DSL Engineering - Markus Voelter

DSL Engineering - Markus Voelter
dsl engineering
DSL
Engineering
Designing, Implementing and Using
Domain-Specific Languages
Markus Voelter
with
Sebastian Benz
Christian Dietrich
Birgit Engelmann
Mats Helander
Lennart Kats
Eelco Visser
Guido Wachsmuth
(c) 2010 - 2013 Markus Voelter
Feedback, Slides, and other updates at
http://dslbook.org
This PDF book is donationware: while you can get
the PDF for free from dslbook.org, I would highly
appreciate if you used the Donate button on that
website to send over some amount of money you
deem appropriate for what you get from the book.
Thank you!
A printed version of this book is available as well.
Please go to http://dslbook.org to find links to
various Amazon stores where you can buy the print version.
1
Contents
I
Introduction
1
About this Book
1.1 Thank You! . . . . . . . . . . .
1.2 This book is Donationware .
1.3 Why this Book . . . . . . . . .
1.4 What you will Learn . . . . .
1.5 Who should Read this Book .
1.6 About the Cover . . . . . . . .
1.7 Feedback, Bugs and Updates
1.8 The Structure of the Book . .
1.9 How to Read the Book . . . .
1.10 Example Tools . . . . . . . . .
1.11 Case Studies and Examples .
2
II
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Introduction to DSLs
2.1 Very Brief Introduction to the Terminology . . . .
2.2 From General Purpose Languages to DSLs . . . .
2.3 Modeling and Model-Driven Development . . . .
2.4 Modular Languages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.5 Benefits of using DSLs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.6 Challenges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.7 Applications of DSLs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.8 Differentiation from other Works and Approaches
23
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DSL Design
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51
Conceptual Foundations
55
3.1 Programs, Languages and Domains . . . . . . . . 55
3.2 Model Purpose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
3.3 The Structure of Programs and Languages . . . . 61
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3.4
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Parsing versus Projection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
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5
Fundamental Paradigms
5.1 Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.2 Behavior . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.3 Combinations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
139
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156
6
Process Issues
159
6.1 DSL Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159
6.2 Using DSLs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166
III
7
Design Dimensions
4.1 Expressivity . . . . . . . .
4.2 Coverage . . . . . . . . . .
4.3 Semantics and Execution .
4.4 Separation of Concerns . .
4.5 Completeness . . . . . . .
4.6 Language Modularity . .
4.7 Concrete Syntax . . . . . .
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171
DSL Implementation
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8
Scoping and Linking
8.1 Scoping in Spoofax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.2 Scoping in Xtext . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.3 Scoping in MPS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
219
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232
9
Constraints
237
9.1 Constraints in Xtext . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239
9.2 Constraints in MPS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 240
9.3 Constraints in Spoofax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 245
Concrete and Abstract Syntax
7.1 Fundamentals of Free Text Editing and Parsing
7.2 Fundamentals of Projectional Editing . . . . . .
7.3 Comparing Parsing and Projection . . . . . . . .
7.4 Characteristics of AST Formalisms . . . . . . . .
7.5 Xtext Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.6 Spoofax Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.7 MPS Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10 Type Systems
251
10.1 Type Systems Basics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 252
10.2 Type Calculation Strategies . . . . . . . . . . . . . 253
dsl engineering
10.3 Xtext Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 258
10.4 MPS Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 261
10.5 Spoofax Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 265
11 Transformation and Generation
11.1 Overview of the approaches
11.2 Xtext Example . . . . . . . .
11.3 MPS Example . . . . . . . .
11.4 Spoofax Example . . . . . .
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269
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12 Building Interpreters
12.1 Building an Interpreter with Xtext . . . . . . . . .
12.2 An Interpreter in MPS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12.3 An Interpreter in Spoofax . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
295
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304
306
13 IDE Services
13.1 Code Completion . . . . . . . . . . . .
13.2 Syntax Coloring . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13.3 Go-to-Definition and Find References
13.4 Pretty-Printing . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13.5 Quick Fixes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13.6 Refactoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13.7 Labels and Icons . . . . . . . . . . . .
13.8 Outline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13.9 Code Folding . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13.10Tooltips/Hover . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13.11Visualizations . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13.12Diff and Merge . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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14 Testing DSLs
14.1 Syntax Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14.2 Constraints Testing . . . . . . . . . . .
14.3 Semantics Testing . . . . . . . . . . . .
14.4 Formal Verification . . . . . . . . . . .
14.5 Testing Editor Services . . . . . . . . .
14.6 Testing for Language Appropriateness
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15 Debugging DSLs
367
15.1 Debugging the DSL Definition . . . . . . . . . . . 367
15.2 Debugging DSL Programs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 374
16 Modularization, Reuse and Composition
391
16.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 391
16.2 MPS Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 392
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16.3 Xtext Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 412
16.4 Spoofax Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 426
IV
437
DSLs in Software Engineering
17 DSLs and Requirements
17.1 What are Requirements? . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
17.2 Requirements versus Design versus Implementation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
17.3 Using DSLs for Requirements Engineering . . .
17.4 Integration with Plain Text Requirements . . . .
441
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. 443
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18 DSLs and Software Architecture
453
18.1 What is Software Architecture? . . . . . . . . . . . 453
18.2 Architecture DSLs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 455
18.3 Component Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 466
19 DSLs as Programmer Utility
19.1 The Context . . . . . . .
19.2 Jnario Described . . . . .
19.3 Implementation . . . . .
19.4 Summary . . . . . . . . .
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20 DSLs in the Implementation
20.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20.2 Challenges in Embedded Software
20.3 The mbeddr Approach . . . . . . .
20.4 Design and Implementation . . . .
20.5 Experiences . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20.6 Discussion . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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475
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21 DSLs and Product Lines
21.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
21.2 Feature Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
21.3 Connecting Feature Models to Artifacts
21.4 From Feature Models to DSLs . . . . . .
21.5 Conceptual Mapping from PLE to DSLs
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519
519
520
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532
22 DSLs for Business Users
22.1 Intentional Software . .
22.2 The Project Challenge .
22.3 The DSL-Based Solution
22.4 Wrapping Up . . . . . .
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537
537
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556
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Part I
Introduction
1
About this Book
This book is about creating domain-specific languages. It
covers three main aspects: DSL design, DSL implementation and software engineering with DSLs. The book only
looks at external DSLs and focuses mainly on textual syntax. The book emphasizes the use of modern language workbenches. It is not a tutorial for any specific tool, but it provides examples and some level of detail for some of them:
Xtext, MPS and Spoofax. The goal of the book is to provide
a thorough overview of modern DSL engineering. The book
is based on my own experience and opinions, but strives to
be objective.
1.1
Thank You!
Before I do anything else, I want to thank my reviewers. This
book has profited tremendously from the feedback you sent
me. It is a lot of work to read a book like this with sufficient
concentration to give meaningful feedback. All of you did that,
so thank you very much! Here is the list, in alphabetical order:
Alexander Shatalin, Bernd Kolb, Bran Selic, Christa Schwanninger, Dan Ratiu, Domenik Pavletic, Iris Groher, Jean Bezivin,
Jos Warmer, Laurence Tratt, Mats Helander, Nora Ludewig, Sebastian Zarnekow and Vaclav Pech.
I also want to thank the contributors to the book. They have
added valuable perspectives and insights that I couldn’t have
delivered myself. In particular:
• Eelco Visser contributed significantly to the DSL design section. In fact, this was the part we started out with when we
still had the plan to write the book together. It was initially
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his idea to have a section on DSL design that is independent
of implementation concerns and particular tools.
• Guido Wachsmuth and Lennart Kats contributed all the examples for the Spoofax language workbench and helped
a lot with the fundamental discussions on grammars and
parsing.
• Mats Helander contributed the Business DSL case study with
the Intentional Domain Workbench in Part IV of the book.
• Birgit Engelmann and Sebastian Benz wrote the chapter on
utility DSLs that features the JNario language based on Xtext
and Xbase.
• Christian Dietrich helped me with the language modularization examples for Xtext and Xbase.
Also, Moritz Eysholdt has contributed a section on his Xpext
testing framework. Finally, some parts of this book are based
on papers I wrote with other people. I want to thank these
people for letting me use the papers in the book: Bernd Kolb,
Domenik Pavletic, Daniel Ratiu and Bernhard Schaetz.
A special thank you goes to my girlfriend Nora Ludewig.
She didn’t just volunteer to provide feedback on the book, she
also had to endure all kinds of other discussions around the
topic all the time. Thanks Nora!
Alex Chatziparaskewas, Henk Kolk, Magnus Christerson
and Klaus Doerfler allowed me to use "their" applications as
examples in this book. Thank you very much!
I also want to thank itemis, for whom I have worked as an
independent consultant for the last couple of years. The experience I gained there, in particular while working with MPS in
the LWES research project, benefitted the book greatly!
Finally, I want to thank my copyeditor Steve Rickaby. I had
worked with Steve on my pattern books and I really wanted to
work with him again on this one – even though no publisher
is involved this time. Luckily he was willing to work with me
directly. Thank you, Steve!
1.2
This book is Donationware
This book is available as a print version and as a PDF version.
You are currently reading the PDF version. The print version
dsl engineering
can be acquired Amazon. The specific links are available at
http://dslbook.org.
This book is not free even though you can download it from
http://dslbook.org without paying for it. I ask you to please
go to the website and donate some amount of money you deem
appropriate for the value you take from the book. You should
also register the book at the website, so I can keep you up-todate with new versions.
There is no Kindle version of the book because the layout/figures/code do not translate very well into the Kindle format.
However, you can of course read PDFs on a Kindle. I tried using my Nexus 7 tablet to read the book: if you use landscape
format, it works reasonably well.
Here is some background on why I didn’t go with a real
publisher. Unless you are famous or write a book on a mainstream topic, you will make maybe one or two euros for each
copy sold if you go through a publisher. So if you don’t sell
tens or hundreds of thousands of copies, the money you can
make out of a book directly is really not relevant, considering
the amount of work you put into it. Going through a publisher
will also make the book more expensive for the reader, so fewer
people will read it. I decided that it is more important to reach
as many readers as possible1 .
1.3
11
Donations are much simpler than
paying for the book at the time when
when you get it: you can check out
the contents before you pay, you can
pay whatever you think makes sense
for you, and we all don’t have to deal
with DRM and chasing down "illegal
copies". But it to make this work (and
keep the book project alive), it relies on
you sticking to the rules. Thank you!
Publishers may help to get a book
advertised, but in a niche community
like DSLs I think that word of mouth,
blog or Twitter is more useful. So I
hope that you the reader will help me
spread the word about the book.
1
Why this Book
First of all, there is currently no book available that explicitly
covers DSLs in the context of modern language workbenches,
with an emphasis on textual languages. Based on my experience, I think that this way of developing DSLs is very productive, so I think there is a need for a book that fills this gap. I
wanted to make sure the book contains a lot of detail on how
to design and build good DSLs, so it can act as a primer for
DSL language engineering, for students as well as practitioners. However, I also want the book to clearly show the benefits
of DSLs – not by pointing out general truths about the approach, but instead by providing a couple of good examples of
where and how DSLs are used successfully. This is why the
book is divided into three parts: DSL Design, DSL Implementation and Software Engineering with DSLs.
Even though I had written a book on Model-Driven Software Development (MDSD) before2 , I feel that it is time for a
Since writing the original MDSD book, I
have learned a lot in the meantime, my
viewpoints have evolved and the tools
that are available today have evolved
significantly as well. The latter is a
reflection of the fact that the whole
MDSD community has evolved: ten
years ago, UML was the mainstay for
MDSD, and the relationship to DSLs
was not clear. Today, DSLs are the basis
for most interesting and innovative
developments in MDSD.
M. Voelter and T. Stahl. ModelDriven Software Development: Technology,
Engineering, Management. Wiley, 2006
2
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complete rewrite. So if you are among the people who read
the previous MDSD book, you really should continue reading.
This book is very different, but in many ways a natural evolution of the old one. It may gloss over certain details present in
the older book, but it will expand greatly on others.
1.4
What you will Learn
The purpose of this book is to give you a solid overview of the
state of the art of today’s DSLs. This includes DSL design, DSL
implementation and the use of DSLs in software engineering.
After reading this book you should have a solid understanding
of how to design, build and use DSLs. A few myths (good and
bad) about DSLs should also be dispelled in the process.
Part III of the book, on DSL implementation, contains a lot
of example code. However, this part is not intended as a full
tutorial for any of the three tools used in that part. However,
you should get a solid understanding of what these tools – and
the classes of tools they stand for – can do for you.
1.5
Who should Read this Book
Everybody who has read my original book on Model-Driven
Software Development should read this book. This book can be
seen as an update to the old one, even though it is a complete
rewrite.
On a more serious note, the book is intended for developers
and architects who want to implement their own DSLs. I expect solid experience in object oriented programming as well
as basic knowledge about functional programming and (classical) modeling. It also helps if readers have come across the
terms grammar and parser before, although I don’t expect any
significant experience with these techniques.
The MDSD book had a chapter on process and organizational aspects. Except for perhaps ten pages on process-related
topics, this book does not address process and organization aspects. There are two reasons for this: one, these topic haven’t
changed much since the old book, and you can read them there.
Second, I feel these aspects were the weakest part of the old
book, because it is very hard to discuss process and organizational aspects in a general way, independent of a particular
context. Any working software development process will work
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13
with DSLs. Any strategy to introduce promising new techniques into an organization applies to introducing DSLs. The
few specific aspects are covered in the ten pages at the end of
the design chapter.
1.6
About the Cover
The cover layout resembles Addison-Wesley’s classic cover design. I always found this design one of the most elegant book
covers I have seen. The picture of a glider has been chosen
to represent the connection to the cover of the original MDSD
book, whose English edition also featured a glider3 .
1.7
Feedback, Bugs and Updates
Writing a book such as this is a lot of work. At some point
I ran out of energy and just went ahead and published it. I
am pretty confident that there are no major problems left, but I
am sure there are many small bugs and problems in the book,
for which I am sorry. If you find any, please let me know at
[email protected] There is also a Google+ community for the
book; you can find it via the website dslbook.org.
One of the advantages of an electronic book is that it is easy
to publish new editions frequently. While I will certainly do
other things in the near future (remember: I ran out of energy!), I will try to publish an updated and bug-fixed version
relatively soon. In general, updates for the book will be available via my twitter account @markusvoelter and via the book
website http://dslbook.org.
1.8
The Structure of the Book
The rest of this first part is a brief introduction to DSLs. It defines terminology, looks at the benefits and challenges of developing and using DSLs, and introduces the notion of modular
languages, which play an important role throughout the book.
This first part is written in a personal style: it presents DSLs
based on my experience, and is not intended to be a scientific
treatment.
Part II is about DSL design. It is a systematic exploration
of seven design dimensions relevant to DSL design: expressivity, coverage, semantics, separation of concerns, completeness,
The MDSD book featured a Schleicher
ASW-27, a 15m class racing glider. This
book features a Schleicher ASH-26E, an
18m class self-launching glider.
3
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language modularization and syntax. It also discusses fundamental language paradigms that might be useful in DSLs, and
looks at a number of process-related topics. It uses five case
studies to illustrate the concepts. It does not deal at all with
implementation issues – we address these in part III.
Part III covers DSL implementation issues. It looks at syntax
definition, constraints and type systems, scoping, transformation and interpretation, debugging and IDE support. It uses
examples implemented with three different tools (Xtext, MPS,
Spoofax). Part III is not intended as a tutorial for any one of
these, but should provide a solid foundation for understanding
the technical challenges when implementing DSLs.
Part IV looks at using DSLs in for various tasks in software
engineering, among them requirements engineering, architecture, implementation and, a specifically relevant topic, product
line engineering. Part IV consists of a set of fairly independent chapters, each illustrating one of the software engineering
challenges.
1.9
How to Read the Book
I had a lot of trouble deciding whether DSL design or DSL implementation should come first. The two parts are relatively
independent. As a consequence of the fact that the design part
comes first, there are some references back to design issues
from within the implementation part. But the two parts can be
read in any order, depending on your interests. If you are new
to DSLs, I suggest you start with Part III on DSL implementation. You may find Part II, DSL Design too abstract or dense if
you don’t have hands-on experience with DSLs.
Some of the examples in Part III are quite detailed, because
we wanted to make sure we didn’t skim relevant details. However, if some parts become too detailed for you, just skip ahead
– usually the details are not important for understanding subsequent subsections.
The chapters in Part IV are independent from each other and
can be read in any sequence.
Finally, I think you should at least skim the rest of Part I. If
you are already versed in DSLs, you may want to skip some
sections or skim over them, but it is important to understand
where I am coming from to be able to make sense of some of
the later chapters.
dsl engineering
1.10
Example Tools
You could argue that this whole business about DSLs is nothing new. It has long been possible to build custom languages
using parser generators such as lex/yacc, ANTLR or JavaCC.
And of course you would be right. Martin Fowler’s DSL book4
emphasizes this aspect.
However, I feel that language workbenches, which are tools
to efficiently create, integrate and use sets of DSLs in powerful
IDEs, make a qualitative difference. DSL developers, as well as
the people who use the DSLs, are used to powerful, feature-rich
IDEs and tools in general. If you want to establish the use of
DSLs and you suggest that your users use vi or notepad.exe,
you won’t get very far with most people. Also, the effort of
developing (sets of) DSLs and their IDEs has been reduced significantly by the maturation of language workbenches. This is
why I focus on DSL engineering with language workbenches,
and emphasize IDE development just as much as language development.
This is not a tutorial book on tools. However, I will show
you how to work with different tools, but this should be understood more as representative examples of different tooling
approaches5 . I tried to use diverse tools for the examples, but
for the most part I stuck to those I happen to know well and
that have serious traction in the real world, or the potential
to do so: Eclipse Modeling + Xtext, JetBrains MPS, SDF/Stratego/Spoofax, and, to some extent, the Intentional Domain
Workbench. All except the last are open source. Here is a brief
overview over the tools.
1.10.1
15
M. Fowler. Domain-Specific Languages.
Addison Wesley, 2010
4
I suggest you read the examples
for all tools, so that you appreciate
the different approaches to solving a
common challenge in language design.
If you want to learn about one tool
specifically, there are probably better
tutorials for each of them.
5
Eclipse Modeling + Xtext
The Eclipse Modeling project is an ecosystem – frameworks
and tools – for modeling, DSLs and all that’s needed or useful around it. It would easily merit its own book (or set of
books), so I won’t cover it extensively. I have restricted myself to Xtext, the framework for building textual DSLs, Xtend,
a Java-like language optimized for code generation, as well as
EMF/Ecore, the underlying meta meta model used to represent model data. Xtext may not be as advanced as SDF/Stratego or MPS, but the tooling is very mature and has a huge user
community. Also, the surrounding ecosystem provides a huge
number of add-ons that support the construction of sophisti-
eclipse.org/Xtext
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cated DSL environments. I will briefly look at some of these
tools, among them graphical editing frameworks.
1.10.2
JetBrains MPS
The Meta Programming System (MPS) is a projectional language workbench, which means that no grammar and parser is
involved. Instead, editor gestures change the underlying AST
directly, which is projected in a way that looks like text. As
a consequence, MPS supports mixed notations (textual, symbolic, tabular, graphical) and a wide range of language composition features. MPS is open source under the Apache 2.0
license, and is developed by JetBrains. It is not as widely used
as Xtext, but supports many advanced features.
1.10.3
SDF/Stratego/Spoofax
These tools are developed at the University of Delft in Eelco
Visser’s group. SDF is a formalism for defining parsers for
context-free grammars. Stratego is a term rewriting system
used for AST transformations and code generation. Spoofax
is an Eclipse-based IDE that provides a nice environment for
working with SDF and Stratego. It is also not as widely used
as Xtext, but it has a number of advanced features for language
modularization and composition.
1.10.4
strategoxt.org/Spoofax
Intentional Domain Workbench
A few examples will be based on the Intentional Domain Workbench (IDW). Like MPS, it uses the projectional approach to
editing. The IDW has been used to build a couple of very interesting systems that can serve well to illustrate the power of
DSLs. The tool is a commercial offering of Intentional Software.
Many more tools exist. If you are interested, I suggest you look
at the Language Workbench Competition6 , where a number of
language workbenches (13 at the time of writing of this book)
are illustrated by implementing the same example DSLs. This
provides a good way of comparing the various tools.
1.11
jetbrains.com/mps
Case Studies and Examples
I strove to make this book as accessible and practically relevant
as possible, so I provide lots of examples. I decided against
intentsoft.com
6
languageworkbenches.net
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17
a single big, running example because (a) it becomes increasingly complex to follow, and (b) fails to illustrate different approaches to solving the same problem. However, we use a set
of case studies to illustrate many issues, especially in Part II,
DSL design. These examples are introduced below. These are
taken from real-world projects.
1.11.1
Component Architecture
This language is an architecture DSL used to define the software architecture of a complex, distributed, component-based
system in the transportation domain7 . Among other architectural abstractions, the DSL supports the definition of components and interfaces, as well as the definition of systems, which
are connected instances of components. The code below shows
interfaces and components. An interface is a collection of methods (not shown) or collections of messages. Components then
provide and require ports, where each port has a name, an
interface and, optionally, a cardinality.
namespace com.mycomany {
namespace datacenter {
component DelayCalculator {
provides aircraft: IAircraftStatus
provides console: IManagementConsole
requires screens[0..n]: IInfoScreen
}
component Manager {
requires backend[1]: IManagementConsole
}
interface IInfoScreen {
message expectedAircraftArrivalUpdate( id: ID, time: Time )
message flightCancelled( id: ID )
}
interface IAircraftStatus ...
interface IManagementConsole ...
}
}
The next piece of code shows how these components can be
instantiated and connected.
namespace com.mycomany.test {
system testSystem {
instance dc: DelayCalculator
instance screen1: InfoScreen
instance screen2: InfoScreen
connect dc.screens to (screen1.default, screen2.default)
}
}
Code generators generate code that acts as the basis for the
implementation of the system, as well as all the code necessary
to work with the distributed communication middleware. It is
used by software developers and architects and implemented
with Eclipse Xtext.
This langauage is also used in the
Part IV chapter on DSLs and software
architecture: Chapter 18.
7
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1.11.2
Refrigerator Configuration
This case study describes a set of DSLs for developing cooling
algorithms in refrigerators. The customer with whom we have
built this language builds hundres of different refrigerators,
and coming up with energy-efficient cooling strategies is a big
challenge. By using a DSL-based approach, the development
and implementation process for the cooling behavior can be
streamlined a lot.
Three languages are used. The first describes the logical
hardware structure of refrigerators. The second describes cooling algorithms in the refrigerators using a state-based, asynchronous language. Cooling programs refer to hardware features and can access the properties of hardware elements from
expressions and commands. The third language is used to test
cooling programs. These DSLs are used by thermodynamicists
and are implemented with Eclipse Xtext.
The code below shows the hardware structure definition in
the refrigerator case study. An appliance represents the refrigerator. It consists mainly of cooling compartments and compressor compartments. A cooling compartment contains various building blocks that are important to the cooling process.
A compressor compartment contains the cooling infrastructure
itself, e.g. a compressor and a fan.
appliance KIR {
compressor compartment cc {
static compressor c1
fan ccfan
}
ambient tempsensor at
cooling compartment RC {
light rclight
superCoolingMode
door rcdoor
fan rcfan
evaporator tempsensor rceva
}
}
The code below shows a simple cooling algorithm. Cooling
algorithms are state-based programs. States can have entry actions and exit actions. Inside a state we check whether specific
conditions are true, then change the status of various hardware
building blocks, or change the state. It is also possible to express deferred behavior with the perform ...after keyword.
program Standardcooling for KIR {
start:
dsl engineering
19
entry { state noCooling }
state noCooling:
check ( RC->needsCooling && cc.c1->standstillPeriod > 333 ) {
state rcCooling
}
on isDown ( RC.rcdoor->open ) {
set RC.rcfan->active = true
set RC.rclight->active = false
perform rcFanStopTask after 10 {
set RC.rcfan->active = false
}
}
state rcCooling:
...
}
Finally, the following code is a test script to test cooling programs. It essentially stimulates a cooling algorithm by changing hardware properties and then asserting that the algorithm
reacts in a certain way.
cooling test for Standardcooling {
prolog {
set cc.c1->standstillPeriod = 0
}
// initially we are not cooling
assert-currentstate-is noCooling
// then we say that RC needs cooling, but
// the standstillPeriod is still too low.
mock: set RC->needsCooling = true
step
assert-currentstate-is noCooling
// now we increase standstillPeriod and check
// if it now goes to rcCooling
mock: set cc.c1->stehzeit = 400
step
assert-currentstate-is rcCooling
}
1.11.3
mbeddr C
This case study covers a set of extensions to the C programming language tailored to embedded programming8 , developed as part of mbeddr.com9 . Extensions include state machines, physical quantities, tasks, as well as interfaces and components. Higher-level DSLs are added for specific purposes.
An example used in a showcase application is the control of a
Lego Mindstorms robot. Plain C code is generated and subsequently compiled with GCC or other target device specific
compilers. The DSL is intended to be used by embedded software developers and is implemented with MPS.
This system is also used as the example for implementation-level DSLs
in Part IV of the book. It is covered in
Chapter 20.
8
9
mbeddr.com
20
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Figure 1.1: A simple C module with
an embedded decision table. This is
a nice example of MPS’ ability to use
non-textual notations thanks to its
projectional editor (which we describe
in detail in Part III).
Figure 1.2: This extension to C supports
working with physical units (such as
kg and lb). The type system has been
extended to include type checks for
units. The example also shows the unit
testing extension.
Figure 1.3: This extension shows a
state machine. Notice how regular
C expressions are used in the guard
conditions of the transitions. The inset
code shows how the state machine can
be triggered from regular C code.
1.11.4
Pension Plans
This DSL is used to describe families of pension plans for a
large insurance company efficiently. The DSL supports mathematical abstractions and notations to allow insurance mathematicians to express their domain knowledge directly (Fig. 1.5),
as well as higher-level pension rules and unit tests using a ta-
dsl engineering
21
ble notation (Fig. 1.4). A complete Java implementation of the
calculation engine is generated. It is intended to be used by insurance mathematicians and pension experts. It has been built
by Capgemini with the Intentional Domain Workbench.
Figure 1.4: This example shows highlevel business rules, together with a
tabular notation for unit tests. The
prose text is in Dutch, but it is not
important to be able to understand it in
the context of this book.
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Figure 1.5: Example Code written using
the Pension Plans language. Notice the
mathematical symbols used to express
insurance mathematics.
1.11.5
WebDSL
WebDSL is a language for web programming10 that integrates
languages to address the different concerns of web programming, including persistent data modeling (entity), user interface templates (define), access control11 , data validation12 ,
search and more. The language enforces inter-concern consistency checking, providing early detection of failures13 . The
fragments in Fig. 1.6 and Fig. 1.7 show a data model, user interface templates and access control rules for posts in a blogging
application. WebDSL is implemented with Spoofax and is used
in the researchr digital library14 .
E. Visser. WebDSL: A case study in
domain-specific language engineering.
In GTTSE, pages 291–373, 2007
10
D. M. Groenewegen and E. Visser.
Declarative access control for WebDSL:
Combining language integration and
separation of concerns. In ICWE, pages
175–188, 2008
11
D. Groenewegen and E. Visser.
Integration of data validation and user
interface concerns in a dsl for web
applications. SoSyM, 2011
12
Z. Hemel, D. M. Groenewegen,
L. C. L. Kats, and E. Visser. Static consistency checking of web applications
with WebDSL. JSC, 46(2):150–182, 2011
13
Figure 1.6: Example Code written
in WebDSL. The code shows data
structures and utility functions.
dsl engineering
23
Figure 1.7: More WebDSL example
code. This example shows access control rules as well as a page definition.
2
Introduction to DSLs
Domain-Specific Languages (DSLs) are becoming more and
more important in software engineering. Tools are becoming better as well, so DSLs can be developed with relatively
little effort. This chapter starts with a definition of important terminology. It then explains the difference between
DSLs and general-purpose languages, as well as the relationship between them. I then look at the relationship to
model-driven development and develop a vision for modular programming languages which I consider the pinnacle
of DSLs. I discuss the benefits of DSLs, some of the challenges for adopting DSLs and describe a few application areas. Finally, I provide some differentiation of the approach
discussed in this book to alternative approaches.
2.1
Very Brief Introduction to the Terminology
While we explain many of the important terms in the book as
we go along, here are a few essential ones. You should at least
roughly understand those right from the beginning.
I use the term programming language to refer to general-purpose languages (GPLs) such as Java, C++, Lisp or Haskell.
While DSLs could be called programming languages as well
(although they are not general purpose programming languages)
I don’t do this in this book: I just call them DSLs.
I use the terms model, program and code interchangeably because I think that any distinction is artificial: code can be written in a GPL or in a DSL. Sometimes DSL code and program
code are mixed, so separating the two makes no sense. If the
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distinction is important, I say "DSL program" or "GPL code".
If I use model and program or code in the same sentence, the
model usually refers to the more abstract representation. An
example would be: "The program generated from the model is
. . . ".
If you know about DSLs, you will know that there are two
main schools: internal and external DSLs. In this book I only
address external DSLs. See Section 2.8 for details.
I distinguish between the execution engine and the target
platform. The target platform is what your DSL program has
to run on in the end and is assumed to be something we cannot change (significantly) during the DSL development process. The execution engine can be changed, and bridges the gap
between the DSL and the platform. It may be an interpreter or
a generator. An interpreter is a program running on the target
platform that loads a DSL program and then acts on it. A generator (aka compiler) takes the DSL program and transforms it
into an artifact (often GPL source code) that can run directly
on the target platform.1 .
A language, domain-specific or not, consist of the following
main ingredients. The concrete syntax defines the notation with
which users can express programs. It may be textual, graphical, tabular or a mix of these. The abstract syntax is a data
structure that can hold the semantically relevant information
expressed by a program. It is typically a tree or a graph. It
does not contain any details about the notation – for example,
in textual languages, it does not contain keywords, symbols or
whitespace. The static semantics of a language are the set of
constraints and/or type system rules to which programs have
to conform, in addition to being structurally correct (with regards to the concrete and abstract syntax). Execution semantics
refers to the meaning of a program once it is executed. It is
realized using the execution engine. If I use the term semantics
without any qualification, I refer to the execution semantics,
not the static semantics.
Sometimes it is useful to distinguish between what I call
technical DSLs and application domain DSLs2 . The distinction
is not always clear and not always necessary, but generally I
consider technical DSLs to be used by programmers and application domain DSLs to be used by non-programmers. This can
have significant consequences for the design of the DSL.
There is often a confusion around meta-ness (as in meta
Note that considering programs and
models the same thing is only valid
when looking at executable models, i.e.
models whose final purpose is the creation of executable software. Of course,
there are models used in systems engineering, for communication among
stakeholders in business, or as approximations of physical, real-world systems
that cannot be considered programs.
However, these are outside the scope of
this book.
In an example from enterprise systems, the platform could be JEE and the
execution engine could be an enterprise
bean that runs an interpreter for a DSL.
In embedded software, the platform
could be a real-time operating system,
and the execution engine could be a
code generator that maps a DSL to the
APIs provided by the RTOS.
1
Sometimes also called business DSLs,
vertical DSLs or "fachliche DSLs" in
German.
2
dsl engineering
model) and abstraction. I think these terms are clearly different
and I try to explain my understanding here.
The meta model of a model (or program) is a model that
defines (the abstract syntax of) a language used to describe a
model. For example, the meta model of UML is a model that
defines all those language concepts that make up the UML,
such as classifier, association or property. So the prefix meta
can be understood as the definition of. The reverse direction of
the relationship is typically called instance of or conforms to. It
also becomes clear that every meta model is a model3 . A model
m can play the role of a meta model with regards to a set of other
models O, where m defines the language used to express the
models in O.
The notion of abstraction is different, even though it also
characterizes the relationship between two artifacts (programs
or models). An artifact a1 is more abstract than an artifact a2 if
it leaves out some of the details of a2 , while preserving those
characteristics of a2 that are important for whatever a1 is used
for – the purpose of a1 informs the the abstractions we use to
approximate a2 with a1 . Note that according to this definition,
abstraction and model are synonyms: a simplification of reality for a given purpose. In this sense, the term model can also
be understood as characterizing the relationship between two
artifacts. a1 is a model of a2 .
2.2
From General Purpose Languages to DSLs
General Purpose Programming Languages (GPLs) are a means
for programmers to instruct computers. All of them are Turing complete, which means that they can be used to implement anything that is computable with a Turing machine. It
also means that anything expressible with one Turing complete
programming language can also be expressed with any other
Turing complete programming language. In that sense, all programming languages are interchangeable.
So why is there more than one? Why don’t we program
everything in Java or Pascal or Ruby or Python? Why doesn’t
an embedded systems developer use Ruby, and why doesn’t a
Web developer use C?
Of course there is the execution strategy. C code is compiled
to efficient native code, whereas Ruby is run by a virtual machine (a mix between an interpreter and a compiler). But in
27
The reverse statement is of course not
true.
3
Based on this discussion it should be
clear that it does not make sense to say
that the meta model is the model of a model,
a sentence often heard around the
modeling community. model of and meta
model of are two quite distinct concepts.
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principle, you could compile (a subset of) Ruby to native code,
and you could interpret C.
The real reason why these languages are used for what they
are used for is that the features they offer are optimized for the
tasks that are relevant in the respective domains. In C you can
directly influence memory layout (which is important when
communicating with low-level, memory-mapped devices), you
can use pointers (resulting in potentially very efficient data
structures) and the preprocessor can be used as a (very limited)
way of expressing abstractions with zero runtime overhead. In
Ruby, closures can be used to implement "postponed" behavior (very useful for asynchronous web applications); Ruby also
provides powerful string manipulation features (to handle input received from a website), and the meta programming facility supports the definition of internal DSLs that are quite suitable for Web applications (the Rails framework is the example
for that).
So, even within the field of general-purpose programming,
there are different languages, each providing different features
tailored to the specific tasks at hand. The more specific the
tasks get, the more reason there is for specialized languages4 .
Consider relational algebra: relational databases use tables,
rows, columns and joins as their core abstractions. A specialized language, SQL, which takes these features into account
has been created. Or consider reactive, distributed, concurrent
systems: Erlang is specifically made for this environment.
So, if we want to "program" for even more specialized environments, it is obvious that even more specialized languages
are useful. A Domain-Specific Language is simply a language
that is optimized for a given class of problems, called a domain. It is based on abstractions that are closely aligned with
the domain for which the language is built5 . Specialized languages also come with a syntax suitable for expressing these
abstractions concisely. In many cases these are textual notations, but tables, symbols (as in mathematics) or graphics can
also be useful. Assuming the semantics of these abstractions is
well defined, this makes a good starting point for expressing
programs for a specialized domain effectively.
Executing the Language
Engineering a DSL (or any language) is not just about syntax, it also has to be "brought to
life" – DSL programs have to be executed somehow. It is im-
We do this is real life as well. I am
sure you have heard about Eskimos
having many different words for
snow, because this is relevant in their
"domain". Not sure this is actually true,
but it is surely a nice metaphor for
tailoring a language to its domain.
4
SQL has tables, rows and columns,
Erlang has lightweight tasks, message
passing and pattern matching.
5
dsl engineering
29
portant to understand the separation of domain contents into
DSL, execution engine and platform (see Fig. 2.1):
Figure 2.1: Fixed domain concerns
(black) end up in the platform, variable
concerns end up in the DSL (white).
Those concerns that can be derived by
rules from the DSL program end up in
the execution engine (gray).
• Some concerns are different for each program in the domain
(white circles). The DSL provides tailored abstractions to
express this variability concisely.
• Some concerns are the same for each program in the domain
(black circles). These typically end up in the platform.
• Some concerns can be derived by fixed rules from the program
written in the DSL (gray circles). While these concerns are
not identical in each program in the domain, they are always
the same for a given DSL program structure. These concerns
are handled by the execution engine (or, in some cases, in
frameworks or libraries that are part of the platform).
There are two main approaches to building execution engines:
translation (aka generation or compilation) and interpretation. The
former translates a DSL program into a language for which
an execution engine on a given target platform already exists.
Often, this is GPL source code. In the latter case, you build a
new execution engine (on top of your desired target platforms)
which loads the program and executes it directly.
If there is a big semantic gap between the language abstractions and the relevant concepts of the target platform (i.e. the
platform the interpreter or generated code runs on), execution
may become inefficient. For example, if you try to store and
query graph data in a relational database, this will be very inefficient, because many joins will be necessary to reassemble
the graph from the normalized tabular structure. As another
example, consider running Erlang on a system which only provides heavyweight processes: having thousands of processes
(as typical Erlang programs require) is not going to be efficient. So, when defining a language for a given domain, you
should be aware of the intricacies of the target platform and
the interplay between execution and language design6 .
This may sound counterintuitive. Isn’t
a DSL supposed to abstract away from
just these details of execution? Yes, but:
it has to be possible to implement a
reasonably efficient execution engine.
DSL design is a compromise between
appropriate domain abstractions and
the ability to get to an efficient execution. A good DSL allows the DSL user
to ignore execution concerns, but allows
the DSL implementor to implement a
reasonable execution engine
6
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Languages versus Libraries and Frameworks At this point you
should to some extent believe that specific problems can be
more efficiently solved by using the right abstractions. But
why do we need full-blown languages? Aren’t objects, functions, APIs and frameworks good enough? What does creating
a language add to the picture?
• Languages (and the programs you write with them), are the
cleanest form of abstraction – essentially, you add a notation to a conceptual model of the domain. You get rid of all
the unnecessary clutter that an API – or anything else embedded in or expressed with a general-purpose language –
requires. You can define a notation that expresses the abstractions concisely and makes interacting with programs
easy and efficient.
• DSLs sacrifice some of the flexibility to express any program (as in GPLs) for productivity and conciseness of relevant programs in a particular domain. In that sense, DSLs
are limited, or restricted. DSLs may be so restricted that
they only allow the creation of correct programs (correct-byconstruction).
• You can provide non-trivial static analyses and checks, and
an IDE that offers services such as code completion, syntax highlighting, error markers, refactoring and debugging.
This goes far beyond what can be done with the facilities
provided by general-purpose languages.
Differences between GPLs and DSLs I said above that DSLs
sacrifice some of the flexibility to express any program in favor
of productivity and conciseness of relevant programs in a particular domain. But beyond that, how are DSLs different from
GPLs, and what do they have in common?
The boundary isn’t as clear as it could be. Domain-specificity
is not black-and-white, but instead gradual: a language is more
or less domain specific. The following table lists a set of language characteristics. While DSLs and GPLs can have characteristics from both the second and the third columns, DSLs are
more likely to have characteristics from the third column.
Considering that DSLs pick more characteristics from the
third rather than the second column, this makes designing
DSLs a more manageable problem than designing general-pur-
In the end, this is what allows DSLs
to be used by non-programmers, one
of the value propositions of DSLs:
they get a clean, custom, productive
environment that allows them to work
with languages that are closely aligned
with the domain in which they work.
dsl engineering
Domain
Language size
Turing completeness
User-defined abstractions
Execution
Lifespan
Designed by
User community
Evolution
Deprecation/incompatible changes
GPLs
DSLs
large and complex
large
always
sophisticated
via intermediate GPL
years to decades
guru or committee
large, anonymous and widespread
slow, often standardized
almost impossible
smaller and well-defined
small
often not
limited
native
months to years (driven by context)
a few engineers and domain experts
small, accessible and local
fast-paced
feasible
pose languages. DSLs are typically just much smaller and simpler7 than GPLs (although there are some pretty sophisticated
DSLs).
There are some who maintain that DSLs are always declarative (it is not completely clear what "declarative" means anyway), or that they may never be Turing complete. I disagree.
They may well be. However, if your DSL becomes as big and
general as, say, Java, you might want to consider just using
Java8 . DSLs often start simple, based on an initially limited
understanding of the domain, but then grow more and more
sophisticated over time, a phenomenon Hudak notes in his ’96
paper9 .
So, then, are Mathematica, SQL, State Charts or HTML actually DSLs? In a technical sense they are. They are clearly
optimized for (and limited to) a special domain or problem.
However, these are examples of DSLs that pick more characteristics from the GPL column, and therefore aren’t necessarily good examples for the kinds of languages we cover in this
book.
2.3
31
Figure 2.2: Domain-specific languages
versus programming languages. DSLs
tend to pick more characteristics from
the third column, GPLs tend to pick
more from the second.
Small and simple can mean that the
language has fewer concepts, that the
type system is less sophisticated or that
the expressive power is limited.
7
Alternatively, if your tooling allows
it, extending Java with domain-specific
concepts.
8
P. Hudak. Building domain-specific
embedded languages. ACM Comput.
Surv., 28(4es):196, 1996
9
Ira Baxter suggests only half-jokingly
that as soon as a DSL is really successful, we don’t call them DSLs anymore.
Modeling and Model-Driven Development
There are two ways in which the term modeling can be understood: descriptive and prescriptive. A descriptive model represents an existing system. It abstracts away some aspects and
emphasizes others. It is usually used for discussion, communication and analysis. A prescriptive model is one that can be
used to (automatically) construct the target system. It must be
much more rigorous, formal, complete and consistent. In the
context of this chapter, and of the book in general, we always
mean prescriptive models when we use the term model10 . Using models in a prescriptive way is the essence of model-driven
(software) development (MDSD).
Some people say that models are
always descriptive, and once you
become prescriptive, you enter the
realm of programming. That’s fine
with me. As I have said above, I don’t
distinguish between programming and
modeling, just between more or less
abstract languages and models.
10
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Defining and using DSLs is a flavor of MDSD: we create
formal, tool-processable representations of specific aspects of
software systems11 . We then use interpretation or code generation to transform those representations into executable code
expressed in general-purpose programming languages and the
associated XML/HTML/whatever files. With today’s tools it
is technically relatively simple to define arbitrary abstractions
that represent some aspect of a software system in a meaningful way12 . It is also relatively simple to build code generators
that generate the executable artifacts (as long as you don’t need
sophisticated optimizations, which can be challenging). Depending on the particular DSL tool used, it is also possible to
define suitable notations that make the abstractions easily understandable by non-programmers (for example opticians or
thermodynamics engineers).
However, there are also limitations to the classical MDSD
approach. The biggest one is that modeling and programming
often do not go together very well: modeling languages, environments and tools are distinct from programming languages,
environments and tools. The level of distinctness varies, but in
many cases it is big enough to cause integration issues that can
make adoption of MDSD challenging.
Let me provide some specific examples. Industry has settled on a limited number of meta meta models, EMF/EMOF
being the most widespread. Consequently, it is possible to
navigate, query and constrain arbitrary models with a common API. However, programming language IDEs are typically
not built on top of EMF, but come with their own API for representing and accessing the syntax tree. Thus, interoperability
between models and source code is challenging – you cannot
treat source code in the same way as models in terms of how
you access the AST programmatically.
A similar problem exists regarding IDE support for modelcode integrated systems: you cannot mix (DSL) models and
(GPL) programs while retaining reasonable IDE support. Again,
this is because the technology stacks used by the two are different13 . These problems often result in an artificial separation of
models and code, where code generators either create skeletons
into which source code is inserted (directly or via the generation gap pattern), or the arcane practice of pasting C snippets
into 300 by 300 pixel sized text boxes in graphical state machine
tools (and getting errors reported only when the resulting in-
One can also do MDSD without DSLs
by, for example, generating code from
general-purpose modeling languages
such as UML.
11
Designing a good language is another
matter – Part II, DSL Design, provides
some help with this.
12
Of course, an integration can be
created, as Xtext/Xtend/Java shows.
However, this is a special integration
with Java. Interoperability with, say, C
code, would require a new and different
integration infrastructure.
13
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33
tegrated C code is compiled). So what really is the difference
between programming and (prescriptive) modeling today? The
table in Fig. 2.3 contains some (general and broad) statements:
Define your own notation/language
Syntactically integrate several langs
Graphical notations
Customize generator/compiler
Navigate/query
View Support
Constraints
Sophisticated mature IDE
Debugger
Versioning, diff/merge
Modeling
Programming
Easy
Possible, depends on tool
Possible, depends on tool
Easy
Easy
Typical
Easy
Sometimes, effort-dependent
Rarely
Depends on syntax and tools
Sometimes possible to some extent
Hard
Usually only visualizations
Sometimes possible based on open compilers
Sometimes possible, depends on IDE and APIs
Almost Never
Sometimes possible with Findbugs etc.
Standard
Almost always
Standard
Figure 2.3: Comparing modeling and
programming
Why the Difference?
So one can and should ask: why is
there a difference in the first place? I suspect that the primary
reason is history: the two worlds have different origins and
have evolved in different directions.
Programming languages have traditionally used textual concrete syntax, i.e. the program is represented as a stream of
characters. Modeling languages traditionally have used graphical notations. Of course there are textual domain-specific languages (and mostly failed graphical general-purpose languages),
but the use of textual syntax for domain-specific modeling has
only recently become more prominent. Programming languages
have traditionally stored programs in their textual, concrete
syntax form, and used scanners and parsers to transform this
character stream into an abstract syntax tree for further processing. Modeling languages have traditionally used editors
that directly manipulate the abstract syntax, and used projection to render the concrete syntax in the form of diagrams14 .
This approach makes it easy for modeling tools to define views,
the ability to show the same model elements in different contexts, often using different notations. This has never really been
a priority for programming languages beyond outline views,
inheritance trees or call graphs.
Here is one of the underlying premises of this book: there
should be no difference15 ! Programming and (prescriptive)
modeling should be based on the same conceptual approach
and tool suite, enabling meaningful integration16 . In my experience, most software developers don’t want to model. They
want to program, but:
This is not something we think
about much. To most of us this is
obvious. If it were different, we’d have
to define grammars that could parse
two-dimensional graphical structures.
While this is possible, it has never
caught on in practice.
14
This is my personal opinion. While
I know enough people who share it, I
also know people who disagree.
15
As we will see in this book, Xtext/
Xbase/Xtend and MPS’ BaseLanguage
and mbeddr C are convincing examples
of this idea.
16
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at different levels of abstraction: some things may have to be described in detail, low level, algorithmically (a sorting algorithm); other aspects may be described in more high-level
terms (declarative UIs)
from different viewpoints: separate aspects of the system should
be described with languages suitable to these aspects (data
structures, persitence mapping, process, UI)
with different degrees of domain-specificity: some aspects of systems
are generic enough to be described with reusable, generic
languages (components, database mapping). Other aspects
require their own dedicated, maybe even project-specific DSLs
(pension calculation rules).
with suitable notations, so all stakeholders can contribute directly
to "their" aspects of the overall system (a tabular notation for
testing pension rules)
with suitable degrees of expressiveness: aspects may be described
imperatively, with functions, or other Turing complete formalisms (a routing algorithm), and other aspects may be
described in a declarative way (UI structures)
always integrated and tool processable, so all aspects directly lead
to executable code through a number of transformations or
other means of execution.
This vision, or goal, leads to the idea of modular languages, as
explained in the next section.
2.4
Modular Languages
I distinguish between the size of a language and its scope. Language size simply refers to the number of language concepts
in that language. Language scope describes the area of applicability for the language, i.e. the size of the domain. The
same domain can be covered with big and small languages.
A big language makes use of linguistic abstraction, whereas a
small language allows the user to define their own in-language
abstractions. We discuss the tradeoffs between big and small
languages in detail as part of the chapter on Expressivity (Section 4.1), but here is a short overview, based on examples from
GPLs.
dsl engineering
Examples of big languages include Cobol (a relatively old
language intended for use by business users) or ABAP (SAP’s
language for programming the R/3 system). Big languages
(Fig. 2.4) have a relatively large set of very specific language
concepts. Proponents of these languages say that they are easy
to learn, since "There’s a keyword for everything". Constraint
checks, meaningful error messages and IDE support are relatively simple to implement because of the large set of language
concepts. However, expressing more sophisticated algorithms
can be clumsy, because it is hard to write compact, dense code.
Let us now take a look at small languages (Fig. 2.5). Lisp
or Smalltalk are examples of small GPLs. They have few, but
very powerful language concepts that are highly orthogonal,
and hence, composable. Users can define their own abstractions. Proponents of this kind of language also say that those
are easy to learn, because "You only have to learn three concepts". But it requires experience to build more complex systems from these basic building blocks, and code can be challenging to read because of its high density. Tool support is
harder to build because much more sophisticated analysis of
the code is necessary to reverse engineer its domain semantics.
There is a third option: modular languages (Fig. 2.6). They
are, in some sense, the synthesis of the previous two. A modular language is made up of a minimal language core, plus a
library of language modules that can be imported for use in
a given program. The core is typically a small language (in
the way defined above) and can be used to solve any problem at a low level, just as in Smalltalk or Lisp. The extensions
then add first class support for concepts that are interesting
the target domain. Because the extensions are linguistic in nature, interesting analyses can be performed and writing generators (transforming to the minimal core) is relatively straightforward. New, customized language modules can be built and
used at any time. A language module is like a framework or
library, but it comes with its own syntax, editor, type system
and IDE tooling. Once a language module is imported, it behaves as an integral part of the composed language, i.e. it is
integrated with other modules by referencing symbols or by
being syntactically embedded in code expressed with another
module. Integration on the level of the type system, the semantics and the IDE is also provided. An extension module may
even be embeddable in different core languages17 .
35
Figure 2.4: A Big Language has many
very specific language concepts.
Figure 2.5: A Small Language has few,
but powerful, language concepts.
Figure 2.6: A Modular Language: a
small core, and a library of reusable
language modules.
This may sound like internal DSLs.
However, static error checking, static
optimizations and IDE support is
what differentiates this approach from
internal DSLs.
17
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This idea isn’t new. Charles Simonyi18 and Sergey Dmitriev19
have written about it, so has Guy Steele in the context of Lisp20 .
The idea of modular and extensible languages also relates very
much to the notion of language workbenches as defined by
Martin Fowler21 . He defines language workbenches as tools
where:
• Users can freely define languages that are fully integrated with
each other. This is the central idea for language workbenches,
but also for modular languages, since you can easily argue
that each language module is what Martin Fowler calls a
language. "Full integration" can refer to referencing as well
as embedding, and includes type systems and semantics.
• The primary source of information is a persistent abstract representation and language users manipulate a DSL through a projectional editor. This implies that projectional editing must
be used22 . I don’t agree. Storing programs in their abstract
representation and then using projection to arrive at an editable representation is very useful, and maybe even the best
approach to achieve modular languages23 . However, in the
end I don’t think this is important, as long as languages are
modular. If this is possible with a different approach, such
as scannerless parsers24 , that is fine with me.
• Language designers define a DSL in three main parts: schema, editor(s) and generator(s). I agree that ideally a language should
be defined "meta model first", i.e. you first define a schema
(aka the meta model or AST), and then the concrete syntax
(editor or grammar), based on the schema: MPS does it this
way. However, I think it is also ok to start with the grammar, and have the meta model derived. This is the typical
workflow with Xtext, although it can do both. From the language user’s point of view, it does not make a big difference
in most cases.
• A language workbench can persist incomplete or contradictory information. I agree. This is trivial if the models are stored in a
concrete textual syntax, but it is not so trivial if a persistent
representation based on the abstract syntax is used.
Let me add two additional requirements. For all the languages
built with the workbench, tool support must be available: syntax highlighting, code completion, any number of static analyses (including type checking in the case of a statically typed
C. Simonyi, M. Christerson, and
S. Clifford. Intentional software. In
OOPSLA, pages 451–464, 2006
18
S. Dmitriev. Language oriented
programming: The next programming
paradigm, 2004
19
G. L. S. Jr. Growing a language. lisp,
12(3):221–236, 1999
20
M. Fowler. Language workbenches:
The killer-app for domain specific
languages?, 2005
21
Projectional editing means that users
don’t write text that is subsequently
parsed. Instead, user interactions with
the concrete syntax directly change
the underlying abstract syntax. We’ll
discuss this technology much more
extensively in Part III of the book.
22
In fact, this is what I think personally.
But I don’t think that this characteristic
is essential for language workbenches.
23
Scannerless parsers do not distinguish
between recognizing tokens and parsing the structure of the tokens, thereby
avoiding some problems with grammar
composability. We’ll discuss this further
in the book as well
24
dsl engineering
language) and ideally also a debugger25 . A final requirement
is that I want to be able to program complete systems within
the language workbench. Since in most interesting systems you
will still write parts in a GPL, GPLs must also be available in
the environment based on the same language definition/editing/processing infrastructure. Depending on the target domains, this language could be Java, Scala or C#, but it could
also be C/C++ for the embedded community. Starting with an
existing general-purpose language also makes the adoption of
the approach simpler: incremental language extensions can be
developed as the need arises.
Concrete Syntax By default, I expect the concrete syntax of
DSLs to be textual. Decades of experience show that textual
syntax, together with good tool support, is adequate for large
and complex software systems26 . This becomes even more true
if you consider that programmers will have to write less code
in a DSL – compared to expressing the same functionality in a
GPL – because the abstractions available in the languages will
be much more closely aligned with the domain. And programmers can always define an additional language module that fits
a domain.
Using text as the default does not mean that it should stop
there. There are worthwhile additions. For example, symbolic
(as in mathematical) notations and tables should be supported.
Finally, graphical editing is useful for certain cases. Examples
include data structure relationships, state machine diagrams or
data flow systems. The textual and graphical notations must be
integrated, though: for example, you will want to embed the
expression language module into the state machine diagram to
be able to express guard conditions.
The need to see graphical notations to gain an overview over
complex structures does not necessarily mean that the program
has to be edited in a graphical form: custom visualizations are
important as well. Visualizations are graphical representations
of some interesting aspect of the program that is read-only, automatically laid out and supports drill-down back to the program (you can double-click on, say, a state in the diagram, and
the text editor selects that particular state in the program text).
Language Libraries The importance of being able to build
your own languages varies depending on the concern at hand.
Assume that you work for an insurance company and you want
37
A central idea of language workbenches is that language definition
always includes IDE definition. The two
should be integrated.
25
This is not true for all formalisms.
Expressing hierarchical state charts
textually can be a challenge. However,
textual syntax is a good default that can
be used unless otherwise indicated.
26
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to build a DSL that supports your company’s specific way of
defining insurance contracts. In this case it is essential that the
language is aligned exactly with your business, so you have
to define the language yourself27 . There are other similar examples: building DSLs to describe radio astronomy observations for a given telescope, our case study language to describe
cooling algorithms for refrigerators, or a language for describing telecom billing rules (all of these are actual projects I have
worked on).
However, for a large range of concerns relating to software
engineering or software architecture, the relevant abstractions
are well known. They could be made available for reuse (and
adaptation) in a library of language modules. Examples include:
• Hierarchical components, ports, component instances and
connectors.
• Tabular data structure definition (as in the relational model)
or hierarchical data structure definition (as in XML and XML
schema), including specifications for persisting that data.
• Definition of rich contracts, including interfaces, pre- and
post conditions, protocol state machines and the like.
• Various communication paradigms, such as message passing, synchronous and asynchronous remote procedure calls
and service invocations.
• Abstractions for concurrency based on transactional memory or actors.
This sounds like a lot to put into a programming language.
But remember: it will not all be in one language. Each of those
concerns will be a separate language module that will be used
in a program only if needed.
It is certainly not possible to define all these language modules in isolation. Modules have to be designed to work with
each other, and a clear dependency structure has to be established. Interfaces on language level support "plugging in" new
language constructs. A minimal core language, supporting
primitive types, expression, functions and maybe OO, will act
as the focal point around which additional language modules
are organized.
Examples concepts in the insurance
domain include native types for dates,
times and time periods, currencies,
support for temporal data and the supporting operators, as well as business
rules that are "polymorphic" regarding
their period of applicability
27
dsl engineering
Many of these architectural concerns interact with frameworks, platforms and middleware. It is crucial that the abstractions in the language remain independent of specific technology solutions. In addition, when interfacing with a specific technology, additional (hopefully declarative) specifications might be necessary: such a technology mapping should
be a separate model that references the core program that expresses the application logic. The language modules define
a language for specifying persistence, distribution or contract
definition. Technology suppliers can support customized generators that map programs to the APIs defined by their technology, taking into account possible additional specifications
that configure the mapping28 .
This is a little like service provider
interfaces (SPIs) in Java enterprise
technology.
28
Figure 2.7: A program written in a
modularly extendible C (from the
mbeddr.com project).
A Vision of Programming For me, this is the vision of programming I am working towards. The distinction between
modeling and programming vanishes. People can develop code
using a language directly suitable to the task at hand and aligned
with their role in the overall development project. They can
39
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also build their own languages or language extensions, if that
makes their work easier. Most of these languages will be relatively small, since they only address one aspect of a system,
and typically extend existing languages (Fig. 3.13 shows an example of extensions to C). They are not general-purpose: they
are DSLs.
Tools for this implementing this approach exist. Of course
they can become even better, for example in the development
of debuggers or integration of graphical and textual languages,
but we are clearly getting there.
2.5
MPS is one of them, which is why
I focus a lot on MPS in this book.
Intentional’s Domain Workbench is
another one. Various Eclipse-based
solutions (with Xtext/ Xbase/Xtend at
the core) are getting there as well.
Benefits of using DSLs
Using DSLs can reap a multitude of benefits. There are also
some challenges you have to master: I outline these in the next
section. Let’s look at the upside first.
2.5.1
Productivity
Once you’ve got a language and its execution engine for a particular aspect of your development task, work becomes much
more efficient, simply because you don’t have to do the grunt
work manually29 . This is the most obviously useful if you can
replace a lot of GPL code with a few lines of DSL code. There
are many studies that show that the mere amount of code one
has to write (and read!) introduces complexity, independent of
what the code expresses, and how. The ability to reduce that
amount while retaining the same semantic content is a huge
advantage.
You could argue that a good library or framework will do
the job as well. True, libraries, frameworks and DSLs all encapsulate knowledge and functionality, making it easily reusable.
However, DSLs provide a number of additional benefits, such
as a suitable syntax, static error checking or static optimizations
and meaningful IDE support.
2.5.2
Presumably the amount of DSL code
you have to write is much less than
what you’d have to write if you used
the target platform directly.
29
Quality
Using DSLs can increase the quality of the created product:
fewer bugs, better architectural conformance, increased maintainability. This is the result of the removal of (unnecessary)
degrees of freedom for programmers, the avoidance of duplication of code (if the DSL is engineered in the right way) and
the consistent automation of repetitive work by the execution
The approach can also yield better
performance if the execution engine
contains the necessary optimizations.
However, implementing these is a lot
of work, so most DSLs do not lead to
significant gains in performance.
dsl engineering
engine30 . As the next item shows, more meaningful validation and verification can be performed on the level of DSL programs, increasing the quality further.
2.5.3
41
This is also known as correct-byconstruction: the language only allows
the construction of correct programs.
30
Validation and Verification
Since DSLs capture their respective concern in a way that is not
cluttered with implementation details, DSL programs are more
semantically rich than GPL programs. Analyses are much easier to implement, and error messages can use more meaningful
wording, since they can use domain concepts. As mentioned
above, some DSLs are built specifically to enable non-trivial,
formal (mathematical) analyses. Manual review and validation also becomes more efficient, because the domain-specific
aspects are uncluttered, and domain experts can be involved
more directly.
2.5.4
Data Longevity
If done right, models are independent of specific implementation techniques. They are expressed at a level of abstraction
that is meaningful to the domain – this is why we can analyze and generate based on these models. This also means that
models can be transformed into other representations if the
need arises, for example, because you are migrating to a new
DSL technology. While the investments in a DSL implementation are specific to a particular tool (and lost if you change it),
the models should largely be migratable31 .
2.5.5
This leads to an interesting definition
of legacy code: it is legacy, if you
cannot access the domain semantics of
a data structure, and hence you cannot
automatically migrate it to a different
formalism.
31
A Thinking and Communication Tool
If you have a way of expressing domain concerns in a language
that is closely aligned with the domain, your thinking becomes
clearer, because the code you write is not cluttered with implementation details. In other words, using DSLs allows you
to separate essential from accidental complexity, moving the
latter to the execution engine. This also makes team communication simpler.
But not only is using the DSL useful; also, the act of building
the language can help you improve your understanding of the
domain for which you build the DSL. It also helps straighten
out differences in the understanding of the domain that arise
from different people solving the same problem in different
ways. In some senses, a language definition is an "executable
analysis model"32 . I have had several occasions on which customers said, after a three-day DSL prototyping workshop, that
Building a language requires formalization and decision making: you can’t
create a DSL if you don’t really know
what you’re talking about.
Remember the days when "analysts"
created "analysis models"?
32
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they had learned a lot about their own domain, and that even
if they never used the DSL, this alone would be worth the effort spent on building it. In effect, a DSL is a formalization of
the Ubiquitous Language in the sense of Eric Evans’ Domain
Driven Design33 .
2.5.6
Domain Expert Involvement
DSLs whose domain, abstractions and notations are closely
aligned with how domain experts (i.e. non-programmers) express themselves, allow for very good integration between developers and domain experts: domain experts can easily read,
and often write program code, since it is not cluttered with
implementation details irrelevant to them. And even when domain experts aren’t willing to write DSL code, developers can
at least pair with them when writing code, or use the DSL
code to get domain experts involved in meaningful validation
and reviews (Fowler uses the term "business-readable DSLs" in
this case). At the very least you can generate visualizations,
reports or even interactive simulators that are suitable for use
by domain experts.
2.5.7
Of course, the domain (and the people
working in it) must be suitable for formalization, but once you start looking,
it is amazing how many domains fall
into this category. Insurance contracts,
hearing aids and refrigerators are just
some examples you maybe didn’t expect. On the other hand, I once helped
build a DSL to express enterprise governance and business policies. This effort
failed, because the domain was much
too vague and too "stomach driven" for
it to be formalizable.
Productive Tooling
In contrast to libraries, frameworks, and internal DSLs (those
embedded into a host language and implemented with host
language abstractions), external DSLs can come with tools, i.e.
IDEs that are aware of the language. This can result in a much
improved user experience. Static analyses, code completion,
visualizations, debuggers, simulators and all kinds of other
niceties can be provided. These features improve the productivity of the users and also make it easier for new team members to become productive34 .
2.5.8
E. Evans. Domain-driven design:
tackling complexity in the heart of software.
Addison-Wesley, 2004
33
No Overhead
If you are generating source code from your DSL program (as
opposed to interpreting it) you can use domain-specific abstractions without paying any runtime overhead, because the
generator, just like a compiler, can remove the abstractions
and generate efficient code. And it generates the same lowoverhead code, every time, automatically. This is very useful
in cases where performance, throughput or resource efficiency
is a concern (i.e. in embedded systems, but also in the cloud,
where you run many, many processes in server farms; energy
consumption is an issue these days).
JetBrains once reported the following
about their webr and dnq Java extensions for web applications and database
persistence: "Experience shows that the
language extensions are easier to learn
than J2EE APIs. As an experiment,
a student who had no experience in
web development was tasked to create
a simple accounting application. He
was able to produce a web application
with sophisticated Javascript UI in
about 2 weeks using the webr and dnq
languages."
34
dsl engineering
2.5.9
Platform Independent/Isolation
In some cases, using DSLs can abstract from the underlying
technology platform35 . Using DSLs and an execution engine
makes the application logic expressed in the DSL code independent of the target platform36 . It is absolutely feasible to
change the execution engine and the target platform "underneath" a DSL to execute the code on a new platform. Portability is enhanced, as is maintainability, because DSLs support
separation of concerns – the concerns expressed in the DSL
(e.g. the application logic) is separated from implementation
details and target platform specifics.
Often no single one of the advantages would drive you to using a DSL. But in many cases you can benefit in multiple ways,
so the sum of the benefits is often worth the (undoubtedly necessary) investment in the approach.
2.6
43
Remember OMG’s MDA? They
introduced the whole model-driven
approach primarily as a means to
abstract from platforms (probably a
consequence of their historical focus
on interoperability). There are cases
where interoperability is the primary
focus: cross-platform mobile development is an example. However, in my
experience, platform independence is
often just one driver in many, and it is
typically not the most important one.
35
This is not necessarily true for architecture DSLs and utility DSLs, whose
abstractions may be tied relatively
closely to the concepts provided by the
target platform.
36
Challenges
There is no such thing as a free lunch. This is also true for
DSLs. Let’s look at the price you have to pay to get all the
benefits described above.
2.6.1
Effort of Building the DSLs
Before a DSL can be used, it has to be built37 . If the DSL
has to be developed as part of a project, the effort of building it has to be factored into the overall cost-benefit analysis.
For technical DSLs38 , there is a huge potential for reuse (e.g. a
large class of web or mobile applications can be described with
the same DSL), so here the investment is easily justified. On
the other hand, application domain-specific DSLs (e.g. pension
plan specifications) are often very narrow in focus, so the investment in building them is harder to justify at first glance.
But these DSLs are often tied to the core know-how of a business and provide a way to describe this knowledge in a formal,
uncluttered, portable and maintainable way. That should be
a priority for any business that wants to remain relevant! In
both cases, modern tools reduce the effort of building DSLs
considerably, making it a feasible approach in more and more
projects.
If it has been built already, before a
project, then using the DSL is obviously
useful.
37
Technical DSLs are those that address aspects of software engineering
such as components, state machines
or persistence mappings, not application domain DSLs for a technical
domain (such as automotive software or
machine control).
38
There are three factors that make DSL
creation cheaper: deep knowledge
about a domain, experience of the DSL
developer and productivity of the tools.
This is why focussing on tools in the
context of DSLs is important.
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2.6.2
Language Engineering Skills
Building DSLs is not rocket science. But to do it well requires
experience and skill: it is likely that your first DSL will not be
great. Also, the whole language/compiler thing has a bad reputation that mainly stems from "ancient times" when tools like
lex/yacc, ANTLR, C and Java were the only ingredients you
could use for language engineering. Modern language workbenches have changed this situation radically, but of course
there is still a learning curve. In addition, the definition of
good languages – independent of tooling and technicalities – is
not made simpler by better tools: how do you find out which
abstractions need to go into the languages? How do you create "elegant" languages? The book provides some guidance in
Part II, DSL Design, but it nevertheless requires a significant
element of experience and practice that can only be build up
over time.
2.6.3
Process Issues
Using DSLs usually leads to work split: some people build
the languages, others use them. Sometimes the languages have
been built already when you start a development project; sometimes they are built as part of the project. In the latter case especially, it is important that you establish some kind of process
for how language users interact with language developers and
with domain experts39 . Just like any other situation in which
one group of people creates something that another group of
people relies on, this can be a challenge40 .
For some DSLs, the users of the DSL
are the same people who build the
DSL (often true for utility DSLs). This
is great because there is no communication overhead or knowledge gap
between the domain expert (you) and
the DSL developer (you). It is a good
idea to choose such a DSL as your first
DSL.
39
This is not much different for languages than for any other shared
artifact (frameworks, libraries, tools in
general), but it also isn’t any simpler
and needs to be addressed.
40
2.6.4
Evolution and Maintenance
A related issue is language evolution and maintenance. Again,
just like any other asset you develop for use in multiple contexts, you have to plan ahead (people, cost, time, skills) for the
maintenance phase. A language that is not actively maintained
and evolved will become outdated over time and will become
a liability. During the phase where you introduce DSLs into an
organization especially, rapid evolution based on the requirements of users is critical to build trust in the approach41 .
2.6.5
DSL Hell
Once development of DSLs becomes technically easy, there is
a danger that developers create new DSLs instead of searching
for and learning existing DSLs. This may end up as a large
While this is an important aspect,
once again it is no worse for DSLs than
it is for any other shared, reused asset.
41
dsl engineering
set of half-baked DSLs, each covering related domains, possibly with overlap, but still incompatible. The same problem
can arise with libraries, frameworks or tools. They can all be
addressed by governance and effective communication in the
team42 .
2.6.6
It also helps if DSLs are incrementally
extensible, so an existing language
can be extended instead of creating a
completely new language.
42
Investment Prison
The more you invest in reusable artifacts, the more productive
you become. However, you may also get locked into a particular way of doing things. Radically changing your business may
seem unattractive once you’ve become very efficient at the current one. It becomes expensive to "move outside the box". To
avoid this, keep an open mind and be willing to throw things
away and come up with more appropriate solutions.
2.6.7
45
With the advent of the digital age, we
all know of many businesses that went
bankrupt because they had stuck to a
dying business model. Maybe they just
couldn’t see that things would change,
but maybe it way because they were
so efficient at what they were doing,
they couldn’t invest into new ideas or
approaches for fear of canibalizing their
mainstream business.
Tool Lock-in
Many of the DSL tools are open source, so you don’t get locked
into a vendor. But you will still get locked into a tool. While it
is feasible to exchange model data between tools, there is essentially no interoperability between DSL tools themselves, so
the investments in DSL implementation are specific to a single
tool.
2.6.8
Cultural Challenges
Statements like "Language Engineering is complicated", "Developers want to program, not model", "Domain experts aren’t
programmers" and "If we model, we use the UML standard" are
often-overheard prejudices that hinder the adoption of DSLs. I
hope to provide the factual and technical arguments for fighting these in this book. But an element of cultural bias may
still remain. You may have to do some selling and convincing
that is relatively independent of the actual technical arguments.
Problems like this always arise if you want to introduce something new into an organization, especially if it changes significantly what people do, how they do it or how they interact.
A lot has been written about introducing new ideas into organizations, and I recommend reading Fearless Change by Rising
and Manns43 if you’re the person who is driving the introduction of DSLs into your organization.
Of course there are other things that can go wrong: your DSL
or generator might be buggy, resulting in buggy systems. You
L. Rising and M. L. Manns. Fearless
Change: Patterns for Introducing New
Ideas: Introducing Patterns into Organizations. Addison-Wesley, 2004
43
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might have the DSL developed by external parties, giving away
core domain knowhow. The person who built the DSL may
leave the company. However, these things are not specific to
DSLs: they can happen with anything, so we don’t address
them as challenges in the context of DSLs specifically.
Is it worth it?
Should you use DSLs? The only realistic
answer is: it depends. With this book I aim to give you as
much help as possible. The better you understand the topic,
the easier it is to make an informed decision. In the end, you
have to decide for yourself, or maybe ask for the help of people
who have done it before.
Let us look at when you should not use DSLs. If you don’t
understand the domain you want to write a DSL for, or if you
don’t have the means to learn about it (e.g. access to somebody
who knows the domain), you’re in trouble. You will identify
the wrong abstractions, miss the expectations of your future
users and generally have to iterate a lot to get it right, making the development expensive44 . Another sign of problems is
this: if you build your DSL iteratively and over time and the
changes requested by the domain experts don’t become fewer
and smaller, and concern more and more detailed points, then
you know you are in trouble, because it seems there is no common understanding about the domain. It is hard to write a DSL
for a set of stakeholders who can’t agree on what the domain
is all about.
Another problem is an unknown target platform. If you
don’t know how to implement a program in the domain on
the target platform manually, you’ll have a hard time implementing an execution engine (generator or interpreter). You
might want to consider writing (or inspecting) a couple of representative example applications to understand the patterns
that should go into the execution engine.
DSLs and their tooling are sophisticated software programs
themselves. They need to be designed, tested, deployed and
documented. So a certain level of general software development proficiency is a prerequisite. If you are struggling with
unit testing, software design or continuous builds, then you
should probably master these challenges before you address
DSLs. A related topic is the maturity of the development process. The fact that you introduce additional dependencies (in
the form of a supplier-consumer relationship between DSL de-
If everyone is aware of this, then
you might still want to try to build a
language as a means of building the
understanding about the domain. But
this is risky, and should be handled
with care.
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47
velopers and DSL users) into your development team requires
that you know how to track issues, handle version management, do testing and quality assurance and document things
in a way accessible to the target audience. If your development
team lacks this maturity, you might want to consider first introducing those aspects into the team before you start using DSLs
in a strategic way – although the occasional utility DSL is the
obvious exception.
2.7
Applications of DSLs
So far we have covered some of the basics of DSLs, as well
as the benefits and challenges. This section addresses those
aspects of software engineering in which DSLs have been used
successfully. Part IV of the book provides extensive treatment
of most of these.
2.7.1
Utility DSLs
One use of DSLs is simply as utilities for developers. A developer, or a small team of developers, creates a small DSL that
automates a specific, usually well-bounded aspect of software
development. The overall development process is not based on
DSLs, it’s a few developers being creative and simplifying their
own lives45 .
Examples include the generation of array-based implementations for state machines, any number of interface/contract
definitions from which various derived artifacts (classes, WSDL,
factories) are generated, or tools that set up project and code
skeletons for given frameworks (as exemplified in Rails’ and
Roo’s scaffolding). The Jnario language for behavior-driven
development is discussed as an example of a utility DSL in
Chapter 19.
2.7.2
Architecture DSLs
A larger-scale use of DSLs is to use them to describe the architecture (components, interfaces, messages, dependencies, processes, shared resources) of a (larger) software system or platform. In contrast to using existing architecture modeling languages (such as UML or the various existing architecture description languages (ADLs)), the abstractions in an architecture DSL can be tailored specifically to the abstractions relevant to the particular platform or system architecture. Much
Often, these DSL serve as a "nice
front end" to an existing library or
framework, or automates a particularly
annoying or intricate aspect of software
development in a given domain.
45
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more meaningful analyses and generators are possible in this
way. From the architecture models expressed in the DSL, code
skeletons are generated into which manually written application code is inserted. The generated code usually handles the
integration with the runtime infrastructure. Often, these DSLs
also capture non-functional constraints such as timing or resource consumption. Architecture DSLs are usually developed
during the architecture exploration phase of a project. They
can help to ensure that the system architecture is consistently
implemented by a potentially large development team.
For example in AUTOSAR46 , the architecture is specified in
models, then the complete communication middleware for a
distributed component infrastructure is generated. Examples
in embedded systems in general abound: I have used this approach for a component architecture in software-defined radio, as well as for factory automation systems, in which the
distributed components had to "speak" an intricate protocol
whose handlers could be generated from a concise specification. Finally, the approach can also be used well in enterprise systems that are based on a multi-tier, database-based
distributed server architecture. Middleware integration, server
configuration and build scripts can often be generated from
relatively concise models.
We discuss an example architecture DSL for distributed, component-based systems as one of the case studies in Part II of the
book, and also in Chapter 18.
2.7.3
Full Technical DSLs
For some domains, DSLs can be created that don’t just embody
the architectural structure of the systems, but their complete
application logic as well, so that 100% of the code can be generated. DSLs like these often consist of several language modules that play together to describe all aspects of the underlying
system. I emphasize the word "technical", since these DSLs are
used by developers, in contrast to application domain DSLs.
Examples include DSLs for some types of Web application,
DSLs for mobile phone apps, as well as DSLs for developing
state-based or dataflow-based embedded systems. As an example of this class of DSLs we discuss mbeddr, a set of extensions to C for embedded software development as an example
in Part II and in Chapter 20.
AUTOSAR is an architectural standard for automotive software development.
46
dsl engineering
2.7.4
Application Domain DSLs
In this case the DSLs describe the core business logic of an application system independent of its technical implementation.
These DSLs are intended to be used by domain experts, usually
non-programmers. This leads to more stringent requirements
regarding notation, ease of use and tool support. These also
typically require more effort in building the language, since a
"messy" application domain first has to be understood, structured and possibly "re-taught" to the domain experts47 .
Examples include DSLs for describing pension plans, a DSL
for describing the cooling algorithms in refrigerators, a DSL for
configuring hearing aids or DSLs for insurance mathematics.
We discuss the pension plan example in Part II, and discuss a
DSL for defining health monitoring applications in Chapter 22.
2.7.5
In contrast, technical DSLs are often
much easier to define, since they are
guided very much by existing formal
artifacts (architectures, frameworks,
middleware infrastructures).
47
DSLs in Requirements Engineering
A related topic to application domain DSLs is the use of DSLs
in the context of requirements engineering. Here, the focus of
the languages is not so much on automatic code generation,
but rather on a precise and checkable complete description of
requirements. Traceability to other artifacts is important. Often, the DSLs need to be embedded or otherwise connected
to prose text, to integrate them with "classical" requirements
approaches.
Examples include a DSL for helping with the trade analysis for satellite construction, or pseudo-structured natural language DSLs that assume some formal meaning for domain entities and terms such as should or must48 . We discuss the connection of DSLs and requirements engineering in Chapter 17.
2.7.6
49
DSLs used for Analysis
Another category of DSL use is as the basis for analysis, checking and proofs. Of course, checking plays a role in all use cases
for DSLs – you want to make sure that the models you release
for downstream use are "correct" in a sense that goes beyond
what the language syntax already enforces. But in some cases,
DSLs are used to express concerns in a formalism that lends
itself to formal verification (safety, scheduling, concurrency, resource allocation). While code generation is often a part of
it, code generation is not the driver for the use of this type
of DSL. This is especially relevant in complex technical systems, or in systems engineering, where we look beyond only
The latter kind of DSLs, also called
Controlled Natural Language, is quite
different from the kinds of DSLs we
cover in this book. I will not cover it
any furter.
48
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software and consider a system as a whole (including mechanical, electric/electronic or fluid-dynamic aspects). Sophisticated
mathematical formalisms are used here – I will cover this aspect only briefly in this book, as part of the Semantics chapter
(Section 4.1).
2.7.7
DSLs used in Product Line Engineering
At its core, PLE is mainly about expressing, managing and then
later binding variability between a set of related products. Depending on the kind of variability, DSLs are a very good way of
capturing the variability, and later, in the DSL code, of describing a particular variant. Often, but not always, these DSLs are
used more for configuration than for "creatively constructing"
a solution to a problem.
Examples include the specification of refrigerator models as
the composition of the functional layout of a refrigerator and a
cooling algorithm, injected with specific parameter values. We
look at the relationship of DSLs and PLE in Chapter 21.
2.8
2.8.1
Differentiation from other Works and Approaches
Internal versus External DSLs
Internal DSLs are DSLs that are embedded into general-purpose
languages. Usually, the host languages are dynamically typed
and the implementation of the DSL is based on meta programming (Scala is an exception here, since it is a statically typed
language with type inference). The difference between an API
and an internal DSL is not always clear, and there is a middle
ground called a Fluent API. Let’s look at the three:
• We all know what a regular object-oriented API looks like.
We instantiate an object and then call a sequence of methods
on the object. Each method call is packaged as a separate
statement.
• A fluent API essentially chains method calls. Each method
call returns an object on which subsequent calls are possible.
This results in more concise code, and, more importantly, by
returning suitable intermediate objects from method calls, a
sequence of valid subsequent method calls can be enforced
(almost like a grammar – this is why it could be considered a DSL). Here is a Java/Easymock example, taken from
Wikipedia:
dsl engineering
51
Collection coll = EasyMock.createMock(Collection.class);
EasyMock.expect(coll.remove(null)).andThrow(new NullPointerException()).
atLeastOnce();
• Fluent APIs are chained sequences of method calls. The
syntax makes this obvious, and there is typically no way to
change this syntax, as a consequence of the inflexible syntax
rules of the host language. Host languages with more flexible syntax can support internal DSL that look much more
like actual, custom languages. Here is a Ruby on Rails example49 , which defines a data structure (and, implicitly, a
database table) for a blog post:
49
taken from rubyonrails.org
class Post < ActiveRecord::Base
validates :name, :presence => true
validates :title, :presence => true,
:length => { :minimum => 5 }
end
While I recognize the benefits of fluent APIs and internal DSLs,
I think they are fundamentally limited by the fact that an important ingredient is missing: IDE support50 . In classical internal DSLs, the IDE is not aware of the grammar, constraints or
other properties of the embedded DSL beyond what the type
system can offer, which isn’t much in the case of dynamically
typed languages. Since I consider IDE integration an important ingredient to DSL adoption, I decided not to cover internal
DSLs in this book51 .
2.8.2
Compiler Construction
Language definition, program validation and transformation
or interpretation are obviously closely related to compiler construction – even though I don’t make this connection explicit
in the book all the time. And many of the techniques that are
traditionally associated with compiler construction are applicable to DSLs. However, there are also significant differences.
The tools for building DSLs are more powerful and convenient
and also include IDE definition52 , a concern not typically associated with compiler construction. Compilers also typically
generate machine code, whereas DSLs typically transform to
source code in a general-purpose language. Finally, a big part
of building compilers is the implementation of optimizations
(in the code generator or interpreter), a topic that is not as
prominent in the context of DSLs. I recommend reading the
"Dragon Book"53 or Appel’s Modern Compiler Construction54 .
Note that with modern language
workbenches, you can also achieve
language extension or embedding,
resulting in the same (or even a somewhat cleaner) syntax. However, these
extensions and embeddings are real language extensions (as opposed to meta
programs) and do come with support
for static constraint checking and IDE
support. We cover this extensively in
the book.
50
In addition, I don’t have enough realworld experience with internal DSLs to
be able to talk about them in a book.
51
There are universities who teach compiler construction based on language
workbenches and DSLs.
52
A. V. Aho, M. S. Lam, R. Sethi, and
J. D. Ullman. Compilers: Principles,
Techniques, and Tools (2nd Edition).
Addison Wesley, August 2006
53
A. W. Appel. Modern Compiler
Implementation in Java. Cambridge
University Press, 1998
54
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2.8.3
UML
So what about the Unified Modeling Language – UML? I decided not to cover UML in this book. I focus on mostly textual DSLs and related topics. UML does show up peripherally
in a couple of places, but if you are interested in UML-based
MDSD, then this book is not for you. For completeness, let us
briefly put UML into the context of DSLs.
UML is a general-purpose modeling language. Like Java
or Ruby, it is not specific to any domain (unless you consider
software development in general to be a domain, which renders the whole DSL discussion pointless), so UML itself does
not count as a DSL55 . To change this, UML provides profiles,
which are a (limited and cumbersome) way to define variants
of UML language concepts and to effectively add new ones. It
depends on the tool you choose how well this actually works
and how far you can adapt the UML syntax and the modeling
tool as part of profile definition. In practice, most people use
only a very small part of UML, with the majority of concepts
defined via profiles. It is my experience that because of that, it
is much more productive, and often less work, to build DSLs
with "real" language engineering environments, as opposed to
using UML profiles.
So is UML used in MDSD? Sure. People build profiles and
use UML-based DSLs, especially in large organizations where
the (perceived) need for standardization is para- mount56 .
2.8.4
When I wrote my "old" book on MDSD,
UML played an important role. At
the time, I really did use UML a lot
for projects involving models and
code generation. Over the years, the
importance of UML has diminished
significantly (in spite of the OMG’s
efforts to popularize both UML and
MDA), mainly because of the advent of
modern language workbenches.
UML can be seen as an integrated
collection of DSLs that describe various
aspects of software systems: class
structure, state based behavior, or
deployment. However, these DSLs still
address the overall domain of software.
55
It is interesting to see that even
these sectors increasingly embrace
DSLs. I know of several projects in
the aerospace/defense sector where
UML-based modeling approaches
were replaced with very specific and
much more productive DSLs. It is
also interesting to see how sectors
define their own standard languages.
While I hesitate to call it a DSL, the
automotive industry is in the process
of standardizing on AUTOSAR and its
modeling languages.
56
Graphical versus Textual
This is something of a religious war, akin to the statically-typed
versus dynamically-typed languages debate. Of course, there
is a use for both flavors of notation, and in many cases, a mix is
the best approach. In a number of cases, the distinction is even
hard to make: tables or mathematical and chemical notations
are both textual and graphical in nature57 .
However, this book does have a bias towards textual notations, for several reasons. I feel that the textual format is more
generally useful, that it scales better and that the necessary
tools take (far) less effort to build. In the vast majority of cases,
starting with textual languages is a good idea – graphical visualizations or editors can be built on top of the meta model later,
if a real need has been established. If you want to learn more
about graphical DSLs, I suggest you read Kelly and Tolvanen’s
book Domain Specific Modeling 58 .
The ideal tool will allow you to use
and mix all of them, and we will see in
the book how close existing tools come
to this ideal.
57
S. Kelly and J.-P. Tolvanen. DomainSpecific Modeling: Enabling Full Code
Generation. Wiley-IEEE Computer
Society Press, March 2008
58
Part II
DSL Design
dsl engineering
This part of the book has been written together with Eelco
Visser of TU Delft. You can reach him at [email protected]
Throughout this part of the book we refer back to the five case
studies introduced in Part I of the book (Section 1.11). We use
a the following labels:
Component Architecture: This refers to the component
architecture case study described in Section 1.11.1. J
Refrigerators: This refers to the refrigerator configuration
case study described in Section 1.11.2. J
mbeddr C: This refers to the mbeddr.com extensible C case
study described in Section 1.11.3. J
Pension Plans: This refers to the pension plans case study
described in Section 1.11.4. J
WebDSL: This refers to the WebDSL case study described
in Section 1.11.5. J
Note that in this part of the book the examples will only be
used to illustrate DSL design and the driving design decisions.
Part III of the book will then discuss the implementation aspects.
Some aspects of DSL design have been formalized with mathematical formulae. These are intended as an additional means
of explaining some of the concepts. Formulae are able to state
properties of programs and languages in an unambiguous way.
However, I want to emphasize that reading or understanding
the formulae is not essential for understanding the language
design discussion. So if you’re not into mathematical formulae, just ignore them.
This part consists of three chapters. In Chapter 3 we introduce important terms and concepts including domain, model
purpose and the structure of programs and languages. In Chapter 4 we discuss a set of seven dimensions that guide the design
of DSLs: expressivity, coverage, semantics, separation of concerns, completeness, language modularization and syntax. Finally, in Chapter 5 we look at well-known structural and behavioral paradigms (such as inheritance or state based behaviour)
and discuss their applicability to DSLs.
55
3
Conceptual Foundations
This chapter provides the conceptual foundations for the
discussion of the design dimensions. It consists of three sections. The first one, Program, Languages and Domain
defines some of the terminology around DSL design we will
use in the rest of this chapter. The second section briefly address the Purpose of programs as a way of guiding their design. And the third section briefly introduces parser-based
and projectional editing, since some design considerations
depend on this rather fundamental difference in DSL implementation.
3.1
Programs, Languages and Domains
Domain-specific languages live in the realm of programs, languages and domains. So we should start by explaining what
these things are. We will then use these concepts throughout
this part of the book.
As part of this book’s treatment of DSLs, we are primarily interested in computation, i.e. we are aimed at creating executable
software1 . So let’s first consider the relation between programs
and languages. Let’s define P to be the set of all conceivable
programs. A program p in P is the conceptual representation
of some computation that runs on a universal computer (Turing
machine). A language l defines a structure and notation for expressing or encoding programs from P. Thus, a program p in P
may have an expression in L, which we will denote as pl .
There can be several languages l1 and l2 that express the
same conceptual program p in different way pl1 and pl2 (fac-
This is opposed to just communicating
among humans or describing complete
systems.
1
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torial can be expressed in Java and Lisp, for example). There
may even be multiple ways to express the same program in
a single language l (in Java, factorial can be expressed via
recursion or with a loop). A transformation T between languages l1 and l2 maps programs from their l1 encoding to their
l2 encoding, i.e. T ( pl1 ) = pl2 .
It may not be possible to encode all programs from P in a
given language l. We denote as Pl the subset of P that can
be expressed in l. More importantly, some languages may be
better at expressing certain programs from P: the program may
be shorter, more readable or more analyzable.
Notice that this transformation only
changes the language used to express
the program. The conceptual program
does not change. In other words, the
transformation preserves the semantics
of pl1 . We will come back to this notion
as we discuss semantics in more detail
in Section 4.3.
Turing-complete languages can by
definition express all of P
Pension Plans: The pension plan language is very good at
representing pension calculations, but cannot practically
be used to express other software. For example, user defined data structures and loops are not supported. J
Domains
What are domains? We have seen one way of
defining domains in the previous paragraph. When we said
that a language l covers a subset of P, we can simply call this
subset the domain covered with l. However, this is not a very
useful approach, since it equates the scope of a domain trivially
with the scope of a language (the subset of P in that domain PD
is equal to the subset of P we can express with a language l Pl ).
We cannot ask questions like: "Does the language adequately
cover the domain?", since it always does, by definition.
There are two more useful approaches. In the inductive or
bottom-up approach we define a domain in terms of existing
software used to address a particular class of problems or products. That is, a domain D is identified as a set of programs with
common characteristics or similar purpose. Notice how at this
point we do not imply a special language to express them. They
could be expressed in any Turing-complete language. Often
such domains do not exist outside the realm of software.
An especially interesting case of the inductive approach is
where we define a domain as a subset of programs written in
a specific language Pl instead of the more general set P. In this
case we can often clearly identify the commonalities among the
programs in the domain, in the form of their consistent use of
a set of domain-specific patterns or idioms2 . This makes building a DSL for D relatively simple, because we know exactly
what the DSL has to cover, and we know what code to generate from DSL programs.
Some people have argued for a
long time that the need to use idioms or patterns in a language is a
smell, and should be understood
as hints at missing language features: c2.com/cgi/wiki?AreDesign
2
PatternsMissingLanguageFeatures
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59
mbeddr C: The domain of this DSL has been defined bottomup. Based on idioms commonly employed when using
C for embedded software development, linguistic abstractions have been defined that provide a "shorthand" for
those idioms. These linguistic abstractions form the basis
of the language extensions. J
The above examples can be considered relatively general – the
domain of embedded software development is relatively broad.
In contrast, a domain may also be very specific, as is illustrated
by the refridgerator case study.
Refrigerators: The cooling DSL is tailored specifically towards expressing refrigerator cooling programs for a very
specific organization. No claim is made for broad applicability of the DSL. However, it perfectly fits into the way
cooling algorithms are described and implemented in that
particular organization. J
The second approach for defining a domain is deductive or topdown. In this approach, a domain is considered a body of
knowledge about the real world, i.e. outside the realm of software. From this perspective, a domain D is a body of knowledge for which we want to provide some form of software support. PD is the subset of programs in P that implement interesting computations in D. This case is much harder to address
using DSLs, because we first have to understand precisely the
nature of the domain and identify the interesting programs in
that domain.
Pension Plans: The pensions domain has been defined
in this way. The customer had been working in the field
of old-age pensions for decades and had a detailed understanding of that domain. That knowledge was mainly
contained in the heads of pension experts, in pension plan
requirements documents, and, to a limited extent, encoded
in the source of existing software. J
In the context of DSLs, we can ultimately consider a domain
D by a set of programs PD , whether we take the deductive or
inductive route. There can be multiple languages in which we
can express PD programs. Possibly, PD can only be partially
expressed in a language l (Figure 3.1).
Domain-Specific Languages We can now understand the notion of a domain-specific language. A domain-specific language
Figure 3.1: The programs relevant
to a domain PD and the programs
expressible with a language PL are both
subsets of the set of all programs P. A
good DSL has a large overlap with its
target domain (PL ≈ PD ).
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l D for a domain D is a language that is specialized for encoding
programs from PD . That is, l D is more efficient3 in representing PD programs than other languages, and thus, is particularly
well suited for PD . It achieves this by using abstractions suitable
to the domain, and avoiding details that are irrelevant to programs in D (typically because they are similar in all programs
and can be added automatically by the execution engine).
It is of course possible to express programs in PD with a
general-purpose language. But this is less efficient – we may
have to write much more code, because a GPL is not specialized to that particular domain. Depending on the expressivity
of a DSL, we may also be able to use it to describe programs
outside of the D domain4 . However, this is often not efficient
at all, because, by specializing a DSL for D, we also restrict
its efficiency for expressing programs outside of D. This is
not a problem as long as we have scoped D correctly. If the
DSL actually just covers a subset of PD , and we have to express
programs in D for which the DSL is not efficient, we have a
problem.
This leads us to the crucial challenge in DSL design: finding
regularity in a non-regular domain and capturing it in a language. Especially in the deductive approach, membership of
programs in the domain is determined by a human and is, in
some sense, arbitrary. A DSL for the domain hence typically
represents an explanation or interpretation of the domain, and
often requires trade-offs by under- or over-approximation (Figure 3.2). This is especially true while we develop the DSL: an
iterative approach is necessary that evolves the language as our
understanding of the domain becomes more and more refined
over time. In a DSL l that is adequate for the domain, the sets
Pl and PD are the same.
Domain Hierarchy In the discussion of DSLs and progressively higher abstraction levels, it is useful to consider domains
organized in a hierarchy5 , in which higher domains are a subset (in terms of scope) of the lower domains (Fig. 3.3).
At the bottom we find the most general domain D0 . It is the
domain of all possible programs P. Domains Dn , with n > 0,
represent progressively more specialized domains, where the
set of interesting programs is a subset of those in Dn−1 (abbreviated as D−1 ). We call D+1 a subdomain of D. For example, D1.1 could be the domain of embedded software, and
There are several ways of measuring
efficiency. The most obvious one is
the amount of code a developer has
to write to express a problem in the
domain: the more concise, the more
efficient. We will discuss this in more
detail in Section 4.1.
3
4
For example, you can write any program with some dialects of SQL.
Figure 3.2: Languages L1 and L2 underapproximate and over-approximate
domain D.
In reality, domains are not always
as neatly hierarchical as we make it
seem here. Domains may overlap, for
example. Nonetheless, the notion of a
hierarchy is very useful for discussing
many of the advanced topics in this
book. In terms of DSLs, overlap may
be addressed by factoring the common aspects into a separate language
module that can be used in both the
overlapping domains.
5
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D1.2 could be the domain of enterprise software. The progressive specialization can be continued ad infinitum, in principle.
For example, D2.1.1 and D2.1.2 are further subdomains of D1.1 :
D2.1.1 could be automotive embedded software and D2.1.2 could
be avionics software6 .
61
At the top of the hierarchy we find
singleton domains that consist of a
single program (a non-interesting
boundary case).
6
Figure 3.3: The domain hierarchy.
Domains with higher index are called
subdomains of domains with a lower
index (D1 is a subdomain of D0 ).
We use just D to refer to the current
domain, and D+1 and D−1 to refer to
the relatively more specific and more
general ones.
Languages are typically designed for a particular domain D.
Languages for D0 are called general-purpose languages7 . Languages for Dn with n > 0 become more domain-specific for
growing n. Languages for a particular Dn can also be used
to express programs in Dn+1 . However, DSLs for Dn+1 may
add additional abstractions or remove some of the abstractions
found in languages for Dn . To get back to the embedded systems domain, a DSL for D1.1 could include components, state
machines and data types with physical units. A language for
D2.1.1 , automotive software, will retain these extensions, but
in addition provide direct support for the AUTOSAR standard
and prohibit the use of void* to conform to the MISRA-C standard.
mbeddr C: The C base language is defined for D0 . Extensions for tasks, state machines or components can argued
to be specific to embedded systems, making those sit in
D1.1 . Progressive specialization is possible; for example, a
language for controlling small Lego robots sits on top of
state machines and tasks. It could be allocated to D2.1.1 . J
3.2
Model Purpose
We have said earlier that there can be several languages for the
same domain. These languages differ regarding the abstractions they make use of. Deciding which abstractions should
go into a particular language for D is not always obvious. The
basis for the decision is to consider the model purpose. Mod-
We could define D0 to be those programs expressible with Turing machines, but using GPLs for D0 is a more
useful approach for this book.
7
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els8 , and hence the languages to express them, are intended
for a specific purpose. Examples of model purpose include
automatic derivation of a D−1 program, formal analysis and
model checking, platform-independent specification of functionality or generation of documentation9 . The same domain
concepts can often be abstracted in different ways, for different purposes. When defining a DSL, we have to identify the
different purposes required, and then decide whether we can
create one DSL that fits all purposes, or create a DSL for each
purpose10 .
mbeddr C: The model purpose is the generation of an efficient low-level C implementation of the system, while at
the same time providing software developers with meaningful abstractions. Since efficient C code has to be generated, certain abstractions, such as dynamically growing
lists or runtime polymorphic dispatch, are not supported
even though they would be convenient for the user. The
state machines in the statemachines language have an
additional model purpose: model checking, i.e. proving
certain properties about the state machines (e.g., proving
that a certain state is definitely going to be reached after
some event occurs). To make this possible, the action code
used in the state machines is limited: it is not possible, for
example, to read and write the same variable in the same
action. J
Refrigerators: The model purpose is the generation of efficient implementation code for various different target platforms (different types of refrigerators use different electronics). A secondary purpose is enabling domain experts
to express the algorithms and experiment with them using simulations and tests. The DSL is not expected to be
used to visualize the actual refrigerator device for sales or
marketing purposes. J
Pension Plans: The model purpose of the pension DSL is
to enable insurance mathematicians and pension plan developers (who are not programmers) to define complete
pension plans, and to allow them to check their own work
for correctness using various forms of tests. A secondary
purpose is the generation of the complete calculation engine for the computing center and the website. J
As we discuss below, we use the terms
program and model as synonyms.
8
Generation of documentation is
typically not the main or sole model
purpose, but may be an important
secondary one. In general, we consider
models that only serve communication
among humans to be outside the scope
of this book, because they don’t have
to be formally defined to achieve their
purpose.
