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02 - Wings/ Winglets
Wings /Winglets
April 2006
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02 - Wings/ Winglets
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02-XLG
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02 - Wings/ Winglets
Contents
2.0 - Chapter Preface ...................................................................................2-4
2.0.1 - Parts .......................................................................................................... 2-4
2.0.2 - Tools List ................................................................................................... 2-5
2.0.3 - Supplies List .............................................................................................. 2-5
2.0.4 - Glass List ................................................................................................... 2-6
2.0.5 - Process Overview ...................................................................................... 2-7
2.1 - Wing Core ...........................................................................................2-8
2.1.1 - Joining Leading Edge Wing Cores to Spar .................................................. 2-8
2.1.2 - Joining Trailing Edge Wing cores to Spar. .................................................... 2-9
2.1.3 - Navigation (VHF) Antenna ....................................................................... 2-10
2.2 - Wing Skins .........................................................................................2-12
2.2.1 - Lower Skin .............................................................................................. 2-12
2.2.2 - Wing Leading Edge Rib ............................................................................ 2-15
2.2.3 - Wing Root Ribs ........................................................................................ 2-15
2.2.4 - Glassing ................................................................................................... 2-16
2.2.5 - Rudder Conduit Installation ...................................................................... 2-18
2.2.4 - Top Wing Skin ......................................................................................... 2-19
2.2.6 - Wing Attach Bolt Access Holes ................................................................ 2-20
2.3 - Winglets .............................................................................................2-21
2.3.1 - Preparing Winglets for Glassing ................................................................. 2-21
2.3.2 - Glassing Inboard surface .......................................................................... 2-22
2.3.3 - Glassing Outboard Surface ....................................................................... 2-22
2.3.4 - Winglet Trimming ...................................................................................... 2-23
2.4 - Wingtip Trimming ..............................................................................2-25
2.5 - Winglet to wing attachment ................................................................2-26
2.5.1 - Overview of Winglet to Wing Attachment .................................................. 2-26
2.5.2 - Winglet and Wing Preparation ................................................................... 2-26
2.5.3 - Set-Up and Alignment .............................................................................. 2-27
2.5.4 - Winglet Attachment Lay-Ups .................................................................... 2-28
2.6 - Filling and Sanding Wings and Winglets ............................................2-32
2.7 - Ailerons ..............................................................................................2-33
2.7.1 - Aileron Cutouts ........................................................................................ 2-33
2.7.2 - Aileron Wells ............................................................................................ 2-34
2.7.3 - Glassing Aileron Well and Ribs ................................................................. 2-35
2.7.4 - Aileron Construction ................................................................................. 2-36
2.7.5 - Torque Tube and Hinge Backing Plates ..................................................... 2-37
2.7.6 - Hinge Installation .................................................................................... 2-39
2.8 - Rudders ..............................................................................................2-42
2.8.1 - Rudder Cut-Outs ..................................................................................... 2-42
2.8.2 - Rudder and Rudder Wells ....................................................................... 2-42
2.8.3 - Rudder Hinge Installation ....................................................................... 2-43
2.8.4 - Rudder Horn Installation......................................................................... 2-43
2.8.5 - Rudder Return Spring ............................................................................. 2-44
2.9 - Winglet Bottom ..................................................................................2-45
2.9.1 - Prepare Winglet Bottom .......................................................................... 2-45
2.9.2 - Attaching Winglet Bottom to Wing .......................................................... 2-45
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2.0 - Chapter Preface
2.0.1 - Parts
Part Number
MP0201
MP0202
MP0203
AN8-30A
AN363-820
USSGR8-1/2
FC0201
FC0202
FC0203
FC0204
FC0205
FC0206
FC0207
FC0211
FC0212
FC0213
FC0214
FC0215
FC0216
FC0217
MI0201
MI0202
MP0204
TE0201
MA0201
MA0202
MA0203
MS200001-P6
AN526-1032R8
AN960-10L
MS21042-3
BSP-4-4
LER-01
TER-01
Page 2-4
Description
Spar, Wing, Center
Spar, Wing, Pilot
Spar, Wing, Co-Pilot
Bolt, 1/2" Wing Attach
Nut, 1/2"
Washer, 1/2"
Foam Core, Wing, Pilot, LE, IB
Foam Core, Wing, Pilot, LE, Center
Foam Core, Wing, Pilot, LE, OB
Foam Core, Wing, Pilot, TE, IB
Foam Core, Wing, Pilot, TE, IB Center
Foam Core, Wing, Pilot, TE, OB Center
Foam Core, Wing, Pilot, TE, OB
Foam Core, Wing, Co-Pilot, LE, IB
Foam Core, Wing, Co-Pilot, LE, Center
Foam Core, Wing, Co-Pilot, LE, OB
Foam Core, Wing, Co-Pilot, TE, IB
Foam Core, Wing, Co-Pilot, TE, IB Cente
Foam Core, Wing, Co-Pilot, TE, OB Cen
Foam Core, Wing, Co-Pilot, TE, OB
I Beam, Aluminum 15'
Nylaflow 3/16" Rudder Conduit/Brk Line
Vortilon Material
Template, Wing & Winglet Attachment
Counterweight, 1/2" Steel
Torque Tube, Aileron
Backing Plate, Aileron Hinge
Hinge, Aileron/Rudder
Screw, AN526C-1032R8
Washer, AN960-10L
Nut, MS21042-3
Pop Rivet, Small
Inboard leading edge root
Inboard trailing edge root
Copper foil tape
Torroids
02-XLG
Qty
1
1
1
6
6
12
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
34'
1
1
144"
21"
40"
40"
14
14
14
30
2
2
90"
6
April 2006
02 - Wings/ Winglets
Part Number
FC0301
FC0302
FC0303
FC0304
Descript ion
Foam Core, Winglet , Pilot , Upper
Foam Core, Winglet , Pilot , Lower
Foam Core, Winglet , Co-Pilot , Upper
Foam Core, Winglet , Co-Pilot , Lower
Qt y
1
1
1
1
MS200001-P6
AN526C-1032R8
AN960-10L
MS21042-3
BSC-4-4
MA0301
MA0302
MA0303
MI0302
HW0301
HW0302
Hinge, Aileron/Rudder
Screw, AN526C-1032R8
Washer, AN960-10L
Nut , MS21042-3
Rivet , Small, Count ersunk
Bellcrank, Rudder
Spring, Rudder Ret urn
Anchor, Rudder Spring
Cable, Rudder
Sleeve, Niccopress 1/16"
Thimble 1/16"
24"
18
18
18
30
2
2
2
30'
2
2
2.0.2 - Tools List
D escription
P lumb B ob
2 S aw Horses
2" Hole S aw
S oldering Iron
Inclinometer
Level
3/16" , 1/8" drill
1/8" clecos
S quare
I-beams
W ing Incidence Jig
1/2 plywood 2"x5"
2.0.3 - Supplies List
D e s c rip tio n
V e lo c iP o xy
E Z-P o xy
G la s s B ub b le s
M ille d F ib e r
B o nd o
5 M inute E p o xy
D uc t Ta p e (a t le a s t o ne ro ll)
F ib e rg la s s S tra p p ing Ta p e
S a nd P a p e r 3 6 -8 0 g rit
b o nd o / ho t g lue
2 x 4 's 8 ft lo ng
luw a n ho llo w c o re d o o rs
5 m in e p o xy
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2.0.4 - Glass List
Page 2-6
Type
TRIAX
BID
BID
UNI
BID
BID
BID
BID
BID
FINE BID
FINE BID
FINE BID
UNI
Size
50" x 14'+ (cut to size of wing)
15" x 33"
12" x 23"
3" x 30" (bolt access reinforcement)
6" x 72" (aileron well0
6" x 6" (OB aileron well)
10" x 6" (IB aileron well)
4" x 10" (hinge hardpoint)
4" x 8" (hinge hardpoint)
6" x 72" (aileron)
6" x 4" (aileron OB)
10" x 4" (aileron IB)
30" x 62"
Qty
4
6
6
8
6
6
6
6
12
2
2
2
8
BID
BID
BID
BID
BID
UNI
UNI
UNI
UNI
UNI
UNI
UNI
4" x 12"
7" x 16"
7" x 20"
34" x 20"
32" x 18"
28" x 15"
26" x 14"
24" x 13"
20" x 11"
18" x 10"
16" x 8"
14" x 7"
16
12
4
2
2
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
BID
BID
BID
4" x 50"
4" x 4"
2-1/2" x 5"
12
12
36
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02 - Wings/ Winglets
2.0.5 - Process Overview
Construction Process
Pilot Side Co-Pilot Side
Completion Completion
Date
Date
Wings
Prepare and Jig Spar
Fit LE Foam Cores
Attach LE Foam Cores
Fit TE Foam Cores
Attach TE Foam Cores
Prepare and Jig Top Wing for Skin
Install Rudder Conduit
Skin Top of Wing
Prepare and Jig Bottom Wing for Skin
Skin Bottom of Wing
Create TE Rib
Create LE Rib
Create Wing Bolt Access Holes
Cover Wing Bolt Access Holes
Winglet
Assemble Foam Cores
Glass Inboard Surface
Install Comm Cable
Glass Outboard Surface
Prepare Winglet for Attachment
Attachment
Jig Winglet in Position
Winglet Lay-up "A"
Winglet Lay-up "B"
Winglet Lay-up "C"
Winglet Lay-up "D"
Ailerons
Prepare Wing for Winglet
Cut Out Aileron
Create Aileron Well
Glass Aileron Well & Ribs
Attach Counterweight
Attach Torque Tube and Backing Plates
Attach Hinges
Fit Aileron Onto Wing
Balance Aileron
Rudders
Cut Out Rudders
Create Rudder Wells
Lay-up Rudder Hinge Pads
Install Hinges
Attach to Winglet
Install Bellcrank
Install Return Spring
Winglet Bottoms
Installation
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2.1 - Wing Core
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2.1.1 - Joining Leading Edge Wing Cores to Spar
___
Sand all four surfaces of the wing spars using 36/40 grit sandpaper. Light, but thorough,
sanding is needed on the spar leading and trailing edge where the foam cores attach.
