property page, select the Keep Original Alpha option if your
image has an existing matte that you want to preserve.
3. Select the Output Matte option to output the matte as an RGB image.
This option also lets you switch the viewer’s display between the matte
and the RGB channels.
4. Click the Reverse FG/BG button.
Since the key is based on the brightness of the luminance, a white
background produces a high score in the keyer making the alpha white.
You can reverse the foreground and background to create the correct
matte, so the foreground is white and the background is black.
5. Use the Gain and Brightness controls to adjust the matte. The Gain
control lets you add to or remove opacity from areas that are
semitransparent. The Brightness control lets you add brightness to all
areas of the matte.
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Chapter 3 Keying
6. From the Pre-blur box, select the Apply option and use the controls to
adjust the amount of blur to be applied.
By default, a fast uniform (box) blur is applied. This type of blur
decreases the amount of time required to process the effect.
n
When you use the Pre-blur controls on the General property page, make sure
the Same as Processing option on the Options property page is selected. This
will ensure that the pre-blur is applied to individual fields.
Fine-tuning the Matte
The Linear Luma Keyer property editor contains several property pages from
which you can fine-tune your matte, crop the image, create a garbage matte,
track the garbage matte, create a spill matte, and apply spill correction.
To fine-tune the matte:
1. From the Linear Luma Keyer property editor, select the Matte tab.
2. Adjust the opaque and transparent areas of the matte by doing one of
the following:
t
Click Pick BG or Pick FG, and then click the background and
foreground areas of the matte in the viewer.
t
Use the sliders to adjust semitransparent areas, making them
transparent or opaque.
3. Use the Size controls to increase or decrease the size of the matte.
n
When you use the Size controls on the Matte property page, make sure the
Same as Processing option on the Options property page is selected. This will
ensure that the shrink/grow effect is applied to individual fields.
4. Use the Blur controls to adjust the softness of the blur and the degree to
which it is applied to your matte.
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Using the Linear Luma Keyer Effect
n
Tip: If you want to force the outgoing image to be premultiplied, select the
Force Premultiplied option. This option is useful when you need to touch up an
existing premultiplied image’s alpha channel and keep the image
premultiplied, or when you want to see the results of the keyer effect without
first compositing it.
5. Use the controls on the Crop and Shapes property pages to crop the matte
or remove garbage from the matte respectively. You can also track shapes
in your garbage matte using the controls on the Tracker property page.
6. Deselect the Output Matte option to view the results of the composite.
7. On the Masking property page, specify whether you’re using a mask for
the effect or not. By default, the effect is applied to the RGB and alpha
channels. You can derive masks from the alpha of the input clip or an
external matte from another clip.
8. On the Options property page, select the appropriate options.
Click the Help button for detailed information on the Processing options.
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Chapter 3 Keying
Using the Luma Keyer Effect
The Luma Keyer effect lets you create a matte based on the luminance values
of an image. Luminance is the portion of a video signal that contains the
brightness (black and white) information. If you want additional control over a
luma key, use the Linear Luma keyer instead of the Luma keyer.
Creating a Basic Matte
Once you apply the Luma Keyer effect, you can create a basic key and then
fine-tune it. Regardless of how you applied the keyer, the steps required to
create a key are the same.
To create a basic matte:
1. Apply the Luma Keyer effect to a clip, track, layer, or Effects Tree.
2. In the viewer, press Shift and drag over the portion of the image that you
want to key out.
The luminance range you selected is removed from the image.
Selecting an area to be keyed.
Use the following shortcuts when keying out mattes:
148
Using the Luma Keyer Effect
To
Do this
Select pixels
Click and drag
Make a rectangular selection
Hold down Shift and drag
Select the pixels in roll area
(fall-off regions)
Click a pixel, press Ctrl, and drag
You can also enter values in the Luma Keyer property editor.
3. View the outline of the matte by right-clicking the viewer and selecting
Alpha Component.
n
Tip: Select the 75% transparency, so that you view both the matte and the
image as you extract color ranges. If your clip is on a video track, solo it
before you view the alpha channel.
4. Continue making rectangular selections over areas that are still not
transparent. Each time you drag over the color to be keyed, the current
frame is processed and the viewer immediately displays the results.
n
Tip: You can zoom in on the viewer to find pixel values that need to be keyed
out.
5. To view the final matte, right-click the viewer and select Alpha
Component > Matte.
The resulting matte is displayed in the viewer.
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Chapter 3 Keying
6. To display the RGB image, turn off the alpha component by right-clicking
the viewer again and selecting Alpha Component > Off.
You can now see any underlying layers in the composite.
n
Tip: If you applied the keyer on a video track, be sure to deselect the Solo
button on the track.
Results of a composite using the luminance keyer effect
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Using the Luma Keyer Effect
Fine-tuning the Matte
The Luma Keyer property editor contains several property pages from which
you can fine-tune your matte, crop the image, create a garbage matte, track the
garbage matte, create a spill matte, and apply spill correction.
To fine-tune the matte:
1. On the Luma Keyer property editor, select the Matte tab.
2. Select the Apply option from the Blur box to apply a blur to the matte.
3. Use the Radius and Amount controls to adjust the blur.
4. From the Size box, select the Apply option to apply the Shrink/Grow
effect to the matte.
n
When you use the Size controls on the Matte property page, make sure the
Same as Processing option on the Options property page is selected. This will
ensure that the shrink/grow effect is applied to individual fields.
5. Use the Shrink/Grow controls to adjust the size of the matte.
6. On the Map property page, modify the function curve to adjust areas of
the matte according to their degree of transparency.
7. On the Masking property page, specify whether you’re using a mask for
the effect or not. By default, the effect is applied to the RGB and alpha
channels. You can derive masks from the alpha of the input clip or an
external matte from another clip.
8. On the Options property page, select the appropriate options.
Click the Help button for detailed information on the Processing options.
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Chapter 4
Color Correcting Images
This chapter introduces you to the concepts of color correction and describes
the different tools that you can use to color correct your images.
Chapter 4 Color Correcting Images
Setting Up the Color Correction Environment
It is important that the environment in which you will be color correcting
images does not affect your perception of color. A proper environment gives
you the tools you need to properly color correct an image. It also provides a
neutral colorscape so that your eye will not mislead and deceive you as you
manipulate color. Remember that although the camera eye does not lie, the
human eye (integrated with the brain) does “lie” all the time. It corrects for
lighting and color qualities created by various types of light, such as
fluorescent lighting, that alter the hue of the visual object.
Your environment should have the following elements:
•
Properly calibrated broadcast monitor: At a bare minimum, the
monitor should be calibrated, so that the setup, gain, chroma, and hue (if
applicable) are properly adjusted. In a professional color correction suite,
additional calibrations are often performed. Most critical to these are
setting the color temperature and normalizing the gray scale of the
monitor.
The color temperature determines the color of gray. The desired color
temperature is 6500 Kelvin, or the color temperature of natural daylight.
Most monitors have a much higher color temperature out of the box and
as a result have a much bluer gray than is desired for color correction.
A normal gray scale implies that the color of gray does not vary across the
gray scale. On most monitors, the color of gray shifts as the image
transitions from black to white, usually getting bluer in bright regions.
Color temperature calibration and normalization require special
measurement equipment that reads the color of gray off the monitor.
154
•
Proper lighting: The lighting in the room should be set to 6500 Kelvin.
(This color temperature is often referred to as D65.) The light should be
on dimmers as bright lighting is undesirable.
•
Neutral gray wall behind the monitor: Since your eyes are sensitive to
any light in the room, the wall should be a neutral color as well. A neutral
gray wall is the best solution, but a white wall is fine as long as bright
lights do not shine directly on it.
Workflow: Color Correcting Images
Workflow: Color Correcting Images
1
2
Apply a Color Correction effect
Set black and white points
Black point
White point
3
Correct tonal and
contrast ranges
Be sure to analyze
the footage before
you begin color
correcting
Use HSL
controls
Use levels
4
Use the Hue Offset tab
to correct hue or color
cast problems
5
Other color correction tasks such as channel blending or matching clips
The Levels property page
is a specialized version of
the HSL controls
Use the Match Color Tool
to retain color consistency
between two or more clips
that are shot in the same
environment
6
Use the Luma, Chroma, or RGB clipping properties on the HSL property
page to make sure that your adjustments are within legal limits
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Chapter 4 Color Correcting Images
Color Correction in Avid DS Nitris
The Avid DS Nitris Color Correction tools let you:
•
Restore or alter the original look of a scene so that it can be more realistic
and well-balanced
•
Correct shots taken in the same environment, so that your scene remains
consistent
•
Fix white or black balance problems that are caused when shooting
•
Create special effects
In Avid DS Nitris, there are two types of color correction effects from which
you can select the one that works best for your project or most suitable for
your working method. You should always define what the overall goals of
your color correcting process.
n
•
Color Correction Classic effect: Provides a very basic Color Correction
toolset. It lets you adjust the various aspects of an image’s color such as
the hue, saturation, contrast, and brightness. You can adjust the color in
each of the user-defined ranges of shadows, highlights, and midtones.
•
Color Correction effect: With a more advanced property page, this effect
offers a broader tool set that allows you to perform additional tasks, such
as color channel blending, analysis of video images using histograms, and
color correction using a match color tool. Most of the procedures in this
chapter use the Color Correction effect.
There are also several preset Color Correction effects in the Color Correction
folder (\Image Effects\Color Corrections) that you can apply to your image.
These include Blue Duotone, Old Photo, and Saturated.
It is important that you always make sure that the clip that you want to color
correct is selected on the timeline or the position indicator is on the clip. Once
you apply the Color Correction effect, you can modify parameters to color
correct your image. The adjustments you make to parameters in the Color
Correction property editor are cumulative and applied on top of parameters on
subsequent property pages.
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Working with Source Effects
Working with Source Effects
It is always a good idea to decide beforehand whether to color correct all your
footage at the source, on an entire sequence, or on a per clip basis. Your
decision depends entirely on your footage. Applying source effects will solve
problems that are present in your source material, such as color
inconsistencies or imbalances, or when you want to achieve a common look
and feel to all your media.
Source effects are not limited to color correction. You can also apply image
effects, such as the noise effect directly at the source to eliminate a visible
scratch on your material.
Source effects should be applied before any sequence dependant processes
such as frame rate conversion, media conversion or mix and match.
There are three levels where you can apply and edit source effects:
•
Tape: It is common to color correct after you have captured your material
from the source tape when you want to maintain color and lighting
consistency on your tape. This may be the case when you have material on
the same tape that was shot at two different locations at the same time of
day.
Color correction or other effect settings at this level will be reflected on
all clips and subclips that derive from the same source tape.
•
Master clips: After you have captured from tape, you can apply source
effects on a master clip. Master clips always reference captured media
files that are located on your storage drives.
Color correction settings on the clip will be inherited by the subclips
created from it.
•
Subclips: You can also apply source effects directly on subclips, which
have been created from master clips.
Remember that subclips do not directly reference the original media and
remain linked to the master clip from which they were created. All
subclips created from a master clip that has a source effect will inherit the
new settings.
Clips on the timeline will have a green icon on the clip indicating that a source
effect has been applied.
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Chapter 4 Color Correcting Images
You can edit effects to the result of the source effect or composite without
applying a certain effect to each clip or subclip created from your source
material. Remember that additional effects on the clip or sequence are
cumulative; it’s similar to working with new clips on the timeline or in the
Effects Tree.
n
Tip: To bypass the applied source effect on a clip, apply a mix. If you set the
mix value to 0 on the portion of the effect that you want, the source effect will
not be applied. For more information, see “Mix Parameter for Effects” in the
Help.
In the Animation Editor, you can add keyframes and bring the curve down to 0
for the area that you want to bypass. For more information, see “Editing
Animation on the Animation Graph” on page 1052 in the Avid DS Nitris
Editing Guide.
Applying and Editing Tape Source Effects
Once you have captured material from tape, you can apply source effects using
any of the following methods:
•
Using the Tape Tool to Apply Source Effects
•
Using the Avid Explorer to Apply Source Effects
•
Applying Tape Source Effects on the Timeline
•
Applying Tape Source Effects in the Effects Layout
Using the Tape Tool to Apply Source Effects
The Tape Tool view lets you see the media on one or more tapes, their
qualities, and the parts of the media that are used in a selected clip or
sequence. For more information, see Tape Tool in the Help.
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Working with Source Effects
To apply and edit source effects on tape using the tape tool:
1. Do one of the following:
t
In the Avid Explorer, click the Tape Tool button.
t
From the Data Management menu, select Media Tool. In the Media
Tool view, click the Tape Tool button
The bottom portion of the view/bin displays a timecode box on the right
side and a timeline on the left.
2. Right-click the gray area as shown below and select Insert Tape Effect.
The Load Preset dialog box appears.
3. Select an effect and enter the settings in its property editor.
n
To bypass source side effects, use the Bypass option in the property editor of
the effect. For more information, see “Bypassing Effects” on page 230 of the
Avid DS Nitris Getting Started Guide.
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Chapter 4 Color Correcting Images
Using the Avid Explorer to Apply Source Effects
All captured material from tape are stored in the folder, within a specific
project, that you selected as the capture target. You can apply source effects at
this level.
To apply and edit tape source effects in the Avid Explorer:
1. In the Avid Explorer, navigate to the folder containing the capture clips
from tape.
2. Right click the clip, select Source Effects > Edit Tape Effect.
3. Do one of the following depending on the task:
t
If you are applying an effect for the first time, select an effect from
the Load Preset dialog box and enter the settings in the effect’s
property editor.
t
If you are editing the source effect, modify the values in the property
editor.
Applying Tape Source Effects on the Timeline
Applying and editing source effects on the timeline is useful when you want to
pre-apply some effects.
To apply and edit tape source effects on the timeline:
1. Drag and drop the clip captured from tape to the timeline.
2. Do one of the following:
t
Right-click the clip and select Source Effects > Edit Tape Effect.
t
From the NLE Toolbar, click Editing and select Source Effects >
Edit Tape Effect.
3. Do one of the following depending on the task:
160
t
If you are applying an effect for the first time, select an effect from
the Load Preset dialog box and enter the settings in the effect’s
property editor.
t
If you are editing the source effect, modify the values in the property
editor.
Working with Source Effects
Applying Tape Source Effects in the Effects Layout
If you are already working in the Effects layout, you can apply at tape source
effect on a clip from the transport controls of the viewer.
Click the Tape Effect
Mode button to apply a
tape source effect on the
selected clip on the
timeline. A green icon
appears on the clip.
You can toggle between the Tape Effect Mode button and the Masterclip
Effect Mode button.
Editing Masterclip and Subclip Source Effects
You can edit the properties or values of the source effects on the master clip or
subclip you are using.
If you make any adjustment on a master clip, subclips created from it will
reflect the changes.
To edit source effects on a master clip or subclip:
1. Do one of the following:
t
In the Avid Explorer, right click the clip, select Source Effects >
Edit Master clip Effect or Edit Subclip Effect
t
Right-click a clip on the timeline, select Source Effects > Edit
Master clip Effect or Edit Subclip Effect
The Load Preset dialog box opens.
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Chapter 4 Color Correcting Images
2. Do one of the following depending on the task:
t
If you are applying an effect for the first time, select an effect from
the Load Preset dialog box and enter the settings in the effect’s
property editor.
t
If you are editing the source effect, modify the values in the property
editor.
Editing Masterclip Source Effects in the Effects Layout
If you are already working in the Effects layout, you can apply at tape source
effect on a clip from the transport controls of the viewer.
Click the Masterclip Effect
Mode button to apply a
tape source effect on the
selected clip on the
timeline. A green icon
appears on the clip.
You can toggle between the Tape Effect Mode button and the Masterclip
Effect Mode button.
Removing Source Effects
You can delete the source effect applied on the tape, master clip or subclip on
the timeline.
To remove source effects on tape:
1. Select the master clip either in the Avid Explorer or on the timeline.
2. Right-click and select Source Effects > Remove Tape Effect.
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Applying a Color Correction Effect
All values that were set to the master clip or subclips created from the
master clip are now removed.
To remove source effects on a master clip or subclip:
1. Select the master clip either in the Avid Explorer or on the timeline.
2. Right-click and select Source Effects > Remove Master clip Effect or
Source Effects > Remove Subclip Effect.
All values that were set to the master clip or subclips created from the
master clip are now removed.
Loading Source Effects
When you edit a source effect, the Color Correction effect property editor
opens by default. However, you can load any effect that you want to use on the
source material.
To load a source effect’s property editor:
1. In the color correction property editor, click the Load Preset button.
2. In the Load Preset dialog box, select an effect.
3. Set the desired values.
Subclips previously created or subclips newly created from this material
will inherit the new values.
Applying a Color Correction Effect
There are several ways that you can apply the Color Correction effects:
•
You can apply both the Color Correction Classic and Color Correction
effects to a clip, track, timeline, or Effects Tree—see “Applying Effects”
on page 200 of the Avid DS Nitris Getting Started Guide.
•
You can add them as effect nodes to the Effects Tree—see “Adding Effect
Nodes to a Tree” on page 79.
From the timeline navigation bar, you can switch to the Color Correction
mode by clicking the Color Correction button.
From the taskbar, click the Effects button. By default, the Color
Correction effect with its large property editor is displayed.
•
•
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Chapter 4 Color Correcting Images
A gray effect bar appears on the timeline indicating that a default Color
Correction effect has been applied. When you edit the values on the Color
Correction property editor, the effect bar automatically changes to light
green.
n
Tip: When working in the Editing and Compositing layouts, Ctrl Click the
Effects button in the taskbar to open a floating Color Correction property
editor. A Color Correction effect is applied on the clip the position indicator is
on.
Setting the Color Correction Mode
When working with the Color Correction effect, you can set the color
correction mode depending on the task at hand.
To set the color correction mode:
1. In the Color Correction property editor, select HSL > Controls > Master.
2. Select a correction mode:
164
-
Normal: Displays the correction in the viewer as expected
-
Preserve Luma: Displays the corrected image where the hue values of
the image are replaced with new output values without distorting the
luminance values
-
Natural Correction: Displays the corrected image where the hue
values of the image are replaced with new output values without
distorting the luminance and saturation in the image
Analyzing Footage
Analyzing Footage
You should always analyze the footage to check that the black and white
points of the image are properly set, for luminance and color problems. This
will help you determine how to proceed with color correcting your images and
whether you need to set the black and white points.
Analyzing Images using Histograms
One of the ways to analyze images is by using the histogram, which provides
an easily understood summary of the color or tonal range (from shadows to
highlights) of an image. It is on the Levels property page of the Color
Correction effect property editor.
% or proportional
number of pixels
Here is an illustration of the properties of the histogram.
White point
controls
Black point
controls
Gray point controls
Dark
Light
Luminance of the pixels
A histogram is a graph of information about the color values of all the pixels
in an image. Color values are plotted on the horizontal axis of the graph; the
percentage or proportional number of pixels is plotted on the vertical axis.
n
Right-click the histogram to turn ON or OFF a filled curve.
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Chapter 4 Color Correcting Images
If an image is mostly dark, the bars of its histogram are concentrated at the low
end. If an image contains only a small number of discrete color values, its
histogram shows discrete spikes for each of those values.
A typical setup in the histogram will show the following values on both the
input and output side (Normalized %):
Black Point
Gray Point
White Point
0
50
100
The black and white point values represent normal safe limits for video
broadcast. Any value below 0 is considered SuperBlack while any value above
100 is considered SuperWhite.
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Analyzing Footage
The following examples illustrate some histogram patterns:
Example 1
This image has large areas that are
very dark and a relatively even
distribution of values in the rest of
the brightness range. The histogram
shows a sharp spike at the very low
end, a concentration of values in the
lowest 25% of the range, and a
relatively even distribution in the rest
of the range.
Example 2
This image, like the last one, has
more dark values than light. But the
distribution of values is less extreme.
This is reflected in the histogram,
which shows a more rounded peak at
the low end, fewer extremely low
values, and relatively more midtone
values.
Example 3
This image has very large highlight
areas in the background and on the
chicks. Most of the rest of the image is
relatively, but not extremely dark. The
histogram shows sharp spikes at the
high end, relative concentration in the
low to middle range, and few values in
the middle to high range.
Once you determine the quality of the color and tonal range of the footage,
then you can begin to color correct it accordingly.
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Chapter 4 Color Correcting Images
Setting Black and White Points of an Image
When analyzing footage, it is important to make sure that the black and white
points are properly set.
Always play the segment you want to adjust and check the following using the
vectorscope or the viewer:
•
The black point is at 7.5IRE for NTSC or 0 mV for PAL.
•
The white point is at 100IRE for NTSC or 700 mV for PAL.
If they are not, then you will need to set the black and white points. Setting the
black point and the white point is often straightforward. Using a vectorscope,
you simply look for what should be the darkest area of the image and adjust
controls until it becomes as dark as possible and then repeat the same process
for the white point of the image.
When capturing DPX files, you can quickly set the black and white points by
adjusting the color values of the output. For more information, see “Capturing
DPX Files” on page 726 of the Avid DS Nitris Capture and Output Guide.
Also see “Linearizing Film-Based Material” on page 177.
Displaying Pixel Information in the Viewer
You can also quickly check the pixel ratios of the darkest and lightest areas of
your image using the viewer properties in Avid DS Nitris by displaying the
pixel information.
To display pixel IRE information in the viewer:
1. Right-click the viewer and select Viewer Properties.
The Viewer Properties dialog box is displayed.
2. Select the Guides tab.
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Analyzing Footage
3. Select Display Pixel Info.
4. Click the Color Space button and select YCC 601 > Y IRE > CC
Normalized (%).
In the viewer, the location (X,Y) coordinates and the RGB IRE color
information of the pixel that the cursor is hovering over.
Here is an example showing the black IRE values of a test pattern in the
viewer:
The black point
reads 7.5IRE
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Chapter 4 Color Correcting Images
Setting the Black and White Points
There are two methods:
-
Using the HSL Controls
-
Using the Levels Controls
The method you choose depends on how you prefer to work.
To set the black and white points using the HSL Controls:
1. Switch to the Effects layout or add a Color Correction effect to access the
Effects layout.
2. Move the position indicator to the segment of the clip you want to correct.
3. Click HSL > Controls > Master.
4. In the Luma box, do the following:
n
-
Black point: Adjust the Brightness control until the waveform or the
pixel ratio in the viewer reads 7.5IRE for NTSC or 0 mV for PAL. To
attain a richer or deeper black, adjust the Setup control in the
Shadows tab
-
White point: Adjust the Gain control until the waveform or the pixel
ratio in the viewer reads 100IRE for NTSC or 700 mV for PAL.
If the black point of the image is already set or does not require any setting,
adjusting the black point using the Brightness control will alter its value.
To set the black and white points using the Levels property page:
1. In the Levels property page, click the Master tab.
2. Use the input histogram to analyze the image.
3. To set the black point, do one of the following:
t
Drag the black slider to the right until you get a good black. The
waveform or the pixel ration reads 7.5IRE for NTSC or 0 mV for
PAL.
t
Type a numerical value in the appropriate text box and press Enter.
4. Set the white point.
5. If you need to, you can adjust the gray slider to get a nice histogram in the
output side—see “Input and Output Adjustments” on page 176 to
understand the relationship between input and output in the Levels page.
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Color Correcting Tonal Ranges in Images
Color Correcting Tonal Ranges in Images
After using the histogram to analyze footage, you may find that an image lacks
a full range or contrast. This problem can be corrected by adjusting the tonal
range to improve sharpness, contrast, and detail. When color correcting the
overall tonal range of an image, either brightening or darkening an image, you
are essentially remapping the highlights and shadows of an image to provide a
new output. A good place to start is by using the HSL controls.
You can also use the Levels property page, which is a more advanced and
specialized version of the HSL controls, to control the highlights and shadows
by defining the white, gray, and black point of an image. One of the
advantages of using Levels property page over the HSL controls is that you
can control the highlights and shadows for a specific color channel (Red,
Green or Blue), the luminance range, and the composite signal.
Be careful when adjusting the highlights and shadows of an image. You
should determine whether:
•
The scene was meant to be shot in either darkness or lightness. In the case
of a shot at sunset, expand the range as much as possible without making
the image unrealistically dark.
•
The contrast and details and a good balance between light (highlights) and
dark (shadows) tones.
You may want to adjust the range of tone or contrast of an image:
•
When it lacks a full range of one color channel or across all color
channels.
•
To deliberately reduce detail in one part of the range.
•
To deliberately expand another part of the range that is more important in
the image.
•
To adjust the gray point in respect to the black and white points in order to
rebalance the midtones without significantly affecting the shadows and
highlights. This is also known as making a gamma correction.
•
Rebalance the color or luma range.
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Chapter 4 Color Correcting Images
Working with the HSL Controls
The HSL controls can be divided into three groups:
n
•
Hue and Saturation controls, which when adjusted do not affect the
luminance of the image.
•
Brightness, Gain, Setup, and Contrast controls, which when adjusted
affect the luminance of the image.
•
The Gamma control, which is applied to the result of the entire image.
You can control the color contrast in the Chroma box. To lock the Luma and
Chroma Contrast sliders so their values are identical, select Lock.
Hue and Saturation
These controls are useful when you want to alter the entire color cast or tint of
the image or the intensity of the colors in the image. In addition to the hue and
saturation controls in the Controls tab, you can specify the hue and saturation
of an image by using the color wheels in the Hue Offset tab. The hue changes
as you move around the wheel, while Saturation increases from the center
Match color
tool
Color chip
Click one of the icons to
switch the color display:
Color Wheel, Vectorscope,
Hue, Saturation, Value.
Hue Offset controls:
Adjusts the tint of an
image.
The Color Wheel: Displays the
entire spectrum of colors. Drag
the color selector to a new color.
If an object of an image that should be a neutral gray appears tinged with
color, you can use the offset to restore the correct gray color.
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Color Correcting Tonal Ranges in Images
You can also use the hue and saturation controls to create a specific look and
feel to your footage. For example. you may want to add a blue tinge to create a
perception of dusk.
n
When experimenting, do use the vectorscope to make sure that you are
working within legal limits.
Gain, Brightness, Setup, and Contrast
Brightness and the Contrast controls always interact with each other, while
Gain and Setup controls work together. If you have made an adjustment using
either the Luma or Chroma Contrast control, you should adjust the luminance
of your image by using the Brightness control. If you have made a Gain
adjustment, use the Setup control to adjust the luma of your image.
n
To customize the luminance ranges for the highlights, midtones, and shadows
of the image, use the curves in the Luma Ranges tab. For more information,
see “Luma Ranges Tab” in the Help.
•
Gain is a multiplication factor and makes adjustments to the luminance of
your image based on a percentage of the original luminance. To
“brighten” or “darken” an image, you may choose to use the Gain control
instead of Brightness because it makes proportional adjustments, whereas
Brightness continues to add even when you have already set your Black
point and therefore, lightening or darkening the Black point further.
Output
Output
1
1
Input
0
1
Gain > 100%
n
Input
0
1
Gain < 100%
You can lock the Luma Gain and Chroma Saturation sliders so their values
are identical by selecting Lock.
•
Setup, like Brightness, is an additive factor and adds luminance to the
image.
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Chapter 4 Color Correcting Images
Although it’s similar to the Brightness control, Brightness is applied
before the Contrast and Gain operations while Setup is applied after the
Contrast and Gain operations.
Output
Output
1
1
Input
0
1
Brightness or
Setup > 0
•
Input
0
1
Brightness or
Setup < 0
Contrast increases or decreases the contrast in an image.
Output
Output
1
1
Input
0
1
Contrast > 0%
Input
0
1
Contrast < 0%
Gamma Corrections
After correcting the shadows and highlights of your image, you may still find
that it may still be slightly darker or lighter. A gamma correction using the
Gamma control solves this problem because it is applied to the result of the
image without altering the shadows and highlights.
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Color Correcting Tonal Ranges in Images
It uses the following formula: Output = Input ^ (1/gamma).
Output
Output
1
1
Input
0
1
Gamma > 1
Input
0
1
Gamma < 1
You can define the remapping of the midtones by using the Gamma slider:
•
on the Master, Highlights, Midtones, and Shadows tabs of the HSL
property page
•
on the RGB tab of the HSL property page. You can adjust the Gamma
value for each color channel
•
of the RGB Gamma slider on any of the tabs on Controls (except Alpha).
All RGB Gamma slider is dynamically linked. Adjusting the value
automatically changes the value across the property page.
•
on the Levels property page. It is available in the Red, Green, Blue, and
Master tabs. Increasing the value lightens the selected color channel of
that image. The Curve graph provides a visual feedback of the change.
Increasing the Gamma value on the Controls tab of the HSL property page, for
example, in the Master tab brightens the entire image. Increasing the value in
the Highlights tab brightens the highlights of the image.
Large adjustments of the gamma can sometimes be useless. It is better to make
small adjustments without the whole image becoming either too dark or too
light. Smaller gamma adjustments are more useful when fine-tuning the
relative weight of the darks and lights. Using a gamma correction also
improves the contrast and detail of the image.
n
When using the Color Correction Classic effect, use the gamma on the
luminance channel in the Adjust property page. The relationship on this
property page is Gamma, Gain, and Setup.
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Chapter 4 Color Correcting Images
Using Levels to Correct Tonal Ranges
All the controls in the Levels property page are dynamically linked. When you
make one adjustment on this property page, all the controls reflect that change.
Sub-dividing tabs
Input text boxes
Input histogram
Curve
graph
Output histogram
Output text boxes
Input and Output Adjustments
Adjusting tonal and contrast ranges means that you are changing the
relationship between the input and output values for your image. If you change
the values on the input side by using the text boxes or sliders, then the range of
the input values are mapped to the same range of the output values on the
output histogram.
The input histogram always shows the distribution of values for the
uncorrected image. After an adjustment, the output histogram updates
according to the changes being made. The Curve graph also updates to show
the relationship between the input values (x axis) and the output values (y
axis).
It is important to understand the differences between the input and output
sides.
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Linearizing Film-Based Material
Input Side
Output Side
Defines the black, white, and gray point
of the uncorrected image
Defines how the corrected image is
displayed
n
The Composite and Luma tabs only have black and white points.
Lets you increase the tonal range of an image Lets you decrease the tonal range of
an image
Changes made on the input side makes
the system clip the values
Changes made on the output side,
remap the values
Set the input values to approximate the
camera’s view when the footage was shot.
When you color correct an image, you
typically want to maximize the tonal range.
Set the output values to add a stylistic
look to the image.
To be set first
To be set after the input values
Working with the Composite and Luma Tabs
The Composite tab displays histograms that represent the levels in the
composite image before and after correction. The Luma tab shows histograms
that represent the luminance levels in the image before and after correction.
They are useful for checking whether your color-corrected images are within
the composite and luminance limits you need to meet and for adjusting levels
to meet those limits, if necessary.
The Composite and Luma tabs display unit information in normalized units.
You can make only black point and white point adjustments in the Composite
and Luma tabs. By adjusting these two points, if necessary, you can bring any
values that exceed your composite or luminance limits back into an acceptable
range.
Linearizing Film-Based Material
When film-based media are scanned, a series of frames are produced in DPX
or Cineon file format, which could be logarithmic-based. Avid DS Nitris
provides the option to convert logarithmic-based media to linear-based media
prior to applying effects. This conversion is known as linearizing.
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Chapter 4 Color Correcting Images
If you are only editing (trimming or cutting) log-based media, linearizing the
files is not necessary.
There are three ways to linearize film-based material:
•
Directly at import—see “Capturing from DPX Files” in the Help.
•
By using the LogLin Remapping effect that has two presets: lin2log and
log2lin—see “Linearizing Log-based Media” on page 180 and
“Log2Lin” in the Help.
•
By using the color correction effect—see “Linearizing Log-based Media”
on page 180.
Working with LUTs
The Lookup Table (LUT) is a file that contains the conversion of pixel values.
The number of entry in the file represents the number of possible pixel values
on a per channel basis. The value of each entry represents the mapped pixel
value.
Before you import the files, you need to determine what look-up table (LUT)
should be used to convert the pixel values from a log to a linear representation.
You can import an LUT specific to the files, or use a standard LUT. If you use
a standard LUT, you can choose either a linear transformation or a log-tolinear transformation.
The “Linear” option preserves the log-based representation during import.
Within Avid DS Nitris these log-based images can be used for many actions
where linearizing (conversion from log to linear) may not be important, such
as cuts-only editing or some basic effects. For applying complicated effects
and combining the media with other non-log representation images, Avid
recommends linearizing the pixel values by applying one of the following:
•
an LUT modified by the controls in the DPX Import dialog box
•
an LUT imported from file
You can export DPX or Cineon files through similar controls. When
exporting, you can convert from linear to log or invert the file used for import.
For more information, click the Help button in the DPX Export dialog box.
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Linearizing Film-Based Material
Exporting LUTs
You can export a LUT by saving the input and output’s bit depth, black and
white levels.
To export a LUT:
1. In the Color Correction property editor, select the Levels property page.
2. Select a color tab (Red, Green, Blue).
3. Click the Export LUT button.
The LUT properties dialog box is displayed.
4. For Input and/or Output, set the following:
-
Bit depth: Specifies the number of bits used to store information
about each pixel of the image
-
Black Level: Sets a new default value for what you want to use as
black level.
-
White Level: Sets a new default value for what you want to use as
white level.
The system remaps the new Black Level and White Level default values.
5. Click OK.
6. Specify the location, give the filename, and click OK.
Loading LUTs
When you have a series of varying shots that belong to one film project, you
can load an existing LUT and apply it to the shots to create consistency
between them. Once you have loaded the LUT, you cannot modify its
properties or adjust the Display Gamma value. However, you can invert the
values to apply the inverse settings if necessary.
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Chapter 4 Color Correcting Images
To load a LUT:
1. In the Color Correction property editor or the LogLin Remapping
property editor, select the Levels property page.
2. Select a color tab (Red, Green, Blue).
3. From the Type drop-down list, select File LUT.
The Open LUT file dialog box is displayed.
4. Select the file and click OK.
The LUT properties dialog box is displayed. You can change the bit depth
of the output, as well as the in/out levels.
The system remaps the new default values and the changes can be seen in
the curve graph.s
Linearizing Log-based Media
After capturing DPX or Cineon files, you can use the color correction effect or
the LinLog Remapping effect to linearize log-based media. Both of these
effects are real-time.
To linearize a DPX image:
1. Drag and drop the image from the bin to the timeline.
2. Do one of the following:
t
Apply a color correction effect
t
Apply the Log2Lin effect (\Image Effects folder)
3. Select the Levels property page.
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Linearizing Film-Based Material
4. Select a color tab (Red, Green, Blue). To apply the same values for all
three curves, select Lock RGB.
You can leave the Normalized % setting for the Units, unless you want to
display using different units.
5. Adjust the Display Gamma control to make a gamma correction or set the
gamma value between the set reference black and white.
6. Set the Film Gamma, only if you have determined the film gamma for
your footage.
n
If you don’t know the Film Gamma setting, visit the Kodak website to find out
how to compute the film's gamma based on the graphics provided for stock
films. Otherwise, you can leave the default value and adjust the Display
Gamma.
7. Adjust the Softclip value—see “About Softclipping” on page 181.
The image is now linearized. Proceed to edit and apply effects.
About Softclipping
When you linearize film-based material, any color information beyond the
reference white value is cut off. Slightly adjusting the softclip value softens
the hardness. If your image is too white, you can softclip the whites slightly to
add details to the image. You should softclip when you are sure that there’s
significant and useful information in the highlights that are clipped.
This curve shows that any information above 100%
is clipped.
The softclip value is adjusted here. The curve is softer
allowing some of the highlight color information that
was previously clipped to be part of the image.
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Chapter 4 Color Correcting Images
Color Correcting a Dark Image
The following example illustrates how to adjust the tonal range of a clip that is
too dark because of insufficient light while shooting. The aim of color
correcting the image is to give it a daylight effect without losing too much
saturation or contrast.
One of the solutions is to increase the proportion of the tonal range that lies
between gray and white, enhancing detail in the image. Either the HSL
controls or the Level property page can be employed.
This example uses the Color Correction effect as opposed to the Color
Correction Classic effect, which can also be applied to achieve the same
results. There are two advantages of using the Color Correction effect:
n
•
The HSL controls are laid out for you in fewer property pages. You can
also control the settings per color channel.
•
By using the Levels property page, you can quickly analyze your image
using the histogram, set black and white points, and tweak the color
channels in only a few steps.
Tip: If you want to start all over again, you can restore the default values. For
more information, see “Returning to Default Values” on page 200.
Uncorrected image
The image has too much blue color in the
midtones and the color cast is dark and
unsaturated.
182
Corrected image
The image is brighter with better contrast.
Color Correcting a Dark Image
To color correct a dark image using the HSL controls:
1. Making sure that the position indicator is on the clip, apply a color
correction effect.
2. In the Color Correction property editor, select HSL > Controls > Master
and adjust the Brightness until you get a good and acceptable black.
3. Adjust the Gain value to set the white point of the image.
n
Tip: Display the pixel ratio in the viewer.
4. If your image looks flat, adjust the saturation to give it more depth until
you are satisfied.
n
Tip: Select Lock to lock the Saturation and Gain controls.
5. Use the Gamma control to make a gamma correction. This will make
adjustments to the midtones of the image without affecting the highlights
and shadows.
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Chapter 4 Color Correcting Images
6. If necessary, continue to make any other adjustments:
-
Highlights: to adjust the brighter parts of the image
-
Midtones: to adjust the midrange part of the image
-
Shadows: to adjust the darker parts of the image
-
RGB: to adjust individual color channels and the RGB value of the
image
-
Apha: to adjust the alpha channel of the image
7. To correct the hue or color cast problems, click the Hue Offset tab.
8. Drag the color selector of the a color wheel towards the warm yellows and
reds. In this example, an adjustment is being made in the
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Color Correcting a Dark Image
While you drag the color
selector in the wheel, the image
n
You can also use the color picker and pick a blue section of the image which
will be applied to the image. You can then subtract the blue hue and then
adjust the Hue and Gain values.
9. Fine-tune the changes until you are satisfied with the result.
To color correct a dark image using the Levels property page:
1. Click the Master subdividing tab.
2. Use the histogram of the input side to analyze the image.
3. Set the black and white point of the image—“Setting Black and White
Points of an Image” on page 168.
4. In the Histogram of the Input side, do one of the following:
t
Drag the gray slider slightly to the left to increase the general
whiteness of the image
t
Type a numerical value in the appropriate text box and press Enter.
The system maps a new range of input values to a single output value. The
changes can be seen in the output histogram.
5. Continue tweaking other tabs until you are satisfied with both the output
histogram and the look and feel of the output.
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Chapter 4 Color Correcting Images
6. On the Masking property page, select the channels on which you want to
apply the effect.
n
If the alpha channel is used as mask, the effect is applied only to areas of the
image where the alpha channel is not black. You can derive masks from the
alpha of the input clip or an external matte from another clip.
7. (Optional) Set the Mix parameter—see “Mix Parameter For Effects” in
the Help.
Color Correction by Matching Clips
When you have two clips shot in the same environment at different times, it is
important that the color in both remain consistent. For example, if you have
two adjacent clips on your timeline, one with the perfect blue sky tone and the
other one with a not-so-perfect blue sky tone because it was shot on a different
day or time of day, you can use the Match Color Tool to correct the shots.
The Match Color Tool lets you quickly make a color correction by selecting
input and output colors from your images.
Arrow indicates the
direction of application
Input Color Chip:
The color you want
to change from
Output Color Chip:
The color you want
to change to
Match Color Type
Match Color button
Only the Controls and Hue Offset tabs of the HSL property page and the
Curves property page include a Match Color Tool.
You can use the Match Color Tool when you have material from a multi-cam
shoot; the cameras are shooting the same subject, but the color may be
different between the two angles.
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Color Correction by Matching Clips
The system matches the input color value with the output color value and
adjusts all the other color values in the image proportionally. It automatically
adjusts selected controls in the group to make the change. You can set the
combination of color components the system will use to determine the match
from the menu.
n
Tip: You can also use the Match Color Tool as an information palette for
checking the exact RGB value of a sample area in an image.
Using the Match Color Chip
You can use the Match color chip to select a color from anywhere on your
desktop or from the mini color editor.
To load the mini color editor:
1. Do one of the following:
t
Double-click either the input or output color chip.
The color editor is displayed.
Slider
Color
selector
Color Area menu
Color swatches
RGBA text boxes
t
Shift + double-click either the input or output color chip.
The color editor is displayed.
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Chapter 4 Color Correcting Images
Slider
Color wheel
Click an icon to
switch the
color display.
2. Make the changes in the color editor.
3. Click the Edit or OK button, depending on which color editor you are
using.
n
Tip: To change the display mode of the color chips, right-click the Match
Color Tool chip and select from the menu.
The Natural Match Feature
The Match Color Tool in the Curves property page includes the
NaturalMatch™ feature, which allows you to replace the hue values in an
image with new output values without distorting the saturation and luminance
values in the image.
In many situations, when you are correcting on a shot-to-shot basis, color
matching is complicated by differences in lighting between one shot and
another. NaturalMatch is particularly useful for adjusting skin tone, even when
the reference image shows a significant difference in lighting.
In the following example, the skin tone in clip A has a blue-green tint and is
mostly in shadow while clip B is perfect and natural looking in the brightly lit
environment. If these clips are presented one after the other on the timeline,
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Color Correction by Matching Clips
then their color characteristics must match. To achieve a natural-looking
correction, you can replace the hue of clip A while preserving the original
luminance and saturation characteristics by using the NaturalMatch feature.
Clip A: Uncorrected clip.
Clip B: Clip to be used for reference.
This clip has a blue-green tint showing
very poor skin tone.
This clip shows a better skin tone which will
be used to color correct Clip A.
Before you begin to use the Match Color Tool to determine which range you
want to correct (highlights, midtones, shadows or the master image) and the
property page that is best to use to achieve your result. Be sure that your
position indicator is on the clip that you want to color correct.
Since the clips are on the timeline and being presented one after the other, we
must color correct them so the hue, saturation and luminance remain
consistent. This example will also use the NaturalMatch to color correct the
skin tone of the fisherman in the second clip by automatically generating the
Curves adjustments for all three color channels when matching the skin tones.
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Chapter 4 Color Correcting Images
In this first clip, the skin tone of
the fisherman looks more natural
than the second clip.
The fisherman’s skin tone in this
clip has a blue-green cast. It
should match the preceding and
following clips.
The skin tone in this clip will be
used to match the fisherman’s skin
tone in the second clip without
losing its luminance and saturation.
To color correct using the Match Color Tool:
1. Select the Curves property page.
2. In the Match Color box, click the input color chip (left) to select the color
that you want to correct or replace.
Arrow indicating the
direction of application
Input Color Chip:
The color you
want to change
Output Color chip:
The color you want
to change to
Match Color Type
Natural Match option
Match Color button
3. Using the Color Picker, point over the color of the image that you want to
change and click.
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Color Correction by Matching Clips
Color picker
The input color chip changes to the color that is selected and the system
updates it with the new color values visible in the left chip.
n
Tip: You can change the type of color values displayed by right-clicking inside
the Match Color Chip. For example, if you want to display your color in
normalized RGB units select RGB Normalized from the context menu.
4. Now select the output color chip (right) and select the color that you want
to use for the matching.
Color Picker
The output color chip changes to the color that is selected and the system
updates it with the new color values visible in the right chip.
n
n
You should select the output color from an image other than the current clip,
such as the next clip or a reference clip.
Tip: If you want to refine the color in the chip, double-click inside either the
input or output color chip to display a dialog box with a spectrum of colors
that you can use or manually type values in the text box.
5. (Optional) Select a Match Color Type from the pop-up menu to determine
the exact nature of the match the system makes.
6. Select the Natural Match box.
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Chapter 4 Color Correcting Images
n
If you are in the Curves property page, use the Natural Match feature to
automatically generate the Curves adjustments for the color channels to
compensate for luminance.
7. Click the Match Color button to make the color correction.
The corrected image is displayed in the viewer.
Uncorrected image
Corrected image
The system adjusts the current clip and resets the controls in the property
pages to reflect the adjustment. The Curve graph is updated to reflect the
changes made.
8. Continue to tweak the image by using the graph and the three keys in the
animation graph.
Click the Help button in the Property Editor for detailed information on the
Color Correction properties.
n
192
Tip: If there are other clips on the timeline that will need to be corrected using
the same adjustments, you can save the properties as preset. For more
information, see “Using Presets in Graphics” on page 281.
Correcting Inaccurate or Deficient Color Channels
Correcting Inaccurate or Deficient Color Channels
When analyzing footage, you may find that there are parts of the image that
have inaccurate or deficient color channels or that an image lacks contrast or is
too noisy. You may also have a color channel that is clipped to white,
therefore not containing enough information to contribute much detail to the
image. These problems are usually solved by channel blending, where the
color channel is repaired by “borrowing” from another color channel to
improve the appearance of the image.
Channel blending lets you work with components from both the RGB (red,
green, blue) and the YCrCb (luminance, red chroma, blue chroma) color
spaces. It gives you very precise control over the final composition of each
color channel by letting you create a formula that you can use to correct the
inaccurate or deficient color channel.
The Channels property page of the Color Correction property editor, also
allows you to preview the individual uncorrected color channels in
monochrome in order to check the amount of contrast or noise in each
channel. If, for example, the image lacks contrast, you can use the channel
blending properties to adjust other channel values to add contrast to the image.
The following is a typical workflow for channel blending.
1
5
Preview the input
and output if you
want to compare.
Decide which
Channel Type you
want to blend.
2 In the Channel text boxes, type
the Percentage value that will
be added to the channel.
3
Select a component
type from the list.
4
Add the percentage of
the next channel blend.
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Chapter 4 Color Correcting Images
Channel Blending Considerations
1. When you find that one of your color channels has a problem that you
want to correct by blending, you need to look for another color component
that can correct the problem while minimizing any unwanted changes. In
general, you should look for a component that exhibits less of the specific
problem you want to correct, but otherwise looks similar to the problem
channel.
2. You do not have to restrict your component choices to the same color
space (RGB or YCrCb). In fact, it is common practice when performing
advanced color correction to borrow from a different color space.
For example, if you have a green channel that is noisy in the highlight
range, you might find that the Cb (blue chroma) component has less
highlight noise. but is otherwise similar in its brightness distribution to the
green channel. Blending a percentage of Cb into the green channel will
reduce the noise without greatly disturbing other aspects of the channel.
3. You can preview the full range of color components available by
temporarily redefining one of the existing channels. For example, if you
want to see what the Cb component looks like in comparison to your
problem green channel, you can redefine the red channel as 100% Cb.
Then you can switch back and forth between the Red Input and Green
Input previews to compare the two.
n
The total of the percentages you set for a channel does not need to be 100. The
percentage values simply indicate relative proportions of one component as
opposed to others.
The following example, shows how an individual color channel is altered by
blending. The preview of the Master input channels shows an acceptable
overall contrast, however the Blue Input monochrome preview shows that the
blue channel lacks contrast. In this example, the best solution is to blend a
percentage of the green channel into the blue channel to reintroduce contrast
and detail.
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Correcting Inaccurate or Deficient Color Channels
To correct a deficient color channel in an image:
1. Select the Channels property page.
2. Select the Blue Input option to preview the blue channel in monochrome.
n
Uncorrected image
Corrected image
The preview of the master input does not
provide much information on the contrast.
The preview of the blue input shows a lack
of contrast at the lower half of the image.
Tip: Select Master to preview the complete uncorrected image in color. While
correcting color channels, use the Output in the Preview panel to see how
your image looks while you blend color channels.
3. In the Channel Blending box set the %Blended Blue to 75.
4. Click the plus (+) button and add 25% Green.
5. Preview the output image.
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Chapter 4 Color Correcting Images
The preview of the blue channel output
shows more detail in the lower half of
the image.
Although the preview of the Master output is
less dramatic, it improves the look of the sky
and reduces the strength of the yellow color.
6. Continue tweaking the percentage values until you are satisfied with the
output.
Adjusting Curves to Color Correct
Complex tasks, such as color and luminance adjustments, are easily achieved
by adjusting the curves in the Curves property page without having to use
many controls. The same task can be achieved by adjusting more than one
control and the color wheels in the HSL property page. However, in the
Curves property page, the same task can be accomplished by fewer steps.
Adjustments in this page are made by manipulating the keys. You can add as
many keyframes as you want to control color with great precision, since you
can make detailed adjustments to many different subdivisions of the
brightness range.
The following example illustrates how to use curves to make a simple
adjustment. You will learn how curves can be used to control color across
different parts of the brightness image. This example will adjust the
Red curve.
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Adjusting Curves to Color Correct
Original image
To adjust curves:
1. Select the Curves property page.
2. From the Channels box, select the Red option to show the curve in
the graph.
3. Select the first keyframe of the curve and drag the keyframe downwards
to reduce it slightly.
n
Tip: You can type the input and output values for the position of the keyframe
in the X and Y text boxes below the graph. Press Enter.
This will reduce the darker parts of your image as seen here. If you want
to make these parts darker, then you must increase the output value (Y
axis).
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Chapter 4 Color Correcting Images
The curve is adjusted
Notice how much of the red tone is lost from the background grass, the shirt, and the lower red
sign post, which loses much of its detail. The higher red sign post is relatively less desaturated,
however, and some of the reddish tinge is retained in the cloud highlights in the top right.
n
Tip: To compare the results with the original image, you can toggle the Enable
button on and off.
4. Select the next keyframe and adjust it until there’s more detail and
contrast in the image.
Adjusting this keyframe will reduce the lighter parts of the image. To
make them lighter, increase the output value.
5. You can add more keyframes as needed. Hold down the A key and click
the middle of the curve to add a keyframe.
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Setting Legal Luma, Chroma, and RGB Values
6. Select the keyframe and adjust it.
7. Continue adding and/or tweaking the curve until you are satisfied with the
result.
Setting Legal Luma, Chroma, and RGB Values
One of the frustrating things that can happen to a colorist after completing a
color correcting task is to have material returned because the output is not
within legal broadcasting limits. Especially when you are being creative or
experimenting with cool color effects, you must always maintain legal values
or levels.
If the waveform monitor reports illegal values or shows that the levels are
beyond safe color limits, you must enable the luma, chroma, and RGB
clipping options in the HSL property page of the Color Correction effect. If
you are using the Color Correction Classic effect, be sure to select the Clamp
to Video option. This will preserve the full pixel range and comply with
transmission standards.
n
Colors are clipped first in RGB color space and then in Luma/Chroma color
space at the Luma/Chroma clip levels. Therefore, when you set luma and
chroma clipping values, then these settings will override those of the RGB
clipping value. Also note that if you are working in either the Natural
Correction or Preserve Luma Correction mode, previously set RGB clippings
values may be invalidated.
To set legal luma and chroma values:
t
Color Correction Effect: On the Master tab of the HSL property page,
use the Luma and Chroma clipping sliders or text boxes to set the legal
limits and then make sure the values are enabled.
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Chapter 4 Color Correcting Images
t
Color Correction Classic Effect: On the Basic property page, select
Clamp to Video Levels.
To set legal RGB values:
t
n
In the RGB property page, use Red, Green, or Blue clipping sliders or text
boxes to set the desired RGB limits and them make sure the values are
enabled.
Tip: Select Lock RGB Clipping in the RGB box to lock all RGB channel limits
to the same values while making further adjustments.
Returning to Default Values
In the process of color correcting images, you may feel that you are not
achieving the effect you had in mind. You can use the Use Default Value
(UDV) button located next to every adjustable parameter to return to the
default value of that parameter. It is also located on the subdividing tab where
the parameter belongs and all property pages that have adjustable parameters.
After adjusting a value, you will notice that the UDV button turns blue, as well
as the UDV button of the subdividing tab and the associated property page
turns blue.
n
On the Curves property page, although there is no specific UDV button for the
graph or even the options for the channels, changing the curve or color
correcting the image using the Match Color Tool, adjusts the default values.
The change is indicated by the UDV button on the Curves property page.
It is important to differentiate between the user value and the default value.
The user value is simply the new set value that replaces the default value.
n
200
The UDV button is only available in the Color Correction and Color
Correction Classic property editors.
Returning to Default Values
UDV buttons on
indicating that a
value in the HSL
property page has
been changed.
The Brightness value has been adjusted.
The default
UDV button.
You can also use the UDV button if you want to see the effect of your changes
by temporarily deactivating the adjustments made to other values. For
example, if you adjust the hue and saturation properties of the Master image in
the HSL property page and you want to adjust the hue and saturation of the
highlights, you can use the UDV button to temporarily deactivate the Master
hue and saturation by returning to their default values. You can go ahead and
change the hue and saturation properties of the highlights without the
influence of the previously adjusted values.
To return to the default value:
Do this
To
Click
Return to the default value and temporarily use the default
value to see the effect of parameters on your image without the
influence of modified parameters.
The UDV button works as a toggle; it turns light blue the
system is using the default value for the affected property.