9
Defining several DSLs for a single
domain is especially useful if different
stakeholders want to express different
aspects of the domain with languages
suitable to their particular aspect. We
discuss this in the section on Viewpoints (Section 4.4)
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The purpose of a DSL may also change over time. Consequently, this may require changes to the abstractions or notations used in the language. From a technical perspective, this
is just like any other case of language evolution (discussed in
Chapter 6).
3.3
The Structure of Programs and Languages
The discussion above is relatively theoretical, trying to capture somewhat precisely the inherently imprecise notion of domains. Let us now move into the field of language engineering.
Here we can describe the relevant concepts in a much more
practical way.
Concrete and Abstract Syntax Programs can be represented
in their abstract syntax and the concrete syntax forms. The concrete syntax is the notation with which the user interacts as he
edits a program. It may be textual, symbolic, tabular, graphical
or any combination thereof. The abstract syntax is a data structure that represents the semantically relevant data expressed by
a program (Fig. 3.4 shows an example of both). It does not contain notational details such as keywords, symbols, white space
or positions, sizes and coloring in graphical notations. The abstract syntax is used for analysis and downstream processing of
programs. A language definition includes the concrete and the
abstract syntax, as well as rules for mapping one to the other.
Parser-based systems map the concrete syntax to the abstract
syntax. Users interact with a stream of characters, and a parser
derives the abstract syntax by using a grammar and mapping
rules. Projectional editors go the other way round: user interactions, although performed through the concrete syntax, directly
change the abstract syntax. The concrete syntax is a mere projection (that looks and feels like text when a textual projection
is used). No parsing takes place. Spoofax and Xtext are parserbased tools, MPS is projectional.
While concrete syntax modularization and composition can
be a challenge and requires a discussion of textual concrete
syntax details, we will illustrate most language design concerns
based on the abstract syntax. The abstract syntax of programs
are primarily trees of program elements. Each element is an instance of a language concept, or concept for short. A language is
essentially a set of concepts (we’ll come back to this below). Every element (except the root) is contained by exactly one parent
Figure 3.4: Concrete and abstract syntax
for a textual variable declaration.
Notice how the abstract syntax does not
contain the keyword var or the symbols
: and ;.
The abstract syntax is very similar to a
meta model in that it represents only
a data structure and ignores notation.
The two are also different: the abstract
syntax is usually automatically derived
from a grammar, whereas a meta model
is typically defined first, independent
of a notation. This means that, while
the abstract syntax may be structurally
affected by the grammar, the meta
model is "clean" and represents purely
the structure of the domain. In practice,
the latter isn’t strictly true either, since
editing and tool considerations typically
influence a meta model as well. In
this book, we consider the two to be
synonyms.
Figure 3.5: A program is a tree of
program elements, with a single root
element.
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element. Syntactic nesting of the concrete syntax corresponds
to a parent-child relationship in the abstract syntax. There may
also be any number of non-containing cross-references between
elements, established either directly during editing (in projectional systems) or by a name resolution (or linking) phase that
follows parsing and tree construction.
Fragments A program may be composed from several program fragments. A fragment is a standalone tree, a partial program. Conversely, a program is a set of fragments connected by
references (discussed below). E f is the set of program elements
in a fragment f .
Languages A language l consists a set of language concepts
Cl and their relationships11 . We use the term concept to refer
to all aspects of an element of a language, including concrete
syntax, abstract syntax, the associated type system rules and
constraints as well as some definition of its semantics. In a
fragment, each element e is an instance of a concept c defined
in some language l.
mbeddr C: In C, the statement int x = 3; is an instance
of the LocalVariableDeclaration concept. int is an instance of IntType, and the 3 is an instance of NumberLiteral. J
Figure 3.6: A fragment is a program
tree that stands for itself and potentially
references other fragments.
In the world of grammars, a concept
is essentially a Nonterminal. We will
discuss the details about grammars in
the implementation section of this book
11
Figure 3.7: A language is a set of
concepts.
Figure 3.8: The statement int x
= 3; is an instance of the LocalVariableDeclaration. co returns the
concept for a given element.
Functions
We define the concept-of function co to return
the concept of which a program element is an instance: co ⇒
element → concept (see Fig. 3.8). Similarly we define the languageof function lo to return the language in which a given con-
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cept is defined: lo ⇒ concept → language. Finally, we define a
fragment-of function f o that returns the fragment that contains
a given program element: f o ⇒ element → fragment (Fig. 3.9).
Relationships We also define the following sets of relationships between program elements. Cdnf is the set of parentchild relationships in a fragment f . Each c ∈ Cdn has the
properties parent and child (see figure Fig. 3.10; Cdn are all the
parent-child "lines" in the picture).
Figure 3.9: f o returns the fragment for a
given element.
mbeddr C: In int x = 3; the local variable declaration is
the parent of the type and the init expression 3. The concept Local- VariableDeclaration defines the containment relationships type and init, respectively. J
Refsf is the set of non-containing cross-references between program elements in a fragment f . Each reference r in Refsf has
the properties f rom and to, which refer to the two ends of the
reference relationship (see figure Fig. 3.10).
mbeddr C: For example, in the x = 10; assignment, x is
a reference to a variable of that name, for example, the
one declared in the previous example paragraph. The concept LocalVariableRef has a non-containing reference relationship var that points to the respective variable. J
Figure 3.10: f o returns the fragment for
a given element.
Finally, we define an inheritance relationship that applies the
Liskov Substitution Principle (LSP) to language concepts. The
LSP states that,
In a computer program, if S is a subtype of T, then objects of
type T may be replaced with objects of type S (i.e., objects of
type S may be substitutes for objects of type T) without altering
any of the desirable properties of that program (correctness, task
performed, etc.)
The LSP is well known in the context of object-oriented programming. In the context of language design it implies that a
concept csub that extends another concept csuper can be used in
places where an instance of csuper is expected. Inhl is the set of
inheritance relationships for a language l. Each i ∈ Inhl has the
properties super and sub.
mbeddr C: The LocalVariableDeclaration introduced
above extends the concept Statement. This way, a local
variable declaration can be used wherever a Statement is
expected, for example, in the body of a function, which is
a StatementList. J
Figure 3.11: Concepts can extend other
concepts. The base concept may be
defined in a different language.
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Independence An important concept is the notion of independence. An independent language does not depend on other
languages. This means that for all parent/child, reference and
inheritance relationships, both ends refer to concepts defined
in the same language. Based on our definitions above we can
define an independent language l as a language for which the
following hold12 :
∀r ∈ Refsl | lo(r.to) = lo(r.from) = l
∀s ∈ Inhl | lo(s.super) = lo(s.sub) = l
∀c ∈ Cdnl | lo(c.parent) = lo(c.child) = l
Formulae like these are not essential
for understanding. You may ignore
them if you like.
12
(3.1)
(3.2)
(3.3)
Independence can also be applied to fragments. An independent
fragment is one in which all non-containing cross-references
Re f s f point to elements within the same fragment:
∀r ∈ Refsf | fo(r.to) = fo(r.from) = f
(3.4)
Notice that an independent language l can be used to construct
dependent fragments, as long as the two fragments just contain
elements from this single language l. Vice versa, a dependent
language can be used to construct independent fragments. In
this case we just have to make sure that the non-containing
cross references are "empty" in the elements in fragment f .
Refrigerators: The hardware definition language is independent, as are fragments that use this language. In contrast, the cooling algorithm language is dependent. BuildingBlockRef declares a reference to the BuildingBlock
concept defined in the hardware language (Fig. 3.12). Consequently, if a cooling program refers to a hardware setup
using an instance of BuildingBlockRef, the fragment becomes dependent on the hardware definition fragment that
contains the referenced building block. J
Homogeneity We distinguish homogeneous and heterogeneous
fragments. A homogeneous fragment is one in which all elements are expressed with the same language (see formula 1.5).
This means that for all parent/child relationships (Cdn f ), the
elements at both ends of the relationship have to be instances
of concepts defined in one language l (1.6):
∀e ∈ E f | lo(co(e)) = l
∀c ∈ Cdnf | lo(co(c.parent)) = lo(co(c.child)) = l
(3.5)
(3.6)
Figure 3.12: A BuildingBlockRef
references a hardware element from
within a cooling algorithm fragment.
An independent language can only
express homogeneous fragments.
However, a homogeneous fragment
can be expressed with a dependent
language if the dependencies all come
via the Re f s relationship.
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mbeddr C: A program written in plain C is homogeneous.
All program elements are instances of the C language. Using the state machine language extension allows us to embed state machines in C programs. This makes the respective fragment heterogeneous (see Fig. 3.13). J
3.4
Parsing versus Projection
This part of the book is not about implementation techniques.
However, the decision of whether to build a DSL using a projectional editor instead of the more traditional parser-based approach can have some consequences for the design of the DSL.
Figure 3.13: An example of a heterogeneous fragment. This module
contains global variables (from the core
language), a state machine (from the
statemachines language) and a test case
(from the unittest language). Note how
concepts defined in the statemachine
language (trigger, isInState and
test statemachine) are used inside a
TestCase.
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So we have to provide some level of detail on the two at this
point.
In the parser-based approach, a grammar specifies the sequence of tokens and words that make up a structurally valid
program. A parser is generated from this grammar. A parser is
a program that recognizes valid programs in their textual form
and creates an abstract syntax tree or graph. Analysis tools
or generators work with this abstract syntax tree. Users enter
programs using the concrete syntax (i.e. character sequences)
and programs are also stored in this way. Example tools in this
category include Spoofax and Xtext.
Projectional editors (also known as structured editors) work
without grammars and parsers. A language is specified by
defining the abstract syntax tree, then defining projection rules
that render the concrete syntax of the language concepts defined by the abstract syntax. Editing actions directly modify
the abstract syntax tree. Projection rules then render a textual
(or other) representation of the program. Users read and write
programs through this projected notation. Programs are stored
as abstract syntax trees, usually as XML. As in parser-based
systems, backend tools operate on the abstract syntax tree.
Projectional editing is well known from graphical editors;
virtually all of them use this approach13 . However, they can
also be used for textual syntax14 . Example tools in this category include the Intentional Domain Workbench15 and JetBrains MPS.
In this section, we do not discuss the relative advantages
and drawbacks of parser-based versus projectional editors in
any detail (although we do discuss the trade-offs in the chapter on language implementation, Section 7). However, we will
point out if and when there are different DSL design options
depending on which of the two approaches is used.
Figure 3.14: In parser-based systems,
the user only interacts with the concrete
syntax, and the AST is constructed from
the information in the text.
Figure 3.15: In projectional systems,
the user sees the concrete syntax, but
all editing gestures directly influence
the AST. The AST is not extracted from
the concrete syntax, which means the
concrete syntax does not have to be
parsable.
You could argue that they are not
purely projectional because the user
can move the shapes around and
the position information has to be
persistent. Nonetheless, graphical
editors are fundamentally projectional.
13
While in the past projectional text
editors have acquired a bad reputation
mostly because of bad usability, as
of 2011, the tools have become good
enough, and computers have become
fast enough to make this approach
feasible, productive and convenient to
use.
14
15
www.intentsoft.com
4
Design Dimensions
This chapter has been written in association with Eelco Visser
of TU Delft. You can contact him via [email protected]
DSLs are powerful tools for software engineering, because
they can be tailor-made for a specific class of problems.
However, because of the large degree of freedom in designing DSLs, and because they are supposed to cover the intended domain, consistently, and at the right abstraction
level, DSL design is also hard. In this chapter we present
a framework for describing and characterizing domain specific languages. We identify seven design dimensions that
span the space within which DSLs are designed: expressivity, coverage, semantics, separation of concerns, completeness, language modularization and syntax.
We illustrate the design alternatives along each of these dimensions with examples from our case studies. The dimensions
provide a vocabulary for describing and comparing the design
of existing DSLs, and help guide the design of new ones. We
also describe drivers, or forces, that lead to using one design alternative over another. This chapter is not a complete methodology. It does not present a recipe that guarantees a great DSL
if followed. I don’t believe in methodologies, because they pretend precision where there isn’t any. Building a DSL is a craft.
This means that, while there are certain established approaches
and conventions, building a good DSL also requires experience
and practice.
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Expressivity
One of the fundamental advantages of DSLs is increased expressivity over more general programming languages. Increased
expressivity typically means that programs are shorter, and
that the semantics are more readily accessible to processing
tools (we will return to this). By making assumptions about
the target domain and encapsulating knowledge about the domain in the language and in its execution strategy (and not just
in programs), programs expressed using a DSL can be significantly more concise.
Refrigerators: Cooling algorithms expressed with the cooling DSL are approximately five times shorter than the C
version that users would have to write instead. J
While it is always possible to produce short but incomprehensible programs, in general shorter programs require less effort to read and write than longer programs, and are therefore
be more efficient in software engineering. We will thus assume that, all other things being equal, shorter programs are
preferable over longer programs.1 . We use the notation | p L |
to indicate the size of program p as encoded in language L2 .
The essence is the assumption that, within one language, more
complex programs will require larger encodings. We also assume that p L is the smallest encoding of p in L, i.e. does not
contain dead or convoluted code. We can then qualify the expressivity of a language relative to another language.
A language L1 is more expressive in domain D
than a language L2 (L1 ≺ D L2 ),
if for each p ∈ PD ∩ PL1 ∩ PL2 , | p L1 | < | p L2 |.
A weaker but more realistic version of this statement requires
that a language is mostly more expressive, but may not be in
some obscure special cases: DSLs may optimize for the common case and may require code written in a more general language to cover the corner cases3 .
Compared to GPLs, DSLs (and the programs expressed with
them) are more abstract: they avoid describing details that are
irrelevant to the model purpose. The execution engine then
fills in the missing details to make the program executable on
a given target platform, based on knowledge about the domain
encoded in the execution engine. Good DSLs are also declarative: they provide linguistic abstractions for relevant domain
The size of a program may not be
the only relevant metric to asses the
usefulness of a DSL. For example, if the
DSL requires only a third of the code to
write, but it takes four times as long to
write the code per line, then there is no
benefit for writing programs. However,
often when reading programs, less code
is clearly a benefit. So it depends on
the ratio between writing and reading
code as to whether a DSL’s conciseness
is important.
1
We will not concern ourselves with
the exact way to measure the size of
a program, which can be textual lines
of code or nodes in a syntax tree, for
example.
2
We discuss this aspect in the section
on completeness (Section 4.5).
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71
concepts that allow processors to "understand" the domain semantics without sophisticated analysis of the code. Linguistic
abstraction means that a language contains concepts for the
abstractions relevant in the domain. We discuss this in more
detail below.
Note that there is a trade-off between expressivity and the
scope of the language. We can always invent a language with
exactly one symbol Σ that represents exactly one single program. It is extremely expressive! It is trivial to write a code
generator for it. However, the language is also useless, because
it can only express one single program, and we’d have to create a
new language if we wanted to express a different program. So
in building DSLs we are striving for a language that has maximum expressivity while retaining enough coverage (see next
chapter) of the target domain to be useful.
DSLs have the advantage of being more expressive than GPLs
in the domain they are built for. But there is also a disadvantage: before being able to write these concise programs, users
have to learn the language4 . This task can be separated into
learning the domain itself, and learning the syntax of the language. For people who understand the domain, learning the
syntax can be simplified by using good IDEs with code completion and quick fixes, as well as with good, example-based
documentation. In many cases, DSL users already understand
the domain, or would have to learn the domain even if no DSL
were used to express programs in it: learning the domain is independent of the language itself. It is easy to see, however, that,
if a domain is supported by well-defined language, this can be
a good reference for the domain itself. Learning a domain can
be simplified by working with a good DSL5 . In conclusion, the
learning overhead of DSLs is usually not a huge problem in
practice.
Pension Plans: The users of the pension DSL are pension
experts. Most of them have spent years describing pension
plans using prose, tables and (informal) formulas. The
DSL provides formal languages to express the same thing
in a way that can be processed by tools. J
The close alignment between a domain and the DSL can also
be exploited during the construction of the DSL. While it is not
a good idea to start building a DSL for a domain about which
While a GPL also has to be learned,
we assume that there is a relatively
small number of GPLs and developers
already know them. There may be a
larger number of DSLs in any given
project or organization, and new team
members cannot be expected to know
them.
4
This can also be read the other way
round: a measure for the quality of
a DSL is how long it takes domain
experts to learn it.
5
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we don’t know much, the process of building the DSL can help
deepen the understanding about a domain. The domain has to
be scoped, fully explored and systematically structured to be
able to build a language.
Refrigerators: Building the cooling DSL has helped the
thermodynamicists and software developers to understand
the details of the domain, its degrees of freedom and the
variability in refrigerator hardware and cooling algorithms
in a much more structured and thorough way than before.
Also, the architecture of the generated C application that
will run on the device became much more well-structured
as a consequence of the separation between reusable frameworks, device drivers and generated code. J
4.1.1
Expressivity and the Domain Hierarchy
In the section on expressivity above we compare arbitrary languages. An important idea behind domain-specific languages
is that progressive specialization of the domain enables progressively more specialized and expressive languages. Programs for domain Dn ⊂ Dn−1 expressed in a language L Dn−1
typically use a set of characteristic idioms and patterns. A language for Dn can provide linguistic abstractions for those idioms or patterns, which makes their expression much more
concise and their analysis and translation less complex.
mbeddr C: Embedded C extends the C programming language with concepts for embedded software including state
machines, tasks and physical quantities. The state machine
construct, for example, has concepts representing states,
events, transitions and guards. Much less code is required
compared to switch/case statements or cross-indexed integer arrays, two typical idioms for state machine implementation in C. J
WebDSL: WebDSL entity declarations abstract over the
boilerplate code required by the Hibernate6 framework for
annotating Java classes with object-relational mapping annotations. This reduces code size by an order of magnitude 7 . J
4.1.2
Linguistic versus In-Language Abstraction
There are two major ways of defining abstractions. Abstractions can be built into the language (in which case they are
6
www.hibernate.org/
E. Visser. WebDSL: A case study in
domain-specific language engineering.
In GTTSE, pages 291–373, 2007
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called linguistic abstractions), or they can be expressed by concepts available in the language (in-language abstractions). DSLs
typically rely heavily on linguistic abstraction, whereas GPLs
rely more on in-language abstraction.
Linguistic Abstraction
A specific domain concept can be
modeled with the help of existing abstractions, or one can introduce a new abstraction for that concept. If we do the latter, we use linguistic abstraction. By making the concepts of D
first-class members of a language L D , i.e. by defining linguistic
abstractions for these concepts, they can be uniquely identified in a D program and their structure and semantics is well
defined. No semantically relevant8 idioms or patterns are required to express interesting programs in D. Consider these
two examples of loops in a Java-like language:
int[] arr = ...
for (int i=0; i<arr.size(); i++) {
sum += arr[i];
}
int[] arr = ...
OrderedList<int> l = ...
for (int i=0; i<arr.size(); i++) {
l.add( arr[i] );
}
The loop in the left-hand example can be parallelized, since
the order of summing up the array elements is irrelevant. The
right-hand one cannot, since the order of the elements in the
OrderedList class is relevant. A transformation engine that
translates and optimizes these programs must perform (sophisticated, and sometimes impossible) program analysis to
determine that the left-hand loop example can indeed be parallelized. The following alternative expression of the same
behavior uses better linguistic abstractions, because it is clear
without analysis that the first loop can be parallelized and the
second cannot:
for (int i in arr) {
sum += i;
}
By "semantically relevant" we mean
that the tools needed to achieve the
model purpose (analysis, translation)
have to treat these cases specially.
8
seqfor (int i in arr) {
l.add( arr[i] );
}
The property of a language L D of having first-class concepts for
abstractions relevant in D is often called declarativeness: no sophisticated pattern matching or program flow analysis is necessary to capture the semantics of a program (relative to the
purpose) and treat it correspondingly. The decision can simply
be based on the language concept used (for versus seqfor)9 .
mbeddr C: State machines are represented with first class
concepts. This enables code generation, as well as meaningful validation. For example, it is easy to detect states
that are not reached by any transition and report this as an
Without linguistic abstraction, the
processor has to analyze the program
to "reverse engineer" the semantics
to be able to act on it. With linguistic
abstraction, we rely on the language
user to use the correct abstraction. We
assume that the user is able to do this!
The trade-off makes sense in DSLs
because we assume that DSL users are
familiar with the domain, and we often
don’t have the budget or experience
to build the sophisticated program
analyses that could do the semantic
reverse engineering.
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error. Detecting this same problem in a low-level C implementation requires sophisticated analysis on the switchcase statements or indexed arrays that constitute the implementation of the state machine10 . J
mbeddr C: Another good example is optional ports in
components. Components (see Fig. 20.6) define required
ports that specify the interfaces they use. For each component instance, each required port is connected to a provided port of another instance (that has a compatible interface). Required ports may be optional11 , so for a given
instance, an optional port may be connected or not. Invoking an operation on an unconnected required port would
result in an error, so this has to be prevented. This can
be done by enclosing the invocation on a required port in
an if statement, checking whether the port is connected.
However, an if statement can contain any arbitrary Boolean
expression as its condition (e.g., if (isConnected(rp) ||
somethingRandom()) { port.doSomething(); }). So
checking statically that the invocation only happens if the
port is connected is impossible. A better solution based on
linguistic abstraction is to introduce a new language concept that checks for a connected port directly: with port
(rp) { rp.doSomething(); }. The with port statement
doesn’t use an expression as its argument, but only a reference to an optional required port (Fig. 4.2). In this way the
IDE can check that an invocation on a required optional
port rp is only done inside of a with port statement referencing that same port. J
This approach assumes that the
generator works correctly – we’ll
discuss this problem in Section 4.3 on
semantics.
10
Figure 4.1: Example component diagram. The top half defines components,
their ports and the relationship of
these ports to interfaces. The bottom
half shows instances whose ports are
connected by a connector.
The terminology may be a little
confusing here: required means that the
component invokes operations on the
port (as opposed to providing them for
other to invoke); optional refers to the
fact that, for any given instance of that
component, the port may be connected
or not.
11
Figure 4.2: The with port statement is
required to surround an invocation on
an optional required port; otherwise,
an error is reported in the IDE. If the
port is not connected for any given
instance, the code inside the with
port is not executed. It acts like an if
statement, but since it cannot contain an
expression as its condition, the correct
use of the with port statement can be
statically checked.
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Linguistic abstraction also means that no details irrelevant to
the model purpose are expressed. Once again, this increases
conciseness, and avoids the undesired specification of unintended semantics (over-specification). Overspecification is usually bad because it limits the degrees of freedom available to a
transformation engine. In the example with the parallelizable
loops, the first loop is over-specified: it expresses ordering of
the operations, although this is (most probably) not intended
by the person who wrote the code.
mbeddr C: State machines can be implemented as switch/case blocks or as arrays indexing into each other. The DSL
program does not specify which implementation should
be used and the transformation engine is free to chose the
more appropriate representation, for example based on desired program size or performance characteristics. Also,
log statements and task declarations can be translated in
different ways depending on the target platform. J
In-Language Abstraction Conciseness can also be achieved
by a language that provides facilities to allow users to define
new (non-linguistic) abstractions in programs. Well-known GPL
concepts for building new abstractions include procedures, classes, or functions and higher-order functions, generics, traits
and monads. It is not a sign of a bad DSL if it has in-language
abstraction mechanisms as long as the abstractions created don’t
require special treatment by analysis or processing tools – at
which point they should be refactored into linguistic abstractions. An example of such special treatment would be if the
compiler of the above example language knew that the OrderedList library class is actually ordered, and that, consequently,
the respective loop cannot be parallelized. Another example of
special treatment can be constructed in the context of the optional port example. If we had solved the problem by having
a library function isConnected(port), we could enforce a call
on an optional port to be surrounded by an if (isConnected
(port)) without any other expression in the condition. In this
case, the static analyzer would have to treat isConnected specially12 . In-language abstraction can, as the name suggests,
provide abstraction, but it cannot provide declarativeness: a model
processor has to "understand" what the user wanted to express
by building the in-language abstraction, in order to be able to
act on it.
It is worth understanding these to
some extent, so that you can make an
informed decision which of these – if
any – are useful in a DSL.
Treating program elements specially
is dangerous because the semantics of
isConnected or OrderedList could be
changed by a library developer without
changing the static analyzer of code
generator in a consistent way.
12
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Refrigerators: The language does not support the construction of new abstractions since its user community consists of non-programmers who are not familiar with defining abstractions. As a consequence, the language had to
be modified several times during development, as new requirements came from the end users which had to be integrated directly into the language. J
mbeddr C: Since C is extended, C’s abstraction mechanisms (functions, structs, enums) are available. Moreover,
we added new mechanisms for building abstractions, including interfaces and components. J
WebDSL: WebDSL provides template definitions to capture
partial web pages, including rendering of data from the
database and form request handling. User defined templates can be used to build complex user interfaces. J
Standard Library
If a language provides support for inlang- uage abstraction, these facilities can be used by the language developer to provide collections of domain specific abstractions to language users. Instead of adding language features, a standard library is deployed along with the language
to all its users. It contains abstractions relevant to the domain,
expressed as in-language abstractions. This approach keeps the
language itself small, and allows subsequent extensions of the
library without changing the language definition and processing tools.
Refrigerators: Hardware building blocks have properties.
For example, a fan can be turned on or off, and a compressor has a speed (rpm). The set of properties available for
the various building blocks is defined via a standard library and is not part of the language (see code below).
The reason why this is not a contradiction to what we discussed earlier is this: as a consequence of the structure of
the framework used on the target platform, new properties can be added to hardware elements without the need
to change the generator. They are not treated specially! J
lib stdlib {
command compartment::coolOn
command compartment::coolOff
property compartment::totalRuntime: int readonly
property compartment::needsCooling: bool readonly
property compartment::couldUseCooling: bool readonly
property compartment::targetTemp: int readonly
property compartment::currentTemp: int readonly
This approach is of course well known
from programming languages. All of
them come with a standard library,
and the language can hardly be used
without relying on it. It is effectively a
part of the language
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property compartment::isCooling: bool readonly
}
Some languages treat certain abstractions defined in the standard library specially. For example, Java’s WeakReference has
special semantics for garbage collection. While an argument
can be made that special treatment is acceptable for a standard
library (after all, it can be considered an essential companion to
the language itself), it is still risky and dangerous. Considering
that, in the case of DSLs, we can change the language relatively easily, I would suggest avoiding special treatment even
in a standard library and recommend providing linguistic abstractions for these cases.
Comparing Linguistic and In-Language Abstraction
A language that contains linguistic abstractions for all relevant domain concepts is simple to process; the transformation rules
can be tied to the identities of the language concepts. It also
makes the language suitable for domain experts, because relevant domain concepts have a direct representation in the language. Code completion can provide specific and meaningful support for "exploring" how a program should be written.
However, using linguistic abstractions extensively requires that
the relevant abstractions be known in advance, or frequent evolution of the language is necessary. It can also lead to languages
that feel large, bloated or inelegant. In-language abstraction is
more flexible, because users can build just those abstractions
they actually need. However, this requires that users are actually trained to build their own abstractions. This is often
true for programmers, but it is typically not true for domain
experts.
Using a standard library may be a good compromise, in
which one set of users develops the abstractions to be used
by another set of developers. This is especially useful if the
same language is to be used for several, related, projects or
user groups. Each can build their own set of abstractions in the
library.
Note that languages that provide good support for in-language abstraction feel different from those that use a lot of linguistic abstraction (compare Scala or Lisp to Cobol or ABAP).
Make sure that you don’t mix the two styles unnecessarily: the
resulting language may be judged as being ugly, especially by
programmers.
Modular language extension, as discussed later in Section 4.6.2, provides
a middle ground between the two approaches. A language can be flexibly
extended, while retaining the advantages of linguistic abstraction.
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4.1.3
Language Evolution Support
If a language uses a lot of linguistic abstraction, it is likely,
especially during the development of the language, that these
abstractions will change. Changing language constructs may
break existing models, so special care has to be taken regarding language evolution. This requires any or all of the following: a strict configuration management discipline, versioning
information in the models to trigger compatible editors and
model processors, keeping track of the language changes as a
sequence of change operations that can be "replayed" on existing models, or model migration tools to transform models
based on the old language into the new language.
Whether model migration is a challenge or not depends on
the tooling. There are tools that make model evolution very
smooth, but many environments don’t. Consider this when
deciding on the tooling you want to use!
It is always a good idea to minimize those changes to a
DSL that break existing models13 . Backward compatibility and
deprecation are techniques well worth keeping in mind when
working with DSLs. For example, instead of just changing an
existing concept in an incompatible way, you may add a new
concept in addition to the old one, along with deprecation of
the old one and a migration script or wizard. Note that you
might be able to instrument your model processor to collect
statistics on whether deprecated language features continue to
be used. Once no more instances show up in models, you can
safely remove the deprecated language feature.
If the DSL is used by a closed, known user community that
is accessible to the DSL designers, it will be much easier to
evolve the language over time, because users can be reached,
making them migrate to newer versions14 . Alternatively, the
set of all models can be migrated to a newer version using a
script provided by the language developers. In cases where
the set of users, and the DSL programs, are not easily accessible, much more effort must be put into maintaining backward
compatibility, and the need for coordinated evolution should
be kept minimal15 .
4.1.4
Precision versus Algorithm
We discussed earlier the fact that some DSLs may be Turing
complete (and feel more like a programming language), whereas
others are purely declarative and maybe just describe facts,
In parser-based languages, you can
always at the very least open the file
in a text editor and run some kind
of global search/replace to migrate
the program. In a projectional editor,
special care has to be taken to enable
the same functionality.
This is especially true if you don’t
have access to all programs to migrate
them in one fell swoop: you have to
deploy migration scripts with the language, or rely on the users to perform
the migration manually.
13
The instrumentation mentioned above
may even report uses of deprecated
language features after the official
expiration date.
14
This is the reason why many GPLs
can never get rid of deprecated language features.
15
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structures and relationships in a domain. The former may not
be usable by domain users (i.e. non-programmers). They are
often able to formally and precisely specify facts, structures
and relationships about their domain, but they are often not
able to define algorithmic behavior.
In this case, a DSL has to be defined that abstracts far enough
to hide these algorithmic details. Alternatively, you can create
an incomplete language (Section 4.5) and have developers fill
in the algorithmic details in GPL code. One way to do this is to
provide a set of predefined behaviors (in some kind of library)
which are then just parametrized or configured by the users.
Pension Plans: Pension rules are at the boundary between
being declarative and algorithmic. The majority of the
models define data structures (customers, pension plans,
payment schedules). However, there are also mathematical equations and calculation rules. These are algorithmic,
but in the pension domain, the domain users are well able
to deal with these. J
4.1.5
Configuration Languages
Configuration languages are purely declarative. They consist
of a well-defined set of configuration parameters and constraints
among them. "Writing programs" boils down to setting values for these parameters. In many cases, the parameters are
Booleans, in which case a program is basically a selection of
a subset of the configuration switches. Feature models constitute a well-known configuration language. We discuss configuration languages in more detail in the chapter on DSLs and
Product Line Engineering (Section 21).
4.1.6
Platform Influence
In theory, the design of the abstractions used in a language
should be independent of the execution engine and the platform. However, this is not always the case16 . There are two
reasons why the platform may influence the language.
Runtime Efficiency In most systems, the resulting system
has to execute in a reasonably efficient way. Efficiency can
mean performance, scalability, as well as resource consumption
(memory, disk space, network bandwidth). Depending on the
semantic gap between the platform and the language, building
efficient code generators can be a lot of work (we discuss this in
It is obviously not the case for architecture DSLs where you build a
language that resembles the architectural abstractions in a platform. But
that’s not what we’re talking about
here.
16
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some detail in the section on semantics (Section 4.3)). Instead
of building the necessary optimizers, you can also change the
language to use abstractions that make global optimizations
simpler to build. 17 .
mbeddr C: The language does not support dynamically
growing lists, because it is hard to implement them in an
efficient way considering we are targeting embedded software. Dynamic allocation of memory is often not allowed,
and even if it were, the necessary copying of existing list
data into a new, bigger buffer is too expensive for practical use. The incurred overhead is also not obvious to the
language user (he just increases list size or adds another
element that triggers list growth), making it all the more
dangerous. J
While this may be considered "cheating", it may be the only practical way
given project constraints.
17
mbeddr C: Another example includes floating point arithmetic. If the target platform has no floating point unit
(FPU), floating point arithmetic is expensive to emulate.
We had to build the language in a way that could prevent
the use of float and double types if the target platform
had no FPU. J
Platform Limitations The platform may have limitations regarding the size of data structures, the memory or disk space,
or the bandwidth of the network, that limit or otherwise influence language design.
Refrigerators: In the cooling language we had to introduce time units (seconds, minutes, hours) into the DSL
after we’d noticed that the time periods relevant for cooling algorithms were so diverse that no single unit could
fit all necessary values into the available integer types. If
we had used only seconds, the days or months periods
would not fit into the available ints. Using only hours or
days obviously would not let us express the short periods
without using fractions of floating point data types. So the
language now has the ability to express periods, as in 3s
or 30d. J
4.2
Coverage
A language L always defines a domain D such that PD = PL .
Let’s call this domain DL , i.e. the domain determined by L.
Note that we can achieve full coverage
by making L too general. Such a language, may, however, be less expressive,
resulting in bigger (unnecessarily big)
programs. Indeed this is the reason
for designing DSLs in the first place:
general purpose languages are too
general.
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This does not work the other way around: given a (deductively
defined) domain D, there is not necessarily a language that
fully covers that domain unless we revert to a universal language at a D0 (cf. the hierarchical structure of domains and
languages).
A language L fully covers domain D if for each program p relevant to the domain PD a program p L can be written in L. In
other words, PD ⊆ PL .
Full coverage is a Boolean predicate: a language either fully
covers a domain or it does not. In practice, many languages do
not fully cover their respective domain. We would like to indicate the coverage ratio. The domain coverage ratio of a language
L is the portion of programs in a domain D that it can express.
We define CD ( L), the coverage of domain D by language L, as:
CD ( L ) =
number o f PD programs expressable by L
number o f programs in domain D
At first glance, an ideal DSL will cover all of its domain (CD ( L)
is 100%). It requires, however, that the domain is well-defined
and we can actually know what full coverage is. Also, over
time, it is likely that the domain will evolve and grow, and the
language has to be continuously evolved to retain full coverage.
In addition to the evolution-related reason given above, there
are two reasons for a DSL not to cover all of its own domain D.
First, the language may be deficient and need to be redesigned.
This is especially likely for new and immature DSLs. Scoping
the domain for which to build a DSL is an important part of
DSL design.
Second, the language may have been defined expressly to
cover only a subset of D, typically the subset that is most commonly used. Covering all of D may lead to a language that is
too big or complicated for the intended user community because of its support for rarely used corner cases of the domain18 . In this case, the remaining parts of D may have to
be expressed with code written in D−1 (see also Section 4.5).
This requires coordination between DSL users and D−1 users,
if this not the same group of people.
WebDSL: WebDSL defines web pages through "page definitions" which have formal parameters. navigate statements generate links to such pages. Because of this stylized idiom, the WebDSL compiler can check that internal
As the domain evolves, language
evolution has to keep pace, requiring
responsive DSL developers. This is an
important process aspect to keep in
mind!
Incremental language extension
provides a third option: you can put the
common parts into the base language
and the support for the corner cases
into optionally included language
modules.
18
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links are to existing page definitions, with arguments of
the right type. The price that the developer pays is that
the language does not support free-form URL construction. Thus, the language cannot express all types of URL
conventions and does not have full coverage of the domain
of web applications. J
Refrigerators: After trying to write a couple of algorithms,
we had to add a perform ...after t statement to run a
set of statements after a specified time t has elapsed. In
the initial language, this had to be done manually with
events and timers. Over time we noticed that this is a very
typical case, so we added first-class support. J
mbeddr C: Coverage of this set of languages is full, although any particular extension to C may only cover a part
of the respective domain. However, even if no suitable linguistic abstraction is available for some domain concept, it
can be implemented in the D0 language C, while retaining
complete syntactic and semantic integration. Also, additional linguistic abstractions can be easily added because
of the extensible nature of the overall approach. J
4.3
Semantics and Execution
Semantics can be partitioned into static semantics and execution semantics. Static semantics are implemented by the constraints and type system rules. Execution semantics denote the
observable behavior of a program p as it is executed. We look
at both aspects in this section; but we refer to execution semantics if we don’t explicitly say otherwise.
Using a function OB that defines this observable behavior,
we can define the semantics of a program p LD by mapping it to
a program q in a language for D−1 that has the same observable
behavior:
semantics( p LD ) := q LD−1 where OB( p LD ) == OB(q LD−1 )
Equality of the two observable behaviors can be established
with a sufficient number of tests, or with model checking and
proof (which takes a lot of effort and is hence rarely done).
This definition of semantics reflects the hierarchy of domains
and works both for languages that describe only structure, as
well as for those that include behavioral aspects.
There are also a number of approaches
for formally defining semantics independent of operational mappings to
target languages. However, they don’t
play an important role in real-world
DSL design, so we don’t address them
in this book.
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The technical implementation of the mapping to D−1 can be
provided in two different ways: a DSL program can literally be
transformed into a program in an L D−1 , or an interpreter can
be written in L D−1 or L D0 to execute the program. Before we
spend the rest of this section looking at these two options in
detail, we first briefly look at static semantics.
4.3.1
Static Semantics/Validation
Before establishing the execution semantics by transforming or
interpreting the program, its static semantics has to be validated. Constraints and type systems are used to this end and
we describe their implementation in Part III of the book. Here
is a short overview.
Constraints Constraints are simply Boolean expressions that
check some property of a model. For example, one might verify
that the names of a set of attributes of some entity are unique.
For a model to be statically correct, all constraints have to evaluate to true. Constraint checking should only be performed
for a model that is structurally/syntactically correct19 .
mbeddr C: One driver in selecting the linguistic abstractions that go into a DSL is the ability to easily implement
meaningful constraints. For example, in the state machine
extension it is trivial to find states that have no outgoing
transitions (dead end, Fig. 4.3). In a functional language,
such a constraint could be written in the way shown in the
code below. J
83
In projectional systems you cannot
build structurally/syntactically incorrect programs in the first place. For
parser-based systems, the AST, on
which the constraint checks are performed, often is not constructed unless
the syntactic structure is correct. This
automatically leads to constraint checks
being performed only on structurally/syntactically correct models.
19
Sometimes constraints are used instead
of grammar rules. For example, instead
of using a 1..n multiplicity in the
grammar, I often use 0..n together with
a constraint that checks that there is at
least one element. The reason for using
this approach is that if the grammar
mechanism is used, a possible error
message comes from the parser. That
error message may read something
like expecting SUCH_AND_SUCH,
found SOMETHING_ELSE. This is not
very useful to the DSL user. If a more
tolerant (0..n) grammar is used, the
constraint error message can be made
to express a real domain constraint
(e.g., at least one SUCH_AND_SUCH is
required, because . . . ).
states
.select(s|!s.isInstanceOf(StopState))
.select(s|s.transitions.size == 0)
When defining languages and transformations, developers often have a set of constraints in their mind that they consider
obvious. They assume that no one would ever use the language in a particular way. However, DSL users may be creative
and actually use the language in that way, leading the transformation to crash or create non-compilable code. Make sure that
all constraints are actually implemented. This can sometimes
be hard. Only extensive (automated) testing can prevent these
problems from occurring.
In many cases, a multi-stage transformation is used in which
a model expressed in L3 is transformed into a model expressed
in L2 , which is then in turn transformed into a program ex-
Figure 4.3: An example state machine
with a dead end state, a state that cannot
be left once entered (no outgoing
transitions).
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pressed in L1 20 . In this case it is important that every valid
program in L3 leads to a valid program in L2 . If the processing of L2 fails with an error message using abstractions from
L2 (e.g., compiler errors), users of L3 will not be able to understand them; they may have never seen the programs generated
in L2 . Again, automated testing is the way to address this issue.
If many or complex constraints (or type system rules) are
executed on a large model, performance may become an issue.
Even if the DSL tool is clever about this and only revalidates the
constraints for those program elements that changed, it can still
be a problem if some kind of whole-model validation is tied to
a particular element. To solve this problem, many DSL tools
allow users to classify the constraints according to their cost
(i.e. performance overhead). Cheap constraints are executed
for each changing program element, in real-time, as it changes.
Progressively more expensive constraints are checked, for example, as a fragment is saved or only upon explicit request by
the user.
Type Systems Type systems are a special kind of constraint.
Consider the example of var int x = 2 * someFunction(
sqrt(2));. The type system constraint may check that the type
of the variable is the same or a supertype of the type of the initialization expression. However, establishing the type of the
init expression is non-trivial, since it can be an arbitrarily complex expression. A type system is a formalism or framework
for defining the rules to establish the types of arbitrary expressions, as well as type checking constraints. It is a form of constraint checking. We cover the implementation of type systems
in Part III of the book (Section 10).
When designing constraints and type systems in a language, a
decision has to be made between one of two approaches: (a)
declaration of intent and checking for conformance, and (b)
deriving characteristics and checking for consistency. Consider
the following examples.
mbeddr C: For variables, the type has to be specified explicitly. A type specification expresses the intent that this
variable be, for example, of type int. Alternatively, a type
system could be built to automatically derive the type of
the variable declaration based on the type of the init expression, an approach known as type inference. This would
Note how this also applies to the
classical case in which L2 is your
DSL and L1 is a GPL which is then
compiled.
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allow the following code: var x = 2 * someFunction(
sqrt(2));. Since no type is explicitly specified, the type
system will infer the type of x to be the type calculated for
the init expression. J
mbeddr C: State machines that are supposed to be verified by the model checker have to be marked as verified. In
that case, additional constraints kick in that report specific
ways of writing actions as invalid, because they cannot be
handled by the model checker. An alternative approach
could check a state machine for whether these "unverifiable" ways of writing actions are used, and if so, mark the
state machine as not verifiable. J
Pension Plans: Pension plans can inherit from another
plan (called the base plan). If a pension calculation rule
overrides a rule in the base plan, then the overriding rule
has to be marked as overrides. In this way, if the rule in
the base plan is removed or renamed, validation of the
sub-plan will report an error. An alternative design would
simply infer the fact that a rule overrides another one if
they have the same name and signature. J
Note how in all three cases the constraint checking is done in
two steps. First we declare an intent (variable is intended to
be int, this state machine is intended to be verifiable, a rule is
intended to override another one). We then check whether the
program conforms to this intention. The alternative approach
would infer the fact from the program (the variable’s type is
whatever the expression’s type evaluates to, state machines are
verifiable if the "forbidden" features aren’t used, rules override
another rule if they have the same name and signature) without
any explicitly specified intent.
When designing constraints and type systems, a decision
has to be made regarding when to use which approach. Here
are some trade-offs. The specification/conformance approach
requires more code to be written, but results in more meaningful and specific error messages. A message can express that fact
that one part of a program does not conform to a specification
made by another part of the program21 . The derivation/consistency approach is less effort to write and can hence be seen
to be more convenient, but it requires more effort in constraint
checking, and error messages may be harder to understand because of the missing, explicit "hard fact" about the program.
It also reduces the chance that users
do something they do not intend by
mistake. For example, a user might
not want to override a method from
the base class, but it might happen just
because the user uses the same name
and parameters.
21
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The specification/conformance approach can also be used to
"anchor" the constraint checker, because a fixed fact about the
program is explicitly given instead of having to be derived from
a (possibly large) part of the program. This decouples models
and can increase scalability. Consider the following example.
A program contains a function call, and the type checker needs
to check the typing for this call. To do so, it has to determine
the type of the called function. Assume this function does not
specify the return type explicitly, instead it is inferred from the
returned expressions. These expressions may be calls to other
functions, so the process repeats. In the worst case, a whole
chain of function calls must be followed in this way to calculate
the type of the function initially called by your program. Notice
that this requires accessing all the downstream programs, so
these all have to be loaded and type checked! In large systems,
this can lead to serious performance and scalability issues22 . If,
instead, the type of the called function were given explicitly, no
downstream models need to be accessed or loaded.
Multi-Level Constraints Several sets of constraints can be
used to enforce multiple levels of correctness/strictness/compliance for models. The first level typically consists of basic
constraints (such as name uniqueness) and typing rules. These
are checked for every program. Additional levels are often optional. They are triggered either by a configuration switch or
by using the programs for a given purpose. Additional levels
always constrain programs further relative to more basic levels.
mbeddr C: A nice example of multi-level constraints can
be seen in the state machines extension to C. Structural
and type system correctness (for C and for state machines)
is always checked for every program. However, if a state
machine is marked as verifiable, then the action code
is further restricted via additional constraints. For example, it is not allowed to read and write the same variable
during a single state change (i.e. in all of the code in the
exit actions of the current state, the transition actions and
entry actions of the target state). This is necessary to keep
the complexity of the generated model checker input code
within limits. J
mbeddr C: Another example concerns the use of floating point types. Some target devices may not have floating point units (FPUs), which means that floating point
We have seen such problems in
practice with large-scale models.
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types (float, double) cannot be used in programs that
should be deployed on such a target device. So, as the
user changes the target device in the build configuration,
additionawritel constraints are checked that report floating
point types as errors if the target has no FPU. J
4.3.2
Establishing the Correctness of the Execution Engine
Earlier we defined the meaning of the program p at Dn as the
equivalent observable behavior of a program q at Dn−1 . This
essentially defines the transformation or interpreter to be correct. However, this is useless in practice. As the language developer, we have a specific behavior in mind, and we want to
make sure that the executing DSL program exhibits this behavior. We have to make sure that the execution engine executes
the DSL program accordingly.
In classical programming, we write the GPL code based on
our understanding of the requirements. We then write unit
tests, based on the same understanding, which test that code
(Fig. 4.4).
In DSL testing, we write the DSL, the DSL program and the
execution engine based on our understanding of the requirements for the system. We can still write unit tests (in the GPL)
based on this understanding to check for the correctness of the
executing DSL program (Fig. 4.5).
Writing one DSL program and one unit test ensures that
this one program executes correctly regarding the test case.
Our goal here is, however, to ensure that the transformation
is correct for all programs we can write with the DSL. This can
be achieved by writing many DSL programs and many tests –
enough to make sure that every branch of the transformation is
covered at least once23 . As always in testing, we encounter the
coverage problem: we have to write enough example programs
and tests to cover all aspects of the language and the execution
engine. In particular, we have to first think of the corner cases to
write tests for them24 .
A variant of this approach is to express the test cases in the
DSL (after extending the DSL with a way to express tests) and
then executing the application code and the test code on the
target platform together (Fig. 4.6). This is often more convenient, since the tests can be formulated more concisely on the
level of the DSL. As we will see later, this approach is especially useful if we have several execution engines: we write the
Figure 4.4: Test code tests the application code based on a single understanding of the requirements for the
system.
Figure 4.5: Using DSLs, a test written
on D − 1 tests the D program as well as
the transformation from D to D − 1.
For the Xpand code generator there
is a coverage analysis tool that can be
used to make sure that for a given test
suite, all branches of the transformation
template had been executed at least
once.
23
The coverage problem can be solved
in some cases by automatic test case
generation and formal verification. We
discuss this later in this chapter.
24
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Figure 4.6: Test cases can also be expressed with the DSL and then executed on the target platform together
with the application code.
test once and then execute it on all execution engines.
Note that the GPL program may have additional, unintended
behaviors not prescribed by the DSL. These can often be exploited maliciously and are known as safety or security problems. These will not be found by testing the GPL code based on
the requirements, but only by "trying to exploit" the program
(known as penetration testing).
We will elaborate more on ensuring the correctness of the
execution semantics in this chapter, as well as in the Part III
chapter on DSL testing (Chapter 14), where we discuss the implementation aspects of DSL and IDE testing.
4.3.3
Transformation
Transformations define the execution semantics of a DSL by
mapping it to another language. In the vast majority of cases
a transformation for L D recreates those patterns and idioms in
L D−1 for which it provides linguistic abstraction. The result
may be transformed further, until a level is reached for which
a language with an execution infrastructure exists – often D0 .
Code generation, the case in which we generate GPL code from
a DSL, is thus a special case in which L D0 code is generated.
mbeddr C: The semantics of state machines are defined by
their mapping back to C switch statements. This is repeated for higher D languages. The semantics of the robot
control DSL (Fig. 4.7) is defined by its mapping to state
machines and tasks (Fig. 4.8). To explain the semantics to
the users, prose documentation is available as well. J
Component Architecture: The component architecture DSL
describes only structures: interfaces, components and systems. Many constraints about structural integrity are enforced, and a mapping to a distribution middleware is implemented. The formal definition of the semantics are implied by the mapping to the executable code. J
Figure 4.7: The robot control DSL is
embedded in C program modules and
provides linguistic abstractions for
controlling a small Lego car. It can
accelerate, decelerate and turn left and
right.
Figure 4.8: Robot control programs are
mapped to state machines and tasks.
State machines are mapped to C, and
tasks are mapped to C as well as to operating system configuration files (the
OIL file). In the end, everything ends up
in text for downstream processing by
existing tools.
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DSL programs may be mapped to multiple languages at the
same time. Typically, there is one primary language that is
used for execution of the DSL program (C in Fig. 4.9). The
other languages may be used to configure the target platform
(generated XML files) or provide input for verification tools
(NuSMV in Fig. 4.9). In this case, one has to make sure that the
semantics of all generated representations is actually the same.
We discuss this problem in Section 4.3.7.
mbeddr C: The state machines can be transformed to a
representation in NuSMV, which is a model checker that
can be used to establish properties of state machines by
exhaustive search. Examples properties include freedom
from deadlocks, assuring liveness and specific safety properties such as "It will never happen that the out events
pedestrian light green and car light green are set
at the same time". J
Multi-staged Transformation There are several reasons why
the gap between a language at D and its target platform may
not be bridged by a single transformation. Instead, the overall transformation becomes a chain of subsequent transformations, an approach also known as cascading.
Multi-staged transformation is a form of modularization,
and so the reason for doing it is the same reason we always
use for modularization: breaking down a big problem into a
set of smaller problems that can be solved independently. In
the case of transformations, this "big problem" is a big semantic gap between the DSL and the target language25 . Modularization breaks down this big semantic gap into several smaller
ones, making each of them easier to understand, test and maintain26 .
Another reason for multi-stage transformations is the potential for reuse of each of the stages (Fig. 4.10). Reusing lower
D languages and their subsequent transformations also implies reuse of potentially non-trivial analyses or optimizations
that can be done at that particular abstraction level27 . Consider GPL compilers as an example. They can be retargetted
relatively easily by exchanging the backends (machine code
generation phases) or the frontend (programming language
parsers and analyzers). For example, GCC can generate code
for many different processor architectures (exchangeable backends), and it can generate backend code for several program-
Figure 4.9: From the C state machine
extensions, we generate low-level C
code (for execution) as well an input
file for the NuSMV model checker (for
verification).
One could measure this semantic
gap between two languages: how
many constructs do two languages
share, how many "synonyms" exist,
how many constructs are the same but
have different meanings? In practice,
the size of the gap is intuited by the
transformation designer.
25
This approach can only be used if the
tools support multi-staged transformation well. This is not true for all DSL
tools.
26
This is one of the reasons why we
usually generate GPL source code
from DSLs, and not machine code or
byte code: we want to reuse existing
transformations and optimizations
provided by the GPL compiler.
27
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ming languages, among them C, C++ and Ada (exchangeable
frontends). The same is possible for DSLs. The same high D
models can be executed differently by exchanging the lower
D intermediate languages and transformations. Or the same
lower D languages and transformations can be used for different higher D languages, by mapping these different languages
to the same intermediate language.
mbeddr C: The embedded C language (and some of its
higher D extensions) have various translation options, for
several different target platforms (Win32 and Osek), an example of backend reuse. All of them are C code, but we
generate different idioms in the code and different make
files. J
Figure 4.10: Left: Backend reuse. Different languages (L3 /L2 and L5 ) are
transformed to the same intermediate
language L1 , reusing its backend generator to L0 . Right: Frontend reuse. L3
is mapped to L2 , which has two sets of
backend generators, reusing the L3 to
L2 transformation.
Multi-stage transformation can also be a natural consequence
of incremental language extension along the domain hierarchy, where we repeatedly build additional higher-level languages on top of lower-level languages. When transforming
the higher-level languages, it is natural and obvious to transform them onto the next lower level, and not onto a language
at D0 .
mbeddr C: The extensions to C are all transformed back
to C idioms during transformation. Higher-level DSLs, for
example, a simple DSL for robot control, are reduced to
C plus some extensions such as state machines and tasks
(Fig. 4.11), reusing the transformations for those abstractions back to C. J
Figure 4.11: Multi-stage transformation in mbeddr. MPS supports multistage transformations really well, so
managing the interplay of the set of
transformations is feasible.
A special case of a multi-staged transformation is a preprocessor to a code generator. Here, a transformation reduces the set
of used language concepts in a fragment to a minimal core, and
only the minimal core is supported in the code generator. Note
how, in this case, the source and target languages of the trans-
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formation are the same. However, the target model only uses
a subset of the concepts defined by the source/target language.
A preprocessor simplifies portability of the actual code generator: it becomes simpler, since only the subset of the language
has to be mapped to code.
mbeddr C: Consider the case of a state machine to which
you want to be able to add an "emergency stop" feature,
i.e. a new transition from each existing state to a new STOP
state. Instead of handling this case in the code generator,
a model transformation script preprocesses the state machine model and adds all the new transitions and the new
emergency stop state (Fig. 4.12). Once done, the existing
generator is run unchanged. You have effectively modularized the emergency stop concern into a preprocessor
transformation. J
Component Architecture: The DSL describes hierarchical
component architectures (where components are assembled from interconnected instances of other components).
Most component runtime platforms don’t support such hierarchical components, so you need to "flatten" the structure for execution. Instead of trying to do this in the code
generator, you should consider a model transformation
step to do it, and then write a simpler generator that works
with a flattened, non-hierarchical model. J
Multi-stage transformations can be challenging. It becomes
harder to understand what is going on in total. Debugging the
overall transformation can become hard, and good tool support
is needed28 .
Efficiency and Optimization
Transforming from D to D−1
allows the use of sophisticated optimizations, potentially resulting in very efficient code. DSL uses domain-specific abstractions and hence includes a lot of domain semantics, so
optimizations can take advantage of this and produce very efficient D−1 code. However, building such optimizations can be
very expensive. It is especially hard to build global optimizations that require knowledge about the structure or semantics
of large or diverse parts of the overall program. Also, an optimization will always rely on some set of rules that determine
when and how to optimize. There will always be corner cases
where an experienced developer will be able to write more ef-
Figure 4.12: A transformation adds
an emergency stop feature to a state
machine. A new state is added (Ses ),
and a transition from every other state
to that new state is added as well. The
transition is triggered by the emergency
stop event (not shown).
MPS addresses this problem by
(optionally) keeping all intermediate
models around for debugging purposes. The language developer can
select a program element in any of the
intermediate models and have MPS
show a trace from and to where the
element was transformed in other (intermediate) models. The trace can also
show the transformation code involved
in each step.
28
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ficient D−1 code manually. However, this requires a competent
developer and, usually, a lot of effort for each specific program. A
tool (i.e. the transformation in this case) will typically address
the 90% case well: it will produce reasonably efficient code
in the vast majority of cases with very little effort (once the
optimizations have been defined). In most cases, this is good
enough – in the remaining corner cases, D−1 has to be written
manually29 .
Care about Generated Code Ideally, generated code is a throwaway artifact, like object files in a C compiler. However, that’s
not quite true. At least during development and test of the generator you may have to read, understand and debug the generated code. For incomplete DSLs30 , i.e. those in which parts of
the resulting program have to be written manually in L D−1 ,
readability and good structure is even more important, because the manually written code has to be integrated with the
generated parts of the L D−1 program. Hence, generated code
should use meaningful abstractions, should be designed well,
use good names for identifiers, be documented well, and be
indented correctly. In short, generated code should generally
adhere to the same standards as manually written code. This
also helps to diffuse some of the skepticism against code generation that is still widespread in some organizations. However,
there are several exceptions to this rule:
• Sometimes generating really well-structured code makes the
generator much more complicated. You then have to decide
whether you want to live with some less nicely structured
generated code, or whether you want to increase generator complexity – a valid trade-off, since the generator also
needs to be maintained! A good example is import statements when generating Java code. It can be a lot of work
to find out exactly which imports are needed in a generated
class. In this case it may be better to keep the generator simple and use fully qualified class names throughout the code,
and/or to import a few too many classes31 .
• Using a generator opens up additional options you wouldn’t
consider when writing code manually (and which are hence
considered ugly). An example is generated collection classes.
Imagine that your models define entities, and from each entity you generate a Java Bean. In Java version 1.4 and earlier,
Java did not have generics, so in order to work with collec-
This argument in favor of tools is
used in GPLs for garbage collection and
optimizing compilers for higher-level
programming languages.
29
30
We cover completeness in Section 4.5.
Note that in complete languages (where
100% of the L D−1 code is generated),
the generated code is never seen by
a DSL user. But even in this case,
concerns for code quality apply and
the code has to be understood and
tested during DSL and generator
development.
Xtend provides special support for this problem based on an
ImportManager. It makes generating
the correct imports relatively simple.
31
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tions of entities you would use the generic List class. In
the context of generated code you might want to consider
generating a specific collection class for each entity, with an
API typed to the respective Java Bean. This makes life much
more convenient for those people who write Java code that
uses the generated Beans.
• The third exception to the rule is if the code has to be highly
optimized for reasons of performance and code size. While
you can still indent your code well and use meaningful names,
the structure of the code may be convoluted. Note, however,
that the code would look the same if it were written by hand
in this case.
mbeddr C: The components extension to C supports
components with provided and required ports. A required port declares which interface it is expected to be
connected to. The same interface can be provided by
different components, implementing the interface differently. Upon translation of the component extension,
regular C functions are generated. An outgoing call on
a required port has to be routed to the function that
has been generated to implement the called interface
operation in the target component. Since each component can be instantiated multiple times, and each instance can have its required ports connected to different
component instances (implementing the same interface)
there is no way for the generated code to know which
particular function has to be called for an outgoing call
on a required port for a given instance. An indirection through function pointers is used instead. Consequently, functions implementing operations in components take an additional struct as an argument, which
provides those function pointers for each operation of
each required port. A call on a required port is therefore
a relatively ugly affair based on function pointers. However, to achieve the desired goal, no different, cleaner
code approach is possible in C. It is optionally possible to restrict a required port to a particular component
(Fig. 4.13). In this case, the target function is known
statically and no function pointer-based indirection is
required. The resulting code is cleaner and more efficient. Programmers trade flexibility for performance. J
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Figure 4.13: The required port
lowlevel is not just bound to the
ILowLevel interface, but restricted
to the ll port of the LowLevelCode
component. This way, it is statically
known which C function implements
the behavior and the generated code
can be optimized.
Platform The complexity can be reduced by splitting the
overall transformation into several steps – see above. Another
approach is to work with a manually implemented, rich domain specific platform. This typically consists of middleware,
frameworks, drivers, libraries and utilities that are taken advantage of by the generated code.
Where the generated code and the platform "meet" depends
on the complexity of the generator, requirements regarding
code size and performance, the expressiveness of the target
language and the potential availability of libraries and frameworks that can be used for the task. In the extreme case, the
generator just generates code to populate (or configure) the
frameworks (which might already exist, or which you have to
grow together with the generator) or provides statically typed
facades around otherwise dynamic data structures. Don’t go
too far towards this end, however: in cases in which you need
to consider resource or timing constraints, or when the target
platform is predetermined and perhaps limited, code generation is the better approach: trying to make the platform too
generic or flexible will increase its complexity.
mbeddr C: For most aspects, we use only a very shallow
platform. This is mostly for performance reasons and for
the fact that the subset of C that is often used for embedded systems does not provide good means of abstraction.
For example, state machines are translated to switch statements. If we were to generate Java code in an enterprise
system, we might populate a state machine framework instead. In contrast, when we translate the component definitions to the AUTOSAR target environment, a relatively
powerful platform is used – namely the AUTOSAR APIs,
conventions and generators. J
Figure 4.14: Typical layering structure
of an application created using DSLs.
Figure 4.15: Stalagmites and stalactites
in limestone caves as a metaphor for a
generator and a platform: the stalagmite represents the platform, it grows
from up the lower abstraction levels.
Stalactites represent the transformations, which grow down from the high
abstraction level represented by the
DSL.
dsl engineering
4.3.4
Interpretation
An interpreter is basically a program that acts on the DSL program it receives as an input. How it does that depends on
the particular paradigm used (see Section 5.2). For imperative programs it steps through the statements and executes
their side effects. In functional programs, the interpreter (recursively) evaluates functions. For declarative programs, some
other evaluation strategy, for example based on a solver, may
be used. We describe some of the details about how to design
and implement interpreters in Section 12.
Refrigerators: The DSL also supports the definition of
unit tests for the asynchronous, reactive cooling algorithm.
These tests are executed with an in-IDE interpreter. A simulation environment allows the interpreter to be used interactively. Users can "play" with a cooling program, stepping through it in single steps, watching values change. J
Pension Plans: The pension DSL supports the in-IDE execution of rule unit tests by an interpreter. In addition, the
rules can be debugged. The rule language is functional, so
the debugger "expands" the calculation tree, and users can
inspect all intermediate results. J
For interpretation, the domain hierarchy could be exploited as
well: the interpreter for L D could be implemented in L D−1 .
However, in practice we see interpreters written in L D0 . They
may be extensible, so new interpreter code can be added to deal
with the case where higher-level lanuguages add new language
concepts.
The abstraction level of an interpreter must be decided. One
alternative might ignore for example the use of registers when
performing an assignment, avoiding problems resulting from
parallelism. Alternatively, the interpreter might model everything, taking into account issues related to parallelism. In other
words, an interpreter defines a virtual machine and it is fundamental that this virtual machine has an adequate abstraction
level. The users must be aware of exactly what it means for the
execution of the program on the target hardware if the program
runs on the virtual machine.
4.3.5
Transformation versus Interpretation
When defining the execution semantics for a language, a decision has to be made between transformation (code generation)
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and interpretation. Here are some criteria to help with this
decision.
Code Inspection When using code generation, the resulting code
can be inspected to check whether it resembles code that
had previously been written manually in the DSL’s domain.
Writing the transformation rules can be guided by the established patterns and idioms in L D−1 . Interpreters are meta
programs and as such harder to relate to existing code patterns.
Debugging Debugging generated code is straightforward if the
code is well structured (which is up to the transformation)
and an execution paradigm is used for which a decent debugging approach exists (not the case for many declarative approaches). Debugging interpreters is harder, because,
they are meta programs. For example, setting breakpoints
in the DSL program requires conditional breakpoints in the
interpreter, which are typically cumbersome to use32
Performance and Optimization The code generator can perform
optimizations that result in small and tight generated code.
The compiler for the generated code may come with its own
optimizations which are used automatically if source code is
generated and subsequently compiled, simplifying the code
generator33 . Generally, performance is better in generated
environments, since interpreters always imply an additional
layer of indirection during the execution of the program.
Platform Conformance Generated code can be tailored to any
target platform. The code can look exactly as manually written code would look; no support libraries are required. This
is important for systems in which the source code (and not
the DSL code) is the basis for a contractual obligations or
for review and/or certification. Also, if artifacts need to be
supplied to the platform that are not directly executable (descriptors, meta data), code generation is more suitable.
Modularization When incrementally building DSLs on top of
existing languages, it is natural to use transformations to
L D−1 34 .
Turnaround Time Turnaround time for interpretation is better
than for generation: no generation, compilation and packaging step is required. For target languages with slow compilers especially, large amounts of generated code can be a
problem.
This is especially useful during the
development of the execution engine.
Once the DSL and the engine are
finished, users should be able to debug
DSL programs on the level of the DSL.
However, since building DSL debuggers
is not directly supported by most
language workbenches, this is a lot of
work – and users are required to debug
on L D−1 .
32
For example, it is not necessary to
optimize away calls to empty functions,
if statements that always evaluate
to true, or arithmetic expressions
containing only constants.
33
While it is theoretically possible to
also extend interpreters incrementally
along a hierarchy of languages, I have
not seen this in practice. Interpreters
are typically written in a GPL.
34
dsl engineering
Runtime Change In interpreted environments, the DSL program
can be changed as the target system runs; the DSL editor can
even be integrated into the target system35 .
Refrigerators: There were two reasons for implementing
the interpreter for the cooling programs. The first was that
initially we didn’t have a code generator, because the target architecture was not yet defined. To be able to execute
cooling programs, we needed an interpreter and simulator. Second, the turn-around time for the domain experts
as they experimented with the DSL programs is much reduced compared to generating, compiling and running C
code. The (interpreted) simulator also allowed the domain
experts to run the programs at a speed they could follow.
This proved an important means of understanding and debugging the asynchronous reactive cooling programs. J
mbeddr C: This DSL exploits incremental extension to the
C programming language (inductive DSL definition). In
this case it is natural to use transformation to L D−1 as a
means of defining the semantics of extensions. Also, since
the target domain is embedded software, performance, code
size and reuse of the optimizations provided by the C compiler is essential. Interpretation was never an option. J
Component Architecture: The driving factor for using
generation over interpretation was platform conformance.
The reason for the DSL is to automate the generation of
target platform artifacts and thereby make working with
the platform more efficient. J
Pension Plans: Turnaround time was important for the
pension contract specification. Also, the domain experts,
as they created the pension plans, did not have access to
the final execution platform. An in-IDE interpreter was
clearly the best choice. J
WebDSL: Platform conformance was key here. Web applications have to use the established web standards, and the
necessary artifacts have to be generated. An interpreted
approach would not work in this scenario. J
Combinations between the two approaches are also possible.
For example, transformation can create an intermediate representation which is then interpreted. Or an interpreter can
97
The term data-driven system is often
used in this case.
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generate code on the fly as a means of optimization. While this
approach is common in GPLs (e.g., the JVM), we have not seen
this approach used for DSLs.
4.3.6
Sufficiency
A program fragment is sufficient for transformation T if the fragment itself contains all the data necessary to executed the transformation. While dependent fragments are by definition not
sufficient without the transitive closure of fragments they depend on, an independent fragment may be sufficient for one
transformation, and insufficient for another.
Refrigerators: The hardware structure is sufficient for a
transformation that generates an HTML document that
describes the hardware. It is insufficient regarding the C
code generator, since the behavior fragment is required as
well. J
Sufficiency is important where large systems are concerned.
An sufficient fragment can be used for code generation without
checking out and/or loading other fragments. This supports
modular, incremental transformations of only the changed fragments, and hence, potentially significant improvements in performance and scalability.
4.3.7
Synchronizing Multiple Mappings
Ensuring the semantics of the execution engine becomes more
challenging if we transform the program to several different targets using several different transformations. We have to ensure
that the semantics of all resulting programs are identical36 . In
practice, this case often occurs if an interpreter is used in the
IDE for "experimenting" with the models, and a code generator
creates efficient code for execution in the target environment.
To synchronize the semantics in this case, we recommend providing a set of test cases that are expressed on DSL level, and
that are executed in all executable representations, expecting
them to succeed in all of them. If the coverage of these test
cases is high enough to cover all of the observable behavior,
then it can be assumed with reasonable certainty that the semantics are indeed the same37 .
Pension Plans: The unit tests in the pension plans DSL
are executed by an interpreter in the IDE. However, as Java
code is generated from the pension plan specifications, the
same unit tests are also executed by the generated Java
At least to the extent we care – we
may not care if one of the resulting
programs is faster or more scalable. In
fact, these differences may be the very
reason for having several mappings).
36
Strictly speaking they are just bugcompatible, i.e. they may all make the
same mistakes.
37
dsl engineering
code, expecting the same results as in the interpreted version. J
Refrigerators: A similar situation occurs with the cooling
DSL where an IDE-interpreter is used for testing and experimenting with the models, and a code generator creates
the executable version of the cooling algorithm that actually runs on the microcontroller in the refrigerator. A suite
of test cases is used to ensure the same semantics. J
4.3.8
Choosing between Several Mappings
Sometimes there are several alternative ways in which a program in L D can be translated to a single L D−1 , for example
to realize different non-functional requirements (optimizations,
target platform, tracing or logging). There are several ways in
which one alternative may be selected:
• In analogy to compiler switches, the decision can be controlled by additional external data. Simple parameters passed
to the transformation are the simplest case. A more elaborate approach is to have an additional model, called an annotation model, which contains data used by the transformation to decide how to translate the core program. The transformation uses the L D program and the annotation model as
its input. There can be several different annotation models
for the same core model that define several different transformations, to be used alternatively. An annotation model is
a separate viewpoint (Section 4.4) an can hence be provided
by a different stakeholder than the one who maintains the
core L D program.
• Alternatively, L D can be extended to directly contain additional data to guide the decision. Since the data controlling
the transformation is embedded in the core program, this
is only useful if the DSL user can actually decide which alternative to choose, and if only one alternative should be
chosen for each program. Annotation models provide more
flexibility.
• Heuristics, based on patterns, idioms and statistics extracted
from the L D program, can be used to determine the applicable transformation as well. Codifying these rules and heuristics can be hard though, so this approach is rarely used.
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As we have suggested above in the case of multiple transformations of the same L D program, here too extensive testing must
be used to make sure that all translations exhibit the same semantics (except for the non-functional characteristics that may
be expected to be different, since they often are the reason for
the different transformations in the first place).
4.3.9
Reduced Expressiveness and Verification
It may be beneficial to limit the expressiveness of a language.
Limited expressiveness often results in more sophisticated analyzability. For example, while state machines are not very
expressive (compared to fully fledged C), sophisticated formal
verification algorithms are available (e.g., model checking using SPIN38 or NuSMV39 ). The same is true for first-order logic,
where satisfiability (SAT) solvers40 can be used to check programs for consistency. If these kinds of analyses are useful
for the model purpose, then limiting the expressiveness to the
respective formalism may be a good idea, even if it makes expressing some programs in D more cumbersome41 . Possibly a
DSL should be partitioned into several sub-DSLs, where some
of them are verifiable and some are not.
mbeddr C: This is the approach used here: model checking is provided for the state machines. No model checking is available for general-purpose C, so behavior that
should be verifiable must be isolated into a state machine
explicitly. State machines interact with their surrounding C program in a limited and well-defined way to isolate them and make them checkable. Also, state machines
marked as verifiable cannot use arbitrary C code in its
actions. Instead, an action can only change the values of
variables local to the state machine and set output events
(which are then mapped to external functions or component runnables). The key here is that the state machine
is completely self-contained regarding verification: adapting the state machine to its surrounding C program is a
separate concern and irrelevant to the model checker. J
However, the language may have to be reduced to the point
where domain experts are not able to use the language because the connection to the domain is too loose. To remedy
this problem, a language with limited expressiveness can be
used at D−1 . For analysis and verification, the L D programs
are transformed down to the verifiable L D−1 language. Verifi-
38
spinroot.com
39
nusmv.fbk.eu/
D. G. Mitchell. A sat solver primer.
eatcs, 85:112–132, 2005
40
A simple example is to use integers
with ranges int[0..10] x; instead
of general integers. This makes programs harder to write (ranges must
be specified every time) but easier to
analyze.
41
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101
cation is performed on L D−1 , mapping the results back to L D .
Transforming to a verifiable formalism also works if the formalism is not at D−1 , as long as a mapping exists. The problem
with this approach is the interpretation of analysis results in
the context of the DSL. Domain users may not be able to interpret the results of model checkers or solvers, so they have to
be translated back to the DSL. Depending on the semantic gap
between the generated model checker input program and the
DSL, this can be very hard.
4.3.10
Documentation
Formally, defining semantics happens by mapping the DSL
concepts to D−1 concepts for which the semantics is known.
For DSLs used by developers, and for domains that are defined
inductively (bottom-up), this works well. For application domain DSLs, and for domains defined deductively (top-down),
this approach is not necessarily good enough, since the D−1
concepts has no inherent meaning to the users and/or the domain. An additional way of defining the meaning of the DSL
is required. Useful approaches include prose documentation42
as well as test cases or simulators. This way, domain users
can "play" with the DSL and write down their expectations formally in test cases.
mbeddr C: The extensible C language comes with a 100page PDF that shows how to use the MPS-based IDE, illustrates the changes to regular C, provides examples for all
C extensions and also discusses how to use the integrated
analysis tools. J
Refrigerators: This DSL has a separate viewpoint for defining test cases where domain experts can codify their expectations regarding the behavior of cooling programs. An
interpreter is available to simulate the programs, observe
their progress and stimulate them to see how they react. J
Pension Plans: This DSL supports an Excel-like tabular
notation for expressing test cases for pension calculation
rules (Fig. 4.16). The calculations are functional, and the
calculation tree can be extended as a way of debugging the
rules. J
We suggest always writing such
documentation in tutorial style, or as
FAQs. Hardly anyone reads "reference
documentation": while it may be
complete and correct, it is boring to
read and does not guide users through
using the DSL.
42
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4.4
dslbook.org
Separation of Concerns
A domain D may be composed from different concerns. Each
concern covers a different aspect of the overall domain. When
developing a system in a domain, all the concerns in that domain have to be addressed. Separation into concerns is often
driven by different aspects of the system being specified by
different stakeholders or at different times in the development
process. Fig. 4.17 shows D1.1 composed from the concerns A,
B and C.
Figure 4.16: Test cases in the pension
language allow users to specify test
data for each input value of a rule.
The rules are then evaluated by an
interpreter, providing immediate
feedback about incorrect rules (table
rows are colored red and green – not
visible in the printed version).
For embedded software, these could
be component and interface definitions
(A), component instantiation and
connections (B), as well as scheduling
and bus allocation (C).
Figure 4.17: A domain may consist of
several concerns. A domain is covered
either by a DSL that addresses all of
these concerns, or by a set of related,
concern-specific DSLs.
Two fundamentally different approaches are possible to deal
with the set of concerns in a domain. Either a single, integrated language can be designed that addresses all concerns
dsl engineering
of D in one integrated model. Alternatively, separate concernspecific DSLs can be defined, each addressing one or more of
the domain’s concerns43 . A complete program then consists
of a set of dependent, concern-specific fragments that relate
to each other in a well-defined way. Viewpoints support this
separation of domain concerns into separate DSLs. Fig. 4.18
illustrates the two different approaches.
103
Strictly speaking, this is not quite
true: some concerns are typically also
addressed by the execution engine. We
discuss this below in the section on
Cross-Cutting Concerns.
43
Figure 4.18: Left: An integrated DSL,
where the various concerns (represented by different line styles) are
covered by a single integrated language
(and consequently, one model). Right:
Several viewpoint languages (and
model fragments), each covering a single concern. Arrows in Part B highlight
dependencies between the viewpoints.
mbeddr C: The tasks language module includes the task
implementation as well as task scheduling in one language
construct. Scheduling and implementation are two concerns that could have been separated. We opted against
this, because both concerns are specified by the same person. The language used for implementation code is med.core,
whereas the task constructs are defined in the med.tasks
language. So the languages are modularized, but they are
used together in a single heterogeneous fragment. J
WebDSL: Web programs consists of multiple concerns including persistent data, user interface and access control.
WebDSL provides specific languages for these concerns,
but linguistically integrates them into a single language44 .
Declarations in the languages can be combined in WebDSL
modules. A WebDSL developer can choose how to factor
declarations into modules; e.g., all access control rules in
one module, or all aspects of some feature together in one
module. J
Component Architecture: The specification of interfaces
and components is done with one DSL in one viewpoint.
A separate viewpoint is used to describe component instantiation and connection. This choice has been made
because the same set of interfaces and components will
be instantiated and connected differently in different usage
scenarios, so separate fragments are useful. J
Z. Hemel, D. M. Groenewegen,
L. C. L. Kats, and E. Visser. Static consistency checking of web applications
with WebDSL. JSC, 46(2):150–182, 2011
44
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4.4.1
dslbook.org
Viewpoints for Concern Separation
If viewpoints are used, the concern-specific DSLs, and consequently the viewpoint models, should have well-defined dependencies; cycles should be avoided. If dependencies between
viewpoint fragments are kept cycle-free, the independent fragments may be sufficient for certain transformations; this can be
a driver for using viewpoints in the first place.
The dependent viewpoint fragment (and the language to express it) have to provide a way of pointing to the referenced
element. This usually means that the referenced element has
to provide a qualified name that can be used in the reference45 .
Separating out a domain concern into a separate viewpoint
fragment can be useful for several reasons. If different concerns
of a domain are specified by different stakeholders, then separate viewpoints make sure that each stakeholder has to deal
only with the information they care about. The various fragments can be modified, stored and checked in/out separately,
maintaining only referential integrity with the referenced fragment46 . The viewpoint separation has to be aligned with the
development process: the order of creation of the fragments
must be aligned with the dependency structure.
Another reason for separate viewpoints is a 1:n relationship
between the independent and the dependent fragments. If a
single core concern may be enhanced by several different additional concerns, then it is crucial to keep the core concern independent of the information in the additional concerns. Viewpoints make this possible.
4.4.2
The IDE should provide navigational
support: if an element in viewpoint B
points to an element in viewpoint A
then it should be possible to follow this
reference ("Ctrl-Click"). It should also
be possible to query the dependencies
in the opposite direction ("Find the
persistence mapping for this entity"
or "Find all UI forms that access this
entity").
45
In projectional editors one can technically use the UUID of the target element
for the reference, but for the user, some
kind of qualified name is still necessary.
Projectional editors can use a different approach. They can store the
information of all concerns in a single
model, but then use different projections to address the needs of different
stakeholders. This solves the problem
of referential integrity. However, this
approach does not support separate
store and check in/out.
46
A final (very pragmatic) reason for
using viewpoints is when the tooling
used does not support embedding of
a reusable language because syntactic
composition is not supported.
Viewpoints as Annotation Models
A special case of viewpoint separation is annotation models
(already mentioned in Section 4.3.8). An annotation provides
additional, often technical or transformation-controlling data
for elements in a core program47 . This is especially useful in
a multi-stage transformation (Section 4.3.3), where additional
data may have to be specified for the result of the first phase to
control the execution of the next phase. Since that intermediate
model is generated, it is not possible to add these additional
specifications to the intermediate model directly. Externalizing
it into an annotation model solves that problem.
Refrigerators: One concern in this DSL specifies the logical hardware structure of refrigerators installations. Another one describes the refrigerator cooling algorithm. Both
47
For those who know Eclipse EMF:
genmodels are annotation models for
ecore models.
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105
Figure 4.19: The hardware fragment
is independent, and sufficient for
generation of hardware diagrams
and documentation. The algorithms
fragment depends on the hardware
fragment. The two of them together are
sufficient for generating the controller
code. Tests depend on the algorithm.
There are many test fragments for a
single algorithm fragment.
are implemented as separate viewpoints, where the algorithm DSL references the hardware structure DSL. Using
this dependency structure, different algorithms can be defined for the same hardware structure. Each of these algorithms resides in its own fragment. While the C code
generation requires both behavior and hardware structure
fragments, the hardware fragment is sufficient for a transformation that creates a visual representation of the hardware structures (see Fig. 4.19). J
Example: For example, if you create a relational data model
from an object oriented data model, you might automatically derive database table names from the name of the
class in the OO model. If you need to "change" some of
those names, use an annotation model that specifies an alternate name. The downstream processor knows that the
name in the annotation model overrides the name in the
original model48 . J
4.4.3
Viewpoint Consistency
If viewpoints are used, constraints have to be defined to check
consistency of the viewpoints. A dependent viewpoint fragment contains program elements that reference program elements in another fragment. It is straightforward to check that
the target elements of these actually exist, since the reference
will break if it does not; in most tools these kinds of checks are
available by default.
The other direction is more interesting. Assume two viewpoints: business data structure and persistence mapping. There
may be a constraint that says that every Entity in the business data viewpoint has to have exactly one EntityPersis-
This is a typical example of where
the easiest thing in a projectional
editor would be to just place a field for
holding an overriding table name under
the program element that represents the
table. Users can edit that table name in
a special projection.
48
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tenceMapping element that points to the respective Entity.
It is an error if such an EntityPersistenceMapping does not
exit. Checking this constraint has two problems:
• The first problem may be performance. The whole world has
to be searched to check if a referencing program element
exists somewhere. If the tool supports it, this problem can
be solved by automatically maintained reverse indices49 .
• The second problem is more fundamental: it is not clear
what constitutes the whole world. The fragment with the
persistence mapping for a given Entity may reside on a different machine or be under the control of a different user.
It may not be accessible to the constraint checker when the
user edits the business data fragment. To solve this problem,
it is necessary to define explicitly what the world is, using
some kind of configuration. For example, a C compiler’s include path or Java’s classpath are ways of defining the scope
within which the overall system description must be complete. This does not necessarily have to be done by each
developer who, for example, works on the business data.
But at the point when the final system is generated or built,
such a "world definition" is essential.
4.4.4
This data should also be exploited by
the IDE. UI actions should be available
to navigate from the referenced element
(the Entity) to the referencing elements
(the EntityPersistenceMapping).
This is more than a generic Find Usages functionality, since it specifically
searches for certain kinds of usages (the
EntityPersistenceMapping in this
example). Further tool support may
include creation of such referencing
elements based on a policy that determines into which fragment the created
element should go.
49
Cross-Cutting Concerns
In the discussion so far we have considered concerns that can
be modularized clearly. Fig. 4.17 emphasizes this: the concern
boxes are neatly arranged next to each other. However, there
may also be concerns that do not fit into the chosen modularization approach. These are typically called cross-cutting concerns;
see Fig. 4.20.
Figure 4.20: Cross-cutting concerns
cannot be modularized: they permeate
other concerns.
In the context of DSLs we have to separate several classes of
cross-cutting concerns:
Handled by Execution Engine If we are lucky, a concern that
is cross-cutting in the domain can be handled completely by the
execution engine. For example the collection of performance
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data, billing information or audit logs typically does not have
to be described in the DSL at all. Since every program in the
domain has to address this concern in the same way, the implementation can be handled by the execution engine by inserting
the respective code at the relevant locations (in the case of a
generator).
Component Architecture: The component architecture DSL
supports the collection of performance data. Using mock
objects, we started running load tests early on. For a load
test, we have to collect the times it takes to execute operations on components. Based on a configuration switch,
the generator adds the necessary code to collect the performance data automatically. J
Modularized in DSL
Another class of cross-cutting concerns are those that cut across the resulting executable system,
but can be modularized on the DSL level. A good example is
permissions. Specifying users, roles and permissions to access
certain resources in the system can be modularized into a concern, and is typically described in a separate viewpoint. It is
then the job of the execution engine to consider the specified
permissions in all relevant places in the resulting system.
WebDSL: WebDSL has a means of specifying access control for web pages. The generator injects the necessary
code to check these permissions into the client side and
server side parts of the resulting web application. J
Cross-Cutting in the DSL The third class is when the concern cross-cuts the programs written in the DSL and can not
be modularized, as in the previous class. In this case we have
to deal with cross-cutting concerns in the same way as we do
today in programming languages: we either have to manually
insert the code in all the relevant places in the DSL program, or
we have to resort to aspect weaving on the DSL level50 .
Component Architecture: We implemented a simple weaver
that is able to introduce additional ports into existing components. It was used, among other things, to modularize the monitoring concern: if monitoring was enabled,
this aspect component would add the mon port to all other
components, enabling the MonitoringConsole to connect
to the other components and query monitoring data (see
the code below51 ). J
Building a (typically relatively limited) aspect weaver on the DSL’s level
is not a big problem, since we already
have access to the AST, and transforming it in a way where we inject
additional code based on a DSL-specific
pointcut specification is relatively
straightforward.
50
The * specifies that this aspect applies to all existing components. Other
selectors could be used instead of the *
to select only a subset).
51
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namespace monitoring feature monitoring {
component MonitoringConsole ...
instance monitor: ...
dynamic connect monitor.devices .. .
aspect (*) component {
provides mon: IMonitoring
}
}
4.4.5
Views on Programs
In projectional editors it is also possible to store the data for all
viewpoints in the same model tree, while using different projections to show different views onto the model to materialize
the various viewpoints. The particular benefit of this approach
is that additional concern-specific views can be defined later,
after programs have been created. It also avoids the need for
defining sophisticated ways of referencing program elements
from other viewpoints.
MPS also provides annotations, allowing additional model data to be
"attached" to any model element, and
shown optionally.
Pension Plans: Pension plans can be shown in a graphical
notation highlighting the dependency structure (Fig. 4.21).
The dependencies can still be edited in this view, but the
actual content of the pension plans is not shown. J
mbeddr C: Annotations are used for storing requirements
traces and documentation in the models (Fig. 20.22). The
program can be shown and edited with and without requirements traces and documentation text. J
Figure 4.21: Graphical notation for
dependencies among rules in a pension
plan.
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109
Figure 4.22: The shaded annotations
are traces into a requirements database.
The program can be edited with and
without these annotations. The annotations language has no dependency on
the languages it annotates.
4.4.6
Viewpoints for Progressive Refinement
There is an additional use case for viewpoint models not related to the concerns of a domain, but to progressive refinement. Consider the development of complex systems, which
typically proceeds in phases: it starts with requirements, proceeds to high-level component design and specification of nonfunctional properties, and finishes with the implementation of
the components. In each of these phases, models can be used to
represent the system with abstractions that are appropriate for
the phase. An appropriate DSL is needed to represent the models in each phase (Fig. 4.23). The references between model elements are called traces52 . Since the same conceptual elements
may be represented on different refinement levels (e.g., component design and component implementation), synchronization
between the viewpoint models is often required (see the next
subsection).
W. Jirapanthong and A. Zisman.
Supporting product line development
through traceability. In apsec, pages
506–514, 2005
52
Figure 4.23: Progressive refinement: the
boxes represent models expressed with
corresponding languages. The dotted
arrows express dependencies, whereas
the solid arrows represent references
between model elements.
4.4.7
Model Synchronization
In the discussion of viewpoints so far we have assumed that
there is no overlap between the viewpoints: every piece of
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information lives in exactly one viewpoint. Relationships between viewpoints are established by references (which means
that the Referencing language composition technique can be
used; this is discussed in Section 4.6.1). However, sometimes
this is not the case, and the same (conceptual) information is
represented in two viewpoint models. Obviously there is a
constraint that enforces consistency between the viewpoints;
the models have to be synchronized53 .
In some cases the rules for establishing consistency between
viewpoints can be described formally, and hence the synchronization can be automated, if the DSL tool supports such synchronization54 . An example occurs in mbeddr C:
mbeddr C: Components implement interfaces. Each component provides an implementation for each method defined in each of the interfaces it implements. If a new
method is added to an interface, all components that implement that particular interface must get a new, empty
method implementation. This is an example of model synchronization. J
Thanks are due to the participants
of the MoDELS 2012 workshop on
Multi-Paradigm Modeling who, by
discussing this issue, reminded me that
it is missing from the book.
53
MPS has a nice way of automatically
executing a quick fix for a constraint
violation. If the constraint detects an
inconsistency between viewpoints, the
quick fix can automatically correct the
problem. This also solves the whole
world problem neatly, since every
dependent fragment is "corrected" as
soon as it is opened in the editor.
54
In this example the synchronization is trivial, for two reasons:
first, there is a clear (unidirectional) dependency between the
method implementation and the operation specification in the
interface, so the synchronization is also unidirectional. Second,
the information represented in both models/places is identical,
so it is easy to detect an inconsistency and fix it. However, there
are several more complicated cases:
• The dependency might be bidirectional, and changes may
be allowed in either model. This means that two transformations have to be written, one for each direction, or a formalism for expressing the transformation has to be used that
can be executed in both directions55 . In multi-user scenarios
it is also possible that the two models are changed at the
same time, in an inconsistent way. In this case the changes
have to be merged, or a clear priority (who will win) has to
be established.
• The languages expressing the viewpoints may have been defined independent of each other, with no dependency. This
probably means that it was discovered only after the fact
that some parts of the model have to be synchronized. In
this case the synchronization must be put into some kind of
adapter language. It also means that the synchronization is
The QVT-R transformation language
has this capability, for example.
55
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111
not as clean as if it had been "designed into" the languages
(see the next item).
• In the mbeddr example, the information (the signature of
the operation) was simply replicated, so the transformation
was trivial. However, there may not be a 1:1 correspondence
between the information in the two viewpoints. This makes
the transformation more complex to write. In the worst case
it may mean that the synchronization cannot be formally
described and automated.
Sometimes the correspondence between models can only be
expressed on an instance level (as in "This functional block corresponds to this software component")56 . Consequently, developers have to express the correspondence (the trace links mentioned earlier) manually. However, consistency checks (and
possibly automatic synchronization) may still be possible, based
on the manually expressed trace links.
In my work with DSLs I have only encountered the simplest
cases of synchronization, which is why we don’t put much emphasis on this topic in the rest of the book. For more details,
see the papers by Diskin57 and Stevens58 .
4.5
This often happens in the context of
progressive refinement, as discussed in
the previous subsection.
56
Z. Diskin, Y. Xiong, and K. Czarnecki.
From state- to delta-based bidirectional
model transformations. In ICMT, pages
61–76, 2010
57
P. Stevens. Bidirectional model
transformations in qvt: semantic issues
and open questions. SoSyM, 9(1):7–20,
2010
58
Completeness
Completeness59 refers to the degree to which a language L can
express programs that contain all necessary information to execute them. An program expressed in an incomplete DSL requires additional specifications (such as configuration files or
code written in a lower-level language) to make it executable.
Let us introduce a function G ("code generator") that transforms a program p in L D to a program q in L D−1 . For a complete language, p and q have the same semantics, i.e. OB( p) ==
OB( G ( p)) == OB(q) (see Section 4.3). For incomplete languages where OB( G ( p)) ⊂ OB( p) we have to write additional
code in L D−1 to obtain a program in D−1 that has the same semantics as intended by the original program in L D . In cases in
which we use several viewpoints to represent various concerns
of D, the set of fragments written for these concerns must be
enough for complete D−1 generation.
mbeddr C: The Embedded C language is complete regarding D−1 , or even D−m for higher levels of D, since higher
levels are always built as extensions of its D−1 . Developers
This has nothing to do with Turing
completeness.
59
Another way of stating this is that G
produces a program in L D−1 that is
not sufficient for a subsequent transformation (e.g., a compiler), only the
manually written L D−1 code leads to
sufficiency.
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can always fall back to D−1 to express what is not expressible directly with L D . Since the users of this system are
developers, falling back to D−1 or even D0 is not a problem. J
4.5.1
Compensating for Incompleteness
Integrating the L D−1 in the case of an incomplete L D language
can be done in several ways:
• By calling "black box" code written in L D−1 . This requires
concepts in L D for calling D−1 foreign functions. No syntactic embedding of D−1 code is required, beyond the ability to
call functions60 .
• By directly embedding L D−1 code in the L D program. This
is useful if L D is an extension of L D−1 , or if the tool provides
adequate support for embedding the D−1 language into L D
programs. Note that L D−1 may not be analyzable, so mixing
L D−1 into L D code may compromise analyzability of the L D
code.
• By using composition mechanisms of L D−1 to "plug in" the
manually written code into the generated code without actually modifying the generated files (also known as the Generation Gap61 pattern). Example techniques for realizing this
approach include generating a base class with abstract methods (requiring the user to implement them in a manually
written subclass) or with empty callback methods which the
user can use to customize in a subclass62 . You can delegate,
implement interfaces, use #include, use reflection tricks,
AOP or take a look at the well-known design patterns for
inspiration. Some languages provide partial classes, where
a class definition can be split over a generated file and a
manually written file.
• By inserting manually-written L D−1 code into the L D−1 code
generated from the L D program using protected regions.
Protected regions are areas of the code, usually delimited
by special comments, whose (manually written) contents are
not overwritten during regeneration of the file.
For DSLs used by developers, incompleteness is usually not
a problem because they are comfortable with writing the D−1
code in a programming language. Specifically, the DSL users
are the same people as those who provide the remaining D−1
code, so coordination between the two roles is not a problem.
In the simplest case, these functions
don’t even have arguments, so the syntax to call such a function is essentially
just the function name.
60
Just "pasting text into a text field", an
approach used by several graphical
modeling tools, is not productive, since
no syntactic and semantic integration
between the languages is provided.
In most cases there is no tool support
(syntax highlighting, code completion,
error checking)
J. Vlissidis. Generation gap. C++
Report, 1996
61
For example, in user interfaces, such
a method could return a position object
for a widget. The default implementation returns null, indicating to the
framework to use the the generic layout
algorithm. If a position is returned, it
is used instead of the one computed by
the layout algorithm.
62
We discourage the use of protected
regions. You’ll run into all kinds of
problems: generated code is not a
throw-away product any more, you
have to check it in leading to funny
situations with your version control
system. Also, often you will accumulate
a "sediment" of code that has been
generated from elements that are
no longer in the model, leading to
compilation errors in the worst case
– even though the code is in fact not
longer required. If you don’t use
protected regions, you can delete the
whole generated source directory from
time to time, cleaning up the sediment.
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Component Architecture: This DSL is not complete. Only
class skeleton and infrastructure integration code is generated from the models. The component implementation has
to be implemented manually in Java using the Generation
Gap pattern. The DSL is used by developers, so writing
code in a subclass of a generated class is not a problem. J
For DSLs used by domain experts, the situation is different.
Usually, they are not able to write D−1 code, so other people
(developers) have to fill in the remaining concerns. Alternatively, developers can develop a predefined set of foreign functions that can be called from within the DSL. In effect, developers provide a standard library (cf. Section 4.1.2) which can
be invoked as black boxes from DSL programs.
WebDSL: The core of a web application is concerned with
persistent data and its presentation. However, web applications need to perform additional duties outside that
core, for which useful libraries often exist. WebDSL provides a native interface that allows a developer to call into
a Java library by declaring types and functions from the
library in a WebDSL program. J
Note that a DSL that does not cover all of D can still be complete:
not all of the programs imaginable in a domain may be expressed with a DSL, but those programs that can be expressed
can be expressed completely, without any manually written
code. Also, the code generated from a DSL program may require a framework written in L D−1 to run in. That framework
represents aspects of D outside the scope of L D .
Refrigerators: The cooling DSL only supports reactive,
state-based systems that make up the core of the cooling algorithm. The drivers used in the lower layers of
the system, or the control algorithms controlling the actual compressors in the fridge, cannot be expressed with
the DSL. However, these aspects are developed once and
can be reused without adaptations, so using DSLs is not
sensible. These parts are implemented manually in C. J
Controlling D−1 Code
Allowing users to manually write
D−1 code, and especially if it is actually a GPL in D0 , comes
with two additional challenges. Consider the following example: the generator generates an abstract class from some model
element. The developer is expected to subclass the generated
This requires elaborate collaboration
schemes, because the domain experts
have to communicate the remaining
concerns via text or verbal communication.
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class and implement a couple of abstract methods. The manually written subclass needs to conform to a specific naming
convention so that some other generated code can instantiate
the manually written subclass. The generator, however, just
generates the base class and stops: how can you make sure
developers actually do write that subclass, using the correct
name63 ?
To address this issue, make sure there is there a way to make
those conventions and idioms interactive. One way to do this
is to generate checks/constraints against the code base and have
them evaluated by the IDE, for example using Findbugs64 or
similar code checking tools. If one fails, an error message is
reported to the developer. That error message can be worded
by the developer of the DSL, helping the developer understand
what exactly has to be done to solve the problem with the code.
Semantic Consistency
As part of the definition of a DSL
you will implement constraints that validate the DSL program
in order to ensure some property of the resulting system (see
Section 20.5). For example, you might check dependencies between components in an architecture model to ensure components can be exchanged in the actual system. Of course such a
validation is only useful if the manually written code does not
introduce dependencies that are not present in the model. In
that case the "green light" from the constraint check does not
help much.
To ensure that promises made by the models are kept by
the (manually written) code, use one of the following two approaches. First, generate code that does not allow violation
of model promises. For example, don’t expose a factory that
allows components to look up and use any other component
(creating dependencies), but rather use dependency injection
to supply objects for the valid dependencies expressed in the
model65 .
Component Architecture: The Java code generator generates component implementation classes that use dependency injection to supply the targets for required ports.
This ensures that the implementation class will have access
to exactly those interfaces specified in the model. An alternative approach would be to simply hand to the implementation class some kind of factory or registry where a
component implementation can look up instances of com-
Of course, if the constructor of the
concrete subclass is called from another
location of the generated code, and/or
if the abstract methods are invoked,
you’ll get compiler errors. By their
nature, they are on the abstraction
level of the implementation code,
however. It is not always obvious what
the developer has to do in terms of the
model or domain to get rid of these
errors.
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A better approach is to build a complete DSL. The language used to express
the behavior (which might otherwise
plugged in manually in the generated code) is suitably limited and/or
checked to enforce that it does not
lead to inconsistencies. This is a nice
use case for language extension and
embedding.
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ponents that provide the interfaces specified by the required ports of the current component. However, this way
it would be much harder to make sure that only those dependencies are accessed that are expressed in the model.
Using dependency injection enforces this constraint in the
implementation code. J
A second approach uses code checkers (like the Findbugs mentioned above) or architecture analysis tools to validate manually written code. You can easily generate the relevant checking
rules for those tools from the models.