More thorough sanding is needed on the spar cap surfaces where the wing skins will go.
Bushings
It is important at this point to ensure that the aft face of the
wing-spar bushings are slightly under flush, as the wing attach
bolts need to grip the hard-point surface.
If your bushings protrude, the bolts will only contact the bushing
surface.
Once your cores are installed it is very difficult to correct
a protruding bushing.
Wing
Spar
LE
Bushings should be ground flush, or slightly under flush
with the aft face of the spar from the factory.
___
Suspend the spars on two sawhorses with the leading edge up. Level the spar crosswise by leveling across the two outboard wing attach bushings. Lengthwise leveling
is not necessary.
___
Fit the leading edge foam blocks into position on the spar. The root (inboard) edge
of the foam aligns with the spar “knee”. The knee is located 2" outboard of the
centerline of the wing attach outer holes.
___
Bondo small blocks of wood onto the spar where the cores tend to hang over the
edge. Space as many blocks as necessary to hold the foam cores properly in line
with the spar surface.
Use a strip of duct tape on these blocks to prevent epoxy from adhering to them when
the foam cores are Micro-Ballooned to the spar.
The foam cores may have a curve or twist in them because of internal stresses, so,
make sure the foam edges align properly with the spar cap edges, i.e. centered. Shim
if necessary.
•
Check again that the spar surface is level. If the bushings are not square to the end of
the spar, use the hardpoint under the bushing to level.
•
Check that the water lines drawn on each end of the foam cores are plumb and straight.
Use a level or preferable a plumb bob to assure a near plumb alignment.
Bondo
Core
Duct tape
between
core and
block
Spar
Wrap duct tape around
½ of wood block
Bondo
Block to spar
Figure 2-1. Alignment blocks used in attaching wing cores to spar
___
Sand the block ends to fit well together, if necessary, by placing a piece of sandpaper
between them. Hold the blocks together with gentle pressure and work the sandpaper
until the blocks fit flush.
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April 2006
02 - Wings/ Winglets
___
•
Remove the foam blocks from this jig and smear a slurry (mayonnaise-like consistency) of VelociPoxy Micro-Balloon along the flat surfaces that join to the spar and
on the surface where the foam cores butt together. Now replace the cores onto the
spar, sliding them back and forth to spread the Micro-Balloon, until the cores make
firm contact with the spar surface.
Check alignment with the “knee” and both edges of the spar along the full length.
Note: Remove any Micro-Balloon that oozes out with a putty knife. Fill any
voids with a dry Micro-balloon mixture and remove all excess slurry prior
to cure.
Plumb level line
Fiberglass strapping tape
Leading
Edge
Cores
Level
Sp a
r
2"
Microballoon joints
Align cores smoothly
Knee 2" outboard
Line up plumb bob of wing attach hole
string with level line
Wood blocks bondoed to spar
to maintain core alignment
Figure 2-2. Jigging wing leading edge cores for attaching to spar
The alignment of the foam core blocks at their joint can be held securely in line using
nails pushed into the foam through the adjoining block. Several layers of masking
tape (strapping tape is stronger) wrapped around the blocks and the spar at many
convenient locations will hold the cores securely in their proper place.
•
Check that the alignment blocks are secure.
•
Check that the spar leading edge face is level.
•
Check that the foam blocks are plumb at the root and tip.
___
When everything is aligned, plumb, and correct, let it cure.
2.1.2 - Joining Trailing Edge Wing cores to Spar.
Turn the leading edge down resting the flat surface of the spar on one saw horse.
Place a scrap piece of foam that came from the block that the leading edge was cut
from under the tip of the wing to protect it, and rest the wing tip on another saw horse.
Nails to hold
cores together
Wood aligning blocks
Scrap from
LE block
Tape
Figure 2-3. Trailing edge cores
•
Place the trailing edge foam cores in position on the back of the spar and check their fit
and alignment. The inboard edge of the inboard trailing edge core should be flush with
the inboard end of the wing spar when in the correct position. Butt the rest of the cores to
fit.
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Make sure the trailing edge cores are installed right side up. The aileron torque tube
hole on the inboard core should be toward the top surface of the wing.
___
Sand butt lines if necessary for good fit.
___
Holding a level under the spar against the flat surface of the two outboard hard
points, level the spar. Use the wood blocks Bondoed to the spar just as you did for
the leading edge of the wing. Join all three trailing edge foam cores to the spar
using Micro-Slurry and join the inboard core to the two outboard cores.
___
Pull the foam securely to the spar using 3/4” fiberglass strapping tape. Thread the
tape through a slot cut in the trailing edge blocks about 3" above the spar using a
hack saw blade to first cut the slot then to push the tape through the slot. Wrap the
tape around the leading edge cores to hold them firmly in place. Using shims between the tape and the spar cap, the foam can be guided into proper alignment. Nails
can be driven through the foam into the shear web (not the spar cap) to hold the cores
in their proper place.
•
Check all level lines to be plumb. Shim as necessary.
Note: Do not worry if the trailing edge is not straight at this point. You will
make it so in the next step.
Hint: When gluing the trailing edge cores onto the spar, use packaging tape to attach
the two I-beams into a pinching device. After you get the cores microed in place and
nailed together, slide this I beam pincher over the trailing edge and recheck. Placing
weights along the beams will reduce the amount of strapping tape required.
Duct tape
Iinum
Alum
beam
Wing trailing edge
core
Figure 2-4. Maintaining foam core trailing edge alignment
2.1.3 - Navigation (VHF) Antenna
Your NAV antenna needs to be installed on the lower inboard surface of the wing before
the lower wing is glassed. Measure 23” outboard from the outboard wing attach hardpoint
and 4-1/2” forward of the center spar. From this point draw a line parallel to the spar
inboard. Using a soldering iron burn a 1/4” deep channel along this line.
Lay your tape out onto the wing as shown in Figure 2-5. It is in the shape of a “V”, with the
angle of intersection being 125 degrees and the ends no more than 1/2” apart. When
satisfied with placement remove backing on tape and stick to foam. The ends of the
copper tapes will be approximately 2” from the leading edge when in the correct position.
You will need to dig out a little foam at the base of the copper strip for the antenna
connection.
Run a short length of RG-58 down the channel you burned in the foam to the base of
the strips. You want to leave about 18” sticking out the inboard edge of the wing . One
strip is soldered to the core of the RG-58 cable, while the other half is soldered to the
sheath .Do not forget the Torroids and heat shrink as shown in Figure 2-5.
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02 - Wings/ Winglets
NAV Antenna Installation
When done the ends of the tapes
are approx. 2” from leading edge
”
16
3/
-1
22
Forward
Measure from
bushing center line
4-1/2”
Spar to channel
RG-58
CL
23”
You will have to recess the foam to form a trench to
run the RG-58 to the channel. Afterwards the toroids &
cable are bedded with micro.
Channel
Ferrite torroids
Under Heat
shrink tubing
Figure 2-5. VHF navigation antenna.
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02 - Wings/ Winglets
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2.2 - Wing Skins
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2.2.1 - Lower Skin
___
Make a table with two straight 2x4’s and a luwan hollow core door. The objective is
to make a table that is flat and twist free.
Set one of your I-beams on the trailing edge of the table. Rest your wing on the table,
top side down.
Prop the front side of the wing up until the trailing edge rests on top of the I-beam.
You will need to shim the outboard wing tip under the spar.
Twist the I-beam to match the curve in the trailing edge. Glue and shim the I-beam to
the table so it will maintain this shape. Run a piece of duct tape down the top of the Ibeam.
Rest the wing trailing edge on the I-beam.
You may have a spot on the wing that will need a little weight to have the wing
trailing edge sit on the I-beam. Remember the amount of weight and location to use
when glassing the wing.
The straight edge gets bonded in a few spots to the trailing edge with about 1/4” of
the straight edge protruding out past the foam (see Figure 2-8a).
You will need to prop up the
outboard end under the spar
Twist I-beam to follow
contour of trailing edge
and glue and shim to
I-Beam
table to keep twist
Shim leading edge
where necessary
Luwan Door
2x4
2x4
Saw Horse
Figure 2-7. Supporting the wing for lower skin lay-up
***
Check the level lines on the cores to see that the tip and root lines match up.
***
Sight down the trailing edge to be sure that it is straight.
___
Use a small straight edge like a tongue depressor to show where the bottom skin will meet
the I-beam. Refer to figure 2-8b. Using a marker draw a line along the I-beam where the
tongue depressor runs into it. This will show where you need to have glass to glass contact.
To prepare the cores for glassing, you must first remove some of the foam from the trailing edge in order to provide an area for a glass to glass contact when the upper skin is
applied.
___
Measure 5/8” forward from the line you just drew on the I-beam. Remove the foam on
the trailing edge to this point. (see Figure 2-8b). This should leave a trailing edge thickness from 3/16" at the tip to 3/8” at the root.
___
Taper this foam edge slightly (see Figure 2-8c). This will form your trailing edge and
assure that it is straight.
•
Page 2-12
Check the foam cores with a straight edge to find any high points.
02-XLG
April 2006
02 - Wings/ Winglets
If any are found, remove them with a sanding block. Use dry VelociPoxy MicroBalloons to fill any low places, cracks, or dings. Let cure, then sand smooth before
glassing. It is a lot easier to do repairs on the foam now than it is once the outer skin
is applied! Measure the chord both inboard and outboard and try to make both
wings the same. Record these measurements below.
Left wing inboard chord
Left wing outboard chord
____
____
Right wing inboard chord
Right wing outboard chord
____
____
Figure 2-8 Wing trailing edge treatment
2.2.2 - Wing Leading Edge Rib
3-3/8“
Trim line
Pre-molded
rib
Cut LE root
here
Wing spar
CL
Outboard bushing
Center line
2-1/8“
All cuts are
90º to
spar face
After the wing is skinned
trim pre-molded bulkhead
to 2“ outboard of
Bushing centerline
Figure 2-9. Wing leading edge trimming
Make sure your wing is properly supported and check your level lines
before cutting off inboard cores.
