Flexible Array Storage Tool

Flexible Array Storage Tool
Flexible Array Storage Tool
User’s Guide
HP Part Number 5969-8465
Printed in January 2001
Copyright
© Copyright 2001, Hewlett-Packard Company.
This document contains proprietary information that is protected by copyright. All
rights are reserved. No part of this document may be photocopied, reproduced, or
translated to another language without the prior written consent of Hewlett-Packard
Company.
Hewlett-Packard Company
Network Server Division
10955 Tantau Avenue
Cupertino, CA 95014 USA
Trademarks
SCSISelect and FAST are trademarks of Adaptec, Inc. which may be registered in
some jurisdictions. Windows and Windows 2000 are registered trademarks, and Windows NT is a trademark of Microsoft Corporation in the U.S. and other countries
used under license. All other trademarks are owned by their respective owners.
Changes
The information contained in this document is subject to change without notice.
Hewlett-Packard makes no warranty of any kind with regard to this material, including, but not limited to, the implied warranties of merchantability and fitness for a particular purpose. Hewlett-Packard shall not be liable for errors contained herein or for
incidental or consequential damages in connection with the furnishing, performance,
or use of this material.
Hewlett-Packard assumes no responsibility for the use or reliability of its software on
equipment that is not furnished by Hewlett-Packard.
Technical Support and Services
If you have questions about installing or using this product, check this guide first—you will
find answers to most of your questions here. If you need further assistance, please contact your
server manufacturer.
This user guide is for the person who installs, administers, and troubleshoots LAN servers.
Hewlett-Packard Company assumes you are qualified in the servicing of computer equipment
and trained in recognizing hazards in products with hazardous energy levels.
Disclaimer
IF THIS PRODUCT DIRECTS YOU TO COPY MATERIALS, YOU MUST HAVE
PERMISSION FROM THE COPYRIGHT OWNER OF THE MATERIALS TO AVOID
VIOLATING THE LAW WHICH COULD RESULT IN DAMAGES OR OTHER
REMEDIES.
ii
Contents
1
Getting Started
Related Documents 1-1
Audience 1-2
Document Overview 1-2
Organization 1-2
Conventions 1-4
Figures 1-5
Notes, Cautions, and Warnings 1-5
2
Storage Concepts and Terminology
Disks 2-2
Disksets 2-3
Freespace 2-3
Partitions 2-3
Containers 2-4
Volume Set 2-7
Stripe Set (RAID 0) 2-8
Mirror Set (RAID 1) 2-9
RAID-5 Set 2-11
Multilevel Containers 2-12
Stripe Set of Mirror Sets (RAID 0/1) 2-14
Volume Set of Mirror Sets 2-15
Volume Set of Stripe Sets 2-16
Volume Set of RAID-5 Sets 2-18
Stripe Set of RAID-5 Sets (RAID 50) 2-20
File Systems 2-21
3
Features and Benefits
Utilities for Creating and Managing Data Storage 3-2
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Flexible Array Storage Tool User’s Guide
FAST 3-2
Command Line Interface (CLI) 3-2
Battery-backed Cache Memory 3-2
Single-step Container Creation 3-3
Flexible Use of Storage 3-3
Container Creation Wizard 3-3
Single-step Container Reconfiguration 3-4
Online Capacity Expansion (OCE) 3-5
RAID-level Migration 3-5
Monitoring and Event Notification 3-5
Multiple View of Storage 3-6
Performance Monitor Integration 3-6
Drive Statistics (S.M.A.R.T.) 3-6
Enclosure Environment (SAF-TE) 3-6
E-mail and Pager Notification 3-6
Container Snapshot 3-7
Compact and Non-Compact Snapshot Containers 3-7
Backing Up Files With a Snapshot Container 3-8
Snapshot Container Management with FAST 3-8
Recovering from Disk Failures 3-9
Flexible Spare Assignment 3-9
Global Spare 3-9
Automatic Rebuild 3-9
Automatic Data Reconstruction 3-10
Disk Hot-swap and Maintenance 3-10
Drive Shuffling 3-10
Drive Hot-swap 3-10
Microsoft Cluster Software Support 3-11
Summary of Features and Benefits 3-11
4
Choosing Your Controller Configuration
Criteria for Choosing a Controller Configuration 4-2
Random-Read Performance 4-2
Random-Write Performance 4-2
Sequential-Read Performance 4-2
iv
Contents
Sequential-Write Performance 4-2
Fault Tolerance 4-2
Expansion 4-3
Load Balancing 4-3
Cost Per Usable Container Space 4-3
Comparing Container Types 4-3
Examples of Controller Configurations 4-4
Application Server 4-5
Developer-Environment Server 4-5
Mail Server 4-5
Transaction Server 4-5
Video Server 4-6
Web Server 4-6
5
Introducing the Flexible Array Storage Tool
Starting and Exiting FAST 5-2
Starting FAST 5-2
Exiting FAST 5-4
Identifying the Main Parts of the FAST Window 5-5
Working with View Windows 5-6
Refreshing View Windows 5-6
Adding a New View Window 5-7
Arranging View Windows 5-7
Activating a View Window 5-7
Printing a View Window 5-7
Using Help 5-8
Accessing FAST Context-sensitive Help from a
Window 5-8
Accessing FAST Context-sensitive Help from a Dialog
Box 5-8
Accessing FAST Help in a Message Window 5-8
Obtaining Information about FAST 5-8
Re-enabling All Message Prompts 5-8
Managing FAST Objects 5-9
Scrolling in Container View 5-9
Using Shortcut Menus 5-10
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Flexible Array Storage Tool User’s Guide
Selecting FAST Objects 5-11
Obtaining Information about FAST Objects 5-12
Identifying Phantom FAST Objects 5-13
Managing Tasks 5-14
6
Working with Controllers
Understanding Controllers and Channels 6-2
Channel Status 6-2
Managing a Local Controller 6-3
Opening a Local Controller 6-3
Closing a Controller 6-7
Managing Remote Connections 6-7
Opening a Controller on a Remote Network 6-8
Locking or Unlocking a Computer’s Record 6-10
Adding or Removing a Computer 6-10
Rescanning a Domain (NT Only) 6-11
Managing Controllers in a DHCP Environment 6-12
Rescanning a Controller 6-12
Pausing I/O on a Controller 6-12
Working with Controller Properties 6-14
Reconditioning the Battery 6-19
Resetting a Channel on a Controller 6-20
7
Working with Disks
Understanding Disks 7-2
Initializing Disks 7-3
Initializing SCSI Disks 7-3
Working with S.M.A.R.T. Disks 7-5
Verifying a Disk 7-6
Blinking a Disk Light 7-8
Working with Disk Properties 7-9
8
Working with Enclosures
Understanding Enclosures 8-2
vi
Contents
Working with Enclosure Properties 8-2
Managing Enclosure Temperature Sensors, Fans, and Power
Supplies 8-6
Managing Temperature Sensors 8-8
Displaying Fan Status 8-10
Displaying Power Supply Status 8-10
Managing Enclosure Slots 8-11
Displaying Slot Status 8-12
Configuring Slots 8-14
9
Working with Disk Space
Working with Freespace 9-2
Understanding Freespace 9-2
Selecting Freespace 9-2
Working with Freespace Properties 9-4
Restrictions on Freespace Extension for Windows 2000 9-7
Working with Partitions 9-9
Understanding Partitions 9-9
Viewing Partition Properties 9-9
Working with Orphan and Dead Partitions 9-10
Managing Partitions with Microsoft Windows Utilities 9-15
10
Creating Containers
Understanding Containers and Multilevel Containers 10-2
Understanding FtDisk Partitions (NT Only) 10-2
Creating Containers 10-3
Displaying the Container Creation Dialog Boxes 10-4
Creating Containers on a NetWare System 10-6
Creating Containers Using the Container Creation
Wizard 10-7
Creating Containers from the Container Menu 10-12
Setting and Using Default Container Creation
Properties 10-28
Using the Create Container Dialog Box 10-31
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Flexible Array Storage Tool User’s Guide
11
Modifying Containers
Reconfiguring a Container 11-2
Accessing the Container Reconfiguration Wizard 11-2
Reconfiguring a Container 11-5
Extending the File System 11-7
Managing Container Rebuild 11-11
Configuring a Container’s Spares Assignment 11-12
Automatic Rebuild 11-15
Reserving Spare Space 11-15
When Rebuild Occurs 11-16
Working with Mirror Sets 11-17
Splitting a Mirror Set 11-17
Unmirroring a Mirror Set 11-18
Checking the Consistency of a Mirror Set 11-18
Checking the Consistency of a RAID-5 Set 11-19
Working with Snapshots (Windows NT and Windows 2000
Only) 11-21
Understanding Snapshots 11-21
Removing a Snapshot 11-26
Deleting a Snapshot 11-27
Working with Container Properties 11-28
Properties of Containers with a Single Operating-System
Partition 11-29
Properties of Containers with Multiple OperatingSystem Partitions (Windows NT and Windows 2000
Only) 11-37
Managing Container Cache 11-38
Properties of Snapshot Containers 11-39
Deleting a Container 11-40
Deleting a Container on a NetWare System 11-41
12
Using the Command Prompt Window
Accessing the Command Prompt Window 12-2
Using the Clipboard with the Command Prompt
Window 12-3
Running CLI Scripts 12-3
viii
Contents
Logging CLI Output 12-3
Exiting the Command Prompt Window 12-4
13
Managing Storage in a Cluster
Understanding Cluster Configurations 13-2
Restrictions on Clustered Controllers 13-2
Understanding Ownership of Objects in a Cluster 13-3
Understanding Disksets 13-6
Managing Disksets as Cluster Resources 13-10
Assigning Spare Disks in a Cluster 13-10
14
Working with Disksets
Managing Disksets 14-2
Managing Disksets from the Disk Menu 14-2
Managing Disksets from a View Window 14-2
Understanding Diskset Attributes 14-4
Name Attribute 14-5
Created and Creator Attributes 14-5
Owner Attribute 14-5
Spare Set Attribute 14-5
Attached Attribute 14-6
Enabling a Diskset to Fail Over 14-6
Creating a Diskset 14-7
Adding Disks to a Diskset 14-9
Removing Disks from a Diskset 14-10
Deleting a Diskset 14-10
Modifying Diskset Properties 14-11
Disksets Represented in FAST Views 14-13
Using the Container Wizards in a Cluster 14-15
15
Working with Diskset Resources
Understanding Cluster Resources 15-2
Creating an Instance of the Diskset Resource Type 15-3
Modifying Diskset Resource Properties 15-8
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Flexible Array Storage Tool User’s Guide
A
Container Reconfiguration Guidelines
Choosing Disks for Use in a Container A-2
Source: Volume Set, Single Partition A-3
Source: Volume Set, Multiple Partitions A-4
Source: Stripe Set (RAID 0) A-4
Source: Mirror Set (RAID 1) A-5
Source: RAID-5 Set A-5
Source: Stripe Set of Mirror Sets (RAID 0/1) A-7
Source: Volume Set of Stripe Sets A-7
Source: Volume Set of Mirror Sets A-7
Source: Volume Set of RAID-5 Sets A-8
Source: Stripe Set of RAID-5 Sets (RAID 50) A-8
B
Remote Management
Installing the Remote Management Software B-1
Security Requirements B-2
Limiting Access to a Controller B-3
Network-wide Access Protection B-3
Modifying the ACL for a Controller B-3
C
FAST Management Interfaces
Accessing the FAST Management Interfaces Dialog Box C-1
Setting Network-wide Permissions for Remote Access to
Controllers C-3
Enabling E-Mail Notification C-3
D
Monitoring Controller Performance
E
NetWare and rconsole
Using the rconsole Utility E-1
Running rconsole E-1
x
Contents
F
Troubleshooting Problems in a Cluster
Using the Cluster Log File for Troubleshooting F-1
Creating a Permanent Log File for the Cluster
Service F-2
Starting the Cluster Service in Debug Mode F-2
Recovering from a Damaged Quorum Resource F-3
Troubleshooting Problems with Node Connections F-4
Cannot Connect to Peer Partner F-4
Cluster Service Cannot Log In F-4
FAST Does Not Display a Peer Partner Controller F-4
Troubleshooting Problems with Devices F-4
Too Many Devices are Visible in FAST Views F-4
Half the Devices in an Enclosure Are Not Visible in
FAST Views F-4
Devices Are Not Consistently Visible in FAST Views F-5
First I/O Operation Hangs the Cluster F-5
Driver Cannot Execute the Requested IOCTL F-5
Troubleshooting Problems with Diskset Resources F-5
Diskset Resource Type Does Not Exist in Cluster
Administrator F-5
Diskset Parameters Screen Does Not Appear F-5
Diskset Resources Are Not Visible in the Cluster
Administrator F-6
Troubleshooting Problems with Termination F-6
Termination Problems Occur When a Node is Powered
Off F-6
Troubleshooting Problems with Channel Configuration F-6
Channel Configuration Error F-6
Cluster Configuration Checklist F-7
Checking SCSI Cables and Connectors F-7
Checking Initiator IDs and the Cluster-Enabled
Switch F-8
Controlled Cluster Startup and Verification F-8
Verifying Cluster Software F-10
Glossary
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Flexible Array Storage Tool User’s Guide
Index
xii
1
Getting Started
The controller management products integrate advanced controller
management technology with state-of-the-art controller hardware to
deliver leadership performance, data availability, and storage
management features.
To configure and manage components running on the controller,
Hewlett-Packard has developed a special software suite that
includes an easy-to-use graphical interface with wizard support—
called the Flexible Array Storage Tool (FAST)—and a command-line
interface (CLI).
On NetWare™, Windows NT, and Windows 2000 systems, the
controller management software enables you to manage data, files,
and storage devices, both locally and remotely, from a single
console, often in a single step. The controller management software
is simple to use and resistant to operator error. In addition, on
Windows NT and Windows 2000 systems, you can integrate the
controller management software with higher-level management
platforms to unify systems and network management.
This user’s guide provides the information about FAST that you
need to configure and manage your controller management
subsystem.
Related Documents
The installation guide for your controller includes instructions for
installing the controller and its related drivers, management
software, and utilities.
1-1
Flexible Array Storage Tool User’s Guide
The Command Line Interface Reference Guide provides information on
how to use the CLI to configure and manage your controller.
Audience
This user’s guide is intended for system administrators and
experienced users who are familiar with SCSI device configurations
and who have a general understanding of Microsoft®
Windows® NT 4.0, Windows 2000, and, where applicable, NetWare.
Document Overview
This section reviews the structure of this user’s guide and explains
the typographical conventions and symbols used.
Organization
Chapter 1, Getting Started, provides an overview of this user’s guide,
including intended audience, related documents, Windows
compatibility, typographical conventions, and symbols.
Chapter 2, Storage Concepts and Terminology, introduces the controller
management subsystem and its components.
Chapter 3, Features and Benefits, describes the software’s online
management features and the performance advantages offered by
the controller management subsystem.
Chapter 4, Choosing Your Controller Configuration, compares various
container (logical disk) types—based on relevant criteria—to help
you choose the configuration that best meets your storage needs.
Chapter 5, Introducing the Flexible Array Storage Tool, tells you how to
start and exit FAST; identifies the parts of the FAST window;
explains how to work with view windows; provides information on
how to manage FAST objects and tasks; and includes instructions for
using online help.
Chapter 6, Working with Controllers, provides instructions for
opening, closing, and rescanning local and remote controllers; how
to pause I/O on a controller; how to work with controller properties;
reconditioning the controller’s battery, and reset a controller’s
channel.
1-2
Getting Started
Chapter 7, Working with Disks, includes information about
initializing and verifying SCSI disks, and tells you how to work with
disk properties.
Chapter 8, Working with Enclosures, explains how to use FAST to
operate an enclosure and provides instructions for working with
enclosure properties. (This version of the controller management
software supports SAF-TE 1.0-compliant enclosures only.)
Chapter 9, Working with Disk Space, contains information about
freespace and partitions, including instructions for selecting
freespace and working with freespace and partition properties, and
information about partitions that must be managed using Microsoft
Disk Administrator.
Chapter 10, Creating Containers, presents procedures for creating
containers (logical disks) and multilevel containers via the
Container Creation Wizard and from the Container menu, and tells
you how to set and use default container creation properties.
Chapter 11, Modifying Containers, provides instructions for
reconfiguring existing containers (logical disks), including how to
migrate from one RAID level to another, add space, specify a new
stripe size, and move a container’s partitions to other disks;
managing container rebuild; working with container properties; and
deleting a container.
Chapter 12, Using the Command Prompt Window, tells you how to use
the Command Prompt window to run the CLI from within FAST.
Chapter 13, Managing Storage in a Cluster, introduces concepts and
terminology that apply when using FAST in a cluster.
Chapter 14, Working with Disksets, describes disksets and diskset
attributes and presents procedures for creating, modifying, and
deleting disksets. This chapter also explains how to use the
container wizards when working with containers that are hosted by
disksets.
Chapter 15, Working with Diskset Resources, explains how to use the
Microsoft Cluster Server (MSCS) Cluster Administrator utility to
manage diskset resources (which are an extension to the standard
set of cluster resources that enables the controller’s disksets to be
managed by the cluster software).
1-3
Flexible Array Storage Tool User’s Guide
Appendix A, Container Reconfiguration Guidelines, provides sourceto-destination suggestions for expanding and migrating containers
(logical disks).
Appendix B, Remote Management, explains how to protect the
controller from unauthorized access over the network.
Appendix C, FAST Management Interfaces, explains how to use the
FAST Management Interfaces dialog box to set network-wide
permissions for remote access, turn e-mail notification and SNMP
interfaces on and off, and enable and disable Performance Monitor
counters.
Appendix D, Monitoring Controller Performance, tells you how you
can measure the performance of the controller using Windows NT
Performance Monitor.
Appendix E, NetWare and rconsole, explains how to use the
rconsole utility to make the NetWare™ operating system aware of
the devices that make up a container (logical disk).
Appendix F, Troubleshooting Problems in a Cluster, lists problems that
can occur in a cluster configuration and provides suggestions for
corrective action.
This user’s guide also contains a Glossary and an Index.
Conventions
The following typographical conventions are used in this user’s
guide:
bold
Used for keystrokes (press Enter) and for window
and dialog box titles, field labels, and buttons
(click Create in the Container Creation Wizard
dialog box).
Courier
Used for system messages (Controller I/O
has been paused...) and text you are to enter
from your keyboard (enter the IP address in the
Network Address box, for example,
123.10.2.30).
italics
Used to indicate glossary terms and variables in
examples.
1-4
Getting Started
Figures
Although FAST supports multiple operating systems, for purposes
of conciseness, the screen captures in this book are based primarily
on controllers installed on Windows NT systems. Whenever
necessary, differences in the display of other operating systems are
pointed out in the text.
Notes, Cautions, and Warnings
Always use care when handling any electrical equipment. To avoid
injury to people or damage to equipment and data, be sure to follow
the cautions and warnings in this document.
Note: Notes are reminders, tips, or suggestions that may
simplify the procedures included in this document.
!
Caution: Cautions alert you to actions that could cause
damage to your system or your data.
WARNING: Warnings alert you to actions that could cause
injury to you or someone else.
❒
1-5
Flexible Array Storage Tool User’s Guide
1-6
2
Storage Concepts and
Terminology
This chapter introduces you to RAID controller storage concepts and
terminology. Read the entire chapter in the order presented to gain a
complete understanding of the controller management subsystem
structure.
The following table summarizes the topics covered in this chapter:
For information about…
Turn to…
Disks
page 2-2
Disksets
page 2-3
Freespace
page 2-3
Partitions
page 2-3
Containers
page 2-4
Multilevel Containers
page 2-12
File Systems
page 2-21
2-1
Flexible Array Storage Tool User’s Guide
The RAID controller subsystem is made up of these layers:
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Disks
Disksets (in a cluster only)
Freespace
Partitions
Containers (logical disks)
Multilevel containers
File systems
Note: The figures in this chapter are for demonstration
purposes only. They are not intended to represent typical
configurations.
Disks
The term disk refers to the physical disk drives on the SCSI channel.
In a controller subsystem, the SCSI disks are addressed by their disk
ID, which includes the following:
■
Channel number. Indicates to which channel on the controller
the SCSI disk is attached.
■
SCSI device ID (also known as target ID). Identifies the disk on
the SCSI channel.
■
Logical unit number (LUN). The number assigned to a subdevice
(logical unit) of a SCSI device, which is usually zero for a disk
drive.
A disk can be in one of the following states:
2-2
■
Not initialized. The disk, such as a brand new disk, has no
recognizable data on it.
■
Initialized. The disk is initialized for use as part of a container,
or as a spare drive. Initializing Disks on page 7-4 tells you how
to use FAST to initialize SCSI disks.
Storage Concepts and Terminology
Disksets
A diskset is a collection of physical disks residing on one or more
shared SCSI channels in a cluster. Each physical disk (when
initialized for use by a container) has freespace, from which you
create partitions, containers, or multilevel containers.
All diskset management is performed using the Manage Disksets
dialog box. You can access this dialog box through the Disk menu.
After you create a diskset, you must create a corresponding diskset
resource (using the MSCS Cluster Administrator utility) that maps to
the diskset. Then, the diskset is capable of failing over according to
the policies you established for the cluster.
For more information on working with disksets, see the following
chapters:
■
Chapter 13, Managing Storage in a Cluster
■
Chapter 14, Working with Disksets
■
Chapter 15, Working with Diskset Resources
Freespace
Freespace is the space on an initialized disk that is not in use by other
controller components. Containers (logical disks) are created from
freespace. When a container is deleted, its space is returned to
freespace.
Partitions
A partition is a contiguous area of a physical disk that makes up
some or all of a container. Unlike FAT, FAT32, or NTFS partitions,
which are created and managed by the operating system, container
partitions are created and managed by the controller as by-products
of container creation or rebuild1 operations. That is, when the
controller creates a container, the controller automatically converts
freespace on a disk into one or more container partitions
(Figure 2-1).
1 If a
disk in a redundant container fails, one or more assigned spare disks
automatically come on line (and become part of the container) to allow
reconstruction of the data from the failed disk. (See Automatic Data
Reconstruction on page 3-7.)
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Flexible Array Storage Tool User’s Guide
Container (Logical
Disk)
Partition 1
Freespace
Partition 2
Freespace
Physical Disk
Physical Disk
Figure 2-1. Partitions are by-products of container creation
Each container partition is identified by the disk on which it resides,
its offset1, and its size. A container partition cannot be used by more
than one container at a time.
Containers
Containers are logical disks (also known as arrays) created from
freespace and made up of one or more partitions on one or more
physical disks. A container (logical disk) that spans multiple
physical disks can be larger than any one of the physical disks. A
container can span multiple physical disks within a diskset.
However, a container cannot span physical disks that reside in
another diskset.
Containers differ from most other RAID arrays in that their
underlying partitions can be smaller than a physical disk.
Consequently, several containers’ partitions can reside on a single
physical disk.
Containers are categorized as follows:
1 The
logical distance from the beginning of the disk to the start of the
partition.
2-4
Storage Concepts and Terminology
■
A single-level container is made up of one or more partitions.
■
A multilevel container is made up of one or more containers.
Figure 2-2 shows a single-level container made up of equal-sized
partitions that reside on two separate disks. Figure 2-3 shows a
single-level container made up of unequal-sized partitions that
reside on two separate disks.
Container (Logical Disk) A
Partition A1
Partition A2
Freespace
Freespace
Disk 1
Disk 2
Figure 2-2. Single-level container made up of two equal-sized partitions
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Flexible Array Storage Tool User’s Guide
Single-Level Container
(Logical Disk) A
Partition A1
Partition A2
Freespace
Freespace
Disk 1
Disk 2
Figure 2-3. Single-level container made up of two unequal-sized partitions
On Windows NT and Windows 2000, a container’s file system
appears in Windows Explorer as a disk drive with its own drive
letter. Containers with multiple operating system partitions are
discussed in Managing Partitions with Microsoft Windows Utilities on
page 9-10 and in Properties of Containers with Multiple OperatingSystem Partitions (Windows NT and Windows 2000 Only) on
page 11-23. File systems are covered on page 2-21.
Table 2-1 lists the single-level container types supported by the
controller management software. Table 2-2 lists the supported multilevel container types.
Table 2-1. Single-level container types
Volume set
Also called JBOD
page 2-7
Stripe set
RAID 0
page 2-8
Mirror set
RAID 1
page 2-9
RAID-5 set
RAID 5
page 2-11
2-6
Storage Concepts and Terminology
Table 2-2. Multi-level container types
Stripe set of mirror sets
RAID 0/1 (RAID 10)
page 2-14
Volume set of mirror sets
page 2-15
Volume set of stripe sets
page 2-16
Volume set of RAID-5 sets
page 2-18
Stripe set of RAID-5 sets
RAID 50
page 2-20
For information on creating containers, see Chapter 10. For
information on modifying containers, see Chapter 11.
Volume Set
A volume set is a single-level container (logical disk) that is a
concatenation of one or more partitions on one or more disks. The
partitions in a volume set do not have to be the same size. The
volume set is the simplest container that can be created with the
controller management software.
A volume set does not have the superior performance of a stripe set
or the redundancy (the capability of preventing data loss in the event
of disk failure) of a mirror set or RAID-5 set.
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Flexible Array Storage Tool User’s Guide
Figure 2-4 shows a volume set made up of two partitions, each on a
different disk.
Volume Set A
150 MB
Partition A1
50 MB
Partition A2
100 MB
Freespace
Freespace
Disk 1
Disk 2
Figure 2-4. Volume set made up of two partitions
on two different disks
Stripe Set (RAID 0)
A stripe set is a single-level container (logical disk) made up of two
or more equal-sized partitions that reside on different disks. (A
stripe set can be created from one partition, but it is functionally
equivalent to a single-drive volume set.) The stripe set distributes
data evenly across its respective disks in equal-sized sections called
stripes.
Whereas a volume set combines the data on different-sized
partitions by concatenation, a stripe set distributes the data among
the partitions in a way that optimizes access speed. A stripe set does
not have the redundancy of a mirror set or RAID-5 set.
2-8
Storage Concepts and Terminology
Figure 2-5 shows a stripe set made up of three partitions on three
separate disks.
Stripe Set A
300 MB
Stripes 1,2,3,
4,5,6,7,8,9
Disk 1
Freespace
Partition A1
100 MB
Stripes 1,4,7
Disk 2
Freespace
Partition A2
100 MB
Stripes 2,5,8
Disk 3
Freespace
Partition A3
100 MB
Stripes 3,6,9
Figure 2-5. Stripe set made up of three partitions,
each on a different disk
Mirror Set (RAID 1)
A mirror set is a single-level container (logical disk) made up of two
equal-sized partitions that reside on two different disks. A mirror set
stores and maintains the same, or redundant, data in both partitions.
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Flexible Array Storage Tool User’s Guide
Figure 2-6 shows a mirror set.
Mirror Set A
100 MB
Partition A
100 MB
Partition A(R)*
100 MB
Freespace
Freespace
Disk 1
Disk 2
*(R) = Redundant
Figure 2-6. Mirror set must be made up of two equal-sized
partitions residing on different disks
An existing mirror set can be manipulated using the following
commands:
■
The Split command divides a mirror set into two identical
volume sets, and is usually used for archiving data. This
command works for both single-level or multilevel mirror set
containers. (See Splitting a Mirror Set on page 11-13 for more
information.)
Note: The Split command is not supported on
Windows 2000 and NetWare™ systems.
■
2-10
The Unmirror command changes a mirror set into a volume set
by converting the redundant halves of the mirror set to
freespace. This command is used when redundancy is no
longer required, and works for both single-level and multilevel
mirror set containers. (See Unmirroring a Mirror Set on
page 11-13 for more information.)
Storage Concepts and Terminology
RAID-5 Set
The RAID-5 set is similar to a stripe set, except that its data is
redundant. A RAID-5 set must be made up of at least three equalsized partitions.
In a RAID-5 set, one stripe is used for parity data. The parity stripe is
distributed across all disks containing partitions of the RAID-5 set so
parity operations are evenly divided among all the partitions in the
container (logical disk). The space required for parity data is not
available for user data, and is not included in the overall container
size.
Figure 2-7 shows a RAID-5 set made up of four partitions, each on a
different disk.
2-11
Flexible Array Storage Tool User’s Guide
RAID-5 Set A
300 MB
Stripes 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,
9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16
Disk 1
Freespace
Partition A1
100 MB
Stripes
1,P*,7,10,13
Disk 2
Freespace
Partition A2
100 MB
Stripes
2,4,P*,11,14
Disk 3
Freespace
Partition A3
100 MB
Stripes
3,5,8,P*,15
Disk 4
Freespace
Partition A4
100 MB
Stripes
P*,6,9,12,16
*P = Parity
Figure 2-7. RAID-5 set made up of four partitions
on four different disks
Multilevel Containers
A multilevel container (logical disk) is a combination of two or more
single-level containers. Multilevel containers made up of two
container types combine the beneficial characteristics of the two
types. For example, a stripe set of mirror sets combines the
performance of a stripe set with the redundancy of a mirror set. (See
Criteria for Choosing a Controller Configuration on page 4-2 for more
information about the advantages of various container types.)
The controller management software supports the following
multilevel containers:
■
2-12
Stripe set of mirror sets (RAID 0/1)
Storage Concepts and Terminology
■
Volume set of mirror sets
■
Volume set of stripe sets
■
Volume set of RAID-5 sets
■
Stripe set of RAID-5 sets (RAID 50)
Note: To create a volume set of stripe sets and a volume set
of RAID-5 sets, you must use either CLI commands or
perform the tasks manually in FAST. These containers are
not supported by the Container Creation Wizard. For more
information on creating these types of containers, see
Chapter 10, Creating Containers.
Figure 2-8 shows a multilevel container created from two singlelevel containers. The multilevel container is referred to as the toplevel container, and single-level containers A and B are referred to as
underlying containers.
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Flexible Array Storage Tool User’s Guide
Multi-level Container
(Top-level Container)
Single-level
Container A
(Underlying
Container)
Single-level Container B
(Underlying Container)
Partition A1
Partition A2
Partition B1
Partition B2
Freespace
Freespace
Disk 1
Disk 2
Figure 2-8. Multilevel container (logical disk) created from two single-level
containers
On Windows NT and Windows 2000, multilevel containers appear
in Windows Explorer as disk drives. The single-level containers that
make up the multilevel container (the underlying containers) do not
appear in Windows Explorer; only the multilevel container (the toplevel container) that is using the underlying containers can access
them.
The top-level container of a multilevel container can be only a
volume set or a stripe set.
Stripe Set of Mirror Sets (RAID 0/1)
A stripe set of mirror sets is a multilevel container (logical disk) made
up of two or more equal-sized mirror sets. A stripe set of mirror sets’
data is redundant.
2-14
Storage Concepts and Terminology
Figure 2-9 shows a stripe set of mirror sets created from three equalsized mirror sets (A, B, and C) and striped across six disks. Each
mirror set is made up of two equal-sized partitions on two separate
disks.
The stripe set of mirror sets is the top-level container, and mirror sets
A, B, and C are the underlying containers.
Mirror Set A
100 MB
Stripes 1,4,7
Disk 1
Disk 2
Partition A
100 MB
Stripe Set of Mirror Sets
300 MB
Stripes
Mirror Set C
1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9
100 MB
Stripes 3,6,9
Mirror Set B
100 MB
Stripes 2,5,8
Partition A(R)*
100 MB
Freespace
Freespace
Disk 3
Partition B
100 MB
Freespace
Disk 4
Partition B(R)*
100 MB
Freespace
Disk 5
Partition C
100 MB
Disk 6
Partition C(R)*
100 MB
Freespace
Freespace
*(R) = Redundant
Figure 2-9. Stripe set of mirror sets created from three
equal-sized mirror sets and striped across six disks
Volume Set of Mirror Sets
A volume set of mirror sets is a multilevel container (logical disk) that
is a concatenation of two or more mirror sets. A volume set of mirror
sets’ data is redundant.
The mirror sets in a volume set of mirror sets do not have to be
equally sized.
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Flexible Array Storage Tool User’s Guide
Figure 2-10 shows a volume set of mirror sets created from two
mirror sets (A and B). Each mirror set is made up of two equal-sized
partitions on two separate disks.
The volume set of mirror sets is the top-level container, and mirror
sets A and B are the underlying containers.
Volume Set of Mirror Sets
150 MB
Mirror Set A
50 MB
Mirror Set B
100 MB
Disk 1
Freespace
Partition A
50 MB
Disk 2
Freespace
Partition A(R)*
50 MB
Disk 3
Freespace
Partition B
100 MB
Disk 4
Freespace
Partition B(R)*
100 MB
*(R) = Redundant
Figure 2-10. Volume set of mirror sets created from two
independent mirror sets
Volume Set of Stripe Sets
A volume set of stripe sets is a multilevel container (logical disk) made
up of two or more stripe sets.
2-16
Storage Concepts and Terminology
The volume set of stripe sets is the top-level container, and stripe
sets A and B are the underlying containers.
Volume Set of Stripe Sets
600 MB
Stripes 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,
8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15
Stripe Set B
300 MB
Stripes 10,11,
12,13,14,15
Stripe Set A
300 MB
Stripes 1,2,
3,4,5,6,7,8,9
Disk 1
Partition B1
100 MB
Stripes 10,13
Partition A1
100 MB
Stripes 1,4,7
Disk 2
Partition B2
100 MB
Stripes 11, 14
Partition A2
100 MB
Stripes 2, 5, 8
Disk 3
Partition B3
100 MB
Stripes 12, 15
Partition A3
100 MB
Stripes 3, 6, 9
Figure 2-11. Volume set of stripe sets created from
two independent stripe sets
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Flexible Array Storage Tool User’s Guide
Figure 2-11 shows a volume set of stripe sets created from two stripe
sets (A and B). Each stripe set is made up of three equal-sized
partitions on three separate disks.
Volume Set of RAID-5 Sets
A volume set of RAID-5 sets is a multilevel container (logical disk)
made up of two or more RAID-5 sets. A volume set of RAID-5 sets’
data is redundant.
Figure 2-12 shows a volume set of RAID-5 sets created from two
RAID-5 sets (A and B). Each RAID-5 set is made up of three equalsized partitions on three separate disks.
2-18
Storage Concepts and Terminology
Volume Set of Stripe Sets
600 MB
Stripes 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,
8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15
Stripe Set A
300 MB
Stripes 1,2,
3,4,5,6,7,8,9
Stripe Set B
300 MB
Stripes 10,11,
12,13,14,15
Disk 1
Disk 2
Partition B1
100 MB
Stripes 10,13
Partition B2
100 MB
Stripes 11,14
Partition A1
100 MB
Stripes 1,4,7
Partition A2
100 MB
Stripes 2,5,8
Disk 3
Partition B3
100 MB
Stripes 12,15
Partition A3
100 MB
Stripes 3,6,9
Figure 2-12. Volume set of RAID-5 sets created from two
independent RAID-5 sets
The volume set of RAID-5 sets is the top-level container, and RAID-5
sets A and B are the underlying containers.
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Flexible Array Storage Tool User’s Guide
Stripe Set of RAID-5 Sets (RAID 50)
A stripe set of RAID-5 sets is a multilevel container (logical disk)
made up of two or more RAID-5 sets. A stripe set of RAID-5 sets
combines the redundancy of a RAID-5 set with the performance of a
stripe set.
Figure 2-13 shows a stripe set of RAID-5 sets created from two
RAID-5 sets (A and B). The stripe set of RAID-5 sets is the top-level
container, and RAID-5 sets A and B are the underlying containers.
Each RAID-5 set is made up of three physical disks.
In the stripe set of RAID-5 sets shown in Figure 2-13, a 128-KB block
of data written to the top-level container is striped across the two
RAID-5 sets in 64-KB stripes. Each stripe is, in turn, distributed
across the disks that make up the RAID-5 set in 32-KB stripes. (In a
RAID-5 set, one stripe for each write operation is used for parity.)
Each RAID-5 set used in a stripe set of RAID-5 sets must consist of
the same number of physical disks (either 3, 5, or 9 disks). A stripe
set of RAID-5 sets requires a minimum of six physical disks.
2-20
Storage Concepts and Terminology
Stripe Set of RAID-5 Sets
1 GB
Stripe size: 64K
Stripes A1, A2, AP*, B1, B2, BP*
RAID-5 Set B
500 MB
Stripe size: 32K
Stripes B1, B2, BP*
RAID-5 Set A
500 MB
Stripe size: 32K
Stripes A1, A2, AP*
Disk 1
250 MB
Stripe A1
Disk 2
250 MB
Stripe A2
Disk 3
250 M
Stripe AP*
Disk 4
250 MB
Stripe B1
Disk 5
250 MB
Stripe B2
Disk 6
250 MB
Stripe BP*
*P = Parity
Figure 2-13. Stripe set of RAID-5 sets created from
two independent RAID-5 sets
File Systems
A file system is a layer of software that manages a collection of files
within a directory structure. The file system relieves the user or
application of the burden of knowing the exact location of user data.
Rather, the user or application accesses file data by the file’s name.
The file system indexes and stores the data that corresponds to the
locations of the file’s name and data. This location information is
generally referred to as metadata.
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Flexible Array Storage Tool User’s Guide
In addition to supporting containers (logical disks) with no file
systems, the controller management software supports three types
of file systems for Windows NT and Windows 2000: FAT, FAT32, and
NTFS. These file systems are native to Windows NT and Windows
2000 and are maintained in full by the host server processor.
On Windows NT systems, the controller initializes the specified file
system as soon as the container has been configured. This process
makes the container immediately available to users. Other RAID
controllers cannot initialize the file system until the array has been
fully created. This creation process, which often takes several hours,
significantly delays users’ access to the container. (On Windows
2000 systems, the file system for a container must be created using
the Microsoft Disk Management utility.)
❒
2-22
3
Features and Benefits
This chapter highlights the key features of the controller
management software. For detailed information on how to use these
features, refer to the remainder of this user’s guide or to the
Command Line Interface Reference Guide.