4.5.2
Roundtrip Transformation
Roundtrip transformation means that an L D program can be
recovered from a program in L D−1 (written from scratch, or
changed manually after generation from a previous iteration
of the L D program). This is challenging, because it requires
reconstituting the semantics of the L D program from idioms
or patterns used in the L D−1 code. This is the general reverse
engineering problem and is not generally possible, although
progress has been made over recent years (see for example66 ).
Note that for complete languages roundtripping is generally
not useful, because the complete program can be written in L D
in the first place. Even if recovery of the semantics is possible
it may not be practical: if the DSL provides significant abstraction over the L D−1 program, then the generated L D−1 program
is so complicated that manually changing the D−1 code in a
consistent and correct way is tedious and error-prone.
Roundtripping has traditionally been used with respect to
UML models and generated class skeletons. In that case, the
abstractions between the model and the code are similar (both
are classes); the tool basically just provides a different concrete
syntax (diagrams). This similarity of abstractions in the code
and the model made roundtripping possible to some extent.
However, it also made the models relatively useless, because
they did not provide a significant benefit in terms of abstraction over code details. We generally recommend avoiding any
attempt to build support for roundtripping.
mbeddr C: This language does not support roundtripping,
but since all DSLs are extensions of C, one can always add
C code to the programs, alleviating the need for roundtripping in the first place. J
D. Beyer, T. A. Henzinger, and
G. Theoduloz. Program analysis
with dynamic precision adjustment.
In ASE, pages 29–38, 2008; M. Pistoia,
S. Chandra, S. J. Fink, and E. Yahav. A
survey of static analysis methods for
identifying security vulnerabilities in
software systems. IBMSJ, 46(2):265–
288, 2007; and M. Antkiewicz, T. T.
Bartolomei, and K. Czarnecki. Fast
extraction of high-quality frameworkspecific models from application code.
ASE, 16(1):101–144, 2009
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Notice that the problem of "understanding" the semantics of a program
written at a too-low abstraction level is
the reason for DSLs in the first place:
by providing linguistic abstractions for
the relevant semantics, no "recovery" is
necessary for meaningful analysis and
transformation.
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Refrigerators: Roundtripping is not required here, since
the DSL is complete. The code generators are quite sophisticated, and nobody would want to manually change
the generated C code. Since the DSL has proved to provide
good coverage, the need to "tweak" the generated code has
not come up. J
Component Architecture: Roundtripping is not supported.
Changes to the interfaces, operation signatures or components have to be performed in the models. This has
not been reported as a problem by the users, since both
the implementation code and the DSL "look and feel" the
same way – they are both Eclipse-based textual editors –
and generation of the derived low-level code happens automatically on saving a changed model. The workflow is
seamless. J
Pension Plans: This is a typical application domain DSL
where the users never see the generated Java code. Consequently, the language has to be complete and roundtripping is not useful and would not fit with the development
process. J
4.6
Language Modularity
Reuse of modularized parts makes software development more
efficient, since similar functionality does not have to be developed over and over again. A similar argument can be made
for languages. Being able to reuse languages, or parts of languages, in new contexts makes designing DSLs more efficient.
Language composition requires the composition of abstract
syntax, concrete syntax, constraints/type systems and the execution semantics67 . We discuss all of these aspect in this
section. However, in the discussion of semantic integration,
we consider only the case in which the composed language
uses the same (or closely related) behavioral paradigms68 , since
otherwise the composition can become very challenging. We
mostly focus on imperative programs. We discuss behavioral
paradigms in more detail in Section 5.
Composition Techniques
We have identified the following
four composition strategies: referencing, extension, reuse and
embedding. We distinguish them regarding fragment structure
Language modularization and reuse
is often not driven by end user or
domain requirements, but rather,
by the experience of the language
designers and implementers striving for
consistency and avoidance of duplicate
implementation work.
It requires the composition of the IDE
as well. However, with the language
workbenches used in this book, this is
mostly automatic.
67
The behavioral paradigm is also
known as the Model of Computation.
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and language dependencies, as illustrated in Fig. 4.24. Fig. 4.25
shows the relationships between fragments and languages in
these cases69 .
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Note how in both cases the language
definitions are modular: invasive modification of a language definition is
not something we consider language
modularity!
69
Figure 4.24: We distinguish the four
modularization and composition approaches regarding their consequences
for fragment structure and language
dependencies.
We consider these two criteria to be relevant for the following
reasons. Language dependencies capture whether a language has
to be designed with knowledge about a particular composition
partner in mind in order to be composable with that partner.
It is desirable in many scenarios that languages be composable without previous knowledge about all possible composition partners. Fragment Structure captures whether the two
composed languages can be syntactically mixed, or whether
separate viewpoints are used. Since modular concrete syntax
can be a challenge, this is not always possible, though often
desirable.
Figure 4.25: The relationships between
fragments and languages in the four
composition approaches. Boxes represent fragments, rounded boxes are
languages. Dotted lines are dependencies, solid lines references/associations.
The shading of the boxes represent the
two different languages.
DSL Hell?
Reusing DSL also helps avoid the "DSL Hell"
problem we discussed in the introduction. DSL hell refers to
the danger that developers create new DSLs all the time, resulting in a large set of half-baked DSLs, each covering related domains, possibly with overlap, but still incompatible. Language
modularization and reuse can help to avoid this problem. Language extension allows users to add new language constructs
to existing languages. They can reuse all the features of the
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existing language while still adding their own higher-level abstractions. Language embedding lets language designers embed existing languages into new ones. This is particularly interesting in the case of expression or query languages, which
are relevant in many different contexts.
More Detailed Examples Part III of the book discusses the
implementation of these modularization techniques with various tools (Section 16). As part of this discussion we present
much more concrete and detailed examples of the various composition techniques. You may want to take a look at those examples while you read this section.
4.6.1
Language Referencing
Language referencing enables homogeneous fragments with crossreferences among them, using dependent languages (Fig. 4.26).
A fragment f 2 depends on f 1 . f 2 and f 1 are expressed with
different languages l2 and l1 . The referencing language l2 depends on the referenced language l1 because at least one concept in the l2 references a concept from l1 . We call l2 the referencing language, and l1 the referenced language. While equations
(1.2) and (1.3) (see Section 3.3) continue to hold, (1.1) does not.
Instead:
∀r ∈ Refsl2 | lo(r.from) = l2 ∧ (lo(r.to) = l1 ∨ lo(r.to) = l2 )
(4.1)
Figure 4.26: Referencing. Language
l2 depends on l1 , because concepts in
l2 reference concepts in l1 . (We use
rectangles for languages, circles for
language concepts, and UML syntax for
the lines: dotted arrows = dependency,
normal arrows = associations, hollowtriangle-arrow for inheritance.)
Viewpoints As we have discussed before in Section 4.4, a
domain D can be composed from different concerns. One way
of dealing with this is to define separate concern-specific DSLs,
each addressing one or more of the domain’s concerns. A program then consists of a set of concern-specific fragments, which
relate to each other in a well-defined way using language referencing. This approach has the advantage that different stakeholders can modify "their" concern independent of others. It
also allows reuse of the independent fragments and languages
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with different referencing languages. The obvious drawback is
that for tightly integrated concerns the separation into separate
fragments can be a usability problem.
Referencing implies knowledge about the relationships of
the languages as they are designed. Viewpoints are the classical case for this. The dependent languages cannot be reused,
because of the dependency on the other language.
Refrigerators: As an example, consider the domain of refrigerator configuration. The domain consists of three concerns. The first concern H describes the hardware structure of refrigerator appliances including compartments,
compressors, fans, valves and thermometers. The second
concern A describes the cooling algorithm using a statebased, asynchronous language. Cooling programs refer to
hardware building blocks and access their properties in expressions and commands. The third concern is testing, T.
A cooling test can test and simulate cooling programs. The
dependencies are as follows: A → H and T → A. Each
of these concerns is implemented as a separate language,
with references between them. H and A are separated because H is defined by product management, whereas A
is defined by thermodynamicists. Also, several algorithms
for the same hardware must be supported, which makes
separate fragments for H and A useful. T is separate from
A because tests are not strictly part of the product definition and may be enhanced after a product has been released. These languages have been built as part of a single
project, so the dependencies between them are not a problem. J
Progressive Refinement Progressive refinement, also introduced earlier (Section 4.4.6), also makes use of language referencing.
4.6.2
Language Extension
Language extension enables heterogeneous fragments with dependent languages (Fig. 4.27). A language l2 extending l1 adds
additional language concepts to those of l1 . We call l2 the extending language (or language extension), and l1 the base language. To allow the new concepts to be used in the context
provided by l1 , some of them extend concepts in l1 . So, while
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l1 remains independent, l2 becomes dependent on l1 , since:
∃i ∈ Inh(l2 ) | i.sub = l2 ∧ i.super = l1
(4.2)
Consequently, a fragment f contains language concepts from
both l1 and l2 :
∀e ∈ E f | lo(e) = l1 ∨ lo(e) = l2
(4.3)
In other words, C f ⊂ (Cl1 ∪ Cl2 ), so f is heterogeneous. For
heterogeneous fragments (1.3) does not hold anymore, since:
∀c ∈ Cdnf | (lo(co(c.parent)) = l1 ∨ lo(co(c.parent)) = l2 )∧
(lo(co(c.child)) = l1 ∨ lo(co(c.child)) = l2 )
(4.4)
Note that copying a language definition
and changing it does not constitute a
case of language extension, because the
extension is not modular, it is invasive.
Also, native interfaces that support
calling one language from another
(like calling C from Perl or Java) is not
language extension; rather it is a form
of language referencing. The fragments
remain homogeneous.
Figure 4.27: Extension: l2 extends l1 .
It provides additional concepts B3
and B4. B3 extends A3, so it can be
used as a child of A2, just like A3. This
plugs l2 into the context provided by l1 .
Consequently, l2 depends on l2 .
Language extension fits well with the hierarchical domains introduced in Section 3.1: a language L B for a domain D may
extend a language L A for D−1 . L B contains concepts specific
to D, making analysis and transformation of those concepts
possible without pattern matching and semantics recovery. As
explained in the introduction, the new concepts are often reified from the idioms and patterns used when using an L A for
D. Language semantics are typically defined by mapping the
new abstractions to just these idioms (see Section 4.3) inline.
This process, also known as assimilation, transforms a heterogeneous fragment (expressed in L D and L D+1 ) into a homogeneous fragment expressed only with L D .
Extension is especially useful for bottom-up domains. The
common patterns and idioms identified for a domain can be
reified directly into linguistic abstractions, and used directly in
the language from which they have been embedded. Incomplete languages are not a problem, since users can easily fall
back to D−1 to implement the rest. Since DSL users see the
D−1 code all the time anyway, they will be comfortable falling
Language extension is especially interesting if D0 languages are extended,
making a DSL an extension of a general
purpose language.
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back to D−1 in exceptional cases. This makes extensions suitable only for DSLs used by developers. Domain expert DSLs
are typically not implemented as extensions.
mbeddr C: As an example, consider embedded programming. The C programming language is typically used as
the GPL for D0 in this case. Extensions for embedded programming include state machines, tasks or data types with
physical units. Language extensions for the subdomain of
real-time systems may include ways of specifying deterministic scheduling and worst-case execution time. For
the avionics subdomain support for remote communication using some of the bus systems used in avionics could
be added. J
Extension comes in two flavors. One really feels like extension,
the other feels more like embedding.
• Extension Flavor In the first case we provide (a little, local)
additional syntax to an otherwise unchanged language. For
example, C may be extended with new data types and literals for complex numbers, as in complex c = (3+2i);. The
programs still essentially look like C programs, with specific
extensions in a few places.
• Embedding Flavor The other case is where we create a completely new language, but reuse some of the syntax provided
by the base language. For example, we could create a state
machine language that reuses C’s expression and types in
guard conditions. This use case feels like embedding (we
embed syntax from the base language in our new language),
but in the classification according to syntactic integration
and dependencies, it is still extension. Embedding would
prevent dependencies between the state machine language
and C.
Language extension is also a very useful way to address the
problem of DSLs often starting as simple, but then becoming
more complicated over time, because new corners or intricacies
in the domain are discovered as users gain more experience in
the domain. These corner cases and intricacies can be factored
into a separate language module that extends the core DSL.
The use of these extensions can then initially be restricted to a
few users in order to find out if they are really needed. Different experiments can even be performed at the same time,
The embedding flavour is often suitable
for use with DSLs that are used by nonprogrammers, since the "embedded"
subset of the language is often small
and simple to understand. Once again,
expression languages are the prime
example for this.
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with different groups of users using different extensions. Even
once these extensions have proved useful, "advanced" language
features can be restricted in this way to a small group of "advanced" users who handle the hard cases by using the extension.
Incremental extension can help to avoid the feared "customization cliff". The customization cliff is a term introduced
by Steve Cook70 : once you step outside of what is covered by your
DSL, you plunge down a cliff onto the rocks of the low-level platform. If DSLs are built as incremental extensions of the next
lower language, then stepping outside any DSL on level D will
only plunge you down to the language for D−1 . And presumably you can always create an additional extension that extends
your DSL to cover an additional, initially unexpected aspect.
Defining a D language as an extension of a D−1 language
can also have drawbacks. The language is tightly bound to the
D−1 language it is extended from. While it is possible for a
stand-alone DSL in D to generate implementations for different D−1 languages, this is not easily possible for DSLs that are
extensions of a D−1 language. Also, interaction with the D−1
language may make meaningful semantic analysis of complete
programs (using L D and L D−1 concepts) hard. This problem
can be limited if isolated L D sections are used in which interaction with L D−1 concepts is limited and well-defined. These
isolated sections remain analyzable.
Restriction Sometimes language extension is also used to
restrict the set of language constructs available in the subdomain. For example, the real-time extensions for C may restrict the use of dynamic memory allocation, or the extension
for safety-critical systems may prevent the use of void pointers and certain casts. Although the extending language is in
some sense smaller than the extended one, we still consider
this a case of language extension, for two reasons. First, the
restrictions are often implemented by adding additional constraints that report errors if the restricted language constructs
are used. Second, a marker concept may be added to the base
language. The restriction rules are then enforced for children
of these marker concepts (e.g., in a module marked as "safe",
one cannot use void pointers and the prohibited casts).
mbeddr C: Modules can be marked as MISRA-compliant,
which prevents the use of those C constructs that are not
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Restriction is often useful for the
embedding-flavor of extension. For example, when embedding C expressions
into the state machine language, we
may want to restrict users from using
the pointer-related expressions.
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allowed in MISRA-C71 . Prohibited concepts are reported
as errors directly in the program. J
4.6.3
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Default.aspx#label-c2
Language Reuse
Language reuse enables homogenous fragments with independent
languages (Fig. 4.28). Given are two independent languages l2
and l1 and two fragment f 2 and f 1 . f 2 depends on f 1 , so that:
∃r ∈ Refsf2 | fo(r.from) = f 2 ∧
(fo(r.to) = f 1 ∨ fo(r.to) = f 2 )
(4.5)
Since l2 is independent, it cannot directly reference concepts
in l1 . This makes l2 reusable with different languages (in contrast to language referencing, where concepts in l2 reference
concepts in l1 ). We call l2 the context language and l1 the reused
language.
One way of realizing dependent fragments while retaining
independent languages is using an adapter language l A where
l A extends l2 , and:
∃r ∈ RefslA | lo(r.from) = l A ∧ lo(r.to) = l1
One could argue that in this case
reuse is just a clever combination
of referencing and extension. While
this is true from an implementation
perspective, it is worth describing as a
separate approach, because it enables
the combination of two independent
languages by adding an adapter after
the fact, so no pre-planning during the
design of l1 and l2 is necessary.
(4.6)
Figure 4.28: Reuse: l1 and l2 are independent languages. Within an l2
fragment, we still want to be able to
reference concepts in another fragment expressed with l1 . To do this,
an adapter language l A is added that
depends on both l1 and l2 , using inheritance and referencing to adapt l1 to
l2 .
While language referencing supports reuse of the referenced
language, language reuse supports the reuse of the referencing
language as well. This makes sense for DSLs that have the potential to be reused in many domains, with minor adjustments.
Examples include role-based access control, relational database
mappings and UI specification.
Example: Consider a language for describing user interfaces. It provides language concepts for various widgets,
layout definition and disable/enable strategies. It also supports data binding, where data structures are associated
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with widgets, to enable two-way synchronization between
the UI and the data. Using language reuse, the same UI
language can be used with different data description languages. Referencing would not achieve this goal, because
the UI language would have a direct dependency on a particular data description language. Changing the dependency direction to data → ui doesn’t solve the problem either, because this would go against the generally accepted
idiom that UI has dependencies to the data, but not vice
versa (cf. the MVC pattern). J
Generally, the referencing language is built with the knowledge
that it will be reused with other languages, so hooks may be
provided for adapter languages to plug in.
Example: The UI language thus may define an abstract
concept DataMapping, which is then extended by various
adapter languages. J
4.6.4
Language Embedding
Language embedding (Fig. 4.29) enables heterogeneous fragments
with independent languages. It is similar to reuse, in that there
are two independent languages l1 and l2 , but instead of establishing references between two homogeneous fragments, we
now embed instances of concepts from l2 in a fragment f expressed with l1 , so:
∀c ∈ Cdnf | lo(co(c.parent)) = l1 ∧
(lo(co(c.child)) = l1 ∨ lo(co(c.child)) = l2 ))
(4.7)
Unlike language extension, where l2 depends on l1 because
concepts in l2 extends concepts in l1 , there is no such dependency in this case. Both languages are independent. We call
l2 the embedded language and l1 the host language. Again, an
adapter language l A that extends l1 can be used to achieve this,
where:
∃c ∈ CdnlA | lo(c.parent) = l A ∧ lo(c.child) = l1
(4.8)
Embedding supports syntactic composition of independently
developed languages. As an example, consider a state machine
language that can be combined with any number of programming languages such as Java or C. If the state machine language
is used together with Java, then the guard conditions used in
the transitions should be Java expressions. If it is used with
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Figure 4.29: Embedding: l1 and l2 are
independent languages. However,
we still want to use them in the same
fragment. To enable this, an adapter
language l A is added. It depends on
both l1 and l2 , and uses inheritance and
composition to adapt l1 to l2 (this is
almost the same structure as in the case
of reuse; the difference is that B5 now
contains A3, instead of just referencing
it).
C, then the expressions should be C expressions. The two expression languages, or in fact, any others, must be embeddable
in the guard conditions. So the state machine language cannot
depend on any particular expression language, and the expression languages of C or Java obviously cannot be designed with
knowledge about the state machine language. Both have to remain independent, and have to be embedded using an adapter
language.
Another example is embedding a database query language
such as Linq or SQL in different programming languages (Java,
C#, C). Again, the query language may not have a dependency
on any programming language (otherwise it would not be embeddable in all of them). The problem could be solved by extension (with embedding flavor), but then the programming
language would have to be invasively changed – it now has to
have a dependency on the query language. Using embedding,
this dependency can be avoided.
When embedding a language, the embedded language must
often be extended as well. In the state machine example, new
kinds of expressions must be added to support referencing
event parameters defined in the host language. In the case
of the query language, method arguments and local variables
should probably me usable as part of the queries (... WHERE
somecolumn = someMethodArg). These additional expressions
will typically reside in the adapter language as well.
Just as in the embedding-flavored extension case (cf. Section 4.6.2), sometimes the embedded language must also be
restricted. If you embed the C expression language in state machine guard conditions, you may want to restrict the user from
using pointer types or all the expressions related to pointers in
C.
Note that if the state machine language is specifically built to "embed"
C expressions, then this is a case of
language Extension, since the state
machine language depends on the C
expression language.
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WebDSL: In order to support queries over persistent data,
WebDSL embeds the Hibernate Query Language (HQL)
such that HQL queries can be used as expressions. Queries
can refer to entity declarations in the program and to variables in the scope of the query. J
Pension Plans: The pension workbench DSL embeds a
spreadsheet language for expressing unit tests for pension
plan calculation rules. The spreadsheet language comes
with its own simple expression language to be used inside
the cells. A new expression has been added to reference
pension rule input parameters so that they can be used
inside the cells. J
Cross-Cutting Embedding, Meta Data A special case of embedding is handling meta data. We define meta data as program elements that are not essential to the semantics of the
program, and are typically not handled by the primary model
processor. Nonetheless this data must relate to program elements, and, at least from a user’s perspective, they often need
to be embedded in programs. Since most of them are rather
generic, embedding is the right composition mechanism: no
dependency to any specific language should be necessary, and
the meta data should be embeddable in any language. Example meta data includes:
Documentation , which should be attachable to any program
element, and in the documentation text, other program elements should be referenceable.
Traces , to capture typed relationships between program elements, or between program elements and requirements or
other documentation ("this program element implements that
requirement").
Presence Conditions in product line engineering, to describe if
a program element should be available in the program for a
given product configuration ("this procedure is only in the
program in the international variant of the product").
In projectional editors, this meta data can be stored in the program tree and shown only optionally, if some global configuration switch is true. In textual editors, meta data is often stored
in separate files, using pointers to refer to the respective model
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elements. The data may be shown in hovers or views adjacent
to the editor itself.
mbeddr C: The system supports various kinds of meta
data, including traces to requirements and documentation. They are implemented with MPS’ attribute mechanism, which is discussed in the part on MPS in Section 16.2.7.
As a consequence of how MPS attributes work, these meta
data can be applied to program elements defined in any
arbitrary language. J
4.6.5
Implementation Challenges and Solutions
The previous subsections discussed four strategies for language
composition. In this section we describe some of the challenges
regarding syntax, type systems and transformations for these
four strategies.
Syntax Referencing and Reuse keeps fragments homogeneous. Mixing of concrete syntax is not required. A reference
between fragments is usually simply an identifier and does not
have its own internal structure for which a grammar would
be required72 . The name resolution phase can then create the
actual cross-reference between abstract syntax objects.
Refrigerators: The algorithm language contains cross-references into the hardware language. Those references are
simple, dotted names such as compartment1.valve. J
Example: In the UI example, the adapter language simply
introduces dotted names to refer to fields of data structures. J
Extension and embedding requires modular concrete syntax
definitions because additional language elements must be mixed
with programs written with the base/host language. As we
discuss in Part III (mostly in Section 7), combining independently developed languages after the fact can be a problem:
depending on the parser technology, the combined grammar
may not be parsable with the parser technology at hand. There
are parser technologies that do not exhibit this problem, and
projectional editors avoid it by definition. However, several
widely used language workbenches have problems in this respect.
mbeddr C: State machines are hosted in regular C programs. This works because the C language’s Module con-
Sometimes the references use qualified names, in which case the strings
use dots and colons. However, this
is still a trivial token structure, so it
is acceptable to define the structure
separately in both languages.
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struct contains a collection of IModuleContents, and the
StateMachine concept implements the IModuleContent
concept interface. This state machine language is designed
specifically to be embedded into C, so it can access and extend IModuleContent (Fig. 4.30). If the state machine language were embeddable in any host language in addition
to C, this dependency on ModuleContent (from the C base
language) would not be allowed. An adapter language
would have to be created which adapts a StateMachine to
IModuleContent. J
Type Systems For referencing, the type system rules and
constraints of the referencing language typically have to take
into account the referenced language. Since the referenced language is known when developing the referencing language, the
type system can be implemented with the referenced language
in mind as well.
Refrigerators: In the refrigerator example, the algorithm
language defines typing rules for hardware elements (from
the hardware language), because these types are used to
determine which properties can be accessed on the hardware elements (e.g., a compressor has a property active
that controls whether it is on or off). J
In the case of extension, the type systems of the base language
must be designed in a way that allows adding new typing rules
in language extensions. For example, if the base language defines typing rules for binary operators, and the extension language defines new types, then those typing rules may have to
be overridden to allow the use of existing operators with the
new types.
mbeddr C: A language extension provides types with physical units (as in 100 kg). Additional typing rules are needed
to override the typing rules for C’s basic operators (+, -, *,
/, etc.). MPS supports declarative type system specification, so you can just add additional typing rules for the
case in which one or both of the arguments have a type
with a physical unit. J
For reuse and embedding, the typing rules that affect the interplay between the two languages reside in the adapter language.
The type systems of both languages must be extensible in the
way described in the previous paragraph on extension.
Figure 4.30: The core language (above
the dotted line) defines an interface
IModuleContent. Anything that should
be hosted inside a Module has to implement this interface, typically from
another language. StateMachines are
an example.
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Example: In the UI example the adapter language will
have to adapt the data types of the fields in the data description to the types the UI widgets expect. For example,
a combo box widget can only be bound to fields that have
some kind of text or enum data type. Since the specific
types are specific to the data description language (which
is unknown at the time of creation of the UI language), a
mapping must be provided in the adapter language. J
Transformation In this section we use the terms transformation and generation interchangeably. In general, transformation
is used if one tree of program elements is mapped to another
tree, while generation describes the case of creating text from
program trees. However, for the discussions in this section, this
distinction is generally not relevant.
Three cases have to be considered for referencing. The first
one (Fig. 4.31) propagates the referencing structure to the target fragments. We call these two transformations single-sourced,
since each of them only uses a single, homogeneous fragment
as input and creates a single, homogeneous fragment as output, typically with references between them. Since the referencing language is created with knowledge about the referenced
language, the generator for the referencing language can be
written with knowledge about the names of the elements that
have to be referenced in the fragment generated from the referenced fragment. If a generator for the referenced language
already exists, it can be reused unchanged. The two generators basically share knowledge about the names of generated
elements.
Component Architecture: In the types viewpoint, interfaces and components are defined. The types viewpoint
is independent, and it is sufficient for the generation of
the code necessary for implementing component behavior: Java base classes are generated that act as the component implementations (expected to be extended by manually written subclasses). A second, dependent viewpoint
describes component instances and their connections; it
depends on the types viewpoint. A third describes the
deployment of the instances to execution nodes (servers,
essentially). The generator for the deployment viewpoint
generates code that actually instantiates the classes that
implement components, so it has to know the names of
Figure 4.31: Referencing: Two separate,
dependent, single-source transformations
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those generated (and hand-written) classes. J
The second case (Fig. 4.32) is a multi-sourced transformation
that creates one single homogeneous fragment. This typically
occurs if the referencing fragment is used to guide the transformation of the referenced fragment, for example by specifying
transformation strategies (annotation models). In this case, a
new transformation has to be written that takes the referencing fragment into account. The possibly existing generator for
the referenced language cannot be reused as is.
Figure 4.32: A single multi-sourced
transformation.
Refrigerators: The refrigerator example uses this case. The
code generator that generates the C code that implements
the cooling algorithm takes into account the information
from the hardware description model. A single fragment
is generated from the two input models. The generated
code is C-only, so the fragment remains homogeneous. J
The third case, an alternative to rewriting the generator, is the
use of a preprocessing transformation (Fig. 4.33), that changes
the referenced fragment in a way consistent with what the referencing fragment prescribes. The existing transformations for
the referenced fragment can then be reused.
As we have discussed above, language extensions are usually
created by defining linguistic abstractions for common idioms
of a domain D. A generator for the new language concepts can
simply recreate those idioms when mapping L D to L D−1 , a process also called assimilation. In other words, transformations
for language extensions map a heterogeneous fragment (containing L D−1 and L D code) to a homogeneous fragment that
contains only L D−1 code (Fig. 4.34). In some cases additional
files may be generated, often configuration files. In any case,
the subsequent transformations for L D−1 , if any, can be reused
unchanged.
mbeddr C: State machines are generated down to a function that contains a switch statement, as well as enums
for states and events. Then the existing C-to-text transformations are reused unchanged. In addition, the state
machines are also transformed into a dot file that is used
to render the state machine graphically via graphviz. J
Sometimes a language extension requires rewriting transformations defined by the base language. In this case, the transformation engine must support the overriding of transformations
Figure 4.33: A preprocessing transformation that changes the referenced
fragment in a way specified by the
referencing fragment
Figure 4.34: Extension: transformation usually happens by assimilation,
i.e. generating code in the host language from code expressed in the extension language. Optionally, additional
files are generated, often configuration
files.
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by transformations defined in another language.
mbeddr C: In the data-types-with-physical-units example,
the language also provides range checking and overflow
detection. So if two such quantities are added, the addition is transformed into a call to a special add function
instead of using the regular plus operator. This function
performs overflow checking and addition. MPS supports
transformation priorities that can be used to override the
existing transformation with a new one. J
Language extension introduces the risk of semantic interactions. The transformations associated with several independently developed extensions of the same base language may
interact with each other. To avoid the problem, transformations should be built in a way so that they do not "consume
scarce resources" such as inheritance links73 .
It would be nice if DSL tools would
detect such conflicts statically, or at
least supported a way of marking two
languages or extensions as incompatible.
However, none of the tools I know
support such features.
73
Example: Consider the (somewhat artificial) example of
two extensions to Java that each define a new statement.
When assimilated to pure Java, both new statements require the surrounding Java class to extend a specific but
different base class. This won’t work, because a Java class
can only extend one base class. J
Interactions may also be more subtle and affect memory usage
or execution performance. Note that this problem is not specific to languages; it can occur whenever several independent
extensions of a something can be used together, ad hoc. A more
thorough discussion of the problem of semantic interactions is
beyond the scope of this book.
In the reuse scenario, it is likely that both the reused and the
context language already come with their own generators. If
these generators transform to different, incompatible target languages, no reuse is possible. If they transform to a common target languages (such as Java or C) then the potential for reusing
previously existing transformations exists.
There are three cases to consider. The first one, illustrated
in Fig. 4.35, describes the case in which there is an existing
transformation for the reused fragment and an existing transformation for the context fragment – the latter being written
with the knowledge that later extension will be necessary. In
this case, the generator for the adapter language may "fill in the
holes" left by the reusable generator for the context language.
Figure 4.35: Reuse: Reuse of existing
transformations for both fragments plus
generation of adapter code.
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For example, the generator of the context language may generate a class with abstract methods; the adapter may generate a
subclass and implement these abstract methods.
In the second case, Fig. 4.36, the existing generator for the
reused fragment has to be enhanced with transformation code
specific to the context language. A mechanism for composing
transformations is needed.
The third case, Fig. 4.37, leaves composition to the target
languages. We generate three different independent, homogeneous fragments, and a some kind of weaver composes them
into one final, heterogeneous artifact. Often, the weaving specification is the intermediate result generated from the adapter
language. An example implementation could use AspectJ.
An embeddable language may not come with its own generator, since, at the time of implementing the embeddable language, one cannot know what to generate – its purpose is to
be embedded! In that case, when embedding the language, a
suitable generator has to be developed. It will typically either
generate host language code (similar to generators in the case
of language extension) or directly generate to the same target
language that is generated to by the host language.
If the embeddable language comes with a generator that
transforms to the same target language as the embedding language, then the generator for the adapter language can coordinate the two, and make sure a single, consistent fragment is
generated. Fig. 4.38 illustrates this case.
Just as for language extension, language embedding may
also lead to semantic interactions if multiple languages are embedded into the same host language.
4.7
Concrete Syntax
A good choice of concrete syntax is important for DSLs to be
accepted by the intended user community. Especially (but not
exclusively) in business domains, a DSL will only be successful if and when it uses notations that directly fit the domain –
there might even be existing, established notations that should
be reused. A good notation makes expression of common concerns simple and concise and provides sensible defaults. It is
acceptable for less common concerns to require a little more
verbosity in the notation.
Figure 4.36: Reuse: composing transformations
Figure 4.37: Reuse: generating separate
artifacts plus a weaving specification.
Figure 4.38: In transforming embedded
languages, a new transformation has to
be written if the embedded language
does not come with a transformation
for the target language of the host
language transformation. Otherwise
the adapter language can coordinate the
transformations for the host and for the
embedded languages.
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133
Design Concerns for Concrete Syntax
In particular the following concerns may be addressed when
designing a concrete syntax74 :
Writability A writable syntax is one that can be written efficiently. This usually means that the syntax is concise, because users have to type less. However, a related aspect is
tool support: the degree to which the IDE can provide better editing support75 (code completion and quick fixes in
particular) makes a difference to readability.
Readability A readable syntax means that it can be read effectively. A more concise syntax is not necessarily more readable, because context may be missing76 , in particular for
people other than those who have written the code.
Learnability A learnable syntax is useful to novices in particular, because it can be "explored", often exploiting IDE support77 . For example, the more the language uses concepts
that have a direct meaning in the domain, the easier it is for
domain users to lean the language.
These concerns do not just depend on
the concrete syntax, but also on the abstract syntax and the expressiveness of
the language itself (which is discussed
in Section 4.1). However, the concrete
syntax has a major influence, which is
why we discuss it here.)
74
75
See the example of the select statement in Section 4.7.2.
A good example of this dilemma are
the APL or M languages: the syntax is
so concise that it is really hard to read.
76
"Just press Ctrl-Space and the tool
will tell you what you can type next."
77
Effectiveness Effectiveness relates to the degree that a language
enables routine users to effectively express typical domain
problems after they have learned the language.
Tradeoffs It is obvious that some of these concerns are in
conflict. A very writable language may not be very readable. If
a group of stakeholders R uses artifacts developed by another
group W (e.g. by referencing some of the program elements),
it is important that a readable language is used. A learnable
language may feel "annoyingly verbose and cumbersome" to
routine users after a while78 . However, creating an effective
syntax and trying to convince users to adopt the language even
though it is hard(er) to learn may be a challenge.
For DSLs whose programs have a short lifetime (as in scripting languages) readability is often not very important, because
the programs are thrown away once they have performed their
particular task.
Multiple Notations One way to solve these dilemmas is to
provide different concrete syntaxes for the same abstract syntax, and let users choose. For example, beginners can chose
a more learnable one, and switch to a more effective one over
Note that if a specific DSL is only
used irregularly, then users probably
never become routine users, and have to
relearn the language each time they use
it.
78
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time. However, depending on the tooling used, this can be a
lot of work.
Multiple Notations For projectional editors it is relatively
easy to define several notations for the same language concept. By changing the projection rules, existing programs can
be shown in a different way. In addition, different notations
(possibly showing different concerns of the overall program)
can be used for different stakeholders.
We have the equivalent of multiple
notations for the same language in
the real world. English can be spoken,
written, transported via morse code
or even expressed via sign language.
Each of these is optimized for certain
contexts and audiences.
mbeddr C: For state machines, the primary syntax is textual. However, a tabular notation is supported as well.
The projection can be changed as the program is edited,
rendering the same state machine textually or as a table.
A graphical notation will be added in the future, as MPS’
support for graphical notations improves. J
Refrigerators: The refrigerator DSL uses graphical visualizations to render diagrams of the hardware structure, as
well as a graphical state charts representing the underlying state machine. J
Another option to resolve the learnability vs. effectiveness
dilemma is to create an effective syntax and help new users by
good documentation, training and/or IDE support (templates,
wizards).
Automatic layout requires a good
layout algorithm. The best one is
available commercially in yFiles/yEd.
Sometimes it is necessary manually
adjust the layout of the generated
visualization. Doing so of course
is problematic because the manual
adjustments are lost if the visualization
is regenerated. A better approach is
to create another model that specifies
properties of the visualization, such as the
subset of model elements that should
be in the diagram, semantic coloring or
selecting of shapes or layout hints for
the algorithm.
79
Reports and Visualization A visualization is a graphical representation of a model that cannot be edited. It is created from
the core model using some kind of transformation, and highlights a particular aspect of the source program. It is often
automatically laid out79 . The resulting diagram may be static
(i.e. an image file is generated) or interactive (where users can
show, hide and focus on different parts of the diagram). It may
provide drill-down back to the core program (double-clicking
on the figure in the image opens the code editor at the respective location)80 .
A report has the same goals (highlighting a particular aspect
of the source program, while not being editable) but uses a
textual notation.
Visualizations and reports are a good way of resolving a potential conflict if the primary DSL users want to use a writable
notation and other stakeholders want a more readable representation. Since reports and visualizations are not the primary
Graphviz is one of the most
well-known tools for this kind
of visualization. Another is Jan
Koehnlein’s Generic Graph View
at github.com/JanKoehnlein
/Generic-Graph-View.
80
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notation, it is possible to create several different visualizations
or reports for the source program, highlighting different aspects of the core program.
mbeddr C: In the mbeddr components extension, we support several notations. The first shows interfaces and the
components that provide and require these interfaces. The
second shows component instances and the connections
between their provided and required ports. Finally, there
is a third visualization that applies to all mbeddr models,
not just those that use components: it shows the modules, their imports (i.e. module dependencies) as well as
the public contents of these modules (functions, structs,
components, test cases). J
4.7.2
Figure 4.39: mbeddr C also supports
graphical visualizations of state machines. For every state machine, a dot
representation is automatically generated. The image is then rendered by
graphviz directly in the IDE. Doubleclicking on a state selects the respective
program element in the editor.
Classes of Concrete Syntax
There are a couple of major classes for DSL concrete syntax81 :
textual DSLs use linear textual notations, typically based on
ASCII or Unicode characters. They basically look and feel like
Sometimes form-based GUIs or tree
views are considered DSLs. I disagree,
because this would make any GUI
application a DSL.
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traditional programming languages. Graphical DSLs use graphical shapes. An important subgroup is represented by those
that use box-and-line diagrams that look and feel like UML
class diagrams or state machines. However, there are more options for graphical notations, such as those illustrated by UML
timing diagrams or sequence diagrams. Symbolic DSLs are textual DSLs with an extended set of symbols, such as fraction
bars, mathematical symbols or subscript and superscript. Tables and matrices are a powerful way to represent certain kinds
of data and can play an important part for DSLs.
The perfect DSL tool should support free combination and
integration of the various classes of concrete syntax, and be
able to show (aspects of) the same model in different notations.
As a consequence of tool limitations, this is not always possible,
however. The requirements for concrete syntax are a major
driver in tool selection.
When to Use Which Form We do not want to make this section a complete discussion between graphical and textual DSLs
– a discussion that is often heavily biased by previous experience, prejudice and tool capabilities. Here are some rules
of thumb. Purely textual DSLs integrate well with existing
development infrastructures, making their adoption relatively
easy. They are well suited for detailed descriptions, anything
that is algorithmic or generally resembles (traditional) program
source code. A good textual syntax can be very effective (in
terms of the design concerns discussed above). Symbolic notations can be considered "better textual", and lend themselves to
domains that make heavy use of symbols and special notations;
many scientific and mathematical domains come to mind. Tables are very useful for collections of similarly structured data
items, or for expressing how two independent dimensions of
data relate. Tables emphasize readability over writability. Finally, graphical notations are very good for describing relationships (Fig. 4.40), flow (Fig. 4.41) or timing and causal relationships (Fig. 4.42). They are often considered easier to learn, but
may be perceived as less effective by experienced users.
Pension Plans: The pension DSL uses a mathematical notation to express insurance mathematics (Fig. 4.43). A table
notation is embedded to express unit tests for the pension
plan calculation rules. A graphical projection shows dependencies and specialization relationships between plans. J
Figure 4.40: Graphical notation for
relationships.
Figure 4.41: Graphical notation for flow
Figure 4.42: Graphical notation for
causality and timing
Figure 4.43: Mathematical notations
used to express insurance math in the
pension workbench.
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mbeddr C: The core DSLs use mostly textual notations
with some tabular enhancements, for example for decision tables (Fig. 20.4). However, as MPS’ capability for
handling graphical notations improves, we will represent
state machines as diagrams. J
Figure 4.44: Decision tables use a tabular notation. It is embedded seamlessly
into a C program.
Selection of a concrete syntax is simple for domain user DSLs
if there is an established notation in the domain. The challenge
then is to replicate this notation as closely as possible with the
DSL, while cleaning up possible inconsistencies in the notation
(since presumably it had not been used formally before). I like
to use the term "strongly typed (Microsoft) Word" in this case82 .
For DSLs targeted at developers, a textual notation is usually
a good starting point, since developers are used to working
with text, and they are very productive with it. Tree views and
some visualizations are often useful for outlines, hierarchies or
overviews, but not necessarily for editing. Textual notations
also integrate well with existing development infrastructures.
mbeddr C: C is the baseline for embedded systems, and
everybody is familiar with it. A textual notation is useful
for many concerns in embedded systems. Note that several languages create visualizations on the fly, for example
for module dependencies, component dependencies and
component instance wirings. The graphviz tool is used
here since it provides decent auto-layout. J
There are very few DSLs where a purely graphical notation
makes sense, because in most cases some textual languages are
embedded in the diagrams or tables: state machines embedded expressions in guards and statements in actions (Fig. 20.7);
component diagrams use text for specifications of operations
in interfaces, maybe using expressions for preconditions; block
diagrams use a textual syntax for the implementation/parametrization of the blocks (Fig. 4.45); tables may embed textual
In some cases it is useful to come up
with a better notation than the one used
historically. This is especially true if the
historic notation is Excel.
82
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notations in the cells (Fig. 4.46). Integrating textual languages
into graphical ones is becoming more and more important, and
tool support is improving.
A text box where textual code can be
entered without language support
should only be used as a last resort.
Instead, a textual notation, with additional graphical visualizations should
be used.
Figure 4.45: A block diagrams built
with the Yakindu modeling tools. A
textual DSL is used to implement
the behavior in the blocks. While the
textual DSL is not technically integrated
with the graphical notation (separate
viewpoints), semantic integration is
provided.
Note that initially domain users prefer a graphical notation,
because of the perception that things that are described graphically are simple(r) to comprehend. However, what is most
important regarding comprehensibility is the alignment of the
domain concepts with the abstractions in the language. A welldesigned textual notation can go a long way. Also, textual languages are more productive once the learning curve has been
overcome. I have had several cases where domain users started
preferring textual notations later in the process.
In my consulting practice, I almost
always start with a textual notation and
try to stabilize language abstractions.
Only then will I engage in a discussion
about whether a graphical notation
on top of the textual one is necessary.
Often it is not, and if it is, we have
avoided iterating the implementation
of the graphical editor implementation,
which, depending on the tooling, can be
a lot of work.
Figure 4.46: The Yakindu Requirements
tools integrates a textual DSL for formal requirements specification into a
table view. The textual specifications
are stored as text in the requirements
database; consequently, the entities
defined textually cannot be referenced
(which is not a problem in this domain).
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139
Figure 4.47: The Yakindu State Chart
Tools support the use of Xtext DSLs
in actions and guard conditions of
state machines, mixing textual and
graphical notations. The DSL can even
be exchanged, to support domain
specific action languages, for example
for integrating with user interface
specifications. In this case, the textual
specification are stored as the AST in
terms of EMF, not as text.
IDE Supportability
For textual languages, it is important
to keep in mind if and how a syntax can be support by the
IDE, especially regarding code completion. Consider query
languages. An example SQL query looks like this:
SELECT field1, field2 FROM aTable WHERE ...
When entering this query the IDE cannot provide code completion for the fields after the SELECT because at this point the
table has not yet been specified. A more suitable syntax, with
respect to IDE support, would be:
FROM aTable SELECT field1, field2 WHERE ...
It is better because now the IDE can provide support code completion for the fields based on the table name that has already
been entered when you specify the fields83 .
Another nice example is dot-notation for function calls. Consider a functional language. Typical function call syntax is f(a,
b, c) or possiby (f a b c). In either case, the function comes
first. Now consider a notation where you can (optionally) write
the first argument before the dot, i.e. a.f(b, c). This has a
significant advantage in terms of IDE support: after the user
enters a., code completion can propose all the functions that
are available for the type of a. This leads to much better explorability of the language compared to the normal functionfirst syntax: since at the time of writing the function, the user
has not yet written the value on which to apply the function,
the IDE can provide no support84 .
SQL is a relatively old language and
IDE concerns were probably not very
important at the time. More modern
query languages such as HQL or
Linq in fact use the more IDE-friendly
syntax.
83
This example was motivated by Daan
Leijen’s Koka language which supports
the dot-notation for just this reason.
84
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Note that tool supportability in general is not fundamentally
different in graphical and textual languages. While IDEs for
textual languages can provide code completion, the palette or
the context buttons in a graphical DSL play the same role. I
often hear that a graphical DSL is more suitable for simulation
(because the execution of the program can be animated on the
graphical notation). However, this is only true if the graphical
notation works well in the first place. A textual program can
also be animated; a debugger essentially does just that.
Relationship to Hierarchical Domains Domains at low D are
most likely best expressed with a textual or symbolic concrete
syntax. Obvious examples include programming languages at
D0 . Mathematical expressions, which are also very dense and
algorithmic, use a symbolic notation. As we progress to higher
Ds, the concepts become more and more abstract, and as state
machines and block diagrams illustrate, graphical notations become useful. However, these two notations are also a good
example of language embedding, since both of them require
expressions: state machines in guards and actions (Fig. 20.7),
and block diagrams as the implementation of blocks (Fig. 4.45
and Fig. 5.5). Reusable expression languages should be embedded into the graphical notations. If this is not supported by the
tool, viewpoints may be an option. One viewpoint could use
a graphical notation to define coarse-grained structures, and
a second viewpoint use a textual notation to provide "implementation details" for the structures defined by the graphical
viewpoint85 .
mbeddr C: As the graphical notation for state machines
becomes available, the C expression language that is used
in guard conditions for transitions will be usable as labels
on the transition arrows. In the table notation for state
machines, C expressions can be embedded in the cells as
well. J
Not every tool can support every
(combination of) form of concrete
syntax, so this aspect is limited by the
tool, or drives tool selection.
85
5
Fundamental Paradigms
Every DSL is different. It is driven by the domain for which
it is built. However, as it turns out, there are also a number
of commonalities between DSLs. These can be handled by
modularizing and reusing (parts of) DSLs, as discussed in
the last section of the previous chapter. In this section we
look at common paradigms for describing DSL structure
and behavior.
5.1
Structure
Languages have to provide a means of structuring large programs in order to keep them manageable. Such means include
modularization and encapsulation, specification vs. implementation, specialization, types and instances, as well as partitioning.
5.1.1
Modularization and Visibility
DSLs often provide some kind of logical unit structure, such
as namespaces or modules. Visibility of symbols may be restricted to the same unit, or to referencing ("importing") units.
Symbols may be declared as public or private, the latter making them invisible to other modules, which guarantees that
changes to these symbols cannot affect other modules. Some
form of namespaces and visibility is necessary in almost any
DSL. Often there are domain concepts that can play the role
of the module, possibly oriented towards the structure of the
organization in which the DSL is used.
mbeddr C: As a fundamental extension to C, this DSL contains modules with visibility specifications and imports.
Functions, state machines, tasks and all other top-level
The language design alternatives
described in this section are usually
not driven directly by the domain,
or the domain experts guiding the
design of the language. Rather, they
are often brought in by the language
designer as a means of managing
overall complexity. For this reason they
may be hard to "sell" to domain experts.
Most contemporary programming
languages use some form of namespaces and visibility restriction as their
top-level structure.
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concepts reside in modules. Header files (which are effectively a poor way of managing symbol visibility) are only
used in the generated low-level code and are not relevant
to the user of mbeddr C. J
Component Architecture: Components and interfaces live
in namespaces. Components are implementation units,
and are always private. Interfaces and data types may
be public or private. Namespaces can import each other,
making the public elements of the imported namespace
visible to the importing namespace. The OSGi generator
creates two different bundles: an interface bundle that contains the public artifacts, and an implementation bundle
with the components. In the case of a distributed system,
only the interface bundle is deployed on the client. J
Pension Plans: Pension plans constitute namespaces. They
are grouped into more coarse-grained packages that are
aligned with the structure of the pension insurance business. J
5.1.2
Partitioning
Partitioning refers to the breaking down of programs into several physical units such as files (typically each model fragment
is stored in its own partition). These physical units do not
have to correspond to the logical modularization of the models
within the partitions. For example, in Java a public class has
to live in a file of the same name (logical module == physical partition), whereas in C# there is no relationship between
namespace, class names and the physical file and directory
structure. A similar relationship exists between partitions and
viewpoints, although in most cases, different viewpoints are
stored in different partitions.
Note that a reference to an element should not take into
account the partition in which the target element lives. Instead,
it should only use the logical structure. Consider an element E
that lives in a namespace x.y, stored in a partition mainmodel.
A reference to that element should be expressed as x.y.E, not
as mainmodel.E or mainmodel/x.y.E. This is important, as it
allows elements to move freely between partitions without this
leading to updates of all references to the element.
Partitioning may have consequences for language design.
Consider a textual DSL in which a concept A contains a list of
If a repository-based tool is used, the
importance of partitioning is greatly
reduced. Although even in that case
there may be a set of federated and
distributed repositories that can be
considered partitions.
dsl engineering
instances of concept B. The B instances then have to be physically nested within an instance of A in the concrete syntax. If
there are many instances of B in a given model, they cannot be
split into several files, so these files may become big and result
in performance problems. If such a split must be possible, this
has to be designed into the language.
Component Architecture: A variant of this DSL that was
used in another project had to be changed to allow a namespace to be spread over several files for reasons of scalability and version-control granularity. In the initial version,
namespaces actually contained the components and interfaces. In the revised version, components and interfaces
were owned by no other element, but model files (partitions) had a namespace declaration at the top, logically
putting all the contained interfaces and components into
this namespace. Since there was no technical containment
relationship between namespaces and their elements, several files could now declare the same namespace. Changing this design decision lead to a significant reimplementation effort, because all kinds of naming and scoping strategies changed. J
Other concerns influence the design of a partitioning strategy
as well:
Change Impact Which partition changes as a consequence of a
particular change of the model (changing an element name
might require changes to all references to that element from
other partitions).
Link Storage Where are links stored (are they always stored in
the model that logically "points to" another one?), and if not,
how/where/when to control reference/link storage.
Model Organization Partitions may be used as a way of organizing the overall model. This is particularly important if
the tool does not provide a good means of presenting the
overall logical structure of models and finding elements by
name and type. Organizing files with meaningful names in
directory structures is a workable alternative.
Tool Chain Integration Integration with existing, file-based tool
chains. Files may be the unit of check in/check out, versioning, branching or permission checking.
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It is often useful to ensure that each partition is processable
separately to reduce processing times. An alternative approach
supports the explicit definition of those partitions that should
be processed in a given processor run (or at least a search path,
a set of directories, to find the partitions, like an include path
in C compilers or the Java classpath). You might even consider
a separate build step to combine the results created from the
separate processing steps of the various partitions (again like a
C compiler, which compiles every file separately into an object
file, after which the linker handles overall symbol/reference
resolution and binding).
The partitioning scheme may also influence users’ team collaboration when editing models. There are two major collaboration models: real-time and commit-based. In real-time collaboration, a user sees his model change in real time as another
user changes the same model. Change propagation is immediate. A database-backed repository is often a good choice regarding storage, since the granularity tracked by the repository
is the model element. In this case, the partitioning may not be
visible to the end user, since they just work "on the repository". This approach is often (at least initially) preferred by
non-programmer DSL users.
The other collaboration mode is commit-based, in which a
user’s changes are only propagated to the repository if he performs a commit, and incoming changes are only visible after
a user has performed an update. While this approach can be
used with database-backed repositories, it is most often used
with file-based storage. In this case, the partitioning scheme
is visible to DSL users, because it is those files they commit
or update. This approach tends to be preferred by developers, maybe because well-known versioning tools have used the
approach for a long time.
5.1.3
Specification vs. Implementation
Separating specification and implementation supports plugging in different implementations for the same specification
and hence provides a way to "decouple the outside from the
inside"1 . This supports the exchange of several implementations behind a single interface. This is often required as a consequence of the development process: one stakeholder defines
the specification and a client, whereas another stakeholder provides one or more implementations.
Another driver for using partitions is
the scalability of the DSL tool. Beyond a
certain file size, the editor may become
sluggish.
Interfaces, pure abstract classes, traits
or function signatures are a realization of this concept in programming
languages.
1
The separation of specification and
implementation can also have positive
effects on scalability and performance.
If the specification and implementation
are separated into different fragments,
then, in order to type check a client’s
access to some provided service, only
the fragment that contains the specification has to be loaded/parsed/checked.
This is obviously faster than processing
complete implementation.
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A challenge for this approach is how to ensure that all implementations are consistent with the specification. Traditionally, only the structural/syntactic/signature compatibility is
checked. To ensure semantic compatibility, additional means
that specify the expected behavior are required. This can be
achieved with pre- or post-conditions, invariants or protocol
state machines.
mbeddr C: This DSL adds interfaces and components to C.
Components provide or use one or more interfaces. Different components can be plugged in behind the same interface. To support semantic specifications, the interfaces
support pre- and post-conditions as well as protocol state
machines. Fig. 5.1 shows an example. Although these
specifications are attached to interfaces, they are actually
checked (at runtime) for all components that provide the
respective interface. J
Figure 5.1: An interface using semantic
specifications. Preconditions check
the values of arguments for validity.
Postconditions express constraints on
the values of query operations after the
execution of the operation. Notice how
the value of the query before executing
the operation can be referred to (the
old keyword used in the postcondition
for accelerateBy). In addition, protocols constrain the valid sequence of
operation invocations. For example, the
accelerateBy operation can only be
used if the protocol state machine is already in the forward state. The system
gets into the forward state by invoking the driveContinuoslyForward
operation.
Refrigerators: Cooling programs can access hardware elements (compressors, fans, valves); those are defined as
part of the refrigerator hardware definition. To enable
cooling programs to run with different, but similar hardware configurations, the hardware structure can use "trait
inheritance", by which a hardware trait defines a set of
hardware elements, acting as a kind of interface. Other
hardware configurations can inherit these traits. As long
as cooling programs are only written against traits, they
work with any refrigerator that implements the particular
set of traits against which the program is written. J
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Specialization
Specialization enables one entity to be a more specific variant
of another. Typically, the more specific one can be used in all
contexts in which the more general one is expected (the Liskov
substitution principle2 ). The more general one may be incomplete, requiring the specialized ones to "fill in the holes". Specialization in the context of DSLs can be used for implementing
variants or for evolving a program over time.
Defining the semantics of inheritance for domain-specific
language concepts is not always easy. The various approaches
found in programming languages, as well as the fact that some
of them lead to problems (multiple inheritance, diamond inheritance, linearization, or code duplication in Java’s interface
inheritance) shows that this is not a trivial topic. It is a good
idea to just copy a suitable approach completely from a programming language in which inheritance seems to work well.
Even small changes can make the whole approach inconsistent.
B. Liskov and J. M. Wing. A behavioral notion of subtyping. TOPLAS,
16(6):1811–1841, 1994
2
In GPLs, we know this approach from
class inheritance. "Leaving holes" is
realized by abstract methods.
Pension Plans: The customer using this DSL had the challenge of creating a huge set of pension plans, implementing changes in relevant law over time, or implementing related plans for different customer groups. Copying complete plans and then making adaptations was not feasible, because this resulted in a maintenance nightmare: a
large number of similar but not identical pension plans.
Hence the DSL provides a way for pension plans to inherit
from one another. Calculation rules can be marked abstract
(needing to be overwritten in sub-plans), final rules are not
overwritable. Visibility modifiers control which rules are
considered "implementation details". J
Refrigerators: A similar approach is used in the cooling
DSL. Cooling programs can specialize other cooling programs. Since the programs are fundamentally state-based,
we had to define what it means to specialize a cooling program: a subprogram can add additional event handlers
and transitions to states. New states can be added, but
states defined in the super-program cannot be removed. J
5.1.5
Types and Instances
Types and instances supports the definition of structures that
can be parametrized upon instantiation. This allows reuse of
common parts, and expressing variability via parameters.
In programming languages we know
this from classes and objects (where
constructor parameters are used for
parametrization) or from components
(where different instances can be connected differently to other instances).
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mbeddr C: Apart from C’s structs (which are instantiatable data structures) and components (which can be instantiated and connected), state machines can be instantiated as well. Each instance can be in a different state at
any given time. J
5.1.6
Superposition and Aspects
Superposition refers to the ability to merge several model fragments according to some DSL-specific merge operator. Aspects
provide a way of "pointing to" several locations in a program
based on a pointcut operator (essentially a query over a program or its execution), adapting the model in ways specified
by the aspect. Both approaches support the compositional creation of many different model variants from the same set of
model fragments.
This is especially important in the
context of product line engineering and
is discussed in Section 21.
Component Architecture: This DSL provides a way of advising component definitions from an aspect (Fig. 5.2). An
aspect may introduce an additional provided port mon:
IMonitoring that allows a central monitoring component
to query the advised components via the IMonitoring interface. J
Figure 5.2: The aspect component
contributes an additional required port
to each of the other components defined
in the system.
WebDSL: Entity declarations can be extended in separate
modules. This makes it possible to declare in one module
all data declarations of a particular feature. For example,
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in the researchr application, a Publication can be Tagged,
which requires an extension of the Publication entity.
This extension is defined in the tag module, together with
the definition of the Tag entity. This is essentially a use of
superposition. J
5.1.7
Versioning
Often, variability over time of elements in DSL programs has
to be tracked. One alternative is to simply version the model
files using existing version control systems, or the version control mechanism built into the language workbench. However,
this requires users to interact with often complex version control systems and prevents domain-specific adaptations of the
version control strategy.
The other alternative is to make versioning and tracking over
time a part of the language. For example, model elements may
be tagged with version numbers, or specify a revision chain by
pointing to a previous revision, enforcing compatibility constraints between those revisions. Instead of declaring explicit
versions, business data is often time-dependent, where different revisions of a business rule apply to different periods of
time. Support for these approaches can be built directly into
the DSL, with various levels of tool support.
mbeddr C: No versioning is defined into the DSL. Users
work with MPS’ integration with popular version control
systems. Since this DSL is intended for use by programmers, working with existing version control systems is not
a problem. J
Component Architecture: Components can specify a new
version of reference to another component. In this case,
the new version may specify additional provided ports
with the same interfaces, or with new versions of these
interfaces. The new version may also deprecate required
ports. Effectively, this means that the new version of something must be replacement-compatible with the old version (the Liskov substitution principle again). J
Pension Plans: In the pension workbench, calculation rules
declare applicability periods. This supports the evolution
of calculation rules over time, while retaining reproducability for calculations performed at an earlier point in time.
Since the Intentional Domain Workbench is a projectional
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tool, pension plans can be shown with only the version of
a rule that is valid for a given point in time. J
5.2
Behavior
The behavior expressed with a DSL must of course be aligned
with the needs of the domain. However, in many cases, the behavior required for a domain can be derived from well-known
behavioral paradigms3 , with slight adaptations or enhancements, or simply by interacting with domain-specific structures
or data.
Note that there are two kinds of DSLs that don’t make use
of these kinds of behavior descriptions. Some DSLs really just
specify structures. Examples include data definition languages
or component description languages (although both of them
often use expressions for derived data, data validation or preand post-conditions). Other DSLs specify a set of expectations
regarding some behavior (declaratively), and the generator creates the algorithmic implementation. For example, a DSL may
specify, simply with a tag such as async, that the communication between two components shall be asynchronous. The
generator then maps this to an implementation that behaves
according to this specification.
The term Model of Computation is also
used to refer to behavioral paradigms.
I prefer "behavioral paradigm" because
the term model is obviously heavily
overloaded in the DSL/MDSD space
already.
3
Component Architecture: The component architecture DSL
is an example of a structure-only DSL, since it only describes black box components and their interfaces and relationships. It uses the specification-only approach to specify whether a component port is intended for synchronous
or asynchronous communication. J
mbeddr C: The component extension provides a similar
notion of interfaces, ports and components as in the previous example. However, since here they are directly integrated with C, C expression can be used for pre- and
post-conditions of interface operations (see Fig. 5.1). J
Using an established behavioral paradigm for a DSL has several advantages4 . First, it is not necessarily simple to define
consistent and correct semantics in the first place. By reusing
an existing paradigm, one can learn about advantages and
drawbacks from existing experience. Second, a paradigm may
already come with existing means for performing interesting
Which is why we discuss these
paradigms in this book.
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analyses (as in model checking or SMT solving) that can easily be used to analyse DSL programs. Third, there may be
existing generators from a behavioral paradigm to an efficient
executable for a given platform (state machines are a prime
candidate). By generating a model in a formalism for which
such a generator exists, we reduce the effort for building an
end-to-end generator. If our DSL uses the same behavioral
paradigm as the language for which the generator exists, writing the necessary transformation is straightforward (from a semantic point of view).
The last point emphasizes that using an existing paradigm
for a DSL (e.g. state-based) does not mean that the concepts
have to directly use the abstractions used by that paradigm
(just because a program is state-based does not mean that the
concept that acts as a state has to be called state, etc.).
. This section describes some of the most well-known behavioral paradigms that can serve as useful starting points for
behavior descriptions in DSLs. In addition to describing the
paradigm, we also briefly investigate how easily programs using the paradigm can be analyzed, and how complicated it is
to build debuggers.
5.2.1
This is only an overview over a few
paradigms; many more exist. I refer
to the excellent Wikipedia entry on
Programming Paradigms and to the book
P. V. Roy and S. Haridi. Concepts,
Techniques, and Models of Computer
Programming. MIT Press, 2004
Imperative
Imperative programs consist of a sequence of statements, or instructions, that change the state of the program. This state may
be local to some kind of module (e.g., a procedure or an object),
global (as in global variables) or external (when communicating with peripheral devices). Procedural and object-oriented
programming are both imperative, using different means for
structuring and (in the case of OO) specialization. Because of
aliasing and side effects, imperative programs are expensive
to analyse. Debugging imperative programs is straightforward
and involves stepping through the instructions and watching
the state change.
mbeddr C: Since C is used as a base language, this language is fundamentally imperative. Some of the DSLs on
top of it use other paradigms (the state machine extension
is state-based, for example). J
Refrigerators: The cooling language integrates various paradigms, but contains sequences of statements to implement
aspects of the overall cooling behavior. J
For many people, often including
domain experts, this approach is easy
to understand. Hence it is often a good
starting point for DSLs.
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151
Functional
Functional programming uses functions as the core abstraction. In purely functional programming, a function’s return
value only depends on the values of its arguments. Calling
the same function several times with the same argument values returns the same result (that value may even be cached!).
Functions cannot access global mutable state, no side effects
are allowed. These characteristics make functional programs
very easy to analyze and optimize. These same characteristics,
however, also make purely functional programming relatively
useless, because it cannot affect its environment (after all, this
would be a side effect). So, functional programming is often
only used for parts ("calculation core") of an overall program
and integrates with, for example, an imperative part that deals
with IO.
Since there is no changing state to observe as the program
steps through instructions, debugging can be done by simply
showing all intermediate results of all function calls as some
kind of tree, basically "inspecting" the state of the calculation.
This makes building debuggers relatively simple.
Pension Plans: The calculation core of pension rules is
functional. Consequently, a debugger has been implemented
that, for a given set of input data, shows the rules as a tree
that shows all intermediate results of each function call
(Fig. 5.3). No "step through" debugger is necessary. J
Pure expressions are an important subset of functional programming (as in i > 3*2 + 7). Instead of calling functions,
operators are used. However, operators are just infix notations
for function calls. Usually the operators are hard wired into
the language and it is not possible for users to define their own
functional abstractions. The latter is the main differentiator to
functional programming in general. It also limits expressivity,
since it is not possible to modularize an expression or to reuse
expressions by packaging into a user-defined function. Consequently, only relatively simply tasks can be addressed with a
pure expression language5 .
mbeddr C: We use expressions in the guard conditions of
the state machine extension as well as in pre- and postconditions for interface operations. In both cases it is not
possible to define or call external functions. Of course, (a
subset of) C’s expression language is reused here. J
However, many DSLs do not require
anything more sophisticated, especially
if powerful domain-specific operators
are available. So, while expression
languages are limited in some sense,
they are still extremely useful and
widespread.
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Declarative
Declarative programming can be considered the opposite of
imperative programming (and, to some extent, of functional
programming). A declarative program does not specify any
control flow; it does not specify a sequence of steps of a calculation. A declarative program only specifies what the program
should accomplish, not how. This is often achieved by specifying a set of properties, equations, relationships or constraints.
Some kind of evaluation engine then tries to find solutions. The
particular advantage of this approach is that it does not predefine how a solution is found; the evaluation engine has a lot
of freedom in doing so, possibly using different approaches in
different environments, or evolving the approach over time6 .
This large degree of freedom often makes finding the solution
expensive – trial and error, backtracking or exhaustive search
may be used7 . Debugging declarative programs can be hard,
since the solution algorithm may be very complex and possibly
not even be known to the user of the language.
Figure 5.3: Debugging functional
programs can be done by showing the
state of the calculation, for example as a
tree.
For example, the strategies for implementing SAT solvers have evolved
quite a bit over time. SAT solvers are
much more scalable today. However,
the formalism for describing the logic
formulas that are processed by SAT
solvers have not changed.
6
Users often have to provide hints to
the engine to make it run fast enough
or scale to programs of relevant size.
In practice, declarative programming is
often not as "pure" as it is in theory.
7
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Declarative programming has many important subgroups.
For concurrent programs, a declarative approach allows the efficient execution of a single program on different parallel hardware structures. The compiler or runtime system allocates the
program to available computational resources. In constraint programming, the programmer specifies constraints between a set
of variables. The engine tries to find values for these variables
that satisfy all constraints. Solving mathematical equation systems is an example, as is solving sets of Boolean logic formulas. Logic programming is another sub-paradigm, in which users
specify logic clauses (facts and relations) as well as queries. A
theorem prover then tries to solve the queries.
Component Architecture: This DSL specifies timing and
resource characteristics for component and interface operations. Based on this data, one could run an algorithm
which allocates the component instances to computing hardware so that the hardware is used as efficiently as possible,
while at the same time reducing the amount of network
traffic. This is an example of constraint solving used to
synthesize a schedule. J
mbeddr C: This DSL supports presence conditions for product line engineering. A presence condition is a Boolean
expression over a set of configuration features that determines whether the associated piece of code is present for
a given combination of feature selections (Fig. 5.4). To
verify the structural integrity of programs in the face of
varying feature combinations, constraint programming is
used (to ensure that there is no configuration of the program in which a reference to a symbol is included, but
the referenced symbol is not). A set of Boolean equations
is generated from the program and the attached presence
conditions, . A solver then makes sure they are consistent by trying to find an example solution that violates the
Boolean equations. J
Example: The Yakindu DAMOS block diagram editor supports custom block implementation based on the Mscript
language (Section 5.5). It supports declarative specification of equations between input and output parameters of
a block. A solver computes a closed, sequential solution
that efficiently calculates the output of an overall block diagram. J
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The Prolog language works in this way.
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Figure 5.4: This module contains
variability expressed with presence
conditions. The affected program elements are highlighted in a color (shade
in the screenshot) that represents the
condition. If the feature highRes is
selected, the code uses a double instead
of an int8_t. The log messages are
only included if the logging feature
is selected. Note that one cannot just
depend on single features (such as
logging) but also on arbitrary expressions such as logging && highRes.
Example: Another example for declarative programming
is the type system DSL used by MPS itself. Language developers specify a set of type equations containing free
type variables, among other things. A unification engine
tries to solve the set of equations by assigning actual types
to the free type variables so that the set of equations is
consistent. We describe this approach in detail in Section 10.4. J
5.2.4
Reactive/Event-based/Agent
In this paradigm, behavior is triggered based on received events.
Events may be created by another entity or by the environment
(through a device driver). Reactions are expressed by the creation of other events. Events may be globally visible or explicitly routed between entities, possibly using filters and/or using
priority queues. This approach is often used in embedded systems that have to interact with the real world, where the real
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Figure 5.5: An Mscript block specifies
input and output arguments of a block
(u and v) as well as configuration
parameters (initialCondition and gain).
The assertions specify constraints
on the data the block works with.
The eq statements specify how the
output values are calculated from the
input values. Stateful behaviors are
supported, where the value for the n-th
step depends on values from previous
steps (e.g., n − 1).
world produces events as it changes. A variant of this approach
queries input signals at intervals controlled by a scheduler and
considers changes in input signals as the events.
Refrigerators: The cooling algorithms are reactive programs that control the cooling hardware based on environment events. Such events include the opening of a refrigerator door, the crossing of a temperature threshold,
or a timeout that triggers defrosting of a cooling compartment. Events are queued, and the queues are processed in
intervals determined by a scheduler. J
Debugging is simple if the timing/frequency of input events
can be controlled. Visualizing incoming events and the code
that is triggered as a reaction is relatively simple. If the timing
of input events cannot be controlled, then debugging can be almost impossible, because humans are much too slow to fit "in
between" events that may be generated by the environment in
rapid succession. For this reason, various kinds of simulators
are used to debug the behavior of reactive systems, and sophisticated diagnostics regarding event frequencies or queue filling
levels may have to be integrated into the programs as they run
in the real environment.
Refrigerators: The cooling language comes with a simula-
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tor (Fig. 5.6) based on an interpreter in which the behavior
of a cooling algorithm can be debugged. Events are explicitly created by the user, on a timescale that is compatible
with the debugging process. J
Figure 5.6: The simulator for the cooling language shows the state of the
system (commands, event queue, value
of hardware properties, variables and
tasks). The program can be singlestepped. The user can change the value
of variables or hardware properties as a
means of interacting with the program.
5.2.5
Dataflow
The dataflow paradigm is centered around variables with dependencies (in terms of calculation rules) among them. As a
variable changes, the variables that depend on the changing
variable are recalculated. We know this approach mainly from
two use cases. One is spreadsheets: cell formulas express dependencies to other cells. As the values in these other cells
change, the dependent cells are updated. The other use case
is data flow (or block) diagrams (Fig. 5.7), used in embedded
software, extraction-transfer-load data processing systems and
enterprise messaging/complex event processing. There, the
calculations or transformations are encapsulated in the blocks,
and the lines represent dependencies – the output of one blocks
"flows" into the input slot of another block. There are three different execution modes:
• The first one considers the data values as continuous sig-
Figure 5.7: Graphical notation for flow.
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nals. At the time one of the inputs changes, all dependent
values are recalculated. The change triggers the recalculation, and the recalculation ripples through the dependency
graph. This is the model used in spreadsheets.
• The second one considers the data values as quantized, unique
messages. A new output message is calculated only if a
message is available for all inputs. The recalculation synchronizes on the availability of a message at each input, and
upon recalculation, these messages are consumed. This approach is often used in ETL and CEP systems.
• The third approach is time-triggered. Once again, the inputs
are understood to be continuous signals, and a scheduler determines when a new calculation is performed. The scheduler also makes sure that the calculation "ripples through
from left to right" in the correct order. This model is typically used in embedded systems.
Debugging these kinds of systems is relatively straightforward
because the calculation is always in a distinct state. Dependencies and data flow, or the currently active block and the
available messages, can easily be visualized in a block diagram
notation. Note that the calculation rules themselves are considered black boxes here, whose internals may be built from
any other paradigm, often functional. Integrating debuggers
for the internals of boxes is a more challenging task.
5.2.6
State-based
The state-based paradigm describes a system’s behavior in terms
of the states the system can be in, the transitions between these
states, events that trigger these transitions and actions that are
executed as states change. State machines are useful for systematically organizing the behavior of an entity. They can also
be used to describe valid sequences of events, messages or procedure calls. State machines can be used in an event-driven
mode in which incoming events actually trigger transitions and
the associated actions. Alternatively a state machine can be run
in a timed mode, in which a scheduler determines when event
queues are checked and processed. Except for possible realtime issues, state machines are easy to debug by highlighting
the contents of event queues and the current state8 .
mbeddr C: This language provides an extension that supports directly working with state machines. Events can
Apart from the imperative paradigm
and simple expression languages, state
machines are probably the paradigm
that is most often used in DSLs.
8
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be passed into a state machine from regular C code, or
by mapping incoming messages in components to events
in state machines that reside in components. Actions can
contain arbitrary C code, unless the state machine is marked
as verifiable, in which case actions may only create outgoing events or change state machine-local variables. J
Refrigerators: The behavior of cooling programs is fundamentally state-based. A scheduler is used to execute
the state machine at regular intervals. Transitions are triggered either by incoming, queued events or by changing
property values of hardware building blocks. This language is an example where a behavioral paradigm is used
without significant alterations, but working with domainspecific data structures – refrigerator hardware and its properties. J
State-based behavior description is also interesting in the context of model checking. The model checker either determines
that the state chart conforms to a set of specifications or provides a counter-example that violates the specifications. Specifications express something about sequences of states such as
"It is not possible that two traffic lights show green at the same
time" or "Whenever a pedestrian presses the request button,
the pedestrian lights eventually will show green"9 .
In principle, any program can be represented as a state machine and can then be model checked. However, creating state
machines from, say, a procedural C program is non-trivial, and
the state machines also become very big very quickly. Statebased programs are already a state machine, and, they are typically not that big either (after all, they have to be understood by
the developer who creates and maintains them). Consequently,
many realistically-sized state machines can be model checked
efficiently.
5.3
Combinations
The behavioral paradigm also plays a role in the context of
language composition. If two to-be-composed languages use
different behavioral paradigms, the composition can become
really challenging. For example, combining a continuous system (which works with continuous streams of data) with a discrete event-based system requires temporal integration. We
A good introduction to model checking can be found in the book mentioned
below:
9
Berard, B., Bidoit, M., Finkel, A.,
Laroussinie, F., Petit, A., Petrucci,
L., Schnoebelen, and P. Systems and
Software Verification. Springer, 2001
dsl engineering
won’t discuss this topic in detail in this book10 . However, it
is obvious that combining systems that use the same paradigm
is much simpler. Alternatively, some paradigms can be integrated relatively easily; for example, it is relatively simple to
map a state-based system onto an imperative system.
Many DSLs use combinations of various behavioral and structural paradigms described in this section11 . Some combinations are very typical:
• A data flow language often uses a functional, imperative or
declarative language to describe the calculation rules that express the dependencies between the variables (the contents
of the boxes in data flow diagrams or of cells in spreadsheets). Fig. 4.45 shows an example block diagram, and
Fig. 5.5 shows an example implementation.
• State machines use expressions as transition guard conditions, as well as typically an imperative language for expressing the actions that are executed as a state is entered
or left, or when a transition is executed. An example can be
seen in Fig. 20.7.
• Reactive programming, in which "black boxes" react to events,
often using data flow or state-based programming to implement the behavior that determines the reactions.
• In purely structural languages, for example those for expressing components and their dependencies, a functional/expression language is often used to express pre- and
post-conditions for operations. A state-based language is
often used for protocol state machines, which determines
the valid order of incoming events or operation calls.
Note that these combinations can be used to make well-established paradigms domain-specific. For example, in the Yakindu
State Chart Tools (Fig. 20.7), a custom DSL can be plugged into
an existing, reusable state machine language and editor. One
concrete example is an action language that references another
DSL that describes UI structures. This allows the state machine
to be used to orchestrate the behavior of the UI.
Some of the case studies used as examples in this part of the
book also use combinations of several paradigms.
Pension Plans: The pension language uses functional abstractions with mathematical symbols for the core actu-
10
159
It is still very much a research topic.
Note how this observation leads to
the desire to better modularize and
reuse some of the above paradigms.
Room for research :-)
11
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ary mathematics. A functional language with a plain textual syntax is used for the higher-level pension calculation
rules. A spreadsheet/data flow language is used for expressing unit tests for pension rules. Various nesting levels
of namespaces are used to organize the rules, the most important of which is the pension plan. A plan contains calculation rules as well as test cases for those rules. Pension
plans can specialize other plans as a means of expressing
variants. Rules in a sub-plan can override rules in the plan
from which the sub-plan inherits. Plans can be declared
to be abstract, with abstract rules that have to be implemented in sub-plans. Rules are versioned over time, and
the actual calculation formula is part of the version. Thus,
a pension plan’s behavior can be made to be different for
different points in time. J
Refrigerators: The cooling behavior description is described
as a reactive system. Events are produced by hardware elements12 . A state machine constitutes the top-level structure. Within it, an imperative language is used. Programs
can inherit from another program, overwriting states defined in the base program: new transitions can be added,
and the existing transitions can be overridden as a way for
an extended program to "plug into" the base program. J
Technically it is of course the driver
of the hardware element, but in terms
of the model the events are associated
with the hardware element directly
12
6
Process Issues
Software development with DSLs requires a compatible development process. A lot of what’s required is similar to
what’s required for working with any other reusable artifact
such as a framework: a workable process must be established
between those who build the reusable artifact and those who
use it. Requirements have to flow in one direction, and a
finished, stable, tested and documented product has to be
delivered in the other direction. Also, using DSLs can be a
fundamental change for all involved, especially the domain
experts. In this chapter we provide some guidelines for the
process.
6.1
6.1.1
DSL Development
Requirements for the Language
How do you find out what your DSL should express? What are
the relevant abstractions and notations? This is a non-trivial
issue; in fact it is one of the key issues in developing DSLs. It
requires a lot of domain expertise, thought and iteration. The
core problem is that you’re trying not just to understand one
problem, but rather a class of problems. Understanding and
defining the extent and nature of this class of problems can be
a lot of work. There are three typical fundamentally different
cases.
The first one conerns technical DSLs where the source for a
language is often an existing framework, library, architecture
or architectural pattern (the inductive approach). The knowledge often already exists, and building the DSL is mainly about
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factoring the knowledge into a language: defining a notation,
putting it into a formal language, and building generators to
generate (parts of) the implementation code. In the process,
you often also want to put in place reasonable defaults for
some of the framework features, thereby increasing the level
of abstraction and making framework use easier.
mbeddr C: This was the approach taken by the extensible C case study. There is a lot of experience in embedded software development, and some of the most pressing
challenges are the same throughout the industry. When
the DSL was built, we talked to expert embedded software
developers to find out what these central challenges were.
We also used an inductive approach and looked at existing
C code to indentify idioms and patterns. We then defined
extensions to C that provided linguistic abstractions for
the most important patterns and idioms. J
The second case addresses business domain DSLs. There you
can often mine the existing (tacit) knowledge of domain experts (deductive approach). In domains like insurance, science
or logistics, domain experts are absolutely capable of precisely
expressing domain knowledge. They do it all the time, often
using Excel or Word. Other domain artifacts can also be exploited in the same way: for example, hardware structures or
device features are good candidates for abstractions in the respective domains. So are existing user interfaces: they face
users directly, and so are likely to contain core domain abstractions. Other sources are standards for an industry, or training
material. Some domains even have an agreed ontology containing concepts relevant to that domain and recognized as such
by a community of stakeholders. DSLs can be (partly) derived
from such domain ontologies.
Pension Plans: The company for which the pension DSL
was built had a lot of experience with pension plans. This
experience was mostly in the heads of (soon to be retiring)
senior domain experts. They also already had the core of
the DSL: a "rules language". The people who defined the
pension plans would write rules as Word documents to
"formally" describe the pension plan behavior. This was
not terribly productive because of the missing tool support, but it meant that the core of the DSL was known. We
still had to run a long series of workshops to work out nec-
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essary changes to the language, clean up loose ends and
discuss modularization and reuse in pension plans. J
In the two cases discusses so far, it is pretty clear how the DSL
is going to look in terms of core abstractions; discussions will
be about details, notation, how to formalize things, viewpoints,
partitioning and the like (although all these can be pretty nontrivial too!).
In the remaining third case, however, we are not so lucky. If
no domain knowledge is easily available we have to do an actual domain analysis, digging our way through requirements,
stakeholder "war stories" and existing applications. People may
be knowledgeable, but they might be unable to conceptualize
their domain in a structured way – it is then the job of the language designer to provide the structure and consistency that is
necessary for defining a language. Co-evolving language and
concepts (see below) is a successful technique, especially in this
case.
One of my most successful approaches
in this case is to build "straw men":
trying to understand something, factor
it into some kind of regular structure,
and then re-explain that structure back
to the stakeholders.
Refrigerators: At the beginning of the project, all cooling algorithms were implemented in C. Specifications were
written in Word documents as prose (with tables and some
physical formulas). It was not really clear at the beginning
what the right abstraction level would be for a DSL suitable for the thermodynamics experts. It took several iterations to settle on the asynchronous, state-based structure
described earlier. J
For your first DSL, try to catch case one or two. Ideally, start
with case one, since the people who build the DLSs – software
architects and developers – are often the same as the domain
experts.
6.1.2
Iterative Development
Some people use DSLs as an excuse to reintroduce waterfall
processes. They spend months and months developing languages, tools and frameworks. Needless to say, this is not a
very successful approach. You need to iterate when developing the language.
Start by developing some deep understanding of a small
part of the domain for which you build the DSL. Then build a
little bit of language, build a little bit of generator and develop
a small example model to verify what you just did. Ideally, implement all aspects of the language and processor for each new
domain requirement before focusing on new requirements1 .
IDE polishing is probably something
you want to postpone a little, and not
do as part of every iteration.
1
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Novices to DSLs especially tend to get languages and meta
models wrong because they are not used to "thinking meta".
You can avoid this pitfall by immediately trying out your new
language feature by building an example model and developing a compatible generator to verify that you can actually generate the relevant artifacts.
Refrigerators: To solidify our choices regarding language
abstractions, we prototypically implemented several example refrigerators. During this process we found the
need for more and more language abstractions. We noticed early on that we needed a way to test the example
programs, so we implemented the interpreter and simulator relatively early. In each iteration, we extended the
language as well as the interpreter, so the domain experts
could experiment with the language even though we did
not yet have a C code generator. J
It is important that the language approaches some kind of stable state over time (Fig. 6.1). As you iterate, you will encounter
the following situation: domain experts express requirements
that may sound inconsistent. You add all kinds of exceptions
and corner cases to the language. You language grows in size
and complexity. After a number of these exceptions and corner
cases, ideally the language designer will spot the systematic
nature behind them and refactor the language to reflect this
deeper understanding of the domain. Language size and complexity is reduced. Over time, the amplitude of these changes
in language size and complexity (the error bars in Fig. 6.1)
should become smaller, and the language size and complexity should approach a stable level (ss in Fig. 6.1).
Component Architecture: A nice example of spotting a
systematic nature behind a set of special cases was the introduction of data replication as a core abstraction in the
architecture DSL (we also discuss this in Section 18). After modeling a number of message-based communication
channels, we noticed that the interfaces all had the same
set of methods, just for different data structures. When we
finally saw the pattern behind it, we created new linguistic
abstractions: data replication. J
Figure 6.1: Iterating towards a stable
language over time. It is a sign of
trouble if the language complexity does
not approach some kind of stable state
over time.
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6.1.3
Co-evolve Concepts and Language
In cases in which you perform a real domain analysis, i.e. when
you have to find out which concepts the language should contain, make sure you evolve the language in real-time as you
discuss the concepts.
Defining a language requires formalization. It requires becoming very clear and unambiguous about the concepts that
go into the language. In fact, building the language, because of
the need for formalization, helps you become clear about the
domain abstractions in the first place. Language construction
acts as a catalyst for understanding the domain! I recommend
actually building a language in real-time as you analyze your
domain.
Refrigerators: This is what we did in the cooling language.
Everybody learned a lot about the possible structure of
refrigerators and the limited feature combinations (based
on limitations imposed by the way in which some of the
hardware devices work). J
To make this feasible, your DSL tool must be lightweight enough
to support language evolution during domain analysis workshops. Turnaround time should be minimal.
Refrigerators: The cooling DSL is built with Xtext. Xtext
allows very fast turnaround regarding grammar evolution,
and, to a lesser extent, scopes, validation and type systems.
We typically evolved the grammar in real-time, during the
language design workshops, together with the domain experts. We then spent a day offline finishing scopes, constraints and the type system, as well as the interpreter. J
6.1.4
Let People Do What They are Good At
DSLs offer a chance to let everybody do what they are good at.
There are several clearly defined roles, or tasks, that need to be
done. Let me point out two, specifically.
Experts in a specific target technology can dig deep into the
details of how to efficiently implement, configure and operate
that technology. They can spend a lot of time testing, digging and tuning. Once they have found out what works best,
they can put their knowledge into platforms and execution engines, efficiently spreading the knowledge across the team. For
the latter task, they will collaborate with generator experts and
language designers – our second example role.
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Component Architecture: In building the language, an
OSGi expert was involved in building the generation templates. J
The language designer works with domain experts to define
abstractions, notations and constraints to capture domain knowledge accurately. The language designer also works with the
architect and the platform experts in defining code generators
or interpreters. Be aware that language designers need to have
some kind of predisposition: not everybody is good at "thinking meta", some people are comfortable with concrete work.
Make sure you use "meta people" to do the "meta work". And
of course, the language designer must be fluent with the DSL
tool used in the project.
The flip side is that you have to make sure that you actually
have people on your team who are good at language design,
know the domain and understand the target platforms, otherwise the benefits promised by using DSLs may not materialize.
6.1.5
Domain Users vs. Domain Experts
When building business DSLs, people from the domain can
play two different roles. They can either participate in the domain analysis and the definition of the DSL itself, or they can
use the DSL to create domain-specific models or programs.
It is useful to distinguish these two roles explicitly. The first
role (language definition) must be filled by a domain expert.
These are people who have typically been working in the domain for a long time, often in different roles, and who have a
deep understanding of the relevant concepts, which they are
able to express precisely and maybe even formally. The second
group of people are the domain users. They are of course familiar with the domain, but they are typically not as experienced
as the domain experts.
This distinction is relevant because you want to work with
the domain experts when defining the language, but you want
to build a language that is suitable for use by the domain users.
If the experts are too far ahead of the users, the users might
not be able to "follow", and you will not be able to roll out the
language to the actual target audience.
Hence, make sure that when defining the language that you
actually cross-check with real domain users whether they are
able to work with the language.
dsl engineering
Pension Plans: The core domain abstractions were contributed by Herman. Herman was the most senior pension
expert in the company. In workshops we worked with a
number of other domain users who didn’t have as much
experience. We used them to validate that our DSL would
work for the average future user. Of course they also found
actual problems with the language, so they contributed
to the evolution of the DSL beyond just acting as guinea
pigs. J
6.1.6
DSL as a Product
The language, constraints, interpreters and generators are usually developed by one (smaller) group of people and used by
another (larger) group of people. To make this work, consider
the "language stuff" as a product developed by one group for
use by another. Make sure there’s a well-defined release schedule, that development happens in short, predefined increments,
that requirements and issues are reported and tracked, errors
are fixed reasonably quickly, there is ample documentation and
that support staff is available to help with problems and the
unavoidable learning curve. These things are critical for acceptance!
A specific best practice is to exchange people: from time to
time, make application developers part of the language team
so that they can appreciate the challenges of "meta", and make
people from the language development team participate in actual application development to make sure they understand if
and how their work products suit the people who do the actual
application development.
mbeddr C: One of our initial proof-of-concept projects didn’t
really work out very well. So in order to try out our first
C extensions and come up with a showcase for an upcoming exhibition, the language developers built the proof-ofconcept themselves. As it turned out, this was really helpful. We didn’t just find a lot of bugs, we also experienced
first-hand some of the usability challenges of the system at
the time. It was easy for us to fix, because it was we who
experienced the problems in the first place. J
6.1.7
Documentation is still necessary
Building the DSLs and execution engines is not enough to
make the approach successful. You have to communicate to the
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users how to use these things in real-world contexts. Specifically, here’s what you have to document: the language structure and syntax, how to use the editors and the generators,
how and where to write manual code and how to integrate it
into generated code, as well as platform/framework decisions
(if applicable).
Keep in mind that there are other media than paper. Screencasts, videos that show flip chart discussions, or even a regular
podcast that talks about how the tools change are good choices,
too. Also keep in mind that hardly anybody reads reference
documentation. If you want to be successful, make sure the
majority of your documentation consists of example-driven or
task-based tutorials.
Component Architecture: The documentation for the component architecture DSL contains a set of example applications. Each of them guides a new user through building an
increasingly complex application. It explains installation
of the DSL into Eclipse, concepts of the target architecture
and how they map to language syntax, use of the editor
and generator, as well as how to integrated manually written code into the generated base classes. J
6.2
6.2.1
Using DSLs
Reviews
A DSL limits the user’s freedom in some respect: they can only
express things that are within the limits of DSLs. Specifically,
low-level implementation decisions are not under a DSL user’s
control because they are handled by the execution engine.
However, even with the nicest DSL, users can still make mistakes, the DSL users can still misuse the DSL – the more expressive the DSL, the bigger this risk. So, as part of your development process, make sure you perform regular model reviews.
This is critical, especially for the adoption phase, when people
are still learning the language and the overall approach.
Reviews are easier on the DSL level than on the code level.
Since DSL programs are more concise and support better separation of concerns than their equivalent specification in GPL
code, reviews become more efficient.
If you notice recurring mistakes, things that people do in the
"wrong" way regularly, you can either add a constraint check
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that detects the problem automatically, or (maybe even better)
consider this as input to your language designers: maybe what
the users expect is actually correct, and the language needs to
be adapted.
6.2.2
Compatible Organization
Done right, using DSLs requires a lot of cross-project work.
In many settings the same language (module) will be used in
several projects or contexts. While this is of course a big plus,
it also requires that the organization is able to organize, staff,
schedule and pay for cross-cutting work. A strictly projectfocused organization will have a very hard time finding resources for these kinds of activities. DSLs, beyond the small
ad-hoc utility DSL, are very hard to introduce into such environments.
In particular, make sure that the organizational structure,
and the way project cost is handled, is compatible with crosscutting activities. Any given project will not invest in assets
that are reusable in other projects if the cost for developing the
asset is billed only to the particular project. Assets that are useful for several projects (or the company as a whole) must also
paid for by those several projects (or the company in general).
6.2.3
Domain Users Programming?
Technical DSLs are intended for use by programmers. Application domain DSLs are targeted towards domain users, nonprogrammers who are knowledgeable in the domain covered
by the DSL. Can they actually work with DSLs?
In many domains, usually those that have a scientific or
mathematical flavor, users can precisely describe domain knowledge. In other domains you might want to aim for a somewhat
lesser goal. Instead of expecting domain users and experts to
independently specify domain knowledge using a DSL, you
might want to pair a developer and a domain expert. The developer can help the domain expert to be precise enough to
"feed" the DSL. Because the notation is free of implementation
clutter, the domain expert feels much more at home than when
staring at GPL source code.
Initially, you might even want to reduce your aspirations
to the point where the developer does the DSL coding based
on discussions with domain users, then showing them the resulting model and asking confirming or disproving questions
about it. Putting knowledge into formal models helps you
Executing the program, by generating
code or running some kind simulator,
can also help domain users understand
better what has been expressed with the
DSL.
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point out decisions that need to be made, or language extensions that might be necessary.
If you are not able to teach a business domain DSL to the
domain users, it might not necessarily be the domain users’
fault. Maybe your language isn’t really suitable to the domain.
If you encounter this problem, take it as a warning sign and
consider changing the language.
6.2.4
DSL Evolution
A DSL that is successfully used will have to be evolved. Just as
for any other software artifact, requirements evolve over time
and the software has to reflect these changes. In the context of
DSLs, the changes can be driven by several different concerns:
Target Platform Changes The target platform may change because
of the availability of new technologies that provide better
performance, scalability or usability. Ideally, no changes to
either the language or the models are necessary: a new execution engine for the changed target platform can be created.
In practice it is not always so clean: the DSL may make assumptions about the target platform that are no longer true
for the changed or new platform. These may have to be removed from the languages and existing models. Also, the
new platform may support different execution options, and
the existing models do not contain enough information to
make the decision of which option to take. In this case, additional annotation models may become necessary2 .
Domain Changes As the domain evolves, it is likely that the language has to evolve as well3 . The problem then is: what do
you do with existing models? You have two fundamental
options: keep the old language and don’t change the models, or evolve the existing models to work with the new (version of the) language. The former is often not really practical, especially in the face of several such changes.
The amount of pain in evolving existing models depends
a lot on the nature of the change4 . The most pragmatic approach keeps the new version of the language backward
compatible, so that existing models can still be edited and
processed. Under this premise, adding new language concepts is never a problem. However, you must never just
delete existing concepts or change them in an incompatible
way. Instead, these old concepts should be marked as deprecated, and the editor will show a corresponding warning in
Despite the caveats discussed in this
paragraph, a target platform change is
typically relatively simple to handle.
2
If you use a lot of in-language abstraction or a standard library, you may be
lucky and the changes can be realized
without changes to the language.
3
It also depends a lot on the DSL tool.
Different tools support model evolution
in different ways.
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the IDE. The IDE may also provide a quick fix to change the
old, deprecated concept to a new (version of the) concept,
if such a mapping is straightforward. Otherwise the migration must be done manually. If you have access to all models, you may also run a batch transformation during a quiet
period to migrate them all at once. Note that, although deprecation has a bad reputation from programming languages
from which deprecated concepts are never removed, this is
not necessarily comparable to DSLs: if, after a while, people
still use the deprecated concepts, you can have the IDE send
an email to the language developers, who can then work
with the "offending user" to migrate the programs.
Note that for the above approach to work, you have to
have a structure process for versioning the languages and
tools, otherwise you will quickly end up in version chaos.
DSL Tool Changes The third change is driven by evolution of
the DSL tool. Of course, the language definition (and potentially, the existing models) may have to evolve if the DSL
tool changes in an incompatible way (which, one could argue, it shouldn’t!). This is similar to every other tool, library or framework you may use. People seem particularly
afraid of the situation in which they have to switch to a completely new DSL tool because the current one is no longer
supported, or a new one is just better. Of course it is very
likely that you’ll have to completely redo the language definitions: there is no portability in terms of language definitions among DSL tools (not even among those that reside on
Eclipse). However, if you had designed your languages well
you will probably be able to automatically transform existing
models into the new tool’s data structures5 .
One central pillar of using DSLs is the high degree to
which they support separation of concerns and the expression of domain knowledge at a level of abstraction that makes
the domain semantics obvious, thus avoiding complex reverse engineering problems. Consequently you can generate
all kinds of artifacts from the models. This characteristic also
means that it is relatively straightforward to write a generator that creates a representation of the model in a new tool’s
data structures6 .
It is easy to see that over time the real
value is in the models, and not so much
in the language definitions and IDEs.
Rebuilding those is hence not such a
big deal, especially if we consider that a
new, better tool may require less effort
to build the languages.
5
For example, we have built a generic
MPS to EMF exporter. It works for meta
models as well as for the models.
6
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Avoiding Uncontrolled Growth and Fragmentation
If you use DSLs successfully, there may be the danger of uncontrolled growth and diversification in languages, with the
obvious problems for maintenance, training and interoperability7 . To avoid this, there is an organizational approach.
The organizational approach requires putting in place governance structures for language development. Maybe developers have to coordinate with a central entity before they are
"allowed" to define a new language. Or an open-source like
model is used, in which languages are developed in public
and the most successful ones will survive and attract contributions. Maybe you want to limit language development to some
central "language team"8 . Larger organizations in which uncontrolled language growth and fragmentation might become
a problem are likely to already have established processes for
coordinating reusable or cross-cutting work. You should just
plug into these processes.
The technical approach (which should be used together with
the organizational one) exploits language modularization, extension and composition. If (parts of) languages can be reused,
the drive to develop something completely new (that does more
or less the same as somebody else’s language) is reduced. Of
course this requires that language reuse actually works with
your tool of choice. It also requires that the potentially reusable
languages are robust, stable and documented – otherwise nobody will use them. In a large organization I would assume
that a few languages will be strategic: aligned with the needs
of the whole organization, well-designed, well tested and documented, implemented by a central group, used by many developers and reusable by design9 . In addition, small teams may
decide to develop their own smaller languages or extensions,
reusing the strategic ones. Their focus is much more local, and
the development requires much less coordination.
While this may become a problem,
this may also become a problem with
libraries or framework... the solution is
also the same, as we will see.
7
Please don’t overdo this – don’t make
it a bureaucratic nightmare to develop a
language!
8
The development of these languages
should be governed by the organizational approach discussed above.
9
Part III
DSL Implementation
dsl engineering
This part of the book has been written together Lennart Kats
and Guido Wachsmuth, who contributed the material on Spoofax, and Christian Dietrich, who helped with the language
modularization in Xtext.
In this part we describe language implementation with three
language workbenches, which together represent the current
state of the art: Spoofax, Xtext and MPS. All of them are Open
Source, so you can experiment with them. For more example
language implementations using more language workbenches,
take a look at the Language Workbench Competition website10 .
This part of the book does not cover a lot of design decisions
or motivation for having things like constraints, type systems,
transformations or generators. Conceptually these topics are
introduced in Part II of the book on DSL design. This part
really just looks at the "how", not the "what" or "why".
Each chapter contains examples implemented with all three
tools. The ordering of the tools is different from chapter to
chapter, based on the characteristics of each tool: if the example
for tool A illustrates a point that is also relevant for tool B, then
A is discussed before B.
The examples are not intended to serve as a full tutorial
for any of these tools, but as an illustration of the concepts
and ideas involved with language implementation in general.
However, they should give you a solid understanding of the
capabilities of each of the tools, and the class of tools they stand
for. Also, if a chapter does not explain topic X for tool Y, this
does not imply that you cannot do X with Y – it just means that
Y’s approach to X is not significantly different from things that
have already been discussed in the chapter.
