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Cisco Collaboration Systems for Contact Center Release 11.0(1)
First Published: September 10, 2015
Americas Headquarters
Cisco Systems, Inc.
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© 2015
Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
CONTENTS
CHAPTER 1
Home 1
Welcome to Cisco Collaboration Systems Contact Center Technical Information Site 1
The Critical Path to Successful Deployment 1
Audience 2
About This Release 2
Using This Information System 2
Types of Topics 2
Graphics with Hotspots and Popup Text (Image Maps) 3
Where Information Is Located 3
Tips on Navigating the Information Site 3
Cisco Documentation 3
CHAPTER 2
Prepare 5
Introduction to Prepare 5
Cisco Collaboration Systems Features and Benefits Overview 6
Contact Center Overview 6
Deployment Models 7
System Features in This Release 8
CHAPTER 3
Plan 11
Introduction to Plan 11
Planning Concepts 12
Deployment Types 12
Cost of Ownership 13
Redundancy 13
Capacity and QoS 14
Security 14
Sample Business System Test Beds 16
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Use System Test Beds to Define Your Business Requirements 16
Understand Your Call Flows 16
Planning Tasks 16
Determine Your Business Requirements 17
Collecting Requirements 17
Call Center Operations 18
Call Flows 18
Planning a System Installation 18
Planning a System Upgrade 18
Use Planning Tools and Templates 18
Design Documents 19
Ordering Guides 19
Deployment Models 19
Identify System Components 20
Collect and Analyze Data 20
Create High-Level Design 21
Preparing for Your System Installation 21
CHAPTER 4
Design 23
Introduction to Design 23
Design Concepts 24
Using SRND Documents 24
Using Design Tools and Templates 25
Design Tasks 26
Identify System Components 26
Ordering Tools 27
Review Tested Deployment Models 27
Review System Caveats 27
Develop Traffic Engineering Specifications 27
Define Security Policies 28
CHAPTER 5
Implement 29
Introduction to Implementation 29
Order Equipment 30
Ordering Guides 30
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Install and Configure System Components 30
Performing Your System Installation 31
Install Contact Center Software Components 31
Component Installation and Configuration Guides 31
Installation and Configuration Checklists 39
Component Compatibility and Interoperability 39
Software Versions and System Caveats 40
Call Flow Configuration Examples 40
Introduction to Troubleshooting 40
System Troubleshooting Methodology 40
Gather Information on the Problem 41
Isolate Points of Failure 43
Apply Tools to Determine the Problems Root Cause 45
Preparing Your Network for Troubleshooting and Recovery 48
Network Topology Diagrams 48
Synchronizing Server Date and Time 50
Recommended Trace and Logging Settings 50
IVR Flowcharts 51
Conduct User Acceptance Test 52
CHAPTER 6
Operate 55
Introduction to Operating the System 55
Managing Your System 56
System Management Tasks 56
System Management Options 56
Backing up and Restoring Components 57
Cisco Unified Communications Manager 57
Cisco Unified Contact Express 58
Cisco Unified Contact Management Enterprise 58
Cisco Unified Communication Manager IM and Presence Service 58
Using Network Monitoring Tools 58
Cisco Prime Collaboration 59
Operating Contact Center Systems 59
Troubleshooting Daily Operations 59
Common Problems Reported by Users 59
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One-Way Audio 60
Verify Bidirectional IP Connectivity 60
Check Cisco IOS Software Gateway Configurations 61
Check for NAT or Firewall Restrictions 62
Problems Occurring After the Call Connects Successfully 62
Poor Voice Quality 63
Packet Drops 63
Queuing Problems 65
Failover and Recovery Procedures 65
CHAPTER 7
Optimize 67
Optimizing Your System 67
Upgrade Contact Center Software Components 67
Failover and Redundancy 68
CHAPTER 8
Training Library 69
Using the Training Library 69
General Training 69
Training Available to Partners 70
Training Available to Cisco Employees 70
CHAPTER 9
Resource Library 71
Using the Resource Library 71
System Release Documentation 72
System Release Notes 72
Documentation Wiki 72
Solution Reference Network Design 73
Tested Deployment and Site Models 73
Network Topology Diagrams 73
Network Topology Diagrams for Contact Center 74
Network Topology Diagrams for Collaboration 75
Component Resources 75
Component Resources Documentation 75
Component Resources Documentation for Contact Center 75
Component Resources Documentation for Collaboration 75
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Configuration Command Files 75
Configuration Command Files for Contact Center 76
Configuration Command Files for Collaboration Systems 76
System Compatibility Matrix 77
Ordering Guides 77
End-of-Sale and End-of-Life Products 77
Cisco Unified Workspace Licensing 77
Service Offerings 78
Cisco Technical Assistance Center 78
Cisco SMARTnet Service 78
Cisco Unified Communications Software Subscription 79
Career Certifications 79
Additional Sites and Services 80
Cisco Collaboration Systems Demos 80
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1
Home
• Welcome to Cisco Collaboration Systems Contact Center Technical Information Site, page 1
• About This Release, page 2
• Using This Information System, page 2
• Cisco Documentation, page 3
Welcome to Cisco Collaboration Systems Contact Center
Technical Information Site
This technical information site describes the Cisco Collaboration Systems Release 11.0(1) contact center, the
Cisco IP solution for distributed contact center applications. The contact center system is part of the Cisco
Collaboration solution. Cisco Collaboration products provide enterprise-class solutions that integrate data and
voice over converged networks.
This site contains system documentation that is presented in the network lifecycle process: Prepare, Plan,
Design, Implement, Operate, and Optimize (PPDIOO). PPDIOO is a Cisco methodology that defines the
continuous lifecycle of customer services.
Each part of the network lifecycle process has a chapter. The opening page in each chapter describes what is
covered in that phase. To learn more about how to navigate through this site, see Using This Information
System, on page 2.
You can also quickly access more resources in the Resource Library and Training Library.
The Critical Path to Successful Deployment
The PPDIOO process is the critical path to launch and complete a successful customer deployment, from the
request for information (RFI) proposal to successful training of operations personnel. The Cisco Collaboration
Systems documentation is used along with the PPDIOO methodology. Each chapter contains a complete task
flow for each phase of the PPDIOO process.
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Audience
Audience
This technical information site is designed for people who are implementing the Cisco Collaboration Systems:
• Cisco partners
• Cisco system engineers (SEs)
• Cisco Technical Assistance Center (TAC) engineers
• Cisco customers, especially decision makers, network designers, and operations personnel
About This Release
This documentation covers Cisco Collaboration Systems Release 11.0(1). If you are upgrading an existing
Cisco Collaboration System, begin by reading the System Release Notes for Contact Center: Cisco Collaboration
Systems, Release 11.0(1) to familiarize yourself with functionality in this new release.
There are two technical information sites for Cisco Collaboration Systems Release 11.0(1). This site for
Contact Center systems, and the site for Collaboration.
Using This Information System
This information system is designed to give you an easily navigable framework for accessing all documentation
for your system, solution, or product. The following topics describe using the information system:
• Types of Topics, on page 2
• Graphics with Hotspots and Popup Text (Image Maps), on page 3
• Where Information Is Located, on page 3
• Tips on Navigating the Information Site, on page 3
Note
Make sure your browser does not block popup windows for this site. If a popup link fails to open, check
your browser settings. Alternatively, press Ctrl when you click the link to override your browser settings.
Types of Topics
When you see a reference to a topic, you can tell what type of topic it is by its name:
• "Doing" topics, such as "Performing a System Upgrade," are task topics, and provide instructions for
doing something.
• "Overview" or "About" topics are concept topics to help you understand and plan your deployment and
carry out tasks knowledgeably.
Some tabs may group topics under headings such as "Planning Concepts" and "Planning Tasks."
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Graphics with Hotspots and Popup Text (Image Maps)
Graphics with Hotspots and Popup Text (Image Maps)
Some graphics may be image maps. An image map may have hotspots that you can run your pointer over to
view a popup description or that you can click to open a linked topic in a secondary window.
Where Information Is Located
Cisco systems and solutions encompass a range of products and technologies, and their documentation
encompasses information that may reside in several locations:
• Overviews and high-level process and procedure information specific to your solution or system are
included directly in the information site.
• Product and technology overviews, detailed requirements, task details, and other more generic topics
are located outside the site. These topics have the appearance of standard Cisco documentation with
which you may already be familiar. Links to these topics appear with a popup icon appended. Clicking
the link opens the topic in a new, secondary browser window offset from the current window, rather
than replacing the current topic in the content pane. You can click the link to view the information when
you need it, and then return to your place in the information site.
• Links with a padlock symbol are available only to people with a Cisco sign in, such as Cisco partners
or registered Cisco.com users with a Cisco service contract center. After clicking the link, sign in when
prompted. A secondary browser window opens. Keep the secondary window open in order to open other
links without having to sign in again.
• Links with [Internal] are available only to Cisco employees.
Tips on Navigating the Information Site
• Use the TOC at the left of the site window to navigate to major topics in a chapter.
• In a secondary popup window:
◦When you are done with the window, click the Close button to close it. (It does not close
automatically.)
◦You can go back to a previous topic by right-clicking and clicking Back.
◦You can view normal browser toolbars, the address bar, and any other browser items that you do
not see by using commands on the View menu.
• Use the Index (click the link at the bottom of any TOC) if you are not sure where to find a topic.
Cisco Documentation
For information on obtaining documentation, submitting a service request, and gathering additional information,
see the monthly What’s New in Cisco Product Documentation, which also lists all new and revised Cisco
technical documentation, at: http://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/td/docs/general/whatsnew/whatsnew.html
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Cisco Documentation
Subscribe to the What’s New in Cisco Product Documentation as a Really Simple Syndication (RSS) feed
and set content to be delivered directly to your desktop using a reader application. The RSS feeds are a free
service and Cisco currently supports RSS version 2.0.
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Prepare
• Introduction to Prepare, page 5
• Cisco Collaboration Systems Features and Benefits Overview, page 6
• Contact Center Overview, page 6
Introduction to Prepare
In the Prepare phase, you evaluate Cisco technologies that address your business needs. Gather information
about your business and technical environment that feeds into the high-level design. Create a business case
for the contact center solution that provides the best return on your investment.
Before You Begin
Understand the features and functions of contact center applications. Start with the high-level information in
the Cisco Collaboration Systems Features and Benefits Overview, on page 6 and the Contact Center
Overview, on page 6, then proceed to the more detailed and release-specific information in the System
Release Notes for Contact Center: Cisco Collaboration Systems Release 11.0(1).
When You Are Done
You have defined and created the following:
• Your business and system requirements
• A basic list of components and applications that match the requirements
Major Concepts and Tasks in This Process
• Cisco Collaboration Systems Features and Benefits Overview, on page 6
• Contact Center Overview, on page 6
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Cisco Collaboration Systems Features and Benefits Overview
Cisco Collaboration Systems Features and Benefits Overview
For details about this Cisco Collaboration Systems Release, see Cisco Collaboration Systems Release 11.0
Solution Overview.
Contact Center Overview
Contact center components are a part of Cisco Collaboration Systems family of products. The contact center
functionality delivers intelligent contact routing, call treatment, network-to-desktop computer telephony
integration (CTI), and multichannel contact management over an IP infrastructure to call center agents anywhere
in the enterprise.
The Cisco IP network infrastructure also permits rapid deployment of emerging applications such as desktop
IP phones, unified messaging, video, desktop collaboration, and enterprise application integration with IP
phone displays.
By combining multichannel automatic call distributor (ACD) functionality with IP telephony in a unified
solution, contact center products help to rapidly deploy a distributed contact center infrastructure. Contact
center software profiles each customer using contact-related data such as dialed number and caller-entered
digits (CED) and, simultaneously, monitors the resources at contact center to meet customer needs, including
agent skills and availability, queue lengths, expected delay, and so on. This combination of customer and
contact center data is processed through user-defined routing scripts that graphically reflect a company's
business rules, thus enabling contact center software to route each contact to the optimum resource anywhere
in the enterprise.
Contact center software enables companies to deploy a complete network-to-desktop CTI strategy, including
comprehensive capability at the agent's workstation. A contact center system delivers a uniquely rich set of
data to business applications, providing enterprise-wide call-event and customer-profile information to a
targeted agent's desktop.
As part of the Cisco Collaboration System, Cisco Unified Contact Center Enterprise solutions enable
organizations to create unique customer-centric experiences. By combining network elements with collaboration
and customer contact applications, contact centers can readily handle large volumes of customer interactions,
whether voice phone calls, video, email, or web-based communications, to provide superior customer service.
The comprehensive portfolio of Cisco customer contact solutions, including Cisco Unified Intelligent Contact
Management Enterprise (Unified ICME) and Cisco Unified Contact Center Enterprise (Unified CCE) offers
more efficient, effective, and accurate service, resulting in increased customer satisfaction. Contacts are routed
to the most appropriate agent, based on business rules and objectives. Advanced computer telephony integration
capabilities provide call event and customer profile information to an agent's desktop. With the flexibility
afforded by products such as the Cisco Jabber and Cisco TelePresence products, agents can work from home
or while traveling.
Cisco Collaboration endpoints range from IP phones to web, mobile, and desktop clients, and deliver voice
and video across devices and intelligently connect to the cloud.
Cisco TelePresence Video Communication Server Expressway (Cisco VCS) works transparently with Unified
CM to provide rich TelePresence services, and also supports on-premises and cloud applications, as well as
interoperability with third-party unified communications, IP telephony networks, and VoIP systems. The
Cisco TelePresence EX Series is an all-in-one tool that streamlines the desktop so you can fluidly move from
individual work on your laptop, to a quick video call with a colleague, to problem-solving over shared
spreadsheets.
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Deployment Models
With voice self-service solutions, including Cisco Unified Customer Voice Portal (Unified CVP), and Cisco
Unified Contact Center Express (Unified CCX), many calls do not require agent assistance. The open
architecture of Unified CVP allows callers to access content also used in web-based interactions, resulting in
a consistent customer experience, regardless of the self-service media channel.
Cisco Unified Intelligence Center (Unified Intelligence Center) offers both a web-based Reporting application
and an Administration interface. The Reporting application is designed for use with report templates that are
populated by the report databases of Unified Contact Center Enterprise and Unified Customer Voice Portal.
The Administration interface supports the Operations, Administration, Maintenance, and Provisioning (OAMP)
of the Reporting application.
Cisco MediaSense is a media recording platform that can be used by compliance recording companies whose
regulatory environment requires all conversations to be recorded and maintained.
The following Cisco hardware and software components make up a complete contact center deployment:
• Cisco Unified Communications Manager (Unified CM), and Cisco Unified Communications Manager
IM and Presence Service for call control management
• Contact center components such as Cisco Unified Contact Center Enterprise (Unified CCE), and Cisco
Unified Contact Center Express (Unified CCX)
• Cisco Unified Intelligence Center for web-based reporting and administration
• Cisco MediaSense for media recording capabilities
• Cisco Unified Customer Voice Portal (Unified CVP) for queuing and self-service
• Conferencing component such as Cisco TelePresence MCU
• Enterprise Edge components such as Cisco TelePresence Video Communication Server, and Cisco
Expressway Series.
• Cisco Unified Border Element for session border controller (SBC), providing voice and video connectivity
from the enterprise IP network to Service Provider SIP trunks
• Endpoints, such as Cisco DX Series, Cisco TelePresence System EX Series, Cisco Unified IP Phone
8961, Cisco Jabber for Windows (Jabber for Windows), Cisco Virtualization Experience Media Engine
(VXME) for Windows, and Cisco Jabber Guest.
