MySQL Utilities

MySQL Utilities
MySQL Utilities
Abstract
This is the MySQL™ Utilities Reference Manual. It documents both the GPL and commercial editions of the MySQL
Utilities 1.5 release series through 1.5.6.
If you have not yet installed MySQL Utilities please download your free copy from the download site. MySQL Utilities
is available for Windows, OS X, and Linux variants.
For notes detailing the changes in each release, see the MySQL Utilities Release Notes.
For legal information, see the Legal Notices.
For help with using MySQL, please visit either the MySQL Forums or MySQL Mailing Lists, where you can discuss
your issues with other MySQL users.
For additional documentation on MySQL products, including translations of the documentation into other languages,
and downloadable versions in variety of formats, including HTML and PDF formats, see the MySQL Documentation
Library.
Licensing information.
This product may include third-party software, used under license. If you are using a
Commercial release of MySQL Utilities, see this document for licensing information, including licensing information
relating to third-party software that may be included in this Commercial release. If you are using a Community release
of MySQL Utilities, see this document for licensing information, including licensing information relating to third-party
software that may be included in this Community release.
Document generated on: 2017-08-18 (revision: 53516)
Table of Contents
Preface .............................................................................................................................................. v
1 How to Install MySQL Utilities .......................................................................................................... 1
1.1 Prerequisites ........................................................................................................................ 1
1.2 Source Code ........................................................................................................................ 1
1.3 Oracle Linux and Red Hat Linux 6 ........................................................................................ 2
1.4 Debian Linux ........................................................................................................................ 2
1.5 Microsoft Windows ............................................................................................................... 3
1.6 OS X ................................................................................................................................... 3
2 Introduction ..................................................................................................................................... 5
2.1 Introduction to MySQL Utilities .............................................................................................. 5
2.2 Connecting to MySQL Servers .............................................................................................. 6
2.2.1 Connection Parameters .............................................................................................. 6
2.2.2 Specifying Connections in Python Library .................................................................. 10
3 MySQL Utilities Administrative Tasks ............................................................................................. 13
3.1 Database Operations .......................................................................................................... 14
3.1.1 How do you provision a slave? ................................................................................. 14
3.1.2 How do you make a copy of a database on the same server? .................................... 15
3.1.3 How can you make a copy of a database and change the storage engine? .................. 16
3.1.4 How do you tell if a table on server A has the same structure as the same table on
server B? ......................................................................................................................... 18
3.1.5 How do you synchronize a table on two servers where neither is up-to-date? ............... 19
3.2 General Operations ............................................................................................................ 20
3.2.1 How do you know how much space your data uses? ................................................. 20
3.2.2 How do you recover the CREATE statement from a damaged or offline server? ........... 22
3.2.3 How do you create a new user with the same privileges as another user? ................... 24
3.2.4 Is there an easy way to know what options are used with each utility? ........................ 25
3.2.5 How do you find redundant or duplicate indexes and know which ones to drop? ........... 28
3.2.6 How do you find all objects that start with a given name prefix? .................................. 30
3.2.7 How do you run a process every night to kill certain connections? .............................. 31
3.3 High Availability Operations ................................................................................................. 32
3.3.1 How do you setup and use replication? .................................................................... 32
3.3.2 How do you add new servers to an existing topology and change the master role? ....... 34
3.3.3 How do you setup and use automatic failover? ......................................................... 37
3.3.4 How do you restore the previous master to service after failover? ............................... 39
3.3.5 How do you find all of the slaves attached to a master server? ................................... 42
3.3.6 How Can you determine if data was replicated correctly? ........................................... 43
3.3.7 How do you fix errant transactions on the replication topology? .................................. 46
3.4 Server Operations .............................................................................................................. 47
3.4.1 How can you create a temporary copy (running instance) of a server for testing? ......... 47
3.4.2 How do you find what MySQL servers are running on a local machine? ...................... 49
3.4.3 How do you setup and use a secure (encrypted) connection between Utilities and a
MySQL server? ................................................................................................................ 51
3.5 Specialized Operations ....................................................................................................... 55
3.5.1 How do you record only login events in the audit log? ............................................... 55
3.5.2 How do you copy or move the audit log? .................................................................. 56
3.5.3 How can you find the INSERT and UPDATE queries that failed in the audit log? .......... 57
3.5.4 How do you find connections by the user 'root' in the audit log and show the results
in CSV format? ................................................................................................................ 59
4 Overview of MySQL Utilities .......................................................................................................... 61
4.1 Database Operations .......................................................................................................... 61
4.2 General Operations ............................................................................................................ 62
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MySQL Utilities
5
6
7
8
4.3 High Availability Operations ................................................................................................. 63
4.4 Server Operations .............................................................................................................. 63
4.5 Specialized Operations ....................................................................................................... 64
Manual Pages ............................................................................................................................... 65
5.1 mysqlauditadmin — Allows users to perform maintenance actions on the audit log ............. 65
5.2 mysqlauditgrep — Allows users to search the current or an archived audit log ................... 71
5.3 mysqldbcompare — Compare Two Databases and Identify Differences ............................... 78
5.4 mysqldbcopy — Copy Database Objects Between Servers ................................................ 88
5.5 mysqldbexport — Export Object Definitions or Data from a Database ................................ 94
5.6 mysqldbimport — Import Object Definitions or Data into a Database ................................ 103
5.7 mysqldiff — Identify Differences Among Database Objects ............................................. 108
5.8 mysqldiskusage — Show Database Disk Usage ............................................................. 114
5.9 mysqlfailover — Automatic replication health monitoring and failover ............................. 118
5.10 mysqlfrm — File reader for .frm files. ............................................................................. 129
5.11 mysqlindexcheck — Identify Potentially Redundant Table Indexes ................................ 133
5.12 mysqlmetagrep — Search Database Object Definitions .................................................. 137
5.13 mysqlprocgrep — Search Server Process Lists ............................................................ 141
5.14 mysqlreplicate — Set Up and Start Replication Between Two Servers ......................... 145
5.15 mysqlrplms — Set Up and Start Replication from a Slave to Multiple Masters .................. 150
5.16 mysqlrpladmin — Administration utility for MySQL replication ........................................ 155
5.17 mysqlrplcheck — Check Replication Prerequisites ....................................................... 166
5.18 mysqlrplshow — Show Slaves for Master Server .......................................................... 171
5.19 mysqlrplsync — Replication synchronization checker ................................................... 176
5.20 mysqlserverclone — Clone Existing Server to Create New Server ............................... 183
5.21 mysqlserverinfo — Display Common Diagnostic Information from a Server .................. 185
5.22 mysqluc — Command line client for running MySQL Utilities ........................................... 189
5.23 mysqluserclone — Clone Existing User to Create New User ......................................... 192
Extending MySQL Utilities ............................................................................................................ 197
6.1 Introduction to extending the MySQL Utilities ..................................................................... 197
6.2 MySQL Utilities copy_server.py sample ............................................................................. 203
6.3 Specialized Operations ..................................................................................................... 206
6.3.1 mysql.utilities.command.grep — Search Databases for Objects .................... 206
6.3.2 mysql.utilities.command.proc — Search Processes on Servers .................... 207
6.4 Parsers ............................................................................................................................ 208
6.4.1 mysql.utilities.parser — Parse MySQL Log Files ...................................................... 208
MySQL Utilities Testing (MUT) ..................................................................................................... 211
7.1 mut — MySQL Utilities Testing ......................................................................................... 211
Appendix ..................................................................................................................................... 215
8.1 MySQL Utilities Frequently Asked Questions ...................................................................... 215
iv
Preface
This is the User Manual for the MySQL Utilities.
MySQL Utilities is both a set of command-line utilities as well as a Python library for making common
DevOps tasks easy to accomplish. The library is written entirely in Python, meaning that it is not necessary
to have any other tools or libraries installed to make it work. It is currently designed to work with Python
v2.6 or later and there is no support (yet) for Python v3.1.
Layout
This manual is arranged in an order designed to provide a quick reference for how to use MySQL Utilities.
It begins with a brief introduction of MySQL Utilities then presents a list of common administration tasks
with examples of how utilities can be used to perform the tasks. From there, the manual begins a deeper
dive into the utilities starting with overviews of each utility leading to a detailed description of each via a
manual page format. Thus, the manual provides a documentation solution for several needs.
How to Use This Manual
You can use this manual to get a quick solution to an administrative task complete with explanation of
how to run the utilities involved and the options and parameters needed. See the tasks chapter for this
information.
You can use the manual to learn what utilities exist and how each fits into your own administrative needs.
See the utility overview chapter for this information.
You can also use the manual to get more information about each utility and what each option and
parameter does via the manuals section.
The manual concludes with a look at extending the MySQL Utilities library, a look at the developer testing
environment, and a list of frequently asked questions.
Legal Notices
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If you find any errors, please report them to us in writing.
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v
Documentation Accessibility
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vi
Chapter 1 How to Install MySQL Utilities
Table of Contents
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6
Prerequisites ................................................................................................................................
Source Code ................................................................................................................................
Oracle Linux and Red Hat Linux 6 ................................................................................................
Debian Linux ................................................................................................................................
Microsoft Windows .......................................................................................................................
OS X ...........................................................................................................................................
1
1
2
2
3
3
MySQL Utilities is available in a number of repository formats. Although you may not see your specific
operating system or platform listed, we provide general repository formats for most platforms. If none of the
available repositories are applicable to your platform, you can use the source code repository and install
MySQL Utilities from the command line.
The latest MySQL Utilities downloads are available at http://dev.mysql.com/downloads/utilities/1.5.html.
The following sections discuss each repository.
1.1 Prerequisites
MySQL Utilities requires Python 2.6. All of the Python code is written to conform to this version of Python.
For connecting to MySQL, MySQL Utilities requires a MySQL Connector/Python General Availability (GA)
release (version 2.0.4/2.1.2 or later). If you do not have Connector/Python installed, see the download
section for Connector/Python to download the appropriate repository.
MySQL Utilities also requires the Visual C++ Redistributable for Visual Studio 2013 (available at the
Microsoft Download Center) to work.
1.2 Source Code
The source code repository for MySQL Utilities includes all of the utility code as well as the MySQL Utilities
library and manual pages. It is available as an architecture independent distribution, in either Zip archive
format (.zip file) or compressed tar archive format (.tar.gz file), or as a RPM package (.rpm file).
You can use this repository to install on any platform that has Python 2.6 installed. For example, you can
use the .tar.gz version of the repository to install MySQL Utilities on OS X or Ubuntu. Choose "Linux Generic" from the download page, and then the file name similar to mysql-utilities-1.5.6.tar.gz.
After you download and unpack the repository distribution, open a terminal window and navigate to the
directory containing the file. Then unpack the file and install MySQL Utilities using the setup.py script as
shown below.
shell>
shell>
shell>
shell>
unzip mysql-utilities-1.5.6.zip
cd mysql-utilities-1.5.6
python ./setup.py build
sudo python ./setup.py install
Note
Using this repository requires that you have Connector/Python installed or install it
separately. For additional information, see Section 1.1, “Prerequisites”.
1
Oracle Linux and Red Hat Linux 6
The source code is also available as a .rpm package, which can be downloaded and uncompressed as
follows. More specifically, we first unpack the .rpm package then unzip the resulting .zip file.
On Mac and some Unix systems, you can use these commands.
shell> tar -tzvf mysql-utilities-1.5.6-1.el7.src.rpm
shell> tar -xzvf mysql-utilities-1.5.6-1.el7.src.rpm
shell> unzip mysql-utilities-1.5.6.zip
On Linux systems without native .rpm support, you can use these commands. For example, you can install
rpm2cpio then run that utility to extract the .zip file then unzip it.
shell> sudo apt-get install rpm2cpio
shell> rpm2cpio mysql-utilities-1.5.6-1.el7.src.rpm | cpio -i --make-directories
shell> unzip mysql-utilities-1.5.6.zip
If these commands do not work for your platform, check your platform documentation for ways to open and
inspect .rpm files.
1.3 Oracle Linux and Red Hat Linux 6
This repository is available as an architecture-independent RPM package (.rpm file).
After you download the package, install it using the following command or similar depending on your
platform configuration:
shell> sudo rpm -i mysql-utilities-1.5.6-el6.noarch.rpm
You can also use the RPM package manager that is part of your base operating system. See your
operating system documentation for more details.
Note
MySQL Utilities requires Connector/Python to be installed. For additional
information, see Section 1.1, “Prerequisites”.
1.4 Debian Linux
The .deb repository is built for Debian 6 and is architecture independent. Although built expressly for
Debian 6, it can be installed on various ports such as amd64, i386, etc.
Note
The repository does not work for Debian 7 because MySQL Utilities requires Python
2.6 and Debian 7 currently ships with Python 2.7. For Debian 7, use the source
code repository to install MySQL Utilities.
After you download the file, install it using the following command or similar depending on your specific
release or version of Debian:
shell> sudo dpkg -i mysql-utilities-1.5.6-debian6.0_all.deb
Note
MySQL Utilities requires Connector/Python to be installed. For additional
information, see Section 1.1, “Prerequisites”.
2
Microsoft Windows
1.5 Microsoft Windows
Either install MySQL Utilities using the MySQL Installer for Windows (a system that manages installations
and updates for all MySQL products on Windows), or download and execute the standalone file.
Note
• MySQL Utilities requires Connector/Python and the Visual C++ Redistributable
for Visual Studio 2013 to be installed. For additional information, see Section 1.1,
“Prerequisites”.
• MySQL Installer: Download and execute the MySQL Installer MSI file. Select the MySQL Utilities
product and then proceed with the installation. This is the recommended approach, and automatically
selects and installs the required prerequisites. See the MySQL Installer manual for additional details.
• Standalone: Download and execute the MySQL Utilities standalone MSI file.
1.6 OS X
The .dmg file available for OS X is built for x84-64 bit platforms, and supports OS X version 10.7 (Lion)
and newer.
After you download the .dmg file, install MySQL Utilities by opening it and double clicking the .pkg file.
Note
MySQL Utilities requires Connector/Python to be installed. For additional
information, see Section 1.1, “Prerequisites”.
3
4
Chapter 2 Introduction
Table of Contents
2.1 Introduction to MySQL Utilities ...................................................................................................... 5
2.2 Connecting to MySQL Servers ...................................................................................................... 6
2.2.1 Connection Parameters ...................................................................................................... 6
2.2.2 Specifying Connections in Python Library ......................................................................... 10
This chapter introduces MySQL Utilities and presents information on how to access and download MySQL
Utilities. It also includes the basics of how to use the account login option common to all utilities.
2.1 Introduction to MySQL Utilities
What are the MySQL Utilities?
It is a package of utilities that are used for maintenance and administration of MySQL servers. These
utilities encapsulate a set of primitive commands, and bundles them so they can be used to perform macro
operations with a single command.
The utilities are written in Python, available under the GPLv2 license, and are extensible using the supplied
library. They are designed to work with Python versions 2.6 or later and there is no support (yet) for Python
v3.1.
How do we access the MySQL Utilities?
The MySQL Utilities are command line scripts, which by default are available in your system's PATH.
Alternatively, if both MySQL Utilities and MySQL Workbench are installed, you can access their location
from MySQL Workbench by selecting Tools from the main menu, and then Start Shell for MySQL
Utilities. This opens a terminal/shell window in the mysqluc utility shell. Type "help" to list the available
commands.
5
Connecting to MySQL Servers
Figure 2.1 Starting MySQL Utilities from Workbench
You can launch any of the utilities listed by typing the name of the command. To find out what options are
available, use the option, or read the appropriate manual page.
The utilities are designed to work on MySQL systems with grants enabled but can also operate on servers
started with the --skip-grant-tables startup option. However, this practice is strongly discouraged
and should be used only in situations where it is appropriate or deemed a last resort.
2.2 Connecting to MySQL Servers
This section describes the ways you can connect to a MySQL server via a MySQL Utility or via the MySQL
Utilities library methods.
2.2.1 Connection Parameters
To connect to a server, it is necessary to specify connection parameters such as the user name, host
name, password, and either a port or socket. MySQL Utilities provides a number of ways to supply this
information. All of the methods require specifying your choice via a command-line option such as --server,
--master, --slave, etc. The methods include the following in order of most secure to least secure.
• Use login-paths from your .mylogin.cnf file (encrypted, not visible). Example : login-path[:port]
[:socket]
• Use a configuration file (unencrypted, not visible) Note: available in release-1.5.0. Example :
configuration-file-path[:section]
• Specify the data on the command-line (unencrypted, visible). Example : user[:passwd]@host[:port]
[:socket]
6
Connection Parameters
2.2.1.1 Use login-paths (.mylogin.cnf)
The best way to specify server connection information is with your .mylogin.cnf file. Not only is this file
encrypted, but any logging of the utility execution does not expose the connection information. Thus, no
user names, passwords, ports, etc. are visible in the log. This is the preferred method for using MySQL
Utilities to connect to servers.
Utilities support the use of login-paths in the connection string provided they use the following format
login-path-name[:port][:socket] where the port and socket parameters are optional. If used,
these optional parameters override the respective options from the specified login-path file.
When using login-paths, there are no default values except on Posix systems when specifying a socket.
In this case, the host option defaults to localhost on port 3306. This means that combining the values
specified in the login-path with the two optional values port and socket, one needs to specify at least a
user, a hostname and a port or socket.
Use the mysql_config_editor tool (http://dev.mysql.com/doc/en/mysql-config-editor.html) to add the
connection information as follows.
shell> mysql_config_editor set --login-path=instance_13001 --host=localhost --user=root --port=13001 --pass
Enter password: <Password is prompted to be inserted in a more secure way>
Next, use the following command to confirm that the login-path data was correctly added to
.mylogin.cnf (the encrypted file):
shell> mysql_config_editor print --login-path=instance_13001
[instance_13001]
user = root
password = *****
host = localhost
port = 13001
Once your .mylogin.cnf file is configured, you need only specify the section of the .mylogin.cnf file
for the server connection. For example, the section created in the previous example is 'instance_13001'.
Thus, we use --server=instance_13001. The following shows the execution of a utility specifying the loginpath section.
shell> mysqlserverinfo --server=instance_13001 --format=vertical
# Source on localhost: ... connected.
*************************
1. row *************************
server: localhost:13001
config_file: /etc/my.cnf, /etc/mysql/my.cnf
binary_log: clone-bin.000001
binary_log_pos: 341
relay_log:
relay_log_pos:
version: 5.6.17-log
datadir: /Volumes/Source/source/temp_13001/
basedir: /Volumes/Source/source/git/mysql-5.6
plugin_dir: /Volumes/Source/source/git/mysql-5.6/lib/plugin/
general_log: OFF
general_log_file:
general_log_file_size:
log_error:
log_error_file_size:
slow_query_log: OFF
slow_query_log_file:
slow_query_log_file_size:
7
Connection Parameters
1 row.
#...done.
See the online MySQL Reference Manual for more information about login-paths, the .mylogin.cnf file,
and the mysql_config_editor client.
Note
If you have an installation where the MySQL Server version is older (before
5.6.25 or 5.7.8) and my_print_defaults is newer, then the Utilities cannot
access the passwords in the .login-path file because the newer versions of
my_print_defaults mask the passwords, but older versions do not.
2.2.1.2 Use a Configuration File
MySQL Utilities can also accept a configuration path and section for the server connection data. This
allows you to store one or more sections with connection information. Saving the data in configuration files
is more secure than specifying the data on the command-line but since the file is text, the data can still be
read by anyone who can access the file.
To reference the configuration file, specify the path and file name followed by a section name in square
brackets. The path is optional. If you do not specify it, the utility attempts to use your local configuration file
(for example, my.cnf) if available.
For example, if you wanted to create a configuration file in /dev/env/test1/my.cnf and you created a section
named server1, you would specify it as --server=/dev/env/test1/my.cnf[server1]. The corresponding section
in the configuration file may look like the following.
[server1]
port=3308
user=root
password=other-pass
host=localhost
The following shows the execution of a utility using a configuration file.
shell> mysqlserverinfo.py --server=/dev/env/test1/my.cnf[server1] --format=vertical
# Source on localhost: ... connected.
*************************
1. row *************************
server: localhost:13001
config_file: /etc/my.cnf, /etc/mysql/my.cnf
binary_log: clone-bin.000001
binary_log_pos: 341
relay_log:
relay_log_pos:
version: 5.6.17-log
datadir: /Volumes/Source/source/temp_13001/
basedir: /Volumes/Source/source/git/mysql-5.6
plugin_dir: /Volumes/Source/source/git/mysql-5.6/lib/plugin/
general_log: OFF
general_log_file:
general_log_file_size:
log_error:
log_error_file_size:
slow_query_log: OFF
slow_query_log_file:
slow_query_log_file_size:
1 row.