10
languageworkbenches.net
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7
Concrete and Abstract Syntax
In this chapter we look at the definition of abstract and concrete syntax, and the mapping between the two in parserbased and projectional systems. We also discuss the advantages and drawbacks of these two approaches. We discuss
the characteristics of typical AST definition formalisms. The
meat of the chapter is made up of extensive examples for
defining language structure and syntax with our three example tools.
The concrete syntax (CS) of a language is what the user interacts
with to create programs. It may be textual, graphical, tabular
or any combination thereof. In this book we focus mostly on
textual concrete syntaxes; examples of other forms are briefly
discussed Section 4.7. In this chapter we refer to other forms
where appropriate.
The abstract syntax (AS) of a language is a data structure that
holds the core information in a program, but without any of the
notational details contained in the concrete syntax: keywords
and symbols, layout (e.g., whitespace), and comments are typically not included in the AS. In parser-based systems the syntactic information that doesn’t end up in the AS is often preserved in some "hidden" form so the CS can be reconstructed
from the combination of the AS and this hidden information –
this bidirectionality simplifies the creation of IDE features such
as quick fixes or formatters.
As we have seen in the introduction, the abstract syntax is
essentially a tree data structure. Instances that represent actual
programs (i.e. sentences in the language) are hence often called
an abstract syntax tree or AST. Most formalisms also support
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cross-references across the tree, in which case the data structure
becomes a graph (with a primary containment hierarchy). It is
still usually called an AST.
While the CS is the interface of the language to the user, the
AS acts as the API to access programs by processing tools: it
is used by developers of validators, transformations and code
generators. The concrete syntax is not relevant in these cases.
To illustrate the relationship between the concrete and abstract
syntax, consider the following example program:
var x: int;
calc y: int = 1 + 2 * sqrt(x)
This program has a hierarchical structure: definitions of x and
y at the top; inside y there’s a nested expression. This structure is reflected in the corresponding abstract syntax tree. A
possible AST is illustrated in Fig. 7.11 .
We write possible because there are
typically several ways of structuring the
abstract syntax.
1
Figure 7.1: Abstract syntax tree for
the above program. Boxes represent
instances of language concepts, solid
lines represent containment, dotted
lines represent cross-references.
This is more convenient, but the
resulting AS may not be as clean as
if it were defined manually; it may
contain idiosyncrasies that result from
the automatic derivation from the CS.
For example, an Ecore meta model
derived from an Xtext grammar will
never contain interfaces, because these
cannot be expressed with the Xtext
grammar language. However, the use of
interfaces may result in a meta model
that is easier to process (richer typing).
In this case it makes sense to use the AS
first approach.
2
There are two ways of defining the relationship between the CS
and the AS as part of language development:
CS first From a concrete syntax definition, an abstract syntax is
derived, either automatically or using hints in the concrete
syntax specification2 . This is the default use for Xtext, where
Xtext derives the Ecore meta model from an Xtext grammar.
AS first We first define the AS. We then define the concrete
syntax, referring to the AS in the definition of the concrete
syntax3 . For example, in Xtext it is possible to define grammar for an existing meta model.
Once the language is defined, there are again two ways in
This is often done if the AS structure already exists, has to conform to
externally imposed constraints or is
developed by another party than the
language developer.
3
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which the abstract syntax and the concrete syntax can relate
as the language is used to create programs4 :
Parsing In the parser-based approach, the abstract syntax tree
is constructed from the concrete syntax of a program; a
parser instantiates and populates the AS, based on the information in the program text. In this case, the (formal)
definition of the CS is usually called a grammar5 . Xtext and
Spoofax use this approach.
179
We will discuss these two approaches
in more detail in the next subsection.
4
Sometimes the parser creates a concrete syntax tree, which is then transformed to an AST – however, we ignore
this aspect in the rest of the book, as it
is not essential.
5
Projection In the projectional approach, the abstract syntax tree
is built directly by editor actions, and the concrete syntax
is rendered from the AST via projection rules. MPS is an
example of a tool that uses projectional editing.
Fig. 7.2 shows the typical combinations of these two dimensions. In practice, parser-based systems typically derive the AS
from the CS – i.e. CS first. In projectional systems, the CS is
usually annotated onto the AS data structures – i.e. AS first.
7.1
Fundamentals of Free Text Editing and Parsing
Most programming environments rely on free text editing, where
programmers edit programs at the text/character level to form
(key)words and phrases.
A parser is used to check the program text (concrete syntax)
for syntactic correctness, and create the AST by populating the
AS data structures from information extracted from the textual
source. Most modern IDEs perform this task in real-time as
the user edits the program, and the AST is always kept in sync
with the program text. Many IDE features – such as content
assist, validation, navigation or refactoring support – are based
on this synchronized AST.
A key characteristic of the free text editing approach is its
strong separation between the concrete syntax (i.e. text) and
the abstract syntax. The concrete syntax is the principal representation, used for both editing and persistence6 . The abstract
syntax is used under the hood by the implementation of the
DSL, e.g., for providing an outline view, validation, and for
transformations and code generation. The AS can be changed
(by changing the mapping from the CS to an AS) without any
effect on the CS and existing programs.
Many different approaches exist for implementing parsers.
Each may restrict the syntactic freedom of a language, or con-
Figure 7.2: Dimensions of defining
the concrete and abstract syntax of a
language. Xtext is mentioned twice
because it supports CS first and AS
first, although CS first is the default.
Note also that as of now there is no
projectional system that uses CS first.
However, JetBrains are currently experimenting with such a system.
Figure 7.3: In parser-based systems, the
user only interacts with the concrete
syntax, and the AST is constructed from
the information in the text via a parser.
In projectional editing it is the other
way round: the CS can be changed
easily (by changing the projection rules)
while keeping the AS constant.
6
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strain the way in which a particular syntax must be specified.
It is important to be aware of these restrictions, since not all
languages can be comfortably implemented by every parser
implementation approach, or even at all. You may have heard
terms like context free, ambiguity, look-ahead, LL, (LA)LR or
PEG. These all pertain to a certain class of parser implementation approaches. We provide more details on the various
grammar and parser classes further on in this section.
7.1.1
Parser Generation Technology
In traditional compilers and IDEs (such as gcc or the Eclipse
JDT), parsers are often written by hand as a big, monolothic
program that reads a stream of characters and uses recursion
to create a tree structure. However, manually writing a parser
requires significant expertise in parsing and a significant development effort. For standardized programming languages that
don’t change very often, and that have a large user community, this approach makes sense. It can lead to very fast parsers
that also provide good error reporting and error recovery (the
ability to continue parsing after a syntax error has been found).
In contrast, language workbenches, and most of today’s compilers, generate a parser from a grammar. A grammar is a syntax specification written in a DSL for formally defining textual concrete syntax. These generated parsers may not provide the same performance or error reporting/recovery as a
hand-tailored parser constructed by an expert, but they provide bounded performance guarantees that make them (usually) more than fast enough for modern machines. Also, they
generate a complete parser for the complete grammar – developers may forget corner cases if they write the parser manually.
However, the most important argument for using parser generation is that the effort of building a parser is much lower than
manually writing a custom parser7 . Finally, it means that the
developer who defines a language does not have to be an expert in parsing technology.
Parsing versus Scanning Because of the complexity inherent in parsing, parser implementations tend to split the parsing process into a number of phases. In the majority of cases
the text input is first separated into a sequence of tokens (i.e.
keywords, identifiers, literals, comments or whitespace) by a
scanner (sometimes also called lexer or tokenizer). The parser
then constructs the actual AST from the token sequence8 . This
The grammar definition is also much
more readable and maintainable than
the actual parser implementation, either
custom-written or generated.
7
Note that many parser generators
allow you to add arbitrary code (called
actions) to the grammar, for example to
check constraints or interpret the program. We strongly recommend against
this: instead, a parser should only check
for syntactic correctness and build the
AST. All other processing should be
built on top of the AST. This separation
between AST construction and AST
processing results in much more maintainable language implementations.
8
dsl engineering
simplifies the implementation compared to directly parsing at
the character level. A scanner is usually implemented using
direct recognition of keywords and a set of regular expressions
to recognize all other valid input as tokens.
Both the scanner and parser can be generated from grammars (see below). A well-known example of a scanner (lexer)
generation tool is lex9 . Modern parsing frameworks, such as
ANTLR10 , do their own scanner generation.
A separate scanning phase has direct consequences for the
overall parser implementation, when the scanner is not aware
of the context of its input. An example of a typical problem
that arises from this is that keywords can’t be used as identifiers even though the use of a keyword frequently wouldn’t
cause ambiguity in the actual parsing. The Java language is an
example of this: it uses a fixed set of keywords, such as class
and public, that cannot be used as identifiers.
A context-unaware scanner is also problematic when grammars are extended or composed. In the case of Java, this was
seen with the assert and enum keywords that were introduced
in Java 1.4 and Java 5, respectively. Any programs that used
identifiers with those names (such as unit testing APIs) were
no longer valid. For composed languages, similar problems
arise, as constituent languages have different sets of keywords
and can define incompatible regular expressions for lexicals
such as identifiers and numbers.
A recent technique to overcome these problems is contextaware scanning, in which the lexer relies on the state of the
parser to determine how to interpret the next token11 . With
scannerless parsing, there is no separate scanner at all. Instead,
the parser operates at the character level and statefully processes lexicals and keywords, avoiding the problems of contextunaware scanning illustrated above. Spoofax (or rather, the underlying parser technology SDF) uses scannerless parsing.
Grammars Grammars are the formal definition for concrete
textual syntax. They consist of production rules that define how
valid textual input ("sentences") look like12 . Grammars are the
basis for syntax definitions in text-based workbenches such as
Spoofax and Xtext13 .
Fundamentally, production rules can be expressed in BackusNaur Form (BNF)14 , written as S ::= P1 ... Pn . This grammar
defines a symbol S by a series of pattern expressions P1 ... Pn .
9
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10
www.antlr.org/
Note that the word "parser" now
has more than one meaning: it can
either refer to the combination of the
scanner and the parser, or to the postscanner parser only. Usually the former
meaning is intended (both in this book
as well as in general) unless scanning
and parsing are discussed specifically.
E. Van Wyk and A. Schwerdfeger.
Context-Aware Scanning for Parsing
Extensible Languages. In Intl. Conf. on
Generative Programming and Component
Engineering, GPCE 2007. ACM Press,
2007
11
They can also be used to "produce"
valid input by executing them "the
other way round", hence the name.
12
In these systems, the production
rules are enriched with information
beyond the pure grammatical structure
of the language, such as the semantical relation between references and
declarations.
13
14
en.wikipedia.org/
wiki/Backus-Naur_Form
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Each pattern expression can refer to another symbol or can be a
literal such as a keyword or a punctuation symbol. If there are
multiple possible patterns for a symbol, these can be written
as separate productions (for the same symbol), or the patterns
can be separated by the | operator to indicate a choice. An extension of BNF, called Extended BNF (EBNF)15 , adds a number
of convenience operators such as ? for an optional pattern, *
to indicate zero or more occurrences, and + to indicate one or
more occurrences of a pattern expression.
The following code is an example of a grammar for a simple arithmetic expression language using BNF notation. Basic
expressions are built up of NUM number literals and the + and *
operators16 .
Exp ::= NUM
| Exp "+" Exp
| Exp "*" Exp
15
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/
Extended_Backus-Naur_Form
16
These are the + and * operators
of the defined language, not those
mentioned for EBNF above.
Note how expression nesting is described using recursion in
this grammar: the Exp rule calls itself, so sentences like 2 + 3
* 4 are possible. This poses two practical challenges for parser
generation systems: first, the precedence and associativity of
the operators is not described by this grammar. Second, not
all parser generators provide full support for recursion. For
example, ANTLR cannot cope with left-recursive rules. We
elaborate on these issues in the remainder of the section and in
the Spoofax and Xtext examples.
Grammar classes BNF can describe any grammar that maps
textual sentences to trees based only on the input symbols.
These are called context-free grammars and can be used to parse
the majority of modern programming languages17 . In contrast, context-sensitive grammars are those that also depend on
the context in which a partial sentence occurs, making them
suitable for natural language processing but at the same time,
making parsing itself a lot harder, since the parser has to be
aware of a lot more than just the syntax.
Parser generation was first applied in command-line tools
such as yacc in the early seventies18 . As a consequence of
relatively slow computers, much attention was paid to the efficiency of the generated parsers. Various algorithms were designed that could parse text in a bounded amount of time and
memory. However, these time and space guarantees could only
be provided for certain subclasses of the context-free grammars, described by acronyms such as LL(1), LL(k), LR(1), and
An exception is SAP’s ABAP language, which requires a custom, handwritten parser.
17
18
dinosaur.compilertools.net
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so on. A particular parser tool supports a specific class of grammars – e.g., ANTLR supports LL(k) and LL(*). In this naming
scheme, the first L stands for left-to-right scanning, and the
second L in LL and the R in LR stand for leftmost and rightmost derivation. The constant k in LL(k) and LR(k) indicates
the maximum number (of tokens or characters) the parser will
look ahead to decide which production rule it can recognize.
The bigger k, the more syntactic forms can be parsed19 . Typically, grammars for "real" DSLs tend to need only finite lookahead and many parser tools effectively compute the optimal
value for k automatically. A special case is LL(*), where k is
unbounded and the parser can look ahead arbitrarily many tokens to make decisions.
Supporting only a subclass of all possible context-free grammars poses restrictions on the languages that are supported
by a parser generator. For some languages, it is not possible
to write a grammar in a certain subclass, making that particular language unparseable with a tool that only supports that
particular class of grammars. For other languages, a natural
context-free grammar exists, but it must be written in a different, sometimes awkward or unintuitive way to conform to the
subclass. This will be illustrated in the Xtext example, which
uses ANTLR as the underlying LL(k) parser technology.
Parser generators can detect whether a grammar conforms
to a certain subclass, reporting conflicts that relate to the implementation of the parsing algorithm20 . Language developers
can then attempt to manually refactor the grammar to address
those errors21 . As an example, consider a grammar for property or field access, expressions of the form customer.name or
"Tim".length22 :
Exp ::= ID
| STRING
| Exp "." ID
This grammar uses left-recursion: the left-most symbol of one
of the definitions of Exp is a call to Exp, i.e. it is recursive. Leftrecursion is not supported by LL parsers such as ANTLR.
The left-recursion can be removed by left-factoring the grammar, i.e. by changing it to a form where all left recursion is
eliminated. The essence of left-factoring is that the grammar
is rewritten in such a way that all recursive production rules
consume at least one token or character before going into the
recursion. Left-factoring introduces additional rules that act as
intermediaries and often makes repetition explicit using the +
183
Bigger values of k may also reduce
parser performance, though.
19
20
You may have heard of shift/reduce or
reduce/reduce conflicts for LR parsers,
or first/first or first/follow conflicts and
direct or indirect left recursion for LL
parsers. We will discuss some of these
in detail below.
Understanding these errors and
then refactoring the grammar to address them can be non-trivial, since it
requires an understanding of the particular grammar class and the parsing
algorithm.
21
Note that we use ID to indicate
identifier patterns and STRING to
indicate string literal patterns in these
examples.
22
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and * operators. Our example grammar from above uses recursion for repetition, which can be made explicit as follows:
Exp ::= ID
| STRING
| Exp ("." ID)+
The resulting grammar is still left-recursive, but we can introduce an intermediate rule to eliminate the recursive call to Exp:
Exp ::= ID
| STRING
| FieldPart ("." ID)+
FieldPart ::= ID
| STRING
Unfortunately, this resulting grammar still has overlapping rules
(first/first conflicts), as the ID and STRING symbols both match
more than one rule. This conflict can be eliminated by removing the Exp ::= ID and Exp := STRING rule and making the +
(one or more) repetition into a * (zero or more) repetition:
Exp
::= FieldPart ("." ID)*
FieldPart ::= ID
| STRING
This last grammar describes the same language as the original
grammar shown above, but conforms to the LL(1) grammar
class23 . In the general case, not all context-free grammars can
be mapped to one of the restricted classes. Valid, unambiguous
grammars exist that cannot be factored to any of the restricted
grammar classes. In practice, this means that some languages
cannot be parsed with LL or LR parsers.
General parsers Research into parsing algorithms has produced parser generators specific to various grammar classes,
but there has also been research in parsers for the full class of
context-free grammars. A naive approach to avoid the restrictions of LL or LR parsers may be to add backtracking, so that
if any input doesn’t match a particular production, the parser
can go back and try a different production. Unfortunately, this
approach risks exponential execution times or non-termination
and usually exhibits poor performance.
There are also general parsing algorithms that can efficiently
parse the full class. In particular, generalized LR (GLR) parsers24
and Earley parsers25 can parse in linear time O(n) in the common case. In the case of ambiguities, the time required can increase, but in the worst case they are bounded by cubic O(n3 )
time. In practice, most programming languages have few or no
Unfortunately, it is also much more
verbose. Refactoring "clean" context free
grammars to make them conform to a
particular grammar class usually makes
the grammars larger and/or uglier.
23
24
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/
GLR_parser
25
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/
Earley_parser
dsl engineering
185
ambiguities, ensuring good performance with a GLR parser.
Spoofax is an example of a language workbench that uses GLR
parsing.
Ambiguity Grammars can be ambiguous, meaning that at
least one valid sentence in the language can be constructed
in more than one (non-equivalent) way from the production
rules26 , corresponding to multiple possible ASTs. This obviously is a problem for parser implementation, as some decision
has to be made on which AST is preferred. Consider again the
expression language introduced above.
Exp ::= NUM
| Exp "+" Exp
| Exp "*" Exp
This grammar is ambiguous, since for a string 1 * 2 + 3 there
are two possible trees (corresponding to different operator precedences).
Exp
Exp
Exp
Exp
1
Exp
Exp
Exp
Exp
*
2
Exp
+
3
1
*
2
Exp
+
3
The grammar does not describe which interpretation should be
preferred. Parser generators for restricted grammar classes and
generalized parsers handle ambiguity differently. We discuss
both approaches below.
Ambiguity with Grammar Classes LL and LR parsers are deterministic parsers: they can only return one possible tree for a
given input. This means they can’t handle a grammar that has
ambiguities, including our simple expression grammar. Determining whether a grammar is ambiguous is a classic undecidable problem. However, it is possible to detect violations of
the LL or LR grammar class restrictions, in the form of conflicts. These conflicts do not always indicate ambiguities (as
seen with the field access grammar discussed above), but by
resolving all conflicts (if possible) an unambiguous grammar
can be obtained.
Resolving grammar conflicts in the presence of associativity, precedence, and other risks of ambiguity requires carefully
layering the grammar in such a way that it encodes the desired
properties. To encode left-associativity and a lower priority for
This also means that this sentence can
be parsed in more than one way.
26
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the + operator, we can rewrite the grammar as follows:
Expr ::=
|
Mult ::=
|
Expr "+" Mult
Mult
Mult "*" NUM
NUM
The resulting grammar is a valid LR grammar. Note how it
puts the + operator in the highest layer to give it the lowest priority27 , and how it uses left-recursion to encode leftassociativity of the operators. The grammar can be left-factored
to a corresponding LL grammar as follows28 :
Expr ::= Mult ("+" Mult)*
Mult ::= NUM ("*" NUM)*
A + will end up further up in the
expression tree than a *. This means
that the * has higher precedence,
since any interpreter or generator will
encounter the * first.
27
We will see more extensive examples
of this approach in the section on Xtext
(Section 7.5).
28
Ambiguity with Generalized Parsers Generalized parsers accept grammars regardless of recursion or ambiguity. So our
expression grammar is readily accepted as a valid grammar.
In the case of an ambiguity, the generated parser simply returns all possible abstract syntax trees, e.g. a left-associative tree
and a right-associative tree for the expression 1 * 2 + 3. The
different trees can be manually inspected to determine what
ambiguities exist in the grammar, or the desired tree can be
programmatically selected. A way of programmatically selecting one alternative is disambiguation filters. For example, leftassociativity can be indicated on a per-production basis:
Exp ::= NUM
| Exp "+" Exp {left}
| Exp "*" Exp {left}
This indicates that both operators are left-associative (using the
{left} annotation from Spoofax). Operator precedence can be
indicated with relative priorities or with precedence annotations:
Exp ::= Exp "*" Exp {left}
>
Exp ::= Exp "+" Exp {left}
The > indicates that the * operator binds stronger than the +
operator. This kind of declarative disambiguation is commonly
found in GLR parsers, but typically is not available in parsers
that support only more limited grammar classes29 .
Grammar Evolution and Composition
Grammars evolve as
languages change and new features are added. These features
can be added by adding single, new productions, or by composing the grammar with an existing grammar. Composition of
grammars is an efficient way of reusing grammars and quickly
As even these simple examples show,
this style of specifying grammars leads
to simpler, more readable grammars.
It also makes language specification
much simpler, since developers don’t
have to understand the conflicts/errors
mentioned above.
29
dsl engineering
187
constructing or extending new grammars. As a basic example of grammar composition, consider once again our simple
grammar for arithmetic expressions:
Expr ::= NUM
| Expr "*" Expr
| Expr "+" Expr
Once more operators are added and the proper associativities
and precedences are specified, such a grammar forms an excellent unit for reuse30 . As an example, suppose we want to
compose this grammar with the grammar for field access expressions31 :
Expr ::= ID
| STRING
| Expr "." ID
For example, expressions can be
used as guard conditions in state
machines, for pre- and postconditions
in interface definitions, or to specify
derived attributes in a data definition
language.
30
Here we consider the case where
two grammars use a symbol with the
identical name Expr. Some grammar
definition formalisms support mechanisms such as grammar mixins and
renaming operators to work with grammar modules where the symbol names
do not match.
31
In the ideal case, composing two such grammars should be
trivial – just copy them into the same grammar definition file.
However, reality is often less than ideal. There are a number
of challenges that arise in practice, related to ambiguity and to
grammar class restrictions32 .
See Laurence Tratt’s article
Parsing – the solved problem that
isn’t. at tratt.net/laurie/
32
• Composing arbitrary grammars risks introducing ambiguities that did not exist in either of the two constituent grammars. In the case of the arithmetic expressions and field
access grammars, care must specifically be taken to indicate
the precedence order of all operators with respect to all others. With a general parser, new priority rules can be added
without changing the two imported grammars. When an
LL or LR parser is used, it is often necessary to change one
or both of the composed grammars to eliminate any conflicts. This is because in a general parser, the precedences
are declarative (additional preference specification can simply be added at the end), whereas in LL or LR parsers the
precedence information is encoded in the grammar structure (and hence invasive changes to this structure may be
required).
• We have shown how grammars can be massaged with techniques such as left-factoring in order to conform to a certain grammar class. Likewise, any precedence order or associativity can be encoded by massaging the grammar to
take a certain form. Unfortunately, all this massaging makes
grammars very resistant to change and composition: after
two grammars are composed together, the result is often no
tech_articles/articles/parsing
_the_solved_problem_that_isnt.
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longer LL or LR, and another manual factorization step is
required.
• Another challenge is in composing scanners. When two
grammars that depend on a different lexical syntax are composed, conflicts can arise. For example, consider what happens when we compose the grammar of Java with the grammar of SQL:
for (Customer c : SELECT customer FROM accounts WHERE balance < 0) {
...
}
The SQL grammar reserves keywords such as SELECT, even
though they are not reserved in Java. Such a language change
could break compatibility with existing Java programs which
happen to use a variable named SELECT. A common programmatic approach to solve this problem is the introduction of easy-to-recognize boundaries, which trigger switches
between different parsers. In general, this problem can only
be avoided completely by a scannerless parser, which considers the lexical syntax in the context in which it appears;
traditional parsers perform a separate scanning stage in which
no context is considered.
7.2
Fundamentals of Projectional Editing
In parser-based approaches, users use text editors to enter character sequences that represent programs. A parser then checks
the program for syntactic correctness and constructs an AST
from the character sequence. The AST contains all the semantic information expressed by the program.
In projectional editors, the process happens the other way
round: as a user edits the program, the AST is modified directly. A projection engine then creates some representation
of the AST with which the user interacts, and which reflects
the changes. This approach is well-known from graphical editors in general, and the model-view-controller (MVC) pattern
specifically. When users edit a UML diagram, they don’t draw
pixels onto a canvas, and a "pixel parser" then creates the AST.
Rather, the editor creates an instance of uml.Class as you drag
a class from the palette to the canvas. A projection engine renders the diagram, in this case drawing a rectangle for the class.
Projectional editors generalize this approach to work with any
notation, including textual.
Figure 7.4: In projectional systems, the
user sees the concrete syntax, but all
editing gestures directly influence the
AST. The AST is not extracted from the
concrete syntax, which means the CS
does not have to be parseable.
dsl engineering
This explicit instantiation of AST objects happens by picking
the respective concept from the code completion menu using a
character sequence defined by the respective concept (typically
the "leading keyword" of the respective program construct, or
the name of a referenced variable). If at any given program location two concepts can be instantiated using the same character
sequence, then the projectional editor prompts the user to decide33 . Once a concept is instantiated, it is stored in the AST as
a node with a unique ID (UID). References between program
elements are pointers to this UID, and the projected syntax that
represents the reference can be arbitrary. The AST is actually
an abstract syntax graph from the start because cross-references
are first-class rather than being resolved after parsing34 . The
program is stored using a generic tree persistence mechanism,
often XML35 .
Defining a projectional editor, instead of defining a grammar, involves the definition of projection rules that map language concepts to a notation. It also involves the definition of
event handlers that modify the AST based on a user’s editing
gestures. The way to define the projection rules and the event
handlers is specific to the particular tool used.
The projectional approach can deal with arbitrary syntactic forms including traditional text, symbols (as in mathematics), tables or graphics. Since no grammar is used, grammar
classes are not relevant here. In principle, projectional editing is simpler in principle than parsing, since there is no need
to "extract" the program structure from a flat textual source.
However, as we will see below, the challenge in projectional
editing lies making the editing experience convenient36 . Modern projectional editors, and in particular MPS, do a good job
in meeting this challenge.
7.3
7.3.1
189
As discussed above, this is the situation where many grammar-based
systems run into problems from ambiguity.
33
There is still one single containment
hierarchy, so it is really a tree with
cross-references.
34
And yes, the tools provide diff/merge
based on the projected syntax, not
based on XML.
35
In particular, editing notations that
look like text should be editable with
the editing gestures known from text
editors.
36
Comparing Parsing and Projection
Editing Experience
In free text editing, any regular text editor will do. However,
users expect a powerful IDE that includes support for syntax
coloring, code completion, go-to-definition, find references, error annotations, refactoring and the like. Xtext and Spoofax
provide IDE support that is essentially similar to what a modern IDE provides for mainstream languages (e.g. Eclipse for
Java)37 . However, you can always go back to any text editor to
We assume that you are familiar with
modern IDEs, so we do not discuss
their features in great detail in this
section.
37
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edit the programs.
Figure 7.5: An mbeddr example program using five separate but integrated
languages. It contains a module with
an enum, a state machine (Counter) and
a function (nextMode) that contains
a decision table. Inside both of them
developers can write regular C code.
The IDE provides code completion
for all language extensions (see the
start/stop suggestions) as well as
static error validation (Error... hover).
The green trace annotations are traces
to requirements that can be attached to
arbitrary program elements. The red
parts with the {resettable} next to
them are presence conditions (in the
context of product line engineering):
the respective elements are only in a
program variant if the configuration
feature resettable is selected.
In projectional editing, this is different: a normal text editor is obviously not sufficient; a specialized editor has to be
supplied to perform the projection (an example is shown in
Fig. 7.5). As in free text editing, it has to provide the IDE
support features mentioned above. MPS provides those. However, there is another challenge: for textual-looking notations,
it is important that the editor tries to make the editing experience as text-like as possible, i.e. the keyboard actions we have
become used to from free-text editing should work as far as
possible. MPS does a decent job here, using, among others, the
following strategies38 :
• Every language concept that is legal at a given program location is available in the code completion menu. In naive
implementations, users have to select the language concept
based on its name and instantiate it. This is inconvenient.
In MPS, languages can instead define aliases for language
concepts, allowing users to "just type" the alias, after which
the concept is immediately instantiated39 .
• Side transforms make sure that expressions can be entered
conveniently. Consider a local variable declaration int a =
2;. If this should be changed to int a = 2 + 3; the 2 in the
The following list may be hard to
relate to if you have never used a
projectional editor. However, understanding this section in detail is not
essential for the rest of the book.
38
By making the alias the same as
the leading keyword (e.g. if for an
IfStatement), users can "just type" the
code.
39
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init expression needs to be replaced by an instance of the binary + operator, with the 2 in the left slot and the 3 in the
right. Instead of removing the 2 and manually inserting a +,
users can simply type + on the right side of the 2. The system
performs the tree restructuring that moves the + to the root
of the subtree, puts the 2 in the left slot, and then puts the
cursor into the right slot, so the user can enter the second argument. This means that expressions (or anything else) can
be entered linearly, as expected. For this to work, operator
precedence has to be specified, and the tree has to be constructed taking these precedences into account. Precedence
is typically specified by a number associated with each operator, and whenever a side transformation is used to build
an expression, the tree is automatically reshuffled to make
sure that those operators with a higher precedence number
are further down in the tree.
• Delete actions are used to similar effect when elements are
deleted. Deleting the 3 in 2 + 3 first keeps the plus, with
an empty right slot. Deleting the + then removes the + and
puts the 2 at the root of the subtree.
• Wrappers support instantiation of concepts that are actually
children of the concepts allowed at a given location. Consider again a local variable declaration int a;. The respective concept could be LocalVariableDeclaration, a subconcept of Statement, to make it legal in method bodies
(for example). However, users simply want to start typing int, i.e. selecting the content of the type field of the
LocalVariableDeclaration. A wrapper can be used to
support entering Types where LocalVariableDeclarations
are expected. Once a Type is selected, the wrapper implementation creates a LocalVariableDeclaration, puts the
Type into its type field, and moves the cursor into the name
slot. Summing up, this means that a local variable declaration int a; can be entered by starting to type the int type,
as expected.
• Smart references achieve a similar effect for references (as
opposed to children). Consider pressing Ctrl-Space after
the + in 2 + 3. Assume further, that a couple of local variables are in scope and that these can be used instead of the
3. These should be available in the code completion menu.
However, technically, a VariableReference has to be instantiated, whose variable slot is then made to point to
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any of the variables in scope. This is tedious. Smart references trigger special editor behavior: if in a given context
a VariableReference is allowed, the editor first evaluates
its scope to find the possible targets, then puts those targets
into the code completion menu. If a user selects one, then
the VariableReference is created, and the selected element
is put into its variable slot. This makes the reference object
effectively invisible in terms of the editing experience.
• Smart delimiters are used to simplify inputting list-like data,
where elements are separated with a specific separator symbol. An example is argument lists in functions: once a parameter is entered, users can press comma, i.e. the list delimiter, to instantiate the next element.
Except for having to get used to the somewhat different way of
editing programs, the strategies mentioned above (plus some
others) result in a reasonably good editing experience. Traditionally, projectional editors have not used these or similar
strategies, and projectional editors have acquired a bit of a bad
reputation because of that. In the case of MPS this tool support
is available, and hence MPS provides a productive and pleasant
working environment.
7.3.2
Language Modularity
As we have seen in Section 4.6, language modularization and
composition is an important building block in working with
DSLs. Parser-based and projectional editors come with different trade-offs in this respect.
In parser-based systems the extent to which language composition can be supported depends on the supported grammar
class. As we have said above, the problem is that the result of
combining two or more independently developed grammars
into one may become ambiguous, for example, because the
same character sequence is defined as two different tokens.
The resulting grammar cannot be parsed and has to be disambiguated manually, typically by invasively changing the composite grammar. This of course breaks modularity and hence
is not an option. Parsers that do not support the full set of
context-free grammars, such as ANTLR, and hence Xtext, have
this problem. Parsers that do support the full set of context-free
grammars, such as the GLR parser used as part of Spoofax, are
better off. While a grammar may become ambiguous in the
sense that a program may be parseable in more than one way,
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this can be resolved by declaratively specifying which alternative should be used. This specification can be made externally,
without invasively changing either the composed or the component grammars, retaining modularity.
In projectional editors, language modularity and composition is not a problem at all40 . There is no grammar, no parsing, no grammar classes, and hence no problem with composed grammars becoming ambiguous. Any combination of
languages will be syntactically valid. In cases where a composed language would be ambiguous in a GLR-based system,
the user has to make a disambiguating decision as the program
is entered. For example, in MPS, if at a given location two language concepts are available with the same alias, just typing
the alias won’t bind, and the user has to manually decide by
picking one alternative from the code completion menu.
7.3.3
An example for a composed language
is shown in Fig. 7.5. It contains code
expressed in C, in a statemachines
extension, a decision tables extension
and in languages for expressing requirements traces and product line
variability.
40
Notational Freedom
Parser-based systems process linear sequences of character symbols. Traditionally, the character symbols were taken from the
ASCII character set, resulting in textual programs being made
up from "plain text". With the advent of Unicode, a much wider
variety of characters is available while still sticking to the linear sequence of characters approach. For example, the Fortress
programming language41 makes use of this: Greek letters and a
wide variety of different bracket styles can be used in Fortress
programs. However, character layout is always ignored. For
example it is not possible to use parsers to handle tabular notations, fraction bars or even graphics42 .
In projectional editing, this limitation does not exist. A projectional editor never has to extract the AST from the concrete
syntax; editing gestures directly influence the AST, and the
concrete syntax is rendered from the AST. This mechanism is
basically like a graphical editor and notations other than text
can be used easily. For example, MPS supports tables, fraction
bars and "big math" symbols43 . Since these non-textual notations are handled in the same way as the textual ones (possibly
with other input gestures), they can be mixed easily44 : tables
can be embedded into textual source, and textual languages
can be used within table cells (see Fig. 7.6).
41
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/
Fortress_(programming_language)
There have been experimental parsers
for two-dimensional structures such as
tables and even for graphical shapes,
but these have never made it beyond
the experimental stage. Also, it is
possible to approximate tables by using
vertical bars and hyphens to some
extent. JNario, described in Section 19,
uses this approach.
42
Figure 7.6: A table embedded in an
otherwise textual program
The upcoming version 3.0 of MPS will
also support graphical notations.
43
Of course, the price you pay is the
somewhat different style of interacting
with the editor, which, as we have said,
approximates free text editing quite
well, but not perfectly.
44
7.3.4
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Language Evolution
If the language changes, existing instance models temporarily
become outdated, in the sense that they were developed for the
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old version of the language. If the new language is not backward compatible, these existing models have to be migrated to
conform to the updated language.
Since projectional editors store the models as structured data
in which each program node points to the language concept it
is an instance of, the tools have to take special care that such
"incompatible" models can still be opened and then migrated,
manually or by a script, to the new version of the language.
MPS supports this feature, and it is also possible to distribute
migration scripts with (updated) languages to run the migration automatically45 .
Most textual IDEs do not come with explicit support for
evolving programs as languages change. However, since a
model is essentially a sequence of characters, it can always be
opened in the editor. The program may not be parseable, but
users can always update the program manually, or with global
search and replace using regular expressions. More complex
migrations may require explicit support via transformations on
the AST.
7.3.5
It is also possible to define quick fixes
that run automatically; so whenever
a concept is marked as deprecated,
this quick fix can trigger an automatic
migration to a new concept.
45
Infrastructure Integration
Today’s software development infrastructure is typically textoriented. Many tools used for diff and merge, or tools like grep
and regular expressions, are geared towards textual storage.
Programs written with parser-based textual DSLs (stored as
plain text) integrate automatically and nicely with these tools.
In projectional IDEs, special support needs to be provided
for infrastructure integration. Since the CS is not pure text,
a generic persistence format is used, typically based on XML.
While XML is technically text as well, it is not practical to perform diff, merge and the like on the level of the XML. Therefore, special tools need to be provided for diff and merge.
MPS provides integration with the usual version control systems and handles diff and merge in the IDE, using the concrete, projected syntax46 . Fig. 7.7 shows an example of an MPS
diff. However, it clearly is a drawback of projectional editing
(and the associated abstract syntax-based storage) that many
well-known text utilities don’t work47 .
Also, copy and paste with textual environments may be a
challenge. MPS, for example, supports pasting a projected program that has a textual-looking syntax into a text editor. However, for the way back (from a textual environment to the pro-
Note that since every program element has a unique ID, move can potentially be distinguished from delete/create,
providing richer semantics for diff and
merge.
46
For example, web-based diffs in
github or gerrit are not very helpful
when working with MPS.
47
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jectional editor), there is no automatic support. However, special support for specific languages can be provided via paste
handlers. Such a paste handler is available for Java, for example: when a user pastes Java text into a Java program in MPS,
a parser is executed that builds the respective MPS tree48 .
7.3.6
Tool Lock-in
In the worst case, textual programs can be edited with any text
editor. Unless you are prepared to edit XML, programs expressed with a projectional editor always require that editor to
edit programs. As soon as you take IDE support into account
though, both approaches lock users into a particular tool. Also,
there is essentially no standard for exchanging language definitions between the various language workbenches49 . So the
effort of implementing a language is always lost if the tool must
be changed.
7.3.7
Other
In parser-based systems, the complete AST has to be reconstructable from the CS. This implies that there can be no information in the tree that is not obtained from parsing the text.
195
While this works reasonably well for
Java, it has to be developed specifically
for each language used in MPS. If
a grammar for the target language
is available for a Java-based parser
generator, it is relatively simple to
provide such an integration.
48
Figure 7.7: The diff/merge tool presents
MPS programs in their concrete syntax,
i.e. text for textual notations. However,
other notations, such as tables, would
also be rendered in their native form.
There is some support for exchanging
the abstract syntax based on formalisms
such as MOF or Ecore, but most of the
effort for implementing a language is in
areas other than the abstract syntax.
49
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This is different in projectional editors. For example, the textual notation could only project a subset of the information in
the tree. The same information can be projected with different
projections, each possibly tailored to a different stakeholder,
and showing a different subset of the overall data. Since the
tree uses a generic persistence mechanism, it can hold data that
has not been planned for in the original language definition.
All kinds of meta data (documentation, presence conditions,
requirements traces) can be stored, and projected if required50 .
7.4
Characteristics of AST Formalisms
Most AST formalisms, aka meta meta models51 , are ways to
represent trees or graphs. Usually, such an AST formalism is
"meta circular" in the sense that it can describe itself.
This section is a brief overview over the three AST formalisms
relevant to Xtext, Spoofax and MPS. We will illustrate them in
more detail in the respective tool example sections.
7.4.1
EMF Ecore
The Eclipse Modeling Framework52 (EMF) is at the core of
all Eclipse Modeling tools. It provides a wide variety of services and tools for persisting, editing and processing models
and abstract syntax definitions. EMF has grown to be a fairly
large ecosystem within the Eclipse community and numerous
projects use EMF as their basis.
Its core component is Ecore, a variant of the EMOF standard53 . Ecore acts as EMF’s meta meta model. Xtext uses Ecore
as the foundation for the AS: from a grammar definition, Xtext
derives the AS as an instance of Ecore. Ecore’s central concepts
are: EClass (representing AS elements or language concepts),
EAttribute (representing primitive properties of EClasses),
EReference (representing associations between EClasses) and
EObject (representing instances of EClasses, i.e. AST nodes).
EReferences can have containment semantics or not and each
EObject can be contained by at most one EReference instance.
Fig. 7.8 shows a class diagram of Ecore.
When working with EMF, the Ecore file plays a central role.
From it, all kinds of other aspects are derived; specifically, a
generic tree editor and a generated Java API for accessing an
AST. It also forms the basis for Xtext’s model processing: The
Ecore file is derived from the grammar, and the parser, when
MPS supports annotations, where
additional data can be added to model
elements of existing languages. The
data can be projected inside the original program’s projection, all without
changing the original language specification.
50
Abstract syntax and meta model are
typically considered synonyms, even
though they have different histories
(the former comes from the parser/grammar community, whereas the latter
comes from the modeling community).
Consequently, the formalisms for defining ASTs are conceptually similar to
meta meta models.
51
52
53
www.eclipse.org/modeling/emf/
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/
Meta-Object_Facility
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executed, builds an in-memory tree of EObjects representing
the AST of the parsed program.
7.4.2
Spoofax’ ATerm
Spoofax uses the ATerm format to represent abstract syntax.
ATerm provides a generic tree structure representation format
that can be serialized textually similar to XML or JSON. Each
tree node is called an ATerm, or simply a term. Terms consist
of the following elements: Strings ("Mr. White"), Numbers
(15), Lists ([1,2,3]) and constructor applications (Order(5,
15, "Mr. White") for labeled tree nodes with a fixed number
of children.
The structure of valid ATerms is specified by an algebraic
signature. Signatures are typically generated from the concrete-
Figure 7.8: The Ecore meta model
rendered as a UML diagram.
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syntax definition, but can also be specified manually. A signature introduces one or more algebraic sorts, i.e. collections
of terms. The sorts String, Int, and List54 are predefined.
User-defined sorts are inhabited by declaring term constructors
and injections. A constructor has a name and zero or more subterms. It is declared by stating its name, the list of sorts of
its direct subterms, and the sort of the constructed term. Constructor names may be overloaded. Injections are declared as
nameless constructors. The following example shows a signature for expressions:
signature
sorts
Exp
constructors
Plus : Exp * Exp -> Exp
Times: Exp * Exp -> Exp
: Int
-> Exp
The signature declares sort Exp with its constructors Plus and
Times, which both require two expressions as direct subterms.
Basic expressions are integers, as declared by the injection rule
: Int -> Exp.
Compared to XML or JSON, perhaps the most significant
distinction is that ATerms rely on the order of subterms rather
than on labels. For example, a product may be modeled in
JSON as follows:
{
"product": {
"itemnumber": 5,
"quantity": 15,
"customer": "Mr. White"
}
}
Note how this specification includes the actual data describing
the particular product (the model), but also a description of
each of the elements (the meta model). With XML, a product
would be modeled in a similar fashion. An equivalent of the
JSON above written in ATerm format would be the following:
Order([ItemNumber(5), Quantity(15), Customer("Mr.\ White")])
However, this representation contains a lot of redundant information that also exists in the grammar. Instead, such a product can be written as Order(5, 15, "Mr. White"). This more
concise notation tends to make it slightly more convenient to
use in handwritten transformations.
The textual notation of ATerms can be used for exchanging
data between tools and as a notation for model transformations
List is a parameterized sort, i.e. it
takes the sort of the list elements as a
parameter.
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or code generation rules. In memory, ATerms can be stored
in a tool-specific way (i.e. simple Java objects in the case of
Spoofax)55 .
In addition to the basic elements above, ATerms support annotations to add additional information to terms. These are
similar to attributes in XML. For example, it is possible to annotate a product number with its product name:
199
The generic structure and serializability of ATerms also allows them to
be converted to other data formats. For
example, the aterm2xml and xml2aterm
tools can convert between ATerms and
XML.
55
Order(5{ProductName("Apples")}, 15, "Mr. White")
Spoofax also uses annotations to add information about references to other parts of a model to an abstract syntax tree. While
ATerms only form trees, the annotations are used to represent
the graph-like references.
7.4.3
MPS’ Structure Definition
In MPS, programs are trees/graphs of nodes. A node is an
instance of a concept which defines the structure, syntax, type
system and semantics of its instance nodes56 . Like EClasses57 ,
concepts are meta circular, i.e. there is a concept that defines
the properties of concepts:
concept ConceptDeclaration extends AbstractConceptDeclaration
implements INamedConcept
instance can be root: false
The term concept used in this book, to
refer to language constructs including
abstract syntax, concrete syntax and
semantics, is inspired by MPS’ use of
the term.
56
Nodes correspond to EObjects in
EMF, concepts resemble EClasses.
57
properties:
helpURL : string
rootable : boolean
children:
InterfaceConceptReference
LinkDeclaration
PropertyDeclaration
ConceptProperty
ConceptLink
ConceptPropertyDeclaration
ConceptLinkDeclaration
implementsInterfaces
linkDeclaration
propertyDeclaration
conceptProperty
conceptLink
conceptPropertyDeclaration
conceptLinkDeclaration
references:
ConceptDeclaration
extendsConcept
0..n
0..n
0..n
0..n
0..n
0..n
0..n
0..1
A concept may extend a single other concept and implement
any number of interfaces58 . It can declare references (noncontaining) and children (containing). It may also have a number of primitive-type properties as well as a couple of "static"
features. In addition, concepts can have behavior methods.
While the MPS structure definition is proprietary to MPS
and does not implement any accepted industry standard, it is
conceptually very close to Ecore59 .
Note that interfaces can provide
implementations for the methods they
specify – they are hence more like Scala
traits or mixins known from AOP and
various programming languages.
58
This is illustrated by the fact the
exporters and importers to and from
Ecore have been written.
59
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Xtext Example
Cooling programs60 represent the behavioral aspect of the refrigerator descriptions. Here is a trivial program that can be
used to illustrate some of the features of the language. The
program is basically a state machine.
This and the other examples in this
section refer back to the case studies
introduced at the beginning of the book
in Section 1.11.
60
cooling program HelloWorld uses stdlib {
var v: int
event e
init { set v = 1 }
start:
on e { state s }
state s:
entry { set v = 0 }
}
The program declares a variable v and an event e. When the
program starts, the init section is executed, setting v to 1. The
system then (automatically) transitions into the start state.
There it waits until it receives the e event. It then transitions
to the state s, where it uses an entry action to set v back to 0.
More complex programs include checks of changes of properties of hardware elements (aCompartment->currentTemp) and
commands to the hardware (set aCompartment->isCooling
= true), as shown in the next snippet:
start:
check ( aCompartment->currentTemp > maxTemp ) {
set aCompartment->isCooling = true
state initialCooling
}
check ( aCompartment->currentTemp <= maxTemp ) {
state normalCooling
}
state initialCooling:
check ( aCompartment->currentTemp < maxTemp ) {
state normalCooling
}
Grammar Basics
In Xtext, the syntax is specified using an
EBNF-like notation, a collection of productions that are typically called parser rules. These rules specify the concrete syntax
of a program element, as well as its mapping to the AS. From
the grammar, Xtext generate the abstract syntax represented in
Ecore61 . Here is the definition of the CoolingProgram rule:
CoolingProgram:
"cooling" "program" name=ID "{"
(events+=CustomEvent |
variables+=Variable)*
(initBlock=InitBlock)?
It is also possible to first create the
Ecore meta model and then define a
grammar for it. While this is a bit more
work, it is also more flexible, because
not all possible Ecore meta models can
be described implicitly by a grammar.
For example, Ecore interfaces cannot be
expressed from the grammar. A middle
ground is to have Xtext generate the
meta model while the grammar is still
in flux and then switch to maintaining
the meta model manually when the
grammar stabilizes.
The entity that contains the meta
classes is actually called an EPackage.
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(states+=State)*
"}";
Rules begin with the name (CoolingProgram in the example
above), a colon, and then the rule body. The body defines the
syntactic structure of the language concept defined by the rule.
In our case, we expect the keywords cooling and program, followed by an ID. ID is a terminal rule that is defined in the parent
grammar from which we inherit (not shown). ID is defined as
an unbounded sequence of lowercase and uppercase characters, digits, and the underscore, although it may not start with
a digit. This terminal rule is defined as follows:
terminal ID: (’a’..’z’|’A’..’Z’|’_’) (’a’..’z’|’A’..’Z’|’_’|’0’..’9’)*;
In pure grammar languages, one would typically write the following:
"cooling" "program" ID "\{ ..."}
This expresses the fact that after the two keywords we expect
an ID. However, Xtext grammars don’t just express the concrete syntax – they also determine the mapping to the AS. We
have encountered two such mappings so far. The first one is
implicit: the name of the rule will be the name of the derived
meta class62 . So we will get a meta class CoolingProgram. The
second mapping we have encountered is name=ID. It specifies
that the meta class gets a property name that holds the contents
of the ID from the parsed program text. Since nothing else
is specified in the ID terminal rule, the type of this property
defaults to EString, Ecore’s version of a string data type.
The rest of the definition of a cooling program is enclosed
in curly braces. It contains three elements: first the program
contains a collection of events and variables (the * specifies
unbounded multiplicity), an optional init block (optionality is
specified by the ?) and a list of states. Let us inspect each of
these in more detail.
The expression (states+=State)* specifies that there can
be any number of State instances in the program. The CoolingProgram meta class gets a property states, it is of type State
(the meta class derived from the State rule). Since we use the
+= operator, the states property will be typed to be a list of
States. In the case of the optional init block, the meta class
will have an initBlock property, typed as InitBlock (whose
parser rule we don’t show here), with a multiplicity of 0..1.
Events and variables are more interesting, since the vertical bar
If we start with the meta model and
then define the grammar, it is possible
to have grammar rule names that are
different from meta class names.
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operator is used within the parentheses. The asterisk expresses
the fact that whatever is inside the parentheses can occur any
number of times63 . Inside the parentheses we expect either
a CustomEvent or a Variable, which is expressed with the |.
Variables are assigned to the variables collection, events are
assigned to the events collection. This notation means that
we can mix events and variables in any order. The following
alternative notation would first expect all events, and then all
variables.
(events+=CustomEvent)*
(variables+=Variable)*
The definition of State is interesting, since State is intended
to be an abstract meta class with several subtypes.
State:
BackgroundState | StartState | CustomState;
The vertical bar operator is used here to express syntactic alternatives. This is translated to inheritance in the meta model.
The definition of CustomState is shown in the following code
snippet:
CustomState:
"state" name=ID ":"
(invariants+=Invariant)*
("entry" "{"
(entryStatements+=Statement)*
"}")?
("eachTime" "{"
(eachTimeStatements+=Statement)*
"}")?
(events+=EventHandler | signals+=SignalHandler)*;
StartState and BackgroundState, the other two subtypes of
State, share some properties. Consequently, Xtext’s AS deriva-
tion algorithm pulls them up into the abstract State meta class.
This way they can be accessed polymorphically. Fig. 7.9 shows
the resulting meta model using EMF’s tree view.
References Let us now look at statements and expressions.
States have entry and exit actions which are procedural statements that are executed when a state is entered and left, respectively. The set v = 1 in the example program above is
an example. Statement itself is abstract and has the various
kinds of statements as subtypes/alternatives:
Statement:
Statement | AssignmentStatement | PerformAsyncStatement |
ChangeStateStatement | AssertStatement;
ChangeStateStatement:
"state" targetState=[State];
While there are exceptions, the use of
a * usually goes hand in hand with the
use of a +=.
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AssignmentStatement:
"set" left=Expr "=" right=Expr;
The ChangeStateStatement is used to transition into another
state. It uses the keyword state followed by a reference to
the target state. Notice how Xtext uses square brackets to express the fact that the targetState property points to an existing state, as opposed to containing a new one (which would
be written as targetState=State); i.e. the square brackets express non-containing cross-references.
This is another example of where the Xtext grammar language goes beyond classical grammar languages, where one
would write "state" targetStateName=ID;. Writing it in this
way only specifies that we expect an ID after the state keyword. The fact that we call it target- StateName communicates to the programmer that we expect this text string to correspond to the name of a state – a later phase in model processing resolves the name to an actual state reference. Typically,
the code to resolve the reference has to be written manually,
because there is no way for the tool to derive from the grammar automatically the fact that this ID is actually a reference to
a State. In Xtext, the targetState=[State] notation makes
this explicit, so the resolution of the reference can be automatic.
This approach also has the advantage that the resulting meta
class types the targetState property to State (and not just to
a string), which makes processing the models much easier.
Figure 7.9: Part of the Ecore meta
model derived from the Xtext grammar for the cooling program. Grammar rules become EClasses, assignments in the grammar rules become
EAttributes and EReferences. The notation A -> B symbolizes that A extends
B.
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Note that the cross-reference definition only specifies the target type (State) of the cross-reference, but not the concrete
syntax of the reference itself. By default, the ID terminal is
used for the reference syntax, i.e. a simple (identifier-like) text
string is expected. However, this can be overridden by specifying the concrete syntax terminal behind a vertical bar in the
reference64 . In the following piece of code, the targetState
reference uses the QID terminal as the reference syntax.
ChangeStateStatement:
"state" targetState=[State|QID];
QID: ID ("." ID)*;
The other remaining detail is scoping. During the linking phase,
where the text of ID (or QID) is used to find the target node,
several objects with the same name might exist, or some target elements might not visible based on visibility rules of the
language. To constrain the possible reference targets, scoping
functions are used. These will be explained in the next chapter.
Expressions The AssignmentStatement shown earlier is one
of the statements that uses expressions. We repeat it here:
AssignmentStatement:
"set" left=Expr "=" right=Expr;
The following snippet is a subset of the actual definition of
expressions (we have omitted some additional expressions that
don’t add anything to the description here).
Expr:
ComparisonLevel;
ComparisonLevel returns Expression:
AdditionLevel ((({Equals.left=current} "==") |
({LogicalAnd.left=current} "&&") |
({Smaller.left=current} "<"))
right=AdditionLevel)?;
AdditionLevel returns Expression:
MultiplicationLevel ((({Plus.left=current} "+") |
({Minus.left=current} "-")) right=
MultiplicationLevel)*;
MultiplicationLevel returns Expression:
PrefixOpLevel ((({Multi.left=current} "*") |
({Div.left=current} "/")) right=PrefixOpLevel)*;
PrefixOpLevel returns Expression:
({NotExpression} "!" "(" expr=Expr ")") |
AtomicLevel;
AtomicLevel returns Expression:
({TrueLiteral} "true") |
({FalseLiteral} "false") |
({ParenExpr} "(" expr=Expr ")") |
({NumberLiteral} value=DECIMAL_NUMBER) |
({SymbolRef} symbol=[SymbolDeclaration|QID]);
Notice that in this case the vertical
bar does not represent an alternative, it
is merely used as a separator between
the target type and the terminal used to
represent the reference.
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To understand the above definition, we first have to explain
in more detail how AST construction works in Xtext. Obviously, as the text is parsed, meta classes are instantiated and
the AST is assembled. However, instantiation of the respective
meta class happens lazily, upon the first assignment to one of
its properties. If no assignment is performed at all, no object
is created. For example, in the grammar rule TrueLiteral:
"true"; no instance of TrueLiteral will ever be created, because there is nothing to assign. In this case, an action can
be used to force instantiation: TrueLiteral: {TrueLiteral}
"true";65 .
Unless otherwise specified, an assignment such as name=ID
is always interpreted as an assignment on the object that has
been created most recently. The current keyword can be used
to access that object in case it itself needs to be assigned to a
property of another AST object.
Now we know enough about AST construction to understand how expressions are encoded and parsed. In the expression grammar above, for the rules with the Level suffix, no
meta classes are created, because (as Xtext is able to find out
statically) they are never instantiated. They merely act as a way
to encode precedence. To understand this, let’s consider how 2
* 3 is parsed:
• The AssignmentStatement refers to the Expr rule in its left
and right properties, so we "enter" the expression tree at the
level of Expr (which is the root of the expression hierarchy).
• The Expr rule just calls the ComparisonLevel rule, which
calls AdditionLevel, and so on. No objects are created
at this point, since no assignment to any property is performed.
• The parser "dives down" until it finds something that matches
the first symbol in the parsed text: the 2. This occurs on
AtomicLevel when it matches the DECIMAL_NUMBER terminal. At this point it creates an instance of the NumberLiteral
meta class and assigns the number 2 to the value property.
It also sets the current object to point to the just-created
NumberLiteral, since this is now the AST object created
most recently.
• The AtomicLevel rule ends, and the stack is unwound. We’re
back at PrefixOpLevel, in the second branch. Since nothing
205
Notice that the action can instantiate meta classes other than those
that are derived from the rule name
(we could write TrueLiteral:
{SomeOtherThing} "true";. While
this would not make sense in this case,
we’ll use this feature later.
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else is specified after the call to AtomicLevel, we unwind
once more.
• We’re now back at the MultiplicationLevel. The rule is
not finished yet and we try to match an * and a /. The match
on * succeeds. At this point the assignment action on the left
side of the * kicks in (Multi.left=current). This action
creates an instance of Multi, and assigns the current (the
NumberLiteral created before) to its left property. Then
it makes the newly created Multi the new current. At
this point we have a subtree with the * at the root, and the
NumberLiteral in the left property.
• The rule hasn’t ended yet. We dive down to PrefixOpLevel
and AtomicLevel once more, matching the 3 in the same
way as the 2 before. The NumberLiteral for 3 is assigned to
the right property as we unwind the stack.
• At this point we unwind the stack further, and since no more
text is present, no more objects are created. The tree structure has been constructed as expected.
If we’d parsed 4 + 2*3 the + would have matched before the
*, because it is "mentioned earlier" in the grammar (it is in a
lower-precedence group, the AdditionLevel, so it has to end
up "higher" in the tree). Once we’re at 4 +, we’d go down again
to match the 2. As we unwind the stack after matching the 2
we’d match the *, creating a Multi again. The current at this
point would be the 2, so it would be put onto the left side
of the *, making the * the current. Unwinding further, that
* would be put onto the right side of the +, building the tree
just as we’d expect.
Notice how a rule at a given precedence level only always
delegates to rules at higher precedence levels. So higher precedence rules always end up further down in the tree. If we want
to change this, we can use parentheses (see the ParenExpr in
the AtomicLevel): inside those, we can again embed an Expr,
i.e. we jump back to the lowest precedence level66 .
Once you understand the basic approach, it is easy to add
new expressions with a precedence similar to another one (just
add it as an alternative to the respective Level rule) or to introduce a new precedence level (just interject a new Level rule
between two existing ones)67 .
This somewhat convoluted approach
to parsing expressions and encoding precedence is a consequence of
the LL(k) grammar class support by
ANTLR, which underlies Xtext. A
cleaner approach would be declarative, where precedences are encoded
explicitly and the order of the parsing
rules in not relevant. Spoofax uses this
approach. Xtext also supports syntactic
predicates, which are annotations in
the grammar that tell the parser which
alternative to take in the case of an
ambiguity. We don’t discuss this any
further in the book.
66
Note that the latter requires an
invasive change to the grammar; this
prevents the addition of operators with
a precedence level between existing
precedence levels in a sub-language,
whose definition cannot invasively
change the language it extends.
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7.6
207
Spoofax Example
Mobl’s68 data modeling language provides entities, properties
and functions. To illustrate the language, below are two data
type definitions related to a shopping list app. It supports lists
of items that can be favorited, checked, and so on, and which
are associated with some Store.
Mobl is a DSL for defining applications for mobile devices. It is based
on HTML 5 and is closely related to
WebDSL, which has been introduced
earlier (Section 1.11).
68
module shopping
entity Item {
name
: String
checked : Bool
favorite : Bool
onlist
: Bool
order
: Num
store
: Store
}
In Mobl, most files start with a module header, which can be
followed by a list of entity type definitions. In turn, each entity
can have one or more property or function definitions (shown
in the next example snippet). Modules group entities. Inside a
module, one can only access entities from the same module or
from imported modules.
Grammar Basics In Spoofax, the syntax of languages is described using SDF69 . SDF is short for Syntax Definition Formalism, and is a modular and flexible syntax definition formalism
that is supported by the SGLR70 parser generator. It can generate efficient, Java-based scannerless and general parsers, allowing Spoofax to support the full class of context-free grammars,
grammar composition, and modular syntax definitions. An example of a production written in SDF is:
69
www.syntax-definition.org/
SGLR parsing is a Scannerless,
Generalized extension of LR parsing.
70
"module" ID Entity* -> Start {"Module"}
The pattern on the left-hand side of the arrow is matched by the
symbol Start on the right-hand side71 . After the right-hand
side, SDF productions may specify annotations using curly
brackets. Most productions specify a quoted constructor label
that is used for the abstract syntax. This particular production creates a tree node with the constructor Module and two
children that represent the ID and the list of Entities respectively. As discussed earlier, Spoofax represents abstract syntax
trees as ATerms. Thus, the tree node will be represented as
Module(..., [...]). In contrast to Xtext, the children are not
named; instead, they are identified via the position in the child
collection (the ID is first, the Entity list is second). Spoofax
generates the following signature from the production above:
Note that SDF uses the exact opposite
order for productions as the grammars
we’ve discussed so far, switching the
left-hand and right-hand side.
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signature
sorts
Start
constructors
Module: ID List(Entity) -> Start
The left-hand side of an SDF production is the pattern it matches
against. SDF supports symbols, literals and character classes
in this pattern. Symbols are references to other productions,
such as ID. Literals are quoted strings such as "module" that
must appear in the input literally. Character classes specify a
range of characters expected in the input, e.g. [A-Za-z] specifies that an alphabetic character is expected. We discuss character classes in more detail below.
The basic elements of SDF productions can be combined using operators. The A* operator shown above specifies that zero
or more occurrences of A are expected. A+ specifies that one or
more are expected. A? specifies that zero or one are expected.
{A B}* specifies that zero or more A symbols, separated by B
symbols, are expected. As an example, {ID ","}* is a commaseparated list of identifiers. {A B}+ specifies one or more A
symbols separated by B symbols.
Fig. 7.10 shows an SDF grammar for a subset of Mobl’s
entities and functions syntax. The productions in this grammar should have few surprises, but it is interesting to note
how SDF groups a grammar in different sections. First, the
context-free start symbols section indicates the start symbol of the grammar. Then, the context-free syntax section
lists the context-free syntax productions, forming the main part
of the grammar. Terminals are defined in the lexical syntax
section.
Lexical Syntax
As Spoofax uses a scannerless parser, all
lexical syntax can be customized in the SDF grammar72 . Most
lexical syntax is specified using character classes such as [0-9].
Each character class is enclosed in square brackets, and can
consist of ranges of characters (c1 -c2 ), letters and digits (e.g.
x or 4), non-alphabetic literal characters (e.g., _), and escapes
(e.g., \n). A complement of a character class can be obtained
using the ∼ operator, e.g. ∼[A-Za-z] matches all non-alphabetic
characters. For whitespace and comments a special terminal
LAYOUT can be used.
SDF implicitly inserts LAYOUT between all symbols in contextfree productions. This behavior is the key distinguishing fea-
It provides default definitions for
common lexical syntax elements such
as strings, integers, floats, whitespace
and comments, which can be reused by
importing the module Commons.
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Figure 7.10: A basic SDF grammar for a
subset of Mobl. The grammar does not
yet specify the associativity, priority or
name bindings of the language.
module MoblEntities
context-free start symbols
Module
context-free syntax
"module" ID Decl*
-> Module {"Module"}
"import" ID
-> Decl
{"Import"}
"entity" ID "{" EntityBodyDecl* "}" -> Decl
{"Entity"}
ID ":" Type
->
"function" ID "(" {Param ","}* ")" ":"
->
ID ":" Type
->
ID
->
EntityBodyDecl {"Property"}
ID "{" Statement* "}"
EntityBodyDecl {"Function"}
Param
{"Param"}
Type
{"EntityType"}
"var" ID "=" Expr ";"
"return" Exp ";"
-> Statement {"Declare"}
-> Statement {"Return"}
Exp
Exp
Exp
Exp
ID
INT
->
->
->
->
->
->
"."
"."
"+"
"*"
ID "(" Exp
ID
Exp
Exp
")"
209
Exp
Exp
Exp
Exp
Exp
Exp
{"MethodCall"}
{"FieldAccess"}
{"Plus"}
{"Mul"}
{"Var"}
{"Int"}
lexical syntax
[A-Za-z][A-Za-z0-9]* -> ID
[0-9]+
-> INT
[\ \t\n]
-> LAYOUT
ture between context-free and lexical productions: lexical symbols such as identifiers and integer literals cannot be interleaved with layout. The second distinguishing feature is that
lexical syntax productions usually do not have a constructor label in the abstract syntax, as they form terminals in the abstract
syntax trees (i.e. they don’t own any child nodes).
Abstract Syntax To produce abstract syntax trees, Spoofax
uses the ATerm format, described in Section 7.4.2. SDF combines the specification of concrete and abstract syntax, primarily through the specification of constructor labels. Spoofax allows users to view the abstract syntax of any input file. As
an example, the following is the textual representation of an
abridged abstract syntax term for the shopping module shown
at the beginning of this section:
Module(
"shopping",
[ Entity(
"Item",
[Property("name", EntityType("String")), Property("checked",
EntityType("Bool")), ...] )
]
])
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Note how this term uses the constructor labels of the syntax
above: Module, Entity and Property. The children of each
node correspond to the symbols referenced in the production:
the Module production first referenced ID symbol for the module name and then included a list of Decl symbols (lists are in
square brackets).
In addition to constructor labels, productions that specify
parentheses can use the special bracket annotation:
"(" Exp ")" -> Exp {bracket}
The bracket annotation specifies that there should not be a
separate tree node in the abstract syntax for the production.
This means that an expression 1 + (2) would produce Plus
("1","2") in the AST, and not Plus("1",Parens("2")).
Precedence and Associativity SDF provides special support
for specifying the associativity and precedence of operators or
other syntactic constructs. As an example, let us consider the
production of the Plus operator. So far, it has been defined as:
Exp "+" Exp -> Exp {"Plus"}
Based on this operator, a parser can be generated that can parse
an expression such as 1 + 2 to a term Plus("1", "2"). However, the production does not specify if an expression 1 + 2
+ 3 should be parsed to a term Plus("1", Plus("2", "3"))
or Plus(Plus("1", "2"), "3"). If you try the grammar in
Spoofax, it will show both interpretations using the special amb
constructor:
amb([
Plus("1", Plus("2", "3")),
Plus(Plus("1", "2"), "3")
])
The amb node indicates an ambiguity and it contains all possible interpretations73 . Ambiguities can be resolved by adding
annotations to the grammar that describe the intended interpretation. For the Plus operator, we can resolve the ambiguity
by specifying that it is left-associative, using the left annotation:
Exp "+" Exp -> Exp {"Plus", left}
In a similar fashion, SDF supports the definition of the precedence order of operators. For this, the productions can be
placed into the context-free priorities section:
context-free priorities
Whenever an ambiguity is encountered in a file, it is marked with a
warning in the editor.
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211
Exp "*" Exp -> Exp {"Mul", left}
>
Exp "+" Exp -> Exp {"Plus", left}
This example specifies that the Mul operator has a higher priority than the Plus operator, resolving the ambiguity that arises
for an expression such as 1 + 2 * 3.
Reserved Keywords and Production Preference Parsers generated with SDF do not use a scanner, but include processing of
lexical syntax in the parser. Since scanners operate without any
context information, they will simply recognize any token that
corresponds to a keyword in the grammar as a reserved keyword, irrespective of its location in the program. In SDF, it is also
possible to use keywords that are not reserved, or keywords
that are only reserved in a certain context. As an example, the
following is a legal entity in Mobl:
entity entity {}
Since our grammar did not specify that entity is a reserved
word, it can be used as a normal ID identifier. However, there
are cases in which it is useful to reserve keywords, for example
to prevent ambiguities. Consider what would happen if we
added new productions for predefined type literals:
"Bool"
-> Type {"BoolType"}
"Num"
-> Type {"NumType"}
"String" -> Type {"StringType"}
If we were now to parse a type String, it would be ambiguous: it matches the StringType production above, but it also
matches the EntityType production, as String is a legal entity identifier74 . Keywords can be reserved in SDF by using a
production that rejects a specific interpretation:
74
So it is ambiguous because at the same
location in a program both interpretations
are possible.
"String" -> ID {reject}
This expresses that String can never be interpreted as an identifier. Alternatively, we can say that we prefer one interpretation over the other:
"String" -> Type {"StringType", prefer}
This means that this production is to be preferred if there are
any other interpretations. However, since these interpretations
cannot always be foreseen as grammars are extended, it is considered good practice to use the more specific reject approach
instead75 .
This is the situation where a projectional editor like MPS is more flexible,
since instead of running into an ambiguity, it would prompt the user to
decide which interpretation is correct as
he types String.
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Longest Match Most scanners apply a longest match policy
for scanning tokens76 . For most languages, this is the expected
behavior, but in some cases longest match is not what users expect. SDF instead allows the grammar to specify the intended
behavior. In Spoofax, the default is specified in the Common
syntax module using a lexical restrictions section:
This means that if it is possible to
include the next character in the current
token, the scanner will always do so.
76
lexical restrictions
ID -/- [A-Za-z0-9]
This section restricts the grammar by specifying that any ID
cannot be directly followed by a character that matches [A-Z
a-z0-9]. Effectively, it enforces a longest match policy for the
ID symbol. SDF also allows the use of lexical restrictions for
keywords. By default it does not enforce longest match, which
means it allows the following definition of a Mobl entity:
entityMoblEntity {}
As there is no longest match, the parser can recognize the
entity keyword even if it is not followed by a space. To avoid
this behavior, we can specify a longest match policy for the
entity keyword:
lexical restrictions
"entity" -/- [A-Za-z0-9]
Name Bindings
So far we have discussed purely syntax
specification in SDF. Spoofax also allows the specification of
name binding rules, which specify semantic relations between
productions. We discuss how these relations are specified in
Chapter 8.
7.7
MPS Example
We start by defining a simple language for state machines,
roughly similar to the one used in the state machine extension77 to mbeddr C. Its core concepts include StateMachine,
State, Transition and Trigger. The language supports the
definition of state machines, as shown in the following piece of
code:
module LineFollowerStatemachine {
statemachine LineFollower {
events unblocked()
blocked()
bumped()
initialized()
states (initial = initializing) {
In mbeddr, state machines can be
embedded into C code, as we will see
later.
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dsl engineering
state initializing {
on initialized [ ] -> running { }
}
state paused {
on unblocked [ ] -> running { }
}
state running {
on blocked [ ] -> paused { }
on bumped [ ] -> crashed { }
}
state crashed {
}
}
}
}
Concept Definition MPS is projectional, so we start with the
definition of the AS. The code below shows the definition of
the concept Statemachine. It contains a collection of States
and a collection of InEvents. It also contains a reference to
one of the states to mark it as the initial state. The alias
is defined as statemachine, so typing this string inside a C
module instantiates a state machine (it picks the Statemachine
concept from the code completion menu). State machines also
implement a couple of interfaces: IIdentifierNamedElement
contributes a property name, IModuleContent makes the state
machine embeddable in C Modules78 .
concept Statemachine extends BaseConcept
implements IModuleContent
ILocalVarScopeProvider
IIdentifierNamedElement
children:
State
states
0..n
InEvent inEvents 0..n
references:
State
initial
1
concept properties:
alias = statemachine
A State (not shown) contains two StatementLists as entryActions and exitActions. StatementList is a concept defined by the com. mbeddr.core.statements language. To
make it available visible, our statemachine language extends
com.mbeddr.core.statements. Finally, a State contains a collection of Transitions.
concept Transition
children:
Trigger
trigger
Expression
guard
StatementList actions
references:
State
target
concept properties:
alias = on
1
1
1
1
The Module owns a collection of
IModuleContents, just as the state
78
machine contains states and events.
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Transitions contain a Trigger, a guard condition, transition
actions and a reference to the target state. The trigger is an
abstract concept; various specializations are possible: the default implementation is the EventTrigger, which references
an Event79 . The guard condition is an Expression, a concept reused from com.mbeddr.core.expressions80 . The target state is a reference, i.e. we point to an existing state instead
of owning a new one. action is another StatementList that
can contain arbitrary C statements used as the transition actions.
Editor Definition Editors, i.e. the projection rules, are made
of cells. When defining editors, various cell types are arranged
so that the resulting syntax has the desired structure. Fig. 7.11
shows the editor definition for the State concept. It uses an
indent collection of cells with various style attributes to arrange the state keyword and name, the entry actions, the
transitions and the exit actions in a vertical list. Entry and exit
actions are shown only if the respective StatementList is not
empty (a condition is attached to the respective cells, marked
by the ? in front of the cell). An intention81 is used to add a
new statement and hence make the respective list visible.
Fig. 7.12 shows the definition of the editor for a Transition.
It arranges the keyword on, the trigger, the guard condition,
target state and the actions in a horizontal list of cells, the guard
surrounded by brackets, and an arrow (->) in front of the target
state. The editor for the actions StatementList comes with
its own set of curly braces.
It expresses the fact that the referenced event triggers the transition.
79
A type system rule will be defined
later to constrain this expression to be
Boolean.
80
An intention is what Eclipse calls a
Quick Fix – i.e. an entry in a little menu
that transforms the program in some
way. Intentions are explained in the
next section.
81
Figure 7.11: The definition of the
editor for the State concept. In MPS,
editors are made from cells. In the
editor definition you arrange the cells
and define their contents; this defines
the projection rule that is used when
instances of the concept are rendered in
the editor.
Figure 7.12: The editor for transitions.
Note how we embed the guard condition expression simply by referring to
the guard child relationship. We "inherit" the syntax for expressions from
the com.mbeddr.core.expressions
language.
dsl engineering
The %targetState% -> {name} part expresses the fact that in
order to render the target state, the target state’s name attribute
should be shown. We could use any text string to refer to the
target state82 .
Note how we use on both as the leading keyword for a transition and as the alias. This way, if a user types the on alias
to instantiate a transition, it feels as if they typed the leading
keyword of a transition (as in a regular text editor).
If a language extension defined a new concept SpecialTransition, they could use another alias to uniquely identify
this concept in the code completion menu. The user decides
which alias to type depending on whether they want to instantiate a Transition or a SpecialTransition. Alternatively, the
SpecialTransition could use the same alias on. In this case, if
the user types on, the code completion menu pops open and
the user has to decide which of the two concepts to instantiate83 . As we have discussed above, this means that there is
never an ambiguity that cannot be handled – as long as the
user is willing and able to make the decision of which concept should be instantiated. A third option would transform a
Transition into a SpecialTransition on demand, for example if the user executes a specific extension, or types a specific
string on the right side of a Transition.
Intentions Intentions are MPS’ term for what is otherwise
known as a Quick Fix: a little menu can be displayed on a program element that contains a set of actions that change the underlying program element (see Fig. 7.13). The intentions menu
is opened via Alt-Enter. In MPS, intentions play an important role in the editor. In many languages, certain changes to
the program can only be made via an intention84 . Using the
intentions menu in a projectional editor is idiomatic. For example, in the previous section we mentioned that we use them
to add an entry action to a State. Here is the intention code:
intention addEntryActions for concept State {
available in child nodes : true
description(editorContext, node)->string {
"Add Entry Action";
}
isApplicable(editorContext, node)->boolean {
node.entryAction.isNull;
}
execute(editorContext, node)->void {
node.entryAction.set new(<default>);
editorContext.selectWRTFocusPolicy(node.entryAction);
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82
We could even use the symbol X to
render all target state references. The
reference would still work, because
the underlying data structure uses
the target’s unique ID to establish the
reference. It does not matter what we
use to represent the target in the model.
Using X for all references would of
course be bad for human readability,
but technically it would work.
The code completion menu by default
shows from which language a language
concept originates, so this is a way to
distinguish the two. Alternatively, a
short explaining text can be shown for
each entry in the code completion menu
that helps the user make the decision.
83
Figure 7.13: The intentions menu for
a local variable declaration. It can be
opened via Alt-Enter. To select an
action from the menu, you can just start
typing the action label, so this is very
keyboard-friendly.
This is mostly because building a
just-type-along solution would be a lot
of work in a projectional editor in some
cases.
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}
}
An intention is defined for a specific language concept (State
in the example). It can then be invoked by pressing Alt-Enter
on any instance of this concept. Optionally it is possible to also
make it available in child nodes. For example, if you are in
the guard expression of an transition, an intention for State
with available in child nodes set to true will be available
as well. The intention implementation also specifies an expression used as the title in the menu and an applicability condition. In the example the intention is only applicable if the corresponding state does not yet have any entry action (because
in that case you can just type in additional statements). Finally,
the execute section contains procedural code that performs the
respective change on the model. In this case we simply create a
new instance of StatementList in the entryAction child. We
also set the cursor into this new StatementList85 .
Expressions Since we inherit the expression structure and
syntax from the C core language, we don’t have to define expressions ourselves to be able to use them in guards. It is
nonetheless interesting to look at their implementation in the
language com.mbeddr.core.expressions.
Expressions are arranged into a hierarchy starting with the
abstract concept Expression. All other kinds of expressions extend Expression, directly or indirectly. For example, PlusExpression extends BinaryExpression, which in turn extends
Expression. BinaryExpressions have left and right child
Expressions. This way, arbitrarily complex expressions can be
built86 . The editors are also straightforward – in the case of the
+ expression, they are a horizontal list of: editor for left argument, the + symbol, and the editor for the right argument.
As we have explained in the general discussion about projectional editing (Section 7.2), MPS supports linear input of hierarchical expressions using side transforms. The code below shows
the right side transformation for expressions that transforms
an arbitrary expression into a PlusExpression by putting the
PlusExpression "on top" of the current node87 .
side transform actions makeArithmeticExpression
right transformed node: Expression tag: default_
actions :
add custom items
simple item
(output concept: PlusExpression)
Notice how we don’t have to specify
any formatter or serializer for our language. Remember how a projectional
editor always goes from AS to CS. So
after changing the AS procedurally, the
respective piece of the tree is simply
rerendered to update the representation
of the program in the editor. However,
we do have to define an editor for each
language concept.
85
Representing expressions as trees is
a standard approach that we have seen
with the Xtext example already; in that
sense, the abstract syntax of mbeddr
expressions (and more generally, the
way to handle expressions in MPS) is
not very interesting.
86
Using the alias (i.e. the operator symbol) of the respective
BinaryExpression and the inheritance hierarchy, it is possible to factor
all side transformations for all binary
operations into one single action implementation, resulting in much less
implementation effort.
87
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217
matching text
+
do transform
(operationContext, scope, model, sourceNode, pattern)->node< > {
node<PlusExpression> expr = new node<PlusExpression>();
sourceNode.replace with(expr);
expr.left = sourceNode;
expr.right.set new(<default>);
return expr.right;
}
The fact that you can enter expressions linearly leads to a problem not unlike the one found in grammars regarding operator
precedence. If you enter 2 + 3 * 4 by typing these characters
sequentially, there are two ways in which the tree could look,
depending on whether + or * binds more tightly88 .
To deal with this problem, we proceed as follows: each subconcept of BinaryExpression has a numerical value associated
with it that expresses its precedence. The higher the number,
the higher the precedence (i.e. the lower in the tree). The action code shown above is changed to include a call to a helper
function that rearranges the tree according to the precedence
values.
Note how this really is a consequence
of the linear input method; you could
build the tree by first typing the +
and then filling in the left and right
arguments, in which case it would be
clear that the * is lower in the tree and
hence binds tighter. However, this is
tedious and hence not an option in
practice.
88
do transform
(operationContext, scope, model, sourceNode, pattern)->node< > {
node<PlusExpression> expr = new node<PlusExpression>();
sourceNode.replace with(expr);
expr.left = sourceNode;
expr.right.set new(<default>);
// rearranges tree to handle precedence
PrecedenceHelper.rearrange(expr);
return expr.right;
}
This method scans through an expression tree and checks for
cases in which a binary expression with a higher precedence
is an ancestor of a binary expression with a lower precedence
value. If it finds one, it rearranges the tree to resolve the problem89 .
Context Restrictions
MPS makes strong use of polymorphism. If a language concept defines a child relationship to another concept C, then any subtype of C can also be used in this
child relationship. For example, a function has a body which is
typed to StatementList, which contains a list of Statements.
So every subtype of Statement can be used inside a function
body. In general, this is the desired behavior, but in some cases,
it is not. Consider test cases. Here is a simple example:
module UnitTestDemo imports nothing {
test case testMultiply {
assert (0) times2(21) == 42;
}
Since the problem can only arise as a
consequence of the linear input method,
it is sufficient to include this rearrangement in the side transformation like the
one shown above.
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int8 times2(int8 a) {
return 2 * a;
}
}
Test cases reside in a separate language com.mbeddr.core.unittest. The language defines the TestCase concept, as well as
the assert statement. AssertStatement extends Statement,
so by default, an assert can be used wherever a Statement
is expected, once the com.mbeddr.core.unittest is used in a
program. However, this is not what we want: assert statements should be restricted to be used inside a UnitTest90 . To
support such a use case, MPS supports a set of constraints.
Here is the implementation for AssertStatement:
This is, among other reasons, because
the transformation of the assert
statement to C expects code generated
from the UnitTest to surround it.
90
concept constraints AssertStatement {
can be child
(operationContext, scope, parentNode, link, childConcept)->boolean {
parentNode.ancestor<TestCase, +>.isNotNull;
}
}
This constraint checks that a TestCase is among the ancestors
of a to-be-inserted AssertStatement. The constraint is checked
before the new AssertStatement is inserted and prevents insertion if not under a TestCase91 .
Tables and Graphics The MPS projectional editor associates
projection rules with language concepts. A projection rule consists of cells. Each cell represents a primitive rendering element. For example, a constant cell contains a constant text
that is rendered as-is in the programs. A property cell renders
a property (for example, the name). Collections cells arrange
other cells in some predefined or configurable layout. Among
others, MPS has vertical and horizontal collections. To render
concepts as a table, a suitable kind of cell is required: MPS
provides the table cell for this. For example, the editor for the
decision table is shown in Fig. 7.14 (and an example table is
shown in Fig. 14.7).
However, this is only half of the story. The real definition of
the table contents happens via a table model implementation
inside the table cell. The inspector for the table cell contains
a function that has to return a TableModel, an interface that
determines the structure of the table92 . Here is the code used
in the decision table:
(node, editorContext)->TableModel {
return new XYCTableModel(node, link/DecTab : xExpr/,
link/DecTab : yExpr/,
This constraint is written from the
perspective of the potential child
element. For reasons of dependency
management, it is also possible to write
the constraint from the perspective
of the parent or an ancestor. This is
useful if a new container concept
wants to restrict the use of existing
child concepts without changing
those concepts. For example, the
Lambda concept, which contains a
statement list as well, prohibits the use
of LocalVariableRefs, in any of its
statements.
91
Figure 7.14: The editor for a decision
table contains a horizontal collection of
cells. The first one contains the return
type of the decision table, the second
one contains the default value, and
the last one contains the actual table,
represented by the table cell.
This is similar to the approach used
in Java Swing, but it is not exactly the
same interface.
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link/DecTab : cExpr/,
editorContext);
}
The XYCTableModel class is a utility class that ships with MPS
for tables whose contents are represented by a concept that has
three child collections, one for the contents of the row headers,
one for the contents of the column headers and one for the
remaining cells. We pass in the node that represents the table
as well as the three child collections (and the editorcontext).
If none of the existing utility classes is suitable, you have to
implement the TableModel interface yourself93 . Here is the
definition of the interface:
public interface TableModel extends <none> {
int getColumnCount();
int getRowCount();
void deleteRow(int rowNumber);
node<> getValueAt(int row, int column);
void createElement(int row, int column);
NodeSubstituteInfo getSubstituteInfo(int row, int column);
void insertRow(int rowNumber);
void deleteColumn(int columnNumber);
void insertColumn(int columnNumber);
int getMaxColumnWidth(int columnNumber);
}
Note how the getValueAt method returns a node<>. The editor
then renders the editor for that node into the respective table
cell, supporting nesting of arbitrary other editors into tables.
A similar approach will be used for graphical notations.
New kinds of cells (for example, rectangle and line) may
be required94 . The fundamentally interesting characteristic of
projectional editors is that completely different styles of notations can be supported, as long as the necessary primitive cell
types are available. The approach to editor definition remains
unchanged. Because all the different notations are based on the
same paradigm, the combination of different notational styles
is straightforward.
Later versions of MPS will provide
a higher-level approach to defining
tables that is more consistent with
the approach for editor definition in
MPS, and which does not require Java
programming for defining a table.
93
At the time of this writing, MPS does
not yet support graphical notations;
however, it is planned to add them in
2013.
94
8
Scoping and Linking
Linking refers to the resolution of name-based references to
the referenced symbols in parser-based languages. In projectional systems this is not necessary, since every reference
is stored as a direct pointer to the target element. However,
in both cases we have to define which elements are actually
visible from a given reference site. This information serves
as the basis for code completion and to check existing references for their validity. The set of visible elements for a
given reference is called its scope.
As we discussed in the previous chapter, the abstract syntax
in its simplest form is a tree. However, the information represented by the program is semantically almost always a graph;
i.e. in addition to the tree’s containment hierarchy, it contains
non-containment cross-references1 . The challenge thus is: how
to get from the "syntactic tree" to the "semantic graph" – or,
how to establish the cross-links. There is a marked difference
between the projectional and parser-based approach:
• In parser-based systems, the cross-references have to be resolved, from the parsed text after the AST has been created.
An IDE may provide the candidates in a code completion
menu, but after selecting a target, the resulting textual representation of the reference must contain all the information
to re-resolve the reference each time the program is parsed.
• In projectional editors in which every program element has a
unique ID, a reference is represented as a pointer to that ID.
Once a reference is established, it can always be re-resolved
trivially based on the ID. The reference is established di-
Examples abound and include variable
references, procedure calls and target
states in transitions of state machines.
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rectly as the program is edited: the code completion menu
shows candidate target elements for a reference in the code
completion menu, and selection of one of them creates the
reference2 .
Typically, a language’s structure definition specifies which concepts constitute valid target concepts for any given reference
(e.g., a Function, a Variable or a State), but this is usually not enough. Language-specific visibility rules determine
which instances of these concepts are actually permitted as a
reference target3 . The collection of model elements which are
valid targets of a particular semantic cross-reference is called
the scope of that cross-reference. Typically, the scope of a particular cross-reference not only depends on the target concept
of the cross-reference, but also on its surroundings, e.g. the
namespace within which the element lives, the location inside
the larger structure of the site of the cross-reference or something that’s essentially non-structural in nature.
A scope, the collection of valid targets for a reference, has
two uses. First, it can be used to populate the code completion
menu in the IDE if the user presses Ctrl-Space at the reference
site. Second, independent of the IDE, the scope is used for
checking the validity of an existing reference: if the reference
target is not among the elements in the scope, the reference is
invalid.
Scopes can be hierarchical, in which case they are organized
as a stack of collections – confusingly, these collections are
often called scopes themselves. During resolution of a crossreference, the lowest or innermost collection is searched first. If
the reference cannot be resolved to match any of its elements,
the parent of the innermost collection is queried, and so forth.
The hierarchy often mimics the structure of the language
itself: e.g., the innermost scope of a reference consists of all
the elements present in the immediately-surrounding "block",
while the outermost scope is the global scope. This provides a
mechanism to disambiguate target elements having the same
reference syntax (usually the target element’s name) by always
choosing the element from the innermost scope. This is often
called shadowing, because the inner elements overshadow the
(more) outer elements.
The code completion menu shows
some human-readable (qualified) name
of the target, but the persisted program
uses the unique ID once the user makes
a selection.
2
For example, only the function and
variables in the local module or the states
in the same state machine as the transition
may be valid targets.
3
Instead of looking at scopes from the
perspective of the reference (and hence
calculating a set of candidate target
elements), one can also look at scopes
from the perspective of visibility. In this
case, we (at least conceptually) compute
for each location in the program, the set
of visible elements. A reference is then
restricted to refer to any element from
those visible at the particular location.
Our notion is more convenient from the
cross-reference viewpoint, however, as
it centers around resolving particular
cross-references one at a time. From
an implementation point of view, both
perspective are exchangeable.
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223
Scoping in Spoofax
In the previous chapter we described how to specify a grammar for a subset of the Mobl language. This chapter shows
how to specify name resolution for this language by means of
declarative name binding rules. Spoofax’ name binding rules
are based on five concepts: namespaces, definitions, references,
scopes and imports. We will introduce each of these concepts
separately, going from simple to more complicated examples.
8.1.1
Namespaces
To understand naming in Spoofax, the notion of a namespace is
essential. In Spoofax, a namespace is a collection of names and
is not necessarily connected to a specific language concept4 .
Different concepts can contribute names to a single namespace.
For example, in Java, classes and interfaces contribute to the
same namespace. Namespaces are declared in the namespace
section of a language definition. For Mobl, we have separate
namespaces for modules, entities, properties, functions and local variables.
Some languages such as C# provide
namespaces as a language concept to
scope the names of declarations such
as classes. It is important to distinguish
these namespaces as a language concept from Spoofax’ namespaces as a
language definition concept. The two are
not related.
4
namespaces Module Entity Property Function Variable
8.1.2
Definitions and References
Once we have defined namespaces, we can define name bindings with rules of the form pattern : clause*, where pattern
is a term pattern5 , and clause* is a list of name binding declarations about the language construct that matches with pattern.
For example, the following rules declare definition sites for
module and entity names. The patterns in these rules match
module and entity declarations, binding variables m and e to
module and entity names respectively. These variables are then
used in the clauses on the right-hand sides6 .
Module(m, _): defines non-unique Module m
Entity(e, _): defines unique Entity e
As an example, let us reconsider the example module from the
previous chapter:
module shopping
entity Item {
name
: String
...
}
The parser turns this into an abstract syntax tree, represented
as a term:
A term pattern is a term that may
contain variables (x) and wildcards (_).
5
In the first rule, the clause specifies
any term matched by Module(m, _)
to define a name m in the Module
namespace. Similarly, the second
rule specifies any term matched by
Entity(e, _) to define a name e in the
Entity namespace.
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Module(
"shopping",
[ Entity(
"Item",
[Property("name", EntityType("String")), ...] )
]
])
The patterns in name binding rules match subterms of this
term, indicating definition and use sites. The whole term is
a definition site of the module name shopping. The first name
binding rule specifies this binding. Its pattern matches the
term and binds m to "shopping". Similarly, the subterm Entity
("Item", ...) is a definition site of the entity name Item. The
pattern of the second name binding rule matches this term and
binds e to "Item".
While entity declarations are unique definition sites, module
declarations are non-unique definition sites. That is, multiple
module declarations can share the same name. This allows
Mobl users to spread the content of a module over several files,
similar to Java packages. Namespaces are by default unique, so
the unique keyword is only optional and can be omitted. For
example, the following rules declare unique definition sites for
property and variable names:
Property(p, _): defines Property p
Param(p, _)
: defines Variable p
Declare(v, _) : defines Variable v
Note how Spoofax distinguishes the name of a namespace from
the sort and the constructor of a program element: in the last
rule above, the sort of the program element is Statement, its
constructor is Declare, and it lives in the Variable namespace.
By distinguishing these three things, it becomes easy to add or
exclude program elements from a namespace7 .
Use sites which refer to definition sites of names can be declared similarly. For example, the following rule declares use
sites of entity names:
Type(t): refers to Entity t
Use sites might refer to different names from different namespaces. For example, a variable might refer either to a Variable
or a Property. In Spoofax, this can be specified by exclusive
resolution options:
Var(x):
refers to Variable x otherwise
refers to Property x
For example, return statements are
also of the syntactic sort Statement,
but do not live in any namespace. On
the other hand, function parameters
also live in the Variable namespace,
even though (in contrast to variable
declarations) they do not belong to the
syntactic sort Statement.
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The otherwise keyword signals ordered alternatives: only if
the reference cannot be resolved to a variable will Spoofax try
to resolve it to a property. As a consequence, variable declarations shadow property definitions. If this is not intended,
constraints can be defined to report corresponding errors. We
will discuss constraints in Section 9.3 in the next chapter.
8.1.3
Scoping
Simple Scopes
In Spoofax, Scopes restrict the visibility of
definition sites8 . For example, an entity declaration scopes
property declarations that are not visible from outside the entity.
8
Note that Spoofax’ use of the word
scope is different from the general
meaning of the word in this chapter.
entity Customer {
name : String // Customer.name
}
entity Product {
name : String // Product.name
}
In this example, both name properties live in the Property
namespace, but we can still distinguish them: if name is referenced in a function inside Customer, then it references the
one in Customer, not the one in Product.
Scopes can be nested and name resolution typically looks
for definition sites from inner to outer scopes. In Mobl, modules scope entities, entities scope properties and functions, and
functions scope local variables. This can be specified in Spoofax
in terms of scopes clauses:
Module(m, _):
defines Module m scopes Entity
Entity(e, _):
defines Entity e scopes Property, Function
Function(f, _): defines Function f scopes Variable
As these examples illustrate, scopes are often also definition
sites. However, this is not a requirement. For example, a block
statement9 has no name, but scopes variables:
Block(_): scopes Variable
Definition Sites with Limited Scope So far we have seen examples in which definitions are visible in their enclosing scope:
entities are visible in the enclosing module, properties and
functions are visible in the enclosing entity, and parameters
are visible in the enclosing function. However, this does not
hold for variables declared inside a function. Their visibility
is limited to statements after the declaration. Thus, we need to
A block statement groups statements
syntactically to a single statement.
For example, Java provides curly
braces to group statements into a block
statement.
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restrict the visibility in the name binding rule for Declare to
the subsequent scope:
Declare(v, _): defines Variable v in subsequent scope
Similarly, the iterator variable in a for loop is only visible in
its condition, the update, and the loop’s body, but not in the
initializing expression. This can be declared as follows:
For(v, t, init, cond, update, body):
defines Variable v in cond, update, body
Scoped References Typically, use sites refer to names which
are declared in its surrounding scopes. But a use site might also
refer to definition sites which reside outside its scope. For example, a property name in a property access expression might
refer to a property in another entity:
entity Customer {
name : String
}
entity Order {
customer : Customer
function getCustomerName(): String {
return customer.name;
}
}
Here, name in customer.name refers to the property in entity
Customer. The following name binding rule is a first attempt
to specify this:
PropAccess(exp, p): refers to Property p in Entity e
But this rule does not specify which entity e is the right one.
Interaction with the type system10 is required in this case:
PropAccess(exp, p):
refers to Property p in Entity e
where exp has type EntityType(e)
This rule essentially says: give me a property with the name p
in entity e, where e is the type of the current expression exp.
Imports Many languages offer import facilities to include
definitions from another scope into the current scope. For example, a Mobl module can import other modules, making entities from the imported modules available in the importing
module:
module order
import banking
entity Customer {
We will discuss type systems in
Section 10.5.
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name
: String
account: BankAccount
}
Here, BankAccount is not declared in the scope of module
However, module banking declares an entity BankAccount, which is imported into module order. The type of
property account should refer to this entity. This can be specified by the following name binding rule:
order.
Import(m): imports Entity from Module m
This rule has two effects. First, m is interpreted as a name referring to a module. Second, every entity declared in this module
becomes visible in the current scope.
8.1.4
References in Terms
Spoofax uses terms to represent abstract syntax. This enables
many interesting features, for example generic tree traversals.
But in contrast to object structures as used in MPS and Xtext,
terms lack a native concept to represent cross-references. There
are two approaches to handle cross-references when working
with terms or similar tree structures. First, we can maintain a
temporary environment with required information about defined elements during a transformation. This information can
then be accessed at use sites. Second, we can maintain similar
information in a global environment, which can be shared by
various transformations.
Spoofax follows the second approach and stores all definitions and references in an in-memory data structure called the
index11 . By collecting all this summary information about files
in a project together, it ensures fast access to global information (in particular, to-be-referenced names). The index is updated automatically when Spoofax model files change (or are
deleted) and is persisted as Eclipse exits. All entries in the index have a URI which uniquely identifies the element across
a project. These URIs are the basis for name resolution, and,
by default, are constructed automatically, based on the name
binding rules. As an example, consider the following entity:
module storage
entity Store {
name
: String
address : Address
}
Following the name binding rules discussed so far, there are
two scope levels in this fragment: one at the module level and
Spoofax also uses the index to store
metadata about definitions, such as
type information, as we show in the
next chapter.
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one at the entity level. We can assign names to these scopes
(storage and Store) by using the naming rules for modules
and entities. By creating a hierarchy of these names, Spoofax
creates URIs: the URI for Store is Entity://storage.Store,
and the one for name is Property://storage.Store.name. URIs
are represented internally as lists of terms that start with the
namespace, followed by a reverse hierarchy of the path names12 .
For the name property of the Store entity in the storage module, this would be:
[Property(), "name", "Store", "storage"]
Spoofax annotates each definition and reference with a URI to
connect names with information stored in the index. References are annotated with the same URI as their definition. This
way, information about the definition site is also available at
the reference. We can inspect URIs in Spoofax’ analyzed syntax view. This view shows the abstract syntax with all URIs
as annotations13 . Consider the following example with both
named and anonymous blocks:
module banking
entity BankAccount {
name
: String
number : Num
function toString() : String {
{ // anonymous block
var result = name + number.toString();
return result;
}
}
}
The analyzed abstract syntax for this example is the following:
Module(
"banking"{[Module(),"banking"]},
[ Entity(
"BankAccount"{[Entity(),"BankAccount","banking"]},
[ Property(
"name"{[Property(),"name","BankAccount","banking"]},
StringType()
),
Property(
"number"{[Property(),"number","BankAccount","banking"]},
NumType()
),
Function(
"toString"{[Function(),"toString","BankAccount","banking"]},
[],
StringType(),
Block([
Declare("result"{[Var(),"result",Anon(125),Anon(124),
"toString","BankAccount","banking"]},
Add(
Var("name"{[Property(),"name","BankAccount","banking"]}),
MethodCall(..., "toString"{[Unresolved(Function()),
"toString", "BankAccount", "banking"]})
)
The reverse order used in the representation makes it easier to efficiently
store and manipulate URIs in memory:
every tail of such a list can share the
same memory space.