The following table summarizes the topics covered in this chapter:
For information about…
Turn to…
Utilities for Creating and Managing Data Storage
page 3-2
Battery-backed Cache Memory
page 3-2
Single-step Container Creation
page 3-3
Single-step Container Reconfiguration
page 3-4
Monitoring and Event Notification
page 3-5
Container Snapshot
page 3-7
Recovering from Disk Failures
page 3-7
Disk Hot-swap and Maintenance
page 3-10
Microsoft Cluster Software Support
page 3-11
Summary of Features and Benefits
page 3-11
3-1
Flexible Array Storage Tool User’s Guide
Utilities for Creating and Managing Data Storage
The controller management software provides a set of easy-to-use
utilities for creating and managing data storage. The controller
management software consists of the following utilities:
■
Flexible Array Storage Tool (FAST)
■
Command-line interface (CLI)
FAST
FAST provides a graphical user interface (GUI) and wizards that
simplify storage management operations such as container (logical
disk) creation and reconfiguration. Using FAST, you can manage
containers locally or remotely without interrupting user access to
data.
Some highlights of FAST include:
■
Expand, reconfigure, and back up containers without taking
the containers offline
■
Wizards that create or reconfigure containers and handle all
necessary file system interactions in one step
■
Manage controllers on Windows NT, Windows 2000, or
NetWare™ systems, either locally or across a network, from a
Windows NT management station
Command Line Interface (CLI)
The CLI is designed for advanced use and troubleshooting. The CLI
provides a command set that enables you to manage containers
(logical disks) locally on NetWare, Windows NT, and Windows 2000
systems, or remotely from within FAST on Windows NT clients. The
CLI allows you to create scripts for automating container
management operations. See the Command Line Interface Reference
Guide for detailed information on the commands provided by the
CLI.
Battery-backed Cache Memory
The controller includes a battery-backed buffer cache on a daughter
card to protect cached data in the event of a system or power failure.
See the installation guide for your controller for supported holdover
3-2
Features and Benefits
times. In addition, the daughter card is removable, enabling cached
data to be restored by transferring the daughter card to another
system. It is recommended that you contact your service
representative to transfer the daughter card.
Single-step Container Creation
The controller management software allows you to make flexible
use of storage and to create containers (logical disks) in a single step
for disks on a Windows NT system.
Note: This feature is not supported on NetWare™ or
Windows 2000 systems.
Flexible Use of Storage
Conventional RAID solutions present a storage model where
physical disks are used as the smallest building blocks for arrays.
Our controller’s storage model, in contrast, presents a more flexible
model where storage resources are viewed and managed as a pool of
available freespace. In this model, the building blocks for containers
(logical disks) are partitions on disks that can be combined to create
containers of varying sizes and types. With FAST, you can take
advantage of any available disk space and create containers that
span multiple disks or multiple channels. You can create a small
container by using only a portion of a disk or a very large container
by using freespace across multiple disks. (When a container uses a
portion of a disk, the remainder of the disk can be used for other
containers.) This logical view of storage gives you the flexibility to
make the most efficient use of your system storage resources.
Container Creation Wizard
The Container Creation Wizard (Figure 3-1) enables you to create
containers in a single step and make them immediately available to
users. You select the type of container to be created, the physical
disks to be used, and the size of container. On Windows NT, the
controller management software enables you to initialize the file
system as part of the creation operation; you are not required to run
3-3
Flexible Array Storage Tool User’s Guide
a separate utility. (On Windows 2000, you must use the Microsoft
Disk Management utility to initialize a file system.)
Figure 3-1. Container Creation Wizard
Single-step Container Reconfiguration
FAST provides a Container Reconfiguration Wizard to step you
through a variety of container (logical disk) reconfiguration
operations. The Container Reconfiguration Wizard supports the
following features:
■
Online capacity expansion (OCE)
■
RAID-level migration
Note: Single-step container reconfiguration is not supported
on NetWare™ or Windows 2000 systems.
3-4
Features and Benefits
Online Capacity Expansion (OCE)
By monitoring disk space and usage, you can determine when it is
necessary to expand the amount of space reserved for any given
container. Using the Container Reconfiguration Wizard, click on
the container to be expanded and enter the new size. The expansion
process occurs in the background while the container remains online
and accessible to users.
If you expand and keep the same RAID type (for example, expand a
1-GB RAID-5 set to 2 GB), the data is redistributed across the disks.
During the redistribution process, you maintain the fault tolerance
and performance characteristics of the original type of container, but
performance may degrade until the operation completes. Users have
access to the data during the reconfiguration process.
RAID-level Migration
Over time, you might determine that the performance and
redundancy characteristics of a container’s initial RAID level are no
longer appropriate. In addition to being able to expand capacity, the
Container Reconfiguration Wizard allows you to change a
container’s type or RAID level. For example, you can use the
Container Reconfiguration Wizard to add fault-tolerant
characteristics to a stripe set (RAID 0) by converting it to a RAID-5
set in a simple online operation. Use the Container Reconfiguration
Wizard to select the container that you want to change and the type
of container to which you want to migrate. The Wizard provides
information about the attributes of the container type to assist you in
selecting the appropriate target container.
Monitoring and Event Notification
The controller management software allows you to monitor system
resources, such as disks, controllers, and containers (logical disks),
and to receive e-mail messages about a variety of events related to
operations and activities that occur on these system resources. The
monitoring and event notification features that the controller
management software provides include the following:
■
Multiple views of storage
■
Performance Monitor integration (Windows NT and Windows
2000 only)
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Flexible Array Storage Tool User’s Guide
■
Drive statistics
■
Enclosure environment
■
E-mail and pager notification (Windows NT and Windows
2000 only)
Multiple View of Storage
Through FAST, you can display system resources in one of three
ways: the Disk view, the Controller view, or the Container view.
These views allow you to monitor and manage disks, controllers,
containers (logical disks), and SAF-TE 1.0 enclosures from a single
application.
Performance Monitor Integration
On Windows NT and Windows 2000 systems, you can launch the
Microsoft Performance Monitor from within FAST. You can also
enable standard counters in the Performance Monitor to monitor
device usage, queue lengths, delays, and other information used to
measure throughput and overall performance.
Drive Statistics (S.M.A.R.T.)
The controller management software monitors the Self-Monitoring,
Analysis and Reporting Technology (S.M.A.R.T.) disk parameters to
help predict the likelihood of a drive failure. It issues warnings
when these parameters indicate a possible problem.
Enclosure Environment (SAF-TE)
FAST enables you to display and manage SCSI Accessed FaultTolerant Enclosures (SAF-TE). You can easily manage the basic
elements of an enclosure (temperature sensors, fans, and power
supplies). For example, you can see the current temperature of an
enclosure and receive a warning when the temperature has
exceeded a threshold you specify. (Specific enclosure features and
functions vary from manufacturer to manufacturer.)
E-mail and Pager Notification
Using the CLI, alarms can be set to monitor for a variety of warning
or failure conditions, such as when the battery is low or degrading
or when a controller fails. When a configured warning condition
3-6
Features and Benefits
arises, notification is sent either by e-mail or to a pager. See the
Command Line Interface Reference Guide for more information.
Container Snapshot
Note: This feature is supported on Windows NT and
Windows 2000 only.
Container snapshot allows you to create an instantaneous copy of a
container at a precise point in time. You can create a snapshot of any
type container as long as it has a single Microsoft file system partition.
The copy of the original container is known as a backing container.
Note that when you make a snapshot of a redundant container, the
fault tolerance of the data is preserved.
A snapshot backing container is immediately available for backup,
archiving, or use by application programs. User and application
access is not interrupted during the snapshot process, although the
snapshot results in a small performance degradation during initial
writes.
!
Caution: Although possible, we recommend that you do not
write to a snapshot backing container. The writes will be lost
when the snapshot is deleted or if a compact snapshot
backing container becomes 100% full.
Compact and Non-Compact Snapshot Containers
FAST supports both compact and non-compact snapshots. FAST
selects one or the other type of snapshot depending upon the size
you choose for the backing container.
A compact snapshot uses a smaller backing container than the
container from which the snapshot is being taken. A compact
snapshot backing container may be as small as 10MB, regardless of
the size of the original container. It is only suitable for a snapshot
with few anticipated writes, since (owing to its reduced size), if the
writes are many, a compact snapshot backing container may become
100% full before the snapshot is complete. When this happens, the
data on the backing container becomes inaccessible. The snapshot
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Flexible Array Storage Tool User’s Guide
must then be retaken using either a larger backing container or by
performing a non-compact snapshot.
A non-compact snapshot uses a backing container that is slightly
larger (64KB) than the container from which the snapshot is being
taken. As a result, a non-compact snapshot backing container will
never reach 100% capacity. You would choose to take a non-compact
snapshot if you anticipate many writes and/or want to ensure that
the snapshot backing container will never reach maximum capacity
before the snapshot completes.
Backing Up Files With a Snapshot Container
After a snapshot is taken, the snapshot backing container can be
used by a backup program to back up the files to disk, tape, or CDROM. Files will not change on the snapshot, making the backup as
clean as possible.
After the backup of the snapshot is done, the snapshot backing
container can be removed. Optionally, any archive information
updates made to the backing container during backup can be
propagated to the original container when the snapshot backing
container is removed or deleted. If the archive update feature is
chosen, only files that have not changed on the original container
since the snapshot was taken are affected.
Snapshot Container Management with FAST
FAST allows you to do the following:
■
Take a compact or non-compact snapshot.
■
Remove a snapshot backing container, which removes the link
between the snapshot backing container and the original
container, and offers you the option of updating the snapshot
after the snapshot backing container has been removed.
■
Update a snapshot, which syncs-up the archive information
between the snapshot backing container and the original
container. This option is available when you remove or delete a
snapshot backing container.
Note that writes to the backing container (which are not
recommended) do not migrate back to the original container.
3-8
Features and Benefits
Recovering from Disk Failures
The controller management software provides the following
features related to recovering from disk failures:
■
Flexible spare assignment
■
Automatic rebuild
■
Automatic data reconstruction
Flexible Spare Assignment
You can use FAST to assign spare disks to fault-tolerant containers
(logical disks). With conventional array solutions, spare disks are
assigned on a one-to-one basis for each redundant array. The
controller management software’s ability to view and manage
storage as a pool of free space allows you to assign spare disks on a
one-to-many basis. Because each spare disk is not dedicated to a
single fault-tolerant container, the same spare space can be shared
by multiple containers. This method of flexible spare assignment can
significantly reduce the number of dedicated spare disks needed to
protect against disk failures.
Global Spare
The controller management software allows you to assign a disk as a
spare disk to one or more containers or make a disk a global spare,
which is a disk that is available as a spare to all containers.
Container rebuild is the process by which the controller rebuilds
data on a spare disk when a drive that is part of a redundant
container fails. If the controller detects an unrecoverable error
during I/O on a redundant container, it checks for an available spare
disk that has sufficient free space to handle the rebuild.
Automatic Rebuild
When I/O to a disk fails, the controller begins to monitor the disk.
When you replace the failed disk with a new one, the controller
detects the new disk and automatically initiates rebuild on the new
disk. (The new disk does not have to be assigned as a spare disk for
the rebuild to occur.)
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Flexible Array Storage Tool User’s Guide
Automatic Data Reconstruction
If a disk in a fault-tolerant container fails, the controller software
automatically reconstructs the data in the replacement partitions
(assigned spare space) transparently to applications. However,
controller throughput may degrade during data reconstruction.
(This assumes you have assigned spare space.)
If you forget to assign a spare disk to a fault-tolerant container, and a
disk in that container fails, the integrity of the data (for a mirror set
or a RAID-5 set) is maintained until another disk (in the same
container) fails. For a stripe set of mirror sets (RAID 0/1), it is
possible for multiple disks to fail and still have data integrity. The
FAST utility takes advantage of these RAID attributes and notifies
you that you have forgotten to assign a spare disk for the container.
You then have a second chance to assign a spare disk to the
container, thereby maintaining fault tolerance.
Disk Hot-swap and Maintenance
The controller management software allows you to perform the
following disk maintenance tasks:
■
Drive shuffling
■
Drive hot-swap
Drive Shuffling
The controller management software allows you to move disks from
one SCSI channel to another, or change a drive’s SCSI ID on the
same channel, without losing the container (logical disk)
configuration and data.
Drive Hot-swap
The controller management software’s hot-swap capability allows
you to temporarily suspend I/O to the disks by using the Pause I/O
command. The Pause I/O command allows you to add or remove
disk drives.
Pause I/O is only required when you remove or add disks that are
used by a container. If a disk is not hosting a container, you do not
need to pause I/O.
3-10
Features and Benefits
Microsoft Cluster Software Support
Note: Cluster support is available on Windows NT and
Windows 2000 systems only.
When controllers are installed on the nodes in a Microsoft Cluster
Server (MSCS) cluster, FAST views and dialog boxes reflect the
cluster configuration. You can use FAST to access the controllers on
all nodes. FAST identifies shared and local channels, and indicates
which devices are controlled by which node.
Chapter 13, Managing Storage in a Cluster, introduces cluster
concepts and highlights differences when running FAST in a cluster.
Chapter 14, Working with Disksets, explains how to manage a new
object type called the diskset, which is required to create containers
on shared storage.
Chapter 15, Working with Diskset Resources, explains how to put
containers hosted by disksets under the control of the MSCS cluster
software.
Summary of Features and Benefits
Feature
Function
Benefit
Battery backup
Battery protects
cached data
Protects cached data in
the event of a board or
power failure. See
installation guide for
details.
Boot support
Boot directly from
the controller
Separate adapter for
boot device not needed.
Flexible container
(logical disk) sizes
Create containers of
virtually any size
using disk partitions
Efficient use of storage;
not limited to the
physical disk size as the
smallest building block
for creating logical
containers.
Flexible rebuild disk
assignment
Assign a spare disk
in case a disk fails
No dedicated disks
required for rebuild.
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Flexible Array Storage Tool User’s Guide
Feature
Function
Benefit
Automatic rebuild
Enables automatic
rebuild to any new
drive inserted into
the same slot as a
failing drive
Does not require a
dedicated disk nor does
the spare disk have to
be assigned before it
takes effect.
Global spare disks
A disk that is
available as a spares
disk to any
redundant container
Simplifies the process of
assigning spares disks
to containers; efficient
use of storage
Hot-swap
Support for hotswapping of disks
Ability to replace disks
without taking the
system offline.
OCE (online capacity
expansion)
Ability to increase
the capacity of a
container as required
Increase storage
capacity without
interrupting user access
to data and without
rebooting the host
server system.
Online RAID-level
migration
Ability to change the
characteristics of a
container
System managers have
the flexibility to
configure a container
and then change its
attributes as needs
change without
interrupting user access
to data and without
rebooting the host
server system.
Remote management
Manage controllers
remotely from
Windows NT system
Network managers can
manage storage from
anywhere in the
network.
SAF-TE
Supports SAF-TE 1.0
enclosures
Monitors and reports
status of intelligent
enclosures and issues
warnings.
S.M.A.R.T.
Supports S.M.A.R.T.
disk drives
Ability to predict disk
failure prior to its
occurrence and warn
users.
3-12
Features and Benefits
Feature
Function
Benefit
Single-step container
creation and
reconfiguration
(Windows NT only)
Creates containers
and manages the file
system
simultaneously
Integrates container
and file system creation;
no need to use
Microsoft Disk
Administrator.
Snapshot backup
(Windows NT and
Windows 2000 only)
Creates a read-only
copy of a container at
a precise moment in
time.
Used as source for
backups, archiving, or
processing by an
application
Microsoft Cluster
Software (MSCS)
support
(Windows NT and
Windows 2000 only)
Enables containers
hosted by shared
storage to fail over in
the event of a system
failure in a cluster
Service to clients
continues with minimal
interruption.
❒
3-13
Flexible Array Storage Tool User’s Guide
3-14
4
Choosing Your Controller
Configuration
This chapter is designed to help you choose your controller
configuration. For the purposes of this chapter, a controller
configuration consists of a set of containers (logical disks) that is
managed and controlled by one or more controllers. The set of
containers can include one or more of the following container types:
■
Volume set
■
Stripe set (RAID 0)
■
Mirror set (RAID 1)
■
RAID-5 set
■
Volume set of stripe sets
■
Volume set of mirror sets
■
Stripe set of mirror sets (RAID 0/1)
■
Volume set of RAID-5 sets
■
Stripe set of RAID-5 sets (RAID 50)
The following table summarizes the topics covered in this chapter:
For information about…
Turn to…
Criteria for Choosing a Controller Configuration
page 4-2
Comparing Container Types
page 4-3
Examples of Controller Configurations
page 4-4
4-1
Flexible Array Storage Tool User’s Guide
Criteria for Choosing a Controller Configuration
To choose the appropriate controller configuration, decide how
important each of the following criteria is to meeting your data
management and storage needs, and then refer to Table 4-1 on
page 4-4.
Random-Read Performance
The system’s random-read performance is measured by its ability to
locate and read data directly from a file without having to search
sequentially from the beginning of the file. Applications that require
high random-read performance include databases, transaction
processing programs, and page files.
Random-Write Performance
A system’s random-write performance is measured by its ability to
write data directly to a file without having to search sequentially
from the beginning of the file. Applications that require high
random-write performance include databases, transaction
processing programs, and page files.
Sequential-Read Performance
A system’s sequential-read performance is measured by its ability to
read large numbers of consecutive data elements. Applications that
require high sequential-read performance include streaming video
programs and backup/restore programs.
Sequential-Write Performance
A system’s sequential-write performance is measured by its ability
to write large numbers of consecutive data elements. Applications
that require high sequential-write performance include streaming
video programs and backup/restore programs.
Fault Tolerance
Fault tolerance is the ability of a system to recover from a failure of
one or more disks without interrupting user or application access to
data. Fault tolerance is used whenever data is more important than
the cost of storing it.
4-2
Choosing Your Controller Configuration
Expansion
Expansion is the ability of a system to increase the available storage
capacity (for example, the total capacity of a logical disk) for the
operating system’s file system. Most systems require expansion
capabilities.
Load Balancing
Load balancing is the ability of a system to spread I/O across disks.
Any I/O-intensive application benefits from load balancing.
Cost Per Usable Container Space
The cost per usable container space is the ability of the system to use
all space in a container (logical disk) to store user data. (Unusable
space includes parity in a RAID-5 set and the redundant half of a
mirror set.)
Comparing Container Types
Use Table 4-1 to compare container types according to the criteria
you rated in the previous section. In this table, values range from 1
(least useful) to 10 (most useful).
Note: For sequential-write performance, the ratings for
stripe set and stripe set of mirror sets do not apply when
both types of container have the same number of drives. In
this case, a stripe set of mirror sets does not provide as much
throughput as a stripe set because each stripe is smaller.
Given the same number of drives, the ratings change to
stripe set = 10 and stripe set of mirror sets = 8.
4-3
Flexible Array Storage Tool User’s Guide
Table 4-1. Comparing container types
Volume Set
Stripe Set
Mirror Set
RAID-5 Set
Stripe Set of
Mirror Sets
Volume Set of
Mirror Sets
Volume Set of
Stripe Sets
Volume Set of
RAID-5 Sets
Stripe set of
RAID-5 Sets
Container Type
Random-Read
Performance
1
7
3
7
9
3
5
5
7
Random-Write
Performance
5
9
3
1
5
5
7
1
2
Sequential-Read
Performance
1
9
3
7
7
5
5
5
7
Sequential-Write
Performance
3
9
1
7
3
1
5
3
5
Fault Tolerance
N
N
Y
Y
Y
Y
N
Y
Y
Expansion
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Load Balancing
1
9
1
7
7
1
7
6
6
Cost Per Usable
Container Space
9
9
1
7
1
1
9
7
6
Criteria
Examples of Controller Configurations
The examples in this section show you how to use your system
criteria to determine the optimum controller configuration for
specific networking environments. You may find these examples
useful in determining the controller configuration that best meets
your needs.
Generally, when fault tolerance is required, a RAID-5 configuration
is preferred because of the reduced overhead cost. Otherwise, a
stripe set is appropriate.
4-4
Choosing Your Controller Configuration
Application Server
In the application server environment, users access applications
from the server, but they store their data on their local hard disks.
The controller configuration for this environment must provide high
sequential-read performance.
Suggested controller configuration: Stripe set or, if fault tolerance is
required, RAID-5 set or stripe set of mirror sets.
Developer-Environment Server
In a developer environment, users transfer data from the server to
their local systems, modify the data, and return it to the server. The
controller configuration for this environment must provide high
random-read and random-write performance and fault tolerance.
Suggested controller configuration: RAID-5 set or stripe set of
mirror sets.
Mail Server
In the mail server environment, when users log on to the server to
read their mail, the server transfers the mail files to the user’s local
hard drive. The controller configuration for this environment must
provide high random-read and random-write performance and fault
tolerance.
Suggested controller configuration: RAID-5 set or stripe set of
mirror sets.
Transaction Server
In a transaction server environment, such as a hospital or a bank,
data availability is critical. Multiple PCs are connected to the server,
and each user randomly accesses the server to create new files,
update existing files, and read data. The controller configuration for
this environment must provide high random-read performance and
fault tolerance.
Suggested controller configuration: Stripe set of mirror sets.
Alternate controller configuration: Stripe set to store and manage
data; mirror set to maintain a transaction log file.
4-5
Flexible Array Storage Tool User’s Guide
Video Server
In a video server environment, users transfer large blocks of
sequential data from the server, edit the data, and return the data to
the server. The controller configuration for this environment must
provide high sequential-read and -write performance.
Suggested controller configuration: Stripe set; if fault tolerance is
required, RAID-5 set or stripe set of mirror sets.
Web Server
In a Web server environment, users log on to the server to locate and
view information. Sometimes they enter data such as registration
information, or transfer data if an FTP site allows it. The controller
configuration for this environment must provide high sequentialread performance.
Suggested controller configuration: Stripe set; if fault tolerance is
required, RAID-5 set or stripe set of mirror sets.
❒
4-6
5
Introducing the Flexible
Array Storage Tool
The Flexible Array Storage Tool (FAST) is a graphical user interface
that allows you to easily manage and monitor your storage
subsystems. This chapter introduces you to FAST.
The following table summarizes the topics covered in this chapter:
For information about…
Turn to…
Starting and Exiting FAST
page 5-2
Identifying the Main Parts of the FAST Window
page 5-5
Working with View Windows
page 5-6
Using Help
page 5-8
Obtaining Information about FAST
page 5-8
Re-enabling All Message Prompts
page 5-8
Managing FAST Objects
page 5-9
Managing Tasks
page 5-14
5-1
Flexible Array Storage Tool User’s Guide
Starting and Exiting FAST
This section describes how to start and exit FAST.
Starting FAST
To start FAST, do the following:
1
Click the Start button, locate the controller name on the Start
menu, then choose the FAST program icon (Figure 5-1).
Figure 5-1. FAST program icon
The FAST splash screen appears, followed by the Open
Controller dialog box (Figure 5-2).
Figure 5-2. Open Controller dialog box
2
3
Select a computer in the Show controllers on list.
Select a controller in the Available controllers list.
Note: If there is only one controller detected on the
selected computer, it is selected by default.
4
5-2
For NetWare™ controllers, enter your User Name and
Password.
Introducing the Flexible Array Storage Tool
Before you open a controller on a NetWare server for the first
time, you must first add the computer’s network address and
specify the corresponding network protocol. For NetWare,
only IP and IPX are supported. See Managing Remote
Connections on page 6-6 for more information.
If you are opening the controller on a remote NetWare™ system
in read/write mode, you are prompted for the administrator’s
name and password on the remote NetWare system. Enter the
appropriate login information for the remote NetWare system
and click OK.
Note that the NetWare system can be configured to always
require a password, only require a password for read/write
opens, or never require a password. For more information, see
your NetWare documentation.
5
Click Open.
The Open Controller dialog box disappears, and the FAST
window becomes active (Figure 5-3).
Note: You can run multiple FAST applications
simultaneously to manage more than one controller at
a time. You can also open more than one controller
from a single FAST application. However, only one
user at a time can open a controller in read-write
mode.
5-3
Flexible Array Storage Tool User’s Guide
Figure 5-3. FAST window
For more information about opening controllers, see Managing a
Local Controller on page 6-3 and Managing Remote Connections on
page 6-6.
Exiting FAST
To exit FAST, select Exit from the Controller menu.
5-4
Introducing the Flexible Array Storage Tool
Identifying the Main Parts of the FAST Window
Figure 5-4 identifies the main parts of the FAST window.
Menu Bar
Toolbar
Status Bar
Figure 5-4. Main parts of the FAST window
■
Menu bar—Standard Windows menu bar.
■
Toolbar—Standard Windows toolbar.
Selecting Toolbar from the View menu toggles the toolbar in
and out of view. You can reposition the toolbar using a dragand-drop operation when it is visible.
■
Status bar—Displays a variety of FAST messages on the left
and a read-only indicator box and number-selected indicator
box on the right. The read-only indicator box is empty when
the controller associated with the active view window is open
in read-write mode. The read-only indicator box displays
READ when the controller associated with the active view
window (that is, the active controller) is open in read-only
mode. The number-selected indicator shows the number of
objects that are selected in all view windows of the active
controller.
Selecting Status Bar from the View menu toggles the status bar
in and out of view on your screen.
5-5
Flexible Array Storage Tool User’s Guide
Working with View Windows
View windows contain graphical representations of FAST objects. (A
list of FAST objects is on page 5-9.)
FAST presents the following view windows:
■
Controller view
Appears when you select Controller View from the View
menu. The controller, channels, and their attached devices
(such as disks and SAF-TE enclosures) appear in this view
window. This is the default view if no containers (logical disks)
exist and if no initialized disks are found when a controller is
opened.
■
Disk view
Appears when you select Disk View from the View menu.
Only initialized disks appear in the Disk view window. In
addition, existing partitions and freespace available for
creating new containers on these disks are displayed. This is
the default view if no containers exist, but at least one
initialized disk is found, when a controller is opened.
■
Container view
Appears when you select Container View from the View
menu. The containers on the disks displayed in the Container
view window, including their component parts and
characteristics, appear in the Container view window. This is
the default view if any containers exist when a controller is
opened.
Refreshing View Windows
You can use the Refresh Display command (or press F5) while FAST
is idle. When you select Refresh Display from the Controller menu,
FAST reloads and redisplays the information about the active
controller.
If you have devices that are newly connected to a controller, you
must use the Rescan command from the Controller menu for the
controller to recognize these new devices. It will reload and
redisplay the information in the window.
5-6
Introducing the Flexible Array Storage Tool
This may take some time, particularly when there is heavy disk
activity. The refresh is complete when the hourglass (or other busy
indicator) disappears and the status bar displays For Help,
press F1.
Adding a New View Window
To add a new view window, select New View Window from the
Window menu.
The new view window is the same type as the previously active
view window. For example, if Container view is active when you
select New View Window, the new window is also a Container
view window. If you open a new view window while the Command
Prompt window is active, the new view window is the same type as
the one currently indicated in the toolbar.
Arranging View Windows
To arrange view windows, select Cascade, Tile Horizontally, or Tile
Vertically from the Window menu.
Activating a View Window
To activate a view window that is currently open, select the window
from the Window menu’s Recent Window(s) list or click anywhere
in the window.
Printing a View Window
To print the active view window on a single page, select Print from
the Controller menu.
To see what your printout will look like before you print it, select
Print Preview from the Controller menu.
To select a printer or to change print properties, select Print Setup
from the Controller menu.
To print from the Command Prompt window, do the following:
1
Use Ctrl/c and Ctrl/v to copy and paste text from the command
line into a text editor or word processor.
2
Use the text editor’s Print command to print the text.
5-7
Flexible Array Storage Tool User’s Guide
Using Help
To access online help for FAST, select Help Topics from the Help
menu or press F1.
Accessing FAST Context-sensitive Help from a Window
To access FAST context-sensitive help in a window, do one of the
following:
■
Click the
pointer (
■
Press Shift + F1 to display a question-mark pointer (
then click any object in the FAST window.
button in the toolbar to display a question-mark
), and then click any object in the FAST window.
), and
Accessing FAST Context-sensitive Help from a Dialog Box
To access FAST context-sensitive help in a dialog box, do one of the
following:
■
Click the
pointer (
■
Click the right mouse button on an element, and select What’s
This from the shortcut menu.
■
Move the system focus to a dialog box element, and press F1.
button in the title bar to display a question-mark
), and then click a dialog box element.
Accessing FAST Help in a Message Window
To access online help in a FAST message window, click the Help
button.
Obtaining Information about FAST
To obtain information about FAST such as copyright date and
version number, select About FAST from the Help menu.
Re-enabling All Message Prompts
Some message prompts contain a check box that allows you to
indicate to FAST that you do not want to see the message displayed
again. To reenable all message prompts that you previously disabled
by checking this box, select Re-enable all prompts from the Help
menu.
5-8
Introducing the Flexible Array Storage Tool
Managing FAST Objects
A FAST object is a physical or logical component of the controller
management system as displayed by FAST, including the following:
■
Controllers
■
Disks
■
Disksets (cluster only)
■
SAF-TE enclosures
■
Channels
■
Freespaces
■
Partitions
■
Containers (logical disks)
Scrolling in Container View
When you perform the following procedures in Container view,
FAST automatically scrolls the new or modified container (logical
disk) into view in all Container view windows in which the
container appears:
■
Create a container using the Container menu
■
Create a container using the Container Creation Wizard
To control the way containers are sorted in the Container view
window, do the following:
■
Select Sort Containers by Number from the View menu to sort
the containers in ascending numerical order.
Container numbers are automatically assigned by the
controller software. Containers are numbered 0 through 63;
visible containers are numbered 0 through 23; hidden containers1
are numbered 24 through 63.
■
Select Sort Containers by Letter from the View menu to sort
the containers in alphabetical order by drive letter. Containers
without drive letters follow in ascending numerical order by
container number.
1A
hidden container is never visible and can only be used by other
containers. For example, in a volume set of mirror sets, the underlying
mirror sets are hidden containers that are used by the top-level volume set.
5-9
Flexible Array Storage Tool User’s Guide
To manually scroll a container into view in the active Container
view window, use any of the following methods:
■
Type the container’s drive letter.
■
Type the two-digit container number (add a 0 before singledigit numbers, for example, 07).
■
Use the arrow keys.
■
Use the scroll bar (Figure 5-5).
Container number (to scroll, type 00)
Container drive letter (to scroll, type d)
Figure 5-5. Scrolling in Container view
Note: If you type a letter or number that does not belong to
an existing container, the system beeps.
Using Shortcut Menus
Each FAST object has a shortcut menu, accessible through the right
mouse button.
5-10
Introducing the Flexible Array Storage Tool
Figure 5-6 illustrates a mirror set’s shortcut menu.
Figure 5-6. Accessing a shortcut menu
Selecting FAST Objects
This section tells you how to select FAST objects using the mouse
and keyboard and using only the keyboard. (For more information
about selecting freespace, turn to page 9-2.)
Selecting FAST Objects Using the Mouse and Keyboard
To select a single object, click the object.
To select multiple objects, click the first object, and then hold down
the Ctrl key while you click the other object(s) you want to select.
To select a multilevel container, click the top-level container.
When you select an object, it changes color.
To deselect a selected FAST object, hold down the Ctrl key while you
click the object you want to deselect.
To deselect all selected FAST objects, click in a blank area of the view
window or choose Deselect All from the Edit menu.
An object you select or deselect in one window is selected or
deselected in all other windows in which that object appears. For
example, if you select a disk in Disk view, the disk is also selected in
Controller view.
Selecting FAST Objects Using the Keyboard
To select a FAST object using the keyboard, use the following
shortcut keys. System focus must be on the object you want to act
5-11
Flexible Array Storage Tool User’s Guide
on. (A FAST object that has focus is surrounded by a dashed
rectangular border.)
To:
Press:
Move among FAST objects from left to right, top
to bottom
Tab
Move among FAST objects from right to left,
bottom to top
Shift + Tab
Display a shortcut menu
Application key
Select an object
Spacebar
Select additional objects
Ctrl + Spacebar
Obtaining Information about FAST Objects
You can obtain information about a FAST object through its
properties dialog box. The properties dialog box is accessible
through the Properties item on the Edit menu or through the
shortcut menu. For example, to obtain information about the
controller, do the following:
1
2
3
Select Controller view from the View menu.
Select the controller.
Select Properties from the Edit menu.
The Controller properties dialog box appears, as shown in
Figure 5-7.
5-12
Introducing the Flexible Array Storage Tool
Figure 5-7. Controller properties dialog box
Note: See Working with Controller Properties on
page 6-12 for an explanation of the information
displayed in this dialog box.
4
Click OK or Cancel to exit the dialog box.
Identifying Phantom FAST Objects
Phantom FAST objects cannot be configured by the controller’s
software and appear under the following conditions:
■
When you unplug a drive while your system is running. (After
you rescan the controller, the drive does not appear at all.)
■
When you rescan the controller or reboot your system after a
disk with a container fails or is removed and not replaced.
■
If you do not reconfigure containers after booting in
Maintenance Mode. (See the controller installation guide for
further information on Maintenance Mode.)
5-13
Flexible Array Storage Tool User’s Guide
■
When a SAF-TE enclosure fails its diagnostic tests.
The following table shows the phantom FAST object icons. All
phantom icons are gray with a white outline.
Table 5-1. Phantom FAST object icons
Icon
Description
Icon
Description
Phantom SCSI disk
Phantom mirror set
Phantom partition
Phantom RAID-5 set
Phantom volume set
Phantom stripe set of
mirror sets
Phantom stripe set
Phantom enclosure
Missing container
Phantom file system
Phantom stripe set of
RAID-5 sets (RAID 50)
Managing Tasks
A task is an operation that occurs only on the controller,
asynchronous to all other operations. Table 5-2 lists all the tasks
associated with the controller.
Table 5-2. Task types
5-14
Task Type
Description
Create file system
(Windows NT only)
Formats a container with a FAT, FAT32,
or NTFS file system.
Consistency check
Creates a mirror set or RAID-5 set or
RAID-50 set; reads a redundant container
to determine if its blocks are consistent.
Rebuild
Rebuilds a redundant container (mirror
set, RAID-5 set, or RAID-50 set).
Introducing the Flexible Array Storage Tool
Task Type
Description
Reconfigure container
Reconfigures a container.
Verify (with repair of
bad blocks)
Verifies a disk and repairs any detected
defects.
Verify (with no repair
of bad blocks)
Verifies a disk without repairing any
detected defects.
FAST allows you to initiate tasks through the Controller Properties,
SCSI Device Properties, and Container properties dialog boxes.
These dialog boxes contain a Tasks tab that shows all tasks running
on the device. The Tasks tab also contains buttons that allow you to
Stop, Suspend, or Resume a task and a Task Speed setting that
enables you to set a task’s speed to High, Medium, or Low.
For more information about working with these dialog boxes, see
the following sections:
■
Working with Controller Properties on page 6-12
■
Working with Disk Properties on page 7-11
■
Working with Container Properties on page 11-16
❒
5-15
Flexible Array Storage Tool User’s Guide
5-16
6
Working with Controllers
This chapter explains how to use FAST to open (locally or remotely)
and close one or more controllers and initiate other controllerrelated tasks.
The following table summarizes the topics covered in this chapter:
For information about…
Turn to…
Understanding Controllers and Channels
page 6-2
Managing a Local Controller
page 6-3
Closing a Controller
page 6-7
Managing Remote Connections
page 6-7
Rescanning a Controller
page 6-12
Pausing I/O on a Controller
page 6-12
Working with Controller Properties
page 6-14
Reconditioning the Battery
page 6-19
Resetting a Channel on a Controller
page 6-20
6-1
Flexible Array Storage Tool User’s Guide
Understanding Controllers and Channels
Figure 6-1 shows how a controller and its channels are represented
in the Controller view window.
Controller
Figure 6-1. The controller and its channels represented in Controller view
Channel Status
Controller view displays the status of the channels by indicating
whether the channel is disabled or faulted.
■
Disabled indicates that an unrecoverable error was detected.
This state can occur due to improper termination, faulty
devices, or duplicate SCSI IDs.
A disabled channel can only be recovered by rebooting the
computer/controller. It may also be necessary to switch on the
power to the connected drives.
■
Fault indicates that a recoverable error was detected.
This state can occur due to improper termination or duplicate
SCSI IDs.
A faulted channel can typically be recovered by rescanning
after you have resolved the problem causing the fault.
For more information about the FAST objects that appear in the
Controller view window, see the following:
6-2
Working with Controllers
■
Chapter 7, Working with Disks
■
Chapter 8, Working with Enclosures
Managing a Local Controller
This section describes how to open and close a controller on a local
computer/domain.
Opening a Local Controller
A local controller is one that is installed on the same system on
which FAST is running.
Note: A NetWare™ server’s controller can only be accessed
as a remote controller from FAST on a Windows NT system
(see Managing Remote Connections on page 6-7). You must
use the CLI for local management on a NetWare server.
To open a controller on a local computer/domain, do the following:
1
Select Open from the Controller menu.
The Open Controller dialog box (Figure 6-2) appears inside
the FAST window.
.
Figure 6-2. Open Controller dialog box
6-3
Flexible Array Storage Tool User’s Guide
Dialog Box Element
Function
Show controllers on
List box
Lists all computers running remote services.
FAST searches for computers running
controllers, in the following order:
■ My Computer
■ Local domain
■ Microsoft Windows Network
™
■ NetWare
Rescan Domain (F5)
button
Rescans the domain that is selected in the
Show controllers on list box
Manage Remote
Controllers button
Displays the Manage Remote Connections
dialog box, which is explained on page 6-7
Available controllers
List box
Lists all installed controllers for the computer
selected in the Show controllers on list box;
includes the controller name, type of
controller, and availability (read-write or
read-only)
Show Users button
Displays the Show Users dialog box
(Figure 6-3 on page 6-6)
Read-Only check box
Determines if the controller opens in readwrite or read-only mode
Open button
Opens the controller selected in the Available
controllers list box
Cancel button
Closes the dialog box
2
6-4
Select the computer that contains the controller you want to
manage.
Working with Controllers
3
Display the list of controllers.
For the local computer
For the local domain
Display the list of controllers
on your computer (the one
from which you are running
FAST) in the Available
controllers list by selecting
My Computer (on domain)
in the Show controllers on
list
Display a list of controllers
on a computer in your local
domain in the Available
controllers list by clicking the
plus sign next to a domain
icon (
) and selecting a
computer from the list that
appears
If you are unable to locate a computer in the Show controllers
on list, click Rescan Domain (or press F5). If you are still
unable to locate the computer, you might need to add it; see
Managing Remote Connections on page 6-7.
4
Select the controller you want to open from the Available
controllers list.
5
Select the Read-Only check box if you want to open the
controller in read-only mode.