• Communications gateway components such as Cisco Integrated Services Routers (ISR).
For more information on contact center features, go to System Features in This Release, on page 8.
Deployment Models
The Cisco Collaboration System supports the deployment models in the following table.
Table 1: Deployment Models
Deployment Models
Description
Single-Site Model
This model is designed for autonomous offices in
which most or all employees are IPC users. This
model can support up to 30,000 users.
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System Features in This Release
Multisite Centralized Call Processing Model
This model is designed for distributed operations with
a large central or headquarters site and multiple
remote or branch sites. This model can support up to
a total of 30,000 phones distributed among up to a
maximum of 1000 sites. Based on the bandwidth
available, each site can support any number of users
up to the overall total of 30,000 phones.
Multisite Distributed Call Processing Model
This model is designed for organizations with large
user populations or large numbers of geographically
distributed sites resulting in the need for more than a
single call processing entity. This model is suited for
deployments that require multiple Cisco Unified
Communications Manager clusters or Cisco Unified
Communications Manager Express platforms. Each
call processing entity in this model is configured as
a single-site model or multisite centralized call
processing model and each has a common dial plan
and feature set.
Clustering Over IP WAN Call Processing Model
This model is designed for organizations with large
user populations across multiple sites that are
connected by an IP WAN with the QoS features
enabled. It supports the Local Failover Deployment
Model and the Remote Failover Deployment Model.
System Features in This Release
The Cisco Collaboration System for Contact Center is a portion of the end-to-end system release for enterprise,
which integrates telephony, conferencing, messaging, and contact center products for enterprise IP customers
in various deployment models using SIP and SCCP terminating devices over IP networks. Cisco Collaboration
Systems are centered on the latest Unified Communications Manager release.
For detailed contact center feature information, see System Release Notes for Contact Center: Cisco
Collaboration Systems Release 11.0(1). For configuration options, see Release Notes for Cisco Unified Contact
Center Enterprise Release 11.0(1) and Cisco Unified Contact Center Express Release Notes 11.0(1).
Base Components and Applications
The contact center includes these software components:
• Cisco Unified Communications Manager—Provides scalable, distributable, and highly available enterprise
IP telephony call-processing capabilities.
• Cisco Unified Contact Center Enterprise (Unified CCE)—Creates an IP-based contact management
solution that provides intelligent call routing, network-to-desktop CTI, and multimedia contact
management.
• Cisco Unified Contact Center Express (Unified CCX)—Provides a multimedia (voice, data, and web),
IP-enabled customer-care application environment that enhances the efficiency of contact centers. It
provides an Integrated Automatic Call Distribution (ACD), Unified IP IVR, and Computer Telephony
Integration (CTI) virtual contact center solution with support for up to 300 agents and 300 Unified ports.
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System Features in This Release
• Cisco TelePresence Video Communication Server (Cisco VCS)—Cisco VCS extends face-to-face video
collaboration across organizations, and to remote workers and mobile users, by supporting any-to-any
video and telepresence communications.
• Cisco TelePresence Video Communication Server Expressway—Cisco VCS Expressway works
transparently with Unified CM to provide rich telepresence services to organizations. Cisco VCS supports
on-premises and cloud applications, offers interoperability with third-party unified communications, IP
telephony networks, and VoIP systems.
• Cisco TelePresence MCU—Designed for the mission-critical communication needs of large enterprises
• Computer Telephony Integration Object Server (CTI OS)—Combines a powerful, feature-rich server,
and an object-oriented software development toolkit to enable rapid development and deployment of
complex CTI applications.
The contact center offers two products that provide self-service call treatment capability:
• Cisco Unified IP IVR—Automates access to account information or user-directed call routing by
processing user commands through touch-tone input or speech-recognition technologies. Unified IP
IVR helps customers who are calling the contact center use voice commands to retrieve the information
that they require without ever speaking with an agent, or to quickly navigate to a customer service agent
who can help them the first time.
• Cisco Unified Customer Voice Portal (Unified CVP)—Integrates time-division multiplexing (TDM)
with IP-based contact centers to provide audio and video call management and call treatment functions.
Unified CVP includes a self-service IVR option that can use information that is available to customers
on the corporate web server. With support for automated speech recognition (ASR) and text-to-speech
(TTS) and self-service capabilities, callers can obtain personalized answers to complex questions and
conduct business without the cost of interacting with a live agent.
More Product Information
Cisco Unified Customer Contact Solutions
Cisco Unified Contact Center Enterprise
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System Features in This Release
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Plan
• Introduction to Plan, page 11
• Planning Concepts, page 12
• Planning Tasks, page 16
Introduction to Plan
In the Plan phase, you assess your readiness to support a proposed solution. Planning continues the needs
analysis begun in the Prepare phase, with the goal of producing a high-level project plan and the initial site
survey.
Before You Begin
Understand the features and functions of contact center applications. Start with the Planning Concepts and
the System Release Notes. Then review the business requirements, deployment models, and sites to understand
the options that are available for your specific environment.
When You Are Done
You have defined and created the following:
• A comprehensive list of components and applications that match the requirements
• A project plan based on those requirements including a proposed, high-level design
Major Concepts and Tasks in This Process
• Planning Concepts, on page 12
• Planning Tasks, on page 16
• Sample Business System Test Beds, on page 16
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Planning Concepts
Planning Concepts
This topic presents planning concepts. It is assumed that your network is a converged network that combines
voice, data, and video and that you have decided on one of network types discussed in the Internetwork Design
Guide.
The primary planning considerations that drive the planning stage are: types of deployment, whether it is a
new installation, a migration to an installation with existing equipment, or an upgrade from a previous release
to the current release; application availability based on your networking needs for multimedia and voice,
security, redundancy, fault tolerance, and the costs associated with your needs.
Your goal is to minimize costs while delivering service that does not compromise established availability and
performance requirements. These issues are essentially at odds. Any increase in availability and performance
must generally be reflected as an increase in cost. As a result, carefully weigh the relative importance of
resource availability, performance constraints, variables, and overall cost.
Note
The concepts discussed in this topic are meant to be a high-level overview of considerations and are not
meant to be a definitive set of rules.
• Deployment Types, on page 12
• Cost of Ownership, on page 13
• Redundancy, on page 13
• Capacity and QoS, on page 14
• Security, on page 14
• Sample Business System Test Beds, on page 16
• Understand Your Call Flows, on page 16
Deployment Types
The deployment types to consider are as follows:
• New installation
◦Greenfield—Completely new installation of the Cisco Collaboration System, using no existing
equipment.
◦Legacy—New installation of the Cisco Collaboration System combined with existing legacy
equipment, such as TDM PBXs and third-party adjuncts, which may require long-term coexistence
and integration or eventual migration to the new installation.
◦Brownfield—Existing Cisco Collaboration System, which requires an upgrade and migration from
a previous system release to the current system release.
• Single-Stage Upgrade
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Cost of Ownership
◦Using existing hardware—All components in the network start at the base release set and all
components can be upgraded to the target release set within a single maintenance window.
◦Using new hardware (flash-cut or shrink-and-grow)—A parallel network should be built using
new hardware and prestaged with configuration to support the existing production network.
• Multistage System Upgrade
◦Using existing hardware (hybrid system)—The components in individual sites can be upgraded
from the base release set to the target release set in stages, during separate maintenance windows.
• Multisite Migration with Independent Site Upgrade
◦Using a hybrid network with interworking release sets—Components are upgraded on a site-by-site
basis during separate maintenance windows. At the completion of each maintenance window, a
hybrid network exists within the multiple sites that have components operating on the base release
set; or components that are operating on the target release set; or components that are a hybrid
system.
Cost of Ownership
Information system budgets can run into millions of dollars. As large organizations increasingly rely on
electronic data for managing business activities, the associated costs of computing resources continue to rise.
Therefore, include the following in your basic network plan:
• Environmental consideration—Include the location of hosts, servers, terminals, and other end nodes;
the projected traffic for the environment; and the projected costs for delivering different service levels.
• Performance constraints—Consider network reliability, traffic throughput, and host and client computer
speeds. For example, network interface cards and hard drive access speeds
• Internetworking variables—Include the network topology, line capacities, packet flow assignments,
redundancy and fault tolerance factors, backward compatibility (coexistence and interoperability), and
security.
Redundancy
Redundancy is critical considering the number of vital business applications running on the network. If you
have a distributed network with several access layers to remote offices, and you have a failure from the
distribution layer to the core without redundancy, you have loss of network service for many people. If you
have redundancy in the distribution layer and the core, you can potentially lose one or more circuits without
disturbing service to any particular group of users. Depending on the application, you may also need some
redundancy from the access layer to the distribution layer.
Because of redundancy, if you drop a link at any one point in the network, every remote group or user still
has a path to get back to the core. Even if you cut off the connection from one of the distribution switches
back to the core, you still have access to the core for every user.
For more information on redundancy planning, see the Redundancy and Load Sharing Design Guide.
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Capacity and QoS
Capacity and QoS
Capacity and QoS are major considerations in a converged network and effect one another. QoS is needed to
prevent applications from using more than a fair share of bandwidth and degrading the performance of other
applications. At the WAN interface, QoS is needed to allocate expensive wide area capacity among applications.
Bandwidth and QoS requirements are easy to figure in a multilayered design because the traffic flow is fairly
predictable. You can also have end-to-end QoS in a multilayered design. End-to-end QoS is critical when you
have real-time applications, such as a voice conversation or video presentation, and you have non-real time
applications that can interfere with the real-time applications. For example, if the real-time and non-real time
applications arrive at the same layer at the same time, the network must pass the real-time packets first, as
well as keep latency and jitter low. QoS end-to-end is the answer.
Consider Call Admission Control (CAC) as an alternative to QoS. CAC limits the amount of traffic allowed
onto the network at the ingress point. Because you know that the network will be congested at various times
during the day, you can disallow more traffic by using CAC. Also consider using traffic-shaping techniques
using a traffic-shaping device. A combination of QoS, CAC, and traffic shaping provides optimal performance
for applications on a converged network.
Managing link speed mismatches is the last element of traffic management. The mismatches, called chokepoints
or bottlenecks, are a basic design issue whenever a large capacity link generates traffic destined for a low
capacity link. To avoid the mismatches, carefully analyze the traffic and the device capabilities, then upgrade
the interface (if needed) and apply a combination of CAC and QoS.
For more information on QoS, see the Enterprise QoS Solution Reference Network Design Guide.
Security
Cisco recommends multiple layers of security technologies to prevent a single configuration error from
jeopardizing the security of the network. Cisco also recommends operational processes that ensure prompt
application of software patches, timely installation of new security technologies, and performance of regular
security audits and assessments.
As you begin to design your network, rank the importance of your network assets and services by considering
these factors:
• What keeps you in business?
• How do you make money?
• Does loss of data or privacy equal lost money?
• What about regulatory compliance?
• How do you protect your critical data?
• Where does voice fit?
Then consider the potential threats to your business, which may include
• Toll fraud
• Eavesdropping
• Address spoofing
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Security
• Fake caller identity
• Media tampering
• Denial of service
• SPAM, SPIT (SPAM over IP telephony), and SPIM (SPAM over Instant Messaging)
In addition to the operational processes, review and consider advanced security technologies. Security
technologies can be categorized as follows:
• Network security
◦Virtual LANs (VLANs)
◦Access control lists (ACLs)
◦Stateful firewalls with protocol aware inspection
◦Virtual Private Networks (VPNs)
◦QoS
◦Dynamic Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) inspection
◦Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) snooping
◦Port security
◦Network intrusion prevention
• Host security
◦Cisco Security Agent
◦Third-party antivirus software
◦Host-based firewalls
◦Hardened operating systems
• User authentication, authorization, and accounting security
◦Phone image authentication
◦Multilevel administration privileges
◦Call detail reporting
For more information about Cisco end-to-end security designs, see the Cisco SAFE guidelines at http://
www.cisco.com/c/en/us/solutions/enterprise/design-zone-security/landing_safe.html. For more details about
Cisco-integrated network security solutions, see the following resources:
• Security Products and Solutions
• Secure Unified Communications
• Cisco Support Community for Security
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Plan
Sample Business System Test Beds
Sample Business System Test Beds
System testing defines and validates the interoperability and stability of components that comprise a complete
and optimized Cisco Collaboration System. The system test includes installing, configuring, and testing contact
center hardware and software that are designed to work together in a predictable, effective, and reliable manner.
Use System Test Beds to Define Your Business Requirements
Cisco Systems has defined real-world business requirements in test beds that utilize the contact center system.
The business requirements were created in a test environment to validate the contact center solution for these
business models.
Test beds define business requirements, agent profiles, and call flows that are typically used by various business
models.
Review these test beds to understand how the contact center system meets real-world business needs. For
additional information on various industry solutions, such as financial markets, see the following URL:
http://www.cisco.com/web/strategy/index.html
Test Beds
These test beds include the Unified CVP Post-Routed call flows in a contact center with local and remote
agents and Unified CCX call flows. For more details, see:
• Unified CCE Test Bed Description
• Unified CCX Test Bed Description
Call Flow Models
The case study methodology is continued for each PPDIOO process by using the deployment models and
sites that were developed for testing.
• Review Tested Deployment Models, on page 27
• Install and Configure System Components, on page 30
• Operating Contact Center Systems, on page 59
• Failover and Redundancy, on page 68
Understand Your Call Flows
Call flow analysis is an important part of determining your business requirements. Call flows show you how
your calls are handled physically, which drives your equipment requirements. Call flows also help to determine
the network routing plan.
Planning Tasks
The following overview shows the high-level tasks of the planning process:
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Plan
Determine Your Business Requirements
• Determine Your Business Requirements, on page 17
• Use Planning Tools and Templates, on page 18
• Understand Your Deployment Options
• Identify System Components, on page 20
• Collect and Analyze Data, on page 20
• Create High-Level Design, on page 21
• Planning a System Installation, on page 18
• Planning a System Upgrade, on page 18
Determine Your Business Requirements
Consider the following factors in your call center:
• Collect requirements
◦Assess user requirements
◦Identify functionality requirements
• Contact center operations
◦Number of sites
◦Agents and types of services
◦Types of calls, call treatment, and call handling
◦Busy hour calls attempts (BHCA) rate
• Call flows
• Installation and upgrade requirements
◦Installation and configuration information
◦Upgrade and migration information
Collecting Requirements
The following are suggested methods to use in gathering information to plan your network:
• Assess User Requirements—Users want applications to be available on demand in the network. The
chief components of application availability are response time, throughput, and reliability. You can
assess user requirements as follows:
◦Develop community profiles of what different user groups require. Although many users have
roughly the same requirements of an electronic mail system, engineering groups using Windows
terminals and Sun workstations in an NFS environment have different needs from PC users sharing
print servers in a finance department.
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Plan
Use Planning Tools and Templates
◦Build a baseline for implementing an internetwork by interviewing groups, forming focus groups,
or using surveys. Some groups might require access to common servers, while others might want
to allow external access to specific internal computing resources. Formal surveys can be used to
get a statistically valid reading of user sentiment regarding a particular service level or proposed
internetworking architecture.
◦Conduct a test involving representative users in a lab environment. This is most applicable when
evaluating response time requirements. As an example, you might set up working systems and
have users perform normal remote host activities from the lab network. By evaluating user reactions
to variations in host responsiveness, you can create benchmark thresholds for acceptable
performance.