12
13
To obtain this view, select Show Analyzed Syntax (selection) in the Transform
menu of the Spoofax editor. Spoofax
will open a new editor which updates
automatically when the content of the
original editor changes.
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229
),
Return(
Var("result"{[Var(),"result",Anon(125),Anon(124),
"toString","BankAccount","banking"]})
)
])
)
]
)
]
)
Any references that cannot be resolved are annotated with a
special Unresolved constructor. For example, a variable named
nonexistent could be represented as:
Var("nonexistent"{[Unresolved(Var()),"non\-existent",...]})
This makes it easy to recognize any unresolved references in
constraints14 : we can simply pattern-match against the Unresolved term.
8.2
We discuss constraints in Section 9.3.
Scoping in Xtext
Xtext provides Java APIs for implementing all aspects of languages except the grammar15 . Language developers typically
provide Java classes that implement aspect-specific interfaces
and then contribute those to Xtext using dependency injection16 . For most language aspects, Xtext comes with various
default implementations developers can build on. A lot of
functionality is provided "out of the box" with minimal configuration, but it’s easy to swap specific parts by binding another
or a custom class through Guice.
8.2.1
14
In fact, you can use any JVM-based
language for implementing these
language aspects, including Xtend.
15
Xtext’s internal configuration is based on dependency
injection with Google Guice
16
code.google.com/p/google-guice/
Simple, Local Scopes
To implement scopes, language developers have to contribute
a class that implements the IScopeProvider interface. It has
one method called getScope that returns an IScope for a given
reference. An IScope is basically a collection of candidate reference targets, together with the textual representation by which
these may be referenced from the current reference site (the
same target may be referenced by different text strings from
different program locations). The getScope method has two
arguments: the first one, context, is the current program element for which a reference should be scoped; the second one,
reference, identifies the reference for which the scope that
needs to be calculated17 .
public interface IScopeProvider {
IScope getScope(EObject context, EReference reference);
}
The class EReference is the Ecore
concept that represents references.
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To make the scoping implementation easier, Xtext provides
declarative scope providers through the AbstractDeclarativeScopeProvider base class: instead of having to inspect the
reference and context object manually to decide how to compute the scope, the language implementor can express this information via the name of the method (using a naming convention). Two different naming conventions are available:
// <X>, <R>: scoping the <R> reference of the <X> concept
public IScope scope_<X>_<R>(<X> ctx, EReference ref );
// <X>: the language concept we are looking for as a reference target
// <Y>: the concept from under which we try to look for the reference
public IScope scope_<X>(<Y> ctx, EReference ref);
Let’s assume we want to scope the targetState reference of
the ChangeStateStatement. Its definition in the grammar looks
like this:
ChangeStateStatement:
"state" targetState=[State];
We can use the following two alternative methods:
public IScope scope_ChangeStateStatement_targetState
(ChangeStateStatement ctx, EReference ref ) {
...
}
public IScope scope_State(ChangeStateStatement ctx, EReference ref) {
...
}
The first alternative is specific for the targetState reference
of the ChangeStateStatement. It is invoked by the declarative scope provider only for that particular reference. The second alternative is more generic. It is invoked whenever we
are trying to reference a State (or any subconcept of State)
from any reference of a ChangeStateStatement and all its descendants in the AST. So we could write an even more general
alternative, which scopes the visible States from anywhere in
a CoolingProgram, independent of the actual reference18 .
public IScope scope_State(CoolingProgram ctx, EReference ref) {
...
}
The implementation of the scopes is simple, and relatively similar in all three cases. We write Java code that crawls up the
containment hierarchy until we arrive at a CoolingProgram (in
the last alternative, we already get the CoolingProgram as an
argument, so we don’t need to move up the tree), and then
construct an IScope that contains the States defined in that
CoolingProgram. Here is a possible implementation:
It is a good idea to always use the
most general variants, unless you
specifically want to scope one specific reference. Here is why: depending on the structure of your
language, Xtext may have a hard
time finding out the current location, and hence the reference that
needs to be scoped. In this case, the
tighter versions of the scoping method
(scope_ChangeStateStatement_targetState in the example) might not
be called in all the places you expect
it to be called. This can be remedied
either by changing the syntax (often
not possible or not desired), or by
using the more general variants of
the scoping function scope_State(
CoolingProgram ctx, ... ).
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public IScope scope_ChangeStateStatement_targetState
(ChangeStateStatement ctx, EReference ref ) {
CoolingProgram owningProgram =
Utils.ancestor( ctx, CoolingProgram.class );
return Scopes.scopeFor(owningProgram.getStates());
}
The Scopes class provides a couple of helper methods to create IScope objects from collections of elements. The simple
scopeFor method will use the name of the target element as
the text by which it will be referenced19 . So if a state is called
normalCooling, then we’d have to write state normalCooling
in a ChangeStateStatement in order to change to that state.
The text normalCooling acts as the reference – pressing Ctrl-F3
on that program element will go to the referenced state.
8.2.2
You can pass in code that creates
other strings than the name from
the target element. This supports
the previously mentioned feature of
referencing the same program element
with different strings from different
reference sites.
19
Nested Scopes
The approach to scoping shown above is suitable for simple
cases, such as the targetState reference shown above. However, in languages with nested blocks a different approach is
recommended. Here is an example of a program expressed in
a language with nested blocks:
var int x;
var int g;
function add( int x, int y ) {
int sum = x + y;
return sum;
}
function addAll( int es ... ) {
int sum = 0;
foreach( e in es ) {
sum += e;
}
x = sum;
}
// 1
// 2
// 3
At the program location marked as 1, the local variable sum, the
arguments x and y and the global variables x and g are visible,
although the global variable x is shadowed by the argument of
the same name. At 2, we can see x, g, sum and es, but also
the iterator variable e. At 3, x refers to the global, since it
is not shadowed by a parameter or local variable of the same
name. In general, some program elements introduce blocks
(often statement lists surrounded by curly braces). A block can
declare new symbols. References from within these blocks can
see the symbols defined in that block, as well as all ancestor
blocks. Symbols in inner blocks typically hide symbols with
the same name in outer blocks20 .
The symbols in outer blocks are
either not accessible at all, or a special
name has to be used, for example,
by prefixing them with some outer
keyword (for example, outer.x).
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Xtext’s scopes support this scenario. IScopes can reference
outer scopes. If a symbol is not found in any given scope, that
scope delegates to its outer scope (if it has one) and asks it for a
symbol of the respective name. Since inner scopes are searched
first, this implements shadowing as expected.
Also, scopes are not just collections of elements. Instead,
they are maps between a string and an element21 . The string
is used as the reference text. By default, the string is the same
as the target element’s name property. So if a variable is called
x, it can be referenced by the string x. However, this reference
string can be changed as part of the scope definition. This can
be used to make shadowed variables visible under a different
name, such as outer.x if it is referenced from location 1. The
following is pseudo-code that implements this behavior:
In addition, the text shown in the
code completion window can be different from the text that will be used
as the reference once an element is
selected. In fact, it can be a rich string
that includes formatting, and it can
contain an icon.
21
// recursive method to build nested scopes
private IScope collect( StatementList ctx ) {
IScope outer = null
if ( ctx is within another StatementList parent ) {
outer = collect(parent)
}
IScope scope = new Scope( outer )
for( all symbols s in ctx ) {
scope.put( s.name, s )
if ( outer.hasSymbolNamed( s.name ) ) {
scope.put( "outer."+s.name, outer.getSymbolByName( s.name ) )
}
}
return scope
}
// entry method, according to naming convention
// in declarative scope provider
public IScope scope_Symbol( StatementList ctx ) {
return collect( ctx )
}
8.2.3
Global Scopes
There is one more aspect of scoping that needs to be discussed.
Programs can be separated into several files and references can
cross file boundaries. That is, an element in file A can reference an element in file B. In earlier versions of Xtext file A had
to explicitly import file B to make the elements in B available
as reference targets22 . Since Xtext 1.0 both of these problems
are solved using the emphindex23 . The index is a data structure that stores (String,IEObjectDescription)-pairs. The first
argument is the qualified name of the object, and the second
one, the IEObjectDescription, contains information about a
model element, including a URI (a kind of global pointer that
also includes the file in which the element is stored) as well
as arbitrary additional data provided by the language implementation. By default, all references are checked against this
This resulted in several problems.
First, for internal reasons, scalability
was limited. Second, as a consequence
of the explicit file imports, if the referenced element was moved into another
file, the import statements in all referencing files had to be updated.
22
This is similar to Spoofax’ index
discussed above.
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name in the index, not against the actual object. If the actual
object has to be resolved, the URI stored in the index is used.
Only then is the respective file loaded24 . The index is updated
whenever a file is changed25 . This way, if an element is moved
to a different file while keeping its qualified name (which is
based on the logical program structure) constant, the reference
remains valid. Only the URI in the index is updated.
There are two ways to customize what gets stored in the
index, and how. The IQualifiedNameProvider returns a qualified name for each program element. If it returns null, the element is not stored in the index, which means it is not referenceable. The other way is the IDefaultResourceDescriptionStrategy, which allows language developers to build their
own IEObjectDescription for program elements. This is important if custom user data has to be stored in the IEObjectDescription for later use during scoping.
The IGlobalScopeProvider is activated if a local scope returns null or no applicable methods can be found in the declarative scope provider class (or if they return null). By default,
the ImportNamespacesAwareGlobalScopeProvider is configured26 , which provides the possibility of referencing model
elements outside the current file, either through their (fully)
qualified name, or through their unqualified name if the respective namespace is imported using an import statement27 .
Polymorphic References In the cooling language, expressions
also include references to entities such as configuration parameters, variables and hardware elements (compressors or fans
defined in a different model). All of these referenceable elements extend SymbolDeclaration. This means that all of them
can be referenced by the single SymbolRef construct.
233
This is what improved scalability; files
are only loaded if a reference target is
accessed, not to check a reference for
validity.
24
Even when it has not been saved, so
references against dirty editors work as
expected.
25
As with any other Xtext configuration, the specific implementation is
configured through a Guice binding.
26
That import statement is different
from the one mentioned earlier: it
makes the contents of the respective
namespace visible; it does not refer to
the a particular file.
27
AtomicLevel returns Expression:
...
({SymbolRef} symbol=[SymbolDeclaration|QID]);
The problem with this situation is that the reference itself does
not encode the kind of thing that is referenced28 . This makes
writing code that processes the model cumbersome, since the
target of a SymbolRef has to be taken into account when deciding how to treat (translate, validate) a symbol reference. A
more natural design of the language would use different reference constructs for the different referenceable elements. In this
case, the reference itself is specific to the referenced element,
making processing much easier29 :
By looking at the reference alone we
only know that we reference some kind
of symbol. We don’t know whether
the reference points to a variable, a
configuration parameter or a hardware
element.
28
It would also make writing the scopes
and extending the language simpler.
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AtomicLevel returns Expression:
...
({VariableRef} var=[Variable]);
({ParameterRef} param=[Parameter]);
({HardwareBuildingBlockRef} hbb=[HardwareBuildingBlock]);
However, this is not possible with Xtext, since the parser cannot
distinguish the three cases syntactically. As we can see from
the (invalid) grammar above, in all three cases the reference
syntax itself is just an ID. Only during the linking phase could
the system check which kind of element is actually referenced,
but this is too late for the parser, which needs an unambiguous
grammar. The grammar could be disambiguated by using a
different syntax for each element:
AtomicLevel returns Expression:
...
({VariableRef} var=[Variable]);
({ParameterRef} "%" param=[Parameter]);
({HardwareBuildingBlockRef} "#" hbb=[HardwareBuildingBlock]);
While this approach will technically work, it would lead to an
awkward syntax and is hence typically not used. The only
remaining alternative is to make all referenceable elements extend SymbolDeclaration and use a single reference concept,
as shown above.
8.3
Scoping in MPS
Making references work in MPS requires several ingredients.
First of all, as we have seen earlier, the reference is defined as
part of the language structure. Next, an editor is defined that
determines how the referenced element is rendered at the referencing site30 . To determine which instances of the referenced
concept are allowed, a scoping function has to be implemented.
This simply returns a list of all the elements that are considered
valid targets for the reference, as well as an optional text string
used to represent the respective element in the code completion
menu.
As we explained above (Section 7.2), smart references are
an important ingredient to make this work conveniently. They
make sure that users can simply type the name (or whatever
else is put into the code completion menu by the language developer) of the targeted element; once something is selected,
the corresponding reference concept is instantiated, and the
selected target is set.
The syntax used to represent the
reference is defined by that editor and
can be changed at any time, since the
actual reference is implemented based
on the target element’s UID.
30
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Simple Scopes As an example, we begin with the scope definition for the target reference of the Transition concept. To
recap, it is defined as:
concept Transition
// ...
references:
State
target
1
The scope itself is defined via the search scope constraint below. The system provides an anonymous search scope function that has a number of arguments that describe the context
including the enclosing node and the referencing node. As the
signature shows, the function has to return either an ISearchScope or simply a sequence of nodes of type State. The scope
of the target state is the set of states of the state machine that
(transitively) contains the transition. To implement this, the expression in the body of this function crawls up the containment
hierarchy31 until it finds a Statemachine and then returns its
states32 .
link {target}
referent set handler:
<none>
search scope:
(referenceNode, linkTarget, enclosingNode, ...)
->join(ISearchScope | sequence<node<State>>) {
enclosingNode.ancestor<Statemachine>.states;
}
validator:
<default>
presentation :
<none>
In addition to the search scope, language developers can provide code that should be executed if a new reference target is
set (referent set handler), additional validation (validator),
as well as customized presentation in the code completion menu
(presentation)33 .
Nested Scopes In a more complex, block-oriented language
with nested scopes, a different implementation pattern is recommended34 :
• All program elements that contribute elements that can be
referenced (such as blocks, functions or methods) implement
an interface IScopeProvider.
• The interface provides getVisibleElements(concept<> c),
a method that returns all elements of type c that are available in that scope.
Note that for a smart reference, where
the reference object is created only after
selecting the target, the referenceNode
argument is null! This is why we write
the scope using the enclosingNode
argument.
31
The code used to express scopes
can be arbitrarily complex and is
implemented in MPS’ BaseLanguage,
an extended version of Java.
32
This can be different than the text
used to represent the reference once it
is established. That text is controlled by
the referencing concept’s editor.
33
In this section we describe the approach as we have implemented it
for mbeddr C. Since version 2.5, MPS
supports this approach out of the box.
For example, an interface similar to
IScopeProvider ships with MPS, and
scopes can be inherited from parent
nodes.
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• The search scope function simply calls this method on the
owning IScopeProvider, passing in the concept whose instances it wants to see (State in the above example).
• The implementation of the method recursively calls the method on its owning IScopeProvider, as long as there is one.
It also removes elements that are shadowed from the result.
This approach is used in the mbeddr C language, for example
for local variables, because those are affected by shadowing
from blocks. Here is the code for the variable reference of the
LocalVariableReference concept:
link {variable}
search scope:
(referenceNode, linkTarget, enclosingNode, ... )
->join(ISearchScope | sequence<node<LocalVariableDeclaration>>) {
// find the statement that contains the future local variable ref
node<Statement> s = enclosingNode.ancestor<Statement, +>;
// find the first containing ILocalVariableScopeProvider which is
// typically next next higher statement that owns a StatementList.
// An example would be a ForStatement or an IfStatement
node<ILocalVarScopeProvider> scopeProvider =
enclosingNode.ancestor<ILocalVarScopeProvider, +>;
//
//
//
if
In case we are not in a Statement or there
is no ILocalVarScopeProvider,
we return an empty list - no variables visible
(s == null || scopeProvider == null) {
return new nlist<LocalVariableDeclaration>;
}
// we now retrieve the position of the current Statement in the
// context StatementList. This is important because we only want to
// see those variables that are defined before the reference site
int pos = s != scopeProvider ? s.index : LocalVarScope.NO_POSITION;
// finally we query the scopeProvider for the visible local variables
scopeProvider.getLocalVarScope(s, pos).getVisibleLocalVars();
}
Polymorphic References We have explained above how references work in principle: they are real pointers to the referenced element, based on the target’s unique ID. In the section
on Xtext we have seen how from a given location only one kind
of reference for any given syntactic form can be implemented.
Consider the following example, where we refer to a global
variable a and an event parameter (timestamp) from within
the guard condition expression:
int a;
int b;
statemachine linefollower {
in event initialized(int timestamp);
states (initial=initializing) {
state initializing {
on initialized [now() - timestamp > 1000 && a > 3] -> running
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}
state running {
}
}
}
Both references to local variables and to event parameters use
the same syntactic form: a text string that represents the name
of the respective target element. As we have discussed above,
in Xtext, this is implemented with a single reference concept,
typically called SymbolReference, that can reference to any
kind of Symbol. LocalVariableDeclaration and EventParameter would both extend Symbol, and scopes would make sure
both kinds are visible from within guard expressions35 .
In MPS this is done differently. To solve the example above,
one would create a LocalVariableReference and an EventParameterReference. The former references variables and the
latter references event parameters. Both have an editor that
renders the name of the referenced element, and each of them
has their own scope definition36 . The following is the respective
code for the EventParameterReference expression:
concept EventParameterReference extends Expression
link {parameter}
search scope:
(referenceNode, linkTarget, enclosingNode, ...)
->join(ISearchScope | sequence<node<EventArg>>) {
enclosingNode.ancestor<Transition, +>.trigger.event.args;
}
Entering the reference happens by typing the name of the referenced element (cf. the concept of smart references introduced
above). In the case in which there are a LocalVariableDeclaration and an EventParameter of the same name, the user
has to make an explicit decision, at the time of entry (the name
won’t bind, and the code completion menu requires a choice).
It is important to understand that, although the names are similar, the tool still knows whether a particular reference refers to
a LocalVariableDeclaration or to an EventParameter, because the reference is encoded using the ID of the target37 .
The problem with this approach is
that the reference itself contains no type
information about what it references,
it is simply a SymbolReference. Processing code has to inspect the type
of the referenced symbol to find out
what a particular SymbolReference
actually means. It can also be a problem
regarding modularity, because every
referenceable concept must extend
Symbol. Referenceable elements contributed by an independently developed
language which we may want to embed
into the C language will not extend
Symbol, though! We discuss language
modularization and composition in
Section 16.2.
35
This retains modularity. Adding
new kinds of references to existing
expression languages can be done
in a modular fashion, since the new
reference expression comes with its
own, independent scoping rule.
36
It may not, however, be obvious to
the user, so use this approach with
caution and/or use different syntax
highlighting to distinguish the two. The
real benefit of this approach is that if
two independent language extensions
define such scopes independently,
there will not be any ambiguity if these
extensions are used together in a single
program.
37
9
Constraints
Constraints are Boolean expressions that must be true for
every program expressed with a specific language. Together
with type systems, which are discussed in the next chapter, they ensure the static semantics of a language. This
chapter introduces the notion of constraints, some considerations regarding languages suitable for expressing constraints, and provides examples with our tools.
As we explained in the DSL Design part of the book, not all
programs that conform to the structure (grammar, AS, meta
model) of a language are valid. Language definitions include
further restrictions that cannot be expressed purely by structure. Such additional restrictions are typically called constraints.
Constraints are Boolean conditions that have to evaluate to
true in order for the model to be correct ("does expr hold?")1 .
An error message is reported if the expression evaluates to
false ("expr does not hold!"). Constraints are typically associated a particular language concept ("for each instance of concept C, expr-with-C must hold")2 . There are two major kinds
of constraints we can distinguish: well-formedness and type
systems. Examples for well-formedness constraints include:
• Uniqueness of names in lists of elements (e.g., functions in
a namespace).
• Every non-start state of a state machine has at least one incoming transition.
• A variable is defined before it is used (statement ordering).
Type system rules are different in that they verify the correctness of types in programs, e.g., they make sure you don’t as-
Constraints represent the static semantics of a language. The execution
semantics are typically represented by
transformations, generators or interpreters. We discuss those in Chapter 11.
1
In addition to just associating a constraint with a language concept, additional applicability conditions or match
patterns may be used.
2
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sign a float to an int. In expression languages particularly,
type calculation and checking can become quite complicated,
and therefore warrant special support. This is why we distinguish between constraints in general (covered in this chapter)
and type systems (which we cover in the next chapter).
Constraints can be implemented with any language or framework that is able to query a model and report errors to the user.
To make expressing constraints efficient3 , it is useful if the language has the following characteristics:
• It should be able to effectively navigate and filter the model.
Support for path expressions (as in aClass.operations.
arguments.type as a way to find out the types of all arguments of all operations in a class) is extremely useful.
• Support for higher-order functions is useful, so that one can
write generic algorithms and traversal strategies.
• A good collections language, often making use of higherorder functions, is very useful, so it is easily possible to filter
collections, create subsets or get the set of distinct values in
a list.
• Finally, it is helpful to be able to associate a constraint declaratively with the language concept (or structural pattern) for
whose instances it should be executed.
Here is an example constraint written in a pseudo-language:
constraint for:
Class
expression:
this.operations.arguments.type.filter(ComplexNumber).isNotEmpty &&
!this.imports.any(i|i.name == "ComplexNumberSupportLib")
message:
"class "+this.name+" uses complex numbers, "+
"so the ComplexNumberSupportLib must be imported"
Some kinds of constraints require specialized data structures
to be built or maintained in sync with the program. Examples
include dead code detection, missing returns in some branches
of a method’s body, or read access to an uninitialized variable.
To be able to find these kinds of errors statically, a dataflow
graph has to be constructed from the program. It models the
various execution paths through a (part of a) program. Once a
dataflow graph is constructed, it can be used to check whether
there exists a path from program start to a variable read without coming across a write to the same variable. We show an
example of the use of a data flow graph in the MPS example
(Section 9.2).
Constraint checking should also
be efficient in terms of speed and
memory usage, even for large models.
To this end, it is useful if the constraint
language supports impact analysis,
so we can find out efficiently which
constraints have to be reevaluated for
any given change to a program.
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9.1
241
Constraints in Xtext
Just like scopes, constraints are implemented in Java or any
other JVM language4 . Developers add methods to a validator
class generated by the Xtext project wizard. In the end, these
validations plug into the EMF validation framework5 .
A constraint checking method is a Java method with the following characteristics: it is public, returns void, can have an
arbitrary name, it has a single argument of the type for which
the check should apply, and it has the @Check annotation. For
example, the following method is a check that is invoked for
all instances of CustomState (i.e. not for start states and background states). It checks that each such state can actually be
reached by verifying that it has incoming transitions (expressed
via a ChangeStateStatement):
As mentioned earlier, a language
that provides higher-order functional
abstractions such as Xtend is very
useful for navigating and querying
ASTs.
4
5
Other EMF EValidator implementations can be used in Xtext as well.
@Check(CheckType.NORMAL)
public void checkOrphanEndState( CustomState ctx ) {
CoolingProgram coopro = Utils.ancestor(ctx, CoolingProgram.class);
TreeIterator<EObject> all = coopro.eAllContents();
while ( all.hasNext() ) {
EObject s = all.next();
if ( s instanceof ChangeStateStatement ) {
ChangeStateStatement css = (ChangeStateStatement) s;
if ( css.getTargetState() == ctx ) return;
}
}
error("no transition ever leads into this state",
CoolingLanguagePackage.eINSTANCE.getState_Name());
}
The method retrieves the cooling program that owns the ctx
state, then retrieves all of its descendants and iterates over
them. If the descendant is a ChangeStateStatement and its
targetState property references the current state, then we return: we have found a transition leading into the current state.
If we don’t find one of these, we report an error. An error
report contains the error message, a severity (INFO, WARNING,
ERROR), the element to which it is attached6 , as well as the particular feature7 of that element that should be highlighted. The
CheckType.NORMAL in the annotation defines when this check
should run:
• CheckType.NORMAL: run when the file is saved.
• CheckType.FAST: run after each model change (more or less
after each keypress).
• CheckType.EXPENSIVE: run only if requested explicitly via
the context menu.
The error message in Eclipse will be
attached to this program element.
6
Feature is EMF’s term for properties,
references and operations of EClasses.
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Note that neither Xtext nor any of the other tools supports
impact analysis by default. Impact analysis is a strategy for
finding out whether a particular constraint can potentially be
affected by a particular change, and only evaluating the constraint if it can. Impact analysis can improve performance if
this analysis is faster than evaluating the constraint itself. For
local constraints this is usually not the case. Only for non-local
constraints that cover large parts of the model (and possibly
require loading additional fragments), is impact analysis important. Xtext uses a pragmatic approach in the sense that
these constraints must be marked as EXPENSIVE by the user
and run only on request (over lunch, during nightly build). As
an example, let us get back to the example about orphan states.
The implementation of the constraint checks orphan-ness separately for each state. In doing so, it gets all descendants of the
cooling program for each state. This can be a scalability problem
for larger programs. To address this issue, one would write a
single constraint for the whole cooling program that identifies
all orphan states in one or maybe two scans through the program. This constraint could then be marked as EXPENSIVE as
programs get really big8 .
9.2
9.2.1
Constraints in MPS
Simple Constraints
MPS’ approach to constraints is very similar to Xtext’s9 . The
main difference is that the constraint is written in BaseLanguage, an extended version of Java that has some of the features that makes constraints more concise. Here is the code for
the same state unreachable constraint, which we can make use
of in the state machines extension to C:
checking rule stateUnreachable {
applicable for concept = State as state
do {
if (!state.initial &&
state.ancestor<Statemachine>.
descendants<Transition>.
where({~it => it.target == state; }).isEmpty) {
error "orphan state - can never be reached" -> state;
}
}
}
Currently there is no way to control when a constraint is run10 ,
it is decided based on some MPS-internal algorithm which
tracks changes to a model and reevaluates constraints as neces-
In general, local constraints (as shown
in the code above) are easier to write
than the more optimized global constraints. However, the latter often
perform better. Unless it is clear from
the start that programs will become
big, it is a good idea to first write local,
simpler and maybe less efficient constraints, and then use profiling to detect
performance bottlenecks later. As usual,
premature optimization leads to code
that is hard to maintain.
8
Note that in MPS, constraints are
implemented as part of the type system,
in Non-Typesystem Rules. MPS also has a
language aspect called Constraints, but
as we have seen before, this is used for
scopes and context constraints.
9
In contrast to Xtext, constraints
can also not be marked as FAST or
EXPENSIVE.
10
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sary. However, pressing F5 in a program or explicitly running
the model checker forces all constraints to be reevaluated.
9.2.2
Dataflow
As we have said earlier, dataflow analysis can be used to detect dead code, null access, unnecessary ifs (because it can be
shown statically that the condition is always true or false) or
read-before-write errors. The foundation for data flow analysis
is the data flow graph. This is a data structure that describes the
flow of data through a program’s code. Consider the following
example:
int i = 42;
j = i + 1;
someMethod(j);
The 42 is "flowing" from the init expression in the local variable declaration into the variable i and then, after adding 1,
into j, and then into someMethod. Data flow analysis consists of
two tasks: building a data flow graph for a program, and then
performing analysis on this data flow graph to detect problems
in the program.
MPS comes with predefined data structures for representing
data flow graphs, a DSL for defining how the graph can be derived from language concepts (and hence, programs) and a set
of default analyses that can be integrated into your language11 .
We will look at all these ingredients in this section.
Building a Data Flow Graph Data flow is specified in the
Dataflow aspect of language definitions. There you can add
data flow builders (DFBs) for your language concepts. These
are programs expressed in MPS’ data flow DSL that build the
data flow graph for instances of those concepts in programs.
Here is the DFB for LocalVariableDeclaration.
data flow builder for LocalVariableDeclaration {
(node)->void {
if (node.init != null) {
code for node.init
write node = node.init
} else {
nop
}
}
}
If the LocalVariableDecaration has an init expression (it is
optional!), then the DFB for the init expression has to be executed using the code for statement. Then we perform an actual data flow definition: the write node = node.init spec-
MPS also comes with a framework for
developing custom analyses; however,
this is beyond the scope of this book.
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ifies that write access is performed on the current node. The
statement also expresses that whatever value was in the init
expression is now in the node itself. If there is no init expression, we still want to mark the LocalVariableDeclaration
node as visited by the data flow builder using the nop statement – the program flow has come across this node12 .
To illustrate a read statement, we can take a look at the
LocalVariableRef expression which read-accesses the variable it references. Its data flow is defined as read node.var,
where var is the name of the reference that points to the referenced variable.
In an AssignmentStatement, we first execute the DFB for
the rvalue and then "flow" the rvalue into the lvalue – the
purpose of an assignment:
A subsequent analysis reports all
program nodes that have not been
visited by a DFB as dead code. So
even if a node has no further effect
on a program’s data flow, it has to be
marked as visited using nop.
12
data flow builder for AssigmentStatement {
(node)->void {
code for node.rvalue
write node.lvalue = node.rvalue
}
}
For a StatementList, we simply mark the list as visited and
then execute the DFBs for each statement in the list. We are
now ready to inspect the data flow graph for the simple function below. Fig. 9.1 shows the data flow graph.
void trivialFunction() {
int8 i = 10;
i = i + 1;
}
Most interesting data flow analysis has to do with loops and
branching. So specifying the correct DFBs for things like if,
switch and for is important. As an example, we look at the
DFB for the IfStatement. We start with the obligatory nop to
mark the node as visited. Then we run the DFB for the condition, because that is evaluated in all cases. Then it becomes interesting: depending on whether the condition is true or false,
we either run the thenPart or we jump to where the else if
parts begin. Here is the code so far:
nop
code for node.condition
ifjump after elseIfBlock // elseIfBlock is a label defined later
code for node.thenPart
{ jump after node }
The ifjump statement means that we may jump to the specified
label (i.e. we then execute the else ifs). If not (we just "run
over" the ifjump), then we execute the thenPart. If we execute
the thenPart, we are finished with the whole IfStatement
Figure 9.1: An example of a data flow
for a simple C function. You can access
the data flow graph for a program
element (e.g., a C function) by selecting
Language Debug -> Show Data Flow
Graph from the element’s context menu.
This will render the data flow graph
graphically and constitutes a good
debugging tool when building your
own data flow graphs and analyses.
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– no else ifs or else parts are relevant, so we jump after
the current node (the IfStatement) and we’re done. However,
there is an additional catch: in the thenPart, there may be
a return statement. So we may never actually arrive at the
jump after node statement. This is why it is enclosed in curly
braces: this says that the code in the braces is optional, so if the
data flow does not visit it, that’s fine (and no dead code error is
reported).
Let’s continue with the else ifs. We arrive at the label
elseIfBlock if the condition was false, i.e. the above ifjump
actually happened. We then iterate over the elseIfs and execute their DFB. After that, we run the code for the elsePart,
if there is one. The following code can only be understood if
we know that, if we execute one of the else ifs, then we jump
after the whole IfStatement. This is specified in the DFB for the
ElseIfPart, which we’ll illustrate below. Here is the rest of
the code for the IfStatement’s DFB:
label elseIfBlock
foreach elseIf in node.elseIfs {
code for elseIf
}
if (node.elsePart != null) {
code for node.elsePart
}
We can now inspect the DFB for the ElseIfPart. We first run
the DFB for the condition. Then we may jump to after that
else if, because the condition may be false and we want to
try the next else if, if there is one. Alternatively, if the condition is true, we run the DFB for the body of the ElseIfPart.
Then two things can happen: either we jump to after the whole
IfStatement (after all, we have found an else if that is true),
or we don’t do anything at all anymore because the current
else if contains a return statement. So we have to use the
curly braces again for the jump to after the whole if. The code
is below, and an example data flow graph is shown in figure
Fig. 9.2.
code for node.condition
ifjump after node
code for node.body
{ jump after node.ancestor<IfStatement> }
The DFB for a for loop makes use of the fact that loops can be
represented using conditional branching. Here is the code:
code for node.iterator
label start
code for node.condition
ifjump after node
Figure 9.2: A data flow graph for the an
if statement if ( i > 0 ) j = 1;
else
j = 2;
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code for node.body
code for node.incr
jump after start
We first execute the DFB for the iterator (which is a subconcept of LocalVariableDeclaration, so the DFB shown above
works for it as well). Then we define a label start so we can
jump to this place from further down. We then execute the
condition. Then we have an ifjump to after the whole loop
(which covers the case in which the condition is false and the
loop ends). In the other case (where the condition is still true)
we execute the code for the body and the incr part of the for
loop. We then jump to after the start label we defined above.
Analyses
MPS supports a number of data flow analyses
out of the box13 . The following utility class uses the unreachable code analysis:
public class DataflowUtil {
private Program prog;
public DataflowUtil(node<> root) {
// build a program object and store it
prog = DataFlow.buildProgram(root);
}
public void checkForUnreachableNodes() {
// grab all instructions that
// are unreachable (predefined functionality)
sequence<Instruction> allUnreachableInstructions =
((sequence<Instruction>) prog.getUnreachableInstructions());
// remove those that may legally be unreachable
sequence<Instruction> allWithoutMayBeUnreachable =
allUnreachableInstructions.where({~instruction =>
!(Boolean.TRUE.equals(instruction.
getUserObject("mayBeUnreachable"))); });
// get the program nodes that correspond
// to the unreachable instructions
sequence<node<>> unreachableNodes = allWithoutMayBeUnreachable.
select({~instruction => ((node<>) instruction.getSource()); });
// output errors for each of those unreachable nodes
foreach unreachableNode in unreachableNodes {
error "unreachable code" -> unreachableNode;
}
}
}
The class builds a Program object in the constructor. Programs
are wrappers around the data flow graph and provide access
to a set of predefined analyses on the graph. We will make
use of one of them here in the checkForUnreachableNodes
method. This method extracts all unreachable nodes from the
graph (see comments in the code above) and reports errors for
them. To actually run the check, we call this method from a
non-typesystem rule for C functions:
These analyses operate only on the
data flow graph, so the same analyses
can be used for any language, once the
DFBs for that language map programs
to data flow graphs.
13
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checking rule check_DataFlow {
applicable for concept = Function as fct
overrides false
do {
new DataflowUtil(fct.body).checkForUnreachableNodes();
}
}
9.3
Constraints in Spoofax
Spoofax uses rewrite rules to specify all semantic parts of a language definition. In this section, we first provide a primer on
rewrite rules. Next we show how they can be used to specify
constraints in language definitions14 .
9.3.1
Rewrite Rules
Rewrite rules are functions that operate on terms, transforming
one term to another. Rewrite rules in Spoofax are provided as
part of the Stratego program transformation language. A basic
rewrite rule that transforms a term pattern term1 to a term
pattern term2 has the following form:
Rewrite rules are used for all kinds of
other purposes in Spoofax, and we will
encounter them again, for example in
the chapter on transformation and code
generation, Section 11.4. This is why we
explain them in some detail here.
14
rule-name: term1 -> term2
Term patterns have the same form as terms: any term is a legal term pattern. In addition to the basic constructors, string
literals, integer literals, and so on, they also support variables
(e.g., v or name) and wildcards (indicated by _). As an example, the following rewrite rule rewrites an Entity to the list of
properties contained in that entity:
get-properties:
Entity(name, properties) -> properties
So, for an Entity("User", [Property("name", String)]), it
binds "User" to the variable name, and [Property("name",
"String")] to the variable properties. It then returns the
collection properties. While rewrite rules can be viewed as
functions, they have one important difference: they can be defined multiple times for different patterns15 . In the case of
get-properties, we could add another definition that works
for property access expressions:
This is comparable to polymorphic
overloading.
15
get-properties:
PropAccess(expr, property) -> property
Rules can have complex patterns. For example, it is possible
to write a rule that succeeds only for entities with only a name
property16 :
Note how this rule uses a wildcard
since it doesn’t care about the name of
the entity.
16
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is-name-only-entity:
Entity(_, [Property("name", "String")]) -> True()
Rewrite rules can be invoked using the syntax <rule-name>
term17 . The angle brackets make it easy to distinguish rule invocations from terms, and makes it possible to use invocations
in term expressions.
Stratego provides a with clause that can be used for additional code that should be considered for rewrite rules. The
with clause is most commonly used for assignments and calls
to other rules. As an example, we can write the rule above using a with. This rule assigns the value of get-properties to a
variable result and returns that as the result value of the rule:
For example, <get-properties>
Entity("Unit", []) would return an
17
empty list of properties.
invoke-get-properties:
Entity(name, properties) -> result
with
result := <get-properties> Entity(name, properties)
Rules can also have conditions. These can be specified using
where18 . These clauses typically use the operators listed in the
following table:
Expression
<e> t
v := t
!t => p
not(e)
e1; e2
e1 <+ e2
Description
Applies e to t, or fails if e is unsuccessful.
Assign a term expression t to a variable v.
Match a term t against a pattern p, or fail.
Succeeds if e does not succeed.
Sequence: apply e1. If it succeeds, apply e2.
Choice: apply e1, if it fails apply e2 instead.
If the pattern of a rule does not
match, or if its conditions do not
succeed, a rule is said to fail. As we will
see later, whether rules succeed or fail
helps guide the execution sequence of
sets of languages.
18
An example of a rule with a where clause is the following:
has-properties:
Entity(name, properties) -> True()
with
properties := <get-properties> Entity(name, properties);
where
not(!properties => [])
This rule only succeeds for entities where the where condition
not(!properties => []) holds19 . That is, it succeeds as long
as an entity does not have an empty list (indicated by []) of
properties. Rewrite rules can have any number of where and
with clauses, and they are evaluated in the order they appear.
Like functions or methods in other languages, rewrite rules
can have parameters. Stratego distinguishes between parameters that pass other rules and parameters that pass terms, using
a vertical bar to separate the two separate lists20 . The Stratego
standard library provides a number of higher-order rules, i.e.
!x => y matches a term x against
a pattern y. It does not mean logical
negation.
19
Rules that take both rule and term
parameters have a signature of the
form rule(r|t), those with only
rule parameters use rule(r), and
those with only term parameters use
rule(|t).
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rules that take other rules as their argument. These rules are
used for common operations on abstract syntax trees: for example, map(r) applies a rule r to all elements of a list:
get-property-types:
Entity(_, properties) -> types
with
types := <map(get-property-type)> properties
get-property-type:
Property(_, type) -> type
Rules like map specify a traversal on a certain term structure:
they specify how a particular rule should be applied to a term
and its subterms. Rules that specify traversals are also called
strategies21 . In Spoofax, strategies are used to control traversals
in constraints, transformation, and code generation.
9.3.2
This is where the name of the Stratego
transformation language comes from.
21
Basic Constraint Rules
Spoofax uses rules with the name constraint-error to indicate constraints that trigger errors, constraint-warning for
warnings, and constraint-note for notes. To report an error,
warning or information note, these rules have to be overwritten for the relevant term patterns. The following example is
created by default by the Spoofax project wizard. It simply
reports a note for any module named example:
constraint-note:
Module(name, _) -> (name, "This is just an example program.")
where
!name => "example"
The condition checks if the module name matches the string
"example". The rule returns (via its right-hand side) a tuple with the tree node where the marker should appear and
a string message that should be shown. All constraint rules
have this form.
Most constraint rules use string interpolation for error messages. Interpolated strings have the form $[...] where variables can be escaped using [...]. The following example uses
string interpolation to report a warning22 .
constraint-warning:
Entity(theName, _) -> (theName,
$[Entity [theName] does not have a capitalized name])
where
not(<string-starts-with-capital> theName)
The rule uses the a standard library
rule string-starts-with-capitals.
These and other library rules are
documented on the Spoofax website at
www.spoofax.org/.
22
Notable examples include constraints
that forbid references to undefined
program elements and duplicate definitions. Newly created Spoofax projects
provide default constraint rules for
these cases, which can be customized.
23
9.3.3
Index-Based Constraint Rules
Some constraint rules interact with the Spoofax index23 . One
way to do this is to use URI annotations on the abstract syntax.
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These are placed on each reference and definition. For example, a reference to a Mobl variable v is represented as Var("v").
With an annotation, it reads as follows:
Var("v"{[Var(),"v","function","module"]})
The annotation is added directly to the name, surrounded with
curly braces24 . Unresolved references are represented by terms
such as the following (notice the Unresolved term, surrounding the namespace):
Var("u"{[Unresolved(Var()),"u","function","module"]})
24
The annotation itself is a URI
Var://module/function/v, repre-
sented as a list consisting of the namespace, the name and the path in reverse
order.
In most statically typed languages, references that cannot be
statically resolved indicate an error. The following constraint
rule reports an error for these cases:
constraint-error:
x -> (x, $[Unable to resolve reference.])
where
!x => _{[Unresolved(t) | _]}
This rule matches any term x in the abstract syntax, and reports
an error if it has an Unresolved annotation25 . Note how the
pattern _{[Unresolved(t) | _]} matches any term (indicated
by the wildcard _) that has a list annotation where the head of
the list is Unresolved(t) and the tail matches _.
In addition to annotations, the Spoofax index provides an
API for inspecting naming relations in programs. The following table shows some of the key rules the index provides.
index-uri
index-namespace
index-lookup
index-lookup-all
index-get-files-of
index-get-all-in-file
index-get-current-file
For dynamic languages, or languages
with optional types, the constraint
could be removed or relaxed. In those
cases, name resolution may only play a
role in providing editor services such as
code completion.
25
Gets the URI of a term.
Gets the namespace of a term.
Returns the first definition of a reference.
Returns all definitions of a reference.
Gets all files a definition occurred in.
Gets all definitions for a given file path.
Gets the path of the current file.
We can use the index API to detect duplicate definitions. In
most languages, duplicate definitions are always disallowed.
In the case of Mobl, duplicate definitions are not allowed for
functions or entities, but they are allowed for variables, just as
in JavaScript. The following constraint rules checks for duplicate entity declarations:
constraint-error:
Entity(name, _) -> (name, $[Duplicate definition])
where
defs := <index-lookup-all> name;
<gt> (<length> defs, 1)
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This rule matches any entity declaration. Then, it fires a helper
rule is-duplicates-allowed. Next, the constraint rule determines all definition sites of the entity name. If the list has more
than one element, the rule reports an error. This is checked
by comparing the length of the list with 1 by calling the gt
("greater than") rule. More sophisticated constraints and error
messages can be specified using a type system, as we show in
the next chapter.
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10
Type Systems
Type systems are a subset of constraints – they implement
type calculations and type checks. These can be relatively
complex, so special support beyond general-purpose constraint checking is useful. In this chapter we discuss what
type systems do in general, we discuss various strategies for
computing types, and we provide the usual examples with
Xtext, MPS and Spoofax.
Let us start with a definition of type systems from Wikipedia:
A type system may be defined as a tractable syntactic framework for classifying phrases according to the kinds of values
they compute. A type system associates types with each computed value. By examining the flow of these values, a type system attempts to prove that no type errors can occur. The type
system in question determines what constitutes a type error,
but a type system generally seeks to guarantee that operations
expecting a certain kind of value are not used with values for
which that operation makes no sense.
If a DSL uses dynamic typing, the
type checks are performed at runtime
based on the actual types of values.
Many of the ways of expressing typing
rules are similar in this case. However,
all the DSLs I have built so far use
static typing – the fact you can actually
have static type systems is a primary
benefit of external DSLs. DSLs with
dynamic type systems are probably
better implemented as internal DSLs,
relying on the dynamic type system of
the host language. Internal DSLs are
beyond the scope of this book.
1
In summary, type systems associate types with program elements and then check whether these types conform to predefined typing rules. We distinguish between dynamic type
systems, which perform the type checks as the program executes, and static type systems, where type checks are performed ahead of execution, mostly based on type specifications
in the program. This chapter focuses exclusively on static type
checks1 .
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Type Systems Basics
To introduce the basic concepts of type systems, let us go back
to the example used at the beginning of the section on syntax.
As a reminder here is the example code, and Fig. 10.1 shows
the abstract syntax tree.
var x: int;
calc y: int = 1 + 2 * sqrt(x)
Figure 10.1: Abstract syntax tree for
the above program. Boxes represent
instances of language concepts, solid
lines represent containment, dotted
lines represent cross-references.
Using this example, we can illustrate in more detail what type
systems have to do:
Declare Fixed Types Some program elements have fixed types.
They don’t have to be derived or calculated – they are always the same and known in advance. Examples include
the integer constants IntConst (whose type is IntType), the
square root concept sqrt (whose type is double), as well
as the type declarations themselves (the type of IntType is
IntType, the type of DoubleType is Double- Type).
Derive Types For some program elements, the type has to be
derived from the types of other elements. For example, the
type of a VarRef (the variable reference) is the type of the
referenced variable. The type of a variable is the type of its
declared type. In the example above, the type of x and the
reference to x is IntType.
Calculate Common Types Most type systems have some kind of
type hierarchy. In the example, IntType is a subtype of
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DoubleType (so IntType can be used wherever DoubleType
is expected). A type system has to support the specification of such subtype relationships. Also, the type of certain
program elements may be calculated from the arguments
passed to them; in many cases the resulting type will be the
"more general" one based on the subtyping relationship. Examples include the Plus and Multi concepts: if the left and
right arguments are two IntTypes, the result is an IntType.
In the case of two DoubleTypes, the result is a DoubleType.
If an IntType and a DoubleType are used, the result is a
DoubleType, the more general of the two.
Type Checks Finally, a type system has to check for type errors
and report them to the user. To this end, a language specifies
type constraints or type checks that are checked at editing
time by the type system based on the calculated types. In
the example, a type error would occur if something with a
DoubleType were assigned to an IntType variable.
The type of a program element is generally not the same as its
language concept2 . Different instances of the same concept can
have different types: a + calculates its type as the more general
of the two arguments. So the type of each + instance depends
on the types of the arguments of that particular instance.
Types are often represented with the same technology as
the language concepts. As we will see, in the case of MPS
types are just nodes, i.e. instances of concepts. In Xtext, we use
EObjects, i.e. instances of EClasses as types. In Spoofax, any
ATerm can be used as a type. In all cases, we can even define
the concepts as part of the language. This is useful, because
most of the concepts used as types also have to be used in the
program text whenever types are explicitly declared (as in var
x: int).
10.2
Type Calculation Strategies
Conceptually, the core of a type system can be considered to
be a function typeof that calculates the type for a program element. This function can be implemented in any way suitable;
after all, it is just program code. However, in practice, three
approaches seem to be used most: recursion, unification and
pattern matching. We will explore each of these conceptually,
and then provide examples in the tool sections.
For example, the concept (meta class)
of the number 1 is IntConst and its
type is IntType. The type of the sqrt
is DoubleType and its concept is Sqrt.
Only for type declarations themselves
the two are (usually) the same: the type
of an IntType is IntType.
2
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10.2.1
Recursion
Recursion is widely used in computer science and we assume
that every reader is familiar with it. In the context of type
systems, the recursive approach for calculating a type defines a
polymorphic function typeof, which takes a program element
and returns its type, while calling itself3 to calculate the types
of those elements on which its own type depends. Consider
the following example grammar (using Xtext notation):
LocalVarDecl:
"var" name=ID ":" type=Type ("=" init=Expr)?;
The following examples are structurally valid example sentences:
var
var
var
var
i: int
i: int = 42
i: int = 33.33
i = 42
//
//
//
//
1
2
3
4
Let’s develop the pseudo-code for typeof function the LocalVarDecl. A first attempt might look as follows:
typeof( LocalVarDecl lvd ) {
return typeof( lvd.type )
}
typeof( IntType it ) { return it }
typeof( DoubleType dt ) { return dt }
Notice how typeof for LocalVarDecl recursively calls typeof
for its type property. Recursion ends with the typeof functions for the types; they return themselves. This implementation successfully calculates the type of the LocalVarDecl, but
it does not address the type check that makes sure that, if an
init expression is specified, it has the same type (or a subtype)
of the type property. This could be achieved as follows:
typeof( LocalVarDecl lvd ) {
if isSpecified( lvd.init ) {
assert typeof( lvd.init ) isSameOrSubtypeOf typeof( lvd.type )
}
return typeof( lvd.type )
}
Notice (in the grammar) that the specification of the variable
type (in the type property) is also optional. So we have created
a somewhat more elaborate version of the function:
typeof( LocalVarDecl lvd ) {
if !isSpecified( lvd.type ) && !isSpecified( lvd.init )
raise error
if isSpecified( lvd.type ) && !isSpecified( lvd.init )
return typeof( lvd.type )
if !isSpecified( lvd.type ) && isSpecified( lvd.init )
return typeof( lvd.init )
Or, most likely, one of the polymorphic overrides.
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// otherwise...
assert typeof( lvd.init ) isSameOrSubtypeOf typeof( lvd.type )
return typeof( lvd.type )
}
10.2.2
Unification
Unification is the second well-known approach to type calculation. Let’s start with a definition from Wikipedia:
Unification is an operation . . . which produces from . . . logic terms
a substitution which . . . makes the terms equal modulo some
equational theory.
While this sounds quite sophisticated, we have all used unification in high-school for solving sets of linear equations. The
"equational theory" in this case is algebra. Here is an example:
(1) 2 * x == 10
(2) x + x == 10
(3) x + y == 2 * x + 5
Substitution refers to assignment of values to x and y. A solution for this set of equations is x := 5, y := 10.
Using unification for type systems means that language developers specify a set of type equations which contain type
variables (cf. the x and y) as well as type values (the numbers in the above example). Some kind of engine is then trying to make all equations true by assigning type values to the
type variables in the type equations. The interesting property
of this approach is that there is no distinction between typing
rules and type checks. We simply specify a set of equations
that must be true for the types to be valid4 . If an equation
cannot be satisfied for any assignment of type values to type
variables, a type error is detected. To illustrate this, we return
to the LocalVarDecl example introduced above.
var
var
var
var
i: int
i: int = 42
i: int = 33.33
i = 42
//
//
//
//
1
2
3
4
The following two type equations constitute the complete type
system specification. The :==: operator expresses type equation (left side must be the same type as right side), :<=: refers
to subtype-equation (left side must be same type or subtype
of right side, the pointed side of < points to the "smaller", the
more specialized type)5 .
typeof( LocalVarDecl.type ) :>=: typeof( LocalVarDecl.init )
typeof( LocalVarDecl )
:==: typeof( LocalVarDecl.type )
Consequently they can be evaluated
"in both ways". They can be used for
type checking, but they can also be
used to compute "missing" types, i.e.
support type inference. MPS (which
uses this approach) also exploits this
declarative nature of typing rules by
supporting type-aware code completion
(Ctrl-Shift-Space), where MPS
computes the required type from the
current context and then only shows
code completion menu entries that fit
the context regarding their type (and
not just based on the structure).
4
The operators are taken from MPS,
which uses this unification for the type
system.
5
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Let us look at the four examples cases. We use capital letters for
free type variables. In the first case, the init expression is not
given, so the first equation is ignored. The second equation can
be satisfied by assigning T, the type of the variable declaration,
to be int. The second equations acts as a type derivation rule
and defines the type of the overall LocalVarDecl to be int.
// var i: int
typeof( int ) :>=: typeof( int )
typeof( T )
:==: typeof( int )
// ignore
// T := int
In the second case the type and the init expression are given,
and both have types that can be calculated independently of
the equations specified for the LocalVarDecl (they are fixed).
So the first equation has no free type variables, but it is true
with the type values specified (two ints). Notice how in this
case the equation acts as a type check: if the equation were not
true for the two given values, a type error would be reported.
The second equation works the same as above, deriving T to be
int.
// var i: int = 42
typeof( int ) :>=: typeof( int )
typeof( T )
:==: typeof( int )
// true
// T := int
The third case is similar to the second case; but the first equation, in which all types are specified, is not true, so a type
error is raised.
// var i: int = 33.33
typeof( int ) :>=: typeof( double )
typeof( T )
:==: typeof( int )
// error!
// T := int
Case four is interesting because no variable type is explicitly
specified; the idea is to use type inference to derive the type
from the init expression. In this case there are two free variables in the equations; substituting both with int solves both
equations6 .
// var i = 42
typeof( U ) :>=: typeof( int )
typeof( T ) :==: typeof( U )
// U := int
// T := int
To further illustrate how unification works, consider the following example, in which we specify the typing rules for array
types and array initializers:
var i: int[]
var i: int[] = {1, 2, 3}
var i = {1, 2, 3}
Compared to the LocalVarDecl example above, the additional
complication in this case is that we need to make sure that all
Notice how the unification approach
automatically leads to support for type
inference!
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the initialization expressions (inside the curly braces) have the
same or compatible types. Here are the typing equations:
typevar T
foreach ( e: init.elements )
typeof(e) :<=: T
typeof( LocalVarDecl.type ) :>=: new ArrayType(T)
typeof( LocalVarDecl )
:==: typeof( LocalVarDecl.type )
We introduce an additional type variable T and iterate over all
the expression in the array initializer, establishing an equation
between each of these elements and T. This results in a set of
equations that each must be satisfied7 . The only way to achieve
this is for all array initializer members to be of the same (sub)type. In the examples, this makes T to be int. The rest of
the equations works as explained above. Notice that if we’d
written var i = {1, 33.33, 3}, then T := double, but the
equations would still work because we use the :>=: operator.
10.2.3
Pattern Matching
In pattern matching we simply list the possible combinations
of types in a big table. Cases that are not listed in the table will
result in errors. For our LocalVarDecl example, such a table
could look like this:
typeof(type)
typeof(init)
typeof(LocalVarDecl)
int
int
int
int
-
int
-
int
int
double
double
double
double
-
double
-
double
double
double
int
double
To avoid repeating everything for all valid types, variables could
be used. T+ refers to T or subtypes of T.
typeof(type)
typeof(init)
typeof(LocalVarDecl)
T
T
T
T
-
T
-
T
T
T
T+
T
Pattern matching is used for binary operators in MPS and also
for matching terms in Spoofax.
7
This clearly illustrates that the
:<=: operator is not an assignment,
since if it were, only the last of the
init.elements would be assigned to T,
which clearly makes no sense.
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10.3
Xtext Example
Up to version 1.0, Xtext provided no support for implementing
type systems8 . In version 2.0 a type system integrated with the
JVM’s type system is available9 . It is not as versatile as it could
be, since it is limited to JVM-related types and cannot easily
be used for languages that have no relationship with the JVM,
such as C or C++.
As a consequence of this limitation and the fact that Xtext
is widely used, two third-party libraries have been developed:
the Xtext Typesystem Framework (developed by the author10 ),
and XTypes (developed by Lorenzo Bettini11 . In the remainder
of this section we will look at the Xtext Typesystem Framework12 ).
Xtext Typesystem Framework The Xtext Typesystem Framework is based on the recursive approach. It provides an interface ITypesystem with a method typeof(EObject) which
returns the type for the program element passed in as an argument. In its simplest form, the interface can be implemented
manually with arbitrary Java code. To make sure type errors
are reported as part of the Xtext validation, the type system
framework has to be integrated into the Xtext validation framework manually:
Beyond implementing everything
manually and plugging it into the
constraints.
9
We illustrate it to some extent in
the section on language modularity
(Section 16.2).
8
10
code.google.com/a/eclipselabs
.org/p/xtext-typesystem/
11
xtypes.sourceforge.net/
For a comparison of the various type
system implementation approaches for
Xtext, see this SLE 2012 paper
12
L. Bettini, D. Stoll, and M. Voelter.
Approaches and tools for implementing
type systems in xtext. In SLE 2012, 2012
@Inject
private ITypesystem ts;
@Check(CheckType.NORMAL)
public void validateTypes( EObject m ) {
ts.checkTypesystemConstraints( m, this );
}
As we have discussed in Section 10.1, many type systems rely
on a limited set of typing strategies13 . The DefaultTypesystem
class implements ITypesystem and provides support for declaratively specifying these strategies. In the code below, a simplified version of the type system specification for the cooling language, the initialize method defines one type (the
type of the IntType is a clone of itself) and defines one typing constraint (the expr property of the IfStatement must be
a Boolean). Also, for types which cannot be specified declaratively, an operation type(..) can be implemented to programmatically define types. The example below shows this for the
NumberLiteral.
public class CLTypesystem extends DefaultTypesystem {
private CoolingLanguagePackage cl = CoolingLanguagePackage.eINSTANCE;
Assigning fixed types, deriving the
type of an element from one of its
properties, calculating the type as the
common type of its two arguments.
13
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@Override
protected void initialize() {
useCloneAsType(cl.getIntType());
ensureFeatureType(cl.getIfStatement(),
cl.getIfStatement_Expr(), cl.getBoolType());
}
public EObject type( NumberLiteral s, TypeCalculationTrace trace ) {
if ( s.getValue().contains(".")) {
return create(cl.getDoubleType());
}
return create(cl.getIntType());
}
}
In addition to the API used in the code above, the Typesystem Framework also comes with a textual DSL to express typing rules (Fig. 10.2 shows a screenshot). From the textual type
system specification, a generator generates the implementation
of the Java class that implements the type system using the
APIs14 . The DSL provides the following advantages compared
to the specification in Java:
• The notation is much more concise compared to the API.
In that sense, the DSL is just a facade
on top of a framework; however, it is a
nice example of how a DSL can provide
added value over a framework or API.
14
• Referential integrity and code completion with the target
language meta model is provided.
• If the typing rules are incomplete, a static error is shown
in the editor, as opposed to getting runtime errors during
initialization of the framework (see the warning in Fig. 10.2).
• Ctrl-Click on a property jumps to the typing rule that defines the type for that property.
Type System for the Cooling Language
The complete type
system for the cooling language is 200 lines of DSL code, and
another 100 lines of Java code. We’ll take a look at some representative examples. Primitive types usually use a copy of
themselves as their type15 :
typeof
typeof
typeof
typeof
BoolType -> clone
IntType -> clone
DoubleType -> clone
StringType -> clone
Alternatively, since all primitive types extend an abstract meta
class PrimitiveType, this could be shortened to the following, where the + operator specifies that the rule applied for the
specified concept and all its subconcepts:
typeof PrimitiveType + -> clone
It has to be a copy as opposed to
the element itself, because the actual
program element must not be pulled
out of the EMF containment tree.
15
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Figure 10.2: The Xtext-based editor
for the type system specification DSL
provided by the Xtext Typesystem
Framework. It is a nice example of
the benefits of a DSL over an API
(on which it is based), since it can
statically show inconsistencies in the
type system definition, has a more
concise syntax and provides customized
go-to-definition functionality.
For concepts that have a fixed type that is different from the
concept itself (or a clone), the type can be specified explicitly:
typeof StringLiteral -> StringType
Type systems are most important, and most interesting, in the
context of expressions. Since all expressions derive from the
abstract Expr concept, we can declare that this class is abstract,
and hence no typing rule is given16 :
typeof Expr -> abstract
The notation provided by the DSL groups typing rules and
type checks for a single concept. The following is the typing
information for the Plus concept. It declares the type of Plus
to be the common type of the left and right arguments (the
"more general" one) and then adds two constraints that check
that the left and right argument are either ints or doubles17 .
However, the editor reports a warning
if there are concrete subclasses of an
abstract class for which no type is
specified either.
16
17
These rules do not support using
+ for concatenating strings and for
concatenating strings with numbers
(as in "a" + 1). However, support for
this feature can be provided as well by
using a coercion rule.
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typeof Plus -> common left right {
ensureType left :<=: IntType, DoubleType
ensureType right :<=: IntType, DoubleType
}
The typing rules for Equals are also interesting. It specifies
that the resulting type is boolean, that the left and right
arguments must be COMPARABLE, and that the left and right
arguments be compatible. COMPARABLE is a type characteristic:
this can be considered as collection of types. In this case it
is IntType, DoubleType and BoolType. The :<=>: operator
describes unordered compatibility: the types of the two properties left and right must either be the same, or left must
be a subtype or right, or vice versa.
characteristic COMPARABLE {
IntType, DoubleType, BoolType
}
typeof Equals -> BoolType {
ensureType left
:<=: char(COMPARABLE)
ensureType right
:<=: char(COMPARABLE)
ensureCompatibility left :<=>: right
}
There is also support for ordered compatibility, as can be seen
from the typing rule for AssignmentStatement below. It has
no type (it is a statement), but the left and right argument
must exhibit ordered compatibility: they either have to be the
same types, or right must be a subtype of left, but not vice
versa:
typeof AssignmentStatement -> none {
ensureCompatibility right :<=: left
}
The framework uses the generation gap pattern, i.e. from the
DSL-based type specification, a generator creates a class CLTypesystemGenerated (for the cooling language) that contains all
the code that can be derived from the type system specification. Additional specifications that cannot be expressed with
the DSL (such as the typing rule for NumberLiteral shown
earlier, or type coercions) can be implemented in Java18 .
10.4
MPS Example
MPS includes a DSL for type system rule definition. It is based
on unification, and pattern matching for binary operators. We
discuss each of them.
Unification The type of a LocalVariableReference is calculated with the following typing rule19 . It establishes an equa-
The type system DSL is incomplete,
since some aspects of type systems have
to be coded in a lower level language
(Java). However, in this case this is
appropriate, since it keeps the type
system DSL simple and, since the DSL
users are programmers, it is not a
problem for them to write a few lines of
Java code.
18
19
Since only the expression within the
do {...} block has to be written by
the developer, we’ll only show that
expression in the remaining examples.
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tion between the type of the LocalVariableReference itself
and the variable it references. typeof is a built-in operator that
returns the type for its argument.
rule typeof_LocalVariableReference {
applicable for concept = LocalVariableReference as lvr
overrides false
do {
typeof( lvr ) :==: typeof( lvr.variable );
}
}
The rules for the Boolean NotExpression contains two equations. The first one makes sure that the negated expression is
Boolean. The second one types the NotExpression itself to be
Boolean20 .
typeof( notExpr.expression ) :==: new node<BooleanType>();
typeof( notExpr )
:==: <boolean>;
A more interesting example is the typing of structs. Consider
the following C code:
struct Person {
char* name;
int age;
}
Just as in Xtext, in MPS types are
instances of language concepts, so
they can be instantiated like any other
concept. MPS supports two ways of
doing this. The first one (as shown
in the first equation above) uses the
BaseLanguage new expression. The
second one uses a quotation, where
a "piece of tree" can be inlined into
program code. It uses the concrete
syntax of the quoted construct – here: a
BooleanType – in the quotation.
20
int addToAge( Person p, int delta ) {
return p.age + delta;
}
At least two program elements have to be typed: the parameter
p as well as the p.age expression. The type of the FunctionParameter concept is the type of its type property. This is not
specific to the fact that the parameter refers to a struct.
typeof( parameter ) :==: typeof( parameter.type );
The language concept that represents the Person type in the
parameter is a StructType. A StructType refers to the StructDeclaration whose type it represents, and extends Type, which
acts as the super type for all types in mbeddr C21 .
p.age is an instance of a StructAttributeReference. It is
defined as follows (see Fig. 10.4 as well as the code below). It is
an Expression, owns another expression property (on the left
of the dot), as well as a reference to a StructAttribute (name
or age in the example).
concept StructAttributeReference extends Expression
implements ILValue
children:
Expression context 1
references:
StructAttribute attribute 1
Figure 10.3: Structure diagram of the
language concepts involved in typing
structs.
This is essentially a use of the
Adapter pattern.
21
Figure 10.4: Structure diagram of
the language concepts involved in
references to struct attributes.
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The typing rule for the StructAttributeReference is shown
in the code below. The context, the expression on which we
use the dot operator, has to be a GenericStructType, or a
subtype thereof (i.e. a StructType which points to an actual
StructDeclaration). Second, the type of the whole expression is the type of the reference attribute (e.g., int in the
case of p.age).
typeof( structAttrRef.context ) :<=: new node<GenericStructType>();
typeof( structAttrRef )
:==: typeof( structAttrRef.attribute );
This example also illustrates the interplay between the type
system and other aspects of language definition, specifically
scopes. The referenced StructAttribute (on the right side of
the dot) may only reference a StructAttribute that is part of
the the StructDeclaration that is referenced from the StructType. The following scope definition illustrates how we access
the type of the expression from the scoping rule:
link {attribute}
search scope:
(model, scope, referenceNode, linkTarget, enclosingNode)->join(
ISearchScope | sequence<node< >>) {
node<> exprType = typeof( referenceNode.expression );
if (exprType.isInstanceOf(StructType)) {
return (exprType as StructType).struct.attributes;
} else {
return null;
}
}
Pattern Matching As we will discuss in the chapter on language extension and composition, MPS supports incremental
extension of existing languages. Extensions may also introduce new types, and, specifically, may allow existing operators
to be used with these new types. This is facilitated by MPS’
use for pattern matching in the type system, specifically for binary operators such as +, > or ==. As an example, consider the
introduction of complex numbers into C. It should be possible
to write code like this:
complex c1 = (1, 2i);
complex c2 = (3, 5i);
complex c3 = c1 + c2; // results in (4, 7i)
The + in c1 + c2 should be the + defined by the original C language22 . Reusing the original + requires that the typing rules
defined for PlusExpression in the original C language will
now have to accept complex numbers; the original typing rules
must be extended. To enable this, MPS supports overloaded
operations containers. The following container, taking from the
22
Alternatively, we could define a new
+ for complex numbers. While this
would work technically (remember
there is no parser ambiguity problems),
it would mean that users, when entering a +, would have to decide between
the original plus and the new plus for
complex numbers. This would not be
very convenient from a usability perspective. By reusing the original plus
we avoid this problem.
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mbeddr C core language, defines the type of + and - if both
arguments are int or double.
overloaded operations rules binaryOperation
operation concepts: PlusExpression | MinusExpression
left operand type: <int>
right operand type: <int>
operation type: (operation, leftOperandType, rightOperandType)->node<> {
<int>;
}
operation concepts: PlusExpression | MinusExpression
left operand type: <double>
right operand type: <double>
operation type: (operation, leftOperandType, rightOperandType)->node<> {
<double>;
}
To integrate these definitions with the regular typing rules, the
following typing rule must be written23 . The typing rules tie in
with overloaded operation containers via the operation type
construct:
rule typeof_BinaryExpression {
applicable for concept = BinaryExpression as binex
do {
node<> optype = operation type( binex , left , right );
if (optype != null) {
typeof(binex) :==: optype;
} else {
error "operator " + be.concept.name + " cannot be applied to " +
left.concept.name + "/" + right.concept.name -> be;
}
}
}
The important aspect of this approach is that overloaded operation containers are additive. Language extensions can simply
contribute additional containers. For the complex number example, this might look like the following: we declare that as
soon as one of the arguments is of type complex, the resulting
type will be complex as well.
PlusExpression | MinusExpression one operand type: <complex> operation type
:
(operation, leftOperandType, rightOperandType)->node<> {
<complex>;
}
The type system DSL in MPS covers a large fraction of the
type system rules encountered in practice. The type system for
BaseLanguage, which is an extension of Java, is implemented
in this way, as is the C type system in mbeddr. However, for
exceptional cases, procedural BaseLanguage code can be used
to implement typing rules as well.
Note that only one such rule must
be written for all binary operations.
Everything else will be handled with
the overloaded operations containers.
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10.5
Spoofax Example
Spoofax’ rewrite rules support both the recursive approach and
pattern matching in specifying type systems. However, in most
projects the recursive approach will be found. Therefore we
will focus on it in the remainder of the section.
Typing Rules in Spoofax
For typing rules in Spoofax, the
basic idea is to use rewrite rules to rewrite language constructs
to their types. For example, the following rule rewrites integer
numbers to the numeric type. This is an example of assigning
a fixed type to a language element.
type-of: Int(value) -> NumType()
Similarly, we can rewrite a + expression to the numeric type:
type-of: Add(exp1, exp2) -> NumType()
However, it is good practice to assign types only to well-typed
language constructs. Thus, we should add type checks for the
subexpressions:
type-of:
Add(exp1, exp2) -> NumType()
where
<type-of> exp1 => NumType();
<type-of> exp2 => NumType()
Spoofax allows for multiple typing rules for the same language
construct. This is particular useful for typing overloaded operators, since each case can be handled by a separate typing rule.
For example, when the operator + is overloaded to support
string concatenation, we can add the following typing rule:
type-of:
Add(exp1, exp2) -> StringType()
where
<type-of> exp1 => StringType();
<type-of> exp2 => StringType()
Persistence of Typing Information
Spoofax stores information about the definition sites of names in an in-memory data
structure called the index. This typically includes information
about types. For example, the type of property and variable
references is initially not available at these references, but only
at the declaration. But when Spoofax discovers a declaration,
it stores its type in the index. Since declaration and references
are annotated with the same URI, this information can also be
accessed at references. Consider the following name binding
rules which also involve type information:
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Property(p, t): defines Property p of type t
Param(p, t):
defines Variable p of type t
These rules match property and parameter declarations, binding their name to p and their type to t. Spoofax stores this type
in the index as an information about the property or parameter
name. In the typing rules for variable references and property
accesses, we need to retrieve this type information from the
index:
type-of:
Var(name) -> <index-lookup-type> name
type-of:
PropAccess(exp, name) -> <index-lookup-type> name
Both rules rewrite references to the type of their definition sites.
First, the definition of a reference is looked up in the index.
Next, this definition is rewritten to its type. This uses the
index-lookup-type rule, which implements the actual type
lookup in the index.
In the previous example, the type was explicitly declared in
property and parameter declarations. But the type of a definition site is not always explicitly declared. For example, variable
declarations in Mobl come with an initial expression, but without an explicit type24 .
var x = 42;
The type is inferred from the initial
expression.
24
The type of x is the type of its initial expression 42, that is,
NumType(). To make this type of x explicit, we need to calculate
the type of the initial expression. The following name binding
rule makes this connection between name binding and type
system:
Declare(v, e):
defines Variable v of type t in subsequent scope
where e has type t
Additional Types In Spoofax, types are represented as terms.
The constructors for these terms are specified in the syntax definition as labels to productions. Without the ability to define
additional constructors, type systems are restricted to types
which users can explicitly state in programs, for example in
variable declarations. But many type systems require additional types which do not originate from the syntax of the language. Typical examples are top and bottom types in type
hierarchies25 . For example, Java’s type system has a special
type for null values at the bottom of its type hierarchy, which
A top type is a supertype of every
other type; a bottom type is a subtype of
every other type.
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269
cannot be used as a type in Java programs. Spoofax allows
constructors for additional types in signatures to be defined:
signature constructors
FunType: List(Type) * Type -> Type
This defines an additional constructor FunType for Type. In
general, a constructor definition is of the form cons: Arg-1
* ...* Arg-n -> Sort, where cons is the constructor name,
Sort is the sort this constructor contributes to, and Arg-1 to
Arg-n are the sorts of its arguments. In the example, the first
subterm should be a list of parameter types (List(Type)), while
the second subterm should be the return type. We can employ
the so-defined function type in the typing rules for function
definitions and calls:
Function(f, p*, t):
defines Function f of type FunType(t*, t)
where p* has type t*
type-of:
Call(name, arg*) -> type
where
<index-lookup-type> name => FunType(type*, type)
Type Constraints Like any other constraint, type constraints
are specified in Spoofax by rewrite rules which rewrite language constructs to errors, warnings or notes. For example, we
can define a constraint on additions26 :
constraint-error:
exp -> (exp, $[Operator + cannot be applied to arguments
[<pprint> type1], [<pprint> type2].])
where
!exp => Add(exp1, exp2);
<not(type-of)> exp;
type1 := <type-of> exp1;
type2 := <type-of> exp2
Type Compatibility
Whether two types are compatible is
again defined by rewrite rules. These rules rewrite a pair of
types to the second element of the pair, if the first one is compatible with it. In the simplest case, both types are the same:
is-compatible-to: (type, type) -> type
This rule only succeeds if it gets a tuple with two types that
are identical (they both match the same variable type). A type
might also be compatible with any type with which its supertype is compatible:
is-compatible-to:
(subtype, type) -> type
where
An expression is non-well-typed, or
ill-typed, if it cannot be rewritten to
a type. But reporting an error on all
ill-typed expressions will make it hard
to discover the root cause of the error,
since every expression with an ill-typed
subexpression is also ill-typed. That is
why we also check the subexpressions
of the addition to be well-typed. The
types of the subexpressions are then
used to construct a meaningful error
message.
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supertype := <supertype> subtype;
<is-compatible-to> (supertype, type)
Here, the subtype relation is defined by a rewrite rule, which
rewrites a type to its supertype:
supertype: IntType() -> FloatType()
This approach only works for type systems in which each type
has at most one supertype. When a type system allows for
multiple supertypes, we have to use lists of supertypes and
need to adapt the rule for is-compatible-to accordingly:
supertypes: IntType() -> [ FloatType() ]
is-compatible-to:
(subtype, type) -> type
where
supertype* := <supertypes> subtype;
<fetch-elem(is-compatible-to(|type))> supertype*
Here, fetch-elem tries to find an element in a list of supertypes, which is compatible to type. It uses a variant of the rule
is-compatible-to in order to deal with a list of types. This
variant does not rewrite a pair of types, but only the first type.
The second type is passed as a parameter to the rewrite rule. It
can be defined in terms of the variant for pairs:
is-compatible-to(|type2): type1 ->
<is-compatible-to> (type1, type2)
The compatibility of types can easily be extended to compatibility of lists of types:
is-compatible-to:
(type1*, type2*) -> type*
where
type* := <zip(is-compatible-to)> (type1*, type2*)
A list type1* of types is compatible with another list type2*
of types, if each type in type1* is compatible with the corresponding type in type2*. zip pairs up the types from both
lists, rewrites each of these pairs by applying is-compatible-to
to them, and collects the results in a new list type*.
With the extension for lists, we can define a constraint for
function calls, which ensures that the types of the actual arguments are compatible with the types of the formal parameters:
constraint-error:
Call(name, arg*) -> (arg*,
$[Function [name] cannot be applied to arguments
[<pprint> arg-type*].])
where
fun-type := <index-lookup-type> name ;
!fun-type => FunType(para-type*, type) ;
arg-type* := <map(type-of)> arg* ;
<not(is-compatible-to)> (arg-type*, par-type*)
11
Transformation and Generation
In the case of both transformation and generation, another
artifact is created from a program, often a program in a
less abstract language. This is in contrast to interpretation,
which executes programs directly without creating intermediate artifacts. Transformation refers to the case in which
the created artifact is an AST, and code generation refers
to the case in which textual concrete syntax is created. In
some systems, for example MPS, the two are unified into a
common approach.
Transformation of models is an essential step in working with
DSLs. We typically distinguish between two different cases: if
models are transformed into other models, we call this model
transformation. If models are transformed into text (usually
source code, XML or other configuration files), we refer to code
generation1 . However, as we will see in the examples below, depending on the approach and tooling used, this distinction is
not always easy to make, and the boundary becomes blurred.
A fundamentally different approach to processing models
is interpretation. While in the case of transformation and generation the model is migrated to artifacts expressed in a different language, in the case of interpretation no such migration happens. Instead, an interpreter traverses an AST and directly performs actions depending on the contents of the AST.
Strictly speaking, we have already seen examples of interpretation in the sections on constraints and type systems: constraint
and type checks can be seen as an interpreter where the actions performed as the tree is traversed are checks of various
kinds. However, the term interpretation is typically only used
As we discuss in Part I, we do not
cover generation of byte code or machine code. This is mainly for the
following reason: by generating the
source code of a GPL, we can reuse this
GPL’s compiler or interpreter, including
all its optimizations (or platform independence). We’d have to rebuild these
optimizations in the DSL’s generator.
This is a lot of work, and requires skills
that are quite different from those most
DSL developers (including me) posses.
1
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for cases in which the actions actually execute the model. Execution refers to performing the actions that are associated with
the language concepts as defined by the execution semantics of
the concepts. We discuss interpretation in the next chapter2 .
Note that when developing transformations and code generators, special care must be taken to preserve or record trace information that can be used for error reporting and debugging.
In both cases, we have to be able to go back from the generated code to the higher-level abstractions it has been generated
from, so we that can report errors in terms of the higher-level
abstractions or show the higher-level source code during a debugging session. We discuss this challenge to some extent in
Chapter 15.
11.1
We elaborate on the trade-offs between transformation and generation
versus interpretation in the chapter on
language design (Section 4.3.5).
2
Overview of the approaches
Classical code generation traverses a program’s AST and outputs programming language source code (or other text). In
this context, a clear distinction is made between models and
source code. Models are represented as an AST expressed with
some preferred AS formalism (or meta meta model); an API
exists for the transformation to interact with the AST. In contrast, the generated source code is treated as text, i.e. a sequence of characters. The tool of choice for transforming an
AST into text are template languages. They support the syntactic mixing of model traversal code and to-be-generated text,
separated by some escape character3 . Since the generated code
is treated merely as text, there is no language awareness (and
corresponding tool support) for the target language while editing templates. Xtend4 , the language used for code generation
in Xtext, is an example of this approach.
Classical model transformation is the other extreme, in that
it works with ASTs only and does not consider the concrete
syntax of either the source or the target languages. The source
AST is transformed using the source language AS API and a
suitable traversal language. As the tree is traversed, the API of
the target language AS is used to assemble the target model5 .
For this to work smoothly, most specialized transformation languages assume that the source and target models are build
with the same AS formalism (e.g., EMF Ecore). Model transformation languages typically provide support for efficiently
navigating source models, and for creating instances of AS of
3
Xpand and Xtend use «guillemets».
Xtend is also sometimes referred
to as Xtend2, since it has evolved
from the old oAW Xtend language.
In this chapter we use Xtend to refer to Xtend2. It can be found at
www.eclipse.org/xtend/.
4
Note that in this chapter we look at
transformation in the context of refinement, i.e. the target model is less
abstract and more detailed than the
source model. Model transformations
can also be used for other purposes,
including the creation of views, refactorings and reverse engineering.
5
dsl engineering
the target language (tree construction). Examples for this approach once again include Xtext’s Xtend, as well as QVT Operational6 and ATL7 . MPS can also be used in this way. A slightly
different approach just establishes relations between the source
and target models instead of "imperatively" constructing a target tree as the source is traversed. While this is often less intuitive to write down, the approach has the advantage that it
supports transformation in both directions, and also supports
model diff8 . QVT relational9 is an example of this approach.
In addition to the two classical cases described above, there
are also hybrid approaches that blur the boundaries between
these two clear-cut extremes. They are based on the support
for language modularization and composition, in the sense that
the template language and the target language can be composed. As a consequence, the tooling is aware of the syntactic
structure and the static semantics of the template language and
the target language. Both MPS and Spoofax support this approach to various extents.
In MPS, a program is projected and every editing operation directly modifies the AST, while using a typically textuallooking notation as the "user interface". Template code (the
code that controls the transformation process) and target-language code (the code you want to generate) can be represented
as nested ASTs, each using its own textual syntax. MPS uses
a slightly different approach based on a concept called annotations. Projectional editors can store arbitrary information in
an AST. Specifically, they can store information that does not
correspond to the language underlying a particular ASTs. MPS
code generation templates exploit this approach: template code
is fundamentally an instance of the target language. This "example model" is then annotated with template annotations that
define how the example model relates to the source model,
and which example nodes must be replaced by (further transformed) nodes from the source model. This allows any language to be "templatized" without changing the language definition itself. The MPS example below will elaborate on this
approach.
Spoofax, with its Stratego transformation language, uses a
similar approach based on parser technology. As we have already seen, the underlying grammar formalism supports flexible composition of grammars. So the template language and
the target language can be composed, retaining tool support for
6
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/QVT
7
www.eclipse.org/atl/
273
It does so by "relating" two instances
of the same language and marking both
as readoqnly; the engine then points
out the difference between the two.
8
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both of these languages. Execution of the template directly constructs an AST of the target language, using the concrete syntax
of the target language to specify its structure. The Spoofax example will provide details.
11.2
Xtext Example
Since Xtext is based on EMF, generators can be built using
any tool that can generate code from EMF models, including Acceleo10 , Jet11 and of course Xtend. Xtend is a Java-like
general-purpose language that removes some of Java’s syntactic noise (it has type inference, property access syntax, operator overloading) and adds syntactic sugar (extension methods,
multiple-dispatch and closures). Xtend comes with an interpreter and a compiler, the latter generating Java source. Xtend
is built with Xtext, so it comes with a powerful Xtext-based editor. One particularly interesting language feature in the context
of code generators are Xtend’s template expressions. Inside these
expressions, a complete template language is available (similar
to the older Xpand language). Xtend also provides automatic
whitespace management12 . The functional abstractions provided by Xtend (higher-order functions in particular) make it
very well suited for navigating and querying models. In the
rest of this section we will use Xtend for writing code generators and model transformations.
11.2.1
10
www.acceleo.org/ pages/home/en
11
www.eclipse.org/
modeling/m2t/?project=jet
Indentation of template code is
traditionally a challenge, because it
is not clear whether whitespace in
templates is intended to go into the
target file, or is just used for indenting
the template itself.
12
Generator
We will now look at generating the C code that implements
cooling programs. Fig. 11.1 shows a screenshot of a typical
generator. The generator is an Xtend class that implements
IGenerator, which requires the doGenerate method to be implemented. The method is called for each model file that has
changed13 (represented by the resource argument), and it has
to output the corresponding generated code via the fsa (file
system access) object14 .
When generating code from models, there are two distinct
cases. In the first case, the majority of the generated code is
fixed; only some isolated parts of the code depend on the input model. In this case a template language is the right tool,
because template control code can be "injected" into code that
looks similar to what should be generated. In the other case
there are fine-grained structures, such as expressions. Since
This is achieved by a Builder that
comes with Xtext. Alternatively, Xtend
generators can also be run from the
command line, from another Java
program or from ant and maven. Also,
other strategies can be implemented in
the Eclipse IDE itself, based on custom
builder participants, buttons or menu
entries.
13
Like any other Xtext language aspect,
the generator has to be registered with
the runtime module, Xtext’s main
configuration data structure. Once this
is done, the generator is automatically
called for each changed resource
associated with the respective language.
14
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these are basically trees, using template languages for these
parts of programs seems unnatural and results in a lot of syntactic noise. A more functional approach is useful. Xtend can
deal with both cases elegantly and we will illustrate both cases
as part of this example.
We start with the high-level structure of the C code generated for a cooling program. The following piece of code
illustrates Xtend’s power to navigate a model as well as the
template syntax for text generation.
def compile(CoolingProgram program) {
’’’
<<FOR appl: program.moduleImports.map(mi|mi.module).filter(typeof(
Appliance))>>
<<FOR c: appl.contents>>
#define <<c.name>> <<c.index>>
<<ENDFOR>>
<<ENDFOR>>
275
Figure 11.1: The top-level structure of
a generator written in Xtend is a class
that implements the IGenerator interface, which requires the doGenerate
method. Inside generator methods,
template expressions (delimited with
triple single quotes) are typically used.
Inside those, guillemets (the small
double angle brackets) are used to
switch between to-be-generated code
(gray background) and template control
code. Note also the gray whitespace
in the init function. Gray whitespace
is whitespace that will end up in the
generated code. White whitespace
is used for indentation of template
code; Xtend figures out which is which
automatically.
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// more ...
’’’
}
The FOR loop iterates over the moduleImports collection of the
program, follows the module reference of each of these, and
then selects all Appliances from the resulting collection. The
nested loop then iterates over the contents of each appliance
and generates a #define15 . After the #define we generate
the name of the respective content element and then its index.
From within templates, the properties and references of model
elements (such as the name or the module or the contents) can
simply be accessed using the dot operator. map and filter
are collection methods defined by the Xtend standard library16 .
We also have to generate an enum for the states in the cooling
program.
typedef enum states {
null_state,
<<FOR s : program.concreteStates SEPARATOR ",">>
<<s.name>>
<<ENDFOR>>
};
Here we embed a FOR loop inside the enum text. Note how we
use the SEPARATOR keyword to put a comma between two subsequent states. In the FOR loop we access the concreteStates
property of the cooling program. However, if you look at the
grammar or the meta model, you will see that no concreteStates property is defined there. Instead, we call an extension
method17 ; since it has no arguments, it looks like property access. The method is defined further down in the CoolingLanguageGenerator class and is essentially a shortcut for a
complex expression:
def concreteStates(CoolingProgram p) {
p.states.filter(s | !(s instanceof BackgroundState) && !(s instanceof
ShadowState))
}
The following code is part of the generator that generates the
code for a state transition. It first generates code to execute the
exit actions of the current state, then performs the state change
(current_state = new_state;) and finally executes the entry
actions of the new state (not shown):
if (new_state != current_state) {
<<IF program.concreteStatesWitExitActions.size > 0>>
// execute exit action for state if necessary
switch (current_state) {
<<FOR s: p.concreteStatesWitExitActions>>
case <<s.name>>:
<<FOR st: s.exitStatements>>
Notice how the the first two and the
last two lines are enclosed in guillemets.
Since we are in template expression
mode (inside the triple single quotes)
the guillemets escape to template
control code. The #define is not in
guillemets, so it is generated into the
target file.
15
map creates a new collection from
an existing collection where, for each
element in the existing collection,
the expression after the | creates
the corresponding value for the new
collection. filter once again creates
a new collection from an existing one
where only those elements are included
that are an instance of the type passed
as an argument to filter.
16
An extension method is an additional
method for an existing class, defined
without invasively changing the definition of the class.
17
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<<st.compileStatement>>
<<ENDFOR>>
break;
<<ENDFOR>>
default:
break;
}
<<ENDIF>>
// The state change
current_state = new_state;
// similar as above, but for entry actions
}
The code first uses an IF statement to check whether the program has any states with exit actions (by calling the concreteStatesWitExitActions extension method). The subsequent
switch statement is only generated if we have such states.
The switch switches over the current_state, and then adds
a case for each state with exit actions18 . Inside the case we iterate over all the exitStatements and call compileStatement
for each of them. compileStatement is marked with dispatch,
which makes it a multimethod: it is polymorphically overloaded based on its argument19 . For each statement in the cooling language, represented by a subclass of Statement, there
is an implementation of this method. The next piece of code
shows some example implementations.
The s.name expression in the case is
actually a reference to the enum literal
generated earlier for the particular
state. From the perspective of Xtend,
we simply generate text: it is not
obvious from the template that the
name corresponds to an enum literal.
Potential structural or type errors are
only revealed upon compilation of the
generated code.
18
Note that Java can only perform a
polymorphic dispatch based on the
this pointer. Xtend can dispatch
polymorphically over the arguments of
methods marked as dispatch.
19
class StatementExtensions {
def dispatch compileStatement(Statement s){
// raise error if the overload for the abstract class is called
}
def dispatch compileStatement(AssignmentStatement s){
s.left.compileExpr +" = " + s.right.compileExpr +";"
}
def dispatch compileStatement(IfStatement s){
’’’
if( <<s.expr.compileExpr>> ){
<<FOR st : s.statements>>
<<st.compileStatement>>
<<ENDFOR>>
}<<IF s.elseStatements.size > 0>> else {
<<FOR st : s.elseStatements>>
<<st.compileStatement>>
<<ENDFOR>>
}<<ENDIF>>
’’’
}
// more ...
}
The implementation of the overloaded methods simply returns
the text string that represents the C implementation for the respective language construct20 . Notice how the implementation
for the IfStatement uses a template string, whereas the one
for AssignmentStatement uses normal string concatenation.
The two examples shown are simple
because the language construct in the
DSL closely resembles the C code in the
first place.
20
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The compileStatement methods are implemented in the class
StatementExtensions. However, from within the CoolingLanguageGenerator they are called using method syntax (st.
compileStatement). This works because they are injected as
extensions using the following statement:
@Inject extension StatementExtensions
Expressions are handled in the same way as statements. The injected class ExpressionExtensions defines a set of overloaded
dispatch methods for Expression and all its subtypes. Since
expressions are trees, a compileExpr method typically calls
compileExpr recursively on the children of the expression, if
it has any. This is the typical idiom to implement generators
for expression languages21 .
def dispatch String compileExpr (Equals e){
e.left.compileExpr + " == " + e.right.compileExpr
}
def dispatch String compileExpr (Greater e){
e.left.compileExpr + " > " + e.right.compileExpr
}
Earlier we distinguished between
generating a lot of code with only
specific parts being model-dependent,
and fine-grained tree structures in
expressions: this is an example of the
latter.
21
def dispatch String compileExpr (Plus e){
e.left.compileExpr + " + " + e.right.compileExpr
}
def dispatch String compileExpr (NotExpression e){
"!(" + e.expr.compileExpr + ")"
}
def dispatch String compileExpr (TrueExpr e){
"TRUE"
}
def dispatch String compileExpr (ParenExpr pe){
"(" + pe.expr.compileExpr + ")"
}
def dispatch compileExpr (NumberLiteral nl){
nl.value
}
11.2.2
Model-to-Model Transformation
For model-to-model transformations, the same argument can
be made as for code generation: since Xtext is based on EMF,
any EMF-based model-to-model transformation engine can be
used with Xtext models. Examples include ATL, QVT-O, QVTR and Xtend22 .
Model-to-model transformations are similar to code generators in the sense that they traverse over the model. But instead
of producing a text string as the result, they produce another
AST. So the general structure of a transformation is similar. In
fact, the two can be mixed. Let us go back to the first code
example of the generator:
Of course you could use any JVMbased compatible programming language, including Java itself. However,
Java is really not very well suited, because of its clumsy support for model
navigation and object instantiation.
Scala and Groovy are much more
interesting in this respect.
22
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def compile(CoolingProgram program) {
val transformedProgram = program.transform
’’’
<<FOR appl : transformedProgram.modules.map(m|m.module).filter(typeof(
Appliance))>>
<<FOR c : appl.contents>>
#define <<c.name>> <<c.index>>
<<ENDFOR>>
<<ENDFOR>>
// more ...
’’’
}
We have added a call to a function transform at the beginning
of the code generation process. This function creates a new
CoolingProgram from the original one, and we store it in the
transformedProgram variable. The code generator then uses
the transformedProgram as the source from which it generates code. In effect, we have added a "preprocessor" model-tomodel transformation to the generator23 .
The transform function (see below) enriches the existing
model. It creates a new state (EMERGENCY_STOP), creates a new
event (emergency_button_pressed) and then adds a new transition to each existing state that checks whether the new event
occurred, and if so, transitions to the new EMERGENCY_STOP
state. Essentially, this adds emergency stop behavior to any
existing state machine. Let’s look at the implementation:
As discussed in the design section
(Section 4.3), this is one of the most
common uses of model-to-model
transformations.
23
class Transformation {
@Inject extension CoolingBuilder
CoolingLanguageFactory factory = CoolingLanguageFactory::eINSTANCE
def CoolingProgram transform(CoolingProgram p ) {
p.states += emergencyState
p.events += emergencyEvent
for ( s: p.states.filter(typeof(CustomState)).filter(s|s !=
emergencyState) ) {
s.events += s.eventHandler [
symbolRef [
emergencyEvent()
]
changeStateStatement(emergencyState())
]
}
return p;
}
def create result: factory.createCustomState emergencyState() {
result.name = "EMERGENCY_STOP"
}
def create result: factory.createCustomEvent emergencyEvent() {
result.name = "emergency_stop_button_pressed"
}
}
The factory used in these methods
is the way to create model elements in
EMF. It is generated as part of the EMF
code generator
24
The two create methods create new objects, as the create
prefix suggests24 . However, simply creating objects could be
done with a regular method as well:
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def emergencyState() {
val result = factory.createCustomState
result.name = "EMERGENCY_STOP"
result
}
What is different in create methods is that they can be called
several times, and they still only ever create one object (for each
combination of actual argument values). The result of the first
invocation is cached, and all subsequent invocations return the
object created during the first invocation. Such a behavior is very
useful in transformations, because it removes the need to keep
track of already created objects. For example, in the transform
method, we have to establish references to the state created by
emergencyState and the event created by emergencyEvent. To
do that, we simply call the same create extension again. Since
it returns the same object as during the first call in the first two
lines of transform, this actually establishes references to those
already created objects25 .
We can now look at the implementation of transform itself.
It starts by adding the emergencyState and the emergencyEvent
to the program26 . We then iterate over all CustomStates except
the emergency state we’ve just created. Notice how we just call
the emergencyState function again: it returns the same object.
We then use a builder to add the following code to each of the
existing states.
on emergency_button_pressed {
state EMERGENCY_STOP
}
This is a major difference between
text generation and model transformation. In text, two textual occurrences of
a symbol are the same thing (in some
sense, text strings are value objects).
In model transformation the identity
of elements does matter. It is not the
same if we create one new state and
then reference it, or if we create five
new states. So a good transformation
language helps keep track of identities.
The create methods are a very nice
way of doing this.
25
These are the first calls to the respective functions, so the objects are actually
created at this point.
26
This code could be constructed by procedurally calling the respective factory methods:
val eh = factory.createEventHandler
val sr = factory.createSymbolRef
sr.symbol = emergencyEvent
val css = factory.createChangeStateStatement
css.targetState = emergencyState
eh.statements += css
s.events += eh
The notation used in the actual implementation is more concise
and resembles the tree structure of the code much more closely.
It uses the well-known builder. Builders are implemented in
Xtend with a combination of closures and implicit arguments
and a number of functions implemented in the CoolingBuilder
class27 . Here is the code:
class CoolingBuilder {
CoolingLanguageFactory factory = CoolingLanguageFactory::eINSTANCE
Of course, if you add the line count
and effort for implementing the builder,
then using this alternative over the
plain procedural one might not look so
interesting. However, if you just create
these builder functions once, and then
create many different transformations,
this approach makes a lot of sense.
27
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def eventHandler( CustomState it, (EventHandler)=>void handler ) {
val res = factory.createEventHandler
res
}
def symbolRef( EventHandler it, (SymbolRef)=>void symref ) {
val res = factory.createSymbolRef
it.events += res
}
def symbol( SymbolRef it, CustomEvent event ) {
it.symbol = event
}
def changeStateStatement( EventHandler it, CustomState target ) {
val res = factory.createChangeStateStatement
it.statements += res
res.targetState = target
}
}
This class is imported into the generator with the @Inject
extension construct, so the methods can be used "just so".
11.3
MPS Example
MPS comes with a textgen language for text generation. It
is typically just used at the end of the transformation chain
where code expressed in GPLs (like Java or C) is generated to
text so it can be passed to existing compilers. Fig. 11.2 shows
the textgen component for mbeddr C’s IfStatement. MPS’
text generation language basically appends text to a buffer.
We won’t discuss this aspect of MPS any further, since MPS
textgen is basically a wrapper language around a StringBuffer.
However, this is perfectly adequate for the task at hand, since
it is only used in the last stage of generation where the AST is
essentially structurally identical to the generated text28 .
DSLs and language extensions typically use model-to-model
transformations to "generate" code expressed in a low-level
programming language29 . Writing transformations in MPS involves two ingredients. Templates define the actual transformation. Mapping configurations define which template to run
when and where. Templates are valid sentences of the target
language. Macros are used to express dependencies on and
queries over the input model. For example, when the guard
condition (a C expression) should be generated into an if statement in the target model, you first write an if statement with a
dummy condition in the template. The following would work:
if (true) {}. Then the nodes that should be replaced by the
transformation with nodes from the input model are annotated
If you want to generate text that is
structurally different, then the textgen
language is a bit of a pain to use; in this
case, the MPS philosophy recommends
that you build a suitable intermediate
language (such as for XML, or even for
a particular schema).
28
The distinction between code generators and model-to-model transformations is much less clear in this case.
While it is a model-to-model transformation (we map one AST onto another)
the transformations look very much
like code generators, since the concrete
syntax of the target language is used in
the "template".
29
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Figure 11.2: The AST-to-text generator
for an if statement. If first checks if
the condition happens to be a true
literal, in which case the if statement is
optimized away and only the thenPart
is output. Otherwise we generate an if
statement, the condition in parentheses,
and then the thenPart. We then iterate
over all the elseIfs; an elseIf has its
own textgen, and we delegate to that
one. We finally output the code for the
else part.
with macros. In our example, this would look like this: if
(COPY_SRC[true]){}. Inside the COPY_SRC macro you put an
expression that describes which elements from the input model
should replace the dummy node true: we use node.guard to
replace it with the guard condition of the input node (expected
to be of type Transition here). When the transformation is
executed, the true node will be replaced by what the macro
expression returns – in this case, the guard of the input transition. We will explain this process in detail below.
Template-based Translation of the State Machine State machines
live inside modules. Just like structs, they can be instantiated.
The following code shows an example. Notice the two global
variables c1 and c2, which are instances of the same state machine Counter.
module Statemachine imports nothing {
statemachine Counter {
in events
start()
step(int[0..10] size)
out events
started()
resetted()
incremented(int[0..10] newVal)
local variables
int[0..10] currentVal = 0
int[0..10] LIMIT = 10
states ( initial = start )
state start {
on start [ ] -> countState { send started(); }
}
state countState {
on step [currentVal + size > LIMIT] -> start { send resetted(); }
on step [currentVal + size <= LIMIT] -> countState {
currentVal = currentVal + size;
send incremented(currentVal);
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}
on start [ ] -> start { send resetted(); }
}
}
Counter c1;
Counter c2;
void aFunction() {
trigger(c1, start);
}
}
State machines are translated to the following lower-level C
entities (this high level structure is clearly discernible from the
two main templates shown in Fig. 11.3 and Fig. 11.7):
• An enum for the states (with a literal for each state).