6
To see a list of all users currently accessing the selected
controller (and the access mode), click Show Users.
The Show Users dialog box appears (Figure 6-3).
6-5
Flexible Array Storage Tool User’s Guide
Figure 6-3. Show Users dialog box
Dialog Box Element
Function
Controller status
message
Displays one of the following (where
DEVICENAME is the name of the controller):
DEVICENAME is currently in use by:
DEVICENAME is not currently in use.
DEVICENAME could not be found.
List box
Displays the following information about
each user who is currently accessing the
controller: user name, domain, computer
name, and mode (read-write or read-only)
Close button
Closes the dialog box
7
8
Click Close to exit the Show Users dialog box.
In the Open Controller dialog box, click Open.
Note: FAST can take up to one minute to open a local
controller. Remote controllers might take longer to
open.
One of the following FAST windows appears:
– Disk view, if no containers (logical disks) exist, but at least
one disk is initialized
– Container view, if any containers exist
– Controller view, if no containers exist and if no disks are
initialized
6-6
Working with Controllers
Note: If you attempt to open a controller that is already open
in this session of FAST, the program displays a message
indicating that the controller is already open. If you click
OK, FAST makes the selected controller’s current view
window active. The mode (read-write or read-only) in
which the controller was previously open remains in effect.
A prompt for the Container Creation Wizard dialog box
appears if the controller detects one or more unused disks. The
controller considers a disk to contain freespace if:
– You did not initialize a disk for use with the controller. (See
Initializing Disks on page 7-4 for information on how to
initialize a disk for use with the controller.)
– You initialized a disk for use with the controller and the
following conditions exist:
■
The disk is not a spare disk
■
The disk is not a global spare
■
The disk has no partitions on it
The Container Creation Wizard dialog box allows you to
create containers. You can also specify to not display the
Container Creation Wizard dialog box on a subsequent
reopening of the controller.
Closing a Controller
To close the active controller, use one of the following methods:
■
Select Close from the Controller menu.
■
Close all view windows.
Managing Remote Connections
Use the remote connections management feature when:
■
You cannot locate a computer in the Open Controller dialog
box
■
The computer is on the other side of a router
6-7
Flexible Array Storage Tool User’s Guide
■
You are using FAST to manage a controller installed in a
NetWare™ server
This section covers the following topics:
■
Locking and unlocking a computer’s connection record
■
Adding a computer to or removing a computer from the
network connection list
■
Specifying a protocol for connecting to a computer
■
Rescanning a particular domain on the remote network
■
Managing controllers in a DHCP (dynamic host configuration
protocol) environment
Refer to Appendix B, Remote Management for more information
about remote management.
Opening a Controller on a Remote Network
To open a controller on a remote network, do the following:
1
In the Open Controller dialog box, click Manage Remote
Controllers.
The Manage Remote Connections dialog box appears
(Figure 6-4).
Figure 6-4. Manage Remote Connections dialog box
6-8
Working with Controllers
Note: The only options available for a NetWare™
server are Remove Computer and Lock/Unlock
Computer; all other selections are grayed out.
Dialog Box Element
Function
Domain/Computer
List box
Lists the domains and computers running
FAST remote controllers in the Network
Neighborhood
Remove Computer button Removes a computer from the
Domain/ Computer list
Unlock/Lock computer
button
Unlocks or locks the connection record of
the selected computer
Rescan Domain (F5)
button
Rescans the selected domain
Add new computer
Network Address box
Lets you type the network address of the
computer you want to add to the selected
domain (see Adding or Removing a Computer
on page 6-10 for protocol-specific formats)
Using pull-down list
Sets a protocol for the connection to the
computer specified in the Network
Address box
Add button
Adds the computer specified in the
Network Address box to the network
connection list under the domain of which
the computer is a member
Close button
Closes the dialog box and returns to the
Open Controller dialog box
2
Select a computer from the Domain/Computer list, or add a
computer to the list according to the instructions in Adding or
Removing a Computer on page 6-10, and then select that computer.
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Flexible Array Storage Tool User’s Guide
Note: Before you open a controller on a NetWare ™
server for the first time, you must first add the
computer’s network address and select the
corresponding network protocol from the Using list in
the Managing Remote Connections dialog box;
otherwise, FAST will not be able to see the NetWare
server. For NetWare, only IP and IPX are supported.
3
If you are opening the controller on a remote NetWare system
in read/write mode, you are prompted for the administrator’s
name and password on the remote NetWare system. Enter the
appropriate login information for the remote NetWare system
and click OK.
4
Click Close.
Locking or Unlocking a Computer’s Record
If a domain scan fails to find a computer, and the connection record
for that computer is unlocked, FAST automatically removes the
computer from the Domain/Computer list. If you do not want FAST
to remove a computer from the list, you must lock the computer’s
record.
To lock a computer’s record, select an unlocked computer from the
Domain/Computer list, and click Lock computer. The locked
computer icon
appears next to the computer.
To unlock a computer’s record, select a locked computer from the
Domain/Computer list, and click Unlock computer. The unlocked
computer icon
appears next to the computer.
Adding or Removing a Computer
To add a computer to the selected domain in the Domain/Computer
list, do the following:
6-10
Working with Controllers
1
Type the Network Address according to the following table:
Protocol
Network Address
TCP/IP
■
■
■
■
Four-octet Internet address, for example, 128.10.2.30
Fully-qualified host name, for example,
myhost.domain.com
Computer name (only if you properly configure WINS
and DNS on the network and the computer is on the
same subnetwork as the local computer), for example,
myhost
Windows NT server name, for example, myserver
IPX/SPX
■
Fully formed IPX address, for example,
4640E44D.000000000001
4640E44D:000000000001
~4640E44D000000000001
NETBUI
■
Windows NT server name, for example, \\myserver
2
Select from the Using pull-down list the protocol that is
appropriate for the address you specified in the previous step.
3
Click Add.
The computer appears under the domain selected in the
Domain/Computer list. Computers that are manually added in
this manner are added with their record initially locked so as
to prevent their deletion in future rescans.
To remove a computer from the selected domain in the Domain/
Computer list, select the computer, and click Remove Computer.
Note: You cannot remove a locked computer. Unlock the
computer’s connection record before attempting to remove
the computer.
Rescanning a Domain (NT Only)
Rescan is used to refresh the list of computers displayed in the
Domain/Computer list.
To rescan a domain on the remote network, select a domain from the
Domain/Computer list, and click Rescan Domain (or press F5).
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Flexible Array Storage Tool User’s Guide
Note: Depending on the size of the domain and the current
volume of network traffic, FAST can take one minute or
more to scan a domain.
Managing Controllers in a DHCP Environment
FAST stores network addresses statically. For a computer whose
network address changes often, you can do one of the following:
■
Add the computer to the Domain/Computer list by following
the procedure in Adding or Removing a Computer on page 6-10.
However, instead of entering the computer’s IP address in the
Network Address box, enter its fully qualified Internet
address, for example, myhost.domain.com.
When a record is entered using a fully-qualified hostname
instead of an IP address, the hostname is stored in the
connection database, which is a network database that
contains a connection record for every computer on the
network.
■
Rescan the domain by clicking Rescan Domain (or pressing
F5) every time the computer’s network address changes.
Rescanning a Controller
The Rescan command scans the channels of the active controller to
verify the presence of the currently connected devices or to
recognize new devices added to a channel.
To scan the controller’s channels, select Rescan from the Controller
menu.
Pausing I/O on a Controller
Use the Pause I/O command when you need to hot-swap disk
drives without rebooting. The Pause I/O command pauses I/O on
all channels of the active controller.
If the disks are contained in an enclosure that supports hotswapping, Pause I/O is not required unless the disk is part of a
container (logical disk).
6-12
Working with Controllers
Caution: You cannot use Pause I/O if any containers are
locked—that is, if they display the
icon—or if any
containers have tasks running on them.
!
To pause the I/O on the controller, do the following:
1
Select Pause I/O from the Controller menu.
FAST displays the following message:
2
Click Pause I/O.
The following changes occur in the FAST window while the
controller I/O is paused:
■
Pause I/O in the Controller menu is checked.
■
The Pause/resume controller I/O button in the toolbar is
indented.
■
The title bar in all views of the controller whose I/O is
paused contains a countdown timer similar to the one
shown in Figure 6-5.
The controller limits the time that I/O should be paused to
avoid application or system time-outs. The countdown
timer indicates the time remaining before the computer
automatically resumes I/O.
6-13
Flexible Array Storage Tool User’s Guide
Countdown timer
Figure 6-5. Container view dialog box showing Pause I/O countdown timer
Beginning at the final 30 seconds, your system plays the
sounds corresponding to your Asterisk, Exclamation, Stop,
and OK settings to alert you that I/O is about to resume
automatically. The frequency of the sounds increases as the
remaining time decreases.
Note: While the timer is designed to reduce the
possibility of application or system time-outs, clients
on the network executing I/O against a paused
controller may experience network time-outs.
3
After you perform the hot-swapping operation, resume I/O by
selecting Pause I/O from the Controller menu, or by clicking
the Pause/resume controller I/O button in the toolbar.
Working with Controller Properties
The Controller properties dialog box contains the following tabs:
6-14
Tab
Description
General
Provides the software and hardware information
about the controller. See Controller properties dialog
box (General tab) on page 6-15.
Working with Controllers
Tab
Description
Options
Allows you to enable automatic rebuild for a failed
disk when a replacement disk is inserted into the
same enclosure slot. This tab also allows you to
enable background consistency checks. See
Controller properties dialog box (Options tab) on
page 6-17.
Tasks
Shows all tasks running on the controller and
allows you to stop, suspend, or resume a task and
to specify the task’s priority. See Controller properties
dialog box (Tasks tab) on page 6-18.
To access the Controller properties dialog box, do the following:
1
2
3
Select Controller View from the View menu.
Select the controller.
Select Properties from the Edit menu.The Controller
properties dialog box appears, as shown in Figure 6-6.
Figure 6-6. Controller properties dialog box (General tab)
6-15
Flexible Array Storage Tool User’s Guide
Dialog Box Element
Function
Software
FAST version
Displays the version of FAST
Host driver version
Displays the version of the host driver
(*.sys) files
Hardware
Controller type
Displays the controller type
Controller version
Displays the controller version
Controller serial
number
Displays the last six digits of the controller’s
serial number
Physical PCI
information
Displays the controller’s PCI bus and device
numbers
Processor type
Displays the controller’s processor type and
speed
Memory size
Displays the size of controller RAM, in bytes
(excluding the cache)
BIOS version
Displays the version number of the BIOS
Kernel version
Displays the version number of the kernel
Monitor version
Displays the firmware version
SCSI support
Displays the number of SCSI channels
available on the controller and the maximum
number of SCSI devices that can be attached
to each
Cache
Status
Displays the status of the cache
Size
Displays the size of the cache, in bytes
Clear Disk Write
Cache button
Clears the disk write cache; only available if
cache contains data that must be flushed to
containers that currently cannot be accessed,
for example, disks that have been removed
Battery
Displays the status of the battery
Recondition button
Initiates a battery recondition cycle (see the
installation guide for your controller for
instructions on battery reconditioning)
Container Storage
6-16
A bar graph that represents all available
container (logical disk) storage space (free
and partitioned) on the controller
Working with Controllers
Dialog Box Element
Function
OK button
Accepts changes and closes the dialog box
Cancel button
Ignores changes and closes the dialog box
4
Click the Options tab (Figure 6-7).
Figure 6-7. Controller properties dialog box (Options tab)
Dialog Box Element
Function
Enable automatic
rebuild check box
Enables automatic rebuild to a replacement
disk inserted in the same enclosure slot as the
disk that fails. The initial display of this check
box reflects the current state of the feature.
Enable
background
consistency check
Lets you select the option to enable the
background consistency check feature
OK button
Accepts changes and closes the dialog box
Cancel button
Ignores changes and closes the dialog box
6-17
Flexible Array Storage Tool User’s Guide
5
Click the Tasks tab (Figure 6-8).
Figure 6-8. Controller properties dialog box (Tasks tab)
6-18
Working with Controllers
Dialog Box
Element
Function
Tasks list
Displays the following information for any
task(s) running on the controller:
■ Task ID. ID number associated with a
specific task
■ Function. Type of task running on the
controller
■ Percent done. Progress (percentage
complete) of the currently running task
■ Container. ID number of the container
(logical disk) associated with the task
■ Device. SCSI Device ID (Channel:ID:LUN)
of the disk associated with the task
■ State. Status of the task
■ Speed. Task speed setting, which defines
the rate of specific tasks to minimize their
effect on I/O transactions
Stop button
Stops the selected task
Suspend button
Suspends the selected task
Resume button
Resumes the selected suspended task
Task Speed
Resets the selected task’s speed
OK button
Accepts changes and closes the dialog box
Cancel button
Ignores changes and closes the dialog box
Reconditioning the Battery
The controller’s battery preserves the contents of its nonvolatile
cache memory in the event of power loss. Power loss can occur due
to sudden interruption of power to the server or whenever the
server is powered down for maintenance and upgrade tasks. It is
recommended that you recondition the battery every six months to
ensure that the battery’s capacity is measured correctly and that the
battery’s full holdover time is maintained.
For more information on reconditioning and maintaining the
battery, see the installation guide for your controller.
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Flexible Array Storage Tool User’s Guide
Resetting a Channel on a Controller
The Reset Channel command resets all devices on the selected
controller channel. Problems you can fix by using the Reset Channel
command include the following:
■
A device seems to be hung (for example, a disk drive light
stays on, indicating that the drive may have failed)
■
A disk drive has caused the entire SCSI channel to be in an
illegal/hung state
!
Caution: When you use the Reset Channel command, all
outstanding I/O operations are requeued to the disk drives.
To reset a channel, do the following:
1
2
Select Controller View from the View menu.
Select the channel you want to reset (see Figure 6-9).
Click here
to select
Channel 2
Figure 6-9. Selecting channels to reset
3
Select Reset Channel from the Controller menu.
Each SCSI device on the selected channel is reset.
❒
6-20
7
Working with Disks
This chapter explains how to use FAST to work with the disks
connected to and managed by the controller. This chapter also
provides instructions for working with disk properties.
The following table summarizes the topics covered in this chapter:
For information about…
Turn to…
Understanding Disks
page 7-2
Initializing Disks
page 7-3
Working with S.M.A.R.T. Disks
page 7-5
Verifying a Disk
page 7-6
Blinking a Disk Light
page 7-8
Working with Disk Properties
page 7-9
7-1
Flexible Array Storage Tool User’s Guide
Understanding Disks
Figure 7-1 shows how disks are represented in the Controller view
window, and Figure 7-2 shows how disks are represented in the
Disk view window.
The Disk ID, which appears in both the Controller view and Disk
view windows, consists of the following:
■
Channel to which the disk is attached
■
SCSI ID of the device attached to the channel
■
LUN number of the device attached to the channel
SCSI disk
Disk ID
(Channel:ID:LUN)
Approximate
disk size
S.M.A.R.T.
indicator
Figure 7-1. Disks represented in Controller view
Note: The number of channels in your controller may be
fewer than shown.
7-2
Working with Disks
Approximate disk size
Disk ID (Channel:ID:LUN)
S.M.A.R.T. indicator
SCSI disk
Figure 7-2. Disk represented in Disk view
Initializing Disks
You must initialize all new SCSI disks to prepare them for use in a
container (logical disk).
This section covers initializing disks from the Disk menu. You can
also initialize disks using the Initialize button in the Container
Creation Wizard and Container Reconfiguration Wizard. (See
Understanding Containers and Multilevel Containers on page 10-2 and
Reconfiguring a Container on page 11-2 for more information about
the container wizards.)
Initializing SCSI Disks
To initialize one or more SCSI disks, do the following:
1
Select Initialize from the Disk menu. The Initialize SCSI
Disks dialog box appears (Figure 7-3).
7-3
Flexible Array Storage Tool User’s Guide
Figure 7-3. Initialize SCSI Disks dialog box
Dialog Box Element
Function
Disks
List box
Lists all disks available for initialization and
includes the Disk ID (Channel:ID:LUN) and
usage (the disk format in use)
Select Initialized Disks
button
Selects all listed SCSI disks that have been
initialized for container (logical disk) use
Select Uninitialized
Disks button
Selects all listed SCSI disks that have not been
initialized for container use
Select All Disks button
Selects all listed SCSI disks in the Disks list
Initialize button
Initializes the selected SCSI disk(s)
Cancel button
Ignores changes and closes the dialog box
2
Select from the Disks list one or more disks you want to
initialize (or reinitialize).
3
Click Initialize.
7-4
Working with Disks
If any selected disks are initialized for container use, the
following message appears:
If part of a redundant container resides on a disk that is to be
initialized, that part of the container will be deleted. If spare
drives have been assigned to the container, the deleted part of
the container will be rebuilt on the spare drive. Otherwise you
will be prompted to create a spare before the disk is initialized.
Note: Initializing disks with outstanding references on
a Windows NT or Windows 2000 system can lead to
unexpected results.
4
Click Yes.
Working with S.M.A.R.T. Disks
FAST supports disks that incorporate S.M.A.R.T. technology. FAST
displays icons that indicate the S.M.A.R.T. status of a disk. These
icons appear in the following places:
■
S.M.A.R.T. disks displayed in the Controller view window
■
S.M.A.R.T. disks displayed in the Disk view window
■
S.M.A.R.T. tab of the SCSI Device Properties dialog box
7-5
Flexible Array Storage Tool User’s Guide
Table 7-1 lists the appropriate actions to take when specific
S.M.A.R.T. icons appear.
Table 7-1. Responding to S.M.A.R.T. icons
Icon
Status
Action
Disk supports S.M.A.R.T.
S.M.A.R.T. error detection
enabled; error indicated
(orange signal light over dark
green)
A problem is reported by
S.M.A.R.T. on this disk; check
the system log for more
information (most likely, you
will have to replace the drive)
Disk supports S.M.A.R.T.
S.M.A.R.T. error detection
enabled; no error indicated
(light maroon signal light over
light green)
No problems are reported by
S.M.A.R.T. on this disk; no
action is necessary
Disk supports S.M.A.R.T.
S.M.A.R.T. error detection
disabled (maroon signal light
over dark green)
S.M.A.R.T. is disabled for this
disk; enable S.M.A.R.T. to take
advantage of its features
Disk does not support
S.M.A.R.T.
This icon appears in the
SMART tab of the SCSI
Device Properties dialog box
No action is possible
Note: While a controller’s I/O is paused, you cannot obtain
S.M.A.R.T. information.
Verifying a Disk
You can use the Verify command to:
7-6
■
Verify a disk after adding it to your system to determine if the
disk has any obvious defects
■
Occasionally check a disk (without the repair option) to be sure
it is reliable
■
Verify a disk before removing any dead partitions
Working with Disks
Note: Verifying a disk is not the same as running chkdsk or
error checking (which is accessed from the Tools tab on the
Properties dialog box for a device in the Windows Explorer).
The Verify command only checks the underlying data
blocks, not the file system consistency.
To verify a disk, do the following:
1
2
3
Select Controller View or Disk View from the View menu.
Select a disk to verify.
Select Verify from the Disk menu.
The Verify SCSI Disk dialog box appears (Figure 7-4).
Figure 7-4. Verify SCSI Disk dialog box
Dialog Box Element
Function
Disk icon and Disk ID
Displays the status of the disk and the SCSI
device ID (Channel:ID:LUN)
Options
Replace bad blocks
check box
Repairs any bad blocks as part of disk
verification
Verify button
Closes the dialog box and begins the disk
verification task on the disk
Cancel button
Closes the dialog box without verifying the
disk
4
Click Verify.
7-7
Flexible Array Storage Tool User’s Guide
The following icons appear on the disk in both Controller
view and Disk view while the disk is being verified:
Icon
Function
Indicates that a verify task is in progress on
the disk
Shows the progress (percentage completion)
of the verify task
Blinking a Disk Light
To identify the physical drive that corresponds to a SCSI disk
displayed in the Controller view or Disk view windows, you can
blink the drive’s activity light.
Note: For disks housed in SAF-TE enclosures, use the
Identify buttons in the Enclosure Slots dialog box to
physically locate a drive (see Managing Enclosure Slots on
page 8-12).
To blink a drive activity light, do the following:
1
2
3
7-8
Select Controller View or Disk View from the View menu.
Select a disk.
Select Blink from the Disk menu.
Working with Disks
The Blink Disk Light dialog box appears (Figure 7-5).
Figure 7-5. Blink Disk Light dialog box
Dialog Box Element
Function
Disk icon and Disk ID
Displays the status of the disk and the SCSI
Device ID (Channel:ID:LUN)
Blink list
Specifies the duration of blink time
Blink button
Causes the selected drive’s activity light to
blink for the specified time and closes the
dialog box
Cancel button
Closes the dialog box without blinking any
drive activity lights
4
5
Select a time or Until stopped by user from the Blink list.
Click Blink.
The Blink command in the Disk menu remains checked as
long as the selected drive light is blinking.
To stop a single drive activity light from blinking, do the following:
1
2
3
Select Controller View or Disk View from the View menu.
Select the disk that is blinking.
Select Blink from the Disk menu.
To stop all drive activity lights from blinking, select Unblink All
from the Disk menu.
Working with Disk Properties
The SCSI Device Properties dialog box contains the following tabs:
■
General
7-9
Flexible Array Storage Tool User’s Guide
This tab displays information about the physical properties of
the disk (Figure 7-6).
■
SMART
This tab displays the S.M.A.R.T. status of the disk (Figure 7-7).
■
Tasks
This tab shows information about any tasks running on the
disk (Figure 7-8).
To access the SCSI Device Properties dialog box, do the following:
1
2
3
Select Controller View or Disk View from the View menu.
Select a disk.
Select Properties from the Edit menu.
The SCSI Device Properties dialog box appears, as shown in
Figure 7-6.
Figure 7-6. SCSI Device Properties dialog box (General tab)
Dialog Box Element
Function
Disk icon and Disk ID
Displays the status of the disk and the SCSI
Device ID (Channel:ID:LUN)
SCSI channel icon
Indicates the type of channel to which the
SCSI device is connected
7-10
Working with Disks
Dialog Box Element
Function
Device Type
Indicates that the SCSI device is direct access
Product
Displays the SCSI device product ID
Vendor
Displays the SCSI device vendor
Revision
Displays the SCSI device revision number
Managed by
Indicates whether the SCSI device is managed
by the controller or the host
Data transfer speed
Displays the maximum possible data transfer
speed to the SCSI device
Media type
Indicates that the SCSI device is either
removable or fixed
Size (Usable/Physical)
Displays a comparison of the usable size of
the disk to the physical size of the disk;
displayed in megabytes, bytes, blocks, and
bytes per block of the SCSI device
Usage
Displays the data format present on the SCSI
device
Global spare check box
Enables or disables the disk as a global spare.
The box indicates the state of the disks global
spare state when the disk’s properties dialog
box is invoked.
OK button
Accepts changes and closes the dialog box
Cancel button
Ignores changes and closes the dialog box
7-11
Flexible Array Storage Tool User’s Guide
4
Click the SMART tab.
Figure 7-7. SCSI Device Properties dialog box (SMART tab)
Dialog Box Element
Function
Disk icon and Disk ID
Displays the status of the disk and the SCSI
Device ID (Channel:ID:LUN)
S.M.A.R.T. status
Indicates whether the SCSI disk supports
S.M.A.R.T. error detection
Parameters
Note: The options in this group are only available for disks that support
S.M.A.R.T. error detection.
Enable SMART error
reporting check box
Enables S.M.A.R.T. error checking
Reporting method
Displays the current method for reporting
errors. Reporting methods include:
Mode 0: Do not report exception conditions
Mode 3: Report exceptions after a SCSI
command if reporting recovered errors
Mode 4: Unconditionally generate recovered
errors
Mode 5: Generate "no sense"
Mode 6: Report exceptions only when polled
7-12
Working with Disks
Dialog Box Element
Function
Interval time period
list
Specifies how often the drive reports its
S.M.A.R.T. errors.
Report count list
Specifies the number of times a single error is
reported
Force SMART
reporting regardless of
drive default check
box
Allows you to override the setting for
S.M.A.R.T. error logging for a device. When
you select this option, S.M.A.R.T. error
logging is enabled regardless of the device
setting. (By default, this option is selected.)
Disable SMART tests
that may impact
performance check
box
Allows you to disable S.M.A.R.T. tests that
might degrade performance. By default, this
option is not selected.
Devices that have S.M.A.R.T. enabled perform
various periodic self-tests during normal
operation. Some of these tests (for example,
those that perform an I/O operation) might
degrade performance by competing with (and
possibly delaying) user I/O requests. Note
that, in most cases, the performance
degradation tends to be very slight.
When you select this option, you elect to skip
certain self-tests that impact performance (as
determined by the device manufacturer);
doing so, however, partially nullifies some
beneficial features and hinders the ability of
the device to predict imminent failure.
Error count
Displays the total number of errors on the
disk
Reset error count
button
Resets the error count to 0
Update error count
button
Immediately updates the error count
OK button
Accepts changes and closes the dialog box
Cancel button
Ignores changes and closes the dialog box
7-13
Flexible Array Storage Tool User’s Guide
5
Click the Tasks tab (Figure 7-8).
Figure 7-8. SCSI Device Properties dialog box (Tasks tab)
Dialog Box Element
Function
Disk icon and Disk ID
Displays the status of the disk and the SCSI
Device ID (Channel:ID:LUN)
Tasks list
Displays the following information for any
task(s) running on the disk:
■ Task ID. ID number associated with a
specific task
■ Function. Type of task running on the
controller
■ Percent Done. Progress (percentage
complete) of the currently running task
■ Container. ID number of the container
(logical disk) associated with the task
■ Device. SCSI Device ID (Channel:ID:LUN)
■ State. Status of the task (for example, OK)
■ Speed. Task speed setting, which defines
the rate of specific tasks to minimize their
effect on I/O transactions
Stop button
Stops the selected task
Suspend button
Suspends the selected task
Resume button
Resumes the selected suspended task
7-14
Working with Disks
Dialog Box Element
Function
Task Speed
Resets the selected task’s speed
OK button
Accepts changes and closes the dialog box
Cancel button
Ignores changes and closes the dialog box
❒
7-15
Flexible Array Storage Tool User’s Guide
7-16
8
Working with Enclosures
This chapter explains how to use FAST to operate an enclosure. This
chapter also provides instructions for working with enclosure
properties.
Since enclosures vary widely, not all the features and functions
described in this chapter may be present in your enclosure system.
See the enclosure system documentation for details.
The following table summarizes the topics covered in this chapter:
For information about…
Turn to…
Understanding Enclosures
page 8-2
Working with Enclosure Properties
page 8-2
Managing Enclosure Temperature Sensors, Fans,
and Power Supplies
page 8-6
Managing Enclosure Slots
page 8-11
Note: This version of FAST supports only SAF-TE 1.0compliant enclosures.
8-1
Flexible Array Storage Tool User’s Guide
Understanding Enclosures
Figure 8-1 shows how enclosures are represented in the Controller
view window.
The Enclosure ID consists of the following:
■
Channel to which the enclosure is attached
■
SCSI ID of the enclosure attached to the channel
■
LUN number of the enclosure attached to the channel
SAF-TE enclosure
Enclosure subsystems
Figure 8-1. Enclosures represented in Controller view
Working with Enclosure Properties
The Enclosure Properties dialog box contains information about the
selected enclosure.
To access the Enclosure Properties dialog box, do the following:
8-2
Working with Enclosures
1
2
3
Select Controller View from the View menu.
Select an enclosure.
Select Properties from the Edit menu.The Enclosure
Properties dialog box appears (Figure 8-2).
.
Figure 8-2. Enclosure Properties dialog box
Dialog Box Element
Function
Enclosure icon and
Enclosure ID
Displays the Enclosure ID (Channel:ID:LUN)
Refresh button
Updates and redisplays information about the
selected enclosure that appears in any view
windows or in any active enclosure-related
dialog box for this session of FAST only
Enclosure Information
Type
Displays the enclosure type: SAF-TE ,
Unknown Enclosure Type, or
<<Not reported>>.
Note: This version of FAST supports only SAFTE 1.0-compliant enclosures
Manufacturer
Displays the manufacturer of the enclosure
Firmware revision
Displays the current firmware revision number
Product ID
Displays the manufacturer’s product
identification
8-3
Flexible Array Storage Tool User’s Guide
Dialog Box Element
Function
Power-on
diagnostics
Indicates the status of the power-on
diagnostics: Passed or Failed
Enclosure ID
Displays the manufacturer’s unique identifier
for the selected enclosure
Subsystem Status
Temperature
sensor icon and
adjacent
information
Displays the number of temperature sensors
that can report an actual temperature reading
(that is, type 1 temperature sensors; see
Displaying the Temperature Sensor Status on
page 8-8) or displays No Temperature Sensors
if no type 1 temperature sensors are reported
An exclamation point icon ( ) to the right of
the temperature sensor icon indicates that a
problem has been detected in the enclosure’s
temperature sensor subsystem
Fan icon and
adjacent
information
Displays the number of fans reported by the
enclosure or displays No Fans if no fans are
reported
An exclamation point icon ( ) to the right of
the fan icon indicates that a problem has been
detected in the enclosure’s fan subsystem
Power supply icon
and adjacent
information
Displays the number of power supplies
reported by the enclosure or displays
No Power Supplies if no power supplies are
reported
An exclamation point icon ( ) to the right of
the power supply icon indicates that a problem
has been detected in the enclosure’s power
supply subsystem
When this icon appears to the right of the
temperature sensor icon and its adjacent
information, indicates that the enclosure has
detected a temperature above the
manufacturer’s preset limit
Details button
8-4
Displays the Enclosure Fans, Temperature
Sensors and Power Supplies dialog box (see
Figure 8-3 on page 8-6)
Working with Enclosures
Dialog Box Element
Slot icon and
adjacent
information
Function
Displays the number of slots reported by the
enclosure or displays No if no slots have been
reported.
An exclamation point icon ( ) to the right of
the slot icon indicates that a problem has been
detected in the enclosure’s slot subsystem
Details button
Displays the Enclosure Slots dialog box (see
Figure 8-4 on page 8-11)
Poll this controller’s
enclosures every list
Sets the interval that the controller uses to poll
its enclosures for their status
OK button
Accepts changes, closes the dialog box, and
sets the controller polling interval
4
Set the controller’s polling interval by selecting a setting from
the Poll the controller’s enclosures every list.
Note: Shorter polling intervals provide more up-todate information; however, more time is needed for
polling and less time is available for data I/O. (A
shorter polling interval requires more frequent
polling, resulting in a higher ratio of polling traffic to
file-related data-transfer traffic on the SCSI channel.)
Conversely, longer polling intervals provide less
current information, but do allocate more time to data
I/O.
5
See the following table if the exclamation point icon (
appears to the right of a subsystem icon:
)
If…
Then…
appears to the right
of the temperature
sensor, fan or power
supply icon
Click Details next to the power supply icon.
Look for problem information in the
Enclosure Fans, Temperature Sensors and
Power Supplies dialog box that appears (see
Figure 8-3 on page 8-6).
appears to the right
of the slot icon
Click Details next to the slot icon. Look for
problem information in the Enclosure Slots
dialog box that appears (see Figure 8-4 on
page 8-11).
8-5
Flexible Array Storage Tool User’s Guide
6
Click OK.
Managing Enclosure Temperature Sensors,
Fans, and Power Supplies
To view and manage the temperature sensors, fans, and power
supplies elements, do the following:
1
2
3
Select Controller view from the View menu.
Select an enclosure.
Select Fans, Temperature Sensors & Power Supplies from the
Enclosure menu.
The Enclosure Fans, Temperature Sensors and Power
Supplies dialog box appears (Figure 8-3).
Figure 8-3. Enclosure Fans, Temperature Sensors and Power Supplies
dialog box
8-6
Working with Enclosures
Dialog Box Element
Function
Enclosure icon and
Enclosure ID
Displays the Enclosure ID (Channel:ID:LUN)
Refresh button
Updates and redisplays information about the
selected enclosure that appears in any view
windows or in any active enclosure-related
dialog box for this session of FAST only
Temperature Sensors
Temperature sensors
list
Displays status information about the type 1
or type 2 temperature sensors reported by the
enclosure
Display in pull-down
list
Displays enclosure temperatures in
Fahrenheit or Celsius; is not present if no
type 1 temperature sensors are reported (type
1 temperature sensors are described in
Displaying the Temperature Sensor Status on
page 8-8)
Warn above pulldown list
Establishes the warning threshold
temperature; is not present if no type 1
temperature sensors are reported (type 1
temperature sensors are described in
Displaying the Temperature Sensor Status on
page 8-8)
Fans
Fans list
Displays status information about the fans
reported by the enclosure
Power Supplies
Power supplies list
Close button
4
Displays status information about the power
supplies reported by the enclosure
Closes the dialog box
Make any necessary changes, as explained in the following
sections:
■
Displaying Fan Status on page 8-10
■
Setting the Warning Threshold Temperature on page 8-10
■
Displaying Power Supply Status on page 8-10
8-7
Flexible Array Storage Tool User’s Guide
Some enclosures report power supply status, but do not
allow on/off control. For more information, see your
enclosure documentation.
5
Click Close.
Managing Temperature Sensors
The elements in the Enclosure Fans, Temperature Sensors and
Power Supplies dialog box enable you to view the status of
temperature sensors and to set the warning threshold temperature (the
user-specified temperature limit above which FAST displays a
warning).
Displaying the Temperature Sensor Status
This section explains the two types of temperature sensors
displayed in the Temperature Sensors list of the Enclosure Fans,
Temperature Sensors and Power Supplies dialog box.
The status of the temperature sensors in the enclosure is indicated as
follows:
■
Type 1 temperature sensors
Type 1 temperature sensors report enclosure temperatures as a
number. If the enclosure reports one or more type 1
temperature sensors, as indicated in the Enclosure Properties
dialog box, the status of these sensors is displayed as in the
following table.
Status
Explanation
Fahrenheit
Temperature at x °F
The current temperature is as
indicated.
Over warning: x °F
The temperature has exceeded the
limit displayed in the Warn above
list.
Over limit: x °F
The temperature has exceeded the
limit set by the manufacturer.
Celsius
Temperature at x.x °C
8-8
The current temperature is as
indicated.
Working with Enclosures
Status
Explanation
Over warning: x.x °C
The temperature has exceeded the
limit displayed in the Warn above
list.
Over limit: x.x °C
The temperature has exceeded the
limit set by the manufacturer.
The Display in list and the Warn above list, along with their
adjacent icons, are displayed only if one or more type 1 sensors
are reported by the enclosure.
Note: The Enclosure Properties dialog box displays
only the number of type 1 temperature sensors (see
Figure 8-2 on page 8-3).
■
Type 2 temperature sensors
Type 2 temperature sensors report a binary value, which
indicates that a temperature is either over or under a preset
value. If the enclosure does not report any type 1 temperature
sensors, the status of up to 15 type 2 sensors is displayed in the
Temperature Sensors list as follows:
OK (or no sensor present)
Over limit
Note: The SAF-TE 1.0 specification does not provide a
means for FAST to determine the number, or the
existence, of type 2 temperature sensors. Therefore,
when FAST does not report any type 1 temperature
sensors, it displays the status of 15 potential type 2
sensors. If a type 2 temperature sensor is not
indicating an over-temperature condition, or does not
exist, the status of the sensor is displayed as OK (or no
sensor present).
8-9
Flexible Array Storage Tool User’s Guide
Setting the Warning Threshold Temperature
To set the warning threshold temperature, select a number from the
Warn above list.
Setting a Temperature Unit
To set a temperature unit, select Fahrenheit or Celsius from the
Display in list.
The following dialog box elements display the selected temperature
unit:
■
All type 1 temperature sensors displayed in the Temperature
Sensors list (° F or ° C)
■
The Display in list (Fahrenheit or Celsius)
Displaying Fan Status
The elements in the Enclosure Fans, Temperature Sensors and
Power Supplies dialog box enable you to view the status of the fans
reported by the enclosure.
The status of the fans in the enclosure is displayed in the Fans list as
follows:
Displaying Power Supply Status
The elements in the Enclosure Fans, Temperature Sensors and
Power Supplies dialog box enable you to view the status of the
power supplies reported by the enclosure.
The status of the power supplies in the enclosure is displayed in the
Power Supplies list as follows:
(black icon)
(black icon)
8-10
Working with Enclosures
(red icon)
(red icon)
Managing Enclosure Slots
The elements in the Enclosure Slots dialog box (Figure 8-4) enable
you to view the status of and manage enclosure slots.
To view and configure enclosure slots, do the following:
1
2
3
Select Controller view from the View menu.
Select an enclosure.
Select Slots from the Enclosure menu.
The Enclosure Slots dialog box appears (Figure 8-4).
Figure 8-4. Enclosure Slots dialog box
8-11
Flexible Array Storage Tool User’s Guide
Dialog Box Element
Function
Enclosure icon and
Enclosure ID
Displays the Enclosure ID (Channel:ID:LUN)
Refresh button
Updates and redisplays information about the
selected enclosure that appears in any view
window or in any active enclosure-related
dialog box for this session of FAST only
Slots
List box
Displays status information about the slots
reported by the enclosure (see Displaying Slot
Status on page 8-12 for an explanation of the
column headings)
Identify On button
Identifies a slot; the method of identification
varies with different enclosure manufacturers
Identify Off button
Close button
4
5
Turns off slot identification
Accepts changes and closes the dialog box
Make any necessary changes.
Click Close.