#...done.
8
Connection Parameters
2.2.1.3 Command-line Options
The least secure way to provide connection information for MySQL servers is to specify the data on the
command-line. This is least secure because the data is visible on the command-line and is also visible in
any log or redirection of the execution.
In this case, we specify the data in the following order: user[:passwd]@host[:port][:socket] where the
passwd, port, and socket are optional. Each item is described in more detail below.
• user
The name of the user to connect.
• passwd
The password to use when connecting. The default if no password is supplied is the empty password.
• host
The domain name of the host or the IP address. This field accepts host names, and IPv4 and IPv6
addresses. It also accepts quoted values which are not validated and passed directly to the calling
methods. This enables users to specify host names and IP addresses that are outside of the supported
validation mechanisms.
• port
The port to use when connecting to the server. The default if no port is supplied is 3306 (which is the
default port for the MySQL server as well).
• unix_socket
The socket to connect to (instead of using the host and port parameters).
The following demonstrates executing a utility using command-line options for connecting to a server.
shell> mysqlserverinfo.py --server=root:[email protected]:3308 --format=vertical
# Source on localhost: ... connected.
*************************
1. row *************************
server: localhost:13001
config_file: /etc/my.cnf, /etc/mysql/my.cnf
binary_log: clone-bin.000001
binary_log_pos: 341
relay_log:
relay_log_pos:
version: 5.6.17-log
datadir: /Volumes/Source/source/temp_13001/
basedir: /Volumes/Source/source/git/mysql-5.6
plugin_dir: /Volumes/Source/source/git/mysql-5.6/lib/plugin/
general_log: OFF
general_log_file:
general_log_file_size:
log_error:
log_error_file_size:
slow_query_log: OFF
slow_query_log_file:
slow_query_log_file_size:
1 row.
#...done.
As of MySQL Utilities 1.4.4, this deprecated connection method issues a warning if you use this connection
method.
9
Specifying Connections in Python Library
2.2.2 Specifying Connections in Python Library
If you build your own utilities using the MySQL Utilities library, there are various methods for connecting
to MySQL servers. Methods that deal with connecting to servers can accept the following mechanisms for
supplying the data.
• As a Python dictionary containing the connection parameters.
• As a connection specification string containing the connection parameters.
• As a Server instance.
The dictionary lists the values by name as described above. For example, you would create code like the
following.
# Set connection values
dest_values = {
"user" : "root",
"passwd" : "secret",
"host" : "localhost",
"port" : 3308,
"unix_socket" : None,
}
The connection specification is a string the form user[:passwd]@host[:port][:socket] where the
passwd, port, and socket are optional. This string is parsed using the options.parse_connection function.
You can also specify an existing instance of the Server class. In this case, the new class copies the
connection information.
2.2.2.1 Specifying Secure Socket Layer (SSL) Options
Security is a big concern and MySQL Utilities is prepared to use a secure connection to MySQL server
secure-connections using an encrypted connection with SSL. This section shows you how to use SSL
when connecting to MySQL servers from any utility. All of the utilities use the same mechanism for
establishing an SSL connection and include the following options.
• --ssl-ca
The path to a file that contains a list of trusted SSL CAs.
• --ssl-cert
The name of the SSL certificate file to use for establishing a secure connection.
• --ssl-key
The name of the SSL key file to use for establishing a secure connection.
• --ssl
Specifies if the server connection requires use of SSL. If an encrypted connection cannot be established,
the connection attempt fails. Default setting is 0 (SSL not required).
In order to use SSL connections, the MySQL server must be configure using the --ssl-ca --ssl-cert
and --ssl-key options with a specific SSL certificate. The --ssl option is used to enforce an SSL
option. That is, if an SSL connection cannot be made, do not fall back to a normal connection. This option
is not needed unless you want to enforce an SSL connection.
10
Specifying Connections in Python Library
Note
If you are uncertain of how to create the SSL certificates, please following the steps
indicated on Creating SSL and RSA Certificates and Keys.
Each utility permits the user to specify the --ssl-ca, --ssl-cert, --ssl-key, and --ssl options to
create a SSL connection to a MySQL server. Simply specify the same options used when the server was
started.
For example, if we wanted to get the information about a server that supports SSL connections, we first
identify the SSL certificate authority (--ssl-ca), SSL certificate (--ssl-cert), and SSL key (--sslkey). We want the connection to default to a normal connection if an SSL connection cannot be made,
thus we omit the --ssl option.
Thus, we use the values from the server SSL configuration with the corresponding options for the utility.
The following is an example of the running the serverinfo command with an SSL connection.
shell> mysqlserverinfo --server=root:[email protected]:3307 \
--ssl-ca=C:/newcerts/cacert.pem \
--ssl-cert=C:/newcerts/client-cert.pem \
--ssl-key=C:/newcerts/client-key.pem \
--format=vertical
# Source on localhost: ... connected.
*************************
1. row *************************
server: localhost:3307
config_file:
binary_log:
binary_log_pos:
relay_log:
relay_log_pos:
version: 5.6.15
datadir: C:\MySQL\instance_3307\
basedir: C:\MySQL\mysql-5.6.15-winx64
plugin_dir: C:\MySQL\mysql-5.6.15-winx64\lib\plugin\
general_log: OFF
general_log_file:
general_log_file_size:
log_error: C:\MySQL\instance_3307\clone.err
log_error_file_size: 1569 bytes
slow_query_log: OFF
slow_query_log_file:
slow_query_log_file_size:
1 row.
#...done.
11
12
Chapter 3 MySQL Utilities Administrative Tasks
Table of Contents
3.1 Database Operations ..................................................................................................................
3.1.1 How do you provision a slave? ........................................................................................
3.1.2 How do you make a copy of a database on the same server? ............................................
3.1.3 How can you make a copy of a database and change the storage engine? .........................
3.1.4 How do you tell if a table on server A has the same structure as the same table on server
B? ............................................................................................................................................
3.1.5 How do you synchronize a table on two servers where neither is up-to-date? ......................
3.2 General Operations ....................................................................................................................
3.2.1 How do you know how much space your data uses? .........................................................
3.2.2 How do you recover the CREATE statement from a damaged or offline server? ...................
3.2.3 How do you create a new user with the same privileges as another user? ...........................
3.2.4 Is there an easy way to know what options are used with each utility? ................................
3.2.5 How do you find redundant or duplicate indexes and know which ones to drop? ..................
3.2.6 How do you find all objects that start with a given name prefix? .........................................
3.2.7 How do you run a process every night to kill certain connections? ......................................
3.3 High Availability Operations ........................................................................................................
3.3.1 How do you setup and use replication? ............................................................................
3.3.2 How do you add new servers to an existing topology and change the master role? ..............
3.3.3 How do you setup and use automatic failover? .................................................................
3.3.4 How do you restore the previous master to service after failover? .......................................
3.3.5 How do you find all of the slaves attached to a master server? ...........................................
3.3.6 How Can you determine if data was replicated correctly? ...................................................
3.3.7 How do you fix errant transactions on the replication topology? ..........................................
3.4 Server Operations ......................................................................................................................
3.4.1 How can you create a temporary copy (running instance) of a server for testing? .................
3.4.2 How do you find what MySQL servers are running on a local machine? ..............................
3.4.3 How do you setup and use a secure (encrypted) connection between Utilities and a
MySQL server? ........................................................................................................................
3.5 Specialized Operations ...............................................................................................................
3.5.1 How do you record only login events in the audit log? .......................................................
3.5.2 How do you copy or move the audit log? ..........................................................................
3.5.3 How can you find the INSERT and UPDATE queries that failed in the audit log? ..................
3.5.4 How do you find connections by the user 'root' in the audit log and show the results in CSV
format? ....................................................................................................................................
14
14
15
16
18
19
20
20
22
24
25
28
30
31
32
32
34
37
39
42
43
46
47
47
49
51
55
55
56
57
59
MySQL Utilities provides a command-line set of tools for working with MySQL Servers and databases.
MySQL Utilities fully supports MySQL Server versions 5.1 and above. It is also compatible with MySQL
Server 5.0, but not every feature of 5.0 may be supported. It does not support MySQL Server versions 4.x.
In this section, we present a number of example administrative tasks introduced by an example "How
do I?" question. Included in each is a description of the need, objective, goals, example execution, and
a discussion about the specific options and techniques illustrated. Also included is a description of the
specific permissions required to execute the utilities demonstrated and tips for using the utility.
These task descriptions are not a substitute for the full manual of each utility, rather, they represent
examples of how you can use the utility. For a complete description of the utility and all of its options and
arguments, see the manual page for that utility elsewhere in this manual.
13
Database Operations
3.1 Database Operations
The tasks described in this section relate to those that are performed on or with one or more databases.
3.1.1 How do you provision a slave?
When working with replication, one of the most frequent maintenance tasks is adding a new slave for scale
out. Although adding a new slave has been simplified with utilities like mysqlreplicate, provisioning the
slave (copying data and getting replication started properly) can be a challenge (or at least tedious) if done
manually.
Fortunately, we have two utilities - mysqldbexport and mysqldbimport - that have been designed to
work with replication so that when the export is generated, you can include the proper replication control
statements in the output stream.
Objectives
Perform slave provisioning using mysqldbexport and mysqldbimport.
Example Execution
shell> mysqldbexport --server=root:[email protected]:13001 --all --export=both --rpl=master --rpl-user=rpl:rpl > d
shell> mysqldbimport --server=root:[email protected]:13002 data.sql
# Source on localhost: ... connected.
# Importing definitions from data.sql.
ERROR: The import operation contains GTID statements that require the global gtid_executed
system variable on the target to be empty (no value). The gtid_executed value must be reset
by issuing a RESET MASTER command on the target prior to attempting the import operation.
Once the global gtid_executed value is cleared, you may retry the import.
shell> mysql -uroot -proot -h 127.0.0.1 --port=13002 -e "RESET MASTER"
shell> mysqldbimport --server=root:[email protected]:13002 data.sql
# Source on localhost: ... connected.
# Importing definitions from data.sql.
CAUTION: The following 1 warning messages were included in the import file:
# WARNING: A partial export from a server that has GTIDs enabled will by default include
the GTIDs of all transactions, even those that changed suppressed parts of the database.
If you don't want to generate the GTID statement, use the --skip-gtid option. To export all
databases, use the --all and --export=both options.
#...done.
Discussion
There are several operations listed here. The first one we see is the execution of the mysqldbexport
utility to create a file that includes an export of all databases as designated with the --all option. We add
the '--export=both' option to ensure we include the definitions as well as the data.
We also add the --rpl=master option which instructs mysqldbexport to generate the replication
commands with respect to the source server being the master. Lastly, we include the replication user and
password to be included in the CHANGE MASTER command.
Next, we see an attempt to run the import using mysqldbimport but we see there is an error. The reason
for the error is the mysqldbimport utility detected a possible problem on the slave whereby there were
global transaction identifiers (GTIDs) recorded from the master. You can see this situation if you setup
replication prior to running the import. The way to resolve the problem is to run the RESET MASTER
command on the slave as shown in the next operation.
14
How do you make a copy of a database on the same server?
We then see a rerun of the import and in this case it succeeds. We see a warning that is issued any time
there are replication commands detected in the input stream whenever GTIDs are enabled.
Permissions Required
The user used to read data from the master must have the SELECT privilege on all databases exported.
The user on the slave must have the SUPER privilege to start replication.
Tips and Tricks
The warning issued during the import concerning GTIDs is to ensure you are aware that the process for
gathering the proper GTIDs to execute on the slave include transactions from all databases. Thus, if you
ran a partial export that includes the replication commands and you have GTIDs enabled, you should use
the --skip-rpl option to skip the replication commands and restart replication manually.
Should your data be large enough to make the use of mysqldbexport impractical, you can
use mysqldbexport to generate the correct replication commands anyway by using the -export=definitions option. This generates the SQL statements for the objects but not the data. You
can then use the replication commands generated with your own backup and restore tools.
You can use the option --rpl=slave to generate a output stream that considers the source server a
slave and uses the source servers master settings for generating the CHANGE MASTER command.
If you need to copy users, we can use the mysqluserclone to copy user accounts.
3.1.2 How do you make a copy of a database on the same server?
If you are working with a database and want to experiment with changes to objects or data either from
direct manipulation (SQL commands) or as a result of interaction with an application, it is prudent to always
have a copy to fall back to if something should go wrong.
Naturally, a full backup is key for any production server but what if you just want to do something as a test
or as a prototype? Sure, you can restore from your backup when the test is complete but who has the time
for that? Why not just make a copy of the database in question and use it in the experiment/test?
Objectives
The goal is to make a copy of a database and rename it to another name. We want to do this on a single
database server without resorting to messy file copies and/or stopping the server.
In this case, we want to copy the world database in its entirety and rename the copy to world_clone.
The utility of choice here is named mysqldbcopy and it is capable of copying databases from server to
another or on the same server. The following is an example of using the utility.
Example Execution
shell> mysqldbcopy --source=root:[email protected] \
--destination=root:[email protected] world:world_clone
# Source on localhost: ... connected.
# Destination on localhost: ... connected.
# Copying database world renamed as world_clone
# Copying TABLE world.city
# Copying TABLE world.country
# Copying TABLE world.countrylanguage
# Copying data for TABLE world.city
# Copying data for TABLE world.country
# Copying data for TABLE world.countrylanguage
#...done.
15
How can you make a copy of a database and change the storage engine?
shell> mysql -uroot -p -e "SHOW DATABASES"
+--------------------+
| Database
|
+--------------------+
| information_schema |
| employees
|
| mysql
|
| world
|
| world_clone
|
+--------------------+
Discussion
Notice we specified the source of the database we wanted to copy as well as the destination. In this case,
they are the same server. You must specify it this way so that it is clear we are operating on the same
server.
Notice how we specified the new name. We used the old_name:new_name syntax. You can do this for
as many databases as you want to copy. That's right - you can copy multiple databases with a single
command renaming each along the way.
To copy a database without renaming it (if the destination is a different server), you can omit
the :new_name portion.
Permissions Required
The user must have SELECT privileges for the database(s) on the source server and have CREATE,
INSERT, UPDATE on the destination server.
Tips and Tricks
You can copy all of the databases on a source server to the destination by using the --all option,
although this option does not permit rename actions. To rename, you must specify the databases one at a
time using the old_name:new_name syntax.
You can specify certain objects to exclude (skip) in the copy. Use the --skip option to omit the type of
objects. For example, you may want to exclude copying of triggers, procedures, and functions. In this case,
use the option '--skip=TRIGGERS,PROCEDURES,FUNCTIONS'. The values are case-insensitive and
written in uppercase for emphasis.
The copy is replication and GTID aware and takes actions to preserve the binary log events during the
copy.
You can set the locking type with the --locking option. Possible values include: no-locks = do not
use any table locks, lock-all = use table locks but no transaction and no consistent read, and snapshot
(default): consistent read using a single transaction.
Risks
Should the copy fail in the middle, the destination databases may be incomplete or inconsistent. Should
this occur, drop (delete) the destination database in question, repair the cause of the failure, and restart the
copy.
3.1.3 How can you make a copy of a database and change the storage engine?
Sometimes you may have need to create a copy of a database but want to change the storage engine of
all tables to another engine.
16
How can you make a copy of a database and change the storage engine?
For example, if you are migrating your database to InnoDB (a wise choice), you can copy the database to a
new database on a new server and change the storage engine to InnoDB for all of the tables. For this, we
can use the mysqldbcopy utility.
Objectives
In this example, we want to make a copy of the world database but change the storage engine to InnoDB
and rename the database accordingly.
You can cause all tables in the destination databases to use a different storage engine with the --newstorage-engine option.
Example Execution
shell> mysqldbcopy --source=root:[email protected]:3306 \
--destination=root:[email protected]:3307 --new-storage-engine=InnoDB \
world:world_innodb
# Source on localhost: ... connected.
# Destination on localhost: ... connected.
# Copying database world renamed as world_innodb
# Replacing ENGINE=MyISAM with ENGINE=InnoDB for table `world_innodb`.city.
# Copying TABLE world_innodb.city
# Replacing ENGINE=MyISAM with ENGINE=InnoDB for table `world_innodb`.country.
# Copying TABLE world_innodb.country
# Replacing ENGINE=MyISAM with ENGINE=InnoDB for table `world_innodb`.countrylanguage.
# Copying TABLE world_innodb.countrylanguage
# Copying data for TABLE world_innodb.city
# Copying data for TABLE world_innodb.country
# Copying data for TABLE world_innodb.countrylanguage
#...done.
shell> mysql -uroot -proot -h 127.0.0.1 --port=3307 -e "SHOW DATABASES"
+--------------------+
| Database
|
+--------------------+
| information_schema |
| mysql
|
| sakila
|
| world
|
| world_innodb
|
+--------------------+
shell> mysql -uroot -p -h 127.0.0.1 --port=3307 -e "SHOW CREATE TABLE world_innodb.countrylanguage\G"
*************************** 1. row ***************************
Table: countrylanguage
Create Table: CREATE TABLE `countrylanguage` (
`CountryCode` char(3) NOT NULL DEFAULT '',
`Language` char(30) NOT NULL DEFAULT '',
`IsOfficial` enum('T','F') NOT NULL DEFAULT 'F',
`Percentage` float(4,1) NOT NULL DEFAULT '0.0',
PRIMARY KEY (`CountryCode`,`Language`),
KEY `CountryCode` (`CountryCode`)
) ENGINE=InnoDB DEFAULT CHARSET=latin1
Discussion
Notice here we created a copy of the database and changed all tables in the destination database to use
the InnoDB storage engine with the --new-storage-engine option.
We show proof of the change by displaying the CREATE statement for one of the tables on the destination
server.
17
How do you tell if a table on server A has the same structure as the same table on server B?
Notice we also renamed the database by using the old_name:new_name syntax.
Permissions Required
The user must have SELECT privileges for the database(s) on the source server and have CREATE,
INSERT, UPDATE on the destination server.
Tips and Tricks
You can exclude specific options by using the --exclude option specifying an SQL pattern expression.
For example, to exclude objects that start with xy, use '--exclude=xy%'.
You can use REGEXP patterns in the --exclude option by specifying --regexp in addition to the -exclude option.
Risks
Should the copy fail in the middle, the destination databases may be incomplete or inconsistent. Should
this occur, drop the destination database in question, repair the cause of the failure, and restart the copy.
If you are changing the storage engine from InnoDB, you may encounter warnings or errors if the tables
contain foreign keys and the new storage engine does not support foreign keys.
3.1.4 How do you tell if a table on server A has the same structure as the same
table on server B?
Multiple database servers that are kept synchronized manually or are compartmentalized for security
purposes but are by practice kept up-to-date manually are prone to unintentional (and sometimes
intentional) divergence.
For example, you may maintain a production server and a development server. The development server
may have the same databases with the same structures as the production server (but maybe not the same
data). However, the natural course of development, administrative tasks, and maintenance can sometimes
leave the development server behind.
When this happens, you need to have a way to quickly check the schema for a table on the production
server to see if the development server has the same structure. The utility of choice for this operation is
mysqldiff.
Objectives
The goal is to compare a table schema on one server to another and show they differ.
Example Execution
shell> mysqldiff --server1=root:[email protected] \
--server2=root:[email protected]:3307 world.city:world.city --changes-for=server2
# server1 on localhost: ... connected.
# server2 on localhost: ... connected.
# Comparing world.city to world.city
[FAIL]
# Object definitions differ. (--changes-for=server2)
#
--- world.city
+++ world.city
@@ -4,6 +4,7 @@
`CountryCode` char(3) NOT NULL DEFAULT '',
`District` char(20) NOT NULL DEFAULT '',
18
How do you synchronize a table on two servers where neither is up-to-date?
`Population` int(11) NOT NULL DEFAULT '0',
`Climate` enum('tropical','dry','mild','continental','polar') DEFAULT NULL,
PRIMARY KEY (`ID`),
KEY `CountryCode` (`CountryCode`),
CONSTRAINT `city_ibfk_1` FOREIGN KEY (`CountryCode`) REFERENCES `Country` (`Code`)
Compare failed. One or more differences found.