When you turn it off, it returns to the blue color indicating that
the set user value will be used when the system processes the
image.
Ctrl-click
Return to the default value. You have now erased the user
value previously set. You can adjust as many values as you
want and restore the default values.
The UDV button returns to the default gray and the slider
returns to its default position.
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Chapter 4 Color Correcting Images
Do this
To
Shift-click
Restore the user values of all properties at once.
It is useful to restore all user values of a property page or
subdividing page. It is similar to clicking the UDV button for
each parameter for that property page or subdividing page.
Ctrl + Shift-click
n
Reset the default values at specific keyframes—see
“Animating with the Color Correction Effect” on page 202.
Tip: To restore the default values of the entire property page, Ctrl-click the
UDV button of the property page.
Animating with the Color Correction Effect
When creating animations using the Color Correction effects, you can use the
UDV button to reset the default values for a specific keyframe that you want
to use in your animation without restoring the default values for the entire clip
or erasing the animation on the clip. For more information, see “Creating
Animation” on page 1021 of the Avid DS Nitris Editing Guide.
To restore default values at a keyframe:
1. Move the position indicator to the frame on which you want the animation
to start.
2. Adjust the properties that you want to animate.
3. Set a keyframe.
4. Move to a different position in the clip where you want to set a keyframe
using the default values.
5. Ctrl + Shift-click the UDV buttons of the properties that you made
changes to.
The Set/Remove button for the properties change to yellow, indicating
that a temporary key has been set.
6. Click the yellow Set/Remove button to set a keyframe at this position.
7. In the property editor, click Preview to view the animation.
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Chapter 5
Transforming Images
Avid DS Nitris allows you to transform images by scaling, translating,
rotating, cropping, or changing the perspective.
Chapter 5 Transforming Images
Applying a DVE
You can apply DVEs to clips using one of the following ways:
t
Timeline: You can apply the DVE effect on the timeline as you would
with any other effect—see “Applying Effects to the Timeline Effect
Track” on page 208 of the Avid DS Nitris Getting Started Guide.
t
Layers: You can apply a DVE on each layer of the composite—see
“Applying a DVE to a Layer” on page 204.
You can also apply a global DVE to transform several layers—see
“Applying a Global DVE in the Layers View” on page 210.
t
Effects Trees: You can apply a DVE in the Effects Tree as would with any
other effect—see “Adding Effect Nodes to a Tree” on page 79.
You can also transform several images in the Effects Tree by adding a
Transform node—see “Transform Trees” on page 211.
n
Tip: When processing the DVE effect, you may notice a slight difference in the
quality of the realtime and the processed DVE. The difference may be more
pronounced for DVEs that are partially processed (one part of the clip is
realtime and another is processed). In these cases, it is strongly recommended
that you process the entire effect in order to remove the boundary between the
realtime portion and the processed portion of the effect.
Applying a DVE to a Layer
The most common way to apply a DVE is through the Layers view.
To apply a DVE to a layer:
1. In the Compositing layout, create a composite with your clips.
2. In the Layers view, click the DVE button on the layer on which you want to
apply the transformation.
The DVE is applied to all clips on that layer and a yellow bounding box
surrounds the image in the viewer. The DVE property editor is displayed.
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Applying a DVE
Image box
Handles
You can transform the image interactively in the viewer by repositioning
the image box or adjusting its handles to change the dimensions.
The direction of the transformation is based on the X, Y, and Z axes
(Cartesian 3D space).
n
Tip: You can also animate the position of an image over time. For more
information, see “Creating a Motion Path” on page 222.
3. Select one of the interactive tools in the DVE property editor before
adjusting the image in the viewer.
You can select these tools from the DVE toolbar or use the keyboard
shortcuts to activate the Scale, Rotate, or Crop tools. The complete list of
keyboard shortcuts is available from the Help menu in Avid DS Nitris.
Any transformations that you apply in the viewer are reflected in numeric
values in the property editor, where they can be adjusted to fine-tune the
position of the image.
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Chapter 5 Transforming Images
Interactive Tools
n
Tip: By default, an image rotates around its center and its image offset is 0.
You can shift the center of rotation by entering different X, Y, and Z values for
the image offset.
4. You can now translate, scale, rotate, or crop the image—see “Translating
an Image” on page 207, “Scaling an Image” on page 208, “Rotating an
Image” on page 208, and “Cropping an Image” on page 209.
5. After applying the transformation, you can set other options on the
General property page, such as the quality settings, transform channels,
and motion blur.
6. On the Options property page, select the appropriate options.
Click the Help button for detailed information on the Processing options.
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Transforming an Image
Locking DVEs
When you want to focus on one particular DVE, you can lock it so that all
manipulations are only applied to a selected DVE. This helps you avoid
accidentally selecting another DVE while you’re manipulating the
locked DVE.
When you click the Lock button on the DVE toolbar, the selected layer
becomes locked. If you want to work on another layer while in Lock mode,
simply select another layer in the Layers view.
To lock a DVE:
1. On the Layers view, select a layer containing a DVE.
2. Select View > Default toolbars > DVE tools.
3. From the DVE toolbar, click the Lock button.
The selected DVE is locked.
Transforming an Image
After applying a DVE to the image, you can transform it by translating,
scaling, or rotating it. Using the DVE property editor, you can also crop the
image or adjust the border.
Translating an Image
You can move an image in any of the X, Y, or Z axes. When you translate in
the X direction, the image moves from left to right; in the Y axis, the image
moves up or down; in the Z axis, it moves from front to back.
n
Tip: You can constrain the tool to move only along the X axis or only along the
Y axis. First, press the Shift key to constrain the movement and then move the
image in the desired direction.
To translate an image:
1. In the DVE property editor, select the DVE property page.
2. In the viewer, move the image unattractively by dragging the image box.
The pointer changes to the translate cursor.
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Chapter 5 Transforming Images
You can also type the exact X, Y and Z coordinates in the respective text
boxes or use keyboard shortcuts to interactively move the image in
different planes. The complete list of keyboard shortcuts is available from
the Help menu in Avid DS Nitris.
n
Tip: You can offset the image without changing the Translation values in the
DVE property editor by holding down the Ctrl key and moving the image
interactively in the viewer.
Scaling an Image
You can scale an image to size by changing its height and width.
To scale an image:
1. In the DVE property editor, select the DVE property page.
2. In the viewer, position the pointer over a handle on the image box.
The pointer changes to the scale cursor.
To
Do this
Scale the image proportionally
Drag one of the corner handles inwards
or outwards
Scale without maintaining the image
proportions
Press Shift and drag one of the corner
handles
Adjust the height or width of the image
Drag one of the side handles
Rotating an Image
You can rotate an image around any of its three axes by using the pointer to
turn the image and define the rotation visually in the viewer.
To rotate an image:
1. In the DVE property editor, select the DVE tab.
2. Select the Rotate tool.
3. In the viewer, position the pointer over a handle on the image box.
The pointer changes to the rotate cursor.
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Transforming an Image
n
To
Do this
Rotate the image around the
image’s Z axis
Drag one of the corner handle
Rotate the image around the
image’s X axis
Drag the middle top or bottom handles
Rotate the image around the
image’s Y axis
Drag one of the middle side handles
Tip: To translate a rotated image in its own plane, first hold down the I key and
then translate your image interactively in the viewer.
Cropping an Image
Cropping lets you cut away portions of an image. You can crop an image on
either the X or Y axis using the handles in the viewer. You can also select the
part of the image that you want to keep by drawing a rectangle around it.
To crop an image:
1. In the DVE property editor, select the DVE tab.
2. Select the Crop tool.
3. In the viewer, position the pointer over a handle on the image box.
The pointer changes to the crop cursor.
To
Do this
Crop two adjacent sides
Drag a corner handle
Crop the selected side of the image
Drag a middle handle
Draw a rectangle around the image
Press R and drag the mouse
Any area outside the box is cropped.
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Chapter 5 Transforming Images
Transformation in Layers View and Effects Tree
Local and global transformations can be achieved from the Layers view or the
Effects Tree. In the Layers View, a global DVE is used to specify a global
transformation that is optionally used by the DVE effect present on each layer
for the transformation. In the Effects Tree, transform trees are built by using
Transform nodes and Rasterization effect nodes.
Applying a Global DVE in the Layers View
The global DVE in the Layers view applies a common transformation around
a global axis to all participating layers after a local transform, such as through
a DVE effect, has been applied.
To apply a global DVE:
1. Right-click an empty area of the Layers view and select Global DVE
Controls.
A purple bounding box surrounds all the DVEs. It lets you interactively
manipulate all participating DVEs in the viewer. The global DVE property
editor is displayed.
Although no handles are displayed on the purple bounding box, the
pointer changes to indicate the transformation mode (scale, rotate, or
translate) when you position it inside the bounding box.
Viewer displayed in wireframe mode.
Global DVE
bounding box
(purple).
DVE bounding
box (green) on
one layer.
DVE bounding
box (green) on
the background
layer.
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Transformation in Layers View and Effects Tree
Green bounding boxes surround each layer affected by the DVE. If you
select one of the green bounding boxes, its color changes to yellow
indicating the selected layer. You can interactively make changes just to
that layer. You can also select it by clicking the corresponding layer in the
Layers view.
2. Scale, rotate, or translate the image the same way as with the DVE tool by
interactively manipulating the global DVE wireframe in the viewer or by
using the global DVE property editor.
n
Tip: If you do not want the global DVE to affect a specific layer, open its DVE
property editor and deselect the Global option.
Transform Trees
Transformation hierarchies in the Effects Tree are achieved by using the
Transform nodes and Rasterization effect nodes that process the images
according to a specified transformation. The same input and output connection
mechanism used when building Effects Trees is also employed. For more
information, see “Using Effects Trees” on page 73.
What are Transform Nodes?
Transform nodes are used only to specify the actual transformation. They
solve problems faced when you add one DVE effect node after another to
transform images. For example, when performing a series of transformations
using concatenated DVEs, you risk losing the quality of the image or clipping
the images.
To add a Transform node to the Effects Tree:
t
Do one of the following:
-
In an empty area of the Effects Tree, right-click and select
Add Transform.
-
In an empty area of the Effects Tree, press T on the keyboard.
-
From the Avid Explorer, drag the Transform preset from either the
\DVE or \Tree Effects folder.
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Chapter 5 Transforming Images
Transform nodes
Transform nodes have the following features:
•
Specify their own local transformation using properties in the
property editor
•
Concatenate their own transformation with the transformation supplied
through their local and global input.
•
The output of the Transform node can be connected to the input of another
Transform node or a Rasterization effect node.
•
Has fully animated properties just like any other effect node.
•
Has interactive transformation tools.
•
Can be bypassed. Bypassing disables the transformation of that particular
node.
•
The connection between a transform node to another transform node or to
a Local or Global Transform port in the DVE effect node are gray. Notice
that when connecting the ports, the color of the connector as you drag it is
orange.
What are Rasterization Effect Nodes?
Rasterization effect nodes, such as the DVE, 3D DVE, and Tracker, are
responsible for manipulating input images according to transformations
supplied as inputs. They have the following features:
212
•
Specify their own local transformation using properties in the property
editor or the interactive tool.
•
Concantenate their own transformation with the transformation supplied
through their local and global input.
Transformation in Layers View and Effects Tree
•
The local or global inputs of the Rasterization nodes can only be
connected to the output of a Transform node. However, the output of the
Rasterization node cannot be connected to a local or global input of any
other node.
•
Provide camera perspective controls.
What is the Difference between Local and Global Inputs?
The local input for a particular node is used to specify a transformation that is
applied before the transformation supplied by the node. In the example below
using the local input in each node, the image is first rotated, then scaled, and
finally rotated back before being rasterized in the DVE node. The
transformation is applied around the local axis of the image or images.
3
2
1
The global input for a particular node is used to specify a transformation that
is applied after the transformation supplied by the node. In the following
example, the global input is used to connect the Transform nodes after being
rasterized in the DVE node. The transformation is applied around the global
axis corresponding to the transform node connected to the input.
1
2
3
If both local and global inputs of a node are connected and a local
transformation is specified using the properties of the node, then the local is
applied first, followed by the local transformation, and finally the global.
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Chapter 5 Transforming Images
n
The local and global inputs work the same way in both the Transform node
and Rasterization effect nodes. In Rasterization nodes, such as the DVE, the
camera properties such as the Perspective are applied after the local and
global transformations.
Working with Transform Trees
By using the flexible connection mechanism of the Effects Tree and the ability
to order the transformations according to the local and global inputs, transform
trees can be used to solve multiple problems.
This section will present solutions to some of these problems.
Visualization of Sequential DVE Transformations
Problem: Visualizing a series of transformations before they are actually
applied to an image.
It is important to visualize the transformations before they are applied to the
image. To accomplish this, you can add as many Transform nodes as needed in
your Effects Tree, connecting them to each other and the Rasterization effect
nodes using local inputs. The last result can then be connected to a
Rasterization node to finally transform the image. You should plan before
hand which transform should come first, next and so on.
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Working with Transform Trees
The Transform nodes
are connected to each
other through the local
input.
The task is to translate
the image in z, then
rotate around the z axis,
and finally scale it up.
1
The image is first translated.
2
Then it is rotated.
3
Finally, the image is scaled up.
Globally Transforming Multiple Images
Problem: Applying a common transform around a global axis on multiple
images.
The following example uses multiple images which have been used to create a
video wall. The video wall was created by applying a DVE effect on each
image. Each image is scaled and translated to one of the four corners using the
local transform of each DVE node.
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Chapter 5 Transforming Images
The DVE
property editor.
The Effects Tree built and
used to create the video wall.
To globally transform multiple images in the Effects Tree:
1. Add the Transform Node.
2. Connect it to the global input of each of the DVE nodes.
Each DVE node has
its own local
transformation (scale
and translation).
The transformations supplied through this transform node are
applied after each local transformation as it’s connected to the
global input.
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Working with Transform Trees
Handles
This image’s local axis
DVE bounding box (yellow)
3. Open the Transform Node property editor.
A purple bounding box surrounds all the DVEs that the Transform node
has been connected to.
Global axis for
all four images
Purple bounding box
4. You can interactively manipulate the purple bounding box in the viewer.
Since all nodes are connected to the same Transform node, all images will
be transformed by the same values around a global axis.
In the following example, the Transform node is used to rotate all four
images using the global axis.
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Chapter 5 Transforming Images
Multi-Level Global DVE in the Effects Tree
Problem: Applying transformation around multiple global axis.
Using the example of the video wall, the following example illustrates how
you can transform a set of images around two separate global axes and then
finally transform the result around a single common global axis.
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218
Tip: Rename the Transform nodes to differentiate them. For more information,
see “Renaming Nodes” on page 93.
Working with Transform Trees
To apply a multi-level global transformation:
1
Add a Transform node and connect it to
the global input of the first two DVE nodes.
2
Open the Transform node’s property editor
and interactively transform the image.
In this example, the images on the
right were rotated.
3
Add another Transform node and connect it to
the global input of the next two DVE nodes.
4
Open its property editor and transform the image.
5
In this example, the images on the left were rotated. 6
Add another Transform node to the Effects Tree
and connect it to the global inputs of the two
Transform nodes.
Open the Transform node and transform the
images. Notice that the entire image is transformed
around a common global axis.
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Chapter 5 Transforming Images
Common Transformation Around a Local Axis
Problem: When you have multiple images and you want to apply the exact
same transformation around the local axis of each image.
The following example builds upon the video wall case and illustrates how to
rotate and scale all the images by the same amount around their own local
axis.
To globally and locally transform images:
1. Add a Transform node for each DVE node and connect them using the
local input.
2. Open the Transform node’s property editor and scale, rotate, or translate
the image.
In this example, the entire videowall was rotated around its local X axis.
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Corner Pinning
3. Open the Transform node and scale, rotate, or translate the entire
video wall.
n
Remember that the Transform node is fully animated which you can use to
create very interesting effects.
Corner Pinning
By repositioning the four corners of an image, you can create any four-sided
shape. This is known as corner pinning.
n
Tip: The corner pin effect is also available as a clip effect in the \Image Effects
folder.
To apply 4-point corner pinning:
1. In the DVE property editor, deselect the Global and SRT options to turn
off any other transformations while you work on corner pinning your
image.
2. Select the Track option.
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Chapter 5 Transforming Images
Corner pins are displayed in the four corners of the image.
3. Drag each corner to reshape the image.
4. Select the Global DVE and SRT DVE options.
Working with Motion Paths
Motion paths are useful for applying transformations between two clips, such
as push-wipes, fly-bys, or picture-in-picture effects.
Creating a Motion Path
By animating the position of an image, you can create effects, such as fly-bys.
You can also create a motion path by moving the image from one frame to the
next and setting keyframes. This animation is represented by a motion path, a
trajectory that the image follows when you play the animation. Once you
create the motion path, you can edit it in the viewer. For more information, see
“Editing a Motion Path” on page 224.
Also, all of the animated properties are represented by function curves which
plot the property’s values over time. For more information, see “Creating
Animation” and “Understanding the Animation Editor” in the Help.
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Working with Motion Paths
Translated image
Motion path
Control point of
starting position
To create a motion path:
1. On the timeline, place the position indicator on the frame on which the
animation will start.
2. In the DVE property editor, select the Use Motion Path option.
3. Click the Autokey button to set the Autokey mode.
4. Click the Animation Key button to set the first keyframe.
A yellow circle is displayed on the center of the object to indicate that a
keyframe is set and motion path recording has started.
All subsequent keyframes are created automatically when you move to
another frame and move the image.
5. Go to the next frame on which you want to change the DVE properties,
and make the necessary changes.
The first control point in the motion path is displayed in the viewer.
6. Repeat step 5 for subsequent frames.
Each time the motion path is extended, new controls points are added to it.
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Chapter 5 Transforming Images
Editing a Motion Path
The motion path is indicated by black and white dotted lines with control
points that represent the new position of the image at a given frame.
Control
point
To edit the animation, you can modify the motion path by adding, moving or
removing control points. You can also change the curvature of the motion
path, as well as the speed at which the image travels along the path.
To move a control point:
t
In the viewer, drag a control point to a new location.
The control point moves to a new position, while maintaining the
same timecode.
To add a control point:
t
Press A and click the motion path where you want to position the image.
A control point is added at the corresponding timecode.
To move control points:
t
Do one of the following in the viewer:
-
Click the control point(s) that you want to select, and then drag them
in the viewer. To lock the X and Y translation, press Shift.
-
Press Shift+R and drag to form a rectangle around the control points
that you want to select, and then drag them in the viewer.
The selected control points are moved to new positions, while maintaining
their timecodes.
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224
Tip: If you want to lock the layer that contains the motion path, press Ctrl+L
(one). To unlock the layer, press Ctrl+L (one) again.
Working with Motion Paths
To remove the motion path:
t
In the DVE property editor, right-click the Animation Key button and
select Remove Animation.
All control points are removed and the image maintains its position on the
current frame.
To change the curvature of the motion path:
1. In the viewer, select a control point.
The tangent handles are displayed.
2. Drag the tangent handles.
The curvature of the motion path changes at the selected control point.
n
Tip: If the tangent handle is very close to the control point, press H and drag
to give priority to the tangent handle.
Tangent handles
3. To break the tangent, press B and drag a tangent handle.
4. To unify a broken tangent handle, press U and drag a tangent handle.
The opposite tangent handle is aligned with the selected tangent handle.
Broken
Unified
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Chapter 5 Transforming Images
5. To change the curvature while maintaining the ratio between the tangent
handles, press R and drag a handle.
6. To convert an interval between two keyframes to a linear curve, press the
semicolon (;) key and, on the motion path, click the interval that you want
to convert.
7. To convert an interval between two keyframes to a Bézier curve, press the
apostrophe (’) key and, on the motion path, click the interval that you
want to convert.
Linear segment
Bézier segment
8. To convert the entire motion path to a different type of curve, in the
animation editor, right-click the Animation Key button and select one of
the following:
-
Bézier to create a smooth spline curve that you can edit using the
tangent handles at keyframes.
-
Linear to create a straight line between keyframes.
Bézier motion path
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Linear motion path
Working with Motion Paths
Changing the Speed of the Motion Path
The speed at which the image moves in the viewer depends on the distance
and number of frames between keyframes. If the image moves across the
viewer in a single frame, the speed of translation is high. If it takes 30 frames
for the image to move across the viewer, the speed is slower.
On the motion path, this speed is represented by a series of black and white
segments. Each segment represents the distance that the image travels from
one frame to the next. If the segments are long, the image is moving fast; if
they are short the image is moving slowly.
Slow speed
Position in frame 2
Position in frame 1
Position in frame 0
Fast speed
By default, the image moves smoothly along the entire motion path.
Depending on the type of motion that you want to create, you can set the speed
type at each keyframe.
To change the speed of translation, do one of the following:
t
To slow down the motion, move the keyframes closer together.
t
To speed up the motion, move the keyframes farther apart.
To adjust the speed between keyframes:
t
In the viewer, right-click a keyframe and select one of the following:
Option
To
Stay Until Next Key Maintain the image’s current position until the next keyframe.
Constant Speed
Move the image at a constant speed from the current keyframe
to the next.
Smooth Speed
Adjust the speed of the image before and after the keyframe to
create a smooth motion.
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Chapter 5 Transforming Images
Option
To
Ease In/Ease Out
Slow down the image, stop at the current keyframe, and then
speed up again.
Previewing an Animated DVE
You can preview the DVE animation in the viewer in real time using the
Wireframe Preview button on the DVE toolbar. Although you cannot see the
image moving in the viewer until you process the effect, the wireframe mode
lets you verify the position of the image.
To preview an animated DVE in wireframe mode:
1. To display the DVE toolbar, select View > Default Toolbars > DVE
tools.
2. From the DVE toolbar, click the Show All Wireframes button.
All layers with DVEs are displayed with bounding boxes.
3. Select the layer with the animated DVE by clicking on its bounding box or
clicking the corresponding layer in the Layers view.
4. Click the Wireframe Preview button.
The animation starts playing.
5. Click the button again to stop the preview.
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To access the wireframe preview mode from the top timeline, you must display
the DVE toolbar, and leave the DVE property editor open.
Chapter 6
Tracking
This chapter describes how to use Avid DS Nitris to track and
stabilize images.
Motion Tracking
Motion tracking lets you follow the motion of up to four points in an image
sequence. You can use the resulting motion paths to paste one object onto
another moving object, or stabilize a sequence with camera shake or other
undesired motion.
Motion tracking is also useful for creating a motion path to apply to external
images or for tracking shapes, such as a garbage matte or paint stroke.
Before you can do any motion tracking, you’ll need to understand the
following terms:
n
•
Reference is the clip that is tracked to construct a motion path. In the
following example, four-point tracking is applied to the bus in order to
paste a banner onto its side.
•
Layer is the clip that follows the motion path extracted from the reference
clip. In this case, it’s the banner that will be pasted onto the bus.
•
Result is the composite of the moving layer above a background. Once a
motion path is constructed, it is applied as a DVE to the layer. In the
example below, the result is the banner pasted onto the side of the bus.
Tip: The reference does not necessarily have to be the background. You can
composite the layer with any other clip.
Chapter 6 Tracking
Reference
Layer
Result
There are several scenarios in which you can use motion tracking:
230
•
Compositing: Movement in one image is tracked and applied to another.
A point (or set of points) in one layer follows the motion of a point (or set
of points) in a reference layer—see “Tracking Composited Clips” on
page 236.
•
Stabilizing: A single clip is stabilized to remove unwanted movement. In
this case, a point in the reference clip tracks an arbitrary static point within
the same clip—see “Stabilizing Clips” on page 257.
•
Creating motion paths: A path is created by tracking a reference point
(or set of points), then saved and applied later as a preset to other layers or
clips.
•
Shape Tracking: Create a garbage matte and then use a tracker to track
motion in the sequence and then apply it to the garbage matte, or draw a
shape and use the tracker to apply motion from one image to the
shape—see “Tracking Shapes” on page 250 or “Tracking Graphics
Objects” on page 345.
Choosing a Tracking Method
Choosing a Tracking Method
Whether you want to stabilize an image or track motion, using a tracker effect
lets you perform both.
Depending on how you prefer to work, you can apply tracking/stabilizing to a
layer or an Effects Tree. The main differences between these methods are
workflow and an extra property page in the Effects Tree tracker.
Also, to aid in your workflow, separate presets of the tracker effect are
available for stabilization.
Stabilizing Clips
There are several ways in which you can stabilize a clip:
•
Apply the Stabilize tree effect to a clip
This lets you stabilize a clip without having to first create a composite
container clip. You can apply this effect to a clip on the timeline. This tree
effect is a preset effect of the Tracker tree effect—see “Using the
Stabilizer in the Effects Tree” on page 258.
•
Apply the Stabilize tree effect to an Effects Tree
If you prefer to work with an Effects Tree, this method lets you stabilize a
clip inside an Effects Tree. This tree effect is a preset effect of the Tracker
tree effect—see “Using the Stabilizer in the Effects Tree” on page 258.
•
Apply a Tracker effect to a layer
Once you create a composite container clip, you can use the layer DVE’s
tracker to stabilize a clip. If you prefer to create a composite using layers,
use this tracker to stabilize a clip on a layer—see “Using the Stabilizer in
the Layers View” on page 262.
Tracking
There are two ways to track the motion in a clip:
•
Apply a Tracker tree effect to an Effects Tree
Since motion tracking typically requires more than one input, you can
only apply a Tracker tree effect inside an Effects Tree—see “Using the
Tracker in an Effects Tree” on page 239.
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Chapter 6 Tracking
•
Apply a Tracker effect to a layer
Once you create a composite container clip, you can use the layer DVE’s
tracker to track motion in a clip. If you prefer to create a composite using
layers, use this tracker to track motion in a clip on a layer—see “Using the
Tracker in the Layers View” on page 237.
Using the Trackers
Before you actually start tracking or stabilizing anything, there are a few
things you should know about the trackers. The reference point that you select
for tracking and the way you position the trackers affect the overall success of
your tracking.
With every tracking scenario, there are trackers on both the reference and the
layer. The tracker(s) on the reference must be positioned on the point(s) that
will create the motion path. The tracker(s) on the layer should be positioned on
the point(s) that will follow the motion path.
Layer trackers
Reference trackers
A tracker is composed of two concentric rectangles representing the target
area and the search region. The target area is the pixel pattern that the tracker
looks for in each frame, and the search region is the vicinity in which the
tracker looks for its target.
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Using the Trackers
Center of
target
Target area
Search region
Tracker number
The motion tracker takes a snapshot of the pixel patterns in the target area and
then looks for that pattern in subsequent frames. For this reason, you must
select the target carefully in the first frame, so the tracker has a unique pattern
to follow.
Using Multiple Trackers
To define the region for tracking, you must determine the number of trackers
to use. You can use one, two, or four trackers:
Use
To
1-point tracking
Track an object that moves in a particular direction but does
not scale or rotate.
2-point tracking
Track an object that is being scaled and/or rotated from one
frame to the next.
4-point tracking
Track the surface of any four-sided object, such as a window,
television screen, or rectangular sign.This technique is
sometimes referred to as four-point corner pinning.
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Chapter 6 Tracking
Selecting a Suitable Reference Point for Tracking
The key to successful tracking is selecting a good reference point. When
tracking is started, the individual trackers (R1-R4, L1-L4) sample a target area
of the reference clip at the target frame. In each subsequent frame, the motion
tracker searches for the target image within the tracker's search region. When
the target is found, a keyframe is set. The resulting motion path controls the
tracker DVE, and the layer image is moved accordingly.
In order for the search region of the tracker to recognize the target area and its
motion against its surroundings, you should choose a region with good
contrast and detail. You can also change the color space in which the tracker
searches to find a channel with the most contrast.
When placing the reference tracker, choose an area that:
234
•
Has a clear pattern with high contrast. You can also change the color space
to select a channel with the most contrast.
•
Appears in all frames of the sequence being tracked. That is, make sure it
does not disappear or fall outside the viewer area. If the image does move
outside the viewer area, you can offset the trackers—see “Offsetting the
Tracker” on page 267.
•
Has a pattern that remains constant in all frames. That is, make sure that
the background is not constantly changing.
Using the Trackers
Target area
Search region
Correct placement of target.
Incorrect placement of target.
Incorrect placement of target.
When tracking, you will often encounter an area you would like to follow but
can’t be tracked directly. For example, you might want to track something that
goes behind a tree for part of the sequence. Offsetting lets you position the
target area on something you can track temporarily, while keeping the target
on its original reference point. For more information, see “Offsetting the
Tracker” on page 267.
n
If the material that you want to track is field-based, you should either select
the Track in Fields option on the Advanced property page of the tracker or
deinterlace the clip before positioning the reference trackers.
Setting the Search Region
The search region determines how much of the image is analyzed when
searching for the target area.
Here are some points to remember when setting the search region:
•
The time required to analyze the search region is proportional to the size
of the search region. Avoid unnecessarily large search regions unless you
use Translation Only option, which decreases this time.
•
A very large area also increases the chance of a false match with some
completely different part of the image.
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Chapter 6 Tracking
Tracking Composited Clips
n
Not available in Avid DS Nitris Editor.
Most of the time, when you composite images together, you need one image to
follow the motion in another image. For example, you want to composite a
banner on the side of a bus and make the banner follow four points on the bus.
The motion of the banner layer needs to follow the motion of the bus reference
layer, so you can “pin” the banner to the bus.
Depending on how you prefer to work, there are two ways that you can apply
motion tracking to composited clips: using a DVE tracker on a layer or using a
tracker in the Effects Tree.
You can pin a moving object in a layer image to a moving object in a reference
image. To do this, track an object in the layer image and then separately track
an object in the reference image. Avid DS Nitris then applies a transformation
to the layer image, so that the trackers in both images stay aligned.
Reference
Bus sequence
Layer
Banner to be pinned onto side of bus.
Result:
composited
sequence after
tracking is applied
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Tracking Composited Clips
Using the Tracker in the Layers View
If you prefer to composite images together using layers, use the DVE on
a layer.
To set up tracker in the Layers view:
1. From the timeline, select a clip (the bus).
2. Move the position indicator over any frame in this clip.
3. From the taskbar, click the Compositing button.
A composite container clip is created in which you can layer your clips.
The clip automatically becomes the first layer in the composite.
4. From the view switcher, click the Avid Explorer button.
5. In the Avid Explorer, select the other clip in the composite (the banner),
and drag it to the timeline ribbon.
The clip is automatically added as the topmost layer in the Layers view.
n
Tip: The reference image does not have to be used in a layer in the composite.
For example, you may need to simulate a motion path created by an object in a
clip that is not going to be used in the composite.
6. On the Layers view, click the DVE button of the layer (the banner) that
will follow the path created by the tracker (that is, not the reference layer).
7. In the DVE property editor, click the Track button to open the Motion
Tracker property editor.
8. In the Edit box, select the Reference option.
9. From the timeline, click the Track Selector of the track that is used as the
reference, and drag it to the Start Frame box in the Reference property
page.
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Chapter 6 Tracking
Motion Tracker
property editor
Drag reference clip
to Start Frame box
in the tracker
The bus image is now displayed in the Start and End Frame boxes. Since
this is the image that will be tracked, make sure that it is displayed as the
reference image.
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Tracking Composited Clips
10. You can adjust the length of the clip to be used for motion tracking by
doing one of the following:
t
Enter a timecode in the Start Frame and End Frame timecode
boxes.
t
Set in and out markers on the timeline.
The Start Frame and End Frame timecodes are updated in the
property editor.
11. Proceed to “Positioning the Reference Tracker” on page 241.
Using the Tracker in an Effects Tree
If you prefer to work with an Effects Tree, you can use the Tracker tree effect.
To set up the Tracker in the Effects Tree:
1. From the timeline, select a clip (the bus).
2. Place the position indicator over any frame in this clip.
3. From the taskbar, click the Compositing button.
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Chapter 6 Tracking
A container clip is created and the clip automatically becomes the first
layer in the composite.
4. Click the layer (the bus) to activate its Effects Tree.
Input 1 (the bus) is connected to the output node.
5. From the Avid Explorer, drag the other clip (the banner) to the Effects
Tree view.
The clip is added to the Effects Tree, and is placed on a new track on the
timeline. No layer is created for the clip.
6. Right-click an empty area of the Effects Tree and select Add Effect.
7. In the Load Preset dialog box, select the Tracker effect (\Tree Effects
folder).
A Tracker Effect node is added to the Effects Tree view.
Tracker added to Effects Tree.
8. Connect the node to be used as a reference (the bus) to Reference.
9. Connect the node to be used a a layer (the banner) to Layer.
10. Connect the output of the Tracker node to the input of the Output node.
11. Double-click the Tracker Effect node.
The Tracker Effect’s property editor is displayed.
12. In the Edit list, select In 2 - ref.
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Mode list
Edit list
The reference (input 2) is displayed in the viewer.
n
When you switch between In 1-layer and In 2-ref, the General property page’s
name changes to Input 1 or Input 2.
13. From the Mode list, select 4-pnt.
Four trackers are displayed in each corner of the viewer.
14. Add the Composite effect to the tree.
Since the tracker does not composite images together, you need to add a
Composite node in order to composite the banner over the bus image.
15. Connect the nodes as follows:
-
Output of the bus node to L1 on the Composite node.
-
Output of the tracker node to L2 on the Composite node.
16. Proceed to “Positioning the Reference Tracker” on page 241.
Positioning the Reference Tracker
You need to place the reference tracker(s) in the first frame of the clip that is to
be tracked. The tracker will then follow the reference point(s) as it moves
through the sequence.
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Chapter 6 Tracking
n
At any time, you can replace the reference clip with another by dragging a new
reference clip from the timeline to the Effects Tree and connecting it to Input 2.
If you’re using the DVE tracker, simply replace the clip on the timeline.
To position the Reference Tracker:
1. On the timeline, scrub through the clip to select the best point to
track—see “Selecting a Suitable Reference Point for Tracking” on
page 234.
2. From the Tracker property editor, do one of the following:
t
In the DVE tracker, select Reference from the Edit box.
t
In the Tracker tree effect, select In 2 - ref from the Edit list.
3. In the Mode box, do one of the following:
t
In the DVE tracker, select the 1, 2, or 4-point option from the Mode
box.
t
In the Tracker tree effect, select the 1-pnt, 2-pnt, or 4-pnt option.
Depending on your selection, one, two, or four trackers are displayed in
the viewer. By default, they are located in the corners of the frames in both
the reference and layer images, and corresponding property pages for each
tracker are displayed in the property editor.
In 4-point mode, the trackers must always form a convex shape. In a
convex shape, one tracker can never be inside the triangle formed by the
other three. If you try to drag a tracker inside the triangle, it will stop at
the intersection.
Valid tracker positions.
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Invalid tracker positions.
Tip: When you apply 4-point tracking, crop options become available for
cropping the layer image to its tracker polygon, and applying a blur to the
cropped image. For more information, see “Cropping Unwanted Parts of
Images” on page 248.
Tracking Composited Clips
4. In the viewer, drag the center of a tracker(s) over the object that you want
to track.
The tracker changes to a magnifying glass when you drag it across the
viewer. You can change the magnification on the Advanced property page.
As you select a tracker, its property page is displayed in the property
editor.
The tracker displays the magnification in luminance mode, except when
you select RGB, so that you can view the contrast when selecting a target.
You can change the tracker to read the luminance from a single channel or
to display RGB combined, on each tracker’s property page.
n
Tip: Press Ctrl and drag a tracker to move both the reference and
layer trackers simultaneously.
Reference
trackers
5. You can adjust the size of the target and the search region to increase the
sampling size of the target area and/or make the search region larger. In
the viewer, click the inner and/or outer boxes of the tracker and drag the
resize handles to modify the target and/or search region.
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Chapter 6 Tracking
n
Be sure that the target is completely inside the image. If the target is partly
over a gray area of the viewer, the following message will appear: “The
tracker’s target is not completely inside the image.” When this happens, resize
or reposition the target.
Resize
handles
Resizing the target.
Resizing the search region.
6. On each tracker property page (R1-R4), adjust Threshold in the
Confidence box to define how closely the tracked image must match the
target. By default this value is set to 85%.
7. In the If Below Threshold box, select one of the following:
-
Update Target to update each time the target falls below the
threshold.
-
Continue to continue tracking even if the target falls below the
threshold.
-
Stop to stop tracking if target falls below threshold.
-
Predict to predict the motion path of the target until it comes back
into view.
Positioning the Layer Tracker
The position in which you place layer trackers depends on what kind of
tracking you want to do. For example, if you want to track four points, as in
the case of the banner on the bus, you can position the trackers on the four
corners of the image. The four corners are “pinned” and the banner is scaled to
match the trackers on the reference layer.
You could also crop the banner by placing the four points inside the edges of
it. For more information, see “Cropping Unwanted Parts of Images” on
page 248.
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Tracking Composited Clips
When you perform 1-point tracking, you can move the layer’s target area to
the exact position that will follow the reference tracker, usually the center of
the image. When the motion tracking is processed, the layer tracker is mapped
directly to the reference tracker. However, if you want to offset the layer, you
can move the layer tracker to another position. This lets you perform a DVE
transformation directly within the tracker.
To position the layer tracker:
1. In the Tracker property editor, do one of the following:
t
In the DVE tracker, select the Layer option from the Edit box.
t
In the Tracker tree effect, select the In 1 - layer option from the Edit
list.
The layer image is displayed in the Start and End Frame boxes.
2. Drag the tracker(s) over the portions of the image that you want to follow
the motion path that is created in the reference image.
In this example, the four points at the edge of the banner will be the points
that follow the motion path.
3. To see the appearance of the composite, do one of the following:
t
In the DVE tracker, select the Result option from the Mode box.
t
In the Tracker tree effect, select the Output option from the
Mode list.
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Chapter 6 Tracking
Starting the Tracking Process
Once you’ve set up the reference and layer clips in the motion tracker, and
positioned and adjusted the trackers, you can start tracking. The reference
image on which tracking takes place depends on how the Set Target and
Update Always options are set on each tracker’s property page:
Set Target
Update Always
Reference image tracked
No
No
The first frame on which tracking is started
(forward or backward)
Yes
No
The target time selected
No
Yes
The previous frame tracked
To start tracking:
1. In the Tracker property editor, do one of the following:
t
In the DVE tracker, select the Reference option in the Edit box.
t
In the Tracker tree effect, select the In 2 - ref option in the Edit list.
The reference image, where the tracking takes place, is displayed in the
viewer and in the property editor viewer boxes.
2. Go to the first frame in the clip where the tracking is to begin.
3. In the Motion Tracker property editor, select the Update View option to
update the viewer as the tracker advances from frame to frame. Be aware,
however, that this option will slow down tracking.
4. Select the Show Path option to display the tracker’s motion path after the
tracking is complete.
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Tracking Composited Clips
5. If you’re tracking field-based material, select the Track in Fields option
on the Advanced property page.
n
Tip: To decrease the time required to track, you can select both the Bypass and
View options.
6. Click the Track Forward button to begin tracking the reference clip.
You can click Stop at any time to stop tracking. You can also click the
Track Backward button if you want to start tracking from the end of
a clip.
The tracking generates a motion path. Since this is an animation sequence,
you can adjust points manually. To remove the tracking, simply delete the
animation.
n
Tip: You can also reapply the animation created with the motion tracker on
another image by saving the layer DVE as a preset, and then applying it to
another clip.
7. If the tracker fails to locate the target, the tracking may stop depending on
the Confidence options you have set for the tracker(s). For tips on
correcting errors during tracking, see “Correcting Tracker Errors” on
page 269.
8. If the tracking was successful, you can view the result by doing the
following:
t
In the DVE tracker, select the Result option from the Edit box.
t
In the Tracker tree effect, select the Output option from the Edit list.
The composite is displayed at the current frame.
n
Tip: If you’re using the DVE tracker and the reference image is part of the
composite, use the Opacity sliders in the Layers view to see both the layer and
reference images simultaneously. In the Tracker tree effect, you can adjust the
opacity on the General property page.
You can also press Ctrl and click Play on the transport controls to display
the composite frame by frame. The object that you tracked in the layer
image follows the motion of the object you tracked in the reference image.
9. If you’re satisfied with the results, process the sequence to view the results
in real time.
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Chapter 6 Tracking
Avid DS Nitris records the motion path of the reference image and applies
a DVE transformation to the layer image based on that motion path.
n
Tip: When you need to pin a moving object in a layer image to a moving object
in a reference image, you must first track an object in the layer image, and
then separately track an object in the reference image. (both the Reference and
Layer property pages each have their own Track button). Avid DS Nitris then
maps the motion path created from the layer to the motion path created from
the reference.
Cropping Unwanted Parts of Images
When you apply 4-point tracking to an image, you can crop the unwanted
parts of the image to an area on the reference clip. When you do this, any part
of the image outside of the polygon is removed from the resulting composite.
To crop a layer to a reference image:
1. From the Motion Tracker property editor, do one of the following:
t
In the DVE tracker, select the Layer option from the Edit box.
t
In the Tracker tree effect, select the In 1 - layer option from the Edit
list.
2. In the Mode box, select one of the following:
-
In the DVE tracker, select the 4-point option.
-
In the Tracker tree effect, select the 4-pnt option.
The trackers appear in the four corners of the viewer.
3. In the viewer, position the trackers over the area that you want to keep.
4. On the Advanced property page, select the Apply Crop option.
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Combining Tracking with Other DVEs
5. Select the Crop RGB option if you want to the RGB channels to be
cropped. Otherwise, only the alpha channel is cropped.
6. In the Edit box, select one of the following:
-
In the DVE tracker, select the Result option.
-
In the Tracker tree effect, select the Output option.
Verify that this is how you want the composite to look. The layer image is
adjusted, so that its tracker polygon aligns with the reference image’s
tracker polygon, and the resulting composite is displayed in the viewer.
Combining Tracking with Other DVEs
n
Not available in Avid DS Nitris Editor.
You can combine a motion tracker with other DVE transformations on the
same layer or in an Effects Tree. For example, you can apply motion tracking
to an image and then scale the image to match the perspective in the reference
image.
n
Tip: DVEs are applied in this order: motion tracking, SRT/DVE, and global.
For more information, see “Applying a Global DVE in the Layers View” on
page 210.
DVEs are always applied after the tracker, therefore you will not see the
results of a scaled, rotated, or translated image when you perform tracking. If
you want to see the image as it will appear after the DVE has been applied,
you must select
To apply DVEs on a layer:
1. Close the Motion tracker property editor.
2. To open the DVE property editor, do one of the following:
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Chapter 6 Tracking
t
Select a layer to participate in the transformation and click DVE to
open the tool for that layer.
t
If the DVE is applied on the timeline, double-click the DVE
effect bar.
3. Interactively transform the DVE in the viewer.
4. To view the results, click Track in the Global Controls.
The Motion Tracker property editor is displayed.
5. In the Edit box, select the Result option.
To apply a DVE to an Effects Tree:
1. In the Tracker property editor, select the Output option.
DVEs are always applied to the result of the tracker.
2. Interactively transform the DVE in the viewer.
Tracking Shapes
Shape tracking is a method of tracking that helps decrease the time required to
perform rotoscopy tasks. In the keyers and Matte effect, you can create shapes
using the shape creation tools and then track them. You can track shapes as a
whole or track individual control points on a shape.
For example, if you want to create a key for an image that scales and moves
and contains objects that are difficult to key out, shape tracking lets you create
a garbage matte for these shapes and track them to the objects that are difficult
to key out.
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Tracking Shapes
Objects difficult to key.
Image after scaling.
The shape tracker will track the region for the duration of the stroke. For more
information, see “Motion Tracking” on page 229.
Using the Shape Tracker
When you want to use the shape tracker, you must decide if you want to track
a shape or track control points. For example, if you’re tracking a simple shape
(like one of the circles in the previous illustration), you can draw a circle over
the shape and then track two points. Since these objects both scale and move,
they require 2-point tracking.
If you draw a complex shape, around a person for example, then you should
track individual control points.
Tracking a Shape
You can draw multiple shapes using the shape creation tools and then track
them all at the same time.
n
When you draw a mix of shapes and decide to track some using shape tracking
and others using control point tracking, you need to track all shape trackers in
one pass and then all control point trackers in another pass (or vice versa).
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Chapter 6 Tracking
To track a shape:
1. Apply a keyer or the Matte effect to a clip—see “Keying” on page 117.
n
The shape tracker is not available in the HSL or Luma keyers.
2. Create a matte for the clip.
3. On the Shape property page, select a shape creation tool and draw a
shape(s) in the viewer.
Shapes
drawn in
viewer.
n
Tip: You can select the Force Premultiplied option to verify that your shape(s)
covers the entire object you are drawing. For more information, see
“Changing the Premultiplication Setting” on page 59.
4. From the Shape Transformations box, click the Select Shape tool, and
then select the shape in the viewer.
Selected shape
A yellow box with handles is displayed around the selected shape.
5. Deselect the Output Matte option.
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Tracking Shapes
Since the shape tracker performs tracking on the RGB channels, you need
to position the trackers while viewing them in RGB.
6. On the Tracker property page, select the 1-point or 2-point option in the
Tracking Mode box.
Depending on your choice, one or two trackers are displayed on the shape.
If you don’t see the trackers, click the Show button.
7. Position the tracker(s) on the shape.
To switch between the trackers, press the comma (,) or period (.) key on
your keyboard. You can also click another area in the viewer to deselect
both trackers and then reselect one or the other.
Two trackers displayed on a shape.
n
Tip: When you position the trackers, be sure to look for an area that contains
good contrast. You can change the color space to find a channel that contains
the most luminance. For more information, see “Selecting a Suitable
Reference Point for Tracking” on page 234.
8. Repeat steps 4 to 7 to position the trackers on each shape.
9. Press Shift and click each shape to select it. Each shape that you want to
track must be selected.
10. Click the Show button.
The trackers for each shape must be displayed in the viewer in order to
track them.
11. If you’re tracking field-based material, select the Track in Fields option
on the Advanced property page.
12. Click the Track Forward or Track Backward button.
The tracking is started.
n
If any tracker fails, a warning box is displayed and tracking. The failed
tracker(s) turn red. You can reposition the tracker and continue tracking
forwards or backwards.
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Chapter 6 Tracking
13. Once the tracking is complete, you can process the effect and play it in
real time.
Tracking Control Points
You can draw multiple shapes using the shape creation tools and then track
multiple control points on each shape in one pass.
To track control points:
1. Apply a keyer or the Matte effect to a clip—see “Keying” on page 117.
n
The shape tracker is not available in the HSL or Luma keyers.
2. Create a matte for the clip.
3. On the Shape property page, select a shape creation tool and draw a
shape(s) in the viewer.
You can draw multiple shapes and then track control points on each shape
at the same time.
n
n
If you draw a mix of shapes and then decide to track some of them using shape
tracking and others using control point tracking, you need to track shape
trackers and control point trackers in separate passes.
Tip: You can switch between the RGB and alpha channel views to ensure that
your shape entirely covers the object you are drawing.
4. Click the Edit Shapes button.
The control points of the last shape you drew are displayed. To select the
control points of another shape, click the shape in the viewer.
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Tracking Shapes
Polyline shape drawn
in viewer.
5. Deselect the Output Matte option.
Since the shape tracker performs tracking on the RGB channels, you need
to position the trackers while viewing them in RGB.
6. Select the Tracker tab.
7. In the viewer, press Shift and click the control points that you want
to track.
8. Click the Show button to display each control point in the viewer, so you
can track them.
The trackers are displayed on the control points.
9. Position the tracker(s) on the shape.
Sometimes, when you draw a freehand shape, you may want to track a
point that’s not in the shape. In this case, you can offset the tracker by
pressing Shift+right-click and drag the tracker to another point that you
want to track.
Trackers offset from
control points.
n
Tip: When you position the trackers, be sure to look for an area that contains
good contrast. You can change the color space to find a channel that contains
the most luminance. For more information, see “Selecting a Suitable
Reference Point for Tracking” on page 234.
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Chapter 6 Tracking
n
To switch between the trackers, press the comma (,) or period (.) key on your
keyboard. You can also click another area in the viewer to deselect both
trackers and then reselect one or the other.
10. Repeat steps 4 to 9 to position the trackers on multiple shapes.
11. Press Shift and click each control point that you want to track.
Each shape that you want to track must be selected.
12. Click the Show button to display each control point in the viewer, so you
can track them.
The trackers are displayed on the control points.
13. If you’re tracking field-based material, select the Track in Fields option
on the Advanced property page.
14. Click the Track Forward or Track Backward button.
The tracking starts. If the tracker fails at any point, the tracker will stop.
Simply reposition a tracker and continue to track forwards or backwards.
15. Once the tracking is complete, you can process the effect and play it in
real time.
Setting an Offset for the Tracker
It is not always possible to find reference points that appear in every frame,
such as when an object moves out of the viewer area. In such cases, you can
set an offset for the tracker to follow in frames where the object disappears
from view.
The Transform Offset option applies the tracked transformation or scaling to
the offset keeping the offset point in the correct position relative to the
reference point.
To set an offset point:
1. Go to the frame where the object becomes occluded.
2. Press Shift+right-click and drag the tracker to another point that you want
to track.
This creates an offset point for the tracker to work with.
3. Click the Track button to start or continue tracking.
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Stabilizing Clips
Correcting Tracker Errors when Tracking Shapes Objects
At times, a tracker may not find its target in a frame. If this occurs, an error
message is displayed and the tracker that failed is highlighted in red in the
viewer. You can correct the error by fine-tuning the tracker’s properties.
To correct errors when tracking shapes objects:
1. Using the transport controls, go to the frame where an error occurred (the
frame that contains the red tracker).
This is usually the current frame, since the tracker will stop when it cannot
find its target.
2. Do one of the following:
t
In the viewer, adjust the tracker position, target and search region, and
resume tracking (to move the tracker and target press Shift+left-click
and drag).
t
In the Tracker property page, adjust the tracker’s properties, and
resume tracking.
Stabilizing Clips
Stabilizing is a technique that lets you remove unwanted movement, such as
camera jitter, from a sequence of images. When stabilizing, a target object in a
layer image is forced to remain in the same position, stabilizing the image.
Because of camera jitter, the pyramid appears to move up and down.
Stabilizing moves the frames up or down in the opposite direction, so that the pyramid appears stable.
Gaps created after image is displaced.
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Chapter 6 Tracking
To stabilize an image, Avid DS Nitris tracks a point that appears in each
frame. The tracker creates a path from the movement of the object; this motion
path represents the jittering motion in the sequence.
To remove this unwanted movement, Avid DS Nitris uses a DVE
transformation to move each frame in the opposite direction of the unwanted
movement. Due to the displacement of the image, this may result in a gap
around some parts of the image. To correct this, you can scale or crop the
image using the SRT DVE (the tracker’s “parent” DVE) if you use the DVE
tracker, or from the DVE property page of the Tracker tree effect.
Depending on how you prefer to work, you can stabilize a clip by:
•
Using the Stabilizer tree effect on a clip or Effects Tree
•
Using a DVE tracker on a layer
Using the Stabilizer in the Effects Tree
You can apply a Stabilizer tree effect to a clip on the timeline or to an Effects
Tree. This effect is a preset of the Tracker tree effect.
To stabilize an image using the Stabilizer effect in the Effects Tree:
1. From the timeline, select a clip.
2. Right-click the clip and select Add Clip Effect.
3. In the Load Preset dialog box, select Stabilizer from the \Image Effects
folder.
The Stabilizer effect is applied to the clip and the Effects Tree (Stabilizer)
dialog box is displayed.
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Stabilizing Clips
Effects list
4. From the Effects list, select Stabilizer.
The Stabilizer property pages are displayed.
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Chapter 6 Tracking
5. From the Edit list, select In 2-ref.
Mode list
Edit list
When stabilizing clips, both the reference and layer clips are the same.
However, stabilizing/tracking is always performed on the reference
layer (input 2).
6. From the Mode list, select the number of trackers you want to use.
n
Tip: Typically 1-point tracking is adequate, but if you need to remove
unwanted rotational movement, use 2-point tracking.
7. Press Ctrl and drag the reference tracker in the viewer to the point(s) you
want to remain stable.
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Stabilizing Clips
Both the reference and layer trackers are positioned at the same
point—see “Positioning the Reference Tracker” on page 241.
When you select a tracker, its property page is also displayed in the
dialog box.
8. On the tracker (R1-R4) property page, select the color space with which
you want the stabilizer to follow. Experiment with the color spaces until
you find one that has the most contrast.
n
Tip: You can change the size of the tracker’s magnification on the Advanced
property page.
9. From the Confidence box, select the settings for the tracker—see
“Positioning the Reference Tracker” on page 241.
10. On the Options property page, specify if your source media is frame or
field-based.
11. If you’re tracking field-based material, select the Track in Fields option
on the Advanced property page.
12. Before you begin tracking, make sure the position indicator is on the first
frame where the tracking should begin and click the Track Forward
button—see “Starting the Tracking Process” on page 246.