___
Measure 3-3/8” outboard from the outboard bushings centerline. Draw a line that is perpendicular to the spar face over the leading inboard wing core. Cut the foam core on this
line back to the spar. (see Figure 2-9).
___
Sand the top, bottom and inboard side of the rib. Micro-Slurry the outboard side of the
premolded rib and use structural adhesive and Flox between the premolded rib and spar.
Hold in place with 2 wood screws through the bulkhead into the foam until cured.
___
After the top and bottom wing surfaces are glassed we will come back and trim the
inboard edge of this rib to 2-1/8” outboard of the bushing centerline.
2.2.3 - Wing Root Ribs
___
Using a square mark a line 4” from the inboard edge of the spar. Using a square place a
mark at the trailing edge straight back from this mark.
___
Place a mark 2” from the inboard edge of the spar.
___
Draw a line from your 2” mark back to your 4” trailing edge mark. Refer to Figure 2-10.
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02 - Wings/ Winglets
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Lower surface, wing TE
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Bond core TE to I-channel
with 5-minute epoxy.
¼"
TE should come to within
¼" of the edge of the I-channel
Core
Top surface, wing TE
Duct tape
Aluminum I-channel
(2 provided with kit)
Shim
Tongue Depressor
Approximate dimension
Use a straight edge to show where
you will trim the trailing edge to
5/8“
Remove foam from TE
Once the core is bonded in place to the I-beam, Using a small straight edge like a tongue depressor
mark where the wing bottom skin will intersect the I-beam. From this point remove enough foam along the
TE to expose approximately 5/8" of the aluminum I-beam in front of this line.. This should leave a core TE
approximately 3/16" at the tip to 3/8” at the root.
Remove foam to taper TE
Use sandpaper to taper
and radius trailing edge
so Triax will transition smoothly.
Duct tape
5/8“
Use sandpaper to taper
the trailing edge as shown
Cover the exposed aluminum with a length of duct tape. This will prevent the Triax skin
from adhering to the aluminum
Triax skin
Clamp
Additional straightedge
Duct tape
When you apply the triax skin, allow it to extend past the edge of the aluminum
approximately ¼". This will be trimmed off after cure. It would be advisable to clamp
several straight edges to the TE to hold the Triax in position against the I-channel. This
will help adhesion to the foam curve that you formed earlier. You want to leave a minimum
of 5/8" glass TE for the upper skin to bond to. When all layups are complete, you should
have between 5/8" and ¾" glass to glass for the length of the TE. 5/8" would be
preferable as it will require less filler, and subsequently weigh a bit less.
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02 - Wings/ Winglets
Foam will have to be
radiused in this area
to fit the rib
Outboard bushing
C
L
4“
Wing Spar
Cut
line
TE Inboard Core
Premolded
Wing Root
Rib
Figure 2-10. Wing root trim
___
Trim off the inboard edge of the wing to this line. Keep the cut as straight ,up and
down from the top to bottom skin, as you can. The top and bottom skins should be
trimmed in a vertical plane.
___
Insert your premolded rib at the end of the trailing edge inboard core. You will need
to radius the foam by the front of the premolded rib in order to get it to fit properly.
You want to make sure that the inboard edge of the rib is perpendicular to the spar
when done.
___
Sand the exterior of the rib. Use micro-slurry to bond the rib to the foam. Hold in
place with a few wood screws. Make sure that the edges of the rib line up with the
edges of the foam.
___
Where the rib meets the spar glass all the joints with 2 plies of BID 2” wide.
Inboard TE core
Wing spar
leading edge
face
Dyvinicel
Inboard
attach
bushing
Remove this
foam for
transition
2
BID
Inboard end of spar
Trimmed inboard root
Rudder conduit
Hole in lay-ups allows it through
Where the rib meets the spar cover all joints with 2 BID
Figure 2-11. Wing trailing edge rib detail - viewing from top wing
2.2.4 - Glassing
___
Sand spar cap thoroughly and sand the shear web area between the inner and outer hard
points (as the skin laps over onto this area). Radius the leading edge of the spar cap from
the outboard bushing in so that the glass will lay over it easier.
April 2006
02-XLG
Page 2-15
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02 - Wings/ Winglets
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○
○
○
○
○
Pre-cut a piece of TRIAX cloth approximately 4" longer than the overall wing. Lay
it on a flat, clean surface and try to work out as many of the squiggles as you can
before doing the actual lay-up. Do not pull so much as to distort the other fibers.
Some builders have had luck rolling the glass off the roll directly on to the wing.
___
When you are satisfied with the condition of the cores, apply EZ-Poxy Micro-Balloon slurry to the foam. Wet out the spar cap and the tape on the trailing edge straight
edge with epoxy. Let this get tacky before continuing.
___
With the UNI-directional fibers (smooth side) facing up, drape the TRIAX skin onto
the wing with the fabric edge parallel to the trailing edge and approximately 1/4” out
past the aluminum. This will be trimmed off later with a saw or a razor knife.
___
Trim the cloth even with the leading edge and approximately 1" past the tip and root
of the wing. In the spar area, allow it to cover a little more than 1/2 of the vertical
height of the shear web.
___
Cut out in the area of the wing attach fittings. Using EZ-Poxy, wet out the entire wing
skin using a paint brush, squeegee, or putty knife. Remove any excess resin.
•
After total wet-out, check the surface for bubbles or areas that do not conform. In
particular, at the corner of the inside spar, use a piece of saran wrap to hold the glass
in place during cure. The plastic keeps air from getting in behind the wet glass,
therefore holding it to the surface.
○
___
Several of our builders have clamped a second straight edge along the trailing edge
above the first straight edge to be sure that the rear of the cores have good contact with the
lower straight edge. The second straight edge also serves to pinch the glass down tight
against the foam (see Figure 2-8d).
•
___
Check all level lines and make sure everything is level and straight.
Trim all excess cloth hanging off the edges and let lay-up cure thoroughly before handling.
Note: IMPORTANT: During the initial cure, keep checking the skin. The glass
tends to bubble or wrinkle sometimes, the area of the core-to-spar intersection usually being the most affected. If bubbling or wrinkling does
occur, weigh down that particular area with a flat piece of wood wrapped in
visqueen or saran wrap. Be careful not to apply too much weight.
___
Prior to installing the top skin, it will be necessary to mark trim lines. Use a straight edge
to make these lines. (Using a chalk line as a reference to start with is a good idea.) Mark
the leading edge trim line for the bottom skin.
You want the top skin (not yet applied) to overlap the bottom skin 2", so make a line 2" aft
of the leading edge trim line. Knife trim or sand the trailing edge to the outer edge of the
I-beam at the trailing edge of the wing. (see Figure 2-12).
Up
Forward
Second lay-up, top skin, 1 ply TRIAX,
overlaps lower skin by 2".
5/8" to ¾" glass
to glass contact
Level line
Tongue Depressor used
to mark trim line
First lay-up, bottom skin, 1 ply TRIAX,
right to the leading edge
Trailing edge contour
will be filled.( Gap
exaggerated for clarity)
Figure 2-12. Wing lay-ups
___
Cut away the excess wing skin from the leading edge, trailing edge, root, and tip. Use
a file or sanding block to taper the leading edge skin and 40 grit sandpaper to smooth
and prepare for the top skin overlap.
Page 2-16
02-XLG
April 2006
02 - Wings/ Winglets
___
Remove the straightedges, turn wing right side up and reinstall the trailing edge
straightedge with Bondo (or Hot glue) on the bottom side of the glass skin below the
trailing edge for support. (Do not forget to do a little sanding so the Bondo will
stick).
___
Prepare the top surface with careful sanding using the long sanding board to remove
minor high areas.
___
Fill any low areas or holes with dry VelociPoxy Micro-Balloon, and be careful not
to get any on the spar cap..
2.2.5 - Rudder Conduit Installation
Channel is cut prior to laying wing skin.
11 ½"
Template lined up
with trailing edge of wing
and 11-1/2“ dimension
Straight line from edge
of template to 12“ from
wing root
Rudder conduit
approx. ¼" deep
except at inboard root
12"
Spar
3-1/2“
2-1/2“ below
upper skin
The conduit is cut in a straight line from the 12“ channel you mad at the wing root
all the way out to the end of the template you used at your wing tip
Figure 2-13. Rudder conduit layout - looking down on the top surface of right wing
___
Measure and mark a point 11-1/2" forward of the outer end trailing edge.
___
Refer to section 2.7.1 for aileron cut out to insure there is no interference between aileron
well and rudder cable.
___
Run a small soldering iron along a straight edge to melt a shallow channel (about 3/16"
wide, 1/4” deep) in the foam core the length of the wing following the lines you have
drawn. At the inboard end of the wing deepen the channel for the conduit by cutting
down about 2-1/4” more over the 12” straight line you just drew. The conduit should
extend from the root of the wing approximately 2-1/2” below the upper skin.
___
Install the 3/16" O.D. nylon tubing. Let the tubing extend past the ends of the wing 4"
inboard and outboard.
___
Install the rudder cable conduit with dry VelociPoxy Micro-Balloon. Scrape off any
excess micro and allow to cure.
___
Sand smooth before applying glass skin.
April 2006
02-XLG
Page 2-17
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02 - Wings/ Winglets
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○
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○
3 ½"
○
○
Rudder conduit and channel
Upper wing skin to be installed
2 ½"
Inboard TE core
Upper skin overlap
Lower skin installed
Below: Illustrates the gentle downward curve that the rudder conduit takes
at the inboard end of the inboard trailing edge core. The conduit is shown
extending 4" past the end of the core
Outboard
3/16“-1/4” Wing upper surface
2 ½"
12"
Core
Rudder conduit
Lower wing TRIAX skin
Figure 2-14. Rudder conduit installation
Inboard
TE root
2.2.4 - Top Wing Skin
___
Prepare the top surface for glassing as you did on the bottom of the wing. Carefully sand
the trailing edge of the lower skin for a good glass-to-glass bond. Mix EZ-Poxy and
glass bubbles (to make Micro-Slurry) to the consistency of mayonnaise. Trowel the wet
Micro-Slurry on the exposed foam, filling the pores, to provide a voidless bond between
the cores and skin. Again, do not let any Micro-Slurry onto the spar caps or exposed
glass at the trailing edge. Remove all excess Micro-Slurry.