+
Discussion
Notice to accomplish this task, we simply specified each server with --server1 and --server2 then
specified the database objects to compare with the db.object:db.object syntax.
Permissions Required
The user must have SELECT privileges for both objects on both servers as well as SELECT on the mysql
database.
Tips and Tricks
You can set the direction of the compare by using the --changes-for option. For example, to see the
changes for server1 as the target, use '--changes-for=server1'.
3.1.5 How do you synchronize a table on two servers where neither is up-todate?
When working with servers that are used in different networks or are compartmentalized, or simply
intentionally manually redundant (they do not use replication), or perhaps through some crisis, you may
encounter a situation where a table (or an entire database) diverge.
We don't simply want to know which rows differ, rather, we need to know the SQL statements needed to
bring the tables into synchronization. Furthermore, we aren't sure which table is most out of date so we'd
like to see the transformation statements for both directions.
In this case, it would be very helpful to know exactly how the tables differ. For this, we use the
mysqldbcompare utility.
Objectives
The goal is to generate the SQL transformation statements to synchronize the tables.
Example Execution
shell> mysqldbcompare --server1=root:[email protected]:13001 --server2=root:[email protected]:13002 \
menagerie -a --difftype=SQL --show-reverse --quiet
# Checking databases menagerie on server1 and menagerie on server2
#
#
# Row counts are not the same among `menagerie`.`pet` and `menagerie`.`pet`.
#
# Transformation for --changes-for=server1:
#
DELETE FROM `menagerie`.`pet` WHERE `pet_num` = '10';
DELETE FROM `menagerie`.`pet` WHERE `pet_num` = '12';
INSERT INTO `menagerie`.`pet` (`pet_num`, `name`, `owner`, `species`, `sex`, `birth`, `death`)
VALUES('11', 'Violet', 'Annette', 'dog', 'f', '2010-10-20', NULL);
#
19
General Operations
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
Transformation for reverse changes (--changes-for=server2):
DELETE FROM `menagerie`.`pet` WHERE `pet_num` = '11';
INSERT INTO `menagerie`.`pet` (`pet_num`, `name`, `owner`, `species`, `sex`, `birth`, `death`)
VALUES('10', 'JonJon', 'Annette', 'dog', 'm', '2010-10-20', '2012-07-01');
INSERT INTO `menagerie`.`pet` (`pet_num`, `name`, `owner`, `species`, `sex`, `birth`, `death`)
VALUES('12', 'Charlie', 'Annette', 'dog', 'f', '2010-10-20', NULL);
Discussion
In the example above, we connected to two servers and compare the database named menagerie. We
enabled the transformation statements using a combination of options as follows.
The --difftype=SQL option instructs the utility to generate the SQL statements.
The --show-reverse option instructs the utility to generate the differences in both direction. That is, from
the perspective of server1 as compared to server2 and server2 as compared to server1. By convention,
the second set is commented out should you wish to pipe the output to a consumer.
Lastly, the --quiet option simply turns off the verbosity of print statements that normally occur for
communicating progress.
Permissions Required
The user must have the SELECT privilege for the databases on both servers.
Tips and Tricks
You can change the direction using the --changes-for option. For example, '--changes-for=server1' is
the default direction and '--changes-for=server2' is the reverse. In the second case, the --show-reverse
displays the perspective of server1 commented out for convenience and to make it easier to determine
which is the alternative direction.
3.2 General Operations
The tasks described in this section include general tasks such as reporting information about a server and
searching for objects or processes on a server.
3.2.1 How do you know how much space your data uses?
When preparing to create a backup or when performing maintenance on a server, it is often the case we
need to know how much space is used by our data and the logs the server maintains. Fortunately, there is
a utility for that.
Objectives
Show the disk space used by the databases and all logs using the mysqldiskusage utility.
Example Execution
shell> sudo env PYTHONPATH=$PYTHONPATH mysqldiskusage \
--server=root:[email protected] --all
# Source on localhost: ... connected.
# Database totals:
+-----------------+--------------+
| db_name
|
total |
+-----------------+--------------+
| oltp2
| 829,669
|
20
How do you know how much space your data uses?
| bvm
| 15,129
|
| db1
| 9,895
|
| db2
| 11,035
|
| employees
| 206,117,692 |
| griots
| 14,415
|
| mysql
| 995,722
|
| oltp1
| 177,393
|
| room_temp
| 9,847
|
| sakila
| 791,727
|
| test
| 647,911
|
| test_arduino
| 9,999
|
| welford_kindle | 72,032
|
| world
| 472,785
|
| world_innodb
| 829,669
|
+-----------------+--------------+
Total database disk usage = 210,175,251 bytes or 200.44 MB
# Log information.
+--------------------+--------------+
| log_name
|
size |
+--------------------+--------------+
| host123.log
| 957,282,265 |
| host123-slow.log
|
123,647 |
| host123.local.err | 321,772,803 |
+--------------------+--------------+
Total size of logs = 1,279,178,715 bytes or 1.19 GB
# Binary log information:
Current binary log file = my_log.000287
+----------------+---------+
| log_file
| size
|
+----------------+---------+
| my_log.000285 | 252208 |
| my_log.000286 | 256
|
| my_log.000287 | 3063
|
| my_log.index
| 48
|
+----------------+---------+
Total size of binary logs = 255,575 bytes or 249.58 KB
# Server is not an active slave - no relay log information.
# InnoDB tablespace information:
+--------------+--------------+
| innodb_file |
size |
+--------------+--------------+
| ib_logfile0 |
5,242,880 |
| ib_logfile1 |
5,242,880 |
| ibdata1
| 815,792,128 |
| ibdata2
| 52,428,800 |
+--------------+--------------+
Total size of InnoDB files = 889,192,448 bytes or 848.00 MB
InnoDB freespace = 635,437,056 bytes or 606.00 MB
Discussion
To see all of the logs, we use the --all option which shows all logs and the InnoDB disk usage.
Notice we used elevated privileges to allow for reading of all of the files and databases in the data
directory. In this case, the data directory is owned by the mysql user and a normal user account does not
have read access.
The --all option instructs the utility to list all databases even if they contain no data.
21
How do you recover the CREATE statement from a damaged or offline server?
Permissions Required
The user must have permissions to read the data directory or use an administrator or super user (sudo)
account as shown in the example.
Tips and Tricks
You can run mysqldiskusage without privileges to read the data directory but in this case you may see
an estimate of the disk usage rather than actual bytes used. You may also not be able to see a list of the
logs if you run the utility remotely.
3.2.2 How do you recover the CREATE statement from a damaged or offline
server?
When things go wrong badly enough that your server is down or cannot be restarted, but you can still
access the data on disk, you may find yourself faced with a number of complex recovery tasks.
One of those is the need to discover the structure of a particular table or set of tables. Perhaps this is
needed for an emergency recovery, a redeployment, or setup for a forensic investigation. Whatever
the case, without a running MySQL server it is not possible to know the structure of a table unless you
keep meticulous notes and/or use some form of high availability (redundancy) or source control for your
database schemas.
Fortunately, there is a utility for situations like this. The mysqlfrm utility can be used to discover the
structure of a table directly from the .frm files.
Objectives
With a downed or offline server, discover the structure of a table. More specifically, generate the CREATE
TABLE SQL command.
Example Execution
shell> sudo env PYTHONPATH=$PYTHONPATH mysqlfrm --basedir=/usr/local/mysql \
--port=3333 --user=user /usr/local/mysql/data/welford_kindle/books.frm
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
Spawning server with --user=user.
Starting the spawned server on port 3333 ... done.
Reading .frm files
Reading the books.frm file.
CREATE statement for /usr/local/mysql/data/kindle/books.frm:
CREATE TABLE `welford_kindle`.`books` (
`ISBN` char(32) NOT NULL PRIMARY KEY,
`title` char(128) DEFAULT NULL,
`purchase_date` date DEFAULT NULL,
`cost` float(10,2) DEFAULT NULL
) ENGINE=MyISAM DEFAULT CHARSET=latin1
#...done.
Discussion
For this example, we used three required parameters; the base directory for the offline server (basedir), a
new port to use for the spawned server (port), and a user name to use to run the spawned server (port).
22
How do you recover the CREATE statement from a damaged or offline server?
The later is necessary since we must launch the mysqlfrm utility as root (sudo) in order to be able to read
(copy) files from the protected data directory of the host server.
The --port option is always required for running the utility in default mode (it is not needed for diagnostic
mode). You must supply a valid unused port. The utility checks to see if the port is in use and if so
produces an error. The port is used to spawn a temporary instance of a MySQL server in order to attempt
to recover the .frm file. This instance is shutdown at the end of the process and is not used for diagnostic
mode.
We use the --basedir option instead of the --server option because we were faced with a situation
where the original server was offline (down). Note that you can use the --basedir option for a running
server if you do not want the utility to connect to the original server in any way.
Permissions Required
The permissions for using mysqlfrm vary and depend entirely on how you use it. If you use the utility to
read .frm files in a protected folder like the example above (in either mode), you must have the ability to run
the spawned server with privileges that allow you to read the protected files. For example, you could use a
user account that has root-level privileges.
If you use the utility with a server connection, the user you use to connect must have the ability to read
system variables at a minimum including read access to the mysql database.
You should never use the root user to spawn the server nor should you use the mysql user when spawning
the server or running the utility.
Tips and Tricks
The utility is designed to work on the host where the .frm files reside. It does not permit connecting to a
remote host to read .frm files.
If something goes wrong during the spawning of the server, use the verbosity option three times (-vvv) to
turn on maximum depth debug statements. This ensures you see all of the messages from the start of the
spawned server from bootstrap onward. Look for errors in these statements as to why the spawned server
did not start.
If you do not want to permit the utility to launch a temporary instance of a MySQL server, you should use
the diagnostic mode instead. However, the diagnostic mode may not recover all of the options for a table.
Risks
The utility performs a best effort approximation of the CREATE statement when run in diagnostic mode.
As such, if you read a .frm file that uses character sets or collations other than the default and you do not
use a --server option to connect to a server to read the character sets, this can result in miscalculated
column sizes.
For example, suppose your default character set is latin1 which uses 1 byte per character. Let us also
suppose you are attempting to read a .frm file that uses a character set that uses 3 bytes per character.
Furthermore, we have no server to connect. In this case, the column sizes may be off by a factor of 3. A
case in point would be a field such as col_a char(3) would appear in the output of the mysqlfrm utility as
col_a char(9).
To mitigate risks such as this and to produce the most accurate CREATE statement in diagnostic mode,
always use the --server option.
23
How do you create a new user with the same privileges as another user?
3.2.3 How do you create a new user with the same privileges as another user?
The MySQL privilege system permits you to create a set of permissions for each user. Sometimes the set
of permissions are complex and may require multiple GRANT statements to effect. Other times, the user
may acquire privileges over time.
Regardless of how it came about, you may find yourself needing to create a new user that has the same
privileges as another user.
Objectives
The goal is to create one or more users whose permissions are identical to an original user on a single
server.
Rather than discover what those privileges are using a SHOW GRANTS FOR statement, copy them into a
script, modify it, copy and paste again for each user, etc., etc., we can use a single command to copy one
user to a list of new users. We can even set different passwords for each user as we go.
Let's assume we have a user, [email protected], who has a long list of permissions. We need to create a
clone of his user account for two new users, sally and john. Each of these users requires a new password.
Example Execution
shell> mysqluserclone [email protected] \
[email protected] \
[email protected] sally:[email protected] john:[email protected]
# Source on localhost: ... connected.
# Destination on localhost: ... connected.
# Cloning 2 users...
# Cloning [email protected] to user sally:[email protected]
# Cloning [email protected] to user john:[email protected]
# ...done.
Discussion
In the above example, we see the use of the mysqluserclone utility to clone the joe user to two new
user accounts.
Notice we used the --source option to connect to the original server and --destination for the same
server.
After that, we simply list the user we want to clone and the new users we want to create. In this case we
use the format username:[email protected] to specify the user account name, password (optional), and
host.
When the utility finishes, you have two new user accounts that have the same privileges as the original
user; [email protected]
Permissions Required
On the source server, the user must have the SELECT privilege for the mysql database.
On the destination server, the user must have the global CREATE USER privilege or the INSERT privilege
for the mysql database as well as the GRANT OPTION privilege, and the privileges that the original user
has (you grant a privilege you do not have yourself).
Tips and Tricks
You can use --destination option to specify a different server to copy a user account to another server.
24
Is there an easy way to know what options are used with each utility?
Use the --dump option with only the --source option to see all user accounts.
Use the --include-global-privileges option to include GRANT statements that the [email protected]
combination matches. This is useful for copying user accounts from one server to another where there are
global privileges in effect.
3.2.4 Is there an easy way to know what options are used with each utility?
There are many utilities and it is not always easy to remember all of the options and parameters associated
with each. Sometimes we need to run several utilities using nearly the same options. For example,
you may want to run several utilities logging into a particular server. Rather than retype the connection
information each time, you would like to save the option value some way and reuse it.
Fortunately, the mysqluc utility does this and more. It is named the MySQL Users' Console and provides
type completion for options, utility names, and even user-defined variables for working with common option
values. Not only that, it also provides the ability to get help for any utility supported.
Objectives
Discover what utilities exist and find the options for certain utilities.
Run several utilities with the same server using the type completion feature to make using the suite of
utilities easier.
Example Execution
Note
In the example below, keystrokes are represented using square brackets. For
example, [TAB] indicates the tab key was pressed. Similarly, portions in the
commands specific with angle brackets are values you would replace with actual
values. For example, <user> indicates you would place the user's login name here.
shell> mysqluc
Launching console ...
Welcome to the MySQL Utilities Client (mysqluc) version 1.5.2
Copyright (c) 2010, 2015 Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
This is a release of dual licensed MySQL Utilities. For the avoidance of
doubt, this particular copy of the software is released
under the version 2 of the GNU General Public License.
MySQL Utilities is brought to you by Oracle.
Type 'help' for a list of commands or press TAB twice for list of utilities.
mysqluc> help
Command
---------------------help utilities
help <utility>
show errors
clear errors
show last error
help | help commands
exit | quit
set <variable>=<value>
show options
Description
--------------------------------------------------Display list of all utilities supported.
Display help for a specific utility.
Display errors captured during the execution of the
utilities.
clear captured errors.
Display the last error captured during the
execution of the utilities
Show this list.
Exit the console.
Store a variable for recall in commands.
Display list of options specified by the user on
launch.
25
Is there an easy way to know what options are used with each utility?
show variables
<ENTER>
<ESCAPE>
<DOWN>
<UP>
<TAB>
<TAB><TAB>
Display list of variables.
Press ENTER to execute command.
Press ESCAPE to clear the command entry.
Press DOWN to retrieve the previous command.
Press UP to retrieve the next command in history.
Press TAB for type completion of utility, option,
or variable names.
Press TAB twice for list of matching type
completion (context sensitive).
mysqluc> help utilities
Utility
Description
---------------- --------------------------------------------------------mysqlauditadmin
audit log maintenance utility
mysqlauditgrep
audit log search utility
mysqldbcompare
compare databases for consistency
mysqldbcopy
copy databases from one server to another
mysqldbexport
export metadata and data from databases
mysqldbimport
import metadata and data from files
mysqldiff
compare object definitions among objects where the
difference is how db1.obj1 differs from db2.obj2
mysqldiskusage
show disk usage for databases
mysqlfailover
automatic replication health monitoring and failover
mysqlfrm
show CREATE TABLE from .frm files
mysqlindexcheck
check for duplicate or redundant indexes
mysqlmetagrep
search metadata
mysqlprocgrep
search process information
mysqlreplicate
establish replication with a master
mysqlrpladmin
administration utility for MySQL replication
mysqlrplcheck
check replication
mysqlrplms
establish multi-source replication
mysqlrplshow
show slaves attached to a master
mysqlrplsync
replication synchronization checker utility
mysqlserverclone start another instance of a running server
mysqlserverinfo
show server information
mysqluserclone
clone a MySQL user account to one or more new users
mysqluc> help mysqldb[TAB][TAB]
Utility
Description
-------------- ----------------------------------------------------------mysqldbcompare compare databases for consistency
mysqldbcopy
copy databases from one server to another
mysqldbexport
export metadata and data from databases
mysqldbimport
import metadata and data from files
mysqluc> mysqlrplshow --m[TAB][TAB]
Option
----------------------master=MASTER
--max-depth=MAX_DEPTH
Description
---------------------------------------------------connection information for master server in the
form: <user>[:<password>]@<host>[:<port>][:<socket>]
or <login-path>[:<port>][:<socket>].
limit the traversal to this depth. Valid only with
the --recurse option. Valid values are non-negative
integers.
mysqluc> mysqlrplshow --mast[TAB]er=<user>:<password>@localhost:13001
The console has detected that the utility 'mysqlrplshow' ended with an error code.
You can get more information about the error by running the console command 'show last error'.
mysqluc> show last error
Execution of utility: mysqlrplshow --master=<user>:<password>@localhost:13001
returned errorcode: 2 with error message:
Usage: mysqlrplshow.py [email protected]:3306
26
Is there an easy way to know what options are used with each utility?
mysqlrplshow.py: error: The --discover-slaves-login is required to test slave connectivity.
mysqluc> mysqlrplshow --master=<user>:<password>@localhost:13001 \
--discover-slaves-login=<user>:<password>
# master on localhost: ... connected.
# Finding slaves for master: localhost:13001
# Replication Topology Graph
localhost:13001 (MASTER)
|
+--- localhost:13002 - (SLAVE)
|
+--- localhost:13003 - (SLAVE)
|
+--- localhost:13004 - (SLAVE)
|
+--- localhost:13005 - (SLAVE)
mysqluc>
Discussion
There is a lot going on here in this example! Let's look through the command entries as they occur in the
text.
The first command, mysqluc, starts the users' console. Once the console starts, a welcome banner is
displayed followed by a simple prompt, mysqluc>. No additional options or parameters are necessary.
However, it should be noted that you can pass commands to the console to execute on start. For a
complete list of options, see MySQL Users' Console manual page.
The next command, help, shows the help for the users' console itself. As you can see, there are a number
of options available. You can set user defined variables, discover the help for other utilities, display the
latest error, and see the options used to start the console.
The help utilities command shows you a list of the available utilities and a short description of each.
Next, we decide we want to get help for one of the database utilities but we do not remember the name.
We know it starts with mysqldb but we are not sure of the rest. In this case, if we type mysqldb then hit
TAB twice, the users' console shows us a list of all of the utilities that begin with mysqldb.
Now let's say we want to see a graph of our replication topology but we are not sure what the option for
specifying the master. In this case, we type the command to launch the mysqlrplshow utility and type
the start of the option, '--m', then press TAB twice. What we see is there are two options that match that
prefix. Notice we also see a short description (help) for each. This is a real time saving feature for the
users' console.
Notice in the next segment we do not have to type the entire name of the option. In this case we typed '-mast[TAB]' which the users' console completed with '--master='. This is tab completion for option names.
Notice the result of the command we entered, mysqlrplshow '-master=user:[email protected]:13001'. There was an error here. We can see the error with the show
errors command. We see in the error we failed to provide any connection information for the slaves.
Once we correct that omission, the last command shows how the users' console executes a utility and
displays the results in the same stream as the console - much like the mysql client command-line tool.
27
How do you find redundant or duplicate indexes and know which ones to drop?
Permissions Required
There are no special permissions required to run mysqluc however, you must have the necessary
privileges to execute the desired utilities.
3.2.5 How do you find redundant or duplicate indexes and know which ones to
drop?
MySQL allows its users to create several indexes that might be the same (duplicate indexes) or partially
similar (redundant indexes) in its structure. Although duplicate indexes have no advantages, there are
some cases where redundant indexes might be helpful. However, both have disadvantages. Duplicate and
redundant indexes slow down update and insert operations. As a result it is usually a good idea to find and
remove them.
Doing this manually would be a time consuming task, especially for big databases or databases with lots of
tables and that is why there is a utility to automate this type of task: mysqlindexcheck.
