AxoScanTM System Options and Measurement Solutions

AxoScanTM System Options and Measurement Solutions
Axometrics, Inc.
515 Sparkman Drive
Huntsville, AL 35816
email: [email protected]
AxoScanTM System Options
and Measurement Solutions
AxoScan Mueller matrix polarimeters represent the most advanced
polarization measurement systems available.
This brochure
describes standard system configurations, and a wide variety of
measurements that can be made with the system.
Don’t see the system or solution that you need? Contact an
Axometrics application engineer today to discuss your application.
All statements and technical information related to Axometrics products are believed to be accurate. However, the accuracy or completeness of this information is not guaranteed, and no
responsibility is assumed for any inaccuracies. Axometrics assumes no responsibility for any damages whatsoever associated with the use or application of this product. Axometrics reserves the
right to change the design, specifications, functions, or availability for sale of its products, at any time without notice. AxoScan, AxoView, Axometrics, and the Axometrics logo are trademarks of
Axometrics, Inc. ©2004 Axometrics, Inc. all rights reserved.
(256) 704-3332
Standard AxoScanTM
Light Sources
Every application has a different light-source
requirement. Axometrics offers several standard
solutions, as well as systems that let you use
your own light source.
The Polarimeter Engine
All standard systems are based around the
AxoScan Polarimeter Engine, the fastest and
measurement system available.
Temperature stabilized laser provides longlife at a single wavelength.
Xenon Arc-lamp with scanning
monochromator for spectral measurements
across the visible wavelength range
Connectors and integrated collimator for
SMA- or FC-connectorized fibers lets the
user supply nearly any light source
The AxoScan Polarimeter Engine
Calibrated systems for the visible spectrum,
near-infrared, and telecom wavelengths
Extremely rugged – Ideal for laboratory or
production use
Can be held in any orientation
Not sensitive to slight misalignments or
Variety of mounting options
Tightly-integrated automation solutions
Turn-key operation
Stabilized Laser
Filtered arc-lamp delivered through
an optical fiber
Mounting Fixtures
FC-connectorized fiber for use with
telecom wavelengths
Several standard mounting fixtures are available
to suit the needs of users in a wide range of
different industries
Light-weight extruded
aluminum frame for standalone operation
Mounts for horizontal
operation on a standard optics
Brackets for vertical mounting
on 1.5-inch pillar
A variety of AxoScan mounting fixtures are available for different industries
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AxoViewTM Software Interface
All AxoScan polarimeters ship with the AxoView
software interface pre-installed and ready to use.
Simple control of the polarimeter hardware
Powerful and intuitive data visualization
System can be controlled remotely over RS232 for integration into your automated test
Tunable Visible Light Source
Long-life Xenon arc lamp and grating
Tune to any wavelength from 400 to 800 nm
5 nm spectral bandwidth
Turn-key operation and seamless integration
with the AxoView software interface
Measure polarization properties across the
visible spectrum in under five seconds
Advanced visualization tools for interpreting polarization spectra.
Here we see a measurement of a retarder with more than one
wave of retardance.
Advanced Spectral Analysis
AxoScan SpectroPolarimeter integrates a Xenon arc lamp
and scanning monochromator for measurements across the
visible spectrum
Visualization tools for analyzing polarization
properties vs. wavelength
Analyze any polarization property
Includes routines for determining the true
order of retarders
Export data to spreadsheet files
Export graphics to JPEG files for inclusion in
reports and presentations
Viewer software can be installed on multiple
computers allowing exported data to be
shared between technicians, engineers, and
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Automated XY Table
Generate easy-to-understand maps of
parameters such as retardance, fast-axis
orientation, polarizer axis, depolarization,
percent transmission, etc.
Flexible software for setting up scan
Measure up to 3 sites per second
Standard system handles samples up to 6”
square. Larger scan areas available upon
XY scan table option for the AxoScan
Automated Tip-Tilt
Table Option
LCOS Retro-Reflection
Fixture Option
Automated, high-speed filed-of-view testing
for all polarization optics
Directly measure retardance magnitude and
orientation in retro-reflection
Automatically locate and tilt about both fastand slow-axes
XY scan table for mapping cell gap variations
Measure retardance vs. voltage
Advanced data reduction techniques remove
the effect of the non-polarizing beamsplitter
used for the measurement
Out-of-plane retardance measurements
LCD pre-tilt measurements
Tip-Tilt table option for the AxoScan Polarimeter
LCOS retro-reflection fixture for the AxoScan polarimeter
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Measuring Retarders
and Waveplates
Films and Simple Waveplates
Measure extremely low retardance, extremely
large retardance, and everything in between
Minimum measurable retardance
about values as low as 0.25 nm
(0.15° at 550 nm)
Maximum measurable
retardance >6,000 nm
Measure retardance versus wavelength to
determine dispersion relation of material
Distinguish between fast- and slow-axes
Measure axis orientation to within 0.1°
Maps of spatial variation
Off-axis / Field-of-view variations
Measured retardance map of a quarter-wave plate. The
retardance is 90° in the center of the plate, but t here is a 15°
variation in retardance across the clear aperture.
Compound Zero-Order and
Achromatic Waveplates
Measure optical rotation and elliptical fastaxes due to misaligned plates
Fast-axis orientation variations with
Measure retardance vs. wavelength
Determine the true retardance order
Actively align plates during assembly
Measured retardance of a 10 nm trim plate
Form-Birefringent Waveplates
Measure retardance vs. wavelength
Identify unexpected polarization-dependent
transmission (diattenuation)
If the two plates of a compound zero-order waveplate are not
perfectly aligned during manufacture, the orientation of the fastaxis can vary significantly, as shown in the measurement above.