Displaying Slot Status
The Enclosure Slots dialog box displays the identifiers shown in the
following table for each slot reported by the enclosure:
Identifier
Function
Valid Value
Slot #
Displays the number
assigned to the slot by
the enclosure
00 through nn (where nn
equals the number of slots
reported by the enclosure
minus 1; single digits are
preceded by a 0)
SCSI ID
Displays the SCSI ID
currently assigned to
the slot
00 through 15; --- for none
8-12
Working with Enclosures
The Enclosure Slots dialog box also displays the status indicators
shown in the following table for each slot reported by the enclosure:
Status
Indicator
Failure
Function
Indicator
Status
Indicates when
containers
(logical disks)
using the slot’s
drive report
problems
----------
Device is OK
SMART
Device has reported
a S.M.A.R.T event
Failed
Device contains one
or more failed
partitions
Critical
Device contains one
or more redundant
containers that are
no longer
redundant
Fault
Device
Present
Indicates the
presence of a
device in the slot
Drive Use
Indicates how the
drive in the slot is
being used
Rebuild
Indicates that a
container using
the drive is
performing a
rebuild operation
Device is faulty
---
No device present
Dev
Device is present
---
Drive not in use
Cnt
Drive used by one
or more container
Spr
Drive assigned as a
spare disk to one or
more containers
C/S
Drive used by one
or more containers
and is assigned as a
spare disk to one or
more containers
-------
Drive has no
containers that are
performing a
rebuild operation
Rebuild
Drive has containers
that are performing
a rebuild operation
8-13
Flexible Array Storage Tool User’s Guide
Status
Indicator
Consistency
Check
Function
Indicates that a
container using
the drive is
performing a
consistency check
operation
Indicator
Status
-------
Drive has no
containers that are
performing a
consistency check
operation
Check
Drive has containers
that are performing
a consistency check
operation
Configuring Slots
You can perform the following tasks in the Enclosure Slots dialog
box:
■
Identify a slot
Identifying a Slot
To identify a slot:
1
2
Click a slot in the Slots list.
Click Identify On.
How the device is identified depends on the enclosure
manufacturer. For example, the enclosure may flash a series of
lights on its associated slot door.
To turn off slot identification:
1
2
❒
8-14
Click a slot in the Slots list.
Click Identify Off.
9
Working with Disk Space
The following table summarizes the topics covered in this chapter:
For information about…
Turn to…
Working with Freespace
page 9-2
Restrictions on Freespace Extension
for Windows 2000
page 9-7
Working with Partitions
page 9-9
Managing Partitions with Microsoft
Windows Utilities
page 9-15
9-1
Flexible Array Storage Tool User’s Guide
Working with Freespace
This section shows how freespace is represented in FAST and
provides instructions for selecting freespace and working with
freespace properties.
Understanding Freespace
Figure 9-1 shows how freespace is represented in the Disk view
window.
Freespace
Figure 9-1. Freespace represented in Disk view
Selecting Freespace
To select freespace, use any of the following methods:
■
Click an entire freespace
■
Use sizing handles
■
Use the FreeSpace Properties dialog box
■
Use the Tab and spacebar keys (see Selecting FAST Objects
Using the Keyboard on page 5-10)
Selecting an Entire Freespace
To select an entire freespace, do the following:
1
9-2
Select Disk View from the View menu.
Working with Disk Space
2
Click the freespace you want to select (Figure 9-2). The number
inside the selected freespace is the size of the freespace.
Click here to select this entire freespace.
Figure 9-2. Selecting an entire freespace
3
To select additional freespaces, hold down Ctrl while you click
the other freespaces.
Using Sizing Handles
Use sizing handles to select part of a freespace (and to specify an
offset, if appropriate).
To select freespace using sizing handles, do the following:
1
2
Select Disk View from the View menu.
Click the freespace and drag the sizing handles (Figure 9-3).
Freespace size and offset**
Partial freespace selection
Offset* = 322 MB
Size = 500 MB
Sizing handle
Total freespace
*The offset is calculated from the beginning, or left side, of the disk.
**Freespace size and offset are indicated by <xxx MB @ yyy MB>, which only
appears when a freespace is selected.
Figure 9-3. Selecting partial freespace
9-3
Flexible Array Storage Tool User’s Guide
Note: To move the beginning and ending boundaries
of the freespace in one-pixel increments, hold down
Shift while moving the sizing handles. By default, the
size is converted to rounded numbers while you drag
the sizing handles.
3
To select freespaces on additional disks, hold down Ctrl while
you select and define subsequent freespaces as you did in
step 2.
Working with Freespace Properties
The FreeSpace Properties dialog box enables you to do the
following:
■
Display the current status of the selected freespace
■
Change the selection specification
■
Select freespaces
To select freespace using the FreeSpace Properties dialog box, do
the following:
1
2
Select Disk View from the View menu.
Select a freespace, and select Properties from the Edit menu
(Figure 9-4).
Click here, and select Properties from the Edit menu.
Figure 9-4. Accessing the FreeSpace Properties dialog box
9-4
Working with Disk Space
The FreeSpace Properties dialog box appears with the
freespace’s current settings (Figure 9-5).
Figure 9-5. FreeSpace Properties dialog box
Dialog Box Element
Function
Freespace icon and
FreeSpace
Displays the size of the selected freespace and
the location of its offset
Disk ID
Displays the Disk ID (Channel:ID:LUN) of the
disk on which the freespace is located
Selection
None button
Deselects the selected freespace
Full button
Selects the entire freespace
Partial button
Enables the Size and Offset boxes; is
automatically enabled when you add, delete,
or change data in the Size or Offset box or the
corresponding units lists or when you click
the left- or right-arrow buttons
Partial
Size box and units
list
button
Lets you view and set the size of the partial
freespace selection and specify a unit of
measure in the adjacent list
Makes the freespace as large as possible
without changing the offset by moving the
right sizing handle to the end (right side) of
the freespace
9-5
Flexible Array Storage Tool User’s Guide
Dialog Box Element
Offset box and units
list
button
Align Size and Offset
button
Function
Lets you view and set the offset in the unit of
measure you select in the adjacent list
Moves an existing offset (left sizing handle) to
the beginning (left side) of the freespace
Automatically adjusts the freespace size and
offset to 64 KB multiples (rounded up)
OK button
Accepts changes and closes the dialog box
Cancel button
Ignores changes and closes the dialog box
3
4
5
Select the entire freespace by selecting Full and clicking OK.
Deselect the selected freespace by selecting None and clicking
OK.
Select partial freespace as follows:
a Type the starting point of an offset in the Offset box. To
specify the unit of measure, type the first letter of the unit
immediately following the size (for example, type 322m for
322 Megabytes) or select a unit from the adjacent list.
Alternatively, you can move an existing offset (left sizing
handle) to the beginning (left side) of the freespace by
clicking the
button, as illustrated in Figure 9-6.
Offset after clicking the
button
Original offset
Figure 9-6. Using the
button to adjust the offset
b Type the size of the partial freespace selection in the Size
box. To specify the unit of measure, type the first letter of the
unit immediately following the size (for example, type 750m
for 750 Megabytes) or select a unit from the adjacent list.
Alternatively, you can make the freespace as large as
9-6
Working with Disk Space
possible without changing the offset by clicking the
button to move the right sizing handle to the end (right side)
of the freespace, as illustrated in Figure 9-7.
Right boundary after clicking the
button
Original right boundary
Figure 9-7. Using the
button to adjust the offset
c Click OK.
Restrictions on Freespace Extension for
Windows 2000
The following restrictions apply when extending freespace on
Windows 2000 systems:
■
After conversion to a Windows 2000 dynamic disk, a container
that was originally created as a Windows NT 4.0 basic disk
cannot be extended.
■
When converting a Windows 2000 basic disk to a dynamic
disk, a multi-boot partition cannot boot any NOS other than
Windows 2000. (The Windows 2000 dynamic disk is a superset file system.)
■
If you use the Microsoft Logical Disk Manager to create a
basic-disk volume and then convert it to a dynamic-disk
volume, during the conversion the volume is temporarily
dismounted and the file system is unavailable. (The NOS
recovers, and there are no known problems with data loss.)
■
When you add a disk to a Windows 2000 basic-disk volume,
the additional freespace might not be displayed for several
minutes. To expedite the display of the additional freespace,
reboot the system.
9-7
Flexible Array Storage Tool User’s Guide
■
When you add a disk to a Windows 2000 dynamic-disk
volume, the additional freespace is not displayed until after
you reboot the system.
■
You cannot use FAST (or the CLI) to create a Windows 2000
basic disk. Use the Logical Disk Manager to create a Windows
2000 basic disk.
Table 9-1 summarizes differences in freespace extension between the
NetRAID-3Si and NetRAID-4M controllers for various volume types
on Windows NT and Windows 2000 systems.
Table 9-1. File System Extension on Windows Systems
9-8
Volume
Type
Operating System
NetRAID-3Si
NetRAID-4M
Basic disk
Windows NT
Online capacity
expansion (OCE)
does not require
a reboot.
If using FAST to
extend the
freespace, Disk
Administrator
incorrectly
displays the
additional
capacity. The
Properties tab
does not display
additional
capacity until
after a reboot.
Basic disk
Windows 2000
OCE works with
test version
drivers or with
the NetRAID
Assistant.
Additional
freespace is
immediately
displayed.
Additional
freespace does
not appear
until after a
reboot.
Dynamic
disk
Windows 2000
When using old
or test drivers,
additional
freespace is not
displayed.
Additional
freespace does
not appear
until after a
reboot.
Working with Disk Space
Working with Partitions
This section describes how partitions are represented in FAST and
provides instructions for working with partition properties.
Understanding Partitions
Figure 9-8 shows how partitions are represented in the Disk view
window. Figure 9-9 shows how partitions are represented in the
Container view window.
Partition size
Partition
Figure 9-8. Partitions represented in Disk view
Disk ID (Channel:ID:LUN)
Partition size
Partition
Figure 9-9. Partitions represented in Container view
Viewing Partition Properties
The Partition Properties dialog box contains information about a
selected partition.
To access the Partition Properties dialog box, do the following:
1
2
3
Select Disk View or Container View from the View menu.
Select a partition.
Select Properties from the Edit menu.
9-9
Flexible Array Storage Tool User’s Guide
The Partition Properties dialog box appears (Figure 9-10).
Figure 9-10. Partition Properties dialog box
Dialog Box Element
Function
Partition icon and
label
Size and offset of the selected partition
Disk ID
Disk ID (Channel:ID:LUN) of the disk on
which the partition is located
Status
Type of container that is using the partition as
well as the status; for example, Used by
container, Dead, or Unconfigured
Container icon
and adjacent
information
Type of container that is using the partition,
the container number, the container drive
letter, and the size of the container
OK button
Closes the dialog box
Working with Orphan and Dead Partitions
A partition that is part of a multi-partition container (logical disk)
becomes an orphan partition when one or more of its constituent
partitions cannot be found or configured. A partition is usually
missing or not configurable because the disk on which it resides has
been disconnected from the controller. Orphan partitions are
represented in FAST as the non-phantom partitions of a phantom
container (Figure 9-11 on page 9-11).
A dead partition is a partition that is no longer usable by a container.
Some reasons a partition may be designated as dead are as follows:
■
It is logically bad and therefore no longer needed
■
It is physically damaged
9-10
Working with Disk Space
■
It resides on a disk that has been disconnected from and then
reconnected to the controller
The following icons represent orphan and dead partitions:
Orphan partition
Dead partition
Figure 9-11 shows orphan partitions represented in Disk view and
Container view.
Orphan partition
Figure 9-11. Orphan partitions represented in
Container view and Disk view
Figure 9-12 shows dead partitions represented in Container view
and Disk view.
Dead partition
Figure 9-12. Dead partitions represented in
Container view and Disk view
9-11
Flexible Array Storage Tool User’s Guide
Removing Orphan/Dead Partitions
You can recover the space occupied by a disk’s orphan and dead
partitions using the Remove Orphan/Dead Partitions command.
This command reverts all the orphan and dead partitions on a
selected disk to freespace.
Before you remove a disk’s orphan and dead partitions, consider the
following:
■
For dead partitions
– If you are not sure why the partition is designated as dead,
you should verify the disk using the Verify command from
the Disk menu. (See Verifying a Disk on page 7-7 for
instructions.) You should not remove dead partitions that
are damaged.
– If you know for certain that the dead partition is the result
of a physically damaged disk, you should replace the disk.
Whether you replace the disk immediately or later, you
should not remove the dead partition.
■
For orphan partitions
– If you want to retain the container, try reconnecting the
disks that contain the missing partitions to the controller.
– If reverting the partitions to freespace is acceptable, simply
delete the associated phantom container.
To remove a disk’s orphan and dead partitions, do the following:
1
2
Select Disk View from the View menu.
3
Select Remove Orphan/Dead Partitions from the Disk menu.
Select a disk that has one or more orphan and/or dead
partitions.
The orphan and dead partitions revert to freespace.
Restoring Dead Partitions on a RAID-5 or RAID-50 Set
Sometimes it is possible to recover the data from a RAID-5 or RAID50 set that contains one or more dead partitions.
9-12
Working with Disk Space
Restoring Multiple Dead Partitions
To restore multiple dead partitions in a RAID-5 or RAID-50 set, do
the following:
1
Reconnect the disks containing the dead partitions to the
controller.
2
3
Select Rescan from the Controller menu.
Select the RAID-5 set, and select Restore RAID-5’s Dead
Partitions from the Container menu.
The Restore Multiple Dead Partition prompt appears
(Figure 9-13).
Figure 9-13. Restore Multiple Dead Partitions prompt
Click Yes to restore the container. FAST attempts to restore the
partition. If FAST is successful, select the RAID-5 set, and select
Consistency check from the Container menu. (See Checking
the Consistency of a RAID-5 Set on page 11-19 for instructions.)
4
5
Save the data that was in the dead partition.
For NTFS, FAT, and FAT32 file systems, run chkdsk /f.
Restoring a Single Dead Partition
To restore one dead partition a RAID-5 or RAID-50 set, do the
following:
9-13
Flexible Array Storage Tool User’s Guide
1
Reconnect the disks containing the dead partition to the
controller.
2
3
Select Rescan from the Controller menu.
Select the RAID-5 or RAID-50 set, and select Restore RAID-5’s
Dead Partitions from the Container menu.
The Restore RAID-5’s Dead Partition dialog box appears
(Figure 9-14).
Figure 9-14. Restore RAID-5’s Dead Partition dialog box
Dialog Box Element
Function
1-Restore the partition to the
same drive via rebuild
FAST returns the dead partition’s
space to freespace, and restores
the partition on the same drive.
2-Restore the partition to a user
selected drive via rebuild
FAST returns the dead partition’s
space to freespace, and restores
the partition to another drive.
3-Restore the partition back into
the container without a rebuild
FAST attempts to restore the
partition.
If you choose option 1, click Restore. Two prompts appear.
Click OK after each prompt to acknowledge that the display
will be refreshed.
9-14
Working with Disk Space
If you choose option 2, click Restore. Assign a spare disk as
described in Using the Configure Spares Command on page 11-12.
If you choose option 3, click Restore to restore the container.
Select the RAID-5 set, and select Consistency check from the
Container menu. (See Checking the Consistency of a RAID-5 Set
on page 11-19 for instructions.)
4
5
6
Save the data that was in the dead partition’s container.
For NTFS, FAT, and FAT32 file systems, run chkdsk /f.
If the disk is defective, replace the disk drive.
Managing Partitions with Microsoft Windows
Utilities
This section contains information about managing partitions using
Microsoft Disk Administrator (Windows NT) or Microsoft Disk
Management utility (Windows 2000). For complete instructions on
using Microsoft disk management utilities, see your Microsoft
documentation.
Notes: To manage disk partitions on a NetWare™ system,
use the install.nlm (NetWare 4.2) or the
nwconfig.nlm (NetWare 5.0) utility on the NetWare
console. For more information on using these utilities, see
your NetWare documentation.
Do not confuse Windows NT or Windows 2000 volume,
stripe, mirror, and duplex sets with controller-managed
containers (logical disks). Windows NT and Windows 2000
partitions cannot be managed by the controller management
software; they can only be managed in Disk Administrator
or Disk Management utility.
Figure 9-15 shows how containers are represented in Disk
Administrator and FAST.
Note that the disk number on the container in the FAST Container
view window is the disk number that appears in Disk
Administrator’s disk configuration view.
9-15
Flexible Array Storage Tool User’s Guide
Disk Administrator disk number
Figure 9-15. Containers 0 and 1 represented in FAST
and Disk Administrator
FAST uses two numeric designations for containers: the container
number and the Windows NT or Windows 2000 disk number. When
a container is deleted and a new one is created, the new container
may retain the same Windows NT or Windows 2000 disk number, or
the container may receive a new disk number. This behavior
depends on the state of the operating system of the disk associated
with the deleted container.
For example, if you enabled disk performance monitoring in
Windows NT or Windows 2000 (using the diskperf command),
the operating system keeps internal counters on all disks. When
FAST deletes a container, however, the associated disk cannot be
removed from the operating system’s internal disk list. Therefore,
new disks receive new disk numbers rather than reusing old ones.
(This behavior may be demonstrated with non-RAID-attached SCSI
9-16
Working with Disk Space
disks also.) In addition, the Microsoft disk management utilities
indicate the disk number previously used as no longer available
until the next boot. This is normal behavior.
When you use FAST on Windows NT or Windows 2000 to create a
new container, you normally assign the container a file system such
as NTFS, FAT, or FAT32. Then FAST creates a single operating
system partition on the container with the file system type you
specified.
To create multiple operating-system partitions on a container, do the
following:
1
Create the container in FAST, but do not assign it a file system.
(Select None from the File system list in the Create Container1
dialog box.)
2
Use Disk Administrator (on a Windows NT system) or the
Disk Management utility (on Windows 2000) to create and
format the partitions you want on the container you created in
step 1. (See the Microsoft documentation for instructions.)
Note: When formatting partitions for a container using
the Disk Administrator or Disk Management utility,
we strongly recommend that you use the Quick
Format option. The controller’s disk verify (with bad
block repair) and container consistency check
operations, which run in the background, will find
(and repair) any bad blocks not detected during the
quick format operation. (When the controller is busy,
formatting partitions for a container can take a long
time.)
Figure 9-16 shows how multiple operating-system partitions are
represented in both FAST and Disk Administrator. Note that Disk
Administrator represents the container’s 200 MB on which a file
system has not yet been created as freespace.
If there are more than four operating-system partitions on a
container, FAST displays an ellipsis following the fourth file system
icon. Use FAST to check the container’s properties, or check the
1 The word Container, in italics, represents the type of container (for example,
RAID-5 Set).
9-17
Flexible Array Storage Tool User’s Guide
Microsoft disk management utility for information on the additional
partitions.
Figure 9-16. Multiple operating-system partitions represented
in FAST and Disk Administrator
See Properties of Containers with Multiple Operating-System Partitions
(Windows NT and Windows 2000 Only) on page 11-23 for additional
information.
❒
9-18
10
Creating Containers
This chapter provides information about creating containers (logical
disks) in FAST.
The following table summarizes the topics covered in this chapter:
For information about…
Turn to…
Understanding Containers and Multilevel Containers
page 10-2
Understanding FtDisk Partitions (NT Only)
page 10-2
Creating Containers
page 10-3
Setting and Using Default Container Creation Properties
page 10-28
Using the Create Container Dialog Box
page 10-31
10-1
Flexible Array Storage Tool User’s Guide
Understanding Containers and Multilevel
Containers
Figure 10-1 shows how containers (logical disks) and multilevel
containers are represented in the Container view window.
Drive letter (Only displayed for Microsoft systems)
Container
File system
Container number
Approximate container size
Disk Administrator drive number
Additional multilevel container elements
Top-level container
Underlying container
Figure 10-1. Containers and multilevel containers represented in Container
view
Understanding FtDisk Partitions (NT Only)
FtDisk (fault-tolerant disk driver) is a Windows NT driver that
performs the following functions:
■
Creates and manages I/O to Windows NT volume, stripe,
mirror, and duplex sets
■
Recovers data
10-2
Creating Containers
FtDisk partitions appear in FAST when you create a logical disk in
Disk Administrator that spans two or more containers (logical
disks). For instance, when you create a stripe set in Disk
Administrator using three free spaces, you might actually be using
three distinct containers.
In the example in Figure 10-2, only the first container in the FtDisk
stripe set (Disk 5) shows the drive letter and file system type. All
other containers associated with the FtDisk stripe set (Disks 6 and 7)
have the FtDisk partition icon. (To determine which FtDisk set a
container is a member of, you must look in Disk Administrator.)
Figure 10-2. FtDisk stripe set represented in FAST
Note: FtDisk partitions cannot be managed by the controller
management software; they must be managed in Disk
Administrator.
Creating Containers
You can create containers automatically using the Container
Creation Wizard or manually from the Container menu. Manual
mode provides you the maximum control and flexibility in the
creation of containers.
10-3
Flexible Array Storage Tool User’s Guide
Note: Your boot container should always be numbered 0. If
you are booting from the controller, the lowest container
number is always used as the booting device. If your boot
container ever becomes container 1, and subsequently a
container 0 is created, you will be unable to boot your
system. The BIOS has the ability to designate a container as
the boot container. For more information, see the installation
guide for your controller.
On a Windows 2000 system, a basic-disk container is usable
only if its size is 16 MB or greater; otherwise, the container
must be a dynamic-disk container.
Any individual disk used in a container can have, at most,
10 partitions.
Displaying the Container Creation Dialog Boxes
This section describes the dialog boxes that appear when creating a
container. The following list names the dialog boxes and indicates
the order in which they appear when you create a container:
1
2
3
4
Container Creation Wizard
Create Container1 dialog box
Configure Spare dialog box
About Container Creation dialog box
Container Creation Wizard
The Container Creation Wizard appears when you select Creation
Wizard on the Container (Logical Disk) menu. See Creating
Containers Using the Container Creation Wizard on page 10-7 for a
detailed description of the Container Creation Wizard.
Create Container Dialog Box
The Create Container dialog box appears (depending on the Use
Default Creation Properties setting) when you press the Create
1 The word Container, in italics, represents the type of container (for example,
RAID-5 set).
10-4
Creating Containers
button on the Container Creation Wizard or when you choose
Create Container on the Container menu. See Setting and Using
Default Container Creation Properties on page 10-28 for a detailed
description of the Create Container dialog box.
Configure Spares Dialog Box
The Configure Spare dialog box appears (depending on the
Configure Spares at Creation setting) when you are creating a
redundant container and click OK on the Create Container dialog
box. See Using the Configure Spares Command on page 11-12 for a
detailed description of the Configure Spare dialog box.
About Container Creation Dialog Box
The About Container Creation dialog box (Figure 10-3) provides
information about the container creation process. The About
Container Creation dialog box appears in the following
circumstances:
■
When you are creating a non-redundant container (logical
disk) and press OK on the Create Container dialog box
■
When you are creating a redundant container (logical disk)
and press Continue on the Configure Spare dialog box
10-5
Flexible Array Storage Tool User’s Guide
Figure 10-3. About Container Creation dialog box
Dialog Box Element
Function
OK button
Dismisses the dialog box
Don’t show this
message again
check box
Suppresses the display of the About
Container Creation dialog box when
you create subsequent containers; to
display this dialog box once this check
box has been set, choose Re-enable all
prompts from the Help menu
Creating Containers on a NetWare System
When you create a container on a NetWare™ server, you must run
the list devices command on the NetWare console and then create
the necessary NetWare disk partitions and volumes. For information
on how to create partitions and volumes, see the appropriate
NetWare documentation. For information on how to display the
NetWare console remotely on the NT client running FAST, see
Appendix E, NetWare and rconsole.
10-6
Creating Containers
Note: Until you create the necessary partitions and volumes
on the NetWare server and refresh the FAST display, the
container in Container view will display a question mark
instead of the NetWare icon.
Creating Containers Using the Container Creation Wizard
To create a container using the Container Creation Wizard, do the
following:
1
Select Creation Wizard from the Container menu. The
Container Creation Wizard dialog box appears (Figure 10-4).
Message area
Figure 10-4. Container Creation Wizard dialog box
10-7
Flexible Array Storage Tool User’s Guide
Dialog Box Element
Function
Disks
List
Displays a list of all SCSI disks connected to
the active controller:
■ Force in Dest check box. Forces the system
to include the selected disk in the new
container (logical disk)
■ Disk ID. Displays the Disk ID
(Channel:ID:LUN)
■ Largest Free. Displays the largest available
freespace on the disk
■ Total Free. Displays the total available
freespace on the disk
■ In Dest. Indicates with an X that the disk
will be included in the new container
Force channel
optimization check
box
Attempts to use disks on different channels
for optimum performance and redundancy
(this option is not available on single-channel
controllers)
Initialize button
Initializes the selected SCSI disks
Configuration
Type to create pulldown list
Specifies the type of container to create
Characteristics
10-8
Redundancy
Indicates whether the container is redundant
(Maximum) or not redundant (None)
Capacity utilization
Indicates the container’s ability to use space
for data storage
Sequential Read
Indicates the container’s relative performance
for sequential reads
Random Read
Indicates the container’s relative performance
for random reads
Sequential Write
Indicates the container’s relative performance
for sequential writes
Random Write
Indicates the container’s ability to perform
random writes
Creating Containers
Dialog Box Element
Message area
Function
For invalid container configurations, displays
a warning, which includes information about
why the currently selected configuration is
not allowed; also provides information about
valid container configurations
Size
Use all of nn
maximum option
Uses the maximum disk space available for
the specified container, where nn is the
number displayed after Max: in the Type to
create list
User specified size
box and units pulldown list
Lets you enter the size of the container to
create and specify a unit of measure in the
units list
Use container creation
defaults check box
Turns on the Use Container Creation
Defaults command from the Container menu
Set defaults button
Displays the Default Container Creation
Properties dialog box (see Setting and Using
Default Container Creation Properties on
page 10-28)
Create button
If Use Container Creation Defaults is
checked in the Container menu, creates the
specified container and closes the dialog box.
If Use Container Creation Defaults is not
checked in the Container menu, displays the
appropriate Create Container dialog box. (To
create the container, see Using the Create
Container Dialog Box on page 10-31)
Cancel button
Does not create the specified container
(logical disk) and closes the dialog box
2
Select the type of container you want to create from the Type to
create list.
Note: For all invalid disk configurations, a warning
appears in the message area (see Figure 10-4 on
page 10-7).
3
Select from the Disks list the disks that you would like the
Container Creation Wizard to consider for use by the new
10-9
Flexible Array Storage Tool User’s Guide
container, or accept the disks specified by FAST. FAST
automatically tries to optimize your selections, so look
carefully at the In Dest column to see which disks are
recommended to be included in the container.
■
A disk that has 10 partitions is never considered for
inclusion; any individual disk used in a container can have,
at most, 10 partitions.
■
Disks that are not selected are never considered for
inclusion in the destination container
■
Selected disks are considered for inclusion in the destination
container; however, only those disks with an X in the In
Dest column are actually included in the destination
container
■
Disks whose Force in Dest check boxes are checked are
forced to be included in the destination container
Note: Any individual disk used in a container can
have, at most, 10 partitions.
4
For maximum performance of any container type (except a
volume set) and for maximum redundancy of a mirror set,
RAID-5 set, volume set of mirror sets, stripe set of RAID-5 sets,
or stripe set of mirror sets, select the Force channel
optimization check box. This option attempts to place
component disks on alternating physical SCSI channels.
Note: This option is not available on single-channel
controllers.
5
Specify the desired size of the container you are creating by
using one of the following methods:
■
■
10-10
Select the Use all of option.
Type a number in the User specified size box, and specify a
unit of measure. You can type the first letter of the unit in
the User specified size box immediately following the size
(for example, type 500m for 500 Megabytes), or select a unit
from the list adjacent to the User specified size box.
Creating Containers
For information on minimum and maximum container
sizes, see the installation guide for your controller.
Note: On a Windows 2000 system, a basic-disk
container is usable only if its size is 16 MB or greater;
otherwise, the volume type must be dynamic disk.
6
To use default container properties, select the Use container
creation defaults check box. (See Setting and Using Default
Container Creation Properties on page 10-28 for more
information.)
7
Click Create.
Note: If you choose not to use the defaults, you are
given the opportunity to interactively set the
container’s creation properties. See the following table
for instructions.
If…
Then…
And then…
Use Container
Creation Defaults
check box is selected
Create Container
dialog box does not
appear.
Use Container
Creation Defaults is
not selected
Create Container
dialog box appears
(see Figure 10-7 on
page 10-32 for an
example). Verify
and/or change the
options in the dialog
box, and click OK.
When the hourglass
(or other busy
indicator) and icons
related to container
creation tasks
disappear, and the
status bar displays
For Help, press
F1, the container has
been created.
8
Select Container View from the View menu to see the
container you created.
If you are creating the container on a NetWare™ system, see Creating
Containers on a NetWare System on page 10-6.
10-11
Flexible Array Storage Tool User’s Guide
Creating Containers from the Container Menu
This section presents the procedure for creating the following singlelevel and multilevel containers from the Container menu:
■
Volume set
■
Stripe set (RAID 0)
■
Mirror set (RAID 1)
■
RAID-5 set
■
Volume set of stripe sets
■
Volume set of mirror sets
■
Volume set of RAID-5 sets
■
Stripe set of mirror sets (RAID 0/1)
■
Stripe set of RAID-5 sets (RAID 50)
Creating a Volume Set from the Container Menu
To create a volume set from the Container menu, do the following:
1
2
Select Disk View from the View menu.
3
Select Create Volume Set from the Container menu.
Select one or more freespaces whose sizes add up to the size of
the volume set you want to create. (See Selecting Freespace on
page 9-2.)
If…
Then…
Use Default Creation Properties
from the Container menu is
checked
the Create volume set dialog
box does not appear.
Use Default Creation Properties
from the Container menu is not
checked
the Create volume set dialog
box appears. Verify and/or
change the options in the dialog
box, and click OK.
If you are creating the container on a NetWare™ system, see Creating
Containers on a NetWare System on page 10-6.
10-12
Creating Containers
Creating a Stripe Set from the Container Menu
Note: For optimum performance, you should always create
stripe sets using two or more disks and alternate freespace
selections on different channels, if possible.
To create a stripe set from the Container menu, do the following:
1
2
Select Disk View from the View menu.
Select one or more freespaces whose sizes add up to the size of
the stripe set you want to create. (See Selecting Freespace on
page 9-2.)
To determine the size of the smallest freespace required, divide
the size of the stripe set by the number of disks you are using.
All freespaces you select must be equal to or larger than the
smallest freespace.
For example, suppose you want to create a 300 MB stripe set
across 3 disks. To determine the size of the smallest freespace,
divide 300 MB by 3 to get 100 MB. To create the stripe set, you
must select 3 freespaces, the smallest of which is 100 MB.
Note: Any individual disk used in a container can
have, at most, 10 partitions.
3
Make all selected freespaces the size of the smallest selected
freespace by selecting Make Uniform Size from the Edit
menu, or allow FAST to automatically make the selected
freespaces the size of the smallest selected freespace when it
creates the stripe set.
4
Select Create Stripe Set from the Container menu.
If…
Then…
Use Default Creation
Properties from the Container
menu is checked
the Create stripe set dialog box
does not appear.
Use Default Creation
Properties from the Container
menu is not checked
the Create stripe set dialog box
appears. Verify and/or change
the options in the dialog box,
and click OK.
10-13
Flexible Array Storage Tool User’s Guide
If you are creating the container on a NetWare™ system, see Creating
Containers on a NetWare System on page 10-6.
Creating a Mirror Set from the Container Menu
Note: You must create mirror sets using two equal-sized
freespaces. To achieve optimum performance and
redundancy, it is recommended that you select freespace on
difference disks, and where possible, on different channels.
To create a mirror set from the Container menu, do the following:
1
2
Select Disk View from the View menu.
3
Make both selected freespaces the size of the smallest selected
freespace by selecting Make Uniform Size from the Edit
menu, or allow FAST to automatically make the selected
freespaces the size of the smaller selected freespace when it
creates the mirror set.
Select one freespace on each of two disks the size of the mirror
set you want to create. (See Selecting Freespace on page 9-2.)
Note: Any individual disk used in a container can
have, at most, 10 partitions.
4
Select Create Mirror Set from the Container menu.
If…
Then…
Use Default Creation Properties
from the Container menu is
checked
the Create mirror set dialog box
does not appear.
Use Default Creation Properties
from the Container menu is not
checked
the Create mirror set dialog box
appears. Verify and/or change
the options in the dialog box,
and click OK.
If you are creating the container on a NetWare™ system, see Creating
Containers on a NetWare System on page 10-6.
10-14
Creating Containers
Note: Splitting a mirror set is not supported on a Windows
2000 or NetWare system. (See Splitting a Mirror Set on
page 11-13.)
Creating a RAID-5 Set from the Container Menu
Note: You must create RAID-5 sets using three or more
equal-sized freespaces. To achieve optimum performance and
redundancy, it is recommended that you select freespace on
different disks, and where possible, on different channels.
To create a RAID-5 set from the Container menu, do the following:
1
2
Select Disk View from the View menu.
3
According to the following formula, select one freespace on
each disk you determined in step 2. (See Selecting Freespace on
page 9-2.)
Determine the size of the RAID-5 set you want to create and
the number of disks on which you want to create the RAID-5
set. See the installation guide for information on the minimum
and maximum size of a RAID-5 set.
To determine the size of the smallest freespace required, divide
the size of the RAID-5 set by one less than the number of disks.
All freespaces you select must be equal to or larger than the
smallest freespace.
For example, suppose you want to create a 200 MB RAID-5 set
across three disks. To determine the size of the smallest
freespace, divide 200 MB by 2 (3 minus 1) to get 100 MB. To
create the RAID-5 set, you must select three freespaces, the
smallest of which is 100 MB, on three separate disks. (The
parity data is distributed across the three disks.)
Note: Any individual disk used in a container can
have, at most, 10 partitions.
4
Make the selected freespaces the size of the smallest selected
freespace by selecting Make Uniform Size from the Edit
10-15
Flexible Array Storage Tool User’s Guide
menu, or allow FAST to automatically make the selected
freespaces the size of the smallest selected freespace when it
creates the RAID-5 set.
5
Select Create RAID-5 Set from the Container menu.
If…
Then…
And then…
Use Default Creation
Properties from the
Container menu is
checked
the Create RAID-5 set
dialog box does not
appear.
the RAID-5 set is
created (using the
settings specified) in
the Default
Container Creation
Properties dialog box.
Use Default Creation
Properties from the
Container menu is
not checked
the Create RAID-5 set
dialog box appears.
Verify and/or change
all options in the
dialog box, and click
OK.
the RAID-5 set is
created.
If you are creating the container on a NetWare™ system, see Creating
Containers on a NetWare System on page 10-6.
Creating a Volume Set of Stripe Sets from the Container Menu
To create a volume set of stripe sets from the Container menu, do
the following:
1
Follow the procedure in Creating a Stripe Set from the Container
Menu on page 10-13 to create the number of stripe sets you
want to include in the volume set of stripe sets. To save time,
set File system to None while creating the stripe sets.
2
3
Select Container View from the View menu.
10-16
Select the stripe sets you want to include in the volume set of
stripe sets.
Creating Containers
4
Select Create Volume Set from the Container menu.
If…
Then…
And if…
Then…
a file system
exists on any of
the selected
stripe sets
a warning
message
appears. Click
Yes to continue.
Caution: When
you click Yes,
all data on the
stripe sets will be
lost during the
container create
process.
However, if a
stripe set has
already been
reported to the
NetWare™
operating
system, you
will not be
allowed to
continue until
you have
removed the
necessary
NetWare
volumes and
partitions.
Use Default
Creation
Properties from
the Container
menu is not
checked
the Create
volume set
dialog box
appears. Verify
and/or change
the options in
the dialog box,
and click OK.
Use Default
Creation
Properties from
the Container
menu is
checked
the Create
volume set
dialog box does
not appear.
10-17
Flexible Array Storage Tool User’s Guide
If…
Then…
And if…
Then…
a file system
does not exist
on any of the
selected stripe
sets
a warning
message does
not appear.
Use Default
Creation
Properties from
the Container
menu is not
checked
the Create
volume set
dialog box
appears. Verify
and/or change
the options in
the dialog box,
and click OK.
Use Default
Creation
Properties from
the Container
menu is
checked
the Create
volume set
dialog box does
not appear.
If you are creating the container on a NetWare system, see Creating
Containers on a NetWare System on page 10-6.
Creating a Volume Set of Mirror Sets from the Container Menu
Note: The underlying containers of a multilevel container
can be mirror sets, but the top-level container cannot be a
mirror set. For example, you can create a volume or stripe
set of mirror sets, but not a mirror set of stripe or volume
sets.
To create a volume set of mirror sets from the Container menu, do
the following:
1
Follow the procedure in Creating a Mirror Set from the Container
Menu on page 10-14 to create the number of mirror sets you
want to include in the volume set of mirror sets. To save time,
set File system to None while creating the mirror sets.
2
3
Select Container View from the View menu.
10-18
Select the mirror sets you want to include in the volume set of
mirror sets.
Creating Containers
4
Select Create Volume Set from the Container menu.
If…
Then…
And if…
Then…
a file system
exists on any of
the selected
mirror sets
a warning
message
appears. Click
Yes to continue.
Caution: When
you click Yes,
all data on the
mirror sets will
be lost during
the container
create process.
However, if a
mirror set has
already been
reported to the
NetWare™
operating
system, you
will not be
allowed to
continue until
you have
removed the
necessary
NetWare
volumes and
partitions.
Use Default
Creation
Properties from
the Container
menu is not
checked
the Create
volume set
dialog box
appears. Verify
and/or change
the options in
the dialog box,
and click OK.
Use Default
Creation
Properties from
the Container
menu is
checked
the Create
volume set
dialog box does
not appear.
10-19
Flexible Array Storage Tool User’s Guide
If…
Then…
And if…
Then…
a file system
does not exist
on any of the
selected mirror
sets
a warning
message does
not appear.
Use Default
Creation
Properties from
the Container
menu is not
checked
the Create
volume set
dialog box
appears. Verify
and/or change
the options in
the dialog box,
and click OK.
Use Default
Creation
Properties from
the Container
menu is
checked
the Create
volume set
dialog box does
not appear.
If you are creating the container on a NetWare™ system, see Creating
Containers on a NetWare System on page 10-6.
Creating a Volume Set of RAID-5 Sets from the Container Menu
To create a volume set of RAID-5 sets from the Container menu, do
the following:
1
Follow the procedure in Creating a RAID-5 Set from the
Container Menu on page 10-15 to create the number of RAID-5
sets you want to include in the volume set of RAID-5 sets. To
save time, set File system to None while creating the RAID-5
sets. You can also use existing RAID-5 sets.
2
3
Select Container View from the View menu.
10-20
Select the RAID-5 sets you want to include in the volume set of
RAID-5 sets.
Creating Containers
4
Select Create Volume Set from the Container menu.
If…
Then…
And if…
Then…
a file system
exists on any of
the selected
RAID-5 sets
a warning
message
appears. Click
Yes to continue.
Caution: When
you click Yes,
all data on the
RAID-5 sets will
be lost during
the container
create process.