Objectives
Our goal is to use the mysqlindexcheck utility to help us find duplicate and redundant indexes. For that
we are going to use the following table as an example:
CREATE TABLE `test_db`.`indexcheck_test`(
`emp_id` INT(11) NOT NULL,
`fiscal_number` int(11) NOT NULL,
`name` VARCHAR(50) NOT NULL,
`surname` VARCHAR (50) NOT NULL,
`job_title` VARCHAR (20),
`hire_date` DATE default NULL,
`birthday` DATE default NULL,
PRIMARY KEY (`emp_id`),
KEY `idx_fnumber`(`fiscal_number`),
UNIQUE KEY `idx_unifnumber` (`fiscal_number`),
UNIQUE KEY `idx_uemp_id` (`emp_id`),
KEY `idx_full_name` (`name`, `surname`),
KEY `idx_full_name_dup` (`name`, `surname`),
KEY `idx_name` (`name`),
KEY `idx_surname` (`surname`),
KEY `idx_reverse_name` (`surname`,`name`),
KEY `ìdx_id_name` (`emp_id`, `name`),
KEY `idx_id_hdate` (`emp_id`, `hire_date`),
KEY `idx_id_bday` (`emp_id`, `birthday`)
) ENGINE=InnoDB DEFAULT CHARSET=utf8
Example Execution
shell> mysqlindexcheck [email protected]:13010 test_db.indexcheck_test
# Source on localhost: ... connected.
# The following indexes are duplicates or redundant for table test_db.indexcheck_test:
#
CREATE INDEX `idx_uemp_id` ON `test_db`.`indexcheck_test` (`emp_id`) USING BTREE
#
may be redundant or duplicate of:
ALTER TABLE `test_db`.`indexcheck_test` ADD PRIMARY KEY (`emp_id`)
#
CREATE INDEX `idx_fnumber` ON `test_db`.`indexcheck_test` (`fiscal_number`) USING BTREE
#
may be redundant or duplicate of:
CREATE INDEX `idx_unifnumber` ON `test_db`.`indexcheck_test` (`fiscal_number`) USING BTREE
#
28
How do you find redundant or duplicate indexes and know which ones to drop?
CREATE INDEX `idx_full_name_dup` ON `test_db`.`indexcheck_test` (`name`, `surname`) USING BTREE
#
may be redundant or duplicate of:
CREATE INDEX `idx_full_name` ON `test_db`.`indexcheck_test` (`name`, `surname`) USING BTREE
#
CREATE INDEX `idx_name` ON `test_db`.`indexcheck_test` (`name`) USING BTREE
#
may be redundant or duplicate of:
CREATE INDEX `idx_full_name` ON `test_db`.`indexcheck_test` (`name`, `surname`) USING BTREE
#
CREATE INDEX `idx_surname` ON `test_db`.`indexcheck_test` (`surname`) USING BTREE
#
may be redundant or duplicate of:
CREATE INDEX `idx_reverse_name` ON `test_db`.`indexcheck_test` (`surname`, `name`) USING BTREE
#
ALTER TABLE `test_db`.`indexcheck_test` ADD PRIMARY KEY (`emp_id`)
#
may be redundant or duplicate of:
CREATE INDEX `ìdx_id_name` ON `test_db`.`indexcheck_test` (`emp_id`, `name`) USING BTREE
#
CREATE INDEX `idx_id_hdate` ON `test_db`.`indexcheck_test` (`emp_id`, `hire_date`) USING BTREE
#
may be redundant or duplicate of:
CREATE INDEX `ìdx_id_name` ON `test_db`.`indexcheck_test` (`emp_id`, `name`) USING BTREE
#
CREATE INDEX `idx_id_bday` ON `test_db`.`indexcheck_test` (`emp_id`, `birthday`) USING BTREE
#
may be redundant or duplicate of:
CREATE INDEX `ìdx_id_name` ON `test_db`.`indexcheck_test` (`emp_id`, `name`) USING BTREE
# The following indexes for table test_db.indexcheck_test contain the clustered index and
# might be redundant:
#
CREATE INDEX `idx_uemp_id` ON `test_db`.`indexcheck_test` (`emp_id`) USING BTREE
#
CREATE INDEX `ìdx_id_name` ON `test_db`.`indexcheck_test` (`emp_id`, `name`) USING BTREE
#
CREATE INDEX `idx_id_hdate` ON `test_db`.`indexcheck_test` (`emp_id`, `hire_date`) USING BTREE
#
CREATE INDEX `idx_id_bday` ON `test_db`.`indexcheck_test` (`emp_id`, `birthday`) USING BTREE
Discussion
As we can see, the utility first points out that neither the idx_uemp_id index nor the idx_fnumber are
necessary and it points out why. The first, idx_uemp_id, is redundant because the primary key already
ensures that emp_id values have to be unique. As for idx_fnumber, it is also redundant because
of idx_ufnumber, a UNIQUE type index which also works as a regular index. Then it points out that
idx_full_name_dup is also not necessary. In this case it is a duplicate of the idx_full_name index since it
contains the exact same columns on the same order.
Notice that it also indicates that idx_name, idx_surname and even the PRIMARY INDEX on emp_id might
be redundant. This happens because we are dealing with BTREE type indexes and for this type of indexes
an index X is redundant to an index Y if and only if the first n columns in X also appear in Y.
Given that we are using InnoDB engine, it also warns us that `idx_uemp_id`, `ìdx_id_name`, `idx_id_hdate`
and `idx_id_bday` might not be needed. This happens because, in InnoDB, secondary indexes contain the
primary key columns for the row that are not in the secondary index.
Note
The indexes identified are just indications of redundant and duplicate indexes. They
must not be followed blindly because redundant indexes can be useful depending
on how you use (query) your tables.
Permissions Required
Regarding the privileges needed to run this utility, the test_user needs SELECT privilege on the mysql
database as well as for the databases which tables are being checked.
29
How do you find all objects that start with a given name prefix?
Tips and Tricks
You can use the -d option to generate the SQL drop statements needed to remove the indexes.
The --stats option can be used alone or together with either --best or --worst to show statistics
about the indexes.
Use the --show-indexes option to show each table together with its indexes.
3.2.6 How do you find all objects that start with a given name prefix?
One of the challenges for database administrators who manage servers with thousands of objects is the
task of finding an object by name. Sometimes all you have to go on is the name of a table or perhaps an
obscure reference to a partial name. This can come about through a diagnosis of a problem connection,
application, or via an incomplete description from a defect report.
It is also possible you need to simply check to see if certain things exist. For example, suppose among
your databases are parts or inventory data and you want to check to see if there are any functions or
procedures that operate on a column named 'cost'. Moreover, you want to see anything related that has
'cost' as part of its name.
Whatever the case, it would be a big time saver if you could search through all of the database objects and
see a list of the objects whose name matches a prefix (or pattern). Fortunately, the mysqlmetagrep utility
can get this done.
Objectives
Find all objects whose name begins with a known prefix. More specifically, find any mention of the word
'cost'.
Example Execution
shell> mysqlmetagrep --server=root:[email protected] --body --pattern='%cost%'
+------------------------+--------------+--------------+----------+-------------+------------------+
| Connection
| Object Type | Object Name | Database | Field Type | Matches
|
+------------------------+--------------+--------------+----------+-------------+------------------+
| root:*@localhost:3306 | FUNCTION
| adjust_cost | griots
| ROUTINE
| adjust_cost
|
| root:*@localhost:3306 | TABLE
| supplies
| griots
| COLUMN
| cost
|
| root:*@localhost:3306 | TABLE
| film
| sakila
| COLUMN
| replacement_cost |
+------------------------+--------------+--------------+-----------------+-------------+-------------+
shell> mysql -uroot -proot -e "SHOW CREATE FUNCTION griots.adjust_cost \G"
*************************** 1. row ***************************
Function: adjust_cost
sql_mode:
Create Function: CREATE DEFINER=`root`@`localhost` FUNCTION `adjust_cost`(cost double)
RETURNS double DETERMINISTIC
return cost * 1.10
character_set_client: latin1
collation_connection: latin1_swedish_ci
Database Collation: latin1_swedish_ci
Discussion
In this example, we see the use of the database pattern '%cost%' to find objects that have 'cost' anywhere
in their name. We also see the use of the --body option to instruct the utility to look inside procedures and
functions. This can be very handy to locate routines that manipulate data as you can see.
30
How do you run a process every night to kill certain connections?
Notice once we found a routine that had 'cost' mentioned, we can examine its body via the SHOW
CREATE FUNCTION command to see just how it is using the column 'cost'. In this case, we see someone
has written a function to adjust the cost by 10%'.
Therefore, not only can you find objects that have anything named 'cost', you can also discover any hidden
logic that may operate on something named 'cost'.
Permissions Required
The user must have the SELECT privilege on the mysql database.
Tips and Tricks
If you are familiar with using regular expressions, you can use the --regexp option to use regular
expressions instead of database patterns. For example, the regular expression for the search above would
be --pattern='^.*cost.*' --basic-regex.
3.2.7 How do you run a process every night to kill certain connections?
Some database administrators use nightly routines to perform maintenance on their databases or servers.
Sometimes these routines can be blocked by long running queries or applications that hang onto locks for
longer than expected.
Naturally, priority is given to the application and maintenance routines are often canceled rather than
interfere with an application. Should it happen that you subscribe to this notion and you have a routine
that is still being blocked or for some reason hasn't completed by a certain time, you need a quick way to
generate an event to kill the connection involved. This is where the mysqlprocgrep utility can help.
Objectives
The objective is to generate an event that kills all connections based on a user login ('msaladin') but only if
that connection is trying to run a custom administration script named 'my_admin_thingy'.
Example Execution
shell> mysqlprocgrep --sql-body \
--match-command='my_admin_thingy%' --match-user='msaladin%'
DECLARE kill_done INT;
DECLARE kill_cursor CURSOR FOR
SELECT
Id, User, Host, Db, Command, Time, State, Info
FROM
INFORMATION_SCHEMA.PROCESSLIST
WHERE
COMMAND LIKE 'my_admin_thingy%'
AND
USER LIKE 'msaladin%'
OPEN kill_cursor;
BEGIN
DECLARE id BIGINT;
DECLARE EXIT HANDLER FOR NOT FOUND SET kill_done = 1;
kill_loop: LOOP
FETCH kill_cursor INTO id;
KILL CONNECTION id;
END LOOP kill_loop;
END;
CLOSE kill_cursor;
31
--kill-connection
High Availability Operations
Discussion
Notice in the example above, we did not connect to any server to get this information. That is one of the
great things about this utility - you can generate all manner of SQL statements for finding processes and try
them out on a test system before incorporating them into your events, triggers, and routines.
We specified the user with the --match-user option using a wildcard in case the user is logged in from
a different system. We also specified the name of the maintenance routine in the same manner in case it
gets renamed with a version number or some such.
The output of this utility then is the SQL statement we need to use to find and kill the connections that meet
these criteria. Armed with this, we can make a procedure we can call from an event and execute the SQL
at a precise time every day.
Permissions Required
The user must have the SELECT permission on the mysql database.
Tips and Tricks
If you are familiar with using regular expressions, you can use the --regexp option to use regular
expressions instead of database patterns.
3.3 High Availability Operations
The tasks described in this section include those for replication and general to specific high availability
tasks such as automatic failover.
3.3.1 How do you setup and use replication?
MySQL has built-in support for several types of replication. Replication is usually employed with the
purpose of increasing the performance and/or the fault-tolerance of the server and by extension the
application. However, setting up replication can be a somewhat complicated and error prone process. But
fear not, MySQL Utilities has tools that can help simplify and even automate several replication related
tasks.
Consider a scenario where replication is used to obtain scalability, i.e. to increase the performance. Let us
imagine an online shopping service. The shop started out small so a single server was enough to handle
all the requests, however now it has become quite popular and as a result that single server is no longer
able to handle all the requests. Being an online store, most of the operations are read operations (checking
existing products, reviews, stock availability, etc).
Objectives
Our goal is to use replication in order to improve the throughput of the service by adding more servers
which becomes replicas of the already existing server. These replicas allows scaling out of the service
by taking up all the read requests, leaving the old server (now called the master) in charge of the writes.
Rather than doing everything "by hand" with the mysql command line, we are going to setup this replication
scenario using a single script, mysqlreplicate which does most of the hard work for us. We then check
the result using the mysqlrpladmin utility.
Let us assume the existing server, Server1, is running on port 13001 on the local machine with IP
192.168.1.1 and that we want to add 2 new servers, Server2 running on 192.168.1.2:13001 and Server3
running on 192.168.1.3:3306.
32
How do you setup and use replication?
Example Execution
shell> mysqlreplicate [email protected]:13001 \
[email protected]:13001 --rpl-user=repl:slavepass -b
# master on 192.168.1.1: ... connected.
# slave on 192.168.1.2: ... connected.
# Checking for binary logging on master...
# Setting up replication...
# ...done.
shell> mysqlreplicate [email protected]:13001 \
[email protected]:3306 --rpl-user=repl:slavepass -b
# master on 192.168.1.1: ... connected.
# slave on 192.168.1.3: ... connected.
# Checking for binary logging on master...
# Setting up replication...
# ...done.
shell> mysqlrplcheck [email protected]:13001 \
[email protected]:13001
# master on 192.168.1.1: ... connected.
# slave on 192.168.1.2: ... connected.
Test Description
Status
--------------------------------------------------------------------------Checking for binary logging on master
[pass]
Are there binlog exceptions?
[pass]
Replication user exists?
[pass]
Checking server_id values
[pass]
Checking server_uuid values
[pass]
Is slave connected to master?
[pass]
Check master information file
[pass]
Checking InnoDB compatibility
[pass]
Checking storage engines compatibility
[pass]
Checking lower_case_table_names settings
[pass]
Checking slave delay (seconds behind master)
[FAIL]
Slave is NNN seconds behind master.
# ...done.
shell> mysqlrplcheck [email protected]:13001 \
[email protected]:3306
# master on 192.168.1.1: ... connected.
# slave on 192.168.1.3: ... connected.
Test Description
Status
--------------------------------------------------------------------------Checking for binary logging on master
[pass]
Are there binlog exceptions?
[pass]
Replication user exists?
[pass]
Checking server_id values
[pass]
Checking server_uuid values
[pass]
Is slave connected to master?
[pass]
Check master information file
[pass]
Checking InnoDB compatibility
[pass]
Checking storage engines compatibility
[pass]
Checking lower_case_table_names settings
[pass]
Checking slave delay (seconds behind master)
[FAIL]
Slave is N seconds behind master.
# ...done.
33
How do you add new servers to an existing topology and change the master role?
Discussion
In the above example we made use of the mysqlreplicate utility to setup a single tier replication
topology, where the existing server is now the master for the two new servers which act as slaves. Notice
how we used the address of the old existing server in the --master option and in the --slave option we
used the addresses of the new servers. Also notice the use of the -b flag, this makes replication start from
the first event recorded in the master's binary log.
Also notice how we used the mysqlrplcheck utility to check the health of the replication. In this case, the
failing test "Check slave delay" is expected, since the slaves are catching up with the master. When the
slaves have read and applied all the transactions from the master's binary log the "Check slave delay" test
passes. Also, in case the slave wasn't properly configured and pointing to the master specified the "Is slave
connect to master" test would notify us of that with a FAIL or WARN status.
Permissions Required
The m_account user needs the following privileges for the mysqlreplicate: SELECT and INSERT
privileges on mysql database, REPLICATION SLAVE, REPLICATION CLIENT and GRANT OPTION.
As for the slave_acc users, they need the SUPER privilege. The repl user, used as the argument for the
--rpl-user option, is either created automatically or if it exists, it needs the REPLICATION SLAVE
privilege.
Also, when using GTIDs, the slave_acc users must also have SELECT privilege over the mysql database
in order to run the mysqlrplcheck utility successfully.
Tips and Tricks
In the mysqlreplicate utility we could have also used the --test-db option which creates a dummy
database to test the replication setup. However, the mysqlrplcheck provides more detailed information
in that regard.
As previously stated, the -b option tells the utility to start replication from the first event recorded in the
master's binary log. Omitting this flag, in turn, makes the slaves replicate only what is stored in the master's
binary log from the present moment onward.
Furthermore, using the --master-log-file and --master-log-pos options it is possible to specify
respectively the master log file and the master log position from which the slave starts its replication
process.
The -p flag can be used to ensure that the replication setup is only executed in case the storage engines
match in both the master and the slave.
Regarding the mysqlrplcheck utility, we can use the -s option to check the output of the show slave
status command. This can be useful for instance to check what might be causing the "Is slave connected"
test to fail. We can also use the --master-log-file option to specify the name of the master
information file to read.
Lastly, we can use the --verbose option in order to get more information about what is happening "under
the hood".
3.3.2 How do you add new servers to an existing topology and change the
master role?
We examine a scenario similar to the previous one where we want to make one of the two new slaves
added the new master server (perhaps because it has better specs and is faster).
34
How do you add new servers to an existing topology and change the master role?
Objectives
Our goal in this example it create replication configuration with 3 servers, two new ones and an existing
one, and we want to replicate all the information, but make one of the new servers the master server.
Like the previous example, lets assume that the existing server, Server1, is running on port 13001 on the
local machine with IP 192.168.1.1 that the two new machines with mysql server instances are Server2
running on 192.168.1.2:13001 and Server3 running on 192.168.1.3:3306. We want to make Server2 the
new master.
Example Execution
shell> mysqlreplicate [email protected]:13001 \
[email protected]:13001 --rpl-user=repl:slavepass -b
# master on 192.168.1.1: ... connected.
# slave on 192.168.1.2: ... connected.
# Checking for binary logging on master...
# Setting up replication...
# ...done.
shell> mysqlreplicate [email protected]:13001 \
[email protected]:3306 --rpl-user=repl:slavepass -b
# master on 192.168.1.1: ... connected.
# slave on 192.168.1.3: ... connected.
# Checking for binary logging on master...
# Setting up replication...
# ...done.
shell> mysqlrpladmin [email protected]:13001 \
[email protected]:13001,[email protected]:3306 health
# Checking privileges.
#
# Replication Topology Health:
+--------------+--------+---------+--------+------------+------------------------------+
| host
| port
| role
| state | gtid_mode | health
|
+--------------+--------+---------+--------+------------+------------------------------+
| 192.168.1.1 | 13001 | MASTER | UP
| ON
| OK
|
| 192.168.1.2 | 13001 | SLAVE
| UP
| ON
| Slave delay is NNN seconds
|
| 192.168.1.3 | 3306
| SLAVE
| UP
| ON
| Slave delay is NNN seconds
|
+--------------+--------+---------+--------+------------+------------------------------+
# ...done.
shell> mysqlrpladmin [email protected]:13001 \
[email protected]:13001,[email protected]:3306 health
# Checking privileges.
#
# Replication Topology Health:
+--------------+--------+---------+--------+------------+---------+
| host
| port
| role
| state | gtid_mode | health |
+--------------+--------+---------+--------+------------+---------+
| 192.168.1.1 | 13001 | MASTER | UP
| ON
| OK
|
| 192.168.1.2 | 13001 | SLAVE
| UP
| ON
| OK
|
| 192.168.1.3 | 3306
| SLAVE
| UP
| ON
| OK
|
+--------------+--------+---------+--------+------------+---------+
# ...done.
shell> mysqlrpladmin [email protected]:13001 \
[email protected]:13001,[email protected]:3306 \
[email protected]:13002 --demote-master switchover
# Checking privileges.
# Performing switchover from master at 192.168.1.1:13001 to slave at 192.168.1.2:13001.
# Checking candidate slave prerequisites.
35
How do you add new servers to an existing topology and change the master role?
# Checking slaves configuration to master.
# Waiting for slaves to catch up to old master.
# Stopping slaves.
# Performing STOP on all slaves.
# Demoting old master to be a slave to the new master.
# Switching slaves to new master.
# Starting all slaves.
# Performing START on all slaves.
# Checking slaves for errors.
# Switchover complete.
#
# Replication Topology Health:
+--------------+--------+---------+--------+------------+---------+
| host
| port
| role
| state | gtid_mode | health |
+--------------+--------+---------+--------+------------+---------+
| 192.168.1.2 | 13001 | MASTER | UP
| ON
| OK
|
| 192.168.1.1 | 13001 | SLAVE
| UP
| ON
| OK
|
| 192.168.1.3 | 3306
| SLAVE
| UP
| ON
| OK
|
+--------------+--------+---------+--------+------------+---------+
Discussion
As with our previous scenario we used the mysqlreplicate utility to set up a replication topology
between the existing server and the two new servers. Notice the use of the -b flag which this replication
start from the first event recorded in the master's binary log.