The motion path of the static object is recorded. A DVE transformation is
then applied to the image to compensate for the motion path and to
stabilize the image.
n
Tip: Due to displacement of the image during stabilizing, you may notice gaps
around some parts of the image. To correct this, scale or crop the image using
a DVE. For more information, see “Combining Tracking with Other DVEs” on
page 249.
13. To view the results of the tracking, do one of the following:
t
Select the Output option.
The composite is displayed at the current frame.
t
Press Ctrl and click the position indicator.
The composite is displayed frame by frame. The object that you
tracked in the layer image follows the motion of the object that you
tracked in the reference image.
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Chapter 6 Tracking
n
Tip: To increase the quality of the tracked image, you can adjust the
parameters on the Quality property page
14. If you’re satisfied with the results, process the sequence to view the results
in real time.
Using the Stabilizer in the Layers View
If you prefer working with layers, use the Stabilizer in the DVE effect.
To stabilize an image in the Layers view:
1. From the timeline, select a clip.
2. Place the position indicator over any frame of the clip.
3. From the taskbar, click the Compositing button.
A composite container clip is created and the clip is placed in the Layers
view as the first layer. For more information see “Using Composite
Container Clips” on page 283 of the Avid DS Nitris Getting Started Guide.
4. Click the DVE button on the layer that you want to stabilize.
The DVE property editor is displayed.
5. In the DVE property editor, click the Track button.
The Motion Tracker property editor is displayed.
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Stabilizing Clips
6. From the Edit box, select the Reference option.
7. On the Reference property page, select the Stabilize option.
The Reference viewers display the start and end of clip that you want
to stabilize.
n
In stabilizing mode, the reference image and the layer image are the same.
8. From the Mode box, select the number of trackers you want to use.
n
Tip: Typically 1-point tracking is adequate, but if you need to remove
unwanted rotational movement, use 2-point tracking.
9. Press Ctrl and drag the reference tracker in the viewer to the point(s) you
want to remain stable.
Both the reference and layer trackers are positioned at the same
point—see “Positioning the Reference Tracker” on page 241 and
“Positioning the Layer Tracker” on page 244.
10. On the Options property page, specify if your source media is frame or
field-based.
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Chapter 6 Tracking
11. If you’re tracking field-based material, select the Track in Fields option
on the Advanced property page.
12. Before you begin tracking, make sure the position indicator is on the first
frame where the tracking should begin and click the Track Forward
button—see “Starting the Tracking Process” on page 246.
The motion path of the static object is recorded. A DVE transformation is
then applied to the image to compensate for the motion path and stabilize
the image.
n
Tip: Due to displacement of the image during stabilizing, you may notice gaps
around some parts of the image. To correct this, scale or crop the image using
a DVE. For more information, see “Combining Tracking with Other DVEs” on
page 249.
13. To view the results of the tracking, do one of the following:
t
From the Edit box, select the Result option.
The composite is displayed at the current frame. If you want to view
the layer and reference images concurrently, you can use the Opacity
slider in the Layers view.
t
Press Ctrl and click the position indicator.
The composite is displayed frame by frame. The object that you
tracked in the layer image follows the motion of the object that you
tracked in the reference image.
n
Tip: To increase the quality of the tracked image, adjust the parameters on the
Quality property page.
14. If you’re satisfied with the results, process the sequence to view the results
in real time.
4-Point Corner Pinning
4-point corner pinning refers to pinning the four corners of one static (usually)
image onto another static image. A common example is to pin an image to a
TV screen. In Avid DS Nitris, there are several ways to perform 4-point corner
pinning. The method you choose depends on how you prefer to work. You can:
•
264
Use a DVE on a layer to pin one layer to another, or
4-Point Corner Pinning
•
Use a Corner Pin Effects Tree to pin a clip on a video track to an image
below it, or pin one input in an Effects Tree to another. This preset lets you
concentrate on corner pinning only. Since it only requires one input, you
can apply it to a clip or in an Effects Tree.
To perform 4-point corner pinning in the Effects Tree:
1. Apply the Corner Pin preset (\Image Effects folder) to a clip or Effects
Tree.
The Corner Pin property editor is displayed.
n
To see the composited result, you’ll also have to add a Composite effect and
connect the output of the Corner Pin effect to input 2 on the Composite effect,
and connect the other input node to input 1 of the Composite effect. Lastly,
connect the output of the Composite effect to the input of the Output node.
2. From the Effects list, select Corner Pin.
The Corner Pin property pages are displayed, and the corner pins are
displayed in the viewer.
3. Position the pins on the image.
To perform 4-point corner pinning on a layer:
1. Apply a DVE on a layer.
The DVE property editor is displayed.
2. From the DVE property editor, deselect the SRT option.
Since you don’t need to scale, rotate, or translate the image, you don’t
need to select this option. This option must be deselected in order to
perform corner pinning.
3. Select the Track option beside the Track button.
The trackers are displayed.
4. From the Mode box, select 4-point.
5. From the Edit box, select Result.
The corner pins are displayed.
6. Ensure that Track is selected from the Transformation box.
7. Position the pins on the image.
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Chapter 6 Tracking
Tracking Difficult Shots
When performing tracking, a common question you’ll ask yourself is “Why
did my tracker fail?” Sometimes it’s difficult to determine what went wrong
when you tracked an image. There can be several reasons why a tracker fails.
For example, a tracker will fail if an object becomes occluded, or if a search
region doesn’t contain enough contrast.
To help determine how to fix tracking problems, ask yourself the following:
Question
Answer
Did the tracker become If yes, offset the tracker or set the tracker to “predict” a
occluded?
path—see “Offsetting the Tracker” on page 267 and step 6
in “Positioning the Reference Tracker” on page 241.
Is the reference point
outside of the viewer?
If yes, offset the tracker—see “Offsetting the Tracker” on
page 267.
Is there too little
If yes, change the tracker to a different color space—see
contrast in the tracker? “Selecting a Suitable Reference Point for Tracking” on
page 234.
If your image has little contrast, you can apply a Color
Correction clip effect to it, so you can increase the gain and
decrease the brightness—see “Workflow: Color Correcting
Images” on page 155.
If you only want to affect a certain area in an image, you can
also use the Selective Color Correction clip effect—see
“Using the Selective Color Correction Preset” in the Help.
Once tracking is complete, you can remove the Color
Correction or Selective Color Correction effect.
Did the object move
outside the search
region?
If yes, increase the search region or manually move a
target— see step 4 in “Positioning the Reference Tracker”
on page 241
Does the object scale or If yes, deselect the Translation Only option.
rotate?
266
Did the tracker slowly
degrade?
If yes, manually correct the tracker.—see “Correcting
Tracker Errors” on page 269.
Is the object moving
quickly?
If yes, deinterlace the clip before you stabilize it or track in
fields.
Tracking Difficult Shots
Question
Answer
Is my material full
resolution and
compressed?
If yes, recapture the clips using full resolution and no
compression.
Does the background
change?
If yes, use the Update Target option in the Confidence box
of the tracker—see step 6 in “Positioning the Reference
Tracker” on page 241.
Why do I get the
message “The tracker’s
target is not completely
inside the image”?
Part or all of the tracker’s target is not positioned in the
image on the target frame. It may be just outside the image
in an area of the viewer. Resize the target or move it and
then try tracking again—see “Positioning the Reference
Tracker” on page 241.
Why do I get the
message “Can’t track
target of uniform
color”?
The object you are trying to track contains no contrast.
Try finding an object that has more contrast, or change the
color space—see “Selecting a Suitable Reference Point for
Tracking” on page 234.
Offsetting the Tracker
At times, it’s not possible to find a reference point that appears in every frame.
The object, for example, may move out of the viewer area or disappear
temporarily behind another object. When this happens, you can set an offset
point for the tracker to follow in the frames in which the object disappears
from view.
Offsetting can occur when you change your choice of target halfway through
the tracking. For example, if the target goes behind a tree for a few frames, you
can:
•
Track normally until just before it goes behind the tree.
•
Find some other part of the object you are following that isn’t obscured by
the tree, and move the target area to follow that.
•
Continue tracking using this offset target until the tree is no longer in the
way, and then move the target back to the original object and continue
tracking.
Avid DS Nitris automatically adjusts for all offsets of the target to produce a
single unbroken motion path.
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Chapter 6 Tracking
To set an offset point:
1. Go to the frame where the object becomes occluded.
Man’s hand
disappears
behind car.
Motion path
2. Press Shift+right-click and drag the tracker to another point that you want
to track.
This creates an offset point for the tracker to work with. Notice that the
Set Target option in the Motion Tracker property editor shows the
timecode where the offset has been set.
Offset the
target to
man’s
head.
3. Click the Track Forward or Track Backward button to continue
the tracking.
A keyframe is set on the offset curve at the start and end frame. You can
adjust the curve using the animation editor.
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Tracking Difficult Shots
Correcting Tracker Errors
At times, a tracker may not find its target in a frame. If this occurs, an error
message is displayed and the tracker that failed is highlighted in red in the
viewer. You can correct the error by fine-tuning the tracker’s properties and
then tracking backward until you reach a frame in which the tracker doesn’t
fail.
To correct a tracker error:
1. Using the transport controls, go to the frame in which the error occurred
(that is, the frame that contains the red tracker).
2. In the Tracker property editor, do one of the following:
t
In the DVE tracker, select the Reference option from the Edit box.
t In the Tracker tree effect, select the In 2 - ref option from the Edit list.
3. Select the tracker that you want to adjust and change its properties. You
can also reposition the tracker manually in the viewer, and set a keyframe
by clicking the Animation Key button to confirm the change.
4. Continue tracking forward.
n
Tip: If you used the Continue or Predict options (Confidence box), you can
select the Remove Keys Below Threshold option after the tracking is
complete. This will remove the incorrect tracker points and interpolate the
gaps in the motion path, where necessary, to create a smoother path.
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Chapter 6 Tracking
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Chapter 7
Painting and 2D Titling
Using the vector drawing tools, you can create images or touch up existing
clips without losing the original content. You can also retouch images, remove
scratches, animate titles, import images, as well as manipulate and rearrange
the graphics you create.
Chapter 7 Painting and 2D Titling
Workflow: Painting and 2D Titling
All graphics creation are done in the Graphics layout and Graphics combo
view. Avid DS Nitris has two toolsets for creating graphics: paint and titling.
They share the same animatable edit tools, color browsers, and paint effects
editors. These toolsets let you touch up and add graphics elements to layers, as
well as create mattes. All strokes and their properties are vector-based and
fully editable, except for when you’re working in the raster paint mode.
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Workflow: Painting and 2D Titling
1 Choose a method to apply graphics.
or
Create a composite container clip
and apply graphics to a layer.
Apply the Graphics effect to a clip.
or
Apply graphics as a
node in an Effects Tree.
or
Select a region on the timeline and create a
source-generated clip for graphics or titles.
2
Select a drawing tool.
Select a drawing tool.
Define the tool properties.
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Chapter 7 Painting and 2D Titling
3
Create graphics object.
Draw a stroke or
add a title.
4
Edit individual graphics objects.
5
Process the graphics objects.
Process the frames
where the graphics
objects were applied.
274
Select object and
edit its properties.
Applying Graphics
Applying Graphics
When creating graphics or titles, you’ll be working in a graphics session. A
graphics session is the time span over which graphics objects, such as strokes
or titles, appear. You can create a graphics session by applying the Graphics
effect to a clip or track, a layer inside a composite container clip, or as a node
in an Effects Tree.
n
If you are using the Avid DS Nitris Editor, the floating Graphics combo view is
displayed instead of the Graphics layout. For more information, see
”Graphics Combo View” in the Help.
Before you begin a graphics session, you’ll have to set up the environment in
which you’re going to create graphics. This includes setting the working
resolution and deciding whether you want to apply graphics as an effect, on a
layer in a composite, or as a node in an Effects Tree.
Applying graphics as an effect lets you add graphics to a:
•
Single clip,
•
Video, background, or timeline effect track, or
•
Node in the Effects Tree.
You can also paint on a layer in a composite or on a node in the Effects Tree
when you want to use graphics as one effect among many. The method you
choose depends on the type and complexity of the graphics that you plan to
use.
n
When you apply a Graphics effect to a clip on the video track, the Graphics
layout is displayed. In this layout, the viewer displays the graphics you apply
to the clip on the video track, but it will not display the final composite. To
view the final composite, you must switch back to the Editing layout. You can
also use the Reconnect Viewer button or open a floating viewer on the top
timeline.
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Chapter 7 Painting and 2D Titling
Setting the Working Resolution
Resolution is the amount and degree of detail in a video image. The working
resolution that you choose affects the processing speed of your graphics
session, as well as the interactivity of the painting and titling process. You can
set the working resolution of your graphics session in the Sequence
Preferences dialog box.
To set the working resolution:
1. Select File > Sequence Preferences.
2. In the Sequence Preferences dialog box, select the Video tab.
3. In the Working Video Settings box, set the working resolution.
Click the Help button for detailed information on Sequence Preferences.
Applying Graphics on the Video or Background Tracks
On a video track, you can apply graphics over all or part of a clip, as well as a
series of clips on the same track. A background track is where you can apply
graphics over all the video tracks on the timeline. You can apply a graphics
effect to a clip or track.
To apply the graphics to a video track:
1. Select the clip or track on which you want to apply graphics.
2. Right-click your selection and select one of the following:
-
Add Clip Effect if you selected a clip.
-
Add Track Effect if you selected a track.
3. In the Load Preset dialog box, browse through the folders and select the
Graphics effect from the \Image Effects folder.
The Graphics effect is applied to the selected clip or track, the position
indicator moves to the first frame of the clip or track, and the Graphics
layout is displayed.
4. You can now paint or create titles in the viewer.
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Applying Graphics
To apply the Graphics effect on the background track:
1. Right-click the timeline ribbon and select Create Background Track.
2. A background track is created between the audio and video tracks.Select
the background track or a clip on the background track, and do one of
the following:
t
Right-click the clip and select Add Clip Effect.
t
Right-click the upper area of the track and select Add Track Effect.
Upper area of
background track
3. In the Load Preset dialog box, select the Graphics effect from the \Image
Effects folder.
The Graphics effect is applied to the selected clip or track, the position
indicator moves to the beginning of the track/clip, and the Graphics layout
is displayed.
4. You can now paint or create titles in the viewer.
Applying Graphics as a Source-Generated Effect
On a selected region of a video track, you can create a new clip for applying
graphics. When you create a new clip, you can choose Graphics as an effect.
This type of effect is called a source generator effect. Other source-generated
effects include Solid Color, Wood Grain, and others.
Applying graphics as a source-generated effect is useful when you want to
apply graphics or titles on a black background.
To create a source-generated clip for graphics:
1. Select a region of a video track.
2. Do one of the following:
t
Press Ctrl+G.
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Chapter 7 Painting and 2D Titling
t
From the NLE Tools toolbar, click Generate > Source Generator
Clip.
3. From the Load Preset dialog box, select Graphics on Black.
A clip is created in the region of the track you selected. The Graphics
layout is displayed. The Masks property is set to RGBA and the Time
Span is set to Start to End.
To create a source-generated clip for titling:
1. Select a region of a video track.
2. From the NLE Tools toolbar, click Editing > Simple Titling on Black.
A clip is created in the region of the track you selected. The Graphics
combo view is displayed. The Masks property is set to RGBA, the Time
Span property is set to Start to End, and the Text tool is active.
To edit a graphics or titling source-generated clip:
t
Double-click source-generated clip on the timeline.
Applying Graphics on the Timeline Effect Track
The timeline effect track is used to apply effects on top of all other effects on
the video and background tracks. This track is useful for applying graphics
without creating a composite container clip. For example, a title that was
created as a graphics effect in the timeline effect track can be moved, scaled,
and overlapped with other titles without modifying the underlying tracks.
To apply the Graphics effect on the timeline effect track:
1. On the timeline effect track, drag to select a region.
2. Right-click the highlighted area and select Add Timeline Effect.
Timeline effect track
3. In the Load Preset dialog box, select the Graphics effect from the \Image
Effects folder.
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Applying Graphics
The Graphics effect is applied to the selected region, the position indicator
moves to the beginning of the region, and the Graphics layout is
displayed.
4. You can now paint or create titles on the viewer.
Applying Graphics on a Layer
Painting on a layer is useful when you want to create complex effects where
paint is used with other tools, and then apply the effects to several layers
independently. Here are some of the effects you can apply to a layer:
•
Color correction effects,
•
DVEs for creating effects, such as transformations,
•
Graphics for creating travelling mattes, and
•
Keyers for creating a matte to reveal underlying layers.
Before you can apply graphics to a layer of a composite, you must first create
a composite container clip, which is created from the selected clip on which
the position indicator is located.
To apply graphics on a layer:
1. Place the position indicator over the clip that you want to use in
the composite.
2. Do one of the following:
t From the taskbar, click the Compositing button.
t
Select the clip and from the taskbar, click the Create Container Clip
button and select Create Composite Container Clip.
t
Right-click the clip and select Create Composite Container.
A composite container clip is opened and the Compositing layout is
displayed. The selected clip is automatically placed in a layer in the
Layers view.
3. If desired, you can add more clips to the composite.
4. Click the Gfx button of the layer on which you want to paint.
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Chapter 7 Painting and 2D Titling
Gfx button
The Graphics layout displays.
5. You can now paint or create titles in the viewer.
Applying Graphics in an Effects Tree
Applying graphics in an Effects Tree is similar to applying graphics on a layer.
However, with an Effects Tree you can add multiple graphics effects to any
input or effect node.
To apply graphics in an Effects Tree:
1. Right-click a layer in the Compositing layout and select Effects Tree
(layer).
The Effects Tree view for the layer is displayed.
2. Right-click an empty area of the Effects Tree and select Add Effect.
3. From the Load Preset dialog box, select the Graphics effect from the
\Image Effects folder.
A Graphics effect node is added to the Effects Tree.
4. Connect the Graphics effect nodes.
5. Double-click the Graphics effect.
The Graphics layout displays. You can now create graphics—see
“Working with Graphics” on page 299.
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Using Presets in Graphics
Using Presets in Graphics
A preset is a customized set of properties for a graphics session, drawing tool,
property, stroke, text body, or group. You can use the presets that come with
Avid DS Nitris, or you can create your own by saving the properties that you
have already set and reusing them in other graphics sessions. Either way,
presets let you work more efficiently.
Most graphics-related presets are in the \Dspresets\Paint folder. Graphics
session presets are in the \Dspresets\Image Effects\Graphics Sessions folder.
In the Graphics layout, there are presets for:
•
Graphics sessions
•
Drawing tools (Freehand, Polyline, Rectangle, Ellipse, Magic Wand, and
Text)
•
Graphics (strokes, text bodies, and groups)
•
Paint Style (Brush, Brush Fx, and Fill Fx)
•
Titling Style (Face Fx, Edge Fx, and Shadow Fx)
•
Masks
•
Time Span
•
Transformations
Loading and Saving Presets
There are several ways to load and save presets. You can use the property
editors, toolbars, Graphics property editor, or the Stroke Preset, Text Preset, or
Group Preset button in the Tools toolbar. You can also load a preset by using
the pop-up menu in the graphics property tree.
To load or save a preset using a property editor:
1. In the graphics property tree, click a property button.
2. In the property editor, click the Load Preset or Save Preset button.
3. In the Load Preset dialog box, do one of the following:
t
To load a preset, select a preset.
The graphics property tree displays the properties of the preset you
selected.
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Chapter 7 Painting and 2D Titling
t
To save a preset, type a name for the preset you’re saving.
The preset you saved appears in the folder in which you saved it.
To load a preset using the toolbars:
1. Do one of the following:
t From the Tools toolbar, click the Select button and select an object on
which to apply the preset.
t
From the Tools toolbar, select a drawing tool to set the preset as the
default properties before painting.
2. In the Tools toolbar, click Tools > Import and one of the following:
t
Stroke Preset to load a stroke preset.
t
Text Preset to load a text preset.
t
Group Preset to load a group preset.
If you selected a graphics object, the preset is applied to it. If you selected
a drawing tool, the preset’s properties are loaded into the graphics
property tree. When you paint on the viewer, these preset properties will
be applied to the graphics you create.
To save a preset using the toolbars:
1. In a property editor, drag the thumbnail to a toolbar.
Thumbnail
Thumbnail
is
is
dragged to
dragged
toolbar.to toolbar.
2. In the Save Preset As dialog box, type a name and description for the
preset in the corresponding text boxes.
A toolbar button is created in the toolbar.
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Using Presets in Graphics
To load a preset using the pop-up menu:
t
From the graphics property tree, click a property button and select one of
the following:
-
A preset from the menu.
-
Load and browse through the folders and select a preset.
The preset is loaded into the graphics property tree.
Using Stroke, Text, or Group Presets
A stroke, text, or group preset is a stroke, title, or group that you saved along
with all of its properties. Using a preset lets you instantly apply the settings of
a stroke, title, or group of any complexity to the current image without having
to define any of its properties. Once applied, the stroke, title, or group behaves
as a regular graphics object; you can select and edit its properties.
To load a stroke, text, or group preset:
1. From the Tools toolbar, click Import > Stroke Preset, Text Preset, or
Group Preset.
2. In the Load Stroke Preset dialog box, browse through the folders and
select a preset.
The preset is applied to the current frame in the viewer.
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Chapter 7 Painting and 2D Titling
To save a stroke, text, or group preset:
1. In the viewer, select an object.
2. In the graphics property tree, do one of the following:
t
Click Stroke if you selected a stroke.
t
Click Titling Body if you selected a text body.
t Click Group if you selected a group.
3. In the property editor, click the Save Preset button.
4. In the File Name text box, type a name.
5. In the Comments text box, type a description.
The preset is saved with the file name you specified, and can be accessed
at any time by clicking the Stroke Preset, Text Preset, or Group Preset
button in the Tools or General toolbars. Stroke presets are saved in the
\Strokes folder, titling body presets are saved in the \Bodies folder, and
group presets are saved in the \Groups folder.
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Setting Drawing Tool Properties
Setting Drawing Tool Properties
Before you create graphics or titles, you must define how the brush strokes or
titles will appear. Using the property editors in the graphics property tree, you
can set individual brush or text properties.
Each time you select a drawing tool from the General or Tools toolbar, its
properties are displayed in the graphics property tree. When you click any of
the property buttons in the graphics property tree, its corresponding property
editor is displayed.
You can set the default properties of the drawing tool before creating an
object. When you do this, the new settings become the default properties that
are applied to the objects you create. These properties remain in effect until
you change the properties of any of the drawing tools. If you decide to create
an object before setting its properties, you can select the object you created
and then modify its properties. When you do this, only the properties of the
selected object are modified.
Properties of the
Freehand tool.
Properties
of the Text
tool.
Graphics property tree
Setting the Paint Style
The paint style properties let you define the artistic style of the graphics you
create. In the Paint Style property editor, you can specify whether to paint with
a brush or a fill, or both.
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Brush only
Brush and fill
You can also set the fill opacity and appearance of its boundary. If you’re using
a pen and graphic tablet, you can vary the amount of pressure you apply to the
pen. This affects the brush opacity and size.
n
Make sure your pen is adjusted for pressure sensitivity. For more information,
refer to your graphics tablet documentation.
To define the paint style:
1. From the Tools toolbar, select one of the following drawing tools:
Freehand, Polyline, Rectangle, Ellipse, or Magic Wand.
2. From the graphics property tree, click Paint Style.
3. On the Paint Style property editor, select the Use option from the Brush
box to create strokes and apply effects to them.
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Setting Drawing Tool Properties
4. Select the Antialiased option to smooth the jagged edges along the lines
and curves of strokes.
5. If you’re using a pen, select the Size and/or Opacity options from the
Pressure box.
The opacity and width of strokes respond to the amount of pressure you
apply to the pen.
6. In the Fill box, select the Use option to fill the object with the effects
you specify.
Freehand and polyline strokes are automatically closed and filled. If you
deselect the Fill option, the curve is open.
7. Select the Below Brush option to place the fill behind the stroke edge.
If you deselect this option, the fill is superimposed over the inside edge of
the stroke.
8. Select the Invert option to invert the fill. When creating a stroke, the area
outside of the stroke is filled.
9. Use the Opacity controls to adjust the fill transparency.
10. In the Feathering box, select the Use option to feather the edges of the fill.
11. Select the Crop option to confine the feathered area within the stroke.
12. Adjust the Soft Radius controls to define how far inside and outside the
stroke edge the feathered area extends.
13. Adjust the Soft Profile controls to adjust the fall off rate for the fill.
14. Adjust the Blur X and Y Radius controls to adjust the blur in the
horizontal and vertical directions.
15. You can now paint or create titles on the viewer.
The strokes you create are displayed with the properties you specified.
Click the Help button for detailed information on the Paint Style properties.
Setting Brush Properties
The brush properties define the brush’s size, shape, smoothness, softness, and
opacity. For example, you can simulate a calligraphic stylus by specifying a
rectangular brush shape with a slight angle. Or you can simulate an airbrush
using the opacity controls to create a round brush with a solid center and a
transparent edge.
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To define the brush properties:
1. From the Tools toolbar, select one of the following drawing tools:
Freehand, Polyline, Rectangle, Ellipse, or Magic Wand.
2. From the graphics property tree, click Brush.
3. In the Brush property editor, select a brush shape from the Shape box.
The brush shape is displayed in the preview box.
4. Use the X and Y controls to set the width and height of the brush.
n
Tip: When using the Freehand tool, you can interactively resize the brush by
pressing Ctrl and dragging in the viewer.
5. Select the Lock Aspect Ratio option to link the X and Y controls, so that
when you adjust one, the other increases or decreases proportionally.
6. Select the Soft Edge option for a soft brush edge. Deselecting this option
gives you a hard brush edge.
7. Use the Hardness Diameter controls to adjust the proportion of the brush
diameter that is solid.
8. Use the Softness Profile controls to adjust the gradient fall-off rate.
9. Use the Opacity controls to define the transparency of the brush.
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Setting Drawing Tool Properties
10. Use the Sampling Ratio controls to set the distance between each brush
stamp in a stroke. The default sampling ratio is 25 for optimum interaction
speed.
n
If you deselect the Continuous Interpolation option in the Freehand Tool
property editor, the sampling ratio has no impact on the stroke.
11. Use the Angle controls to adjust the rotational angle of the brush.
The brush’s new angle of rotation is displayed in the preview box.
12. You can now paint in the viewer.
Any strokes that you create use the properties you specified.
Click the Help button for detailed information on the Brush properties.
Creating Custom Brushes
You can create custom brushes using a closed stroke or an Adobe Illustrator
EPS file (created with version 8.0 or earlier). You can also save your custom
brush as a preset and then reuse it. For more information, see “Importing
Encapsulated PostScript (EPS) Files” on page 357.
To create a custom brush using a stroke:
1. From the Tools toolbar, click the Select button and select a stroke or group
of strokes from the viewer.
n
Tip: To create a custom brush, the stroke must be a closed shape. You can do
this by holding down the C key while drawing the stroke. For more
information, see “Drawing Freehand Strokes” on page 302.
2. From the Tools toolbar, click Objects > Make Brush.
The brush is loaded with the custom shape. Using one of the drawing
tools, you can begin creating strokes in the viewer.
n
To see the shape of the brush, select a drawing tool and look in the Brush
property editor. For more information, see “Setting Brush Properties” on
page 287.
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To create a custom brush with an EPS shape:
1. From the Tools toolbar, select a drawing tool.
2. From the graphics property tree, click Brush.
3. From the General toolbar, click Import > Import EPS.
In the Open dialog box, select an EPS file to use as your brush.
The brush is loaded with the EPS shape. Using one of the drawing tools,
you can begin creating strokes in the viewer.
n
Not all versions of EPS files are supported.
Setting the Titling Style
The titling style properties let you define the artistic style of graphics. By
adjusting these properties, you can define the appearance of a character’s face,
edge, and shadow. You can also apply numerous visual effects including softcolored edges, cloned faces, inverted shadows, and more.
Certain properties apply to the entire text body, and others apply only to the
words or characters that you select in a text body. You can define the character
edge, face, and shadow, and then use masks on the titles you create. A variety
of fonts and text formats lets you enhance the appearance of titles. Many of the
properties you assign to text can be animated.
Edge
Face
Shadow
To define the titling style:
1. From the Tools toolbar, click the Text button.
2. From the graphics property tree, click Titling Style.
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Setting Drawing Tool Properties
3. In the Titling Style property editor, set the face, edge, and shadow
properties.
4. You can now create a title on the viewer.
The face, edge, and shadow of each character in the text body changes
according to the properties you specified.
Setting the Font Properties
The font properties define the font, style, and size of individual text characters
and text in a text body, as well as set the kerning and hinting options.
Avid DS Nitris comes with a selection of TrueType fonts. Other fonts, in the
\Fonts folder of your operating system, are also available for use. For more
information, see the Avid DS Nitris Installation and Administration Guide.
n
If you notice any missing fonts after restoring a project and opening sequences
of that project, check the Avid Event Log for any missing Graphics titling
fonts. By checking the log, you’ll see exactly which fonts are missing on your
system. To access the Avid Event Log, select View > Multi-Instance Views >
Avid Event Log.
Missing Graphics titling fonts are logged when you open a sequence, and
when you load a Graphics effect preset, Titling Body preset, or Titling Font
preset.
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When a Graphics Titling Body uses a font that is not installed on the computer,
the text will be rendered using a default font. However, in the Graphics Titling
Font property editor, the missing font is still specified even if it's not selected in
the font list.
To define the font properties:
1. From the Tools toolbar, click the Text button.
2. From the graphics property tree, click Font.
3. In the Font property editor, select a font, style, and size.
4. Select the Kern Pairs option to move a character closer to the previous
character in the same word to improve the appearance of the text. (This
applies only to certain font types.)
5. Select the Font Hinting option to control the display of artifacts, such as
blurry edges, when processing. When this option is selected, redraw
information is provided to prevent these artifacts from appearing in the
viewer and rendered output. This option is not recommended when
animating the text.
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Setting Drawing Tool Properties
6. In the Kerning box, you can set the amount of horizontal space between
characters, expressed as a percentage of the current font size. You can
select individual characters or part of the text body and set the kerning
individually. The default value is 1.
7. You can now create a title in the viewer.
Click the Help button for detailed information on the Font properties.
Setting the Masks Properties
The masks properties let you create graphics using a matte (stencil) or a paper
grain effect, and choose the channel(s) on which you will create graphics. You
can use any of the R, G, B, and alpha channels. If you select only the red
channel, for example, only the red component of the image is modified when
you paint on it. By using only the alpha channel, you can create a matte, which
is a grayscale image that defines the transparency of an image when it’s
composited over another.
You may want to use a mask when applying graphics to clips. A mask is an
image, portion, or component of an image. A matte is defined by the alpha
component of an image, and is used differently in the Graphics and
Compositing layouts:
•
In the Graphics layout, a matte is used as a stencil to protect portions of
the image. Where alpha is 0, no paint is applied.
•
In the Compositing layout, a matte determines the transparent portions of
a layer. Wherever alpha is 0, the image is transparent. Wherever alpha is
100 the image is opaque.
For example, if an object from one clip must appear over a background from
another clip, you place the clips on two different layers in the Compositing
layout, and then draw a matte on the top layer. The matte defines an opaque
object on an otherwise transparent layer. For more information, see “Working
with Mattes” on page 39.
To define the masks properties:
1. From the Tools toolbar, select one of the following drawing tools:
Freehand, Polyline, Rectangle, Ellipse, Magic Wand, or Text.
2. From the graphics property tree, click Masks.
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3. On the General property page, select the channels on which you want to
paint from the Paint on Channel box.
4. In the Mask box, select the Use Alpha Channel option to use the alpha
channel as a matte.
n
The Alpha and Use Alpha Channel options cannot be used simultaneously.
5. Select the Invert option to invert the alpha channel.
Click the Help button for detailed information on the Masks properties.
Setting the Time Span Properties
The time span properties define the duration of graphics. You can define the
start and end time of an object before you create it. This duration becomes the
default time span and is applied to all subsequent objects you create. Or you
can create graphics using the default time span, and then change its start, end,
or duration time later on.
In the Time Span property editor, the timecode refers to the graphics session
time. That is, 00:00:00:00 is the beginning of the graphics session regardless
of its position on the timeline.
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Setting Drawing Tool Properties
To define the time span properties:
1. From the Tools toolbar, select one of the following drawing tools:
Freehand, Polyline, Rectangle, Ellipse, Magic Wand, or Text.
2. From the graphics property tree, click Time Span.
3. In the Time Span property editor, specify the duration by clicking one of
the following:
Button
To
This Frame Only
Make the time span one frame.
This Frame to End
Make the time span start at the current frame and end at
the last frame of the graphics session.
Start to End
Make the time span start at the first frame and end at the
last frame of the graphics session.
Start to this Frame
Make the time span start at the first frame and end at the
current frame of the graphics session.
Custom
Specify a custom time span in the Out and Duration
timecode boxes. All values must be expressed in SMPTE
timecode.
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n
If you’re setting the default time span, the In text box is dimmed because
Avid DS Nitris defines the start time.
If you’re editing the time span of a selected object, the Custom button is
always highlighted.
4. If you’re editing the time span of a selected object, you can select the
Lock option to lock the duration.
n
If you’re defining the default time span properties before creating an object,
the Lock option is deselected. You must select an object before using this
option.
Click the Help button for detailed information on the Time Span properties.
Defining Color
In Avid DS Nitris, color is considered to be an effect that you can apply to an
image using the brush or fill properties of a stroke, or the face, edge, or
shadow properties of a title. Like any other effect, the Color Blend effect can
be substituted for other effects, such as Noise or Smear.
To define colors, you can pick a color from the default palette or from the
color wheel, use the color picker to select a color from an existing image, or
use other color palettes that are available in the \Palettes folder. If a color is not
displayed on the color palette, you can create it by adjusting the RGB values
of another color to obtain the exact color you want. You can also create your
own color palettes and save them for use on other projects.
You can apply color to selected strokes or you can define the color properties
before you draw a stroke. These properties then apply to all the subsequent
strokes you create.
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Defining Color
To open the Color Blend property editor:
1. From the Tools toolbar, do one of the following:
t Click the Select button and select an object from the viewer.
t
Select a drawing tool to create a new object.
2. From the graphics property tree, right-click one of the following property
buttons and select Color Blend:
t
For paint strokes: Brush Fx or Fill Fx.
t
For text bodies: Edge Effect, Face Effect, or Shadow Effect
The Color Blend effect is loaded in the property button that you selected
from the graphics property tree.
Color Blend effect loaded as Brush Fx
3. From the graphics property tree, click Color Blend.
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Preview box
Striped boxes
contain no color
Color channels
n
Tip: A quick way to apply color is with the Pick Color tool. Once you have
chosen your drawing tool, hold down the 6 key. The pointer turns into an
eyedropper. Pick a color from the image in the viewer. You can now paint with
this color until you decide to load another color.
Click the Help button for detailed information on the Color Blend properties.
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Working with Graphics
Working with Graphics
The drawing tools from the Tools toolbar let you create different kinds of
graphics objects including freehand, polylines, rectangles, ellipses, and Magic
Wand strokes. You can then edit the graphics you create.
You can control the appearance of graphics by using the property editors in the
graphics property tree. Property editors let you define characteristics, such as
the brush, fill, edge, face, and shadow. When you start to paint in the viewer,
the graphics you create are displayed with the default properties.
n
Tip: If the edges of graphics appear jagged, right-click the viewer and select
Square Pixels to make them appear smooth.
Checking the Premultiplication Setting
Depending on how you have chosen to apply graphics, it’s a good idea to
verify the premultiplication setting before creating any graphics. This will
ensure that you get the appropriate results. Premultiplication is a mathematical
process where the RGB channels of an image are multiplied with their
corresponding alpha channel values.
To check the premultiplication setting:
1. From the General toolbar, click the Graphics Properties button.
2. Select the Options tab.
3. From the Alpha box, select one of the following options: Auto,
Premultiplied, or Not Premultiplied.
Click the Help button for detailed information on the Option properties.
Wireframe Mode
While painting, you can activate the wireframe mode to easily see the outline
of the strokes you create. This lets you precisely edit and manipulate strokes
without being distracted by any of the effects defined for it. Working in
wireframe mode also increases the speed of interaction because wireframe
objects are not processed.
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Freehand object
Freehand object in wireframe mode
To activate or deactivate wireframe mode:
t
From the Tools toolbar, click the Wireframe button or press Ctrl+W.
Strokes in the viewer appear in wireframe mode.
n
Text bodies cannot be displayed in wireframe mode.
Wireframe Preview
When you work with animated graphics objects, you may want to preview the
results of the animation without having to process the sequence. This lets you
work more quickly and eliminates processing time. When previewing graphics
animation, the clip plays back and graphics objects are processed in wireframe
over a black background.
To view animated objects in wireframe mode:
t
From the Tools toolbar, click the Wireframe Preview button or press
Ctrl+Shift+W.
The sequence plays back and the animated graphics objects appear in
wireframe mode. When the clip is finished, the position indicator moves
to the first frame at which the preview started.
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Working with Graphics
Drawing Polylines
The Polyline tool lets you draw straight lines, Bézier curves, or a combination
of the two.
To draw a polyline:
1. From the Tools toolbar, click the Polyline button or press Q.
2. In the graphics property tree, use the property editors to define the
characteristics of the polyline—see “Setting Drawing Tool Properties” on
page 285.
3. Depending on the type of curve you want, do one of the following:
t
Click the viewer as many times as needed to add straight line
segments to the polyline.
t
Constrain a polyline to a 45 degree angle by holding down the V key.
t
Drag a vertex to display and adjust the tangent handles.
End point
Tangent handle
4. When you’re done, do one of the following:
t
Press Esc to end the polyline.
t
Press Ctrl and click to close the polyline.
A polyline is displayed in the viewer with the properties you specified.
n
Once a polyline is ended, you cannot undo polyline segments. You can undo
segments only as you are creating the polyline.
5. From the Tools toolbar, click the Select button.
The stroke is selected.
6. Press Enter or click the Edit Shape button to edit the stroke
geometry—see “Editing the Shape of a Stroke” on page 316.
The stroke’s control points are displayed.
n
Tip: To constrain polyline segments to a 45 degree angle, hold down
the Alt key.
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Drawing Freehand Strokes
The Freehand tool lets you draw open or close freeform strokes, and simulates
the feeling of drawing with a pencil on paper. Use this tool when you want to
create a hand-drawn look or quickly sketch on your image.
As you draw freehand strokes, you’re imprinting a series of stamps onto your
image. By defining the appearance of the brush stamps, you can create a
continuous stroke or a stroke with discrete brush stamps.
To draw a freehand stroke:
1. From the Tools toolbar, click the Freehand button or press W.
2. In the graphics property tree, use the property editors to define the
characteristics of the freehand stroke—see “Setting Drawing Tool
Properties” on page 285.
3. From the property tree, click Freehand.
4. In the Freehand property editor, select the Close option if you want to
create a closed freehand stroke.
n
Tip: To create a closed freehand stroke quickly, hold down the C key before
beginning to draw the stroke.
5. Select the Continuous Interpolation option to draw a continuous path.
The number of brush stamps is based on the sampling ratio defined in the
Brush property editor.
6. Select the Fast Feedback option to view an outline of the stroke as you
draw it, instead of applying the specified effect. This also increases the
interaction speed.
7. In the Curve Fitting box, select the Fit Curve option to create a freehand
stroke with the minimum number of control points.
8. Use the Tolerance controls to specify the number of control points the
redrawn curve will retain from the original curve.
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n
The Curve Fit option is usually used after the stroke is drawn by selecting the
stroke, editing the shape, and selecting the Curve Fit option in the Edit Shape
property editor.
9. Select the Overlay Brush option to show or hide the outline of the brush
while you paint.
10. Create a stroke in the viewer by dragging on the viewer.
Once you release the mouse or pen, the stroke is complete. The freehand
stroke is displayed in the viewer with the properties you specified. If you
selected the Fill option in the Paint Style property editor, the freehand
stroke is closed and filled.
A stroke with
continuous
interpolation.
A stroke without
continuous
interpolation.
Slow drawing motion.
Fast drawing motion.
11. From the Tools toolbar, click the Select button to select the stroke.
12. Press Enter or click the Edit Shape button to edit the stroke—see “Editing
the Shape of a Stroke” on page 316.
The stroke’s control points are displayed.
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Using the Express Tools
The Express tools let you access a set of freehand tool brush effects quickly
and easily. By holding down a key that has been assigned to a freehand tool
brush effect, you can erase or paint with one keystroke. When you release the
key, the previous tool is reactivated. By default, the Express tools represent the
Erase, Blur, and Color Blend effects, but you can assign your favorite freehand
tool brush effects as well. This is very useful when cleaning up a matte, since
you can access the Erase tool without having to change your current tool.
The keys assigned to the Express tools are the numbers 1 through 5 on the
upper-left of your keyboard.
To use the Express tools:
1. In the Graphics layout, hold down the key assigned to the Express tool
you want to activate.
A freehand tool brush effect is loaded.
2. While continuing to hold down the key, work in your graphics session.
3. Release the key.
The tool you were using previous to the Express tool is reactivated.
To customize the Express tools:
1. In the Graphics layout, hold down one of the keys on the upper-left of the
keyboard (numbers 1 to 5).
2. Right-click Brush Fx in the graphics property tree and load a paint effect,
such as Color Blend or Erase.
3. Release the key.
The key is assigned to the selected freehand tool brush effect.
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Working with Graphics
Drawing Rectangles and Ellipses
The Rectangle tool lets you create rectangular and square shapes, as well as
rectangles with rounded corners. The Ellipse tool lets you create oval and
circular shapes. After creating a square or round shape, you can edit them to
create unique shapes.
To draw a rectangle or ellipse:
1. From the Tools toolbar, do one of the following:
t Click the Rectangle button or press R.
t
Click the Ellipse button or press E.
2. In the graphics property tree, use the property editors to define the
characteristics of the rectangle or ellipse—see “Setting Drawing Tool
Properties” on page 285.
3. To create one of the following:
-
Rectangle or ellipse: Create a stroke in the viewer by dragging in the
viewer. To maintain the aspect ratio, press Shift and drag.
A rectangle or ellipse is displayed in the viewer with the properties
you specified.
-
Rectangle with rounded corners: From the graphics property tree,
click Rectangle and set the corner radius in the Rectangle property
editor. Drag in the viewer to create a rectangle with rounded corners.
-
Rectangle with rounded corners: Hold down the Close Bracket (])
to increase the corner radius or the Open Bracket ([) key to decrease
corner radius, and drag in the viewer. When you reach the desired
corner radius, release the key.
4. From the Tools toolbar, click the Select button.
The rectangle or ellipse is selected.
5. Press Enter or click the Edit Shape button to edit the stroke—see “Editing
the Shape of a Stroke” on page 316 and “Reshaping a Stroke” on
page 321.
The stroke’s control points are displayed.
n
Tip: To view and move the tangent handles on the control points of a
rectangle, press the H key while selecting the control point in Edit
Shape mode.
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Filling Shapes
You can determine which areas of a shape are filled or become holes, letting
you adjust the appearance of a compound path or a self-intersecting path.
A single graphics object.
The path of the object
intersects itself.
Two combined graphics
objects overlapping
each other
Objects using the
Non-Zero Winding option
Objects using the
Even-Odd option
To create self-intersecting shapes that are filled or have holes:
1. From the Tools toolbar, select a drawing tool.
2. In the Paint Style property editor, select the Fill option and one of the
following Fill Rule options at the bottom of property page:
t
Even-Odd to create shapes with holes.
t
Non-Zero Winding to create filled shapes.
3. Create one or more shapes. The shapes can intersect themselves.
n
306
When combining two filled strokes together, the Fill Rule property can be used
to determine which areas of a shape are filled or become holes. When you use
the Non-Zero Winding option to fill the intersections, the path direction of both
strokes needs to be the same. If not, then you need to reverse the path direction
of one of the two strokes; separate the compound stroke, reverse the path
direction of one stroke, and then combine the two strokes together.
Working with Graphics
Using the Magic Wand Tool
With the Magic Wand tool, you can create a stroke that has the same shape as
a selected area of an image. The selection is based on RGBA or HLSA values
of an image. Once created, you can edit the stroke.
A shape based on RGB values
To define a stroke:
1. From the Tools toolbar, click the Magic Wand button or press Y.
2. In the graphics property tree, use the property editors to define the
characteristics of the shape—see “Setting Drawing Tool Properties” on
page 285.
3. Click the viewer.
A shape is created corresponding to the selected area. Control points are
visible along the shape.
4. From the graphics property tree, click Magic Wand.
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5. In the Magic Wand property editor, select a color model from the Color
Model list.
6. In the Color Tolerance controls, select the channels that you want to use to
control the range of pixel values included in the selected area.
7. Adjust the Color Tolerance controls to set the range of color values for
each channel. Continue refining the settings until the desired shape is
obtained.
The shape changes according to the new settings.
8. Use the Fit Tolerance controls to adjust the way the edges of the selection
are determined.
9. Select the Invert option to invert the selection.
10. Select the Similar option to select all of the pixels in the color range of the
specified range.
11. Select or click one of the following:
-
Autocreate to automatically create the stroke when you click the
viewer.
-
Confirm to create the stroke defined by the shape.
A stroke is created with the desired shape, and is displayed using the
properties you specified.
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Working with Graphics
12. From the Tools toolbar, click the Select button.
The stroke is selected.
13. Press Enter or click the Edit Shape button to edit the stroke—see “Editing
the Shape of a Stroke” on page 316.
The shape’s control points are displayed.
Selecting Graphics Objects
You must select an object before you can move it or edit its properties or
shape. You can move an object around in the viewer, as well as select single or
multiple graphics objects. When you select an object, the graphics property
tree displays the properties of that object.
To select graphics objects:
1. From the Tools toolbar, click the Select button.
The graphics object you last created is automatically selected.
2. In the viewer or the Graphics Object View (GOV), click an object to
select it.
A yellow bounding box surrounds each selected object, and the graphics
property tree displays its properties.
n
When working with many graphics objects, you can hide their bounding boxes
by clicking the Show/Hide Bounding Box button or by pressing Ctrl+H. The
object is still selected and you can edit the properties of the graphics object.
3. Do one of the following:
t
Press the comma (,) key to select the previous graphics object.
t
Press the period (.) key to select the next object.
t
Press Shift and click each additional object.
t
Press Shift+comma (,) and keep pressing the comma to select
multiple objects in descending order.
t
Press Shift+period (.) and keep pressing the period to select multiple
objects in ascending order.
By default, a yellow bounding box surrounds each selected object.
n
Tip: Drag on the viewer to make a rectangular selection. All graphics within
the rectangle are selected.
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To select all objects, do one of the following:
t
From the Tools toolbar, click the Select All button.
t
From the menu bar, select Edit > Select All or Graphics > Select All.
t
Press Ctrl+A.
In the viewer, all objects are selected. Objects whose time span do not
cover the current frame will not be selected.
n
The Select All command in the Edit menu is not available when using the Edit
Text tool.
To select objects in Edit Shape mode:
1. From the Tools toolbar, click the Edit Shape button.
2. Press Alt and click a stroke to select or deselect it.
Grouping Graphics Objects
By grouping several graphics objects, you can select, manipulate, and edit
many objects simultaneously. You can then transform or animate the group as
a whole. You can also select a group and temporarily ungroup it, as well as
reselect ungrouped objects and regroup them.
Like strokes and text, you can create presets for groups that you want to reuse
in other graphics sessions. For more information, see “Using Stroke, Text, or
Group Presets” on page 283.
To group selected objects:
1. From the Tools toolbar, click the Select button.
2. Select any number of objects from the viewer or GOV.
3. From the Tools toolbar, click Group > Group.
The selected objects are grouped.
To group all objects in a graphics session:
t
From the Tools toolbar, click Group > Group All - Session.
All objects in the graphics session are grouped.
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Working with Graphics
To ungroup a group of objects:
1. Select a group from the viewer or GOV.
2. From the Tools toolbar, click Group > Ungroup.
The selected group is ungrouped. The ungrouped objects temporarily lose
the properties of the group until you regroup them.
Regrouping Objects
If you have just ungrouped a group of objects, you can always regroup it
immediately and retain the properties of the group.
To regroup objects:
1. Select one or more objects that were in the group.
2. From the Tools toolbar, click Group > Regroup.
Selecting Objects in a Group
You can select an object inside a group by holding down the Alt key when
clicking an object in the viewer. Or you can select an object by clicking the
corresponding bar in the GOV.
To select an object in a group in the viewer:
To
Press this
Select an object inside a group.
Alt+click
Add an object, which belongs to a group, to the
current selection.
Alt+Shift+click
Select only the objects that belong to a group and
intersect the rectangle.
Alt+Rectangle Selection
Add objects, which belong to a group and intersect
the selection rectangle, to the current selection.
Alt+ Shift+Rectangle
Selection
Select only the objects that belong to a group and are Alt+Ctrl+Rectangle Selection
totally contained in the rectangle.
Add objects, which belong to a group and are totally
within the rectangle, to the current selection.
Alt+Shift+Ctrl+Rectangle
Selection
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n
Tip: You can also select objects inside a group by using these standard
shortcuts:
Select Next Object: Period (.)
Select Previous Object: Comma (,)
Multi-select Next Object: Shift+Period (.)
Multi-select Previous Object: Shift+Comma (,)
Cutting and Pasting Objects in a Group
To cut an object from a group:
1. From the Tools toolbar, click the Select button.
2. From the viewer or GOV, select one or more objects.
n
You cannot select all of the objects in a group.
3. From the Tools toolbar, click Group > Cut from Group.
The selected objects are removed from the group and placed on the
Clipboard.
To paste an object to a group:
1. Select the group to which the object will be pasted.
2. From the Tools toolbar, click Group > Paste to Group.
The objects on the Clipboard are pasted in the selected group and have the
same time span as the group.
Locking Graphics Objects
When you’re working with overlapping graphics objects, it’s useful to lock
some of the graphics objects on which you don’t need to work. Once an object
is locked, you can’t select or modify it in any way. Locked objects remain
locked when a sequence is closed and reopened. Also, locked objects cannot
be selected or edited in the GOV—you can only unlock them. When a
graphics object is locked, its bar in the GOV changes to a light gray color.
n
312
Tip: To see a wireframe outline of locked objects, position the pointer over the
graphics bars in the GOV and the shape of the locked objects will be displayed
in wireframe in the viewer.
Working with Graphics
n
You can also lock/unlock a graphics object by right-clicking on its
corresponding bar in the GOV and choosing a menu command.
To lock graphics objects:
t
Select the graphics objects that you want to lock and do one of the
following:
- From the Tools toolbar, click the Lock button.
-
Right-click the graphics object in the GOV and select Lock.
-
Select Graphics > Objects > Lock.
Locked objects are now represented by a light gray bar in the GOV and
are automatically deselected.
n
Tip: You can multi-select graphics objects by holding down the Shift key.
To unlock graphics objects, do one of the following:
t
To unlock all graphics objects on the current frame, select Graphics >
Objects > Unlock All - Frame or click the Unlock All - Frame button in
the toolbar.
t
To unlock all graphics objects in the current graphics session, click
Graphics > Objects > Unlock All - Session in the Tools toolbar.
All locked graphics objects are unlocked.
Hiding Graphics Objects
When you’re working with overlapping graphics objects that clutter the
viewer, you can hide some of the graphics objects on which you don’t want to
work. This makes objects temporarily invisible and may improve performance
when working on large or complex projects.
Once an object is hidden, you cannot select or modify it in any way, except
for trimming. Hidden objects remain hidden when sequences are closed
and reopened.
When a graphics object is hidden, its bar in the GOV changes to a light
purple color.
n
Tip: To see a wireframe outline of hidden objects, position the pointer over the
graphics bars in the GOV and the shape of the hidden objects will be
displayed in wireframe in the viewer.
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You can also hide/show graphics objects by right-clicking on its
corresponding bar in the GOV and choosing a menu command.
To hide graphics objects:
t
Select the graphics objects that you want to hide and do one of the
following:
- From the Tools toolbar, click the Hide button.
-
Right-click the graphics object in the GOV and select Hide.
-
From the menu bar, select Graphics > Objects > Hide.
Hidden objects are represented by a light purple bar in the GOV and are
automatically deselected.
To show graphics objects, do one of the following:
t
To show all graphics objects on the current frame, select Graphics >
Objects > Show All - Frame or click the Show All - Frame button in the
toolbar.
t
To show all graphics objects in the current graphics session, select
Graphics > Objects > Show All - Session from the Tools toolbar.
All hidden graphics objects are shown and selected. Any previously
selected objects are deselected.
Hiding Bounding Boxes
Hiding the bounding boxes of graphics objects makes it easy for you to see the
effect of any adjustments you make to its parameters. You can still select and
edit the graphics objects after hiding the bounding boxes.