However, if a
RAID-5 set has
already been
reported to the
NetWare™
operating
system, you
will not be
allowed to
continue until
you have
removed the
necessary
NetWare
volumes and
partitions.
Use Default
Creation
Properties from
the Container
menu is not
checked
the Create
volume set
dialog box
appears. Verify
and/or change
the options in
the dialog box,
and click OK.
Use Default
Creation
Properties from
the Container
menu is
checked
the Create
volume set
dialog box does
not appear.
10-21
Flexible Array Storage Tool User’s Guide
If…
Then…
And if…
Then…
a file system
does not exist
on any of the
selected
RAID-5 sets
a warning
message does
not appear.
Use Default
Creation
Properties from
the Container
menu is not
checked
the Create
volume set
dialog box
appears. Verify
and/or change
the options in
the dialog box,
and click OK.
Use Default
Creation
Properties from
the Container
menu is
checked
the Create
volume set
dialog box does
not appear.
If you are creating the container on a NetWare system, see Creating
Containers on a NetWare System on page 10-6.
Creating a Stripe Set of Mirror Sets (RAID 0/1) from the Container Menu
Note: The underlying containers of a multilevel container
can be mirror sets, but the top-level container can never be a
mirror set. For example, you can create a volume or stripe
set of mirror sets, but not a mirror set of stripe or volume
sets.
To create a stripe set of mirror sets (RAID 0/1 set) from the
Container menu, do the following:
1
Follow the procedure in Creating a Mirror Set from the Container
Menu on page 10-14 to create the number of equal-sized mirror
sets you want to include in the stripe set of mirror sets. To save
time, set File system to None.
2
3
Select Container View from the View menu.
10-22
Select the mirror sets you want to include in the multilevel
container.
Creating Containers
Note: If you use 48 disks to create a stripe set of mirror
sets, you cannot put any additional containers on
these same disks.
4
Select Create Stripe Set from the Container menu.
If…
Then…
And if…
Then…
a file system
exists on any of
the selected
mirror sets
a warning
message
appears. Click
Yes to continue.
Caution: When
you click Yes,
all data on the
mirror sets will
be lost during
the container
create process.
However, if a
mirror set has
already been
reported to the
NetWare™
operating
system, you
will not be
allowed to
continue until
you have
removed the
necessary
NetWare
volumes and
partitions.
Use Default
Creation
Properties from
the Container
menu is not
checked
the Create
stripe set
dialog box
appears. Verify
and/or change
the options in
the dialog box,
and click OK.
Use Default
Creation
Properties from
the Container
menu is
checked
the Create
stripe set
dialog box does
not appear.
10-23
Flexible Array Storage Tool User’s Guide
If…
Then…
And if…
Then…
a file system
does not exist
on any of the
selected mirror
sets
a warning
message does
not appear.
Use Default
Creation
Properties from
the Container
menu is not
checked
the Create
stripe set
dialog box
appears. Verify
and/or change
the options in
the dialog box,
and click OK.
Use Default
Creation
Properties from
the Container
menu is
checked
the Create
stripe set
dialog box does
not appear.
If you are creating the container on a NetWare system, see Creating
Containers on a NetWare System on page 10-6.
Table 10-1 shows the total number of stripe set of mirror sets (RAID
0/1) you can create, based on the total number of disks used in each
RAID 0/1 container and the number of hidden containers required
to support this number of RAID 0/1 containers. The total possible
number of containers is affected by the following system limits:
■
Total number of containers (of all types) = 64
■
Total number of visible containers (drive letters) = 24
■
Total number of hidden containers = 40 (64-24)
■
Total number of disks used (in all containers) = 60
Table 10-1. Stripe Set of Mirror Sets (RAID 0/1) Container Examples
Total
Drives
Used
10-24
Drives
Per
RAID-1
Set
Total RAID-1
Sets in a Single
RAID 0/1 Set
Total
Available
RAID 0/1
Containers
Total Hidden
Containers
2
2
1
24
24
4
2
2
20
40
8
2
4
10
40
12
2
6
6
36
24
2
12
3
36
Creating Containers
Total
Drives
Used
Drives
Per
RAID-1
Set
Total RAID-1
Sets in a Single
RAID 0/1 Set
Total
Available
RAID 0/1
Containers
Total Hidden
Containers
36
2
18
2
36
40
2
20
2
40
48
2
24
1
24
Creating a Stripe Set of RAID-5 Sets (RAID 50) from the Container
Menu
To create a stripe set of RAID-5 sets (RAID 50 set) from the
Container menu, do the following:
1
Follow the procedure in Creating a RAID-5 Set from the
Container Menu on page 10-15 to create the RAID-5 sets you
want to include in the stripe set of RAID-5 sets. To save time,
set File system to None.
Note: Each RAID-5 set used in a stripe set of RAID-5
sets must consist of the same number of physical disks
(either 3, 5, or 9 disks).
2
3
Select Container View from the View menu.
Select the RAID-5 sets you want to include in the multilevel
container.
Note: A RAID-50 set can contain a maximum of 48
disks. If you use 48 disks to create a RAID-50 set, you
can put at most two containers on these same disks.
10-25
Flexible Array Storage Tool User’s Guide
4
Select Create Stripe Set from the Container menu.
If…
Then…
And if…
Then…
a file system
exists on any of
the selected
RAID-5 sets
a warning
message
appears. Click
Yes to continue.
Caution: When
you click Yes,
all data on the
RAID-5 sets will
be lost during
the container
create process.
However, if a
RAID-5 set has
already been
reported to the
NetWare
operating
system, you
will not be
allowed to
continue until
you have
removed the
necessary
NetWare
volumes and
partitions.
Use Default
Creation
Properties from
the Container
menu is not
checked
the Create
stripe set
dialog box
appears. Verify
and/or change
the options in
the dialog box,
and click OK.
Use Default
Creation
Properties from
the Container
menu is
checked
the Create
stripe set
dialog box does
not appear.
10-26
Creating Containers
If…
Then…
And if…
Then…
a file system
does not exist
on any of the
selected RAID5 sets
a warning
message does
not appear.
Use Default
Creation
Properties from
the Container
menu is not
checked
the Create
stripe set
dialog box
appears. Verify
and/or change
the options in
the dialog box,
and click OK.
Use Default
Creation
Properties from
the Container
menu is
checked
the Create
stripe set
dialog box does
not appear.
You can also create a RAID-50 set using the Consistency Check
command. When the RAID-50 set is created using the Consistency
Check command, the container is available to users during the
container-create process. However, the data is not parity protected
until the consistency check task is completed. If a disk fails during
the initial consistency check, rebuild will not occur and the
container’s data will be lost.
If you are creating the container on a NetWare system, see Creating
Containers on a NetWare System on page 10-6.
Table 10-2 shows the total number of RAID-50 sets you can create,
based on the total number of disks used in each RAID-50 set and the
number of hidden containers required to support this number of
RAID-50 sets. The total possible number of RAID-50 sets is affected
by the following system limits:
■
Total number of containers (of all types) = 64
■
Total number of visible containers (drive letters) = 24
■
Total number of hidden containers = 40 (64-24)
■
Total number of disks used (in all containers) = 60
10-27
Flexible Array Storage Tool User’s Guide
Table 10-2. Stripe Set of RAID-5 Sets (RAID 50) Container Examples
Total
Drives
Used
Drives
Per
RAID-5
Set
Total RAID-5 Sets
in a Single
RAID 50 Set
Total
Available
RAID 50
Containers
Total Hidden
Containers
6
3
2
20
40
9
3
3
13
39
12
3
4
10
40
15
5
3
13
39
18
9
2
20
40
36
9
4
10
40
40
5
8
5
40
48
3
16
2
32
Setting and Using Default Container Creation
Properties
FAST allows you to set default properties that are used every time
you create a container. FAST retains these settings, from session to
session, until you change them.
Note: Is is possible to set default properties that will
inappropriately restrict container creation. For example, if
you choose FAT as the default file system type, and try to
create a container greater than 4 GB or a dynamic-disk
container (on a Windows 2000 system), FAST displays an
error message. When problems occur during container
creation, check the settings of the default container creation
properties for conflicts.
To set default container creation properties, do the following:
1
10-28
Select Set Default Creation Properties from the Container
menu.
Creating Containers
The Default Container Creation Properties dialog box
appears (Figure 10-5), showing the General tab by default.
Figure 10-5. Default Container Creation Properties dialog box
(General tab)
Dialog Box Element
Function
Container icon
Indicates that these properties apply to all
newly created containers
File system properties
File system pull-down
list
Specifies the default file system type,
including None
Note: FAT is not applicable to containers
greater than 4 GB. FAT32 is not applicable
to containers greater than 32 GB.
Drive letter pull-down
list
Specifies the default drive letter or Next to
use the next available drive letter
File system label box
Not available as a default property
Allocation unit size
pull-down list
Specifies an allocation unit for FAT or
NTFS. The default is recommended; this
lets the format utility select the best
allocation unit for the size of the file
system being created.
10-29
Flexible Array Storage Tool User’s Guide
Dialog Box Element
Function
Enable compression
check box
Sets the root directory of the fie system to
be compressed. This is set only during
container creation.
Quick format check
box
Specifies a quick format of the container
without running the verify step.
Container properties
Container label
Specifies the container label
Read only check box
Not available as a default property
Stripe size pull-down
list
Specifies the default stripe size, that is, the
amount of data that is written to one
partition before the I/O data stream
switches to the next partition in the
following container types: stripe set,
RAID-5 set, stripe set of mirror sets
OK button
Accepts changes and closes the dialog box
Cancel button
Ignores changes and closes the dialog box
Apply button
Accepts changes
2
Click the Cache Settings tab.
Figure 10-6. Default Container Creation dialog box
(Cache Settings Tab)
10-30
Creating Containers
Note: For controllers that do not support write
caching, a container’s write cache will never be
enabled regardless of the Write cache setting.
In a cluster, write cache is forced to be disabled,
regardless of the Write cache setting.
Dialog Box Element
Function
Read Cache
Enable
Enables the read cache by default
Disable
Disables the read cache by default
Write Cache
Enable when
protected
Enables write cache by default only
when a working battery is found on
the controller
Enable always
Enables the write cache by default
Disable
3
Disables the write cache by default
OK button
Accepts changes and closes the
dialog box
Cancel button
Ignores changes and closes the dialog
box
Verify the settings on both tabs in the dialog box, and click OK.
When you set or change any of the default container creation
properties, FAST activates Use Default Creation Properties on the
Container menu.
When Use Default Creation Properties is activated, and you create
a container, the Create Container dialog box does not appear.
Instead, FAST creates the container using the default container
creation properties.
Using the Create Container Dialog Box
The Create Container dialog box (where Container is the type of
container to create) appears when you click the Create button in the
Container Creation Wizard, or select Create Container from the
10-31
Flexible Array Storage Tool User’s Guide
Container menu, and Use Default Creation Properties on the
Container menu is not activated.
To use a Create Container dialog box, do the following:
1
Be sure Use Default Creation Properties from the Container
menu is not enabled.
2
Click Create in the Container Creation Wizard, or select
Create Container from the Container menu.
The Create Container dialog box appears. The example shown
in Figure 10-7 is a Create RAID-5 set properties dialog box.
Although the other dialog boxes appear in the same format, all
settings might not be available.
Figure 10-7. Create RAID-5 set dialog box (General tab)
Note: On a Windows 2000 system, a basic-disk
container is usable only if its size is 16 MB or greater;
otherwise, the volume type must be dynamic disk.
10-32
Creating Containers
Dialog Box Element
Function
File system properties
File system pull-down
list
Specifies the type of file system to use with
the container
Note: FAT is not available for containers
greater than 4 GB. FAT32 is not available for
containers greater than 32 GB.
Drive letter pull-down
list
Assigns a drive letter for the container or
None for no drive letter
File system label text
box
Assigns the name of the disk drive (as
displayed in Windows Explorer); 32
characters maximum
Allocation unit size
pull-down list
Specifies an allocation unit for FAT or NTFS.
The default is recommended; this lets the
format utility select the best allocation unit for
the size of the file system being created.
Enable compression
check box
Sets the root directory of the fie system to be
compressed. This is set only during container
creation.
Quick format
Specifies a quick format of the container
without running the verify step.
Container properties
Container label text box
Displays the label of the container
Read only check box
Creates a read-only container.
Stripe size pull-down
list
Sets the stripe size for the following types of
containers: stripe set, RAID-5 set, stripe set of
mirror sets
OK button
Accepts changes, closes the dialog box, and
creates the container
Cancel button
Closes the dialog box and does not create the
container
3
Click the Cache Settings tab (Figure 10-8), which shows he
state in which the read and write cache will be created.
10-33
Flexible Array Storage Tool User’s Guide
Figure 10-8. Create RAID-5 set dialog box (Cache Settings tab)
Dialog Box Element
Function
Read Cache
Enable
Enables the read cache
Disable
Disables the read cache
Write Cache
4
❒
10-34
Enable when
protected
Enables write cache when a working
battery is found on this container
Enable always
Enables write cache for this container
under all circumstances
Disable
Disables the write cache
OK button
Accepts changes, closes the dialog
box, and creates the RAID-5 set
Cancel button
Closes the dialog box and does not
create the container
Verify or change the options in the dialog box, and click OK.
11
Modifying Containers
This chapter explains how to use FAST to manipulate and modify
containers (logical disks).
The following table summarizes the topics covered in this chapter:
For information about…
Turn to…
Reconfiguring a Container
page 11-2
Managing Container Rebuild
page 11-11
Working with Mirror Sets
page 11-17
Checking the Consistency of a RAID-5 Set
page 11-19
Working with Snapshots (Windows NT and
Windows 2000 Only)
page 11-21
Working with Container Properties
page 11-28
Managing Container Cache
page 11-38
11-1
Flexible Array Storage Tool User’s Guide
Reconfiguring a Container
Using the Container Reconfiguration Wizard, you can change a
container (logical disk) in the following ways:
■
Migrate from one RAID level to another without adding space
■
Add space without changing the current RAID level (known as
online capacity expansion, or OCE)
■
Migrate RAID level and add space
■
Specify a new stripe size for the following types of containers:
stripe set, RAID-5 set, stripe set of mirror sets
■
Move the container’s partitions to other disks
Note: For a list of source containers and their supported
reconfigurations, see Appendix A, Container Reconfiguration
Guidelines.
Accessing the Container Reconfiguration Wizard
To access the Container Reconfiguration Wizard, do the following:
1
11-2
In Container view, select a container.
Modifying Containers
2
Select Reconfiguration Wizard from the Container menu. The
Container Reconfiguration Wizard appears (Figure 11-1).
Figure 11-1. Container Reconfiguration Wizard
Dialog Box Element
Function
Disks
List
Displays a list of all SCSI disks connected to
the active controller:
■ Force in Dest check box. Forces the system
to include the selected disk in the new
container
■ Disk ID. Displays the Disk ID
(Channel:ID:LUN)
■ Largest Free. Displays the largest available
freespace on the disk
■ Total Free. Displays the total available
freespaces on the disk
■ In Dest. Indicates with an X that the disk
will be included in the new container
■ In Src. Indicates with an X that the disk is
included in the original container
11-3
Flexible Array Storage Tool User’s Guide
Dialog Box Element
Function
Force channel
optimization check
box
Attempts to use disks on different channels
for optimum performance and redundancy
Note: Not available for single-channel
controllers
Initialize button
Initializes the selected SCSI disks
Configuration
Source
Displays the source container’s type, number,
and size
Destination type pulldown list
Specifies the type of container to generate
Destination characteristics
Source
Displays different colored bars indicating the
source container’s characteristics; by choosing
a destination type, you can compare the
original source container characteristics to the
current selection in Destination type
Redundancy
Indicates whether the destination container is
redundant (Maximum) or not redundant
(None)
Capacity utilization
Indicates the destination container’s ability to
use all space for data storage
Sequential Read
Indicates the destination container’s relative
performance for sequential reads
Random Read
Indicates the destination container’s relative
performance for random reads
Sequential Write
Indicates the destination container’s relative
performance for sequential writes
Random Write
Indicates the destination container’s relative
performance for random writes
Stripe size list
Sets the stripe size for the following container
types: stripe set, RAID-5 set, stripe set of
mirror sets (RAID 0/1)
Size
Use all of nn maximum
option
Uses the maximum disk space to generate the
destination container
User specified size box
and units list
Lets you enter the size of the destination
container (must be greater than the size of the
original container; always round up fractions)
and specify a unit of measure in the units list
11-4
Modifying Containers
Dialog Box Element
Function
Maintain source
container’s original size
option
Makes the destination container the exact
same size as the source container
OK button
Creates the specified destination container
Cancel button
Closes the dialog box and does not create the
destination container
Reconfiguring a Container
To reconfigure a container (logical disk), do the following:
1
In Container view, select the container you want to
reconfigure.
2
3
Select Reconfiguration Wizard from the Container menu.
To change the container type, select a container type from the
Destination type list.
Appendix A, Container Reconfiguration Guidelines, provides
guidelines for converting a container from one type to another.
4
To change the size of the container, use one of the following
methods:
■
Select Use all of.
■
Type a number greater than the size of the original container
in the User specified size box, and specify a unit of
measure. You can type the first letter of the unit in the User
specified size box immediately following the size (for
example, type 500m for 500 Megabytes), or select a unit
from the list adjacent to the User specified size box.
For information on minimum and maximum container
sizes, see the installation guide for your controller.
11-5
Flexible Array Storage Tool User’s Guide
Note: The size must always be greater than the original
size of the container when using this option. For
example, if the original container is 5.01 GB, FAST
shows the container as 5.00 GB. You will get an error
message stating that the new container is too small if
you choose 5 GB for the new destination. You must
enter 5.01 or greater.
To maintain the size of the container, select Maintain source
container’s original size.
Note: If you are reconfiguring a container on a
NetWare™ server, the option Maintain source
container’s original size is selected for you; all other
options are grayed out.
5
For maximum performance of any container type (except a
volume set) and for maximum redundancy of the following
container types, check Force channel optimization. This
option attempts to place component disks on alternating
physical SCSI channels.
– Stripe set
– RAID-5 set
– Stripe set of mirror sets
– Stripe set of RAID-5 sets (RAID 50)
If channel optimization is not possible, a message is displayed
in the message area.
Note: This feature is not available for single-channel
controllers.
6
11-6
Select from the Disks list one or more disks on which you want
to create the new container, or accept the disks specified by
FAST. FAST automatically tries to optimize your selections, so
look carefully at the In Dest column to see which disks are to
be included in the container.
Modifying Containers
7
■
Disks that are not selected are never considered for
inclusion in the destination container. To move a container’s
partitions to a different disk, be sure to deselect the disks
marked as included in the source container.
■
Selected disks are considered for inclusion in the destination
container.
■
Disks whose Force in Dest check boxes are checked are
forced to be included in the destination container.
If the destination container type is one of the following, select a
new stripe size from the Stripe size pull-down list, if
appropriate:
– Stripe set
– RAID-5 set
– Stripe set of mirror sets
– Stripe set of RAID-5 sets (RAID 50)
8
Click OK.
Note: After adding space to a container, you will probably
want to extend the file system. For instructions, see the
following section.
Extending the File System
After you expand a container (for example, using the
Reconfiguration Wizard) the file system can, in some cases, be
extended to use the additional available space. When the size of the
file system and the size of the container do not match, the size of the
file system is indicated by a number enclosed in angle brackets
(Figure 11-2).
File system size
Figure 11-2. File system size does not match container size
11-7
Flexible Array Storage Tool User’s Guide
The procedure for extending the file system is specific to each
operating system. The following sections explain how to extend the
file system for these operating systems:
■
Windows NT and Windows 2000
■
NetWare™
Extending a File System on Windows NT and Windows 2000
On Windows NT and Windows 2000 systems, the Extend File
System option is only available for the NTFS file system and only
when NTFS is the sole operating system partition on a container.
Note that the NTFS file system cannot be extended on a boot
container or the system container.
To extend the file system on an NTFS file system, do the following:
1
Select the container on which you want to extend the file
system.
2
3
Select Extend File System from the Container menu.
Click OK in the message box that appears.
The NTFS file system is marked for expansion and is not extended
until you reboot your system1. (This is a Windows NT and Windows
2000 limitation.)
To use additional available space on containers with a single FAT or
FAT32 file system or with multiple operating-system partitions, use
Microsoft Disk Administrator (Windows NT) or Microsoft Disk
Management utility (Windows 2000).
Table 11-1 summarizes differences in file system extension between
the NetRAID-3Si and NetRAID-4M controllers for various volume
types on Windows NT and Windows 2000 systems.
1 After rebooting your system, if you check the Windows Event Log, you will
find an error message indicating that the file system structure on the disk is
corrupt and unusable. Ignore this message; it always appears, including
when the extend operation was successful.
11-8
Modifying Containers
Table 11-1. File System Extension on Windows Systems
Volume
Type
Operating System
NetRAID-3Si
NetRAID-4M
Basic disk
Windows NT
Extending the file
system using the
same drive letter
requires a reboot.
Extending the file
system using a
different drive letter
does not require a
reboot.
If using FAST to
extend the volume,
and the file
(volume) extension
option is selected,
the volume
becomes extended
after reboot.
Basic disk
Windows 2000
File (volume)
extension is
controlled by NOS,
which only allows the
creation of a new
volume from
freespace (and
assigns a new drive
letter).
File (volume)
extension is
controlled by NOS,
which only allows
the creation of a
new volume from
freespace (and
assigns a new drive
letter).
Dynamic
disk
Windows 2000
File system extension
is not supported.
(Freespace that is
added never becomes
visible.)
Start with a new,
empty basic disk.
Use the Disk
Management utility
to convert the basic
disk to a dynamic
disk, then create a
file system
(volume) on the
dynamic disk. The
dynamic disk
volume can be
extended.
You cannot extend
the file system on a
dynamic disk that
was converted
from a basic disk
with an existing file
system (or from an
NT basic disk).
11-9
Flexible Array Storage Tool User’s Guide
Extending RAID Set Capacity on NetWare
NetWare™ views data in terms of logical volumes on partitions
residing on virtual disks (where a container (logical disk) equates to
a virtual disk). NetWare 4.x supports only a single logical volume on
a virtual disk. This limitation has been removed in NetWare 5.x.
To reflect these capabilities, FAST does not allow for the
specification of a container size when reconfiguring a container on a
NetWare 4.x based system, but you can specify a container size
during reconfiguration on a NetWare 5.x based system.
Note: In a reconfigured NetWare 5.x container, the
preexisting NetWare partition itself can not be increased in
size; however, a new NetWare partition can be created in the
additional space created on the container.
In order for NetWare to access the extended capacity of the
reconfigured container, you must create a new logical volume from
the additional space on the newly expanded container. The
controller driver then reports this new space to the NetWare
operating system as a new virtual disk.
To use the capacity of the RAID set in a reconfigured NetWare
container, do the following:
1
On the NetWare console, do the following:
a Execute the list devices command so that the internal
device table is updated and the newly-created container is
seen by NetWare as a new virtual disk.
b Partition this new virtual disk.
c Create one or more disk segments for this new partition.
Either make a new volume on each segment, or add this
segment to the volume already associated with the
reconfigured container.
For information on how to create partitions and volumes, see
the appropriate NetWare documentation. For information on
how to display the NetWare console remotely on the NT client
running FAST, see Appendix E, NetWare and rconsole.
11-10
Modifying Containers
2
On the NT client running FAST, refresh the screen. The
NetWare™ icon appears in the new container if FAST can see
the new or newly spanned NetWare volume.
Note: To extend the capacity of a reconfigured NetWare 5.x
container, you can create a new NetWare partition using the
free space on the reconfigured container.
Managing Container Rebuild
The controller management software allows you to assign a disk as a
spare disk to one or more containers or make a disk a global spare,
which is a disk that is available as a spare to all redundant
containers. Container rebuild is the process by which the controller
rebuilds data on a spare disk when a drive that is part of a
redundant container fails. If the controller detects an unrecoverable
error during I/O on a redundant container, it checks for an available
spare disk that has sufficient free space to handle the rebuild.
Note: Spare disks only work with redundant containers.
The free space on the spare disk must be contiguous and must be
equal to or larger than the size of the failed container’s partition. The
controller checks for spare disks in the following order until a
suitable one is found:
1
2
Spare disk assigned to a specific container.
3
Drives designated as a global spare. The global spares are
checked in the order in which they were assigned as global
spares.
4
If automatic rebuild is enabled, then a new disk inserted into
the same slot as the failed drive is used.
If the container is an underlying container in a multilevel
container, spare disk assigned to the top-level container of a
specific container.
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Flexible Array Storage Tool User’s Guide
Configuring a Container’s Spares Assignment
Use the Configure Spares command to view, assign, or remove
spare disks for a single container (logical disk). Use the Assign
Spares command to assign one or more spare disks to one or more
containers simultaneously. You can assign up to 30 disks to a
container for automatic rebuild.
See Chapter 13, Managing Storage in a Cluster, for information on
assigning spare disks to containers in a cluster.
Using the Configure Spares Command
The Configure Spares command allows you to view, assign, or
remove spare disks for a single container (logical disk). To use the
Configure Spares command, do the following:
1
In Container view, select a container.
Note: Although all container types accept spares
assignments, only redundant container types use the
spare disk in the event of disk failure. If a container is
reconfigured to a redundant type, the spares
assignment is retained.
2
11-12
Select Configure Spares from the Container menu.
Modifying Containers
The Configure Spares dialog box appears (Figure 11-3).
Figure 11-3. Configure Spares dialog box
Dialog Box Element
Function
Container icon and
adjacent information
Indicates the type, system-assigned number (the
number that identifies the container in the CLI),
and size of the container.
Available Disks
List
Displays a list of all SCSI disks available for
spares; includes Disk ID (Channel:ID:LUN), Use
Count (the number of containers to which the disk
is currently assigned as a spare disk), Size, and
largest available freespace (Largest Free). (Disks
used by the selected container and disks with
insufficient freespace are not eligible for spares
assignment, and are not displayed.) The Global
Spare column displays Yes if you selected the disk
for use as a global spare, and the disk is currently
configured as a global spare.
Assigned Disks
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Flexible Array Storage Tool User’s Guide
Dialog Box Element
List
Function
Displays a list of disks assigned as spare disks;
includes Disk ID (Channel:ID:LUN), Use Count,
Size, and largest available freespace (Largest
Free). The Global Spare column displays Yes if
you selected the disk for use as a global spare, and
the disk is currently configured as a global spare.
Assign button
Moves selected disks from the Available Disks
list to the Assigned Disks list
Remove button
Moves selected disks from the Assigned Disks list
to the Available Disks list
Set global spare
button
Assigns the disk as a global spare
Clear global spare
button
Removes the assignment of the disk as a global
spare
OK button
Accepts changes, closes the dialog box, and sets
the spare disks
Cancel button
Ignores changes and closes the dialog box
3
To assign one or more spare disks, select the disks in the
Available Disks list and click Assign.
4
Click Set global spare to make the selected disk a global spare.
The word Yes appears in the Global Spares column.
5
To remove one or more spare disks, select the disks in the
Assigned Disks list and click Remove.
Using the Assign Spares Command
The Assign Spares command allows you to assign one or more
spare disks to one or more containers simultaneously. To use the
Assign Spares command, do the following:
1
2
3
4
11-14
Select Container view from the View menu.
Select the New View Window from the Window menu.
Select Disk view from the View menu.
Select Tile Vertically from the Window menu. You should now
have two view windows, one Disk view and one Container
view, side by side in the same window.
Modifying Containers
5
In Container view, select any number of single- and multilevel
containers. If you select the top-level container of a multilevel
container, the spare assignment is applied to all of the lowerlevel containers. You can also select lower-level containers
individually.
To select multiple containers, hold down the Ctrl key while to
selecting the containers.
6
7
Select Disk view from the View menu.
In Disk view, select up to 30 disks.
To avoid losing the selections you just made in the Container
view, continue to press and hold the Ctrl key while selecting
the disks. Be sure to select the disk and not the individual
partitions.
8
Select Assign Spares from the Container menu.
FAST assigns each disk to each selected container as a spare.
Automatic Rebuild
You can assign automatic rebuild capabilities for a controller from
the Controller properties dialog box. To enable automatic rebuild,
do the following:
1
2
3
4
5
Select Controller view from the View menu.
Select a controller.
Select Properties from the Edit menu.
In the Controller properties dialog box, click the Options tab.
Check Enable automatic rebuild to allow a disk inserted in the
same slot as a failed disk to initiate automatic rebuild for the
container.
Reserving Spare Space
When you use freespace on a disk assigned as a spare disk, be sure
to leave sufficient freespace for spare space. For example, you
should reserve 500 MB of freespace on a disk assigned as a spare to a
500 MB mirror set.
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Flexible Array Storage Tool User’s Guide
!
Caution: Any attempt to use freespace on a container
(logical disk) that is assigned as a spare disk will result in a
warning message similar to the following:
One or more disks selected for use is
assigned as a spare disk. Using this space
may result in loss of rebuild capability for
one or more containers. Are you sure you wish
to create this container?
When Rebuild Occurs
When rebuild occurs, FAST displays a message box explaining that
the rebuild operation has begun.
Note: FAST does not have to be running for a successful
rebuild to occur. As long as a spare disk with sufficient free
space is configured for the failed redundant container
(logical disk), the rebuild will occur.
During the rebuild operation, a yellow flag appears on the partition
being replaced by the spare. Once rebuild is complete, the partition
flag reverts to its normal state (red).
If the spare disk does not contain a single freespace large enough to
replace the failed partition, it then uses the next-assigned spare disk.
If a disk of sufficient size is not available, rebuild does not begin.
Instead, a message box describing the problem is displayed.
If rebuild cannot be started, due to no global spares, no assigned
spare disk or all assigned and global spare disks having insufficient
freespace, FAST displays a message giving you the opportunity to
configure a spare disk for the failed container.
When you click on OK, the message box disappears, and the FAST
screen is refreshed after the rebuild completes.
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Modifying Containers
Note: On Windows NT and Windows 2000, information
about device failures is sent directly to the Event Log. On
NetWare™ systems, however, the NetWare administrator
must ensure that conlog is running on the NetWare
console so that the device failure messages are captured in a
log file; otherwise, the device failure messages print to the
console and might scroll off of the screen.
Working with Mirror Sets
This section provides instructions for the following tasks:
■
Splitting a mirror set
■
Unmirroring a mirror set
■
Checking the consistency of a mirror set
Splitting a Mirror Set
Use the Split command to permanently convert a mirror set into
two volume sets and to preserve the data in each resulting container.
The Split command works on single-level and multilevel mirror
sets.
Note: The Split command is not supported on Windows
2000 or NetWare systems.
To split a single-level or multilevel mirror set, do the following:
1
2
In Container view, select a single-level or multilevel mirror set.
Select Split from the Container ➤ Mirror Set submenu.
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Flexible Array Storage Tool User’s Guide
FAST displays the following message:
3
Click Yes.
Unmirroring a Mirror Set
Use the Unmirror command to convert a mirror set to a volume set.
Unmirroring preserves the data in the mirror set, but erases any data
maintained by the redundant partition and returns the redundant
container’s partitions to freespace. The Unmirror command works
on single-level or multilevel mirror sets.
To unmirror a single-level or multilevel mirror set, do the following:
1
2
In Container view, select a single-level or multilevel mirror set.
Select Unmirror from the Container ➤ Mirror Set submenu.
FAST displays the following message:
3
Click Yes.
Checking the Consistency of a Mirror Set
Use the Consistency Check command at any time to read all the
blocks of a single-level or multilevel mirror. It is important to run
this task after a system failure to determine whether the blocks are
consistent. If Consistency Check detects any inconsistent blocks, it
can fix them.
11-18
Modifying Containers
To consistency check a single-level or multilevel mirror set, do the
following:
1
In Container view, select the single-level or multilevel mirror
set you want to consistency check.
2
Select Consistency Check from the Container menu. The
Consistency Check Container dialog box appears
(Figure 11-4):
Figure 11-4. Container Consistency Check dialog box (for mirror set)
Dialog Box Element
Function
Container icon and
adjacent information
Indicates the type, system-assigned number,
and size of the container (logical disk)
Options
Repair data
inconsistencies
Repairs errors; if the check box does not contain
a check, checks for redundancy only
OK button
Accepts changes, closes the dialog box, and
consistency checks the mirror set; if the Repair
data inconsistencies check box is selected, also
repairs errors
Cancel button
Closes the dialog box and does not consistency
check the container
3
To repair any errors encountered, check Repair data
inconsistencies.
4
Click OK.
Checking the Consistency of a RAID-5 Set
Use the Consistency Check command at any time to read all the
blocks of a RAID-5 set after a system failure to determine whether
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Flexible Array Storage Tool User’s Guide
the blocks are consistent. If Consistency Check detects any
inconsistent blocks, it can fix them.
To consistency check a RAID-5 set, do the following:
1
In Container view, select the RAID-5 set you want to
consistency check.
2
Select Consistency Check from the Container menu.
The Consistency Check Container dialog box appears
(Figure 11-5):
Figure 11-5. Container Consistency Check dialog box (for a RAID-5 set)
Dialog Box Element
Function
Container icon and
adjacent information
Indicates the type, system-assigned number,
and size of the container (logical disk)
Options
Repair parity errors
check box
Repairs parity errors; if not checked, the
container is examined for redundancy only
OK button
Accepts changes, closes the dialog box, and
consistency checks the RAID-5 set; if Repair
parity errors is checked, also repairs parity
errors
Cancel button
Closes the dialog box and does not
consistency check the RAID-5 set
3
4
11-20
To repair any errors encountered, check Repair parity errors.
Click OK.
Modifying Containers
Working with Snapshots (Windows NT and
Windows 2000 Only)
This section covers the following topics:
■
Understanding snapshots
■
Taking a snapshot
■
Removing a snapshot
■
Deleting a snapshot
Understanding Snapshots
FAST supports two types of snapshots:
■
Compact
A compact snapshot uses a backing container (the backing
container is the container that holds the snapshot) that is
smaller than the original container, and is suitable only for
snapshots with few writes.
■
Non-compact
A non-compact snapshot uses a backing container that is
slightly larger than the original container and will never reach
maximum capacity.
If the backing container you select is smaller than the original
container, FAST preforms a compact snapshot; if the backing
container you choose is the same size or larger than the original
container, FAST performs a non-compact snapshot.
For a more thorough discussion of snapshot, see Recovering from Disk
Failures on page 3-6.
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Flexible Array Storage Tool User’s Guide
Figure 11-6 shows how snapshots are represented in the Container
view window. The original container is on top, with the backing
container connected to it by a length of lattice-work.
Original container (logical disk)
File system type
Backing container (logical
Snapshot status icon
Drive letter
Figure 11-6. A snapshot represented in Container view
Taking a Snapshot
To take a snapshot, do the following:
1
In Container view, select a container (or the top-level container
of a multilevel container) that you want to snapshot. This
container must contain a single Microsoft file system partition,
otherwise the snapshot will not work.
2
Press the CTRL key, and select the container (or top-level
container of a multilevel container) that will hold the snapshot.
This container (known as the backing container) must not have a
file system; otherwise the snapshot will not work.
Note: When you select freespace, FAST always creates a
volume set backing container. However, when you select an
existing container, you have control over the redundancy
and performance characteristics of the backing container.
a To create a non-compact snapshot, select freespace or a
container the size of the original container plus at least 64K
or larger than the original container for snapshot overhead.
If you select more freespace than required, FAST uses only
the space needed to create the snapshot.
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Modifying Containers
b To create a compact snapshot, you can select any freespace
or container greater than or equal to 10 MB. However, it is
best to add 1 MB for snapshot overhead and extra space as a
safety margin.
To determine the amount of extra space that is required,
estimate the additional space needed by the write
modifications that will be made to the original container
while it is in the snapshot state.
If the write modifications exceed the extra space allotted to
the compact backing container, the file system on the
backing container becomes unavailable. However, file
system data on the original container while it is in the
snapshot configuration is not affected. At this point, your
only option is to take a new snapshot.
3
Select Take Snapshot from the Container menu.
If you selected enough space to create a non-compact snapshot,
a dialog box similar to the one in Figure 11-7 appears:
Figure 11-7. Take Snapshot dialog box (non-compact mode)
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Flexible Array Storage Tool User’s Guide
If you only selected enough space to create a compact
snapshot, a dialog box similar to the one in Figure 11-8
appears:
Figure 11-8. Take Snapshot dialog box (compact mode)
4
If the Take Snapshot dialog box notifies you that the snapshot
will be created in compact mode, but you want to create the
snapshot in non-compact mode, click Cancel and repeat steps
1 through 3, selecting either a larger backing container or more
freespace. The COMPACT snapshot paragraph in the Take
Snapshot dialog box indicates the size of the current snapshot
container and how much additional space is needed to create
the snapshot in non-compact mode.
5
It is recommended that you select Block I/O to container
during snapshot creation. FAST then temporarily blocks all
I/O to the container during the snapshot creation.
!
6
Caution: Blocking the I/O can produce system-wide
consequences. This procedure is on the same task level as
removing a disk from a system when there are outstanding
references to that disk. If applications are writing to the
container, you will get a "Lost Delayed Write Data"
message. If the system directory or a paging file resides on
the container, your system could hang or crash.
Click OK in the Take Snapshot dialog box.
Snapshots actually consist of four containers, but FAST
displays them as two containers. The container numbers
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Modifying Containers
displayed on the original and snapshot containers indicate the
visible and hidden containers that are part of the snapshot.
Visible containers are numbered 0 through 23 and can have
drive letters. Hidden containers are numbered 24 through 63.
Figure 11-9 shows a snapshot taken of a RAID-5 set.
Hidden container (logical disk) number
Snapshot status icon
Visible container (logical disk) number
Figure 11-9. A snapshot of a RAID-5 set
Note: The snapshot status icon remains green when
the snapshot is live and ongoing. In the case of a
compact snapshot that is filling up the backing
container, the snapshot status icon turns orange when
the backing container is 80% full. When the backing
container becomes 100% full, the snapshot icon turns
red and the backing container is no longer accessible.
If this happens, take another snapshot, increasing the
size of the backing container.
!
Caution: It is recommended that you do not write to a
snapshot’s backing container. A snapshot is intended
to backup a container’s data without having to take
the original container offline. Any data that was
written to a backing container is lost when the
snapshot is removed or deleted or when a compact
snapshot becomes 100% full.