After creating the replication topology, we made use of the mysqlrpladmin utility specifying both the
master and slave servers and using the health command to check the status of the replication. Since our
master server had lots of information, it is normal for the new slaves to take some time to catch up, thus
the slave delay message on the health column of the output.
However, if all goes well, after some time the slaves eventually catch up, and when that happens, the
health column shows an OK status.
Once this was established, we used the mysqlrpladmin utility yet again, this time with switchover
command. Using the --new-master option, we specify the server that becomes the new master. We also
used the --demote-master option, which turns the old master into a slave. If we left that option out, the
old master would still behave as a master just without any slaves.
After the switchover, Server2 becomes the master server for both Server1 and Server3 which are now the
slaves.
Permissions Required
The m_account user needs the following privileges for the mysqlreplicate: SELECT and INSERT
privileges on mysql database, REPLICATION SLAVE, REPLICATION CLIENT and GRANT OPTION.
As for the slave_acc users, they need the SUPER privilege. The repl user, used as the argument for the
--rpl-user option, is either created automatically or if it exists, it needs the REPLICATION SLAVE
privilege.
To run the mysqlrpladmin utility with the health command, the m_account used on the master needs an
extra SUPER privilege.
As for the switchover command all the users need the following privileges: SUPER, GRANT OPTION,
SELECT, RELOAD, DROP, CREATE and REPLICATION SLAVE
Tips and Tricks
We can use the --discover-slaves-login option for mysqlrpladmin in order to detect the slaves
automatically instead of manually specifying the slaves.
36
How do you setup and use automatic failover?
The mysqlrpladmin utility allows users to specify a script to execute before and after the failover and
switchover operations using the --exec-before and --exec-after options respectively. Note that the
script specified using the exec-after option only runs in case the switchover/failover executes successfully.
We can use the mysqlrpladmin utility to start and stop all the slaves with the start/stop commands.
Using the stop command only stops servers that are actually slaves of the specified master thus preventing
us from stopping unwanted servers.
3.3.3 How do you setup and use automatic failover?
Once your replication topology is setup, it is important to consider the possible occurrences of failures in
order to maintain the high availability level of your system. Several failures independently from their cause
(network connection issue, hard drive crash, cosmic lightning, etc.) can stop the replication process by
making the master no longer accessible by its slaves.
In this type of situation, it is desirable to promote one of the slaves to the master while the problem with
the old master is resolved. It is better to have an application to monitor the replicate topology and perform
failover automatically, minimizing downtime and keeping replication running smoothly. This is where the
mysqlfailover utility shines.
Objectives
The goal is to start the mysqlfailover utility to monitor a replication topology and perform failover
automatically when required.
When the current master fails, manually promoting a slave to the new master can be a very tedious and
error prone task, as all the remaining slave have to be redirected to the new master and the new master
needs to catch up with all the slaves to make sure that no transactions is lost.
Fortunately, the mysqlfailover utility is capable of executing this full process automatically and in a
optimized way.
Let's assume that a replication topology with one master (server1:3311) and four slaves (server2:3312,
server3:3313, server4:3314, server:3315) was previously setup.
Example Execution
Start the mysqlfailover utility (in console mode - default):
shell> mysqlfailover [email protected]:3311 \
[email protected]:3312,[email protected]:3313,[email protected]:3314,[email protected]:3315 \
--log=log.txt --rpl-user=rpl:rpl
NOTE: Log file 'log.txt' does not exist. Will be created.
# Checking privileges.
MySQL Replication Failover Utility
Failover Mode = auto
Next Interval = Fri Jul 26 10:17:52 2013
Master Information
-----------------Binary Log File
Position
master-bin.000001 151
Binlog_Do_DB
Binlog_Ignore_DB
GTID Executed Set
None
Replication Health Status
+----------+-------+---------+--------+------------+---------+
| host
| port | role
| state | gtid_mode | health |
37
How do you setup and use automatic failover?
+----------+-------+---------+--------+------------+---------+
| server1 | 3311 | MASTER | UP
| ON
| OK
|
| server2 | 3312 | SLAVE
| UP
| ON
| OK
|
| server3 | 3313 | SLAVE
| UP
| ON
| OK
|
| server4 | 3314 | SLAVE
| UP
| ON
| OK
|
| server5 | 3315 | SLAVE
| UP
| ON
| OK
|
+----------+-------+---------+--------+------------+---------+
Q-quit R-refresh H-health G-GTID Lists U-UUIDs L-log entries
Now imagine that the master crashed or is no longer reachable, then after a predefined time interval (by
default 15 seconds) we can observe that the failover process starts automatically:
Failover starting in 'auto' mode...
# Candidate slave server2:3312 will become the new master.
# Checking slaves status (before failover).
# Preparing candidate for failover.
# Creating replication user if it does not exist.
# Stopping slaves.
# Performing STOP on all slaves.
# Switching slaves to new master.
# Disconnecting new master as slave.
# Starting slaves.
# Performing START on all slaves.
# Checking slaves for errors.
# Failover complete.
Failover console will restart in 5 seconds.
[...]
MySQL Replication Failover Utility
Failover Mode = auto
Next Interval = Fri Jul 26 10:25:17 2013
Master Information
-----------------Binary Log File
Position
master-bin.000001 151
Binlog_Do_DB
Binlog_Ignore_DB
GTID Executed Set
None
Replication Health Status
+----------+-------+---------+--------+------------+---------+
| host
| port | role
| state | gtid_mode | health |
+----------+-------+---------+--------+------------+---------+
| server2 | 3312 | MASTER | UP
| ON
| OK
|
| server3 | 3313 | SLAVE
| UP
| ON
| OK
|
| server4 | 3314 | SLAVE
| UP
| ON
| OK
|
| server5 | 3315 | SLAVE
| UP
| ON
| OK
|
+----------+-------+---------+--------+------------+---------+
Q-quit R-refresh H-health G-GTID Lists U-UUIDs L-log entries
Discussion
The above example illustrates how to start the mysqlfailover utility to monitor the health of the
replication topology and reconfigure the topology when failover occurs.
To setup this feature, we simply need to specify the master's connection with the --master option, the
list of slaves with the --slaves option and the replication user (login and password) using the --rpluser option. As an alternative to the --slaves options, you can use the --discover-slaves-login
specifying a user and password (or login-path) to connect to the slaves. The utility attempts to discover all
38
How do you restore the previous master to service after failover?
of the slaves connected with the master using the specified login and password. For the above example, '-discover-slaves-login=root' could be used.
The --discover-slaves-login can be very handy especially if there is a huge number of slaves in
the topology, but bear in mind that the explicit specification of slaves is safer and that discovery can fail
to find some servers. In particular, it is important to note that in order for slaves to be discovered, they
must be started with the '--report-host' and '--report-port' options with the correct values and they must be
connected to the master (I/O thread running) otherwise discovery fails.
It is also recommended to use the --log options to specify a file to register all events, warning and errors.
This is useful to keep a record of what happened. For example, to determine when failover occurred and if
the process completed without errors or warnings.
An important matter to discuss is the order in which the servers are select as candidates for failover. No
distinction is made in terms of the number of transactions to select the most up-to-date slave to become
the new master. The reason is very simple; this criteria is non-deterministic as many circumstances (i.e.,
network load, server maintenance operations) can temporarily influence the performance of a slave and
could lead to an incorrect selection of the most appropriate candidate. For example, the slave with the
best hardware should be in the long run the most appropriate candidate to become the new master, but
for some unanticipated reason it might actually have fewer transactions than other servers when the
master crashed. Therefore, a more deterministic criteria based on the order in which the servers are
specified is used, allowing the user to control the order in which the candidates are selected. The first
server that meets the required election criteria, consisting on simple sanity checks (server reachable and
running with the required options: GTID ON and binary logging enabled), is chosen. More specifically, the
selection of the new master follows this order: first, sequentially check the list of servers specified by the
--candidates option, then the servers listed in the --slaves option, and finally check any discovered
slaves in an unordered way.
Permissions Required
The user must have permissions to configure replication.
Tips and Tricks
In the above example the mysqlfailover utility was started in the default console mode, but it can also
be executed as a daemon. For that purpose, the --daemon option needs to be used, more specifically
simply add '--daemon=start' to the command line. When mysqlfailover is executed as a daemon,
no output is displayed and all the information is logged to file specified for the --log option, which is
mandatory in this case. To stop the execution of the mysqlfailover daemon, simply invoke the utility
using the option '--daemon=stop'. No other options is required to stop the daemon unless a specific pidfile
(which contains the process PID) was specified with the --pidfile option to start the daemon and in this
case the same option value is also required to stop it.
Another useful feature is the possibility to run external scripts along the execution of the utility to perform
customized actions. The following options can be used to execute different scripts at distinct moments
of the mysqlfailover execution: --exec-fail-check to specify a script to run periodically at each
predefined interval instead of the default check (i.e., master is reachable and alive) to detect the need
to failover, --exec-before to specify a script to execute before starting failover, --exec-after to
execute a script at the end of failover process, --exec-post-failover to run a script after completing
the failover process (before displaying the health report).
3.3.4 How do you restore the previous master to service after failover?
After a successful failover, it is sometimes required to restore the initial topology and promote the crashed
server to become the master again (or even a new server with distinctive hardware characteristics).
39
How do you restore the previous master to service after failover?
Sometimes failover can be triggered by a simple network issue (not affecting the health of the initial master
server) and after being resolved, it may be desirable to put the old master back in the replication topology.
We can do this with several of the high availability utilities.
Objectives
The goal of this task is simply to replace the new master of a replication topology with the previous one
that might have been demoted as result of successful automatic failover execution. It is assumed that
the server to be restored as master is healthy and any previous issue (that triggered failover) have been
resolved.
Let's consider the previous topology after failover, now with a new master (server2:3312) and three slaves
(server3:3313, server4:3314, server:3315), and that we want to promote the initial server (server1:3311) to
master again.
Performing this task manually can be delicate as one wrong or missing step can lead to errors and errors
in the replication topology or even to the lost of some transaction. Once more MySQL Utilities can provide
a precious assistance to perform this task, in this case requiring the user to follow three simple steps to
restore the initial topology as shown below.
Example Execution
There are several steps involved in solving this problem. We walk through each in turn.
You must first stop running the mysqlfailover utility instance and start the (old) master to be restored,
i.e. server1:3311.
Next, set the old master (server1:3311) as a slave of the current new master (server2:3312):
shell> mysqlreplicate [email protected]:3312 [email protected]:3311 -rpl-user=rpl:rpl
# master on localhost: ... connected.
# slave on localhost: ... connected.
# Checking for binary logging on master...
# Setting up replication...
# ...done.
Next, switchover to the previous master to restore the initial replication topology:
shell> mysqlrpladmin [email protected]:3312 \
[email protected]:3313,[email protected]:3314,[email protected]:3315 \
--rpl-user=rpl:rpl [email protected]:3311 --demote-master switchover
# Checking privileges.
# Performing switchover from master at server2:3312 to slave at server1:3311.
# Checking candidate slave prerequisites.
# Checking slaves configuration to master.
# Waiting for slaves to catch up to old master.
# Stopping slaves.
# Performing STOP on all slaves.
# Demoting old master to be a slave to the new master.
# Switching slaves to new master.
# Starting all slaves.
# Performing START on all slaves.
# Checking slaves for errors.
# Switchover complete.
#
# Replication Topology Health:
+----------+-------+---------+--------+------------+---------+
| host
| port | role
| state | gtid_mode | health |
+----------+-------+---------+--------+------------+---------+
40
How do you restore the previous master to service after failover?
| server1 | 3311 | MASTER | UP
| ON
| OK
|
| server2 | 3312 | SLAVE
| UP
| ON
| OK
|
| server3 | 3313 | SLAVE
| UP
| ON
| OK
|
| server4 | 3314 | SLAVE
| UP
| ON
| OK
|
| server5 | 3315 | SLAVE
| UP
| ON
| OK
|
+----------+-------+---------+--------+------------+---------+
# ...done.
The initial replication topology is now restored and mysqlfailover can be restarted (but using --force) as
initially:
shell> mysqlfailover [email protected]:3311 \
[email protected]:3312,[email protected]:3313,[email protected]:3314,server5:3315 \
--log=log.txt --rpl-user=rpl:rpl --force
# Checking privileges.
MySQL Replication Failover Utility
Failover Mode = auto
Next Interval = Sat Jul 27 02:17:12 2013
Master Information
-----------------Binary Log File
Position
master-bin.000002 151
Binlog_Do_DB
Binlog_Ignore_DB
GTID Executed Set
None
Replication Health Status
+----------+-------+---------+--------+------------+---------+
| host
| port | role
| state | gtid_mode | health |
+----------+-------+---------+--------+------------+---------+
| server1 | 3311 | MASTER | UP
| ON
| OK
|
| server2 | 3312 | SLAVE
| UP
| ON
| OK
|
| server3 | 3313 | SLAVE
| UP
| ON
| OK
|
| server4 | 3314 | SLAVE
| UP
| ON
| OK
|
| server5 | 3315 | SLAVE
| UP
| ON
| OK
|
+----------+-------+---------+--------+------------+---------+
Q-quit R-refresh H-health G-GTID Lists U-UUIDs L-log entries
Discussion
The most important step is the execution of the switchover command with the mysqlrpladmin utility.
The previous steps can be seen as a preparation for switchover. The first step simply makes sure that the
server is running and that there is no mysqlfailover instance still running that could affect the correct
execution of switchover. The second step sets the old master as a slave of the new master, because the
switchover command can only be performed with slaves. This step also allows the old master to catch up
with the new master. If many transaction have been performed on the new master it is recommended to
wait a while to let the old master catch up before switchover, otherwise the switchover command might
take longer.
As expected, the execution of the switchover command requires the specification of the current and new
master with the --master and --new-master options as well as the list of slaves in the topology using
the --slaves option (without need to list the new master). The replication user is specified with the -rpl-user option. In this specific example, the use of the option --demote-master is important, because
without it the current master (server2:3312) is not be demoted and set as a slave of the new master
(server1:3311).
The mysqlrpladmin utility executes and displays information about all required actions to perform
switchover. After completing the switchover process, a health report is displayed that you can use to
confirm the successful execution of the command and verify that the topology has changed as expected.
41
How do you find all of the slaves attached to a master server?
After completing these simple steps, the replication topology is back to its initial structure (before failover)
with its old master. Therefore, mysqlfailover is ready to be executed again to monitor the topology and
reestablish automatic failover.
Permissions Required
The user have permissions to configure replication.
Tips and Tricks
It is important to wait for the old master to catch up with the new master in order to ensure that no
transactions are lost. Depending on the time the old master was down or not accessible it might take a
considerable time for the old master to execute all missing transactions. MySQL Utilities provide tools that
allow the visualizations of the slaves status, namely the 'health' command of the mysqlrpladmin utility.
An alternative set of steps could have been followed to perform the desired task, using the failover
command from mysqlrpladmin instead of switchover. In this case, the old master should be specified
in the candidates list using the option --candidates to be chosen as the preferred slave to become the
new master (no need for the --master, --new-master and --demote-master options). However, an additional
step are required to set the previous master (server2:3312) as a slave of the old master (server1:3311)
using the mysqlreplicate utility because failover does not demote the previous master as it assumes
that it is not available. Notice that unlike switchover that fails if the server specified by the --new-master
option does not meet the requirements to become master, failover choses another server from the slaves
list to become the new master if the one specified in by the --candidates option is not suitable. It is
important to keep this behavior differences in mind when deciding which command to apply.
The mysqlfailover utility registers its execution on the servers in order to avoid concurrent executions
of the utility, which may lead to errors and inconsistent state during failover. If the utility detects that
another instance might be running, it is started in "fail" mode (not taking any action when it detects that
the master failed). The mysqlfailover instance registration is cleared when the utility exits, and it is
expected that registration process can fail on crashed or not accessible servers. The --force option
overwrite the instance execution check allowing to surpass registration failure on (crashed) old masters,
allowing the mysqlfailover utility to start in 'auto' mode.
3.3.5 How do you find all of the slaves attached to a master server?
When you have a topology that has grown over time - many slaves have been added from time-to-time - it
may not be so easy to remember which servers are connected as slaves and even which are slaves to a
given master.
Most often you want to know the state of those slaves at-a-glance. Rather than connect to each slave
individually, it would be nice to know what the state of each slaves threads using a single command.
Objectives
Show a map of the slaves connected to a master including the state of each slaves threads (IO and SQL).
We can do this with a single command using the mysqlrplshow utility.
Example Execution
shell> mysqlrplshow --master=root:[email protected]:13001 \
--disco=root:root --verbosity
# master on localhost: ... connected.
# Finding slaves for master: localhost:13001
42
How Can you determine if data was replicated correctly?
# Replication Topology Graph
localhost:13001 (MASTER)
|
+--- localhost:13002 [IO:
|
+--- localhost:13003 [IO:
|
+--- localhost:13004 [IO:
|
+--- localhost:13005 [IO:
Yes, SQL: Yes] - (SLAVE)
Yes, SQL: Yes] - (SLAVE)
Yes, SQL: Yes] - (SLAVE)
Yes, SQL: Yes] - (SLAVE)
Discussion
Notice the use of the mysqlrplshow utility. Not only did it show us the slaves attached to the master, it
also displayed the state of the IO and SQL thread for each slave.
We used the master server for the --master option but for the slaves, we provided the option -discover-slaves-login which provides the user name and password for the account used to connect
to each slave. Without this, we would not be able to determine if the slave is attached (currently) or the
state of its threads.
The --discover-slaves-login option applies to all slaves. If you do not have the same user defined
on all of your slaves, you can use the --prompt option to prompt for the user and password for each
slave.
To get the state of the slave threads, use the --verbose option.
Permissions Required
The user connected to the master must have the REPLICATION SLAVE privilege.
The user specified with the --discover-slaves-login option that logs into each slave must have the
REPLICATION CLIENT privilege.
Tips and Tricks
You can also display multiple tiered topologies by providing the --recurse option.
Notice in the example we used the option --discover-slaves-login but specified only --disco=. This
is a shortcut feature built into every utility. If you type the first N letters of a utility that uniquely identifies it
among the options for said utility, the utility accepts it as if you typed the entire string. For example, the full
name of the option we used is --discover-slaves-login.
3.3.6 How Can you determine if data was replicated correctly?
Once the replication system is setup and running, it is not uncommon that one might want to verify if the
data is being replicated correctly on the slaves. In normal circumstances, the same data is expected on
the master and its slaves (excluding the use of filtering rules). Nevertheless, faults at the data level can
introduce inconsistent changes on servers without raising any kind of error. These data inconsistencies can
result from bugs, hardware malfunction, human errors, or unauthorized access.
It is desirable to detect these issues, in order to fix them and ultimately prevent them from happening
again. Determining the cause of such issues might not be an easy task since it might be caused by
byzantine failures at distinct levels. However, the first big step toward a solution to this kind of problem
is being able to detect data inconsistency and make sure that the data among the replication servers is
synchronized.
43
How Can you determine if data was replicated correctly?
Objectives
The goal is to execute the mysqlrplsync utility to detect data consistency issues on an active replication
system making sure that the master and its slaves are synchronized.
Executing this task manually on an active system is difficult and sometimes tedious since changes may
be continuously happening on all servers (in an asynchronous way) and the same data needs to be
compared between servers. Moreover, it can introduce an undesirable and uncontrolled impact on the
system performance if you lock the tables or stop replication.
Fortunately, the mysqlrplsync utility allows us to perform this task in an easy and optimized way with a
controlled impact on the running system (limiting the execution time of all operations).
Let's assume that a replication topology with one master (server1:3310) and two slaves (server2:3311,
server3:3312) was previously setup and it is running without errors.
Example Execution
Start the mysqlrplsync utility, specifying the servers you want to check.
shell> mysqlrplsync --master=user:[email protected]:3310 \
--slaves=rpl:[email protected]:3311,rpl:[email protected]:3312
#
# GTID differences between Master and Slaves:
# - Slave '[email protected]' is 15 transactions behind Master.
# - Slave '[email protected]' is 12 transactions behind Master.
#
# Checking data consistency.
#
# Using Master '[email protected]' as base server for comparison.
# Checking 'test_rplsync_db' database...
# - Checking 't0' table data...
#
[OK] `test_rplsync_db`.`t0` checksum for server '[email protected]'.
#
[OK] `test_rplsync_db`.`t0` checksum for server '[email protected]'.