To show/hide bounding boxes:
t
From the Tools toolbar, click the Show/Hide Bounding Box button or
press Ctrl+H.
Creating Clusters of Graphics Objects and Vertices
Multiselecting graphics objects or vertices can be very convenient when you
want to reuse a specific selection. You can build presets of one or more
selected graphics objects or vertices.
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Working with Graphics
To create a cluster of graphics objects:
1. From the Tools toolbar, click the Select button and select the graphics
objects you want to add to the cluster.
2. From the Tools toolbar, click the Shapes > Build Vertex Cluster button.
The graphics objects are assigned to a cluster button.
To recall a graphics object cluster:
t
From the Tools toolbar, click Shapes > Select Vertex Cluster.
The graphics objects assigned to this cluster number are selected in
the viewer.
To build a cluster of vertices:
1. In Edit Shape mode, select the vertices you want to add to the cluster.
2. From the Tools toolbar, click Shapes and one of the Build Vertex Cluster
buttons.
The group of vertices is assigned to the cluster button.
To recall a vertex cluster:
t
From the Tools toolbar, click Shapes and the corresponding Select Vertex
Cluster button.
The vertices assigned to this cluster number are selected in the viewer.
Aligning Graphics Objects
Graphics alignment tools allow you to align graphics objects with respect to
other graphics objects or the safe action/title area. Absolute alignment tools
allow you to align graphics using the safe action/title area as a reference.
Relative alignment tools allow you to align graphics object using other
selected graphics objects as a reference.
n
Tip: When using the alignment tools, it’s useful to display the guides. Rightclick the viewer and select Viewer Properties. On the Guides property page,
select the Safe Action/Title option.
To align graphics objects:
1. In the viewer, select the objects you want to align.
2. From the Tools toolbar, click Align > alignment tool.
The selected objects are aligned in the viewer.
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Editing the Shape of a Stroke
The shapes of all the strokes created by the Freehand, Polyline, Rectangle,
Ellipse, and Magic Wand tools are determined by line segments and vertices
that indicate a change in line direction. Each vertex in an object has a control
point, which you can use to alter its shape. Before you can edit the shape of a
stroke, you must select it.
To edit the shape of a stroke:
1. From the Tools toolbar, click the Select button and click a stroke in the
viewer.
The selected stroke is surrounded by a yellow bounding box, and the
graphics property tree displays the stroke’s properties.
2. From the Tools toolbar, click the Edit Shape button or press Enter.
The stroke’s contour and control points are displayed, and the Edit Shape
tool is activated.
n
Tip: To select or deselect a shape while in Edit Shape mode, press Alt and
click a stroke.
3. From the graphics property tree, click Edit Shape.
4. In the Path box, click one of the following:
-
Open to open a closed curve.
-
Closed to close an open curve.
5. In the Curve Fitting box:
t
Click the Fit Curve button to sample all the control points of the
original curve.
t
Use the Tolerance controls to set the number of controls points that
the redrawn curve retains from the original.
6. In the Animation box, use the buttons to set, delete, and navigate
between keyframes.
Selecting Control Points
When you select control points on a stroke, they remain selected between
frames. You can edit the shape of single or multiple strokes by dragging the
control points.
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Working with Graphics
To select control points:
1. From the Tools toolbar, click the Select button, and click a stroke in the
viewer.
The selected stroke is surrounded by a yellow bounding box, and the
graphics property tree displays the stroke’s properties.
2. From the Tools toolbar, click the Edit Shape button or press Enter.
The stroke’s contour and control points are displayed, and the Edit Shape
tool is activated.
3. Do one of the following:
t
Click a control point to select a single control point.
t
Hold down the Shift key and click a control point, and then click each
subsequent control point.
t
Drag to make a rectangular selection in the viewer, and select
multiple points simultaneously.
The selected control points are highlighted in yellow.
Control point
To edit a control point:
t
Press A and click the line or curve segment between two control points to
add a control point.
t
Click a control point to select it and drag to move it.
t
Click a control point and press Delete to delete control points.
To move a control point:
t
To move 1 pixel: Press an arrow key on the keyboard number pad.
t
To move 10 pixels: Hold down the Ctrl key and press an arrow key on the
keyboard number pad.
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Breaking and Unifying Strokes
A stroke’s path can be broken into any number of subpaths, which you can
later reunify. Subpaths remain part of the stroke and cannot be unified with the
subpaths of other strokes.
Stroke path
Subpaths of a
stroke
To break or unify a stroke:
t
Hold down the K key and drag a control point.
The stroke path is broken and a subpath is created.
t
Hold down the U key and drag one control point and drop it over another.
The subpaths are unified.
Combining and Separating Strokes
You can combine multiple strokes to create a single compound stroke.
Similarly, you can separate compound strokes into individual strokes.
To combine strokes:
1. From the Tools toolbar, click the Select button, and select the strokes you
want to combine.
The selected strokes are surrounded by yellow bounding boxes and
highlighted in yellow in the GOV.
2. From the Tools toolbar, click Objects > Combine Strokes.
The selected strokes are combined and surrounded by one bounding box,
and are shown in the GOV as one compound stroke.
n
318
When strokes are combined, they’re assigned the properties of the first
selected stroke. If you want to retrieve the properties of an individual stroke
before it was combined, use the undo operation.
Working with Graphics
To separate a stroke:
1. From the Tools toolbar, click the Select button, and select the stroke you
want to separate.
The selected stroke is surrounded by yellow bounding boxes and is
highlighted in yellow in the GOV.
2. From the Tools toolbar, click Objects > Separate Strokes.
The combined stroke is separated into individual strokes.
Morphing Strokes
You can select strokes which exist at different frames and automatically
interpolate between them to create interesting effects.
n
Tip: You can also copy shapes and paste them between the start and end
frames of the morph. For more information, see “Copying and Pasting
Shapes” on page 338.
To morph strokes:
1. Using the transport controls, go to the first frame that contains the stroke
you want to use at the beginning of the morph.
2. From the Tools toolbar, click the Select button and select the stroke that
you want to morph.
3. From the General 2 toolbar, click the Morph Start button to begin the
morph.
4. Using the transport controls, advance to the frame that contains the next
stroke you want to add to your morph.
5. Select the stroke.
6. From the General 2 toolbar, click the Morph Add button.
The stroke is added to your morph.
7. Continue adding selected strokes to your morph using the Morph Add
command.
8. When you’re about to add the last stroke, click the Morph End button in
the General 2 toolbar to end your morph.
The resulting morphed stroke has an animated shape.
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Changing the Slope of a Curve
At any control point, you can change the slope of a curve by changing the
length and direction of its tangent handle. You can also create discontinuity in
a curve by breaking the tangent handle at a control point.
To change the slope of a curve:
1. Drag a control point or press H to give selection priority to the handles
instead of the control point. The tangent handles may sometimes lie under
the control point.
2. Drag the tangent handle.
The shape of the curve changes on both sides of the control point.
Tangent handles
To create a discontinuous curve:
1. Click a control point to display its tangent handles.
2. Hold down the B or Alt key and drag a tangent handle.
The tangent handle breaks in the center, and the slope of the curve
changes on one side of the control point.
Discontinuous curve
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Changing the Direction of a Stroke
The path of a stroke has a start point and an end point. By reversing the
direction of that path, the start point becomes the end point and vice versa.
Reversing the direction of a path is useful when working with Handwriting
animation. For more information, see “Creating Handwritten and Type-On
Animation” on page 334.
To change the direction of a stroke:
1. From the Tools toolbar, click the Select button and click a stroke in the
viewer.
2. From the Tools toolbar, click the Edit Shape button or press Enter.
n
Tip: To select or deselect a shape while in Edit Shape mode, press Alt and
click a stroke.
3. From the graphics property tree, click Edit Shape.
4. In the Path box, click the Reverse Direction button.
Reshaping a Stroke
There may be times when you want to edit the shape of a stroke using a
“freehand” approach. This is especially useful for rotoscoping and animating
shapes.
With the Reshaper tool, you can modify the geometry of a stroke without
being constrained to the shape’s control points. By tracing the edge of a shape,
you can interactively reshape a stroke.
In addition, you can chop, scale, rotate, skew, stretch, and move a shape, as
well as adjust its opacity. When reshaping a stroke, keyframes are
automatically set.
n
Tip: Since it’s difficult to reshape overlapping strokes, you can hide or lock
graphics objects that clutter the viewer. For more information, see “Locking
Graphics Objects” on page 312 and “Hiding Graphics Objects” on page 313.
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Edge of shape
To trace a shape:
1. Do one of the following:
t From the Tools toolbar, click the Reshaper button or press P.
t
From the menu bar, select Graphics > Tools > Reshaper.
2. To trace, do any of the following:
n
t
Drag along the edge of the stroke.
t
To trace a straight line, hold down the Alt key and trace along the
edge of the shape.
t
To trace without moving existing control points, hold down the Shift
key while you trace.
Tip: To trace more quickly, make sure the shape has a minimum of control
points. To reduce the number of control points, use the Fit Curve option in the
Edit Shape property editor.
Click the Help button for detailed information on the Reshaper properties.
3. Press Esc to exit the Reshaper tool.
Chopping Control Points
If a shape contains a segment that you’d like to eliminate, you can always chop
out the unwanted control points.
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Before
After: A finger is chopped off.
To chop control points:
t
Hold down C and drag along the edge of the shape that you want to chop.
The area is chopped from the shape.
Moving a Shape
You can move the entire shape to a new location.
To move a shape:
t
Hold down A and drag the shape to a new location.
Scaling, Rotating, and Skewing a Shape
When scaling, rotating and skewing a shape, you must first position the point
of origin, which is represented by a small red circle in the viewer.
To position the origin:
1. Hold down one of the following keys:
t
S to scale
t
D to rotate
t
F to skew
2. Drag the origin to a new location.
3. To center the origin, right-click the shape.
The origin is positioned at the center of the stroke’s geometry.
To scale a shape:
t
n
Hold down S and drag the shape to scale it.
To scale proportionally, press Shift+S.
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To rotate a shape:
t
Hold down D and drag the shape to rotate it.
To skew a shape:
t
Hold down F and drag the shape to skew it.
Stretching a Shape
Stretching lets you extend portions of a shape, while maintaining the rest of it.
When stretching a shape, you must first position the stretch limits on the edge
of a shape. The stretch limits are represented by two small gray squares in the
viewer.
Leg is stretched
Stretch limits
To stretch a shape:
1. Hold down G to access the stretch tool.
2. Place each stretch limit at the desired location along the edge of
the stroke.
3. Drag the edge of the shape between the stretch limits.
The segment between the two stretch limits is stretched. The other parts of
the shape remain unchanged.
Changing the Opacity of a Stroke
When performing rotoscoping, it’s sometimes helpful to see what's in the
image underneath the stroke. This makes it easier to reshape the stroke from
one frame to the next.
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Working with Titles
To change the opacity of a stroke:
t
n
Hold down O and drag the stroke in the viewer.
When changing the opacity, the stroke fill and brush opacity is changed, if they
were used. If the opacity is animated, a temporary value is set. If the opacity is
not animated, a value is set but a key is not created.
Working with Titles
A text body is a graphics object that consists of a group of words, lines, and
paragraphs. You create, edit, and select titles using text bodies in the Edit
Text mode.
By default, word wrapping is on when using the Text tool. When the edge of a
text body is reached, the text continues on to the next row. However, for
crawls, you can fit all the text fit into one long line.
There is no automatic word hyphenation. Line breaks always occur at the end
of a word. If a word is longer than the text body, the word breaks at the edge.
To prevent the word from breaking, increase the width of the text body.
To create a title:
1. From the Tools toolbar, click the Text button or press T.
2. In the graphics property tree, use the property editors to define the
properties of the title—see “Setting Drawing Tool Properties” on
page 285.
3. Click the viewer.
A text box is displayed.
4. Begin typing text in the text body.
5. From the Tools toolbar, click the Select button.
The text body is selected and displays the title with the properties
you specified.
6. Press Enter or click the Edit Text button to return to Edit Text mode.
The text body in Edit Text mode is displayed.
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To make text fit on one line:
1. Select the text body.
2. From the graphics property tree, click Titling Body.
3. From the Titling Body property editor, click the Fit Text on One Line
button.
All of the text in the text body fits in one horizontal text body, instead of
wrapping to the next line.
Click the Help button for detailed information on the Titling Body
properties.
Using Text from Other Applications
You can cut, copy, and paste text to and from any text generation application
that uses the Windows Clipboard. Because Avid DS Nitris uses a Rich Text
Format (RTF) compatible text engine, you can exchange text with an
application, such as Microsoft Word.
Without having to select any of the tools in the Graphics layout, you can
directly paste the copied text into a graphics session. The text and much of its
formatting will be pasted into a text body. Not all formatting, however,
remains intact when you use text from external applications.
n
Graphics, such as strokes or clip art, cannot be imported or exported.
To use text from an external application:
1. In the external application, cut or copy the text.
The text is copied to the Clipboard.
2. In the Graphics layout, press Ctrl+V.
The text and most of its formatting is pasted in a text body.
To copy text to an external application:
1. From the Tools toolbar, click the Edit Text button.
2. In a text body, select the text to be copied and press Ctrl+C.
The text is copied to the Clipboard.
3. In the external application, place the pointer at the insertion point and
press Ctrl+V.
The text is pasted in the external application.
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Importing HTML Text
You can import an HTML file and convert it into a text body. As many text
properties as possible are retained, such as font, size, and color. This is very
useful when setting up rolls and crawls with different styles for headers and
names, since you can set up the text before working in Avid DS Nitris.
To import HTML text:
1. From the Tools toolbar, click Import > Import HTML.
The Open dialog box is displayed.
2. Select a file to import and click OK.
The text is imported as a text body.
Selecting and Editing Text
While you are creating titles, you can select and edit the text it contains, as
well as its format properties. You can edit the properties of the entire text body
or individual characters within the text body.
To select a text body:
1. From the Tools toolbar, click the Select button and select a text body.
The selected text body is surrounded by a yellow bounding box.
2. From the Tools toolbar, click the Edit Text button.
You can now edit the text body properties.
Selected text body
To move a text body:
t
Do one of the following:
-
While using the Edit Text tool, press Alt and move the text body to a
new location.
-
From the Tools toolbar, click the Select button and select a text body
and move it to a new location.
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To edit a text body:
t
While using the Edit Text tool, do any of the following:
-
Press Alt and click the text body you want to edit.
-
Press Alt+. (period) to edit the next text body.
-
Press Alt+, (comma) to edit the previous text body.
To select individual text characters:
1. From the Tools toolbar, click the Select button and select a text body.
The selected text body is surrounded by a yellow bounding box.
2. From the Tools toolbar, click the Edit Text button.
3. In the text body, select the character that you want to edit by clicking and
dragging over it.
“D” selected only
A selection bar appears at the bottom of the selected character.
4. You can now edit the properties of the individual characters.
To select text characters with the same fonts or styles:
1. From the Tools toolbar, click the Select button, and select a text body.
The selected text body is surrounded by a yellow bounding box.
2. From the Tools toolbar, click the Edit Text button.
3. Hold down the Ctrl key, drag over a character possessing the style or font
you want to select.
n
Tip: You can set your user preferences for titling selection in the User
Preferences dialog box. You can select characters that share the same titling
style, titling font, or both when you hold down the Ctrl key and select.
4. You can now edit the properties of the selected text.
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Working with Titles
To edit the font and kerning:
1. In Edit Text mode, select the text body or individual text.
2. In the graphics property tree, click Font.
3. In the Font property editor, select the Font, Style, and Size you want to
apply to your text.
4. Select the Kern Pairs option to move a character pair closer to each other.
This applies to certain fonts only.
5. Select the Font Hinting option to prevent blurry artifacts from appearing
after processing.
This option is not recommended for animated titling sequences.
6. To adjust the horizontal spacing between characters, type a value in the
Kerning box. The default value is 1.
7. Select the Filtering option to reduce the flickering perceived when the
text is viewed on an interlaced screen.
8. Adjust the Character Transform controls to transform characters in
X and Y.
Click the Help button for detailed information on the Font properties.
To increase and decrease the font size:
t
Select some characters and do any of the following:
To do this
Press
Increase the font size
•
Alt+Up Arrow (normal increment)
•
Alt+Shift+Up Arrow (minor increment)
•
Alt+Ctrl+Up Arrow (major increment)
•
Alt+Down Arrow (normal increment)
•
Alt+Shift+Down Arrow (minor increment)
•
Alt+Ctrl+Down Arrow (major increment)
Decrease the font size
To increase and decrease the kerning:
t
Place the cursor between two characters or select several characters and
do any of the following:
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Chapter 7 Painting and 2D Titling
To do this
Press
Kern left
•
Alt+Left Arrow (normal increment)
•
Alt+Shift+Left Arrow (minor increment)
•
Alt+Ctrl+Left Arrow (major increment)
•
Alt+Right Arrow (normal increment)
•
Alt+Shift+Right Arrow (minor increment)
•
Alt+Ctrl+Right Arrow (major increment)
Kern right
Aligning Text
You can specify a justification for a selected text body. By adding character
tabs, you can also justify character tabs within a text body.
To justify a text body:
t
With the text body selected in Edit Text mode, right-click the left margin
of the text body and select a justification from the list.
Right-click the
left margin to
justify text body.
The text body is aligned as specified.
To add a character tab to the text body:
1. With the text body selected in Edit Text mode, hold down the Ctrl key and
double-click inside the text body at the point where you want to insert a
tab.
A tab is inserted in the text body.
2. To move the tab around, drag it to a new location.
3. To remove the tabs, right-click and select Remove.
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Working with Titles
To justify a character tab:
t
With the text body or individual text selected in Edit Text mode, rightclick the character tab, and select a justification from the menu.
Right-click the
character tab
to justify
Converting Text to Strokes
You can convert a text body into individual strokes that you can then edit
individually. You can animate the strokes, edit the characters to create a
custom “font”, or use the stroke to create a custom brush.
To convert strokes to text:
1. From the Tools toolbar, click the Select button and select a text body.
2. From the Tools toolbar, click Objects > Text to Strokes.
Each character is surrounded by a yellow bounding box and appears as a
separate stroke in the GOV.
Searching for Text
When working with large text files, such as credit rolls, it may be difficult to
locate text. You can search through a text body for keywords.
To search for a keyword in a text body:
1. With the text body selected in Edit Text mode, click in the text body at the
position where you want to begin the text search.
2. Press Ctrl+F.
3. In the Find dialog box, enter a keyword in the String to Find text box.
The keyword is located and underlined with a selection bar.
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Creating Rolls and Crawls
A roll or crawl typically contains the titles or credits of a program. You can
create a traditional roll in which a title moves from the bottom of the screen to
the top, or a traditional crawl in which a title moves from the right of the
screen to the left. Single or multiple titles can be used for a roll or crawl.
You create rolls or crawls by using the Graphics property editor. This lets you
quickly and easily create standard rolls or crawls that involve few titles. When
you do this, the time span of the titles change to match the duration of the
graphics session.
You can also create the animation manually by using the Animation Key
button to set individual keyframes. This lets you create a complex roll or crawl
that involves many titles that start and end in different locations. You can also
include paint strokes in a roll or crawl.
n
When you create a roll or crawl using the Graphics property editor, the entire
duration of the clip is used.
Also, rolls and crawls are real-time effects so you can view the results upon
playback without having to first process them.
n
In rare cases, real-time effects may require processing to ensure that no frames
are skipped. For more information, see “Working with Real-Time Effects” on
page 950.
To create a roll or crawl:
1. From the Tools toolbar, click the Text button to create a text body.
2. From the graphics property tree, open the Font property editor and
specify the font type, style, and size.
3. Click the viewer and type in some text.
4. When you’re done, select the text body.
5. From the Tools toolbar, click the Graphics Properties button.
6. In the Graphics property editor, select one of the following from the
Motion box:
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-
Roll to create a roll.
-
Crawl to create a crawl.
Working with Titles
7. In the Start Position box, select one of the following:
-
Onscreen to start the roll or crawl on the screen.
-
Offscreen to start the roll or crawl off the screen.
8. In the End Position box, select one of the following:
-
Onscreen to end the roll or crawl on the screen.
-
Offscreen to end the roll or crawl off the screen.
9. To guarantee optimal quality when building rolls/crawls, select the
Standard Speed option.
10. Click the Build Motion button.
The title’s transformation is animated.
11. To apply an automatic fade, roll, and crawl animation to selected graphics
objects only, select the Apply to Selection option.
Click the Help button for detailed information on the Graphics properties.
12. To modify the transformation properties of the title, select the title, and do
one of the following:
t
From the graphics property tree, open the Transformations property
editor, and modify the values.
t
Select View > Views > Animation Editor. Select the
Transformation property and adjust the function curve.
Creating a Fade
You can automatically create fades by using the Graphics property editor.
When you apply a fade to a graphics object, its time span changes to match the
duration of the graphics session. In addition, the existing opacity settings for a
stroke (brush and fill) and text body (edge, face, shadow) are overwritten with
the new fade values.
To fade an object:
1. From the Tools toolbar, select a drawing tool.
2. In the graphics property tree, define the properties for your tool—see
“Setting Drawing Tool Properties” on page 285.
3. Create an object in the viewer.
4. Move the object to the desired fade-in position.
5. From the Tools toolbar, click the Graphics Properties button.
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6. In the Fade box of the Graphics property editor, set the In and Out values
in frames.
7. Click the Build Fade button.
The object’s opacity properties are animated.
8. To modify the opacity properties of the object, select the object and
adjust the Opacity controls on the Paint Style, Brush, and Titling Style
property editors.
Click the Help button for detailed information on the Graphics properties.
Creating Handwritten and Type-On Animation
You can create animated, scrolling text effects that simulates handwriting or a
typewritten effect. You can generate a handwritten type of animation on a
single or combined stroke, which is useful for simulating the look of a pen
writing across the screen.
You can also generate an animated typewritten effect based on a selected text
body, giving it the appearance of a typewriter typing each character. You can
specify the direction, beginning, and end of the animation, as well as adjust the
spacing of the text body.
To create a handwritten animation:
1. In the Tools toolbar, select one of the following drawing tools: Freehand,
Polyline, Rectangle, or Ellipse. Create the graphics object on which you
want to apply the handwriting animation.
2. Draw a single stroke or multiple strokes in the viewer. Make sure you’re
using the brush.
n
Tip: Use the Objects > Combine Strokes command in the Tools toolbar to
combine multiple strokes. For more information on combining strokes, see
“Combining and Separating Strokes” on page 318.
3. From the Tools toolbar, click the Select button and select the stroke to
which you want to apply the handwritten animation.
The stroke is selected and surrounded by a yellow bounding box.
4. In the graphics property tree, set the time span.
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Working with Titles
n
You can only create handwritten animation for strokes that have a duration
that’s longer than one frame.
5. Do one of the following:
t
From the Tools toolbar, click the Objects > Handwriting button.
t
In the graphics property tree, click the Stroke button.
6. In the Handwriting property editor, click one of the following:
Parameter
Description
Forward
To begin the handwriting animation with the first brush
stamp and move towards the last.
Backward
To begin the handwriting animation with the last brush
stamp and move towards the first.
Center
To begin the handwriting animation in the center of the
stroke and move outwards towards the first and last brush
stamps.
7. Use the Custom Settings if you want the animation to begin or end at a
specific point. The default is 0 for the head setting and 100 for the tail.
Click the Help button for detailed information on the Handwriting properties.
To create a type-on animation:
1. From the Tools toolbar, click the Select button and select the text body to
which you want to apply the type-on animation.
The text body is selected and surrounded by a yellow bounding box.
2. Do one of the following:
t
From the Tools toolbar, click the Objects > Type-On button.
t
From the graphics property tree, click the Titling Body button.
3. In the Type-On box, click one of the following:
Parameter
Description
Forward
Begin the type-on animation with the first text character
entered and move towards the last.
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Chapter 7 Painting and 2D Titling
Parameter
Description
Backward
Begin the type on animation with the last text character
and move towards the first.
Center
Begin the type on animation in the center of the text body
and move outwards towards the first and last characters
drawn.
4. Use the Head and Tail settings if you want the animation to begin or end at
a specific point. The default is 0 for the Head setting and 100 for the Tail.
Click the Help button for detailed information on the Titling Body properties.
Manipulating Graphics
Before you can edit an object, you must select it. Then you can use the
transformation tools to change the rotational angle, size, and skew of a
graphics object. The shape of individual strokes and the contents of a text body
can also be modified. Other tools let you reorder selected objects by moving
them in front of or behind other objects. Selection tools speed up the editing
process since you can simultaneously select, deselect, and delete multiple
objects.
Editing Graphics Properties
After you’ve created graphics, you can edit any of its properties. You can edit
the properties of a single object or multiple objects simultaneously. When you
edit the properties of a selected object(s), only its properties are changed. The
default properties for the drawing tools are not changed.
To change the properties of a single object:
1. From the Tools toolbar, click the Select button and click an object in the
viewer.
The graphics property tree displays the object’s properties.
2. From the graphics property tree, click a property button.
The property editor is displayed.
3. Adjust the desired properties.
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Manipulating Graphics
In the viewer, the object displays the properties you specified.
To change the properties of multiple objects:
1. From the Tools toolbar, click the Select button and click an object in the
viewer.
The graphics property tree displays the object’s properties.
2. Hold down the Shift key and click the objects you want to select.
The graphics property tree displays the properties of the selected objects.
Properties common
to all selected objects
Stroke properties
Text body properties
3. In the graphics property tree, click a property button.
n
t
If you clicked the Masks, Time Span, or Transformations property
button, its property editor displays the properties that are common to
the selected objects.
t
If you clicked a stroke property, its property editor displays the
properties that are common to the selected strokes.
t
If you clicked a text body property, its property editor displays the
properties that are common to the selected text bodies.
When you open additional property editors, they’re displayed one on top of the
other. Drag the property editor to another location to view multiple property
editors simultaneously.
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4. In the property editor, modify the properties.
The selected objects display the properties you specified.
Cutting, Copying, and Pasting Graphics
You can cut or copy objects in the viewer and paste them on the same frame or
on another frame. Cut or copied objects are placed on the Clipboard in the
system memory and remain there until you perform another cut, copy, or paste
operation.
To cut, copy, or paste an object:
1. From the viewer, select an object.
The object is surrounded by a yellow bounding box.
2. From the Edit menu, select one of the following:
-
Cut or press Ctrl+X to cut an object.
-
Copy or press Ctrl+C to copy an object.
-
Paste or press Ctrl+V to paste an object.
Copying and Pasting Shapes
You can copy the shape of a stroke and apply it to another stroke. The new
stroke is deformed into the new shape, but retains its original properties, such
as color and time span information. You can only copy and paste one stroke
shape at a time.
To copy a stroke’s shape:
1. Select the stroke with the shape you want to copy.
2. Do one of the following:
t
From the Tools toolbar, click the Shapes > Copy Shape button.
t
Open the Edit Shape property editor and, click the Shapes > Copy
Shape button.
t
Press Alt+C.
3. Select the stroke to receive the shape.
4. Do one of the following:
t
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To paste the shape on top of the first selected stroke, click the Shapes
> Paste at Origin button from the Tools toolbar.
Manipulating Graphics
The shape of the first stroke is applied to the second stroke and is
positioned over the first stroke.
t
To paste the shape on top of the second selected stroke, click the
Shapes > Paste in Place button from the Tools toolbar.
The shape of the first stroke is applied to the second stroke and is
positioned over the second stroke.
Original strokes
After the Paste at Origin command
is applied, the rectangle takes the
shape of the circle, but retains its
color information. The new shape is
pasted on top of the first circle.
After the Paste in Place command is
applied, the rectangle takes the shape
of the circle, but retains its color
information. Note that the new shape
is pasted on top of the rectangle.
Duplicating Graphics
Duplicating an object lets you copy an object and its associated properties,
including the time span. Duplicating an object differs from copying an object
in that duplicating takes place within the same graphics session, whereas
copying an object lets you copy and paste objects between different graphics
sessions or layers. A duplicate of the object is pasted on the viewer, whereas a
copy of an object remains in the system memory until you paste it on a frame.
To duplicate an object:
1. From the viewer, select an object.
The selected object is highlighted by a yellow bounding box.
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2. From the Tools toolbar, click the Duplicate button or press Ctrl+K.
The selected object is duplicated and placed on top of the original object.
To see the two objects, you must select the duplicate and move it.
Original object
Duplicate object (surrounded
by a yellow bounding box)
Deleting Graphics
You can delete graphics objects one at a time or delete them all
simultaneously. Objects are deleted over their entire duration. For example, if
an object in the current frame has a duration of 5 frames, all 5 frames are
deleted.
n
Once an object is deleted, it cannot be retrieved except by choosing the Undo
command from the Edit menu.
To delete an object:
1. From the viewer, select an object.
The object is surrounded by a yellow bounding box.
2. Do one of the following:
t
Press Delete.
t
From the menu bar, select Edit > Clear.
The object is deleted.
To delete all objects that intersect on the current frame:
t
In the Tools toolbar, click Objects > Delete All - Frame or press
Ctrl+Delete.
All objects in the current frame are deleted.
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Manipulating Graphics
To delete all objects in a graphics session:
t
In the Tools toolbar, click Objects > Delete All - Session.
Changing the Order of Graphics
Each time you create a graphics object, it’s added to the existing graphics
session. You can change the order of objects by using the Front, Raise, Lower,
and Back tools. The last object you create is placed on top of all other objects.
n
Graphics applied on layers in a container clip are all part of the same
compositing layer.
Reordering three strokes
To reorder objects:
1. From the viewer, select an object.
The object is surrounded by a yellow bounding box.
2. From the Tools toolbar, click Order and do one of the following:
t
Bring to Front or press Shift+Pg Up (number pad) to move the
object in front of all other objects.
t
Raise or press Pg Up (number pad) to move the object up by
one level.
t
Lower or press Pg Dn (number pad) to move the object down by
one level.
t
Send to Back or press Shift+Pg Dn (number pad) to move the object
to the back of all other objects.
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Transforming Graphics
You can transform an object by moving, scaling, rotating, or skewing it. When
you do this, objects are surrounded by a yellow bounding box and handles are
displayed at its corner and sides. You can manipulate these handles to
transform objects.
n
Tip: For interactive updates while moving, scaling, rotating and skewing
graphics objects, press Ctrl while you drag a handle.
Moving Objects
To move graphics objects, you must use the Select tool.
To move an object:
1. From the Tools toolbar, click the Select button.
2. In the viewer, click an object to select it.
A yellow bounding box surrounds the selected graphics object and the
graphics property tree displays its properties.
3. Do one of the following:
t
Drag to move the selected object.
t
Use the arrows on the number pad to move the object by 1 pixel.
t
Hold down the Ctrl key and use the arrow keys on the number pad to
move the object by 10 pixels.
Scaling Objects
You can modify the height and width of strokes and titles using the Scale tool.
The height and width are scalable as independent values or proportionally.
To scale an object:
1. From the Tools toolbar, click the Scale button.
2. In the viewer, click an object.
A bounding box with handles surrounds the object, and a red circle marks
the object’s center.
3. Drag one of the handles.
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Manipulating Graphics
n
Tip: Press Shift and drag to increase or decrease the height and width of the
object proportionally.
n
Press Ctrl and drag. One or more of the opposite handles are pinned in place
while you drag.
By default the object is scaled according to its center and its
transformation properties are set in the Transformations property editor,
where you can edit them.
Object center
Bounding box
handles
Scaled object
Original object
Rotating Objects
You can rotate selected objects around their rotation point. The Rotate tool lets
you modify the rotational angle of an object. By default, an object rotates
around its center. You can move this center to any position in two-dimensional
space. This lets you rotate an object around its corner or around another object
in the image.
To rotate an object:
1. From the Tools toolbar, click the Rotate button.
2. In the viewer, click an object.
A bounding box with handles appears at each corner of the bounding box,
and a red circle marks the object’s center.
3. Drag a handle clockwise or counterclockwise.
The object rotates around its center and its transformation properties are
set in the Transformations property editor, where you can edit them.
To move an object’s center:
1. From the Tools toolbar, click the Select button.
2. In the viewer, click an object to select it.
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A yellow bounding box surrounds the selected graphics object and the
graphics property tree displays its properties. The object’s center is
displayed as a small red circle.
3. Press Shift and drag the center to a new location.
Bounding box
handles
Object center
Object center is moved
Skewing Objects
The Skew tool lets you slant an object according to the angle you specify.
To skew an object:
1. From the Tools toolbar, click the Skew button.
2. In the viewer, click an object.
A bounding box with handles surrounds the object.
3. Drag the handles left or right until the required slant is reached.
The bounding box handles for skewing appear on each edge of the
bounding box. The object is skewed and its transformation properties are
set in the Transformations property editor, where you can edit them.
Setting the Transformation Properties
The transformations properties let you apply transformations, such as
translating, scaling, skewing, rotating, and centering the objects you create.
The transformation properties appear in the graphics property tree when you
select an object.
To define the transformations properties:
1. From the Tools toolbar, click the Select button, and select an object from
the viewer.
2. From the graphics property tree, click Transformations.
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Tracking Graphics Objects
3. In the Transformations property editor, set the Center, Translation,
Dimensions, Rotation, and Skew properties.
The selected object is transformed according to the transformation
properties you defined.
Tracking Graphics Objects
Tracking graphics objects can be very useful in rotoscopy tasks. You can track
the transformation of a graphics objects over time, as well as track the
deformation of shapes. To select an appropriate tracking method, you’ll have
to decide if it’s more effective to track an entire graphics object or its vertices.
For more information, see “Tracking” on page 229.
Transformation Tracking
You can transform a stroke or a text body by applying one or two trackers
directly to the entire stroke or text body. When applying only one tracker, the
stroke or text body will only translate over time. When applying two trackers,
the stroke or text body can undergo translation, rotation, and scaling.
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To transform a graphics object using the tracker:
1. From the Tools toolbar, select a drawing tool.
2. Draw a shape that defines the region you want to track.
3. Select the graphics object.
4. From the Tools toolbar, click the Tracker button.
The Select (Tracker) property editor is displayed.
5. You are now ready to position the trackers, set the tracker options, and
begin tracking—see “Using the Shape Tracker” on page 251.
n
Tip: To help you position and view the trackers, click the Hide Gfx button to
hide the graphics object.
Tracking Vertices
You can deform the shape of a stroke by applying trackers to vertices.
To deform a shape using the tracker:
1. From the Tools toolbar, select a drawing tool.
2. Draw a shape defining the region you want to track.
n
Tip: You can use any drawing tool, but the Polyline tool gives you distinct
control points. When using other drawing tools, select the Curve Fit option in
the Edit Shape property page to reduce the number of control points.
3. From the Tools toolbar, click the Select button and select the graphics
object.
4. From the Tools toolbar, click the Edit Shape button.
5. In the Edit Shape property editor, select the Tracker tab.
6. You are now ready to position the trackers, set the tracker options, and
begin tracking—see “Using the Shape Tracker” on page 251.
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Working in Raster Mode
Working in Raster Mode
Raster mode (also known as destructive mode) lets you perform tedious tasks,
such as rotoscoping quickly and effectively. Since this mode is not vectorbased, processing is not required. The time required to load and save graphics
objects is also dramatically reduced.
As you paint frame-by-frame, the finished (burned) frames are placed in a
cache and the original graphics objects are deleted. Working in Raster mode
deactivates the recording of graphics objects in the Graphics Objects View
(GOV), flattens them, and stores the resulting images on individual frames
directly to a cache. You can choose to have the frame you’re currently working
on automatically “burned” or you can choose to burn frames later when you’re
satisfied with the results.
When burning frames, keep in mind that clip effects previously applied to a
sequence will be no longer be editable. If you want to apply clip effects to
your sequence, it’s best to use the raster mode to burn your frames first.
n
Raster mode only works for graphics objects with a duration of one frame.
Also, the files generated by raster paint (.gen files) will not be seen in the
Media Tool or Purge dialog box. They will be deleted when the project is
deleted and archived when the project is archived.
Effect in which Raster mode is used
Clip effects that will be uneditable
after frames are burned
n
When working in raster mode, you cannot undo an operation on a frame that
has been burned. You can use the Delete Burned command from the Raster
Paint toolbar to undo your work on that frame entirely and start over.
To use the raster mode:
1. From the Tools toolbar, click the Graphics Properties button.
2. On the Raster Mode property page, click the Start button.
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A message box is displayed to warn you that the operation you’re about to
attempt cannot be reverted.
3. Click OK to proceed in the Raster mode.
4. Do one of the following:
t
To automatically burn or “destroy” frames as you advance frames,
select the Burn on Frame Change option.
t
To burn frames manually, deselect the Burn on Frame Change
option. Click the Burn Frame button in the General 2 toolbar when
you’re satisfied with your work.
5. To create a copy of the rastered strokes when advancing frames, select the
Copy Burned Strokes option.
6. If you don’t want to work in real time, select the Non Real-time option.
7. To deactivate the warning message that appears concerning undo/redo
operations when you change frames, select the Remove Warning When
Burning option.
8. To easily retrieve work done in the raster mode, enter a file name in the
Base Cache File Name text box. It should not exceed ten alphanumeric
characters. If you do not enter a file name, one will be entered by default
based on the sequence name. For more information on working with
caches, see “Raster Mode Caches” on page 349.
9. Use the transport controls to advance the clip to a frame where you want
to begin using the raster mode.
10. Apply paint strokes to the first frame.
n
Tip: When you’ve completed the first frame, you can advance to the next one
by using the right arrow key on the keyboard.
11. Advance to the next frame.
If you selected the Burn on Frame Change option, when advancing to a
new frame, the graphics objects applied to the previous frame are burned
and saved to a cache. A small white box appears under the timeline in the
GOV to indicate that the frame has been burned.
In the GOV, white boxes
indicate burned frames
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Working in Raster Mode
While you’re painting frame-by-frame, you may decide to redo a rastered
frame. To do this, you must still be in the current graphics session in order to
delete the rastered strokes.
To delete burned, rastered strokes:
1. Using the transport controls, advance the clip to the frame on which you
want to delete the rastered strokes.
2. From the General 2 toolbar, click the Delete Burned button.
The strokes created before burning the frame are now deleted and the
white box disappears for that frame in the GOV.
Raster Mode Caches
When working with paint in raster mode, the finished (burned) frames are
placed in a cache and any vector-based paint strokes or graphics objects are
“flattened” and saved with the image.
These caches are saved with your project on the disk array, and Avid DS Nitris
refers to these caches when playing back your clips.
n
•
The .gen files generated when burning frames are managed on a per
project basis, so deleting or not saving sequences that contain burned
frames may leave orphaned .gen files. To help track and delete these files,
enter a name in the Base Cache File Name text box in the Graphics
property page, use the rastered frames tooltips in the Graphic Object View
(GOV), or use the Save option when right-clicking on the rastered frames
in the GOV. Deleting a project will also destroy all associated burned
frames.
•
Presets of graphics sessions that contain burned frames cannot be reloaded
in sequences that have a different resolution or frame rate.
•
The burned frames of graphics sessions become opaque. Changes to any
effect underneath a graphics session will be ignored for those frames.
•
Burned frames are not visible when a paint sequence is used as a reference
clip (Alt-drop from Avid Explorer). To work around this, select the Non
Real-Time option on the Graphics property editor and process.
When working in raster mode, you cannot undo an operation once a frame has
been burned. You can, however, delete its cache file, but this will also delete
any paint strokes that you created on that frame.
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Using the GOV in Raster Mode
The GOV provides useful information when working in the Raster Paint
mode. The Raster Paint log lets you save a list of the rastered frames in a text
file. It provides you with information about the rastered frames, so that you
can easily locate them in the cache. The GOV also provides tooltips of the
rastered framed, so that you can locate a frame if you want to delete or redo it.
To create and save a Raster Paint log:
1. In the GOV, right-click a small white box and select Save Raster Paint
Log.
Right-click a
white box
A dialog box is displayed, prompting you to save the log.
2. Select the folder in which you want to save the Raster Paint Log
information. You may want to save your work for different graphics
sessions in separate folders.
3. Click the Save button.
A text file is created.
Date the file
was created
Name of
rastered
frame
n
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Base cache file name
Tip: To see the file name of a rastered frame, place the pointer over the
frame’s white box and a tooltip appears indicating the file name.
Creating Mattes
Creating Mattes
A matte is a grayscale image that defines the transparency of an image when it
is composited over another. An image can have a matte in its alpha channel
(internal matte) or use a matte derived from another image (external matte).
When you use the graphics tools to create a matte, it is created in the alpha
channel of the clip or layer that will be composited.
A garbage matte can be used on images in which portions of an image are
difficult to key out. This occurs when colors in the foreground image are
similar to the background colors that you want to key out. A garbage matte lets
you block out areas that cannot be properly keyed.
Creating a Travelling Matte
A travelling matte is used for compositing a part of a foreground image onto
the background image. You can then animate the geometry of the shape so that
it matches the outline of the object in every frame of the sequence.
n
Tip: When the element you want to rotoscope is a fast moving object, such as a
car, you should apply the Deinterlace effect inside the composite container
clip, perform the graphics or compositing tasks and then go to the parent
timeline to apply the Interlace effect. For more information, see ”Applying a
Deinterlace Effect” in the Help.
To create a travelling matte:
1. From the Avid Explorer, drag the background clip to a video track on the
timeline.
2. Click the Compositing button in the taskbar.
A composite container clip is created and the Compositing layout is
displayed.
3. Right-click the timeline effect track and select Create Background
Track.
4. From the Avid Explorer, drag the foreground clip to the new
background track.
5. Drag the track button for the new video track to the Layers view.
A layer is created in the Layers view.
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6. Make sure the Autokey button is deactivated.
7. On the top layer, click the Gfx button.
The Graphics layout is displayed.
8. From the Tools toolbar, click the Polyline button.
9. In the graphics property tree, load the Fill Fx property with the Color
Blend or Reveal effect.
10. In the graphics property tree, set the following properties:
-
Paint Style: Select the Fill option and deselect the Brush option.
-
Fill Fx: If you’re using the Color Blend effect, set the Alpha value to
0.
-
Masks: On the General property page, select the Alpha option, and
deselect the R, G, and B options in the Paint on Channels box.
-
Time Span: Set a stroke duration.
11. In the viewer, draw an outline of your subject.
12. From the Tools toolbar, click the Select button and then click the Edit
Shape button.
Polyline stroke reveals
the background image
(sky)
13. Edit the object’s shape.
14. Open the Edit Shape property editor, and click the Set Key button.
A keyframe is set at the current timecode.
15. Advance to the next frame, edit the object’s shape, and set another
keyframe. Repeat these steps until you’re done.
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16. When you’re done, press Esc to exit Edit Shape tool.
17. Process the graphics session—see “Processing Graphics” on page 364.
Use the transport controls to play the clip.
18. To view the matte, click the Layers button on the view switcher beside the
GOV.
Scratch Removal
Avid DS Nitris includes tools for fixing flaws, such as dropouts in video
frames or defects in film-originated footage. If the flaw is on one frame, you
can isolate it and create a two-frame region using the Scratch Removal tool.
The frame that precedes the flawed frame must contain clean material.
When using the Scratch Removal tool, a Graphics (Scratch Removal) effect is
applied to the clip you select.
If more than one frame is scratched, you can trim the Graphics effect on the
timeline, or apply the Scratch Removal preset on the clip.
n
You cannot access frames outside of the region you have marked when you are
removing scratches.
When using a clip that contains an in-point and out-point, scratch removal will
start at the frame before the in-point and end at the frame before the
out-point if:
•
Both the in-point and out-point intersect the selected clip, and
•
The position indicator intersects the in/out time span or is located at the
frame immediately before the in-point.
To remove scratches:
1. In the Editing layout, select the clip that contains the flaw(s) that you want
to remove.
2. Locate the flawed frame and place the position indicator on that frame.
n
The frame that precedes the flawed frame must contain clean material.
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3. From the toolbar, click Editing > Scratch Removal.
A Graphics (Scratch Removal) effect, with a duration of two frames, is
applied to the selected clip on the timeline and the Graphics combo view
is displayed. The default scratch removal properties are:
t
Tool: Freehand with Clone as the brush effect
t
Source Frame: Type is Relative and Frame is -1.
t
Time span: This Frame Only
4. In the viewer, paint away any scratches or flaws.
Scratch
You can also use the Noise effect to remove flaws from images. For more
information, see “Clone Effect” and “Noise Effect” in the Help.
Blending Frames
When you want to see how a title or graphics object moves from one frame to
the next, you can blend the current frames with proceeding and/or successive
frames at a specified percentage. You can also specify the number of frames to
blend, as well as the opacity of the current frame, the frames before it, and the
frames after it.
To blend frames:
1. Right-click the viewer and select Onion Skin.
The specified number of frames, before and after the current frame, are
blended with the current frame in the viewer.
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2. When you’re finished, right-click the viewer again and select Onion Skin.
Only the current frame is visible in the viewer.
n
Tip: The onion skin options are also available from the Viewer Properties
property editor. Right-click the viewer and select Viewer Properties.
Blending Graphics Objects or Titles
When creating graphics objects or titles using the Color Blend paint effect,
you can control the way they combine with the background image by using
blending modes. These are the same blending operations as those available for
blending layers in the Compositing layout.
To blend strokes or titles:
1. In the graphics property tree, do one of the following:
t
Strokes: Set the Brush Fx and/or Fill Fx to the Color Blend effect.
t
Titles: Set the Face Fx, Edge Fx, and/or Shadow Fx to the Color
Blend effect.
For more information, see “Setting Drawing Tool Properties” on
page 285.
2. Create a stroke or title in the viewer.
3. Select the stroke or title you created.
4. Display the Color Blend property editor of the stroke/title attribute you
want to blend with the background.
5. Select the Blending property page.
6. Select the Color Blend option and then select an operation from the
Blending Modes list.
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Importing Images
Importing images in your graphics session lets you use images of any size
without having to capture them. You can also import images that were created
in other paint applications, as well as use the image’s alpha. For example, you
can import a logo created in Adobe Photoshop or Illustrator, and use it in your
graphics session.
When you import an image in Avid DS Nitris, a rectangular stroke is created
in the viewer and filled with the image you imported. The original size of the
imported image is retained. That is, the image is not scaled or cropped. You
can treat the imported image as a graphics object, which means you can edit
any of its properties, as well as animate and transform it.
You can also import video sequences. For more information, see “Importing
Clips” on page 358.
n
The pixel ratio of the image comes from the setting in the”Capture Setting” in
the Help.
To import images:
1. From the Tools toolbar, click Import > Import Image.
2. From the Import Image dialog box, select an image to import.
The image, in its original size, is imported and appears in the lower-left
corner of the viewer. The default time span is one frame. If the imported
image is small, you can see the entire image in the viewer. If the imported
image is large, part of the image will lie outside the viewer.
The imported image, a small
logo, is actually a rectangular
stroke that is filled with the image
you imported. The stroke was
scaled and moved to the uppercenter of the viewer.
3. To use an image’s alpha, select the stroke, open the Fill Fx (Cutout)
property editor, and select the Use Alpha option.
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n
Tip: If you can’t see the entire stroke, zoom out of the viewer by pressing
Shift+Z and dragging.
A zoomed out view of a large
imported image. Because of its
size, only the map portion of
the image is displayed in the
viewer. The rest of the image
lies outside the viewer.
Importing Encapsulated PostScript (EPS) Files
If you have EPS files that you want to use in your current graphics session,
you can import them directly into your graphics session. The color
information in the EPS files is retained. Once imported, each shape in the EPS
file is a separate stroke in Avid DS Nitris.
n
You can import solid colors, but not gradients.
Avid DS Nitris can import files created with Adobe Illustrator 8.0 or earlier
versions. To work with Illustrator 9.0 files, save it as a version 8.0 file.
You can also import EPS files as brushes. For more information, see “Creating
Custom Brushes” on page 289.
To import an EPS file:
1. From the Tools toolbar, click the Import > Import EPS button.
The Open dialog box is displayed.
2. Select an EPS file and click the Open button.
The EPS file is imported into your graphics session.
If your EPS file contained closed characters, such as a, b, d, o, p, 6, 8, 9, or
0, their shapes may not appear as expected. That’s because each character
consists of several strokes. Avid DS Nitris imports each stroke separately
and then fills it. For example, the letter “O” consists of two strokes, the
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inner and outer shapes; both are filled. To “knock out” the inner shape,
select the inner and outer stroke of the character and click the Combine
Strokes button.
After import, both
inner and outer
shapes are filled
Combined inner and
outer shapes. Inner
shape is “knocked out”.
Importing Clips
If you have video clips that you want to use in a current graphics session, you
can import them without having to capture them. When you import a video
clip in the Graphics layout, a rectangular stroke is created in the viewer and
filled with the clip you imported. The original size of the imported clip is
retained. That is, the clip is not scaled or cropped. You can treat the imported
clip as a graphics object, which means you can edit any of its properties, as
well as animate and transform it. You can import clips of any size and
resolution.
You can also import images. For more information, see “Importing Images” on
page 356.
n
The pixel ratio of the clip comes from the setting in the Capture Settings dialog
box.
To import a video clip:
1. From the Tools toolbar, click Import > Import Clip.
2. From the Import Clip dialog box, select a video clip to import.
The clip is imported and appears as a rectangular stroke in the lower-left
corner of the viewer. The time span of the imported clip is maintained.
To replace a video clip:
1. Select the stroke.
2. From the graphics property tree, click Fill Fx (Clip Holder).
3. Click the Import Clip button and select a video clip.
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The video clip is replaced by the one you selected.
Click the Help button for detailed information on the Clip Holder properties.
Importing Subtitles
You can import hundreds of subtitles including international characters, such
as Japanese and Chinese, in the current sequence as Graphics timeline effects.
Once imported, each subtitle is represented as a titling body that is positioned
at the bottom of the safe title area.
The DS Subtitles File
Before you can import subtitles in Avid DS Nitris, you must create a DS
Subtitles file that contains all your subtitles along with their respective time
spans. This file must be a Unicode-encoded text file. You can use Notepad to
create the subtitles file and save it with the Unicode encoding.
The DS Subtitles file contains two distinct sections:
•
The header section is optional; it defines general information and
rendering properties that are applicable to all subtitles, such as the font,
font size, face color, alignment, and so on.
•
The subtitles section is mandatory and defines each subtitle and its time
span.
To quickly format subtitles, you can use a titling body preset. Just be sure to
create the preset before importing the subtitles, and place the preset in the
factory default folder for titling presets: \Program
Files\Avid\DS_vX.X\DSPresets\Titling\Bodies.
n
When a line in the DS Subtitles file starts with the @ character, it is considered
to be a comment.
To create the DS Subtitles file:
1. Click Start > Programs > Accessories > Notepad.
2. If you want to use specific properties, create a header section by typing
the desired keywords along with their values—see “The Header Section of
the DS Subtitles File” on page 360.
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3. Type: <begin subtitles>
4. Add each subtitle along with its time span.
5. Type: <end subtitles>
6. Save the DS Subtitles file.
To import subtitles:
1. From the NLE Tools toolbar, click Generate > Import Subtitles.
2. In the Import Subtitles dialog box, select a DS Subtitles file and click OK.
A Graphics timeline effect is created for each subtitle in the DS Subtitles
file.
To view subtitles:
t
To go to the next subtitle, press Shift+Period (.).
t
To go to the previous subtitle, press Shift+Comma (,).
The Header Section of the DS Subtitles File
In the header section, the general information and the rendering properties are
specified using keywords and values. Each keyword begins with the <
character and ends with the > character. A keyword is followed by one or more
spaces or tabs, and then by a value. Each keyword must begin on a new line.
Keywords are not case sensitive. Most values following the keywords are not
case sensitive, except for the values of the following keywords: <font>, <font
style> and <preset>.
If a DS Subtitles file doesn't have a header, default values will be used.
n
Tip: Instead of specifying keywords to define the rendering properties of
subtitles, you can use the keyword <preset> followed by the name of a
Graphics Titling Body preset.
For the complete of keywords that can be used in the header section, see
“Header Section Keywords” in the Help.
The Subtitles Section of the DS Subtitles File
The subtitles section defines each subtitle along with its time span. The
subtitles section begins with the keyword <begin subtitles>, followed by all
subtitles, and ends with the keyword <end subtitles>.
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To define a subtitle, write the start timecode (or in timecode) on a new line,
followed by one or more spaces, followed by its stop timecode (or out
timecode). Then, write the actual text on the following lines. A maximum of
four lines of text is allowed.
Subtitles must be sorted ascendantly according to their time span. Subtitles
must be contiguous, that is, they must not overlap.