• An enum for the events (with a literal for each event).
• A struct declaration that contains an attribute for the current state, as well as attributes for the local variables declared in the state machine.
• And finally, a function that implements the behavior of the
state machine using a switch statement. The function takes
two arguments: one named instance, typed with the struct
mentioned in the previous item, and one named event that
is typed to the event enum mentioned above. The function
checks whether the instance’s current state can handle the
event passed in, evaluates the guard, and if the guard is
true, executes exit and entry actions and updates the current state.
Figure 11.3: The MPS generator that
inserts two enum definitions and a
struct into the module which contains
the StateMachine.
The MPS transformation engine works in phases. Each phase
transforms models expressed in some languages to other models expressed in the same or other languages. Model elements
for which no transformation rules are specified are copied from
one phase to the next. Reduction rules are used to intercept
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program elements and transform them as generation progresses
through the phases. Fig. 11.4 shows how this affects state machines. A reduction rule is defined that maps state machines to
the various elements we mentioned above. Notice how the surrounding module remains unchanged, because no reduction
rule is defined for it.
Figure 11.4: State machines are transformed (via a model-to-model transformation, if you will) into two enums,
a struct and a function. These are
then transformed to text via the regular
com.mbeddr.core textgen.
Let us look in more detail at the template in Fig. 11.3. It reduces a Statemachine, the input node, to two enums and a
struct. We use template fragments (marked with <TF ...
TF>) to highlight those parts of the template that should actually be used to replace the input node as the transformation executes. The surrounding module dummy is scaffolding: it is only
needed because enums and structs must live in ImplementationModules in any valid instance of the mbeddr C language30 .
We have to create an enum literal for each state and each
event. To achieve this, we iterate over all states (and events,
respectively). This is expressed with the LOOP macros in the
template in Fig. 11.3. The expression that determines what we
iterate over is entered in the Inspector, MPS’ equivalent to a
properties window; Fig. 11.5 shows the code for iterating over
the states31 . For the literals of the events enum we use a similar
expression (node.events;).
Since the templates are projected example instances of the target language,
the template has to be a valid instance of
any MPS-implemented language.
30
Note that the only really interesting
part of Fig. 11.5 is the body of the
anonymous function (node.states;),
which is why from now on we will only
show this part.
31
Figure 11.5: The inspector is used to
provide the implementation details for
the macros used in the templates. This
one belongs to a LOOP macro, so we
provide an expression that returns a
collection, over which the LOOP macro
iterates.
The LOOP macro iterates over collections and then creates an
instance of the concept it is attached to for each iteration. In
the case of the two enums, the LOOP macro is attached to an
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EnumLiteral, so we create an EnumLiteral for each event and
state we iterate over. However, these various EnumLiterals
must all have different names. In fact, the name of each literal
should be the name of the state/event for which it is created.
We can use a property macro, denoted by the $ sign, to achieve
this. A property macro is used to replace values of properties32 . In this case we use it to replace the name property of the
generated EnumLiteral with the name of the state/event over
which we loop. Here is the implementation expression of the
property macro:
The node macros used above
(COPY_SRC) replace whole nodes, as
opposed to primitive properties of nodes.
32
node.cEnumLiteralName();
In the code above, cEnumLiteralName is a behavior method33 .
It concatenates the name of the parent Statemachine with the
string __state_ and the name of the current state (in order to
get a unique name for each state):
Behavior methods are defined as part
of the behavior aspect of the concepts,
such as State.
33
concept behavior State {
public string cEnumLiteralName() {
return this.parent : Statemachine.name + "__state_" + this.name;
}
}
The first of the struct attributes is also interesting. It is used to
store the current state. It has to be typed to the state enum that
is generated from this particular state machine. The type of the
attribute is an EnumType; EnumTypes extend Type and reference
the EnumDeclaration whose type they represent. How can we
establish the reference to the correct EnumDeclaration? We
use a reference macro (->$) to retarget the reference. Fig. 11.6
shows the macro’s expression.
Note how a reference macro expects either the target node
(here: an EnumDeclaration) as the return value, or a string.
That string would be the name of the target element. Our implementation returns the name of the states enum generated in
the same template. MPS then uses the target language’s scoping rules to find and link to the correct target element34 .
Let us now address the second main template, Fig. 11.7,
which generates the execute function. The switch expression
is interesting. It switches over the current state of the cur-
Figure 11.6: A reference macro has to
return either the target node, or the
name of the target node. The name is
then resolved using the scoping rules
for the particular reference concept.
This is not a global name lookup!
Since MPS knows the reference is an
EnumLiteralRef expression, the scope
of that concept is used. As long as the
name is unique within the scope, this is
completely deterministic. Alternatively,
the actual node can be identified and
returned from the reference macro
using mapping labels. However, using
names is much more convenient and
works also for cross-model references,
where mapping labels don’t work.
34
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rent state machine instance. That instance is represented by
the instance parameter passed into the function. It has a
__currentState field. Notice how the function that contains
the switch statement in the template has to have the instance
argument, and how its type, the struct, has to have the __currentState attribute in the template. If the respective elements
were not there in the template, we couldn’t write the template
code! Since there is a convention that in the resulting function
the argument will also be called instance, and the attribute
will also be called __currentState, we don’t have to use a
reference macro to retarget the two.
Inside the switch we LOOP over all the states of the state
machine and generate a case, using the state’s corresponding
enum literal. Inside the case, we embed another switch that
switches over the event argument. Inside this inner switch we
iterate over all transitions that are triggered by the event we
currently iterate over:
Figure 11.7: The transformation template for generating the switch-based
implementation of a StateMachine.
Looking at the template fragment markers (<TF ... TF>) reveals that we
only generate the switch statement,
not the function that contains it. The
reason is that we need to be able to
embed the state machine switch into
other function-like concepts as well
(e.g., operations in components defined
in the mbeddr components extension),
so we have separated the generation of
the function from the generation of the
actual state machine behavior. See the
text for more details.
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context state.transitions.where({~it => it.trigger.event == node; });
We then generate an if statement that checks at runtime whether
the guard condition for this transition is true. We copy in the
guard condition using the COPY_SRC macro attached to the true
dummy node. The COPY_SRC macro copies the original node,
but it also applies additional reduction rules for this node (and
all its descendants), if there are any. For example, in a guard
condition it is possible to reference event arguments. The reference to size in the step transition is an example:
statemachine Counter {
in events
step(int[0..10] size)
...
states ( initial = start )
...
state countState {
on step [currentVal + size > LIMIT] -> start { send resetted(); }
}
}
Event arguments are mapped to the resulting C function via a
void* array. A reference to an event argument (EventArgRef)
hence has to be reduced to accessing the n-th element in the
array (where n is the index of the event argument in the list of
arguments). Fig. 11.8 shows the reduction rule. It accesses the
array, casts the element to a pointer to the type of the argument,
and then dereferences everything35 .
The reduction rule creates code
that looks like this (for an int event
attribute): *((int*)arguments[0]).
35
Figure 11.8: The reduction rule for
references to event arguments (to
be used inside guard conditions of
transitions).
Inside the if statement, we have to generate the code that
has to be executed if a transition fires. We first copy in all
the exit actions of the current state. Once again, the int8
exitActions; is just an arbitrary dummy statement that will
be replaced by the statements in the exit actions (COPY_SRCL
replaces a node with a list of nodes). The respective expression
is this:
(node, genContext, operationContext)->sequence<node<>> {
if (node.parent : State.exitAction != null) {
return node.parent : State.exitAction.statements;
}
new sequence<node<>>(empty);
}
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We then do the same for the transition actions of the current
transition, set the instance->__currentState to the target state
of the transition using a reference macro (node.targetState.
cEnumLiteralName();), and then we handle the entry actions
of the target state. Finally we return, because at most one transition can fire as a consequence of calling the state machine
execute function.
As the last example I want to show how the TriggerSMStatement is translated. It injects an event into a state machine:
Counter c1;
void aFunction() {
trigger(c1, start);
}
It must be translated to a call to the generated state machine
execute function that we have discussed above. For simplicity,
we explain a version of the TriggerSMStatement that does not
include event arguments. Fig. 11.9 shows the template.
We use a dummy function someMethod so that we can embed a
function call, because we have to generate a function call to the
execute function generated from the state machine. Only the
function call is surrounded with the template fragment markers (and will be generated). The function we call in the template
code is the smExecuteFunction. It has the same signature as the
real, generated state machine execute function. We use a reference macro to retarget the function reference in the function
call. It uses the following expression, which returns the name
of the function generated for the state machine referenced in
the statemachine expression of the trigger statement:
Figure 11.9: The reduction rule for a
trigger statement. It is transformed to
a call to the function that implements
the behavior of the state machine that is
referenced in the first argument of the
trigger statement.
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StatemachineType.machine.cFunctionName();
Note how the first argument to the trigger statement can be
any expression (local variable reference, global variable reference, a function call). However, we know (and enforce via
the type system) that the expression’s type must be a StatemachineType, which has a reference to the Statemachine whose
instance the expression represents. So we can cast the expression’s type to StatemachineType, access the machine reference,
and get the name of the execute function generated from that
state machine36 .
The second argument of the trigger statement is a reference
to the event we want to trigger. We can use another reference
macro to find the enum literal generated for this event. The
macro code is straight forward:
This is an example of where we use
the type system in the code generator,
and not just for checking a program for
type correctness.
36
node.event.cEnumLiteralName();
Procedural Transformation of a Test Case Instead of using the
template-based approach shown above, transformations can
also be written manually against the MPS API. To do this, a
mapping script is called from the mapping configuration (instead of the mapping configuration containing rules). Such a
mapping script can contain arbitrary BaseLanguage code that
operates on the output model of the transformation37 .
As part of the mbeddr project, we have built a Builder extension to BaseLanguage. In the example below, we will build
the following code:
module SomeModule imports nothing {
exported test case testCase1 {
}
exported int32 main(int32 argc, string*[] argv) {
return test testCase1;
}
}
The code below builds the code above. Notice how by default we work with concepts directly (as when we mention
StatementList or ExecuteTestExpression). However, we can
also embed expression in the builder using the #(..) expression. Nodes created by the builder can be named (as in
tc:TestCase) so they can be used as a reference target later
(testcase -> tc).
node<ImplementationModule> immo = build ImplementationModule
name = #(aNamePassedInFromAUserDialog)
contents += tc:TestCase
This is essentially similar to the
implementation code for intentions or
refactorings (Section 13.6); those also
modify a model using the MPS Node
API.
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name = "testCase1"
type = VoidType
contents += #(MainFunctionHelper.createMainFunction())
body = StatementList statements += ReturnStatement
expression = ExecuteTestExpression
tests += TestCaseRef
testcase -> tc
Builders in MPS are a first-class extension to BaseLanguage,
which means that the IDE can provide support. For example, if
a concept has a mandatory child (e.g. the body in a Function),
the IDE will report an error if no node is put into this child
slot. Code completion can be provided as well38 .
11.4
Users do not have to build the helper
functions we have seen for Xtext/Xtend
above. On the other hand, the MPS
builder extension is specific to building
MPS node trees, whereas the approach
taken by Xtext/Xtend is generic, as long
as users define the helper functions.
38
Spoofax Example
In Spoofax, model-to-model transformations and code generation are both specified by rewrite rules39 . This allows for the
seamless integration of model-to-model transformation steps
into the code generation process; the clear distinction between
model-to-model transformation and code generation vanishes40 .
We look at the various approaches supported by Spoofax in this
chapter.
Rewrite rules were introduced in
Section 9.3.1.
39
Similar to MPS, it is also possible
to express model-to-model transformations using the concrete syntax of
the target language, even though this
requires a bit more setup and care.
40
Code Generation by String Interpolation Pure code generation from abstract syntax trees to text can be realized by rewriting to strings. The following simple rules rewrite types to their
corresponding representation in Java. For entity types, we use
their name as the Java representation:
to-java:
to-java:
to-java:
to-java:
NumType()
BoolType()
StringType()
EntType(name)
->
->
->
->
"int"
"boolean"
"String"
name
Typically, more complex rules are recursive and use string interpolation41 to construct strings from fixed and variable parts.
For example, the following two rewrite rules generate Java code
for entities and their properties:
to-java:
Entity(x, ps) ->
$[ class [x] {
[ps’]
}
]
with
ps’ := <map(to-java)> ps
to-java:
Property(x, t) ->
$[ private [t’] [x];
public [t’] get_[x] {
return [x];
We used string interpolation already
before to compose error messages in
Section 9.3.
41
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}
public void set_[x] ([t’] [x]) {
this.[x] = [x];
}
]
with
t’ := <to-java> t
String interpolation takes place inside $[...] brackets and
allows us to combine fixed text with variables that are bound to
strings. Variables can be inserted using brackets [...] without
a dollar sign42 . Instead of variables, we can also directly use
the results from other rewrite rules that yield strings or lists of
strings:
to-java:
Entity(x, ps) ->
$[ class [x] {
[<map(to-java)> ps]
}
]
Indentation is important, both for the readability of rewrite
rules and of the generated code: the indentation leading up
to the $[...] brackets is removed, but any other indentation
beyond the bracket level is preserved in the generated output.
In this way we can indent the generated code, as well as our
rewrite rules. Applying to-java to the initial shopping entity
will yield the following Java code:
class Item {
private String name;
public String get_name {
return name;
}
public void set_name (String name) {
this.name = name;
}
private boolean checked;
public boolean get_checked {
return checked;
}
public void set_checked (boolean checked) {
this.checked = checked;
}
private Num order;
public Num get_order {
return order;
}
public void set_order (Num order) {
this.order = order;
}
}
You can also use any other kind of
bracket: {...}, <...>, and (...) are
allowed as well.
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When we prefer camelcase in method names, we need to slightly
change our code generation rules, replacing get_[x] and set_[x]
by get[<to-upper-first>x] and set[<to-upper-first>x].
We also need to specify the following rewrite rule:
to-upper-first: s
where
[first|chars]
upper
s’
-> s’
:= <explode-string> s ;
:= <to-upper> first ;
:= <implode-string> [upper|chars]
explode-string turns a string into a list of characters, to-upper
upper-cases the first character, and implode-string turns the
characters back into a string43 .
All these strategies are part of Stratego’s standard library, documented
at releases.strategoxt.org/docs/
43
api/libstratego-lib/stable/docs/.
Editor Integration To integrate the code generation into our
editor, we first have to define the following rewrite rule:
generate-java:
(selected, position, ast, path, project-path) -> (filename, result)
with
filename := <guarantee-extension(|"java")> path;
result
:= <to-java> ast
While we are free to choose the name of this rule44 , the patterns
on the left- and right-hand side need to follow Spoofax’ convention for editor integration. On the left-hand side, it matches
the current selection in the editor, its position in the abstract
syntax tree, the abstract syntax tree itself (ast), the path of the
source file in the editor45 , and the path of the project this file
belongs to. As the right-hand side shows, the rule produces
the name of the generated file and its content as a string. The
file name is derived from the source file’s path, while the file
content is generated from the abstract syntax tree.
Once we have defined this rule, we can register it as a builder
in editor/Lang-Builders.esv. Here, we add the following
rule:
builder: "Generate Java code (selection)" = generate-java (openeditor) (
realtime)
This defines a label for our transformation, which is added
to the editor’s Transform menu. Additional options, such as
(openeditor) and (realtime), can be used to customize the
behaviour of the transformation. The following table illustrates
the available options.
The rule is subsequently registered as
a builder to make it known to Spoofax;
see below.
44
By default, generation happens on a
per-file basis. We can also just generate
code for the current selection: to do so,
we can replace the last line by result
:= <to-java> selected.
45
dsl engineering
Option
(openeditor)
(realtime)
(meta)
(cursor)
Description
Opens the generated file in an editor.
Re-generates the file as the source is edited.
Excludes the transformation
from the deployed plugin.
Transforms always the tree node at the cursor.
Code Generation by Model Transformation Rewrite rules with
string interpolation support a template-based approach to code
generation. Thus, they share two typical problems of template
languages. First, they are not syntax safe, that is, they do not
guarantee the syntactical correctness of the generated code: we
might accidently generate Java code which can not be parsed
by a Java compiler. Such errors can only be detected by testing the code generator. Second, they inhibit subsequent transformation steps. For example, we might want to optimize the
generated Java code, generate Java bytecode from it, and finally
optimize the generate Java Bytecode. At each step, we would
first need to parse the generated code from the previous step
before we can apply the actual transformation.
Both problems can be avoided by generating abstract syntax
trees instead of concrete syntax, i.e. by using model-to-model
transformations instead of code (text) generation. This can
be achieved by constructing terms on the right-hand side of
rewrite rules:
to-java:
to-java:
to-java:
to-java:
NumType()
BoolType()
StringType()
EntType(t)
->
->
->
->
IntBaseType()
BooleanBaseType()
ClassType("java.lang.String")
ClassType(t)
to-java:
Entity(x, ps) -> Class([], x, ps’)
ps’ := <mapconcat(to-java)> ps
to-java:
Property(x,
with
t’
:=
field :=
getter :=
t) -> [field, getter, setter]
<to-java> t ;
Field([Private()], t’, x) ;
Method([Public()], t’, $[get_[x]], [],
[Return(VarRef(x))]) ;
setter := Method([Public()], Void(), $[set_[x]],
[Param(t’, x)], [assign]) ;
assign := Assign(FieldRef(This(), x), VarRef(x))
When we generate ASTs instead of concrete syntax, we can easily compose transformation steps into a transformation chain
by using the output of transformation n as the input for transformation n + 1. But this chain will still result in abstract syntax
trees. To turn them back into text, it has to be pretty-printed
(or serialized). Spoofax generates a language-specific rewrite
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rule pp-<LangName>-string which rewrites an abstract syntax
tree into a string according to a pretty-printer definition46 .
Concrete Object Syntax Both template-based and term-based
approaches to code generation have distinctive benefits. While
template-based generation with string interpolation allows for
concrete syntax in code generation rules, AST generation guarantees syntactical correctness of the generated code and enables transformation chains. To combine the benefits of both
approaches, Spoofax can parse user-defined concrete syntax
quotations at compile-time, checking their syntax and replacing them with equivalent abstract syntax fragments47 .
For example, a Java return statement can be expressed as
|[ return |[x]|; ]|, rather than the abstract syntax form
Return(VarRef(x)). Here, |[...]| surrounds Java syntax.
It quotes Java fragments inside Stratego code. Furthermore,
|[x]| refers to a Stratego variable x, matching the expression
in the return statement. In this case, |[...]| is an antiquote,
switching back to Stratego syntax in a Java fragment.
To enable this functionality, we have to customize Stratego,
Spoofax’ transformation language. This requires four steps.
First, we need to combine Stratego’s syntax definition with the
syntax definitions of the source and target languages. There, it
is important to keep the sorts of the languages disjunct. This
can be achieved by renaming sorts in an imported module,
which we do in the following example for the Java and the
Stratego module:
module Stratego-Mobl-Java
imports Mobl
imports Java
[ ID
=>
imports Stratego [ Id
=>
Var =>
Term =>
exports context-free syntax
Module "]|"
Import "]|"
Entity "]|"
EntityBodyDecl "]|"
"|["
"|["
"|["
"|["
JClass "]|"
JField "]|"
JMethod "]|"
JFeature* "]|"
->
->
->
->
This feature is not as easy to use as it
seems from this description: you need
to think ahead about what you want
to be able to quote, what to unquote,
what character sequences to use for
that and how to avoid ambiguities. You
need a good conceptual understanding
of the mapping between concrete and
abstract syntax. A partial solution for
the problems is an approach called
interactive disambiguation, and is
discussed in
L. C. L. Kats, K. T. Kalleberg, and
E. Visser. Interactive disambiguation
of meta programs with concrete object
syntax. In SLE 2012
47
JavaId ]
StrategoId
StrategoVar
StrategoTerm ]
Second, we need to define quotations, which will enclose concrete syntax fragments of the target language in Stratego rewrite
rules48 . We add a syntax rule for every sort of concrete syntax
fragments that we want to use in our rewrite rules:
"|["
"|["
"|["
"|["
We will discuss these pretty-printer
definitions and how they can be customized in Section 13.4
46
->
->
->
->
StrategoTerm
StrategoTerm
StrategoTerm
StrategoTerm
StrategoTerm
StrategoTerm
StrategoTerm
StrategoTerm
{"ToTerm"}
{"ToTerm"}
{"ToTerm"}
{"ToTerm"}
{"ToTerm"}
{"ToTerm"}
{"ToTerm"}
{"ToTerm"}
48
These define the |[ ...
mentioned above.
]| escapes
dsl engineering
With these rules, we allow quoted Mobl and Java fragments
wherever an ordinary Stratego term is allowed. The first four
rules concern Mobl, our example source language49 . As quotes,
we use |[...]|. The second set of rules work similarly for
Java, our example target language. All syntax rules extend
Term from the Stratego grammar, which we renamed to StrategoTerm during import. We use ToTerm as a constructor label. This allows Stratego to recognize places where we use
concrete object syntax inside Stratego code. It will then lift
the subtrees at these places into Stratego code. For example, the abstract syntax of |[ return |[x]|; ]| would be
ToTerm(Return(...)). Stratego lifts this to NoAnnoList(Op(
"Return", [...])), which is the abstract syntax tree for the
term Return(x).
Third, we need to define antiquotations, which will enclose
Stratego code in target language concrete syntax fragments.
Here, we add a syntax rule for every sort where we want to
inject Stratego code into concrete syntax fragments:
exports context-free syntax
"|[" StrategoTerm "]|" -> JavaId
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We like to use concrete syntax for
modules (Module), import declarations (Import), entities (Entity), and
properties and functions of entities
(EntityBodyDecl).
49
{"FromTerm"}
This rule allows antiquoted Stratego terms to be used wherever
a Java identifier can be used50 . We use FromTerm as a constructor in the abstract syntax tree. Like ToTerm, Stratego uses this
to recognize places where we switch between concrete object
syntax and Stratego code. For example, the abstract syntax of
|[ return |[x]|; ]| would be
We renamed Id from the Java grammar to JavaID during import.
50
ToTerm(Return(FromTerm(Var("x"))))
Stratego lifts this to the following, which is the abstract syntax
tree for the term Return(x):
NoAnnoList(Op("Return", [Var("x")]))
Finally, we need to create a <filename>.meta file for every
transformation file <filename>.str with concrete syntax fragments. In this file, we tell Spoofax to use our customized Stratego syntax definition:
Meta([ Syntax("Stratego-Mobl-Java") ])
Now, we can use concrete syntax fragments in our rewrite
rules51 :
to-java:
|[ entity |[x]| { |[ps]| } ]| ->
|[ class |[x]| { |[<mapconcat(to-java)> ps]| } ]|
to-java:
Since Spoofax replaces concrete syntax fragments with equivalent abstract
syntax fragments, indentation in the
fragments is lost. But the generated
code will still be indented by the prettyprinter.
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|[ |[x]| : |[t]| ]| ->
|[ private |[t’]| |[x]|;
public |[t’]| |[x]| { return |[x]|; }
public void |[x]| (|[t’]| |[x]|) { this.|[x]| = |[x]|; } ]|
with
t’ := <to-java> t
Using concrete object syntax in Stratego code combines the
benefits of string interpolation and code generation by model
transformation. With string interpolation, we can use the syntax of the target language in code generation rules, which makes
them easy to write. However, it is also easy to make syntactic
errors, which are only detected when the generated code is
compiled. With code generation by model transformation, we
can check if the generated abstract syntax tree corresponds to
the grammar of the target language. Actually we can check
each transformation rule and detect errors early. With concrete
object syntax, we can now use the syntax of the target language
in code generation. This syntax is checked by the parser which
is derived from the combined grammars of the target language
and Stratego.
This comes at the price of adding quotations and antiquotation rules manually. These rules might be generated from a
declarative, more concise embedding definition in the future.
However, we cannot expect full automation here, since choices
for the syntactic sorts involved in the embedding and of quotation and antiquotation symbols require an understanding of
Stratego, the target language, and the transformation we want
to write. These choices have to be made carefully in order to
avoid ambiguities52 .
In general, there is room for more improvements of the embedding of the target language into Stratego. When the target
language comes with a Spoofax editor, we want to get editor
services like code completion, hover help, and content folding
in the embedded editor as well. Until now, only syntax highlighting has been supported, using the Stratego coloring rules.
Keywords of the target language will be highlighted like Stratego keywords and embedded code fragments will be given a
gray background color.
This is the core difference to MPS’
projectional editor in this respect. In
MPS, generator macros can be attached
to any program element expressed
in any language. There is no need to
define quotations and antiquotations for
each combination.
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12
Building Interpreters
Interpreters are programs that execute DSL programs by
directly traversing the DSL program and performing the
semantic actions associated with the respective program elements. The chapter contains examples for interpreters with
Xtext, MPS and Spoofax.
Interpreters are programs that read a model, traverse the AST
and perform actions corresponding to the execution semantics
of the language constructs whose instances appear in the AST1 .
How an interpreter implementation looks like depends a lot on
the programming language used for implementing it. Also, the
complexity of the interpreter directly reflects the complexity of
the language it processes in terms of size, structure and semantics2 . The following list explains some typical ingredients
that go into building interpreters for functional and procedural languages. It assumes a programming language that can
polymorphically invoke functions or methods.
Expressions For program elements that can be evaluated
to values, i.e., expressions, there is typically a function eval
that is defined for the various expression concepts in the language, i.e. it is polymorphically overridden for subconcepts of
Expression. Since nested expressions are almost always represented as nested trees in the AST, the eval function calls itself with the program elements it owns, and then performs
some semantic action on the result3 . Consider an expression
3 * 2 + 5. Since the + is at the root of the AST, eval(Plus)
would be called (by some outside entity). It is implemented
to add the values obtained by evaluating its arguments. So it
They may also produce text (in which
case such an interpreter is typically
called a generator), and/or inspect
the structure and check constraints (in
which case they are called a validator).
In this section we focus on interpreters
that directly execute the program.
1
For example, building an interpreter
for a pure expression language with a
functional programming language is almost trivial. In contrast, the interpreters
for languages that support parallelism
can be much more challenging.
2
The expression generator we saw
in the previous chapter exhibited the
same structure: the eval template for
some kind of expression calls the eval
templates for its children.
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calls eval(Multi) and eval(5). Evaluating a number literal is
trivial, since it simply returns the number itself. eval(Multi)
would call eval(3) and eval(2), multiplying their results and
returning the result of the multiplication as its own result, allowing plus to finish its calculation.
Statements Program elements that don’t produce a value
only make sense in programming languages that have side effects. In other words, execution of such a language concept
produces some effect either on global data in the program (reassignable variables, object state) or on the environment of the
program (sending network data or rendering a UI). Such program elements are typically called Statements. Statements are
either arranged in a list (typically called a statement list) or
arranged recursively nested as a tree (an if statement has a
then and an else part which are themselves statements or
statement lists). To execute those, there is typically a function execute that is overloaded for all of the different statement types4 . Note that statements often contain expressions
and more statement lists (as in if (a > 3) { print a; a=0;
} else { a=1;}), so an implementation of execute may call
eval and perform some action based on the result (such as deciding whether to execute the then-part of the else-part of the
if statement). Executing the then-part and the else-part boils
down to calling execute on the respective statement lists.
Environments Languages that support assignment to variables (or modify any other global state) require an environment
during execution to remember the values for the variables at
each point during program execution5 . The interpreter must
keep some kind of global hash table, known as the environment,
to keep track of symbols and their values, so it can look them
up when evaluating a reference to that symbol. Many (though
not all) languages that support assignable variables allow reassignment to the same variable (as we do in a = a + 1;). In
this case, the environment must be updateable. Notice that in a
= a + 1 both mentions of a are references to the same variable,
and both a and a+1 are expressions. However, only a (and not
a + 1) can be assigned to: writing a + 1 = 10 * a; would
be invalid. The notion of an lvalue is introduced to describe
this. lvalues can be used "on the left side" of an assignment.
Variable references are typically lvalues (if they don’t point to
a const variable). Complex expressions usually are not6 .
Technically, eval could be implemented
as a method of the AST classes in an
object-oriented language. However, this
is typically not done, since the interpreter should be kept separate from the
AST classes, for example, because there
may be several interpreters, or because
the interpreter is developed by other
people than the AST.
4
It is also overloaded for
StatementList which iterates over
all statements and calls execute for
each one.
Consider int a = 1; a = a + 1;.
In this example, the a in a + 1 is a
variable reference. When evaluating this
reference, the system must "remember"
that it has assigned 1 to that variable in
the previous statement.
5
Unless they evaluate to something that
is in turn an lvalue. An example of this
is would be *(someFunc(arg1, arg2))
= 12;, in C, assuming that someFunc
returns a pointer to an integer.
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299
Call Stacks The ability to call other entities (functions, procedures, methods) introduces further complexity, especially regarding parameter and return value passing, and the values of
local variables. Assume the following function:
int add(int a, int b) {
return a + b;
}
When this function is called via add(2, 3) the actual arguments 2 and 3 have to be bound to the formal arguments a and
b. An environment must be established for the execution of
add that keeps track of these assignments7 . Now consider the
following recursive function:
int fac(int i) {
return i == 0 ? 1 : fac(i - 1);
}
If functions can also access global
state (i.e. symbols that are not explicitly
passed in via arguments), then this
environment must delegate to the
global environment in case a referenced
symbol cannot be found in the local
environment.
7
In this case, each recursive call to fac requires that a new environment is created, with its own binding for the formal variables. However, the original environment must be "remembered" because it is needed to complete the execution of the
outer fac after a recursively called fac returns. This is achieved
using a stack of environments. A new environment is pushed
onto the stack as a function is called (recursively), and the stack
is popped, returning to the previous environment, as a called
function returns. The return value, which is often expressed
using some kind of return statement, is usually placed into
the inner environment using a special symbol or name (such
as __ret__). It can then be picked up from there as the inner
environment is popped.
12.1
Building an Interpreter with Xtext
This example describes an interpreter for the cooling language8 .
It is used to allow DSL users to "play" with the cooling programs before or instead of generating C code. The interpreter
can execute test cases (and report success or failure) as well as
simulate the program interactively. Since no code generation
and no real target hardware is involved, the turn-around time
is much shorter and the required infrastructure is trivial – only
the IDE is needed to run the interpreter. The execution engine,
as the interpreter is called here, has to handle the following
language aspects:
The example discussed in this section is built using the Xtext interpreter framework that ships with
the Xtext typesystem framework discussed earlier: code.google.com/a/
eclipselabs.org/p/
xtext-typesystem/
The interpreter in this section is
built with Java because this is how we
did it in the actual project. Instead,
since the interpreter just operates on
the EMF API, it can be written with
any JVM language. In particular,
Xtend would be well suited because of
support for functional programming
and more generally more concise
syntax, especially regarding working
with EMF abstract syntax trees.
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• The DSL supports expressions and statements, for example
in the entry and exit actions of states. These have to be
supported in the way described above.
• The top-level structure of a cooling program is a state machine. So the interpreter has to deal with states, events and
transitions.
• The language supports deferred execution (i.e. perform a set
of statements at a later time), so the interpreter has to keep
track of deferred parts of the program.
• The language supports writing tests for cooling programs,
including mock behavior for hardware elements. A set of
constructs exists to express this mock behavior (specifically,
ramps to change temperatures over time). These background
tasks must be handled by the interpreter as well.
Expressions and Statements We start our description of the
execution engine inside out, by looking at the interpreter for expressions and statements first. As mentioned above, for interpreting expressions, there is typically an overloaded eval operation, that contains the implementation of expression evaluation for each subtype of a generic Expression concept. However, Java doesn’t have polymorphically overloaded member
methods9 . We compensate this by generating a dispatcher
that calls a different method for each subtype of Expression10 .
The generation of this dispatcher is integrated with Xtext via a
workflow fragment, i.e. the dispatcher is generated during the
overall Xtext code generation process. The fragment is configured with the abstract meta classes for expressions and statements. The following code shows the fragment configuration:
fragment = de.itemis.interpreter.generator.InterpreterGenerator {
expressionRootClassName = "Expression"
statementRootClassName = "Statement"
}
This fragment generates an abstract class that acts as the basis
for the interpreter for the particular set of statements and expressions. As the following piece of code shows, the expression
evaluator class contains an eval method that uses instanceof
checks to dispatch to a method specific to the subclass, thereby
emulating polymorphically overloaded methods11 . The specific methods throw an exception and are expected to be overridden by a manually written subclass that contains the actual
interpreter logic for the particular language concepts12 :
Java only supports polymorphic
dispatch on the this pointer, but not on
method arguments.
9
If the interpreter had been built
with Xtend instead, we would not
have had to generate the dispatcher
for the StatementExecutor or the
ExpressionEvaluator, since Xtend
provides polymorphic dispatch on
method arguments. However, the
fundamental logic and structure of the
interpreter would have been similar.
10
A similar class is generated for the
statements. Instead of eval, the method
is called execute and it does not return
a value. In every other respect the
StatementExecutor is similar to the
ExpressionEvaluator.
11
The class also uses a logging framework (based on the LogEntry class)
that can be used to create a tree-shaped
trace of expression evaluation, which,
short of building an actual debugger, is very useful for debugging and
understanding the execution of the
interpreter.
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dsl engineering
public abstract class AbstractCoolingLanguageExpressionEvaluator
extends AbstractExpressionEvaluator {
public AbstractCoolingLanguageExpressionEvaluator(ExecutionContext ctx) {
super(ctx);
}
public Object eval( EObject expr, LogEntry parentLog )
throws InterpreterException {
LogEntry localLog = parentLog.child(LogEntry.Kind.eval, expr,
"evaluating "+expr.eClass().getName());
if ( expr instanceof Equals )
return evalEquals( (Equals)expr, localLog );
if ( expr instanceof Unequals )
return evalUnequals( (Unequals)expr, localLog );
if ( expr instanceof Greater )
return evalGreater( (Greater)expr, localLog );
// the others...
}
protected Object evalEquals( Equals expr, LogEntry log )
throws InterpreterException {
throw new MethodNotImplementedException(expr,
"evalEquals not implemented");
}
protected Object evalUnequals( Unequals expr, LogEntry log )
throws InterpreterException {
throw new MethodNotImplementedException(expr,
"evalUnequals not implemented");
}
// the others...
}
Before we dive into the details of the interpreter code below, it
is worth mentioning that the "global data" held by the execution engine is stored and passed around using an instance of
EngineExecutionContext. For example, it contains the environment that keeps track of symbol values, and it also has access to the type system implementation class for the language.
The ExecutionContext is available through the eec() method
in the StatementExecutor and ExpressionEvaluator.
Let us now look at some example method implementations.
The following code shows the implementation of evalNumberLiteral, which evaluates number literals such as 2 or 2.3 or
-10.2. To recap, the following grammar is used for defining
number literals:
Atomic returns Expression:
...
({NumberLiteral} value=DECIMAL_NUMBER);
terminal DECIMAL_NUMBER:
("-")? (’0’..’9’)* (’.’ (’0’..’9’)+)?;
With this in mind, the implementation of evalNumberLiteral
should be easily understandable. We first retrieve the actual
value from the NumberLiteral object, and we find the type of
the number literal using the typeof function in the type sys-
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tem13 . Based on this distinction, evalNumberLiteral returns
either a Java Double or Integer as the value of the NumberLiteral. In addition, it creates log entries that document these
decisions.
The type system basically inspects
whether the value contains a dot or
not and returns either a DoubleType or
IntType.
13
protected Object evalNumberLiteral(NumberLiteral expr, LogEntry log) {
String v = ((NumberLiteral) expr).getValue();
EObject type = eec().typesystem.typeof(expr,
new TypeCalculationTrace());
if (type instanceof DoubleType) {
log.child(Kind.debug, expr, "value is a double, " + v);
return Double.valueOf(v);
} else if (type instanceof IntType) {
log.child(Kind.debug, expr, "value is a int, " + v);
return Integer.valueOf(v);
}
return null;
}
The evaluator for NumberLiteral was simple because number
literals are leaves in the AST and have no children, and no
recursive invocations of eval are required. This is different for
the LogicalAnd, which has two children in the left and right
properties. The following code shows the implementation of
evalLogicalAnd.
protected Object evalLogicalAnd(LogicalAnd expr, LogEntry log) {
boolean leftVal = ((Boolean)evalCheckNullLog( expr.getLeft(), log ))
.booleanValue();
if ( !leftVal ) return false;
boolean rightVal = ((Boolean)evalCheckNullLog( expr.getRight(), log ))
.booleanValue();
return rightVal;
}
The first statement calls the evaluator, for the left property.
If leftVal is false we return without evaluating the right argument14 . If it is true we evaluate the right argument15 . The
value of the LogicalAnd is then the value of rightVal.
So far, we haven’t used the environment, since we haven’t
worked with variables and their (changing) values. Let’s now
look at how variable assignment is handled. We first look at the
AssignmentStatement, which is implemented in the StatementExecutor:
protected void executeAssignmentStatement( AssignmentStatement s,
LogEntry log) {
Object l = s.getLeft();
Object r = evalCheckNullLog(s.getRight(), log);
SymbolRef sr = (SymbolRef) l;
SymbolDeclaration symbol = sr.getSymbol();
eec().environment.put(symbol, r);
log.child(Kind.debug, s, "setting " + symbol.getName() + " to " + r);
}
The first two lines get the left argument as well as the value
of the right argument. Note how only the right value is evaluated: the left argument is a symbol reference (ensured through
Most programming languages never
evaluate the right argument of a logical
and if the left one is false and the
overall expression can never become
true.
14
The argument evaluation uses a utility method called evalCheckNullLog
which automatically creates a log entry
for this recursive call and stops the
interpreter if the value passed in is
null (which would mean the AST is
somehow broken).
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dsl engineering
a constraint, since only SymbolRefs are lvalues in this language). We then retrieve the symbol referenced by the symbol
reference and create a mapping from the symbol to the value in
the environment, effectively "assigning" the value to the symbol during the execution of the interpreter.
The implementation of the ExpressionEvaluator for a symbol reference (if it is used not as an lvalue) is shown in the
following code. We use the same environment to look up the
value for the symbol. We then check whether the value is null
(i.e. nothing has been assigned to the symbol as yet). In this
case we return the default value for the respective type and log
a warning16 , otherwise we return the value.
protected Object evalSymbolRef(SymbolRef expr, LogEntry log) {
SymbolDeclaration s = expr.getSymbol();
Object val = eec().environment.get(s);
if (val == null) {
EObject type = eec().typesystem.typeof(expr,
new TypeCalculationTrace());
Object neutral = intDoubleNeutralValue(type);
log.child(Kind.debug, expr,
"looking up value; nothing found, using neutral value: " +
neutral);
return neutral;
} else {
log.child(Kind.debug, expr, "looking up value: " + val);
return val;
}
}
The cooling language does not support function calls, so we
demonstrate function calls with a similar language that supports them. In that language, function calls are expressed as
symbol references that have argument lists. Constraints make
sure that argument lists are only used if the referenced symbol
is actually a FunctionDeclaration17 . Here is the grammar.
FunctionDeclaration returns Symbol:
{FunctionDeclaration} "function" type=Type name=ID "("
(params+=Parameter ("," params+=Parameter)* )? ")" "{"
(statements+=Statement)*
"}";
303
This is specialized functionality in
the cooling language; in most other
languages, we would probably just
return null, since nothing seems to
have been assigned to the symbol yet.
16
This is a consequence of the symbol reference problem discussed in
Section 8.2
17
Atomic returns Expression:
...
{SymbolRef} symbol=[Symbol|QID]
("(" (actuals+=Expr)? ("," actuals+=Expr)* ")")?;
The following is the code for the evaluation function for the
symbol reference. It must distinguish between references to
variables and to functions18 .
protected Object evalSymbolRef(SymbolRef expr, LogEntry log) {
Symbol symbol = expr.getSymbol();
if ( symbol instanceof VarDecl ) {
return log( symbol, eec().environment.getCheckNull(symbol, log) );
}
if ( symbol instanceof FunctionDeclaration ) {
FunctionDeclaration fd = (FunctionDeclaration) symbol;
This is once again a consequence
of the fact that all references to any
symbol are handled via the SymbolRef
class. We discussed this in Section 7.5.
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return callAndReturnWithPositionalArgs("calling "+fd.getName(),
fd.getParams(), expr.getActuals(), fd.getElements(),
RETURN_SYMBOL, log);
}
throw new InterpreterException(expr,
"interpreter failed; cannot resolve symbol reference "
+expr.eClass().getName()); }
The code for handling the FunctionDeclaration uses a predefined utility method callAndReturnWithPositionalArgs19 . It
accepts as arguments the list of formal arguments of the called
function, the list of actual arguments (expressions) passed in
at the call site, the list of statements in the function body, a
symbol that should be used for the return value in the environment, as well as the obligatory log. The utility method is
implemented as follows:
protected Object callAndReturnWithPositionalArgs(String name,
EList<? extends EObject> formals, EList<? extends EObject> actuals,
EList<? extends EObject> bodyStatements) {
eec().environment.push(name);
for( int i=0; i<actuals.size(); i++ ) {
EObject actual = actuals.get(i);
EObject formal = formals.get(i);
eec().environment.put(formal, evalCheckNullLog(actual, log));
}
eec().getExecutor().execute( bodyStatements, log );
Object res = eec().environment.get(RETURN_SYMBOL);
eec().environment.pop();
return res;
}
Remember that each invocation of a function has to get its own
environment to handle the local variables for the particular invocation. We can see this in the first line of the implementation above: we first create a new environment and push it
onto the call stack. Then the implementation iterates over the
actual arguments, evaluates each of them and "assigns" them
to the formals by creating an association between the formal
argument symbol and the actual argument value in the new
environment. It then uses the StatementExecutor to execute
all the statements in the body of the function. Notice that as
the executed function deals with its own variables and function calls, it uses the new environment created, pushed onto
the stack and populated by this method. When the execution
of the body has finished, we retrieve the return value from the
environment. The return statement in the function has put it
there under a name we have prescribed, the RETURN_SYMBOL,
so we know how to find it in the environment. Finally, we pop
the environment, restoring the caller’s state of the world and
return the return value as the resulting value of the function
call expression.
It is part of the interpreter framework
used in this example.
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dsl engineering
States, Events and the Main program Changing a state20 from
within a cooling program is done by executing a ChangeStateStatement, which simply references the state that should be
entered. Here is the interpreter code in StatementExecutor:
305
State as in state machine, not as in
program state.
20
protected void executeChangeStateStatement(ChangeStateStatement s,
LogEntry l) {
engine.enterState(s.getTargetState(), log);
}
public void enterState(State targetState, LogEntry logger )
throws TestFailedException, InterpreterException,
TestStoppedException {
logger.child( Kind.info, targetState,
"entering state "+targetState.getName());
context.currentState = targetState;
executor.execute(ss.getEntryStatements(), logger);
throw new NewStateEntered();
}
executeChangeStateStatement calls back to an engine method
that handles the state change21 . The method sets the current
state to the target state passed into the method (the current
state is kept track of in the execution context). It then executes
the set of entry statements of the new state. After this it throws
an exception NewStateEntered, which stops the current execution step. The overall engine is step driven, i.e. an external
"timer" triggers distinct execution steps of the engine. A state
change always terminates the current step. The main method
step() triggered by the external timer can be considered the
main program of the interpreter. It looks like this:
public int step(LogEntry logger) {
try {
context.currentStep++;
executor.execute(getCurrentState().getEachTimeStatements(),
stepLogger);
executeAsyncStuff(logger);
if ( !context.eventQueue.isEmpty() ) {
CustomEvent event = context.eventQueue.remove(0);
LogEntry evLog = logger.child(Kind.info, null,
"processing event from queue: "+event.getName());
processEventFromQueue( event, evLog );
return context.currentStep;
}
processSignalHandlers(stepLogger);
} catch ( NewStateEntered ignore ) {}
return context.currentStep;
}
It first increments a counter that keeps track of how many steps
have been executed since the interpreter has been started. It
then executes the each time statements of the current state.
This is a statement list defined by a state that needs to be reexecuted in each step while the system is in the respective state.
It then executes asynchronous tasks. We’ll explain those below.
Next it checks if an event is in the event queue. If so, it removes
the first event from the queue and executes it. After processing
Since this is a more global operation
than executing statements, it is handled
by the engine class itself, and not by the
StatementExecutor.
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an event the step is always terminated. Lastly, if there was no
event to be processed, we process signal handlers (the check
statements in the cooling programs).
Processing events checks whether the current state declares
an event handler that can deal with the currently processed
event. If so, it executes the statement list associated with this
event handler.
private void processEventFromQueue(CustomEvent event, LogEntry logger) {
for ( EventHandler eh: getCurrentState().getEventHandlers()) {
if ( reactsOn( eh, event ) ) {
executor.execute(eh.getStatements(), logger);
}
}
}
The DSL also supports executing code asynchronously, i.e. after a specified number of steps (representing logical program
time). The grammar looks as follows:
PerformAsyncStatement:
"perform" "after" time=Expr "{"
(statements+=Statement)*
"}";
The following method interprets the PerformAsyncStatements:
protected void executePerformAsyncStatement(PerformAsyncStatement s,
LogEntry log) throws InterpreterException {
int inSteps = ((Integer)evalCheckNullLog(s.getTime(), log)).intValue();
eec().asyncElements.add(new AsyncPerform(eec().currentStep + inSteps,
"perform async", s, s.getStatements()));
}
It registers the statement list associated with the PerformAsyncStatement in the list of async elements in the execution context. The call to executeAsyncStuff at the beginning of the
step method described above checks whether the time has
come and executes those statements:
private void executeAsyncStuff(LogEntry logger) {
List<AsyncElement> stuffToRun = new ArrayList<AsyncElement>();
for (AsyncElement e: context.asyncElements) {
if ( e.executeNow(context.currentStep) ) {
stuffToRun.add(e);
}
}
for (AsyncElement e : stuffToRun) {
context.asyncElements.remove(e);
e.execute(context, logger.child(Kind.info, null, "Async "+e));
}
}
12.2
An Interpreter in MPS
Building an interpreter in MPS is essentially similar to building
an interpreter in Xtext and EMF. All concepts would apply in
dsl engineering
the same way22 . However, since MPS’ BaseLanguage is itself
built with MPS, it can be extended. So instead of using a generator to generate the dispatcher that calls the eval methods for
the expression classes, suitable modular language extensions
can be defined in the first place.
A Dispatch Expression For example, BaseLanguage could
be extended with support for polymorphic dispatch (similar to
what Xtend does with dispatch methods). An alternative solution involves a dispatch expression, a kind of "pimped switch".
Fig. 12.1 shows an example.
The dispatch expression tests whether the argument ex is an
instance of the type referenced in the cases. If so, the code
on the right side of the arrow is executed. Notice the special
expression $ used on the right side of the arrow. It refers to the
argument ex, but it is already downcast to the type on the left
of the case’s arrow. This way, writing annoying downcasts for
each property access can be avoided.
Note that this extension is modular in the sense that the
definition of BaseLanguage was not changed. Instead, an additional language module was defined that extends BaseLanguage. This module can be used as part of the program that
contains the interpreter, making the dispatch statement available there23 . Also, the $ expression is restricted to only be
usable on the right side of the ->, allowing the overall base
language namespace to be kept clean24 .
Showing Results in the Editor Since MPS is a projectional
editor, it can show things in the editor that are read-only. For
example, the result of an interpreter run can be integrated directly into the editor. In Fig. 12.2, the bottom table contains
test cases for the calculate rule. Users enter a number for
307
Instead of EObjects you would work
with the node<> types that are available
on MPS to access ASTs.
22
Figure 12.1: An extension to MPS’
BaseLanguage that makes writing
interpreters simpler. The dispatch
statement has the neat feature that, on
the right side of the ->, the $ reference
to the ex expression is already downcast to the type mentioned on the left of
the ->.
We discuss language modularization
and composition in Section 4.6.
23
Xbase/Xtend comes with a similar
"pimped" switch statement directly.
It supports switching over integer and
enum literals (as Java’s switch does),
but it also supports switching over
types plus arbitrary Boolean guard
conditions. This makes it very suitable
for building interpreters, since, as we
have seen, an interpreter typically
dispatches its behavior based on the
metaclass of the node it processes,
plus optionally some of its context or
children (which can be expressed with a
guard condition in Xtend’s switch.)
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squareMeters, numberOfRooms and the expected result, and
in the last column, the editor shows the actual result of the
computation (colored red or green depending on whether the
actual result matches the expected result).
Figure 12.2: This screenshot shows an
mbeddr-based demo application in
which users can specify insurance rules.
The system includes an interpreter that
executes the test cases directly in the
IDE.
The interpreter is integrated via the evaluate button25 . Its
action listener triggers the computation:
component provider: (editorContext, node)->JComponent {
JButton evalButton = new JButton("evaluate");
final node<ProductTestSuite> suite = node;
evalButton.addActionListener(new ActionListener() {
public void actionPerformed(ActionEvent p0) {
command {
foreach tc in suite.cases {
float result = new RateCalculator(tc).calculate(
suite.ancestor<ProductType, +>.rateCalculation);
tc.actualResult.value = result + "";
}
}
}
});
return evalButton;
}
The coloring of the cells (and making them read-only) is done
via query-based formatting:
style {
editable : false
background-color : (node, editorContext)->Color {
node.ancestor<TestCase>.isOK()
? Color.GREEN : Color.RED;
}
}
12.3
An Interpreter in Spoofax
So far we have seen procedural/functional interpreters in which
the program’s execution state is separate from the program it-
In MPS, an editor can embed Swing
components, and these Swing components can react to their own events and
modify the model in arbitrary ways.
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dsl engineering
309
self. As the interpreter runs, it updates the execution state.
Another approach to writing interpreters is state-based interpreters, where the execution of the interpreter is expressed as
a set of transformations between program states. State-based
interpreters can be specified with rewrite rules in Spoofax, realizing transitions between execution states. This requires:
• A representation of states. The simplest way to represent
states are terms, but we can also define a new DSL for representing the states in concrete syntax.
• An initialization transformation from a program in the DSL to
the initial state of the interpreter.
• A step transformation from an actual state of the interpreter
to the next state of the interpreter.
In the remainder of the section, we develop an interpreter for a
subset of Mobl. We start with a simple interpreter for expressions, which we then extend to handle statements.
12.3.1
An Interpreter for Expressions
If we want to evaluate simple arithmetic expressions without
variables, the expression itself is the state of the interpreter26 .
Thus, no extra term signatures are needed and the initialization transformation is given by identity. For the step transformation, we can define rewrite rules for the different expression
kinds:
eval: Add(Int(x), Int(y)) -> Int(z) where z := <add> (x, y)
eval: Mul(Int(x), Int(y)) -> Int(z) where z := <mul> (x, y)
eval: Not(True()) -> False()
eval: Not(False()) -> True()
eval:
eval:
eval:
eval:
And(True(), True())
And(True(), False())
And(False(), True())
And(False(), False())
->
->
->
->
True()
False()
False()
False()
eval: LazyAnd(True(), True()) -> True()
eval: LazyAnd(False(), _)
-> False()
eval: LazyAnd(_, False(), _) -> False()
We can orchestrate these rules in two different styles. First, we
can define an interpreter which performs only a single evaluation step by applying one rule in each step:
eval-one: exp -> <oncebu(eval)> exp
Here, oncebu tries to apply eval at one position in the tree,
starting from the leaves (the bu in oncebu stands for bottomup). We could also use oncetd, traversing the tree top-down.
Remember how in the design chapter
we discussed building debuggers for
purely functional languages, and in
particular, expression languages. We argued that a debugger is trivial, because
there is no real "flow" of the program;
instead, the expression can be debugged by simply showing the values
of all intermediate expressions in a treelike for. We exploit the same "flowless"
nature of pure expression languages
when building this interpreter.
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However, evaluations are likely to happen at the bottom of the
tree, which is why oncebu is the better choice. The result of
eval-one will be a slightly simpler expression, which might
need further evaluation. Alternatively, we can directly apply
as many rules as possible, trying to evaluate the whole expression:
eval-all: exp -> <bottomup(try(eval))> exp
Here, bottomup tries to apply eval at every node, starting
at the leaves. The result of eval-all will be the final result of
the expression.
12.3.2
An Interpreter for Statements
If we want to evaluate statements, we need states which capture the value of variables and the list of statements which
needs to be evaluated. We can define these states with a signature for terms:
signature constructors
: ID * IntValue -> VarValue
: ID * BoolValue -> VarValue
State: List(VarValue) * List(Statement) -> State
The first two rules define binary tuples which combine a variable name (ID) and a value (either IntValue or BoolValue).
The last rule defines a binary constructor State, which combines a list of variable values with a list of statements27 . We
first have to adapt the evaluation of expressions to handle variable references in expressions.
eval(|varvals): exp -> <eval> exp
eval(|varvals): VarRef(var) -> <lookup> (var, varvals)
eval-one(|s): exp -> <oncebu(eval(|s))> exp
eval-all(|s): exp -> <bottomup(try(eval(|s)))> exp
The first two rules take the actual list of variable values of the
interpreter (varvals) as a parameter. The first rule integrates
the existing evaluation rules, which do not need any state information. The second rule looks up the current value val of
the variable var in the list of variable values. The last two rules
define small-step and big-step interpreters of expressions, just
as before.
We can now define evaluation rules for statements. These
rules rewrite the current state into a new state:
eval:
(varvals, [Declare(var, exp)|stmts]) -> (varvals’, stmts)
where
This will represent the program as
it evolves over time. Starting with a
statement list, the program state over
time can be represented as a collection
of variable values and a remaining list
of yet to be interpreted statements. This
is what State represents.
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311
val
:= <eval-all(|varvals)> exp;
varvals’ := <update> ((var, val), varvals)
eval:
(varvals, [Assign(VarRef(var), exp)|stmts]) -> (varvals’, stmts)
where
val
:= <eval-all(|varvals)> exp;
varvals’ := <update> ((var, val), varvals)
eval:
(varval, [Block(stmts1)|stmts2]) -> (varvals, <conc> (stmts1, stmts2))
The first rule handles variable declarations. On the left-hand
side, it matches the current list of variable values varvals, the
declaration statement Declare(var, exp), and the list of remaining statements stmts. It evaluates the expression to a
value and updates the list of variable values. The new state (on
the right-hand side of the signature) consists of the updated
variable values and the list of remaining statements28 . The
second rule handling assignments is quite similar. The third
rule handles block statements, by concatenating the statements
from a block with the remaining statements. The following rule
handle an if statement:
eval:
(varvals, [If(exp, thenStmt, elseStmt)|stmts]) -> (varvals, [stmt|stmts])
where
val := <eval-all(|varvals)> exp;
if !val => True() then
stmt := thenStmt
else
!val => False();
stmt := elseStmt
end
First, it evaluates the condition. Depending on the result, it
chooses the next statement to evaluate. When the result is
True(), the statement from the thenStmt branch is chosen.
Otherwise the result has to be False() and the statement from
the elseStmt branch is chosen. If the result is neither True()
nor False(), the rule will fail. This ensures that the rule only
works when the condition can be evaluated to a Boolean value.
The following rule handles while loops:
eval:
(varvals, [While(exp, body)|stmts]) -> (varvals, stmts’)
where
val := <eval-all(|varvals)> exp;
if !val => True() then
stmts’ := [body, While(exp, body)|stmts]
else
!val => False();
stmts’ := stmts
end
Again, the condition is evaluated first. If it evaluates to True(),
the list of statements is updated to the body of the loop, the
while loop again, followed by the remaining statements. If it
Note how on the left side of the rule
the [head|tail] notation is used for
the statements, where stmts is the tail.
By "returning" stmts on the right, we
automatically remove the first element
from the list (it was the head).
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evaluates to False(), only the remaining statements need to
be evaluated.
The eval rules already define a small-step interpreter, going
from one evaluation state to the next. We can define a big-step
interpreter by adding a driver, which repeats the evaluation
until it reaches a final state:
eval-all: state -> <repeat(eval)> state
12.3.3
More Advanced Interpreters
We can extend the interpreter to handle function calls and objects in a similar way as we did for statements. First, we always
have to think about the states of the extended interpreter. Functions will require a call stack, objects will require a heap. Next,
we need to consider how the old rules can deal with the new
states. Adjustments might be needed. For example, when we
support objects, the heap needs to be passed to expressions.
Expressions which create objects will change the heap, so we
cannot only pass it, but have to propagate the changes back to
the caller.
12.3.4
IDE Integration
We can integrate interpreters as builders into the IDE. For bigstep interpreters, we can simply calculate the overall execution
result and show it to the user. For small-step interpreters, we
can use the initialization transformation in the builder. This
will create an initial state for the interpreter. When we define
a concrete syntax for these states, they can be shown in an
editor. The transition transformation can then be integrated as
a refactoring on states, changing the current state to the next
one. In this way, the user can control the execution, undo steps,
or even modify the current state.
13
IDE Services
In this chapter we discuss various services provided by the
IDE. This includes code completion, syntax coloring, prettyprinting, go-to-definition and find references, refactoring,
outline views, folding, diff and merge, tooltips and visualization. In contrast to the other chapters, this one is not
organized by tool, but rather by IDE service. We then provide examples for each service with one or more of the tools.
Note that debugging debugging is discussed in Chapter 15.
In this chapter we illustrate typical services provided by the
IDE that are not automatically derived from the language definition itself and for which additional configuration or programming is required. Note that we are not going to show
every service with every example tool1 .
13.1
If we don’t show how X works in
some tool, this does not mean that you
cannot do X with this particular tool.
1
Code Completion
Code completion is perhaps the most essential service provided by an IDE. We already saw that code completion is implicitly influenced by scopes: if you press Ctrl-Space at the
location of a reference, the IDE will show you the valid targets
of this reference (as defined in the scope) in the code completion menu. Selecting one establishes the reference.
Customizing Code Completion for a Reference in Xtext Consider the cooling DSL. Cooling programs can reference symbols. Symbols can be hardware building blocks, local variables
or configuration parameters. It would be useful in the code
completion menu to show what kind of symbol a particular
symbol is (Fig. 13.1).
Figure 13.1: Code completion in the
cooling language is customized to specify what kind of symbol a particular
reference target is (the kind is shown in
parantheses after the name).
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To customize code completion, you have to implement a
method in the ProposalProvider for your language. The method
name has to correspond to a rule/property whose code completion menu you want to customize2 . In this example, we
want to customize the symbol property of the Atomic expression:
Atomic returns Expression:
...
({SymbolRef} symbol=[appliances::SymbolDeclaration|QID]);
This also works for containment
references or primitive properties
and not just for references (which are
affected by scopes).
2
The method takes various arguments; the first one, model, represents the program element for which the symbol property
should be completed.
public class CoolingLanguageProposalProvider
extends AbstractCoolingLanguageProposalProvider {
@Override
public void completeAtomic_Symbol(EObject model, Assignment assignment,
ContentAssistContext context,
ICompletionProposalAcceptor acceptor) {
...
}
}
Let us now look at the actual implementation of the method3 .
In line three we get the scope for the particular reference so we
can iterate over all the elements and change their appearance
in the code completion menu. To be able to get the scope, we
need the EReference for the particular reference. The first two
lines in this method are used to this end.
CrossReference crossReference = ((CrossReference)assignment.getTerminal());
EReference ref = GrammarUtil.getReference(crossReference);
IScope scope = getScopeProvider().getScope(model, ref);
Iterable<IEObjectDescription> candidates = scope.getAllElements();
for (IEObjectDescription od: candidates) {
String ccText = od.getName()+" ("+od.getEClass().getName()+")";
String ccInsert = od.getName().toString();
acceptor.accept(createCompletionProposal(ccInsert,
ccText, null, context));
}
Once we have the scope, we can iterate over all its contents
(i.e. the target elements)4 . Inside the loop we then use the
name of the target object plus the name of the EClass to construct the string to be shown in the code completion menu
(ccText)5 . The last line then calls the accept method on the
ICompletionProposalAcceptor to finally create a proposal.
Note how we also pass in ccInsert, which is the text to be inserted into the program if the particular code completion menu
item is selected.
For this particular example above,
where we only change the string representation of the targets computed by
the scope (as opposed to changing the
actual contents of the code completion
menu), we could have overridden the
getStyledDisplayString method
instead. Its task is to provide the textual
representation for contents of the scope.
3
Note how the scope does not directly
contain the target EObjects, but rather
IEObjectDescriptions. This is because
the code completion is resolved against
the index, a data structure maintained
by Xtext that contains all referenceable
elements. This approach has the advantage that the target resource, i.e. the file
that contains the target element, does
not have to be loaded just to be able to
reference into it.
4
Note that we could use a rich string to
add some nice formatting to the string.
5
An Example with MPS The contents of the code completion
menu for references can be customized in MPS as well. It is
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instructive to look at this in addition to Xtext for two reasons.
The first one is brevity. Consider the following code, where we
customize the code completion menu for function calls:
link {function}
...
presentation :
(parameterNode, visible, smartReference, inEditor, ...)->string {
parameterNode.signatureInfo();
}
To customize the contents of the code completion menu, you
have to provide the expression that calculates the text in the
presentation section of the scope provider6 . In this example
we call a method that calculates a string that represents the
complete signature of the function.
The second reason why this is interesting in MPS is that we
don’t have to specify the text that should be inserted if an element is selected from the code completion menu: the reference
is established based on the UUID of the target node, and the
editor of the referencing node determines the presentation of
this reference7 .
Code Completion for Simple Properties In Xtext, code completion can be provided for any property of a rule, not just for
references (i.e. also for children or for primitive properties such
as strings or numbers). The mechanism to do that is the same
as the one shown above. Instead of using the scope (only references have scopes) one could use a statically populated list of
strings as the set of proposals, or one could query a database
to get a list of candidate values8 .
In MPS, the mechanism is different. Since this is a pure
editor customization and has nothing to do with scopes, this
behavior is customized in the editor definition. Consider a
LocalVariableDeclaration (as in int x = 0;) where we want
to customize the suggested name of the variable. So if you
press Ctrl-Space in the name field of the variable, we want to
suggest one or more reasonable names for the variable. Fig. 13.2
shows the necessary code.
An editor cell may have a cell menu (the menu you see when
you press Ctrl-Space). It consists of several parts. Each part
contributes a set of menu entries. In the example in Fig. 13.2,
we add a cell menu part of type property values, in which
we simply return a list of values (one, in the example; we use
the name of the type of the local variable, prefixed by an a).
Styled/Rich strings are not supported
here.
6
In the example of the function call, it
projects the name of the called function
(plus the actual arguments).
7
Note that if we use this approach to
provide code completion for primitive
properties this does not affect the constraint check (in contrast to references,
where a scope affects the code completion menu and the constraint checks).
Users can always type something that
is not in the code completion menu. A
separate constraint check may have to
be written.
8
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Figure 13.2: A cell menu
for the name property of a
LocalVariableDeclaration. In the
editor definition (top window) we select
the cell that renders the name. In the
inspector we can then define additional
properties for the selected cell. In this
case we contribute an additional cell
menu that provides the suggested
names.
Editor Templates Templates are more complex syntactic structures that can be selected from the code completion menu. For
example, the code completion menu may contain an if-thenelse entry, which, if you select it, gets expanded into the following code in the program:
if ( expr ) {
} else {
}
Xtext provides templates for this purpose. These can be defined either as part of the language, or by the user in the IDE.
Fig. 13.3 shows the if-then-else example as defined in the
IDE.
In MPS there are several ways to address this. One is simply
an intention (explained in more detail in Section 7.7). It will
not be activated via Ctrl-Space, but rather via Alt-Enter. In
every other respect it is identical: the intention can insert arbitrary code into the program. Alternatively we can use a cell
menu (already mentioned above). Fig. 13.4 shows the code for
a cell menu that also creates the if-then-else structure illustrated above.
13.2
Syntax Coloring
There are two cases for syntax coloring: syntactic highlighting and semantic highlighting. Syntactic highlighting is used
to color keywords, for example. These keywords are readily
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Figure 13.3: Template definitions
contain a name (the text shown in the
code completion menu), a description,
as well as the context and the pattern.
The context refers to a grammar rule.
The template will show up in the code
completion menu at all locations where
that grammar rule would be valid as
well. The pattern is the actual text that
will be inserted into the editor if the
template is selected. It can contain
variables. Once inserted, the user can
use TAB to step through the variables
and replace them with text. In the
example, we define the condition
expression as a variable.
Figure 13.4: A cell menu to insert the
if/then/else statement. Note how we
contribute two menu parts. The first
one inserts the default code completion
contents for Statement. The second
one provides an if/then/else statement
under the menu text if-then-else.
Notice how we can use a quotation
(concrete syntax expression) in the cell
menu code. Because of MPS’s support
for language composition, the editor
even provides code completion etc. for
the contents of the quotation in the editor
for the cell menu.
available from the grammar. No customization is necessary
beyond configuring the actual color. Semantic coloring colors
code fragments based on some query over the AST structure.
For example, in a state machine, if a state is unreachable (no
incoming transitions) the state may be colored in gray instead
of black.
An Example with MPS Let us first look at syntax coloring
in MPS, starting with purely syntactic highlighting. Fig. 13.5
shows a collage of several ingredients: at the top we see the
editor for GlobalVariableDeclaration. GlobalVariableDeclaration implements the interface IModuleContent. IModuleContents can be exported (which means they can be seen by
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Figure 13.5: In MPS, syntax coloring is achieved by associating one or
more style properties with the elements at hand. In this case we assign a
darkGreen text foreground color as well
as a bold font style.
modules importing the current one), so we define an editor
component (a reusable editor fragment) for IModuleContent
that renders the exported flag. This editor component is embedded into the editor of GlobalVariableDeclaration, and is
also embedded into the editor of all other concepts that implement IModuleCon- tent. The editor component simply defines a keyword exported that is rendered in dark green and
in bold font. This can be achieved by specifying the respective
style properties for the editor cell9 .
Semantic highlighting works essentially the same way. Instead of using a constant (darkGreen) for the color, we embed
a query expression. The code in Fig. 13.6 renders the state
keyword of a State in a Statemachine gray if that particular
state has no incoming transitions.
Groups of style definitions can also
be modularized into style sheets and
reused for several cells.
9
Figure 13.6: A style query that renders
the associated cell in gray if the state
(to which the cell belongs) has no
incoming transitions. We first find out
if the state has incoming transitions by
finding the Statemachine ancestor of
the state, finding all the Transitions
in the subtree under the Statemachine,
and then checking if one exists whose
targetState is the current state (node).
We then use the result of this query to
color the cell appropriately.
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An Example with Xtext Xtext uses a two-phase approach.
First, you have to define the styles you want to apply to parts
of the text. This is done in the highlighting configuration of the
particular language:
public class CLHighlightingConfiguration extends
DefaultHighlightingConfiguration {
public static final String VAR = "var";
@Override
public void configure(IHighlightingConfigurationAcceptor acceptor) {
super.configure(acceptor);
acceptor.acceptDefaultHighlighting(VAR, "variables", varTextStyle());
}
private TextStyle varTextStyle() {
TextStyle t = defaultTextStyle().copy();
t.setColor(new RGB(100,100,200));
t.setStyle(SWT.ITALIC | SWT.BOLD );
return t;
}
}
The varTextStyle method creates a TextStyle object. The
method configure then registers this style with the framework
using a unique identifier (the constant VAR). The reason for registering it with the framework is that the styles can be changed
by the user in the running application using the preferences
dialog (Fig. 13.7).
We now have to associate the style with program syntax10 .
The semantic highlighting calculator for the target language
is used to this end11 . It requires the provideHighlightingFor
method to be implemented. To highlight references to variables
(not the variables themselves!) with the style defined above
works the following way:
public void provideHighlightingFor(XtextResource resource,
IHighlightedPositionAcceptor acceptor) {
EObject root = resource.getContents().get(0);
TreeIterator<EObject> eAllContents = root.eAllContents();
while (eAllContents.hasNext()) {
EObject ref = (EObject) eAllContents.next();
if ( ref instanceof SymbolRef ) {
SymbolDeclaration sym = ((SymbolRef) o).getSymbol();
if ( sym instanceof Variable ) {
ICompositeNode n = NodeModelUtils.findActualNodeFor(ref);
acceptor.addPosition(n.getOffset(),
n.getLength(),
CLHighlightingConfiguration.VAR);
}
}
}
}
The method gets passed in an XtextResource, which represents a model file. From it we get the root element and iterate
over all its contents. If we find a SymbolRef, we continue with
coloring. Notice that in the cooling language we reference any
Figure 13.7: Preferences dialog that
allows users to change the styles
registered with the framework for a
highlighting configuration.
A particularly nice feature of Xtext
syntax coloring is that styles are combined if more than one style applies to a
given program element.
10
Even though it is called semantic
highlighting calculator, it is used for
syntactic and semantic highlighting. It
simply associates concrete syntax nodes
with styles; it does not matter how it
establishes the association (statically or
based on the structure of the AST).
11
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symbol (variable, event, hardware element) with a SymbolRef,
so we now have to check whether we reference a Variable
or not12 . If we have successfully identified a reference to a
variable, we now have to move from the abstract syntax tree
(on which we have worked all the time so far) to the concrete
syntax tree, so we can identify particular tokens that shall be
colored13 . We use a utility method to find the ICompositeNode
that represents the SymbolRef in the concrete syntax tree. Finally we use the acceptor to perform the actual highlighting
using the position of the text string in the text. We pass in the
VAR style defined before14 .
An Example with Spoofax
Spoofax supports syntax coloring on the lexical and the syntactic level. At the lexical level,
tokens such as keywords, identifiers, or integers are colored.
This is the most common use case of syntax coloring. At the
syntactic level, we can color larger code fragments, for example to highlight embeddings. In Spoofax, syntax coloring is
specified declaratively as part of the editor specification. For
the lexical level, Spoofax predefines the token classes keyword,
identifier, string, number, var, operator and layout. For
each of these, we can specify a color (either by name or by
RGB values) and optionally a font style (bold, italic, or both).
Spoofax generates the following default specification:
module MoblLang-Colorer.generated
colorer Default, token-based highlighting
keyword
identifier
string
number
var
operator
layout
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
127 0 85 bold
default
blue
darkgreen
255 0 100 italic
0 0 128
63 127 95 italic
colorer System colors
darkgreen
green
darkblue
blue
...
default
=
=
=
=
0
0
0
0
128 0
255 0
0 128
0 255
= _
The generated specification can be customized on the lexical
level, but also extended on the syntactic level. These extensions are based on syntactic sorts and constructor names. For
example, the following specification will color numeric types
in declarations in dark green:
This is the place where we could
perform any other structural or semantic analysis (such as the check for no
incoming transitions) as well.
12
The concrete syntax tree in Xtext is
a complete representation of the parse
result, including keywords, symbols
and whitespace.
13
Notice how we color the complete
reference. Since it is only one text string
anyway, this is just as well. If we had
more structured concrete syntax (as in
state someState {}), and we only
wanted to highlight parts of it (e.g., the
state keyword), we’d have to do some
further analysis on the ICompositeNode
to find out the actual concrete syntax
node for the keyword.
14
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321
module DSLbook-Colorer
imports DSLbook-Colorer.generated
colorer
Type.NumType: darkgreen
Here Type is a sort from the syntax definition, while NumType
is the constructor for the integer type. There are other rules
for Type in the Mobl grammar, for example for the string type.
When we want other types also to be colored dark green, we
can either add more rules to the colorer specification, or replace
the current definition with Type._, where _ acts as a wildcard
and all types will be colored dark green, independent of their
constructor. Similarly, we can use a wildcard for sorts. For
example, _.NumType will include all nodes with a constructor
NumType, independent of their syntactic sort.
In the current example, predefined types like int and entity types are all colored dark green, but only the predefined
types will appear in bold face. This is because Spoofax combines specified colors and fonts. The rule on the syntactic level
specifies only a color, but no font. Since the predefined types
are keywords, they will get the font from the keyword specification, which is bold. In contrast, entity types are identifiers,
which will get the default font from the identifier specification.
13.3
Go-to-Definition and Find References
Following a reference (go to definition, Ctrl-Click) as well as
finding references to a given program element works automatically without any customization in any of the language workbenches. However, one might want to change the default behavior, for example because the underlying program element
is not a reference at all (but you still want to go somewhere
when Ctrl-Clicking on it).
Customizing the Target with Xtext Let us first look at how to
change the target of the go-to-definition functionality. Strictly
speaking, we don’t change go-to-definition at all. We just define a new hyperlinking functionality. Go-to-Definition is just
the default hyperlinking behavior15 . As a consequence:
• You can define hyperlinking for elements that are not references in terms of the grammar (a hyperlink can be provided
for any program element).
Hyperlinking gets its name from the
fact that, as you mouse over an element
while keeping the Ctrl key depressed,
you see the respective element in blue
and underlined. You can then click on it
to follow the hyperlink
15
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• You can have several hyperlinks for the same element. If you
Ctrl-Hover on it, a little menu opens up and you can select
the target you are interested in.
To add hyperlinks to a language concept, Xtext provides the
IHyperlinkHelper interface, which can be implemented by
language developers to customize hyperlinking behavior. It requires one method, createHyperlinksTo, to be implemented16 .
A typical implementation looks as follows:
public void createHyperlinksTo(XtextResource from, Region region,
EObject to, IHyperlinkAcceptor acceptor) {
if ( to instanceof TheEConceptIAmInterestedIn ) {
EObject target = // find the target of the hyperlink
super.createHyperlinksTo(from, region, target, acceptor);
} else {
super.createHyperlinksTo(from, region, to, acceptor);
}
}
Customized Finders in MPS In many cases, there are different kinds of references to any given element. For example, for
an Interface in the mbeddr C components extension, references to that interface can either be sub-interfaces (ISomething
extends IAnother) or components, which can either provide
an interface (so other components can call the interface’s operation), or they can require an interface, in which case the component itself calls operations defined by the interface. When
finding references, we may want to distinguish between these
different cases.
MPS provides finders to achieve this. Fig. 13.8 shows the resulting Find Usages dialog for an Interface after we have implemented two custom finders in the language: one for components providing the interface, and one for components requiring the interface.
Implementing finders is simple, since, as usual, MPS provides a DSL for specifying them. The following code shows
the implementation.
Typically, language developers will inherit from one of the
existing base classes, such as the
TypeAwareHyperlinkHelper.
16
Figure 13.8: The Find Usages dialog for
Interfaces. The two additional Finders in the top left box are contributed
by the language.
finder findProviders for concept Interface
description: Providers
find(node, scope)->void {
nlist<> refs = execute NodeUsages ( node , <same scope> );
foreach r in refs.select(it|it.isInstanceOf(ProvidedPort)) {
add result r.parent ;
}
}
getCategory(node)->string {
"Providers";
}
Figure 13.9: The result dialog of running Find Usages with our customized
finders. Note the Providers and Users
categories; these correspond to the
strings returned from getCategory in
the two finders.
dsl engineering
We specify a name for the finder (findProviders) as well as
the type to which it applies (references to which it will find:
Interface in the example). We then have to implement the
find method. Notice how in the first line of the implementation we delegate to an existing finder, Node Usages, which
finds all references. We then check whether the referencing element is a ProvidedPort, and if so, we add the parent of the
port, i.e. a Component, to the result17 . Finally, getCategory returns a string that is use to structure the result. Fig. 13.9 shows
an example result.
323
Note how we make use of extensions
to the MPS BaseLanguage to concisely
specify finders: execute and add
result are only available in the finder
specification language.
17
Customizing the Target with Spoofax Spoofax provides a default hyperlinking mechanism from references to declarations.
Alternative hyperlinking functionality can be implemented in
rewrite rules. The names of these rules need to be specified
in the editor specification. For example, the following specification tells Spoofax to use a custom rewrite rule to hyperlink
this expressions to the surrounding class:
references
reference Exp.This : resolve-this
On the left-hand side of the colon the reference rule specifies
a syntactic sort and a constructor, for which the hyperlinking
should be customized18 . On the right-hand side of the colon,
the rule names a rewrite rule which implements the hyperlinking:
As in colorer specifications, we can
use _ as a wildcard for syntactic sorts
and constructors.
18
resolve-this:
(link, position, ast, path, project-path) -> target
where
Entity(t) := <type-of> link ;
target
:= <index-lookup> t
This rule determines the type of a this expression and links it
to the declaration of this type19 .
13.4
Pretty-Printing
Pretty-printing refers to the reverse activity from parsing20 . A
parser transforms a character sequence into an abstract syntax
tree. A pretty printer (re-)creates the text string from the AST.
As the term pretty printing suggests, the resulting text should
be pretty, i.e. whitespace must be managed properly.
So when and where is a formatter useful? There is the obvious use case: users somehow mess up formatting, and they
want to press Ctrl-Shift-F to clean it up. However, there is
Like all rewrite rules implementing
hyperlinking functionality, the rule
needs to follow a Spoofax-defined
signature: on the left-hand side, it
matches a tuple consisting of the
link, the position of this node in
the abstract syntax tree, the tree itself
(ast), the path of the current file,
and the path of the current Eclipse
project (project-path). On the righthand side, it returns the target of the
hyperlink.
19
This is also known as serialization or
formatting.
20
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more essential reason. If the AST is modified by a transformation, the updated text has to be rendered correctly. An AST
is modified, for example, as part of a quick fix (see the next
paragraph) or by a graphical editor that operates in parallel to
a text editor on the same AST.
Pretty-Printing in MPS In MPS, pretty-printing is a nonissue. The editor always pretty-prints as part of the projection21 . However, version 3.0 of MPS will support the definition
of several different editors for a single concept. They may be
fundamentally different (e.g., providing a textual and a graphical syntax for state machines) or just provide different "layouts" for a single notation (different positions of the opening
curly brace, for example). More generally, there is no reason
why a projectional editor may not provide a certain degree of
freedom regarding layout. Users may be able to press ENTER to
start a new line in a long expression, or press TAB to indent a
statement22 . However, MPS does currently not support this.
Pretty-Printing in Spoofax
Spoofax generates a languagespecific rewrite rule pp-<LanguageName>-string which rewrites
an abstract syntax tree into a string according to a pretty-printer
definition (expressed in the Box language). Spoofax generates
a default pretty-printer definition from the syntax definition
of a language. For example, Spoofax generates the following
pretty-printer definition for Mobl:
[
]
Module
Module.2:iter-star
Import
Entity
Entity.2:iter-star
Property
Function
--------
Function.2:iter-star-sep
Function.4:iter-star
Param
EntType
NumType
BoolType
StringType
Declare
Assign
Return
Call
PropAccess
Plus
Mul
Var
Int
-----------------
KW["module"] _1 _2,
_1,
KW["import"] _1,
KW["entity"] _1 KW["{"] _2 KW["}"],
_1,
_1 KW[":"] _2,
KW["function"] _1 KW["("] _2 KW[")"]
KW[":"] _3 KW["{"] _4 KW["}"],
_1 KW[","],
_1,
_1 KW[":"] _2,
_1,
KW["int"],
KW["boolean"],
KW["string"],
KW["var"] _1 KW["="] _2 KW[";"],
_1 KW["="] _2 KW[";"],
KW["return"] _1 KW[";"],
_1 KW["."] _2 KW["("] _3 KW[")"],
_1 KW["."] _2,
_1 KW["+"] _2,
_1 KW["*"] _2,
_1,
_1
On the flip side, MPS users do not
have the option of changing the layout
or formatting of a program, since the
projection rules implement the one
true way of formatting. Of course, this
can be considered a plus or a minus,
depending on the context.
21
Note that such layout information
must be stored with the program, or
possibly in a separate layout model.
This is especially true if the notation
is graphical, which will always allow
some degree of custom layout and
positioning of shapes
22
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In the Box language, rules consist of constructors (i.e. AS elements or language concepts) on the left-hand side of a rule
and a sequence of boxes and numbers on the right-hand side.
The basic box construct is a simple string, representing a string
in the output. Furthermore, two kinds of box operators can
be applied to sub-boxes: layout operators specify the layout of
sub-boxes in the surrounding box, and font operators specify
which font should be used. In the example, all strings are embedded in KW[...] boxes. KW is a font operator, classifying the
sub-boxes as keywords of the language23 .
Numbers on the right-hand side can be used to combine
boxes from the subtrees: a number n refers to the boxes from
the n-th subtree. When the syntax definition contains nested
constructs, additional rules are generated for pretty-printing
the corresponding subtrees. On the left-hand side, these rules
have selectors, which consist of a constructor, a number selecting a particular subtree, and the type of the nesting. The following table shows all nesting constructs in syntax definitions
and their corresponding types in pretty-printing rules.
Construct
optionals S?
non-empty lists S+
possibly empty lists S*
separated lists S1 S2+
possibly empty separated lists S1 S2*
alternatives S1 | S2
sequences (S1 S2)
Selector Type
opt
iter
iter-star
iter-sep
iter-star-sep
alt
seq
Additionally, user-defined pretty-printing rules can be defined
as well. Spoofax first applies the user-defined rules to turn an
abstract syntax tree into a hybrid tree which is only partially
pretty-printed. It then applies the default rules to pretty-print
the remaining parts. For example, we could define our own
pretty-printing rule for Mobl modules:
Module
-- V vs=1 is=4 [ H [KW["module"] _1] _2]
This rule lets Spoofax pretty-print the term Module("shopping",
[Entity(...), Entity(...)]) as
module shopping
entity ...
entity ...
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Since font operators are only meaningful when pretty-printing to HTML
or LaTeX, we do not dive into the
details here.
23
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The V box operator places sub-boxes vertically. In the example, it places the entities underneath the module shopping line.
The desired vertical separation between the sub-boxes can be
specified by the spacing option vs. Its default value is 0; that
is, no blank lines are added between the boxes. In the example, a blank line is enforced by vs=1. For indenting boxes in
a vertical combination, the spacing option is can be specified.
All boxes except the first will be indented accordingly. In the
example, the module shopping line is unindented, while the
entities are indented by 4 spaces. The H box operator lays out
sub-boxes horizontally. In the example, it is used to lay out the
module keyword and its name in the same line. The desired
horizontal separation between the sub-boxes can be specified
by the spacing option hs. Its default value is 1; that is, a single
space is added between the boxes.
Pretty-Printing in Xtext In Xtext, the use of whitespace can
be specified in a language’s Formatter. Formatters use a Java
API to specify whitespace policies for a grammar. Consider
an example from the cooling language. Assume we enter the
following code:
state Hello
: entry { if true { } }
If we run the formatter (e.g., by pressing Ctrl-Shift-F in the
IDE), we want the resulting text to be formatted like this:
state Hello:
entry {
if true { }
}
The following formatter code implements this.
protected void configureFormatting(FormattingConfig c) {
CoolingLanguageGrammarAccess f =
(CoolingLanguageGrammarAccess) getGrammarAccess();
c.setNoSpace().before(
f.getCustomStateAccess().getColonKeyword_3());
c.setIndentationIncrement().after(
f.getCustomStateAccess().getColonKeyword_3());
c.setLinewrap().before(
f.getCustomStateAccess().getEntryKeyword_5_0());
c.setLinewrap().after(
f.getCustomStateAccess().getLeftCurlyBracketKeyword_5_1());
c.setIndentationIncrement().after(
f.getCustomStateAccess().getLeftCurlyBracketKeyword_5_1());
c.setLinewrap().before(
f.getCustomStateAccess().getRightCurlyBracketKeyword_5_3());
c.setIndentationDecrement().before(
f.getCustomStateAccess().getRightCurlyBracketKeyword_5_3());
}
dsl engineering
In the first line we get the CoolingLanguageGrammarAccess
object, an API to refer to the grammar of the language itself.
This API is the basis for an internal Java DSL for expressing
formatting rules. Let’s look at the first block of three lines. In
the first line we express that there should be no space before
the colon in the CustomState rule. Line two states that we want
to have indentation after the colon. The third line specifies that
the entry keyword should be on a new line. The next two
blocks of two lines manage the indentation of the entry action
code. In the first block we express a line wrap and incremented
indentation after the opening curly brace. The second block
expresses a wrap before the closing curly brace, as well as a
decrement in the indentation level24 .
13.5
Quick Fixes
A quick fix is a semi-automatic fix for a constraint violation. It
is semi-automatic in the sense that it is made available to the
user in a menu, and after selecting the respective quick fix from
the menu, the code that implements the quick fix rectifies the
problem that caused the constraint violation25 .
Quick Fixes in Xtext
Xtext supports quick fixes for constraint violations. Quick fixes can either be implemented on
the concrete syntax (i.e. via text replacement) or on the abstract
syntax (i.e. via a model modification and subsequent serialization). As an example, consider the following constraint defined
in the cooling language’s CoolingLanguageJavaValidator:
327
As you can see, specifying the formatting for a complete grammar can
require a lot of code! In my opinion,
there are two approaches to improve
this: one is reasonable defaults or global
configurations. Curly braces, for example, are typically formatted the same
way. Second, a more efficient way of
specifying the formatting should be
provided. Annotations in the grammar,
or a DSL for specifying the formatting
(such as the Box language used by
Spoofax) should go a long way.
24
Notice that a quick fix only makes
sense for problems that have one or
more "obvious" fixes. This is not true
for all problems.
25
public static final String VARIABLE_LOWER_CASE = "VARIABLE_LOWER_CASE";
@Check
public void checkVariable( Variable v ) {
if ( !Character.isLowerCase( v.getName().charAt(0) ) ) {
warning("Variable name should start with a lower case letter",
al.getSymbolDeclaration_Name(), VARIABLE_LOWER_CASE );
}
}
Based on our discussion of constraint checks (Section 9.1), this
code should be fairly self-explanatory. What is interesting is
the third argument to the warning method: we pass in a constant to uniquely identify the problem. The quick fix will be
tied to this constant. The following code is the quick fix, implemented in the CoolingLanguageQuickfixProvider26 . Notice
how in the @Fix annotation we refer to the same constant that
was used in the constraint check.
This code resides in the UI part of
the language, since, in contrast to the
constraint check, it is relevant only in
the editor.
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@Fix(CoolingLanguageJavaValidator.VARIABLE_LOWER_CASE)
public void capitalizeName(final Issue issue,
IssueResolutionAcceptor acceptor) {
acceptor.accept(issue, "Decapitalize name",
"Decapitalize the name.",
"upcase.png",
new IModification() {
public void apply(IModificationContext context)
throws BadLocationException {
IXtextDocument xtextDocument = context.getXtextDocument();
String firstLetter = xtextDocument.get(issue.getOffset(), 1);
xtextDocument.replace(
issue.getOffset(), 1, firstLetter.toLowerCase());
}
});
}
Quick fix methods accept the Issue that caused the problem as
well as an IssueResolutionAcceptor that is used to register
the fixes so they can be shown in the quick fix menu. The core
of the fix is the anonymous instance of IModification that,
when executed after it has been selected by the user, fixes the
problem. In our example, we grab the document that contains
the problem and use a text replacement API to replace the first
letter of the offending variable with its lower case version.
Working on the concrete syntax level is ok for simple problems like this one. More complex problems should be solved
on the abstract syntax though27 . For these cases, one can use
an instance of ISemanticModification instead:
@Fix(CoolingLanguageJavaValidator.VARIABLE_LOWER_CASE)
public void fixName(final Issue issue, IssueResolutionAcceptor acceptor) {
acceptor.accept(issue, "Decapitalize name",
"Decapitalize the name",
"upcase.png",
new ISemanticModification() {
public void apply(EObject element, IModificationContext context) {
((Variable) element).setName(
Strings.toFirstLower(issue.getData()[0]));
}
});
}
A quick fix using an ISemanticModification basically works
the same way; however, inside the apply method we now use
the EMF Java API to fix the problem28 .
Quick Fixes in MPS Quick fixes in MPS work essentially
the same way as in Xtext. Of course there are only quick fixes
that act on the abstract syntax – the concrete syntax is projected
in any case. Here is a constraint that checks that the name of an
element that implements INameAllUpperCase actually consists
of only upper case letters:
checking rule check_INameAllUpperCase {
applicable for concept = INameAllUpperCase as a
Imagine a problem that requires
changes to the model in several places.
Often it is easy to navigate to these
places via the abstract syntax (following
references, climbing up the tree), but
finding the respective locations on the
concrete syntax would be cumbersome
and brittle.
27
Notice that after the problem is
solved, the changed AST is serialized
back into text. Depending on the scope
of the change, a formatter has to be
implemented for the language to make
sure the resulting serialized text looks
nice.
28
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do {
if (!(a.name.equals(a.name.toUpperCase()))) {
warning "name should be all upper case" -> a;
}
}
}
The quick fix below upper-cases the name if necessary. The
quick fix is associated with the constraint check by simply referencing the fix from the error message. Quick fixes are executed by selecting them from the intentions menu (Alt-Enter)29 .
quick fix fixAllUpperCase
arguments:
node<IIdentifierNamedConcept> node
description(node)->string {
"Fix name";
}
execute(node)->void {
node.name = node.name.toUpperCase();
}
Model Synchronization via Quick Fixes A particularly interesting feature of MPS’ quick fixes is that they can be executed
automatically in the editor. This can be used for synchronizing
different parts of a model: a constraint check detects an inconsistency in the model, and the automatically executed quick fix
resolves the inconsistency.
Here is an example where this makes sense. Consider the interfaces and components extension to C. An interface declares
a couple of operations, each with their own unique signature.
A component that provides the interface has to provide implementations for each of the operations, and the implementations
must have the same signature as the operation it implements.
A constraint checks the consistency between interfaces and implementing components. An automatically executed quick fix
adds missing (empty) operation implementations and synchronizes their signatures with the signatures of the operations in
the interface.
13.6
Refactoring
Refactoring addresses changing the program structure without
changing its behavior. It is typically used to "clean up" the program structure after it has gotten messy over time. While DSLs
As discussed in Section 7.7, MPS also
has intentions. These are essentially
quick fixes that are not associated with
an error. Instead, they can be invoked
on any instance of the concept for
which the intention is declared.
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and their programs tend to be simpler than GPL programs,
refactorings are still useful.
Renaming in Xtext One of the most essential refactorings
is renaming a program element30 . Xtext comes with rename
refactoring out of the box, every language supports rename
refactoring automatically31 . The only thing the user has to remember is to not just type a new name, but instead invoke the
Rename refactoring, for example via Ctrl-Alt-R.
Renaming in Spoofax Like code generators, refactorings need
to be specified in the editor specification and implemented
with rewrite rules. For example, the following specification
specifies a refactoring for renaming entities:
The reason why it is a refactoring
(and not just typing a new name) is because all references to this element have
to be updated. In textual languages,
such references are by name, and if the
name of the target element changes, so
has the text of the reference.
30
In fact, it works across languages and
even integrates with tools that are not
implemented with Xtext, such as the
JDT or XMI-persisted EMF models such
as GMF diagrams.
31
refactorings
refactoring Decl.Entity : "Rename Entity" = rename-entity (cursor)
shortcut : "org.eclipse.jdt.ui.edit.text.java.rename.element"
input
identifier : "new name" = ""
The specification starts with a syntactic sort and a constructor,
on which the refactoring should be available, followed by a label for the refactoring in the context menu, the implementing
rewrite rule, and two options. In the example, Spoofax is instructed to use the current cursor position to determine the
node on which the refactoring should be applied. The specification further defines a shortcut for the refactoring, which
should be the same key binding as the one used in the JDT for
renaming. Finally, it defines an interactive input dialog, with a
label "new name" and an empty default input. The refactoring
itself is implemented in a rewrite rule:
rename-entity:
(newname, Entity(name, elems), position, ast, path, project-path)
-> ([(ast, new-ast)], errors, [], [])
with
new-ast := <topdown(try(rename-entity-local(|name, newname)))> ast;
[Entity(), oldname|path] := <index-uri> name;
if <index-lookup> [Entity(), newname|path] then
errors := [(name, $[Entity of name [newname] already exists.])]
else
errors := []
end
rename-entity-local(|old-name, new-name):
Entity(old-name, elems) -> Entity(new-name, elems)
rename-entity-local(|old-name, new-name):
EntType(old-name) -> EntType(new-name)
As we have seen already for other editor services, rewrite rules
for refactorings have to adhere to a specific interface (i.e. signature). On the left-hand side, the example rule matches a tuple
Note that in a projectional editor
such as MPS, renaming is not even a
refactoring. A reference is established
with the UUID of the target element.
Renaming it does not lead to any
structural change. And since the editor
for the referencing element defines how
to render the reference, it will just
display the updated name if it changes.
dsl engineering
consisting of the input from the refactoring dialog (newname),
the node on which the refactoring is applied, its position in
the abstract syntax tree, the tree itself (ast), and the paths of
the current file and the project. On the right-hand side, it yields
a tuple consisting of a list of changes in the abstract syntax tree
and lists of fatal errors, normal errors and warnings.
For simplicity, the example rule changes the whole abstract
syntax tree into a new one and provides only duplicate definition errors. To do so, the new abstract syntax tree is retrieved by traversing the old one in a topdown fashion, trying
to apply rewrite rules rename-entity-local32 . These rules
take the old and new entity name as parameters. They ensure that declarations and references to entities are renamed.
The first rule rewrites entity declarations, while the second one
rewrites types of the form EntType(name), where name refers
to an entity.
An error is detected if an entity with the new name already
exists. Therefore, we match the annotated URI of the old name,
change it to the new name, and look it up. If we find an entity,
the renamed entity would clash with the one just found.
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try(s) tries to apply a strategy s
to a term. Thereby, it never fails. If s
succeeds, it will return the result of s.
Otherwise, it will return the original
term.
32
Introduce Local Variable in MPS A very typical refactoring
for a procedural language such as C is to introduce a new local
variable. Consider the following code:
int8 someFunction(int8 v) {
int8 y = somethingElse(v * FACTOR);
if ( v * FACTOR > 20 ) {
return 1;
} else {
return 0;
}
}
As you can see, the first two lines contain the same expression
(v * FACTOR) twice. A nicer version of this code might look
like this:
int8 someFunction(int8 v) {
int8 product = v * FACTOR;
int8 y = somethingElse(product);
if ( product > 20 ) {
return 1;
} else {
return 0;
}
}
The Introduce Local Variable refactoring performs this change.
MPS provides a DSL for refactorings, based on which the implementation is about 20 lines of code. We’ll go through it in
steps33 . We start with the declaration of the refactoring itself.
In the meantime, the MPS refactoring
API has changed to better separate UI
aspects (keystrokes, choosers) and the
refactoring itself. This is important to
support integration of refactorings with
IntelliJ IDEA and, in the future, Eclipse.
However, I decided to keep the old
style, since it is a little more concise and
easier to follow in the context of this
example.
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refactoring introduceLocalVariable ( "Introduce Local Variable" )
keystroke: <ctrl+alt>+<V>
target: node<Expression>
allow multiple: false
isApplicableToNode(node)->boolean {
node.ancestor<Statement>.isNotNull;
}
The code above specifies the name of the refactoring (introduceLocalVariable), the label used in the refactoring menu,
the keystroke to execute it directly (Ctrl-Alt-V) as well as the
target, i.e. the language concept on which the refactoring can
be executed. In our case, we want to refactor Expressions,
but only if these expressions are used in a Statement34 . We
find out about that by checking whether the Expression has a
Statement among its ancestors in the tree. Next, we define a
parameter for the refactoring:
We cannot refactor an expression
if it is used, for example, as the init
expression for a global constant.
34
parameters:
varName chooser: type: string
title: Name of the new Variable
init(refactoringContext)->boolean {
return ask for varName;
}
The parameter represents the name of the newly introduced
variable. In the refactoring’s init block we ask the user for
this parameter35 . We are now ready to implement the refactoring algorithm itself in the refactor block. We first declare two
local variables that represent the expression on which we invoked the refactoring (we get it from the refactoringContext36 )
and the Statement under which this expression is located. Finally, we get the index of the Statement37 .
node<Expression> targetExpr = refactoringContext.node;
node<Statement> targetStmt = targetExpr.ancestor<Statement>;
int index = targetStmt.index;
Next, we iterate over all siblings of the statement in which
the expression lives. As we do that, we look for all expressions that are structurally similar to the one we’re executing
the refactoring on (using MatchingUtil.matchNodes). We remember a matching expression if it occurs in a statement that
is after the one that contains our target expression.
nlist<Expression> matchingExpressions = new nlist<Expression>;
sequence<node<>> siblings =
targetStmt.siblings.union(new singleton<node<Statement>>(stmt));
foreach s in siblings {
if (s.index >= index) {
foreach e in s.descendants<Expression> {
if (MatchingUtil.matchNodes(targetExpr, e)) {
matchingExpressions.add(e);
} } } }
35
The ask for expression returns
false if the user selects Cancel in the
dialog that prompts the user for the
name. The execution of the refactoring
stops in this case.
If the refactoring was declared
to allow multiple, we can use
refactoringContext.nodes to access all of the selected nodes.
36
.index returns the index of an
element in the collection that owns the
element. It is available on any node.
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The next step is to actually introduce the new local variable.
We create a new LocalVariableDeclaration using the API.