# - Checking 't1' table data...
#
[OK] `test_rplsync_db`.`t1` checksum for server '[email protected]'.
#
[OK] `test_rplsync_db`.`t1` checksum for server '[email protected]'.
# Checking 'test_db' database...
# - Checking 't0' table data...
#
[OK] `test_db`.`t0` checksum for server '[email protected]'.
#
[OK] `test_db`.`t0` checksum for server '[email protected]'.
# - Checking 't1' table data...
#
[OK] `test_db`.`t1` checksum for server '[email protected]'.
#
[OK] `test_db`.`t1` checksum for server '[email protected]'.
#
#...done.
#
# SUMMARY: No data consistency issue found.
#
Discussion
The above example illustrates how to start the mysqlrplsync utility to check if all data on the specified
replication topology is synchronized.
To do this, we simply need to specify the master's connection with the --master option, and the list
of slaves with the --slaves option. As an alternative to the --slaves option, one can use the -discover-slaves-login specifying a user and password (or login-path) to connect to the slaves and
the utility attempts to discover all of the slaves connected to the master using the specified login. For
44
How Can you determine if data was replicated correctly?
example, '--discover-slaves-login=root:secret' is used to discover all of the slaves and login to each using
the 'root' user id and the password 'secret'.
The --discover-slaves-login can be very handy especially if there is a huge number of slaves in the
topology, but bear in mind that the explicit specification of slaves is safer and that discovery can fail to find
some servers. In particular, it is important to note that in order for slaves to be discovered, they must be
started with the '--report-host' and '--report-port' options with appropriate values and they must be correctly
connected to the master (IO thread running) otherwise discovery may fail to identify the slave.
In the above example, no data consistency issues were found. In case any data difference are found,
each is clearly identified by the '[DIFF]' prefix followed by concise information of where and what is the
difference. Additionally, at the end the utility displays a summary of the number of issues found.
The utility also allows users to check consistency on the slaves without specifying the master. However, be
advised that only checking the slaves does not guarantee that there is no data consistency issue between
the master and the slaves. Also keep in mind that the results provided by the utility are valid at the time the
checks are actually performed for each table. This is because in an active system with data continuously
changing, inconstancy issues might be introduced in the immediate instance after the check is completed.
Permissions Required
The user for the master must have permissions to lock tables, perform the checksum, and get information
about the master status. Specifically, the user used to connect to the master requires the following
privileges: SUPER or REPLICATION CLIENT, LOCK TABLES and SELECT.
The user for the slaves must have permissions to start/stop the slave, perform the checksum, and get
information about the slave status. More specifically, the login user to connect to slaves requires the
following privileges: SUPER and SELECT.
Tips and Tricks
In the above example, the mysqlrplsync utility was used to check all the data on the servers.
However, it is possible to check only specific databases and tables. For that purpose, the user only
need specify the target database and tables as arguments when invoking the utility. It is also possible
to exclude specific database and tables from the check using the --exclude option. For example, '-exclude=test_rplsync_db,test_db.t0' excludes the database 'test_rplsync_db' and table 'test_db.t0' from the
check performed by the utility.
The utility provides important options to control the execution time of the checksum queries performed
on each table and the waiting time for slaves to reach an established synchronization point, namely: the
--checksum-timeout and --rpl-timeout options. A polling process is applied on each slave to
periodically check if replication has caught up with the defined sync point (all transactions have been
processed).
The periodic interval to perform this check can be adjusted with the --interval option. These options
are fundamental to control the impact of the execution of the utility on the replication system allow you to
limit the execution time of the checksum queries for large tables and the time slaves wait for replication to
catch up. When the timeouts defined by those options are reached, the check is skipped. Nevertheless, the
user can always execute the utility later only for the skipped tables using higher timeout values.
The utility provides the flexibility to be executed separately for different set of servers, only affecting
different parts of the replication system at each time. For example, consider a heterogeneous system
(where slaves have a different performance characteristics) with one master 'M' and three slaves 'S1', 'S2'
and 'S3'. To minimize the impact on the master, the user can run the utility first for the master 'M' and the
fastest slave 'S1', and then run it again only for the slaves 'S1', 'S2' and 'S3'. If no consistency issues are
45
How do you fix errant transactions on the replication topology?
found in the first execution (M = S1) or in the second execution (S1 = S2 = S3), then by transitivity and due
to the inclusion of the same server 'S1' in both checks, it can be said that there is no consistency issues in
the topology (M = S1 = S2 = S3) at the time the first check was completed. This kind of execution must be
performed sequentially and not concurrently, otherwise the synchronization process of each instance may
affect the other and it may not work properly.
3.3.7 How do you fix errant transactions on the replication topology?
At some point in time, when performing some maintenance/administration operation or other task which
verify your replication topology, you may discover the existence of errant transactions. Some utilities
like mysqlfailover and mysqlrpladmin detects errant transactions and issues a warning or error
before executing. This is done because errant transactions can lead to an unstable replication topology or
introduce errors after a failover or switchover.
What are errant transactions? Errant transactions are transactions directly applied by a client on a slave
that do not exist on the other slaves connected to the master. By nature, these transactions should not be
replicated and can lead to replication errors if the slave that possesses them is promoted to the master.
In practice, this can happen for example if the errant transaction corresponds to a data insert or delete
on a table that only exists on that slave. These kind of transactions usually result from a mistake or poor
practice with data being changed directly on the slave without turning off the binary log.
The best way to deal with errant transaction is to avoid them, making sure that every transaction on a
slave, even if needed for example to add data for reporting or execute local administrative commands,
must be applied with binary logging disabled. See SET sql_log_bin Syntax, for more information about
how to control logging to the binary log. However, in case errant transaction are found we still need to be
able to deal with them in a easy and quick way, skipping those transactions and avoiding them from being
replicated if the slave becomes the new master.
Note
Always turn off the binary log when executing queries that change data on a
slave. Use sql_log_bin = 0 before the queries to turn off the binary log and
sql_log_bin = 1 after the query to turn it back on.
Objectives
The goal is to execute the mysqlslavetrx utility to skip errant transactions on slaves making sure that
those transaction are replicated if the slave that originated them becomes the new master.
Skipping errant transactions is done by injecting an empty transaction for each corresponding GTID on
every slave. This can be a very tedious task when performed manually, especially if many transactions
need to be skipped.
Thankfully, the mysqlslavetrx utility allows us to skip multiple transactions on multiple slaves in a single
step.
Let's assume that we have three slaves (slave1:3311, slave2:3312, and slave3:3313) and that one of the
slaves (slave1:3311) has five errant transactions that need to be skipped on the other slaves. The GTID
set of those transactions is ce969d18-7b10-11e4-aaae-606720440b68:1-5.
Example Execution
Execute the mysqlslavetrx utility, specifying the GTID set of the transaction to skip and the target
slaves.
46
Server Operations
shell> mysqlslavetrx --gtid-set=ce969d18-7b10-11e4-aaae-606720440b68:1-5 \
--slaves=dba:[email protected]:3312,dba:[email protected]:3313
WARNING: Using a password on the command line interface can be insecure.
#
# GTID set to be skipped for each server:
# - [email protected]: ce969d18-7b10-11e4-aaae-606720440b68:1-5
# - [email protected]: ce969d18-7b10-11e4-aaae-606720440b68:1-5
#
# Injecting empty transactions for 'slave2:3312'...
# Injecting empty transactions for 'slave3:3313'...
#
#...done.
#
Discussion
The above example illustrates how to execute the mysqlslavetrx utility to skip the transactions for the
specified GTID set on all given slaves.
To achieve this task, we only need to specify the GTID set for the transactions to be skipped with the -gtid-set option, and the list of connection parameters for the target slaves with the --slaves option.
In the above example, all of the specific GTIDs were skipped on all target slaves injecting an empty
transaction for each one of them. However, it might happen that some of the GTIDs cannot be skipped
on some slaves. This can happen if a transaction with the same GTID was previously applied on the
target slave. The reason is due to the purpose of GTIDs, which is to uniquely identify a transaction,
therefore two distinct transactions cannot be applied with the same GTID, otherwise an error is issued.
The mysqlslavetrx utility checks the transactions that can be effectively skipped on each slave at the
beginning, excluding already executed GTIDs.
Permissions Required
The user for the slaves must have the required permissions to inject an empty transaction for a specific
GTID, i.e. to set the gtid_next variable. More specifically, the login user to connect to slaves requires the
SUPER privilege.
Tips and Tricks
The mysqlslavetrx provides a dry run mode that allows users to verify the GTID that would be skipped
in each slave without actually injecting empty transactions. The --dryrun option must be specified to use
this read-only mode.
3.4 Server Operations
The tasks described in this section are those used to perform server-wide operations such as cloning a
server instance, determining what MySQL servers are running, etc.
3.4.1 How can you create a temporary copy (running instance) of a server for
testing?
When diagnosing a problem or needing to experiment with a server for developing new features or testing
modifications, you often need a duplicate of your running server so that you can ensure your solution works
for the actual server. It would be really convenient if we had a process to make a copy of a running server
for such processes.
Although it is possible and indeed popular to use replication to replicate all of your data to multiple slaves
and use one of the slaves for these purposes, for cases where you are working with a particular server
47
How can you create a temporary copy (running instance) of a server for testing?
or if replication is not in use, you need some way to duplicate not only the data but also the server and its
startup parameters.
Objectives
Create a new instance of a running server complete with the same options and the same data.
Example Execution
To meet this objective, we need to use several utilities. But before we get started, we need to know what
specific options the host server is using. To do this, we use the mysqlserverinfo utility to discover the
configuration file and the my_print_defaults tool to print the defaults. We can also show the process id to
see what command-line options are being used. We get this from using the --show-servers option with
mysqlserverinfo. On POSIX systems, we can use the ps command to find the command line options.
shell> mysqlserverinfo --server=root:[email protected] \
--format=vertical --show-servers
#
# The following MySQL servers are active on this host:
# Process id:
2377, Data path: /usr/local/mysql/data
# Process id:
2478, Data path: /Volumes/Source/source/temp_13001
# Process id:
2487, Data path: /Volumes/Source/source/temp_13002
#
# Source on localhost: ... connected.
*************************
1. row *************************
server: localhost:3306
version: 5.1.50-log
datadir: /usr/local/mysql/data/
basedir: /usr/local/mysql-5.1.50-osx10.6-x86_64/
plugin_dir: /usr/local/mysql-5.1.50-osx10.6-x86_64/lib/plugin
config_file: /etc/my.cnf
binary_log: my_log.000287
binary_log_pos: 106
relay_log: None
relay_log_pos: None
1 row.
#...done.
shell> my_print_defaults mysqld /etc/my.cnf
--port=3306
--basedir=/usr/local/mysql
--datadir=/usr/local/mysql/data
--server_id=5
--log-bin=my_log
--general_log
--slow_query_log
--innodb_data_file_path=ibdata1:778M;ibdata2:50M:autoextend
shell> ps -f 2377
UID
PID PPID
74 2377 2300
C STIME
TTY
0 10:56AM ??
TIME CMD
0:02.04 /usr/local/mysql/bin/mysqld --basedir=/usr/local/mysql \
--datadir=/usr/local/mysql/data --user=mysql \
--log-error=/logs/me.local.err --pid-file=/logs/me.local.pid \
--port=3306
Notice we now have all of the options from the configuration file as well as the startup options. We
can now construct the proper options for creating a clone (a running instance) of this server using the
mysqlserverclone utility. Specifically, we can set the following options using the --mysqld option:
• --log-bin=my_log
• --general_log
48
How do you find what MySQL servers are running on a local machine?
• --slow_query_log
• --user=mysql
• --log-error=path
Using these options and choosing a new data directory, we can create a new instance of the host server
using the following command.
shell> mysqlserverclone --server=root:[email protected] \
--new-data=/source/temp_clone --new-port=3307 --root=root --delete \
--new-id=123 --mysqld="--log-bin=my_log --general-log --slow-query-log \
--user=mysql --log-error=/source/temp_clone"
# Cloning the MySQL server running on localhost.
# Creating new data directory...
# Configuring new instance...
# Locating mysql tools...
# Setting up empty database and mysql tables...
# Starting new instance of the server...
# Testing connection to new instance...
# Success!
# Setting the root password...
# Connection Information:
# -uroot -proot --socket=/source/temp_clone/mysql.sock
#...done.
Now that we have a running instance, we can export all of the data from the host to the clone.
shell> mysqldbexport --server=root:[email protected]:3306 --export=both --all > data.sql
shell> mysqldbimport --server=root:[email protected]:3307 --import=both data.sql
# Source on localhost: ... connected.
# Importing definitions and data from data.sql.
#...done.
Discussion
As you can see, this is a multiple step process. We saw examples of using the mysqlserverinfo,
mysqlserverclone, mysqldbexport, and mysqldbimport utilities.
Notice in the example we used port 3307 for the clone which is reflected in the mysqldbimport utility -server option.
Permissions Required
The user must have permission to read all databases. Since we are using the root account for these
examples (and you typically would), permissions are not generally a problem.
You also need permissions to create the new data directory and write data to it.
Tips and Tricks
If you want to copy all of the users and their permissions, check out the mysqluserclone utility.
3.4.2 How do you find what MySQL servers are running on a local machine?
One of the challenges for a database administrator or database developer when working with a
development server that has multiple instances of MySQL running is knowing exactly how many are
running and once you know that, which ones are no longer needed.
49
How do you find what MySQL servers are running on a local machine?
In some cases, this may have come about by accident but mostly having multiple instances of MySQL
running is intentional. Whichever the case, it would be nice to be able to use a single command to find all
of the MySQL processes.
Objectives
Use the mysqlserverinfo utility to locate all of the MySQL processes running on a host.
Example Execution
shell> mysqlserverinfo --show-servers --server=root:[email protected] \
--format=vertical
#
# The following MySQL servers are active on this host:
# Process id:
3007, Data path: /usr/local/mysql/data
# Process id:
8191, Data path: /Volumes/Source/source/temp_13001
# Process id:
8196, Data path: /Volumes/Source/source/temp_13002
# Process id:
8201, Data path: /Volumes/Source/source/temp_13003
# Process id:
8207, Data path: /Volumes/Source/source/temp_13004
# Process id:
8212, Data path: /Volumes/Source/source/temp_13005
#
# Source on localhost: ... connected.
*************************
1. row *************************
server: localhost:3306
version: 5.1.50-log
datadir: /usr/local/mysql/data/
basedir: /usr/local/mysql-5.1.50-osx10.6-x86_64/
plugin_dir: /usr/local/mysql-5.1.50-osx10.6-x86_64/lib/plugin
config_file: /etc/my.cnf
binary_log: my_log.000286
binary_log_pos: 237
relay_log: None
relay_log_pos: None
1 row.
#...done.
Discussion
The mysqlserverinfo utility is normally used to find information about a particular server. We can see
such results in the example above.
However, the utility also has an option, --show-servers that displays a list of all of the MySQL server
process ids that are executing on the host. This quick glance can help diagnose problems with multiple
instances on the same machine.
Permissions Required
The permissions required include the ability to read the mysql database and to have read access to the
data directory.
Tips and Tricks
Notice the output shows the data directory for each server. You can use this information to examine the
files in that folder to discern more information such as what databases exist and find and examine the
binary log, etc.
On POSIX systems, you can discover the command-line arguments such as the port number the server is
using with the "ps -f PID" command. For example, to discover the complete information for PID 2487, you
can do the following.
50
How do you setup and use a secure (encrypted) connection between Utilities and a MySQL server?
shell> ps -f 2487
UID
PID PPID
501 2487
1
C STIME
TTY
0 10:58AM ttys001
TIME CMD
0:00.41 /source/mysql-5.6/sql/mysqld --no-defaults \
--datadir=/source/temp_13002 --tmpdir=/source/temp_13002 \
--pid-file=/source/temp_13002/clone.pid --port=13002 \
--server-id=102 --basedir=/source/mysql-5.6 \
--socket=/source/temp_13002/mysql.sock --log-slave-updates
--gtid-mode=on --enforce-gtid-consistency --log-bin \
--master-info-repository=TABLE --report-port=13002 \
--report-host=localhost
3.4.3 How do you setup and use a secure (encrypted) connection between
Utilities and a MySQL server?
Security is a big concern and MySQL Utilities is prepared to use a secure connection to MySQL server
secure-connections using an encrypted connection with SSL. This section shows you how to use SSL
when connecting to MySQL servers from any utility. All of the utilities use the same mechanism for
establishing an SSL connection.
Objectives
Use the mysqlserverclone utility to create a new instance of your installed MySQL Server. This new
instance is enabled for secure connections using SSL to establish a secure connection by using the SSL
options. You can also use an options file to specify the SSL certificates needed for the secure connection.
Example Execution
To meet this objective, you need to supply values for the following options of mysqlserverclone:
• --basedir
• --new-port
• --new-data
• --mysqld
• --root-password
If you are unfamiliar with the previous options, you can find more info in the Section 5.20,
“mysqlserverclone — Clone Existing Server to Create New Server” section.
In the --mysqld option you need to specify the --ssl-ca --ssl-cert and --ssl-key options with his respective
SSL certificate for the new instance of the server. By doing this, the new server instance uses the given
certificates to establish a secure connection. If you are uncertain of how to create the SSL certificates,
please following the steps indicated on Creating SSL and RSA Certificates and Keys. The --ssl-ca
--ssl-cert and --ssl-key options of mysqlserverclone are used to connect to an existing instance
of MySQL in case you need to use ssl to connect to it and these options are not used to indicate the
certificates to use by the new server instance. For that reason it is necessary to use the --mysqld option of
mysqlserverclone.
The following is an example of the running command.
shell> mysqlserverclone --basedir=C:\MySQL\mysql-5.6.15-winx64 \
--new-data=C:\MySQL\instance_3307 \
--new-port=3307 --root-password=pass \
--mysqld="--ssl-ca=C:/newcerts/cacert.pem \
51
How do you setup and use a secure (encrypted) connection between Utilities and a MySQL server?
--ssl-cert=C:/newcerts/server-cert.pem \
--ssl-key=C:/newcerts/server-key.pem"
# Cloning the MySQL server located at C:\MySQL\mysql-5.6.15-winx64.
# Creating new data directory...
# Configuring new instance...
# Locating mysql tools...
# Setting up empty database and mysql tables...
# Starting new instance of the server...
# Testing connection to new instance...
# Success!
# Setting the root password...
# Connection Information:
# -uroot -ppass --port=3307
#...done.
Now we have a new MySQL server instance, and you can confirm the use of the given SSL certificates
with the MySQL command-Line tool (also called the monitor or simply the MySQL client tool) by executing
the command: "show variables like '%ssl%';".
shell> mysql -uroot -ppass --port=3307 -e"show variables like '%ssl%';"
+---------------+-----------------------------+
| Variable_name | Value
|
+---------------+-----------------------------+
| have_openssl | YES
|
| have_ssl
| YES
|
| ssl_ca
| C:/newcerts/cacert.pem
|
| ssl_capath
|
|
| ssl_cert
| C:/newcerts/server-cert.pem |
| ssl_cipher
|
|
| ssl_crl
|
|
| ssl_crlpath
|
|
| ssl_key
| C:/newcerts/server-key.pem |
+---------------+-----------------------------+
However, at this moment the root account is not using an encrypted ssl connection. You can see this using
the MySQL command-Line tool running the "status;" command:
shell> mysql -uroot -ppass --port=3307 -e"status;"
-------------mysql Ver 14.14 Distrib 5.6.15, for Win64 (x86_64)
Connection id:
Current database:
Current user:
SSL:
...
--------------
11
[email protected]
Not in use
You need to add the SSL options necessarily to establish an encrypted connection with SSL, this can be
done in the following form:
shell> mysql -uroot -ppass --port=3307 --ssl-ca=C:/newcerts/cacert.pem \
--ssl-cert=C:/newcerts/server-cert.pem \
--ssl-key=C:/newcerts/server-key.pem -e"status;"
-------------mysql Ver 14.14 Distrib 5.6.15, for Win64 (x86_64)
Connection id:
Current database:
Current user:
SSL:
...
13
[email protected]
Cipher in use is DHE-RSA-AES256-SHA
52
How do you setup and use a secure (encrypted) connection between Utilities and a MySQL server?
--------------
Note
To configure an account to only permit SSL-encrypted connections, the grants
for that account must include the REQUIRE SSL clause in your GRANT Syntax
statement.