Examples of DS Subtitles Files
Example 1: No header section
Subtitle section
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Example 2: Simple header section
Header section
Subtitle section
Example 3: Simple header section using a preset
Preset name
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Example 4: Full header section
Header section
Header section
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Processing Graphics
Avid DS Nitris lets you play some graphics effects in real time without having
to manually process them:
•
Airbrush
•
Color Blend
•
Cutout
•
Animations, such as rolls and crawls, when using the above effects
Others cannot be played in real time due to effect properties that demand
processing requirements that exceed the system’s ability to complete
processing on the fly. For example, if there are large graphics objects that
cover most of a frame, the system will slow down during playback. In such
cases, you need to process the effects before final output.
n
n
A message is displayed at the bottom of the Graphics property editor to
indicate why your session can’t be played in real time.
Also, you can select the non-real-time configuration from the Graphics
Properties property editor if you do not want your system to play back realtime effects.
You can process all or part of the timeline, as well as choose different levels at
which to process your clips. You can process graphics you have created in full
resolution, and view them on playback. The results of the processing is stored
in a new media file (cache), so that your source media remains unaltered. For
more information on processing, see “Processing Effects” on page 921 of the
Avid DS Nitris Editing Guide.
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Processing Graphics
To process graphics:
1. In the timeline controls, click the Process button.
Process button
Highlighted timeline
ribbon indicates
unprocessed section of
the sequence.
2. In the Processing Options dialog box, select the appropriate options.
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Chapter 7 Painting and 2D Titling
3. Click OK to begin processing.
A progress indicator appears on the bottom of the desktop to show the
status of the process.
4. Click the Cancel button to stop the process at any time.
Click the Help button for detailed information on the Processing Options
properties.
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Chapter 8
Paint Effects
The paint effects let you apply effects to the brush or fill of paint strokes or
text bodies. Paint effects modify the pixels of the image covered by the paint
stroke. Some effects, such as Edge or Color Blend, define the appearance of
the paint stroke. Other effects, such as Smear and Noise, define how the paint
stroke changes the underlying image.
Clone Effect
The Clone effect lets you remove scratches or wires from images by cloning
parts of the same image or parts of other images. The frame that contains the
image that you want to clone is called the source. The source image can be
taken from the current frame, another frame from the same clip, or you can set
a source frame offset to clone from. You can apply the Clone effect as the
brush or fill of a stroke.
n
n
The Clone effect is, by default, part of the Graphics combo view (Scratch
Removal command). For more information, see “Scratch Removal” on
page 353.
You can also use the Noise and Reveal effects to remove scratches. For more
information, see “Noise Effect” on page 379 and “Reveal Effect” on
page 384.
Chapter 8 Paint Effects
To apply the Clone effect:
1. From the taskbar, click the Graphics button. Make sure the position
indicator is over the media on the timeline, otherwise you cannot switch to
the Graphics layout.
2. From the Tools toolbar, click the Freehand button.
3. In the Paint Style property editor, select the Use option from the
Brush box.
4. In the graphics property tree, do the following:
t
Right-click Masks and select RGB Only.
t
Right-click Brush Fx and select Clone.
The Clone effect is loaded as a Brush Fx.
n
You can also use the fill of a stroke to clone an image. In the graphics property
tree, load Fill Fx with the Clone effect.
5. In the graphics property tree, click the Brush Fx (Clone) property button.
The Brush Fx (Clone) property editor displays.
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Clone Effect
To clone using the current frame as the source:
1. In the Brush Fx (Clone) property editor, select a type of source point to
use to define the area of the source image:
Source point type
To
Relative
Define the offset position at a specific distance from
the stroke.
Absolute
Define the offset position at an absolute position in
the frame.
In-Place
Define the offset at a position under the stroke.
2. From the Source Frame Type list, select In Place.
3. To pick an area of the source to clone, do one of the following depending
on the type of cloning you selected:
t
Relative: Click the Pick button and drag the pointer to a distance
representing the desired offset. Successive strokes are applied using
this offset.
t
Absolute: Click the Pick button and click the area of the image that
you want to clone. Successive strokes apply the originally picked area
of the source image.
t
In-place: No picking is necessary since the source is determined by
the current position of the pointer.
4. Use the Amount controls to adjust the transparency of the clone.
5. You can now paint with the Clone tool.
To clone using a different frame as the source:
1. In the Brush Fx (Clone) property editor, do the following:
t
From the Source Point list, select In Place.
t
From the Source Frame list, select Absolute.
t
Use the Amount controls to adjust the transparency of the clone.
2. Do one of the following:
t
Type the timecode that corresponds to the frame from which you want
to clone in the Frame box.
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Chapter 8 Paint Effects
t
Use the transport controls to locate the source frame from which you
want to clone and click the Make Source button.
The timing of the current frame is saved and becomes the source for
subsequent clone operations.
3. To switch between the current frame and the frame you’ve chosen to clone
from, click the Go To and Go Back buttons.
4. You can now paint with the Clone tool.
n
Tip: When cloning from another frame, select the Use Onion Skinning option
in the Viewer Properties property editor. This lets you see the source frame at
the same time.
To clone using an offset frame as the source:
1. Load the Clone effect.
2. In the Brush Fx (Clone) property editor, do the following:
t
From the Source Frame box, select Relative from the Type list.
t
Type a value in the Frame box corresponding to the number of
frames for the offset.
t
This value can be either a positive or negative value.
t
Use the Amount controls to adjust the transparency of the clone.
3. You can now paint with the Clone tool.
Click the Help button for detailed information on the Clone properties.
Color Blend Effect
The Color Blend effect lets you apply color to your graphics objects. Once you
select a color, you can apply it to a graphics object as a color blend or as a tint.
You can also set the transparency of the color.
You can apply the Color Blend effect as the brush or fill of a stroke.
Since the Color Blend effect is a real-time effect, you can view the results
upon playback without having to first process the effect. In some cases, realtime effects may require processing to ensure that no frames are skipped. For
more information, see “Working with Real-Time Effects” on page 950 of the
Avid DS Nitris Editing Guide.
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Color Blend Effect
To select a color:
1. From the taskbar, click the Graphics button.
n
Make sure the position indicator is over the media on the timeline, otherwise
you cannot switch to the Graphics layout.
2. On the graphics property tree, right-click Brush Fx or Fill Fx and select
Color Blend.
3. From the Color Blend property editor, select the Color tab.
4. Do one of the following:
t
Click a color from the palette.
t
Click a striped box on the bottom row of the palette, and use the R, G,
B, and A controls to define a color.
t
Click one of the Color Views and select a color from the displayed
color wheel.
The color is displayed in the Color swatch box, and is either applied to the
selected object or becomes the default color which is applied to
subsequent objects you create.
To tint an image:
1. In the Color Blend property editor, select the Type tab.
2. In the Type box, select the Tint option.
3. Select a combination of Hue, Luminance, and Saturation options.
Click the Help button for detailed information on the Color Blend properties.
Setting the Opacity of a Color
The transparency of a stroke is determined by the combination of opacity
settings in the Paint Style and Brush property editors.
The transparency of a title is determined by the combination of the opacity
settings in the Titling Style property editor. If a Color Blend effect is used, its
opacity setting also contributes to the transparency of graphics objects.
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Chapter 8 Paint Effects
To change the opacity of a color:
1. In the Color Blend property editor, select the Type tab.
2. Use the Opacity controls to adjust the transparency of the color displayed
in the color swatch of the Color property page.
If you selected an object from the viewer, the object is displayed with the
new opacity value.
If you selected a drawing tool, the opacity value becomes the default
property for objects that you subsequently create.
Click the Help button for detailed information on the Color Blend properties.
Defining Color
You can select colors based on the RGB, CMYK, or HLS color models, or by
picking a color from the image in the viewer. You can create an entire range of
colors in the palette, as well as customize the currently-displayed color palette
by selecting a color and modifying its color values.
To define a color using channel controls:
1. In the Color Blend property editor, select the Color tab.
Color swatch
Color wheel
Slider
Color views
Color model
2. From the Color Model list, select a color model.
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Color Blend Effect
3. Set the color values of each channel by adjusting the R, G, B, and A
controls for each channel.
The color swatch displays the color as you adjust the channels.
Picking a Color from an Image
If the color you want already exists in an image, you can select this color and
add it to your color palette.
To pick a color from an image:
1. In the Color Blend property editor, select the Color tab.
2. Select a color from the color palette. This color will be replaced by the
color you select from your image.
3. Click the Pick button.
The pointer changes to the eyedropper cursor.
4. In the viewer, click the color that you want to add to the palette.
In the palette, the color you picked from the viewer replaces the color you
selected from the palette.
n
Tip: A very quick way to apply color is with the Pick Color tool. Once you
have chosen your drawing tool, hold down the 6 key. The pointer changes to
the eyedropper cursor. Pick a color from the image in the viewer. You can now
paint with this color until you decide to load another color.
To define a range of colors:
1. In the Color Blend property editor, select the Color tab.
2. From the color palette, select a color for the start of the color range.
3. Press Shift and click a color for the end of the color range.
4. Click the Spread button.
The color palette changes to a color gradient displaying colors across the
range defined by the selected colors.
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Chapter 8 Paint Effects
Loading and Saving a Color Palette
Once you select or create a range of colors, you can save the colors in your
own color palette. You can then use this palette on any graphics object you
create. When you finish a project, the palette is available for use on
other projects.
To load a color palette:
1. In the Color Blend property editor, click the Load button.
2. In the Load Preset dialog box, select a palette.
The selected palette is displayed in the Color Blend property editor.
To save a color palette:
1. In the Color Blend property editor, click the Save button.
The Save Preset dialog box displays.
2. In the File Name text box, type a name for your palette.
3. In the Comments text box, give the palette a brief description and
click OK.
Cutout Effect
The Cutout effect lets you create a cutout using the drawing tools. The cutout
is a bitmap that you can treat as a graphics object; you can cut, copy, and paste
it anywhere in your graphics session. It is usually used as a fill effect, but you
can apply the effect to the brush of a shape or to the face of titles.
You can also save the graphics object as a stroke or text preset, and use it in a
different project. This is particularly useful for elements, such as logos, that
must look consistent from project to project.
n
374
Tip: The Cutout effect is resolution independent if the original cutout was
created in full resolution. If you want your cutout to be resolution independent
but you originally created it in a lower resolution, switch back to full
resolution, select the stroke, and reload the Cutout effect to the cutout you
created.
Cutout Effect
Since the Cutout effect is a real-time effect, you can view the results upon
playback without having to process the effect. In some cases, real-time effects
may require processing to ensure that no frames are skipped. For more
information, see “Working with Real-Time Effects” on page 950 of the
Avid DS Nitris Editing Guide.
To create a shape cutout:
1. From the taskbar, click the Graphics button.
n
Make sure the position indicator is over the media on the timeline, otherwise
you cannot switch to the Graphics layout.
2. From the Tools toolbar, select a drawing tool (Polyline, Freehand, Ellipse,
Rectangle, or Magic Wand).
3. From the graphics property tree, click Paint Style.
4. In the Paint Style property editor, do the following:
t
Deselect the Use Brush option.
t
Select the Use Fill option.
5. Use the graphics property tree to set up the rest of the drawing tool
properties—see “Setting Drawing Tool Properties” on page 285.
6. From the graphics property tree, right-click Fill Fx and select Load.
7. From the Load Preset dialog box, select Cutout from the \Paint\Effects
folder.
8. From the graphics property tree, right-click Fill Fx (Cutout).
9. In the Cutout property editor, do one of the following:
t
Select the Transform Image option to transform the cutout when you
transform the stroke.
t
Deselect the Transform Image option to reveal the underlying image
as you move your cutout on the viewer.
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Chapter 8 Paint Effects
Transform Image option
selected.
Transform Image option
deselected.
10. In the Transformation Quality box, select one of the following:
-
Unfiltered to apply no filter to the image.
-
Bilinear to apply a fast, medium-quality filter to the image.
-
Filtered to apply a strong filter to the image.
11. Draw on the viewer to create a shape.
A graphics object is created in the viewer. Since the cutout is placed on
top of the area you just cut out, you cannot see it.
A polyline, drawn
around the android,
defines the shape of
the cutout.
12. From the Tools toolbar, click the Select button, and move the object in
the viewer.
The cutout is now visible. You can edit your cutout and save it as a stroke
preset if desired. For more information, see “Manipulating Graphics” on
page 336 and “Using Stroke, Text, or Group Presets” on page 283.
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Cutout Effect
The cutout of the
android is selected
and moved.
The cutout is
pasted, scaled,
and skewed in a
different graphics
session.
Click the Help button for detailed information on the Cutout properties.
Using the Cutout Effect in a Stack
You can use the Cutout effect in a stack just like any other paint effect in
Avid DS Nitris. But before you create a stack effect, remember that when you
create a stroke that contains a Stack effect as well as the Cutout effect, any
property changes you make to the effects preceding the Cutout effect will not
be applied to your cutout.
n
Tip: Make sure the Cutout effect is the first effect in your stack or reload the
Cutout effect by right-clicking the Cutout effect on the graphics property tree
and selecting Load.
For more information, see “Stack Effects” on page 385.
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Chapter 8 Paint Effects
Comparing the Cutout and Clone Effects
If the Cutout and Clone effects seem similar, be aware that they are quite
different. The Cutout effect is used for creating a cutout from an image,
whereas the Clone effect is used primarily for touching up images and
removing scratches.
These are the differences between the Cutout and Clone effects:
Cutout effect
Clone Effect
A cutout image can be
transformed.
A cloned image can be translated, but not rotated,
skewed, or scaled.
Since a cutout retains a
copy of the entire image from
which it was created, a stroke
created with the Cutout effect
can be saved as a preset for
use in other graphics sessions.
The source frame image used by the Clone effect as
its source is actually a timecode reference to an image
that exists within a graphics session. Because it is
only a timecode reference, it is confined to the time
span of the graphics session and cannot be used in
other graphics sessions.
The Cutout effect does not
have image touch-up
properties.
The Clone effect has properties (source point and
source frame) for quickly touching up or repairing an
image.
Dodge and Burn Effect
The Dodge and Burn effect lets you lighten or darken areas of an image by
controlling the exposure on specific areas. Exposure is decreased to lighten an
area on the image (dodging) or the exposure is increased to darken areas on a
image (burning).
To use the Dodge and Burn effect:
1. From the taskbar, click the Graphics button.
2. From the Tools toolbar, select a drawing tool.
3. From the graphics property tree, right-click Fill Fx and select Dodge and
Burn.
4. From the Effect list, select the desired effect as follows:
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Noise Effect
Effect
To
Dodge
Increase the luminosity.
Burn
Decrease the luminosity of the image. This has the
inverse effect of the dodging effect.
Saturate
Increase the weight of colors of the image.
Desaturate
Decrease the weight of colors, ultimately yielding a
black and white image.
5. Paint on the viewer.
As you paint on the viewer, the effect you chose from the Effect list
is applied.
Click the Help button for detailed information on the Dodge and Burn
properties.
Noise Effect
The Noise effect lets you add noise to an image. You can also use this effect to
remove noise, such as scratches or wires. While not always useful for large
imperfections, the Noise effect can be used to remove small wires. In the
Noise property editor, the Median Rank and Selective Rank options are
particularly useful for reducing the noise in an image.
You can apply the Noise effect as the brush or fill of a stroke.
n
You can also use the Clone and Reveal effects to remove scratches. For more
information, see “Reveal Effect” on page 384.
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Chapter 8 Paint Effects
To use the Noise effect:
1. From the taskbar, click the Graphics button.
n
Make sure the position indicator is over the media on the timeline, otherwise
you cannot switch to the Graphics layout.
2. From the Tools toolbar, click the Freehand button.
3. In the Paint Style property editor, select the Use option from the Brush
box.
4. In the graphics property tree, right-click Brush Fx and select Load.
5. From the Load Preset dialog box, select the Noise effect.
6. In the graphics property tree, right-click Brush Fx (Noise).
7. In the Noise property editor, select Median Rank or Selective Rank.
8. From the graphics property tree, right-click Masks and select RGB.
9. Use the transport controls to locate the frame on which the scratches or
wires start, and move the position indicator over it.
10. Paint on the viewer. Adjust the Threshold and Radius controls in the
Noise property editor while you paint.
As you paint on the viewer, the scratch or wire is removed.
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Paper Grain Images
Scratch
Selected stroke with the Noise effect
applied to the brush and fill
Click the Help button for detailed information on the Noise properties.
Paper Grain Images
The paper grain images let you apply texture to a stroke, fill, or text body to
simulate the effect of painting on a textured canvas. You can apply paper grain
images to the brush or fill of a stroke, or to a text body.
Burlap paper grain applied to
a stroke.
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Chapter 8 Paint Effects
To apply a paper grain image:
1. From the Masks property editor, select the Paper Grain tab.
Browse buttons
Preview box
2. Do one of the following:
t
Click the Browse button to select a paper grain image.
The Load Paper Grain Image dialog box displays.
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Paper Grain Images
t
Click the browse (...) button to select a paper grain in any other
supported file format.
The Load Paper Grain Image dialog box displays.
3. In the Load Paper Grain Image dialog box, select a paper grain from the
\DSPresets\Paper Grain folder.
The selected paper grain is displayed in the preview box.
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Chapter 8 Paint Effects
4. On the Paper Grain property page, select the Use option to apply the paper
grain.
5. Select the Invert option to invert the paper grain.
6. Use the Absorption controls to set the opacity of the paper grain texture.
7. You can now paint or create titles on the viewer.
The objects you create are displayed with the properties you specified.
Click the Help button for detailed information on the Masks properties.
Reveal Effect
The Reveal effect lets you “paint away” the unwanted portions of a
composited image and replace them with another image on an underlying
layer. When you paint with the Reveal effect, the opaque areas of the alpha
channel become transparent (black), revealing the underlying layer.
n
You can also use the Clone and Noise effects to remove imperfections and
scratches. For more information, see “Clone Effect” on page 367 and “Noise
Effect” on page 379.
To apply a Reveal effect:
1. Create a composite.
The Compositing layout displays.
2. In the Layers view, click the Gfx button of the layer on which you want
to paint.
The Graphics layout displays.
3. From the Tools toolbar, click the Freehand button.
4. From the graphics property tree, do the following:
t
From the Paint Style property editor, select the Use option from the
Brush box.
t
Right-click Brush Fx and select Load.
5. From the Load Preset dialog box, select the Reveal effect.
6. In the Brush Fx (Reveal) property editor, adjust the Amount controls to
control how much of the underlying image is revealed.
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Stack Effects
7. From the graphics property tree, right-click Masks and select Alpha
Only.
8. Paint on the viewer.
As you paint, the underlying layer is revealed.
n
You can also use the fill of a stroke to reveal an image. In the graphics
property tree, load Fill Fx with the Reveal effect.
Stack Effects
The stack effects let you replace a brush, fill, face, edge, or shadow effect by a
“stack” of any combination of effects. Stack effects let you build complex
effects by editing, rearranging, and stacking effects. The effects are processed
from the bottom of the stack to the top.
To apply a stack effect:
1. From the taskbar, click the Graphics button.
n
Make sure the position indicator is over the media on the timeline, otherwise
you cannot switch to the Graphics layout.
2. From the graphics property tree, right-click one of the following and
select Load:
t
Brush Fx or Fill Fx.
t
Face Fx, Edge Fx, or Shadow Fx
The Load Preset dialog box displays.
3. From the Load Preset dialog box, select an effect from the \Paint\Stack
Effects folder.
The effect replaces the property you selected in the graphics property tree.
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Chapter 8 Paint Effects
Stack effect loaded into
Brush Fx property.
Effects comprising the
effect stack.
4. From the graphics property tree, click the Stack Effect property button.
Effects that comprise the Stack effect are displayed as subproperties in
the graphics property tree. Click any of the effects’ property buttons to
edit the properties.
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Stack Effects
To customize the effect stack:
1. In the Stack Effect property editor, click the Add button.
2. In the Load Preset dialog box, select an effect.
The effect is added to the Effect Stack list.
3. To remove effects from the effect stack, select an effect, and click the
Remove button.
4. To rearrange the order of effects, select an effect and click one of the
following buttons:
t
Move Up to move the effect up by one level.
t
Move Down to move the effect down by one level.
5. To save the effect stack as a preset, click the Save Preset button.
Click the Help button for detailed information on the Stack Effect properties.
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Chapter 9
3D DVE and 3D Titling
This chapter describes how to create and edit 3D DVEs, 3D graphics, and 3D
text. You’ll also learn how to work with surfaces, materials, lights, and
shadows, as well as import and export projects.
Chapter 9 3D DVE and 3D Titling
Workflow: Creating 3D DVEs
You can create and manipulate 3D DVEs in the 3D DVE layout. The following
illustration shows the typical workflow of a 3D DVE session.
1
Choose a method for creating 3D DVE.
or
Select a clip to use as the DVE.
Select a region to apply 3D DVE as a
source-generated effect. Set properties in
3D DVE on Black property page.
or
Apply 3D DVE as nodes in an Effects Tree.
2
Decide whether you want to work in Direct View mode.
3
Manipulate the 3D DVE in the viewer.
390
4
Add effects to the 3D DVE.
Workflow: 3D Titling
Workflow: 3D Titling
You can create and manipulate 2D and 3D titles in the 3D DVE layout. The
following illustration shows the typical workflow of a 3D titling session.
1
Decide whether you want to create a 2D or 3D title.
Apply the 2D Titling or 3D Titling effect to your clip.
Clip is used as background for titles.
Depending on the effect you selected, either a 2D layer or 3D layer is
automatically created in the 3D DVE Layers view.
Decide whether you want to work in Direct View mode.
2
3
Select the Text tool and set its properties.
Text tool
4
Create a title in the viewer.
5
Select the title and edit its properties.
The word “Venice”
was kerned to
match the length
of the words
above it.
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Chapter 9 3D DVE and 3D Titling
Working in the 3D World
Before you create 3D DVEs, graphics, or titles, you should be aware of some
basic 3D concepts, such as three-dimensional space, materials, and lights.
Three-Dimensional Space
It’s essential to understand the notion of working within a virtual threedimensional space using a two-dimensional user interface. To represent the
geometry of an object, Avid DS Nitris uses the classical Euclidean/Cartesian
mathematical representation of space. It is based on three perpendicular axes
X, Y, and Z, intersecting at one point called the origin.
XYZ Axes
To remember the direction of the X, Y, and Z axes, use the “right-hand” rule:
hold up your right hand so that your palm is facing you, then extend your
thumb to the right, hold your index finger up, and point your middle finger
towards you. Your thumb is pointing in positive X, your index finger in
positive Y, and your middle finger in positive Z. The point of origin is 0, 0, 0.
The opposite directions represent negative X, Y, and Z.
XYZ Coordinates
With the Cartesian coordinate system, you can locate any point in space using
three coordinates. For example, if X = +6, Y = –6, Z = +6, a point would be
located to the right of, below, and in front of the origin.
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Working in the 3D World
XZ, XY, YZ Planes
Since you’re working with a two-dimensional interface, spatial planes are used
to locate points in three-dimensional space. The perpendicular axes extend as
spatial planes: XZ, XY, and YZ. Imagine that the XZ, XY, and YZ planes are
folded together like the top, front, and right side of a box. This helps you keep
a sense of orientation when you’re working.
Global and Local Coordinate Systems
The XYZ coordinate system can be global or local. When you place an object
in 3D space, it is inside a world with the origin at (0, 0, 0) of the ground plane
in the viewer. Accordingly, the XYZ coordinates that locate the object in
relation to the origin are called global coordinates.
A local coordinate system is thought of in terms of an object’s own point of
reference, which is its own center. This center also has three axes: X, Y, and Z.
The center of an object is only a reference—it is not necessarily in the middle
of the object because it can be moved (as well as rotated and scaled).
Materials
Once you’ve created an object, you can apply materials to define its surfaces’
appearance. A surface is an area of an object. You can control the visibility
and appearance of each surface by applying a set of properties called a
material.
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Chapter 9 3D DVE and 3D Titling
You can modify the appearance of the various surfaces of an object. For
example, you can apply a brick texture to a rectangle to give the appearance of
a brick wall, a gradient to a wavy shape that runs along the left edge of the
view to enhance a scene, or a reflective texture to the edges of the characters in
a word to simulate a chrome outline. For more information, see “Working with
Surfaces and Materials” on page 463.
Lights
Another basic element you will work with is light. Light sources are points in
three-dimensional space that emit light, causing objects (with materials that
can be affected by light) to appear illuminated. There are three kinds of light
sources: infinite, local, and spot.
You specify the location of light sources relative to objects in the scene by
using light source objects, which exist above all other objects in the scene. For
more information, see “Working with Lights and Shadows” on page 475.
Setting Preferences
When setting up an animation or creating text, you don’t really need to see all
the other layers and effects in your sequence. When working with 3D DVEs,
there are many ways to improve the responsiveness of Avid DS Nitris. You can
use the features you really need and turn off the rest, such as the following:
•
Working in Direct View mode—see “Working in Direct View Mode” on
page 396.
•
Viewing the background—see “Using a Background” on page 395.
•
Suspending output to the output monitor—see “Suspending Output to the
Output Monitor” on page 397.
•
Working in wireframe mode—see “Working in Wireframe Mode” on
page 400.
•
Viewing preferences and quality level—see “Setting the Viewer Quality
Level” on page 401.
All of your choices depend on the complexity of the objects you plan on
creating in the 3D DVE layout, as well as how responsive you want
Avid DS Nitris to be. Just keep in mind that in a typical scenario,
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Setting Preferences
Avid DS Nitris processes one entire frame before displaying the output in the
viewer and output monitor. As a result, this slows down the responsiveness of
Avid DS Nitris.
Using a Background
You’ll have to decide whether you want to composite your graphics onto the
background inside the 3D DVE or outside. We recommend that you do so
within the 3D DVE, so you can see the background while working in the
Direct View mode. The background lets you easily place titles or graphics, so
that they appear in the correct location relative to the background.
However, if your background is large, it is probably better to leave it outside
the 3D DVE. For more information, see “Working in Direct View Mode” on
page 396.
There are two ways to include a background in your 3D DVE session:
•
Use a clip on the timeline or
•
Select a background image from the 3D DVE/Options property editor.
Using a clip as the background.
Using an image as the background.
To use a clip on the timeline as the background:
1. On the timeline, select a clip and place the position indicator over it.
2. From the toolbar, click Video Effects and select one of the following:
-
2D Titling to create 2D titles.
The 3D DVE layout is displayed, the selected clip is used as the
background, and a 2D layer is created in the 3D DVE Layers view.
-
3D Titling to create 3D titles.
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The 3D DVE layout is displayed, the selected clip is used as the
background, and a 3D layer is created in the 3D DVE Layers view.
To use a background image:
1. On the timeline, select a clip and place the position indicator over it, and
click the 3D DVE button on the taskbar.
n
Tip: You can also access the 3D DVE layout in a floating combo view by
pressing Ctrl and clicking the 3D DVE button in the taskbar.
The 3D DVE layout is displayed.
2. From the 3D DVE/Options property editor, select the Preferences tab.
3. Select the Background option and then select an image from the list:
The selected image is centered behind all objects in the viewer and scaled
down (if larger than the pixel dimensions of the scene) or padded with a
black border (if smaller than the pixel dimensions of the scene).
n
You can also select an input (from the list) to use the clip on the timeline as the
background.
To show or hide the background:
1. From the 3D DVE/Options property editor, select the Direct View tab.
2. Select the View Background option. For quicker previews of your
sequence, hide the background.
n
The View Background option is for viewing purposes only and does not affect
the processed output.
Working in Direct View Mode
Like all other effects in Avid DS Nitris, the 3D DVE layout, by default,
displays the results of one entire frame in the viewer. While this may be
convenient for viewing the results of your sequence, including the output of
the 3D DVE effect, it can be quite slow, reducing the responsiveness of
Avid DS Nitris and some or all of the effects before you can see them in the
viewer.
If you have a complex sequence, such as the following:
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Setting Preferences
•
A 3D DVE effect on the background track that contains a picture-inpicture effect with a spotlight,
•
A large blur effect on top of the 3D DVE effect, and
•
A background clip in the timeline,
It would be faster not to view all of this while you’re working on the 3D DVE
portion of the sequence, especially the large blur, which takes time to process.
This is where the Direct View mode comes in handy; it lets you focus
exclusively on your 3D DVE session without being slowed down by the
processing of other clips or effects in the frame. This improves the
performance of Avid DS Nitris, especially when working with text.
The Direct View mode is for viewing purposes only and does not affect
the output.
Default mode show the results of your
entire sequence in the viewer.
Direct View mode shows only the results
of your 3D DVE session.
To work in Direct View mode:
t
From the 3D DVE toolbar, click the Direct View button.
The viewer displays only the contents of your 3D DVE session.
Suspending Output to the Output Monitor
By suspending (or not sending) the output of your scene to the output monitor,
you can increase the interaction speed when working in the 3D DVE layout.
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You can only suspend output to the output monitor when working in the Direct
View mode.
To suspend output to the output monitor:
t
From the 3D DVE toolbar, click the Suspend Output button.
The output of your scene is not displayed on the output monitor.
Displaying Guides
You can display various guides or hide parts of objects in the viewer to
position objects relative to each other and to the edges of the viewable area.
Guides are not visible in the final sequence.
Showing the Safe Action/Title Areas
The safe action area is the central area of the viewer where action can occur
without having noticeable distortion. The safe title area, also in the central area
of the viewer, is where you can safely place graphics and titles without having
any of its edges cut off. These areas delineate where action and titles should
occur to be fully visible on a television set.
Safe action guide
Safe title guide
To show or hide the safe action/title areas, do one of the following:
t
t
Right-click the viewer and select Safe Action/Title.
From the 3D DVE toolbar, click the Safe Action/Title button.
The safe action/title guides are displayed. When you move objects near
the safe action/title guides, they snap to it. You can, however, still move
the objects outside the safe action/title areas.
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Setting Preferences
Showing Construction Lines
Construction lines define the boundaries of objects, such as text and the scene
itself. By showing construction lines, you can identify the location and sizes of
these types of objects, as well as any that are empty. Construction lines also
display the shadow plane for projected shadows. For more information, see
“Changing a Shadow’s Location” on page 481.
Construction line
To show or hide construction lines:
t
From the 3D DVE toolbar, click the Construction Lines button.
Construction lines appear as dashes around the borders of objects.
Showing the Grid
The grid consists of evenly spaced points that you can use to align objects to
each other or to the sides of a scene. The grid uses a standard 16×12 layout.
When you show the grid while in the 3D DVE layout, by default, it’s in Snap
to Grid mode. For more information, see “Positioning Objects at Specific
Locations” on page 414 and “Aligning Objects Relative to Each Other” on
page 415.
n
The grid is not visible in the final sequence.
To show or hide the grid:
t
From the 3D DVE toolbar, click the Grid button.
The grid appears as points at the intersections of the grid lines.
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Showing Objects Viewable Within the Frame
The frame of a project is the dimensions of the scene, which represent the
output resolution. If there are objects moving in or out of a frame over time,
you may want to show or hide those parts of the objects that are “outside the
frame”. Viewing only the visible portions of objects may make previewing the
project less distracting. However, when you’re editing objects, you will
usually want to see all the objects.
n
Objects outside of the viewable frame will be hidden only if you have not
tumbled the scene.
Although objects may be hidden from view, you can still select them.
Clip to Frame: Selected
Clip to Frame: Deselected
To show or hide all objects within a frame:
t
From the 3D DVE toolbar, click the Clip to Frame button.
Working in Wireframe Mode
Working in wireframe mode lets you easily see the outline of all the objects in
your scene, making it easier to select and edit them. This can be useful when
there are objects hidden behind other objects.
You can also precisely edit and manipulate objects without being distracted by
any of the effects defined for it. The wireframe mode increases the speed of
interaction because wireframe objects are not processed.
To work in wireframe mode:
1. In the 3D DVE/Options property editor, select the Direct View tab.
2. Select the View as Wireframe option.
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Setting Preferences
All objects in the viewer appear in wireframe.
n
Tip: For fast animation playback, suspend the output (to output monitor) and
press Ctrl-play. The sequence will play back and animated objects appear in
wireframe mode.
Rendering Objects as a Wireframe
You can draw select objects as a wireframe to help you focus on the placement
of objects in a scene, and not on how the objects appear.
To render objects in wireframe:
1. Using the Edit tool, select an object.
2. From the Effect property editor, select the Render as Wireframe option.
n
The Render as Wireframe option affects the final sequence.
Rendered normally.
Rendered as a wireframe.
The wireframe is drawn using the object’s main material.
Setting the Viewer Quality Level
You can change the processed on-screen quality of objects in the viewer by
adjusting the quality level. Increasing the quality level improves the visual
accuracy of objects, but at the expense of system responsiveness. Decreasing
the quality level makes it faster for you to move and edit objects, but at the
expense of visual accuracy and detail. The quality setting does not affect the
processing quality.
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To set the quality level:
1. From the 3D DVE/Options property editor, select the Direct View tab.
2. Adjust any of the following properties that affect the quality of objects
rendered in the viewer:
3. From the Antialiasing list, select one of the following:
-
None to apply no antialiasing. This setting produces jagged or aliased
edges.
-
Fast 2D to draw flat objects.
-
Texturing controls the quality of textured surfaces in proportion to
the time required to render the texture onto the surface.
-
Lighting controls the quality of lit surfaces.
-
Tessellation controls the smoothness or approximation of curved
edges on characters and shapes.
-
Shadowing controls the quality of soft shadows.
-
Motion Blur applies a motion blur on fast moving objects.
Working with the Camera
The camera in Avid DS Nitris is similar to a real camera, letting you view
objects in the scene from different angles and perspectives. You can create
interesting effects, such as camera fly throughs, by animating the camera’s
parameters. The camera shows you what the scene will look like when you
render it.
The main camera in the viewer has two arrows. The blue arrow indicates
where the camera is “looking”, that is, the direction the lens is facing. This is
called the interest. The camera is always constrained to the interest. The green
arrow indicates the camera’s up direction. You can change the camera’s
direction by rolling the camera.
n
402
You can only see the main camera while you’re viewing through the alternate
camera. For more information, see “Viewing Through the Alternate Camera”
on page 403.
Working with the Camera
Green arrow shows up direction.
Blue arrow points towards interest.
To select the camera, do one of the following:
t
In the 3D DVE Object View, click the bar that corresponds to the camera.
t
In the 3D DVE Layers view, click the Camera layer.
t
Click the camera in the viewer.
Viewing Through the Alternate Camera
In addition to the main camera, there’s also an alternate camera. In many
ways, the main and alternate cameras are similar, except that the alternate
camera is not an actual object. It’s only a tool for viewing and navigating
through your scene; it is not displayed in the viewer and does not have any
properties for you to edit.
When viewing through the alternate camera, you can see the main camera, and
the background, if any, is not visible. You cannot select or animate the
alternate camera.
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Viewing through the main camera, which
is not visible as you are looking through it.
Viewing through the alternate camera.
The main camera is visible.
Zoomed out view through the alternate camera.
Snapping the Camera
By snapping the main camera to the alternate camera or vice versa, you can
get a different view of your scene.
To snap one camera to the other:
t
Click one of the following buttons in the 3D DVE toolbar:
- Snap Alternate Camera to Main Camera.
-
Snap Main Camera to Alternate Camera.
To toggle the current camera:
t
In the 3D DVE toolbar, click the Toggle Camera button.
If you were using the main camera, the view is switched to the alternate
camera and vice versa.
Viewing a Scene from Different Angles
Using the alternate camera, you can view the objects in your scene from
different angles. This is useful when positioning or animating objects.
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Working with the Camera
n
Viewing the scene through the alternate camera does not affect the final output
of your scene.
To view the scene from different angles:
t
From the 3D DVE toolbar, click one of the following:
- View Top to display the scene from above.
-
View Left to display the scene from the left.
-
View Front to display the scene from the front.
-
View Right to display the scene from the right.
If you were using the main camera, the view is switched to the alternate
camera and you can see your scene from different angles.
To tumble the scene:
t
From the 3D DVE toolbar, click the Tumble button and drag on the
viewer.
A light-colored orientation grid and axis appear in the viewer as you
tumble the scene. The X, Y, and Z axes identify the orientation of the
frame with Y identifying the top of the frame, and Z identifying the front
of the frame.
Manipulating the Camera
It’s easier to view your scene when you manipulate the camera by zooming,
panning, dollying, or rolling it.
To zoom the camera:
1. From the 3D DVE toolbar, click the Zoom button.
2. In the viewer, drag down/left to zoom in or drag up/right to zoom out.
To pan the camera:
t
From the 3D DVE toolbar, click the Pan button and drag in the viewer.
To dolly the camera:
t
Click the Dolly button in the 3D DVE toolbar and drag in the viewer.
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To roll the camera, do one of the following:
t
From the 3D DVE toolbar, click the Roll button. In the viewer, drag
down/left to roll clockwise or drag up/right to roll counterclockwise.
t
In the Camera property editor, set the Roll angle. Negative values make
the camera roll left and positive values make the camera roll right.
Resetting the Camera
If you’ve zoomed in and out too much and the perspective on your camera is in
need of a refresh, you can always reset it.
To reset the camera, do one of the following:
t
In the Camera property editor, click Reset.
The properties of the main camera are reset to the default values.
t
In the 3D DVE toolbar, click the Reset Current Camera button.
The properties of the current camera (main or alternate) are reset to the
default values.
Setting the Camera Position
The camera’s position defines the location of the camera in the scene. These
coordinates are local and are not affected when a transformation is applied to
the camera.
To set the camera position, do one of the following:
t
t
In the viewer, select the camera and drag it to a new location.
In the Camera property editor, type values in the Position box.
Defining the Camera Interest
The interest, what the camera is always looking at, is at the center of the
interest plane. The interest plane is defined as the area visible through the
camera. It is represented by a cross, which you can view through the alternate
camera.
You can translate and animate the position of the interest as you would any
other parameter. By animating the interest, you can keep a certain object in the
scene in every frame.
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Working with the Camera
Viewing the interest and interest plane through the alternate camera
Interest
Interest
plane
To define the camera interest:
t
In the Camera property editor, type values in the Interest box.
Setting the Clipping Planes
Clipping planes is useful when you want to show or hide specific objects. You
can use clipping planes to set the minimum and maximum viewable distances
from the camera. Objects outside these planes are not visible. By default, the
near plane is very close to the camera and the far plane is very far away, so
most objects are usually visible.
To set clipping planes, set the following in the Camera property editor:
n
t
Near Plane to set the minimum viewable distance from camera. Objects
in front of this plane will not be visible.
t
Far Plane to set the maximum viewable distance camera. Objects behind
this plane will not be visible.
You can reduce processing time by choosing appropriate clipping planes.
Smaller ranges of clipping planes take less time to process.
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Selecting a Projection Method
When you rotate an object around the X or Y axis or move the object away
from the center of the scene, you can control the amount of perspective
distortion applied to the object. The perspective distortion simulates the realworld appearance of a rotated or far-away object, where points on the object
farther away look smaller than points closer to you.
Depending on the look you want to achieve, you can change the view from an
orthographic to a perspective projection. When you select an orthographic
projection, objects do not change size as they change distance from the
camera. A perspective projection simulates depth and is useful for simulating a
real camera.
Orthographic projection
Perspective projection
To set the perspective:
t
From the Camera property editor, select one of the following from the
Projection box:
-
Orthographic perspective in which all camera rays are parallel and
objects do not change size as they change distance from the camera.
-
Perspective perspective to simulate depth. This projection simulates a
real camera. You can also adjust the Vertical Field of View value.
Higher values produce exaggerated distortions, and lower values
produce subtle distortions.
Setting the Field of View
The field of view is the angular measurement of how much the camera can see
at any one time. By changing the field of view, you can distort the perspective
to give a narrow, peephole effect or a wide, fish-eye effect.
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About Objects
To set the field of view:
1. From the Camera property editor, set the Angle in the Field of View box.
Small angles are equivalent to a telephoto lens and large angles are
equivalent to a wide angle lens.
2. Select one of the following:
-
Horizontal to apply the angle to the horizontal field of view.
-
Vertical to apply the angle to the vertical field of view.
About Objects
Objects are the building blocks in your 3D DVE session. An object is anything
that you can create or manipulate in the viewer while working in the 3D DVE
layout. For example, text, two-dimensional graphics (rectangles and circles),
and even the background itself are objects.
Some objects can contain subobjects, such as the characters you type in a text
body. The 3D DVE session contains all the objects you create while working
in the 3D DVE layout. You can modify subobjects separately.
You can create and modify the following types of objects:
•
DVE objects whose appearances you can deform based on an effect or
image you apply to them. For example, you can create spheres, page curls,
and ripples—see “Working with Surfaces and Materials” on page 463.
•
Text objects contain characters (letters, numbers, and other symbols) that
you type. The characters in a text object can be static, move vertically
(rolling text), or move horizontally (crawling text). You create text objects
using the Text tool—see “Working with 3D DVEs” on page 423.
•
Graphics objects are geometric shapes, such as rectangles and ellipses.
You create graphics objects by using the Shape, Rectangle, and Ellipse
tools—see “Working with Surfaces and Materials” on page 463
•
Path objects or paths are shapes onto which you can place or crawl text.
You can convert shapes into paths or paths into shapes—see “Placing and
Moving Text on a Path” on page 457.
•
Layers allow you to create simple two-dimensional effects or more
complex three-dimensional effects in which objects can intersect.
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Object (text object)
Subobject (characters)
About Drawing Tool Properties
The 3D DVE layout is similar to the Graphics layout. That is, before you
create titles or DVEs, you must define how the titles or DVE will appear.
Using the property editors, you can set the object’s properties, such as the
color or font.
Each time you select a tool, its properties are displayed in the property editors.
You can set the default properties of the drawing tool before creating an
object. When you do this, the new settings become the default properties that
are applied to the objects you create. These properties remain in effect until
you change the properties in any of the drawing tools. If you decide to create
an object before setting its properties, you can select the object you created
and then modify its properties. When you do this, only the properties of the
selected object are modified.
Manipulating Objects
You can select, deselect, arrange, modify, and identify objects. You can copy
and move objects around in the scene, and align objects relative to the scene or
each other. You can also remove objects you no longer need.
Selecting and Deselecting Objects
Before you can edit an object, you must first select it with the Edit tool. You
can select multiple objects and perform the same operation on them, such as
changing the color of all the letters in a title.
When you select an object, its bounding box appears, displaying the bounds or
extent of the selected object.
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Manipulating Objects
Bounding box
Bounding box handle
To select a single object using the Edit tool, do one of the following:
t
In the viewer, click an object or drag a selection box around an object.
t
In the 3D DVE Object View or 3D DVE Layers view, click an object’s
name.
To select multiple objects using the Edit tool, do one of the following:
t
In the viewer, press Shift and click the objects.
t
In the viewer, drag to make a rectangular selection box around the objects.
t
In the 3D DVE Object View or 3D DVE Layers view, press Shift and click
the objects.
To select all visible objects in the current frame:
t
Using the Edit tool, click the Select All button in the 3D DVE Layer
toolbar.
To select characters or a grouped object using the Edit or Rotate tool:
t
Alt-click the character or grouped object.
To deselect all objects using the Edit tool, do one of the following:
t
t
Click away from any object in the viewer.
From the 3D DVE Layer toolbar, click the Deselect All button.
Cutting, Copying, and Pasting Objects
You can cut or copy objects in the viewer, and paste them to the same frame or
to another frame. Cut or copied objects are placed on the Clipboard and
remain there until you perform another cut, copy, or paste operation. At the
end of your 3D DVE session, all objects that were cut or copied from the
viewer are permanently deleted.
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To copy an object to a different location or page:
1. Using the Edit tool, select an object.
2. Select Edit > Copy or press Ctrl+C.
A copy of the selected object is placed on the Clipboard.
3. Pan or zoom to the location in the scene or the time in the project in which
you want to copy the objects.
4. Click in the page to activate it.
5. Select Edit > Paste or press Ctrl+V.
The selected objects are pasted in the new location or page. If the original
object was locked, the copy of the object is also locked.
To move an object to a different location or page:
1. Using the Edit tool, select an object.
2. Select Edit > Cut.
The selected object is placed on the Clipboard.
3. Move to the location in the scene in which you want to move the object.
4. Select Edit > Paste or press Ctrl+V.
A copy of the Clipboard’s contents is pasted.
To remove an object from the scene:
1. Using the Edit tool, select an object.
2. Do one of the following:
t
Press Delete.
t
Select Edit > Cut.
When you use Cut, you can paste the object in another location.
t
Right-click the object in the 3D DVE Layers view and select Delete.
Moving Objects
You can move objects freely within the scene, constrained horizontally or
constrained vertically. For rotated objects, you can move an object along the
local or global axes. You can also prevent objects from being moved
accidentally when clicking objects.
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Manipulating Objects
If the safe title guide is currently displayed, moving an object near this guide
automatically snaps the sides and corners of an object’s bounding box to the
guide. Subobjects within objects, such as characters in a text body, do not snap
to the safe title guide. For more information, see “Showing the Safe
Action/Title Areas” on page 398.
To move an object freely:
t
Drag a selected object to a different location.
To move an object horizontally or vertically:
t
Hold down the Shift key and drag a selected object. The direction in
which you first drag becomes the constrained axis of movement.
To move a selected object by one pixel:
t
Hold down the Ctrl key and press one of the arrow keys.
To move a selected object by one-quarter of a pixel:
t
Hold down the Ctrl+Alt keys and press one of the arrow keys.
To move a rotated object freely within its rotated, local plane:
t
Hold down the Ctrl+Alt keys and drag a selected object.
To move a rotated object horizontally or vertically along its local axes:
t
Hold down the Ctrl+Alt+Shift keys and drag a selected object. The
direction in which you first drag becomes the constrained axis of
movement.
Locking and Unlocking Objects
Locking objects prevents you from moving them accidently when you’re
working with multiple objects. Once you’ve locked an object, you can still
modify the object’s properties using the property editors.
To lock an object:
1. Using the Edit tool, select an object.
2. From the 3D DVE Layer toolbar, click the Lock button.
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To unlock an object:
1. Using the Edit tool, select a locked object.
2. From the 3D DVE Layer toolbar, click the Unlock button.
Reordering Objects
If you want an object to appear in front of or behind another object, such as
moving a gradient oval behind some text, or want to draw an object before or
after another object, you can reorder them in the viewer or 3D DVE Layers
view.
n
Although objects in a 3D layer are positioned based on their locations along
the Z axis, the stacking order of an object still affects perspective and overlap
effects.
Also, you cannot reorder characters in a text object.
To reorder objects in the viewer:
1. Using the Edit tool, select an object.
2. Click one of the following buttons in the 3D DVE Layer toolbar:
n
t
Bring to Front to move the object to the front of all other objects.
t
Raise to move the object up one level.
t
Lower to move the object back one level.
t
Send to Back to move the object behind all other objects.
You cannot move an object between layers using these buttons.
Positioning Objects at Specific Locations
You can move objects to specific locations within the scene. Each object has
nine common locations (the four corners, four sides, and center) where you
can quickly position other objects. If the safe title guide is displayed, you can
quickly position objects within it instead of the scene.
To position an object within its boundaries (layer or group):
1. Using the Edit tool, select an object.
2. From the 3D DVE toolbar, click a position button.
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Manipulating Objects
Upper center
Upper left
Upper right
Middle left
Middle right
Lower left
Lower right
Lower center
n
Center
Use the Lower Left, Lower Center, or Lower Right buttons for lower-third
titles.
Each selected object moves to the selected position within the safe title
area. However, note the following behavior:
-
If an object is extruded, the object’s front face determines how to
position the object.
-
If an object is rotated, the object is positioned based on the front face
of the object.
-
If your effect uses perspective projection, objects may appear
positioned incorrectly. This is a side effect of perspective projection.
Switching to orthographic projection will show the correct
positioning of objects—see “Selecting a Projection Method” on
page 408.
-
If an object’s position on the Z axis is not 0, the object may not be
positioned properly.
Aligning Objects Relative to Each Other
You can align the edges or centers of multiple objects relative to each other to
ensure a consistent layout in a scene. You can align objects to their bounding
box edges or centers. Objects will align to the safe title guide if it’s displayed.
To align objects relative to another object:
1. Using the Edit tool, select the objects to align.
2. Hold down the Shift key and select the object to which all other selected
objects will be aligned. This is the reference object, as its bounding box
handles are solid instead of hollow.
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n
If you drag on the viewer or use the Select All button to select the objects, the
reference object is the frontmost object.
3. To select a different object alignment, click a different Align button.
Align horizontally
Align left edges
Align right edges
Align bottom edges
Align top edges
Align vertically
The selected objects align themselves relative to the reference object.
Object alignment has the same limitations as object positioning. For more
information, see “Positioning Objects at Specific Locations” on page 414.
Grouping and Ungrouping Objects
If you want to scale or rotate several objects as if they were part of a larger
object, you can group the objects together.
To group objects together:
1. Using the Edit tool, select the objects to group.
2. From the 3D DVE Layer toolbar, click the Group button.
The grouped objects appear within a single bounding box.
n
Tip: Hold down the Alt key and click an object in a group to modify the object
separately.
To ungroup grouped objects:
1. Using the Edit tool, select a grouped object.
2. From the 3D DVE Layer toolbar, click the Ungroup button.
n
416
If you group an animated collection of objects, animate the group, and then
ungroup the objects, some of the animation may be lost.
Manipulating Objects
Showing and Hiding Objects
By showing or hiding objects, you can isolate the effect of certain objects or
focus your work on specific parts of the scene.
Mute
Solo
To hide a single object:
t
In the 3D DVE Layers view, click the Mute button for the object.
To show a single object and hide all others:
t
In the 3D DVE Layers view, click the Solo button for the object. You can
solo multiple objects.
To show all hidden objects:
t
From the 3D DVE Layer toolbar, click the Unhide All button.
To show or hide objects:
1. Using the Edit tool, select one or more objects.
2. From the Render property editor, do one of the following:
t
Select the Show Object option to show the object.
t
Deselect the Show Object option to hide the object.
Changing the Visibility of Objects
By controlling the visibility of objects, you can blend or mix objects in a scene
to produce subtle effects, such as having objects fade in and out over time.
n
An object with an opacity of zero still requires rendering.
To change the opacity of an object:
1. Using the Edit tool, select an object.
2. From the Surfaces property editor, adjust the Master Opacity value.
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Unlike the opacity settings for each material on an object, this master
opacity control determines the appearance of the entire object, including
its shadow (if one exists).
Modifying Objects
When you scale and rotate objects, they occur relative to the anchor point, a
location on the selected object from which the operation is based.
n
If you scale or rotate multiple objects, each object is modified independently.
To modify a collection of objects as a single entity, you should group them
first. For more information, see “Grouping and Ungrouping Objects” on
page 416.
For graphics objects, you can also deform the object. For more information,
see “Editing Shapes and Paths” on page 430.
Adjusting the Anchor Point
When you scale or rotate objects, the objects change based on a point in threedimensional space called the anchor point. Scaling and rotation operations use
the same anchor point.
To adjust the anchor point, do one of the following:
t
Using the Rotate tool, drag the small crosshairs at the intersections of the
axes on the rotation sphere to the intended location.
The anchor point moves along the plane of the crosshair.
t
n
From the Transform property editor, adjust the Anchor Point values
(X, Y, and Z).
You can adjust the Z value of the anchor point only if the object is extruded.
To reset the anchor point, do one of the following:
418
t
Using the Rotate tool, select an object, right-click and select Reset
Anchor Point.
t
In the Anchor Point box of the Transform property editor, type 0 in the X,
Y, and Z boxes.
Manipulating Objects
Scaling Objects
Although you can draw an object at a specific size, you can still make the
object larger or smaller by scaling it. You can scale an object either
independent of or constrained to its original aspect ratio. Also, you can scale
an object relative to the opposite bounding box handle or to its anchor point.
For more information, see “Adjusting the Anchor Point” on page 418.
Original object
Scaled down
(unconstrained)
Scaled down
(constrained)
To scale an object:
1. Using the Edit tool, select an object.
2. To scale the object, do one of the following:
t
Drag one of the bounding box handles.
The object scales relative to the bounding box handle on the opposite
side or corner of the object’s bounding box.
t
To constrain scaling to the object’s aspect ratio, press Shift and drag
one of the object’s bounding box handles.
t
To constrain scaling relative to an object’s anchor point, hold down
the Shift+Ctrl keys and drag one of the object’s bounding box
handles—see “Adjusting the Anchor Point” on page 418.
t
To scale an object in all directions, press Ctrl and drag one of the
object’s bounding box corner handles.
Resizing Objects
Text boxes and groups are objects that have width, depth, and height
dimensions. You can resize an object to any dimensions or fit it exactly around
its contents’ bounding box. Unlike scaling a object, which scales the contents,
resizing an object does not affect the size of its contents.
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To resize a text box:
1. Using the Edit tool, select an object.
2. Hold down the Alt key and drag one of the object’s bounding box handles.
n
When resizing a text box, the bounding box changes size, but its contents do
not.
Rotating Objects
Rotation occurs in three-dimensional space around the X, Y, and Z axes.