___
Lay on TRIAX fiberglass cloth with the selvage edge parallel to and overlapping the
trailing edge slightly. Cut the cloth leaving a 1" overlap at the root and tip ends. Mark
the cloth with a straight edge allowing enough overlap onto the previously prepared leading edge on the bottom skin.
•
___
In the spar area, the upper skin should overlap the lower as shown in Figure 2-12.
The TRIAX cloth will not be wide enough to span the entire width of the wing. You will
need to add a small triangular piece of cloth at the inboard leading edge core to finish the
lay-up. Overlap the other cloth by about 1”.
___
Again: Remove the trimmed cloth and pull out the “loops.”
___
Pre-wet approximately 2" of the lower skin in the overlap area (leading edge). Pre-wet
the exposed fiberglass at the trailing edge and spar cap.
___
Level the wing using the level lines at the root and tip. This is very important to make sure
you do not introduce a twist to the wing.
___
Apply the EZ-Poxy resin as you did on the bottom skin. Prop up or weigh down the
leading and/or trailing edge(s) to secure these level until cured.
•
Check once more for any twist in the wing. This is your last chance to correct any twist,
as the wing becomes very rigid once the upper skin has cured.
Keep checking during the cure for any bubbles or ripples. Knife trimming is possible in
four to six hours. Trim all edges and let thoroughly cure two to three days.
Page 2-18
02-XLG
April 2006
02 - Wings/ Winglets
2.2.6 - Wing Attach Bolt Access Holes
___
On both the top and bottom skins, measure and mark a point 2" aft of the spar (about 5"
aft of the hardpoint face) on a perpendicular line aligned with the double hard point centerline.
Unidirectional strips
Bushings
3" x 30" (4) per wing
Wing attach bolt holes
Line with coarse BID
Wing
Bushings should be ground flush with the aft face of the
Spar
spar from the factory.
LE
Figure 2-14. Wing attach bolt hole detail - side view
___
Use a hole saw to drill a 2" hole through the skin. Angle the hole in the foam toward the
spar where there is already a built in cavity behind the hardpoint. Enlarge the hole in the
skin in a tear drop shape pointed toward the spar. Sand the hole smooth and line the hole
with a layer of BID.
TE spar
2" diameter hole centered 5" aft
of the outboard bushings
both top and bottom surfaces of the
wings. Enlarge the forward
portion to make a teardrop shaped
opening.
LE spar
Bushing
5 inches
12 inches to leading edge spar
TE spar
3"
LE spar
2"
Bushing
Unidirectional strip (typical)
2 plies thick
(4) 3" x 30" strips per wing
Wing attach bolt hole
Criss-cross the layers of UNI over the hardpoint and have them lap 12" on to the top and bottom skin.
Figure 2-15. Wing attach bolt hole reinforcement
___
Cut eight (four per wing) 3" x 30" strips of UNI-directional cloth, axis lengthwise.
___
Lay-up over double outboard hardpoints lapping 12" onto top and bottom wing skins.
Cut holes allowing the bushings to protrude through the lay-ups. Angle the strips to just
“straddle” the wing attach holes.
After finishing, you will cut hole covers to match the tear drop shape from thin aluminum
stock approximately .016. Paint the covers and install with silicone sealer after airplane
has been painted.
April 2006
02-XLG
Page 2-19
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02 - Wings/ Winglets
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2.3 - Winglets
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2.3.1 - Preparing Winglets for Glassing
***
When removing the winglets from the billets they were cut from, be careful to not
destroy the billets. We will use the billets to keep the contour of the winglet correct
when glassing. After removing the winglets from the billet cut the ends off the billets
down the leading edge of the winglet cutouts as shown in Figure 2-16.
You need to keep
the outside portions
of the billets
After removing winglets cut billet
apart straight down the leading edge
Figure 2-16. Winglet Billet cutout
___
Next you will have to trim your winglet cores. Measure the top of your winglet and place
a mark 12” aft of the leading edge. Do the same at the bottom and make a mark 28” aft of
the leading edge. Draw a line between these two marks and trim your winglet to this mark.
Draw a line 1” forward of this line parallel with the trailing edge.
The main thing when trimming
your Winglets is to get them
both the same.
7“
Antenna Wire
21“
14“
RG-58
7-1/2“
1“
Figure 2-17. Winglet Dimensions
___
Now we can install the Comm antenna on the inboard side. The copper foil tape runs
parallel to the leading edge. Lay the 21” long pieces of foil tape down so they are 7-1/2”
aft of the leading edge and 7” down from the top of the wingletand 14” from the bottom
with a 1/2” gap between them. Use masking tape to temporarily hold the foil down onto
the foam Do not peel off the backing yet.
Page 2-20
02-XLG
April 2006
02 - Wings/ Winglets
RG-58 coaxial cable
to radio
Heat shrink tubing
Ferrite torroids
Copper foil tape
21“
21“
1/2“ Gap
Figure 2-18. Terroid Installation
___
Pre-solder the ends of the tapes where the coax will be connected. Strip back approximately 1/2” to 3/4” of the outer insulation on the RG58 coax. Comb the shielding to one
side, then remove 1/2” of the inner insulation surrounding the center conductor. Presolder both the center conductor and the tip or the shielding.
___
Mark a line on the foam for the coax as shown in Figure 2-17. It must be perpendicular to
the copper tapes until it reaches a point approximately 1” behind the leading edge of the
winglet. It then parallels the leading edge down to the bottom . Burn a channel with a
soldering iron on the marked line to accommodate the coax.
___
Next, peel the backing off the foil tapes and press them in place. Feed the coax along the
channel , install toroids and solder the ends onto the tapes. Now press the coax and
toroids down into the foam until flush.
The other end of the coax will be routed down the conduit hole in the wing to a quick
disconnect at the wing root.
2.3.2 - Glassing Inboard surface
Before glassing the winglet take a good look at its profile and notice the curve at the trailing
edge of the winglet. You need to retain this curve when we glass the winglets. To do this
you need to install the winglets back into the billet sections you saved. This will retain the
contour of the winglet even with the weight of the glass on it. Lay the billet halves on a flat
table.
Cut two layers of UNI-directional cloth. The first layer will be laid up with the major axis
parallel to the trailing edge, and the second with the major axis parallel to the leading
edge.
_
Fit the cloth to overlap the trailing edge by at least 1-1/2” and trim to within 1" of the
center of the other winglet edges. Be sure that there is enough UNI-directional fiber
to form the trailing edge at the bottom tip.
___
Using dry VelociPoxy Micro-Balloon, fill any voids or depressions in the foam including
covering the antenna coax , and sand down the high areas.
___
Micro-Slurry the inboard (curved) side of the cores, and apply the UNI skin with EZPoxy. Let cure.
___
Remove 1” of the trailing edge foam up to the line you previously drew on the winglet.
___
Trim, file, and sand the leading edge, trailing edge, top, and bottom. Be sure to sand
back from the edges where the opposite skin will overlap.
___
Sand the exposed area along the trailing edge.
April 2006
02-XLG
Page 2-21
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02 - Wings/ Winglets
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2.3.3 - Glassing Outboard Surface
○
The outboard side should retain its shape for glassing after the inside has been glassed.
You can lay the outboard side on a flat table for glassing.
Trim the trailing edge of foam to the 1” dimension you marked on the winglet. Refer
to figure 2-17. Radius the edge of the foam to allow glass to transition smoothly. Sand
and prep the exposed glass.
The outboard surface of the winglet receives the same lay-up schedule as the cambered inboard surface. The only difference is that the glass wraps around the top,
bottom, and leading edge, overlapping the opposite skin by approximately 1".
___
Pre-wet all the areas where the skins will overlap. Micro-Slurry the foam, then
apply one layer of UNI with the major axis parallel to the leading edge, and another
layer running parallel to the trailing edge. Use the plastic wrap technique to hold the
glassed cloth around the edges, wherever necessary. Cutting slits in the cloth at the
tips will help. Let cure.
Measure the top of the winglet and place a mark at 12” on the trailing edge and
measure the bottom and place a mark at 28”. Draw a line between the two mark and
cut or sand the trailing edge to this line.
2.3.4 - Winglet Trimming
___
On the top of the winglet mark a point 4-1/8” in from the trailing edge. Measure
down the trailing edge and place a mark at 56”. With a square place a mark 7-1/2”
forward of the 56” mark. Connect this mark with the 4-1/8” mark you drew on the
winglet top. This is you rudder line. Refer to figure 2-19.
___
Mark a point on the trailing edge of your winglet 52-1/2” down from the top. Place
the winglet template on the cambered side of your winglet, with the trailing edges
aligned, and the bottom aft template edge at your 52-1/2” mark.
___
Trace a line following the lower edge of the template onto the winglet back to the
rudder line. This will serve as your cut line.
Figure 2-19. Winglet trim template
Page 2-22
02-XLG
April 2006
02 - Wings/ Winglets
___
Mark both sides and cut from the leading edge back to the rudder line, then down the
rudder line through the bottom of the winglet.
***
Do not cut aft of the rudder line and do not cut through the coaxial cable from your
comm antenna. If you do damage the coaxial cable, connectors are available at Radio
Shack for a couple of bucks.
__
Mark a line about 3/8" aft of the foam trailing edge, running parallel to the aft edge of
the foam. This line will serve as your final trailing edge on the rudder. Do not cut
down to it now, just mark it.
Figure 2-20. Rudder after trimming
Figure 2-20 shows how the winglet will look after you have made your cut with the
template.
April 2006
02-XLG
Page 2-23
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02 - Wings/ Winglets
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2.5 - Winglet to wing attachment
○
○
2.5.1 - Overview of Winglet to Wing Attachment
•
Wingtip and winglet have been trimmed using appropriate templates.