In the same form that you use the SSL options with the MySQL Command-Line Tool, you can use the SSL
options on each of the MySQL Utilities. The following is an example of mysqlserverinfo using SSL
options:
shell> mysqlserverinfo --server=root:[email protected]:3307 \
--ssl-ca=C:/newcerts/cacert.pem \
--ssl-cert=C:/newcerts/client-cert.pem \
--ssl-key=C:/newcerts/client-key.pem \
--format=vertical
# Source on localhost: ... connected.
*************************
1. row *************************
server: localhost:3307
config_file:
binary_log:
binary_log_pos:
relay_log:
relay_log_pos:
version: 5.6.15
datadir: C:\MySQL\instance_3307\
basedir: C:\MySQL\mysql-5.6.15-winx64
plugin_dir: C:\MySQL\mysql-5.6.15-winx64\lib\plugin\
general_log: OFF
general_log_file:
general_log_file_size:
log_error: C:\MySQL\instance_3307\clone.err
log_error_file_size: 1569 bytes
slow_query_log: OFF
slow_query_log_file:
slow_query_log_file_size:
1 row.
#...done.
Or you can indicate the SSL options by Using Option Files as is mentioned in the Section 2.2, “Connecting
to MySQL Servers” documentation. This is an example of how it may look for a group with the options in an
options file for the command used above.
[instance_3307]
port=3307
user=root
password=pass
host=localhost
ssl-ca=C:/newcerts/cacert.pem
ssl-cert=C:/newcerts/client-cert.pem
ssl-key=C:/newcerts/client-key.pem
In this case, the file is located at C:\MySQL\instance-3307.cnf and by indicating this path and the
group name in the --server option, the options for the mysqlserverinfo of the previous example
takes this form:
shell> mysqlserverinfo --server=c:\MySQL\instance-3307.cnf[instance_3307] \
--format=vertical
53
How do you setup and use a secure (encrypted) connection between Utilities and a MySQL server?
# Source on localhost: ...
*************************
server:
config_file:
binary_log:
binary_log_pos:
relay_log:
relay_log_pos:
version:
datadir:
basedir:
plugin_dir:
general_log:
general_log_file:
general_log_file_size:
log_error:
log_error_file_size:
slow_query_log:
slow_query_log_file:
slow_query_log_file_size:
1 row.
#...done.
connected.
1. row *************************
localhost:3307
5.6.15
C:\MySQL\instance_3307\
C:\MySQL\mysql-5.6.15-winx64
C:\MySQL\mysql-5.6.15-winx64\lib\plugin\
OFF
C:\MySQL\instance_3307\clone.err
1569 bytes
OFF
Discussion
The SSL options (--ssl-ca --ssl-cert and --ssl-key) are available in the MySQL Utilities that
requires a connection to a server or servers, as is in the case of the --master and --slave options.
Note
An options file can be used to store the connection values, and the MySQL Utilities
can read the values stored in them as mentioned in the Section 2.2, “Connecting to
MySQL Servers” documentation.
Permissions Required
Required permissions include the ability to read the SSL certificate files and the path where they are
located regardless of the form these SSL certificate paths are given to the MySQL Utilities, in addition of
the required permissions that each utility requires to accomplish its specific task.
Tips and Tricks
In the configuration file, different connection options can be stored and separated in groups. The desired
group used by the MySQL Utilities can be expressed by indicating the group name in the form configpath["["group-name"]"], such as C:\MySQL\instances.cnf:
[instance_3307]
port=3307
user=root
password=pass
host=localhost
ssl-ca=C:/newcerts/cacert.pem
ssl-cert=C:/newcerts/client-cert.pem
ssl-key=C:/newcerts/client-key.pem
[instance_3308]
port=3308
user=root
password=other-pass
host=localhost
ssl-ca=C:/newcerts/cacert_2.pem
ssl-cert=C:/newcerts/client-cert_2.pem
54
Specialized Operations
ssl-key=C:/newcerts/client-key_2.pem
shell> mysqlreplicate --master=c:\MySQL\instances.cnf[instance_3307] \
--slave=C:\MySQL\instances.cnf[instance_3308]
3.5 Specialized Operations
The tasks described in this section relate to specific situations or configurations and may not apply in the
general case. For example, some tasks require a specific commercial plugin such as those for use with the
Audit Log Plugin.
3.5.1 How do you record only login events in the audit log?
The audit log plugin records MySQL servers activity. By default, it is set to write all audit events to the log
file which can represent a considerable amount of information. Fortunately, it is possible to control the type
of information that is written to the audit log file by changing the audit log plugin's policy. The policy should
be set to log only the events of interest, avoiding wasting resources to log unnecessary events.
In particular, if the audit log plugin is only used to monitor access to the database server (for security
purposes) then only the login events need to be recorded. The mysqlauditadmin utility allows us to
perform such a change in a simple way (as well as changes to other settings).
Objectives
The goal is to set the audit log plugin to write the login events to the log file and no other events. It is
assumed that the audit log plugin is enabled and running with the default settings (logging all audit events)
on the localhost and default port (3306).
Example Execution
shell> mysqlauditadmin [email protected]:3306 policy --value=LOGINS \
--show-options
#
# Showing options before command.
#
# Audit Log Variables and Options
#
+---------------------------+---------------+
| Variable_name
| Value
|
+---------------------------+---------------+
| audit_log_buffer_size
| 1048576
|
| audit_log_file
| audit.log
|
| audit_log_flush
| OFF
|
| audit_log_policy
| ALL
|
| audit_log_rotate_on_size | 0
|
| audit_log_strategy
| ASYNCHRONOUS |
+---------------------------+---------------+
#
# Executing POLICY command.
#
#
# Showing options after command.
#
# Audit Log Variables and Options
#
+---------------------------+---------------+
| Variable_name
| Value
|
55
How do you copy or move the audit log?
+---------------------------+---------------+
| audit_log_buffer_size
| 1048576
|
| audit_log_file
| audit.log
|
| audit_log_flush
| OFF
|
| audit_log_policy
| LOGINS
|
| audit_log_rotate_on_size | 0
|
| audit_log_strategy
| ASYNCHRONOUS |
+---------------------------+---------------+
Discussion
In order to change the type of events recorded to the audit log file, the policy settings must be changed.
This is done with the mysqlauditadmin utility using the command 'policy' and specifying the desired
policy value with the --value option. As expected the specification of the target server is also required
using the --server option.
In the above example, the policy value was set to LOGINS to write only login events to the log file.
Nevertheless, other values are also permitted to control the information written to the log file: ALL (write all
events), QUERIES (write only query event), NONE (disable logging), DEFAULT (use the default policy).
Permissions Required
User must have the SELECT privilege for the mysql database. To view the log file, the user must have
read access to the audit log file on the server.
Tips and Tricks
The policy value was specified using uppercase in this example, however uppercase and lowercase can be
mixed to specify the policy value (such as "LoGiNs"). The values for this command are still read correctly
independently of the used cases (case insensitive), but if an unsupported value is specified, an error is
issued.
In the above example the --show-options option was used, but it is not required. This option simply
displays the audit log settings (variables). However, when this option is combined with a command that
changes one of the audit log variables, it displays the audit log settings before and after the execution of
the command which can be very handy to confirm that the desired change was performed as expected.
3.5.2 How do you copy or move the audit log?
The audit log information can grow quickly and considerably depending on the type of information written
and the activity of the MySQL server. Therefore, it might be a good idea to copy the audit log files to a
different location and free some storage on the server.
The mysqlauditadmin utility also provides this useful functionality.
Objectives
The goal of this task is to copy an existing audit log file to a different location using the mysqlauditadmin
utility.
It is assumed that the utility is executed on the destination host which must be a non-Windows system
with the scp (Secure Copy) command line program, and that must have access to the MySQL remote
server and its data directory with the provided credentials (user and password). It is also assumed that the
specified audit log file exists and user has write privileges on the target directory.
Example Execution
56
How can you find the INSERT and UPDATE queries that failed in the audit log?
shell> mysqlauditadmin --audit-log-name=/MySQL/SERVER/data/audit.log.13753706179878237 \
copy --copy-to=/ARCHIVE/Audit_Logs --remote-login=user1:server1
# Copying file from server1:/MySQL/SERVER/data/audit.log.13753706179878237 to /ARCHIVE/Audit_Logs:
[email protected]'s password:
audit.log.13753706179878237
100% 4716
4.6KB/s
00:01
Discussion
The copy operation can be performed with the mysqlauditadmin utility using the 'copy' command
requiring the following options: the --audit-log-name option to specify the path and filename of the
audit log file to copy, the --copy-to option to indicate the destination folder, and the --remote-login
option to specify the user and remote host where the file is located (a prompt for the user password is
displayed).
The --remote-login option is not required if the source and destination location are on the same server
where the utility is executed. Moreover, this option is not supported in Windows system where UNC paths
should be used.
Permissions Required
The user must have permissions to read the audit log on disk and write the file to the remove location.
Tips and Tricks
The name of the audit log file (audit.log, by default) is defined by the audit_log_file variable
displayed by mysqlauditadmin when using the --show-options option. Existing audit log files have
a timestamp extension except the one that is currently in use. That being said, it might be useful to know
that it is possible to get information about the existing audit log files using mysqlrpladmin. For instance,
to determine which files need to be copied. To get this information use the --file-stats option and the
--audit-log-name option specifying the full path of the current audit log file (i.e., without the timestamp
extension). For example:
shell> mysqlauditadmin --file-stats --audit-log-name=/MySQL/SERVER/data/audit.log
+------------------------------+------------+---------------------------+---------------------------+
| File
| Size
| Created
| Last Modified
|
+------------------------------+------------+---------------------------+---------------------------+
| audit.log.13753706179878237 | 4716
| Thu Aug 1 16:23:37 2013 | Thu Aug 1 16:23:37 2013 |
| audit.log
| 6062
| Thu Aug 1 16:24:26 2013 | Thu Aug 1 16:24:26 2013 |
| audit.log.13753705495049727 | 335142503 | Thu Aug 1 16:22:29 2013 | Thu Aug 1 16:22:29 2013 |
+------------------------------+------------+---------------------------+---------------------------+
Note
If an audit log file with the timestamp extension is specified in this example for the
--audit-log-name option, only the information of the specified file is displayed,
as opposed to the file statistics of all existing files.
3.5.3 How can you find the INSERT and UPDATE queries that failed in the
audit log?
Over time, the audit log can contain a lot of useful information. However, how filtering this information and
searching for specific events, for instance in order to determine the possible cause of a problem, can be
very tedious if done manually.
For example, suppose that someone reported that some data changes are missing (and you suspect
some INSERT or UPDATE queries failed) and you want to determine what might be the cause of those
57
How can you find the INSERT and UPDATE queries that failed in the audit log?
transaction failures. All queries are recorded to the audit log file, so you just need to get retrieve all queries
of a given type that failed (with a MySQL error) and analyze them.
This can be achieved using common 'grep' command line tools, but likely involves the use of very complex
regular expression to filter the desired data. Fortunately, the mysqlauditgrep utility allows to perform
this kind of task in a much easier and simple way taking advantage of the knowledge of the structure and
semantics of the audit log files.
Objectives
The goal is display all INSERT and UPDATE queries that failed (independently of error) from the current
audit log file.
It is assumed that the audit.log file exists and is located in the directory /MySQL/SERVER/data/. The
below example show how easy it is to perform the desired search with the mysqlauditgrep utility.
Example Execution
shell> mysqlauditgrep --query-type=INSERT,UPDATE --status=1-9999 /MySQL/SERVER/data/audit.log
+--------+---------------------+-------+-------------------------------------------------------+-------------| STATUS | TIMESTAMP
| NAME | SQLTEXT
| CONNECTION_ID
+--------+---------------------+-------+-------------------------------------------------------+-------------| 1046
| 2013-08-01T18:20:46 | Query | INSERT INTO tbl_not_exist (a,b,c) VALUES(1,2,3)
| 37
| 1146
| 2013-08-01T18:21:03 | Query | INSERT INTO mysql.tbl_not_exist (a,b,c) VALUES(1,2,3) | 37
| 1054
| 2013-08-01T18:23:10 | Query | INSERT INTO test.t1 (a,b,not_col) VALUES(1,2,3)
| 37
| 1146
| 2013-08-01T18:26:14 | Query | UPDATE tbl_not_exist SET a = 1
| 37
| 1054
| 2013-08-01T18:26:53 | Query | UPDATE test.t1 SET not_col = 1
| 37
+--------+---------------------+-------+-------------------------------------------------------+--------------
Discussion
As expected, the use of the mysqlauditgrep utility requires the specification of the target audit log file
to search and a few options corresponding to the needed search criteria. In this case, the --querytype option was used to restrict the displayed results to specific types of queries (i.e., only INSERT and
UPDATE), and the --status option was used to specify the considered MySQL error codes (i.e., all
ranging from 1 to 9999).
The --query-type option allows the specification of a comma separated list of different SQL statements.
Apart from INSERT and UPDATE the list of supported values for this option also includes: CREATE,
ALTER, DROP, TRUNCATE, RENAME, GRANT, REVOKE, SELECT, DELETE, COMMIT, SHOW, SET,
CALL, PREPARE, EXECUTE, DEALLOCATE
The --status option accepts a comma-separated list of non-negative integers (corresponding to MySQL
error codes) or intervals marked with a dash. For example: 1051,1100-1199,1146. In this particular
case, the range value 1-9999 was used to include all MySQL error codes and display all unsuccessful
commands. To retrieve only successful command (no errors) simply use the value 0 for the --status
option.
Permissions Required
The user must have permissions to read the audit log on disk.
Tips and Tricks
The value specified for the --query-type option are case insensitive, therefore you can mix lowercase
and uppercase to specify the list of query types. For example, 'insert,Update' produces the same result as
using 'INSERT,UPDATE'. Of course the use of non-supported values raises an appropriate error.
58
How do you find connections by the user 'root' in the audit log and show the results in CSV format?
Many other options and search criteria are provided by the mysqlauditgrep utility, check them in order
to use the more appropriate one to meet your needs. Note that the utility provides the --pattern option
to search entries in the audit log file using regular expressions, like common grep tools. By default, this
option uses standard SQL pattern matching (used by 'LIKE' comparison operator), unless the --regexp
option is used to allow more powerful standard regular expressions (POSIX extended).
3.5.4 How do you find connections by the user 'root' in the audit log and show
the results in CSV format?
The audit log plugin can be used to record information about different type of events which one might need
to monitor or keep a record in a different format. For example, a security record with the list of all logins
performed to the database serve might need to be kept to later track the responsible for some change.
Moreover, the retrieved information might need to be converted to a specific format (such as CSV) to feed
another application.
Objectives
The goal of this task is to retrieve from the audit log the information of all the connections established by
the root user to the MySQL Server, and display the resulting information in the comma-separated-value
(CSV) format.
Besides the search/filter functionalities using different criteria, the mysqlauditgrep utility also provides a
feature to display the resulting information in different formats (including CSV). This allows this task to be
performed easily with in a single step.
It is assumed that the audit.log file exists and is located in the directory /MySQL/SERVER/data/.
Example Execution
shell> mysqlauditgrep --user=root --event-type=Connect \
--format=CSV /MySQL/SERVER/data/audit.log
STATUS,NAME,TIMESTAMP,CONNECTION_ID,HOST,USER,PRIV_USER,IP
0,Connect,2013-08-01T15:24:26,33,localhost,root,root,127.0.0.1
0,Connect,2013-08-01T15:24:26,34,localhost,root,root,127.0.0.1
0,Connect,2013-08-01T15:24:26,35,localhost,root,root,127.0.0.1
0,Connect,2013-08-01T15:24:26,36,localhost,root,root,127.0.0.1
0,Connect,2013-08-01T18:18:43,37,localhost,root,root,127.0.0.1
0,Connect,2013-08-01T18:49:46,38,,root,root,192.168.1.104
1045,Connect,2013-08-01T19:18:08,39,localhost,root,,127.0.0.1
Discussion
To perform this operation the mysqlauditgrep utility requires the indication of the target audit log file as
expected, two criteria search options, and one formatting option to convert the output to the desired format.
In this case, the --users option was applied to search the records for the specified user (i.e., "root") and
the --event-type option to retrieve only event of a specific type (i.e., "connect"). The --format option
is the one used to define the output format of the obtained search results.
In this example, only the "Connect" value was used for the --event-type option which correspond to
the logging in event (when a client connects). Nevertheless, this option accepts a comma separated list
of event types with the following supported values (beside "Connect"): Audit, Binlog Dump, Change user,
Close stmt, Out, Connect, Create DB, Daemon, Debug, Delayed, insert, Drop DB, Execute, Fetch, Field
List, Init DB, Kill, Long Data, NoAudit, Ping, Prepare, Processlist, Query, Quit, Refresh, Register Slave,
Reset stmt, Set option, Shutdown, Sleep, Statistics, Table Dump, Time.
59
How do you find connections by the user 'root' in the audit log and show the results in CSV format?
In terms of output formats the following are supported beside CSV: GRID (used by default), TAB,
VERTICAL and RAW (corresponding to the original XML format of the audit log file).
Permissions Required
The user must have permissions to read the audit log on disk.
Tips and Tricks
The values for the --event-type and --format options are case insensitive, therefore lowercase and
uppercase can be mixed to specify these values as long as a supported event type name or format is used.
Unlike them, the value specified for the --users option is case sensitive, so be careful not to mix upper
and lower cases here.
It is possible to find some event type values with a space in the middle, for example like "Binlog Dump"
or "Init DB". If one of such values needs to be specified for the --event-type option then it must be
surrounded by double (") or single (') quotes depending on the operating system.
60
Chapter 4 Overview of MySQL Utilities
Table of Contents
4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.5
Database Operations ..................................................................................................................
General Operations ....................................................................................................................
High Availability Operations ........................................................................................................
Server Operations ......................................................................................................................
Specialized Operations ...............................................................................................................
This chapter presents an brief overview of each of the available utilities. The utilities are grouped into
sections based on the type of administrative function that they perform.
4.1 Database Operations
These utilities are those designed to work at the database-level. They include utilities that can used to
adminster databases on one or more servers.
• mysqldbcompare
• Compare databases on two servers or the same server
• Compare definitions and data
• Generate a difference report
• Generate SQL transformation statements
• mysqldbcopy
• Copy databases between servers
• Clone databases on the same server
• Supports rename
• mysqldbexport
• Export metadata and/or data from one or more databases
• Formats: SQL, CSV, TAB, Grid, Vertical
• mysqldbimport
• Import metadata and data from one or more files
• Reads all formats from mysqldbexport
• mysqldiff
• Compare object definitions
• Generate a difference report
61
61
62
63
63
64
General Operations
4.2 General Operations
These utilities are those designed to perform general operations such as reporting and searching.
• mysqldiskusage
• Show disk usage for databases
• Generate reports in SQL, CSV, TAB, Grid, Vertical
• mysqlfrm
• Reads .frm files, optionally in byte-by-byte diagnostic mode
• Generates CREATE statements from table definition data
• mysqlindexcheck
• Read indexes for one or more tables
• Check for redundant and duplicate indexes
• Generate reports in SQL, CSV, TAB, Grid, Vertical
• mysqlmetagrep
• Search metadata
• Regexp, database search
• Generate SQL statement for search query
• mysqlprocgrep
• Search process information
• Generate SQL statement for search
• Kill processes that match query
• mysqluserclone
• Clone a user account, to the same or different server
• Show user grants
• mysqluc
• Command line client for running MySQL Utilities
• Allows a persistent connection to a MySQL Server
• Tab completion for utility names and options
• Allows calling the commands with shorter names, such as using "serverinfo" instead of
mysqlserverinfo
62
High Availability Operations
4.3 High Availability Operations
These utilities are those designed to support replication and high availability operations for MySQL servers.
• mysqlfailover
• Provides automatic failover on a replication topology
• Uses Global Transaction Identifiers (GTID, MySQL Server 5.6.5+)
• mysqlreplicate
• Setup replication
• Start from beginning, current, specific binlog, pos
• mysqlrplms
• Provides round-robin multi-source replication (a slave server continually cycles through multiple
masters in order to store a consolidated data set)
• Uses Global Transaction Identifiers (GTID, MySQL Server 5.6.9+)
• mysqlrpladmin
• Administers the replication topology
• Allows recovery of the master
• Commands include elect, failover, gtid, health, start, stop, and switchover
• mysqlrplcheck
• Check replication configuration
• Tests binary logging on master
• mysqlrplshow
• Show slaves attached to master
• Can search recursively
• Show the replication topology as a graph or list
• mysqlrplsync
• Check data consistency between servers in a replicated setup
• Uses Global Transaction Identifiers (GTID)
• Requires MySQL Server 5.6.14 and higher
4.4 Server Operations
These utilities are used to perform server-wide operations.