• Identify Functionality Requirements—After you understand your internetworking requirements, you
can select the specific functionality that fits your environment, such as the level of application availability
and the implementation costs for that availability. Also, consider fault tolerance and redundancy.
Call Center Operations
See Use System Test Beds to Define Your Business Requirements, on page 16 for information on customer
business requirements such as number of sites, agent profiles, types of calls, call handling and call treatment
options, and sample call flows.
Call Flows
See Understand Your Call Flows, on page 16.
Planning a System Installation
For installation and configuration checklists and documents, see the Installation and Configuration Checklists,
on page 39 topic.
For a list of installation and configuration documents for the software and hardware components that are part
of the Cisco Collaboration Systems contact center products, see the Component Installation and Configuration
Guides, on page 31 topic.
Planning a System Upgrade
When your upgrade plan is in place and you are ready to upgrade, go to Performing a System Upgrade.
Use Planning Tools and Templates
This topic includes planning tools and links to documents that provide guidelines for designing and configuring
your Cisco Collaboration Systems. It also includes information on quoting and ordering Cisco Collaboration
Systems products.
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Plan
Deployment Models
Design Documents
Solution Reference Network Design (SRND) documents provide guidelines, recommendations, and best
practices for implementing enterprise networking solutions. The following guides are recommended for
designing Cisco Collaboration Systems for contact centers:
• Cisco Collaboration Solutions Design Guidance
• Cisco Unified Contact Center Enterprise Design Guides
• Cisco Unified Contact Center Express Design Guides
• Cisco Unified Customer Voice Portal Design Guides
• Cisco MediaSense Design Guides
• Cisco Unified Intelligence Center Design Guides
Note
More planning resources are available at http://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/solutions/enterprise/design-zone/
index.html.
Ordering Guides
Ordering guides for most Cisco Collaboration Systems products are available for Cisco partners, Cisco sales
staff, and Cisco service providers.
Deployment Models
With Cisco Collaboration Systems, you can choose from many deployment options, including cloud computing,
hybrid, and on-premises. The following sections provide deployment model examples and information.
Cisco Preferred Architecture and Cisco Validated Designs
Cisco Preferred Architectures and Cisco Validated Designs (CVDs) help you design and deploy powerful,
comprehensive, and scalable collaboration architectures with collaboration services, such as Cisco Unified
Communications, Video Collaboration, and Contact Center. Cisco Preferred Architectures and CVDs guides
provide the framework for systems design based on common use cases or current engineering system priorities.
Cisco engineers have tested and documented each CVD to help ensure a faster, more reliable, and more
predictable deployment.
• Cisco Preferred Architecture design overviews provide a prescriptive, end-to-end architecture, an
understanding of the individual products and their role in the overall architecture, along with basic design
best practices and a sample Bill of Materials
• CVDs provide detailed design and step-by-step deployment information for collaboration deployments
and are based on Preferred Architectures.
For samples of Cisco Preferred Architecture and CVDs, see Cisco Validated Designs for Collaboration.
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Plan
Identify System Components
Tested Deployment Models
Cisco has developed various site models as standard architectures. These models were tested and optimized
for maximum efficiency and performance. You can derive your network design by choosing the deployment
model that most closely matches your business and then adding the specific features and applications that
meet your business needs.
For information about Contact Center deployment Unified Contact Center Enterprise models tested by the
Collaboration Systems Validation team for this release, go to http://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/td/docs/
voice_ip_comm/uc_system/V11-0-1/TIS/CC-UCCE-CSR1101-TestBed.html.
For information about Contact Center deployment Unified Contact Center Express models tested by the
Collaboration Systems Validation team for this release, go to http://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/td/docs/
voice_ip_comm/uc_system/V11-0-1/TIS/CC-UCCX-CSR1101-TestBed.html.
For information about Collaboration tested deployments and site models for this release, go to http://
www.cisco.com/c/en/us/td/docs/voice_ip_comm/uc_system/V11-0-1/TIS/COL-CSR1101-TestBed.html.
Cisco Collaboration Systems Solution Reference Network Designs (SRND)
For more guidelines, recommendations, and best practices for implementing Collaborations networking
solutions, go to Cisco Collaboration Solutions Design Guidance.
Identify System Components
For links to product documentation of the contact center products tested as part of the Cisco Collaboration
Systems Release 11.0(1), see the Product Documentation topic in the System Release Notes for Contact
Center.
The Compatibility Matrix lists all the components and their versions for a particular release. It is the
recommended set of components and specific software versions that have been tested and verified for
interoperability within a specific system release. For compatibility information prior to Collaboration Systems
Release 10.5(1), refer to the Compatibility Tool.
Use Bill of Materials (BOM) for hardware and software specifications that are compatible with contact center
components:
• Hardware and System Software Specification (Bill of Materials) for Cisco Unified ICM/Unified CC
Enterprise & Hosted Editions—Specifies the hardware and system software compatible with and required
for Cisco Unified ICM and Cisco Unified Contact Center.
• Hardware and System Software Specification for Cisco Unified Customer Voice Portal—Provides
platform hardware specifications and compatible third-party software version requirements across the
major components of the Cisco Unified CVP solution.
• Hardware and System Software Specification (Bill of Materials) for Cisco Unified Intelligence
Center—Specifies the hardware and software that have been qualified by Cisco Quality Assurance for
use with Cisco Unified Intelligence Center (Unified IC).
Collect and Analyze Data
Using available tools, collect data on the network to assess network readiness. Tasks for data collection and
analysis include:
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Plan
Create High-Level Design
• Perform an infrastructure analysis—Obtain floor plans and campus maps, including utilities and conduit
systems, to identify deficiencies in infrastructure.
• Perform a software gap analysis—Do a software gap analysis to address network management tools for
the IP network.
• Perform an initial traffic analysis—Collect data on all potential converged infrastructure traffic flows.
Use station message detail recording (SMDR) and billing records to determine legacy call volumes and
use network management tools to collect key statistics on your IP data network.
Create High-Level Design
When data is collected and analyzed, record the results in the site survey and high-level design documents.
Preparing for Your System Installation
Before the actual installation process, review the release set versions of the contact center components being
installed, and dependencies impacting system installation.
For more information, see:
• Cisco Collaboration Systems Compatibility Matrix
• Limitations and Restrictions
When your installation plans are in place and you are ready to install components, go to Performing Your
System Installation, on page 31.
Preparing for Your System Upgrade
Note
There may be more than one upgrade path based on the software deployed in your specific environment.
For more information, see Upgrade Paths.
Before the actual upgrade process, review the different contact center components, upgrade release versions
of components involved in the upgrade, and upgrade dependencies and considerations.
For more information, see:
• Cisco Collaboration Systems Compatibility Matrix
• Limitations and Restrictions
When your upgrade plan is in place and you are ready to upgrade, go to Performing Your System Installation,
on page 31.
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Plan
Preparing for Your System Installation
Cisco Collaboration Systems for Contact Center Release 11.0(1)
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CHAPTER
4
Design
• Introduction to Design, page 23
• Design Concepts, page 24
• Using SRND Documents, page 24
• Using Design Tools and Templates, page 25
• Design Tasks, page 26
Introduction to Design
Using the project plan that was developed in the Plan phase, develop a detailed design for each site and the
entire network. At a minimum, the network design contains:
• Routing and switching component connectivity
• WAN connectivity intra- and intersites
• Software applications and configurations for routers and switches
• Power and environment
• Security
• Redundancy and failover
• Disaster recovery
Also, for each site, include phone circuitry, equipment racks with cabinet locations, and layouts. Encompasses
your network call processing, conferencing, and messaging requirements in each site. Make the design scalable
for future growth.
Before You Begin
Review information about the Cisco Validated Design and Preferred Architecture. Cisco Validated Designs
consist of systems and solutions that are designed, tested, and documented to facilitate and improve customer
deployments.
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Design
Design Concepts
Review Solution Reference Network Design (SRND) documents and design tools. Gather requirements and
data, which can include:
• Business and system requirements
• Service-level agreements (SLAs)
• Capacity (bandwidth) requirements
• Site survey and proposal from the project plan
When You Are Done
The main deliverable of the Design phase is the detailed design, including:
• Deployment models that you can use at your site: see Review Tested Deployment Models, on page 27)
• Network diagrams: see Network Topology Diagrams, on page 48 in the Resource Library for editable
Microsoft Visio network drawings
• Routing strategy
• Redundancy
• Call flows
• Traffic flows
• Equipment flows
• Bill of materials
Major Concepts and Tasks in This Process
• Design Concepts, on page 24
• Design Tasks, on page 26
Design Concepts
Read the following conceptual, overview topics for the background knowledge to build an intelligent design.
• Using SRND Documents, on page 24
• Using Design Tools and Templates, on page 25
Using SRND Documents
Solution Reference Network Design (SRND) documents provide guidelines, recommendations, and best
practices for implementing enterprise networking solutions. The following SRNDs are recommended for
designing Cisco Collaboration systems:
• Cisco Collaboration Communications System SRND Based on Cisco Unified Communications Manager
10.x
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Design
Using Design Tools and Templates
• Cisco Unified Communications SRND Based on Cisco Unified Communications Manager 9.x
• Cisco Unified Communications SRND Based on Cisco Unified Communications Manager 8.x
• Cisco Unified Communications SRND Based on Cisco Unified Communications Manager 7.x
• Cisco Unified Contact Center Enterprise SRND Release 9.x
• Cisco Unified Contact Center Enterprise SRND Release 8.x
• Cisco Unified Contact Center Enterprise SRND Release 7.x
• Cisco Unified Contact Center Express SRND Release 9.0
• Cisco Unified Contact Center Express SRND Release 8.5(1)
• Cisco Unified Contact Center Express SRND Release 7.0
• Cisco Unified Customer Voice Portal (CVP) 9.x SRND
• Cisco Unified Customer Voice Portal (CVP) 8.5(x) SRND
• Cisco Unified Customer Voice Portal (CVP) 8.x SRND
• Solution Reference Network Design for Cisco MediaSense Release 8.5(4)
• Cisco Unified Intelligence Center Solution Reference Network Design (SRND)
• Enterprise QoS System Reference Network Design
Note
Additional SRND resources are available at http://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/solutions/enterprise/
design-zone-medianet/landing_vid_medianet.html.
Using Design Tools and Templates
Use these design tools to assist you in sizing your network.
• Tools such as the IPC Resource Calculators, are intended to simplify and automate the process of sizing
contact center resources that are required for specific contact center business operations. The tools are
also useful for verifying and troubleshooting existing installations. The output from these tools can also
be used as input to the Cisco Unified Contact Center Express Configuration and Ordering Tool.
• Cisco Collaboration Sizing Tool
A web-based tool that assists users with hardware sizing of large or complex Cisco Collaboration Systems
solutions by calculating the call processing requirements for products that have a major impact on
performance and scalability. With the Cisco Collaboration Sizing Tool, system engineers with Cisco
Collaboration Systems solution experience or individuals with equivalent abilities can design and model
solutions for existing and prospective customers. The tool requires various types of information to
calculate the minimum size and type of devices required for a solution, such as the type and quantity of
IP phones, gateways, and media resources. For most device types, the tool also requires the average
number of call attempts per hour per device during the busy hour (known as busy hour call average or
BHCA) and the average utilization time. The resulting calculations produced by the tool can be saved,
copied, and sent to other users.
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Design
Design Tasks
The output from the Cisco Collaboration Sizing Tool includes the count and size mix of Virtual Machines,
which can be used with the Cisco Collaboration Virtual Machine Placement Tool.
• Cisco Collaboration Virtual Machine Placement Tool
A web-based tool that assists users to determine the placement of virtual machines and the hardware
design for virtualized Collaboration solutions.
The tool requires the user to have sized the applications and know which and how many Virtual Machines
to use. So use the Cisco Collaboration Sizing Tool before you use the Cisco Collaboration Virtual
Machine Placement Tool.
For additional information on design tools such as the Cisco Collaboration Sizing Tool, and other system
design topics, see the documentation wiki (DocWiki) at: http://docwiki.cisco.com/wiki/Unified_
Communications_System_Design
Design Tasks
The following list is an overview of the design process and is not meant to represent an ordered sequence of
tasks:
• Identify System Components, on page 20
• Review Tested Deployment Models, on page 27
• Review System Caveats, on page 27
• Develop Traffic Engineering Specifications, on page 27
• Define Security Policies, on page 28
• Additional Sites and Services
Identify System Components
For links to product documentation of the contact center products tested as part of the Cisco Collaboration
Systems Release 11.0(1), see the Product Documentation topic in the System Release Notes for Contact
Center.
The Compatibility Matrix lists all the components and their versions for a particular release. It is the
recommended set of components and specific software versions that have been tested and verified for
interoperability within a specific system release. For compatibility information prior to Collaboration Systems
Release 10.5(1), refer to the Compatibility Tool.
Use Bill of Materials (BOM) for hardware and software specifications that are compatible with contact center
components:
• Hardware and System Software Specification (Bill of Materials) for Cisco Unified ICM/Unified CC
Enterprise & Hosted Editions—Specifies the hardware and system software compatible with and required
for Cisco Unified ICM and Cisco Unified Contact Center.
• Hardware and System Software Specification for Cisco Unified Customer Voice Portal—Provides
platform hardware specifications and compatible third-party software version requirements across the
major components of the Cisco Unified CVP solution.
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Design
Review Tested Deployment Models
• Hardware and System Software Specification (Bill of Materials) for Cisco Unified Intelligence
Center—Specifies the hardware and software that have been qualified by Cisco Quality Assurance for
use with Cisco Unified Intelligence Center (Unified IC).
Ordering Tools
• Ordering guides for most Cisco Collaboration Systems products for Cisco partners, Cisco sales staff,
and service providers
• Cisco Unified Contact Center Express Ordering tool
Review Tested Deployment Models
The tested deployment models reflect the business requirements that were introduced on the Prepare and Plan
tabs that require a contact center system.
Each deployment model was installed, configured, and tested with hardware and software designed to work
together seamlessly and to provide a complete and optimized contact center solution. The tested deployment
models provide you with guidance for your design and implementation. Compare your design to these models
to see if they have similar characteristics. Where your requirements are different, do a risk analysis. See
Design Documents, on page 19 to help you with your design decisions.
Topic
Description
Unified CCE Test Bed Description
Provides components, topologies, and site definitions
for the Unified CCE and Unified CCX deployments
that were tested.
Unified CCX Test Bed Description
Review System Caveats
System caveats describe unexpected behavior, defects, and product limitations discovered during system-level
testing of Cisco Collaboration Systems components. Check the Limitations and Restrictions section in the
latest release notes to make sure that your design has taken all system caveats into consideration.
Develop Traffic Engineering Specifications
• Traffic Analysis for Voice over IP—Provides background information on various traffic analysis concepts
and features that are applicable to Voice over IP (VoIP). This document presents fundamental traffic
theory, several statistical traffic models, application of traffic analysis to VoIP networks, and an end-to-end
traffic analysis example.
• Bandwidth Calculators —The following tools are available to calculate bandwidth for contact center
systems.
◦Cisco Agent Desktop (CAD)
◦Cisco Unified Intelligence Suite and Intelligence Center Bandwidth Calculator
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Design
Define Security Policies
◦HDS WebView
The output from these tools can also be used as input to the Cisco Unified Contact Center Express
Configuration and Ordering Tool.