Angles of rotation increase in the counterclockwise direction around an axis,
whereas they decrease going clockwise. Rotation adjustments are applied to
objects in the following order: X, Y, and then Z.
y
90°
x
180°
z
Positive X rotation
0°/360°
270°
Positive Y rotation
Positive Z rotation
To rotate an object:
1. Using the Edit tool, select an object.
2. From the 3D DVE toolbar, click the Rotate button.
A rotation sphere appears around the selected object.
3. Use the controls on the sphere to adjust the anchor point—see “Adjusting
the Anchor Point” on page 418.
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Manipulating Objects
Default rotation
anchor point.
Object rotated
45 degrees.
Rotation anchor point
moved off center.
Object rotated
45 degrees.
4. Rotate the object by doing one of the following:
t
To rotate around a single axis, drag the circle on the rotation sphere
corresponding to the axis.
t
To constrain rotations to 15-degree increments, hold down the Shift
key and drag an axis circle.
To reset the rotation of a selected object:
1. In the Rotation box of the Transform property editor, type 0 in the X, Y,
and Z boxes.
2. Using the Rotate tool, select an object, right-click and select Reset
Rotation.
Renaming Objects
Each object has a name and optional comment you can assign to it. The layers
in the 3D DVE Layers view display these object names. Using unique names
will help you differentiate similar objects in a scene, and using comments will
remind you of information about an object, such as its purpose in the scene.
To change the name of an object:
1. Select an object in the 3D DVE Layers view or use the Edit tool to select
an object in the viewer.
2. Do one of the following:
t From the Info property editor, type a new name in the Name text box.
t
In the 3D DVE Layers view, right-click and select Rename, and then
type a new name.
To add a comment to an object:
1. Using the Edit tool, select an object.
2. From the Info property editor, type a description in the Comment text
box.
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Setting the Time Span
The time span defines the duration of 3D DVE objects. By default, the time
span is from the start of the 3D DVE session to the end. You can make an
object appear on one frame only, from the current frame to the end of the
session, from the beginning of the session to the end, or from the first frame to
the current frame. You can also set custom time spans for specific objects.
In the Time Span property editor, the timecode refers to the 3D DVE session
time. That is, 00:00:00:00 is the beginning of the 3D DVE session regardless
of its position on the timeline.
To define the time span:
1. Select an object from the viewer or 3D DVE Layers view.
The corresponding bar in the 3D DVE Object View (3D OV) turns yellow.
2. In the Time Span property editor, specify the duration by clicking one of
the following:
Option
Description
This Frame Only
Makes the time span one frame.
This Frame to End
Makes the time span start at the current frame and
end at the last frame of the 3D DVE session.
Start to End
Makes the time span start at the first frame and end at
the last frame of the 3D DVE session.
Start to this Frame
Makes the time span start at the first frame and end at
the current frame of the 3D DVE session.
3. To specify a custom time span, use the In, Out, and Duration timecode
boxes. All values must be expressed in SMPTE timecode.
n
422
Tip: While you’re editing the time span of a selected object, you can select the
Lock option to lock the duration.
Working with 3D DVEs
Working with 3D DVEs
A 3D DVE is an object whose appearance you can deform based on an effect
or image you apply to it. Some examples of DVEs are spheres, page curls, and
ripples. For some DVEs, you can simulate a displaced surface by applying a
grayscale texture known as a displacement map.
What’s the difference between using a 3D DVE and a simple rectangle? You
can extrude rectangles, but not the DVE and you can apply effects to a DVE,
such as displacement maps.
You can modify DVEs like other objects, with the following exceptions:
•
Editing using the Shape tool
•
Profile effects
•
Extrusion
•
Wireframe rendering
•
Converting to a path
•
Combining with other shapes or DVEs
Creating DVEs
You can create multiple DVEs within a scene, as well as delete DVEs that you
no longer need. DVEs have properties common to all DVE types, as well as
properties specific to the effect you’re using.
To create a DVE:
1. From the 3D DVE toolbar, click the Add DVE Node button.
A rectangle appears within the current layer and covers the entire scene.
2. Using the Edit tool, select the DVE.
3. To change the effect, open the DVE property editor and select an effect
from the Effect list.
A list of effect-specific properties appears in the Options box next to the
Effect list.
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To delete a DVE:
1. Using the Edit tool, select a DVE.
2. Press Delete.
Simulating a Textured Surface Using a Displacement Map
In addition to the deformation of an object produced by a DVE, you can also
use a texture to define convex and concave areas on its surface. The luminance
values of the color in the texture (the alpha channel is ignored) define the
convex (raised) and concave (lowered) areas on the surface.
n
A displacement map cannot be used on the Border DVE.
To use a displacement map on a DVE:
1. Using the Edit tool, select a DVE.
2. From the Surfaces property editor, select the Enable Lighting option for
the Main surface.
3. From the DVE property editor, adjust the following in the Displacement
box:
Option
Description
Texture
Lets you select an image whose grayscale version defines
the contour on the surface.
Scale
Sets the magnitude of the displacement.
Offset
Sets the grayscale level in the texture that represents no
displacement of the surface.
Softness
Adjusts the smoothness of the surface. You can soften a
displacement map to hide irregularities in grayscale levels
in the texture.
4. To adjust the detail of the DVE’s appearance, adjust the X and Y values in
the Detail box. Lower values produce a less accurate appearance, but
rendering is faster and vice versa. For displacement maps, increase the
detail of the DVE.
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Working with 3D DVEs
To remove a displacement map from a DVE:
1. Using the Edit tool, select a DVE.
2. From the DVE property editor, select Default from the Texture list.
Applying Profile Effects
The outline of characters or shapes is known as its profile. You can set the
profile to one of the predefined profile effects, such as Bevel, Ridge, or Tube,
in one of three thicknesses.
To apply a profile effect to objects:
1. Using the Edit tool, select the objects.
2. From the Effect property editor, select a profile from the Profile list.
n
An object that uses a profile effect will not have antialiased edges in the
viewer. To view antialiased edges, render a preview on screen or output
to disk.
For a glow effect, use a colored shadow. For more information, see “Using
Shadows to Simulate Glows” on page 485.
Extruding an Object
By default, new objects are two dimensional. You can change the depth or
thickness of an object by extruding it. The extruded surface can use its
own material.
To extrude an object:
1. Using the Edit tool, select an object.
2. From the Effect property editor, adjust the Extrude Depth value.
n
For objects that have a profile, adjusting the extrude depth does not affect the
profile.
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Blurring Moving Objects
In real life, an object that moves quickly appears blurred. Imagine a camera
taking a picture of the moving object. The object in the picture appears blurred
because the object moved during the short time that the camera’s shutter was
open. If the shutter was open for a shorter time, the object would appear
sharper.
To apply motion blur:
1. From the 3D DVE/Options property editor, select the Output tab.
2. Select the Enable Motion Blur option.
3. Adjust the Exposure value. The blurriness of a moving object depends on
how long the camera’s shutter is open. The longer the shutter is open, the
blurrier the object appears, and vice versa. The exposure time, measured
in seconds, represents the duration that the shutter is open.
n
Motion blur is a very time-intensive effect, especially when you use a long
exposure time.
4. If desired, change the quality of the blurred motion by adjusting the
Custom Quality parameters.
Motion blur (deselected)
Motion blur (selected)
The motion blur effect applies to all objects in the 3D DVE session, over
the duration of the session. Also, if the object changes materials, such as
its color or visibility over its duration, these changes will appear faded or
smoothed out as a result of the motion blur effect.
n
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Although you can set a maximum quality for blurred objects, objects that move
very fast will not simulate blurred motion as well as slower moving objects.
You may need to experiment with exposure time and quality settings to get the
desired results.
Working with Graphics
Working with Graphics
A graphics object is made up of control points and tangent handles that define a
shape. The portion of a shape between control points is called a segment. You
can modify the shape of an object at any time.
Tangent handle
Control point
Creating Graphics
You can use the following tools to create shapes: Rectangle, Ellipse, and
Shape. When you create new shapes, they become the frontmost objects in the
scene.
n
You cannot create a shape if a shape is currently selected.
Creating Squares and Rectangles
The Rectangle tool lets you create square and rectangular shapes. For
example, you can use this tool to create the basis for a textured backdrop or
gradient fill onto which you add text objects.
To create a rectangle or square shape:
1. Click the Rectangle button in the 3D DVE toolbar.
2. Do one of the following:
t
To create a rectangular shape, drag diagonally from left to right.
t
To create a square shape, hold down the Shift key and drag diagonally
from left to right.
Rectangle
Square
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t
To create a rectangular or square shape from the center, hold down the
Ctrl key and drag (rectangle), or hold down the Ctrl+Shift keys and
drag (square) from the intended center of the shape.
Rectangle
Square
Creating Circles and Ovals
The Ellipse tool lets you create circular and elliptical (oval) shapes.
To create an ellipse or circle shape:
1. Click the Ellipse button in the 3D DVE toolbar.
2. Do one of the following:
t
To create an ellipse, drag diagonally from left to right.
t
To create a circle shape, hold down the Shift key and drag diagonally
from left to right.
Ellipse
t
To create an ellipse or circle from the center, hold down the Ctrl key
and drag (ellipse), or hold down the Ctrl+Shift keys and drag (circle)
from the intended center of the bounding box.
Ellipse
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Circle
Circle
Working with Graphics
Creating Polylines and Curved Shapes
The Shape tool lets you create polyline shapes, such as polygons and curves.
To create a freehand shape with the Shape tool:
1. Click the Shape button in the 3D DVE toolbar.
2. Do one of the following:
t
To create a polyline shape, click at the location where you want to
place the starting control point.
t
To start a curved shape, drag from the location of the starting point in
the direction you want the curve to point.
3. Place subsequent control points, as follows:
t
To create a straight-line segment, click at the location for the next
control point.
t
To create a curved-line segment with a smooth point, drag from the
location of the next control point.
t
To create a curved-line segment with a corner (angular) point, drag
from the location of the next control point. Then, hold down the Alt
key and drag the tangent handle.
Alt-drag
Drag
Cusp
Smooth
Corner
4. To create a closed shape, click the first control point you created.
5. To create an open shape, do one of the following:
t
Press Esc.
t
Click the right mouse button.
t
Click a different tool.
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Closed shapes are filled with the default main material. Open shapes
cannot be filled.
Editing Shapes and Paths
For shapes and paths, you can modify the actual Bézier points and curves that
define the form of the shape.
Selecting and Deselecting Control Points
For many shape-editing operations, you must select a control point first. You
can select multiple control points to adjust them at the same time, or deselect
control points that you do not want to modify. You cannot select control points
on multiple shapes at the same time.
Selected control point
and tangent handles.
Unselected control point.
To select a control point:
t
Using the Shape tool, click a control point.
To select multiple control points:
1. Using the Shape tool, select a shape.
2. Do one of the following:
t
Hold down the Shift key and click the control points.
t
Drag to select the control points.
To select all control points on a shape:
1. Select a shape.
2. Right-click the shape and select Select All Points.
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To deselect all control points, do one of the following:
t
Click away from a shape.
t
Right-click the shape and select Deselect All Points.
Editing a Shape
The location of control points and curvature near control points determine the
form of a shape. You can add, delete, and move control points, as well as
adjust a control point’s tangent handles to change a shape’s form.
n
You can modify all selected control points if the pointer is not above a control
point at the time you select the command. Simply right-click the shape and
select a command. Not all commands apply to multiple control points.
To add a control point, do one of the following:
t
Hold down the Alt key and click along a shape’s outline.
t
Move the pointer above the area of a shape to add a control point, rightclick and select Insert Point.
To delete a control point, do one of the following:
t
Select a control point and press Delete.
t
Move the pointer above a control point, right-click and select Delete
Points.
To move a control point:
t
Drag the control point to a new location.
To move a control point on a rotated object:
t
Hold down the Shift key and drag the control point. The direction in
which you begin dragging becomes the constrained axis of movement.
To move a control point horizontally or vertically:
t
Hold down the Ctrl+Shift keys and drag the control point. The direction in
which you begin dragging becomes the constrained axis of movement.
To change the curvature of a shape near a control point:
t
Right-click a shape and select a command.
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Chapter 9 3D DVE and 3D Titling
t
Hold down the Ctrl or Alt key and drag a tangent handle. This affects the
control point under the pointer. The following table describes the various
operations you can perform on control points.
To make a
Do the following
Cusp point
With the pointer above a control point, rightclick and select Make Cusp Points.
Smooth point
Press Ctrl and drag a tangent handle away
from a control point or, with the pointer
above a control point, right-click and select
Make Smooth Points.
Corner point
Press Alt and drag a tangent handle away
from a control point.
To extend the length of a single tangent handle:
t
Hold down the Shift key and drag the tangent handle.
The length of the tangent handle is extended and its orientation does
not change.
Opening and Closing Shapes
Another way to edit the form of shapes is to open, split, close, or
connect them.
n
Tip: To thicken an open shape, use a Frame, Round, or Tube profile effect.
To open a closed shape or split an open shape in two:
t
Position the pointer above the control point at which you want to open or
split the shape, right-click and select Break Point.
Before
After
Opening a closed shape.
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Before
After
Splitting an open shape in two.
Working with Graphics
The fill of a closed shape is lost when the shape is opened. Also, if you
split an open path in two, the text on the path moves to one of the
new paths.
To close an open shape or connect two open shapes:
t
Drag an end point onto another end point on the same shape (to close a
shape) or onto another shape (to connect the shapes).
Before
After
Closing an open shape.
Before
After
Connecting two open shapes as one.
Filling Shapes
You can control the appearance of the interior of closed shapes by specifying
whether the shape is filled or not.
n
Only closed shapes can be filled. When you close an open shape that was not
filled, the closed shape is not automatically filled.
To fill a shape:
t
Right-click the edge of a shape, and select or deselect Fill Curve.
Filled
Not filled
Removing Segments
Another way to open a shape or split a shape in two is to remove a segment
from the shape.
To remove a segment from a shape:
t
With the pointer above a segment, right-click and select Delete Segment.
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Before
After removing a
segment.
After removing a
second segment.
If you remove a segment from a closed path, the text on the path adjusts to the
new length of the path. If you remove a segment from an open path (splitting
the path in two), the text on the path moves to one of the paths.
n
If a shape has only one segment, such as a line, removing the segment
produces two single-point shapes.
Working with Compound Shapes
You can combine multiple shapes into a single compound shape to create
interesting effects. A compound shape is a single object composed of multiple,
individually editable shapes. For example, if you want to create a custom
version of a letter, such as a stylized letter A for a company logo, you can
define the various pieces of the letter and determine how they’re combined.
Compound shapes
Compound shapes are not the same as a group of shapes. All the shapes within
a compound shape exist at the same Z position in three-dimensional space.
Also, the entire compound shape uses the same surface materials. You cannot
modify the material of each shape within the compound shape.
Creating and Separating Compound Shapes
You can combine shapes into a compound shape, make a copy of a shape
that is part of a compound shape, and separate all the shapes within a
compound shape.
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Working with Graphics
Before combining shapes
After combining and
repositioning shapes.
To create a compound shape:
1. Select the shapes. The properties of the last shape you select will be used
for the combined shape.
2. From the 3D DVE toolbar, click the Combine Shapes button.
By default, a shape within another shape inverts or “cuts out” the outer
shape. If you select a path to combine with other shapes, the text on the
path is removed.
To copy a shape that is part of a compound shape:
t
With the pointer above a shape, right-click and select Copy As Shape.
The copied shape appears above the original shape.
n
Any transformations (translation, scaling, and rotation) or animation applied
to the compound shape will not be applied to the copied shape.
To separate a compound shape into its individual shapes:
1. Select a compound shape.
2. From the 3D DVE toolbar, click the Separate Shapes button.
The properties of the separated shapes will be the same as those of the
original compound shape. However, material properties, such as how a
texture is applied to the object, may be altered.
Combining Shapes within a Compound Shape
The way you drew the shapes within a compound shape can affect the
appearance of the compound shape. When the shapes of a compound shape do
not overlap each other, both shapes appear in the compound shape. However,
when shapes of a compound shape overlap, the inner shape “cuts out” or
subtracts from the outer shape. However, you can add the overlapping shape to
the compound shape instead of subtracting from it.
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To control how one shape affects another within a compound shape:
t
With the pointer above a shape, right-click and select Combine Mode and
one of the following:
-
Subtract to remove the area where the shapes overlap.
-
Add to fill in the area where the shapes overlap.
Reversing the Direction of a Shape
Control points on a shape are numbered sequentially, starting at the first
control point on the shape. The route, through sequentially numbered control
points, determines the shape’s direction. This direction controls how the shape
is drawn when it’s part of a compound shape, how the profile of the shape is
drawn, and how the text on a path is laid out. You can change the default
direction for a shape or path.
To reverse the direction of a shape or path:
t
With the pointer above a shape or path, right-click and select Reverse
Direction.
Working with Text
A text object contains characters and appears as a text body. There are four
types of text objects: static, rolling, crawling, and path text.
Each type of text object can be stationary (static) or have motion over time.
You can also control whether the text moves outside the dimensions of the text
body. For more information, see “Controlling Rolling, Crawling, and Path
Text” on page 454.
•
Static text does not move (scroll) within its text body. The text can still
move around if you manually move each character. Static text is the
default text object.
•
Rolling text moves vertically within a text object over its duration,
starting and ending with no text visible, such as the list of credits that
usually appear at the end of television movies and feature films.
You can create rolling text that moves up and down within a text body.
If you enter more text than can fit on one line, the extra words and
characters appear on a new line. The lines of text word wrap.
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Working with Text
•
Crawling text is a single line of text that moves horizontally, usually from
right to left. A stock price ticker or weather warning messages along the
bottom of a television screen are common types of crawling text that you
see on television or websites.
•
Path text (or text along a path) is a single line of text that fits to or moves
along a straight or curved path, such as letters that follow the contour of a
car or words that seem to float in the sky. You can create path text that
moves along the path or is fixed on it.
Creating a Text Object
When you want to add text, you create a text object, a box into which you type
the text or import an ASCII text file. The box can either expand to fit the text
you type or remain a fixed size into which the text word-wraps to fill it.
To create a text object:
1. Using the Text tool, do one of the following:
t
n
Click the viewer. If the text cursor is active in an existing text object,
click away from the text object.
You cannot create a new text object while you’re editing the text in an existing
text object.
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Chapter 9 3D DVE and 3D Titling
t
Drag on the viewer to define a text body.
The cursor or insertion point (a vertical bar) appears in the upper-left
corner of the text body.
2. Type in some text.
By default, text aligns along the left edge of the text body and uses the
current text properties in the Text property editor. For more information,
see “Aligning Text into Columns” on page 446.
The new text object becomes the frontmost object in the scene. Clicking
outside the text body or clicking another tool finishes the creation of the
text object and allows you to modify the text object or the characters
within it.
To enter text along a path:
1. Create a path—see “Creating and Deleting a Path” on page 457.
2. Using the Text tool, click the path and type in some text.
Using Special or Unicode Characters
You can type a special (extended) character, such as a copyright symbol (©) or
any Unicode character into a text body if the font supports the actual character.
TrueType fonts work better than Type 1 fonts.
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Working with Text
n
Pasted characters do not take on the font that is displayed in the Font list. You
will have to select the character after pasting in a text body and set the
appropriate font.
Determining a Character’s Unicode Value
Before you can enter special or Unicode characters, you must determine their
value. For example, the registered trademark symbol (®) has a Unicode value
of 00AE. You can look up the value in the Character Map utility in Windows.
To determine the Unicode value using the Character Map utility:
1. On the Windows desktop, select Start > Programs > Accessories >
System Tools > Character Map.
The Unicode Character Map window is displayed.
Selected
character
Unicode value
2. From the Font list, select the font that you intend to use in Avid DS Nitris.
3. Click the character you want to use.
The Unicode value appears in the lower-left corner of the Character Map
window. Use this four-character value in Avid DS Nitris.
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Entering Special and Unicode Characters
Once you know the special or Unicode value of the character, you can enter it
in a text body in Avid DS Nitris. The hexadecimal Unicode value is used to
identify special or Unicode characters; this value appears in the Info property
editor.
To enter a Unicode value:
1. Click in a text body.
2. Hold down the Alt key and type the value on the numeric keypad. For
example, the registered trademark (®) symbol in the Times New Roman
font uses the Alt+0174 key sequence.
3. Release the Alt key.
The special or Unicode character appears in the text body and its
hexadecimal value appears in the Info property editor.
Importing Text
You can import text from an ASCII text file. For example, you can import a
previously created text file containing the names in a credit roll.
n
Only the first 6,000 characters of a text file are imported. Also, if the text file
contains binary characters, only the text up to the first binary character is
imported.
To import text:
1. Create a text body or place the cursor in an existing text body.
If a text body is not currently active, the imported text appears in a new
text body that is half the width and height of the current text body.
2. From the 3D DVE toolbar, click the Import Text button.
3. In the Import Text dialog box, select the ASCII text file to import.
The text in the selected text file appears in the current text body, using the
current object properties.
Text Overflow
When a text object contains more characters than can appear at one time, the
text object appears differently when the cursor is active in the text object.
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Working with Text
When the insertion point is in a text object, a scroll bar appears along the left
edge (for rolling text) or bottom edge (for crawling text) of the text object. The
scroll bar allows you to view and edit any part of the text in the text object. A
scroll bar does not appear for path text.
n
Tip: If you’re currently editing text, press Esc to adjust the scroll bar.
Rolling text
Scroll bar
Crawling text
Scroll bar
When the cursor is not in a text object, a scroll bar appears along the left edge
(for rolling text) or along the bottom edge (for crawling text and path text) of
text objects. The scroll position arrow controls the section of text that is visible
at the current point in time, letting you create rolling or crawling text. Also, for
rolling and crawling text, small arrows appear along the sides of the text object
as you drag the scroll position arrow.
The scroll bar appears when you’re editing text, whereas the scroll position
slider appears when you’re animating the section of text visible over time.
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Rolling text
Crawling text
Scroll position slider
Scroll position arrow
More text indicators
Path text
Scroll position arrow
n
To edit the scroll position property of a text body, select the text body with the
Edit tool and adjust the Scroll Position control in the Text property editor.
For more information, see “Controlling Rolling, Crawling, and Path Text” on
page 454.
Placing the Insertion Point
To specify the location where you want to type new text in a text object, place
the insertion point (displayed as a vertical bar) at the desired location in the
block of text. The following table describes the different ways that you can
move the insertion point within the text.
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To move to
Press this key
Previous character
Left Arrow
Next character
Right Arrow
Previous line
Up Arrow
Next line
Down Arrow
Working with Text
Resizing a Text Object
If you resize a text object, you can reformat the text by:
n
•
Scaling the text along with the text object or
•
Resizing the text object only, keeping the font size(s) of the text the same.
This is not available for text on a path.
To scale the text as you resize the text object:
1. Using the Edit tool, select a text object.
2. Drag one of the object’s bounding box handles.
Before
After
To resize the text object but not the text within it:
1. Using the Edit tool, select a text object.
2. Hold down the Alt key and drag one of the object’s bounding box handles.
Al
Before
t-d
rag
After
The text within the text object reformats to the new dimensions. For
rolling text, the text wraps to fit the text object. For crawling text, you see
more or less of the text.
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Selecting and Deselecting Text
Before you can modify a block of text (change its font, size, style, or other
attribute), you must select the text. You can select text directly in the viewer or
in the 3D DVE Layers view if the text is difficult to edit because it’s rotated or
not visible.
To select a block of text, do one of the following:
t
Drag across a block of text.
t
With the insertion point at one end of a text block, hold down the Shift key
and click at the other end of the text block.
The selected text is highlighted in pink.
To select all the text in a text object:
t
With the cursor in a text object, click the Select All button in the 3D DVE
Layers toolbar.
To select individual letters:
t
Using the Edit tool, hold down the Alt key and click a letter at the same
time. Now release the Alt key and you can still continue selecting
individual letters.
To select multiple letters:
t
Using the Edit tool, hold down the Shift key and click the letters you want
to select.
A red bounding box surrounds the selected letter(s), which you can now
edit individually. They are, however, still part of the text object.
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Working with Text
To deselect selected text, do one of the following:
t
t
Click anywhere in a text object.
From the 3D DVE Layers toolbar, click the Deselect All button.
Editing Text
You can use common cut, copy, or paste operations on text.
To cut, copy, or paste text:
1. From the viewer, select some text.
2. From the Edit menu, select one of the following:
-
Cut or press Ctrl+X to cut the text.
-
Copy or press Ctrl+C to copy the text.
-
Paste or press Ctrl+V to paste the text.
Formatting Text
You can format blocks and columns of text, such as changing the font, font
size, as well as adjusting column width and alignment.
Changing Fonts and Font Sizes
Traditionally, a font is a specific typeface (type family) at a specific font
size (height), and with specific font styles (visual enhancements). In
Avid DS Nitris, a font is defined as a specific typeface. The size and styles are
specified separately.
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To change the font and font size of text:
1. Using the Text tool, select a block of text.
2. From the Text property editor, select a font from the Font list.
n
Tip: To try different fonts, display the font list and press the up and down
arrow keys on the keyboard.
3. Set the Size value.
You can also change the font size of the text in a text object by scaling the
text object itself using the Edit tool—see “Scaling Objects” on page 419.
Changing the Direction of Text
As you type new characters into a text object, the text cursor moves from left
to right by default. You can switch the direction if you’re typing in a language
that is read from right to left, such as Hebrew. You can switch the direction of
a text object at any time.
To change the direction of text in a text object:
t
n
Using the Text tool, right-click in a text object, and select Direction and
one of the following:
-
Left-to-Right to add each new character to the right of the previous
character. This is the default direction.
-
Right-to-Left to add each new character to the left of the previous
character.
The text in a text object that uses the Right-to-Left direction does not
automatically switch to right-aligned text.
Aligning Text into Columns
By default, a text object contains a single column of left-aligned text. You can
create columns of text, change the width and alignment of text within a
column, and remove columns. Columns are useful for tabular information or
to save vertical space, such as when using a three-column layout for names in
a credit roll. The text within each column should fit within the width of the
column.
n
446
You cannot animate the number of columns, the width of columns, or the
alignment of text within columns over the duration of a text object.
Working with Text
Text alignment does not work for crawling text, including text crawling along
a path. However, you can align static text on a path.
Adding a Column
You can add a column to a text body to break a line of text into two separate
sections, each of which can have its own text alignment. For example, you can
use a two-column layout for ending credits, where the actresses’s name is
right-aligned in the first column and the character she portrays is left-aligned
in the second column.
Before
After adding a column
and typing text into it.
To add a column:
1. Using the Text tool, place the insertion point in the paragraph that
contains the column.
2. From the Paragraph property editor, select the row that corresponds to the
column. Each column defined in the current paragraph of the text body
appears as a row of the following values:
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-
Left: The left edge of the column.
-
Right: The right edge of the column.
-
Alignment: The alignment of the text within the column.
The Left and Right values are numbers between 0 (left edge of the text
body) and 100 (right edge). The distance between the Left and Right
values defines the width of a column.
3. Select the Update All Selected Paragraphs option to apply changes to
selected paragraphs only.
4. Click the Add button. You can create up to ten columns in a paragraph.
The existing column’s width is split in half.
5. Repeat steps 3 and 4 for each new column that you add.
6. To type in the next column, press Tab. Tab characters are interpreted as a
jump to the next column in a paragraph.
Removing a Column
You can remove a column when you no longer need to separate the text
alignment for sections of text.
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Working with Text
Before (two columns)
After removing the right column and
resizing one column to its full width
To remove a column:
1. Using the Text tool, place the insertion point in a text body.
2. From the Paragraph property editor, select the entry that corresponds to
the column you want to remove.
n
You cannot remove the last column of text. Each text object must contain at
least one column.
3. Click the Remove button.
4. If you want the remaining columns to occupy the space left by the
removed column, adjust their widths.
n
The remaining columns do not automatically widen to occupy the space left by
the removed column. For more information, see “Changing a Column’s
Width” on page 449.
The text in the removed column moves to the previous column, separated
from the previous column’s contents by a space. If you remove the first
column, the text moves to the next column.
If you change from two columns to one column, the text word-wraps.
However, if you start with three or more columns, the text does not
word-wrap.
Changing a Column’s Width
You can change the width of a column to adjust the positioning of text within
the column. You can adjust the position of adjacent columns by creating a gap,
called a gutter, between them. If you’re using justified or equally spaced
columns, gutters are important to help differentiate the contents in each
column. By default, there is no gap between columns.
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To change the width of a column:
1. Using the Text tool, place the insertion point in the paragraph that
contains the column.
2. From the Paragraph property editor, select the row that corresponds to the
column whose width you want to change.
3. To change the left edge of a column, click the Left column value, and then
change the value in the text body. Press Enter.
The width of a column is relative to the width of the column’s text body,
where 0 is the left edge of the text body and 100 is the right edge.
Columns cannot overlap.
Column 1
0
Column 2
45
55
100
Gutter (10%)
4. To change the right edge of a column, click the Right column value and
then change the value in the text body. Press Enter.
The text in the current column adjusts to the new column width, but long
lines of text do not word wrap.
By changing the left and right sides of adjacent columns, you change the
gutter between the columns.
Setting All Columns to the Same Width
Balancing the columns is another way to adjust the positioning of text in
multiple columns, so that they use the same width for all the columns on a
line. You can also adjust columns after removing a column to make the widths
of each column the same.
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Working with Text
To set all the columns in a paragraph to the same width:
1. Using the Text tool, place the insertion point in the paragraph that
contains the column.
2. From the Paragraph property editor, click the Balance button.
Changing a Column’s Text Alignment
You can change the alignment or positioning of text within a column to make
the text more readable or to produce a specific type of effect, such as text that
is right-aligned and next to the left edge of a graphic in a scene.
Each column of text can be aligned to either the left or right sides of the
column, centered within the column, or aligned to both sides of the column,
with extra spacing added either between words or characters.
To change the text alignment in a column:
1. Using the Text tool, place the insertion point in a text body.
2. Right-click in the column of text, select Align and one of the following:
Left, Center, Right, Justify, or Equally Space.
The text in the selected column uses the selected alignment.
Center
Left
Justify
Right
Equally Space
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Adjusting the Kerning
Kerning or character spacing is the horizontal space between characters in a
text object. When you adjust character spacing, you’re adjusting the space
after each selected character, except the last selected character on a line within
a justified or equally spaced column. By default, characters are automatically
kerned, based on the information in the character’s font.
n
Tip: You can create text that expands from the center by using an unclipped
text body with Equally Spaced justification and then adjusting the kerning.
To adjust kerning:
1. Using the Text tool, select a block of characters or place the cursor
between two characters to adjust the kerning between them.
2. From the Text property editor, adjust the Kerning value.
Kerning = 0
Kerning = 3
Kerning = 6
Adjusting the Leading
Leading or line spacing is the vertical space between the lines of a wordwrapped paragraph. When you adjust the leading, you’re adjusting the space
after each selected line, except the last selected line in a paragraph.
Leading = 100
Leading = 150
Leading = 200
To adjust leading:
1. Using the Text tool, select or place the cursor in the lines of text you want
to adjust.
2. From the Paragraph property editor, change the Leading value.
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Working with Text
The leading changes in increments of 10 percent of the font size.
n
Tip: A common setting for leading is 120 percent of the font size (that is, the
Leading value is set to 120).
Adjusting the Paragraph Spacing
Paragraph spacing is the vertical space between the last line of one paragraph
and the first line of the next paragraph. When you adjust paragraph spacing,
you’re adjusting the space after each selected paragraph.
Space after first paragraph = 50
Space after first paragraph = 100
Space after first paragraph = 200
To adjust paragraph spacing:
1. Using the Text tool, either select or place the cursor in the paragraphs you
want to adjust.
2. From the Paragraph property editor, change the Space After value.
Paragraph spacing changes in increments of 10 percent of the font size.
Adjusting the Text Margins
By default, the characters in a text body can appear anywhere within the text
body’s dimensions. However, if you’re using a background material and want
to offset the text from the sides of the text body and edge of the background
material, increase the side’s margin. You can specify a margin along the top
and bottom of a text body and simulate a margin along the left and right sides
by adjusting the text column settings.
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Top margin
Height of text body
Bottom margin
To adjust the top and bottom margins of a text body:
1. Using the Edit tool, select a text body.
2. From the Text property editor, adjust the Top Margin and Bottom
Margin values. Adjusting the Top margin moves the text downward.
Adjusting the Bottom margin (for rolling text only) crops the text from the
bottom of the text body. The Bottom margin value has no effect on static
and crawling text.
To simulate the left or right margin:
From the Paragraph property editor, do the following:
t
Adjust the Left value for the leftmost column in the text body.
t
Adjust the Right value for the rightmost column in the text body.
For more information, see “Changing a Column’s Width” on page 449.
Controlling Rolling, Crawling, and Path Text
For rolling, crawling, and path text, the text scrolls within the text object over
time. The text in a text object is not visible at the start and end of a text
object’s duration. For example, you may see five lines of text roll by per
second or 10 characters crawl by per second.
Creating Rolling or Crawling Text
Creating rolling, crawling, and path text is as simple as selecting an option
from the Text pop-up menu. Path text is a variation of crawling text.
To make the text roll or crawl within the text object:
Using the Text tool, right-click in the text body, and select Motion and one of
the following:
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-
n
Roll to make the text roll.
The Roll option is not available for text on a path.
The text body’s Scroll Position property is automatically set up for a
rolling motion from the bottom to the top of the text body.
-
Crawl to make the text crawl.
A crawling motion is created from right to left (for nonpath text) or from
the start to the end of the path (for path text). You can change the speed
and direction of the motion by adjusting the Scroll Position property or
using the scroll position arrow. For more information, see “Controlling
Crawling Speed and Direction” on page 455.
For nonpath text, a scroll position slider appears along the side of the text
body. Along the slider is a scroll position arrow that controls the portion
of the text visible at the current time.
If you change from Roll to Crawl, the text appears on a single line and
word-wrapped lines or paragraphs are ignored but preserved. You may
want to shorten the text body to fit the single line of text. If you change
from Crawl to Roll, paragraphs are word-wrapped.
n
If you click the text object or click away from the text body and are at the start
or end of the text body’s duration, no text appears in the text boxes. This is
because, by default, the text in rolling or crawling text bodies moves across the
text body over its duration, starting and ending with the text just out of view.
Controlling Crawling Speed and Direction
For rolling and crawling text, you can adjust the speed and direction of the roll
or crawl by using the Text property editor (the scroll position does not apply to
static text) or the Text tool.
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Scroll position = 33
Scroll position = 50
Scroll position = 66
Rolling text
Crawling text
Path text
To adjust a text object’s scroll speed and direction with the Edit tool:
1. Using the Edit tool, select a text object.
2. From the Text property editor, adjust the Scroll Position.
Higher values move the text upward (for rolling text) or to the left (for
crawling text). Lower values move the text downward or to the right.
To adjust a text object’s scroll speed and direction with the Text tool:
1. Using the Text tool, click in a text body.
2. Press Esc.
A scroll position slider and arrow appear for each text object.
3. Drag the scroll position arrow to specify the section of text visible in the
text body at the current time.
The scroll position arrow’s location in the slider represents the Scroll
Position value in the Text property editor.
Clipping Text
The characters in a rolling or crawling text body are, by default, visible only
within the dimensions of the text body; characters (or portions of them) are
clipped to these dimensions.
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Working with Text
Turning off clipping allows characters to appear and move outside of the text
body. Unclipped text is useful if you want characters to fly off the screen, or if
the text has a shadow that you do not want clipped.
n
Text that moves along a path is always clipped between characters. The
character either appears or does not appear; you will not see a partial
character at the ends of a path.
Static text
Clipped
Unclipped
Rolling text
Clipped
Unclipped
To clip text to the dimensions of the text body:
t
n
Using the Text tool, right-click in the text body and select Clip to Text
Box.
Clipped rolling text boxes are not clipped on their left and right sides. Clipped
crawling text boxes are not clipped on their top and bottom sides.
Placing and Moving Text on a Path
You can place text on and scroll text along straight or curved paths. A path is an
object that uses a curved path as the baseline for text, which can crawl along the
path. You create and edit paths using the shape drawing tools. Like other
objects, you can move, scale, and rotate the path in three-dimensional space.
Creating and Deleting a Path
You can create a path from a shape, convert a path into a shape, and delete
a path.
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n
Closed paths are not filled. Also, paths are not drawn when you process the
project.
To create a path:
1. Draw a path using any of the shape drawing tools—see “Creating
Graphics” on page 427.
2. From the 3D DVE toolbar, click the Shape to Path button.
The selected shape becomes a path. If you convert a compound shape, the
first shape within the compound shape becomes the path.
A small square along the path indicates the start of the path and, for leftaligned text, the start of the first character.
To convert a path to a shape:
1. Using the Edit tool, select a path.
2. From the Commands toolbar, click the Path to Shape button.
To delete a path:
1. Using the Edit tool, select a path.
2. Press Delete.
Any text that was on the path is deleted.
Adding Text to a Path
After you create a path, you can use the Text tool to add text to it.
Before typing text
After typing text
To add text to a path:
1. Using the Text tool, click above a path.
The pointer changes to indicate that you can enter text on the path.
2. Type in your text.
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Working with Text
By default, text on a path is static and left aligned. That is, the text starts at
the beginning of the path, but does not scroll along the path.
Removing Text from a Path
Like other text objects, you can remove sections of text from a path. You can
also delete the path to remove both the path and the text on it.
To remove text from a path:
t
Using the Text tool, delete the text as you normally would for any
text object.
The remaining text readjusts accordingly.
n
Deleting all the text on a path does not delete the path. The path is empty.
Positioning Text on a Path
Like static and crawling text, you can adjust the position of text on a path.
You can also reverse the direction of the text on the path and offset the text
from the path.
To position text on a path:
t
Left-aligned
If the text is static on the path, right-click the path, and use the text
alignment commands in the menu or the Align buttons on the 3D DVE
toolbar—see “Changing a Column’s Text Alignment” on page 451.
Center-aligned
t
Right-aligned
Justified
Equally-spaced
If the text scrolls along the path, adjust the Scroll Position value in the
Text property editor—see “Controlling Crawling Speed and Direction” on
page 455.
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Chapter 9 3D DVE and 3D Titling
Scroll Position = 10
Scroll Position = 50
Scroll Position = 80
For rectangular paths, the start of the path is the upper-left corner.
For elliptical paths, the start of the path is the top of the ellipse. For all
other shapes, the start of the path is the first control point you created for
the shape.
To reverse the motion of the text on a path, do one of the following:
t
From the Text property editor, adjust the Scroll Position value.
t
Right-click above the shape and select Reverse Direction.
To offset the text from a path:
1. Using the Edit tool, select a path. Make sure you do not select the text on
the path.
2. From the Path property editor, adjust the Baseline Offset value. A value
of zero means that the baseline of the text is exactly on the path. Values
greater than zero shift the text above the path, whereas values less than
zero push the text below the path.
Baseline offset = 0
Baseline offset = 5
Baseline offset = –5
Orienting Text on a Path
By default, characters point in the direction perpendicular to their location on
a path. For example, if the text moves along a circular path, the characters
point away from the center of the circle. If you prefer to keep the characters
upright all the time, adjust the path’s orientation.
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Working with Text
To adjust the orientation of the text on a path:
1. Using the Edit tool, select a path and make sure you do not select the text
on the path.
2. From the Path property editor, set the Orientation to one of the following:
-
Upright to make the characters stay vertical (to the local Y axis) all
the time.
-
Follow to make the characters point perpendicular to their locations
along the path. This is the default setting.
Orientation = Upright
Orientation = Follow
You can further control the orientation of text on a path by adjusting the
individual character’s Rotation properties. So, a path that uses Upright
orientation, but whose characters have Rotation values other than zero,
produces text that is not upright.
Controlling Object Properties Based on Path Position
By default, the properties of characters on a path are dependent on time like all
other properties. For example, to change the size of a character over time, you
modify the Font Size function curve. However, you can also control the font
size (or any property) of a character based on its position along its path. For
example, you can easily create characters that gradually increase and then
decrease in size as they scroll along their path.
To animate character properties based on their positions along a path:
1. Using the Text tool, click a path.
2. With the pointer above the path, right-click and select Property Mode
and one of the following:
-
Time to base the property values of each character on the current time
in the 3D DVE session. This is the default mode.
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-
n
Position to base the property values of each character on the
character’s position along the path. The text is left justified while in
this mode.
When using the Position mode in text along a path, you must be in Autokey
mode.
Position property mode
Font size changes based on the character’s position along the path.
Time property mode
All characters use the same font size.
3. Select the characters on the path that you want to modify. In most cases,
you will want to select all the characters on the path.
4. Adjust one or more properties of the selected characters at different points
in time.
n
462
If the text is crawling along the path and the path is in Position property mode,
the text may not scroll completely off the path. To ensure that the text scrolls
off the path, adjust the Scroll Position value at the end of the path’s duration.
Working with Surfaces and Materials
Working with Surfaces and Materials
A surface is an area of an object. You can control the visibility and appearance
of each surface by applying a set of properties to it called a material.
You can modify the appearance of the various surfaces of an object. For
example, you can apply a brick texture to a rectangle to give the appearance of
a brick wall, a gradient to a wavy shape that runs along the left edge of the
view to enhance a scene, or a reflective texture to the edges of the characters in
a word to simulate a chrome outline.
You can apply a material to the following surfaces:
•
Main: The front and back sides of an object.
•
Profile: The surface created by the profile effect of an object—see
“Applying Profile Effects” on page 425.
•
Extrude: The surface created by the extruded sides of an object—see
“Extruding an Object” on page 425.
•
Background: The area behind all objects in text objects or the reverse
side of DVEs—see “Using a Background” on page 395.
Main material
Profile material
Extrude material
Background material
Each material can be one of the following types:
•
n
Solid color: A single color.
Although you can import Avid Marquee® projects that use gradient materials,
you cannot create or edit them.
•
Texture: An image or an input.
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In addition, a material can be lit by light sources. For more information,
see “Working with Lights and Shadows” on page 475.
You do not need to create a material to change the appearance of an object.
A material is simply a definition or a shortcut way of setting an object’s
material properties to specific values.
Applying Materials to Objects
You can apply materials to an object or one of its properties to change the
object’s appearance. You can apply different materials to the front, back,
profile, and extruded materials of an object.
All objects have front and back faces, but only extruded objects have an
extruded face, and only objects with a profile effect have a profile face. You
can specify a material for the background of text objects. For more
information, see “Applying Profile Effects” on page 425.
n
By default, when the main surface of an object has a material on it, the
material appears on the front and back surfaces of the object.
By default, an object uses the main material for the profile and extrude effects.
When you apply a texture to a text body, each character in the text body uses a
copy of that texture. If, instead, you want the texture to appear across all the
characters in the text body, you must change the texture mapping setting.
For more information, see “Editing Materials” on page 465.
To apply a material to the surface of an object:
1. Using the Edit tool, select an object.
2. From the Surfaces property editor, select a surface from the Surface list,
and adjust the material properties.
Using a Custom Material for an Object’s Surface
By default, the profile and extrude surfaces of an object use the main surface’s
material. However, you can set each surface to use a different material.
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To enable a surface to use a custom material:
1. From the Surfaces property editor, select the Enable Surface option.
2. Adjust the material properties.
Skipping the Drawing of the Back Faces
If you do not intend to show the back faces of an object (for example, you do
not intend to rotate the object around the X or Y axis), you can skip the
drawing of the back faces. As a result, you can decrease processing time and
improve the appearance of transparent three-dimensional objects that are
rotated.
To skip drawing of the back faces of an object:
1. Using the Edit tool, select an object.
2. From the Render property editor, select the Cull Back Faces option.
The back faces of the object become transparent.
Editing Materials
A material consists of properties (characteristics) that describe its appearance.
For example, you can modify a material’s type, color, opacity, and whether it’s
affected by light sources in the scene. You can modify the material properties
of a surface of an object.
To edit a material used by an object:
1. Using the Edit tool, select an object.
2. From the Surfaces property editor, select a surface to edit from the Surface
list.
3. Adjust the material properties.
Changing the Type of Material
Materials can be solid colors or textures. You can change a material’s type at
any time.
To change a material’s type:
t
From the Surfaces property editor, select a type from the Type list.
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Changing a Material’s Base Color
For solid-color materials, the base color is the color of the material. If textures
are tinted, the base color is the tint color of the material. For more information,
see “Tinting a Texture” on page 474.
To change a material’s base color:
t
From the Surfaces property editor, click the Base color swatch and select
a color from anywhere on the desktop. Double-click the color swatch to
open the Mini Color editor.
Changing a Material’s Opacity
A material’s opacity controls how much of the material and the object surface
on which it’s applied, is visible. Also, if you’re saving a matte, the opacity
level controls the object’s participation in the generation of the matte.
Opacity = 10
Opacity = 40
Opacity = 70
Opacity = 100
To change a material’s opacity:
t
From the Surfaces property editor, adjust the Opacity value.
To use an object’s opacity setting to create a matte:
1. Using the Edit tool, select an object.
2. From the Render property editor, select the Generate Matte option.
Allowing Material to be Affected by Light Sources
Materials can have two types of finishes:
466
•
Flat: A matte finish, which is not affected by light sources. The material
appears the same, regardless of the lighting of the scene or the position
and orientation of the surface on which the material is applied.
•
Lit: A glossy finish that is affected by light sources. The material changes
appearance depending on the lighting of the scene and the position and
orientation of the surface on which the material is applied.
Working with Surfaces and Materials
Flat material
Lit material
Lit materials are useful for objects that have depth, such as objects that use
beveled or extruded profiles. For more information, see “Applying Profile
Effects” on page 425.
When a material is lit, you can adjust the specular highlight and emissive
colors of the material, as well as its shininess. For more information, see
“Working with Lights and Shadows” on page 475.
To allow a material to be affected by light sources:
1. From the Surfaces property editor, select the Enable Lighting option.
2. For textures, select the Tint option. Textures use the specular and emissive
color settings and shininess controls only when the Tint option is selected.
Adjusting the Specular Highlight Color
When a light source shines on a lit material, the region of the surface that
reflects the light directly to the observer (a specular highlight) appears
brighter. You can control the size of the specular highlight by adjusting the
shininess of the material. For more information, see “Adjusting the Shininess
of a Material” on page 469.
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Chapter 9 3D DVE and 3D Titling
Low specular
High specular
To adjust the specular highlight color of a lit material:
t
From the Surfaces property editor, click the Specular color swatch and
select a color from anywhere on the desktop. Double-click the color
swatch to open the Mini Color editor.
Adjusting the Emissive Color
When a light source does not shine on a lit material, the material can emit or
glow with a specific color, known as its emissive color. By adjusting the
emissive color, an object can appear red when lit and green when not lit.
Low emissive
High emissive
To adjust the emissive color of a material:
t
468
From the Surfaces property editor, click the Emissive color swatch and
select a color from anywhere on the desktop. Double-click the color
swatch to open the Mini Color editor.
Working with Surfaces and Materials
Adjusting the Shininess of a Material
When a light source shines on a lit material, you can control the material’s
shininess.
Low shininess
High shininess
To adjust the shininess of a lit material:
t
n
From the Surfaces property editor, adjust the Shininess value. Values
closer to 0 simulate a very dull surface (specular highlight area is larger
and the light is less focused), whereas values closer to 100 simulate a very
shiny surface (specular highlight area is smaller and the light is more
focused).
The Shininess value has no effect if the specular color of the material is black.
For more information, see “Adjusting the Specular Highlight Color” on
page 467.
Simulating a Reflective Surface Using an Environment Map
When a surface is lit, the specular color appears on the areas of the surface
closer to a light source to simulate a highlight. You can also show a texture,
called an environment map, in the specular highlight areas of the surface. An
environment map is similar to a texture in Reflection mapping mode, except
that an environment map lets you show a reflection of a texture on an existing
texture.
To use an environment map for a material:
t
From the Surfaces property editor, select a texture from the Texture list.
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Chapter 9 3D DVE and 3D Titling
To remove an environment map:
t
From the Surfaces property editor, click the R (reset) button.
Controlling the Appearance of Overlapping Surfaces
When two surfaces of the same object or different objects overlap, the material
on one surface does not affect the material on the other surface. However, you
can change the appearance of overlapping surfaces by using Boolean
operations. For example, you can create two different colored shapes whose
intersection or overlapping areas appear in a different color.
When you use Boolean operations, note the following:
•
Shadows affect surfaces that use Boolean operations, which may not
produce the effect you want.
•
Boolean operations do not affect the alpha channel of a scene.
•
If an object intersects another object at a higher position, the Boolean
operation will not be apparent. Although objects in a 3D layer are
positioned in three-dimensional space, their relative depths affect the
order in which they are drawn in the scene.
•
Boolean operations do not produce results that appear correct when you’re
viewing the current layer only or when you tumble the scene.
To control how a surface’s material is affected by the materials of other
surfaces:
t
n
From the Surfaces property editor, select an effect from the Overlap list.
When you use a Boolean operation on an object, the object does not appear
antialiased in the viewer. Also, semitransparent surfaces appear opaque.
Boolean
operation
Normal
470
Example
Description
The surface is not affected by other
surfaces under it. This is the default
setting.
Working with Surfaces and Materials
Boolean
operation
Example
Description
Invert
The color of each pixel under the
surface is reversed or inverted.
Changes to the surface’s opacity and
type do not affect the result. You can
achieve the best results by using this
effect on a solid surface.
And
The color of each pixel under the
surface appears tinted.
Changes to the surface’s type affect
the result. A solid white surface does
not produce any change to the
underlying surfaces.
You can achieve good results using
opaque solid colors, but not as good as
when combining gradients or textures
with other gradients or textures or
using semitransparent solid colors.
Exclusive Or
The color of each pixel under the
surface is reversed or inverted in a
way similar to the Invert overlap
effect, except that the surface’s
appearance affects the result.
Changes to the surface’s type affect
the result. You can achieve good
results using opaque solid colors.
Results are not as good when you
combine textures.
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Boolean
operation
Example
Not Or
Description
The color of each pixel under the
surface is reversed or inverted in some
combinations and tinted in other
combinations.
Changes to the surface’s type affect
the result. A solid white surface
produces black. A solid black surface
produces an effect similar to the Invert
overlap effect.
You can achieve good results using
opaque solid colors. Results are not as
good when you combine gradients or
textures with other gradients or
textures.
Positioning and Tiling a Texture on a Surface
When you first apply a texture to a surface, the texture is centered on the
surface. You can, however, position (offset) the texture.
To position a texture on a surface:
t
From the Surfaces property editor, adjust the X and Y values in the
Offset box.
A texture is offset from its original mapping on a surface. Texture offsets
are not based on the scene’s dimensions.
To tile a texture on a surface:
1. From the Surfaces property editor, select the Tile option.
2. From the 3D DVE/Options property editor, select the Preferences tab.
Select the Allow Tiling For DS Inputs option.
n
472
If a material is tiled, the texture is repeated on all sides. Otherwise, the texture
appears only once.
Working with Surfaces and Materials
Scaling a Texture on a Surface
When you first apply a texture to a surface, the texture covers the entire
surface. However, you can scale the texture up or down by using the controls
in the Surfaces property editor.
To scale a texture on a surface:
t
From the Surfaces property editor, adjust the X and Y values in the
Scale box.
A texture is scaled based on its original size, as mapped onto a surface.
Texture scale factors are not based on the scene’s dimensions.
n
Tip: If you reduce a texture on a surface, you can see another copy of the
texture next to it if you use the Tile option.
Cropping a Texture on a Surface
If you want to use only a region of a texture, you can crop the edges of the
texture before it’s mapped to the surface. Cropping is useful for removing
black lines at the borders of textures captured from a video source. Cropping is
equivalent to a combined action of offsetting and scaling a texture. You can do
one or the other, but not both.
To crop a texture on a surface:
1. From the Surfaces property editor, click the Texture Crop button.
The Crop controls are displayed.
2. In the Texture Crop box, adjust the top, left, right, and bottom values.
The Crop values show the equivalent Offset and Scale values, and vice
versa.
Rotating a Texture on a Surface
When you first apply a texture to a surface, the texture is oriented upright on
the surface, based on the object’s original orientation. However, you can rotate
the texture around the Z axis by using the control in the Surfaces property
editor.
To rotate a texture on a surface:
t
From the Surfaces property editor, adjust the Z value in the Rotation box.
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A texture is rotated based on its original orientation (no rotation), as
mapped onto a surface.
Controlling How a Texture is Mapped onto a Surface
The mapping of a texture onto a surface controls how the texture is used. By
changing the texture mapping, you can produce interesting effects.
To control how a texture is mapped onto a surface:
1. From the Surfaces property editor, select one of the following from the
Mapping list:
Option
To
Local
Apply the texture to each object as if it were a decal
Container
Apply the texture based on the dimensions of the object.
For example, you can apply a texture to a shape, but make
the texture relative to the scene’s dimensions. This option
also allows you to apply a texture to the contents of an
object, such as the characters in a text body.