•
Recess foam wedges in both wingtip and winglet. Allows for glass lay-up
running between the two assemblies. (Figure 2-22.)
•
Initial fit of winglet to wingtip, followed by temporary attachment (using
Bondo, clecos, clamps, etc.) once in position
•
Lay-up A and B (Figure 2-27). “A” ties inboard winglet to top wing skin,
from inner skin surfaces. “B” which must make glass-to-glass contact with
“A” for entire length, serves as a shear web, and covers the exposed foam of
the wingtip and the winglet.
•
Installation of foam core, then application of lay-up “C” and “D”. Layup “C”
ties the outboard winglet skin to the lower wing skin. “D” ties the outer IB
winglet skin to the outer top wing skin.
•
Reinstallation of forward lower portion of winglet, which was removed at
the initial cutout.
2.5.2 - Winglet and Wing Preparation
___
Cut out foam wedges 1/2” x 1/4” into the winglet against the outer side skin, and 2" x
1" wedges against the inner side skin along the winglet to wing attach intersections.
It is advisable to save the foam from the deeper cut, as you will need to fill in the
space after Layup A (Figure 2-27) has been completed.
Rudder line
OB Skin
IB Skin
2"
½"
Flat
(ouboard)
side
Cambered
(inboard)
side
½"
2"
¼"
Remove foam back to rudder line
Approximate wingtip intersection point
Figure 2-22. Winglet foam reliefs for winglet attachment lay-up
Top of Wing
½" deep
2" deep
DO NOT CUT SHEAR WEBS
___
Do not remove foam in area behind rudder
Figure 2-23. Foam trimming for winglet attachment lay-ups
___
Cut out the foam in the area where th
that you used to cut the rudder cond
Level the wing, upright, with a level on the spar cap section inboard ofgeneral
the “knee”.
location at the end of the w
Level with the incidence gauge at the leading edge root. Along the winglet-to-wing
foam from around the rudder Nylafl
attach intersections, cut out wedges of foam 2" into the wing tip under the top skin.
Do the same 1/2” deep above the bottom skin. Do not cut through the
spar -shear
2.5.3
Set-Up and Alignmen
webs.
___
Place a level along the top spar ca
provided with the kit in position (a
approximately 125" inboard of the
the wing level.
Page 2-24
02-XLG
April 2006
A good double check is to make su
02 - Wings/ Winglets
2.4 - Wingtip Trimming
___
Using the prerecorded measurements you made of the root and tip chords (section
2.2.1), mark the trailing edge with a chalk line or straight edge. Trim and smooth the
wing trailing edge. Use a long sanding block. Wear a pair of work gloves while
sanding the trailing edge. It is very sharp at this point and if you slip you can cut
yourself.
Trimming is necessary to make the wing lengths the same.
Mark ‘S’
at wing-tip leading edge
of spar
Forward Point
Outboard wing attach
bolt hole centerline
S
Trailing edge
Template
Distance from outboard wing attach bolt hole
centerline to the leading edge of the cutout
Optimum: 123-7/8”
Incorrect placement
of template. Hangs
over end of wing.
Distance from outboard wing attach bolt hole
centerline to the trailing edge of the cutout
Optimum: 134”
Minimum: No less than 133-7/8”
Very important to keep both wings the same.
Figure 2-21. Winglet to wing trimmingming
Positioning the Template:
of the wing.
The trailing edge of the rudder coincides with the trailing edge
___
Measure and mark the winglet leading edge reference point on the top surface of the
wing 123-7/8" from the centerline of the outboard hardpoints. Be consistent in your
method with both wings.
___
Place the winglet-to-wing template on the wing top surface with the trailing edges
aligned. Position the template cambered cut line to coincide with the 123-7/8" and
the trailing edge 134” reference mark.(See notes in section 2.5.3)
If any portion of the template curve hangs off the end of the wing, move the template
in until you can draw an unbroken line on the wing tip along the curve of the template.
___
As an additional reference, mark the new intersection point of the template curve and
the wing spar leading edge, then take a measurement from that intersection point to
the center line of the outboard bolt hole. Record those measurements here:
Left Wing:
___
____
Right Wing:
____
Distance ‘S’: ____
Make a mark on the other wing’s spar leading edge at the same point, and place the
template there to ensure that it will not hang over the end. If all looks good, double
check your measurements to be sure that the winglet cutouts will be the same distance
from the outboard mounting hole center line on each spar.
Note: It is very important to maintain symmetry in the construction of the wings,
so we want the measurement above to be the same for both wings.
he rudder internal bellcrank will go. The template
Mark
the wing
tip per the template. Cut off the wing tip as marked (a portion of the
duit groove in the wing ___
foam also
marked
out the
spar
end
is
cut
off
wing where the bellcrank will travel. Remove this in the process), trimming the forward tip parallel to the existing
pre-cut core.
low from the top to bottom wing skins.
Record another comparative reference distance to check against the second wing,
especially if you are building one at a time. Place one side of a large carpenter
nt
square on the trailing edge. Align the other side of the square with the wing tip
cutout. The measurement between the wing leading edge and trailing edge at this
ap of the wing, and place the wing
pointincidence
should be jig
the same for both wings. Sand trimming to match is much easier prior
about 1" outboard of the leading
edge
root,
to installing
theand
winglet.
trailing edge wingtip). Use both devices to get
After cut:
Left Wing:
____ Right Wing: ____
April 2006
ure that the outboard attach bushings are plumb
02-XLG
Page 2-25
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02 - Wings/ Winglets
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○
Bend a couple of thin metal angles to cleco the winglet to the wing temporarily. (The
winglet goes on the wing with the cambered side in, flat side out). Place the winglet
‘forward point’ at the wing tip ‘forward point’. One of the metal angles clecoed near the
winglet leading edge and clamped to the top wing skin works well while adjusting the
winglet’s position.
○
○
___
The trailing edge measurement should be at least 10" greater than the leading
edge measurement to achieve proper angle of attack. This measurement is shown
as “Z” in Figure 2-25. If “X” = 123-7/8” then “Z” should at least be 133-7/8” . If “X” =
124” then “Z” should be at least 134".
Use an inclinometer to make sure that the rake of the leading edge
is 60 degrees. Up to 62 degrees is acceptable. Remember to keep
both wings the same.
Winglet to wing cut-out forward point
Outboard attach bolt C
X
Z
Trailing edge
of rudder
Figure 2-25. Winglet alignment. “Z” should be 10” greater than “X”
***
As a cross check you can bolt the wings to the center section spar. Measure and
record the distance between the forward most points of the winglets. Measure and
record the distance between the trailing edges of the rudders. The difference between these two measurements should be 1/2” to 1”. If measurement X is the same for
both wings, the winglets will now be symmetrical with the optimal trailing edge
“kick out.”
___
Use an inclinometer on the winglet leading edge and adjust the rake to 60 degrees
(up to 62 degrees is acceptable).
***
Remember it is very important to keep the measurements and the rake of the
two wings the same.
___
Measure back and up from the winglet leading edge onto the outboard side where it
is nice and straight and mark a common point on both winglets to compare vertical
alignments.
___
Adjust the winglet vertically to 0 degrees. Use an inclinometer on the flat outside of
the winglet. Bondo two or three supports, from high up on the winglet, to the wing.
Put dabs of Bondo along the winglet-to-wing junction as well. The rudder cable
tubing is to exit the outer side of the winglet 5” forward of the ‘rudder line’.
___
Route any antenna cable from the winglet through the access hole provided in the
wing leading edge foam core.
2.5.4 - Winglet Attachment Lay-Ups
All BID is cut on a 45 degree bias. Cut all UNI with the major axis along the long
dimensions.
***
Make sure all lay-ups stay forward of the rudder line drawn earlier.
You will do four lay-ups on each winglet to complete the main attachment process. Refer
to the Figure 2-27 for a cross sectional view of the lay-up. Sand areas to be glassed and
cut plies of BID and UNI for each winglet-to-wing layup per the glass layup schedule
below.
Page 2-26
02-XLG
April 2006
02 - Wings/ Winglets
Dimensions
Fabric
Plies per Total plies
lay-up required
Lay-up "A"
4" x 12"
BID
8
16
Lay-up "B"
7" x 16"
BID
8
16
Lay-up "C"
34" x 20"
BID
1
2
32" x 18"
BID
1
2
Trimthe above plies to taper down to 3" at the ends.
28" x 15"
UNI
1
2
26" x 14"
UNI
1
2
24" x 13"
UNI
1
2
20" x 11"
UNI
1
2
18" x 10"
UNI
1
2
16" x 8"
UNI
1
2
14" x 7"
UNI
1
2
Lay-up "D"
Sames as Lay-up "C"
Lowe
r
Coax to Com antenna
wing
Wing trailing edge and
Rudder trailing edge
intersection
r
we
o
L ing
W in
Sk
skin
Lay-up A
Rudder
Bellcrank
Cutout
½" recess
Rudder conduit
Rudder cut line
Rudder
hinge line
Rudder
trailing edge
Rudder
Bellcrank
Cutout
Winglet
Lay-up B
Figure 2-26. Lay-up A and B
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02 - Wings/ Winglets
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Inboard winglet skin
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Winglet
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Layup-A: 8 plies coarse BID at 45º
Foam wedge *
Very
Important:
Keep
the foam
transition
straight
Layup D: 7 plies UNI over
2 plies coarse BID at 45º
Remove bondo prior to
applying
Top
Skin
Epolite-milled fiber
Wingtip
Foam Wedge
(Shape to a
straight transition *
Foam wedge *
Layup B: 8 plies coarse BID
at 45º
Layup C: 7 plies UNI over
2 plies coarse BID at 45º
Epolite-milled fiber
Important: Layups A and B must
* Foam wedges installed with
have glass to glass contact
EZ-poxy / microballoon
for the length of the joint.
Figure 2-27. Winglet attachment layup cross section detail
Layup A
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Cut 8 plies of 4" x 12" coarse BID (cut on a 45 degree bias).