• Cisco Unified Contact Center Enterprise Sizing Tool—This tool is available to Cisco partners and
employees only, with proper sign in authentication. This tool helps size the Unified CCE resources
required to meet the needs of a specific contact center. It also provides data that can be used as input for
other capacity planning and sizing tools, such as the Cisco Unified Communications Manager Capacity
Tool, and the Unified CVP and Cisco IP IVR sizing tools.
In addition, these third-party traffic engineering tools are provided for your reference:
• VoIP Bandwidth Calculator
• Online Erlang traffic calculators
The Cisco Collaboration System 11.x Solution Reference Network Designs (SRND) also includes information
on sizing your contact center components.
Define Security Policies
Refer to security policies in these guides:
• Cisco Unified Communications Manager Security Guide
• Specific component documentation is available in the Component Resources Documentation for Contact
Center, on page 75 topic in the Resource Library.
More security information is included here for your reference:
• Cisco Self-Defending Network
• Design Zone for Security
• Cisco Security Intelligence Operations
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CHAPTER
5
Implement
• Introduction to Implementation, page 29
• Order Equipment, page 30
• Install and Configure System Components, page 30
• Introduction to Troubleshooting, page 40
• Conduct User Acceptance Test, page 52
Introduction to Implementation
The goal of implementation is to introduce the new system into the network with the least amount of disruption
and the highest level of interoperability with the existing network. An essential component of this process is
the implementation plan.
Before You Begin
You should understand how to implement Cisco Collaboration Systems. For more information, see Cisco
Unified Communications Implementation.
You should have a completed implementation plan from the detailed design. Use the equipment list and site
specification from the detailed design to do the following:
• Order and stage equipment
• Perform a detailed site survey
• Create site-specific installation guidelines
Your implementation plan should include:
• Deployment strategy
• Network maps and topology diagrams
• Installation and commissioning tests
• Site survey results
• List of all devices to be installed
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Implement
Order Equipment
• Installation guidelines
• Configuration worksheets
• Test and turn-up plan
When You Are Done
All components are installed and ready to configure.
Major Tasks in This Process
• Order Equipment, on page 30
• Install and Configure System Components, on page 30
• Introduction to Troubleshooting, on page 40
• Conduct User Acceptance Test, on page 52
Order Equipment
This topic includes links to ordering guides and descriptions of tools that you need to choose your ordering
options.
Ordering Guides
Ordering guides for most Cisco Collaboration Systems products are available for Cisco partners, Cisco sales
staff, and Cisco service providers.
Install and Configure System Components
When implementing a new Cisco Collaboration System, create a site-specific installation plan for your team.
Describe what to install and configure. Reference product-specific installation and configuration guides in
Component Installation and Configuration Guides, on page 31.
Your plan helps you manage timelines for implementing equipment and scheduling outages. Include an
installation schedule, and a test plan that verifies that the operation conforms to the design objectives.
Planning a System Installation, on page 18 provides guidance for the installation order of components for a
Cisco Collaboration Systems Release 11.0(1) contact center deployment. It does not describe installation
procedures for individual components. For links to the complete documentation set for each contact center
system component, see Resource Library, on page 71.
The following topics provide additional information for installing and configuring individual contact center
products:
• Component Installation and Configuration Guides, on page 31 provides a complete list of components
and links to related installation and configuration documents.
• Installation and Configuration Checklists, on page 39 provides checklists for installing and configuring
some of your contact center components.
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Implement
Performing Your System Installation
• Component Compatibility and Interoperability, on page 39 provides links to information about
compatibility between Cisco products and with third-party systems or a hardware platform.
For system configuration examples, and other system implementation topics, see the documentation wiki
(DocWiki) at: http://docwiki.cisco.com/wiki/Unified_Communications_System_Implementation
When You Are Done
Components are configured and ready to test:
• For basic standalone operation
• For interoperability in your applications
• Acceptance Test Plan is completed
Performing Your System Installation
Before You Begin
See Planning a System Installation, on page 18 to plan your overall strategy.
Install Contact Center Software Components
After you have your installation plan and preparations in place, perform your system installation by following
the guidelines and sequence in the individual product installation and configuration guides.
• See Component Resources Documentation, on page 75 for links to component installation and upgrade
documents.
Component Installation and Configuration Guides
The following table provides references to installation and configuration documents for the software and
hardware components that are part of the Cisco Collaboration Systems Release 11.0(1) contact center solution.
This information includes component names and related documentation.
Table 2: Component Installation and Configuration Documentation
Product Technology
Components
Documentation Title
Call Control
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Implement
Component Installation and Configuration Guides
Product Technology
Cisco Unified
Communications
Manager and Cisco
Unified
Communications
Manager IM and
Presence Service
Components
• Cisco Unified
Communications
Manager
• Cisco Unified
Communications
Manager IM and
Presence Service
• Cisco Real-Time
Monitoring Tool
• Music on Hold
• Cisco Security Agent
(only as a standalone
agent)
• Third-party Antivirus
Contact Center
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Documentation Title
• Install and Upgrade
Guides
• Configuration
Guides
• Maintain and
Operate
Implement
Component Installation and Configuration Guides
Product Technology
Cisco Unified
Contact Center
Enterprise
Components
Documentation Title
• Cisco Unified Contact
Center Enterprise
• Install and Upgrade
Guides
• Progger (Peripheral
Gateway, CallRouter,
and Logger)
• Configuration
Guides
• Rogger (CallRouter
and Logger)
• Maintain and
Operate Guides
• Generic Peripheral
Gateway
• Cisco Unified Contact
Center Gateway
Enterprise
• Cisco Unified Contact
Center System
Gateway
• Media Routing
Peripheral Gateway
• CTI Server
• Real-Time Admin
Workstation (RTAW)
• Historical Data Server
• Cisco Outbound
Option
• Cisco Unified Mobile
Agent
• Cisco Security Agent
• Windows 2003
Active Directory
• Third-party Antivirus
Cisco Unified
Intelligence Center
Cisco Unified Intelligence
Center
• Install and Upgrade
Guides
• Maintain and
Operate Guides
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Implement
Component Installation and Configuration Guides
Product Technology
Components
Cisco MediaSense
Cisco MediaSense
Documentation Title
• Install and Upgrade
Guides
• Configuration
Guides
Cisco Finesse
Cisco Finesse
• Install and Upgrade
Guides
• Configuration
Guides
• Maintain and
Operate
Cisco Unified
Customer Voice
Portal
• Cisco Unified
Customer Voice
Portal
• Unified CVP Call
Servers
• Cisco Unified CVP
Reporting Server
• Cisco Unified CVP
Operations Console
• HTTP Media
Server/Web Server
• Cisco Unified Call
Studio
• Nuance OSR
• Nuance OSMS
• Cisco Security Agent
• Third-party video
components
• Third-party Antivirus
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• Install and Upgrade
Guides
• Configuration
Guides
Implement
Component Installation and Configuration Guides
Product Technology
Components
Documentation Title
Cisco Unified
Contact Center
Express
Cisco Unified Contact
Center Express
• Install and Upgrade
Guides
• Configuration
Guides
• Maintain and
Operate Guides
Cisco SocialMiner
Cisco SocialMiner
• Maintain and
Operate
Cisco Remote Expert Cisco Remote Expert
Mobile
Mobile
• Install and Upgrade
Guides
• Configure
Conferencing
Cisco TelePresence
Conductor
Cisco TelePresence
Conductor
• Install and Upgrade
Guides
• Configure
Cisco TelePresence
MCU
• Cisco TelePresence
MCU 5300 Series
• Install and Upgrade
Guides
• Configuration
Guides
• Maintain and
Operate Guides
Enterprise Edge
Cisco TelePresence
Video
Communication
Server
• Cisco TelePresence
Video
Communication
Server
• Install and Upgrade
Guides
• Configuration
Guides
• Maintain and
Operate Guides
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Implement
Component Installation and Configuration Guides
Product Technology
Components
Cisco Expressway
Series
Cisco Expressway
Documentation Title
• Install and Upgrade
• Configuration
Guides
• Maintain and
Operate Guides
Cisco Unified Border Cisco Unified Border
Element
Element
• Configuration
Guides
• Maintain and
Operate
Endpoints
Cisco DX Series
Cisco DX Series
• Install and Upgrade
Guides
• End-User Guides
• Maintain and
Operate Guides
Cisco TelePresence
System EX Series
Cisco TelePresence System
EX Series
• Install and Upgrade
Guides
• End-User Guides
• Maintain and
Operate Guides
Cisco Unified IP
Phones 6900 Series
Cisco Unified IP Phone
6901, 6911, 6921, 6941,
6945, 6961
Cisco IP Phone 7800 Cisco IP Phone 7800 Series
Series
• End-User Guides
• Maintain and
Operate Guides
• Install and Upgrade
Guides
• End-User Guides
• Maintain and
Operate Guides
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Product Technology
Cisco Unified IP
Phones 7900 Series
Components
Documentation Title
• Cisco Unified IP
Phone (SCCP) 7942,
7945, 7962, 7965,
7975
• Cisco Unified IP
Phone 7931G, 7941G,
7961G (Wireless)
Cisco IP Phone 8800 Cisco IP Phone 8800 Series
Series
• Install and Upgrade
Guides
• End-User Guides
• Maintain and
Operate Guides
• Install and Upgrade
Guides
• Programming
Guides
Cisco Unified IP
Phones 8900 Series
• Cisco Unified IP
Phone 8941, 8945,
8961
• Install and Upgrade
Guides
• End-User Guides
• Maintain and
Operate Guides
Cisco Unified IP
Phone 9900 Series
Cisco Unified IP Phone
9900 Series
• Install and Upgrade
Guides
• End-User Guides
• Maintain and
Operate Guides
Cisco Jabber for Mac Cisco Jabber for Mac
Cisco Jabber for
Windows
Cisco Jabber for Windows
• Install and Upgrade
Guides
• Install and Upgrade
Guides
• User Guides
• Maintain and
Operate
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Product Technology
Cisco Virtualization
Experience Media
Engine
Components
• Cisco Virtualization
Experience Media
Engine for Windows
Documentation Title
• Install and Upgrade
Guides
• End-User Guides
• Cisco Virtualization
Experience Media
Engine for SUSE
Linux
Cisco Jabber for
iPhone and iPad
Cisco Jabber for iPhone and
iPad
• Install and Upgrade
Guides
• User Guides
• Licensing
Cisco Jabber Guest
Cisco Jabber Guest
• Install and Upgrade
• Maintain and
Operate Guides
Service Management
Cisco Prime
Collaboration
• Cisco Prime
Collaboration
Provisioning
• Cisco Prime
Collaboration
Assurance
• Cisco Prime
Collaboration
Deployment
• Install and Upgrade
• Configure
• Maintain and
Operate
• Cisco Prime
Collaboration
Deployment
Administration
Guide
Licensing
Cisco Prime License Cisco Prime License
Manager
Manager
• Maintain and
Operate
Communications Gateways
Cisco Unified SIP
Proxy
Cisco Unified SIP Proxy
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Installation and Configuration Checklists
Product Technology
Components
Documentation Title
Cisco 4400 Series
Integrated Services
Routers
Cisco 4400 Series
Integrated Services Routers
• Install and Upgrade
Guides
• Configure
Cisco 3900 Series
Integrated Services
Routers
Cisco 2900 Series
Integrated Services
Routers
• Cisco 3900 Series
Integrated Services
Routers
Cisco 2900 Series
Integrated Services Routers
• Install and Upgrade
Guides
• Configuration
Guides
• Install and Upgrade
Guides
• Configuration
Guides
Installation and Configuration Checklists
Use the checklists from the following documents to install and configure the required components for your
applications.
Note
The order in which you install components depends on your site. Follow the order recommended in your
site-specific implementation plan.
• Installing Cisco Unified Communications Manager
• Installation Guide for Cisco Unified ICM/Contact Center Enterprise & Hosted
• Installation and Configuration Guide Cisco Unified Contact Center Enterprise
• Cisco Contact Center Gateway Deployment Guide for Cisco Unified ICME/CCE/SCCE/CCX
• Getting Started with Cisco Unified Contact Center Express
Component Compatibility and Interoperability
Use the following links to access commonly used interoperability and compatibility information for Cisco
products with each other, with a third-party system, or with a computer hardware platform.
• Cisco Collaboration Systems Compatibility Matrix (For compatibility information prior to Collaboration
Systems Release 10.5, refer to the Compatibility Tool.)
• Cisco Unified Communications Manager Compatibility Information
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Software Versions and System Caveats
• Cisco Unified Contact Center Enterprise Software Compatibility Guide
• Cisco Unified Contact Center Express Software and Hardware Compatibility Guide
• Cisco Interoperability Portal
• Hardware and System Software Specification (Bill of Materials) for Cisco Unified ICM/Contact Center
Enterprise & Hosted
• Cisco Unified Communications Manager Server Support Matrix
Software Versions and System Caveats
For specific information on product software versions used, see Cisco Collaboration Systems Compatibility
Matrix. For compatibility information prior to Collaboration Systems Release 10.5, refer to the Compatibility
Tool.
For information on system limitations and known caveats, see System Release Notes for Contact Center:
Cisco Collaboration Systems Release 11.0(1).
Call Flow Configuration Examples
Sample configuration commands for infrastructure components that are involved in the call flows are in
downloadable zip files for all test bed components in the Resource Library.
For system-level configuration examples, see Configuration Examples and TechNotes.
Introduction to Troubleshooting
This topic describes how to develop a system-level troubleshooting methodology as you install and configure
a Cisco Collaboration Systems network for the first time. It also provides recommendations for preparing and
documenting the network that may assist you in diagnosing and isolating problems when they occur. This
topic contains the following sections:
• System Troubleshooting Methodology, on page 40
• Preparing Your Network for Troubleshooting and Recovery, on page 48
For more information about system-level troubleshooting, see the Cisco Collaboration Systems category on
the documentation wiki (DocWiki) at: http://docwiki.cisco.com/wiki/Unified_Communications_System_
Troubleshooting
System Troubleshooting Methodology
The Implementation phase of your network deployment is an excellent time to develop a methodology for
troubleshooting the network as a whole. Troubleshooting networking equipment at a system level requires
solid detective skills. When a problem occurs, the list of potential suspects is long. Collect detailed information
and systematically narrow the list of potential causes to determine the root problem. This topic does not provide
step-by-instructions for resolving problems that occur during network installation. Instead, this topic describes
sound methods for troubleshooting your network using the following general steps:
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1 Gather Information on the Problem, on page 41
2 Isolate Points of Failure, on page 43
3 Apply Tools to Determine the Problems Root Cause, on page 45
Gather Information on the Problem
Problems are typically discovered and reported by one of the following types of users:
• External customers dialing into a call center to order products, obtain customer service, and so forth.
• Internal agents receiving incoming calls from a call queue or initiating outbound collection calls to
customers.
• Internal users using administrative phones to call employees in other company locations or PSTN
destinations, and perform basic actions such as call transfers and dialing into conferences.
As the network administrator, you must collect sufficient information from these users to allow you to isolate
the problem. Detailed, accurate information will make this task easier. The following table lists recommended
questions to ask users when they report a problem. As you turn up your network, you may consider putting
these questions in an on-line form. A form will encourage users to provide more details about the problem
and also put them into the habit of looking for particular error messages and indicators. Capturing the
information electronically will also permit you to retrieve and re-examine this information in the future, should
the problem repeat itself.
Table 3: Questions to Ask Users When They Report Problems
Ask this Question...
To Determine...
Did something fail or did it simply perform
poorly?
Whether the issue relates to system degradation or a
connectivity failure. An example of a failure is when
a user dials a phone number and hears fast busy tone.