We set the name to the one we’ve asked the user for (varName),
we set its type to a copy of the type calculated by the type
system for the target expression, and we initialize the variable
with a copy of the target expression itself. We then add this
new variable to the list of statements, just before the one which
contains our target expression. We use the add prev-sibling
built-in function for that.
node<LocalVariableDeclaration> lvd = new node<LocalVariableDeclaration>();
lvd.name = varName;
lvd.type = targetExpr.type.copy;
lvd.init = targetExpr.copy;
targetStmt.add prev-sibling(lvd);
There is one more step we have to do. We have to replace
all the occurrences of our target expression with a reference
to the newly introduced local variable. We had collected the
matchingExpressions above, so we can now iterate over this
collection38 :
foreach e in matchingExpressions {
node<LocalVarRef> ref = new node<LocalVarRef>();
ref.var = lvd;
e.replace with(ref);
}
Note how the actual replacement is
done with the replace with built-in
function. It comes in very handy, since
we don’t have to manually find out
in which property or collection the
expression lives in order to replace it.
38
All in all, building refactorings is straightforward with MPS’
refactoring support. The implementation effort is reduced to
essentially the algorithmic complexity of the refactoring itself.
Depending on the refactoring, this can be non-trivial.
13.7
Labels and Icons
Labels and icons for language concepts are used in several
places, among them the outline view and the code completion
menu.
Labels and Icons in Xtext Labels and icons are defined in
the language’s LabelProvider, which is generated by Xtext for
each language by default. To define the label text, you simply
override the text method for your element, which returns either a String or a StyledString (which includes formatting
information). For the icon, override the image method. Here
are a couple of examples from the cooling language39 :
public class CoolingLanguageLabelProvider
extends DefaultEObjectLabelProvider {
String text(CoolingProgram prg) {
Notice how the label and the image are defined via methods, you can
change the text and the icon dynamically, based on some property of the
model.
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return "program "+prg.getName();
}
String image(CoolingProgram prg) {
return "program.png";
}
String text(Variable v) {
return v.getName()+": "+v.getType();
}
String image(Variable v) {
return "variable.png";
}
}
Labels and Icons in MPS Labels are defined by overriding
the getPresentation behavior method on the respective concept. This allows the label to also be adjusted dynamically. The
icon can be selected in the inspector (see Fig. 13.10) if we select
a language concept. The icon is fixed and cannot be changed
dynamically.
13.8
Figure 13.10: Assigning an icon to a
language concept.
Outline
The outline provides an overview over the contents of some
part of the overall model, typically a file. By default, it usually
shows more or less the AST, down to a specific level (the implementations of functions or methods are typically not shown).
The contents of the outline view must be user-definable; at the
very least, we have to define where to stop the tree. Also,
the tree structure may be completely different from the nesting structure of the AST: the elements may have to be grouped
based on their concept (first show all variables, then all functions) or they may have to be sorted alphabetically.
Customizing the Structure in Xtext Xtext provides an OutlineTreeProvider for your language that can be used to customize the outline view structure (labels and icons are taken
from the LabelProvider discussed above). As an example, let
us customize the outline view for cooling programs to look the
one shown in Fig. 13.11.
The tree view organizes the contents of a file by first showing all programs and then all tests. To do this, we provide a
suitable implementation of _createChildren:
protected void _createChildren(DocumentRootNode parentNode, Model m) {
for (EObject prg : m.getCoolingPrograms()) {
createNode(parentNode, prg);
}
for (EObject t : m.getTests()) {
Figure 13.11: A customized outline
view for cooling programs in Xtext
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335
createNode(parentNode, t);
}
}
Inside the method, we first grab all the CoolingPrograms from
the root element Model and create a node for them using the
createNote API, which takes the parent (in terms of the outline view) and the program element for which should be represented by the new outline node40 . We then do the same for
tests.
Inside a program, we want to show variables and states in
separate sections, i.e. under separate intermediate nodes (see
Fig. 13.11). Here is how this works:
The text and icon for the outline
node is taken from the label provider
discussed in the previous section.
40
protected void _createChildren(IOutlineNode parentNode, CoolingProgram p) {
TextOnlyOutlineNode vNode = new TextOnlyOutlineNode(parentNode,
imageHelper.getImage("variable.png"),
"variables");
for (EObject v: p.getVariables()) {
createNode(vNode, v);
}
TextOnlyOutlineNode sNode = new TextOnlyOutlineNode(parentNode,
imageHelper.getImage("state.png"), "states");
for (EObject s: p.getStates()) {
createNode(sNode, s);
}
}
We introduce intermediate nodes that do not represent a program element; they are used purely for structuring the tree.
The TextOnlyOutlineNode is a class we created; it simply extends the class AbstractOutlineNode provided by Xtext.
public class TextOnlyOutlineNode extends AbstractOutlineNode {
protected TextOnlyOutlineNode(IOutlineNode parent,
Image image, Object text) {
super(parent, image, text, false);
}
}
Xtext provides alphabetical sorting for outlines by default. There
is also support for styling the outline (i.e. using styled labels as
opposed to simple text) as well as for filtering the tree.
The Outline in Spoofax With Spoofax, outlines can be specified declaratively in the editor specification. Abstract syntax
tree nodes, which should appear in the outline, are selected
based on their syntactic sort and constructor names. For example, the following outline specification will include all entity
declarations41 :
module MoblLang-Outliner
imports MoblLang-Outliner.generated
outliner Entity Outliner
As in the specification of other editor
services, we can use _ as a wildcard
for sorts and constructors. For example, Decl._ will include imports
and entities in the outline. Similarly,
_.Property will include all nodes with
a constructor Property, independent of
their syntactic sort.
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Decl.Entity
Spoofax analyses the syntax definition and tries to come up
with a reasonable default outline specification. We can then
either extend the generated specification with our own rules,
or create a new one from scratch.
The Outline in MPS
MPS does not have a customizable
outline view. It shows the AST of the complete program as
part of the project explorer, but the structure cannot be customized. However, it is of course possible to add arbitrary additional views (called tools in MPS) to MPS. The MPS tutorial
at bit.ly/xU78ys shows how to implement your own outline
view.
13.9
Code Folding
Code folding refers to the small minuses in the gutter of an
editor that let you collapse code regions (see Fig. 13.12). The
editor shows an ellipsis (...) for the folded parts of the code.
Clicking on the + or on the ellipsis restores the full code.
Folding in Xtext Xtext automatically provides folding for
all language concepts that stretch over more than one line42 . To
turn off this default behavior, you have to implement your own
subclass of DefaultFoldingRegionProvider and overwrite the
method isHandled in a suitable way. For example, to not provide folding for CustomStates, you could do the following:
public class CLFoldingRegionProvider extends DefaultFoldingRegionProvider {
@Override
protected boolean isHandled(EObject eObject) {
if ( eObject instanceof CustomState ) {
return false;
}
return super.isHandled(eObject);
}
}
Folding in Spoofax Spoofax allows to specify folding declaratively in the editor specification. Very similar to the specification of outlines, folding is specified in terms of syntactic sort
and constructor names:
module Mobl-Folding
folding
Module._
Decl.Entity
_.Function
Figure 13.12: Code folding in Xtext.
If you hover over the folded code, a
pop-up shows the hidden code.
Xtext also automatically provides
hovers for the folded contents that
show the text that is "folded away".
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As for outlines, Spoofax analyses the syntax definition and tries
to come up with a reasonable default specification. We can
then either extend the generated specification with our own
rules, disable particular specifications by adding a (disabled)
annotation, or discard it completely. A (folded) annotation
tells Spoofax to fold a node by default in a newly opened editor,
which is typically seen for import sections.
Folding in MPS In MPS, folding can be activated for any
collection. For example, in a state machine, each state contains
a vertical list of transitions. To enable folding for this collection,
we set the uses folding property for the collection to true43 .
Once we’ve set the property to true, we have to provide a cell
that is rendered if the user requests the code to be folded. This
allows the text shown as an ellipses to be customized beyond
just showing three dots. As Fig. 13.13 shows, we use a read
only model access cell, which allows us to access the underlying model and return an arbitrary string. In the example, we
output the number of "hidden" transitions.
MPS provides a second mechanism that can be used to the
same effect. Since MPS is a projectional editor, some parts of
the editor may be projected conditionally. Fig. 13.14 shows a
list/tree of requirements. After pressing Ctrl-Shift-D on a requirement, the editor shows the requirements details (Fig. 13.15).
This effect of "expanding editors" is implemented by making
the detail part optional in the sense that the projection rule only
shows it conditionally. Fig. 13.16 shows the editor definition.
13.10
It can also be set to query, in which
case code can be written that determines at runtime whether folding
should be enabled or not. For example,
folding could be enabled if there are
more than three transitions in the state.
43
Figure 13.13: After uses folding has
been set to true for the transitions
collection of a State, we have to specify
a folded cell which is shown in case
the collection is folded. In this case we
use an R/O model access as the folded
cell which can return a (read-only)
string that is projected if the collection
is folded.
Figure 13.14: A list/tree of requirements in mbeddr.
Tooltips/Hover
A tooltip, or hover, is a small, typically yellow window that is
shown if the user hovers the mouse over a program element. A
hover may show the documentation of the target element, or,
when hovering over a reference, some information about the
referenced element.
Figure 13.15: Optionally, the requirement details can be shown inline.
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Figure 13.16: The part of the editor
that includes the details pane is only
projected if the open property is
true. This property is toggled using
Ctrl-Shift-D.
Xtext In Xtext, hovers/tooltips can be customized to various extents. The simplest customization retains the default
hover structure (a one-line summary plus a more extensive
documentation) and just changes the respective texts.
To change the one-line summary, you override the getFirstLine method in DefaultEObjectHoverProvider and return a
custom string. The program element for which the hover should
be created is represented by the EObject passed into the method.
To customize the documentation, you override getDocumentation in IEObjectDocumentationProvider44 .
Spoofax
Spoofax supports tooltips directly. Tooltips are
provided by rewrite rules, which need to be defined as hovers
in the editor specification:
Just as in any other case of Xtext
framework configuration, you have
to register the two classes in the UI
module.
44
hover _: editor-hovering
This line tells Spoofax to use a rewrite rule editor-hovering
to retrieve tooltips for all kinds of abstract syntax tree nodes45 .
When we want to define different rewrite rules for particular
constructors, we need to provide a hover specification for each
constructor, replacing _ by _.<Constructor>.
The specified rewrite rules have to follow the typical editor
interface on their left-hand side and need to yield strings on
Note the use of the wildcard to
express "all kinds of AST nodes".
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Figure 13.17: If a user selects a reference
to a requirement in a requirements trace
(Arg2 in the example), the inspector
shows information about the referenced
requirement.
their right-hand sides. The strings are then used as tooltips.
For example, the following rewrite rule will provide type information for any typeable node:
editor-hovering:
(target, position, ast, path, project-path) ->
<type-of; pp-MoblLang-string> target
MPS MPS does not support tooltips at this time. However,
there is an acceptable workaround: any additional information
for a program element can be shown in the inspector. For example, if users click on a reference to a requirement in program
code, the inspector shows information about the referenced requirement (see Fig. 13.17).
Looking at the editor definition for a RequirementRef, you
can see that the actual editor (top in Fig. 13.18) shows only
the name of the referenced element. The bottom part, the
inspected cell layout, projects the details about the referenced element.
13.11
Visualizations
To provide an overview over the structure of programs, readonly graphical representations are useful. Note that these are
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Figure 13.18: The editor definition for
the RequirementRef projects details
about the referenced element in the
inspector. Notice the use of the $swing
component$ as a means to embed the
Swing JTextArea that shows the prose
description of the requirement. The
code behind the $swing component$
also populates the text area and writes
back the changed text to the AST.
not necessarily a workaround for not having graphical editors:
visualizations can provide real added value.
MPS
In MPS we have integrated ZGRViewer46 , a Javabased renderer for GraphViz47 dot files. Fig. 13.19 shows an
example.
As part of the transformations, we map the model to another
model expressed in a graph description language. This model
is then generated into a dot file. The graph viewer scans the
output directory for dot files and shows them in the tree view
at the top. Double-clicking on a graph node in the tree opens a
rendered dot file in the graph view.
46
zvtm.sourceforge.net/
zgrviewer.html
47
www.graphviz.org/
Figure 13.19: Clicking on a node in
the Graph Viewer opens the respective
program element in the MPS editor.
dsl engineering
Xtext In Xtext, Jan Koehnlein’s Generic Graph View48 can
be used to render diagrams of Xtext models in real-time – the
Generic Graph View is an interpreter, so changes in the model
lead to updates in the graph immediately.
The mapping from the model to the graph is expressed with
an Xtext-based mapping DSL that extends Xbase (Xtext’s reusable
expression language), which means you can use Xbase expressions to traverse and query the model you want to visualize
(in Fig. 13.20 an example would be the this.eSuperTypes()
expression). In addition, a separate styling DSL supports the
definition of shapes, colors and line styles. Double-clicking a
node in the graph opens the corresponding program element
in the Xtext editor.
13.12
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48
github.com/JanKoehnlein/
Generic-Graph-View
Diff and Merge
Highlighting the differences between versions of a program
and allowing the resolution of conflicts is important in the
context of version control integration. For tools like Xtext or
Spoofax that store models as plain text this is a non-issue: existing diff/merge tools can be used, be they in the IDE or on
the command line.
For projectional editors such as MPS, the story is more complicated. Since they store the programs based on the abstract
syntax (e.g., using XML), diff and merge have to be performed
on the concrete projected syntax. MPS provides this feature
(see Fig. 7.7 for an example). MPS also annotates the editor
with gutter annotations that highlight whether a part of the
program has changed relative to the last checkout.
Figure 13.20: A model-to-graph mapping and a style definition expressed
with the Generic Graph Viewer DSLs by
Jan Koehnlein.
14
Testing DSLs
All the aspects of DSL implementation we have discussed so
far need to be tested to keep them stable. In this chapter we
address testing of the language syntax, the constraints and
the semantics, as well as some of the editor services, based
on examples with Xtext, MPS and Spoofax. We conclude
the chapter with a brief look at "testing" a language for
appropriateness relative to the domain.
DSL testing is a multi-faceted problem, since it needs to address all the aspects of the DSL implementation we have discussed so far. In particular, this includes the syntax, the constraints and type system, as well as the execution semantics
(i.e. transformations or interpreters). Here are some examples:
• Can the syntax cover all required sentences? Is the concrete
syntax "correct"?
• Do the scopes work correctly?
• Do the constraints work? Are all "wrong" programs actually
detected, and is the right error message attached to the right
program element?
• are the semantics correct? Do transformations, generators
and interpreters work correctly?
• Can all programs relevant to the users actually be expressed?
Does the language cover the complete domain?
An important ingredient to testing is
that test execution can be automated
via scripts, so they can be run as part of
automatic builds. All the test strategies
shown below can be executed from ant
scripts. However, we don’t describe in
detail how this works for each of the
tools.
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14.1
Syntax Testing
Testing the syntax is simple in principle. Developers simply try
to write a large set of relevant programs and see if they can be
expressed with the language. If not, the concrete syntax is incomplete. We may also want to try to write "wrong" programs
and check that the errors are detected, and that meaningful
error messages are reported.
An Example with Xtext The following piece of code is the
fundamental code that needs to be written in Xtext to test a
DSL program using the Xtext testing utilities1 . It is a JUnit 4
test case (with special support for the Xtext infrastructure2 ), so
it can be run as part of Eclipse’s JUnit integration.
@RunWith(XtextRunner.class)
@InjectWith(CoolingLanguageInjectorProvider.class)
public class InterpreterTests extends XtextTest {
1
code.google.com/a/eclipselabs
.org/p/xtext-utils/wiki/
Unit_Testing; more testing util-
ities for Xtext can be found in the
org.eclipse.xtext.junit4 package.
2
It is tested with Xtext 2.x.
@Test
public void testET0() throws Exception {
testFileNoSerializer("interpreter/engine0.cool", "
tests.appl", "stdparams.cool" );
}
}
The single test method loads the interpreter/engine0.cool
program, as well as two more files which contain elements
referenced from engine0.cool. The testFileNoSerializer
method loads the file, parses it and checks constraints. If either
parsing or constraint checking fails, the test fails3 .
On a more fine-grained level it is often useful to test partial sentences instead of complete sentences or programs. The
following piece of Xtext example code tests the CustomState
parser rule:
@Test
public void testStateParserRule() throws Exception {
testParserRule("state s:",
"CustomState" );
testParserRule("state s: entry { do fach1->anOperation }",
"CustomState" );
testParserRule("state s: entry { do fach1->anOperation }",
"State" );
}
The first line asserts that the string state s: can be parsed
with the CustomState parser rule. The second line passes in a
more complex state, one with a command in an entry action.
Line three tries the same text with the State rule, which itself
calls the CustomState4 .
There is also a testFile method
which, after loading and parsing the
file, reserializes the AST to the text file,
writes it back, and loads it again, thus
comparing the two ASTs. This way,
the (potentially adapted) formatter
is tested. Note that for testing the
formatting, a text comparison is the
only way to go, even though we argue
against text comparison in general.
3
These tests really just test the parser.
No linking or constraints checks are
performed. This is why we can "call"
anOperation on the fach1 object,
although anOperation is not defined as
a callable operation anywhere.
4
dsl engineering
An Example with Spoofax
Spoofax supports writing tests
for language definitions using a testing language. Consider
the following test suite:
module example
language MoblEntities
test empty module [[module foo]] parse succeeds
test missing layout (module name) [[modulefoo]] parse fails
The first two lines specify the name of the test suite and the
language under test. The remaining lines specify positive and
negative test cases concerning the language’s syntax. Each test
case consists of a name, the to-be-tested code fragment in double square brackets, and a specification that determines what
kind of test should be performed (parsing) and what the expected outcome is (succeeds or fails). We can also specify the
expected abstract syntax based on the ATerm textual notation:
test empty module (AST) [[module foo]] parse to Module("foo", [])
Instead of specifying a complete abstract syntax tree, we can
only specify the interesting parts in a pattern. For example,
if we only want to verify that the definition list of an empty
module is indeed empty, we can use _ as a wildcard for the
module name:
test empty module (AST) [[module foo]] parse to Module(_, [])
Abstract syntax patterns are particularly useful for testing operator precedence and associativity:
test multiply and add [[1 + 2 * 3]] parse to Add(_, Mul(_, _))
test add and multiply [[1 * 2 + 3]] parse to Add(Mul(_, _), _)
test add and add [[1 + 2 + 3]] parse to Add(Add(_, _), _)
Alternatively, we can specify an equivalent concrete syntax fragment instead of an abstract syntax pattern:
test multiply and add [[1 + 2 * 3]] parse to [[1 + (2 * 3)]]
test add and multiply [[1 * 2 + 3]] parse to [[(1 * 2) + 3]]
test add and add [[1 + 2 + 3]] parse to [[(1 + 2) + 3]]
A test suite can be run from the Transform menu. This will open
the Spoofax Test Runner View, which provides information about
failing and succeeding test cases in a test suite. Fig. 14.1 shows
an example. Additionally, we can also get instant feedback
while editing a test suite. Tests can also be evaluated outside
the IDE, for example as part of a continuous integration setup.
Syntax Testing with MPS Syntax testing in the strict sense
is not useful or necessary with MPS, since it is not possible to
“write text that does not parse”. Invalid programs cannot even
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Figure 14.1: Spoofax Test Runner View
showing success and failure of test
cases in a test suite.
be entered. However, it is useful to write a set of programs
which the language developer considers relevant. While it is
not possible to write syntactically invalid programs, the following scenario is possible (and useful to test): a user writes a
program with the language in version 1. The language evolves
to version 2, making that program invalid. In this case, the program contains unbound language concepts or “holes”. By running the model checker (interactively or via ant), such problems can be detected. Fig. 14.2 shows an example.
14.2
Constraints Testing
Testing of constraints is essential, especially for languages with
complex constraints, such as those implied by type systems.
The goal of constraints testing is to ensure that the correct error messages are annotated to the correct program elements, if
those program elements have a constraint or type error.
An Example with Xtext A special API is necessary to be able
to verify that a program which makes a particular constraint
fail actually annotates the corresponding error message to the
respective program element. This way, tests can then be written
which assert that a given program has a specific set of error
annotations.
The unit testing utilities mentioned above also support testing constraints. The utilities come with an internal Java DSL
that supports checking for the presence of error annotations
after parsing and constraint-checking a model file.
@Test
public void testTypesOfParams() throws Exception {
testFileNoSerializer("typesystem/tst1.cool", "tests.appl", "stdparams.
cool");
assertConstraints( issues.sizeIs(3) );
// 1
assertConstraints( issues.forElement(Variable.class, "v1").
// 2
theOneAndOnlyContains("incompatible type") );
// 2
assertConstraints( issues.under(Variable.class, "w1").
// 3
errorsOnly().sizeIs(2).oneOfThemContains("incompatible type") ); // 3
}
Figure 14.2: Top: an interface expressed
in the mbeddr C components extension.
Bottom: The same interface after we
have removed the parameters collection in an Operation. The error reports
that the model contains child nodes in a
child collection that does not exist.
dsl engineering
We first load the model file that contains constraint errors (in
this case, type system errors). Then we assert the total number
of errors in the file to be three (line 1)5 . Next, in line 2, we
check that the instance of Variable named v1 has exactly one
error annotation, and that it has the text "incompatible type"
in the error message. Finally, in line 3 we assert that there are
exactly two errors anywhere under (i.e. in the subtree below) a
Variable named w1, and one of these contains "incompatible
type" in the error message. Using the fluent API style shown by
these examples, it is easy to express errors and their locations
in the program. If a test fails, a meaningful error message is
output that supports localizing (potential) problems in the test.
The following is the error reported if no error message is found
that contains the substring incompatible type:
347
This makes sure that the file does not
contain additional errors beyond those
asserted in the rest of the test case.
5
junit.framework.AssertionFailedError: <no id> failed
- failed oneOfThemContains: none of the issues
contains substring ’incompatible type’
at junit.framework.Assert.fail(Assert.java:47)
at junit.framework.Assert.assertTrue(Assert.java:20)
...
A test may also fail earlier in the chain of filter expressions if,
for example, there is no Variable named v1 in the program.
More output is provided in this case:
junit.framework.AssertionFailedError: <no id> failed
- no elements of type
com.bsh.pk.cooling.coolingLanguage.Variable named ’v1’ found
- failed oneOfThemContains: none of the issues
contains substring ’incompatible type’
at junit.framework.Assert.fail(Assert.java:47)
...
Scopes can be tested in the same way: we can write example
programs where references point to valid targets (i.e. those in
scope) and invalid targets (i.e. not in scope). Valid references
may not have errors, invalid references must have errors6 .
An Example with MPS MPS comes with the NodesTestCase
for testing constraints and type system rules (Fig. 14.3). It supports special annotations to express assertions on types and errors, directly in the program. For example, the third line of the
nodes section in Fig. 14.3 reads var double d3 = d without
annotations. This is a valid variable declaration in mbeddr C.
After this has been written down, annotations can be added.
They are rendered in green (gray in the hardcopy version of
the book). Line three asserts that the type of the variable d is
double, i.e. it tests that variable references assume the type of
the referenced variable. In line four we assign a double to an
The absence or presence of these
errors can be tested in the same way as
the constraint checking tests discussed
above.
6
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int, which is illegal according to the typing rules. The error is
detected, hence the red underline. We use another annotation
to assert the presence of the error.
Figure 14.3: Using MPS
NodesTestCase, assertions about
types and the presence of errors can be
directly annotated on programs written
in any language.
In addition to using these annotations to check types and typing errors, developers can also write more detailed test cases
about the structure or the types of programs. In the example
we assert that the var reference of the node referred to as dref
points to the node labeled as dnode. Note how labels (green,
underlined) are used to add names to program elements so
they can be referred to from test expressions. This approach
can be used to test scopes. If two variables with the same
name are defined (e.g., because one of them is defined in an
outer block, and we assume that the inner variable shadows the
outer variable of the same name), we can use this mechanism
to check that a reference actually points to the inner variable.
Fig. 14.4 shows an example.
An Example with Spoofax In Spoofax’ testing language, we
can write test cases which specify the number of errors and
warnings in a code fragment:
test duplicate entities [[
module foo
entity X {}
entity X {}
]] 1 error
test lower case entity name [[
module foo
entity x {}
]] 1 warning
Additionally, we can specify parts of the error or warning messages using regular expressions:
test duplicate entities [[
module foo
Figure 14.4: Labels and test methods
can be used to check that scoping
works. In this example, we check
shadowing of variables.
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349
entity X {}
entity X {}
]] 1 error /duplicate/
Here, /duplicate/ is a regular expression that matches error
messages like "Duplicate definition of X". As in Xtext and MPS,
we can test scopes by means of correct and incorrect references.
Alternatively, we can specify the source and target of a link in
a test case:
test property reference [[
module foo
entity X {
[[p]]: int
function f(q: int) {
r: int = 0;
return [[p]];
}
}
]] resolve #2 to #1
test parameter reference [[
module foo
entity X {
p: int
function f([[p]]: int) {
r: int = 0;
return [[p]];
}
}
]] resolve #2 to #1
test variable reference [[
module foo
entity X {
p: int
function f(q: int) {
[[p]]: int = 0;
return [[p]];
}
}
]] resolve #2 to #1
These cases use double square brackets to select parts of the
program and specify the expected reference resolving in terms
of these selections.
14.3
Semantics Testing
Fundamentally, testing the execution semantics of a program
involves writing assertions against the execution of a program7 .
In the simplest case this can be done the following way:
• Write a DSL program, based on an understanding what the
program is expected to do.
• Generate the program into its executable representation.
While this sounds fancy, this is close
to what we do in unit testing "normal"
programs. We write a system in a programming language X, and then write
more code in X that states assertions
about what the system does.
7
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• Manually write unit tests (in the target language) that assert
the generated program’s behavior based on the understanding of what the DSL program should do.
Notice how we do not test the structure or syntax of the generated artifact. Instead we test its meaning, which is exactly
what we want to test. An important variation of this approach
is the following: instead of writing the unit tests manually in
the target language, we can also write the tests in the DSL, assuming the DSL has syntax to express such tests8 . Writing the
test cases on DSL level results in more concise and readable
tests.9
The same approach can be used to test execution semantics
based on an interpreter, although it may be a little more difficult to manually write the test cases in the target language; the
interpreter must provide a means to "inspect" its execution so
that we can check whether it is correct. If the tests are written
in the DSL and the interpreter executes them along with the
core program, the approach works well.
Strictly speaking, the approach discussed here tests the semantics of a specific program. As always in testing, we have
to write many of these tests to make sure we have covered
all10 of the possible executions paths through a generator or
interpreter. If we do that, the set of tests implicitly tests the
generator or interpreter – which is the goal we want to achieve
in semantics testing.
If we have several execution backends, such as an interpreter
and a compiler, it must be ensured that both have the same
semantics. This can be achieved by writing the tests in the
DSL and then executing them in both backends. By executing
enough tests, we can get a high degree of confidence that the
semantics of the backends are aligned.
Testing an Interpreter with Xtext The cooling language provides a way of expressing test cases for the cooling programs
within the cooling language itself11 . These tests are executed
with an interpreter inside the IDE, and they can also be executed on the level of the C program, by generating the program
and the test cases to C12 . The following code shows one of the
simplest possible cooling programs, as well as a test case for
that program:
cooling program EngineProgram0 for Einzonengeraet uses stdlib {
var v: int
event e1
Many DSLs are explicitly extended to
support writing tests.
8
Testing DSL programs by running
tests expressed in the same language
runs the risk of doubly-negating errors.
If the generators for the tests and the
core program are wrong in a "consistent" way, errors in either one may not
be found. However, this problem can
be alleviated by running a large enough
number of tests and/or by having the
generators for the core system and
for the test cases written by different
(groups of) people.
9
There may actually be an infinite
number of possible execution paths,
so we have to limit ourselves to a
reasonable set of tests.
10
Strictly speaking, tests are a separate
viewpoint to keep them out of the
actual programs.
11
Note that this approach is not restricted to testing interpreters or
generators – it can also be used to
test whether a program written in the
DSL works correctly. This is in fact
why the interpreter and the test sublanguage have been built in the first
place: DSL users should be able to test
the programs written in the DSL.
12
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351
init { set v = 1 }
start:
entry { set v = v * 2 }
on e1 { state s2 }
state s2:
entry { set v = 0 }
}
test EngineTest0 for EngineProgram0 {
assert-currentstate-is ^start //
assert-value v is 2
//
step
//
event e1
//
step
//
assert-currentstate-is s2
//
assert-value v is 0
//
}
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
The test first asserts that, when the program starts, it is in the
start state (line 1 in the comments in the test script). We then
assert that v is 2. The only reasonable way in which v can become 2 is that the code in the init block, as well as the code in
the entry action of the start start, have been executed13 . We
then perform one step in the execution of the program in line
3. At this point nothing should happen, since no event was
triggered. Then we trigger the event e1 (line 4) and perform
another step (line 5). After this step, the program must transition to the state s2, whose entry action sets v back to 0. We
assert both of these in lines 6 and 7.
These tests can be run interactively from the IDE, in which
case assertion failures are annotated as error marks on the program, or from within JUnit. The following piece of code shows
how to run the tests from JUnit.
Note that this arrangement even
checks that the init block is executed
before the entry action of the start state,
since otherwise v would be 0!
13
@RunWith(XtextRunner.class)
@InjectWith(CoolingLanguageInjectorProvider.class)
public class InterpreterTests extends PKInterpreterTestCase {
@Test
public void testET0() throws Exception {
testFileNoSerializer("interpreter/engine0.cool",
"tests.appl", "stdparams.cool" );
runAllTestsInFile( (Model) getModelRoot());
}
}
The code above is basically a JUnit test that inherits from a
base class that helps with loading models and running the interpreter. We call the runAllTestsInFile method, passing in
the model’s root element. runAllTestsInFile is defined by
the PKInterpreterTestCase base class, which in turn inherits
from XtextTest, which we have seen before. The method iterates over all tests in the model and executes them by creating
and running a TestExecutionEngine14 .
14
The TestExecutionEngine is a wrapper around the interpreter for cooling
programs that we have discussed
before.
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protected void runAllTestsInFile(Model m) {
CLTypesystem ts = new CLTypesystem();
EList<CoolingTest> tests = m.getTests();
for (CoolingTest test : tests) {
TestExecutionEngine e = new TestExecutionEngine(test, ts);
final LogEntry logger = LogEntry.root("test execution");
LogEntry.setMostRecentRoot(logger);
e.runTest(logger);
}
}
The cooling programs are generated to C for execution in the
refrigerator. To make sure the generated C code has the same
semantics as the interpreter, we simply generate C code from
the test cases as well. In this way the same tests are executed
against the generated C code. By ensuring that all of them
work in the interpreter and the generator, we ensure that both
behave in the same way.
Testing a Generator with MPS The following is a test case expressed using the testing extension of mbeddr C. It contributes
test cases to modules15 . testMultiply is the actual test case.
It calls the to-be-tested function times2 several times with different arguments and then uses an assert statement to check
for the expected value.
Instead of using a separate viewpoint
for expressing test cases, these are
inlined into the same program in
this case. However, the language for
expressing test cases is a modular
extension to C, to keep the core C clean.
15
module UnitTestDemo {
int32 main(int32 argc, int8*[ ] argv) {
return test testMultiply;
}
test case testMultiply {
assert (0) times2(21) == 42;
assert (1) times2(0) == 0;
assert (2) times2(-10) == -20;
}
int8 times2(int8 a) {
return 2 * a;
}
}
Note that, while this unit testing extension can be used to test
any C program, we use it a lot to test the generator. Consider
the following example:
assert (0) 4 * 3 + 2 == 14;
One problem we had initially in mbeddr C was to make sure
that the expression tree that was created while manually entering expressions like 4 * 3 + 2 is built correctly in terms of
operator precedence. If the tree was built incorrectly, the generated code could end up as 4 * (3 + 2), resulting in 20. So
we’ve used tests like these to implicitly test quite intricate aspects of our language implementation16 .
This is also the reason why the unit
test extension was the first extension we
built for C: we needed it to test many
other aspects of the language.
16
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353
We have built much more elaborate support for testing various other extensions. It is illustrative to take a look at two of
them. The next piece of code shows a test for a state machine:
exported test case test1 {
initsm(c1);
assert (0) isInState<c1, initialState>;
test statemachine c1 {
start -> countState
step(1) -> countState
step(2) -> countState
step(7) -> countState
step(1) -> initialState
}
}
c1 is an instance of a state machine. After initializing it, we
assert that it is in the initialState. We then use a special
test statemachine statement, which consists of event/state
pairs: after triggering the event (on the left side of the ->) we
expect the state machine to go into the state specified on the
right side of the ->. We could have achieved the same goal
by using sequences of trigger and assert statements, but the
syntax used here is much more concise.
The second example concerns mocking. A mock is a part of
a program that can be used in place of the real one. It simulates
some kind of environment of the unit under test, and it can also
verify that some other part of the system under test behaves
as expected17 . We use this with the components extension.
The following is a test case that checks if the client uses the
PersistenceProvider interface correctly. Let’s start by taking
a look at the interface:
See Wikipedia for a more elaborate explanation of mocks:
17
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/
Mock_object
interface PersistenceProvider {
boolean isReady()
void store(DataPacket* data)
void flush()
}
The interface is expected to be used in the following way: clients
first have to call isReady, and only if that method returns true
are they supposed to call store, and then after any number of
calls to store, they have to call flush. Let us assume now we
want to check if a certain client component uses the interface
correctly18 . Assuming the component provides an operation
run that uses the persistence provider, we could write the following test:
exported test case runTest {
client.run();
// somehow check is behaved correctly
}
Our components language actually
also supports protocol state machines
which support the declarative specification of valid call sequences.
18
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To check whether the client behaves correctly, we can use a
mock. Our mock specifies the incoming method calls it expects
to see during the test. We have provided a mocking extension
to components to support the declarative specification of such
expectations. Here is the mock:
exported mock component PersistenceMock {
ports:
provides PersistenceProvider pp
expectations:
total no. of calls: 4
sequence {
0: pp.isReady return false;
1: pp.isReady return true;
2: pp.store {
0: parameter data: data != null
}
3: pp.flush
}
}
The mock provides the PersistenceProvider interface, so any
other component that requires this interface can use this component as the implementation. But instead of actually implementing the operations prescribed by PersistenceProvider,
we specify the sequence of invocations we expect to see. We
expect a total number of 4 invocations. The first one is expected to be to isReady. We return false, expecting the client
to try again later. If it does, we return true and expect the
client to continue with persisting data. We can now validate
the mock as part of the test case:
exported test case runTest {
client.run();
validate mock persistenceMock
}
If the persistenceMock saw behavior different from the one
specified above, the validate mock statement will fail, and
with it the whole test19 .
One particular challenge with this approach to semantics
testing is that, if an assertion fails, you get some kind of assertion XYZ failed at ABC output from the running test case. To
understand and fix the problem, you will have to navigate back
to the assert statement in the DSL program. If you have many
failed assertions, or just generally a lot of test program output,
this can be tedious and error-prone. For example, the following piece of code shows the output from executing an mbeddr
test case on the command line:
./TestHelperTest
$$runningTest: running test () @TestHelperTest:test_testCase1
:0#767515563077315487
The generator for mock components
translates the expectations into implementations of the interface methods
that track and record invocations.
The validate mock statement works
with this recorded data to determine
whether the expectations were met.
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355
$$FAILED: ***FAILED*** (testID=0) @TestHelperTest:f:0#9125142491355884683
$$FAILED: ***FAILED*** (testID=1) @TestHelperTest:f:1#9125142491355901742
We have built a tool in mbeddr that simplifies finding the message source. You can paste arbitrary text that contains error
messages into a text area (such as the example above) on the
left in Fig. 14.5. Pressing the Analyze button will find the nodes
that created a particular message20 . You can then click on the
node to select it in the editor.
This process is based on the unique
node ID; this is the long number that
follows the # in the message text.
20
Figure 14.5: The mbeddr error output
analyzer parses test output and supports navigating to the source of error
messages in the MPS program.
Testing Interpreters and Generators with Spoofax Spoofax’ testing language also supports testing transformations. We use
it to test interpreters, assuming that the interpreter is implemented as a transformation from programs to program results. For example, the following tests address a transformation eval-all, which interprets expressions:
test evaluate addition [[1+2]] run eval-all to [[3]]
test evaluate multiplication [[3*4]] run eval-all to [[12]]
test complex evaluation [[1+2*(3+4)]] run eval-all to [[15]]
To test generators, we can rely on Spoofax’ testing support
for builders. For example, the following tests use a builder
generate-and-execute, which generates code from expressions, runs the code, and returns the result of the run as a
string:
test generate addition [[1+2]] build generate-and-execute to "3"
test generate multiplication [[3*4]] run generate-and-execute to "12"
test generate evaluation 1 [[1+2*(3+4)]] run generate-and-execute to "15"
Structural Testing What we suggested in the previous subsection tests the execution semantics of programs written in
DSLs, and, if we have enough of these tests, the correctness
of the transformation, generator or interpreter. However, there
is a significant limitation to this approach: it only works if the
DSL actually specifies behavior! If the DSL only specifies struc-
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tures and cannot be executed, the approach does not work. In
this case you have to perform a structural test. In principle,
this is simple: you write an example model, you generate it21 ,
and then you inspect the resulting model or test for the expected structures. Depending on the target formalism, you can
use regular expressions, XPath expressions or OCL-like expressions to automate the inspection22 .
Structural testing can also be useful to test model-to-model
transformations23 . Consider the example in Section 11.2.2. There,
we inserted additional states and transitions into whatever input state machine our transformation processed. Testing this
via execution invariably tests the model-to-model transformation as well as the generator (or interpreter). If we wanted to
test the model-to-model transformation in isolation, we have to
use structural testing, because the result of that transformation
itself is not yet executable. The following piece of Xtend code
could be used to check that, for a specific input program, the
transformation works correctly:
// run transformation
val tp = p.transform
// test result structurally
val states = tp.states.filter(typeof(CustomState))
assert( states.filter(s|s.name.equals("EMERGENCY_STOP")).size == 1 )
val emergencyState = states.findFirst(s|s.name.equals("EMERGENCY_STOP"))
states.findFirst(s|s.name.equals("noCooling")).eAllContents.
filter(typeof(ChangeStateStatement)).
exists(css|css.targetState == emergencyState)
This program first runs the transformation, and then finds all
CustomStates (those that are not start or stop states). We then
assert that in those states there is exactly one with the name
EMERGENCY_STOP, because we assume that the transformation
has added this state. We then check that in the (one and only)
noCooling state there’s at least one ChangeStateState- ment
whose target state is the emergencyState we had retrieved
above24 .
14.4
Formal Verification
Formal verification can be used in addition to semantics testing
in some cases. The fundamental difference between testing and
verification is this: in testing, each test case specifies one particular execution scenario. To get reasonable coverage of the
whole model or transformation, you have to write and execute
a lot of tests. This can be a lot of work, and, more importantly,
I have never seen an interpreter to
process languages that only specify
structures
21
Note that you really should only use
this if you cannot use semantics testing
based on execution. Inspecting the generated C code for syntactic correctness,
based on the input program, would
be much more work. And if we evolve
the generator to generate better (faster,
smaller, more robust) code, tests based
on the execution semantics will still
work, while those that test the structure may fail because line numbers or
variable names change.
22
If a program is transformed to an
executable representation in several
steps, then the approach discussed
above tests all transformations in total,
so it is more like an integration test,
and not a unit test. Depending on the
complexity and the reuse potential of
the transformation steps, it may make
sense to test each transformation in
isolation.
23
Notice that we don’t write an algorithmic check that closely resembles
the transformation itself. Rather, we
test a specific model for the presence
of specific structures. For example,
we explicitly look for a state called
noCooling and check that this one has
the correct ChangeStateStatement.
24
dsl engineering
you may not think about certain (exceptional) scenarios, and
hence you may not test them. Bugs may go unnoticed.
Verification checks the whole program at once. Various nontrivial algorithms are used to do that25 , and understanding
these algorithms in detail is beyond the scope of this book.
Also, formal verification has inherent limitations (e.g., the halting problem) that can only be solved by testing. So testing and
verification each have sweet spots: neither can fully replace the
other. However, it is very useful to know that verification approaches exist, especially since, over the last couple of years,
they have become scalable enough to address real-world problems. In this section we look at two examples from mbeddr:
model checking and SMT solving.
Model Checking State Machines Model Checking is a verification technique for state machines. Here is how it works in
principle26 :
• Some functionality is expressed as a state machine.
• You then specify properties about the behavior of the state
machine. Properties are expressions that have to be true for
every execution of the state machine27 .
357
These include model checking,
SAT solving, SMT solving or abstract
execution.
25
In this section we can only scratch
the surface; to learn more about model
checking, we recommend
26
Berard, B., Bidoit, M., Finkel, A.,
Laroussinie, F., Petit, A., Petrucci,
L., Schnoebelen, and P. Systems and
Software Verification. Springer, 2001
For example, such a property could
state that whenever you go to state X,
you will have been in state Y directly
beforehand.
27
• You then run the model checker with the state machine and
the properties as input.
• The output of the model checker either confirms that your
properties hold, or it shows a counter example28 .
Conceptually, the model checker performs an exhaustive search
during the verification process. Obviously, the more complex
your state machine is, the more possibilities the checker has to
address – a problem known as state space explosion. With finite
memory, this limits scalability, because at some point you will
out of memory, or the verification will run for an unacceptably
long time. In reality the model checker does not perform an exhaustive search; clever algorithms have been devised that are
semantically equivalent to an exhaustive search, but don’t actually perform one29 . This makes model checking scalable and
fast enough for real-world problems, although there is still a
limit in terms of input model complexity30 .
The interesting aspect of model checking is that the properties you specify are not just simple Boolean expressions such
as each state must have at least one outgoing transition, unless it is
It may also run out of memory, in
which case you have to reformulate
or modularize your program and try
again.
28
For example, bounded model checking
searches for counterexamples only for
a bounded set of execution steps. If no
counterexample is found within the
bounds, the model checker assumes
(rightly on not) that the property holds.
29
Sometimes input models have to be
reformulated in a way that makes them
better suited for model checking. All
in all, model checking is not a trivial
technique. However, if and when it is
better integrated with the development
tools (as we show here), it could be
used in many places where today it
isn’t even considered.
30
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a stop state. Such a check can be performed statically, as part
of the constraint checks. The properties addressed by model
checkers are more elaborate and are often typically expressed
in (various flavors of) temporal logic31 . Here are some examples, expressed in plain English:
• It is always true that after we have been in state X we will eventually be reaching state Y. This is a Fairness property. It ensures that the state machine does not get stuck in some state
forever. For example, state Y may be the green light for
pedestrians, and state X could be the green light for cars.
There are various formalisms for
temporal logic, including LTL, CTL and
CTL+. Each of those have particular
characteristics and limitations, but they
are beyond the scope of this book.
31
• Wherever we are in the state machine, it is always possible to get
into state X. This is a Liveliness property. An example could
be a system that you must always be able to turn off.
• It is not ever possible to get into state X without having gone
through state Y before. This is a Safety property. Imagine a
state machine where entering state X turns the pedestrian
lights green and entering state X turns the car lights red.
The important property of these temporal logic specifications
is that quantifiers such as always, whenever and there exists are
available. Using these, one can specify global truths about the
execution of a system – rather than about its structure32 .
Model checking does come with its challenges. The input
language for specifying state machines as well as specifying the
properties is not necessarily easy to work with. Interpreting the
results of the model checker can be a challenge. And for some
of the tools, the usability is really bad33 .
To make model checking more user friendly, the mbeddr C
language provides a nice syntax for state machines, then generates the corresponding representation in the input language of
the model checker34 . The results of running the model checker
are also reinterpreted in the context of the higher-level state
machine. Tool integration is provided as well: users can select
the context menu on a state machine and invoke the model
checker. The model checker input is generated, the model
checker is executed, and the replies are rendered in a nice table in MPS. Finally, we have abstracted the property specification language by providing support for the most important
idioms35 ; these can be specified relatively easily (for example
never <expr> or always eventually reachable <state>).
Also, a number of properties are automatically checked for
each state machine.
If a state machine has no guard conditions, some of these properties can be
reduced to problems that can be solved
by "just looking", i.e. by inspecting
the structure of the state machine. For
example, if the only transition entering
some state X originates from some state
Y, then it is clear that we always come
through X before entering Y. However,
in the presence of several transitions
and guard conditions (which may take
into account all kinds of other things,
such as the values of variables or event
arguments), these verifications become
much more complex and cannot be
solved by "just looking".
32
The SPIN/Promela model checker
comes to mind here!
33
34
We use the NuSMV model checker:
nusmv.fbk.eu/.
Taken from the well-known
properties patterns collection at
35
patterns.projects.cis.ksu.edu/
dsl engineering
359
Let’s look at an example. The following code shows a state
machine that represents a counter. We can send the step event
into the state machine, and as a consequence, it increments
the currentVal counter by the size parameter passed with
the event. If the currentVal becomes greater than LIMIT, the
counter wraps around. We can also use the start event to reset
the counter to 0.
verifiable statemachine Counter {
in events
start()
step(int[0..10] size)
local variables
int[0..100] currentVal = 0
int[0..100] LIMIT = 10
states ( initial = initialState )
state initialState {
on start [ ] -> countState { }
}
state countState {
on step [currentVal + size > LIMIT] -> initialState { }
on step [currentVal + size <= LIMIT] -> countState {
currentVal = currentVal + size;
}
on start [ ] -> initialState { }
}
}
Since this state machine is marked as verifiable, we can run
the model checker from the context menu36 . Fig. 14.6 shows
the result of running the model checker.
Here is a subset of the properties it has checked successfully (it
performs these checks for all states/transitions by default):
State ’initialState’ can be reached
Variable ’currentVal’ is always between its defined bounds
State ’countState’ has deterministic transitions
Transition 0 of state ’initialState’ is not dead
SUCCESS
SUCCESS
SUCCESS
SUCCESS
The first one reports that NuSMV has successfully proven that
the initialState can be reached somehow. The second one
reports that the variable currentVal stays within its bounds
(notice how currentVal is a bounded integer). Line three reports that in countState it never happens that more than one
transition is ready to fire at any time. Finally, it reports that no
transitions are dead, i.e. each of them is actually used at some
point.
Let’s provoke an error. We change the two transitions in
countState to the following:
on step [currentVal + size >= LIMIT] -> initialState {
on step [currentVal + size <= LIMIT] -> countState {
currentVal = currentVal + size;
}
}
36
Marking a state machine as
verifiable also enforces a few re-
strictions on the state machine (for
example, each state machine local variable may only be assigned once during
a transition). State machines restricted
in this way are easier to model check.
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We have changed the > to a >= in the first transition37 . Running
the model checker again, we get, among others, the following
messages:
State ’countState’ contains nondeterministic transitions
FAIL
4
This means that there is a case in which the two transitions are
non-deterministic, i.e. both are possible based on the guard,
and it is not clear which one should be fired. The 4 at the
end means that the execution trace to this problem contains
four steps. Clicking on the failed property check reveals the
problematic execution trace:
State initialState
LIMIT
currentVal
State initialState
in_event: start start()
LIMIT
currentVal
State countState
in_event: step step(10)
LIMIT
currentVal
State initialState
LIMIT
currentVal
10
0
10
0
10
0
10
10
Figure 14.6: The result of running
the model checker on a verifiable
state machine is directly shown in the
IDE, listing each property in a table.
If a property fails, the lower part of
the result view shows an example
execution of the state machine (states
and local variable values) that leads to
the property being violated.
You perhaps don’t even recognize the
difference – which is exactly why you
would want to use a formal verification!
37
dsl engineering
This is one (of potentially many) execution traces of this state
machine that leads to the non-determinism: currentVal is 10,
and because of the >=, both transitions could fire.
In addition to these default properties, it is also possible to
specify custom properties. Here are two examples, expressed
using the property patterns mentioned earlier:
verification conditions
never LIMIT != 10
always eventually reachable initialState
The first one expresses that we want the model checker to prove
that a specific Boolean condition will never be true. In our example, we check that the LIMIT really is a constant and is never
(accidentally) changed. The second one specifies that wherever
we are in the execution of the state machine, it is still possible
(after an arbitrary number of steps) to reach the initialState.
Both properties hold for the example state machine.
SAT/SMT Solving
SAT solving, which is short for satisfiability solving, concerns the satisfiability of sets of Boolean
equations. Users specify a set of Boolean equations and the
solver tries to assign truth values to the free variables so as to
satisfy all specified equations. SAT solving is an NP-complete
problem, so there is no analytic approach: exhaustive search
(implemented, of course, in much cleverer ways) is the way
to address these problems. SMT solving (Satisfiability Modulo
Theories) is an extension of SAT solving that allows other constructs in addition to logical operators – the most frequently
used being linear arithmetic, arrays or bit-vectors.
As an example, SMT solving can be used to verify mbeddr’s
decision tables. A decision table has a set of Boolean conditions as row headers, a set of Boolean conditions in the column headers, as well as arbitrary values in the content cells.
A decision table essentially represents nested if statements:
the result value of the table is that content cell whose row and
column header are true. Fig. 14.7 shows an example.
SMT solving can be used to check whether all cases are handled. It can detect whether combinations of the relevant variables exist for which no combination of row header and column header expressions match; in this case, the decision table
would not return any value.
SAT and SMT solvers have some of the same challenges as
model checkers regarding scalability: a low-level and limited
input language and the challenge of interpreting and under-
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Figure 14.7: An example decision
table in mbeddr C. SMT solving is
used to check it for consistency and
completeness.
standing the output of a solver. Hence we use the same approach to solve the problem: from higher-level models (such
as the decision table) we generate the input to the solver, run
it, and then report the result in the context of the high-level
language.
Model Checking and Transformations A problem with model
verification approaches in general is that they verify only the
model. They can detect inconsistencies or property violations
as a consequence of flaws in the program expressed with a
DSL. However, even if we find no flaws in the model on the
DSL level, the generator or interpreter used to execute the program may still introduce problems. In other words, the behavior of the actual running system may be different from the
(proven correct) behavior expressed in the model. There are
three ways to address this:
• You can test your generator manually using the strategies
suggested in this chapter. Once you trust the generator
based on a sufficiently large set of tests, you then only have
to verify the models, since you know they will be translated
correctly.
• Some tools, for example the UPAAL model checker38 , can
also generate test cases39 . These are stimuli to the model,
together with the expected reactions. You can generate those
into your target language and then run them in your target
language. This is essentially an automated version of the
first approach.
• Finally, you can verify the generated code. For example,
there are model checkers for C. You can then verify that the
properties that hold on the DSL level also hold on the level
38
www.uppaal.com/
One can generate test cases by using
the model checking technology: just
specify that some property is false,
and the model checker will provide
a counterexample that illustrates the
execution of the state machine up to the
point where the property is true.
39
dsl engineering
of the generated code. This approach runs into scalability
issues relatively quickly, since the state space of a C program
is much larger than the state space of a well-crafted state
machine40 . However, you can use this approach to verify the
generated code based on a sufficient set of relatively small
test cases, making sure that these cover all aspects of the
generator. Once you’ve built trust in the generator in this
way, you can resort to verifying just the DSL models (which
scales better).
14.5
Remember that we use formalisms
such as state machines instead of lowlevel code specifically to allow more
meaningful validation.
40
Testing Editor Services
Testing IDE services such as code completion (beyond scopes),
quick fixes, refactorings or outline structure has some of the
challenges of UI testing in general. There are three ways of
approaching this:
• The language workbench may provide specific APIs to hook
into UI aspects to facilitate writing tests for those.
• You can use generic UI testing tools41 to simulate typing and
clicking in the editor, and checking the resulting behavior.
• Finally, you can isolate the algorithmic aspects of the IDE
behavior (e.g., in refactorings or quick fixes) into separate
modules (classes) and then unit test those with the techniques discussed in the rest of this chapter, independent of
the actual UI.
In practice, I try to use the third alternative as much as possible:
for non-trivial IDE functionality in quick fixes and refactorings,
I isolate the behavior and write unit tests. For simple things I
don’t do any automated tests. For the actual UI, I typically
don’t do any automated tests at all, for three reasons: (1) it is
simply too cumbersome and not worth the trouble; (2) as we
use the editor to try things out, we implicitly test the UI; and
(3), language workbenches are frameworks which, if you get
the functionality right (via unit tests), provide generic UIs that
can be expected to work.
In the remainder of this subsection we show examples of the
case in which the language workbench provides specific APIs
to test the IDE aspects of languages.
An Example with MPS In a parser-based system, you can
always type anything. So even if the IDE functionality (partic-
363
41
Such as Eclipse Jubula:
www.eclipse.org/jubula/
364
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ularly regarding code completion) is broken, you can still type
the desired code. Also, the editing experience of typing code
is always the same, fundamentally: you type linear sequences
of characters. In a projectional editor, this is not the case: you
can only enter things that are available in the code completion
menu, and the editing experience itself relies on the editor implementation42 . Hence it is important to be able to test editor
behavior.
MPS supports this with a special DSL for editor testing (see
Fig. 14.8). Note how MPS’ language composition facilities allow embedding the subject DSL into the DSL for describing the
editor test case.
For example, you can only type 1 +
2 linearly (e.g. first the 1, then the +) if
42
the respective right transformation for
number literals is implemented.
Figure 14.8: This test tests whether code
completion works correctly. We start
with an "empty" variable declaration in
the before slot. It is marked with cell,
a special annotation used in UI tests to
mark the editor cell that has the focus
for the subsequent scripted behavior. In
the result slot, we describe the state
of the editor after the script code has
been executed. The script code then
simulates typing the word myVariable,
pressing TAB, pressing CTRL-SPACE,
typing boo (as a prefix of boolean) and
pressing ENTER.
An Example with Xtext/Xpect Xpect is a framework for integration testing of Xtext DSLs developed by Moritz Eysholdt43 .
It can be used for testing various language aspects, among
them, for example, code completion44 . It does so by embedding test expectations as comments inside the program to be
tested. Here is an example based on a Hello World grammar
(literally):
Model:
greetings+=Greeting*;
Greeting:
’Hello’ name=ID ’!’;
The following piece of code shows an example program that
includes Xpect statements that test whether code completion
works as expected:
43
https://github.com/
meysholdt/Xpect
Xtext itself comes with a set of
helpers for IDE service testing such
as content assist or builder tests. They
run with, and often even without, an
SWT display (e.g., headless).
44
dsl engineering
365
// XPECT_TEST org.example.MyJUnitContentAssistTest END_TEST
// XPECT contentAssist at |Hel --> Hello
Hello Peter!
// XPECT contentAssist at |! --> !
Hello Heiko!
The Xpect processor processes all comments that start with
XPECT. In this case, we test the content assist (e.g., code completion) functionality. Let us look at the details:
• The contentAssist refers to the kind of test to be executed
(details on this below).
• at is a keyword for improved readability and has no semantic impact.
• |Hel and |! instruct the test to search for occurrences of
Hel and ! somewhere in the code after the XPECT statement.
The pipe | marks the assumed cursor position relative to
Hel and ! where the content assist should be triggered.
• The part after -> marks the expectation of the test. In the
first test, content assist is expected to suggest the keyword
Hello, and in the second test the exclamation point is expected.
Xpext is in fact a generic infrastructure for integration tests.
As you can see from the example above, the test references a
JUnit test class45 : org.example.MyJUnitContentAssistTest.
The term contentAssist is actually the name of a test method
inside that class. Everything from an Xpect comment after the
XPECT keyword is passed as parameters into the test method.
The test method can do whatever it wants as long as it produces a string as the output. This string is then compared with
the expectation, the text behind the ->. While contentAssist
is predefined in Xpect-provided unit test base classes, you can
define your own methods. Since the actual testing is based on
string comparison, the system is easily extensible. The following language aspects can be tested with Xpect46 :
• The AST created from a DSL document.
• Messages and locations of error and warning markers.
• Names returned by scopes.
• Proposal items suggest by content assist features (as the example above shows).
Xpect implements a custom JUnit
runner which allows you to execute
Xpect tests as JUnit test; integration into
IDEs such as Eclipse and CI environments is ensured.
45
The general idea behind Xpect is the
separation of test data, test expectations
and test setup from implementation
details. The test data consists of DSL
documents written in the language that
you want to test. The test expectations
are anything you might want the test to
verify and which can be expressed as
a string. The setup may declare other
DSL documents that the test depends
on, including Eclipse project setups.
Since all these details are hidden, the
DSL user can potentially understand or
even write the test cases, not just the
DSL developer.
46
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• Textual diffs that were created by applying refactorings or
quick fixes.
• Textual output of a code generator (but use with caution,
since generated text may be too fragile).
Results from interpreters or execution of generated code.
By embedding test expectations into the subject programs, Xpect
implicitly solves the navigation problem47 by allowing you to
use the | to select offsets inside a DSL document. Xpect also
makes it easy to locate the offending expectation if case a test
fails: since all expectations are represented as strings, if a test
fails, the Eclipse JUnit view provides a comparison dialog that
shows all differences between the actual test result and the test
expectation. Xpect also makes it easy to specify even large test
data scenarios, possibly consisting of multiple languages and
multiple Eclipse projects. Finally, since Xpect code is embedded into the DSL code to be tested, you can use your DLS’s
Xtext editor to edit your test data. In plain JUnit tests you
would have to embed snippets of your DSL documents into
Java string literals, which won’t provide any tool support for
your language at all48 .
An Example with Spoofax
Spoofax’ testing language supports testing editor services such as reference resolution and
content completion. For reference resolution, we mark a definition and a use site in a test case with [[...]]. We can refer to
these markers by numbers #1 and #2, specifying which marked
element should refer to the other marked element. For example, the following test cases mark the name of an entity A in its
declaration and in the type of a property:
test entity type reference (1) [[
module foo
entity [[A]] {}
entity B {
a: [[A]]
}
]] resolve #2 to #1
test entity type reference (2) [[
module foo
entity B {
a: [[A]]
}
entity [[A]] {}
]] resolve #1 to #2
If you want to test language properties such as content assist or scoping,
you will have to navigate/point/refer
to to a model element after you have
created the test data. This leads to
boilerplate code in Java-based tests.
47
Notice, however, that when editing the program to be tested, there is
no tool support for the Xpect syntax
and the expectations. The reason is
that Xtext does not support language
embedding: there is no way to easily
define a composed language from the
subject DSL and Xpect. While this
limitation is not a problem for Xpect
itself (after all, its syntax is extremely
simple), it may be a problem for expectations with a more complex syntactic
structure. Of course, a specialized
editor could be developed (based on
the default Xtext editor) that provides
code completion for the Xpect code in
the DSL program comments. But that
would require hand-coding and would
be quite a bit of work.
48
dsl engineering
The first test case addresses a backward reference, where the
second marked name should resolve to the first marked name.
The second test case addresses forward reference, where the
first marked name should resolve to the second marked name.
For content completion, we mark only one occurrence, and
specify one of the expected completions:
test entity type reference (1) [[
module foo
entity SomeEntity {}
entity A {
a: [[S]]
}
]] complete to "String"
test entity type reference (2) [[
module foo
entity SomeEntity {}
entity A {
a: [[S]]
}
]] complete to "SomeEntity"
Refactorings are tested in a similar fashion. The selected part
of the code is indicated with square brackets, and the name of
the refactoring is specified in the test:
test Rename refactoring [[
entity [[Customer]] {
}
entity Contract {
client : Customer
}
]] refactor rename("Client") to [[
entity Client {
}
entity Contract {
client : Client
}
]]
14.6
Testing for Language Appropriateness
A DSL is only useful if it can express what it is supposed to
express. A bit more formally, one can say that the coverage
of the DSL relative to the target domain should be 100%. In
practice, this questions is much more faceted, though:
• Do we actually understand completely the domain the DSL
is intended to cover?
• Can the DSL cover this domain completely? What does
"completely" even mean? Is it ok to have parts of the sys-
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tem written in L D−1 , or do we have to express everything
with the DSL?
• Even if the DSL covers the domain completely: are the abstractions chosen appropriate for the model purpose?
• Do the users of the DSL like the notation? Can the users
work efficiently with the notation?
It is not possible to answer these questions with automated
tess. Manual reviews and validation relative to the (explicit or
tacit) requirements for the DSL have to be performed. Getting
these aspects right is the main reason why DSLs should be
developed incrementally and iteratively.
15
Debugging DSLs
Debugging is relevant in two ways in the context of DSLs
and language workbenches. First, the DSL developer may
want to debug the definition of a DSL, including constraints,
scopes or transformations and interpreters. Second, programs written in the DSL may have to be debuggable by
the end user. We address both aspects in this chapter.
15.1
Debugging the DSL Definition
Debugging the definition of the DSL boils down to a language
workbench providing a debugger for the languages used for
language definition. In the section we look at understanding
and debugging the structure and concrete syntax, the definition
of scopes, constraints and type systems, as well as debugging
interpreters and transformations.
15.1.1
Understanding and Debugging the Language Structure
In parser-based systems, the transformation from text to the
AST performed by the parser is itself a non-trivial process and
has a potential for errors. Debugging the parsing process can
be important.
Xtext Xtext uses ANTLR1 under the hood. In other words,
an ANTLR grammar is generated from the Xtext grammar which
performs the actual parsing2 . So understanding and debugging the Xtext parsing process means understanding and debugging the ANTLR parsing process.
1
antlr.org
It contains actions that construct the
AST based on the mapping expressed
in the Xtext grammar.
2
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There are two ways to do this. First, since ANTLR generates
a Java-based parser, you can debug the execution of ANTLR
(as part of Xtext) itself3 . Second, you can have Xtext generate a
debug grammar, which contains no action code (so it does not
populate the AST). However, it can be used to debug the parsing process with ANTLRWorks4 . ANTLRWorks comes with an
interactive debugger for ANTLR grammars.
For obvious reasons, this is tedious
and really just a last resort.
3
4
www.antlr.org/works
MPS In MPS there is no transformation from text to the
AST since it is a projectional editor. However, there are still
means of helping to better understand the structure of an existing program. For example, any program element can be inspected in the Explorer. Fig. 15.1 shows the explorer contents
for a trivial C function:
int8 add(int8 x, int8 y) {
return x + y;
}
Figure 15.1: The MPS explorer shows
the structure of a program as a tree.
The explorer also shows the concept for
each program element as well as the
type, if an element has one.
MPS provides similar support for understanding the projection
rules. For any program node MPS can show the cell structure
as a tree. The tree contains detailed information about the cell
hierarchy, the program element associated with each cell, and
the properties of the cell (height, width, etc.).
15.1.2
Debugging Scopes, Constraints and Type Systems
Depending on the level of sophistication of a particular language, a lot of non-trivial behavior can be contained in the
code that determines scopes, checks constraints or computes
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371
types. In fact, in many languages, these are the most sophisticated aspects of language definition. Consequently, there is a
need for debugging those.
Xtext In Xtext all aspects of a language except the grammar and the abstract syntax are defined via Java5 programs
using Xtext APIs. This includes scopes, constraints, type system rules and all IDE aspects. Consequently, all these aspects
can be debugged by using a Java debugger. To do this, you can
simply launch the Eclipse Application that contains the language and editor in debug mode and set breakpoints at the
relevant locations6 .
MPS MPS comes with a similar facility, in the sense that
a second instance of MPS can be run "inside" the current one.
This inner instance can be debugged from the outer one. This
approach can be used for all those aspects of MPS-defined languages that are defined in terms of the BaseLanguage, MPS’
version of Java. For example, scopes can be debugged this way:
in Fig. 15.2 we debug the scope for a LocalVariableRef.
You may also use other JVM languages
such as Xtend. If such a language has a
debugger, then you can obviously also
use that debugger for debugging Xtext
DSL implementations.
5
It is easy to criticize Xtext for the fact
that it does not use DSLs for defining
DSLs. However, in the context of
debugging this is good, because no
special debuggers are necessary.
6
Figure 15.2: The debugger that can debug MPS while it "executes" a language
is aware of all the relevant extensions
to BaseLanguage. For example, in this
screenshot we debug a scope constraint.
Notice how in the Variables view
program nodes (such as the Statement
s) are shown on the abstraction level of
the node, not in terms of its underlying
Java data structure representation.
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A related feature of MPS is the ability to analyze exception
stack traces. To implement a language, MPS generates Java
code from language definitions and then executes this Java
code. If an exception occurs in language implementation code
it produces a Java stack trace. This stack trace can be pasted
into a dialog in MPS. MPS then produces a version of the stack
trace in which the code locations in the stack trace (which are
relative to the generated Java) have been translated to locations
in the DSL definition (expressed in Base Language). The locations can be clicked directly, opening the MPS editor at the
respective location.
Relative to the type system, MPS comes with two dedicated debug facilities (beyond debugging a new instance of MPS inside
MPS mentioned above). First, pressing Ctrl-Shift-T on any
program element will open a dialog that shows the type of the
element. If the element has a type system error, the dialog also
lets the user navigate to the rule that reported the error. The
second facility is much more sophisticated. For any program
node, MPS can show the type system trace (Fig. 15.3 shows a
simple example). Remember how the MPS type system relies
on a solver to solve the type system equations associated with
program elements (specified by the language developer for the
respective concepts). This means that each program has an associated set of type system equations, which contain explicitly
specified types as well as type variables. The solver tries to
find type values for these variables such that all type system
equations become true. The type system trace essentially visualizes the state of the solver, including the values it assigns to
type variables, as well as which type system rules are applied
to which program element7 .
Figure 15.3: This example shows the
solver state for the Argument x. It
first applies the rule typeof_ITyped
(Argument implements ITyped), which
expresses that the type of the element
(type variable c is the same as the
element’s type property (type variable
d). It then applies the typeofype rule
to the argument’s type itself. This rule
expresses the fact that the type of a
Type is a clone of itself. Consequently,
the type variable d can be set to int8.
In consequence this means that the type
variable c (which represents the type of
the Argument) is also int8. Note that
this is a trivial example. Type system
traces can become quite involved and
are not always easy to understand.
In the design part we discussed how
declarative languages may come with a
debugger that fits the particular declarative paradigm used by a particular
declarative language (Section 5). The
type system trace is an example of this
idea.
7
dsl engineering
15.1.3
373
Debugging Interpreters and Transformations
Debugging an interpreter is simple: since an interpreter is just
a program written in some programming language that processes and acts on the DSL program, debugging the interpreter
simply uses the debugger for the language in which the interpreter is written (assuming there is one)8 .
Debugging transformations and generators is typically not
quite as trivial, for two reasons. First, transformations and generators are typically written in DSLs optimized for this task. So
a specialized debugger is required. Second, if multi-step transformations are used, the intermediate models may have to be
accessible, and it should be possible to trace a particular element through the multi-step transformation.
Xtext Xtext can be used together with any EMF-compatible
code generator or transformation engine. However, since Xtext
ships with Xtend, we look at debugging Xtend transformations.
Model-to-model transformations and code generators in Xtend
look very similar: both use Xtend to navigate over and query
the model, based on the AST. The difference is that, as a side
effect, model-to-model transformations create new model elements and code generators create strings, typically using rich
strings (aka template expressions).
Any Xtend program can be debugged using Eclipse "out of
the box". In fact, you can debug an Xtend program either on the
Xtend level or on the level of the generated Java source9 . Since
interpreters and generators are just regular Xtend programs,
they can be debugged in this way as well. Fig. 15.4 shows an
example of debugging a template expressions.
Xtend is a fundamentally an object-oriented language, so the
step-through metaphor for debuggers works. If Xtend is used
for code generation or transformation, debugging boils down
to stepping through the code that builds the target model10 .
MPS In MPS, working with several chained transformations is normal, so MPS provides support for debugging the
transformation process. This support includes two ingredients.
The first one is showing the mapping partitioning. For any
given model, MPS automatically computes the order in which
transformations are executed, based on the relative priorities
specified for the generators involved. The mapping partitioning reports the overall transformation schedule to the user.
While it is technically simple to debug
an interpreter, it is not necessarily simple to follow what’s going on, because
the interpreter is a meta program. We
discuss this in Section 4.3.
8
Xtend generates Java source code that
is subsequently compiled.
9
I emphasize this because the next
example uses a different approach.
10
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This is useful in understanding which transformations are executed in which order, and in particular, to debug transformation priorities. Let us investigate a simple example C program
that contains a message definition and a report statement. The
report statement is transformed to printf statements:
module Simple imports nothing {
message list messages {
INFO aMessage() active: something happened
}
exported int32 main(int32 argc, int8*[] argv) {
report (0) messages.aMessage();
return 0;
}
}
Below is the mapping configuration for this program:
[ 1 ]
com.mbeddr.core.modules.gen.generator.template.main.removeCommentedCode
[ 2 ]
com.mbeddr.core.util.generator.template.main.reportingPrintf
[ 3 ]
com.mbeddr.core.buildconfig.generator.template.main.desktop
com.mbeddr.core.modules.gen.generator.template.main.main
Figure 15.4: Debugging a code generator written in Xtend. The debugger
can even step through the template
expressions. The Variables view shows
the EMF representation (i.e. the implementation) of program elements.
dsl engineering
This particular model is generated in three phases. The first
one removes commented code to make sure it does not show
up in the resulting C text file. The second phase runs the generator that transforms report statements into printfs. Finally,
the desktop generator generates a make file from the build configuration, and the last step generates the C text from the C
tree11 .
By default, MPS runs all generators until everything is either
discarded or transformed into text. While intermediate models
exist, they are not shown to the user. For debugging purposes
though, these intermediate, transient models can be retained
for inspection. Each of the phases is represented by one or
more transient models. As an example, here is the program
after the report statement has been transformed:
375
It is called desktop because it generates the code for a desktop computer.
It can be exchanged to generate code
or make files for arbitrary embedded
devices and compilers.
11
module Simple imports nothing {
exported int32 main(int32 argc, int8*[] argv) {
printf("$$ aMessage: something happened ");
printf("@ Simple:main:0#240337946125104144 \n ");
return 0;
}
}
MPS also supports tracing an element through the intermediate models. Fig. 15.5 shows an example. Users can select a
program element in the source, target or an intermediate model
and trace it to the respective other ends of the transformation.
Note how this approach to debugging transformations is very
different from the Xtend example above: instead of stepping
through the transformation code12 , MPS provides a static representation of the transformation in terms of the intermediate
models and the element traces through them.
Figure 15.5: The generation trace
functionality in MPS allows users to
trace how a particular program element
is transformed through a chain of
transformations. The generation tracer
also shows the transformation rules
involved in the transformation.
As part of the general Debug-MPS-inMPS functionality, MPS transformations
can also be debugged in a more imperative fashion. This is useful, for example,
to debug more complex logic used
inside transformation templates.
12
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15.2
dslbook.org
Debugging DSL Programs
To find errors in DSL programs, we can either debug them
on the level of the DSL program or in its L D−1 representation
(i.e. in the generated code or the interpreter). Debugging on
L D−1 is useful if you want to find problems in the execution
engine, or, to some extent, if the language users are programmers and they have an intimate understanding of the L D−1
representation of the program. However, for many DSLs it is
necessary to debug on the level of the DSL program, either because the users are not familiar with the L D−1 representation13 ,
or because the L D−1 is so low-level and complex that is bears
no obvious resemblance to the DSL program.
The way to build debuggers for DSLs of course depends on
the DSL itself. For example, for DSLs that only describe structures, debugging does not make much sense in the first place.
For DSLs that describe behavior, the debugging approach depends on the behavioral paradigm used in the DSL. We have
discussed this in Section 5. In this section we focus mostly on
the imperative paradigm14 .
Building a debugger poses two challenges. The first one is
the debugger UI: creating all the buttons and views for controlling the debugger and for showing variables and treads. The
second challenge concerns the control of and data exchange
with the program to be debugged. The first challenge is relatively simple to solve, since many IDE frameworks (including
Eclipse and MPS) already come with debugger frameworks.
The second challenge can be a bit more tricky. If the DSL
is executed by an interpreter, the situation is simple: the interpreter can be run and controlled directly from the debugger.
It is easy to implement single-stepping and variable watches,
for example, since the interpreter can directly provide the respective interfaces15 . On the other hand, if the DSL program
is transformed into code that is executed in some other environment outside of our control, it may even be impossible to
build a debugger, because there is no way to influence and inspect the running program. Alternatively, it may be necessary
to build a variant of the code generator which generates a debug
version of the program that contains specialized code to interact with the debugger. For example, values of variables may be
stored in a special data structure inspectable by the debugger,
and at each program location where the program may have to
stop (in single-step mode or as a consequence of a breakpoint)
This is true particularly for DSLs
targeted at domain experts.
13
An example for the functional
paradigm was provided in Section 5.3,
and the type system tracer described
above is an example of a debugger for a
declarative language.
14
This is especially true if the interpreter is written in the same language
as the IDE: no language integration
issues have to be addressed in this case.
15
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377
code is inserted that explicitly suspends the execution of the
program, for example by sleeping the current thread. However, such an approach is often limited and ugly – in the end,
an execution infrastructure must provide debug support to enable robust debugging.
15.2.1
Print Statements – a Poor Man’s Debugger
As the above discussion suggests, building full-blown debuggers may be a lot of work. It is worth exploring whether a
simpler approach is good enough. The simplest such approach
is to extend the DSL with language concepts that simply print
interesting aspects of the executing program to the console or
a log file. For example, the values of variables may be output
this way.
The mbeddr report statement is an example of this approach. A report statement takes a message text plus a set of
variables. It then outputs the message and the values of these
variables. The target of the report statement can be changed.
By default, it reports to the console. However, since certain target devices may not have any console16 , alternative transformations can be defined for report statements, that, for example,
could output the data to an error memory or a serial line. A
particularly interesting feature of report statements is that the
transformation that handles them knows where in the program
the report statement is located and can add this information
to the output17 .
An approach based on print statements is sometimes clumsy,
because it requires factoring out the expression to be printed18 ,
and it only works for an imperative language in the first place.
For languages that make use of sophisticated expressions, a
different approach is recommended. Consider the following
example:
Collection[Type] argTypes = aClass.operations.arguments.type;
If you wanted to print the list of operations and arguments,
you would have to change the program to something like this:
print("operations: " + aClass.operations);
print("arguments: " + aClass.operations.arguments);
Collection[Type] argTypes = aClass.operations.arguments.type;
A much simpler alternative uses inlined reporting expressions:
Collection[Type] argTypes = aClass.operations.print("operations:")
.arguments.print("arguments:").type;
mbeddr addresses embedded software development, and small microcontrollers may not have a console.
16
The go-to-error-location functionality
discussed in Fig. 14.5 is based on this
approach.
17
It also requires changing the actual
program. In fact, any debug approach
that requires any kind of change to
the program to be debugged (or the
compiled machine code), requires that
it is known in advance if a particular
program is supposed to be debugged.
While this is a significant limitation,
it is true for almost all compiled languages ("compile with debug options"),
and hence accepted.
18
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To make this convenient to use, the print function has to return the object it is called on (the one before the dot), and it
must be typed accordingly if a language with static type checking is used19 .
15.2.2
The original openArchitectureWare
Xtend did it this way.
19
Automatic Program Tracing
As languages and programs become more complex, an automated tracing of program execution may be useful. In this
approach, all execution steps in a program are automatically
traced and logged into a tree-like data structure. The refrigerator cooling language uses this approach. Here is an example
program:
cooling program HelloWorld {
var temp: int
start:
entry { state s1 }
state s1:
check temp < 10 { state s2 }
state s2:
}
Upon startup, it enters the start state and immediately transitions to state s1. It remains in s1 until the variable temp
becomes less than 10. It then transitions to s2. Below is a test
for this program that verifies this behavior:
test HelloWorldTest for HelloWorld {
prolog {
set temp = 30
}
step
assert-currentstate-is s1
step
mock: set temp = 5
step
assert-currentstate-is s2
}
Fig. 15.6 shows the execution trace. It shows the execution of
each statement and the evaluation of each expression. The log
viewer is a tree table, so the various execution steps can be
selectively expanded and collapsed. Users can double-click on
an entry to select the respective program element in the source
node. By adding special comments to the source, the log can
be structured further20 .
The execution engine for the programs is an interpreter,
which makes it particularly simple to collect the trace data21 .
All interpreter methods that execute statements or evaluate expressions take a LogEntry object as an additional argument.
The methods then add children to the current LogEntry that
describe whatever the method did, and then pass the child to
Obviously, the approach does not
scale for big programs. However, by
isolating problems into smaller, representative programs, it does provide a
degree of usefulness.
20
If, instead of an interpreter, a code
generator were used, the same approach could essentially be used.
Instead of embedding the tracing code
in the interpreter, the code generator
would generate code that would build
the respective trace data structure in the
executing program. Upon termination,
the data structure could be dumped to
an XML file and subsequently loaded
by the IDE for inspection.
21
dsl engineering
379
any other interpreter methods it calls. As an example, here is
the implementation of the AssignmentStatement:
protected void executeAssignmentStatement(AssignmentStatement s,
LogEntry log) {
LogEntry c = log.child(Kind.info, context,
"executing AssignmentStatement" );
Object l = s.getLeft();
Object r = eval(s.getRight(), c);
eec().environment.put(symbol, r);
c.child(Kind.debug, context,
"setting " + symbol.getName() + " to " + r);
}
15.2.3
Simulation as an Approximation for Debugging
The interpreter for the cooling programs mentioned above is of
course not the final execution engine – C code is generated that
is executed on the actual target refrigerator hardware. However, as we discussed in Section 4.3.7, we can make sure the
generated code and the interpreter are semantically identical
by running a sufficient (large) number of tests. If we do this,
we can use the interpreter to test the programs for logical errors.
Figure 15.6: The log viewer represents
a program’s execution as a tree. The
first column contains a timestamp and
the tree nesting structure. The second
column contains the kind (severity) of
the log message. A filter can be used
to show only messages above a certain
severity. The third column shows the
language concept with which the trace
step is associated (double-clicking on a
row selects this element in the editor).
Finally, the last column contains the
information about the semantic action
that was performed in the respective
step.
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The interpreter can also be used interactively, in which case
it acts as a simulator for the executing program. It shows all
variables in the program, the events in the queue, the running
tasks, as well as the values of properties of hardware elements
and the current state. It also provides a button to single-step
the program, to run it continuously, or to run it until it hits a
breakpoint. In other words, although the simulator does not
use the familiar22 UI of a debugger, it actually is a debugger23 !
If you already have the interpreter24 , expanding it into a
simulator/debugger is relatively simple. Essentially only three
things have to be done:
• First, the execution of the program must be controllable
from the outside. This involves setting breakpoints, singlestepping through the program and stopping execution if a
breakpoint is hit. In our example case, we do not single-step
through statements, but only through steps25 . Breakpoints
are essentially Boolean flags associated with program elements: if the execution processes a statement that has the
breakpoint flat set to true, execution stops.
• Second, we have implemented an Observer infrastructure
for all parts of the program state that should be represented
in the simulator UI. Whenever one of them changes (as a
side effect of executing a statement in the program), an event
is fired. The UI registers as an observer and updates the UI
in accordance with the event.
... familiar to programmers, but not to
the target audience!
22
As we have said above, the fact that
it runs in the interpreter instead of
the generated code is not a problem
if we ensure the two are semantically
identical. Of course we cannot find
bugs in the implementation (i.e. in
the generator) in this way. But to
detect those, debugging on the level
of the generated C code is more useful
anyway.
23
We discuss how to build one in
Section 12.
24
Remember that the language is
time-triggered anyway, so execution is
basically a sequence of steps triggered
by a timer. In the simulator/debugger,
the timer is replaced with the user
pressing the Next Step button for
single stepping.
25
• Third, values from the program state must be changeable
from the outside. As a value in the UI (such as the temperature of a cooling compartment) is changed by the user, the
value is updated in the state of the interpreter as well.
15.2.4
Automatic Debugging for Xbase-based DSLs
DSLs that use Xbase, Xtext’s reusable expression language, get
debugging mostly26 for free. This is because of the tight integration of Xbase with the JVM. We describe this integration in
more detail in Section 16.3; here is the essence.
A DSL that uses Xbase typically defines its own structural
and high-level behavioral aspects, but uses Xbase for the finegrained, expression-level and statement-level27 behavior. For
example, in a state machine DSL, states, events and transitions
would be concepts defined by the DSL, but the guard conditions and the action code would reuse Xbase expressions.
"Mostly" because in a few cases you
have to add trace information manually
in transformations.
26
Technically, Xtend doesn’t have
statements, and things like if or
switch are expressions.
27
dsl engineering
When mapping this DSL to Java28 , the following approach
is used: the structural and high-level behavioral aspects are
mapped to Java, but not by generating Java text, but by mapping the DSL AST to a Java AST29 . For the reused Xbase aspects (the finer-grained behavior) a Java generator (called the
Xbase compiler) already exists, which we simply call from our
generator.
Essentially, we do not create a code generator, but a modelto-model transformation from the DSL AST to the Java AST.
As part of this transformation (performed by the JVMModel inferrer), trace links between the DSL code and the Java code are
established. In other words, the relationship between the Java
code and the DSL code is well known. This relationship is exploited in the debugging process. Xbase-based DSLs use the
Java debugger for debugging. In addition to showing the generated Java code, the debugger can also show the DSL code,
based on the trace information collected by the JVMModel inferrer. In the same way, if a user sets a breakpoint in the DSL
code, the trace information is used to determine where to set
the breakpoint in the generated Java code.
381
Xbase-based DSLs must be mapped
to Java to benefit from Xbase in the
way discussed in this section. If you
generate code other than Java, Xbase
cannot be used sensibly.
28
The Java AST serves as a hub for
all Xbase languages including Xtend,
your own DSL or Xcore. All those work
nicely together. The JVM level serves as
an interoperability layer.
29
Extensible languages were defined
and discussed in Section 4.6. We show
in detail in Section 16.2 how this works
with MPS.
30
15.2.5
Debuggers for an Extensible Language
This section describes in some detail the architecture of an extensible debugger for an extensible language30 . We illustrate
the approach with an implementation based on mbeddr, an extensible version of C implemented with the MPS. We also show
the debuggers for non-trivial extensions of C.
Requirements for the Debugger
Debuggers for imperative
languages support at least the following features: breakpoints
suspend execution on arbitrary statements; single-step execution
steps over statements, and into and out of functions or other
callables; and watches show values of variables, arguments or
other aspects of the program state. Stack frames visualize the
call hierarchy of functions or other callables.
When debugging a program that contains extensions, breakpoints, stepping, watches and call stacks, these elements at
the extension-level differ from their counterparts at the base-level.
The debugger has to perform the mapping from the base-level
to the extension-level (Fig. 15.7). We distinguish between the
tree representation of a program in MPS and the generated text
that is used by the C compiler and the debugger backend. A
program in the tree representation can be separated into parts
Figure 15.7: An extension-aware debugger maps the debug behavior from
the base-level to the extension-level (an
extension may also be mapped onto
other extensions; we ignore this aspect
in this section).
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expressed in the base language (C in this case) and parts expressed using extensions. We refer to the latter the extensionlevel or DSL-level (see Fig. 15.7). An extensible tree-level debugger for mbeddr that supports debugging on the base-level
and extension-level, addresses the following requirements:
Modularity Language extensions in mbeddr are modular, so
debugger extensions must be modular as well. No changes
to the base language must be necessary to enable debugging
for a language extension.
Framework Genericity In addition, new language extensions must
not require changes to the core debugger infrastructure (not just
the base language).
Simple Debugger Definition Creating language extensions is an
integral part of using mbeddr. Hence, the development of
a debugger for an extension should be simple and not require too much knowledge about the inner workings of the
framework, or even the C debugger backend.
Limited Overhead As a consequence of embedded software development, we have to limit the additional, debugger-specific
code generated into the binary. This would increase the size
of the binary, potentially making debugging on a small target device infeasible.
Debugger Backend Independence Embedded software projects use
different C debuggers, depending on the target device. This
prevents modifying the C debugger itself: changes would
have to be re-implemented for every C debugger used.
An Example Extension We start out by developing a simple
extension to the mbeddr C language31 . The foreach statement
can be used to conveniently iterate over C arrays. Users have
to specify the array as well as its size. Inside the foreach body,
it acts as a reference to the current iteration’s array element32 .
We assume that you know the basics
of MPS language development, for
example from reading the earlier
implementation chapters in this book.
31
Note that for the sake of the example,
we don’t consider nested foreach statements, so we don’t have to deal with
unique names for various (generated)
variables.
32
int8 s = 0;
int8[] a = {1, 2, 3};
foreach (a sized 3) {
s += it;
}
The code generated from this piece of extended C looks as follows. The foreach statement is expanded into a regular for
statement and an additional variable __it:
dsl engineering
int8 s =
int8[] a
for (int
int8
s +=
}
383
0;
= {1, 2, 3};
__c = 0; __c < 3; __c++) {
__it = a[__c];
__it;
To make the foreach extension modular, it lives in a separate
language module named ForeachLanguage. The new language
extends C, since we will refer to concepts defined in C (see
Fig. 15.8).
Developing the Language Extension
In the new language,
we define the ForeachStatement. To make it usable wherever C expects Statements (i.e. in functions), it extends C’s
Statement. As Fig. 15.8 shows, ForeachStatements have three
children: an Expression that represents the array, an Expression for the array length, and a StatementList for the body.
Expression and StatementList are both defined in C.
The editor is shown in Fig. 15.9. It consists of a horizontal
list of cells: the foreach keyword, the opening parenthesis, the
embedded editor of the array child, the sized keyword, the
embedded editor of the len expression, the closing parenthesis
and the editor of the body.
Figure 15.8: UML class diagram
showing the structure of the
ForeachLanguage. Concepts from
the C base language are in white boxes,
new concepts are gray.
Figure 15.9: The editor definition of the
foreach statement and its relationship
to an example instance.
As shown in the code snippet below, the array must be of type
ArrayType, and the type of len must be int64 or any of its
shorter subtypes.
rule typeof_ForeachStatement for ForeachStatement as fes do {
typeof( fes.len ) :<=: <int64>;
if (!(fes.array.type.isInstanceOf(ArrayType))) {
error "array required" -> fes.array;
}
}
As shown above, the generator translates a ForeachStatement
to a regular for statement that iterates over the elements with a
counter variable __c (Fig. 15.10). Inside the for body, we create
a variable __it that refers to the array element at position __c.
We then copy in the other statements from the body of the
foreach.
The ItExpression extends C’s Expression to make it usable where expressions are expected. The editor consists of
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a single cell with the keyword it. A constraint enforces the
ItExpression to be used only inside the body of a foreach:
concept constraints ItExpression {
can be child
(context, scope, parentNode, link, childConcept)->boolean {
parentNode.ancestor<ForeachStatement, +>.isNotNull &&
parentNode.ancestor<StatementList, +>.isNotNull;
}
}
The type of it must be the base type of the array (e.g. int in
the case of int[]), as shown in the code below:
node<Type> basetype = typeof(it.ancestor<ForeachStatement>.array)
:ArrayType.baseType;
typeof(it) :==: basetype.copy;
The foreach generator already generated a local variable __it
into the body of the for loop. We can thus translate an ItExpression into a LocalVariableReference that refers to __it.
Figure 15.10: The foreach generator
template. A ForeachStatement is
replaced by the code that is framed
<TF .. TF> when the template is
executed; the dummy function around
it just provides context. The COPY_SRC
and COPY_SRCL macros contain expressions (not shown) that determine
with what the nodes in square brackets
(e.g., 10, int8 x;) are replaced during a
transformation.
Developing the Debug Behavior The specification of the debugger extension for foreach resides completely in the ForeachLanguage; this keeps the debugger definition for the extension local to the extension language.
To set a breakpoint on a concept, it must implement the
IBreakpointSupport marker interface. Statement already implements this interface, so ForEachStatement implicitly implements this interface as well.
Stepping behavior is implemented via ISteppable. The ForeachStatement implements this interface indirectly via Statement, but we have to overwrite the methods that define the
step over and step into behavior. Assume the debugger is suspended on a foreach and the user invokes step over. If the
array is empty or we have finished iterating over it, a step over
ends up on the statement that follows after the whole foreach
statement. Otherwise we end up on the first line of the foreach
body (sum += it;)33 .
This is the first line of the mbeddr
program, not the first line of the generated base program (which would be
int8 __it = arr[__c];).
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385
The debugger cannot guess which alternative will occur,
since it would need to know the state of the program and
to evaluate the expressions in the (generated) for. Instead
we set breakpoints on each of the possible next statements and
then resume execution until we hit one of them. The implementations of the ISteppable methods specify strategies for
setting breakpoints on these possible next statements. The
contributeStepOverStrategies method collects strategies for
the step over case:
void contributeStepOverStrategies(list<IDebugStrategy> res) {
ancestor
statement list: this.body
}
The method is implemented using a domain-specific language
for debugger specification, which is part of the mbeddr debugger framework34 . It is an extension of MPS’ BaseLanguage, a
Java-based language used for expressing behavior in MPS. The
ancestor statement delegates to the foreach’s ancestor; this
will lead to a breakpoint on the subsequent statement. The
second line leads to a breakpoint on the first statement of the
body statement list.
Since the array and len expressions can be arbitrarily complex and may contain invocations of callables (such as function
calls), we have to specify the step into behavior as well. This
requires the debugger to inspect the expression trees in array
and len and find any expression that can be stepped into. Such
expressions implement IStepIntoable. If so, the debugger has
to step into each of those, in turn. Otherwise the debugger falls
back to step over. An additional method configures the expression trees which the debugger must inspect:
This simplifies the implementation
of debuggers significantly. It is another
example of where using DSLs for
defining DSLs is a good idea.
34
void contributeStepIntoStrategies(list<IDebugStrategy> res) {
subtree: this.array
subtree: this.len
}
By default, the Watch window contains all C symbols (global
and local variables, arguments) as supplied by the native C
debugger35 . To customize watches, a concept has to implement
IWatchProvider. Here is the code for foreach, also expressed
in the debugger definition DSL:
void contributeWatchables(list<UnmappedVariable> unmapped,
list<IWatchable> mapped) {
hide "__c"
map "__it" to "it"
type: this.array.type : ArrayType.baseType
category: WatchableCategories.LOCAL_VARIABLES
context: this
}
In the case of the foreach, this means
that it is not available, but __it and
__c are. This is exactly the wrong way
around: the watch window should
show it, but not __it and __c.
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The first line hides __c. The rest maps a base-level C variable
to a watchable. It finds a C variable named __it (inserted by
the foreach generator) and creates a watch variable named it.
At the same time, it hides the base-level variable __it. The
type of it is the base type of the array over which we iterate.
We assign the it watchable to the local variables section and
associate the foreach node with it (double-clicking on the it
in the Watch window will highlight the foreach in the code).
Stepping into the foreach body does not affect the call stack,
since the concept represents no callable (for details, see the next
paragraph). So we do not have to implement any stack frame
related functionality.
Debugger Framework Architecture The central idea of the debugger architecture is this: from the C code in MPS and its
extensions (tree level) we generate C text (text level). This text
is the basis for the debugging process by a native C debugger.
We then use trace data to find out how the generated text maps
back to the tree level in MPS.
At the core of the execution architecture is the Mapper. It
is driven by the Debugger UI (and through it, the user) and
controls the C debugger via the Debug Wrapper. It uses the
Program Structure and the Trace Data. The Mapper also
uses a language’s debug specification, discuss in the next subsection. Fig. 20.6 shows the components and their interfaces.
Figure 15.11: The Mapper is the central component of the debugger execution architecture. It is used by
the Debugger UI and, in turn, uses
the Debug Wrapper, the Program
Structure and the Trace Data.
The IDebugControl interface is used by the Debugger UI to
control the Mapper. For example, it provides a resume operation. IBreakpoints allows the UI to set breakpoints on pro-
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gram nodes. IWatches lets the UI retrieve the data items for
the Watch window. The Debug Wrapper essentially provides
the same interfaces, but on the level of C (prefixed with LL, for
"low level"). In addition, ILLDebugControl lets the Mapper find
out about the program location of the C Debugger when it is
suspended at a breakpoint. IASTAccess lets the Mapper access
program nodes. Finally, ITraceAccess lets the Mapper find out
the program node (tree level) that corresponds to a specific line
in the generated C source text (text level), and vice versa.
To illustrate the interactions of these components, we describe a step over. After the request has been handed over from
the UI to the Mapper via IDebugControl, the Mapper performs
the following steps:
• Asks the current node’s concept for its step over strategies;
these define all possible locations where the debugger could
end up after the step over.
• Queries TraceData for the corresponding lines in the generated C text for those program locations.
• Uses the debugger’s ILLBreakpoints to set breakpoints on
those lines in the C text.
• Uses ILLDebugControl to resume program execution. It will
stop at any of the breakpoints just created.
• Uses ILLDebugControl to get the C call stack.
• Queries TraceData to find out, for each C stack frame, the
corresponding nodes in the tree-level program.
• Collects all relevant IStackFrameContributors (see the next
section). The Mapper uses these to construct the tree-level
call stack.
• Gets the currently visible symbols and their values via ILLWatchables.
• Queries the nodes for all WatchableProviders and use them
to create a set of watchables.
At this point, execution returns to the Debugger UI, which then
gets the current location and watchables from the Mapper to
highlight the statement on which the debugger is suspended
and populate the Watch window.
In our implementation, the Debugger UI, Program Repository and Trace Data are provided by MPS. In particular, MPS
builds a trace from the program nodes (tree level) in MPS to
the generated text-level source. The Debug Wrapper is part of
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mbeddr and relies on the Eclipse CDT Debug Bridge36 , which
provides a Java API to gdb37 and other C debuggers.
Debugger Specification The debugger specification resides
in the respective language module. As we have seen in the
foreach example, the specification relies on a set of interfaces
and a number of predefined strategies, as well as the debugger
specification DSL.
The interface IBreakpointSupport is used to mark language
concepts on which breakpoints can be set. C’s Statement implements this interface. Since all statements inherit from Statement we can set breakpoints on all statements by default.
When the user sets a breakpoint on a program node, the
mapper uses ITraceAccess to find the corresponding line in
the generated C text. A statement defined by an extension may
be expanded to several base-level statements, so ITraceAccess
actually returns a range of lines, the breakpoint is set on the
first one.
Stack frames represent the nesting of invoked callables at
runtime38 . We create stack frames for a language concept if
it has callable semantics. The only callables in C are functions, but in mbeddr, test cases, state machine transitions and
component methods are callables as well. Callable semantics
on extension level do not necessarily imply a function call on
the base level. There are cases in which an extension-level
callable is not mapped to a function and where a non-callable
is mapped to a function. Consequently, the C call stack may
differ from the extension call stack shown to the user. Concepts with callable semantics on the extension level or base
level implement IStackFrameContributor. The interface provides operations that determine whether a stack frame has to
be created in the debugger UI and what the name of the stack
frame should be.
Stepping behavior is configured via the IStackFrameContributor, ISteppable, ISteppableContext, IStepIntoable
and IDebugStrategy interfaces. Fig. 15.12 shows an overview.
The methods defined by these interfaces return strategies that
determine where the debugger may have to stop next if the
user selects a stepping operation (remember that the debugger framework sets breakpoints to implement stepping). New
strategies can be added without changing the generic execution
aspect of the framework.
36
www.eclipse.org/cdt
37
www.gnu.org/software/
gdb/documentation/
A callable is a language concept that
contains statements and can be called
from multiple call sites.
38
Figure 15.12: The structure of language
concepts implementing the steppingrelated interfaces. The boxes represent
language concepts implementing the
interfaces discussed in the text. Those
concepts define the containments, so
this figure represents a typical setup.
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Stepping relies on ISteppable contributing step over and
step into strategies. Many ISteppables are embedded in an
ISteppableContext (e.g., Statements in StatementLists). Strategies may delegate to the containing ISteppableContext to
determine where to stop next (the ancestor strategy in the
foreach example).
For step into behavior, an ISteppable specifies those subtrees in which instances of IStepIntoable may be located (the
array and len expressions in the foreach case). The debugger
searches these subtrees at debug-time and collects all instances
of IStepIntoable. An IStepIntoable represents a callable
invocation (e.g., a FunctionCall), and the returned strategies
suspend the debugger within the callable.
Step out behavior is provided by implementors of IStackFrameContributor (mentioned earlier). Since a callable can be
called from many program locations, the call site for a particular invocation cannot be determined by inspecting the program
structure; a call stack is needed. We use the ordered list of
IStackFrameContributors, from which the tree-level call stack
is derived, to realize the step out behavior. By "going back" (or
"out") in the stack, the call site for the current invocation is
determined. For step out, the debugger locates the enclosing
IStackFrameContributor and asks it for its step out strategies.
Strategies implement IDebugStrategy and are responsible
for setting breakpoints to implement a particular stepping behavior. Language extensions can either implement their own
strategies or use predefined ones. These include setting a breakpoint on a particular node, searching for IStepIntoables in
expression subtrees (step into), or delegating to the outer stack
frame (step out).