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Start by inserting each ply into the 2" winglet recess (inboard side), wetting and stippling
with a brush. Snip slots with scissors to straddle the wing spar shear webs and install the
cloth into the 2" wing recesses (against inner top skin).
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After the final ply, fill the remaining voids with the blue foam wedges that you cut out
earlier, bonding them into place with EZ-Poxy Micro-Balloon, using the excess to fill in
the smaller voids not filled by the foam wedges. Be careful not to go too fast and generate
an exothermic condition that will damage the foam core.
Layup B
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Following cure of layup “A”, sand the exposed blue foam of the winglet and the wingtip to
make a smooth surface for layup “B”.
___
Cover the exposed foam with a EZ-Poxy Micro-Slurry, and fill the small 1/2” recesses in
the winglet and the wingtip with EZ-Poxy and Milled Fiber.
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Cut 8 plies of 7" x 16" coarse BID, all on a 45 degree bias.
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Apply the 7 x 16 layers extending from the rudder conduit (front of the rudder bellcrank
cutout) forward to the winglet leading edge. Refer to Figure 2-26.
Note: These lay-ups should make an excellent glass-to-glass contact with the
corner of layup “A”, for the length of the winglet-to-wingtip junction.
Be sure the rudder cable tubing exits the winglet 11-1/2” forward of the trailing edge.
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Let cure, then trim off excess glass.
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02 - Wings/ Winglets
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Cut and fit a block of foam in the corner recess formed by layup “B”. Bond in place
with EZ-Poxy Micro-Balloon. Line up the trailing edge of the foam with the rudder
bellcrank cutout.
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Shape the outer surface to form a straight, not rounded, transition from the wing
bottom to winglet outer surface. The contoured surface twists fore to aft but, must be
a series of straight lines from the bottom wing skin to the outer winglet skin in order
to get a wrinkle free layup. (referring to layup “C”).
Keep lay-ups forward of
the rudder bellcrank cutout
Bottom
of
Wing
Insert foam forward
of rudder bellcrank
cutout
Blue foam inserted over lay-ups
A and B and sanded to angle
between outside of winglet and bottom of wing
Figure 2-28. Layup C detail
Keep lay-ups forward
of rudder cut line
Figure 2-29. Layup D detail
Lay-up C and D
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Do lay-up C and D according to the schedule at the beginning of 2.5.4 cutting the BID on
a 45 degree bias. The plies of BID wrap around the winglet leading edge about 1", up
to about 10" above where it joins the wing. See Figure 2-28.
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2.6 - Filling and Sanding Wings and Winglets
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Note: Before cutting out ailerons or rudders you should have already filled and
sanded your wing surface and prepped it through primer. This is very hard
to do after you have cut your control surfaces out.
Wear a mask to prevent inhaling glass bubbles. Mix VelociPoxy Micro-Balloon to
a consistency that barely runs out of the bucket.
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Heap on material and trowel with a large blade. Control thickness with the blade-tosurface angle. A steep angle thins the coating and a shallow angle leaves more material.
The builder will find it advantageous to fill in the depression left by the spar (both upper
and lower surfaces) first, and let it cure .
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Once cured, sand it down to more closely coincide with the wing curvature, then apply
VelociPoxy Micro-Balloon over the entire surface of the canard.
Be aware that different mixes of slurry will sand differently, so try to minimize the number
of filler applications that you make to any surface.
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Following cure, you can start to obtain the contour with a small 17” long sander with 36
grit sandpaper. Make sure you always work your sandpaper at 45 degree overlapping
passes. You can then move to a long sanding block (3' or more) to smooth your contours.
We generally start with 36 grit file sand paper and end the initial sanding process with 80
grit file sandpaper. Patience is a real virtue when it comes to the sanding process.
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It is a good idea to seal the surface with primer once you have obtained the proper contour. We use a US Paints 545 primer here at Velocity. Epoxy compatible primers or
urethane primers work well.
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02 - Wings/ Winglets
2.7 - Ailerons
2.7.1 - Aileron Cutouts
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Starting at the wing tip trailing edge (where it meets the winglet), measure 30" inboard
along the wing trailing edge and make a mark.
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Make another mark on the trailing edge 72" inboard of the first mark (102" from your
starting point).
Cut-outs are made perpendicular to the trailing edge of the wing.30“
measurement originates at the inboard surface of the wing trailing edge
and the inboard surface of the winglet.
30“
4-¼"
72“
6-¼"
Aileron cut-out
Top wing skin
5-11/16“
8-1/8“
Aileron cut-out
Lower wing skin
Figure 2-30. Aileron cutouts.
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From the 30" mark, draw a line 4-1/4” long on the top surface of the wing, running perpendicular to the wing trailing edge.
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From the same 30" mark, draw a line 5-11/16” long on the bottom surface of the wing,
again perpendicular to the wing trailing edge.
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At the inboard mark on the trailing edge, draw a line 6-1/4” long on the top surface of
the wing, and one 8-1/8" long on the bottom. Both should run perpendicular to the wing
trailing edge.
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Connect the endpoints of the two lines on the top surface, and then connect the endpoints
of the lines you drew on the bottom surface. These form the aileron cutout lines.
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With a Dremel cutting wheel, cut through the skins along the aileron cutout lines. Use a
knife or hacksaw blade to cut the foam at each aileron end. From the top side, cut the
foam down to the bottom skin (not through it), angled slightly forward to leave more foam
in the aileron. From the bottom, cut the foam back toward the trailing edge until the
aileron is free (see Figure 2-31).
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02 - Wings/ Winglets
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Inboard
Aileron
Cutout
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Bottom Skin
Outboard
Aileron
Cutout
Bottom Skin
Figure 2-31. Aileron cutout detail - cross section
2.7.2 - Aileron Wells
Beginning 5" from the inboard end of the ailerons and aileron well, measure and mark the
hinge center positions 31" apart (top of wing). There is one 8" hinge inboard and two 6"
hinges outboard.
Outboard
Aileron Hinge Position
6" hinge
6" hinge
3 1 “
8" hinge
3 1 “
5“
Wing top surface
CL
Inboard
Figure 2-32. Aileron hinge location
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Remove foam from the aileron cutout (see Figure 2-33). Recess the cutout ends 3/4” to
form small ribs. You may use tubing with coarse sandpaper to achieve the final configuration of the well which is to be a concave cavity. Expose 1-1/2” of upper inner skin, and 3/
4” of lower inner skin for the length of the aileron cutout.
Be sure not to exceed this
dimension when removing the
W in g
foam. It helps to stiffen the
top s
1-½"
kin
hinge areas.
A ile
r on
Wing bottom
skin
¾"
Remove this section of foam, forming a concave cavity between the inboard
and outboard edges of the aileron. Be sure that there is room for adequate
aileron travel.
Figure 2-33. Aileron well contouring - cross section
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Make a template of the ends of the ailerons so you can make sure you remove enough
foam. Refer to section 2.7.4 to allow for the counterweight on the front of the aileron. This
is usually where contact with the cutout is most noticed.
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Make from cardboard
Make two - one for each end
Note: NOT TO SCALE
Figure 2-34. Aileron template.
2.7.3 - Glassing Aileron Well and Ribs
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Sand the exposed inner skins, Micro-Slurry the exposed foam, wet the glass areas, and
lay-up 3 plies of 6" x 72" BID, and small pieces for the aileron well end ribs.
Wing Trailing Edge
Outboard
Aileron Cut-out
3/4"
Foam has been removed
1-1/2“ back at top skin
Do the same
at inboard
side of aileron
cut-out
Figure 2-35. Foam removal for aileron wells and ribs
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In addition to removing the foam section just forward of the aileron, also remove foam at
the sides of the aileron cutouts (see Figure 2-35). Remove about 3/4” of foam, exposing
the inner surfaces of the wing skins. You are constructing a rib, just like the ones at the
wing root.
Foam
Glass exposed
after foam
recessed ¾"
Wing top surface
3 plies BID 6" x 72”
You can substitute
UNI with the major
axis running top to
bottom for the bid.
It is a thinner lay-up.
3 plies Coarse BID at each hinge location
BID is cut on a 45º bias.
Cut pieces 4" x 10" for the 8" hinge positions
Cut pieces 4" x 8" for the 6" hinge positions
Center layups on hinge locations.
Figure 2-36. Aileron well reinforcement
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Cut (6) pieces of 4" x 10" coarse BID, and 12 pieces of 4" x 8" coarse BID, all on a 45
degree bias. Apply three plies of the 4" x 10" BID at each of the 8" hinge locations, and
three plies of the 4" x 8" BID at the 6" hinge locations. These lay-ups will serve as
reinforcements, and are shown in Figures 2-36 and 2-37.
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Wing
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t op s
k in
UNI can be substituted for bid
with major axis from top to bottom
3 plies BID
(Length of aileron cut-out
Typical hinge location reinforcement.
3 plies coarse BID (cut at 45º bias)
centered on hinge location.
Figure 2-37. Aileron well reinforcement - cross section
2.7.4 - Aileron Construction
Light weight, balanced ailerons are critical to the performance and safety of your
aircraft. The reasons for our concern in the area of aileron weight and balance are:
1)
The Center of Gravity of the ailerons is at station 180, which is approximately. 60" aft of the aircraft’s in-flight Center of Gravity. Overweight ailerons are detrimental to the overall Center of Gravity of the aircraft.
2)
Overweight ailerons lower the aircraft’s aerodynamic resistance to flutter,
even though the ailerons are in balance. The excessive weight of the ailerons
could induce twisting in the wings under certain gust loading conditions, due
to the mass concentrated at the trailing edge wing panel.
3)
Out of balance ailerons can flutter, and can cause flutter in the airframe, which
is usually catastrophic. The ailerons must be balanced!
This section describes the preferred method of building the ailerons. They should
weigh around 9 pounds when finished.
70º
2 x 4
1 / 2 “ P ly w o o d
1 -1 /2 “
Sanding Block is made from a 2x4 and
a piece of 1/2” plywood about 5” long
Apply 36 grit sand paper to the
side and bottom of the 2x4 and
side of 1/2” plywood
70º
Use the table
edge as your
guide
1 -1 /8 ”
70º
Figure 2-38. Sanding leading edge of aileron.