An example of a performance problem is when a user
dials into a conference call and hears “choppy” audio
when other parties speak. Quality of service or
performance issues require a different approach than
connectivity or operational problems. You must still
isolate the potential sources of the problem, but you
will typically use performance management tools
instead of log files.
What device were you trying to use?
The device type, model and version of software
installed. It is also critical to capture the IP address
assigned to the device, as well as its MAC address.
If the case of IP phones, determining the phone’s
active Cisco Unified Communications Manager server
is also important. On Cisco Unified IP phones, these
important network values can be displayed by
pressing the Settings button and choosing the Network
Configuration option from the menu.
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Ask this Question...
To Determine...
Did it ever work?
If a device was recently installed and the problem
occurred while making it work for the first time, or
if the device was operating normally before the
problem occurred. If the device was newly installed,
the problem is most likely due to improper
configuration or wiring of that particular device.
Problems with devices that are already up and running
can typically be traced back to one of two causes: (a)
the user modifying their device, such as changing
their configuration or upgrading software, or (b) a
change or failure elsewhere in the network
Exactly what action(s) did you perform?
The steps that led up to the problem, including which
buttons were pressed and in which order. Capturing
this information in detail is important so that you can
consistently reproduce the problem.
What error message(s) appeared or
announcements did you hear?
The visual and audio indicators of the problem. Ask
users to provide the exact text that appears and any
error codes in either an email or on-line form. If the
error indication was audible, ask the user to write
down the announcement they heard, the last menu
option they were able to successfully choose or the
tone they heard when the call failed.
What time did the problem occur?
The date and time to compare against entries in log
files. If the problem occurred on a Cisco Unified IP
phone, make certain the user provides the timestamp
that appears on their phone’s display. Several Cisco
components in a network may capture the same
problem event in separate log files, with different ID
values. In order to correlate log entries written by
different components, you must compare the
timestamps to find messages for the same event. Cisco
Unified IP phones synchronize their date and time
with their active Cisco Unified Communications
Manager server. If all Cisco components in the
network use Network Time Protocol (NTP) to
synchronize with the same source, then the
timestamps for the same problem messages will match
in every log file.
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Ask this Question...
To Determine...
What is the number of the phone you used and
what was the phone number you called?
If the problem relates to a WAN or PTSN link, or a
Cisco Unified Communications Manager dial plan
issue. Ask the user the phone number he or she dialed
(called number) and determine if the destination was
within his or her site, another site within the corporate
network, or a PSTN destination. Because the calling
number (the number of the phone used) also affects
call routing in some cases, capture this number as
well.
Did you try to perform any special actions, such
as a transfer, forward, call park, call pickup, or
meet-me conference? Is the phone set up to
automatically perform any of these actions?
If the problem is not directly related to the calling
number or called number but rather to the
supplementary service setup on Unified
Communications Manager or the problem is at the
destination phone the user tried to reach by
transferring or forwarding the call.
Did you attempt the same action on another
device?
If the problem is isolated to that user’s device or
represents a more widespread network problem. If
the user cannot make a call from his or her phone,
ask the user to place a call to the same destination
using a phone in a nearby office.
Isolate Points of Failure
After collecting information on the symptoms and behavior of the problem, to narrow the focus of your efforts:
• Identify the specific devices involved in the problem.
• Check the version of software running on each device.
• Determine if something has changed in the network.
• Verify the integrity of the IP network.
Identify Devices Involved in the Problem
In large- to medium-sized networks, it is crucial to identify the specific phones, routers, switches, servers,
and other devices that were involved in a reported problem. Isolating these devices allows you to rule out
most equipment within the network and focus your time and energy on suspect devices. To help you isolate
which devices were involved in a problem, two types of information can prove invaluable:
• Network topology diagrams: We recommend that you have one or more diagrams that show the
arrangement of all Cisco Collaboration Systems products in your network. These diagrams illustrate
how these devices are connected and also capture each device’s IP address and name (you may want to
also have a spreadsheet or database of the latter information). This information can help you visualize
the situation and focus on the devices that may be contributing to the reported problem. See Network
Topology Diagrams, on page 48 for recommendations on how to prepare these diagrams.
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• Call flow diagrams: Cisco equipment, including Unified Communications Manager servers, typically
provide detailed debug and call trace log files. To interpret these log files, however, it is useful to
understand the signaling that occurs between devices as calls are set up and disconnected. Using the
network topology and call flow diagrams with the log files, you can trace how far a call progressed
before it failed and identify which device reported the problem. Examples of using call flow diagrams
for problem isolation are shown in Troubleshooting Daily Operations, on page 59.
Check Software Release Versions for Compatibility
After you have identified which devices may be involved in the problem, verify that the version of software
running on each device is compatible with the software running on every other device. As part of Cisco
Collaboration Systems Release 11.0(1) verification, Cisco Systems has performed interoperability and load
testing on simulated network environments running specific software versions.
However, if the combination of releases installed in your network does not match the values in the System
Release Notes, it does not necessarily mean that the combination is invalid. To check interoperability for a
specific device and software release, locate and review its individual Release Notes. Release Notes contain
up-to-date information on compatibility between the product and various releases of other products. This
document also describes open caveats, known issues that may cause unexpected behavior. Before beginning
extensive troubleshooting work, examine the Release Notes to determine if you are experiencing a known
problem that has an available workaround.
Note
The open caveat information in the Release Notes contains links to the Bug Search. The Bug Search
requires that you are a Cisco partner or a registered Cisco.com user with a Cisco service contract. To
access the Bug Search, go to the http://tools.cisco.com/bugsearch//
Determine If Network Changes Have Occurred
Before focusing on the particular device or site where the problem occurred, it may be useful to determine if
a change was made to surrounding devices. If something has been added, reconfigured or removed from
elsewhere in the network, that change may be the source of the problem. We recommended that you track
changes to the network such as:
• New agent phones added
• Modifications to Cisco Unified Communications Manager call routing settings, such as new directory
numbers, route patterns, and dial rules to support new sites or devices
• Changes to port configurations on switches, routers, or gateways (new equipment, wiring changes, or
new port activation)
• Changes to IP addressing schemes (such as adding new subnets) that may have affected route tables
Verify the IP Network Integrity
Always remember that Cisco Collaboration equipment relies on a backbone IP network. Many connectivity
problems are not caused by configuration errors or operational failures on Cisco devices, but rather by the IP
network that interconnects them. Problems such as poor voice quality are typically due to IP network congestion,
while call failures between locations may be the result of network outages due to disconnected cables or
improperly configured IP route tables.
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Before assuming that call processing problems result from Cisco Collaboration devices themselves, check
the integrity of the backbone IP network. Keep the OSI model in mind as you perform these checks. Start
from the bottom, at the physical layer, by checking that end-to-end cabling. Then verify the status of Layer
2 switches, looking for any port errors. Move from there to confirm that the Layer 3 routers are running and
contain correct routing tables. Continue up the OSI stack to Layer 7, the application layer. To resolve problems
occurring at the top levels of the stack, a protocol analyzer (or "sniffer") may be useful. You can use sniffer
to examine the IP traffic passing between devices and also decode the packets. Sniffers are useful for
troubleshooting errors between devices that communicate using Media Gateway Control Protocol (MGCP)
or Session Initiation Protocol (SIP).
Apply Tools to Determine the Problems Root Cause
After you have eliminated the IP network as the source of the problem and you have isolated the specific
Cisco Collaboration components involved, you can start applying the many diagnostic tools provided by Cisco
components.
The following table lists the diagnostic tools and supporting troubleshooting documentation available for most
components in a contact center network. This summary table is provided for reference only. The procedures
in Troubleshooting Daily Operations, on page 59 specify when to use each tool and provide links to the
troubleshooting instructions where appropriate.
Table 4: Contact Center Component Troubleshooting Tools and Documentation
Component
Information Available In...
Call Control
Cisco Unified Communications Manager and IM
and Presence Service
• Troubleshooting Guides for Cisco Unified
Communications Manager
Contact Center
Cisco Unified Contact Center Enterprise
• Troubleshoots and Alerts
• DocWiki: Troubleshooting Tips for Unified CCE
• Troubleshooting TechNotes
Cisco Unified Contact Center Express
• Troubleshooting Guides
• Troubleshooting TechNotes
Cisco Unified Customer Voice Portal
• Troubleshooting Guides
• Cisco Support Tools User Guide for Cisco Unified
Software
• Troubleshooting TechNotes
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Component
Cisco Unified Intelligence Center
Cisco Finesse
Cisco MediaSense
Cisco SocialMiner
Cisco Remote Expert Mobile
Information Available In...
• Troubleshooting TechNotes
• Troubleshooting TechNotes
• Troubleshooting Guides
• Troubleshoot and Alerts
• Support
Conferencing
Cisco TelePresence Conductor
Cisco TelePresence MCU 5300 Series
• Troubleshoot and Alerts
• Troubleshooting Guides
• Troubleshooting TechNotes
Enterprise Edge
Cisco TelePresence Video Communication Server
• Troubleshooting Guides
• Troubleshooting TechNotes
Cisco Expressway Series
• Troubleshooting Guides
• Troubleshooting TechNotes
Cisco Unified Border Element
Endpoints
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Component
Information Available In...
Cisco Phones
• End-User Guides
◦Cisco Unified IP Phone 6900 Series
◦Cisco IP Phone 7800 Series
◦Cisco IP Phone 7900 Series
◦Cisco Unified IP Phone 8900 Series
◦Cisco Unified IP Phone 9900 Series
• Maintain and Operate Guides, “Troubleshooting and
Maintenance” chapters
◦Cisco Unified IP Phone 6900 Series
◦Cisco Unified IP Phone 7900 Series
◦Cisco Unified IP Phone 8900 Series
◦Cisco Unified IP Phone 9900 Series
• Error Message Decoder
• Output Interpreter
• Troubleshooting TechNotes
◦Cisco IP Phone 7800 Series
◦Cisco IP Phone 8800 Series
Cisco DX Series
• End-User Guides
Cisco TelePresence System EX Series
• Troubleshooting Guides
• Troubleshooting TechNotes
Cisco Jabber for Mac
• Troubleshoot and Alerts
Cisco Jabber for Windows
• Troubleshooting TechNotes
Cisco Virtualization Experience Media Engine
Cisco Jabber Guest
• End-User Guides
• Troubleshooting TechNotes
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Component
Information Available In...
Service Management
Cisco Prime Collaboration Provisioning,
Assurance, and Deployment
• Troubleshooting Guides
• Troubleshooting TechNotes
Communications Gateways
Cisco Unified SIP Proxy
• Troubleshoot and Alerts
Cisco 3900 Series Integrated Services Router
(ISR)
• Troubleshooting Guides
Cisco 2900 Series Integrated Services Router
(ISR)
• Troubleshooting Guides
• Troubleshooting TechNotes
Cisco 4400 Series Integrated Services Router
(ISR)
• Troubleshoot and Alerts
Preparing Your Network for Troubleshooting and Recovery
Before your network becomes operational, you can take several proactive steps to make troubleshooting easier,
including:
• Produce network topology diagrams to help you isolate potential sources of problems.
• Synchronize the date and time on all servers.
• Set trace and logging levels on key devices so that diagnostic information is available when problems
occur.
• Create IVR flowcharts that illustrate how calls are routed between agents and sites.
Network Topology Diagrams
One of the first lines of defense is possessing current topology information. One of the most important pieces
of topology information is a detailed network diagram (created using Microsoft Visio or a similar application).
At a minimum, your network topology diagrams includes the following information:
• The name assigned to each major device (typically the DNS name)
• IP addresses for all devices in the network
◦Addresses for each router, core, and access switch
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◦Addresses for all telephony and application servers, including the IP address for each server in a
Cisco Unified Communications Manager cluster
◦DHCP address range for addresses assigned to termination points such as IP phones and agent
workstations
• Phone extension number ranges assigned to sets of agents or users, and the main inbound dial-up numbers
for each location. This information is useful in resolving dial plan configuration errors.
• WAN IP and PSTN links between sites.
This information is critical for isolating which components are involved in a particular problem. For medium
to large networks, you may want to take a layered approach in your diagrams. Create a high-level diagram
that illustrates the overall physical layout of your network, including all sites and the links between them.
Then for each site, create more diagrams that show detailed addressing information, port numbers, and dial
plan configurations.
Note
Frequent adds, changes, and upgrades to your network can quickly make these diagrams out-of-date.
Inaccurate diagrams slow down the troubleshooting process and may lead to misdiagnosing the problem.
Remember to keep these diagrams as current as possible.
The following figure shows a typical high-level topology diagram for a two sites in a contact center network.
Agents accepting calls from customers are located in a central distribution site in Kansas, while the equipment
supporting interactive voice is located in a data center in San Francisco.
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Synchronizing Server Date and Time
The best resources for diagnosing problems within your network are the debug and trace log files produced
by individual Cisco devices. Tracing can be enabled on multiple devices and the log file output compared to
isolate problems. To correlate messages for the same activity in different log files, compare the message time
stamps and the source device MAC and IP addresses (there is no universal call ID value shared between Cisco
devices). Synchronize every device to the same date and time source so that the time stamps match. To
accomplish this synchronization, set each device to obtain its date and time from the same Network Time
Protocol (NTP) source.
For Cisco IOS-based devices (switches, routers, or voice gateways), you can configure each device to act as
an NTP client and periodically poll a master NTP source using the following command:
ntp server ip-address [version number] [key keyid] [source interface] [prefer]
More IOS commands are available to establish a device as an NTP peer (operating as the master source for
other devices), and setting up NTP broadcasting instead of polling. See the Using the Cisco IOS Command-Line
Interface for details about these IOS commands.
Recommended Trace and Logging Settings
To have diagnostic information available when you begin to research problems, configure devices in your
network to capture signaling, processing, and other activity in log files.
Cisco Unified Communications Manager Trace Settings
Trace settings for Cisco Unified Communications Manager servers are maintained using the Cisco
Communications Manager Serviceability graphical interface. There are two ways to set trace logging levels
for Unified Communications Manager services:
• Customize trace levels for individual parameters: This approach offers a high-degree of control and
flexibility over the trace output. To use this approach, you should understand not only the significance
of each parameter, but also the impact of tracing on Unified Communications Manager server performance.
For example, setting trace levels to “Error” has a minimal impact to CPU cycles while leaving the “Detail”
level set for long periods of time may impact call processing. For instructions on setting individual trace
levels, see the Cisco Unified Serviceability Administration Guide, “Configuring Trace” chapter.
• Apply predefined trace levels: This approach allows you to quickly enable and disable tracing for each
Unified Communications Manager service based on predefined levels. You can also use these default
troubleshooting trace settings with customized settings to temporarily override your custom settings.
For instructions on using the Troubleshooting Trace Settings option in the Cisco Unified Communications
Manager Serviceability interface, see the Cisco Unified Serviceability Administration Guide, “Configuring
Troubleshooting Trace Setting Configuration” chapter.
Debug Trace Settings for Unified IP IVR System
If you encounter any problems with the Unified CCX platform and Unified IP IVR system, activate the
following debug trace settings to generate debug logs:
• For Unified CCX platform issues: SS_TEL, SS_ICM, and LIB_ICM.
• For JTAPI Client issues: Enable all Trace Levels and select all debug levels except MISC_DEBUGGING.
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However, turn off the trace settings if you experience any degradation in performance during heavy load
situations.