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Measuring Polarizers
Crystal Polarizers
Circular Polarizers
Measure misaligned input and output
polarizer axes due to improper construction
Distinguish between left-hand and right-hand
Measure strong field-of-view variations as a
function of wavelength
Determine transmitted polarization state as a
function of wavelength
Actively align retarders to polarizers
Measure the retardance and axis alignment
of a retarder in a complete circular polarizer
Dichroic Polarizers
Performance vs. wavelength
Max and Min transmittance
Contrast ratio
Polarizer Efficiency
Field-of-view testing
Measure transmission axis orientation to
within 0.1°
Spatial variations in transmission axis
Measured output polarization state from the high-quality circular
polarizer (left-handed). The polarization state is shown
graphically on the Poincaré sphere.
Polarizing Beam Splitters
Measured maximum transmittance (for polarization state launched
along transmission axis) for three different brands of linear
Spatial maps of transmitted and reflected
Measure variations in polarizer axis due to
stain birefringence
Reflective Polarizers
Difference in transmitted and reflected
contrast ratio
Polarization axis orientation
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Measuring Optical
Measure strain birefringence in optics before
or after mounting
Dynamic variations with temperature and
adhesive curing
A window that glued into a mount exhibited 1.4° of retardance
due to strain birefringence. Heating the part with a heat gun
quickly reduces the strain down to a retardance of less than
0.2°. The retardance returns to 1.4° as th e part cools down
over the course of an hour.
Mounting a BK7 window with a set-screw induces very large
amounts of strain birefringence. In this XY map, we see
retardance values as large as 22° at the contact po int
Measure which polarization states are
depolarized and which are not
Measure the on-axis retardance of c-plates
due to misalignment of the optic axis
Max, min, and average degree of polarization
Identify the true orientation of the optic axis
Identify causes of depolarization
Locate the optic axis in z-cut LiNbO3 devices
A PET film with more than 10 waves of retardance can partially
depolarize a beam with a 5 nm FWHM spectral bandwidth.
AxoView provides tools for visualizing depolarization effects.
A z-cut LiNbO3 device should have no retardance on-axis. Here,
we measured 20° of retardance. Tilting the sample by 0.5° causes
the beam to refract into the true optic axis of the sample.
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Bandpass Filters
Optical Rotation / Optical
Measure optical activity / optical rotation
Characterize magneto-optical devices
Calculate sugar or alcohol concentrations
Measure retardance and polarization
dependent loss of filters used an non-normal
Retardance due to strain birefringence
Circular retardance and optical rotation are two names for
the same effect. Here, we measured the optical rotation (in
degrees) of an organic sample (approx. 17 mm or corn
syrup) as a function of optical wavelength.
Beamsplitters and prisms
Measure retardance resulting from totalinternal-reflection within prisms
Measure s– and p–reflectances and
Characterize retardance due to propagation
through thin-films at non-normal incidence
A mounted 636 nm bandpass exhibits significant retardance
at normal incidence., likely due to strain birefringence.
Notice that the retardance vs. wavelength curve is
significantly more complex than the 1/λ characteristic typical
of strain birefringence in homogenous materials.
Non-polarizing beamsplitter cubes frequently exhibit
retardance in transmission. Here we show an XY map of
retardance, exhibiting significant variations in retardance.
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Measuring Display
LCOS Panels
Make measurements in direct retro-reflection
Measure strain birefringence in unfilled cells
Directly measure cell retardance
Measure retardance vs. voltage
Map spatial variation in cell gap
variation in retardance
variation in fast-axis orientation
Measured retardance variation of an LCOS device at 0V.
The 41° of retardance variation is due to variation s in cell gap
across the device.
LCD Panels
Complete characterization of any cell mode
Direct retardance and eigenmode
Calculate cell-gap, twist angle and pretilt
Biaxial Films
Characterize field-of-view enhancing films
Accurate fast-axis orientation measurement
Measure R0, Rth, and β
3D refractive index ellipse
Automatically tilt about fast- and slow-axis
High speed measurements of all critical parameters of biaxial films and other
field-of-view enhancing technologies.
Measured eigenmodes (top) and retardance (bottom) of an
STN LCD cell. From these measurements, an inversion
algorithm is used to calculate cell gap = 5.8 µm and
twist angle = 120°.
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Measuring Fiber-Optic
Components and
Optical Source Options
Axometrics-supplied single wavelength laser
User-supplied source delivered to the
polarimeter via FC-connectorized fiber
tunable laser source
super-luminescent diode
An FC receptacle and collimator lets you use your
existing optical source. The AxoScan is compatible with
a wide range of sources, including lasers, TLS, SLD,
ASE sources, etc.
Fiber-Coupled Measurements
Characterize polarization controllers
Measure PMD and PDL
differential group delay
principal state of polarization
Full Mueller matrix measurement allows
determination of high-order PMD
Depolarization effects
PM fiber alignment
Exceptional flexibility for the R&D
Measure crystals prior to integration into fiber
Launch a free-space beam into a waveguide
or fiber device
FC ports with integrated
Using a fiber-coupled AxoScan to characterize a WDM filter
Free Space Measurements
Adapters are available for directly coupling
the AxoScan heads to fiber-coupled devices
Using a free-space AxoScan to characterize a waveguide
device. The output beam from the polarization state generator
has been launched into the DUT, and the output has been
collimated for measurement by the polarization state analyzer.
Measurement of second-order PMD. In this case the
DGD remains nearly constant with wavelength while the
PSP’s trace out an arc on the Poincaré sphere.
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