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Flexible Array Storage Tool User’s Guide
Removing a Snapshot
Removing a snapshot taken with freespace reverts the original
container to its original state and creates a volume set from the
freespace. Removing a snapshot taken with another container
reverts both the original container and backing container to their
original states. When a snapshot is removed, the file system on the
snapshot is no longer available.
To remove a snapshot, do the following:
1
In Container view, select either an original container or its
snapshot container.
2
Select Remove Snapshot from the Container menu.
3
A warning message, shown in Figure 11-10, appears.
Figure 11-10. Removing the snapshot from the container
4
The option to update the original container’s archive bits is
also available from this message box. Only the archive bits of
the files that have not been modified since the snapshot was
taken are backed up. This task is used for incremental backups.
Note: The user must be a member of the backup operator’s
group and have file backup and file restore privileges in
order to implement the archive task.
5
Click Yes to remove the snapshot.
FAST deletes the two hidden containers and separates the
original container from the snapshot container.
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Modifying Containers
Deleting a Snapshot
!
Caution: Be sure you select only the snapshot container. If
you select the original container, both the original container
and the snapshot container will be deleted.
To delete a snapshot, do the following:
1
2
In Container view, select a snapshot container.
Select Delete from the Container menu.
FAST displays the following warning message, shown in
Figure 11-11.
Figure 11-11. Deleting the snapshot from the container
3
The option to update the original container’s archive bits is
also available from this message box. Only the archive bits of
the file that have not been modified since the snapshot was
taken are backed up. This task is used for incremental backups.
Note: The user must be a member of the backup operator’s
group and have file backup and file restore privileges in
order to implement the archive task.
Click Yes to delete the snapshot container.
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Flexible Array Storage Tool User’s Guide
Working with Container Properties
The Container1 properties dialog box varies with each container
(logical disk) type and number of operating-system partitions. The
Container properties dialog boxes discussed in this section provide
information about the following containers:
■
Containers with a single operating-system partition
■
Containers with multiple operating-system partitions
(Windows NT and Windows 2000 only)
Each Container properties dialog box contains the following tabs:
■
General
Displays information about the container’s file system and
other container properties. (There are separate general tabs for
single and multiple operating-system partition containers.)
■
Cache Settings
Enables you to specify the read and write cache settings for the
container.
■
Tasks
Shows all tasks running on the container and allows you to
stop, suspend, or resume a task and to specify the task’s
priority.
■
Reconfiguration
Appears in the Container properties dialog box for a container
that is being reconfigured.
■
Snapshot
This tab appears in the Container properties dialog box only
for containers with snapshots.
To access the Container properties dialog box, do the following:
1
2
In Container view, select a container.
Select Properties from the Edit menu.
The appropriate Container properties dialog box appears.
1 The
word Container, in italics, represents a type of container (for example,
RAID-5 set).
11-28
Modifying Containers
3
Verify and/or change the options in the dialog box, and click
Apply to make the changes or OK to make the changes and
exit the dialog box.
Properties of Containers with a Single Operating-System
Partition
The dialog boxes in this section are examples of Container
properties dialog boxes for a container with a single operatingsystem partition.
Note: Not all dialog box options are available for all
container types or for containers on a NetWare™ server.
General Properties Settings
To view the settings of the general properties for a container, do the
following:
1
2
In Container view, select the container.
Select Properties from the Edit menu.
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Flexible Array Storage Tool User’s Guide
The General tab for the appropriate container type appears as
the default (Figure 11-12).
Figure 11-12. Container properties dialog box
(General tab; single operating-system partition)
Dialog Box Element
Function
Container icon and
adjacent information
Indicates the type, system-assigned
number, and size of the container (logical
disk)
File system properties
File system pull-down
list
Displays the container’s current file
system type or None; allows for the
creation or removal of a file system.
Note: FAT is not available for containers
greater than 4 GB. FAT32 is not available
for containers greater than 32 GB.
Drive letter pull-down
list
Displays the drive letter assigned to the
container; assigns an available drive letter
to the container or None for no drive letter
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Modifying Containers
Dialog Box Element
File system label box
Function
Displays the name of the disk drive (as
displayed in Windows Explorer); 32
characters maximum; assigns a name to
the disk drive
Container properties
Container label
Specifies the container label
Read only check box
Indicates whether the container is readonly
Stripe size pull-down
list
Displays or sets the stripe size, that is, the
amount of data that is written to one
partition before the I/O data stream
switches to the next partition in the
following container types: stripe set,
RAID-5 set, stripe set of mirror sets
OK button
Accepts changes and closes the dialog box
Cancel button
Ignores changes and closes the dialog box
Apply button
Accepts changes
Cache Property Settings
The Write cache area displays the read and write cache settings for
the selected container (Figure 11-13).
Note: For controllers that do not support write caching, a
container’s write cache will never be enabled regardless of
the Write cache setting.
In a cluster, a container’s write cache is always forced to be
disabled, regardless of the Write cache setting.
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Flexible Array Storage Tool User’s Guide
Figure 11-13. Cache settings for a RAID-5 set
Dialog Box Element
Function
Container icon and
adjacent information
Indicates the type, system-assigned number,
and size of the container
Read Cache
Enable
Enables the read cache
Disable
Disables the read cache
Write Cache
Cache status
Displays the write cache status of the
controller.
Note: Fast always displays the write cache
status as Inactive (Write cache not
supported) for Write Cache Disabled
controllers.
Enable when protected
Enables write cache when a working battery is
found on this controller
Enable always
Enables write cache for this container so that it
is always active under all circumstances
Note: This option is grayed out for controllers
that do not support write caching
Disable
Disables the write cache
Note: This option is grayed out for controllers
that do not support write caching.
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Modifying Containers
Dialog Box Element
Function (Continued)
Discard Unwritten Data
button
Deletes all cached data that has not been
written to disk
OK button
Accepts changes and closes the dialog box
Cancel button
Ignores changes and closes the dialog box
Apply button
Accepts changes
Reconfiguration Property Settings
You can use the information provided in the Reconfiguration tab to
determine whether there are enough temporary or hidden
containers available to perform another operation (such as taking a
snapshot) while you are reconfiguring a container. A maximum of
64 containers per controller is supported (containers numbered 3263 are hidden or temporary containers). If an operation cannot be
started, it is possible that the problem is caused by insufficient
temporary space.
The Reconfiguration tab (Figure 11-14) appears only when a
container (logical disk) is being reconfigured.
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Flexible Array Storage Tool User’s Guide
Indicates that a reconfiguration is in progress;
the Reconfiguration tab is present in Container properties
Figure 11-14. RAID-5 set properties dialog box (Reconfiguration tab)
Dialog Box Element
Function
Container and task
icons
Depicts the specified reconfiguration
process. For example, in Figure 11-14, the
icons show that a 500 MB stripe set is
being expanded to a 1000 MB RAID-5 set.
Restart Reconfiguration
button
Restarts a reconfiguration task that has
been stopped by the Stop button in the
Tasks tab.
Hidden containers used during reconfiguration
11-34
Modifying Containers
Dialog Box Element
Function
Source
Displays the number of each container
associated with the source container’s
configuration
Temporary
Displays the number of each temporary
container created during the
reconfiguration process
Destination
Displays the number of each container
associated with the destination
configuration
OK button
Accepts changes and closes the dialog box
Cancel button
Ignores changes and closes the dialog box
Apply button
Accepts changes
Tasks Property Settings
The Tasks tab of the Container properties dialog box displays
information about the size of the container (logical disk) as well as
showing a list of all tasks currently running on this container
(Figure 11-15).
Figure 11-15. RAID-5 set properties dialog box (Tasks tab)
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Flexible Array Storage Tool User’s Guide
Dialog Box Element
Function
Container icon and
adjacent information
Indicates the type, system-assigned
number, and size of the container
Tasks list
Displays the following information for
any tasks running on the container:
■ Task ID. ID number associated with a
specific task
■ Function. Type of task running on the
controller
■ Percent done. Progress (percentage
completion) of the currently running
task
■ Container. ID number of the container
associated with the task
■ Device. (Not used)
■ State. Status of the task
■ Speed. Task speed setting, which
defines the rate of specific tasks to
minimize their effect on I/O
transactions
Stop button
Stops the selected task; the
reconfiguration task can be restarted with
the Restart Reconfiguration button in the
Reconfiguration tab
Suspend button
Suspends the selected task
Resume button
Resumes the selected suspended task
Task Speed pulldown list
Specifies the speed for the selected task
OK button
Accepts changes and closes the dialog box
Cancel button
Ignores changes and closes the dialog box
Apply button
Accepts changes
11-36
Modifying Containers
Properties of Containers with Multiple Operating-System
Partitions (Windows NT and Windows 2000 Only)
The RAID-5 set properties dialog box in Figure 11-16 is an example
of a Container properties dialog box for a container with multiple
operating-system partitions.
Figure 11-16. RAID-5 set properties dialog box
(General tab; multiple operating-system partitions)
Dialog Box Element
Function
Container icon and
adjacent information
Indicates the type, system-assigned
number, and size of the container
Stripe size list
For stripe and RAID-5 sets, indicates the
container’s stripe size
Container label
Specifies the container label
Date and Time
information
Indicates the date and time that this
container was created
Partition information
Partition count
Displays the number of partitions on the
container
Offset
Displays the partition’s offset
Size
Displays the partition’s size
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Flexible Array Storage Tool User’s Guide
Dialog Box Element
Function
Drive Letter
Displays the drive letter assigned to the
partition
File System
Displays the type of file system for which
the partition is formatted
Boot Partition
Indicates if the boot prompt resides on
this partition
System Partition
Indicates if your system directory resides
on this partition
OK button
Accepts changes and closes the dialog box
Cancel button
Ignores changes and closes the dialog box
Apply button
Accepts changes
The Cache Settings and Tasks tabs in this dialog box function the
same as the Cache Settings and Tasks tabs in the properties dialog
box for a container with a single operating-system partition (see
Figures 11-13 and 11-15). The Container properties dialog box for a
container with multiple operating-system partitions does not have a
Reconfiguration tab.
Managing Container Cache
To enable/disable cache on a container (logical disk), do the
following:
1
Open the Container properties dialog box of the container
(logical disk) for which you want to enable or disable cache.
(See Working with Container Properties on page 11-28.)
2
Click the Cache Settings tab.
The Write cache area automatically displays the current status
of the container cache.
3
Read cache is enabled by default, and it is recommended that
you do not modify this setting unless your application
performs completely random reads. If, however, you want to
modify read cache, under Read cache, select either the Enable
or Disable radio button.
4
Under Write cache, set one of the following:
11-38
Modifying Containers
– Enable when protected—Enables the write cache when a
working battery is found on this container’s controller. This
is the default.
– Enable always—Enables write cache for this container so
that it is always turned on under all circumstances.
Note: You can only select the Enable always button for
controllers that support unprotected writeback.
– Disable—Disable write cache.
5
Click OK.
Properties of Snapshot Containers
The Snapshot tab of the Container properties dialog box displays
information about the size and type of snapshot that is on this
container.
Dialog Box Element
Function
Container icon and
adjacent information
Indicates the type, system-assigned
number, and size of the container
Snapshot type
Indicates if this is a compact or noncompact snapshot container
11-39
Flexible Array Storage Tool User’s Guide
Dialog Box Element
Function
Snapshot stripe size
Indicates the container’s stripe size
Compact snapshot
percent full
Indicates the percentage of the allocated
space used in this compact snapshot; date
displayed only for compact snapshots
Snapshot container information
Original container
Displays the system-assigned number of
the original container
Original container
helper
Hidden containers that are used internally
on the controller to implement the
snapshot functionality
Backing container
Displays the system-assigned number of
the backing container
Backing container
helper
Hidden containers that are used internally
on the controller to implement the
snapshot functionality
Notation area
Displays warnings about the usage of a
backing container and strongly
recommends that you not write data to
this container
OK button
Accepts changes and closes the dialog box
Cancel button
Ignore changes and closes the dialog box
Apply button
Accepts changes
Deleting a Container
Use the Delete command to remove a container (logical disk) from
the system. A deleted container’s partitions are returned to
freespace.
!
Caution: You cannot retrieve the data from a deleted
container, and a deleted container cannot be undeleted.
To delete a container, do the following:
1
11-40
In Container view, select the container you want to delete.
Modifying Containers
2
Select Delete from the Container menu.
The following message appears:
3
Click Yes.
Deleting a Container on a NetWare System
When deleting a container on a NetWare™ system, you must first go
to the NetWare console and remove the corresponding volume and
partition. For information on how to perform these operations, see
the appropriate NetWare documentation. For information on how
to display the NetWare console remotely on the NT client running
FAST, see Appendix E, NetWare and rconsole.
After you delete a container on a NetWare server, you must run the
list devices command on the NetWare console so that the
corresponding virtual disk is removed from the system’s internal
device table.
Note: NetWare™ 5.x does not support dynamically-updated
Novell™ Storage Services (NSS) configurations. For
example, if you delete a newly-created container on a
NetWare 5.x system, the change is not reflected in the NSS
Update Provider Information, List Devices, or Scan
devices for new hardware options. To update the NSS
configuration, you must first upgrade to NetWare 5.1
Service Pack 1 (or higher), then unload and reload NSS
(which forces NSS to reload its configuration information).
❒
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Flexible Array Storage Tool User’s Guide
11-42
12
Using the Command
Prompt Window
The Command Prompt window enables you to run the commandline interface (CLI) from within FAST. This chapter explains how to
use the FAST Command Prompt window and its associated dialog
boxes.
The following table summarizes the topics covered in this chapter:
For information about…
Turn to…
Accessing the Command Prompt Window
page 12-2
Using the Clipboard with the Command Prompt
Window
page 12-3
Running CLI Scripts
page 12-3
Logging CLI Output
page 12-3
Exiting the Command Prompt Window
page 12-4
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Flexible Array Storage Tool User’s Guide
Accessing the Command Prompt Window
You can open only one Command Prompt window per controller
per FAST session.
To access the Command Prompt window, from which you run the
CLI, do the following:
1
Select Display from the Window ➤ Command Prompt
submenu.
The Command Prompt window appears (Figure 12-1).
Command Box
FASTCMD> command-line pane
Figure 12-1. Use the Command Prompt window to run the CLI
2
Enter a command in the Command box.
See the Command Line Interface Reference Guide for a complete
list of CLI commands.
Note: If you open a new view window while the Command
Prompt window is active, the new view window is the same
type as the one currently indicated in the toolbar. (See
Adding a New View Window on page 5-6.)
12-2
Using the Command Prompt Window
Using the Clipboard with the Command Prompt
Window
The standard Cut, Copy, and Paste commands become available,
when appropriate, from the Edit menu when you open the
Command Prompt window. You can use all three commands in the
command box, but you can only use Copy in the FAST commandline pane.
Running CLI Scripts
The Run Command File menu command becomes available from
the Window ➤ Command Prompt submenu when the Command
Prompt window is active. The Run Command File command
displays the Execute AFA Batch File dialog box (Figure 12-2).
Figure 12-2. Execute AFA Batch File dialog box
Instead of executing a batch file (@filename) command from the
Command box in the Command Prompt window, you can execute
the batch file from the Execute AFA Batch File dialog box.
To execute a batch file, select the file from the Execute AFA Batch
File list box and click Open.
The commands in the batch file are executed in the Command
Prompt window.
Logging CLI Output
The Log Output command displays the Select Log File dialog box
(Figure 12-3), which enables you to create or select a log file in which
12-3
Flexible Array Storage Tool User’s Guide
to store the output resulting from CLI commands. The Log Output
command becomes available from the Window ➤ Command
Prompt submenu when the Command Prompt window is active.
Figure 12-3. Select Log File dialog box
Instead of executing a logfile start filename command from
the Command box in the Command Prompt window, you can start
a log file from the Select Log File dialog box. Select a file from the
list box and click Save. The logfile start filename command
is automatically executed in the Command Prompt window.
To discontinue logging the output from CLI commands, select Log
Output from the Window ➤ Command Prompt submenu a second
time. Selecting Log Output when the command is active executes
the logfile end command in the Command Prompt window.
Exiting the Command Prompt Window
To exit the Command Prompt window, click the X button in the
upper right corner of the window.
❒
12-4
13
Managing Storage in a
Cluster
This chapter explains concepts and terminology that apply when
using FAST to manage storage in a cluster. Most tasks and
operations that you perform using FAST do not change in a cluster
environment, but there are some differences that you must be aware
of in order to take advantage of Microsoft Cluster Server (MSCS)
features. This chapter highlights these differences and provides an
overview of the relationship between FAST and MSCS.
It is assumed you are familiar with Microsoft cluster concepts and
terminology. We recommend you read the Microsoft Cluster Server
Administration Guide before reading this chapter.
The following table summarizes topics covered in this chapter:
For information about…
Turn to…
Understanding Cluster Configurations
page 13-2
Restrictions on Clustered Controllers
page 13-2
Understanding Ownership of Objects in a Cluster
page 13-3
Understanding Disksets
page 13-6
Managing Disksets as Cluster Resources
page 13-10
Assigning Spare Disks in a Cluster
page 13-10
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Flexible Array Storage Tool User’s Guide
Understanding Cluster Configurations
A cluster is a hardware configuration in which two computers, or
nodes, have access to shared storage. A cluster configuration
provides highly available services to clients; if one node fails, the
other can take over the services that were running on the failed
node, with little or no disruption to users.
Note: A maximum of two nodes per cluster is supported by
the controller management software. To participate in a
cluster, a node must be running Windows NT, Enterprise
Edition, or Windows 2000 Advanced Server.
A clustered controller cannot boot from a shared disk. Booting from
a clustered controller is supported, as long as the boot device resides
on a non-shared channel.
Note: Windows NT and Windows 2000 page files cannot
reside on a shared disk.
Restrictions on Clustered Controllers
The following restrictions exist for clustered controllers:
■
On a shared channel, container configuration must be
performed using FAST or the CLI. You cannot configure
containers on a shared channel using the controller BIOS
Container Configuration Utility (CCU).
■
The Enable automatic rebuild option on the Options tab in
the Controller properties dialog box is disabled on shared
channels; to initiate the rebuild process, you must replace the
failed drive and then assign the new drive as a spare disk.
■
You cannot expand the file system on a container residing on a
shared channel.
■
The Pause I/O command is disabled on a controller with one
or more shared channels.
■
For a controller on a shared channel, container write cache is
always disabled for shared containers.
13-2
Managing Storage in a Cluster
Understanding Ownership of Objects in a
Cluster
Using FAST, you open a controller on a cluster node the same way
you open a controller on a non-clustered computer. The Open
Controller dialog box lists all computers running the controller
management software. FAST identifies which controllers are
installed on cluster nodes by displaying (Cluster) after the controller
name (see Figure 13-1).
Note: To open a clustered controller, you must have identical
access privileges on both nodes.
Figure 13-1. Opening a controller on a cluster node
When you directly open one controller in a cluster, you implicitly
open the other. The controller you open using the Open Controller
dialog box is called the controlling partner. All views in FAST are
presented from the perspective of the controlling partner (which
also initiates all container management operations). The peer partner
is the controller installed on the cluster’s remaining node.
When you open a controller on a cluster node, FAST views include
the following cluster-specific additions:
■
Controller view
– Shared channels are indicated
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Flexible Array Storage Tool User’s Guide
– Peer partner is shown as a device on each shared channel
– Node ownership handles are displayed on devices on
shared channels, including the controlling partner itself
■
Disk view
– Disks in disksets on shared channels are tagged with node
ownership handles
– The name of the diskset in which the disk resides is listed
■
Container view
– Containers in disksets on shared channels are tagged with
node ownership handles
– The name of the diskset in which the container resides is
listed
Ownership of FAST objects in a cluster is indicated by the coloring
of the handle, as summarized in Table 13-1, and shown in
Figure 13-2, Figure 13-3, and Figure 13-4.
Table 13-1. Component handles and ownership
13-4
Handle
Description
White
Owned by controlling partner
Black
Owned by peer partner
Gray
Not owned by the cluster. A dark border indicates
the object is in a diskset but the diskset is not owned
by either the controlling partner or the peer partner.
A light border indicates that the object is not in any
diskset and is, therefore, not owned by any node.
Managing Storage in a Cluster
Figure 13-2. Ownership of components in Controller view
Figure 13-3. Ownership of components in Container view
13-5
Flexible Array Storage Tool User’s Guide
Figure 13-4. Ownership of components in Disk view
Understanding Disksets
A diskset is a collection of physical disks on one or more shared SCSI
channels from which containers can be created. A diskset cannot
include disks on non-shared (local) channels. A diskset must contain
at least one disk, and a disk can belong to at most one diskset.
Figure 13-5 shows examples of valid and invalid diskset
configurations.
13-6
Managing Storage in a Cluster
NODE-1
valid
NODE-2
valid
T
invalid
shared
local
Figure 13-5. Examples of valid and invalid diskset configurations
A diskset can host several (or no) containers, and each container can
have a drive letter (or no drive letter) assigned to it. A disk on a
shared channel must belong to a diskset, and the diskset must be
attached, in order for the controller to access its container
information. (Attachment is a diskset attribute that can be managed
by the MSCS cluster software; see Understanding Diskset Attributes on
page 14-4 for more information.)
When you create a diskset, you specify one of the cluster nodes as its
owner. The controller on the owning node is in charge of managing
container and partition operations for the disk. When a disk on a
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Flexible Array Storage Tool User’s Guide
shared channel is not owned by either node in a cluster, you cannot
perform container operations on the disk using FAST.
After creating a diskset, you should use the MSCS Cluster
Administrator to create a corresponding diskset resource for the
diskset. The existence of a corresponding diskset resource allows the
diskset to be controlled by the MSCS resource state mechanism. The
diskset’s state changes to OS Managed, and its Owner and Attached
attributes are controlled by MSCS.
In the event of a node failure, all the disks in the OS Managed
disksets on the failed node will fail over to another node, and
containers hosted by these disksets remain online. Disksets that do
not have a corresponding diskset resource (and are, therefore, not
OS Managed) must be manually moved to another node and
attached to the new owner.
Note: Until a diskset is OS Managed, drive letter
assignments for containers hosted by the diskset are
managed independently by each cluster node. One node has
no knowledge of any other node’s drive letter assignments
for the containers on a non-OS Managed diskset. The
movement of a non-OS Managed diskset from one node to
another does not imply that the drive letter assignments for
containers on that diskset will be transferred to the other
node.
The icons representing the status of disks that are on shared
channels in Controller view are listed and described in Table 13-2.
Table 13-2. Status icons for diskset members
Icon
Description
Not a diskset
member
13-8
Managing Storage in a Cluster
Icon
Description
Member of a
diskset that is
detached
Member of a
diskset that is
attached
Figure 13-6 shows a cluster with two disksets. One diskset is owned
by the peer partner (black handles) and is attached. The other is
owned by the controlling partner (white handles) and is not
attached.
Figure 13-6. Disksets represented in Controller view
All diskset management in FAST is performed using the Manage
Disksets dialog box. Chapter 14, Working with Disksets, explains
how to create and manage disksets.
When managing a clustered controller, the container wizards are
altered to allow you to specify from which diskset you want to select
the disks to use in a container. (A container on a shared channel
13-9
Flexible Array Storage Tool User’s Guide
cannot span disksets.) For more information on creating containers
in disksets, see Using the Container Wizards in a Cluster on page
page 14-15.
Managing Disksets as Cluster Resources
When you create a container, the next logical step is to make the
container useful by creating a file system on it. Similarly, when you
create a diskset (and create one or more containers using disks in the
diskset), the next logical step is to use the MSCS Cluster
Administrator utility to create a diskset resource that you will map to
the diskset. The cluster software can then automatically manage, in
accordance with the failover policies you established, the diskset
attributes that determine whether the diskset is attached (online) or
detached (offline) and which controller is responsible for its
container operations.
Chapter 15, Working with Diskset Resources, explains how to use the
Cluster Administrator utility to create diskset resources and map
them to disksets.
Assigning Spare Disks in a Cluster
In a cluster, you can assign one or more disks in a diskset to serve as
spare disks for containers hosted by that diskset. When a container
hosted by the diskset fails over from one node to another, the spare
disks move with the container (since they are also members of the
diskset). This method of assigning spare disks provides the greatest
level of protection against data loss.
When installed in a cluster, the controller can be configured to
manage one or more spare sets. A spare set is a special diskset
serving as a source of spare disks for shared redundant containers
owned by the same node. Because the disks in a spare set can be
assigned to containers in different disksets, the spare set is a more
cost-effective means to protect against data loss.
13-10
Managing Storage in a Cluster
Note: Disks assigned from a spare set on the controlling
partner provide rebuild coverage only for shared redundant
containers owned by the controlling partner. Similarly, disks
assigned from a spare set on the peer partner provide
rebuild coverage only for shared redundant containers
owned by the peer partner.
Spare sets do not fail over in the same manner as disksets. A spare
set is owned by a single node, and the spare set on a given node can
support only the redundant containers on that node. If you assign
spare disks from a spare set on one node, and the container fails over
to another node, the spare disks do not move with the container to
the other node. To ensure that a shared redundant container is fully
protected on all nodes, you must assign to the container at least one
spare disk from a spare set on each node.
If disks from a spare set are assigned to containers hosted by
different disksets, and a disk in one of these containers fails, the
spare set disks that are used for container rebuild become members
of the diskset hosting the container. These disks can no longer be
used to protect the containers hosted by the remaining disksets
because a disk cannot belong to more than one diskset. You might
need to assign other spare disks from the spare set to the remaining
containers.
Table 13-3 compares the methods for providing spare disk coverage
in a cluster.
Table 13-3. Comparing methods for assigning spare disks in a cluster
Disk Membership
Rebuild Coverage
Cluster Resource
Failover
Non-spare set
diskset
Containers hosted by
the diskset
Moves with the
diskset resource
Spare set diskset
Container in any diskset
on the controller that
owns the spare set
Does not move with
the diskset resource
❒
13-11
Flexible Array Storage Tool User’s Guide
13-12
14
Working with Disksets
This chapter explains how to use FAST to create disksets; add disks
to or remove disks from a diskset; delete a diskset; modify the
properties of an existing diskset; enable a diskset to fail over; and
how to use the container wizards in a cluster.
For information on managing diskset resources in a cluster, see
Chapter 15, Working with Diskset Resources.
The following table summarizes the topics covered in this chapter:
For information about…
Turn to…
Managing Disksets
page 14-2
Understanding Diskset Attributes
page 14-4
Enabling a Diskset to Fail Over
page 14-6
Creating a Diskset
page 14-7
Adding Disks to a Diskset
page 14-9
Removing Disks from a Diskset
page 14-10
Deleting a Diskset
page 14-10
Modifying Diskset Properties
page 14-11
Disksets Represented in FAST Views
page 14-13
Using the Container Wizards in a Cluster
page 14-15
14-1
Flexible Array Storage Tool User’s Guide
Managing Disksets
A diskset is a collection of physical disks on one or more shared SCSI
channels in a cluster. A disk on a shared SCSI channel must be
added to a diskset (which must then be attached) to enable the
controller to access the container information on the disk.
Using the Manage Disksets dialog box in FAST, you can perform
the following:
■
View a list of the disksets that exist
■
View the disks that are members of a diskset
■
View the existing attributes of a diskset
■
Create a diskset
■
Delete a diskset
■
Add disks to a diskset
■
Remove disks from a diskset
■
Modify a diskset’s properties
Managing Disksets from the Disk Menu
To manage disksets from the Disk menu, select Manage Disksets.
When you use this method without first selecting any disks, the first
diskset (in alphabetical order) in the Diskset list is automatically
selected, and the first disk (by DiskID) is selected in the Member
Disks list.
If you select multiple disks in the same diskset, the diskset is
selected in the Diskset list and the disks you selected are
highlighted.
If you select multiple disks that are not in the same diskset, the
Manage Disksets item is grayed out.
Managing Disksets from a View Window
To access the Manage Disksets dialog box from either Controller
view or Disk view, right-click on a disk icon and choose Manage
Disksets from the shortcut menu.
14-2
Working with Disksets
When you use this method, the disk you clicked on is selected in the
Member Disks list and the diskset to which it belongs (if any) is
selected in the Diskset pulldown list.
Figure 14-1 shows the Manage Disksets dialog box.
Figure 14-1. Manage Disksets dialog box
Dialog Box Element
Function
Non-Member Disks
DiskID
Displays the disk ID for disks on shared
channels that are not in a diskset
Size
Displays the disk size for disks on shared
channels that are not in a diskset
Add Disk(s) button
Adds selected Non-Member disks to the
Member Disks list box
Remove Disk(s) button
Removes a selected disk from the Member
Disk list to the Non-Member Disk list
14-3
Flexible Array Storage Tool User’s Guide
Dialog Box Element
Function
Create Diskset button
Invokes the Create Diskset dialog box to
create a diskset from the disks selected in the
Non-Member Disks list box
Diskset pulldown list
Displays an alphabetical list of existing
disksets
Created
Displays the date and time the selected
diskset was created
Owner
Displays the name of the node and the
controller that own the selected diskset. May
also display Unowned or Unknown S/N:
last six digits = nnnnnn
Status
Indicates the setting of the diskset’s attributes,
including Attached, Spare, and OS Managed
(if applicable)
Diskset properties
button
Invokes the Diskset Properties dialog box for
the selected diskset
Delete diskset button
Deletes the selected diskset
Member Disks
DiskID
Displays the disk ID of a member disk
Size
Displays the size of a member disk
Has partitions
Indicates whether a member disk has
partitions
Close button
Closes the dialog box
Understanding Diskset Attributes
FAST manages the following diskset attributes. (The name of the
attribute as referred to from the CLI is given in parentheses.)
Attribute settings are recorded on each disk in the diskset.
■
Diskset (Label)
■
Created (Created)
■
Creator (Creator ID)
■
Owner (Owner)
■
Spare set (Spare)
■
Attached (Attached)
14-4
Working with Disksets
Name Attribute
The Diskset (Label) attribute stores the name of the diskset.
Created and Creator Attributes
The Created (Created) attribute stores the date and time the diskset
was created.
The Creator (Creator ID) attribute stores a reference to the
controller’s serial number (and the embedded time). This data is
translated into the node name and controller information displayed
in the Diskset Properties dialog box.
The data in these fields is used to distinguish diskset names in the
event you move disks from one cluster to another (to avoid potential
naming conflicts).
Owner Attribute
The Owner (Owner) attribute stores a reference to the serial number
(and the embedded time) of the controller that currently owns the
diskset. This data is translated into the node name and controller
information displayed in the Diskset Properties dialog box.
After a diskset becomes OS Managed (and is, therefore, capable of
failing over), the value of the Owner attribute is managed by the
MSCS cluster software’s resource state mechanism. See Enabling a
Diskset to Fail Over on page 14-6 for an explanation of the OS
Managed state.
Spare Set Attribute
A spare set is a diskset that you designate as a source of spare disks
for redundant containers on shared channels. A spare set diskset is
automatically brought online by the owning controller when the
node reboots. Therefore, a spare set should not be managed by the
MSCS cluster software.
The following conditions apply to a diskset for which the Spare set
(Spare) attribute is set:
■
You cannot create containers on disks in a spare set diskset
■
When a redundant container hosted by a diskset fails, assigned
spare disks in the same diskset are considered first. If none is
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Flexible Array Storage Tool User’s Guide
available, spare disks from any other spare set owned by the
same node will then be considered. A disk from a spare set that
is used to repair a container is automatically moved to that
container’s diskset.
It is recommended that you create at least one spare set diskset on
each node to serve as a source of spare disks, and assign spare disks
from these spare sets to all shared redundant containers. Note that
only those disks in a spare set that are assigned as spare disks are
considered when repairing a failed container. For more information
on assigning spare disks to shared containers, see Assigning Spare
Disks in a Cluster on page 13-10.
Attached Attribute
The Attached (Attached) attribute determines the availability of
container information to the controller for disks that are members of
the diskset. A diskset must be attached for the member disks’
container information to be accessible to the controller.
If a diskset resource does not exist for the diskset, you can manually
set the Attached attribute using the Diskset Properties dialog box.
After you create a diskset resource, and associate it with the diskset,
the setting of the Attached attribute is managed by the cluster
software’s resource state mechanism.
Enabling a Diskset to Fail Over
To be capable of failing over (in the event of a system failure), a
diskset must be managed by the cluster software; that is, the MSCS
Cluster Service software must recognize the diskset as a cluster
resource. The diskset resource type, NetRAID-4M Diskset, is an
extension to the standard set of cluster resource types that you use
for this purpose. You create an instance of the NetRAID-4M Diskset
resource type (using the Cluster Administrator utility) and associate
this instance with a diskset. The diskset is then wrapped
appropriately such that the cluster software can manage it.
Once you create a diskset resource (as explained in Chapter 15,
Working with Diskset Resources) and map the diskset resource to a
diskset, that diskset’s OS Managed state is indicated in FAST in the
Diskset Properties dialog box. When a diskset is OS Managed, its
Attached and Owner attributes will be managed by the
online/offline resource state mechanism implemented by the cluster
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Working with Disksets
software. These attribute values are displayed in FAST but cannot be
altered using FAST.
When a diskset resource is deleted (using the Cluster Administrator
utility), the corresponding diskset is no longer OS Managed in FAST.
Creating a Diskset
A diskset can contain one or more disks on one or more SCSI
channels belonging to a single NetRAID-4M controller enabled for
clustering. Disksets are not supported on non-shared channels. A
diskset cannot span disks across multiple controllers.
It is recommended that you initialize any disks being added to a
diskset to erase any existing partition and container information. If
you create a new diskset using a disk with container information
from a previously existing diskset, it is possible to create a container
that spans multiple disksets (which is not supported). A container
that spans multiple disksets may result in an unusable container
configuration (such as a phantom container).
Note: You must not initialize disks when importing an
existing container from a non-shared channel to a shared
channel. It is important to create these disksets such that
their containers do not span multiple disksets.
Use the Create Disksets dialog box to create a diskset. To access the
Create Disksets dialog box:
1
2
Select Manage Disksets from the Disk menu.
When the Manage Disksets dialog box appears, select at least
one disk from the Non-Member Disks list box.
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Flexible Array Storage Tool User’s Guide
3
Click Create Diskset. The Create Diskset dialog box appears
(see Figure 14-2).
Figure 14-2. Create Diskset dialog box
Dialog Box Element
Function
Diskset
Text field displays the default name; you can
change the name by editing it in this field
Owner
List box containing the names of the possible
machines (and controllers) that you can choose to
own the diskset
Spare set
Check box designates whether the newly created
diskset will serve as a source of spare disks for
redundant containers on shared channels
Attached
Check box allows you to specify whether or not
the diskset is attached immediately after it is
created (thereby making container information on
the member disks accessible to the controller)
Re-initialize disks
Check box allows you to specify whether any
existing container information is to be removed
from the disks being used to create the diskset
OK button
Closes the dialog box and creates the diskset
Cancel button
Closes the dialog box without creating the diskset
4
Enter a name for the diskset or accept the default name.
Diskset names can contain from 1 to 32 characters and must be
unique within the cluster.
5
Select an owner for the diskset from the Owner pulldown list.
14-8
Working with Disksets
6
If the disks in this diskset are to be available as spares disks for
redundant containers on shared channels, check Spare set.
Note: You cannot create a container on a spare set
diskset.
7
If you want the member disks’ container information to be
accessible to the controller, check Attached.
Note: Do not attach a spare set diskset. The Attached
attribute for a spare set is automatically managed by
the controller.
8
To re-initialize disks from which the diskset will be created,
check Re-initialize disks. Any existing container and diskset
information residing on these disks is erased. Do not check this
box if you are importing containers on these disks from a nonshared channel to a shared channel.
9
Click OK.
At this point, you can create containers from the disks that are
members of this diskset. After creating the containers, move the
diskset to the other node and make sure that the containers have the
same drive letters as on the first node. If necessary, manually assign
drive letters so that they match the assignments on the first node.
Then, using the MSCS Cluster Administrator utility, create a diskset
resource mapped to this diskset. The diskset (and its containers)
becomes OS Managed, and its Attached and Owner attributes will
be set by the cluster software’s online/offline resource state
mechanism. See Chapter 15, Working with Diskset Resources, for more
information.
Note: Disksets that are attached but not OS Managed will
become detached after a reboot; you must use the Manage
Disksets dialog box to reattach them.
Adding Disks to a Diskset
To add disks to a diskset:
14-9
Flexible Array Storage Tool User’s Guide
1
2
Select Manage Disksets from the Disk menu.
3
4
5
Select one or more disks from the Non-Member Disks list box.
When the Manage Disksets dialog box appears (see
Figure 14-1), select a diskset from the Diskset pulldown list.
Click Add Disk(s).
FAST prompts you to confirm that the disks to be added to the
diskset should be re-initialized. It is recommended that you reinitialize the disks to remove any existing container
information. Do not initialize disks belonging to a single
container that you are importing from one or more non-shared
channels to a shared channel.
The disks you selected now appear in the Member Disks list box.
Removing Disks from a Diskset
To remove a disk from a diskset:
1
2
Select Manage Disksets from the Disk menu.
3
Select the disks you want to remove from the Member Disks
list box.
4
5
Click the Remove Disk(s) button.
When the Manage Disksets dialog box appears (see
Figure 14-1), select a diskset from the Diskset pulldown list.
FAST prompts you to confirm that the disks being removed
should be re-initialized. It is recommended that you reinitialize the disks to remove any existing container
information.
The disks you removed now appear in the Non-Member Disk list
box.
!
Caution: You can remove all the disks from a diskset;
however, this is equivalent to deleting the diskset.
Deleting a Diskset
To delete a diskset:
14-10
Working with Disksets
1
2
Select Manage Disksets from the Disk menu.
3
4
Click the Delete diskset button.
When the Manage Disksets dialog box appears (see
Figure 14-1), select a diskset from the Diskset pulldown list.
FAST prompts you to confirm that the disks should be reinitialized before deleting the diskset. It is recommended that
you re-initialize disks to remove any existing container
information.
Note: When you delete a diskset, you are only deleting
the diskset configuration, not the data on the disks.
Modifying Diskset Properties
To modify diskset properties, use the Diskset Properties dialog box.
To access the Diskset Properties dialog box:
1
2
Select Manage Disksets from the Disk menu.
3
Click the Diskset properties button. The Diskset Properties
dialog box appears as shown in Figure 14-4 or Figure 14-4,
depending on whether or not the diskset is OS Managed (that
is, the diskset is wrapped by a diskset resource).