IVR Flowcharts
In a contact center environment, another tool that can help you troubleshoot call processing problems is a
flowchart that traces the call routing process based on the interactive voice response (IVR) menu choices that
callers make. traces the processing of an incoming call received by a central distribution site. The call receives
a voice treatment prompting the call to select between three menu options or hold for an agent. The flowchart
indicates which set of agents receives the call based on the menu option selected, and describes the capacity
(number of agents) in the particular skill set group.
For calls received during high traffic periods, with more than 20 calls queued up for agents, the flowchart
indicates that the announcements played to the callers and how the calls are routed. This type of flowchart is
useful for troubleshooting problems reported by external users (customers). While shows a fairly simple
example, where calls stay within a particular site, some contact center applications may overflow calls to other
sites. In those cases, the overflow calls may traverse an IP WAN to a secondary site and may be handled by
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extra devices. In situations like that, view a network topology diagram for the secondary site to trace the call
processing.
Figure 1: Interactive Voice Response Flowchart Example
Conduct User Acceptance Test
After the components are configured and integrated with other Collaboration System applications, the field
engineer prepares the system for the user acceptance test. Test scripts are run and compared against expected
results. Any variability in network performance is noted and addressed before the user acceptance test.
Testing the customer solution involves the following tasks:
• Determine the user acceptance test parameters and deliverables and record these in the user acceptance
test plan.
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• Conduct a prelaunch test—Using an incremental approach, test the solution against the system design
in a low-risk environment with limited users. If the system is stable, the rollout pace is increased until
the full implementation is operational.
• The customer signs the Ready-for-Use Acceptance Letter acknowledging that the acceptance test yielded
satisfactory results.
Train Users
The final stage of the Implement phase is to help ensure that the customer’s system administration team and
users are trained to take over management of the new system.
Cisco Systems offers several training and certification programs for customers to maximize the usage of their
newly adopted systems. See Using the Training Library, on page 69 for more information on Cisco training
websites and videos on demand (VODs).
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6
Operate
• Introduction to Operating the System, page 55
• Managing Your System, page 56
• Backing up and Restoring Components, page 57
• Using Network Monitoring Tools, page 58
• Operating Contact Center Systems, page 59
• Troubleshooting Daily Operations, page 59
Introduction to Operating the System
To ensure that your network operates efficiently and reliably, maintain system and performance management
practices as part of your daily operations. These practices include scheduled routine maintenance; keeping
maintenance records; and maintaining up-to-date upgrade, troubleshooting, and recovery strategies.
Before You Begin
User acceptance testing is completed and any problems that surfaced have been resolved. Users have been
trained in using the new system.
Output of This Process
The Operations phase produces data and performance criteria that provide crucial information for optimizing
your system.
Major Tasks in This Process
• Managing Your System, on page 56
• Backing up and Restoring Components, on page 57
• Using Network Monitoring Tools, on page 58
• Operating Contact Center Systems, on page 59
• Troubleshooting Daily Operations, on page 59
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Managing Your System
This topic provides a high-level summary of the ongoing tasks that are required for managing your system
and the options for how these tasks can be performed. For detailed maintenance and operation guides for each
component in your Cisco Collaboration System, see the product documentation listed in the Resource Library.
System Management Tasks
Managing a Cisco Collaboration System consists of performing the following activities:
• Integrating monitoring and management tools—Select, order, configure, integrate, and test a set of tools
for monitoring and managing the Cisco Collaboration System.
• Monitoring—Set thresholds, monitor events, and generate notifications when service-impacting events
occur.
• Ticketing—Generate and track system trouble tickets for each event.
• Diagnosing incidents—Analyze and troubleshoot incidents to determine the cause.
• Resolving incidents—Define and execute an action plan which can include performing break and fix
activities, applying software updates and patches, managing hardware replacements, and executing
change management processes.
• Managing changes in the network—Define a change management process for performing moves, adds,
changes, and disconnects (MACDs) for your Cisco Collaboration System including network devices,
phones or clients, software upgrades, voice mailboxes, dial plan updates, security patches, OS applications,
and voice applications.
• Archiving configurations—Back up device configurations daily and restore device configurations when
necessary.
• Managing voice as a network service—Track, measure, and resolve quality of service (QoS) issues such
as jitter, delay, and dropped packets, and monitor service level agreements (SLAs) with service providers.
• Managing security posture—Detect, analyze, and address security events.
• Reporting—Define, develop, and generate performance, availability, event, and inventory reports.
• Backing up and restoring system components—Define backup methodologies and schedules, define a
verification process for backups, secure storage of backups, and document backup processes.
System Management Options
There are two options for managing a Cisco Collaboration System:
• Do It Yourself—In this model, you are responsible for managing the entire Cisco Collaboration System.
This approach requires developing business processes; integrating, provisioning, and maintaining network
management tools; and developing data and voice management skills and knowledge.
• Out Tasking Hybrid Model—Using the Cisco Software Support Services, Cisco offers complete coverage
that keeps your software applications running smoothly and protects your investment with a powerful
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combination of services. Those include software updates and upgrades, 24-hour technical support, and
access to Cisco online troubleshooting tools.
Backing up and Restoring Components
This topic provides details on backup and restore for Cisco Collaboration Systems components. First, incorporate
the backup of Cisco Collaboration Systems components into your corporate-wide backup operations. It is an
important aspect of disaster recovery and is also essential before doing component upgrades. If you do not
have a process in place, develop and document a backup and recovery management process. Some items to
consider for this process are the following:
• Provide proper storage of operating system and Cisco Collaboration Systems application CDs.
• Define incremental and full backup methodologies and schedules, assign an owner for each Collaboration
Systems component and database server.
• Define a verification process for backups:
◦Monitor backup logs on a daily basis for errors.
◦Periodically restore backup images to ensure validity.
• Secure onsite and offsite storage of backups.
• Develop documented processes for system and configuration restoration.
• Ideally, provide central locations (for example, SFTP servers) for backup of data from all the Cisco
Collaboration Systems components.
The following topics provide backup and restore details on a component basis along with links to the appropriate
component documentation:
• Cisco Unified Communications Manager, on page 57
• Cisco Unified Contact Express, on page 58
• Cisco Unified Contact Management Enterprise, on page 58
• Cisco Unified Communication Manager IM and Presence Service, on page 58
For more information on backing up and restoring Collaboration Systems components, and other system
operations topics, see the documentation wiki (DocWiki) at http://docwiki.cisco.com/wiki/Unified_
Communications_System_Operations.
Cisco Unified Communications Manager
Cisco Unified Communications Manager provides the Disaster Recovery System (DRS) for full backup and
restore for all servers in a Unified Communications Manager cluster. The DRS performs a cluster-level backup,
which means that it collects backups for all servers in a Unified Communications Manager cluster to a central
location and archives the backup data to a physical storage device (tape or SFTP). For customers with multiple
clusters, DRS must be configured per cluster.
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DRS is invoked through the Unified Communications Manager Platform Administration. It allows you to
perform scheduled (daily, weekly, monthly) automatic or user-invoked backups. DRS only supports a single
backup schedule at a time. It provides a history (last 20 operations) of backup and restore operations.
Note
DRS does not support hostname or IP address change during restore. For more information about the
Disaster Recovery System, see the Disaster Recovery System Administration Guide for Unified
Communications Manager.
Cisco Unified Contact Express
Unified Contact Center Express (Unified CCX) and Unified IP Interactive Voice Response (Unified IP IVR)
uses the Disaster Recovery System (DRS) for full data backup and restore capabilities. For more information
on DRS for these two products, see the Disaster Recovery System Administration Guide for Cisco Unified
Contact Center Express.
Cisco Unified Contact Management Enterprise
For Cisco Unified Contact Management Enterprise, the Microsoft backup strategies for SQL Server are
recommended. For more information, see the Disaster Recovery System Administration Guide for Unified
Communications Manager.
Cisco Unified Communication Manager IM and Presence Service
Cisco Unified Communication Manager IM and Presence Service uses the Disaster Recovery System (DRS)
for full data backup and restore capabilities of all IM and Presence Service Administration functions. For
more information, see the IM and Presence Disaster Recovery System chapter in Disaster Recovery System
Administration Guide for Unified Communications Manager.
Using Network Monitoring Tools
The Cisco Unified Communications Management Suite allows businesses to actively monitor their Cisco
Collaboration Systems solution to discover potential problems, maintain quality and user satisfaction, and
help minimize service downtime. The following network monitoring tool is available for contact center
deployments:
• Cisco Prime Collaboration, on page 59
For more information about network monitoring, and other system operations topics, see the Cisco Collaboration
Systems category on the documentation wiki (DocWiki) at: http://docwiki.cisco.com/wiki/Cisco_Unified_
Communications.
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Cisco Prime Collaboration
Cisco Prime Collaboration removes management complexity and provides automated, accelerated provisioning,
real-time monitoring, proactive troubleshooting, and long term trending and analytics in one integrated product.
The solution delivers a premier operations experience through an intuitive user interface and optimized operator
methodology, including automated workflows that ease implementation and ongoing administration.
Provisioning features include automated processes for Cisco Collaboration Systems and Cisco TelePresence®.
An intuitive user interface provides a single view of a subscriber and the subscriber's services, and a consolidated
view of subscribers across the enterprise. With these capabilities, Cisco Prime Collaboration significantly
accelerates site rollouts and dramatically reduces the time required for ongoing changes. In addition, by
simplifying moves, adds, and changes, the solution facilitates delegation of these tasks, allowing organizations
to optimize IT resources and further reduce total cost of ownership.
Cisco Prime Collaboration provides efficient, integrated service assurance management through a single,
consolidated view of the Cisco voice and video collaboration environment. This includes continuous, real-time
monitoring and advanced troubleshooting tools for Cisco Collaboration Systems and Cisco TelePresence
systems including the underlying transport infrastructures.
For details, go to Cisco Prime Collaboration.
Operating Contact Center Systems
Sample call flows were tested and verified for the test bed in the contact center system.
Troubleshooting Daily Operations
This topic describes how to diagnose and resolve system-level problems that occur during daily operations
of a Cisco Collaboration Systems network. It contains the following sections:
• Common Problems Reported by Users, on page 59
• Failover and Recovery Procedures, on page 65
For an expanded list of general problem areas, and other system troubleshooting topics, see the documentation
wiki (DocWiki) at: http://docwiki.cisco.com/wiki/Unified_Communications_System_Troubleshooting
Common Problems Reported by Users
This section describes basic approaches to diagnose and resolve common problems reported by users. This
section demonstrates various tools and diagnostic approaches available in the context of specific problems,
but does not provide a comprehensive list of all possible problems that may occur. Problems described in this
section include:
• One-Way Audio, on page 60
• Poor Voice Quality, on page 63
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One-Way Audio
One-way audio and no audio at all (no-way audio) are problems that are fairly common during a new network
installation. Misconfiguration causes most of these problems. For one-way audio problems, always pay
attention the direction in which the one-way audio is occurring. For no audio in either direction, the
troubleshooting methodology is the same. You might need to repeat the procedure for each direction of audio,
but more likely you will find the source of the problem when trying to troubleshoot one direction. There are
several steps you can take to troubleshoot a one-way/no-way audio problem:
1 Verify Bidirectional IP Connectivity, on page 60
2 Check Cisco IOS Software Gateway Configurations, on page 61
3 Check for NAT or Firewall Restrictions, on page 62
For more directions on troubleshooting one-way audio problems, refer to the Troubleshooting One-Way Voice
Issues Tech Note.
Verify Bidirectional IP Connectivity
Verify IP connectivity as the first step in troubleshooting a one-way or no-way audio problem because IP
connectivity must be present for voice packets to be exchanged between two devices. Lack of IP connectivity
causes many one-way or no-way audio problems. Check that:
• If the two terminating devices involved in the call are on different IP subnets, each device has the correct
default gateway and subnet mask settings.
• If one of the devices is a Unified IP Phone, the DHCP scope has an incorrectly configured default
gateway parameter.
• If one of the devices is a Cisco IOS software gateway, the default route is correct. Also, ping the other
end from the gateway. If the ping is successful, you know that you have IP connectivity. If the ping is
unsuccessful, perform a traceroute to determine where the problem lies.
Note
Remember that signaling packet traffic is always between Unified Communications Manager and the
terminating device, whereas the RTP voice packet traffic is directly between the devices. So just because
the devices are registered to Unified Communications Manager and can set up a call through Unified
Communications Manager does not mean that the devices have proper IP connectivity between them.
Another useful tool for troubleshooting such a problem is the help (i or ?) button on Cisco Unified IP phones.
Press the help (i or ?) button twice in quick succession during an active call. The display shows you receive
and transmit statistics for the call. If you do not see the receive counter (RxCnt) incrementing, the packets
are probably not arriving on that IP phone. If you go to the originating IP phone and the transmit count (TxCnt)
is incrementing, the packets are probably being lost somewhere in the network. If a ping or traceroute does
not provide enough information about where the packets are being lost, you may need to connect a sniffer to
the network and perform the following steps:
1 Connect the sniffer to the back of the originating IP phone and verify that the phone is actually transmitting
packets.
2 On the originating phone, verify that the IP address and MAC address information is correct.
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3 If the network settings on the originating phone are correct, go to the terminating IP phone to verify that
the packets are not arriving.
4 If the voice packets are not arriving at the terminating phone, move the sniffer from network hop to network
hop to isolate where the packets are being dropped. A common reason for a problem such as this is a
missing or improperly configured IP route.
Check Cisco IOS Software Gateway Configurations
There are various reasons why you might encounter one-way audio on calls to a Cisco IOS software gateway.
Most of these problems can be solved using simple configuration commands.
1 Check if IP routing is enabled on the gateway that you are using—You do not need to run a routing protocol
such as RIP, EIGRP, or OSPF, but IP routing must not be disabled. Make sure that the no ip routing
command is not in your configuration. If it is, be sure to eliminate it by configuring the ip routing
command. You can also issue the show ip route command to see if IP routing is enabled. If IP routing
is disabled, there are no routes listed in the output, and the list of routing protocols is not present.
2 Determine if the VoIP subsystem is enabled—The VoIP subsystem in Cisco IOS software uses the IP
routing code to aid in encapsulating and sending the VoIP packets, so the subsystem must be enabled to
send and receive VoIP packets. It does not need the IP routing code to perform signaling such as H.323
or MGCP, so the signaling still works with IP routing disabled.
3 Check IP address configurations on gateway interfaces—Another common occurrence of one-way audio
appears on Cisco IOS software H.323 voice gateways that have more than one data interface, such as a
gateway that has both an Ethernet connection to the LAN and a serial connection to the WAN. When an
H.323 gateway is configured in Cisco Unified Communications Manager Administration, you configure
a specific IP address. Cisco Unified Communications Manager always uses this IP address for all its
signaling to the gateway. However, Cisco IOS software voice gateways by default use the IP address of
the interface that is closest to the destination. This could be a problem if Unified Communications Manager
is connected through one interface and the device to which the RTP audio stream is destined for is connected
to a different interface. To force the voice gateway to always use the same IP address, configure the
h323-gateway voip bind srcaddr ip-address command on the interface that you are using for signaling
on the Cisco IOS software voice gateway. Make sure this is the same IP address configured in Cisco
Unified Communications Manager Administration. Failure to do so could result in one-way audio when
the gateway tries to use a different source interface than the one configured in Unified Communications
Manager.