Warning:
Excessive removal of top skin during foam-core sanding (fig. 2-38) increases the gap
between the trailing edge of the wing, and the aileron.
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02 - Wings/ Winglets
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Make a sanding block using a 2 x 4 and piece of 1/2” plywood. Refer to figure 2-38.
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Install your ailerons so the bottom skin leading edge is 1-1/8” away from the edge of
the table. We use hollow core Luwan doors. Insert a few nails along the trailing edge
of the aileron to keep it from moving when you start sanding.
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Using your sanding block and the table edge as a guide sand the front of the aileron
foam off down to the outer skin.
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Next rest the bottom of the 1/2” plywood part of the sanding block flat against the
bottom skin of the aileron that you just sanded. Sand the exposed foam until your
reach the top skin fiberglass.
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Make sure you keep the block as square to the table as you can and try not to take
away any of the top skin glass. If you do you will change the hinge mounting locations.
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Now you can install the counterweight. Remove the nail and push the aileron back
from the edge of the table. Draw the outline of the aileron as it lies flat. At the
inboard end of the aileron drawing, project the 8-1/8” line forward 1/8”, and make a
mark 8-1/4” forward of the trailing edge.
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At the outboard end, project the 5-11/16” line forward 1/8”, making a mark 5-13/16”
forward of the trailing edge.
Dyvinicel
Foam
VelociPoxy
/microballoon
Aileron End - Inboard
8-1/4“
Aileron End - Outboard
5-13/16“
1/8“
8-1/8“ to
trailing edge
8-1/4“ to
trailing edge
(Inboard end)
Figure 2-39. Foam inserts for ailerons
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Draw a line between the two marks that you just made. If you place the aileron in
position in the outline, there should be a 1/8” space between the lower skin leading
edge and the line you just drew. The line represents the leading edge of the lower
aileron once the counterweight and BID layer are installed. The aileron leading edge
cannot extend beyond this line.
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Drive several nails into the wood, just touching the boundary lines so that you can lay
the aileron back into the outline. Cut (2) 72" sections of aileron counterweight rod.
Install each section on the bottom leading edge of the aileron with 5 minute epoxy,
without having any part of the aileron fall outside these boundaries. The nails will
serve as a stable support for the counterweight while the 5 Minute Epoxy and VelociPoxy Micro-Balloon is curing.
Note: IMPORTANT: The finished length between the counterweight leading
edge (with one ply of BID applied) and the aileron trailing edge must not
exceed 5-13/16” at the outboard end nor 8-1/4" at the inboard end. The
maximum counterweight protrusion into the airstream after installation
must not exceed 1/2" at the outboard end nor 3/4" at the inboard end.
2.7.5 - Torque Tube and Hinge Backing Plates
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Carve a 3/4” channel 5/8" down, 9" long, parallel to the top skin at the inboard end of the
aileron. The torque tube is 3/4” x 10-1/2” so that 1-1/2” extends beyond the aileron.
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5/8"
Aileron face
¾" +
Torque tube should be just short of flush with aileron face,
allowing space for hinge backing plate.
Figure 2-40. Torque tube and hinge backing plate channel cross section.
The torque tube should fit about 1/16” short of flush with the forward face of the aileron,
allowing for the thickness of the inboard position hinge backing plate (see Figure 2-40).
The torque tube channel extends 9” into the aileron from the inboard end. 1-1/2” of the
tube should extend from the end of the aileron when correctly installed.
Aileron hinge
backing plate
MA0202
½"
Recess for flush fit
of backing plate
Drill 1/8“ holes in foam behind
the outboard backing plates
Torque tube channel
Figure 2-41. Hinge backing plate installation - cross section
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Cut a 1/2” deep slot under the top skin at each hinge location to accommodate the short
bent portion of the hinge backing plate. Drill about twelve 1/8” equally spaced holes
behind the two outboard backing plates.
•
Check the fit of the backing plate in the slot, then recess the foam just a bit so that the plate
fits flush with the forward face of the aileron (see Figure 2-41). A slight modification to the
bend in the backing plate may be necessary to get it to conform to the rest of the aileron
face. You want the bend in the plate as close to the upper leading edge as possible, but
still want the plate to be flush with the forward face of the aileron.
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Drill holes in the short flange of the backing plate to allow penetration of the VelociPoxy
Micro-Glass for better bonding. Sand the torque tube and angular backing plates.
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If you have already Micro-Ballooned your wings, sand micro down to the glass about
1/2” back from the top and bottom leading edge’s for bonding. Also sand the torque
tube and angular backing plates.
1 ply BID
VelociPoxy/milled fiber
Alphapoxy/microballoon
Lower skin has been faired at the
leading edge for smoother BID transition
around counterweight
Figure 2-42. Aileron counterweight detail cross section
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April 2006
02 - Wings/ Winglets
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Taper the lower skin leading edge into the counterweight, as shown in the inset in Figure
2-42. This will make for a smoother transition when you apply the lay-up to the forward
face of the aileron.
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Install the torque tube with VelociPoxy Micro-Glass, keeping it parallel to the top and
almost flush with the forward face of the aileron (to clear hinge backing plate.
The backing plates for the hinges are installed with two different fillers. The short flange,
which fits on the top face of the core, is installed with VelociPoxy Micro-Glass (Milled
Fiber), whereas the bond between the long flange and the foam is made with VelociPoxy
Micro-Balloon.
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Slurry the exposed foam with EZ-Poxy Micro-Balloon, then apply 1 ply of BID extending the length of the aileron. It should be cut at the usual 45 degree bias. Apply the
cloth as shown in Figure 2-42, overlapping the top skin leading edge by 1/2”, forward
around the counterweight, and on to the bottom skin by 1/2”.
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Cover the inboard and outboard ends of the ailerons with one ply BID.
2.7.6 - Hinge Installation
Sho w s hing e o ffse t
Figure 2-43. Aileron hinge offset.
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Find the 6’ section of aileron hinge provided with the kit. Remove the hinge pin, reverse
the halves to offset the hinge as shown in Figure 2-43 and replace the pin.
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Cut four hinges 6" long and two hinges 8" long. The remainder will be used for the rudder
hinges, which are not offset.
***
After the hinges are cut it is a good idea to cut each hinge pin about 1/8” shorter or grind
to a point and peen the end of each hinge closed to trap the hinge pin in. This will make
sure that you do not loose your hinge pins.
Hinge center lines from inboard end of aileron
36“
67“
5“
Keep hinge pins in a straight
line with each other
Rest the center of your
hinges on top of the aileron
Figure 2-44. Aileron hinge notches
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From the inboard end of the aileron measure and mark the centerline positions as shown in
Figure 2-44.
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02 - Wings/ Winglets
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Inboard (8")
Hinge
Section
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(5) BSP-4-4 Pop rivets through hinge
into backing plate
1“
1-½"
(4) BSP-4-6 pop rivets through hinge leg into
torque tube
6" Hinge
Section
Aileron torque
tube extends
1-½" from
inboard aileron
end
(5) BSP-4-4 Pop rivets through hinge
into backing plate
****Hinges are sanded and bonded perm anently
with Structural Adhesive
Figure 2-45. Aileron hinge attachment
Install the two 6” outboard hinges as shown in figure 2-45. Make sure you sand both the
hinge and aileron before you use structural adhesive and rivets to mount the hinge on.
Install the 8” inboard hinge as shown in figure 2-45. Pay close attention to make sure that
your lower rivet holes are into the center of the aileron torque tube that is under the
surface.
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Cut or sand at least an 1/8” from the lower wing cutout trailing edge for future clearances of the counterweight. Sand all edges straight.
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Now you are ready to install the aileron to the trailing edge of the wing.
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Place your aileron back up in the aileron well and mark your aileron hinge locations on the
wing. Cut an 1/8” notch out of the wing forward of the hinge locations. After you have
done this you can use a file or a sanding block to radius the trailing edge of the slots to
allow the hinge to rest squarely against the inside of the aileron well.
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Make trial fits and sand or file away interferences so that the aileron installs back into the
cutout properly. Slight misfits may be corrected with micro-spheres filling and sanding
later. You want the trailing edge of the aileron to be equal with the trailing edge of the wing.
2 screws on the 6“ hinges are located 1” in from each side. On the 8”
hinges the two out side screws are also 1“ from each side and the
middle hinge is 4” from one side.
You need to file the inboard
edge of the cutout to match
the contour of the hinge
Figure 2-46 Trailing edge of Aileron Well
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Predrill (2) 1/8” mounting holes in the wing at each 6" hinge location, and (3) 1/8" holes in
the wing at each 8" hinge. Refer to Figure 2-46 for spacing.
Page 2-38
02-XLG
April 2006
02 - Wings/ Winglets
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Hold the aileron up in place in the aileron well. This is easier to do with a partner.
While holding the aileron in place rotate the trailing edge up slightly. Slide a Rigid
straight edge up in the slot to put pressure on the hinge from the back side. When you
are satisfied that the hinge is in its proper location mark one of the screw locations on
each hinge. Remove aileron from wing and drill out the one screw location on each
hinge to 1/8”.
___
Reinstall hinge to aileron well using cleco’s. After the aileron is back in its location
and you are satisfied with the fit of the hinges use the predrilled holes in the wing to
drill the remaining holes in the ailerons. After each hole you drill install a cleco in
the hole.
Install MS21047-3 nutplates
with AAC-3-4 rivets
Use clecos to hold hinges in position
while you drill remaining holes
AN526C-1032R8 Screws
Make sure top of hinge is flush
with aileron and trailing edge
of the wings
1/8“
Trim back trailing edge bottom skin
by 1/8“ for length of aileron
Figure 2-47. Locating aileron hinge.
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After all the holes are drilled and the hinges are held in place with clecos check operation
of aileron. When satisfied with aileron hinge placement remove one cleco at a time and drill
through both the wing and hinge with a 3/16” drill. You may want to do this to one hole on
each hinge and then remove the aileron and install MS21047-3 nutplates. Reinstall hinge
with AN526C-1032R8 screws, and open up remaining holes to 3/16”. Install remaining
nutplates. Refer to figure 2-47.