When the Manage Disksets dialog box appears (see
Figure 14-1), select a diskset from the Diskset pulldown list.
Figure 14-3. Diskset Properties dialog box (not OS Managed)
14-11
Flexible Array Storage Tool User’s Guide
Figure 14-4. Diskset Properties dialog box (OS Managed)
Note: You cannot set the Spare set attribute for a diskset that
is OS Managed. A spare set must be managed by the
controller, not the MSCS online/offline state mechanism. An
OS Managed diskset is, by definition, managed by MSCS;
this conflicts with the requirement that a spare set be
managed by the controller.
Dialog Box
Element
14-12
Function
Diskset
Displays the diskset name. You can change the
name by editing it in this field.
Created
Displays the date and time the diskset was
created. The data in this field and the Creator
field are used to distinguish diskset names in
the event you move disks from one cluster to
another (to avoid potential name conflicts).
Creator
Displays the node name and controller that
created the diskset. The data in this field and
the Created field are used to distinguish
diskset names in the event you move disks
from one cluster to another (to avoid potential
name conflicts).
Working with Disksets
Dialog Box
Element
Function
Owner
Displays the current owner of the diskset. You
can choose a new owner from the pulldown
list of nodes and controllers, or make the
diskset unowned. When the diskset is OS
Managed, you must use the Cluster
Administrator utility to modify this setting.
Spare set
Indicates whether the diskset is a spare set.
Attached
Indicates whether the diskset is attached.
When the diskset has been wrapped by a
diskset cluster resource (that is, the diskset is
OS Managed), this setting reflects the diskset
resource’s online/offline state.
OK button
Accepts changes and closes the dialog box.
Cancel button
Ignores changes and closes the dialog box.
Disksets Represented in FAST Views
The diskset to which a device belongs can be determined in various
ways, depending on the current view. In Controller view (as shown
in Figure 14-5), diskset membership is indicated by the disk status
icon (see Table 13-2 on page 13-8), but specific diskset information is
not displayed. To see the diskset to which a disk belongs, right-click
on the disk icon and select Manage Disksets from the shortcut
menu. The diskset is automatically selected in the Diskset field in
the Manage Disksets dialog box.
14-13
Flexible Array Storage Tool User’s Guide
Figure 14-5. Diskset membership as displayed in Controller view
In Disk view (see Figure 14-6) and Container view (see Figure 14-7),
the diskset name is displayed to the right of the handle (which, by its
color, indicates whether it is owned by the controlling partner or the
peer partner; see Table 13-1 on page 13-4 for a description of node
ownership handles).
Note: For disks on a shared channel, only those disks that
are members of owned, attached disksets appear in Disk
view. Similarly, for containers on a shared channel, only
those containers that are hosted by owned, attached disksets
appear in Container view.
14-14
Working with Disksets
Figure 14-6. Diskset membership as displayed in Disk view
Figure 14-7. Diskset membership as displayed in Container view
Using the Container Wizards in a Cluster
For a clustered controller, FAST adds the Diskset controls to the
Disks group box in the container wizards.
For the Container Creation Wizard (see Figure 14-8), because
containers on a shared channel cannot span disksets, you must select
the appropriate subset of disks for the Container Creation Wizard
to consider before creating the container. The first time you invoke
the Container Creation Wizard in a given FAST session, the first
diskset in the Diskset list is automatically selected. Once you choose
a diskset, that diskset is automatically selected in the Container
Creation Wizard for the duration of the FAST session until you
select another diskset. On a multi-controller system, FAST maintains
the last selected diskset independently for each controller.
14-15
Flexible Array Storage Tool User’s Guide
Figure 14-8. Creating a container on a diskset using the
Container Creation Wizard
For the Container Reconfiguration Wizard, because you cannot
move the container from one diskset to another, the diskset
information is included when appropriate to show which diskset is
host to the container.
Note: A clustered controller runs without write cache
enabled, regardless of the container settings.
The Manage button is provided as a convenient means to access to
the Manage Disksets dialog box, which you can use to create or
delete a diskset or alter the members or properties of an existing
diskset (for example, to add more disks to the container for
expansion). When accessed from the Manage button, the Manage
Disksets dialog box displays information for the diskset that was
selected in the container wizard.
14-16
Working with Disksets
Note: You must manually assign a container’s drive letter on
all nodes so that the drive letter remains the same when the
container fails over from one node to another.
To create one or more containers from the disks that are members of
a diskset, follow these steps:
1
2
Select Creation Wizard from the Container menu.
3
Continue to create the containers in the usual manner (as
explained in Chapter 10, Creating Containers).
4
To ensure that the drive letters you assigned to the containers
are permanently assigned on both nodes in the cluster, and
remain the same regardless of which node owns the
containers, follow these steps:
Select from the Diskset pulldown list the diskset to host the
containers. The list of available disks is updated to reflect your
selection. The pseudo diskset, <<unshared disks>>, also
appears in the Diskset list to represent all disks on non-shared
channels.
a Move the hosting diskset to the second node.
b Use the Diskset Properties dialog box to attach this diskset
to the second node. (For instructions, see Modifying Diskset
Properties on page 14-11.)
c Manually change drive letter assignments, if needed, to
match those assigned on the first node. On a Windows NT
system, see Working with Container Properties on page 11-16
for information on changing the drive letter for a container.
On a Windows 2000 system, you must use the Microsoft
Disk Management utility to assign a drive letter to a
container.
d Create a diskset resource (as described in Chapter 15) on the
second node and map the diskset resource to the hosting
diskset.
❒
14-17
Flexible Array Storage Tool User’s Guide
14-18
15
Working with Diskset
Resources
This chapter explains how to use the Microsoft Cluster Server
(MSCS) Cluster Administrator utility to manage diskset resources
(an extension to the standard cluster resources which enables the
controller’s disksets to be managed by the cluster software).
For information on using the Cluster Administrator not covered in
this chapter, see the Microsoft Cluster Server Administration Guide.
The following table summarizes the topics covered in this chapter:
For information about…
Turn to…
Understanding Cluster Resources
page 15-2
Creating an Instance of the Diskset Resource Type
page 15-3
Modifying Diskset Resource Properties
page 15-8
15-1
Flexible Array Storage Tool User’s Guide
Understanding Cluster Resources
In an MSCS cluster, a resource is any entity that can be managed
with the MSCS Cluster Administrator utility and that can provide a
service to a client. The Cluster Administrator is the GUI interface to
the MSCS cluster administration application, cluster.exe. A
copy of Cluster Administrator is installed when you install MSCS.
Several standard cluster resource types are supported by the MSCS
software; examples include IP Address, Network Name, and
Physical Disk. These standard resource types are described in detail
in the MSCS documentation.
A cluster resource is an instance of a cluster resource type that wraps
a physical or logical entity to make the entity manageable by the
cluster. For example, you must create an instance of the IP Address
resource type (that is, an IP Address resource) to make an IP address
capable of being managed by the cluster.
The set of standard MSCS resource types can be extended by thirdparty vendors to include custom resource types. The NetRAID-4M
Cluster software kit adds the custom resource type NetRAID4M Diskset (HPNvdisk) to the standard cluster resource types. (See
the installation guide for your controller for more information on the
NetRAID-4M Cluster software kit.)
By creating an instance of the NetRAID-4M Diskset resource type
(that is, a diskset resource) to map to each diskset (except for spare
sets) in the cluster, you enable the cluster software to manage the
disksets’ Attached and Owner attribute settings. A diskset enters the
OS Managed state when it is mapped to a diskset resource.
Note: In the cluster.exe application, the NetRAID4M Diskset resource type is referred to as HPNvdisk.
Resource state changes can occur either manually (when you use
Cluster Administrator utility to make a state transition) or
automatically (during the cluster’s failover process). Table 15-1
summarizes states for diskset resources.
15-2
Working with Diskset Resources
Table 15-1. States for diskset resources
State
Description
Online Pending
Diskset is in the process of being brought online
Online
Diskset is attached and its containers are accessible
Offline Pending
Diskset is in the process of being taken offline
Offline
Diskset is detached and its containers are not
accessible
Failed
Diskset could not be brought online or taken offline
after a specified period of time
Creating an Instance of the Diskset Resource
Type
To create a new instance of the diskset resource type, use the Cluster
Administrator’s New Resource wizard. The wizard presents a series
of screens, some standard and some specific to the diskset resource
being created.
You can create a maximum of 32 NetRAID-4M Diskset (HPNvdisk)
resources.
15-3
Flexible Array Storage Tool User’s Guide
!
1
15-4
Caution: Before you create a diskset resource to map to a
diskset, make sure that the diskset is owned by (and
attached to) the node on which you will create the
corresponding diskset resource, and that the shared
containers hosted by the diskset have the same drive letter
assignments on both nodes. For example, if you created two
containers from the disks in a diskset, and these containers
are assigned drive letters D: and E: on the first node, make
sure that when the diskset is moved to the second node that
the drive letters for these containers remain D: and E:. If
the drive letters assigned by the operating system on the
second node do not match the drive letters assigned on the
first node, manually reassign the correct drive letters. See
Using the Container Wizards in a Cluster in Chapter 14 for
more information on creating shared containers and
assigning drive letters to them. (On a Windows 2000 system,
you must use the Microsoft Disk Management utility to
assign drive letters.)
To start the New Resource wizard, on the File menu, select
New, then select Resource. The first standard screen for the
New Resource wizard appears (as shown in Figure 15-1).
Working with Diskset Resources
Figure 15-1. New Resource wizard
Dialog Box Element
Function
Name
Specifies the name of the resource (as it will
appear in the Cluster Administrator window)
Description
Specifies a description for the resource (to be
displayed in the Cluster Administrator
window)
Resource type
Specifies the type of resource to create
Group
Identifies the group in which the new
resource will be created
Run this resource in a
separate Resource
Monitor check box
Specifies whether to run the resource in a
separate Resource Monitor
Back button
Allows you to go back one screen; grayed out
upon initially entering the wizard
Next button
Takes you to the next screen in the wizard (on
the final screen, Next becomes Finish)
Cancel button
Ignores changes and closes the dialog box
15-5
Flexible Array Storage Tool User’s Guide
2
Specify a name for the instance and optionally provide a
description that will be displayed in the Cluster Administrator
main window.
3
4
Choose NetRAID-4M Diskset from the list of resource types.
5
6
Click Next to continue.
7
8
Click Next to continue.
Specify a group to which the diskset resource belongs. It is
recommended that you create a new group for each set of
resources you create. Do not use the default group.
On the next standard screen, the New Resource wizard
prompts you for the list of possible owners for this instance of
the NetRAID-4M Diskset resource type and the nodes on
which this resource can be brought online. The list of possible
owners specifies which nodes in the cluster are capable of
running the resource. By default, both nodes appear as
possible owners; in most cases, it is appropriate to use the
default setting. If you want the resource to be able to fail over,
both nodes must be designated as possible owners.
On the next standard screen, if there are other resources in the
group to which the new diskset resource belongs, the New
Resource wizard prompts you for any dependencies this
resource might have on other resources in the group. There are
no required or recommended dependencies for a diskset
resource, but you can establish any dependencies you want.
(For example, you might specify the Network Name as a
dependency, indicating that the network must be running for
this diskset resource to remain online.) See the Microsoft Cluster
Server Administration Guide for an explanation of resource
dependency types.
9 Click Next to continue.
10 On the screen that is specific to diskset resources, the New
Resource wizard prompts you to select a diskset to map to the
diskset resource you are creating. You must choose a diskset
from the Diskset list box (see Figure 15-2) to establish a one-toone relationship between the diskset resource you are creating
and the selected diskset. Choose a diskset that has a drive
letter.
15-6
Working with Diskset Resources
Note: If a drive letter displayed in Drives hosted
appears in brackets (for example, [F:]), a controller or
container problem exists that bears further
investigation (such as missing or failed drives). If
Drives hosted does not display a drive letter, the
diskset might be configured as a spare set, or the
diskset does not have any drives configured, or the
diskset is offline (detached). To determine the specific
reason a diskset is not available, click on the diskset in
the Diskset list box. The message area provides
detailed information on the status of the diskset.
Figure 15-2. Diskset Resource Parameters screen
11 The Disable check disk during online check box controls
whether a chkdsk operation is run against each member disk
each time the diskset resource is brought online. During online
processing, the chkdsk operation attempts to fix any errors
detected.
15-7
Flexible Array Storage Tool User’s Guide
12 The Mount if errors detected checkbooks controls whether
errors that could not be repaired by the chkdsk operation
should cause the online/mount operation to fail.
13 Click Finish.
When you first create a new diskset resource in Cluster
Administrator, it is offline (detached) by default. The diskset that is
mapped to the resource becomes OS Managed, and the OS Managed
attribute status appears in FAST in the Diskset Properties dialog
box for this diskset. From this point on, the diskset is managed by
MSCS (for example, is capable of failing over in the event of a cluster
node failure).
Modifying Diskset Resource Properties
After a new diskset resource is added to the cluster, it appears in the
main Cluster Administrator window, as shown in Figure 15-3.
Figure 15-3. Diskset resource displayed in Cluster Administrator window
To display or modify the properties for the diskset resource:
1
Select the resource from the Name column in the Cluster
Administrator window.
2
Right-click on the resource name and select Properties from
the shortcut menu to display the Properties dialog box (see
Figure 15-4).
15-8
Working with Diskset Resources
Note: For an explanation of the fields on the General,
Dependencies, and Advanced tabs, see the Microsoft
Cluster Server Administrator’s Guide.
3
On the General tab, you can:
a Change the name of the resource by editing the Name field
b Edit the Description field to provide or modify the resource
description
c Change the entries in the Possible owners list (typically,
both cluster nodes should be listed)
d Indicate whether or not you want the resource to run in a
separate Resource Monitor
4
Using the Dependencies tab, you can add or modify
dependencies for the diskset resource.
5
On the Advanced tab, you can modify the Restart parameters,
the "Looks Alive" poll interval, the "Is Alive" poll interval,
and the Pending timeout.
6
On the Parameters tab, you can specify:
a Whether you want to disable chkdsk when the diskset
resource is brought online
b Whether you want to mount the diskset regardless of errors
(including those that could not be repaired by chkdsk)
15-9
Flexible Array Storage Tool User’s Guide
Figure 15-4. Parameters tab in Properties dialog box for a
NetRAID-4M Diskset resource
15-10
Dialog Box Element
Function
Diskset
Displays the name of the resource
Drives hosted
Displays the drives that are hosted
by this diskset; a drive letter
displayed in brackets (for example,
[F:]) indicates a controller or
container problem exists)
Diskset name and
creation date
Displays the diskset name (as it
appears in FAST) and the date and
time it was created
Container
information
Displays details for the containers
hosted by this diskset
Working with Diskset Resources
Dialog Box Element
Function
Disable check
disk during
online check box
Indicates whether to disable the
chkdsk operation when the diskset
is brought online
Mount if errors
detected check
box
Specifies whether the diskset should
be mounted when the chkdsk
operation could not repair all errors
❒
15-11
Flexible Array Storage Tool User’s Guide
15-12
A
Container Reconfiguration
Guidelines
The following table lists the topics covered in this appendix:
For information about…
Turn to…
Choosing Disks for Use in a Container
page A-2
Source: Volume Set, Single Partition
page A-3
Source: Volume Set, Multiple Partitions
page A-4
Source: Stripe Set (RAID 0)
page A-4
Source: Mirror Set (RAID 1)
page A-5
Source: RAID-5 Set
page A-5
Source: Stripe Set of Mirror Sets (RAID 0/1)
page A-7
Source: Volume Set of Stripe Sets
page A-7
Source: Volume Set of Mirror Sets
page A-7
Source: Volume Set of RAID-5 Sets
page A-8
Source: Stripe Set of RAID-5 Sets (RAID 50)
page A-8
Note: This appendix provides guidelines for migrating a
container’s RAID level, expanding its size, or both. The
configurations presented in this appendix are typical; other
configurations are possible.
A-1
Flexible Array Storage Tool User’s Guide
Choosing Disks for Use in a Container
When using either the Container Reconfiguration Wizard or the
Container Creation Wizard dialog boxes, the general guidelines in
Table A-1 can be applied to the selection of disks in the wizards’s
Disks list for specifying the destination container:
Table A-1. Guidelines for Selecting Disks
In Dest column
contains...
If the disk is...
Used in Destination...
Not selected
Never
Selected
Only if
X
Selected and forced
Always
X
The term destination container applies to both of these dialog boxes.
In the Container Creation Wizard, the container being created is
referred to as the destination container. In the Container
Reconfiguration Wizard, the destination container is the end result
of the container’s reconfiguration process.
The term source container applies only to the Container
Reconfiguration Wizard. The source container is the container
being reconfigured.
Refer to Reconfiguring a Container on page 11-2 for more information
on container reconfiguration.
Note: To be eligible for reconfiguration (either as a source or
destination container), a container can have no more than 32
physical disks.
A-2
Container Reconfiguration Guidelines
Source: Volume Set, Single Partition
Table A-2. Container Reconfiguration Wizard options for single-partition
volume set
Destination Type
Container Reconfiguration Wizard Settings
Volume set, single
partition
Disks: Select any one disk.
Size: Specify a size greater than or equal to
the size of the source container.
Volume set, multiple
partitions
Disks: Select two or more disks.
Size: Specify a size greater than or equal to
the size of the source container.
Stripe set (RAID 0)
Disks: Select one or more disks.
Size: Specify a size greater than or equal to
the size of the source container.
Mirror set (RAID 1)
Disks: Select two disks.
Size: Specify a size greater than or equal to
the size of the source container.
RAID-5 set
Disks: Select three or more disks.
Size: Specify a size greater than or equal to
the size of the source container.
Stripe set of mirror sets
(RAID 0/1)
Disks: This destination type uses an even
number of disks. Select two or more disks.
Size: Specify a size greater than or equal to
the size of the source container.
Volume set of mirror
sets
Disks: This destination type uses an even
number of disks. Select two or more disks.
Size: Specify a size greater than or equal to
the size of the source container.
A-3
Flexible Array Storage Tool User’s Guide
Source: Volume Set, Multiple Partitions
Table A-3. Container Reconfiguration Wizard options for multiple-partitions
volume set
Destination Type
Container Reconfiguration Wizard Settings
Volume set, single
partition
Disks: Select any one disk.
Size: Specify a size greater than or equal to the size
of the source container (logical disk).
Volume set,
multiple partitions
Disks: Select two or more disks.
Size: Specify a size greater than or equal to the size
of the source container.
Volume set of
mirror sets
Disks: Select two or more disks.
Size: Specify a size greater than or equal to the size
of the source container.
Source: Stripe Set (RAID 0)
Table A-4. Container Reconfiguration Wizard options for stripe set (RAID 0)
Destination Type
Container Reconfiguration Wizard Settings
Stripe set (RAID 0)
Disks: Select one or more disks.
Size: Specify a size greater than or equal to
the size of the source container (logical disk).
RAID-5 set
Disks: Select three or more disks.
Size: Specify a size greater than or equal to
the size of the source container.
Stripe set of mirror sets
(RAID 0/1)
Disks: This destination type will use an even
number of disks. Select two or more disks.
Size: Specify a size greater than or equal to
the size of the source container.
Volume set of stripe sets
Disks: Select all source disks plus one or more
other disks.
Size: Specify a size greater than or equal to
32 MB plus the size of the source container.
A-4
Container Reconfiguration Guidelines
Source: Mirror Set (RAID 1)
Table A-5. Container Reconfiguration Wizard options for mirror set (RAID 1)
Destination Type
Container Reconfiguration Wizard Settings
Stripe set (RAID 0)
Disks: Select one or more disks.
Size: Specify a size greater than or equal to
the size of the source container (logical disk).
Mirror set (RAID 1)
Disks: Select two disks.
Size: Specify a size greater than or equal to
the size of the source container.
RAID-5 set
Disks: Select three or more disks.
Size: Specify a size greater than or equal to
the size of the source container.
Stripe set of mirror sets
(RAID 0/1)
Disks: This destination type uses an even
number of disks. Select two or more disks.
Size: Specify a size greater than or equal to
the size of the source container.
Volume set of mirror
sets
Disks: This destination type uses an even
number of disks. Select two or more disks.
Size: Specify a size greater than or equal to
the size of the source container.
Source: RAID-5 Set
Table A-6. Container Reconfiguration Wizard options for RAID-5 set
Destination Type
Container Reconfiguration Wizard Settings
Stripe set (RAID 0)
Disks: Select one or more disks.
Size: Specify a size greater than or equal to
the size of the source container (logical disk).
RAID-5 set
Disks: Select three or more disks.
Size: Specify a size greater than or equal to
the size of the source container.
A-5
Flexible Array Storage Tool User’s Guide
Table A-6. Container Reconfiguration Wizard options for RAID-5 set
Destination Type
Container Reconfiguration Wizard Settings
Stripe set of mirror sets
(RAID 0/1)
Disks: This destination type will use an even
number of disks. Select two or more disks.
Size: Specify a size greater than or equal to
the size of the source container.
Volume set of RAID-5
sets
Disks: Select all source disks plus three or
more other disks.
Size: Specify a size greater than or equal to
32 MB plus the size of the source container.
A-6
Container Reconfiguration Guidelines
Source: Stripe Set of Mirror Sets (RAID 0/1)
Table A-7. Container Reconfiguration Wizard options for stripe set of
mirror sets (RAID 0/1): Minimum stripe of one mirror
Destination Type
Container Reconfiguration Wizard Settings
Stripe set (RAID 0)
Disks: Select one or more disks.
Size: Specify a size greater than or equal to
the size of the source container (logical disk).
RAID-5 set
Disks: Select three or more disks.
Size: Specify a size greater than or equal to
the size of the source container.
Stripe set of mirror sets
(RAID 0/1)
Disks: This destination type uses an even
number of disks. Select two or more disks.
Size: Specify a size greater than or equal to
the size of the source container.
Source: Volume Set of Stripe Sets
Table A-8. Container Reconfiguration Wizard options for volume set of stripe
sets: Minimum volume of two stripes, one partition each
Destination Type
Container Reconfiguration Wizard Settings
Volume set of stripe sets
Disks: Select all source disks plus two or
more other disks.
Size: Specify a size greater than or equal to
32 MB plus the size of the source container
(logical disk).
Source: Volume Set of Mirror Sets
Table A-9. Container Reconfiguration Wizard options for volume set of mirror
sets: Minimum volume of one mirror
Destination Type
Container Reconfiguration Wizard Settings
Volume set of mirror
sets
Disks: This destination type will use an even
number of disks. Select all source disks plus
two or more disks.
Size: Specify a size greater than or equal to
32 MB plus the size of the source container
(logical disk).
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Flexible Array Storage Tool User’s Guide
Source: Volume Set of RAID-5 Sets
Table A-10. Container Reconfiguration Wizard options for volume set of
RAID-5 sets: Minimum volume of two RAID-5 sets, three partitions each
Destination Type
Container Reconfiguration Wizard Settings
Volume set of RAID-5
sets
Disks: Select all source disks plus three or
more other disks.
Size: Specify a size greater than or equal to
32 MB plus the size of the source container
(logical disk).
Source: Stripe Set of RAID-5 Sets (RAID 50)
Table A-11. Container Reconfiguration Wizard options for stripe set of
RAID-5 sets: Minimum volume of two RAID-5 sets, three partitions each
Destination Type
Container Reconfiguration Wizard Settings
Stripe set (RAID 0)
Disks: Select one or more disks.
Size: Specify a size greater than or equal to
the size of the source container (logical disk).
Mirror set (RAID 1)
Disks: Select two disks.
Size: Specify a size greater than or equal to
the size of the source container (logical disk).
RAID-5 set
Disks: Select three or more disks.
Size: Specify a size greater than or equal to
the size of the source container.
Stripe set of mirror sets
(RAID 0/1)
Disks: This destination type will use an even
number of disks. Select two or more disks.
Size: Specify a size greater than or equal to
the size of the source container.
❒
A-8
B
Remote Management
The following table lists the topics covered in this appendix:
For information about…
Turn to…
Installing the Remote Management Software
page B-1
Security Requirements
page B-2
Limiting Access to a Controller
page B-3
Installing the Remote Management Software
Using the controller management software, you can manage
controllers that are installed in other computers. This is referred to
as remote management.
The controller management software (including FAST and the CLI)
is installed when you use the controller installation software to
perform a Full Install, Controller Hardware on Local System.
To remotely manage controllers from a system that does not have a
local controller, use the installation software supplied with the
controller to perform a Remote Management Software Install, No
Controller Hardware.
The controller remote management software requires Windows NT
4.0 or above or Windows 2000.
B-1
Flexible Array Storage Tool User’s Guide
Note: To remotely manage a controller that is installed on a
NetWare™ server, the NetWare server must have its network
up and running, and the spxs.nlm module must be
loaded. For more information, see the installation guide for
your controller and the NetWare system documentation.
Security Requirements
The remote management software provides stringent security
measures to prevent unauthorized management of controllers from
the network. These security measures stipulate the following
requirements for users who want to remotely manage controllers:
■
The user’s computer must be in the same domain as, or in a
domain trusted by, the computer containing the controller. If
this requirement is not met, the user receives the following
error message:
Remote access was denied. The domain is not
trusted or the user is not allowed to login to
this domain.
■
The user must log in using a Windows NT or Windows 2000
account that is recognized by the computer with the controller.
If this requirement is not met, the user receives the following
error message:
Remote access was denied. The domain is not
trusted or the user is not allowed to login to
this domain.
■
B-2
The user must have permission to access the controller. When
FAST is installed, the default access control list (ACL) for the
controller allows access only to members of the Administrators
group. A user must be in the Administrators group on the
remote computer to access the controller over the network.
Alternatively, the default ACL can be modified to grant access
privilege to a particular user or group of users (see Modifying
the ACL for a Controller on page B-3). If a user who is not a
member of the Administrators group or who has not been
explicitly added to the controller’s ACL attempts to access the
controller, the user receives the following error message:
Remote Management
Remote access was denied. The user has no
permission to access the specified device.
Limiting Access to a Controller
The controller management software supports two methods for
protecting controllers from unauthorized access by users:
■
Network-wide access protection
■
Access control list (ACL) protection
Network-wide Access Protection
You can set read-write or read-only access to all controllers in the
network by using the FAST Management Interfaces dialog box
described in Appendix C, FAST Management Interfaces. The access
level you specify is granted only to members of the Administrators
group.
To allow individual users to access a particular controller, you must
modify the access control list (ACL) for that controller.
Modifying the ACL for a Controller
You can restrict or extend access to a controller through its access
control list (ACL), which is associated with the UserPermissions
subkey in the Windows NT registry.
When the controller is installed, the UserPermissions subkey is
created with a default ACL that includes the Administrators group.
This should be a suitable default for using the controller. However,
by modifying the controller’s ACL, you can extend access privileges
to individual users or users in groups other than Administrators.
The location of the UserPermissions key in the registry is as follows:
HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE
\SOFTWARE
\Adaptec
\RAIDController
\HPN
\UserPermissions
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Flexible Array Storage Tool User’s Guide
You must use the Windows NT Registry Editor (regedt32) to
modify the ACL for a controller, as follows:
1
2
At the command prompt, run regedt32.
In the Registry Editor, locate the UserPermissions subkey and
double-click it.
3
4
Select Permissions from the Security menu.
5
To remove a user or group from the ACL, select the user or
group from the Name list and click Remove.
6
To add a user or group to the ACL, click Add. In the Add Users
and Groups dialog box, click Show Users to include
individual user names in the Name list. Select one or more
names from the list and click Add. Select an access type from
the Type of Access list, and click OK.
❒
B-4
In the Registry Key Permissions dialog box, select a user or
group from the Name list to change the permissions for that
user or group. Select an access type from the Type of Access
list, and click OK.
C
FAST Management
Interfaces
The following table summarizes the topics presented in this
appendix:
For information about…
Turn to…
Accessing the FAST Management Interfaces Dialog
Box
page C-1
Setting Network-wide Permissions for Remote
Access to Controllers
page C-3
Enabling E-Mail Notification
page C-3
Accessing the FAST Management Interfaces
Dialog Box
The FAST Management Interfaces dialog box supports the
following:
■
Setting permissions for remote access of all controllers in a
system
■
Enabling e-mail notification
To access the FAST Management Interfaces dialog box, do the
following:
C-1
Flexible Array Storage Tool User’s Guide
1
In the Control Panel, double-click the FAST icon (Figure C-1).
Figure C-1. FAST Management Interfaces icon
The FAST Management Interfaces dialog box appears
(Figure C-2).
Figure C-2. FAST Management Interfaces dialog box
Dialog Box Element
Function
Remote Access
Deny Remote Access
option
Prevents all users from remotely accessing
any controller in the system
Allow Remote ReadOnly Access option
Allows Administrators to remotely access any
controller in the system in read-only mode
Allow Remote
Read/Write Access
option
Allows Administrators to remotely access any
controller in the system in read-write mode
Management Interfaces
E-Mail Notification
check box
C-2
Turns on e-mail notification, which must be
configured from the CLI; applies to Windows
NT and Windows 2000 systems only
FAST Management Interfaces
Dialog Box Element
Function
OK button
Accepts the changes and closes the window.
Temporarily stops the controller’s Remote
Services Agent, disables remote access and, if
appropriate, disables e-mail notification.
Cancel button
Ignores changes and closes the dialog box.
2
3
Verify and/or change the options in the window.
Click OK.
Setting Network-wide Permissions for Remote
Access to Controllers
To set network-wide permissions for remote access to all controllers
in the network, select one of the radio buttons in the FAST control
panel applet to:
■
Deny remote access
■
Allow remote read-only access
■
Allow remote read/write access
Enabling E-Mail Notification
1
2
3
4
5
6
Open the FAST Management Interfaces dialog box.
Check the E-Mail Notification check box.
Click OK.
Open a Command Prompt window.
Use the CLI command mail set server to set the computer that
will process e-mail messages for controller events. This
computer must support the Simple Mail Transport Protocol
(SMTP). See the Command Line Interface Reference Guide for
information on the mail set server command.
Use the CLI command mail set message to enable (set) e-mail
message reporting for one event, several or more events, or all
events. This command provides a switch for each event type,
so that you can specifically indicate the events for which you
want e-mail message reporting. See the Command Line Interface
C-3
Flexible Array Storage Tool User’s Guide
Reference Guide for information on the mail set message
command, including each of the event type switches.
7
❒
C-4
Use the CLI command mail clear message to disable (clear) email message reporting for one event, several or more events,
or all events. This command provides a switch for each event
type, so that you can specifically indicate the events for which
you do not want e-mail message reporting. See the Command
Line Interface Reference Guide for information on the mail clear
message command, including each of the event type switches.
D
Monitoring Controller
Performance
Using the Windows NT Performance Monitor, you can monitor
controller performance during I/O operations on containers.
Containers (logical disks) are monitored using the standard
Windows NT PhysicalDisk and LogicalDisk counters in the
Performance Monitor. To use these counters, you must first enable
the diskperf filter driver.
To enable the diskperf filter driver, do the following:
1
At the command prompt, type:
diskperf -y
2
Reboot the system.
Note: Enabling the diskperf filter driver adds some minor
CPU overhead to every I/O operation performed to a disk
device.
To disable the diskperf filter driver, do the following:
1
At the command prompt, type:
diskperf -n
2
Reboot the system.
❒
D-1
Flexible Array Storage Tool User’s Guide
D-2
E
NetWare and rconsole
The following table summarizes the topics presented in this
appendix:
For information about…
Turn to…
Using the rconsole Utility
page E-1
Running rconsole
page E-1
Using the rconsole Utility
FAST and CLI are not optimized for the NetWare™ operating system
as they are for Windows NT and Windows 2000. As a result, several
operations in FAST and CLI (such as creating, deleting,
reconfiguring, and extending containers) require that you do some
work on the NetWare console to make the NetWare operating
system aware of the devices that make up a container (logical disk).
To make these tasks easier to accomplish, we recommend that you
avail yourself of NetWare’s rconsole utility, which permits the
NetWare console to be displayed remotely on a Windows NT or
Windows 2000 client. Using rconsole, you do not have to move
physically to the NetWare server that has the controller installed in it
when you administer the controller from a Windows NT or
Windows 2000 client running FAST.
Running rconsole
For information on how to set up and configure the rconsole
utility on the NetWare server, see the appropriate NetWare
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Flexible Array Storage Tool User’s Guide
documentation. To set up and run the rconsole utility from a
Windows NT or Windows 2000 client, follow these steps:
1
Ensure that you have a Network Interface Card installed and
configured, and that you have established the client service for
NetWare. For information on how to set up the client service
for NetWare, see the appropriate Microsoft documentation.
2
Map the network drive to the sys:public area on the
NetWare™ server, which is where the rconsole utility is
installed.
3
Execute the \sys:public\rconsole.exe utility. When the
utility starts up, the following occurs:
a You are prompted to select a connection type. Select SPX.
b A scrolling list of nodes on the SPX network appears. Select
the NetWare server that contains the controller you are
administering.
c You are prompted for the NetWare server’s login and
password. Enter the NetWare server’s login and password.
If the login and password are authenticated, the NetWare
server’s console is displayed remotely on the Windows NT
or Windows 2000 client.
❒
E-2
F
Troubleshooting Problems
in a Cluster
The following table lists the topics covered in this appendix:
For information about…
Turn to…
Using the Cluster Log File for Troubleshooting
page F-1
Recovering from a Damaged Quorum Resource
page F-3
Troubleshooting Problems with Node Connections
page F-4
Troubleshooting Problems with Devices
page F-4
Troubleshooting Problems with Diskset Resources
page F-5
Troubleshooting Problems with Termination
page F-6
Troubleshooting Problems with Channel
Configuration
page F-6
Cluster Configuration Checklist
page F-7
For more information on troubleshooting problems in a cluster, see
the Microsoft Web site at www.microsoft.com.
Using the Cluster Log File for Troubleshooting
This section explains how to create a permanent log file for the
Cluster Service and how to start the Cluster Service in debug mode.
F-1
Flexible Array Storage Tool User’s Guide
Creating a Permanent Log File for the Cluster Service
To create a permanent log file for the Cluster Service, set the
following environment variables and reboot the system:
Variable
Example
ClusterLog=filename
ClusterLog=C:\cluster.log
ClusterLogSize=n (in MB)
ClusterLogSize=400
ClusterLogLevel=n
ClusterLogLevel=3
When ClusterLogLevel is set to 3, all messages (regardless of
severity) are added to the log file. For more information on the
Cluster Service environment variables and log file, see the Microsoft
Cluster Server Administration Guide.
If you have not set the ClusterLog environment variable, you can
create the cluster log file by using the set CLUSTERLOG =
filename command.
Starting the Cluster Service in Debug Mode
To view messages generated by the Cluster Service on the screen (in
addition to adding the messages to the Cluster Service log file),
follow these steps:
1
Stop the Cluster Service by entering the following command in
a command prompt window:
net stop clussvc
2
Start the Cluster Service in debug mode, as follows:
a In a command prompt window, change directory to where
the cluster software is installed (typically
\winnt\cluster).
b Assuming the environment variables for creating a
permanent cluster log file have been set (see Creating a
Permanent Log File for the Cluster Service on page F-2), enter
the following command:
start clussvc -debug
F-2
Troubleshooting Problems in a Cluster
Another command prompt window is automatically
displayed, showing the events that are being written to the
cluster log file.
Note: This window must remain open for the Cluster
Service to continue to run in debug mode. When the
Cluster Service is running in debug mode, its status in
the Services dialog box does not indicate that the
service has been started. This is normal behavior.
3
To stop the Cluster Service in debug mode, close both the
command prompt window in which cluster events are
displayed and the command prompt window from which the
Cluster Service was started in debug mode.
4
Restart the Cluster Service in normal mode by entering the
following command in a command prompt window:
net start clussvc
Recovering from a Damaged Quorum Resource
To recover from a damaged quorum resource, follow these steps:
1
2
3
Boot only one cluster node.
4
Start the cluster with the fixquorum switch by entering the
following command in a command prompt window:
Wait until the Cluster Service stops trying to start.
Specify the name of a file to use as the cluster log file (see
Creating a Permanent Log File for the Cluster Service on page F-2).
start clussvc -fixquorum
5
6
7
Connect to the cluster using the MSCS Cluster Administrator.
Move the quorum to another resource.
Reboot the node.
F-3
Flexible Array Storage Tool User’s Guide
Troubleshooting Problems with Node
Connections
This section describes some common problems that can occur with
node connections and provides suggestions for corrective action.
Cannot Connect to Peer Partner
If both cluster nodes appear to be running, but attempts to open the
controller on a peer partner fail, check to see if the NetRAID-4M
Remote Services Agent and the Cluster Service are running on all
nodes.
Cluster Service Cannot Log In
If the Cluster Service cannot log in, ensure that the password for the
account used by this service is valid.
FAST Does Not Display a Peer Partner Controller
When a peer partner controller is not visible in any FAST views,
check for a loose or disconnected private network cable.
Troubleshooting Problems with Devices
This section describes some common problems that can occur with
devices and provides suggestions for corrective action.
Too Many Devices are Visible in FAST Views
When all targets and LUNs are visible in FAST, check for a SCSI ID
conflict.
Half the Devices in an Enclosure Are Not Visible in FAST
Views
If, when all cluster nodes are connected to an enclosure, only half the
devices in that enclosure are visible in FAST, the enclosure has not
been properly cluster-enabled. See the documentation for your
enclosure for instructions on how to enable it for use in a cluster.
F-4
Troubleshooting Problems in a Cluster
Devices Are Not Consistently Visible in FAST Views
When drives are not visible in FAST views, or drives appear then
disappear from FAST views, check for bent pins on the connector, a
bad cable, a loose cable, or a non-LVD cable.
First I/O Operation Hangs the Cluster
The cluster appears to be properly connected and the cluster
software appears to be properly installed, but as soon as the first I/O
operation is started, the cluster hangs. Check for an improper SCSI
termination. (For more information on SCSI termination in a cluster,
see Cluster Configuration Checklist on page F-7.)
Driver Cannot Execute the Requested IOCTL
When the controller cannot access disk drives or create a diskset,
and the following error message is displayed, the driver for the
controller is either not installed or is not up-to-date:
The driver cannot execute the requested IOCTL.
See the installation guide for your controller for information on
installing or updating the driver for the controller.