Reflection
Use the surface of the object as if it were a mirror
reflecting the texture (reflection map). Reflection maps
are mainly used as “ambient” textures.
2. When you change a texture into a reflection map, the texture is enlarged to
produce less detail in the reflection. If you want more detail from the
texture in the reflection, scale down the texture using the controls in the
Scale box.
Tinting a Texture
If you want to change the tone of a texture to enhance the texture or to create
an interesting effect, use the tint controls in the Surfaces property editor. When
a material is tinted, the base color is used as the tint color. Solid colored
materials cannot be tinted.
To tint a texture:
1. From the Surfaces property editor, select the Tint option.
2. Select the base color.
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Working with Lights and Shadows
n
Tip: Use a brown Base color to simulate sepia-toned surfaces.
Working with Lights and Shadows
Light sources are points in three-dimensional space that emit light, causing
objects (with materials that can be affected by light) to appear illuminated.
You specify the location of light sources relative to objects in the scene. Light
sources exist above all other objects in the scene.
Different types of light illuminate a scene in different ways.
•
Infinite: Light source is very far away, so that the light rays are essentially
parallel to each other. The sun is an example of an infinite light source;
this type of light source is also known as a directional light.
•
Local: The light rays extend from a single point evenly in all directions.
A candle is an example of a local light source. This type of light source is
also known as a point or omni-directional light.
•
Spot: The light rays extend from a single point in a cone shape, casting
light on a specific oval or circular area of an object or scene.
For local and spot lights, the intensity of the light decreases in proportion to
the distance from its location.
Infinite
Local
Spot
Lights in Avid DS Nitris, just as in real life, help illuminate a scene, and give
objects a particular look. Improper placement or adjustment of lights can
cause unwanted effects and distract from the content in the scene.
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To use lights effectively, place as few lights in a scene as necessary to avoid a
bleached or washed-out appearance. Also, use appropriate light settings for the
material you use. For example, if you use a concrete-looking material, do not
make the material shiny or have a bright specular color. Concrete is not usually
shiny in real life.
Adding, Moving, and Deleting Light Sources
You can add, move, and remove light sources. You can have up to eight light
sources. Each light source is numbered in the viewer.
To add a light source to a scene:
1. Click the Light button in the 3D DVE toolbar.
The current light sources appear in the viewer.
2. Do one of the following:
t
Hold down the Alt key and click to add a new light source.
t
Right-click above the location for a new light source, and select Add
Light.
A new light source appears at the pointer location. By default, the light
source is a white local light.
n
A bright or focused spot light shining on a material may produce distinct
triangular patterns on the surface of objects, known as undertessellation. To
reduce this problem, change the light type, widen the size of the spot light,
decrease the intensity of the light, or increase tessellation.
To move a light source:
1. Using the Light tool, select a light source.
2. Do one of the following:
t
t
Drag the light source to a different location.
From the Transform property editor, adjust the Position values.
The lighting of the scene changes accordingly. However, shadows on
objects do not change their offsets from their objects. You must modify
the shadow offsets manually if you want to create more realistic shadow
effects.
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Working with Lights and Shadows
To delete a light source:
1. Using the Light tool, select a light source.
2. Right-click and select Delete Lights or press Delete.
Editing Light Sources
Each light source has a specific visibility, type, and color. You can change
these properties and animate them over time. You can change light source
properties in the Info, Transform, and Light property editors. You can adjust a
light source’s function curve in the animation editor.
To edit a light source:
1. Using the Light tool, select the light sources to edit by doing one of
the following:
t
To select a single light source, click it.
t
To select multiple light sources, hold down the Shift key and
click them.
t
To switch the selection of a light source, hold down the Ctrl key and
click it.
2. From the Info, Transform, or Light property editor, adjust the light source
properties. These property editors contain different sets of light source
properties.
All selected light sources use the modified properties.
Turning Light Sources On or Off
You can turn light sources on or off to make them affect or not affect the
objects in the scene. Turning off a light source is the equivalent of a nonexistent light source.
To turn a light source on/off:
1. Using the Light tool, select a light source.
2. Do one of the following:
t
From the Light property editor, select/deselect the Enable Lights
option.
t
Right-click the light source and select Enable Lights or Disable
Lights.
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Changing the Light Type
A light source’s type affects how it illuminates the scene. A light source can be
an infinite, local, or spot light. For more information, see “Working with
Lights and Shadows” on page 475.
To change a light source’s type:
1. Using the Light tool, select a light source.
2. Do one of the following:
t
From the Light property editor, select a light type from the Type list.
t
Right-click a light source and select a light type from the menu.
Using Colored Lights
By default, light sources emit a white light. However, you can change the color
of the light to give lit objects a colored tint.
To change the color emitted from a light source:
1. Using the Light tool, select a light source.
2. From the Light property page, click the color swatch and select a color
from anywhere on the desktop. Double-click the color swatch to open the
Mini Color editor.
Changing the Intensity of a Light Source
The intensity of a light source controls how brightly it illuminates the scene.
To change the intensity of a light source:
1. Using the Light tool, select a light source.
2. From the Light property editor, adjust the Intensity value.
A value of 0 produces no intensity and light is effectively disabled. A
value of 100 is normal intensity. You can set the intensity to values above
100 for highly intense lights or below 0 for “negative light,” where light is
absent.
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Working with Lights and Shadows
Positioning a Light Source
Light sources, like other objects in the scene, can exist at different locations in
the scene.
To position a light source in the scene:
1. Using the Light tool, select a light source.
2. Do one of the following:
t
From the Light property editor, select Spot as the type and adjust the
Spot Target values.
t
From the Transform property editor, adjust the Position values.
Adjusting Spot Light Properties
Spot lights have additional properties that you can control.
To position the target of a spot light:
1. Using the Light tool, select the spot light source.
2. From the Light property editor, adjust the Spot Target values.
When you place the target of a spot light near or at the same position as
the spot light itself, the light focuses on a specific area of the scene, which
can cause lit materials to appear with triangular patterns on them. This
problem is known as undertessellation and is caused by the object using
the lit material not being adequately generated (subdivided into polygons)
to properly create a smooth illuminated surface. For more information, see
“Displaying Guides” on page 398.
To adjust the size of the area lit by a spot light:
1. Using the Light tool, select the spot light source.
2. From the Light property editor, adjust the Spot Size values.
Smaller values focus the spot light onto a small area, whereas larger
values lighten a larger area.
To adjust the amount of falloff:
1. Using the Light tool, select a light source.
2. From the Light property editor, adjust the Spot Falloff values.
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Smaller values produce little falloff, resulting in a larger, intense light
region. Larger values produce a large falloff with a softer light spread.
Identifying Light Sources
By default, new light sources are assigned a generic name of “Light.” Like
other objects in the scene, you can change the name and attach a comment to
light sources.
To change the name of a light source:
1. Using the Light tool, select a light source.
2. From the Info property editor, change the description in the Name text
box.
You can describe a light by its color, type, behavior, or other
characteristics.
3. Change the description in the Comment text box.
Adding Shadows to Objects
Each object in a scene can include a shadow. You can control the shadow’s
location relative to the object and the shadow’s appearance.
n
The location of an object’s shadow in a 3D layer is controlled by the object’s
stacking order in the 3D DVE Layers view, not by its position along the Z axis.
A shadow is the projection of an object’s outline onto a flat surface called the
shadow plane. Shadows can be a solid color or a texture (also known as a
shadow map).
An object’s shadow can be one of the following types:
480
•
Drop shadows are on the shadow plane, which is parallel to and always
behind the object. Drop shadows are not affected by light sources in the
scene.
•
Local shadows are located on the shadow plane, which is either hinged to
a side of the object’s bounding box or parallel to the object.
•
Projected shadows are cast from one of the light sources in the scene onto
the shadow plane. By default, the shadow plane is hinged to the bottom of
the scene.
Working with Lights and Shadows
Drop
Local
Projected
(shadow plane and light shown)
Showing and Hiding Object Shadows
By default, objects do not cast shadows. When you use an object’s shadow,
you can simulate the effect of casting a shadow onto a simple plane. You do
not have to light an object’s surface for the object to cast a shadow.
n
Tip: Objects and text objects do not cast shadows. To cast shadows behind
these objects, create a transparent shape the same size as the object, place it
behind the object, and turn on the shape’s shadow. If all you want is the
shadow, turn off the Main material for the shape.
To show/hide a object’s shadow:
1. Using the Edit tool, select an object.
You can use shadows for more than one object at a time.
2. From the Shadow property editor, select/deselect the Show Shadow
option.
By default, the object’s shadow appears gray (black shadow with a 50
percent opacity) and, for drop shadows, is positioned to the lower-right of
the object.
If the characters in a static text body are casting a shadow, you may want
to unclip the text body to keep the shadow from being clipped. For more
information, see “Clipping Text” on page 456.
Changing a Shadow’s Location
You can easily adjust the location of an object’s shadow. For drop shadows,
you can adjust the offset of the shadow from the object. For local and
projected shadows, you can adjust the location and orientation of the shadow
plane.
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Chapter 9 3D DVE and 3D Titling
n
Shadows and objects cannot intersect, even if they’re in a 3D layer.
To change the offset of a drop shadow:
1. Using the Edit tool, select the object that is casting a drop shadow.
2. From the Shadow property editor, adjust the X Offset and Y Offset
values.
Negative offsets move the shadow toward the left and bottom sides of the
object. Positive offsets move the shadow toward the right and top sides of
the object.
n
Tip: To create a drop shadow larger than an object, make a larger copy of the
object whose main material is hidden, add a shadow to the copy, and move the
copy behind the original.
X offset = –1
Y offset = 1
X offset = 1
Y offset = 1
X offset = –1
Y offset = –1
X offset = 1
Y offset = –1
To change the location and orientation of local and projected shadows:
1. Using the Edit tool, select the object that’s casting the local or
projected shadow.
2. In the Shadow property editor, select a light source from the Projected
From list.
Although all possible light sources are in the list, only those light sources
actually available in the scene will produce a shadow. For example, if a
scene contains three lights and you select a fourth light source, no shadow
will appear. This behavior is equivalent to turning off a light source.
n
Light sources that are turned off still produce and affect projected shadows.
When the Light tool is active, the light sources in the scene are numbered.
These numbers correspond to the light numbers in the Projected From list.
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Working with Lights and Shadows
3. From the Hinge box, adjust the location and orientation of the shadow
plane relative to the object by using the following controls:
-
Side to specify if the shadow plane is attached (hinged) to a side (left,
right, bottom, top) of the object’s bounding box or parallel to (back)
the object.
Left-side
hinge
-
Right-side Bottomhinge
side hinge
Top-side
hinge
Back-side
hinge
Angle to orient the shadow plane a certain number of degrees away
from the object plane.
0
degrees
20
degrees
45
degrees
60
degrees
90
degrees
If you set the shadow side to Back, the angle rotates the shadow around
the Z axis.
-
Offset to position the shadow plane away from the object. For local
shadows, the offset controls the distance of the shadow plane away
from the hinge point. For projected shadows, the offset controls the
movement of the shadow plane along global axes.
-0.01
-
0.00
0.02
0.07
0.11
Skew to slant the shadow plane along its local X axis. Only local
shadows can be skewed.
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Chapter 9 3D DVE and 3D Titling
0.60
0.30
0.00
0.45
0.90
Changing a Shadow’s Appearance
You can adjust the opacity, softness, color, and texture of an object’s shadow.
To change the opacity of a shadow:
1. Using the Edit tool, select the object that is casting a shadow.
2. From the Shadow property editor, adjust the Opacity value.
An opacity of 0 produces a completely transparent shadow, which is not
very useful. An opacity of 100 produces a completely opaque shadow.
Opacity = 0
Opacity = 30
Opacity = 70
Opacity = 100
To change the softness of a shadow:
1. Using the Edit tool, select the object that is casting a shadow.
2. From the Shadow property editor, adjust the Softness value.
A shadow can range from very sharp edges and corners (values closer to
0) to very soft edges and corners (values closer to 250). The softer a
corner, the more rounded it appears.
Softness = 0
n
484
Softness = 70
Softness = 150
Softness = 230
Tip: Soft shadows of large objects take longer to render than they do for small
objects. If you’re working in the viewer, decrease the Shadowing quality
setting to improve performance. For more information, see “Displaying
Guides” on page 398.
Importing and Exporting Projects
To change the color of a shadow:
1. Using the Edit tool, select the object that is casting a shadow.
2. From the Shadow property editor, click the color swatch and select a color
from anywhere on the desktop. Double-click the color swatch to open the
Mini Color editor.
The selected object’s shadow color changes to the color you selected.
Using Shadows to Simulate Glows
Although Avid DS Nitris does not have a glow profile effect, you can use a
shadow to simulate a colored glow.
To simulate a colored glow:
1. Using the Edit tool, select an object.
2. From the Shadow property editor, set the shadow properties to
the following:
t
Show shadow: selected
t
Type: Drop
t
X offset: 0
t
Y offset: 0
t
Opacity: 50 or higher. Shadow opacity depends on the shadow color
you use.
t
Softness: 50 or higher. The higher the softness, the longer the shadow
takes to render. Use the highest level of softness required for a
particular effect to reduce the rendering time.
t
Shadow color: Glow color. Shadow-based glows do not work well
for semitransparent objects because you can see the shadow behind
the semitransparent areas.
Importing and Exporting Projects
If you have projects that were created using Avid Marquee, you can import
them for use in Avid DS Nitris. You can import projects that contain decks,
edit objects within pages, and delete decks. You cannot, however, trim or
remove pages within decks, or adjust the timing.
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Chapter 9 3D DVE and 3D Titling
n
n
Projects containing decks and pages can only be imported from the standalone
Marquee application.
Before you can import or export Marquee projects, you’ll have to add the
Import Project and Export Project buttons to the 3D DVE toolbar as they are
not included in the toolbar by default. For more information, see
“Customizing Toolbar Buttons” in the Help.
To import a Marquee project:
1. From the 3D DVE toolbar, click the Import Project button.
2. From the Load Project File dialog box, select a Marquee project, and
click OK.
The project is loaded in Avid DS Nitris.
To export a project:
1. From the 3D DVE toolbar, click the Export Project button.
2. From the Save Project File dialog box, select a folder in which to save
your project, and give it a name.
3. Click OK.
Working with Decks and Pages
A page object lets you create transitions between different objects or
collections of objects. For example, you can use page objects to cycle through
several sports box scores. You can also use pages to encapsulate or group
objects for easier placement in the scene or to create hierarchical behaviors,
such as an object rotating in a page that also rotates. A collection or sequence
of pages is called a deck.
A deck object defines the position, size, and overall duration of the pages
within it. Each page within the deck exists for a specific part of the overall
duration. As you adjust a deck object, by default, its pages and their contents
scale accordingly. If you press Alt and drag the deck object, the deck’s
contents stay the same size. You can create gaps between pages to let the
objects in lower tracks show through.
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Importing and Exporting Projects
n
You can import projects that contain decks, edit objects within pages, and
delete decks. You cannot, however, trim or remove pages within decks, or
adjust the timing.
Deleting Decks
You can delete decks of pages if you no longer need them.
To delete a deck:
1. Using the Edit tool, select a deck object by clicking along its border.
n
Tip: Displaying the construction lines lets you see the borders of a deck. For
more information, see “Showing Construction Lines” on page 399.
2. Press Delete.
Moving between Pages
When you want to create objects in a page or view a page in a deck, move to
the page by changing the current time.
Objects within a page exist for the duration of the page. If you intend to
animate object properties over the duration of their page, be sure to move to
the start or end of the page’s duration to set the starting and ending points for
the animation.
To move between pages of a deck, do one of the following:
t
In the transport controls, type a timecode in the Timecode Locator box
and press Enter.
t
Move the position indicator on the timeline.
Adding Objects to a Page
When you want to add objects to a page, you can either create them within the
page’s dimensions directly, or copy or move them from another page. You can
also move deck objects within other page objects.
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An object is not considered to be in a page unless the upper-left corner of its
bounding box lies within the dimensions of the page. If an object is not moving
along with its page, you must move the object to the page.
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Chapter 9 3D DVE and 3D Titling
When you copy or move objects between pages, their locations, sizes, and
orientations are retained.
You can create hierarchical behaviors by placing a deck in a page of another
deck (by cutting or copying the deck into the page of another deck). For
example, as a deck rotates, a shape can rotate in a page of a deck.
To copy or move an object between pages:
1. Using the Edit tool, select an object.
2. Select Edit and one of the following:
-
Copy to copy the object.
-
Cut to move the object.
3. Click in the page on which you want to place the object.
4. Select Edit > Paste.
Editing Objects within a Page
You can edit a page’s objects as you would any other object in the viewer. You
may need to move to the page’s position in time or zoom in to make it easier to
edit objects.
Resizing a Deck
When you want to change the size of a page, you can modify the dimensions
of the page’s deck. All pages in the deck use the same dimensions. You can
either scale the deck and its contents, or resize the deck to keep the contents.
To scale a deck and its contents:
1. Using the Edit tool, select a deck.
2. Drag one of the deck’s bounding box handles.
The deck and its pages change to the new dimensions.
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Setting the Output Options
Original deck
Scaled-down deck
To resize a deck, keeping the deck’s contents the same size:
1. Using the Edit tool, select a deck.
2. Hold down the Alt key and drag one of the deck’s bounding box handles.
The deck changes to the new dimensions, but the contents stay centered
in the deck.
Setting the Output Options
The rendering process usually involves a trade-off between rendering speed
and image quality. This section provides some useful tips to consider when
rendering. Here is a suggested workflow for you to consider:
1. While working in a 3D DVE session, work in the Direct View mode if you
don’t need to see all the others effects in your sequence. This eliminates
the need to process all the effects in your sequence. Also, use low quality
viewer settings and suspend output to the output monitor when creating a
scene in the Direct View mode—see “Working in Direct View Mode” on
page 396.
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The Low quality setting for the viewer produces aliased results. However, Low
quality for rendering produces antialiased results. To work more quickly,
suspend output to the output monitor.
2. Once you’re ready to preview your work, use low quality settings to
preview animation or text.
3. Next, preview a high-quality single frame by outputting.
4. And finally, when you’re ready to do the final output, set the quality
options to high.
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Chapter 9 3D DVE and 3D Titling
To set the quality level:
1. From the 3D DVE/Options property editor, select the Direct View tab.
2. Adjust any of the following properties that affect the quality of objects
rendered in the viewer:
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From the Antialiasing list, select one of the following:
-
None to apply no antialiasing. This setting produces jagged or aliased
edges.
-
Fast 2D to draw flat objects.
t
Texturing to control the quality of textured surfaces in proportion to
the time required to render the texture onto the surface.
t
Lighting to control the quality of lit surfaces.
t
Tessellation to control the smoothness or approximation of curved
edges on characters and shapes.
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Shadowing to control the quality of soft shadows.
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Motion Blur to apply a motion blur on fast moving objects.
Dampening Jittery Text
At certain speeds, small text that scrolls vertically can sometimes appear to
jitter. This is noticeable along the top and bottom edges of the scrolling
characters.
To dampen the effect of jittery text that scrolls vertically:
1. From the 3D DVE/Options property editor, select the Output tab.
2. Select the Suppress Vertical Jitter option.
A one-pixel blur is applied to the text to soften the jitter.
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490
If the text is not moving vertically or if no jitter exists, you should not use the
jitter suppression option.
Chapter 10
Image Effects
Image effects encompass a wide variety of effects that you can apply to video
clips, tracks, layers, and trees. These include blur, fade-in, fade-out, and noise,
to name a few. For descriptions of all other image effects, see “Image Effects
Reference” in the Help.
An image effect is a type of effect that you can apply to video clips, tracks, or
Effects Trees. Image effects also include the Impressionist, Painterly, and
source generator effects.
3D Warp Effect
The 3D Warp effect lets you create your own 3D scenes in SOFTIMAGE®|3D
and load them into Avid DS Nitris. You can apply the 3D Warp effect to clips,
tracks, transitions, trees, or as a source generator.
Avid DS Nitris provides a set of 3D animated scenes, such as page turns and a
melting screen. Depending on how you created your 3D scene in
SOFTIMAGE|3D, you can adjust some scene properties from within
Avid DS Nitris. Adjustable parameters are displayed on the Generic property
page of the 3D Warp effect.
Applying a 3D Warp effect to clips or tracks lets you composite clips together,
so that you can display an image over a specified duration using a warp effect,
such as a shatter or folding sphere. If you are creating a simple composite, you
can create the 3D Warp effect on a background track in the Editing layout.
Applying a 3D Warp effect as a transition lets you change from one clip to
another using a warp effect, such as a page turn.
Chapter 10 Image Effects
When you process the 3D Warp effect in Avid DS Nitris, you create the final
aspect of the 3D scene’s material definition by processing objects’ surfaces
with respect to the light source. This creates a visible surface that is shaded
according to the parameters set for material and texture attributes.
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Tip: To increase performance, work in a lower resolution.
To use the 3D Warp effect:
1. Apply the 3D Warp effect to a clip, track, tree, as a transition, or generate
a clip using this effect—see “Generating a 3D Warp Clip” on page 494.
n
If you applied 3D Warp as a transition, the Source property page appears in
the property editor.
2. On the General property page, select an effect from the Select Effect list.
3. In the Rendering Switches box, select a rendering switch.
The rendering switches provide a quick method to turn on/off the global
parameters used in your 3D scene.
4. In the Preview Mode box, select the following:
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3D Warp Effect
-
Active while scrubbing to see the results in the viewer as you scrub
the position indicator on the timeline.
-
Wireframe to see the outline of the 3D Warp effect.
-
Shaded to see the shaded view of the 3D Warp effect.
5. If you applied the effect as a transition, set the edit point to the Start,
End, or Center of the transition at the top of the property editor. You can
also specify the exact number of frames for the Dur (duration) of the
transition.
6. On the Timing property page, adjust the In and Out values.
On occasion, the rendered 3D scene may not have the same quality as the
original image in Avid DS Nitris. This can be due to different lighting,
antialiasing, etc., applied to the 3D scene in SOFTIMAGE|3D. To
compensate for the quality change, you can dissolve the first and last
frames of the original image into the 3D scene in Avid DS Nitris over a
duration of frames. You can use the In and Out controls. This creates a
smoother transition between the original image and the 3D scene.
Adjusting the In and Out values modifies the value in the Amount box,
as well as the function curve.
7. On the Generic property page, adjust the 3D scene properties as required.
8. If you applied the 3D Warp effect as a transition, select the Source tab and
do the following:
t
Use the Opacity controls to adjust the opacity of the effect. Lower
values create a transparent effect and higher values create an opaque
effect.
t
From the Source box, select one of the following:
-
To to apply the effect to the clip in which the transition is coming
from.
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For example, if you apply the Shatter effect as a transition, the clip
that you are coming from will shatter into the clip that you are going
to, leaving the clip that you are going to at the end of the effect.
Effect applied
to this clip
Results in viewer
-
From to apply the effect to the clip to which the transition is going.
The clip that you are going will shatter into the clip that you are
coming from, leaving the clip that you are coming from at the end of
the effect.
Effect applied to this clip
Results in viewer
Click the Help button for detailed information on the 3D Warp properties.
Generating a 3D Warp Clip
You can generate a clip with a 3D scene using the 3D Warp effect.
To generate a clip with the 3D Warp effect:
1. On the timeline, select the region on which to generate a clip.
2. From the toolbar, click Generate > Source Generator Clip.
The Load Preset dialog box is displayed.
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3D Warp Effect
3. From the \Source Generators folder, select the 3D Warp effect.
A 3D Warp clip is generated on the timeline and the 3D Warp property
editor is displayed.
4. On the General property page, click New to load a 3D scene as a source
generator—see “Loading a New 3D Warp Effect” on page 495.
5. In the New Effect dialog box, load a new 3D Warp effect.
Loading a New 3D Warp Effect
Once you apply the 3D Warp effect, you can load a new 3D scene that was
created in SOFTIMAGE|3D to be used as a 3D Warp effect.
To load a 3D scene:
1. In the 3D Warp property editor, select the General tab.
2. Click the New button.
The New Effect dialog box is displayed.
3. Select an Effect Category. You can select Transition, Effect, Source, or
all three categories, depending on how the 3D scene was created in
SOFTIMAGE|3D.
Selecting multiple categories will add the effect as multiple entries in the
warpnames.lst file in the \Program
Files\Avid\DS_v7.x\DSSystem\effectsfiles folder. This folder is on the
drive on which you installed Avid DS Nitris.
For example, if you selected Transition and Effect, you can load the new
effect from the Select Effect list when you apply the 3D Warp effect as a
transition or effect. However, the new effect name will not appear in the
Select Effect list if you apply the 3D Warp effect as a source generator
because this option was not selected.
4. Click the Browse button.
5. In the Open dialog box, locate the folder that contains the 3D scene and
select it.
6. Click the Open button.
The Path Name and Scene Name fields in the New Effect dialog box are
updated to reflect your selection.
7. Type a name in the Effect Name box.
8. In the New Effect dialog box, click OK.
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Chapter 10 Image Effects
The new 3D Warp effect is applied. The next time you apply a 3D Warp
effect, this new effect will be available in the Select Effect list.
Creating 3D Warp Effects in SOFTIMAGE|3D
You can create your own 3D warp effects in SOFTIMAGE|3D and load them
into Avid DS Nitris to be used as a clip/track effect, source generator, or
transition. Two scene templates, template-grid.1-0.dsc and template-lights.10.dsc, are included on the Avid DS Nitris CD that form the basis of most of
your 3D warp effects. A third template, tutorial-grid.1-0.dsc, demonstrates
how to create expressions that control an object’s size from within
Avid DS Nitris.
While you don’t have to use these templates together, you will always use the
grid template, as this is the starting point for your 3D scene. With these
templates, you can easily adjust parameters to create your own effects.
Template-grid.1-0.dsc
As its name implies, this is a grid template that you use to create a 3D scene. It
was created using very specific parameters to correctly match the 3D scene to
the image in Avid DS Nitris.
Using this template, you can create three kinds of effects for Avid DS Nitris:
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3D Warp Effect
•
Clip or track effects
These types of effects only require one video input in Avid DS Nitris. The
3D scene is keyed over the clip that is used as the background. When you
create the 3D scene for these types of effects, use one grid with a texture.
•
Source generators
This type of effect requires no video input in Avid DS Nitris, as the clip
you generate is considered the video input. When you create the 3D scene
for this type of effect, use one grid with a texture. However, if you simply
want to import a 3D scene into Avid DS Nitris, you don’t need a grid or a
texture.
•
Transition effects
This type of effect requires two video inputs in Avid DS Nitris: the
foreground and background. When you create the 3D scene for this type
of effect, make sure you copy the grid and apply two individual textures,
one to each grid. Both the foreground and background planes are rendered
in SOFTIMAGE|3D.
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Chapter 10 Image Effects
To preserve the alignment at the start of the effect between the 3D scene and
the image in Avid DS Nitris, you should not adjust the following:
•
Camera
•
Grid size or position
•
Animation applied to the ambient and diffuse properties of the first frame
Template-lights.1-0.dsc
The template-lights.1-0.dsc template shows you how to expose parameters
used in SOFTIMAGE|3D from within Avid DS Nitris. You don’t have to use
this template, but it provides a good example of how to expose light position
parameters in Avid DS Nitris.
You can use the template to position key and fill lights for your scene, and to
see how the expressions were created. Each expression you create provides
access to those parameters in Avid DS Nitris. You can add your own
expressions to control anything in SOFTIMAGE|3D that can be controlled by
an expression.
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3D Warp Effect
Tutorial-grid.1-0.dsc
The tutorial-grid.1-0.dsc template provides a simple example of how to expose
controls in Avid DS Nitris that control an object’s size. You can explore how
local variables in an expression interact with the model note.
Linking the Database
In order to work with the scenes included with the Avid DS Nitris CD, you
should link to the database in the \Profiles\Avid\DS_v7.x\DSSystem\SoftDB
folder (on the drive on which Avid DS Nitris is installed). Before linking the
database, you must share the database from your Avid DS Nitris system. This
will prevent potential problems which may arise in SOFTIMAGE|3D because
of spaces in the names of the SoftDB parent directories.
To link to the SoftDB database:
1. Locate the SoftDB database in the \Program
Files\Avid\DS_v7.x\DSSystem\SoftDB folder and share it.
2. In SOFTIMAGE|3D, open DB Manager.
3. Click the Link DB button.
The Set Database dialog box is displayed.
4. Click Path Browser and navigate to the SoftDB database on your
Avid DS Nitris system.
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Chapter 10 Image Effects
5. Click OK to return to the Set Database dialog box.
The path of the database is displayed in the Path text box and the name
“SoftDB” is displayed in the name box.
6. Click the Link button.
You can now open the scene in SOFTIMAGE|3D and create your own 3D
Warp effects.
Using the Grid Template
Since the grid template was designed to be used as a transition, animation has
been applied to the grid texture’s ambient and diffuse properties on the first
frame. This creates the effect of a 3D transition into another clip, without
requiring animation on the last frame. If you want to use this scene as a clip or
track effect, add animation to the last frame.
To create a 3D scene for a warp effect:
1. In SOFTIMAGE|3D, select Get > Scene and open template-grid.1-0.dsc.
This scene sets the proper size, lighting, and material for the effect. The
grid also consists of a single texture that has been animated as a fade.
n
Tip: You can only use the standard SOFTIMAGE|3D renderer to process the
animated grid.
2. If you are creating a scene that requires two video inputs in
Avid DS Nitris, such as a transition, copy the grid.
The grid is duplicated and DSTexture1 is applied to the grid.
3. Open the Texture Editor.
4. Replace DSTexture1 with DSTexture2.
5. Create your 3D scene.
n
Tip: Do not adjust the camera settings as they’ve already been set so the 3D
scene and the image in Avid DS Nitris align correctly.
6. The grid’s texture has been animated as a fade. If you are creating the 3D
scene for use as a clip or track effect, copy the animation on the first frame
and apply it, reversed, to the last frame.
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3D Warp Effect
The grid’s texture properties change the way that the texture is displayed.
It starts as a flat 2D image and changes to one with 3D highlights. You can
extend this animation to create different effects.
These are the current settings:
Texture’s animation
Flat (before)
3D shiny (after)
Grid texture
Texture’s animation
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Chapter 10 Image Effects
Using the Light Template
The light template contains four main objects:
•
An input light source (input4light).
•
Two nulls with expressions (Key Light and Fill Light).
You can interactively reposition the lights in the Z axis, but you must edit
the expression controlling the lights to edit their position in the X or Y
axis. The current position is simply a starting point for you. Each null
contains an expression that defines properties that you can control from
within Avid DS Nitris.
•
A null that has a model note (WARP_PROPERTIES).
The model note lets you define the properties you can change from within
Avid DS Nitris. The main purpose of this template is to show you how to
create a model note.
To use the light template:
1. Open a 3D scene.
2. Select Get > Scene and open template-lights.1-0.dsc.
3. Edit or add your own expressions.
For more information on editing and creating expressions, refer to the
SOFTIMAGE|3D documentation.
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3D Warp Effect
Expression Editor
4. Edit the model note.
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Tip: Each time you create a new WARP_PROPERTIES null, be sure to add a
unique prefix. If you try to save a second null with the same name,
SOFTIMAGE|3D adds “_1” to the end of the name. If the name has been
appended, then the variables will not be accessible from within Avid DS Nitris.
Editing the Model Note
The WARP_PROPERTIES null holds the properties that Avid DS Nitris will
expose to the user. As you add expressions to your scene, you need to add its
corresponding text string in the model note file. Each text string you create
will be exposed as a control in Avid DS Nitris.
n
Tip: It is imperative that you do not change the name of the model note. When
Avid DS Nitris loads the scene, it looks for a model note on an object named
“WARP_PROPERTIES”. You should, however, add a descriptive prefix to the
name, such as “LIGHTS”.
To open the model note:
t
Select Model > Info > Model Note, and left-click the null
WARP_PROPERTIES.
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Chapter 10 Image Effects
The model note text file is displayed. The file can contain many text strings,
depending on the type of expressions you create. Each string must begin with
WARP_PROPERTY and end with END_PROPERTY. Everything in
between are variables that depend on the type of expression you create.
For example, the model note for the light template only required one
string to expose the lighting position control in Avid DS Nitris:
WARP_PROPERTY,"LIGHTPOSITION",INPUT4,LIGHT,ETRNX,A,FLOAT,
1,9,END_PROPERTY
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Tip: When editing and appending the model note, make sure you don’t
inadvertently add spaces where there should not be any. Otherwise the
variables will not be accessible from within Avid DS Nitris.
The following table describes each parameter of the string above:
Variable
Description
WARP_PROPERTY
Each text string must begin with this tag.
LIGHTPOSITION
The name of the scene variable as it appears in
Avid DS Nitris.
INPUT4
Prefix name of the object being affected by the
expression.
LIGHT
Name of the object being affected.
ETRNX
The variable being affected.
A
Local variable in the expression.
FLOAT, BOOL, INT
Lets you define the type of numbering that will control
the variable.
FLOAT: Defines a range from 1 to 9 including decimals.
In the light template, these numbers correspond to the
numeric keypad on your keyboard. Each number defines
a new position for the light source.
BOOL: Defines an on or off type of variable (1 or 0).
INT: Defines an integer range from 1 to 9 excluding
decimals.
1
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The lowest number that controls the variable.
3D Warp Effect
Variable
Description
9
The highest number that controls the variable.
END_PROPERTY
Each text string must end with this tag.
You can also open the tutorial-grid.1-0.dsc file and view the model note for
this scene. It contains text strings for two controls that will be accessible from
Avid DS Nitris (scaling for X and scaling for Y).
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Tip: Avid DS Nitris can only access the local variables of an expression (A, B,
C, or D). Therefore, only the variables that you want the Avid DS Nitris user to
have control over must be controlled by the local variables in the expression.
Saving Your 3D Scene
Once you complete your 3D scene, be sure to save it in the SoftDB database
installed with your Avid DS Nitris system.
n
Tip: Before you save the scene in the database, you should simplify it by
removing shaders and unnecessary objects to improve performance in
Avid DS Nitris.
You should also plot the animation (trajectory, rotation, shade, and other
properties) from the Motion module, and then remove any Persistent effects
developed with the Softimage Advanced API for Relations and Elements
(SAPPHIRE), such as Ambulate, Multiped, Kaboom, as well as any other
custom effects.
To save a 3D scene into the Avid DS Nitris database:
1. Select Save > Scene.
2. In the Save Scene dialog box, click the DB List button.
3. Navigate to the database on your Avid DS Nitris system.
4. Name the scene (use a different name than that of the scene template).
Be sure to rename both the prefix and the scene name.
5. Click the Save button.
The scene is saved in the SoftDB database.
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Chapter 10 Image Effects
AVX Host Effect
The AVX™ Host effect lets you load AVX plug-in effects and adjust the
effect’s parameters. Depending on the type of plug-in effect, you can also
choose to animate various parameters.
You can apply an AVX Host effect to clips, tracks, trees, or as a transition.
Depending on how you apply it, only certain effects may be available. For
example, if you apply the AVX Host effect as a transition, only transition
effects are available.
If you haven’t installed any AVX plug-in effects, then the Group/Category and
Effect lists on the Generic property page are blank.
n
Tip: Consult the vendor’s documentation on how to install and uninstall an
AVX plug-in effect. If you are uninstalling Avid DS Nitris, be sure to uninstall
all AVX plug-ins first.
To apply an AVX plug-in effect:
1. Apply the AVX Host effect to a clip, track, tree, or as a transition.
The AVX Host property editor is displayed.
2. On the Generic property page, choose a Group/Category and an Effect.
The Group/Category box displays the list of AVX plug-in effects, by
vendor or group name, that are currently installed. The Effects box
displays the names of the effects available for the selected group.
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AVX Host Effect
Show/Hide
plug-in list
Show/Hide effect
parameters
Animated
parameter
After you choose an effect from the list, its parameters are displayed in the
property editor.
When you see a green box beside a parameter, it means that you can
animate the parameter. Simply set the parameter, press the green
animation button, move to the next keyframe and change the parameter,
and then press the button again. The button turns red to indicate that the
parameter was animated.
In some cases, the effect’s property page may also contain an Open Effect
UI button, which lets you open a new interface for the effect.
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Chapter 10 Image Effects
New Interface is displayed.
Select the Open Effect UI option.
3. On the Masking property page, select the channels on which you want to
apply the effect. The effect is applied only to areas of the image on which
the alpha channel is not black. You can derive masks from the alpha of the
input clip or an external matte from another clip.
4. On the Options property page, select the appropriate options.
Click the Help button for detailed information on the AVX properties.
Channel Switcher Effect
The Channel Switcher effect lets you map the selected source channels
(components) of an image to other (destination) channels. This effect is useful,
for example, if you want to output the alpha channel of an image as an RGB
image, or if you simply want to switch one channel to another.
n
508
Tip: If the RGB destination channels all have the same source channel, the
result is a grayscale image.
Color Space Adjustment Effect
To apply the Channel Switcher effect:
1. Apply the Channel Switcher effect to a clip, track, layer, or tree.
2. On the General property page, select the source channels you want to map
to the destination red, green, blue, and/or alpha channels.
3. On the Masking property page, select the channels on which you want to
apply the effect. The effect is applied only to areas of the image where the
alpha channel is not black. You can derive masks from the alpha of the
input clip or an external matte from another clip.
4. On the Options property page, select the appropriate options.
Click the Help button for detailed information on the Channel Switcher
properties.
Color Space Adjustment Effect
The Color Space Adjustment effect lets you convert areas of a clip from
YCbCr to RGB color space by adjusting the difference in color levels that can
occur due to YCbCr to RGB conversion. When you import clips into
Avid DS Nitris, they are imported in YCbCr color space. However, when you
apply some effects or transitions, all or part of the clip may be converted to
RGB color space.
If only part of the clip is converted to RGB and the rest remains as YCbCr, it
can cause a difference in the clip’s levels (luminance or saturation) in areas
that have the effect, compared to areas that don’t. This is due to the color space
clipping that occurs when converting from the YCbCr to the smaller RGB
color space. If you notice a difference in the clip’s levels, apply the Color
Space Adjustment effect to the area of the clip that requires RGB conversion.
To adjust a clip’s color space:
1. Apply the Color Space Adjustment effect to a clip, track, or tree.
2. On the General property page, select one of the following:
-
Clip to adjust the Y, U, and V channels.
-
Adjust to change the brightness and gain of the Y channel. Use the
slider to adjust the chrominance or luminance of colors that are out of
range. Higher values affect more chrominance and less luminance and
vice versa.
3. Select the Highlight option to view the pixels that are out of range:
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Chapter 10 Image Effects
t
Red areas indicate pixels that are over the RGB limit.
t
Green areas indicate pixels that are under the RGB limit.
t
Blue areas indicate pixels that contain illegal YCbCr values.
4. On the Masking property page, select the channels on which you want to
apply the effect. The effect is applied only to areas of the image where the
alpha channel is not black. You can derive masks from the alpha of the
input clip or an external matte from another clip.
5. On the Options property page, select the appropriate options.
Defield Effect
The Defield effect lets you remove the field motion of an input in order to
create a frame-based output. You can apply the Defield effect to clips, tracks,
or trees.
Since the Defield effect is a real-time effect, you can view the results upon
playback without having to first process the effect. For more information, see
“Working with Real-Time Effects” on page 950.
To use the Defield effect:
1. Apply the Defield effect to a clip, track, or tree.
2. On the General property page, select a mode in which to remove
field motion.
3. On the Masking property page, decide whether you want to use a mask
for the effect or not—see “Working with Masks” on page 49.
n
Tip: Channel masking is not available for this effect.
Click the Help button for detailed information on the Defield properties.
Deflicker Effect
The Deflicker effect lets you correct the luminance variations in a clip, which
can vary between frames, producing undesirable flickering. You can balance
the flickering by normalizing either the black or white luminance levels or
both.
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Deflicker Effect
In the following example, you can see the difference in the luminance levels
between the two images. Using the Deflicker effect, you can choose a frame in
which the luminance levels are correct and apply the levels to the rest of the
frames in the clip.
Original images: Lighter luminance levels in the left image and darker
luminance levels in the middle image.
Deflicker effect
To use the Deflicker effect:
1. Apply the Deflicker effect to a clip, track, or tree.
A small selection rectangle (the luminance box) appears on the lower-left
side of the viewer.
2. Scrub through the clip and select a frame that has the desired
luminance levels.
3. On the Black property page, position the luminance box over an area that
contains the level of black to which you want to normalize the clip.
n
Tip: You can also draw a new luminance box in the viewer by clicking the
viewer and dragging over an area.
Selected black region
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Chapter 10 Image Effects
4. Click the Set as Reference Frame button.
The black luminance is set, and the property editor displays the reference
luminance swatch, as well as the timecode for the chosen frame.
5. Verify each frame in the clip to determine if the luminance box is in the
correct position. If the area you set for the reference frame moves from
frame to frame, you need to move the luminance box in each frame, so it
covers the same area.
6. Set a keyframe on the frames on which you reposition the luminance box.
n
Tip: You can also use the Autokey button when you adjust the luminance box
on various frames, which automatically adds a keyframe on the frame on
which you reposition the box.
7. Repeat steps 2 to 6 for the White property page, if required.
8. On the Masking property page, select the channels on which you want to
apply the effect.
The effect is applied only to areas of the image where the alpha channel is
not black. You can derive masks from the alpha of the input clip or an
external matte from another clip.
9. On the Options property page, select the appropriate options.
Click the Help button for detailed information on the Deflicker properties.
Depth of Field Effect
The Depth of Field effect lets you simulate the effect of a camera lens using
the Z-depth information contained in files rendered in SOFTIMAGE|3D or
mental ray®.
In an actual camera, the focal length of the lens defines the distance at which
objects appear perfectly focused. Points that are closer or farther away from
this distance plane will be out of focus.
This effect lets you create a scene where objects appear in focus in the
foreground and blurred in the background. You can also animate the effect to
simulate a change in the focus.
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Depth of Field Effect
Original image
Depth of Field effect.
The background is blurred.
To use the Depth of Field effect:
1. Render your sequence in SOFTIMAGE|3D, making sure that you select
the Render Z Channel option in Render Setup > Options.
n
Tip: Render the sequence in the same resolution of the Avid DS Nitris project
in which you’ll import the sequence.
2. Capture the .pic file sequence in Avid DS Nitris.
The .Zpic files are loaded through the effects, so you can only capture
the .pic files.
3. Apply the Depth of Field effect to a clip, track, or tree.
The Depth of Field property editor is displayed.
4. On the External Data property page, click the Browse button, and doubleclick one of the .Zpic files.
The file name is displayed in the File Path field.
5. In the Frame Range boxes, type in the start and end frames of your
sequence.
The message “External Data Loaded” is displayed on the property page.
n
Tip: If you don’t enter the start and end frames, an error message is displayed
on the property page.
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Chapter 10 Image Effects
6. In the Resolution boxes, type the resolution that matches that of the
working project. The status line at the bottom of the property page
confirms that the external data has been loaded correctly. If the external
data does not load correctly, one of the following messages appears in the
status line:
Message
Description
External Data Loaded
All data has been loaded successfully for this frame.
No External Data Loaded No file name has been entered and no data has been
loaded.
Error - Data File incorrect The resolution of the data file does not match the
size
resolution specified in the property page.
Error - File not found;
<file name>
Avid DS Nitris is unable to load the data file. The file
cannot be found.
7. On the Depth of Field property page, click the Pick button and then click
an object in the viewer.
This lets you choose an area that should be in focus. The Focus Plane
parameter updates to display your selection. You can also adjust the Focus
Plane manually.
Area in focus
8. Set the Focal Length.
The focal length represents the length of the simulated lens. A lens with a
short focal length will give more depth of field than one with a longer
length.
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Drop Shadow Effect
9. Set the Aperture (F-stop), the relative aperture size of the simulated
camera. A low aperture value produces a shallow depth of field where a
plane appears sharply in focus and all other planes appear blurred. A high
value gives a greater depth of field and objects in both the foreground and
background appear in focus.
10. Adjust the Strength to set the scaling factor of the pixel size of the Circle
of Confusion.
11. Adjust the Antialiasing define the level of smoothing of jagged edges
along lines and curves. This parameter is useful when you have two or
more objects that have large differences in depth and jagged edges appear
where the object intersect.
12. Adjust the Circle of Confusion to define the maximum value that any
pixel will be blurred into the surrounding pixels (for out of focus planes).
13. On the Masking property page, select the channels on which you want to
apply the effect. The effect is applied only to areas of the image where the
alpha channel is not black. You can derive masks from the alpha of the
input clip or an external matte from another clip.
14. On the Options property page, select the appropriate options.
Click the Help button for detailed information on the Depth of Field
properties.
Drop Shadow Effect
The Drop Shadow effect lets you place a shadow behind an image wherever
the alpha value is greater than 1, as well as create a drop shadow for any image
or text that contains alpha information.
The shape of the drop shadow comes from the alpha information, or matte, in
your image. If required, you can generate or modify the matte using graphics
or keyers.
You can move, scale, and rotate the shadow using standard DVE tools. This is
useful when you want to cast a shadow on a surface that is not parallel to the
image, such as when you want to cast a shadow on a side wall. You can also
change its color and transparency, as well as modify its softness to give it a
more realistic appearance.
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Chapter 10 Image Effects
Drop shadows
Drop Shadow
effect
Because the Drop Shadow effect simulates a shadow cast on a background,
you should apply it to an image on the background track or an image in a
composite.
You can also animate the drop shadow to create the impression of a changing
light source. For example, if you want the price of a product to jump towards
you, first, create the text and then animate it. You can then create a drop
shadow of the text and animate its softness, position, and scale so that the
shadow becomes blurred and distant as the clip advances and the text jumps
off the screen.
For more information, see “About Keying” on page 117 and “Creating a
Matte on the Timeline” on page 42.
To create a drop shadow:
1. Apply the Drop Shadow effect to a clip, track, or tree.
A drop shadow is created and the Drop Shadow property editor is
displayed. In the viewer, a yellow DVE image box lets you transform the
drop shadow interactively.
2. From the Output box, select the Shadow Only option from the output box
if you want to hide the foreground and reveal the shadow in the viewer.
n
Tip: By default, the Shadow + Foreground option is selected, allowing you to
view the image and its shadow.
3. Use the Opacity controls to adjust the transparency of the shadow.
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Drop Shadow Effect
4. From the Softness box, use the Amount controls to adjust the strength of
the blur applied to the shadow.
5. Select the Fast option for faster interaction speed.
Drop shadow without the
foreground image
6. From the Output box, select the Shadow + Foreground option, so you
can see the foreground while you adjust the shadow further.
7. On the DVE property page, use the DVE controls to position, scale and
rotate the shadow. You can work interactively with the image, by moving
your pointer over the viewer.
n
Tip: In some cases, you may want to “pin” the shadow to a particular point,
so that when you rotate the shadow, it rotates around a fixed position. For
example, when a shadow is cast from a person, you may want to pin the
shadow to the person’s feet. To do this, simply move the center of rotation (red
circle) to the area (feet) on which you want to pin the shadow. Any image
scaling will also be performed around the new position of the center of
rotation.
In the viewer, the shadow is transformed while the original foreground
remains intact.
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Chapter 10 Image Effects
Drop shadow
DVE image box
Foreground
Drop shadow
8. If you rotate the shadow around the Y axis, use the Perspective controls
to adjust the field of view.
9. On the Color property page, adjust the color of the shadow. You can select
a color from the palette or use the controls.
10. On the Crop property page, use the controls to crop the shadow.
The shadow image is cropped while the original foreground remains
intact.
n
Tip: You can also drag the yellow box in the viewer to crop the shadow.
11. On the Options property page, select the appropriate options.
Click the Help button for detailed information on the Drop Shadow properties.
Field Invert Effect
The Field Invert effect lets you invert an input’s fields, so that even lines
become odd and vice versa. You can also preserve the line order when you
invert the fields. You can apply the Field Invert effect to clips, tracks, or trees.
Since the Field Invert effect is a real-time effect, you can view the results upon
playback without having to first process the effect. In some cases, real-time
effects may require processing to ensure that no frames are skipped. For more
information, see “Working with Real-Time Effects” on page 950.
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Fog Effect
To use the Field Invert effect:
1. Apply the Field Invert effect to a clip, track, or tree.
2. On the General property page, select the Preserve Line Order option if
you want to preserve the order of the lines.
When you select this option, the order of the lines is preserved, but the
fields are swapped by applying a one-line translation. When this option is
not selected (default), the lines are simply swapped, inverting the fields as
well as the lines.
3. On the Masking property page, decide whether you want to use a mask for
the effect—see “Working with Masks” on page 49.
n
Tip: Channel masking is not available for this effect.
Click the Help button for detailed information on the Field Invert properties.
Fog Effect
The Fog effect lets you add atmospheric fog to an animated scene. You can
specify a gradual onset of the fog, so that objects in the foreground appear less
obscured than those in the background. You can also specify the distance at
which the fog begins, as well as its intensity. The Fog effect applies the
simulated fog by using the Z-depth information contained in .Zpic files
rendered in SOFTIMAGE|3D or mental ray.
Original image
Fog effect
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Chapter 10 Image Effects
To use the Fog effect:
1. Render your sequence in SOFTIMAGE|3D, making sure that you select
the Render Z Channel option in Render Setup > Options.
n
Tip: Render the sequence in the same resolution as the Avid DS Nitris project
in which you’ll import the sequence.
2. Capture the .pic file sequence in Avid DS Nitris.
The .Zpic files are loaded through the effects, so you can only capture
the .pic files.
3. Apply the Fog effect to a clip, track, or tree.
The Fog property editor is displayed.
4. On the External Data property page, click the Browse button and doubleclick one of the .Zpic files.
The file name is displayed in the File Path field.
5. In the Frame Range boxes, type the start and end frames of your sequence.
The message “External Data Loaded” is displayed on the property page.
n
Tip: If you don’t enter the start and end frames, an error message is displayed
on the property page.
6. In the Resolution boxes, type the resolution that matches the working
project. The status line at the bottom of the property page confirms that
the external data has been loaded correctly. If the external data does not
load correctly, one of the following messages appears in the status line:
Message
Description
External Data Loaded
All data has been loaded successfully for this frame.
No External Data Loaded No file name has been entered and no data has
been loaded.
Error - Data File incorrect The resolution of the data file does not match the
size
resolution specified in the property page.
Error - File not found;
<file name>
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Avid DS Nitris is unable to load the data file. The file
cannot be found.
Frame Average Effect
7. On the Fog Effect property page, create a color for the fog by adjusting the
Red, Green, and Blue parameters.
By default Red, Green, and Blue are set to 100 creating a white fog color.
8. Set the Maximum Depth. You can set the depth at which the fog reaches
maximum intensity. The intensity of the fog increases linearly from the
Start Distance to the Maximum Depth.
9. Set the Start Distance. This lets you specify the distance from the
simulated camera at which the fog begins.
10. Adjust the opacity of the fog using the Opacity controls. This lets you
control the thickness of the fog. A value of 1 represents total opacity and a
value of 0 represents total transparency.
11. On the Masking property page, select the channels on which you want to
apply the effect. The effect is applied only to areas of the image where the
alpha channel is not black. You can derive masks from the alpha of the
input clip or an external matte from another clip.
12. On the Options property page, select the appropriate options.
Click the Help button for detailed information on the Fog properties.
Frame Average Effect
The Frame Average effect lets you create trails, motion blurs, and perform
noise removal on video clips. You can set the number of previous and next
frames to combine to create a new frame.
For example, if you select one previous frame and one next frame, then the
current frame will become an average of the current frame plus the previous
and next frames. This effect is applied to all frames in the clip.
To use the Frame Average effect:
1. Apply the Frame Average effect to a clip, track, or tree.
2. On the General property page, set the number of Previous and Next
frames to be combined with the current frame.
3. From the Compositing Mode list, select a mode.
For example, when you select Average, the previous and next frames are
averaged into the current frame. If you set a value of 1 for previous and
next, then three images are displayed at the current frame.
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Chapter 10 Image Effects
Previous = 0 Next = 0
Previous = 1 Next = 0
Previous = 1 Next = 1
4. Select one of the following:
-
Repeat the first/last frame to use the value set in Next (for the first
frame), since there is no first frame and Previous (on the last frame).
-
Use a solid color to use a solid color to combine with the first/last
frames.
5. On the Masking property page, select the channels on which you want to
apply the effect. The effect is applied only to areas of the image where the
alpha channel is not black. You can derive masks from the alpha of the
input clip or an external matte from another clip.
6. On the Options property page, select the appropriate options.
Click the Help button for detailed information on the Frame Average
properties.
Graphics Effect
The Graphics effect lets you access the Graphics layout and create graphics or
titles. You can then use any of the tools or effects in the Graphics layout.