2.7.7 - Balancing the Ailerons
Note: This is critical to the safe operation of your aircraft. Proper balancing of
the ailerons is directly related to your aircraft’s Vne (Never exceed speed.) If
the ailerons are not properly balanced, flutter can occur at any airspeed with
catastrophic results.
___
Hold After hanging your ailerons (see illustration on page 2-40) - they should balance such that a chord line (from the trailing edge, projecting through the center of the
front of the aileron) will be slightly nose-down. It is better to reach this balance point
by removing material from the aileron surface aft of the pivot point, than to add
weight in the counterweight area. If weight must be added, add with patches of glass
or rivets.
Note: The finish coat will add some weight to the aft portion of the aileron and the assembly
will need to be re-balanced following application of finish coat.
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Once you have shot your finish coat, you will need to re-balance your ailerons. Use
the same method described above. Two things must hold true for you to use these
ailerons:
1. The total weight of each aileron must not exceed 9.5 lbs. In the case that you are
too heavy, and you have removed all the material that you feel you can - notify us. We
will supply you with new aileron cores, as well as directions for a new procedure
that we have used here at the factory to construct lighter units. As the ailerons sit at
about station 180, there is an advantage CG-wise in decreasing the total weight of the
assembly.
2. The aileron must still balance with the chord line still slightly nose down.
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Aileron Balancing
With your aileron suspended from its hinges,
place a torpedo level along the bottom.
The aileron should come to rest somewhere
between precisely level, and a slightly ‘nose down’
attitude, (meaning the leading edge hangs down
further than the trailing edge.)
An aileron that comes to rest at exactly level
should be considered a minimum acceptable
balance point. It is preferable for your ailerons
to be slightly nose heavy. The final balance of your
ailerons, after sanding, or adding weight, should
be somewhere between bottom-side level, and
chord-line level.
Main Wing
Cross Section
C h o rd lin e
Suspend the aileron
from thin wires, using a length
of 2”X4”, or similar.
Ai
le
r
on
hin
ge
The hinge pins and top portion of the
aileron hinges have been removed.
The entire aileron is then suspended
from the hinge-ends by a length of fine wire
threaded through the hinge holes..
Wire
A ile ro n h in g e
S tic k-o n
w e ig h t
(if n e e d e d )
C h o rd
li n e
Aileron End Section
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02 - Wings/ Winglets
2.8 - Rudders
2.8.1 - Rudder Cut-Outs
Note: Before cutting out rudders you should have already filled and sanded
your winglet surface and prepped it through primer. This is very hard to
do after you have cut your control surfaces out.
___
Cut out the rudders along the previous markings that were made earlier in this section
during the winglet construction.
Figure 2-50. Rudder cut out and well reinforcement
2.8.2 - Rudder and Rudder Wells
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Beginning 6” from the top and bottom of the rudder and rudder well, measure and mark
two hinge center positions on the outboard side. They are all 4" hinges. Figure 2-50
shows the hinge locations. The rudders will hinge at the outboard surface of the winglet
(the flat side). Remove 1-1/4” foam from the winglet rudder wells and rudders.
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Sand the exposed inner skins, Micro-Slurry the exposed foam, wet the glass areas, and
layup 3 plies of 4" x 60" BID, and small pieces for the rudder well end rib.
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02 - Wings/ Winglets
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At each hinge location (both in the winglet well and the rudder well), apply three plies of 21/2” x 6" BID cut at a 45 degree bias. The pieces should fit as shown at the top of Figure
2-50 , extending across the bottom of the well and up the inner surface of the outboard
skin to the rudder cut line. Let cure, then trim and sand flush with the cut line.
2.8.3 - Rudder Hinge Installation
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Sand all edges straight.
Figure 2-51. Rudder hinge profile
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The rudder hinges are different than the aileron hinges. You are still using the same
MS200001-P6 piano hinge but the two hinge halves have to be assembled as shown in
Figure 2-51.
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Cut six 4” long pieces of hinge for your rudder hinges.
***
After the hinges are cut it is a good idea to cut each hinge pin about 1/8” shorter or grind
to a point and peen the end of each hinge closed to trap the hinge pin in. This will make
sure that you do not loose your hinge pins.
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Install the hinges on the rudder along the marks that you placed. Refer to Figure 2-50. Drill
through the hinges and skin and countersink the outer skin for 1/8" flush head pop rivets.
Make sure to keep the hinge pins in line so you do not have any binding. Use the straight
edge of the rudder to do this. Detach hinges, clean off the epoxy and sand the hinges and
mounting areas for bonding. Apply Structural Adhesive to the hinges and mounting
areas on the rudder and pop rivet the hinges to the rudder. Use 5 rivets (BSC-4-4),
staggered on each hinge. Let cure.
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Cut 1/8” notches in the rudder well to accept the hinges as you did for the ailerons. You
will have to file the trailing edges of this notches in order to allow the hinge to sit flush with
the outside skin.
Remove the rudders and drill two 1/8” holes per hinge notch. The holes should be 1 inch
from the ends and 1/2” forward of the trailing edge of the notch.
This next step is easier with a partner. Reinstall the rudders and use a straight edge to put
pressure on the hinge from the back. Mark the hinges through the holes in the rudder well.
Remove the rudder and drill one hole out on each hinge to 1/8”. Reinstall the rudders with
1/8”clecos in the holes you drilled. Check the rudders for proper operation. When satisfied with you rudder installation drill the remaining holes in the rudder out to 3/16”.
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Remove the rudder and install MS21047-3 nutplates with AAC-3-4 rivet on the holes
you just drilled as you did with the aileron hinges.
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Reinstall the rudder with AN526-1032R8 screws and drill the remaining holes.
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Remove rudder and install nutplates on the remaining screw holes.
2.8.4 - Rudder Horn Installation
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Remove 3/4” of foam from the bottom of the rudder.
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Place your rudder horn on the bottom of your rudder. Line up the flat side of the rudder
horn with the outside skin of the rudder. Make sure that the rudder cable attach hole is
5” forward of the hinge point. Refer to Figure 2-52.
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Make sure dimension
from hinge point to rudder
cable attach hole is 5“
Mark the trailing
edge of the horn.
5“
Rudder horn
attach points
Hinge
Point
Figure 2-51. Rudder horn
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Mark the trailing edge of the horn on the rudder.
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Slurry the foam and install the hardpoint making sure that it is flush with the rear line
you drew for the horn. You also want to make sure that the marks you drew for the
screw locations are somewhat centered on the hardpoint. Cover with 3 bid. Let cure.
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Once you have fit your rudder horn to your rudder you will need to drill it for the
attachment holes. Drill two #21 hole through the rudder horn.. Make sure that the
holes are aft of the rudder hinge point. To install rudder horn test fit the horn so that
the straight edge of the horn is parallel to the hinge side of the rudder and that the 5 ”
dimension is correct. When satisfied with location drill into hard point with #21
drillthrough the holes you previously drilled in the horn. Tap the hardpoint with a 1032 tap. Drill the holes in the rudder horn out to 3/16”. Install horn to hardpoint using
two 10-32 screws..
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Install rudder to winglet. Check to make sure the end of the horn where the rudder
cable attach hole is in the same “plane” as the Nylaflow coming out of the end of the
wing for the rudder cable. If it is not you can bend the rudder horn slightly just
forward of the hardpoint attach screws.
2.8.5 - Rudder Return Spring
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Drill a 1" hole approximately. 18" up from the bottom of the winglet inside the winglet
rudder well. The hole should almost be touching the inboard side skin of the winglet
(opposite the hinge side). This is very important to get the most leverage. Put your hole
saw on a 1/4” rod and drill out foam to 5" deep.
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Install the spring tube assembly with VelociPoxy Micro-Balloon.
Figure 2-53. Rudder return spring
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In the rudder itself, directly opposite the hole you just bored, cut out a small slit in the web
to accept the spring anchor. This also favors the wing-side skin of the rudder.
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Clear out a bit of foam and install the anchor with VelociPoxy Micro-Glass. The exposed end of the spring must be cut to form a hook to loop over the anchor.
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2.9 - Winglet Bottom
2.9.1 - Prepare Winglet Bottom
The premolded winglet bottoms are oversized when you get them so that they may act as
a fairing for the end of your wing as well as the bottom extensions of the winglet. If you
have fast-build wings, you will need to trim the excess portion of the part so that it just
reaches the indentation for the position lights but leaves at least a 1/2” flange all the way
around the part for attachment to the wing.
There are a few ways of attaching these parts to the bottom of your wing and you should
decide which one to use based on your own situation or preference.
2.9.2 - Attaching Winglet Bottom to Wing
In this case you can use two methods. One is to sand the primer off where the attachment
will take place, sand the inside surface of the flange, and glue them in place with structural
adhesive. Once set, fair the edges to make a flush fit. There is no need to glass over the
joint.
The second method could be used if the fit does not look good enough or you think the
flange would be too hard to fair into the surface. Cut the flange off, sand the primed
surface of the part down to the glass and install with two plies of BID. Be careful to get
the parts lined up since you have removed the part that originally lined everything up. The
first tape would be about 1 1/2” wide and the second 1” wide, both centered over the
joint. Then you would finish this off just as you did the other tape glass joints. In either
case, do not forget to drill a hole in the bottom for water drainage.
After installing the winglet bottom you will need to fit a Dyvinicel rib to the trailing edge as
shown in Figure 2-54. Hotglue the rib in place 1/4” below the rudder line. Put micro over
the rib and glass with 2 BID onto the 1/4” sides of the winglet. Knife trim after it has cured.
The winglet itself is thick enough to be installed without any ribs in it but you could hotglue
in a rib or two as shown in Figure 2-54 if you want to. If you do put in ribs do not put them
in all the way to the bottom of the winglet. You need a space so water can drain to the hole
you drilled at the lowest point in the winglet.
Foam Ribs
Optional
Figure 2-54. Winglet bottom ribs
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