Troubleshooting Problems with Diskset
Resources
This section describes some common problems that can occur with
diskset resources and provides suggestions for corrective action.
Diskset Resource Type Does Not Exist in Cluster
Administrator
When the diskset resource type is not available through the New
Resource wizard in the Cluster Administrator, ensure that the
NetRAID-4M Cluster software was properly installed. This software
includes the necessary DLLs to implement the diskset resource type.
Diskset Parameters Screen Does Not Appear
If the HPNvdisk Parameters screen does not appear when you use
the New Resource wizard in the Cluster Administrator to create a
diskset resource (that is, when the wizard’s Dependencies screen
has a Finish button), the NetRAID-4M Cluster software was not
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Flexible Array Storage Tool User’s Guide
properly installed. Following the instructions in the installation
guide for your controller, reinstall the NetRAID-4M Cluster
software.
Diskset Resources Are Not Visible in the Cluster
Administrator
If no diskset resources are visible in the Cluster Administrator on a
cluster node, ensure that the NetRAID-4M Remote Services Agent is
running on that node.
Troubleshooting Problems with Termination
This section describes a possible problem that can occur with onboard termination and provides a suggestion for corrective action.
Termination Problems Occur When a Node is Powered Off
To fix termination problems that occur when one of the cluster
nodes is powered off, put termination jumpers on the controller
board, one for each channel. At a minimum, all shared channels
must be jumpered in this manner.
Troubleshooting Problems with Channel
Configuration
This section describes a possible problem that can occur with
channel configuration and provides a suggestion for corrective
action.
Channel Configuration Error
When a channel configuration error occurs during the boot process,
the following message is displayed on the console:
Channel Configuration error on channel #3
Non shared channel connected to other adapters
<<<< FATAL CONFIGURATION EROR DETECTED >>>>
<<<<
CANNOT CONTINUE BOOT PROCESS
>>>>
Make sure each shared channel is cluster-enabled on all cluster
nodes.
F-6
Troubleshooting Problems in a Cluster
Cluster Configuration Checklist
When attempts to troubleshoot a cluster-related problem are
unsuccessful, follow the procedures in this section.
Checking SCSI Cables and Connectors
❑ Power down all equipment in the cluster.
❑ Disconnect all SCSI cables from all controllers.
❑ Check each controller in the first node:
❑ Remove the controller from the machine.
❑ Check the daughter card to make sure the battery is
connected and the card is securely screwed down to the
controller.
❑ Check internal and external SCSI connectors for damage.
❑ Check termination jumpers to ensure that a jumper is
present on each shared, cluster-enabled channel.
❑ Reinsert the controller into the machine, making sure it is
properly seated and correctly aligned in the PCI slot.
❑ Engage any mechanism that locks the controller into the PCI
slot.
❑ Detach the SCSI cables from the storage controllers.
❑ Check each SCSI cable for bent pins.
❑ Attach all SCSI cables to the controllers and securely fasten the
connectors to the controllers.
❑ Detach the SCSI cables from the enclosures, and check the SCSI
cables for bent pins.
❑ Leave the cables disconnected either at the controller or the
enclosure until after the SCSI settings have been checked.
❑ Attach SCSI cables to the storage enclosures and securely
screw the connectors to the enclosures.
❑ Check the storage enclosure settings to ensure both ends are
cluster-enabled.
❑ Repeat this procedure on the remaining nodes.
F-7
Flexible Array Storage Tool User’s Guide
Checking Initiator IDs and the Cluster-Enabled Switch
❑ Power up all external drive enclosures.
❑ Power up the first node.
❑ Press Ctrl/a to enter the BIOS screen for the controller, and
perform the following:
❑ Check the Initiator ID to make sure it does not conflict with
that of any other node in the cluster.
❑ Check the Initiator ID to make sure it does not conflict with
the IDs of any internal or external devices or SAF-TE
devices.
❑ Check that the cluster enabled option is set.
❑ Exit the BIOS.
❑ Allow the first node to boot to the multi-boot screen and stop
the countdown.
❑ Repeat this procedure for all remaining controllers in the first
node.
❑ Power down the first node.
❑ Repeat this procedure for all controllers in all remaining nodes.
Controlled Cluster Startup and Verification
❑ Power up all cluster nodes.
❑ Allow all nodes to boot to the multi-boot screen.
❑ Reset all nodes (do not cycle the power, use the CPU reset
button) to avoid possible power-up problems in the
enclosures.
❑ Allow one node to boot to the multi-boot screen and stop the
countdown.
❑ Allow another node to boot to Windows NT or Windows 2000
and allow time for the services to start.
❑ Verify that the driver, application software, and cluster
software for the controllers are at the proper revisions.
❑ Log in and shut down the Cluster Service using the following
command in a command prompt window:
F-8
Troubleshooting Problems in a Cluster
net stop clussvc
❑ Use FAST to manually attach all disksets, as follows:
❑ Open the Command Prompt window in FAST.
❑ List all disksets using the following CLI command:
disk_set list
❑ Force ownership of each diskset using the following CLI
command, specifying the diskset ID and name of the
owning node:
disk_set forceownership/unconditional ID
Owner
❑ Clear the OS Managed setting for all disksets using the
following CLI command:
disk_set osmanaged/false ID Owner
❑ Use the Manage Disksets dialog box to attach all disksets.
❑ Verify that the containers and drive letters hosted by each
diskset are visible in FAST views.
❑ Run chkdsk to verify the file systems.
❑ Use FAST to manually detach all disksets, as follows:
❑ Using the Manage Disksets dialog box, detach all disksets.
❑ Set the OS Managed attribute using the following CLI
command:
disk_set osmanaged ID Owner
❑ Start the Cluster Service by entering the following command in
a command prompt window, and wait for the service to
successfully start:
net start clussvc
❑ Connect to the cluster using the Cluster Administrator to
verify that the Cluster Service completes the start sequence
and that all diskset resources are online.
❑ Use FAST to verify that the containers and drive letters hosted
by each diskset are visible.
❑ Verify that disk I/O can be performed to each container by
copying files to and from the containers.
F-9
Flexible Array Storage Tool User’s Guide
❑ Reboot the node and stop the countdown at the multi-boot
screen.
❑ Repeat this procedure on all remaining nodes in the cluster.
Verifying Cluster Software
❑ Boot all nodes in the cluster.
❑ Connect to the cluster using the Cluster Administrator to
verify that all nodes and resources are online.
❑ Move all resources to one node.
❑ Copy files to and from the resources to verify I/O operation.
❑ Move all resources to another node.
❑ Copy files to and from the resources to verify I/O operation.
❑ Move half the resources to the first node.
❑ Copy files to and from the resources to verify I/O operation.
❑ Exchange the resources.
❑ Copy files to and from the resources to verify I/O operation.
❑ Move all resources to the first node.
❑ Copy files to and from the resources to verify I/O operation.
❑ After the reset node reboots, start the Cluster Administrator on
another node.
❑ Reset one of the other nodes.
❑ Verify that all resources are online on the node that just
rebooted.
❒
F-10
Glossary
A
active controller
The controller whose objects
appear in the active view window.
array
See container.
attached
In a cluster, a state in which the
container information for diskset
member disks is made accessible
to the controller. Contrast with
detached.
B
background consistency check
An option that forces the
controller to constantly check all
portions of disks used by all
containers to see if the disks can
return data from the blocks. On a
fully-redundant RAID-5 set with
no dead partitions, the controller
will repair any data that cannot be
read. This option is set in the
SCSISelect utility in the
controller’s BIOS, and is set to
Enabled by default. See also
Consistency Check command.
backing container
The container that holds the
snapshot of the original
container.See also snapshot.
bad partition
A partition that is in an unknown
state. See also partition.
C
channel
Any path used for the transfer of
data and the control of
information between storage
devices and a storage controller.
Each controller’s channel is
identified by a number from 0 to
the maximum number of channels
minus 1. SCSI devices connected
to controllers are identified by
their channel number, SCSI device
ID (also know as target ID), and
LUN (Channel:ID:LUN). See also
LUN; SCSI device ID.
CLI
Stands for Command Line Interface.
The CLI provides commands that
allow you to configure and
manage components running on
the controller.
Glossary-1
Flexible Array Storage Tool User’s Guide
Consistency Check command
A command that reads all the
blocks of a mirror set or RAID-5
set to determine if the blocks are
consistent. If any inconsistent
blocks are detected, they are fixed.
See also background consistency
check.
cluster
A hardware configuration in
which two computers, or nodes,
have access to one or more disk
arrays on one or more shared
SCSI channels. Clusters are
supported only on Windows NT
or Windows 2000 systems.
cluster resource
(1) An entity that is managed by
the Microsoft Cluster Server
software. (2) An instance of a
cluster resource type. See also
cluster resource type.
cluster resource type
A set of properties and
functionality, implemented
through a dynamic-link library
(DLL), that communicates with
the MSCS Resource Monitors and
Cluster Service. MSCS Cluster
Server (MSCS) software includes
a set of standard resource types
that can be extended by thirdparty vendors through the API
provided in the Microsoft
Platform SDK.
Cluster Administrator utility
A graphical tool for creating and
managing cluster resources. The
Cluster Administrator utility is
installed when you install the
Glossary-2
Microsoft Cluster Server (MSCS)
software. See also cluster
resource.
container
A logical disk (array) created from
freespace and made up of one or
more partitions on one or more
physical disks. Containers are
categorized as follows: (a) Singlelevel container—a combination of
one or more partitions (b)
Multilevel container—a
combination of one or more
containers. Containers differ from
conventional RAID arrays in that
their underlying partitions can be
smaller than a physical disk.
Consequently, several containers’
partitions can reside on a single
physical disk. See also mirror set;
multilevel container; RAID-5 set;
single-level container; stripe set;
stripe set of mirror sets; volume
set; volume set of mirror sets;
volume set of RAID-5 sets;
volume set of stripe sets; stripe
set of RAID-5 sets.
controller
Microprocessor-based advanced
RAID controller.
controller management
software
Consists of the Flexible Array
Storage Tool (FAST), the
command-line interface (CLI),
and the controller’s BIOS utilities.
controlling partner
In a cluster, the node or controller
that is currently open in FAST. All
views in FAST ares shown from
the perspective of the controlling
Glossary
partner, which initiates all
container management
operations. Contrast with peer
partner.
character-based disk
management tools.
D
Disk Management utility
A system utility, supplied with
Windows 2000, for managing
hard disks and the volumes, or
partitions, they contain. For more
information on Disk
Management, see the Microsoft
Windows 2000 online help.
dead partition
A partition that is no longer
usable by a container because it is
either logically bad, and therefore
no longer needed, or physically
damaged. See also container;
partition.
device slot
See slot.
detached
In a cluster, a state in which
partitions and container
information for a container on a
shared channel is not visible to
the controller; corresponds to the
offline resource state in Cluster
Administrator. Contrast with
attached.
disk
A physical disk drive on a SCSI
channel. Disks are addressed by
their disk ID, which includes the
channel number, SCSI device ID,
and LUN. See also channel; disk
ID; LUN; SCSI device ID.
Disk Administrator
A graphical Windows NT tool for
managing disks. Disk
Administrator allows you to
partition new disks or further
partition disks that do not contain
Windows NT system files. Disk
Administrator encompasses and
extends the functionality of
disk array
See container.
disk ID
Consists of the channel number,
SCSI device ID (also known as
target ID), and LUN
(Channel:ID:LUN); for example,
1:04:0. See also channel; LUN;
SCSI device ID.
diskset
In a cluster, a collection of
physical disks on a shared SCSI
channel from which containers
can be created. See also attached;
spare set diskset; diskset
resource.
diskset resource
(1) A custom cluster resource that
wraps a diskset, enabling the
diskset to be managed by the
Microsoft Cluster Server (MSCS)
software. (2) An instance of a
diskset resource type. See also
cluster resource; diskset; diskset
resource type.
diskset resource type
An extension to the set of
standard cluster resource types
that is created through the
hpnvdisk.dll and hpnvdiskex.dll
Glossary-3
Flexible Array Storage Tool User’s Guide
dynamic-link libraries provided
with the cluster add-on software
kit.
dynamic disk
On a Windows 2000 system, a
logical device composed of
multiple extents (pieces of
containers) that are managed as a
unit by the Microsoft Logical
Device Manager.
E
enclosure
A physical housing for disks,
which can be connected internally
or externally to a computer. An
enclosure usually contains one or
more power supplies, fans, and
temperature sensors. The term
enclosure also applies to a SAF-TEcomplaint backplane.
enclosure ID
Consists of the channel number,
SCSI device ID (also known as
target ID), and LUN
(Channel:ID:LUN), for example,
1:04:0. See also channel; LUN;
SCSI device ID.
expand
To add space to a container by
adding freespace or another
container.
Extend File System command
A command that makes
additional space available to an
NTFS file system on a container
that was expanded using the
Container Reconfiguration
Wizard. The Extend File System
command is not available for FAT
Glossary-4
file systems or for containers with
multiple operating system
partitions; these file systems must
be extended using Disk
Administrator. See also container;
Disk Administrator; file system.
F
FAST
Stands for Flexible Array Storage
Tool. FAST is the graphical user
interface for configuring and
managing components running
on the controller.
FAST object
A physical or logical component
of the system as it appears in
FAST, including channels,
containers, controllers, disks,
disksets (cluster only), freespace,
partitions, and SAF-TE
enclosures.
file system
A layer of software that manages
a collection of files within a
directory structure. The controller
management software supports
the following types of file
systems: FAT, FAT32, and NTFS.
freespace
The unused space on an
initialized disk from which
containers are created. When a
container is deleted, the space that
it used is returned to the freespace
pool. See also container.
FtDisk
Stands for fault-tolerant disk driver.
FtDisk is a Windows NT driver
that creates and manages I/O to
Glossary
Windows NT volume, stripe,
mirror, and duplex sets, and also
recovers data. FtDisk partitions
cannot be managed by the
controller management software;
they must be managed in Disk
Administrator. See also Disk
Administrator.
disk is initialized, the controller
writes special configuration
metadata on the disk and
destroys any existing data on the
disk. You must first initialize a
disk before you can use it as a
member of a container or as a
spare disk. See also metadata.
G
J
global spare
A special type of spare disk that is
available as a spare to all
redundant containers.
JBOD
Stands for Just a Bunch of Disks.
H
logical unit number
See LUN.
hidden container
A container that is never visible
to the Windows NT operating
system and can only be used by
other containers. For example, in
a volume set of mirror sets, the
underlying mirror sets are hidden
containers that are used by the
top-level volume set. Hidden
containers are numbered 24
through 63. Contrast visible
container. See also container;
volume set; volume set of mirror
sets.
hot-swap
To remove a component from a
system and install a new
component while the power is on
and the system is running.
I
initialize
The process of preparing a disk
for use by the controller. When a
L
LUN
Stands for logical unit number. The
number assigned to a subdevice
(logical unit) of a SCSI device.
Each SCSI device can contain up
to eight subdevices numbered 0
through 7; however, most SCSI
devices contain only one
subdevice.
M
metadata
The information used by the file
system to describe, among other
things, the location of user data
on the disk.
migration
Changing the performance and
redundancy attributes of a
container by changing its RAID
level.
Glossary-5
Flexible Array Storage Tool User’s Guide
mirror set
A single-level container made up
of two equal-sized partitions that
reside on two different disks. A
mirror set stores and maintains
the same, or redundant, data in
each of its two partitions. Also
called RAID-1. See also partition;
redundancy; single-level
container.
MSCS
Stands for Microsoft Cluster Server.
The software on a Windows NT or
Windows 2000 system that
manages resources in a cluster
configuration. See also Cluster
Administrator utility.
multilevel container
A logical disk created from one or
more single-level containers.
Contrast single-level container.
See also container; stripe set of
mirror sets; volume set of mirror
sets; volume set of RAID-5 sets;
volume set of stripe sets; stripe
set of RAID-5 sets.
N
node
A computer that is a member of a
cluster.
non-compact mode
A method for creating a snapshot
where the size of the backing
container is slightly larger than
the size of the original container.
Contrast compact mode. See also
backing container; snapshot.
Glossary-6
O
OCE
Stands for online capacity
expansion. The ability to increase
the size of a container without
taking the container offline. Note
that during expansion, fault
tolerance and access to the
container’s data are maintained,
but performance may degrade
slightly. See also container.
offline
In a cluster, a state in which a
resource is unavailable to clients
and other resources. Contrast
with online. See also cluster
resource.
offset
The distance from the beginning
of a disk to the start of a partition.
online
In a cluster, a state in which a
resource is available to clients and
other resources. Contrast with
offline. See also cluster resource.
online capacity expansion
See OCE.
orphan partition
A partition in a multi-partition
container that is missing or cannot
be configured. A partition can
become an orphan when the disk
on which it resides is
disconnected from the controller.
See also container; partition.
OS Managed
In a cluster, a state in which a
diskset’s Attached attribute is
Glossary
placed under the control of the
Microsoft Cluster Server (MSCS)
software. When a diskset
resource wrapping exists for a
diskset, the diskset enters the OS
Managed state. See also attached.
phantom object
A component that cannot be
configured by the controller
management software. FAST
phantom object icons are gray
with a white outline.
P
Q
parity
The form of redundancy used to
recreate the data of a failed disk
in a RAID-5 set. See also RAID-5
set; redundant.
quorum disk
In a cluster, a physical disk that
maintains the most recent
configuration data necessary for
recovery of the cluster. The
quorum disk can be owned by
one cluster node at a time.
partition
User-specified freespace on a
physical disk that is reserved
when a container is either created
or rebuilt. A partition can only
belong to one container. See also
container; rebuild; freespace.
peer partner
In a cluster, the remaining node
or controller in the cluster opened
by FAST. The peer partner
controller appears as a device on
a shared channel in Controller
view. Contrast with controlling
partner.
Performance Monitor
Performance Monitor (PerfMon)
is a standard Windows NT utility
that measures the performance of
a variety of system components
(such as the CPU, memory, disk
I/O, network I/O, and so on).
PerfMon, which can be launched
from FAST, can be used to
measure the performance of I/O
on the controller.
R
RAID 0
See stripe set.
RAID 1
See mirror set.
RAID 0/1
See stripe set of mirror sets.
RAID-5 set
A single-level container that is
similar to a stripe set, except that
its data is redundant. A RAID-5
set must be made up of at least
three equal-sized partitions. In a
RAID-5 set, one stripe is used for
parity data. The parity stripe is
distributed across all disks
containing partitions of the
RAID-5 set. See also stripe;
parity; partition; single-level
container.
RAID 50
See stripe set of RAID-5 sets.
Glossary-7
Flexible Array Storage Tool User’s Guide
rebuild
The reconstruction of a failed
disk’s data. When a disk in a
redundant container fails, the
controller reconstructs the data on
a spare disk which then replaces
the failed disk. See also disk;
spare disk.
reconfiguration
The process of expanding a
container; migrating a container
from one RAID level to another;
changing the stripe size of a stripe
set, RAID-5 set, or stripe set of
mirror sets; or moving a
container’s partitions to other
disks. See also stripe size;
container; partition; RAID-5 set;
stripe set; stripe set of mirror
sets.
redundancy
Duplication of data in a RAID
system to protect against data loss
if a device fails. See also RAID-5
set.
S
SAF-TE
Stands for SCSI Accessed FaultTolerant Enclosure. See enclosure.
SCSI device ID
The number assigned to each SCSI
device attached to a SCSI channel.
Also know as the target ID. See
also channel; disk ID; enclosure
ID.
single-level container
A logical disk created from one or
more partitions. Contrast
multilevel container. See also
Glossary-8
volume set; stripe set; mirror set;
RAID-5 set.
slot
A receptacle in an enclosure for
inserting and removing a SCSI
device.
S.M.A.R.T.
Stands for Self-Monitoring Analysis
and Reporting Technology. A
S.M.A.R.T. disk continually
monitors itself and reports when a
disk failure is imminent.
snapshot
An instantaneous read-only copy
of a container at a given point in
time. Snapshot is typically used
for backing up a container’s data
without having to take the
container offline.
spare disk
A disk that is configured to
automatically receive data from a
failed partition/disk in a
redundant container (logical disk)
configuration. See also disk;
rebuild.
spare set
A diskset that is designated as a
source of spare disks for a
redundant container on a shared
channel in a cluster. Note that
containers cannot be created on
spare set disksets.
Split command
A command that divides a mirror
set into two identical volume sets,
and is usually used for archiving
data. This command works for
both single- and multilevel mirror
set containers. See also mirror set;
Glossary
redundancy; Unmirror
command.
stripe
A contiguous set of data
distributed across all the disks in
a container. See also RAID-5 set;
stripe set; stripe set of mirror
sets.
stripe set
A single-level container made up
of two or more equal-sized
partitions that reside on different
disks. The stripe set distributes,
or stripes, data evenly across its
respective disks in equal-sized
sections called stripes. Also called
RAID 0. See also stripe; partition;
single-level container.
stripe set of mirror sets
A multilevel container made up
of two or more equal-sized mirror
sets. A stripe set of mirror sets
distributes data evenly across all
disks in the container. Also called
RAID 0/1. See also mirror set;
multilevel container; striped
container.
stripe set of RAID-5 sets
A multilevel container made up
of two or more equal-sized RAID5 sets. A stripe set of RAID-5 sets
distributes data evenly across all
disks in the container. Also called
RAID 50. See also RAID-5 set.
stripe size
The amount of data that is written
to each partition in a striped
container as the controller cycles its
writes through all the container’s
disks. See also RAID-5 set; stripe
set; stripe set of mirror sets.
striped container
A container that supports the
distribution of data across all the
disks in the container. Striped
containers include stripe set
(RAID 0), RAID-5 set, and striped
set of mirror sets (RAID 0/1),
volume set of stripe sets, stripe
set of RAID-5 sets, and volume
set of RAID-5 sets. See also
RAID-5 set; stripe set; stripe set
of mirror sets; volume set of
stripe sets; volume set of RAID-5
sets; stripe set of RAID-5 sets.
T
target ID
See SCSI device ID.
task
An operation that occurs
asynchronously to all other
operations (such as a consistency
check or creating a file system).
top-level container
The uppermost container in a
multilevel container. For
example, the stripe set is a toplevel container in a stripe set of
mirror sets. Contrast underlying
container. See also multilevel
container; stripe set; stripe set of
mirror sets.
U
underlying container
A bottom container in a
multilevel container. For
example, the mirror sets are
underlying containers in a stripe
set of mirror sets. Contrast top-
Glossary-9
Flexible Array Storage Tool User’s Guide
level container. See also mirror
set; multilevel container; stripe
set of mirror sets.
Unmirror command
A command that changes a mirror
set into a volume set by
converting the redundant halves
of the mirror set to freespace. This
command is used when
redundancy is no longer required,
and works for both single- and
multilevel containers. See also
Split command; mirror set;
redundancy.
V
visible container
A container that can be accessed
by the operating system and
displayed by the controller
management software. Visible
containers are numbered 0
through 23. Contrast hidden
container. See also container.
volume set
A single-level container that is a
concatenation of one or more
partitions on one or more disks.
Sometimes referred to as JBOD.
See also JBOD; partition; singlelevel container.
volume set of mirror sets
A multilevel container created
from two or more mirror sets. See
also mirror set; multilevel
container.
volume set of RAID-5 sets
A multilevel container created
from two or more RAID-5 sets.
Glossary-10
See also multilevel container;
RAID-5 set.
volume set of stripe sets
A multilevel container created
from two or more stripe sets. See
also multilevel container; stripe
set.
W
warning threshold temperature
A temperature limit specified for
a SAF-TE enclosure. When this
limit is exceeded, FAST displays a
warning in Enclosure view, the
Enclosure Properties dialog box,
and the Enclosure Fans,
Temperature Sensors and Power
Supplies dialog box.
Index
A
ACL
modifying for controller B-3
activity light, blinking 7-8
alert
messages, receiving 3-6
sounds, I/O 6-14
application server 4-5
archive bits, updating during
snapshot 11-26, 11-27
arrays 2-4
@filename command 12-3
automatic data reconstruction 3-10
automating management 3-2
B
backup containers
losing written data in
snapshot 11-25
bad partitions, removing 9-12
balancing, load 4-3
battery
failure protection 3-2
reconditioning 6-19
blocking I/O to container during
snapshot 11-24
C
cache
battery-backed 3-2
disabling 11-38
enabling 11-38
managing 5-14
capacity expansion, online 3-5
Celsius temperature 8-10
channels 5-9
disabled 6-2
fault 6-2
resetting 6-20
CLI
description 3-2
logfile end command 12-4
logfile start filename
command 12-4
logging output 12-3
running scripts 12-3
clipboard, using with Command
Prompt window 12-3
cluster
object ownership 13-3
Cluster Administrator utility 15-2
creating diskset resource 15-3
cluster configuration 13-2
cluster resource 15-2
custom type 15-2
standard types 15-2
state changes 15-2
clustered controller
booting 13-2
Container view 13-4
Controller view 13-3
Disk view 13-4
opening 13-3
restrictions 13-2
Command Line Interface, see CLI
Command Prompt window 12-1
accessing 12-2
exiting 12-4
Index-1
Flexible Array Storage Tool User’s Guide
using clipboard 12-3
commands
rconsole (NetWare) E-1
Split 2-10, 11-17
Unmirror 2-10, 11-18
compact, creating snapshot
type 11-23
compatibility with Windows NT 1-2
computer
adding 6-10
locking/unlocking 6-10
removing 6-10
configuration
criteria for choosing 4-2
expansion 4-3
fault tolerance 4-2
load balancing 4-3
read/write performance 4-2
server selection 4-5 to 4-6
connections, managing remote 6-7,
6-12
consistency check 10-16, 11-18
Container Creation Wizard 3-3, 10-7
using in a cluster 14-15
container file system, snapshot
requirement 11-22
container in a dialog box
element 9-17, 10-4
Container Reconfiguration
Wizard 11-2, A-2
using in a cluster 14-15
Container view 3-6, 5-6
clustered controller 13-4
scrolling 5-9, 5-10
containers 5-9
adding space 11-7
appearance in Windows
systems 2-14
comparing types 4-4
configuration rebuild 11-12
cost per usable space 4-3
creating 10-1
Index-2
Container Creation
Wizard 3-3
Create Container dialog
box 10-31
single step 3-3
creating freespace 2-3
creating in a cluster 14-15
creating with Container Creation
Wizard 10-7
creating with Container
menu 10-12
default creation properties 10-28
deleting 11-40
disk states 2-2
enabling/disabling cache 11-38
expanding A-1 to A-8
mirror sets A-5
RAID-5 sets A-5
stripe set of mirror sets A-7
stripe sets A-4
volume set of mirror sets A-7
volume set of RAID-5 sets A-8
volume set of stripe sets A-7
volume set, multiple
partitions A-4
volume set, single
partition A-3
freespace 2-3
managing 3-2
managing rebuild 11-16
migrating A-1 to A-8
mirror sets A-5
RAID-5 sets A-5
stripe set of mirror sets A-7
stripe sets A-4
volume set of mirror sets A-7
volume set of RAID-5 sets A-8
volume set of stripe sets A-7
volume set, multiple
partitions A-4
volume set, single
partition A-3
mirror sets 2-9
Index
modifying 11-1
multilevel 2-12, 10-2
types supported 2-12
multiple operating system
partition 11-37
numbering 5-9, 11-24
overview 2-4 to 2-12
properties 11-28
RAID-5 sets 2-11
reconfiguring 3-4, 11-2
single operating system
partition 11-29
snapshot 3-7
sorting options 5-9
stripe sets 2-8
supported types 2-6
top-level 2-13
underlying 2-13
understanding 10-2
using Performance Monitor to
monitor performance D-1
volume sets 2-7
Controller properties dialog
box 6-14, 6-19
Controller view 3-6, 5-6
clustered controller 13-3
controllers 5-9
access denied B-2
battery reconditioning 6-19
booting in cluster 13-2
closing 6-7
configuration 4-1 to 4-6
criteria 4-2
container types 4-4
Container view in cluster 13-4
Controller view in cluster 13-3
Disk view in cluster 13-4
limiting access B-3
limiting access, networkwide B-3
limiting access, through ACL B-3
managing in DHCP 6-12
opening
local computer/domain 6-7
remote network 6-8
opening local
computer/domain 6-3
pausing I/O 6-12, 6-14
properties 6-14
rescanning 6-7
resetting channels 6-20
restrictions in cluster 13-2
status 6-6
working with 6-1
controlling partner 13-3
cost per usable container space 4-3
Create Container dialog box,
using 10-31
D
data
reconstruction, automatic 3-10
storage utilities 3-2
dead partitions, icons 9-11
dead partitions, removing 9-12
defaults, container creation
properties 10-28
delay monitoring 3-6
deleting
snapshots 11-27
developer-environment server 4-5
device usage monitoring 3-6
DHCP, managing controllers
in 6-12
Disk Administrator 9-15, 10-2
disk number 9-15
Disk view 3-6, 5-6
clustered controller 13-4
diskperf filter driver
disabling D-1
enabling D-1
disks 5-9
blinking activity light 7-8
definition 2-2
freespace 2-3
Index-3
Flexible Array Storage Tool User’s Guide
hot-swapping 3-10
initializing SCSI 7-3 to 7-5
logical 2-4
maintenance 3-10
offset 2-4
properties, working with 7-9 to
7-15
states 2-2
understanding 7-2
working with 7-1 to 7-15
diskset 5-9, 13-6, 14-2
adding disks to 14-9
creating 14-7
deleting 14-10
icons 13-8
managing 14-2
managing as cluster
resource 13-10
modifying properties 14-11
OS Managed 14-6
removing disks from 14-10
representing in FAST
views 14-13
diskset attributes 14-4
attached 14-6
created 14-5
creator 14-5
label 14-5
owner 14-5
spare set 14-5
diskset resource
creating an instance 15-3
modifying properties 15-8
diskset resource type 14-6
DMI interface C-2
domain
adding/removing
computer 6-10
not trusted, error message B-2
rescanning 6-11
DOS partitions 2-3
drives
Index-4
hot-swapping 3-10
shuffling 3-10
E
e-mail
notification 3-6
settings C-2
enclosure IDs 8-2
enclosure slots
configuring 8-14
displaying status 8-12, 8-14
identifiers 8-12
identifying 8-14
managing 8-11
preparing for
insertion/removal 8-14
Enclosure view 3-6, 5-6
enclosures 5-9
components 8-2
environment 3-6
managing 8-6
properties 8-2, 8-6
understanding 8-2
working with 8-1
error messages, security B-2
event notification 3-5
Execute AFA Batch File dialog
box 12-3
expanding containers, see containers,
expanding
expansion 4-3
F
Fahrenheit temperature 8-10
fans
controlling 3-6
managing 8-6, 8-10
setting speed 8-10
FAST 5-1
exiting utility 5-4
features 3-2
Index
help, using 5-8
management interfaces C-1 to
C-4
objects, managing 5-9
objects, ownership in cluster 13-3
running multiple
applications 5-3
starting 5-2
version number 5-8
view windows 5-6, 5-7
window parts 5-5
FAT file system 2-21
fault tolerance 4-2, 4-4
file systems 2-21
extending 11-7
supported types for Windows
NT 2-21
Flexible Array Storage Tool, see
FAST
freespace 2-3, 3-3, 5-9
mirror sets 10-14
moving boundaries by pixel 9-4,
9-17
RAID-5 sets 10-15, 10-18, 10-22,
10-28
receiving for rebuild 11-15
required for non-compact
snapshot 11-22, 11-23
restrictions for extending on
Windows 2000 9-7
selecting 9-2
using sizing handles 9-3
working with 9-2
FtDisk 10-2
functions, remote management B-1
to B-3
G
guidelines for
expansion/migration A-1 to A-8
H
handles
ownership in cluster 13-4
help
access options 5-8
using FAST 5-8
hot-swapping 3-10, 6-12
I
I/O
load balancing 4-3
pausing 3-10, 6-12, 6-14
I/O to container, result of
blocking 11-24
icons
diskset 13-8
identifiers, enclosure slots 8-12
initialized for container usage,
disks 2-2
initializing
disks 7-3 to 7-5
file systems 2-22
interfaces, management C-1 to C-4
invisible containers,
numbering 11-24
K
keyboard, selecting objects
with 5-11
L
load balancing 4-3
local computer/domain
opening 6-3, 6-7
logfile end command 12-4
logfile start filename
command 12-4
logical
unit number, see LUN
view of storage 3-6
Index-5
Flexible Array Storage Tool User’s Guide
LogicalDisk counter D-1
LUN
definition 2-2
number 8-2
M
mail servers 4-5
management interfaces C-1 to C-4
managing
container rebuild 11-16
menu bar, FAST 5-5
menus, shortcut 5-10
message prompts
reenabling 5-8
metadata 2-21
migrating containers, see containers,
migrating
migration, RAID-level 3-5
mirror sets 2-9
creating 10-14
splitting 11-17
unmirroring 11-18
working with 11-17
multilevel containers 2-6, 2-12, 10-2
stripe set of mirror sets 2-14
types supported 2-12
volume set
of mirror sets 2-15
of RAID-5 sets 2-18
of stripe sets 2-16
multiple operating system partition
containers 11-37
N
NetWare
rconsole command E-1
networks
protocols 6-11
remote 6-8
rescanning domains 6-11
Index-6
non-compact, creating snapshot
type 11-22
non-initialized disks 2-2
notification, e-mail/pager 3-6
NTFS file system 2-21
O
objects
deselecting 5-11
handles in cluster views 13-4
phantoms 5-11
selecting/deselecting 5-11
shortcut menus 5-10
types 5-9
offset, disk 2-4
online capacity expansion
(OCE) 3-5
organization of this guide 1-2
orhpan partitions, icons 9-11
output, CLI logging 12-3
P
pager notification 3-6
parity 2-11
partitions 2-3, 5-9
dead, removing 9-12
Disk Administratormanaged 9-15, 10-2
FtDisk 10-2
viewing properties 9-9
peer partner 13-3
performance
read/write 4-2
Performance Monitor 3-6
phantoms, identifying 5-11
PhysicalDisk counter D-1
polling intervals 8-5
power loss 6-19
power supplies
managing 8-6, 8-10
properties
Index
containers 11-28
controller 6-14
disk 7-9 to 7-15
enclosures 8-2, 8-6
partitions 9-9
protection
battery failure 3-2
protocols, network 6-11
Q
queue length, monitoring 3-6
R
RAID
RAID 0/1 2-14
RAID 1 2-9
RAID 5
container sets 2-11
fault tolerance 4-4
volume sets 2-18
RAID 5 sets
creating 10-15
RAID-level migration 3-5
random read/write
performance 4-2
rconsole command (NetWare) E-1
read performance 4-2
rebuild
assigning to containers 11-14
managing 11-16
operations 2-3
reserving space 11-15
rebuild task 5-14
reconditioning the battery 3-2
reconfigure container task 5-15
reconstruction of data 3-10
redundancy 2-7
registry keys, UserPermissions B-3
remote
access denied error message B-2
access options C-2
connections, managing 6-7, 6-12
management B-1 to B-3
installing software B-1
providing security B-2 to B-3
network, opening a controller
on 6-8
remote access
security B-2
removing
snapshots 11-26
replacement partitions 3-10
reserving rebuild space 11-15
resetting channels 6-20
S
SAF-TE 3-6
SAF-TE enclosures 5-9
scripts
creating with CLI 3-2
scripts, CLI, running 12-3
SCSI
device ID 2-2
device properties 7-9 to 7-15
disks, initializing 7-3 to 7-5
ID 8-2
SCSI Accessed Fault-Tolerant
Enclosures, see SAF-TE
security B-2 to B-3
Self-Monitoring, Analysis and
Reporting Technology, see
S.M.A.R.T.
sequential read/write
performance 4-2
servers
application 4-5
developer-environment 4-5
mail 4-5
transaction 4-5
video 4-6
web 4-6
shortcut menus 5-10
Index-7
Flexible Array Storage Tool User’s Guide
single operating system partition
containers 11-29
single-level containers
mirror sets 2-9
RAID-5 sets 2-11
stripe sets 2-8
volume sets 2-7
single-step container creation 3-3
sizing handles, using 9-3
drive statistics 3-6
S.M.A.R.T. 7-5
snapshot
blocking I/O to container 11-24
compact mode 11-23
deleting 11-27
description 3-13
in Container view 11-22
non-compact mode 11-22
removing 11-26
taking 11-22
using 11-21
writing to backing
container 11-25
SNMP interface C-2
software, remote management,
installing B-1
space
expanding 3-5
reserving for rebuild 11-15
usable 4-3
Split command 2-10, 11-17
status bar, FAST 5-5
storage
data 3-2
use of 3-3
stripe set of mirror sets
creating 10-22
stripe sets 2-8
creating 10-13
of mirror sets 2-14, 10-22
stripes 2-8
system
Index-8
monitoring 3-5
resources 3-6
system components, obtaining
information 5-12
T
taking snapshots 11-22
target ID 2-2
tasks
managing 5-14
types, understanding 5-14
temperature
monitoring 3-6
sensors
displaying status 8-8
managing 8-6, 8-8
type 1 8-8
type 2 8-9
setting warning threshold 8-10
temperature unit
setting 8-10
terminology
see Glossary
tolerance, fault 4-2
toolbars
FAST 5-5
top-level containers 2-13
transaction server and data
availability 4-5
U
underlying containers 2-13
Unmirror command 2-10, 11-18
UserPermissions subkey B-3
V
verify task 5-15
verifying
with no repair of bad blocks 5-15
with repair of bad blocks 5-15
Index
version number
obtaining 5-8
video server 4-6
View menu
status bar 5-5
view windows
activating 5-7
adding 5-7
arranging 5-7
Container view 5-6
Controller view 5-6
Disk view 5-6
Enclosure view 5-6
printing 5-7
refreshing 5-6
working with 5-6, 5-7
visible containers, numbering 11-24
volume set of mirror sets
creating 10-18
volume set of RAID-5 sets
creating 10-20
volume sets 2-7
creating 10-12, 10-16
of mirror sets 2-15
of RAID-5 sets 2-18, 10-20
of stripe sets 2-16, 10-16
write modifications to container in
snapshot 11-23
write performance 4-2
W
warning
messages 3-6
warning threshold temperature
setting 8-10
web server 4-6
windows
see also view windows
Command Prompt 12-1
FAST 5-5
Windows NT
compatibility 1-2
supported file systems 2-21
Index-9
Flexible Array Storage Tool User’s Guide
Index-10
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