To apply the Graphics effect on a clip:
t
n
Select a clip from the timeline and do one of the following:
t From the toolbar, click Video Effects > Graphics.
t
From the taskbar, click the Graphics layout button.
t
Press Ctrl and click the Graphics layout button in the taskbar to open
the floating Graphics combo view.
Tip: Make sure the position indicator is over the clip or you cannot switch to
the Graphics layout.
The Graphics effect is applied to the clip and the Graphics layout or
Graphics combo view is displayed.
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Graphics Effect
To apply the Graphics effect on a track:
t
Select a region of a track and do one of the following:
-
From the toolbar, click Video Effects > Graphics.
-
From the toolbar, click Generate > Source Generator Clip. From
the Load Preset dialog box, select Graphics.
Creating Rolls and Crawls
A roll or crawl typically contains the titles or credits of a program. You can
create a traditional roll in which a title moves from the bottom of the screen to
the top, or a traditional crawl in which a title moves from the right of the
screen to the left. Single or multiple titles can be used for a roll or crawl.
You create rolls or crawls by using the Graphics property editor. This lets you
quickly and easily create standard rolls or crawls that involve few titles. When
you do this, the time span of the titles change to match the duration of the
graphics session.
You can also create the animation manually by using the Set/Remove Key
button to set individual keyframes. This lets you create a complex roll or crawl
that involves many titles that start and end in different locations. You can also
include paint strokes in a roll or crawl.
n
Tip: When you create a roll or crawl, the entire duration of the clip is used.
To create a roll or crawl:
1. From the Tools toolbar, click the Text button to create a text body.
2. Click the viewer and type in some text.
3. When you’re done, select the text body.
4. From the General toolbar, click Graphics Properties.
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Chapter 10 Image Effects
5. In the Motion box, select one of the following:
-
Roll to create a roll.
-
Crawl to create a crawl.
6. In the Start Position box, select one of the following:
-
Onscreen to start the roll or crawl on the screen.
-
Offscreen to start the roll or crawl off the screen.
-
In the End Position box, select one of the following:
-
Onscreen to end the roll or crawl on the screen.
-
Offscreen to end the roll or crawl off the screen.
7. To guarantee optimal quality when building rolls/crawls, select Standard
Speed.
8. Click Build Motion.
The title’s transformation is animated.
9. To apply roll and crawl animation only on selected graphics objects, select
Apply to Selection.
10. To modify the transformation properties of the title, select the title, and do
one of the following:
t
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From the graphics property tree, open the Transformations property
editor, and modify the values.
Optical Glow Effect
t
Select View > Single-Instance Views > Animation Editor. Select
the Transformation property and adjust the function curve.
Creating a Fade
You can also automatically apply fades to a graphics object. When you apply a
fade, its time span changes to match the duration of the graphics session. In
addition, the existing opacity settings for a stroke (brush and fill) and text body
(edge, face, shadow) are overwritten with the new fade values.
To fade an object:
1. From the Tools toolbar, select a drawing tool.
2. In the graphics property tree, define the properties for your tool.
3. Create an object in the viewer.
4. Move the object to the desired fade-in position.
5. From the General toolbar, click Graphics Properties.
6. In the Fade box, set the In and Out values in frames.
7. Click the Build Fade button.
The object’s opacity properties are animated.
8. To modify the opacity properties of the object, select the object and
adjust the Opacity controls on the Paint Style, Brush, and Titling Style
property editors.
Click the Help button for detailed information on the Graphics properties.
Optical Glow Effect
The Optical Glow effect lets you define different lighting effects for images,
which is useful when you want to give an object the appearance that it’s
radiating light or heat.
You can apply this effect to clips, tracks, or trees.
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Chapter 10 Image Effects
Original image
Optical Glow effect is applied
(note diffused areas)
To create an optical glow effect:
1. Apply the Optical Glow effect to a clip, track, or tree.
The Optical Glow property editor is displayed.
2. On the General property page, use the Level controls to set the amount of
overall diffusion.
The level of overall diffusion is applied to the entire image.
3. Use the Mix controls to set the percentage of overall diffusion.
The mix determines the percentage of diffusion (specified in the Level
controls) added to the entire image.
4. Use the controls in the Color Correction box to adjust the amount of gain
and brightness applied to the entire image.
5. Use the Amount controls to adjust the percentage of the original image
that is added to the diffused image.
6. On the Black Diffusion property page, use the controls to specify the
black diffusion parameters.
7. On the White Diffusion property page, use the controls to specify the
white diffusion parameters.
8. On the Masking property page, select the channels on which you want to
apply the effect. The effect is applied only to areas of the image where the
alpha channel is not black. You can derive masks from the alpha of the
input clip or an external matte from another clip.
9. On the Options property page, select the appropriate options.
Click the Help button for detailed information on the Optical Glow properties.
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Outsource Effect
Outsource Effect
Certain shots in your sequence may require specific touch ups in another
application. The Outsource effect lets you output an area of the timeline in the
file format of your choice, while keeping a link to the exported files. This
makes it easy to bring the files back into Avid DS Nitris when the work in the
external application is complete.
All you have to do is apply the Outsource effect, specify a file format, and then
export the file. When the work is complete, you can update the link to these
files from within the Outsource property editor. Any changes made to the
file(s) are displayed in the viewer. Just like any other linked file, you have to
process the effect to play the area on the timeline in real time.
When you apply the Outsource effect in a stack of effects or as part of an
Effects Tree, the image, including the effects below the Outsource effect, will
be output to file.
You can apply this effect to clips, tracks, or trees.
To use the Outsource effect:
1. Apply the Outsource effect to a clip or track.
2. On the General property page, click the Add button to create an
application preset.
The Add New Application dialog box is displayed.
3. Type the name of the external application you plan to use in the
Application Name text box.
4. Assign a file type to the external application by selecting a file format
from the Default Export Format list.
5. Click OK to save the preset.
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Chapter 10 Image Effects
The application preset is now available from the 3rd Party Application
list.
Preset available
from 3rd Party
Application list
6. Type a name for your file in the File Name text box.
7. A location for the file is created by default. You can change the default
location by clicking the browse (...) button and selecting a new folder.
8. Click the Export button to output the area on the timeline to file. If you
are exporting a series of frames, several files are created. The files are
named as follows: Filename0.psd, Filename1.psd, and so on.
9. Touch up the file or series of files in the external application.
n
Tip: You can use the Open in Explorer button to open the Windows Explorer
directly to the location where the file(s) is located.
10. When the work is done, click the Update button to update the link to the
file(s).
Any changes made to the file(s) are displayed in the viewer.
11. On the Options property page, select the appropriate options.
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Source Generator Effects
12. Process the effect to generate a cache, so you can play the area on the
timeline in real time.
Click the Help button for detailed information on the Outsource properties.
Source Generator Effects
Avid DS Nitris lets you generate your own clips using effects, such as solid or
gradient colors, 3D Warp effects, Graphics effects, or patterns. You can use
this new clip as a background for a compositing session or to create a fade-tocolor transition.
Since the Timecode and Solid Color effects are real-time effects, you can view
the results upon playback without having to first process the effect. For more
information, see “Working with Real-Time Effects” on page 950 of the
Avid DS Nitris Editing Guide.
You can apply the source generator effects to tracks or trees.
To generate a clip on the timeline:
1. Drag on a track to select a region.
2. From the toolbar, click Generate > Source Generator Clip.
3. From the Load Preset dialog box, select an effect from the \Source
Generators folder.
A clip containing the selected effect is created on the track and the effect’s
property editor is displayed for you to make any adjustments.
The clip name is appended with the term “Generated” in parentheses.
A clip generated with the
Wood effect.
To generate a clip in an Effects Tree:
1. Right-click an empty area of an Effects Tree and select Add Effect.
2. From the Load Preset dialog box, select an effect from the \Source
Generators folder.
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Chapter 10 Image Effects
A new input node is added to the Effects Tree. You can composite the
generated clip as you would any other clip.
A clip (node) generated with
the Cloud effect.
n
Some source generated clips, such as a gradient, timecode, or 3D Warp,
require an input. Add a black source generated clip as the input to these
effects.
To create a Fade-to-Color transition:
1. Drag on a track to select a region.
2. From the toolbar, click Generate > Source Generator Clip.
3. From the Load Preset dialog box, select Solid Color from the \Source
Generators folder.
A clip containing a solid color is displayed on the track and the effect’s
property editor is displayed for you to make any adjustments.
4. Select a color for the generated clip.
5. On the timeline, position the generated clip at the timecode where the
transition should start.
6. Select the edit point.
7. From the toolbar, click Transition Effects > Dissolve/Crossfade or
Wipe.
8. Adjust the transition properties.
Dissolve to solid color
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Warp Effect
Click the Help button for detailed information on the transition properties.
Warp Effect
The Warp effect lets you transform an image or part of an image from one
shape to another over time. You can warp still or moving images, and apply
the Warp effect to clips, tracks, or trees.
When warping a still image, you can, for example, add a caricature to a
person’s face, giving their face a surprised look by enlarging the eyes or
deforming an object to a specific form.
Original image
Eyes and lips warped at
50% shape interpolation.
Eyes and lips warped at
100% shape interpolation.
When warping a moving image, you can, adjust the position or form of an
object moving across an image over a sequence of frames, such as a man
shrinking in size as he walks.
The general steps to create a warp are:
1. Select an image or section of an image.
2. Create shapes that describe the source and destination of the warp
transformation.
3. Join the shapes together and adjust the correspondence between the two.
4. Animate the shape positions over time.
5. Track the warped shapes if necessary.
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6. Set the rendering options.
7. Process the warp.
Creating Shapes
Shapes are the Bézier curves that outline the portions of the image that you
want to warp. The Warp effect uses these shapes to specify whether these parts
of the image move or if they should be stationary. Shapes can be open-ended
or closed. They can stand alone or be joined to another shape.
n
Tip: To close a shape drawn with the Freehand tool, hold down the Ctrl key
while you draw the shape. Once you release the mouse button, the shape is
closed. To close a shape drawn with the Polyline tool, press Ctrl after you
draw the last line segment.
The Warp effect has four shape-creation tools:
• Freehand
•
Polyline
•
Ellipse
•
Rectangle
To create a source and destination shape:
1. Apply the Warp effect to a clip.
2. On the Shapes property page, select the Apply option.
3. From the Shape Creation box, select a drawing tool to create the source
shape.
n
Tip: If you copy open shapes from the Warp effect into a keyer or Matte effect,
the shapes will automatically be closed.
4. Create a rough shape around the object you want to warp.
The source shape is displayed in red.
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Warp Effect
Source shape drawn
with the Ellipse tool.
n
Tip: You can zoom and pan in the viewer to frame the portion of the image you
want to trace.
5. From the Editing Tools box, click the Edit Shape button.
The control points of the source shape are displayed.
6. Drag the control points, so that your shape outlines the part of the image
you want to warp.
Control point
To add an additional control point, hold down the A key and click the line
where you want the control point to appear.
n
Tip: If the image is moving between frames, you should rotoscope or animate
the source shape over the length of the clip. For more information, see
“Creating Animation” on page 1021 of the Avid DS Nitris Editing Guide.
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Chapter 10 Image Effects
7. From the Shape Creation box, select a shape to create the destination
shape.
n
Tip: Instead of drawing a target shape from scratch, you can click the Copy
and Join button in the Editing Tools box. This tool creates a copy of the source
shape and joins the two shapes together. Simply edit or transform the target
shape to interactively warp the chosen object.
8. Create a second shape to represent the destination shape of the warped
object.
The destination shape is displayed in red.
Destination shape
drawn with the
Ellipse tool.
n
Tip: To close a shape created with the polyline tool, press Ctrl and click.
9. Use the following tools from in the Transformations box to manipulate
your shape:
- Select
-
Scale
-
Rotate
-
Skew
10. From the Editing Tools box, click Edit Shape.
Control points along the target shape are displayed.
11. Drag the control points to modify the shape.
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Warp Effect
n
Tip: If the image is moving between frames, you should rotoscope or animate
the target shape over the length of the clip.
For more information, see “Applying Graphics” on page 275.
Joining Shapes
Once the shapes are created, you can join them together to create a
relationship between the beginning and ending shape of the object. The order
in which you join shapes gives the direction to a warp. For example, if you join
a small shape to a large shape, the object will warp over time from small to
large. If you join a large shape to a small shape, then the object will warp from
large to small.
n
Tip: You can only join open-ended shapes with other open-ended shapes and
closed-ended shapes with other closed-ended shapes.
When the two shapes are joined, you can match corresponding features on the
two shapes. Each shape contains four or more correspondence points (four
initially), which describe the location of key positions on a shape. You can
place these correspondence points at key locations on a shape, such as where
the Bézier curve changes direction.
Correspondence point
Correspondence points have some restrictions:
•
There must be at least four correspondence points per shape.
•
Shapes intended to be joined must have the same number of
correspondence points.
•
Correspondence points on the ends of open-ended shapes cannot be
moved or deleted.
•
Correspondence points cannot cross over each other. There is a limit as to
how close they can be to each other.
535
Chapter 10 Image Effects
To join the source and destination shapes:
1. From the Editing Tools box, click the Join button and drag the source
shape towards the target shape.
A blue line appears as you drag the pointer from the source to the target
shape. When the pointer comes in contact with the target shape, the two
shapes momentarily turn yellow and are joined together by a
correspondence vector.
Target shape
Source shape joined
to target shape by a
correspondence
vector.
Source shape.
n
Tip: To break the join between two shapes, click Join in the Editing Tools box
and click one of the shapes. A dialog box appears, prompting you to break the
join, click OK.
2. In the Editing Tools box, click the Correspondence button.
The source and target shapes are highlighted in yellow. Each shape
contains four correspondence points, which are connected with
correspondence vectors.
3. Move the correspondence points on the source shape to key locations on
the curve, such as where the curve changes directions.
4. Match the correspondence points on the target shape to those on the
source shape.
536
Warp Effect
Correspondent points
are moved to key
locations on the
curve.
Correspondent points on the target
match those of the source.
n
Tip: To add additional correspondence points, hold down the A key and click
the shapes on which you want the point to appear. To delete correspondence
points, select a point and press Delete.
5. To increase the precision of the shape during processing, increase the
Density value.
The number of correspondence vectors (yellow lines) between
correspondence points increases as the Density value increases.
Correspondence
point
Edge
density
Original
shape
Shape with edge density of 5.
n
Tip: During processing, Avid DS Nitris does not use the actual shapes you
created, but uses the edge densities of the shapes to create an approximation
of the shapes. That is, a shape’s edge density defines how closely the form
used in the warping process matches the shape that is drawn.
537
Chapter 10 Image Effects
n
n
Shapes are subdivided between correspondence points based on the shape’s
edge density. The higher the edge density, the more edges, and the more
closely the shape is depicted by its edges. Thus, the more precise the transition
between shapes.
When you change the edge density, be careful not to use too high a density
setting. There is no exact formula for selecting the best density for any given
shape. Choose one that approximates the shape enough, but not too much.
Setting a shape’s density unnecessarily high slows down processing time.
Creating Barrier Shapes
You may find that the area outside your source or target shapes also gets
distorted when your object is warped. To get rid of this unwanted distortion,
you can create a barrier shape which prevents the distortion from spreading to
the rest of the image.
To create a barrier shape:
1. Create a third shape encompassing both the source and target shapes.
The barrier shape is displayed in red.
Barrier shape
Source shape
Target shape
2. From the Editing Tools box, click Copy and Join.
A copy of the shape is created on top of its original. By doing so, you are
creating a static warp in which the source and target shapes are the same.
This static warp acts as a barrier, which prevents the original warp from
spreading to other areas of the image.
538
Warp Effect
Animating Shapes
You can animate the interpolation between shapes or the shapes themselves on
both still images or when the object is moving over time. You can add
keyframes and modify the way the source shape warps into the target. For
moving images, you can use the tracker to track the shapes to match the
movement in a clip, or animate the shapes frame by frame. For more
information, see “Tracking Shapes” on page 250 of this guide and “Creating
Animation” on page 1021 of the Avid DS Nitris Editing Guide.
To animate the interpolation between shapes:
1. On the timeline, double-click the Warp effect bar above your clip.
The Warp property editor is displayed.
2. Place the position indicator anywhere in the clip.
3. On the Shapes property page, modify the Shape Interpolation Amount.
The image changes shape as you modify the Shape Interpolation Amount.
4. Click the Animation Key button.
A keyframe is added at that point in time, changing how the object moves
from source to target shape.
5. Move the position indicator to another frame, modify the Shape
Interpolation Amount, and add another keyframe.
6. Select View > Single-Instance Views > Animation Editor.
The animation editor is displayed.
7. Tweak the shape animation by modifying, adding, and deleting
keyframes.
n
Tip: You can also modify the slope of the interpolation from Linear to either
Spline or Constant Interpolation.
Tracking Warped Shapes
If your image moves or scales, you’ll need to set up trackers to track the
source, destination and barrier shapes. In the following example, the man’s
face both scales and moves as his eye is warped. To correctly track the eye,
you need to increase the trackers’ target area and search regions, and ensure
that the Always Update option is selected.
539
Chapter 10 Image Effects
To track the shapes:
1. On the Shapes property page, deselect the Apply option.
Since you need to track the input image rather than the warping image,
turn off the Warp effect so you can see what you want to track.
2. From the Transformations box, click the Select Shape button.
3. In the viewer, draw a selection box around all the shapes to select them.
Since all the shapes including the source, destination, and two barrier
shapes move and scale, you need to track all the shapes.
4. On the Tracker property page, click the Show button.
540
Warp Effect
Trackers for source,
destination, and two
barrier shapes
All four trackers are displayed.
5. Use the period (.) or comma (,) keys on the keyboard to cycle through
each tracker and set the following for each tracker:
-
Increase the size of the search and target areas to consider the change
in the shape’s size.
Target area
Search region
-
In the Target box, select the Always Update option.
Since the shapes scale and move, you need the tracker targets to
update in each frame.
n
Tip: This option makes the trackers compare the pixel pattern of the current
frame to that of the previous frame, rather than the first frame at the tracking
start point (or the set target).
Use this option when the target area changes in appearance as the clip is
played. Note that this can cause cumulative tracking errors. When you
select this option, the Set Target option becomes deselected and vice
versa.
-
Set the Confidence level.
541
Chapter 10 Image Effects
If you find that the tracker stops frequently, try lowering the
confidence level.
n
Tip: If you are tracking field-based material, you can select the Track in
Fields option. A keyframe will be set on each tracked field. The target used is
the contents of the target region in field 1 of the target frame. If you track in
fields, you do not need to first deinterlace, track, and then reinterlace the clip.
6. Click the Track Forward or Track Backward buttons.
7. On the Shapes property page, deselect the Show Shapes option to see the
final result without the drawn shapes and tracker boxes. You also need to
select the Apply option to turn the Warp effect back on.
Setting the Rendering Options
The final look of your warp depends largely on the render settings you choose.
You can go from a fast low-quality test image to a slower higher-quality image
for final output by simply changing a few of the settings in the Render
property page.
The render settings let you choose how the edges of your shapes are defined,
how precise the transition is between shapes, how pixels are interpolated, and
how soft or jagged the edges are.
To set the rendering options:
1. In the Warp property editor, select the Render property page.
2. For the Edge Mode, select one of the following:
542
-
Fixed to pin the border of the image in place. Be careful using this
option because it can cause shearing or ripping if your warped object
moves or grows in size.
-
Sliding to make the image’s borders move with the rest of the
warped object.
Warp Effect
Original image
Image stretched upwards and
processed with the edge set to Fixed.
Notice how the borders of the image
do not move, resulting in a distorted
image.
-
Image stretched upwards and
processed with the edge set to
Sliding. Notice how the borders of the
image do not stay in place, but
compensate for the stretched image,
resulting in a less distorted image.
Cookie Cutter to keep everything that falls within your closed shapes
and remove everything else. This option is also useful for creating
mattes. You cannot use this option with open-ended shapes.
543
Chapter 10 Image Effects
With the edge set to Cookie Cutter,
the area outlined by the closed
shapes is cut out. The rest of the
image is ignored and set to black.
A matte is automatically created
based on the areas that were cut
out.
3. To set the transition quality, select one of the following from the Warp
Precision list:
Option
Description
Linear
If you want to do a quick test. This option processes the
warp at the lowest quality, but is very fast and uses the
least amount of memory.
Low or Medium
If you need slightly higher quality than the Linear option.
The quality of the images improve with only slightly
slower processing times.
High
If you need a high-quality image that is processed in a
reasonable amount of time. This option produces
professional quality images.
Very High or Super High If you require an extremely smooth transition between
shapes. Both of these options provide extremely highquality images, but take considerable amounts of time to
process.
544
None
For quick results. This results in marginal pixel image
quality, but the processing time is very quick.
Bilinear
For a reasonable image quality within a reasonable
processing time. This is the default setting.
Warp Effect
Option
Description
Scaling
If your target shape is scaled down by more than 50%.
This results in the least amount of degradation, but also
takes the longest time to process.
4. For the Interpolation setting, which affects pixel quality, select one of the
following:
Option
Description
None
For quick results. This results in marginal pixel image
quality, but the processing time is very quick.
Bilinear
For a reasonable image quality within a reasonable
processing time. This is the default setting.
Scaling
If your target shape is scaled down by more than 50%.
This results in the least amount of degradation, but also
takes the longest time to process.
5. Select the Antialiasing option if you want the edges of the shapes or
regions to be smooth. If you deselect this option, the edges are jagged.
6. Select the Soften Edges option if you want the pixels around the edges of
the shapes to blend gradually with the pixels of the surrounding image.
7. Process the effect and then play it back on the timeline to view the results.
545
Chapter 10 Image Effects
546
ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ
Index
Numerics
1-point tracking 233
2-point tracking 233
3D DVE
finishes 466
interest 402
light sources 466
setting time span 422
3D DVE Object View (3D OV) 422
3D DVE objects
aligning 415
comments 421
copying 411
cutting 411
deleting 412
deselecting 410
distorting 408
grouping 416
hiding 417
identifying 421
locking 413
material, editing 465
matte, generating 466
moving 412, 413
muting 417
pasting 412
positioning 414
reference 415
removing 412
renaming 421
reordering 414
rotating 420
scaling 419
selecting 410
snapping to guide 398
thickness 425
ungrouping 416
unlocking 414
3D OV See 3D DVE Object View (3D OV) 422
3D scene
loading 495
saving 505
3D titles 423
3D Warp effect
applying 491
correspondence points, restrictions 535
linking database 499
loading 3D scene 495
saving 3D scene 505
SOFTIMAGE|3D 491
source generator 494
transition 491
3D Warp, SOFTIMAGE|3D 491
editing model notes 503
grid template 500
light template 502
linking database 499
saving 3D scene 505
source generator 497
Template-grid.1-0.dsc 496
Template-lights.2-0.dsc 498
transition 497
4-point corner pinning 264
DVE 221
4-point tracking 233, 264
Index
ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ
A
adding
control points 431
effect nodes 80
external mattes, Effects Tree 99
external mattes, layers 47
input nodes 80
inputs, effect node 81
ports, effect node 81
alignment
3D DVE objects 415
column value 448
tools, graphics 315
alpha channel 39, 351
matte and blend operations 52
premultiplication 58
analyzing
footage 165
images 165
anchor point
adjusting 418
resetting 418
restrictions 418
scaling relative to 419
animating
layers 36
opacity 38
order of layers 36
shapes, Warp effect 539
transparency 38
animation
fade 525
fading 333
reapplying with tracker 247
restrictions 446
antialiasing, profile effect 425
applying effects
3D Warp 491
color correction 163
global DVE, Layers view 210
paper grain images 382
area, target 232
aspect ratio
constraining scaling 419
AVX Host effect 506
548
axes, XYZ 392
B
background
surface 463
background tracks
applying graphics 277
balancing column widths 450
barrier shapes
creating 538
base color 466
baseline offset 460
Birds Eye view, using 95
black and white points
setting 168
blending frames 354
blending operations
Effects Tree 111
graphics 355
Layers view 52
Blue-Green Keyer effect
basic matte, creating 118
matte, fine-tuning 120
spill matte, creating 123
bottom margin 454
bounding box, hiding 314
brush properties
defining 288
setting 287
burned frames 347
bypassing
nodes 87
source effects 158
C
caches
raster mode 349
cameras
clipping planes 407
field of view 408
interest 406
position 406
Cartesian space 392
ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ
center of rotation, DVE 206
centering image, DVE 206
channel blending
Channels property page 193
considerations 194
channel masking 49
character spacing See kerning
chopping control points 322
Chroma clipping values, setting 199
Chroma Keyer effect
basic matte, creating 129
mattes, fine-tuning 130
spill matte, creating 132
using 129
circle shapes 428
clipping
objects to frame 400
planes 407
setting values 199
text 456
clips
applying effects tree as transition 75
applying tree effects 74
creating 529
creating 3D Warp effect 494
generating 529
layer, motion tracking 229
reference, motion tracking 229
video, importing in graphics session 358
Clone effect 367
cloning from different frame 369
cloning from offset frame 370
cloning from same frame 369
compared to Cutout 378
loading 368
removing scratches 367
wire removal 367
closing shapes 433
clusters, creating 314
collapsing nodes 85
color
defining 370
base 466
emissive 468
lights 478
opacity 371
Index
palette, loading/saving 374
picking 372, 373
selecting 371
shadows 485
solid 463
specular 467
tinting images 371
Color Blend effect 370
color opacity 372
defining colors 372
loading palettes 374
opacity of colors 372
opacity, colors 371
Pick Color tool 373
picking colors 373
saving palettes 374
selecting colors 371
tinting images 371
color correction
animating 202
applying 163
channel blending 193
composite tab 177
dark images 171
deficient color channels 193
environment settings 154
gamma control, using 175
inaccurate color channels 193
luma tab 177
matching clips 186
using curves 196
color correction effects
Color Correction Classic effect 156
Color Correction effect 156
color palettes
loading 374
saving 374
Color Space Adjustment effect 509
columns
adding 447
alignment setting 448
deleting 448
gutter 449
left value 448
moving to 448
restrictions 446
549
Index
ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ
right value 448
simulating margins 454
text alignment 451
width, balanced 450
width, changing 449
combining
separate RGB and alpha channels 105
strokes 318
commenting
3D DVE objects 421
lights 480
composite container clip
defining 28
applying graphics 279
composited clips, tracking 236
compositing 27
channels 39
container clip 28
creating mattes 40
Effects Tree 29
external mattes, adding to layers 47
external mattes, matte containers 44
garbage mattes, creating 122
internal mattes 39
mattes 28
mattes, adding on layers 43
mattes, using 39
premultiplication 55
simple track-based 29
compound shape 434
separating shapes 435
constraining, rotation 421
construction lines 399
identifying decks 487
viewing 399
control points
adding 431
change curvature of shape 431
chopping 322
deleting 431
deselecting 431
editing 317
graphics 316
moving 317, 431
selecting 316, 430
tangent handle, editing 432
550
coordinates
Cartesian 392
global and local 393
XYZ 392
corner pinning
defining 221
4-point 221
corner point, creating with Shape tool 429
crawling text 454
controlling 454
defined 437
speed control 455
crawls 332, 523
Crop tool 209
cropping
images 209
textures 473
crosshair 418
culling 465
cursor 438
curved shapes 429
curves
changing slope 320
creating discontinuous 320
filling 433
Cutout effect
compared to Clone 378
shape cutout 375
using in stack 377
cutouts
Cutout compared to Clone 378
low resolution 374
resolution independence 374
D
database, linking 499
decay of spot lights 479
deck
deleting 487
modifying size 488
nesting 488
resizing 489
scaling 488
default values, returning 200
ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ
Defield effect 510
Deflicker effect 510
deleting
control points 431
decks 487
DVE 424
inputs 81
ports 81
source effects 162
Depth of Field effect 512
Deselect All Points command 431
deselecting
3D DVE objects 410
control points 431
destructive mode See raster mode
Difference Keyer effect 134
applying in Effects Tree 137
applying on layer 135
creating basic matte 135
fine-tuning mattes 139
dimensions
objects 399
directional light 475
displacement map 423, 424
displaying
pixel IRE information 168
distortion
3D DVE object 408
perspective, adjusting 408
Dodge and Burn effect 378
DPX files
linearizing 180
drawing
ellipses 305
freehand strokes 302
polylines 301
rectangles 305
with Magic Wand tool 307
drawing tools
Ellipse 305
Freehand 302
Magic Wand 307
Polyline 301
properties, described 410
properties, setting 285
working with 299
Index
drop shadow 480
Drop Shadow effect 515
pinning shadow 517
DS Subtitles file 359
duplicating graphics 339
DVE
applying on layers 204
applying, Effects Tree 250
applying, layers 249
centering images 206
creating 423
cropping images 209
deleting 424
displacement map 424
image offset 206
locking 207
object 409
rotating images 208
scaling images 208
shifting center of rotation 206
transforming images 204
translating images 207
using with tracker 249
DVE stabilizer, using 262
E
Edit tool
adjusting text scrolling 456
selecting 3D DVE objects 410
editing
material on 3D DVE object 465
materials 465
source effects 161
source effects, tape 158
effect nodes 29
processing 71
renaming 93
viewing in separate viewers 88
effects
applying to channels 49
applying with masks 49
converting stack to an Effects Tree 76
creating in SOFTIMAGE|3D 496
glow 485
551
Index
ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ
paint 367
Premultiplication 59
profile 425
source generator 529
Spill Subtract 125
stack 385
Uncomposite from Background 103
Unpremultiply with Color 107
working with masks 49
Effects Tree
adding effects to Effects list 86
adding nodes 79
adding ports 81
applying on layer 78
applying transition 75
attracting nodes 91
bypassing nodes 87
collapsing nodes 85
connecting nodes 81
converting stack to Effects Tree 76
deleting nodes 85
disconnecting nodes 83
editing 86
effect nodes 29
expanding nodes 85
exposing effects 86
folding nodes 89
graphics, applying 280
incremental zoom 94
input image 80
input nodes 80
input nodes, adding 80
input nodes, described 29
loading 96
on clip or track 74, 75
opening Effects Tree view 79
organizing nodes 92
output nodes 29
presets, loading 97
presets, viewing 96
pulling nodes 91
pushing nodes 91
removing ports 81
renaming, effect nodes 93
renaming, input ports 93
renaming, ports 93
552
repelling nodes 91
resetting nodes 86
saving as preset 96
switching input nodes 84
tooltips 94
transform nodes 211
unfolding nodes 90
viewing nodes 87
viewing on other layer 79
Ellipse tool 305
ellipses, drawing 305
elliptical shapes 428
emissive color
adjusting 468
defined 468
lights 478
Encapsulated PostScript (EPS) files
creating custom brushes 290
importing 357
environment map 469
EPS files
See Encapsulated PostScript (EPS) files
examples, histograms 166
expanding nodes 85
exporting
Avid Marquee projects 485
LUT 179
exposure time 426
Express tools
customizing 304
using 304
external matte operations
applying 52
applying on layer 54
external mattes
adding to layers 47
combining 49
removing 38
reordering 33
using 44
extrude
adjusting 425
defined 425
depth, effect on alignment 416
ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ
Index
F
G
fade-to-color transition 530
fading objects, graphics 525
falloff, spot 479
Field Invert effect 518
field of view, setting 408
fields
tracking 235
files
EPS, importing 290, 357
Photoshop, importing 65
Fill Curve command 433
filling
curves 433
shapes 433
finishing
shapes 429
text boxes 438
flat material finish 466
flaws, removing 353
Flicker effect, using 114
fly-bys 222
Fog effect 519
font size
changing 446
scaling text box 446
fonts 445
attributes 291
changing 446
changing object properties 337
properties 291
style 445
footage
analyzing 165
formatting text into columns 446
Frame Average effect 521
frames
blending 354
burned 347
dimensions of a scene 400
viewing objects within 400
freehand strokes, drawing 302
Freehand tool 302
gain, gamma, and setup controls 172
garbage matte 122, 351
generating
mattes 466
global coordinates 393
glossy material finish 466
glows 485
GOV See Graphics Object View
Grain Remover effect See Noise effect
graphics
aligning 315
animating titles 333
applying as effect 276
applying in Effects Tree 280
applying on layers 279
applying on tracks 276
bounding box, hide 314
clusters 314
control points 316, 316
copying 338
correcting tracker errors 257
crawls, creating 523
creating 299
creating rolls/crawls 332
cutting 338
defining transformations 344
deleting 340
drawing tools 299
duplicating 339
editing shape of strokes 316
editing text 327
Encapsulated PostScript files (EPS), importing
290, 357
EPS files, importing 290, 357
Express tools 304
fade, creating 333, 525
grouping 310
guides, displaying 315
hiding 313
hiding bounding boxes 314
hyphenating text 325
importing images in graphics session 356
importing video clips 358
locking 312
553
Index
ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ
manipulating 336
mattes 351
methods of applying 275
moving 342
moving object center 343
object 275
object properties 336
ordering 341
pasting 338
premultiplication setting, changing 299
presets 281
processing 364
property tree
real-time 364
reordering 341
reshaping 321
rolls, creating 523
rotating 343
rotoscoping 351
rounded corners 305
scaling 342
selecting multiple 310
showing 314
skewing 344
time span 295
tools, quick access 304
tracking objects 345
transforming 342
turning on guide properties 315
ungrouping 310
unlocking 313
vertex 316
word wrapping 325
workflow 273
working resolution, setting 276
graphics alignment tools 315
Graphics effect 522
crawls 523
fade, creating 525
rolls, creating 523
Graphics Object View (GOV) 312
graphics objects 409
editing control points 317
moving control points 317
selecting 309
tracking 345
554
graphics presets, types 281
graphics property tree 285
graphics session 275
importing images 356
importing video clips 358
graphics tree
grid
described 399
orientation 405
viewing 399
grid templates
light, using 502
Template-grid.1-0.dsc 496
Template-lights.1-0.dsc 498
Tutorial-grid.1-0.dsc 499
using 500
grouping
3D DVE objects 416
graphics objects 310
strokes 318
gutter 449
H
hidden surfaces 465
hiding
3D DVE objects 417
back surface 465
bounding boxes 314
graphics 313
objects using clipping planes 407
shadows 481
histograms 165
examples 166
HLS Keyer effect 141, 144
creating basic mattes 141
fine-tuning mattes 143
HSL controls
using 172
HSL property page
contrast control 174
gain control 173
setup control 173
hyphenation 325
ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ
I
J
image cloning
See Clone effect
image effects
Color Space Adjustment 509
Defield 510
Deflicker 510
Depth of Field 512
Drop Shadow 515
Field Invert 518
Fog 519
Frame Average 521
Graphics 522
Optical Glow 525
Outsource effect 527
source generator effects 529
images
centering 206
cropping 209
importing in graphics session 356
Paper Grain 381
rotating 208
scaling 208
tinting 371
translating 207
importing
alpha channel 58
Avid Marquee projects 485
Encapsulated PostScript files (EPS) 290, 357
images in graphics session 356
subtitles 359
text 440
video clips, graphics 358
incremental zoom, Effects Tree 94
infinite light 475
input nodes
adding 80
described 29
input ports
renaming 93
insertion point
described 438
positioning 442
intensity of lights 478
interest, 3D DVE 402
justified text 451
Index
K
kerning, adjusting 452
Key Combiner effect
combining separate RGB and alpha channels 105
keyer effects
Difference Keyer 134
HLS Keyer 141
Linear Luma Keyer 144
Luma Keyer 148
keying
fine-tuning mattes, Blue-Green 120
fine-tuning mattes, Chroma 130
fine-tuning mattes, Difference 139
fine-tuning mattes, HLS 143
fine-tuning mattes, Linear Luma 146
fine-tuning mattes, Luma 151
mattes 42
mattes, background track 42
mattes, basic Blue-Green 118
mattes, basic Chroma 129
mattes, basic Difference 135
mattes, basic Linear Luma 145
mattes, basic Luma 148
mattes, garbage 122
spill subtraction 125
keywords, importing subtitles 360
kissing nodes 81
L
layer tracker
motion tracking 244
positioning 244
layers
3D DVE 409
3D DVE, tumbling 405
adding, Layers view 32
animating 36
applying graphics 279
building Effects Trees 78
555
Index
ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ
DVE, applying 204
external matte thumbnail 48
external mattes, adding 47
layer alpha thumbnail 48
matte controls 48
matte expand 48
motion tracking 229
navigating, Layers view 34
original alpha thumbnail 48
Photoshop 65
processing 68
removing, Layers view 38
renaming, Layers view 33
reordering, Layers view 33
scrolling 34
Layers view
adjusting opacity 37
combining mattes 49
loading effects 35
removing external mattes 38
reordering external mattes 33
reordering layers 33
replacing effects 35
scrolling 34
leading
recommended setting 453
left column value 448
left margin 454
left-aligned text 451
Levels property page
adjusting tonal range 185
composite tab 177
input and output adjustments 176
luma tab 177
light sources
See also lights
3D DVE 466
lights
adding 476
color 478
comment 480
deleting 477
editing sources 477
effect on shadows 476
effective use of 475
intensity 478
556
local, source 475
moving 479
naming 480
omni-directional source 475
point light source 475
positioning, moving and deleting 476
shadows 475
source, infinite 475
sources 394
spot, falloff 479
spot, size 479
triangular patterns 476
turning on 477
types 478
line spacing See leading
Linear Luma Keyer effect 144
creating a basic matte 145
fine-tuning the matte 146
linearizing film-based media 177
lit material finish 466
loading
effects, Layers view 35
LUT (Look-up Table) 180
source effects 163
local
coordinates 393
light source 475
shadow 480
locking
3D DVE objects 413
DVE 207
graphics objects 312
LogLin Remapping effect 177
Look-up Table 178
Look-up Table (LUT)
exporting 179
loading 180
working with 178
Luma clipping values, setting 199
Luma Keyer effect
creating a basic matte 148
fine-tuning the matte 151
shortcuts 148
using 148
luminance
Linear Luma 144
ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ
Luma 148
LUT (Look-up Table)
working with 178
M
Magic Wand tool 307
Main surface 463
mapping textures 474
maps
displacement 423
environment 469
reflection 474
margin 453
masks 293
changing object properties 337
channel masking 49
properties 293
master opacity, adjusting 418
Match Color Tool 186
color chip 187
NaturalMatch feature 188
material
affected by light 467
appearance 463
applying to objects 464
base color 466
changing type 465
custom settings 465
define surface 393
editing 465
emissive color 468
environment map 469
finish 466
opacity 466
overlapping 470
shininess 469
specular color 467
types 463
matte compositing operations 49
matte containers, using 44
matte finish, material 466
mattes
defining 28
alpha channel 351
Index
blue-green 123
chroma 132
combining 49
controlling 3D DVE object 466
creating 351
external, in Effects Trees 105
external, in timeline 44
external, on layers 48
generating 3D titles 466
internal mattes 39
removing external mattes 38
reordering 33
scrolling 34
timeline 42
travelling 351
Microsoft Word 326
model notes, SOFTIMAGE|3D 503
modes
Position property 462
Raster Paint 350
Time property 461
wireframe 300, 300
morphing
strokes 319
motion blur, exposure time 426
motion path
changing curvature 225
changing speed 227
editing 224
motion tracking
1-point tracking 233
2-point tracking 233
4-point tracking 233
confidence, setting 244
correcting errors 269
correcting tracker errors 257
cropping image 248
difficult shots 266
DVE tracker, using 237
errors, correcting 269
graphics objects 345
layer clip 229
moving object to another moving object 248
multiple trackers, using 233
offset point (for shapes) 256
offsetting trackers 267
557
Index
ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ
reapplying animation 247
reference clip 229
reference point, selecting 234
search region 232, 235
shape tracker 251
stabilizing 257
starting the process 246
target area 232
trackers 232
updating target 244
moving
3D DVE objects 413
control points 431
muting
3D DVE objects 417
N
NaturalMatch feature 188
nesting decks 488
nodes
adding inputs 81
adding ports 81
attracting 91
bypassing 87
collapsing 85
connecting 81
deleting 85
disconnecting 83
effect 29
effects 79
expanding 85
folding 89
input, described 29
inputs 79
kissing 81
organizing 92
output 29
pulling 91
pushing 91
removing inputs 81
removing ports 81
repelling 91
resetting 86
ripping 83
558
selecting 84
selecting multiple 84
snapping 82
sticky 82
switching 84
twanging 82
unfolding 90
viewing 87
viewing in separate viewers 88
Noise effect 379
O
objects
applying graphics 275
applying materials 464
construction lines 399
copying between pages 488
described 409
DVE 409
editing in page 488
graphic shapes 409
identifying bounds 399
moving between pages 488
path 409
selecting from group 416
skewing 344
text 409
viewing within frame 400
visibility 417
wireframe, rendered as 401
offset
setting tracker 256
offset trackers 267
offsetting
control points, tracking 255
text from path 460
textures 472
omni-directional light source 475
onion skinning 354
opacity 418
3D DVE object 417
animating 38
color 372
layers 37
ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ
material 466
shadow 484
strokes 372
opening
shapes 432
Optical Glow effect 525
orientation
grid 405
path text 460
text 461
text, upright 461
origin 392
global and local 393
output node 29
Outsource effect 527
oval shapes 428
overflowing text 440
overlap effects 470
P
page
copying objects between 488
editing objects 488
moving objects between 488
resizing 489
scaling 488
paint effects
Clone procedure 367
Color Blend 370
described 367
Dodge and Burn 378
Noise 379
Reveal 384
paint style
defining 286
properties 285
palettes, color
loading 374, 374
saving 374
Paper Grain images 381
paragraph spacing 453
path, motion
curvature, changing 225
editing 224
Index
speed, changing 227
paths
baseline offset 460
converting from shape 458
creating 458
deleting 458
editing 430
object 409
orientation of text 460
positioning text on 459
removing text from 459
reversing direction, shape 436
reversing direction, text 460
start 460
text 437, 438, 458
perspective distortion, adjusting 408
perspective projection
effect on alignment 416
effect on positioning 415
Photoshop
deleting files 68
layers, tips 66
layers, working with 65
using images 67
Pick Color tool 373
picking colors 372
Picture-in-Picture effect 222
pinning
shadow 517
pixel
masking 49
planes
clipping 407
XYZ 393
point light source 475
polygon shapes 429
Polyline tool 301
polylines, drawing 301
ports
renaming 93
Position property mode 462
premultiplication
defining 55
changing setting 59
changing setting in tree view 59
changing, graphics 299
559
Index
ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ
effect 60
premultiplied images 55
results 57
setting the option 58
setting when importing clip 58
setting, automatic change 61
Premultiplication effect
applying 59
presets
graphics 281
loading 281
stack effects, paint 385
stroke 283
text 283
types of graphics presets 281
presets, loading
using pop-up menu 283
using property editor 281
using toolbars 282
presets, saving
stroke 284
using property editor 281
using toolbars 282
processing
composites 68
effect nodes 71
graphics 364
layers 68, 70
profile
antialiasing, used with 425
applying 425
effect on alignment 416
reversing 436
surface 463
projected shadow 480
properties
brush 287
drawing tools 285, 294
font 291
masks 293
paint style 285
text 290
time span 294, 410
property editors
returning to default values 200
UDV button 200
560
property tree, graphics 285
pulling nodes 91
pushing nodes 91
push-wipe effect 222
Q
quality
level, viewer 401
R
raster mode 347
activating 347
automatically destroying frames 348
burned frames 348
burned strokes, copying 348
burning on frame change 348
caches 349
non real-time 348
processing 349
raster paint log 350
warning message 348
Raster Paint mode 350
rasterization effect nodes 212
real-time effects
graphics 364
Rectangle tool 305
rectangles
drawing 305
shapes 427
reference
3D DVE object 415
motion tracking 229
reference tracker, positioning 241
motion tracking 241
reflection map 474
region
search 232
removing
nodes 85
scratches/flaws 353
source effects 162
renaming
effect nodes 93
ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ
ports 93
rendering
culling back faces 465
objects as wireframes 401
reordering layers, Layers view 33
repelling nodes 91
Reshape tool See Shape tool
reshaping strokes 321
changing opacity 324
chopping control points 322
moving shapes 323
rotating shapes 323
scaling shapes 323
skewing shapes 323
stretching shapes 324
resizing
decks 489
pages 489
text column 449, 450
text object 443
resolution
cutouts 374
independence 374
working 276
Reveal effect 384
Reverse Direction command 436, 460
reversing
direction of text on path 460
shape direction 436
RGB and Alpha channels, combining 104
RGB channels, blend operations 52
RGB clipping values, setting 199
right-aligned text 451
ripping nodes 83
rolls
creating 523
text 332
text, controlling 454
text, creating 454
text, speed control 455
Rotate tool 343
rotating
3D DVE objects 420
graphics objects 343
images 208
shadows 483
Index
textures 473
rotation
anchor point, resetting 418
effect on alignment 416
effect on positioning 415
resetting 421
sphere 420
rotoscopy 351
rounded corners, graphics 305
S
safe action area 398
snapping objects to 398
viewing 398
safe title area 398
3D DVE object positioning behavior 415
snapping objects to 398
viewing 398
Scale tool 342
scaling
3D DVE objects 419
constrained 419
decks 488
graphics objects 342
images 208
pages 488
relative to anchor point 419
text object 443
textures 473
to change font size 446
scene
saving 505
tumbling 405
scene templates
light, using 502
Template-grid.1-0.dsc 496
Template-lights.1-0.dsc 498
Tutorial-grid.1-0.dsc 499
using 500
scratch removal 353, 367
cloning an image 367
Noise effect 379
Reveal effect 384
scratches, removing 353
scroll position
561
Index
ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ
arrow 441, 455
slider 441, 455
scrolling text 454, 455, 459
search region 232
setting 235
segments (graphics) 427
removing 433
selecting
control points 430
setting
black and white points 165, 168
color correction environment 154
setting legal values 199
shadows 480
affected by lights 476
color 485
local 480
location 482
map 480
offset 482
opacity 484
plane, attachment 483
plane, defined 480
positioning 482
projected 480
rotating 483
simulated glows 485
softness 484
suggestions 482
turning off 481
shape tracker
tracking control points 254
tracking shapes 251
tracking warped shapes 539
shapes
closed 429
closing 433
compound, creating 435
compound, separating 435
converting to path 458
copying from Warp effect 532
creating 427, 428, 429
curved 429
editing 430
filling 433
form 431
562
form, editing 431
open 429
opening 432
reversing direction 436
segment, removing 433
segments 427
selecting control points 430
tracking objects 250
tracking shapes 250
Warp shapes 532
shininess control 469
showing graphics 314
Skew tool 344
skewing
graphics objects 344
objects 344
smooth point, creating 429
softclipping 181
SOFTIMAGE|3D, 3D Warp 491
creating 3D warp effects in SOFTIMAGE|3D
496
editing model notes 503
grid template 500
light template 502
linking the database 499
source generator 497
Template-grid.1-0.dsc 496
Template-lights.2-0.dsc 498
transition 497
softness of shadow 484
solid color 463
source effects 157
editing, master clip 161
editing, subclip 161
editing, tape 158
loading 163
removing 162
Tape Tool, using 159
source generator effects 529
fade-to-color transition 530
generating clips 529
spacing, paragraph 453
special characters
determining value 439
entering 440
using 438
ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ
specular highlight 467
spill matte, creating 123
spill matte, viewing 132
Spill Subtract effect 125
in Effects Tree 127
on timeline 126
spot light 475
falloff 479
moving 479
properties 479
size 479
spot, target 479
square shapes 427
Stabilizer effect 258
stabilizing 257, 262
using DVE tracker 262
using Stabilizer tree effect 258
stack effects 385
customizing 387
using Cutout effect 377
stack of effects
converting to Effects Tree 76
static text 436
sticky nodes 82
stretching shapes 324
strokes
breaking 318
changing object properties 337
changing slope of curves 320
combining 318
defining 307
editing 316
freeform 302
grouping 318
morphing 319
opacity 372
preset 283
reshaping 321
separating 318
ungrouping 318
unifying 318
style
fonts 445
titling 290
subtitles
DS Subtitles file 359
Index
examples 361
header section 360
importing 359
subtitles section 360
surface 393, 463
culling 465
extrude 463
overlapping 470
texture position 472
switching nodes 84
T
tangent handle, extending length 432
Tape Tool
applying source effects 158
editing source effects 158
target area, motion tracking 232
Template-grid.1-0.dsc, 3D scene template 496
Template-lights.1-0.dsc, 3D scene template 498
templates
light, using 502
Template-grid.1-0.dsc 496
Template-lights.1-0.dsc 498
Tutorial-grid.1-0.dsc 499
using 500
text
3D 391
adjusting scrolling 456
alignment 451
baseline offset 460
clipping 456
columns 446
copying to an external application 326
crawling 409, 437
creating rolls/crawls 332
deselecting 444
editing 327, 327, 328
editing a text body 328
editing font properties 329
editing kerning 329
entering 437
entering Unicode characters 438
equally spaced 451
font 291, 445
from other applications 326
563
Index
ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ
hyphenating 325
importing 440
kerning 452
leading 452
margins 453
Microsoft Word 326
moving text body 327
orientation 461
overflowing 440
path 437
path, adding to 458
path, orientation 460
path, positioning 459
path, removing 459
preset 283
properties 290, 337
rolling 409
saving presets 284
scroll control 455
scrolling 459
selecting 444
selecting a text body 327
static 436
word wrapping 325
text body 325
text object 409, 436
creating 437
gutter 449
resizing 443
scaling 443
shadow suggestions 481
text orientation 461
texture 463
as displacement map 424
cropping 473
mapping 474
position on surface 472
rotating 473
scaling 473
tiling 472
tinting 474
three-dimensional space 392
tiling textures 472
Time property mode 461
time span
3D DVE 422
564
changing object properties 337
properties 294, 410, 422
properties, defining 295
timeline
keying mattes 42
processing 70
timeline effect track
applying graphics 278
tinting
images 371
textures 474
titles
3D 423
creating See also text
titling style 290
tooltips, in Effects Trees 94
top margin 454
tracing strokes 321
track effects
converting stack to an Effects Tree 76
Tracker tree effect 239
trackers 232, 239, 241, 244
confidence, setting 244
corner pinning 221
correcting errors 269
cropping image 248
cropping image to polygon 248
DVE, using 237
errors, correcting 269
offset point (for shapes) 256
offsetting 267
reference point, selecting 234
shape tracker, using 251
starting the process 246
tracking backwards 269
using multiple 233
tracking
backwards 246, 269
choosing method 231
combining with other DVEs 249
composited clips 236
control points 254
difficult shots 266
fields 235
forwards 246
shapes 251
ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ
updating target 244
using the trackers 232
warped shapes 539
tracking, motion 229
1-point tracking 233
2-point tracking 233
4-point tracking 233
correcting tracker errors 257
cropping image 248
graphics objects 345
moving object to another moving object 248
offset point (for shapes) 256
offsetting trackers 267
reference point, selecting 234
search region 232, 235
stabilizing 257
target area 232
trackers 232
tracks
applying tree effects 74, 75
transform nodes
defining 211
adding 211
global input 213
local input 213
transform trees 210
global transformations 215
local transformations 220
multi-level transformations 218
using 214
transformation 344
corner pinning 221
cropping 209
global DVE, Layers view 210
global, Effects Tree 210
graphics 342
local, Effects Tree 210
properties 337
rotating 208
scaling 208
transform trees 210
translating 207
transforming images, DVE 204
transitions
applying tree effects 75
Translate tool 207
Index
translating images 207
transparency
animating 38
travelling matte 351
creating 351
tree
applying graphics 280
graphics property 285
tree effects, AVX Host 506
triangular patterns 476
tumbling scene 405
Tutorial-grid.1-0.dsc, 3D scene template 499
twanging nodes 82
typeface 445
U
UDV (Use Default Value) button 200
animating 202
Uncomposite from Background effect 103
undertessellation 479
appearance of 476
ungrouping
3D DVE objects 416
graphics objects 310
strokes 318
Unicode
determining value 439
entering characters 440
using characters 438
unifying strokes 318
unlocking
3D DVE objects 414
graphics 313
unpremultiply with color
in Effects Tree 107
on timeline 63
upright text orientation 461
Use Default Value (UDV) button 200
animating 202
returning to default values 201
V
vertex 316
565
Index
ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ
viewer
blending frames 354
onion skinning 354
quality level 401
tumbling in 3D DVE layout 405
visibility of material 466
axes 392
coordinates 392
plane 393
Y
YZ planes 393
W
Warp effect
animating shapes 539
barrier shapes, creating 538
creating shapes 532
joining shapes 535
setting rendering options 542
SOFTIMAGE|3D 491
warp, 3D See 3D Warp effect
warping
animating shapes 539
barrier shapes 538
correspondence 535
creating shapes 532
joining shapes 535
processing 542
rendering 542
wire removal 367
cloning an image 367
Noise effect 379
Reveal effect 384
wireframe
mode 300, 300
rendering 401
word wrapping 325, 436
column behavior 450
workflows
3D DVE 390
color correction 155
graphics 273
titles 391
working resolution
setting 276
X
XYZ
566
Z
Z axis
effect on alignment 416
effect on positioning 415
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