To support watches, language concepts implement IWatchProvider if they directly contribute one or more items into
the Watch window. An IWatchProviderContext contains zero
or more watch providers. Typically these are concepts that
own statement lists, such as Functions or IfStatements. If
the debugger is suspended on any particular statement, we
can find all visible watches by iterating through all ancestor
IWatchProviderContexts and asking them for their IWatchProviders. Fig. 15.13 shows the typical structure of the concepts.
An IWatchProvider implements the contributeWatchables
operation. It has access to the C variables available in the native
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Figure 15.13: Typical structure of
language concepts implementing the
watches-related interfaces
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C debugger. Based on those, it creates a set of watchables. The
method may hide a base-level C variable (because it is irrelevant to the extension-level), promote C variable to a watchable
or create additional Watchables based on the values of C variables. The representation of a watchable often depends on the
variable’s type as expressed in the extension program. This type
may be different from the one in the C program. For example,
we represent values of type Boolean with true and false, even
though they are represented as ints in C. As the watchable is
created, we specify the type that should be used. Types that
should be used in this way must implement IMappableType.
Its method mapVariable is responsible for computing a typeappropriate representation of a value.
More Examples To illustrate mbeddr’s approach to extensible debuggers further, we have implemented the debugging
behavior for mbeddr C and all default extensions. We discuss
some interesting cases in this section.
We encounter many cases where we cannot know statically
which piece of code will be executed when stepping into a callable.
Consider polymorphic calls on interfaces.
The mbeddr components extension provides interfaces with
operations, as well as components that provide and use these
interfaces. The component methods that implement interface
operations are generated to base-level C functions. The same
interface can be implemented by different components, each
implementation ending up in a different C function. A client
component only specifies the interface it uses, not the component. Hence we cannot know statically which C function will
be called if an operation is invoked on the interface. However,
we do know statically all components that implement the interface, so we know all possible C functions that may be invoked. A
strategy implemented specifically for this case sets breakpoints
on the first line of each of these functions to make sure we stop
in the first line of any of them if the user steps into a method
invocation39 .
In many cases a single statement on the extension level is
mapped to several statements or whole blocks on the base
level. Stepping over the single extension-level statement must
step over the whole block or list of statements in terms of C.
An example is the assert statement used in test cases. It is
mapped to an if statement. The debugger has to step over
We encounter a similar challenge
in state machines: as an event is fired
into a state machine, we do not know
which transition will be triggered.
Consequently we set breakpoints in all
transitions (translated to case branches
in a switch statement) of the state
machine.
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the complete if statement, independent of whether the condition in the if evaluates to true or false. Note that we get
this behavior free40 : the assert statement sets a breakpoint on
the base-level counterpart of the next tree-level statement. It is
irrelevant how many lines of C text further down this is.
Extensions may provide custom data types that are mapped
to one or more data types or structures in the generated C. The
debugger has to reconstruct the representation in terms of the
extension from the base level data. For example, the state of
a component is represented by a struct that has a member
for each of the component fields. Component operations are
mapped to C functions. In addition to the formal arguments
declared for the respective operation, the generated C function
also takes this struct as an argument. However, to support the
polymorphic invocations discussed earlier, the type of this argument is void*. Inside the operation, the void* is cast down
to allow access to the component-specific members. The debugger performs the same downcast to be able to show watchables for all component fields.
391
Remember that we never actually
step over statements, we always set
breakpoints at the next possible code
locations where the debugger may have
to stop next.
40
Discussion To evaluate the suitability of our solution for
our purposes, we revisit the requirements described earlier.
Modularity Our solution requires no changes to the base language or its debugger implementation to specify the debugger for an extension. Also, independently developed extensions retain their independence if they contain debugger
specifications41 .
Framework Genericity The extension-dependent aspects of the
debugger behavior are extensible. In particular, stepping
behavior is factored into strategies, and new strategies can
be implemented by a language extension. Also, the representation of watch values can be customized by making the
respective type implement IMappableType in a suitable way.
Simple Debugger Definition This challenge is solved by the debugger definition DSL. It supports the definition of stepping
behavior and watches in a declarative way, without concerning the user with implementation details of the framework
or the debugger backend.
Limited Overhead Our solution generates no debugger specific
code at all (except the debug symbols added by compiling
the C code with debug options). Instead we rely on trace
In particular, MPS’ capability of
incrementally including language
extensions in a program without defining
a composite language first is preserved in
the face of debugger specifications.
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data to map the extension level to base level and ultimately
to text. This is a trade-off: first, the language workbench
must be able to provide trace information. Second, the generated C text cannot be modified by a text processor before
it is compiled and debugged, since this would invalidate
the trace data42 . Our approach has another advantage: we
do not have to change existing transformations to generate
debugger-specific code. This keeps the transformations independent of the debugger.
Debugger Backend Independence We use the Eclipse CDT Debug
Bridge to wrap the particular C debugger, so we can use
any compatible debugger without changing our infrastructure. Our approach requires no changes to the native C debugger itself, but since we use breakpoints for stepping, the
debugger must be able to handle a reasonable number of
breakpoints43 . The debugger also has to provide an API for
setting and deleting breakpoints, for querying the currently
visible symbols and their values, as well as for querying the
code location where the debugger suspended.
15.2.6
What’s Missing?
The support from language workbenches for building debuggers for the DSLs defined with the language workbench is not
where it should be. In the face of extensible languages or language composition especially, the construction of debuggers is
still a lot of work. The example discussed in Section 15.2.5
above is not part of MPS in general, but instead a framework
that has been built specifically for mbeddr – although we believe that the architecture can be reused more generally.
Also, ideally, programs should be debuggable at any abstraction level: if a multi-step transformation is used, then
users should be able to debug the program at any intermediate step. Debug support for for Xbase-based DSLs is a good
example of this, but it is only one translation step, and it is a
solution that is specifically constructed for Xbase and Java, and
not a generic framework.
So there is a lot of room for innovation in this space.
The C preprocessor works, it is
handled correctly by the compiler and
debugger.
42
Most C debuggers support this, so
this is not a serious limitation.
43
16
Modularization, Reuse and Composition
Language modularization, extension and composition is an
important ingredient in the efficient use of DSLs, just as
reuse in general is important to software development. We
discuss the need for modularization, extension and composition in the context of DSL design in Section 4.6, where we
introduce the four classes of modularization, extension and
composition. In this chapter, we look at the implementation
approaches taken by our example tools.
16.1
Introduction
When modularizing and composing languages, the following
challenges have to be addressed:
• The concrete and the abstract syntaxes of the languages have
to be combined. Depending on the kind of composition, this
requires the embedding of one syntax into another. This, in
turn, requires modular grammars, or more generally, ways
of specifying concrete syntax that avoids ambiguities.
• The static semantics, i.e. the constraints and the type system,
have to be integrated. For example, in the case of language
extension, new types have to be "made valid" for existing
operators.
• The execution semantics have to be combined as well. In
practice, this may mean mixing the code generated from the
composed languages, or composing the generators or interpreters.
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• Finally, the IDE services that provides code completion, syntax coloring, static checks and other relevant services have
to be extended and composed as well.
In this chapter we show how each of those is addressed with
the respective tools. We don’t discuss the general problems any
further, since those have been discussed in Part II of the book
on DSL design.
16.2
MPS Example
With MPS two of these challenges outlined above – composability of concrete syntax and modular IDEs – are solved to a
large degree. Modular type systems are reasonably well supported. Semantic interactions are hard to solve in general, but
can be handled reasonably in many relevant cases, as we show
in this section as well. However, as we will see, in many cases
languages have to be designed explicitly for reuse to make them
reusable. After-the-fact reuse, without consideration during
the design of the reusable language, is possible only in limited
cases. However, this is true for reuse in software generally.
We describe language modularization, extension and composition with MPS based on a set of examples1 . At the center of
this section is a simple entities language – the usual entitywith-property-and-references "Hello World" example. We then
build additional languages to illustrate extension and composition. Fig. 16.1 illustrates these additional languages. The
uispec (user interface specification) language illustrates referencing with entities. relmapping (relational database mapping) is an example of reuse with separated generated code.
rbac (role-based access control) illustrates reuse with intermixed generated code. uispec_validation demonstrates extension (of the uispec language) and embedding with regard to
the expressions language.
Figure 16.1: entities is the central language. uispec defines UI forms for the
entities. uispec_validation adds validation rules, and composes a reusable
expressions language. relmapping
provides a reusable database mapping language, relmapping_entities
adapts it to the entities language. rbac
is a reusable language for specifying
permissions; rbac_entities adapts
this language to the entities language.
These are new examples that have not
yet been used before in the book. This
is to keep them simple; showcasing
these things, for example, with mbeddr
would add a lot of additional context
and complexity that is not necessary to
illustrate the essential techniques.
1
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16.2.1
395
Implementing the Entities Language
Below is some example code expressed in the entities language. Modules are root nodes. They live as top-level elements
in models2 .
module company {
entity Employee {
id : int
name : string
role : string
worksAt : Department
freelancer : boolean
}
entity Department {
id : int
description : string
}
}
Referring back to the terminology introduced in Section 3.3, root nodes (and
their descendants) are considered fragments, while the models are partitions.
Technically, they are XML files.
2
Structure and Syntax
Fig. 16.2 shows a class diagram of
the structure of the entities language. Each box represents a
language concept.
Figure 16.2: The abstract syntax of
the entities language. Entities have
attributes, which have types and names.
EntityType extends Type and references Entity. This "adapts" entities to
types (cf. the Adapter pattern).
The following code shows the definition of the Entity concept3 . Entity implements the INamedConcept interface to inherit a name property. It declares a list of children of type
Attribute in the attributes collection. Fig. 16.3 shows the
definition of the editor for Entity.
concept Entity extends BaseConcept implements INamedConcept
can be root: true
children:
Attribute
attributes
0..n
Type System For the entities language, we specify two
simple typing rules. The first one specifies that the type of the
primitives (int, string) is a clone of themselves:
rule typeof_Type {
applicable for concept = Type as t
overrides false
do {
typeof(type) :==: type.copy;
}
}
This is not the complete definition,
concepts can have more characteristics.
This is simplified to show the essentials.
3
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Figure 16.3: The editor for Entity. The
outermost cell is a vertical list ([/ ..
/]). In the first line, we use a horizontal
list that contains the "keyword" entity,
the value of the name property and
an opening curly brace. In the second
line we use indentation and a vertical
arrangements of the contents of the
attributes collection. Finally, the third
line contains the closing curly brace.
The only other typing rule is an equation that defines the type
of the attribute as a whole to be the type of the attribute’s type
property, defined as
typeof(attribute) :==: typeof(attribute.type);
Generator From entities models we generate Java Beans
expressed in MPS’ BaseLanguage. For the entities language,
we need a root mapping rule4 and reduction rules5 . The root mapping rule is used to generate a Java class from an Entity. The
reduction rule transforms the various types (int, string, etc.)
to their Java counterparts. Fig. 16.4 shows a part of the mapping configuration for the entities language.
Fig. 16.5 shows the map_Entity template. It generates a Java
class. Inside the class, we generate a field for each entity attribute. To do this we first create a prototype field in the class
(private int aField;). Then we use macros to "transform"
this prototype into an instance for each Entity attribute. We
first attach a LOOP macro to the whole field. Based on its ex-
Root mapping rules are used to create
new top-level artifacts from existing
top-level artifacts (mapping a fragment
to another fragment).
4
Reduction rules are in-place transformations. Whenever the transformation
engine encounters an instance of the
specified source concept somewhere in
a program tree, it replaces that source
node with the result of the associated
template.
5
Figure 16.4: The mapping configuration
for the entities language. The root
mapping rule for Entity specifies
that instances of Entity should be
transformed with the map_Entity
template. The reduction rules use
inline templates. For example, the
IntType is replaced with the Java int
and the EntityRefType is reduced to
a reference to the class generated from
the target entity. The ->$ is a reference
macro. It contains code (not shown)
that "rewires" the reference to Double to
a reference to the class generated from
the referenced Entity.
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397
pression node.attributes;, we iterate over the attributes in
the current entity. We then use a COPY_SRC macro to transform
the type. COPY_SRC copies the input node (the inspector specifies the current attribute’s type as the input here) and applies
reduction rules. So instances of the types defined as part of
the entities language are transformed into a Java type using the reduction rules defined in the mapping configuration
above. Finally we use a property macro (the $ sign) to change
the name property of the field we generate from the dummy
value aField to the name of the attribute we currently transform (once again via an expression in the inspector).
Figure 16.5: The template for creating
a Java class from an Entity. The
running text explains the details. The
«placeholder» is a special concept
used later.
16.2.2
Referencing
We define a language uispec for defining user interface forms
based on the entities. Below is an example model. Note
how the form is another, separate fragment. It is a dependent
fragment, since it references elements from another fragment
(expressed in the entities language). Both fragments are homogeneous, since they consist of sentences expressed in a single
language.
form CompanyStructure
uses Department
uses Employee
field Name: textfield(30) -> Employee.name
field Role: combobox(Boss, TeamMember) -> Employee.role
field Freelancer: checkbox -> Employee.freelancer
field Office: textfield(20) -> Department.description
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Structure and Syntax
The uispec language extends6 the
entities language. This means that concepts from the entities
language can be used in the definition of language concepts in
the uispec language. Fig. 16.6 shows the abstract syntax as a
UML diagram.
MPS uses the term "extension" whenever the definition of one language uses
or refers to concepts defined in another
language. This is not necessarily an example of language extension as defined
in this book.
6
Figure 16.6: The abstract syntax of
the uispec language. Dotted lines
represent classes from another language
(here: the entities language). A
Form contains EntityReferences that
connect to an entities model. A form
also contains Fields, each referencing
an Attribute from an Entity and
containing a Widget.
A Form owns a number of EntityReferences, which in turn
reference the Entity concept. Also, Fields refer to the attribute that is intended to be edited via the field. Below is the
definition of the Field concept. It owns a Widget and refers to
an Attribute.
concept Field extends BaseConcept implements <none>
properties:
label : string
children:
Widget
widget
1
references:
Attribute
attribute
1
Type System The language enforces limitations over which
widget can be used with which attribute type7 . The necessary
typing rule is defined in the uispec language and references
types from the entities language8 . The following is the code
for the type check.
checking rule checkTypes {
applicable for concept = Field as field
overrides false
do {
if (field.widget.isInstanceOf(CheckBoxWidget)
&& !(field.attribute.type.isInstanceOf(BooleanType))) {
error "only use checkbox with booleans" -> field.widget;
}
if (field.widget.isInstanceOf(ComboWidget)
&& !(field.attribute.type.isInstanceOf(StringType))) {
error "cannot use combobox with strings" -> field.widget;
}
}
}
Generation
The defining characteristic of language referencing is that the two languages only reference each other, and
the instance fragments are dependent, but homogeneous. No
7
A checkbox widget requires a Boolean
type, a ComboWidget requires a string
type.
This is valid, since in referencing, the
referencing language has a dependency
on the referenced language.
8
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syntactic integration is necessary in this case. In this example, the generated code exhibits the same separation. From the
Form definition, we generate a Java class that uses Java Swing
to build the UI form. It uses the beans generated from the entities: the classes are instantiated, and the getters and setters
are called9 . The generators are separate, but they are dependent
because they share information. Specifically, the uispec generator knows about the names of the generated entity classes, as
well as the names of the setters and getters. This dependency
is implemented by defining a couple of behavior methods on
the Attribute concept that are called from both generators:
399
To get values from the bean when the
form is populated and to set the values
into the bean if they have been changed
in the form.
9
concept behavior Attribute {
public string qname() {
this.parent:Entity.name + "." + this.name;
}
public string setterName() {
"set" + this.name.toFirstUpper();
}
public string getterName() {
"get" + this.name.toFirstUpper();
}
}
The original entities fragment is still sufficient for the transformation that generates the Java Bean. The uispec fragment
is not sufficient for generating the UI; it needs the entities
fragment. This is not surprising, since dependent fragments can
never be sufficient for a transformation: the transitive closure
of all dependencies has to be made available.
16.2.3
Extension
We extend the MPS base language with block expressions and
placeholders. These concepts make writing generators that
generate base language code much simpler. Fig. 16.7 shows
an example.
Structure and Syntax A block expression is a block that can
be used where an Expression is expected10 . The block can
contain any number of statements; yield can be used to "return" values from within the block11 . An optional name property of a block expression is used as the name of the generated
method. The generator of the block expression in Fig. 16.7
transforms it into this structure:
Figure 16.7: Block expressions (in blue,
gray in print) are basically anonymous
inline methods. Upon transformation,
a method is generated that contains the
block content, and the block expression
is replaced with a call to this method.
Block expressions are used mostly
when implementing generators; this
screenshot shows a generator that uses
a block expressions.
M. Bravenboer, R. Vermaas, J. J. Vinju,
and E. Visser. Generalized type-based
disambiguation of meta programs with
concrete object syntax. In GPCE, pages
157–172, 2005
10
So, in some sense, a block expression
is an "inlined method", or a closure that
is defined and called directly.
11
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// the argument to setName is what was the block expression,
// it is replaced by a method call to the generated method
aEmployee.setName(retrieve_name(aEmployee, widget0));
...
// this is the method generated from the block expression
public String retrieve_name(Employee aEmployee, JComponent widget0) {
String newValue = ((JTextField) widget0).getText();
return newValue;
}
The jetbrains.mps.baselanguage.exprblocks language extends Ba- seLanguage. To make a block expression valid where
BaseLanguage expects an Expression, BlockExpression extends Expression12 .
concept BlockExpression extends Expression implements INamedConcept
children:
StatementList body 1
Type System The type of the yield statement is the type of
the expression that is yielded, specified by this equation13 :
Consequently, fragments that use
the exprblocks language can now
use BlockExpressions in addition to
the concepts provided by the BaseLanguage. The fragments become
heterogeneous, because languages are
syntactically mixed.
12
13
The type of yield 1; would be int.
typeof(yield) :==: typeof(yield.result);
Since the BlockExpression is used as an Expression, it has to
have a type as well. However, its type is not explicitly specified,
so it has to be calculated as the common supertype of the types
of all yields. The following typing rule computes this type.
We use the :>=: operator to express that the result type must
be the same or a supertype of the right argument.
typevar resultType ;
for (node<BlockExpressionYield> y :
blockExpr.descendants<BlockExpressionYield>) {
resultType :>=: typeof(y.result);
}
typeof(blockExpr) :==: resultType;
Figure 16.8: We use a weaving rule
to create an additional method
for a BlockExpression. A weaving rule processes an input element
(BlockExpression) by creating another
node in a different place. The context
function defines this other place. In this
case, it simply gets the class in which
we have defined the block expression.
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Generator
The generator for BlockExpressions reduces
the new concept to pure BaseLanguage: it performs assimilation. It transforms a heterogeneous fragment (using BaseLanguage and exprblocks) to a homogeneous fragment (using only
BaseLanguage). The first step is the creation of the additional
method for the block expression. Fig. 16.8 shows the definition
of the weaving rule; Fig. 16.9 shows the template used in that
weaving rule.
The template shown in Fig. 16.9 shows the creation of the
method. It assigns a mapping label14 to the created method.
The mapping label creates a mapping between the BlockExpression and the created method. We will use this label to
refer to this generated method when we generate the method
call that replaces the BlockExpression (shown in Fig. 16.10).
A second concept introduced by the exprblocks language is
the PlaceholderStatement. This extends Statement so that
it can be used inside method bodies. It also has a name. It is
used to mark locations at which subsequent generators can add
additional code. These subsequent generators will use a reduction rule to replace the placeholder with whatever they want to
put at this location. It is a means of building extensible generators. Both BlockExpression and PlaceholderStatement will
be used in subsequent examples of in this chapter.
A particularly interesting feature of MPS is the ability to use
several extensions of the same base language in a given program without defining a combining language. For example, a
user could decide to use the block expression language defined
above together with the dispatch extension discussed in Section 12.2. This is a consequence of MPS’ projectional nature15 .
Let us consider the potential cases for ambiguity:
401
In earlier MPS examples, we had used
name-based resolution of references.
We use a mapping label here to show
how this works.
14
Figure 16.9: The generator creates a
method from the BlockExpression. It
uses COPY_SRC macros to replace the
string type with the computed return
type of the block expression, inserts a
computed name, adds a parameter for
each referenced variable outside the
block, and inserts all the statements
from the block expression into the body
of the method (using the COPY_SRCL
macro that iterates over all of the
statements in the ExpressionBlock).
The blockExprToMethod mapping label
is used later in the method call.
Figure 16.10: Here we generate the
call to the previously generated
method. We use the mapping label
blockExprToMethod (not shown; happens inside the ->$ macro) to refer
to the correct method. We pass in
the environment variables as actual
arguments.
These same benefits are also exploited
in the case of embedding multiple
independent languages. Note that
there are also potential semantic issues,
that are independent of parsing vs.
projection.
15
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Same Concept Name The used languages may define concepts
with the same name as the host language. This will not lead
to ambiguity because concepts have a unique ID as well.
A program element will use this ID to refer to the concept
whose instance it represents.
Same Concrete Syntax The projection of a concept is not relevant to the functioning of the editor. The program would
still be unambiguous to MPS even if all elements had the same
notation. Of course, it would be confusing to the users.
Same Alias If two concepts that are valid at the same location
use the same alias, then, as the user types the alias, it is
not clear which of the two concepts should be instantiated.
This problem is solved by MPS opening the code completion
window and requiring the user to explicitly select which alternative to choose. Once the user has made the decision,
the unique ID is used to create an unambiguous program
tree.
16.2.4
Reuse with Separated Generated Code
Language reuse covers the case in which a language that has
been developed independently of the context in which it should
be reused. The respective fragments remain homogeneous. In
this section, we cover two alternative cases: the first case (in this
subsection) addresses a persistence mapping language. The
generated code is separate from the code generated from the
entities language. The second case (discussed in the next subsection) describes a language for role-based access control. The
generated code has to be "woven into" the entities code to
check permissions when setters are called.
Structure and Syntax relmapping is a reusable language for
mapping arbitrary data to relational tables. The relmapping
language supports the definition of relational table structures,
but leaves the actual mapping to the source data unspecified.
As you adapt the language to a specific reuse context, you have
to specify this mapping. The following code shows the reusable
part: a database is defined that contains tables with columns.
Columns have (database-specific) data types.
database CompanyDB
table Departments
number id
char descr
table People
number id
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403
char name
char role
char isFreelancer
Fig. 16.11 shows the structure of the relmapping language. The
abstract concept ColumnMapper serves as a hook: if we reuse
this language in a different context, we extend this hook in a
context-specific way.
Figure 16.11: A Database contains
Tables which contain Columns. A
column has a name and a type. A
column also has a ColumnMapper. This
is an abstract concept that determines
where the column gets its data from. It
is a hook intended to be specialized in
sublanguages that are context-specific.
The relmapping_entities language extends relmapping and
adapts it for reuse with the entities language16 . To this end,
it provides a subconcept of ColumnMapper, the AttributeColMapper, which references an Attribute from the entities language as a means of expressing the mapping from the attribute
to the column. The column mapper is projected on the right of
the field definition, resulting in the following (heterogeneous)
code fragment17 :
database CompanyDB
table Departments
number id <- Department.id
char descr <- Department.description
table People
number id <- Employee.id
char name <- Employee.name
char role <- Employee.role
char isFreelancer <- Employee.freelancer
Type System The type of a column is the type of its type
property. In addition, the type of the column must also conform to the type of the column mapper, so the concrete ColumnMapper subtype must provide a type mapping as well. This
"typing hook" is implemented as an abstract behavior method
typeMappedToDB on the ColumnMapper18 . With this in mind,
the typing rules of the relmapping language look as follows:
typeof(column) :==: typeof(column.type);
typeof(column.type) :==: typeof(column.mapper);
typeof(columnMapper) :==: columnMapper.typeMappedToDB();
The AttributeColMapping concept from the relmapping_entities implements this method by mapping ints to numbers
and everything else to chars.
Such a language could be called an
Adapter language, in reference to the
Adapter pattern from the GoF book.
16
This "mixed syntax" is fairly trivial,
since the AttributeColMapper just
references an attribute with a qualified
name (Entity.attribute). However,
arbitrary additional syntax could be
added, and we could use arbitrary
concepts from the entities language
mixed into the relmapping fragment.
17
It is acceptable from a dependency
perspective to have this typing hook,
since relmapping is designed to be
reusable.
18
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public node<> typeMappedToDB() overrides ColumnMapper.typeMappedToDB {
node<> attrType = this.attribute.type.type;
if (attrType.isInstanceOf(IntType)) { return new node<NumberType>(); }
return new node<CharType>();
}
Generator The generated code is also separated into a reusable part (a class generated by the relmapping language’s
generator) and a context-specific subclass of that class, generated by the relmapping_entities language. The generic base
class contains code for creating the tables and for storing data
in those tables. It contains abstract methods that are used to
access the data to be stored in the columns19 .
public abstract class CompanyDBBaseAdapter {
private void createTableDepartments() {
// SQL to create the Departments table
}
private void createTablePeople() {
// SQL to create the People table
}
public void storeDepartments(Object applicationData) {
Insert i = new Insert("Departments");
i.add( "id", getValueForDepartments_id(applicationData));
i.add( "descr", getValueForDepartments_descr(applicationData));
i.execute();
}
So the dependency structure of the
generated fragments, as well as the dependencies of the respective generators,
resembles the dependency structure of
the languages: the generated fragments
are dependent, and the generators are
dependent as well (they share the name,
and implicitly, the knowledge about
the structure of the class generated by
the reusable relmapping generator).
A relmapping fragment (without the
concrete column mappers) is sufficient
for generating the generic base class.
19
public void storePeople(Object applicationData) {
// like above
}
public abstract String getValueForDepartments_id(Object applicationData);
public abstract String getValueForDepartments_descr(
Object applicationData);
// abstract getValue methods for the People table
}
The subclass, generated by the generator in the relmapping_entities language, implements the abstract methods defined
by the generic superclass. The interface, represented by the
applicationData object, has to be kept generic so that any
kind of user data can be passed in20 .
public class CompanyDBAdapter extends CompanyDBBaseAdapter {
public String getValueForDepartments_id(Object applicationData) {
Object[] arr = (Object[]) applicationData;
Department o = (Department) arr[0];
String val = o.getId() + "";
return val;
}
public String getValueForDepartments_descr(Object applicationData) {
Object[] arr = (Object[]) applicationData;
Department o = (Department) arr[0];
String val = o.getDescription() + "";
return val;
}
}
Note how this class references the
Beans generated from the entities:
the generator for entities and the
generator for relmapping_ entities
are dependent, the information shared
between the two generators is the
names of the classes generated from
the entities. The code generated from
the relmapping language is designed to
be extended by code generated from
a sublanguage (the abstract getValue
methods). This is acceptable, since the
relmapping language itself is designed
to be extended to adapt it to a new
reuse context.
20
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Like the example in the previous
subsection, the models expressed in the
two languages are separate and homogeneous. However, the code generated
from the rbac specification has to be
mixed with the code generated from the
entities.
21
16.2.5
Reuse with Interwoven generated code
rbac is a language for specifying role-based access control, to
specify access permissions for entities defined with the entities
language21 . Here is some example code:
RBAC
users:
user mv : Markus Voelter
user ag : Andreas Graf
user ke : Kurt Ebert
roles:
role admin : ke
role consulting : ag, mv
permissions:
admin, W : Department
consulting, R : Employee.name
Structure and Syntax
The structure of rbac is shown in
Fig. 16.12. Like relmapping, it provides a hook, in this case,
Resource, to adapt it to context languages: the sublanguage
rbac_entities provides two subconcepts of Resource, namely
AttributeResource to reference to an attribute, and EntityResource to refer to an Entity, to define permissions for entities and their attributes.
Figure 16.12: Language structure of the
rbac language. An RBACSpec contains
Users, Roles and Permissions. Users
can be members in several roles. A permission assigns a right to a Resource.
Type System
No type system rules apply here.
Generator What distinguishes this case from the relmapping case is that the code generated from the rbac_entities
language is not separated from the code generated from entities. Instead, inside the setters of the Java beans, a permission
check is required.
public void setName(String newValue) {
// check permissions (from rbac_entities)
if (!new RbacSpecEntities().currentUserHasWritePermission(
"Employee.name")) {
throw new RuntimeException("no permission");
}
this.name = newValue;
}
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The generated fragment is homogeneous (all Java code), but it
is multi-sourced, since several generators contribute to the same
fragment. To implement this, several approaches are possible:
• We could use AspectJ22 . This would allow us to generate
separate Java artifacts (all single-sourced) and then use the
aspect weaver to "mix" them. However, we don’t want to
introduce the complexity of yet another tool, AspectJ, here,
so we will not use this approach.
22
• An interceptor23 framework could be added to the generated Java Beans, with the generated code contributing specific interceptors (effectively building a custom AOP solution). We will not use this approach either, since it would
require the addition of a whole interceptor framework to
the entities implementation. This seems like overkill.
23
www.eclipse.org/aspectj/
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/
Interceptor_pattern
• We could "inject" additional code generation templates to
the existing entities generator from the rbac_entities
generator. This would make the generators woven, as opposed to just dependent. Assuming that this would work in
MPS, it would be the most elegant solution – but it does not.
• We could define a hook in the generated Java Beans code and
then have the rbac_entities generator contribute code to
this hook. This is the approach we will use. The generators
remain dependent, they have to agree on the way the hook
works.
Notice that only the AspectJ solution can work without any
preplanning from the perspective of the entities language,
because it avoids mixing the generated code artifacts (it is handled "magically" by AspectJ). All other solutions require the
original entities generator to "expect" certain extensions.
In our case, we have modified the original generator in the
entities language to contain a PlaceholderStatement (see
Fig. 16.13). In every setter, the placeholder acts as a hook at
which subsequent generators can add statements. So while we
have to pre-plan that we want to extend the generator at this
location, we don’t have to predefine how.
Figure 16.13: This generator fragment
creates a setter method for each attribute of an entity. The LOOP iterates
over all attributes. The $ macro computes the name of the method, and
the COPY_SRC macro on the argument
type computes the type. The placeholder marks the location where the
permission check will be inserted by a
subsequent generator.
dsl engineering
The rbac_entities generator contains a reduction rule for
PlaceholderStatements. So when it encounters a placeholder
(put there by the entities generator) it removes it and inserts
the code that checks for the permission (Fig. 16.14). To make
this work, we have to make sure that this generator runs after
the entities generator (since the entities generator has to
create the placeholder first) but before the BaseLanguage generator (which transforms BaseLanguage code into Java text for
compilation). We use generator priorities to achieve this24 .
16.2.6
Embedding
Structure and Syntax uispec_validation extends uispec:
it is a sublanguage of the uispec language. It supports writing
code such as the following in the UI form specifications:
form CompanyStructure
uses Department
uses Employee
field Name: textfield(30) -> Employee.name validate lengthOf(Employee.
name) < 30
field Role: combobox(Boss, TeamMember) -> Employee.role
field Freelancer: checkbox -> Employee.freelancer
validate if (isSet(Employee.worksAt)) Employee.freelancer == false
else
Employee.freelancer == true
field Office: textfield(20) -> Department.description
Writing the expressions is supported by embedding an expressions language. Fig. 16.15 shows the structure. To be able
to use the expressions, the user has to use a ValidatedField
instead of a Field. ValidatedField is also defined in uispec_validation, and is a subconcept of Field.
407
Generator priorities express a partial
ordering (run before, run after, etc.)
between pairs of generators. Upon
generation, MPS computes an overall schedule that determines which
generators run in which order.
24
Figure 16.14: This reduction rule replaces PlaceholderStatements with
a permission check. Using the condition, we only match those placeholders
whose identifier is pre-set (notice
how we have defined this identifier in
Fig. 16.13). The inserted code queries
another generated class that contains
the actual permission check. A runtime
exception is thrown if the check fails.
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Figure 16.15: The icsnuispec_validation
language defines a subtype of
uispec.Field that contains an
Expression from an embeddable
expression language. The language also defines a couple of additional expressions, specifically the
AttributeRefExpr, which can be used
to refer to attributes of entities.
To support the migration of existing models that use Field instances, we provide an intention: the user can press Alt-Enter
on a Field and select Make Validated Field. This transforms
an existing Field into a ValidatedField, so that validation
expressions can be entered25 . The core of the intention is the
following script, which performs the actual transformation:
execute(editorContext, node)->void {
node<ValidatedField> vf = new node<ValidatedField>();
vf.widget = node.widget;
vf.attribute = node.attribute;
vf.label = node.label;
node.replace with(vf);
}
The uispec_validation language extends the uispec language.
We also extend the existing, embeddable expressions language,
so we can use Expressions in the definition of our language26 .
ValidatedField has a property expr that contains the validation expression.
As a consequence of polymorphism, we can use any existing subconcept of Expression in validations. So without doing
anything else, we could write 20 + 40 > 10, since integer literals and the + and > operators are defined as part of the composed expressions language. However, to write anything useful, we have to be able to reference entity attributes from within
expressions27 . To achieve this, we create the AttributeRefExpr,
as shown in Fig. 16.15. We also create LengthOf and IsSetExpression as further examples of how to adapt an embedded
language to its new context – i.e. the uispec and entities
languages.
The AttributeRefExpr references an Attribute from the
entities language; however, it may only reference those attributes of those entities that are used in the form in which we
define the validation expression. The following is the code for
the search scope:
Alternatively it could be arranged
(with 5 lines of code) that users could
simply type validate on the right
of a field definition to trigger the
transformation code below.
25
Embedding requires that both
composed languages (uispec and
expressions) remain independent.
The uispec_validation language acts
as an adapter. In contrast to the reuse
examples, this adapter also adapts the
concrete syntax.
26
We argued in the design part that, in
order to make an embedded language
useful with its host language, it has
to be extended: the following is an
example of this.
27
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(model, scope, referenceNode, linkTarget, enclosingNode)
->join(ISearchScope | sequence<node< >>) {
nlist<Attribute> res = new nlist<Attribute>;
node<Form> form = enclosingNode.ancestor<Form, +>;
if ( form != null ) {
for (node<EntityReference> er : form.usedEntities) {
res.addAll(er.entity.attributes);
}
}
res;
}
Notice that the actual syntactic embedding of the expressions
language in the uispec_validation language is no problem
at all as a consequence of how projectional editors work. We
simply define Expression to be a child of the ValidatedField.
Type System The general challenge here is that primitive
types such as int and string are defined in the entities
language and in the embeddable expressions language. Although they have the same names, they are not the same types.
So the two sets of types must be mapped. Here are a couple
of examples. The type of the IsSetExpression is by definition
expressions.BooleanType. The type of the LengthOf, which
takes an AttrRefExpression as its argument, is expressions.
IntType. The type of an attribute reference is the type of the
attribute’s type property:
typeof(attrRef) :==: typeof(attrRef.attr.type);
However, consider the following code:
field Freelancer: checkbox -> Employee.freelancer
validate if (isSet(Employee.worksAt)) Employee.freelancer == false
else Employee.freelancer == true
This code states that if the worksAt attribute of an employee is
set, then its freelancer attribute must be false else it must be
true (freelancers don’t workAt anything). It uses the == operator from the expressions language. However, that operator
expects two arguments with expressions.BooleanType, but
the type of the Employee. freelancer is entities.BooleanType28 . In effect, we have to override the typing rules for the
expressions language’s == operator. Here is how we do it.
In the expressions language, we define overloaded operation
rules. We specify the resulting type for an EqualsExpression
depending on its argument types. Here is the code in the
expressions language that defines the resulting type to be
boolean if the two arguments are Equallable29 :
operation concepts: EqualsExpression
left operand type: new node<Equallable>()
It is probably a good idea to use the
same set of primitive types (and expressions) for all languages to avoid
mappings like these. This could be
achieved by requiring all languages to
use a common base language (similar to
Xbase). However, if the to-be-composed
languages are developed by independent people, then it is hard to enforce a
common base language. So the ability
to have such mappings is useful.
28
In addition to this code, we have to
specify that expressions.BooleanType
is a subtype of Equallable, so this
rule applies if we use equals with two
expressions.BooleanType arguments.
29
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right operand type: new node<Equallable>()
operation type:
(operation, leftOperandType, rightOperandType)->node< > {
<boolean>;
}
We have to tie this overloaded operation specification into a
regular type inference rule:
rule typeof_BinaryExpression {
applicable for BinaryExpression as binex
do {
node<> opType = operation type( binex , left , right );
if (opType != null) {
typeof(binex) :==: opType;
} else {
error "operator " + binex.concept.name +
" cannot apply to these argument types " +
left.concept.name + "/" + right.concept.name
-> binex; }
}
}
To override these typing rules to work with entities.BooleanType, we simply provider another overloaded operation specification in the uispec_validation language:
operation concepts: EqualsExpression
one operand type: <boolean> // the entities.BooleanType!
operation type:
(op, leftOperandType, rightOperandType)->node< > {
<boolean>; // the expressions.BooleanType
}
Generator The generator has to create BaseLanguage code,
which is then subsequently transformed into Java text. To deal
with the transformation of the expressions language, we can
do one of two things:
• Either we can use the expressions language’s existing totext generator and wrap the expressions in some kind of
TextHolderStatement30 .
• Alternatively, we can write a (reusable) transformation from
expressions code to BaseLanguage code; these rules would
get used as part of the transformation of uispec and uispec_validation code to BaseLanguage.
Since many DSLs will probably transform code to BaseLanguage, it is worth the effort to write a reusable generator from
expressions to BaseLanguage31 . So we choose this second alternative. The generated Java code is multi-sourced, since it is
generated by two independent code generators.
Expression constructs from the reusable expressions language and those of BaseLanguage are almost identical, so this
Remember that we cannot simply
embed text in BaseLanguage, since
that would not work structurally: no
concept in BaseLanguage expects "text"
as children: a wrapper is necessary.
30
In fact, it would be useful if a simple
language with types and expression
came with MPS. This language could
either be used as part of BaseLanguage
as well (so no transformation would
be needed) or the transformation to
BaseLanguage could ship with MPS as
well.
31
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generator is trivial. We create a new language project expressions.blgen and add reduction rules32 . Fig. 16.16 shows some
of these reduction rules.
In addition, we also need reduction rules for the new expressions that we have added specifically in the uispec_validation
language (AttrRefExpression, isSetExpression, LengthOf).
These transformations are defined in uispec_validation, since
this language is not reusable – it is specifically designed to integrate the uispec and the expressions languages. As an example, Fig. 16.17 shows the rule for handling the AttrRefExpression. The validation code itself is "injected" into the UI form
via the same placeholder reduction as in the case of the language rbac_entities.
Language extension can also be used to prevent the use of specific base language concepts in the sublanguage, possibly in
certain contexts. As an example, we restrict the use of some
operators provided by the reusable expression language inside
validation rules in uispec_validation. This can be achieved
411
In MPS all "meta stuff" is called
a language. So even though
expressions.blgen only contains a
generator it is still a language in MPS
terminology.
32
Figure 16.16: A number of reduction rules that map the reusable
expressions language to BaseLanguage (Java). Since the languages are
very similar, the mapping is trivial. For
example, a PlusExpression is mapped
to a + in Java, the left and right arguments are reduced recursively through
the COPY_SRC macro.
Figure 16.17: References to entity
attributes are mapped to a call to
their getter method. The template
fragment (inside the <TF..TF>) uses
two reference macros (->$) to "rewire"
the object reference to the Java bean
instance, and the toString method call
to a call to the getter.
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by implementing a can be ancestor constraint on ValidatedField.
can be ancestor:
(operationContext, scope, node, childConcept)->boolean {
return !(childConcept == concept/GreaterEqualsExpression/ ||
childConcept == concept/LessEqualsExpression/);
}
16.2.7
Annotations
In a projectional editor, the CS of a program is projected from
the AST. A projectional system always goes from AS to CS,
never from CS to AS (as parsers do). This means that the CS
does not have to contain all the data necessary to build the
AST (which is necessary in the case of parsers). This has two
consequences:
• A projection may be partial, in the sense that the AS contains data that is not shown in the CS. The information may,
for example, only be changeable via intentions (discussed in
Section 7.7), or the projection rule may project some parts of
the program only in some cases, controlled by some kind of
configuration data.
• It is also possible to project additional CS that is not part
of the CS definition of the original language. Since the CS is
never used as the information source, such additional syntax
does not confuse the tool (in a parser-based tool the grammar would have to be changed to take into account this additional syntax to avoid derailing the parser).
In this section we discuss the second alternative, since it constitutes a form of language composition: the additional CS is
composed with the original CS defined for the language. The
mechanism MPS uses for this is called annotations. We have
seen annotations when we discussed templates33 : an annotation is something that can be attached to arbitrary program elements and can be shown together with the CS of the annotated
element. In this section we use this approach to implement an
alternative approach for the entity-to-database mapping. Using
this approach, we can store the mapping from entity attributes
to database columns directly in the Entity, resulting in the
following code:
module company
entity Employee {
id : int -> People.id
name : string -> People.name
The generator macros $, ->$ or
COPY_SRC are implemented via the
33
annotation mechanism.
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413
role : string -> People.role
worksAt : Department -> People.departmentID
freelancer : boolean -> People.isFreelancer
}
entity Department {
id : int -> Departments.id
description : string -> Departments.descr
}
This is a heterogeneous fragment, consisting of code from the
entities language, as well as the annotation code (e.g., ->
People.id). From a CS perspective, the column mapping is
"embedded" in the Entity. In the AST the mapping information is also actually stored in the entities model. However,
the definition of the entities language does not know that this
additional information is stored and projected "inside" entities.
No modification to the entities language is necessary.
Structure and Syntax
We define an additional language
relmapping_annotations that extends the entities language
as well as the relmapping language. In this language we define
the following concept:
concept AttrToColMapping extends NodeAnnotation
references:
Column column 1
properties:
role = colMapping
concept links:
annotated = Attribute
34
AttrToColMapping concept extends NodeAnnotation, a con-
cept predefined by MPS34 . Concepts that extend the concept
NodeAnnotation have to provide a role property and an annotated concept link. Structurally, an annotation is a child of the
node it annotates. So the Attribute has a new child of type
AttrToColMapping, and the reference that contains the child is
called @colMapping – the value of the role property prefixed
by an @. The annotated concept link points to the concept to
which this annotation can be added. AttrToColMappings can be
annotated to instances of Attribute.
While structurally the annotation is a child of the annotated
node, in the CS the relationship is reversed: the editor for
AttrToColMapping wraps the editor for Attribute, as Fig. 16.18
shows.
In fact, this concept is called
NodeAttribute in MPS. For histori-
cal reasons there a somewhat confused
terminology around "attribute" and
"annotation". We’ll stick with the term
"annotation" in this chapter.
Figure 16.18: The editor for the
AttrToColMapping embeds the editor of the concept it is annotated to
(using the attributed node cell). It
then projects the reference to the referenced column. This gives the editor of
the annotation control of if and how the
editor annotated element is projected.
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Since the annotation is not part of the original language,
it cannot just be typed in: it must be attached to nodes via
an intention. The annotation simply adds a new instance of
AttrToCol- Mapping to the @colMapping property of an Attribute, so we don’t show the code here.
Type System
The same typing rules are necessary as in the
They
relmapping_entities language described previously.
reside in relmapping_annotations.
Generator The generator is also broadly similar to the previous example with relmapping_entities. It takes the entities model as the input, and then uses the column mappings
in the annotations to create the entity-to-database mapping.
The annotations introduced above were typed to be specific to
certain target concepts (Attribute in this case). A particularly
interesting use of annotations includes those that can be annotated to any language concept (formally targeting BaseConcept).
In this case, there is no dependency between the language that
contains the annotation and the language that is annotated.
This is very useful for "meta data", as well as anything that can
be processed generically.
16.3
Xtext Example
In this section we look at an example roughly similar to the one
for MPS discussed in the previous section. We start out with a
DSL for entities. Here is an example program:
module company {
entity Employee {
id : int
name : string
role : string
worksAt : Department
freelancer : boolean
}
entity Department {
id : int
description : string
}
}
The grammar is straightforward and should be clear if you
have read the implementation part of this book so far.
grammar org.xtext.example.lmrc.entity.EntityDsl
with org.eclipse.xtext.common.Terminals
generate entityDsl "http://www.xtext.org/example/lmrc/entity/EntityDsl"
This section of the book has been
written together with Christian Dietrich. Contact him via
[email protected]
dsl engineering
415
Module:
"module" name=ID "{"
entities+=Entity*
"}";
Entity:
"entity" name=ID "{"
attributes+=Attribute*
"}";
Attribute:
name=ID ":" type=AbstractType;
Named: Module|Entity|Attribute;
AbstractType:
BooleanType|IntType|StringType|EntityReference;
BooleanType: {BooleanType} "boolean";
IntType: {IntType} "int";
StringType: {StringType} "string";
EntityReference: ref=[Entity|FQN];
FQN: ID ("." ID)*;
16.3.1
Referencing
Referencing describes the case in which programs written in
one DSL reference (by name) program elements written in another DSL35 . The example we use is the UI specification language, in which a Form defined in the UI model refers to Entities from the language defined above, and Fields in a form
refers to entity Attribute. Here is some example code:
Both programs reside in different
fragments and no syntactic composition
is required.
35
form CompanyStructure
uses Department // reference to Department Entity
uses Employee
// reference to Employee Entity
field
field
field
field
Name: textfield(30)
Role: combobox(Boss, TeamMember)
Freelancer: checkbox
Office: textfield(20)
->
->
->
->
Employee.worksAt
Employee.role
Employee.freelancer
Department.description
Note that the references to entities
and fields do not technically reference
into an entity source file. Instead, these
references refer to the EMF objects in
the AST that has been parsed from the
source file. So, a similar approach
can be used to reference to other
EObjects. It does not matter whether
these are created via Xtext or not. This
is reflected by the fact that the grammar
of the uispec language does not refer
to the grammar of the entity language,
but to the derived meta model.
36
Structure Referencing concepts defined in another language
relies on importing the target meta model and then defining
references to concepts defined in this meta model36 . Here is
the header of the grammar of the uispec language:
grammar org.xtext.example.lmrc.uispec.UispecDsl
with org.eclipse.xtext.common.Terminals
import "http://www.xtext.org/example/lmrc/entity/EntityDsl" as entity
generate uispecDsl "http://www.xtext.org/example/lmrc/uispec/UispecDsl"
Importing a meta model means that the respective meta classes
can now be used. Note that the meta model import does not
make the grammar rules visible, so the meta classes can only be
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used in references and as base types (as we will see later). In
the case of referencing, we use them in references:
EntityReference:
"uses" entity=[entity::Entity|FQN];
Field:
"field" label=ID ":" widget=Widget
"->" attribute=[entity::Attribute|FQN];
To make this work, no change is required in the entities language37 . However, the workflow generating the uispec language has to be changed. The genmodel file for the meta model
has to be registered in the StandaloneSetup38 .
bean = StandaloneSetup {
...
registerGenModelFile = "platform:/resource/org.xtext.example.lmrc.
entity/src-gen/org/xtext/example/lmrc/entity/EntityDsl.genmodel"
}
This is true as long as the referenced
elements are in the index. The index
is used by Xtext to resolve references
against elements that reside in a different model file. By default, all elements
that have a name attribute are in the
index. Entity and Attribute have
names, so this works automatically.
37
This is necessary so that the EMF
code generator, when generating the
meta classes for the uispec language,
knows where the generated Java classes
for the entities languages are located.
This is an EMF technicality and we
won’t discuss it in any further detail.
38
We have to do one more customization to make the language
work smoothly. The only Attributes that should be visible are
those from the entities referenced in the current Form’s uses
clauses, and they should be referenced with a qualified name
(Employee.role instead of just role). Scoping has to be customized to achieve this:
public IScope scope_Field_attribute(Field context, EReference ref) {
Form form = EcoreUtil2.getContainerOfType(context, Form.class);
List<Attribute> visibleAttributes = new ArrayList<Attribute>();
for (EntityReference useClause : form.getUsedEntities()) {
visibleAttributes.addAll(useClause.getEntity().getAttributes());
}
Function<Attribute, QualifiedName> nameComputation =
new Function<Attribute, QualifiedName>() {
@Override
public QualifiedName apply(Attribute a) {
return QualifiedName.create(((Entity)a.eContainer()).
getName(), a.getName());
}
};
return Scopes.scopeFor(visibleAttributes, nameComputation , IScope.
NULLSCOPE);
}
This scoping function performs two tasks: first, it finds all
the Attributes of all used entities. We collect them into a
list visibleAttributes. The second part of the scoping function defines a Function object39 that represents a function from
Attribute to QualifiedName. In the implementation method
apply we create a qualified name made from two parts: the
entity name and the attribute name (the dot between the two is
default behavior for the QualifiedName class). When we create
the scope itself in the last line we pass in the list of attributes,
as well as the function object. Xtext’s scoping framework uses
the function object to determine the name by which each of the
attributes is referenceable from this particular context.
Note how we have to use the ugly
function object notation, because Java
does not provide support for closures
or lambdas at this point! Alternatively
you could do this with Xtend, which
does support closures.
39
dsl engineering
Type System As we discussed in Section 20.2, dealing with
type systems in the referencing case is not particularly challenging, since the type system of the referencing language can
be built with knowledge of the type system of the referenced
language.
Generators The same is true for generators. Typically they
just share knowledge about the naming of generated code elements.
16.3.2
Reuse
Referencing concerns the case in which the referencing language is built with knowledge about the referenced language,
so it can have direct dependencies. In the example above, the
uispec language uses Entity and Attribute from the entities
language. It directly imports the meta model, so it has a direct
dependency. In the case of reuse, such a direct dependency is
not allowed. Our goal is to combine two independent languages.
To illustrate this case, we again use the same example as in the
MPS section.
Structure We first introduce a db language, a trivial DSL
for defining relational table structures. These can optionally be
mapped to a data source, but the language makes no assumption about how this data source looks (and which language is
used to define it). Consequently, the grammar has no dependency on any other, and imports no other meta model:
grammar org.xtext.example.lmrc.db.DbDsl with org.eclipse.xtext.common.
Terminals
generate dbDsl "http://www.xtext.org/example/lmrc/db/DbDsl"
Root:
Database;
Database:
"database" name=ID
tables+=Table*;
Table:
"table" name=ID
columns+=Column*
;
Column:
type=AbstractDataType name=ID (mapper=AbstractColumnMapper)?;
AbstractColumnMapper:
{AbstractColumnMapper}"not mapped";
AbstractDataType: CharType | NumberType;
CharType: {CharType}"char";
NumberType: {NumberType}"number";
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Just as in the MPS example, the Column rule has an optional
mapper property of type AbstractColumnMapper. Since it is
not possible to explicitly mark rules as generating abstract meta
classes, we simply define the syntax to be not mapped40 . This
language has been designed for reuse, because it has this hook
AbstractColumnMapper, which can be customized later. But
the language is still independent. In the next step, we want to
be able to reference Attributes from the entities language:
Since the mapper property in Column
is optional, you don’t ever have to type
this.
40
database CompanyDB
table Departments
number id
char descr
<- Department.id
<- Department.description
table People
number id
char name
char role
char isFreelancer
<<<<-
Employee.id
Employee.name
Employee.role
Employee.freelancer
To make this possible, we create a new language db2entity
that extends the db language and references the entities language41 . This is reflected by the header of the db2entity language (notice the with clause):
grammar org.xtext.example.lmrc.db2entity.Db2EntityDsl
with org.xtext.example.lmrc.db.DbDsl
import "http://www.xtext.org/example/lmrc/db/DbDsl" as db
import "http://www.xtext.org/example/lmrc/entity/EntityDsl" as entity
generate db2EntityDsl
"http://www.xtext.org/example/lmrc/db2entity/Db2EntityDsl"
Notice that we only extend DbDsl.
The entities meta model is just
referenced. This is because Xtext can
only extend one base grammar. For
this reason we cannot embed language
concepts from the entities language
in a db2entity program, we can
only reference them. However, for this
particular example, this is sufficient.
41
We now have to overwrite the AbstractColumnMapper rule defined in the db language:
AbstractColumnMapper returns db::AbstractColumnMapper:
{EntityColumnMapper} "<-" entity=[entity::Attribute|FQN];
We create a rule that has the same name as the rule in the supergrammar. So when the new grammar calls the AbstractColumnMapper rule, our new definition is used. Inside, we define the
new syntax we would like to use, and as part of it, we reference an Attribute from the imported entity meta model.
We then use the {EntityColumnMapper} action to force instantiation of an EntityColumnMapper object: this also implicitly
leads to the creation of an EntityColumnMapper class in the
generated db2entity meta model. Since our new rule returns
an db::AbstractColumnMapper, this new meta class extends
AbstractColumnMapper from the db meta model – which is exactly what we need42 .
There are two more things we have
to do to make it work. First, we have to
register the two genmodel files in the
db2entity’s StandaloneSetup bean in
the workflow file. Second, we have to
address the fact that in Xtext, the first
rule in a grammar file is the entry rule
for the grammar, i.e. the parser starts
consuming a model file using this rule.
In our db2entity grammar, the first
rule is AbstractColumnMapper, so this
won’t work. We simply copy the first
rule (Root) from the db language.
42
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419
Type System The primary task of the type system in this
example would be mapping the primitive types used in the
entities language to those used in the db language to make
sure we only map those fields to a particular column that are
type-compatible. Just as the column mapper itself, this code
lives in the adapter language. It is essentially just a constraint
that checks for type compatibility.
Generator Let us assume there is a generator that generates
Java Beans from the entities. Further, we assume that there is
a generator that generates all the persistence management code
from DbDsl programs, except the part of the code that fetches
the data from whatever the data source is – essentially we leave
the same "hole" as we do with the AbstractColumnMapper in
the grammar. And just in the same way as we define the
EntityColumnMapper in the adapter language, we have to adapt
the executing code. We can use two strategies.
The first one uses the composition techniques of the target
language, i.e. Java. The generated code of the DbDsl could for
example generate an abstract class that has an abstract method
getColumnData for each of the table columns. The generator
for the adapter language would generate a concrete subclass
that implements these methods to grab the data from entities43 .
This way the modularity (entities, db, db2entity) is propagated into the generated artifacts as well. No generator composition is required44 .
However, consider a situation in which we have to generate inlined code, for reasons of efficiency, e.g., in some kind
of embedded system. In this case the DbDsl generator would
have to be built in an extensible way. Assuming we use Xtend
for generation, this can be done easily by using dependency
injection45 . Here is how you would do that:
• In the generator that generates persistence code from a DbDsl
program, the code that generates the inlined "get data for
column" code delegates to a class that is dependency-injected46 .
The Xtend class we delegate to would be an abstract class
that has one abstract method generateGetDataCodeFor(
Column c).
class GetDataGenerator {
def void generateGetDataCodeFor(Column c)
}
class DbDslGenerator implements IGenerator {
This is how we did it in the MPS
example.
43
In a Java/Enterprise world this would
most likely be the way we’d do it in
practice. The next alternative is a bit
constructed.
44
Sometimes people complain about
the fact that Xtend is a general purpose
language, and not some dedicated code
generation language. However, the
fact that one can use abstract classes,
abstract methods and dependency
injection is a nice example of how and
why a general purpose language (with
some dedicated support for templating)
is useful for building generators.
45
This is a nice illustration of building a
generator that is intended to be extended
in some way.
46
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@Inject GetDataGenerator gdg
def someGenerationMethod(Column c) {
// ...
String getDataCode = gdg.generateGetDataCodeFor(c)
// then embed getDataCode somewhere in the
// template that generates the DbDsl code
}
}
• The generator for the adapter language would contain a subclass of this abstract class that implements the generateGetDataCodeFor generator method in a way suitable to the entities language.
• The adapter language would also set up Google Guice dependency injection in such a way as to use this a singleton
instance of this subclass when instances of the abstract class
are expected.
16.3.3
Extension
We have already seen the mechanics of extension in the previous example, since, as a way of building the reuse infrastructure, we have extended the db language. In this section
we look at extension in more detail. Extension is defined as
syntactic integration with explicit dependencies. However, as
we discussed in Section 4.6.2 there are two use cases that feel
different:
1. In one case we provide (small scale, local, fine grained) additional syntax to an otherwise unchanged language47 .
2. The other case is where we create a completely new language, but reuse some of the syntax provided by the base
language. This use case feels like embedding (we embed
syntax from the base language in our new language), but
with regard to the classification according to syntactic integration and dependencies, it is still extension. Embedding
would prevent explicit dependencies. In this section we look
at extension with an embedding flavor.
To illustrate an extension-with-embedding flavor, we will show
how to embed Xbase expressions in a custom DSL. Xbase is
a reusable expression language that provides primitive types,
various unary and binary operators, functions and closures.
As we will see, it is very tightly integrated with Java48 . As an
example, we essentially create another entity language; thanks
to Xbase, we will be able to write:
47
The db2entity language shown
above is an example of this. The
db2entity programs look essentially
like programs written in the db base
language, but in one (or few) particular
place, something is different. In the
example, the syntax for referencing
attributes is such a small scale change.
This is a mixed blessing. As long
as you stay in a JVM world (use Java
types, generate Java code), many things
are very simple. However, as soon as
you go outside of the JVM world, a lot
of things become quite complex, and
it is questionable whether using Xbase
makes sense in this case at all.
48
dsl engineering
entity Person {
lastname : String
firstname : String
String fullName(String from) {
return "Hello " + firstname + " "
}
}
421
+ lastname + " from " + from
Below is the essential part of the grammar. Note how it extends
the Xbase grammar (the with clause) and how it uses various
elements from Xbase throughout the code (those whose names
start with an X).
grammar org.xtext.example.lmrc.entityexpr.EntityWithExprDsl
with org.eclipse.xtext.xbase.Xbase
generate entityWithExprDsl
"http://www.xtext.org/example/lmrc/entityexpr/EntityWithExprDsl"
Module:
"module" name=ID "{"
entities+=Entity*
"}";
Entity:
"entity" name=ID "{"
attributes+=Attribute* operations+=Operation*
"}";
Attribute:
name=ID ":" type=JvmTypeReference;
Operation:
type=JvmTypeReference name=ID "(" (parameters+=FullJvmFormalParameter
(’,’ parameters+=FullJvmFormalParameter)*)? ")"
body=XBlockExpression;
Let’s look at some of the details. First, the type properties of
the Attribute and the Operation are not defined by our grammar; instead we use a JvmTypeReference. This makes all Java
types legal at this location49 . We use an XBlockExpression as
the body of Operation, which essentially allows us to use the
full Xbase language inside the body of the Operation. To make
the parameters visible, we use the FullJvmFormalParameter
rule50 .
In addition to using Xbase language concepts in the definition of our grammar, we also tie the semantics of our language
to Java and the JVM. To do this, the JvmModelInferrer, shown
below, maps a model expressed with this language to a structurally equivalent Java "model". By doing this, we get a number of benefits "for free", including scoping, typing and a code
generator. Let us look at this crucial step in some detail.
class EntityWithExprDslJvmModelInferrer extends AbstractModelInferrer {
@Inject extension IQualifiedNameProvider
@Inject extension JvmTypesBuilder
def dispatch void infer(Entity entity,
Limiting this to the primitive types
(or some other subset of the JVM types)
requires a scoping rule.
49
Above we wrote that Xbase is tightly
integrated with the JVM and Java. The
use of FullJvmFormalParameter and
JvmTypeReference is a sign of this.
However, the next piece of code makes
this even clearer.
50
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IAcceptor<JvmDeclaredType> acceptor,
boolean isPrelinkingPhase) {
...
}
}
This Xtend class extends AbstractModelInferrer and implements its infer method to create structurally equivalent Java
code as an EMF tree, and registers it with the acceptor. The
method is marked as dispatch, so it can be polymorphically
overwritten for various language concepts. We override it for
the Entity concept. We have also injected the IQualifiedNameProvider and JvmTypesBuilder. The latter provides a builder
API for creating all kinds of JVM objects, such as fields, setters,
classes or operations. The next piece of code makes use of such
a builder:
acceptor.accept(
entity.toClass( entity.fullyQualifiedName ) [
documentation = entity.documentation ...
]
)
At the top level, we map the Entity to a Class. toClass is one
of the builder methods defined in the JvmTypesBuilder. The
class we create should have the same name as the entity; the
name of the class is passed into the constructor. The second
argument, written conveniently behind the parentheses, is a
closure. Inside the closure, we set the documentation of the
created class to be the documentation of the entity51 . Next
we create a field, a getter and a setter for each of the attributes
of the Entity and add them to the Class’ members collection:
attr : entity.attributes ) {
members += attr.toField(attr.name, attr.type) members +=
attr.toGetter(attr.name, attr.type) members += attr.toSetter(attr.name,
attr.type)
}
51
Inside a closure, there is a variable
it that refers to the target element
(the class in this case). It is possible
to omit the it, so when we write
documentation = ... this actually
means it.documentation = ....
toField, toGetter and toSetter are all builders contributed
by the JvmTypesBuilder. To better understand what they do,
here is the implementation of toSetter52 .
public JvmOperation toSetter(EObject sourceElement, final String name,
JvmTypeReference typeRef) {
JvmOperation res = TypesFactory.eINSTANCE.createJvmOperation();
res.setVisibility(JvmVisibility.PUBLIC);
res.setSimpleName("set" + nullSaveName(Strings.toFirstUpper(name)));
res.getParameters().add(toParameter(sourceElement, nullSaveName(name),
cloneWithProxies(typeRef)));
if (name != null) {
setBody(res, new Functions.Function1<ImportManager, CharSequence>() {
public CharSequence apply(ImportManager p) {
return "this." + name + " = " + name + ";";
}
});
}
Note that the first argument supplied
by the object in front of the dot, i.e. the
Attribute, is passed in as the first
argument, sourceElement.
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423
return associate(sourceElement, res);
}
The method first creates a JvmOperation and sets the visibility
and the name. It then creates a parameter that uses the typeRef
passed in as the third argument as its type. As you can see, all
of this happens via model-to-model transformation. This is
important, because these created objects are used implicitly in
scoping and typing. The body, however, is created textually;
it is not needed for scoping or typing: it is used only in code
generation53 . The last line is important: it associates the source
element (the Attribute in our case) with the created element
(the setter Operation we just created). As a consequence of
this association, the Xbase scoping and typing framework can
work its magic of providing support for our DSL without any
further customization!
Let’s now continue our look at the implementation of the
Jvm- ModelInferrer for the Entity. The last step before our
detour was that we created fields, setters and getters for all
attributes of our Entity. We have to deal with the operations
of our Entity next.
Since that is a to-text transformation
anyway, it is good enough to represent
the body of the setter as text already at
this level.
53
for ( op : entity.operations ) {
members += op.toMethod(op.name, op.type) [
for (p : op.parameters) {
parameters += p.toParameter(p.name, p.parameterType)
}
body = op.body
]
}
This code should be easy to understand. We create a method
for each Operation using the respective builder method, pass
in the name and type, create a parameter for each of the parameters of our source operation and then assign the body of
the created method to be the body of the operation in our DSL
program. The last step is particularly important. Notice that
we don’t clone the body, we assign the object directly. Looking
into the setBody method (the assignment is actually mapped
to a setter in Xtend), we see the following:
void setBody(JvmExecutable logicalContainer, XExpression expr) {
if (expr == null) return; associator.associateLogicalContainer(expr,
logicalContainer);
}
The associateLogicalContainer method is what makes the
automatic support for scoping and typing happen54 :
This approach of mapping a DSL to
Java "code" via this model transformation works nicely as long as it maps
to Java code in a simple way. In the
above case of entities, the mapping is
trivial and obvious. If the semantic gap
becomes bigger, the JvmTypeInferrer
becomes more complicated. However,
what is really nice is this: within the
type inferrer, you can of course use
Xtend’s template syntax to create implementation code. So it is easy to mix
model transformation (for those parts of
a mapping that are relevant to scoping
and type calculation) and then use
traditional to-text transformation using
Xtend’s powerful template syntax for
the detailed implementation aspects.
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• Because the operation is the container of the expression, the
expression’s type and the operation’s type must be compatible
• Because the expression(s) live inside the operation, the parameters of the operation, as well as the current class’s fields,
setters and getters are in scope automatically.
Generator The JVM mapping shown above already constitutes the full semantic mapping to Java. We map entities to
Java classes and fields to members and getters/setters. We do
not have to do anything else to get a generator: we can reuse
the existing Xbase-to-Java code generator.
If we build a language that cannot easily be mapped to a
JVM model, we can still reuse the Xbase expression compiler,
by injecting the JvmModelGenerator and then delegating to it
at the respective granularity. You can also change or extend the
behavior of the default JvmModelGenerator by overriding its
_internalDoGenerate(EObject, IFileSystemAccess) method
for your particular language concept55 .
Extending Xbase In the above example we embedded the
(otherwise unchanged) Xbase language into a simple DSL. Let’s
now look at how to extend Xbase itself by adding new literals
and new operators. We start by defining a literal for dates:
Notice that you also have to
make sure via Guice that your subclass is used, and not the default
JvmModelGenerator.
55
XDateLiteral:
’date’ ’:’ year=INT ’-’ month=INT ’-’ day=INT;
These new literals should be literals in terms of Xbase, so we
have to make them subtypes of XLiteral. Notice how we override the XLiteral rule defined in Xbase. We have to repeat its
original contents; there is no way to "add" to the literals56 .
XLiteral returns xbase::XExpression:
XClosure |
XBooleanLiteral |
XIntLiteral |
XNullLiteral |
XStringLiteral |
XTypeLiteral |
XDateLiteral;
We use the same approach to add an additional operator that
uses the === symbol57 :
OpEquality:
’==’ | ’!=’ | ’===’;
Similarly, if you want to remove
concepts, you have to overwrite the rule
with the concept to be removed missing
from the enumeration.
56
57
The triple equals represents identity.
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The === operator does not yet exist in Xtend, so we have to
specify the name of the method that should be called if the operator is used in a program58 . The second line of the method
initializeMapping maps the new operator to a method named
operator_identity:
425
Xtend supports operator overloading
by mapping operators to methods that
can be overridden.
58
public class DomainModelOperatorMapping extends OperatorMapping {
public static final QualifiedName IDENTITY = create("===");
@Override
protected void initializeMapping() {
super.initializeMapping();
map.put(IDENTITY, create("operator_identity"));
}
}
We implement this method in a new class that we call ObjectExtensions259 :
public class ObjectExtensions2 {
public static boolean operator_identity(Object a, Object b) {
return a == b;
}
}
Through the operator_identity operation, we have expressed
all the semantics: the Xbase generator will generate a call to
that operation in the generated Java code60 . We have also implicitly specified the typing rules: through the mapping to the
operator_identity operation, the type system uses the types
specified in this operation. The type of === is boolean, and
there are no restrictions on the two arguments; they are typed
as java.lang.Object61 .
We also want to override the existing minus operator for the
new date literals to calculate the time between two dates. We
don’t have to specify the mapping to a method name, since
the mapping for minus is already defined in Xbase. However, we have to provide an overloaded implementation of the
operator_minus method for dates:
public class DateExtensions {
public static long operator_minus(Date a, Date b) {
long resInMilliSeconds = a.getTime() - b.getTime();
return millisecondsToDays( resInMilliSeconds );
}
}
To make Xtend aware of these new classes, we have to register
them. To do so, we extend the ExtensionClassNameProvider.
It associates the classes that contain the operator implementation methods with the types to which these methods apply:
public class DomainModelExtensionClassNameProvider extends
ExtensionClassNameProvider {
59
The existing class ObjectExtensions
contains the implementations for the
existing == and != operators, hence the
name.
Alternatively, as a performance improvement, you could use the @Inline
annotation to inline the function in the
generated code.
60
If customizations are required,
these could be done by overriding the _expectedType operation in
XbaseTypeProvider.
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@Override
protected Multimap<Class<?>, Class<?>> simpleComputeExtensionClasses()
{
Multimap<Class<?>, Class<?>> result =
super.simpleComputeExtensionClasses();
result.put(Object.class, ObjectExtensions2.class);
result.put(Date.class, DateExtensions.class);
return result;
}
}
We now have to extend the type system: it has to be able to
derive the types for date literals. We create a type provider
that extends the default XbaseTypeProvider62 :
Don’t forget to register this class
with Guice, just like all the other
DSL-specific subclasses of framework
classes.
62
@Singleton
public class DomainModelTypeProvider extends XbaseTypeProvider {
@Override
protected JvmTypeReference type(XExpression expression,
JvmTypeReference rawExpectation, boolean rawType) {
if (expression instanceof XDateLiteral) {
return _type((XDateLiteral) expression, rawExpectation, rawType);
}
return super.type(expression, rawExpectation, rawType);
}
protected JvmTypeReference _type(XDateLiteral literal,
JvmTypeReference rawExpectation, boolean rawType) {
return getTypeReferences().getTypeForName(Date.class, literal);
}
}
Finally we have to extend the Xbase compiler so that it can
handle date literals:
public class DomainModelCompiler extends XbaseCompiler {
protected void _toJavaExpression(XDateLiteral expr, IAppendable b) {
b.append("new java.text.SimpleDateFormat(\"yyyy-MM-dd\").parse(\"" +
expr.getYear() + "-" + expr.getMonth() + "-" +
expr.getDay() + "\")");
}
}
Active Annotations Xtext’s Xtend language comes with Active Annotations. They use the same syntax as regular Java
annotations63 . However, they can influence the translation process from Xtend to Java64 . Each annotation is essentially associated with a model-to-model transformation that creates the
necessary Java code. This allows the execution semantics of
the respective Xtend class to be influenced.
At the time of this writing, the most impressive active annotation (prototype) I have seen involves GWT programming65 .
They implement the following two annotations:
Java annotations are markers you can
attach to various program elements
such as classes, fields, methods or arguments. For example, the @Override
annotation declares that a method
overrides a similar method in the superclass. Another example is @NotNull
on an argument, which expresses the
fact that that argument may not be
null. Annotations may also capture
metadata: the @Author( name = ..,
date = ..) annotation expresses who
wrote a class. Annotations may be standardized (e.g. @Override) or may be
implemented by users. In the standard
case the annotations are typically processed by the compiler (e.g., checking
that there actually is a method with
the same signature in the superclass or
modifying the generated bytecode to
report an error if a NotNull argument is
null at runtime). Custom annotations
are processed in some way by some
external tool (e.g. by checking certain
properties of the code, or by modifying
the class bytecode via some bytecode
processor).
63
This feature is actually introduced in
version 2.4; at the time of this writing,
only prototypes are available, so some
details about what I describe here may
be different in the final release. This is
also why we don’t show source code
here.
64
This has been built by Sven Efftinge
and Oliver Zeigermann. The slides
that describe the system are here:
slidesha.re/Shb3SO. The code is at
github: github.com/DJCordhose/
todomvc-xtend-gwt.
65
Services From a simple Xtend class that contains the serverside implementation methods, the annotation generates the
necessary remote interface and the other boilerplate that enables the remote communication infrastructure.
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UI Forms In GWT, a UI form is defined by an XML file that defines the structure, as well as by a Java class that implements
the behavior. The behavior includes the event handlers for
the UI elements defined in the XML file. To this end, the
class has to have fields that correspond (in name and type)
to the UI elements defined in the XML. By using an annotation, this duplication can be avoided: the annotation implementation inspects the associated XML and automatically
introduces the necessary fields.
Active annotations will provide a number of additional features. First, they can implement custom validations and quick
fixes for the IDE. Second, they can change the scope and the
type system, with the IDE being aware of that66 . Third, you
can pass JVM types or expressions into annotations:
@Pre( b != 0 ) def divide(int a, int b) {
return a / b
}
It is possible to define whether the expression is passed in as
an AST (b != 0), or whether the result of the evaluation of the
expression is passed in (true or false).
While the syntactic limitations of annotations limit the kinds
of language extensions that can be built in this way, the current
prototypes show that nonetheless some quite interesting language extensions are possible67 .
16.3.4
Embedding
Embedding is not supported by Xtext. The reason is that, as we
can see from Section 4.6.4, the adapter language would have to
inherit from two base languages. However, Xtext only supports
extending one base grammar.
We have shown above how to embed Xbase expressions into
a custom DSL. However, as we have discussed, this is an example of extension with embedding flavor: we create a new
DSL into which we embed the existing Xbase expressions. So
we only have to extend from one base language – Xbase. An
example of embedding would be to take an existing, independent SQL language and embed it into the entity DSL created
above. This is not possible.
The same is true for the combination (in the same program)
of several independently developed extensions to the same base
language. In that case, too, the composite grammar would have
to inherit from several base languages68 .
The transformation defined by the
active annotation that maps the annotated Xtend construct to Java code is
run not just during code generation,
but also during editing (like any other
JVM model inferrer). Since scoping and
the type system of Xtend is based on
the inferred JVM model, the annotation
transformation can affect these as well.
66
This is due in particular to the fact
that the IDE is aware of the transformation (influencing typing and and
code completion) as a consequence of
the real-time transformation with a
JVMModelInferrer.
67
While this sounds like a rather
academic problem to have, the mbeddr
case study referred to throughout
this book shows where and how the
combination of independent language
extensions is useful in practice. mbeddr
could not have been built with Xtext for
this reason.
68
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Spoofax Example
In this section we look at an example roughly similar to that
for MPS and Xtext discussed in the previous sections. We start
with Mobl’s data modeling language, which we have already
seen in previous chapters.
To understand some of the discussions later, we first have to
understand how Spoofax organizes languages. In Spoofax, language definitions are typically modularized (they declare their
module at the top of a file). For example, Mobl’s syntax definition comes with a module for entities, which imports modules
for statements and expressions:
module MoblEntities
imports
MoblStatements
MoblExpressions
All syntax definition modules reside in the syntax directory
of a Spoofax project. Typically, subdirectories are used to organize the modules of different sublanguages. For example,
we can have subdirectories entity for Mobl’s entity definition
language, screen for Mobl’s screen definition language, and
common for definitions shared by both languages:
module entity/MoblEntities
imports
entities/MoblStatements
entities/MoblExpressions
module screen/MoblScreens
imports
common/Lexical
module common/MoblExpressions
imports
common/Lexical
As the example shows, the directory structure is reflected in
module names. You can read them as relative paths from the
syntax directory to the module.
Similarly to syntax definitions, rewrite rules for program
analysis, editor services, program transformation, and code
generation are organized in modules, which are imported from
Mobl’s main module. The various modules for program analysis, editor services and program transformation are organized
in subdirectories:
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module mobl
imports
analysis/names
analysis/types
analysis/checks
editor/complete
editor/hover
editor/refactor
trans/desugar
trans/normalize
generate
16.4.1
Referencing
We will illustrate references to elements written in another DSL
with Mobl’s screen definition language. The following code
uses Mobl sublanguage for data definition. It defines an entity
Task with some properties69 .
entity Task {
name
description
done
date
}
:
:
:
:
String
String
Bool
DateTime
The next piece of code shows a screen definition written in
Mobl’s screen definition language. It defines a root screen for
a list of tasks, using the name of a Task as a label for list
elements.
screen root() {
header("Tasks")
group {
list(t in Task.all()) {
item { label(t.name) }
}
}
}
There are two references to the data model: Task refers to
an Entity, and name refers to a property of that Entity. In
general, a Screen defined in the UI model refers to Entities
from Mobl’s entity language, and Fields in a screen refer to
Properties in an entity.
Structure When referencing elements of another language,
both languages typically share a definition of identifiers. For
example, the screen definition language imports the same lexical module as does the data modeling language, via the expression module:
module entity/MoblEntities
imports
...
entity/MoblExpressions
The example should look familiar
- we have discussed the language in
several examples throughout the book
already.
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module entity/MoblExpressions
imports
...
common/Lexical
module screen/MoblScreens
imports common/Lexical
exports context-free syntax
"list" ID "in" Collection "{" Item* "}" -> List
ID "." "all" "(" ")"
-> Collection
"item" "{" ItemPart* "}"
-> Item
"label" "(" ID "." ID ")"
-> ItemPart
{"ScreenList"}
{"Collection"}
{"Item"}
{"LabelPart"}
However, Spoofax also supports the use of different, typically
overlapping identifier definitions70 . In this case, the referencing language needs to import the identifier definition of the
referenced language.
This requires scannerless parsing,
since a scanner cannot handle overlapping lexical definitions.
70
Name Binding Independent of the identifiers used in both
languages, the reference has to be resolved. Definition sites are
already defined by the referenced language. The corresponding references must be defined in the referencing language by
using the namespaces from the referenced language. The previous syntax definition fragment of the screen definition language specifies lists and items in these lists. The following fragment shows the corresponding name binding specifications:
module screen/names
imports entity/names
namespaces Item
rules
ScreenList(i, coll, i*):
defines Item i of type t
where coll has type t
Collection(e):
refers to Entity e
LabelPart(i, p):
refers to Item i
refers to Property p in Entity e
where i has type e
Here, the screen definition language declares its own namespace Item for items, which are declared in the list head, introducing a variable for the current item of a collection. For
example, the screen definition we have seen earlier defines an
item t71 . When we describe the collection, we can refer to entities. The corresponding namespace Entity is defined in the
data modeling language. The screen definition language uses
It is the t in the list element that
references a Task.
71
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the same namespace, to resolve the references into the referred
language72 .
Type System Similar to the name resolution, the type system of the referencing language needs to be defined with the
knowledge of the type system of the referenced language.
431
Similarly, the screen definition language uses the namespace Property
from the data modeling language, to
refer to properties of entities.
72
constraint-error:
LabelPart(item, property) -> (property, "Label has to be a string.")
where
type := <index-type-of> property
not (!type => !StringType())
To be able to check whether a label is a string, this constraint
has to determine the type of the property used as a label.
Generators Generators of the referencing language also need
to be defined with the knowledge of the generators of the referenced language. Typically, they just share knowledge about
the naming and typing of generated code elements.
to-java:
LabelPart(item, property) ->
|[ new Label([java-item].[java-prop]);
]| where
label
:= <fresh-java-var-name> "label";
java-item := <to-java-var> item;
java-prop := <to-java-getter> property
This rule generates Java code for a LabelPart. The generated
code should create a new label with a text which should be
determined from a property of an item. To generate the property access, the rule relies on the same scheme as rules from
the generator of the entity definition part, by making calls to
rules from this generator73 .
16.4.2
Reuse
As discussed in the previous sections, referencing concerns the
case in which the referencing language is built with knowledge
about the referenced language, so that it can have direct dependencies74 . In the case of reuse, such direct dependency is not
allowed: our goal is to combine two independent languages.
Structure To illustrate this case, we again use the same example as in the MPS section. We first introduce a trivial DSL
for defining relational table structures. These can optionally
be mapped to a data source, but the language makes no assumption about what this data source looks like (and which
language is used to define it). Consequently, the grammar has
no dependency on any other one:
It first generates the Java variable
name from item. Second, it generates
a getter call from property. Finally, it
composes these fragments with its own
Java code.
73
In the example above, the screen definition language uses the namespaces
and types from the entity language
directly.
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module DBTables
"database" ID Table*
"table" ID Column*
DataType ID ColumnMapper
->
->
->
->
Database {"DB"}
Table
{"DBTable"}
Column
{"DBColumn"}
ColumnMapper {"DBMissingMapper"}
"char"
"number"
-> DataType {"DBCharType"}
-> DataType {"DBNumberType"}
Again, the Column rule has an optional ColumnMapper which
works as the hook for reuse. The reusable language only provides a rule for a missing column mapper75 . In the next step,
we want to be able to reference properties from Mobl’s data
modeling language from a table definition:
database TaskDB
table Tasks
char name
<- Task.name
char description <- Task.description
To do this, we define an adapter module, which imports the
reusable table module and the data modeling language. So
far, ColumnMapper is only an abstract concept, without a useful definition. The adapter module now defines a rule for
ColumnMapper, which defines the concrete syntax of an actual
mapper that can reference properties from the data modeling
language:
module MoblDBAdapter
imports
DBTables
MoblEntities
context-free syntax
"<-" ID "." ID -> ColumnMapper {"PropertyMapper"}
There is only one rule in this module, which defines a concrete
mapper. On the right-hand side, it uses the same sort as the
rule in the table module (ColumnMapper). On the left-hand side,
it refers to a property (second ID) in an entity (first ID).
NameBinding The actual reference to entity and property
names from the imported data modeling language needs to be
specified in the name binding module of the adapter:
module adapter/names
imports entity/names
rules
PropertyMapper(e, p):
refers to Entity e
refers to Property p in Entity e
Rules for a concrete mapper can be
added later in a sublanguage.
75
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Type System In our example, the types of the database language needs to be connected to the primitive types used in
Mobl76 . Constraints ensure we only map those fields to a particular column that are type-compatible:
module reuse/dbtables/analysis/types
433
More generally, the type system needs
to connect types from the abstract but
reusable language to types from the
language which actually reuses it.
76
rules
constraint-error:
DBColumn(type, _, mapper) -> (mapper, "Incompatible type")
where
type’ := <type-of> mapper ;
<not(compatible-types)> (type, type’)
compatible-types: _ -> <fail>
The code above is defined in the generic implementation of
the database language. It assumes that a mapper has a type
and checks if this type is compatible with the declared column
type. It defines a default rule for type compatibility, which
always fails. The connection to the type system of the entity
language can now be made in an adapter module:
module analysis/types/adapter
imports
module analysis/types
module reuse/dbtables/analysis/types
rules
type-of: PropertyMapper(e, p) -> <index-type-of> p
compatible-types: (DBCharType(), StringType()) -> <id>
compatible-types: (DBNumberType(), NumType()) -> <id>
The first rule defines the type of a PropertyMapper to be the
type of the property. Then, two rules define type compatibility for Mobl’s String type with the char type in the table
language, and Mobl’s Num type with table language’s number
type.
As in the MPS example, the code
generator of the database language
generates an abstract Java class for
fetching data, while Mobl’s original
code generator generates Java classes
from entities. We can then define an
additional generator, which generates a
concrete subclass that fetches data from
entities.
77
Generator As in the Xtext example, we can use two strategies to reuse a generator for the database language. The first
strategy relies on composition techniques of the target language, if that language provides such composition facilities77 .
The second strategy we discussed in the Xtext example addressed the generation of inlined code, which requires an extendable generator of the reusable language. With rewrite rules,
this can be easily achieved in Spoofax. The reusable generator
calls a dedicated rule for generating the inlined code, but defines only a failing implementation of this rule:
rules
db-to-java: Column(t, n, mapper) ->
[Field([PRIVATE], t’, n),
Method([PROTECTED], BoolType, n’, params, stmts)]
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where
n’
:= <to-fetch-method-name> n ;
param := <to-fetch-method-parameters> mapper ;
stmts := <to-fetch-statements(|n)> mapper
to-fetch-method-parameters: _ -> <fail>
to-fetch-statements(|n)
: _ -> <fail>
This rule generates code for columns. It generates a private
field and a protected method to fetch the content. This method
needs a name, parameters and an implementation. We assume
that the method name is provided by the generic generator. For
the other parts (in particular, the implementation of the methods), the generic generator only provides failing placeholder
rules. These have to be implemented in a concrete reuse setting by the adapter language generator:
module generate/java/adapter
imports
generate/java
reuse/table/generate
rules
to-fetch-method-parameters:
PropertyMapper(entity, property) -> [Param(type, "entity")]
where
type := <entity-to-java-type> entity
to-fetch-statements(|field-name):
PropertyMapper(entity, property) ->
[Assign(VarRef(field-name), MethodCall(VarRef("entity"), m, []),
Return(True())]
where
m := <property-to-getter-name> property
This adapter code generates a single parameter for the fetch
method. It is named entity and its type is provided by a
rule from the entity language generator. The rule maps entity
names to Java types. For the implementation body, the second
rule generates an assignment and a return statement. The assignment calls the getter method for the property. Again, the
name of this getter method is provided by the entity language
generator.
16.4.3
Extension
Because of Spoofax’ module system and rule-based nature, language extension feels like ordinary language development. When
we want to add a new feature for a language, we simply create
new modules for syntax, name binding, type system and code
generation rules. These modules import the existing modules
as needed. In the syntax definition, we can extend a syntactic sort with new definition rules. In the type system, we add
additional type-of rules for the new language constructs and
Since, in the case of extension, the
extending language has a dependency
on, and is developed with, knowledge
of the base language, it can be designed
in a way that will not lead to parsing
ambiguities. However, the composition
of different, independent extensions
of the same base language might lead
to ambiguities. These ambiguities will
only occur between the extensions. The
base language will stay unambiguous,
since each module is only imported
once.
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define constraints for well-typedness. Finally, we add new generator rules, which can handle the new language constructs.
16.4.4
Restriction
In the easiest case, restriction can be handled on the level of
syntax rules. SDF’s import directives allow not only for renaming of sorts, but also for replacing complete syntax rules.
To remove a rule completely, we can replace it with a dummy
rule for a sort, which is not used anywhere. The following
example restricts Mobl to a version without property access
expressions78 :
module MoblWithoutPropertyAccess
imports Mobl[Exp "." ID -> Exp => -> UnusedDummySort]
16.4.5
In more complex cases, only parts
of a syntax rule need to be restricted.
For example, we might restrict Mobl’s
screen definition language to support
only unparameterized screen definitions.
78
Embedding
Embedding can be easily achieved in Spoofax. In general, the
procedure is very similar to reuse. We will discuss the embedding of HQL79 into Mobl as an example here80 .
Structure Embedding requires an additional syntax definition module which imports the main modules of the host and
guest language and defines additional syntax rules that realize
the embedding. In target language embedding into Stratego,
this was achieved with quotations and antiquotations. The following module is an initial attempt to embed HQL into Mobl:
HQL is a declarative query language for entities stored in a relational
database. It resembles SQL in syntax.
79
We have discussed embedding already in Section 11.4, where we embedded the target language into the
Stratego transformation language.
80
module Mobl-HQL
imports
Mobl
Hql
context-free syntax
QueryRule
-> Exp {cons("HqlQuery")}
DeleteStatement ";" -> Statement {cons("HqlStatement")}
"~" Exp
-> Expression {cons("DslExp")}
The module imports syntax definitions of host and guest languages. It embeds HQL queries as Mobl expressions and HQL’s
delete statement as a Mobl statement without any quotations.
Furthermore, it allows us to use quoted Mobl expressions inside HQL queries, using the tilde as a quotation symbol.
There are two issues in this module. First, we might accidentally merge sorts with the same name in host and guest language81 . Since both languages are developed independently,
we cannot assume mutually exclusive names in their syntax
Sort names like Expression, Exp or
Statement are quite likely to be used in
81
several languages
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definitions. One way to avoid name clashes is to rename sorts
manually during import:
module Mobl-HQL
imports
Mobl
Hql [ QueryRule
=> HqlQueryRule
DeleteStatement => HqlDeleteStatement
Expression
=> HqlExpression
...
]
This can be quite cumbersome, since we have to rename all
sorts, not only the embedded ones. Alternatively, we can rely
on Spoofax to generate a renamed version of a language definition. This Mix is a parameterized syntax definition, where
Spoofax replaces each sort by a parameterized sort82 :
module HqLMix[Context]
This is a bit like generics in programming languages such as Java.
82
imports
Hql [ QueryRule
=> QueryRule[[Context]]
DeleteStatement => DeleteStatement[[Context]]
Expression
=> Expression[[Context]]
...
]
The parameter allows us to distinguish sorts from the host and
the target language. We can then import this module with
an actual parameter and use the parameterized sorts in the
embedding:
module Mobl-HQL
imports Mobl HqlMix[HQL]
context-free syntax
QueryRule[[HQL]]
-> Exp {cons("HqlQuery")}
DeleteStatement[[HQL]] ";" -> Statement {cons("HqlStatement")}
"~" Exp
-> Expression[[HQL]] {cons("MoblExp")}
The second issue is ambiguity: we have to integrate HQL queries
into the precedence rules for Mobl expressions. To do this, we
do not have to repeat all rules: preceding and succeeding rules
are sufficient83 :
context-free priorities
Assignment
-> Exp
> QueryRule[[HQL]]
-> Exp
> "if" "(" Exp ")" Exp "else" Exp -> Exp
Name Binding The name bindings of host and embedded
language are never connected. For example, only Mobl expressions can refer to Mobl variables. If an HQL query relies on a
Mobl variable, it accesses it as an embedded Mobl expression.
This is necessary because precedence
is specified relative to other rules using
the > operator introduced earlier.
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Type System The type system needs to connect the types
from the host and guest languages. This can be achieved by
adding typing rules for embedded and antiquoted constructs.
For example, we need to connect the HQL type of a query to a
Mobl type of the embedding expression:
module mobl-hql/types
imports
mobl/types
hql/types
type-of:
HqlQuery(query) -> mobl-type
where
hql-type := <type-of> query
mobl-type := <hql-to-mobl-type> hql-type
type-of:
MoblExp(exp) -> hql-type
where
mobl-type := <type-of> exp
hql-type
:= <mobl-to-hql-type> mobl-type
hql-to-mobl-type: JDBC_Integer() -> NumType()
hql-to-mobl-type: JDBC_Float()
-> NumType()
hql-to-mobl-type: JDBC_Bit()
-> BoolType()
mobl-to-hql-type: NumType()
mobl-to-hql-type: BoolType()
-> JDBC_Float()
-> JDBC_Bit()
The first rule determines the type of an embedded HQL query
and maps it to a corresponding Mobl type. The second rule determines the type of an antiquoted Mobl expression and maps
it to an corresponding HQL type. The remaining rules exemplify actual mappings between HQL and Mobl types84 .
Generator There are two strategies for code generation for
embedded languages. If the guest language provides a suitable
code generator, we can combine it with the code generator of
the host language. First, we need rules which generate code
for embedded constructs. These rules have to extend the host
generator by delegating to the guest generator. Next, we need
rules which generate code for antiquoted constructs. These
rules have to extend the guest generator by delegating to the
host generator.
Another strategy is to define a model-to-model transformation which desugars (or "assimilates") embedded constructs to
constructs of the host language. This transformation is then
applied first, before the host generator is applied to generate
code. The embedding of a target language into Stratego is
an example of this approach. The embedded target language
will be represented by abstract syntax trees for code generation fragments. These trees need to be desugared into Strat-
Additional constraints could check
for incompatible types which cannot
be mapped into the host or guest
language.
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ego pattern matching constructs. For example, the embedded
|[return |[x]|; ]| will yield the following abstract syntax
tree:
ToJava(
Return(
FromJava(
Var("x")
)
)
)
In ordinary Stratego without an embedded target language,
we would have written the pattern Return(x) instead. The
corresponding abstract syntax tree looks like this:
NoAnnoList(
App(
Op("Result"),
[Var("x")]
)
)
The desugar transformation now needs to transform the first
abstract syntax tree into the second one:
desugar-all: x -> <bottomup(try(desugar-embedded))> x
desugar-embedded: ToJava(e) -> <ast-to-pattern> e
ast-to-pattern:
ast -> pattern
where
if !ast => FromJava(e) then
pattern := e
else
c
:= <constructor> ast ;
args
:= <arguments> ast ;
ps
:= <map(ast-to-pattern)> args ;
pattern := NoAnnoList(App(Op(c), ps))
The first rule drives the desugaring of the overall tree. It tries
to apply desugar-embedded in a bottom-up traversal. The only
rule for desugaring embedded target language code matches
the embedded code and applies ast-to-pattern to it. If this
is applied to an antiquote, the contained subnode is already
a regular Stratego pattern. Otherwise, the node has to be an
abstract syntax tree of the target language. It is deconstructed
into its constructor and subtrees, which are desugared into patterns as well. The resulting patterns and the constructor are
then used to construct the overall pattern.
Part IV
DSLs in Software
Engineering
dsl engineering
This part of the book looks at how DSLs can be used in various aspects of software engineering. In particular, we look
at requirements engineering, software architecture, developer
utilities, implementation, product line engineering and business DSLs. Some of the chapters also serve as case studies for
interesting, non-trivial DSLs.
Note that this part has many contributory authors, so there
may be slight variations in style.
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17
DSLs and Requirements
This chapter looks at the role of DSLs in requirements engineering. In particular it explores the use of DSLs to specify requirements formally, at ways of representing requirements as models and at traceability between implementation artifacts and requirements.
17.1
What are Requirements?
Wikipedia defines a requirements as follows:
A requirement is a singular documented need of what a particular product or service should be or perform.
Wiktionary says:
[A requirement] specifies a verifiable constraint on an implementation that it shall undeniably meet or (a) be deemed unacceptable, or (b) result in implementation failure, or (c) result in
system failure.
In my own words I would probably define a requirement as
. . . a statement about what a system should do, and with what
quality attributes, without presupposing a specific implementation.
Requirements are supposed to tell the programmers what the
system they are about to implement should do1 . Requirements are a means of communicating from humans (people
who know what the system should do) to other humans (those
that have to implement it). Of course, as well all know, there
are a number of challenges with this:
However, a requirement typically does
not prescribe how a developer has to
implement some functionality: architecture, design, the use of patterns and
idioms and the choice of a suitable implementation technology and language
are up to the developer.
1
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• Those who implement the requirements may have a different background than those who write them, making misunderstandings between the two groups likely.
• Those who write the requirements may not actually really
know what they want the system to do, at least initially. Requirements change over the course of a project, particularly
as people start to "play" with early versions of the system2 .
• Usually requirements are written in plain English (or whatever language you prefer). Writing things down precisely
and completely in a non-formal language is next to impossible3 .
Traditional requirements documents are a means to communicate from people to people. However, in the end this is not
really true. In an ideal world, the requirements (in the brain of
the person who writes them down) should be communicated
directly to the computer, without the intermediate programmer, to avoid the misunderstandings mentioned above. If we
look at the problem in this way, requirements now become formal, computer-understandable.
Wikipedia has a nice list of characteristics that requirements
should posses. Here is a slightly adapted version of this list:
As we all know, only when we actually play or experiment with something
do we really understand all the details,
uncover corner cases and appreciate the
complexity in the system.
2
3
Writing any large prose document
consistently and free from bugs is hard.
I am sure you will find problems in this
book :-)
Complete The requirement is fully stated in one place with no
missing information. This makes the requirement easy to
consume, because readers do not have to build the complete
picture from scattered information.
This is extremely hard to achieve with
prose, because there is no "compiler"
that finds inconsistencies.
4
Consistent The requirement does not contradict any other requirement and is fully consistent with all authoritative external documentation4 .
Cohesive & Atomic The requirement is atomic, i.e., it does not
contain conjunctions5 . This ensures that traceability from
implementation artifacts back to the requirements is relatively simple.
Current The requirement has not been made obsolete by the
passage of time. Outdated requirements should be removed
or marked as outdated.
Feasible The requirement can be implemented within the constraints of the project6 .
Unambiguous The requirement is concisely stated without recourse to technical jargon, acronyms (unless defined else-
For example "The postal code field
must validate American and Canadian
postal codes" should be written as two
separate requirements: (1) "The postal
code field must validate American
postal codes" and (2) "The postal code
field must validate Canadian postal
codes".
5
Of course, as the person who writes
the requirements, you may not be able
to judge, since you may not know
the project constraints, the effort to
implement the requirement, or whether
the implementation technology is able
to address the requirement. This is
one reason why interaction with the
implementers is critical.
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dsl engineering
where in the requirements document), or other esoteric verbiage. It expresses objective facts, not subjective opinions.
It is subject to one and only one interpretation. Vague subjects, adjectives, prepositions, verbs and subjective phrases
are avoided. Negative statements and compound statements
are prohibited7 .
Mandatory The requirement represents a stakeholder-defined
characteristic the absence of which will result in a deficiency
that cannot be ameliorated. An optional requirement is a
contradiction in terms8 .
Verifiable The implementation of the requirement can be determined through one of four possible methods: inspection,
demonstration, test or analysis. Otherwise it is hard to tell
if a system actually fulfills a requirement or not9 .
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All of these things are intended to
make the prose as precise as possible
to avoid misunderstandings. However,
we all know how hard this is to achieve
with prose.
7
Although requirements may have
priorities that define how important
a requirement is relative to others.
The implementation process should
implement high-priority requirements
first, if possible.
8
Ideally, all requirements can be tested
in an automatic way, in the sense that
acceptance tests can be specified, and
these can be re-executed over and over
again.
9
If requirements are written as pure prose, then making sure
all these characteristics are met boils down mostly to a manual
review process. Of course, this is tedious and error-prone, and
requirements end up in the sorry state we all know.
To get one step better, you can use controlled natural language10 in which words like must, may or should have a well
defined meaning and are used consciously. Using tables and
– to some extent – state machines, is also a good way to make
some of the data less ambiguous; these formalisms also help
to verify requirements for consistency and completeness. To
manage large sets of requirements, tools should be used to support unique identification and naming of requirements, as well
as the expression of relationships and hierarchies among requirements11 However, the requirements themselves are still
expressed as plain text, so the fundamental problems mentioned above are not improved significantly.
In this chapter we will give you some ideas and examples
on how this situation can be improved with DSLs12 .
17.2
Requirements versus Design versus Implementation
Traditionally, we try to establish a clear line between requirements, architecture and design, and implementation. For example, a requirement may state that the system be 99.99% reliable. The design may use hot-standby and fail-over to continue
service if a component breaks. The implementation would then
10
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Controlled_natural_language
Example tools include