4 Configure voice rtp send-recv on the gateway—Sometimes you have one-way audio problems only
when calling specific numbers, such as 411 or 911 in the North American numbering plan (NANP) or
after you transfer a call or put it on hold. If you are having these problems when going through a Cisco
IOS software voice gateway, be sure that the voice rtp send-recv command is configured on the gateway.
Numbers such as 411 and 911 sometimes do not send back answer supervision (that is, an ISDN connect
message) when the remote end answers. As a result, the Cisco IOS software voice gateway does not cut
through audio in both directions to prevent toll fraud. Configuring the voice rtp send-recv command
forces the voice gateway to cut through audio in both directions immediately.
5 If you are using a Cisco AS5350 or AS5400 as a gateway, configure the no voice-fastpath enable
command in global configuration mode—When enabled, this command causes the voice gateway to cache
the IP address and UDP port number information for the logical channel opened for a specific call and
forwards the packets using the cached information. This helps marginally reduce CPU utilization in
high-call-volume scenarios. Because of how Cisco Unified Communications Manager opens and closes
logical channels to redirect RTP audio streams, such as in the case of a transfer or music on hold (MOH)
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server, the Cisco AS5350 and AS5400 cache the IP address information of the old IP address. Therefore,
you end up with one-way audio when the call gets redirected to a new IP address because the voice gateway
still uses the cached information instead of the newly negotiated information.
Check for NAT or Firewall Restrictions
One common cause of one-way or no-way audio is when Network Address Translation (NAT), Port Address
Translation (PAT), or firewalls exist between two terminating devices. The SCCP protocol embeds IP addresses
in the IP packet's payload to signal which IP address to send RTP packets to. If the device performing NAT
or PAT is unaware of this fact, the embedded IP addresses are not translated. Therefore, one-way or no-way
audio results.
Firewalls can also be a problem if they are unaware of the voice traffic passing through them. Firewalls are
often configured to block all UDP traffic going through them. Because voice traffic is carried over UDP, it
might be blocked while the signaling carried over TCP is passed. A sniffer is the best tool for debugging such
a scenario. If both devices appear to be sending audio but the audio is not reaching the opposite side, take a
sniffer trace at each hop along the way until you find the hop where the audio is not passing through. If the
firewall is blocking UDP packets, you might need to open a hole in it to allow the voice traffic to pass through.
Problems Occurring After the Call Connects Successfully
The scenarios discussed so far are cases in which you have one-way audio or no-way audio from the beginning
of the call or after a hold or transfer. Occasionally, however, you might encounter scenarios in which a call
is up and suddenly becomes one-way or audio disappears entirely. Network problems are largely to blame
for failures of this sort. Ensure that network connectivity between the two terminating devices still exists and
that nothing on the network might be causing intermittent network connectivity. An example would be a
flapping network connection—a network connection that is transitioning between up and down states over
and over again—or a routing protocol that cannot converge correctly. Again, a sniffer is the best tool for
diagnosing this kind of problem. The best place to start is on the device that originates the RTP stream to
ensure that the stream is still being generated when the loss of audio occurs. If you discover that the originating
device stops sending packets for no reason, you might be dealing with a software or hardware problem on the
originating device.
A common cause of such a failure is a Digital Signal Processor (DSP) crash. If the device is a Cisco IOS
software voice gateway, you see an error displayed on the console that looks similar to the following:
%VTSP-3-DSP_TIMEOUT: DSP timeout on event 6: DSP ID=0x2312: DSP error stats
This message is also sent to a Syslog server if the Cisco IOS software voice gateway is configured to send
Syslog information to a Syslog server. On a Cisco VG200, 2600, or 3600, you can issue the following command
to check the status of the DSPs:
test dsprm slot #
The show voice dsp command displays which port and time slot are allocated to each DSP. If the test dsprm
slot # command detects a DSP that has crashed, you can compare this with the information obtained from
a show call active voice command (or a show call history voice command if the call has been
disconnected) to see if the time slot of the failed call is the same as the slot of the DSP that is no longer
available. Unfortunately, the only way to recover from this condition is to reload the gateway.
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Poor Voice Quality
Nearly all voice quality problems can be attributed to degradation on the IP network that the voice traffic
traverses. Network problems that might not be noticeable for normal data traffic are apparent in a voice
conversation because of the need to minimize packet loss and variable delay in a collaboration network.
Various issues can result in poor voice quality:
• Packet Drops, on page 63
• Queuing Problems, on page 65
In addition to the information in this section, refer to the Troubleshooting QOS Choppy Voice Issues document
on Cisco.com for more techniques on resolving voice quality issues.
Packet Drops
IP telephony demands that voice packets reach their destination within a predicable amount of time and without
being dropped somewhere along the path from the source to the destination. In a properly designed network
with appropriate QoS provisioning in place, packet loss should be near zero. All voice codecs can tolerate
some degree of packet loss without dramatically affecting voice quality. Upon detecting a missing packet, the
codec decoder on the receiving device makes a best guess as to what the waveform during the missing time
should have been. Most codecs can tolerate up to five percent random packet loss without noticeable voice
quality degradation. This assumes that the five percent of packets being lost are not being lost at the same
time, but rather are randomly dropped in groups of one or two packets. Losing multiple simultaneous packets,
even as a low percentage of total packets, can cause noticeable voice quality problems.
Note
Design your network for zero packet loss for packets that are tagged as voice packets. A converged voice
and data network should be engineered to ensure that only a specific number of calls are allowed over a
limited-bandwidth link. Guarantee the bandwidth for those calls by giving priority treatment to voice
traffic over all other traffic. For more information on prioritizing voice over data, refer to the Voice Quality
information available on Cisco.com.
There are various tools that you can use to determine whether you are experiencing packet loss in your network
and where in the network the packets are getting dropped. The starting point to look for lost packets is the
call statistics screen on Cisco Unified IP Phones.
1 Do one of the following:
• If you are troubleshooting at the phone experiencing the problem, access these statistics by pressing
the help (i or ?) button on the IP phone twice in quick succession during an active call.
• If you are working with a remote user, open a web browser on your computer and enter the IP address
of the user’s phone. During an active call, choose the Streaming Statistics > Stream 1 options from
the display.
2 Examine the counters RxDisc and RxLost shown on the IP phone (or Rcvr Lost Packets if you are viewing
the statistics remotely using a web browser).
• RxLost measures the number of packets that were never received because they were dropped in the
network somewhere. By detecting a missing RTP sequence number, the IP phone can determine that
a packet has been lost.
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• RxDisc corresponds to packets that were received but were discarded because they could not be used
at the time they arrived. RxDisc can come from an out-of-order packet or a packet that arrived too
late.
3 If either of these two counters increments, investigate to learn why packets are being lost or discarded.
Regardless of how low your packet loss is, if it is not zero, investigate the root cause because it might be a
sign of a bigger problem that will get worse with higher call volume. Also, although small packet loss might
not be perceptible in a conversation between two people, it can be detrimental to fax and modem transmissions.
The packet loss can be occurring at any layer of the OSI model, so be sure to check for all possibilities for
each hop. For example, if there is a Frame Relay connection over a T1 between two sites:
• Make certain that there are no errors at the physical layer on the T1.
• Determine if you are exceeding your committed information rate (CIR) on the Frame Relay connection.
• Verify that you are not dropping the packets at the IP layer because you are exceeding your buffer sizes.
• Check that you have your QoS improperly configured.
• Ensure that your service provider not only guarantees packet delivery but also guarantees a low-jitter
link. Some service providers may tell you that they do not provide a CIR but guarantee that they will
not drop any packets. In a voice environment, delay is as important as packet loss. Many service providers'
switches can buffer a large amount of data, causing a large amount of jitter.
One common cause of drops in an Ethernet environment is a duplex mismatch, when one side of a connection
is set to full duplex and the other side is set to t half duplex. To determine if this is so, perform the following
steps:
1 Check all the switch ports through which a given call must travel and ensure that there are no alignment
or frame check sequence (FCS) errors. Poor cabling or connectors can also contribute to such errors;
however, duplex mismatches are a far more common cause of this kind of problem.
2 Examine each link between the two terminating devices that are experiencing packet loss and verify that
the speed and duplex settings match on either side.
Although duplex mismatches are responsible for many packet loss problems, there are many other opportunities
for packet loss in other places in the network as well. When voice traffic must traverse a WAN, there are
several places to look. First, check each interface between the two terminating devices, and look for packet
loss. On all Cisco IOS software platforms, you can find this information using the show interface command.
If you are seeing dropped packets on any interface, there is a good chance that you are oversubscribing the
link. This could also be indicative of some other traffic that you are not expecting on your network. The best
solution in this case is to take a sniffer trace to examine which traffic is congesting the link.
Sniffers are invaluable in troubleshooting voice quality problems. With a sniffer, you can examine each packet
in an RTP stream to see if packets are really being lost and where in the network they are being lost. To
troubleshoot using a sniffer, perform the following steps:
1 Start at the device that is experiencing the poor-quality audio where you suspect packet loss.
2 Take a sniffer trace of a poor-quality call and filter it so that it shows you only packets from the far end
to the device that is hearing the problem. The packets should be equally spaced, and the sequence numbers
should be consecutive with no gaps.
3 If you are seeing all the packets in the sniffer trace, continue taking traces after each hop until you get a
trace where packets are missing.
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4 When you have isolated the point in the network where the packet loss is occurring, look for any counters
on that device that might indicate where the packets are being lost.
Queuing Problems
Queuing delay can be a significant contributor to variable delay (jitter). When you have too much jitter
end-to-end, you encounter voice quality problems. A voice sample that is delayed over the size of the receiving
device's jitter buffer is no better than a packet that is dropped in the network because the delay still causes a
noticeable break in the audio stream. In fact, high jitter is worse than a small amount of packet loss because
most codecs can compensate for small amounts of packet loss. The only way to compensate for high jitter is
to make the jitter buffer larger, but as the jitter buffer gets larger, the voice stream is delayed longer in the
jitter buffer. If the jitter buffer gets large enough such that the end-to-end delay is more than 200 ms, the two
parties on the conference feel like the conversation is not interactive and start talking over each other.
Remember that every network device between the two terminating devices involved in a call (switches, routers,
firewalls, and so on) is a potential source of queuing or buffering delays. The ideal way to troubleshoot a
problem in which the symptoms point to delayed or jittered packets is to use a sniffer trace at each network
hop to see where the delay or jitter is being introduced.
For more information on jitter, refer to the Understanding Jitter in Packet Voice Networks document on
Cisco.com.
Failover and Recovery Procedures
The Disaster Recovery System (DRS), which can be invoked from Cisco Unified Communications Manager
Administration, provides full data backup and restore capabilities for all servers in a Cisco Unified
Communications Manager cluster. The Disaster Recovery System allows you to perform regularly scheduled
automatic or user-invoked data backups. DRS supports only one backup schedule at a time.
The Cisco Disaster Recovery System performs a cluster-level backup, which means that it collects backups
for all servers in a Cisco Unified Communications Manager cluster to a central location and archives the
backup data to physical storage device.
When performing a system data restoration, you can choose which nodes in the cluster you want to restore.
The Disaster Recovery System includes the following capabilities:
• A user interface for performing backup and restore tasks.
• A distributed system architecture for performing backup and restore functions.
• A scheduling engine to start tasks at user-specified times.
• Archive backups to a physical tape drive or remote sftp server.
The Disaster Recovery System contains two key functions, Master Agent (MA) and Local Agent (LA). The
Master Agent coordinates backup and restore activity with all the Local Agents. The system automatically
activates both the Master Agent and the Local Agent on all nodes in the cluster. However, you can only access
the Master Agent functions on the first node of the cluster.
For more information on the Cisco Unified Communications Manager Disaster Recovery System, see the
Disaster Recovery System Administration Guide for Unified Communications Manager.
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Optimize
• Optimizing Your System, page 67
• Upgrade Contact Center Software Components, page 67
• Failover and Redundancy, page 68
Optimizing Your System
Optimization covers any changes to an existing system, including hardware and software upgrades, that
enhance the functionality and performance of your network.
Collecting and analyzing data from your system's performance reports provides crucial information for
optimizing your system. By maintaining the routine system management procedures that you set up for your
operations lifecycle, you know when your traffic load increases and when to expand capacity.
Input to This Process
Your network has been operational for some time and is ready to be optimized based on system performance
criteria. Your daily operations and growing business needs provide continuous feedback for optimization.
Output of This Process
User feedback, audits, and test results provide data to continue optimizing the system.
Major Tasks in This Process
• Upgrade Contact Center Software Components, on page 67
• Failover and Redundancy, on page 68
Upgrade Contact Center Software Components
After you have your upgrade plan and preparations in place, perform your system upgrade by following the
guidelines and sequence in Component Installation and Configuration Guides, on page 31.
• See Collaboration Deployments model chapter in the 11.x SRND
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Failover and Redundancy
Failover testing was done to verify the redundancy and failover capabilities of specific components such as
gatekeepers, WAN access routers, and the private connection between the Roggers in the data centers. Failover
testing is typically done with:
• Contact center components that have redundancy capabilities in a failure
• Contact center components that did not have redundancy capabilities in a failure
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Training Library
This section includes training resources to help you learn more about Cisco Collaboration Systems. The
training resources are organized by audience:
• General Training, on page 69 contains links to courses and videos on demand (VoDs) for a general
audience.
• Training Available to Partners, on page 70 contains resources for Cisco partners and resellers.
• Training Available to Cisco Employees, on page 70 contains resources available for internal use only.
These categories list online and instructor-led courses, VoDs to download, and links to online events and
webcasts.
• Using the Training Library, page 69
Using the Training Library
This section includes training resources to help you learn more about Cisco Collaboration Systems. The
training resources are organized by audience.
These categories list online and instructor-led courses, VoDs to download, and links to online events and
webcasts.
General Training
These Cisco training websites provide training on all Cisco products and technologies and are available to a
general audience.
• The Cisco Learning Network
• Global Learning Locator
• Online Events
• Cisco Press self-study resources
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Training Available to Partners
Cisco offers various training resources to partners. This topic describes some courses that are specific to Cisco
Collaboration Systems.
Some Cisco Collaboration Systems training VoDs are available from the Cisco Unified Communications
System Release Technical Readiness page.
For training information on all Cisco products and technologies, see the following sites.
Note
To access this site, you must be registered as an employee of a Cisco Channel Partner company.
• Partner Education Connection
Partner Education Connection Courses
Partner Education Connection (PEC) courses are the primary learning source for Cisco Channel Partners.
PEC provides training on products, tools, and solutions.
Use the following e-learning modules for information on Cisco Collaboration Systems:
• QuickStart modules
These web-based modules prepare partners to sell Cisco Collaboration Systems solutions. This course
covers selling strategies, pricing, and customer testimonials.
• Partner Beta Training
The PEC site typically contains a VoD which provides information on what is new in the latest Cisco
Collaboration System.
• Cisco Collaboration Systems Architecture and Design
These web-based modules address identifying the features of the Cisco Collaboration System and teaching
the Cisco methodology for implementing voice over data networks.
Cisco Learning Partner Courses
Training from Cisco Learning Partners provides a comprehensive set of training resources, from instructor-led
courses to remote access labs and e-learning solutions. These companies are the only organizations to employ
Certified Cisco Systems Instructors and deliver Cisco authorized and approved content, including
product-specific training, technology training, and certification-preparation courses.
Training Available to Cisco Employees
Cisco offers various training resources to employees. These Cisco Collaboration Systems launch page and
training websites provide training on all Cisco products and technologies:
• Partner Education Connection
• Global Learning Partner Locator
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CHAPTER
9
Resource Library
• Using the Resource Library, page 71
• System Release Documentation, page 72
• Solution Reference Network Design, page 73
• Tested Deployment and Site Models, page 73
• Network Topology Diagrams, page 73
• Component Resources, page 75
• System Compatibility Matrix, page 77
• Ordering Guides, page 77
• End-of-Sale and End-of-Life Products, page 77
• Cisco Unified Workspace Licensing, page 77
• Service Offerings, page 78
• Cisco Technical Assistance Center, page 78
• Cisco SMARTnet Service, page 78
• Cisco Unified Communications Software Subscription, page 79
• Career Certifications, page 79
• Additional Sites and Services, page 80
Using the Resource Library
In this section, you find an assortment of resources to help you learn more about Cisco Collaboration Systems.
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Resource Library
System Release Documentation
System Release Documentation
The Cisco Collaboration Systems documentation provides a suite of interactive documentation that covers
details of the system architecture, components, release notes, troubleshooting, and related information. You
can access this documentation at the following URL:
http://www.cisco.com/go/unified-techinfo
The following system-level documents are produced for Cisco Collaboration Systems releases.
System Release Notes
These documents describe the tested functionality, and limitations and restrictions for each of the following
Cisco Collaboration Systems Release 11.0(1) solutions:
• Contact Center
◦System Release Notes for Contact Center: Cisco Collaboration Systems Release 11.0(1)
• Collaboration
◦Collaboration System Release Notes for Cisco Collaboration Systems Release 11.0(1)
Documentation Wiki
The Cisco documentation wiki (DocWiki) contains information on several Cisco product-related topics. The
Cisco Collaboration Systems DocWiki currently includes topics for:
• Unified Communications System Design: This topic includes information about Preferred Architectures
(PA) and Cisco Solution Reference Network Designs (SRND) which provide design guidance,
recommendations, and assistance for deploying Cisco Collaboration solutions.
• Unified Communications System Implementation: This topic includes information on configuring system
components, and provides detailed configuration examples based on tested deployment models. For
recent configuration examples see Configuration Example and TechNotes.
• Unified Communications System Operations: This topic includes information on the tasks you perform
to maintain your system and keep it operating as trouble-free as possible. These tasks are broken down
into two areas: one-time and infrequent tasks, and regular and scheduled tasks.
• Unified Communications System Optimization: This topic includes information on the tasks you perform
to optimize your system and keep it operating as trouble-free as possible.
• Unified Communications System Troubleshooting: This topic includes information that assists you with
isolating and resolving problems you may have with Cisco Collaboration Systems components. This
topic offers sections for system troubleshooting methodology and commonly encountered problems.
• Unified Communications Virtualization: This topic includes information on running Cisco Collaboration
Systems applications on a virtual machine in a Unified Computing System (UCS) environment.
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Solution Reference Network Design
For all Cisco Collaboration Systems topics posted on the Cisco documentation wiki, see http://
docwiki.cisco.com/wiki/Cisco_Unified_Communications.
Solution Reference Network Design
Solution Reference Network Design (SRND) documents provide guidelines, recommendations, and best
practices for implementing collaboration network solutions. The SRNDs recommended for designing Cisco
Collaboration Systems are available from the: Cisco Collaboration Solutions Design Guidance document or
at http://www.cisco.com/go/srnd.
Tested Deployment and Site Models
Cisco Collaboration Systems Release testing is designed to test the hardware and software components that
work together in a multisite distributed deployment. For these tests, several site models are created. Each site
model is designed to test a specific set of features and interactions. For information about the components,
configurations, and environment tested, see the following test bed descriptions:
• Collaboration Test Bed Description for Collaboration Systems Release 11.0(1)
• Cisco Unified Contact Center Enterprise Test Bed Description for Collaboration Systems Release 11.0(1)
• Cisco Unified Contact Center Express Test Bed Description for Collaboration Systems Release 11.0(1)
Network Topology Diagrams
This topic provides topology resources that you can use to document network plans.
You can download zip files containing Microsoft Visio drawings of the logical and physical topologies.
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Resource Library
Network Topology Diagrams for Contact Center
Network Topology Diagrams for Contact Center
Table 5: Network Topology Diagrams for Contact Center
Description
Filename
Zip file includes logical and physical drawings in Test Bed.
http://www.cisco.com/c/dam/en/us/
td/docs/voice_ip_comm/
uc_system/V11-0-1/TIS/
CC-UCCE110-Topology.zip
(right-click to download zip)
Note
Unified CCE Test Bed components
CC-UCCE1101-Topology.vsd
Zip file includes logical and physical drawings in Test Bed.
http://www.cisco.com/c/dam/en/us/
td/docs/voice_ip_comm/
uc_system/V11-0-1/TIS/
CC-UCCX110-Topology.zip
(right-click to download zip)
Note
Unified CCX Test Bed components
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If you click the link rather
than right-click, the zip
file may open in the
secondary window but
also replace the contents
of this window. Use the
Back button to return to
this window.
If you click the link rather
than right-click, the zip
file may open in the
secondary window but
also replace the contents
of this window. Use the
Back button to return to
this window.
CC-UCCX1101-Topology.vsd
Resource Library
Network Topology Diagrams for Collaboration
Network Topology Diagrams for Collaboration
Table 6: Network Topology Diagrams for Collaboration
Description
Filename
Zip file includes the site model topology drawings.
http://www.cisco.com/c/dam/en/us/td/docs/
voice_ip_comm/uc_system/V11-0-1/TIS/
COL-CSR1101-Topology.zip
Note
Collaboration Site in Test Bed
If you click the link rather than right-click,
the zip file may open in the secondary
window but also replace the contents of this
window. Use the Back button to return to
this window.
COL-CSR1101-Topology.vsd
Component Resources
This topic contains two types of resources that provide descriptive information on each component in the
Cisco Collaboration Systems Release.
Component Resources Documentation
Depending on your Cisco Collaboration Systems solution type, choose one of the following sets of component
resources documentation.
Component Resources Documentation for Contact Center
For links to the product Release Notes and the main Support and Product Information pages for Cisco
Collaboration Systems Contact Center components, go to Product Documentation.
Component Resources Documentation for Collaboration
For links to the product Release Notes and the main Support and Product Information pages on Cisco
Collaboration Systems components, go to Product Documentation.
Configuration Command Files
To understand how various components were configured during Cisco Collaboration Systems testing, review
the contents of the ZIP archives described in one of the following sections.
More system-level configuration examples are available on the Cisco DocWiki at: http://docwiki.cisco.com/
wiki/Category:Unified_Communications_System_Implementation and Configuration Examples and TechNotes.
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Resource Library
Configuration Command Files
Configuration Command Files for Contact Center
This table includes three ZIP files that you can download. Each ZIP file contains text files that contain the
output from issuing a show running-config IOS command on various infrastructure components in the
contact center test beds.
Table 7: Configuration Command Files for Contact Center
Description
Filename
Cisco Unified Contact Center Enterprise (Unified
CCE) Test Bed Configuration Command Files
CC-UCCE1101-Configs.zip (right-click to download
zip)
Note
Some parameters, such as passwords, have Note
been removed from the configuration files
for security reasons.
If you click the link rather than right-click,
the zip file may open in the secondary
window but also replace the contents of this
window. Use your Back button to return to
this window.
Cisco Unified Contact Center Express (Unified CCX) CC-UCCX1101-Configs.zip (right-click to download
Test Bed Configuration Command Files
zip)
Note
Some parameters, such as passwords, have Note
been removed from the configuration files
for security reasons.
If you click the link rather than right-click,
the zip file may open in the secondary
window but also replace the contents of this
window. Use your Back button to return to
this window.
Configuration Command Files for Collaboration Systems
This table includes a ZIP file with sample Collaboration configurations that you can download. Each ZIP file
contains text files that contain the output from issuing a show running-config IOS command on various
components in the IP telephony tested deployments.
Table 8: Configuration Command Files for Collaboration
Description
Filename
Cisco Collaboration System Test Bed Configuration COL-CSR1101-Configs.zip (right-click to download
Command Files
zip)
Note
Some parameters, such as passwords, have Note
been removed from the configuration files
for security reasons.
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If you click the link rather than right-click,
the zip file may open in the secondary
window but also replace the contents of this
window. Use your Back button to return to
this window.
Resource Library
System Compatibility Matrix
System Compatibility Matrix
The Cisco Collaboration Systems Compatibility Matrix provides tables that identify the compatible software
release versions for each product element in each release. For compatibility information prior to Collaboration
Systems Release 10.5, refer to the Compatibility Tool.
Ordering Guides
Ordering guides for most Cisco Collaboration Systems products are available for Cisco partners, Cisco sales
staff, and Cisco service providers.
End-of-Sale and End-of-Life Products
The end-of-sale (EOS) date is the last date to order the product through Cisco point-of-sale mechanisms. The
product is no longer for sale. There is also an end-of-life (EOL) process that guides the final business operations
associated with the product life cycle.
The EOL process consists of a series of technical and business milestones and activities that, once completed,
make a product obsolete. After a product is EOL, the product is not sold, manufactured, improved, repaired,
maintained, or supported.
For information about recommended replacements, see the comprehensive list of announcements at the
following URL:
http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/prod_end_of_life.html
For information on specific products, choose a product from the following URL:
http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/sw/voicesw/index.html
Then click the End-of-Life and End-of-Sale Notices link in the Product Literature section.
For an overview of the Products and Services EOL policy, see the information at the following URL:
http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/products_end-of-life_policy.html
Cisco Unified Workspace Licensing
Cisco Unified Workspace Licensing is an easy, affordable program for procurement of a broad range of Cisco
Collaboration Systems applications and services. Unified Workspace Licensing facilitates consistent deployment
of multiple applications to all users in their workspaces and helps organizations maximize the potential of
unified communications.
This program streamlines pricing, licensing, and deployment of Cisco Collaboration Systems solutions and
enables organizations to implement a media-rich unified communications experience at a cost-effective user
basis.
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Service Offerings
Service Offerings
Using the Cisco Lifecycle Services approach, Cisco Systems and its partners offer a broad portfolio of
end-to-end services. These services are based on proven methodologies for deploying, operating, and optimizing
Unified Communications solutions. Planning and design services, for example, can help you meet aggressive
deployment schedules and minimize network disruption during implementation. Operate services reduce the
risk of communications downtime with expert technical support. Optimize services enhance solution
performance for operational excellence. Cisco and its partners offer a system-level service and support approach
that can help you create and maintain a resilient, converged network that meets your business needs.
Cisco Unified Communications service offerings include:
• Cisco Unified Communications Essential Operate Service, which provides 24-hour, 365-day-a-year
access to Cisco Systems engineers and certified partners who are highly trained and have a deep
understanding of Cisco Unified Communications products and technologies.
• Cisco Unified Communications Select Operate Service, which provides a proactive support solution
that combines 24-hour, 365-day-a-year access to technical support representatives plus a simple-to-install
monitoring solution designed for Cisco Unified Communications.
• Cisco Unified Communications SMB Network Operate & Optimize Service, is a partner-led service
offering (designed specifically for the medium-sized businesses) that enables the delivery of affordable,
ongoing, high-availability network support.
For more information, go to http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/sw/voicesw/services.html
Cisco Technical Assistance Center
For all customers, partners, resellers, and distributors who hold valid Cisco service contracts, Cisco provides
around-the-clock, award-winning technical support services, online and over the phone.
For Enterprises and Service Providers, the TAC Service Request Tool lets you describe the issue in your own
words and attach files to the service request, and will route your service request to an appropriate engineer as
fast as possible. You can also use this tool to update your service request. The tool will send an automatic
alert to your Cisco TAC engineer when you submit an update.
For more information about creating a service request, or for information about phone support for Enterprises
and Service Providers, including the contact numbers appropriate for your country, go to:
http://www.cisco.com/web/tsweb/pdf/cisco_tools_tsrt.pdf
For urgent situations regarding enterprise level products, use the Phone Support for Enterprises and Service
Providers.
To make a service request, go to:
Support Cisco Worldwide Contacts
Cisco SMARTnet Service
Cisco SMARTnet Service is an award-winning technical support service that gives your IT staff direct, anytime
access to Cisco engineers and extensive Cisco.com resources.
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Cisco Unified Communications Software Subscription
In addition to Cisco TAC phone support, Cisco SMARTnet Service includes unrestricted access to a range
of online support resources, including the following:
• Solve technical support issues online without opening a case
• Quickly and easily access the latest security updates, patches, and fixes
• Expand your expertise and skills with technical support, tips and advice from Cisco experts and other
industry professionals
For more information about Cisco SMARTnet Service, go to:
http://www.cisco.com/web/services/portfolio/product-technical-support/smartnet/index.html
Cisco Unified Communications Software Subscription
Cisco Unified Communications Software Subscription increases business value by providing an economical
and timely approach to upgrading to new Cisco technology. This approach optimizes return on investment
(ROI) and reduces total cost of ownership (TCO) for Cisco Unified Communications Solutions. During the
Cisco Unified Communications Software Subscription term, which can be 1, 2, 3, or 5 years, you can order
major release software upgrades at no additional charge. Minor and maintenance release updates are a part
of Cisco Unified Communications Essential Operate Service.
In addition to Cisco TAC phone support, Cisco SMARTnet Service includes unrestricted access to a range
of online support resources, including the following:
• Solve technical support issues online without opening a case
• Quickly and easily access the latest security updates, patches, and fixes
• Expand your expertise and skills with technical support, tips, and advice from Cisco experts and other
industry professionals
For more information about Cisco Unified Communications Software Subscription, go to:
http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/ps9158/index.html
Career Certifications
Cisco offers the following levels of general IT certification:
• The Associate level is the first step in general Cisco Certifications. It begins either with CCENT as an
interim step to Associate level, or directly with CCNA for network operations or CCDA for network
design. This level is the foundation level of networking certification.
• The Professional level is the second level in general Cisco Certifications. It includes certifications such
as CCNP, CCSP, CCDP, and CCIP each falling within a different certification path (or track) for meeting
varying career needs. This level is an advanced level of certification that shows expertise with networking
foundations.
• The Cisco Certified Design Expert (CCDE®) certification is one of the highest technical networking
certifications offered by Cisco.
• The Cisco Certified Internetwork Expert (CCIE) certification is the highest level of technical networking
certification offered by Cisco.
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Additional Sites and Services
• The Cisco Certified Architect certification is the highest level of accreditation achievable within the
Cisco Certification program. It is the pinnacle for individuals wishing to show their formal validation
of Cisco technologies and infrastructure architecture.
• The Specialist designation certifies the expertise of experienced technical professionals, and those who
have earned associate or professional-level Cisco Career Certifications. By earning specialist certifications,
network professionals can enhance their core networking knowledge in technologies such as security,
IP Communications, and wireless.
For more information about these Cisco Certifications, go to:
http://www.cisco.com/web/learning/certifications/index.html
Additional Sites and Services
Curriculum Planning Service offers a Cisco Technical Knowledge Library (TKL) and Curriculum Planning
and Formal Training.
Cisco Unified Communications Services is a Cisco service offering that provides engineering expertise and
best practices.
• Registered users can visit the Cisco Unified Communications Services partner site.
• Nonregistered users can visit the Cisco Unified Communications Services site.
Cisco Collaboration Systems Demos
Tools are available to demonstrate the collaboration features of Cisco Collaboration Systems:
• For Cisco partners: dCloud: The Cisco Demo Cloud
• For Cisco sales teams: Global Demonstrations [Internal]
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