• mysqlserverclone
63
Specialized Operations
• Start a new instance of a running server
• mysqlserverinfo
• Show server information
• Can search for running servers on a host
• Access online or offline servers
4.5 Specialized Operations
These utilities are designed to be used with a specific commercial extension. In this case, these utilities
require the Audit Log Plugin.
• mysqlauditadmin
• Monitor the audit log
• Copy, rotate, and configure the audit log
• mysqlauditgrep
• Search the audit log
• Output results to different formats
64
Chapter 5 Manual Pages
Table of Contents
5.1 mysqlauditadmin — Allows users to perform maintenance actions on the audit log .................... 65
5.2 mysqlauditgrep — Allows users to search the current or an archived audit log .......................... 71
5.3 mysqldbcompare — Compare Two Databases and Identify Differences ...................................... 78
5.4 mysqldbcopy — Copy Database Objects Between Servers ........................................................ 88
5.5 mysqldbexport — Export Object Definitions or Data from a Database ........................................ 94
5.6 mysqldbimport — Import Object Definitions or Data into a Database ....................................... 103
5.7 mysqldiff — Identify Differences Among Database Objects ..................................................... 108
5.8 mysqldiskusage — Show Database Disk Usage .................................................................... 114
5.9 mysqlfailover — Automatic replication health monitoring and failover ..................................... 118
5.10 mysqlfrm — File reader for .frm files. ..................................................................................... 129
5.11 mysqlindexcheck — Identify Potentially Redundant Table Indexes ........................................ 133
5.12 mysqlmetagrep — Search Database Object Definitions ......................................................... 137
5.13 mysqlprocgrep — Search Server Process Lists .................................................................... 141
5.14 mysqlreplicate — Set Up and Start Replication Between Two Servers ................................. 145
5.15 mysqlrplms — Set Up and Start Replication from a Slave to Multiple Masters .......................... 150
5.16 mysqlrpladmin — Administration utility for MySQL replication ................................................ 155
5.17 mysqlrplcheck — Check Replication Prerequisites ............................................................... 166
5.18 mysqlrplshow — Show Slaves for Master Server .................................................................. 171
5.19 mysqlrplsync — Replication synchronization checker ........................................................... 176
5.20 mysqlserverclone — Clone Existing Server to Create New Server ....................................... 183
5.21 mysqlserverinfo — Display Common Diagnostic Information from a Server .......................... 185
5.22 mysqluc — Command line client for running MySQL Utilities ................................................... 189
5.23 mysqluserclone — Clone Existing User to Create New User ................................................. 192
This chapter includes the manual pages for each of the utilities. Each manual page is formatted similar to a
typical Unix man page.
5.1 mysqlauditadmin — Allows users to perform maintenance
actions on the audit log
This utility allows you to maintain the audit log including the ability to view and modify a subset of audit
log control variables, display the audit log file status, perform on-demand rotation of the log file, and copy
files to other locations. These features enable you to easily monitor the audit log file growth and control its
rotation (automatically based on the defined file size threshold, or manually by a on-demand command).
Rotation refers to the action of replacing the current audit log file by a new one for continuous use,
renaming (with a timestamp extension) and copying the previously used audit log file to a defined location
for archival purposes.
The available actions include the following:
• copy
This command copies the audit log specified by --audit-log-name to the destination path specified
by --copy-to. The --remote-login option can be used to copy log files from a remote location.
Note: the destination path must be locally accessible by the current user.
• policy
65
OPTIONS
The policy command is used to change the audit logging policy. The accepted values include the
following, which are set using the --value option.
Note
The --server option is also required to execute this command.
Starting from MySQL server 5.6.20 and 5.7.5, the value is read only for the
audit_log_policy variable. MySQL server 5.7.9 introduced two new variables:
audit_log_connection_policy and audit_log_statement_policy whose values are
determined based on the presence and value of the audit_log_policy startup
variable. See the MySQL reference manual for more information about how the
policy variables are set. These changes are supported starting from MySQL
Utilities 1.5.2.
• ALL: log all events
• NONE: log nothing
• LOGINS: only log login events
• QUERIES: only log query events
• DEFAULT: sets the default log policy
• rotate_on_size
This command sets the file size threshold for automatic rotation of the audit log (the
audit_log_rotate_on_size variable). The value is set using the --value option, and must be in
the range (0, 4294967295). This command also requires the --server option to be specified. Note: if
the variable is set with a value that is not a multiple of 4096, then it is truncated to the nearest multiple.
• rotate
This command is used to perform an on-demand audit log rotation, and only requires the --server
option to be passed. Note: this command has no effect if the audit log file size is smaller than 4096,
which is the minimum value allowed that is greater than 0 for the audit_log_rotate_on_size
variable).
OPTIONS
mysqlauditadmin accepts the following command-line options:
• --audit-log-name=AUDIT_LOG_FILE
Full path and filename for the audit log file. Used by the --file-stats option, and the copy command.
• --copy-to=COPY_DESTINATION
The location to copy the specified audit log file. The path must be locally accessible for the current user.
• --file-stats
Display the audit log file statistics.
• --help
66
OPTIONS
Display a help message and exit.
• --license
Display license information and exit.
• --remote-login=REMOTE_LOGIN
User name and host to be used for the remote login, for copying log files. It is defined using the following
format: user:host or IP. The utility displays a prompt for the password.
• --server=SERVER
Connection information for the server.
To connect to a server, it is necessary to specify connection parameters such as the user name, host
name, password, and either a port or socket. MySQL Utilities provides a number of ways to supply this
information. All of the methods require specifying your choice via a command-line option such as -server, --master, --slave, etc. The methods include the following in order of most secure to least secure.
• Use login-paths from your .mylogin.cnf file (encrypted, not visible). Example : login-path[:port]
[:socket]
• Use a configuration file (unencrypted, not visible) Note: available in release-1.5.0. Example :
configuration-file-path[:section]
• Specify the data on the command-line (unencrypted, visible). Example : user[:passwd]@host[:port]
[:socket]
• --show-options
Display the audit log system variables.
• --ssl-ca
The path to a file that contains a list of trusted SSL CAs.
• --ssl-cert
The name of the SSL certificate file to use for establishing a secure connection.
• --ssl-key
The name of the SSL key file to use for establishing a secure connection.
• --ssl
Specifies if the server connection requires use of SSL. If an encrypted connection cannot be established,
the connection attempt fails. Default setting is 0 (SSL not required).
• --value=VALUE
Value used to set variables based on the specified commands, such as policy and rotate_on_size.
• --verbose, -v
Specify how much information to display. Use this option multiple times to increase the amount of
information. For example, -v = verbose, -vv = more verbose, -vvv = debug.
67
NOTES
• --version
Display version information and exit.
NOTES
This utility can only be applied to servers with the audit log plugin enabled. And the audit log plugin is
available as of MySQL Server versions 5.5.28 and 5.6.10.
This utility requires Python version 2.6 or higher, but does not support Python 3.
The path to the MySQL client tools should be included in the PATH environment variable in order to use the
authentication mechanism with login-paths. This allows the utility to use the my_print_defaults tools,
which is required to read the login-path values from the login configuration file (.mylogin.cnf). This
feature exists as of MySQL Server 5.6.6, see mysql_config_editor — MySQL Configuration Utility.
Changes to MySQL Enterprise Audit are not documented here, so your output might be different than the
examples shown. For example, a new (or removed) MySQL Enterprise Audit option might affect the output.
LIMITATIONS
The --remote-login option is not supported on Microsoft Windows platforms. For Microsoft Windows,
use UNC paths and perform a local copy operation, omitting the --remote-login option.
EXAMPLES
To display the audit log system variables, run the following command:
shell> mysqlauditadmin --show-options [email protected]:3310
#
# Showing options after command.
#
# Audit Log Variables and Options
#
+------------------------------+---------------+
| Variable_name
| Value
|
+------------------------------+---------------+
| audit_log_buffer_size
| 1048576
|
| audit_log_connection_policy | NONE
|
| audit_log_current_session
| ON
|
| audit_log_exclude_accounts
|
|
| audit_log_file
| audit.log
|
| audit_log_flush
| OFF
|
| audit_log_format
| OLD
|
| audit_log_include_accounts
|
|
| audit_log_policy
| ALL
|
| audit_log_rotate_on_size
| 0
|
| audit_log_statement_policy
| ALL
|
| audit_log_strategy
| ASYNCHRONOUS |
+------------------------------+---------------+
To perform a (manual) rotation of the audit log file, use the following command:
shell> mysqlauditadmin [email protected]:3310 rotate
#
68
EXAMPLES
# Executing ROTATE command.
#
To display the audit log file statistics, run the following command:
shell> mysqlauditadmin --file-stats --audit-log-name=../SERVER/data/audit.log
+------------------------------+--------+---------------------------+---------------------------+
| File
| Size
| Created
| Last Modified
|
+------------------------------+--------+---------------------------+---------------------------+
| audit.log
| 3258
| Wed Sep 26 11:07:43 2012 | Wed Sep 26 11:07:43 2012 |
| audit.log.13486539046497235 | 47317 | Wed Sep 26 11:05:04 2012 | Wed Sep 26 11:05:04 2012 |
+------------------------------+--------+---------------------------+---------------------------+
To change the audit log policy to log only query events, and show the system variables before and after the
execution of the policy command, use the following command:
shell> mysqlauditadmin --show-options [email protected]:3310 policy \
--value=QUERIES
#
# Showing options before command.
#
# Audit Log Variables and Options
#
+------------------------------+---------------+
| Variable_name
| Value
|
+------------------------------+---------------+
| audit_log_buffer_size
| 1048576
|
| audit_log_connection_policy | ALL
|
| audit_log_current_session
| ON
|
| audit_log_exclude_accounts
|
|
| audit_log_file
| audit.log
|
| audit_log_flush
| OFF
|
| audit_log_format
| OLD
|
| audit_log_include_accounts
|
|
| audit_log_policy
| ALL
|
| audit_log_rotate_on_size
| 0
|
| audit_log_statement_policy
| ALL
|
| audit_log_strategy
| ASYNCHRONOUS |
+------------------------------+---------------+
#
# Executing POLICY command.
#
#
# Showing options after command.
#
# Audit Log Variables and Options
#
+------------------------------+---------------+
| Variable_name
| Value
|
+------------------------------+---------------+
| audit_log_buffer_size
| 1048576
|
| audit_log_connection_policy | NONE
|
| audit_log_current_session
| ON
|
| audit_log_exclude_accounts
|
|
| audit_log_file
| audit.log
|
| audit_log_flush
| OFF
|
| audit_log_format
| OLD
|
| audit_log_include_accounts
|
|
| audit_log_policy
| ALL
|
| audit_log_rotate_on_size
| 0
|
69
EXAMPLES
| audit_log_statement_policy
| ALL
|
| audit_log_strategy
| ASYNCHRONOUS |
+------------------------------+---------------+
To change the audit log automatic file rotation size (audit_log_rotate_on_size) to 32535, and show the
system variables before and after the execution of the rotate_on_size command, use the following
command. (Notice that the value set is actually 28672 because the specified rotate_on_size value is
truncated to a multiple of 4096):
shell> mysqlauditadmin --show-options [email protected]:3310 rotate_on_size \
--value=32535
#
# Showing options before command.
#
# Audit Log Variables and Options
#
+------------------------------+---------------+
| Variable_name
| Value
|
+------------------------------+---------------+
| audit_log_buffer_size
| 1048576
|
| audit_log_connection_policy | ALL
|
| audit_log_current_session
| ON
|
| audit_log_exclude_accounts
|
|
| audit_log_file
| audit.log
|
| audit_log_flush
| OFF
|
| audit_log_format
| OLD
|
| audit_log_include_accounts
|
|
| audit_log_policy
| ALL
|
| audit_log_rotate_on_size
| 0
|
| audit_log_statement_policy
| ALL
|
| audit_log_strategy
| ASYNCHRONOUS |
+------------------------------+---------------+
#
# Executing POLICY command.
#
#
# Showing options after command.
#
# Audit Log Variables and Options
#
+------------------------------+---------------+
| Variable_name
| Value
|
+------------------------------+---------------+
| audit_log_buffer_size
| 1048576
|
| audit_log_connection_policy | NONE
|
| audit_log_current_session
| ON
|
| audit_log_exclude_accounts
|
|
| audit_log_file
| audit.log
|
| audit_log_flush
| OFF
|
| audit_log_format
| OLD
|
| audit_log_include_accounts
|
|
| audit_log_policy
| ALL
|
| audit_log_rotate_on_size
| 28672
|
| audit_log_statement_policy
| ALL
|
| audit_log_strategy
| ASYNCHRONOUS |
+------------------------------+---------------+
To perform a copy of a audit log file to another location, use the following command:
shell> mysqlauditadmin --audit-log-name=../SERVER/data/audit.log.13486539046497235 \
copy --copy-to=/BACKUP/Audit_Logs
70
PERMISSIONS REQUIRED
To copy a audit log file from a remote server/location to the current location (a prompt is issued for the user
password), use the following command:
shell> mysqlauditadmin --audit-log-name=audit.log.13486539046497235 \
copy --remote-login=user:host --copy-to=.
PERMISSIONS REQUIRED
The user must have permissions to read the audit log file(s) on disk and write the file(s) to the remote
location.
5.2 mysqlauditgrep — Allows users to search the current or an
archived audit log
This utility allows you to search the current or archived audit logs permitting you to display data from the
audit log file according to the defined search criterion. It also allows you to output the results in different
formats, namely GRID (default), TAB, CSV, VERTICAL, and RAW (the original XML format).
This utility allows you to search and filter the returned audit log records by: users (--users), date and time
ranges (--start-date and --end-date), SQL query types (--query-type), logged event and record
types (--event-type), status (--status), and matching patterns (--pattern). Any of these search
options can be combined and used together, with the retrieved records resulting from all options evaluated
as an and condition (all must be true).
The --pattern supports two types of pattern matching: standard SQL, used with the SQL LIKE operator
(SQL patterns), and standard REGEXP (POSIX regular expression patterns).
This utility always requires an audit log file. The AUDIT_LOG_FILE argument should contain the a full path
and filename for the audit log file. If not specified, a notification concerning this requirement is displayed.
If --format is specified without search parameters, all of the records of the audit log are displayed in the
specified format. Thus, you can use this feature to view the audit log file in the supported formats.
The --file-stats option is not considered a search criteria and is used to display the file statistics of a
specified audit log. Other search options are ignored when the --file-stats option is used, except the
--format option, which formats the results accordingly.
To specify the format of the generated results, use one of the following values with the --format option:
• GRID (default)
Display output in grid or table format like that of the mysql client command-line tool.
• CSV
Display output in comma-separated values format.
• VERTICAL
Display output in single-column format like that of the \G command for the mysql client command-line
tool.
• RAW
Display output results in the original raw format of the audit log records, which is written in XML.
71
Standard SQL Pattern Matching
Standard SQL Pattern Matching
The simple patterns defined by the SQL standard enables users to use two characters with special
meanings: “%” (percent) matches zero or more characters, and “_” (underscore) matches exactly one
arbitrary character. In standard SQL, these types of patterns are used with the LIKE comparison operator,
and they are case-insensitive by default. This utility assumes that they are case-insensitive.
For example:
• "audit%"
Match any string that starts with "audit".
• "%log%"
Match any string containing the word "log".
• "%_"
Match any string consisting of one or more characters.
For documentation about the standard SQL pattern matching syntax, see Pattern Matching.
REGEXP Pattern Matching (POSIX)
Standard REGEXP patterns are more powerful than the simple patterns defined in the SQL standard. A
regular expression is a string of ordinary and special characters specified to match other strings. Unlike
SQL Patterns, REGEXP patterns are case-sensitive. The REGEXP syntax defines the following characters
with special meaning:
• .
Match any character.
• ^
Match the beginning of a string.
• $
Match the end of a string.
• \
Match zero or more repetitions of the preceding regular expression.
• +
Match one or more repetitions of the preceding regular expression.
• ?
Match zero or one repetition of the preceding regular expression.
• |
Match either the regular expressions from the left or right of |.
• []
72
REGEXP Pattern Matching (POSIX)
Indicates a set of characters to match.
Note
Special characters lose their special meaning inside sets. In particular, the caret
symbol (^) acquires a different meaning if it is the first character of the set,
matching the complementary set (i.e., all the characters that are not in the set are
matched).
• {m}
Match m repetitions of the preceding regular expression.
• {m,n}
Match from m to n repetitions of the preceding regular expression.
• ()
Define a matching group, and matches the regular expression inside the parentheses.
For example:
• "a\*"
Match a sequence of zero or more a.
• "a+"
Match a sequence of one or more a.
• "a?"
Match zero or one a.
• "ab|cd"
Match ab or cd.
• "[axy]"
Match a, x or y.
• "[a-f]"
Match any character in the range a to f (that is, a, b, c, d, e, or f).
• "[^axy]"
Match any character except a, x or y.
• "a{5}"
Match exactly five copies of a.
• "a{2,5}"
Match from two to five copies of a.
• "(abc)+"
73
OPTIONS
Match one or more repetitions of abc.
This is a brief overview of regular expressions that can be used to define this type of patterns. The full
syntax is described in the Python "re" module docs, supporting the definition of much more complex pattern
matching expression.
OPTIONS
mysqlauditgrep accepts the following command-line options:
• --end-date=END_DATE
End date/time to retrieve log entries until the specified date/time range. If not specified or the value is 0,
all entries to the end of the log are displayed. Accepted formats: "yyyy-mm-ddThh:mm:ss" or "yyyy-mmdd".
• --event-type=EVENT_TYPE
Comma-separated list of event types to search in all audit log records matching the specified types.
Supported values are: Audit, Binlog Dump, Change user, Close stmt, Connect Out, Connect, Create DB,
Daemon, Debug, Delayed insert, Drop DB, Execute, Fetch, Field List, Init DB, Kill, Long Data, NoAudit,
Ping, Prepare, Processlist, Query, Quit, Refresh, Register Slave, Reset stmt, Set option, Shutdown,
Sleep, Statistics, Table Dump, Time.
• --file-stats
Display the audit log file statistics.
• --format=FORMAT, -f FORMAT
Output format to display the resulting data. Supported format values: GRID (default), TAB, CSV,
VERTICAL and RAW.
• --help
Display a help message and exit.
• --license
Display license information and exit.
• --pattern=PATTERN, -e PATTERN
Search pattern to retrieve all entries with at least one attribute value matching the specified pattern.
By default the standard SQL LIKE patterns are used for matching. If the --regexp option is set, then
REGEXP patterns must be specified for matching.
• --query-type=QUERY_TYPE
Comma-separated list of SQL statements/commands to search for and match. Supported values:
CREATE, ALTER, DROP, TRUNCATE, RENAME, GRANT, REVOKE, SELECT, INSERT, UPDATE,
DELETE, COMMIT, SHOW, SET, CALL, PREPARE, EXECUTE, DEALLOCATE.
• --regexp, --basic-regexp, -G
Indicates that pattern matching is performed using a regular expression REGEXP (from the Python re
module). By default, the simple standard SQL LIKE patterns are used for matching. This affects how the
value specified by the --pattern option is interpreted.
74
NOTES
• --start-date=START_DATE
Starting date/time to retrieve log entries from the specified date/time range. If not specified or the value
is 0, all entries from the start of the log are displayed. Accepted formats: yyyy-mm-ddThh:mm:ss or yyyymm-dd.
• --status=STATUS
Comma-separated list of status values or intervals to search for all audit log records with a matching
status. Status values are non-negative integers (corresponding to MySQL error codes). Status intervals
are closed (i.e., include both endpoints) and defined simply using a dash between its endpoints. For
Example: 1051,1068-1075,1109,1146.
The --status option is available as of MySQL Utilities 1.2.4 / 1.3.3.
• --users=USERS, -u USERS
Comma-separated list of user names, to search for their associated log entries. For example:
"dan,jon,john,paul,philip,stefan".
• --verbose, -v
Specify how much information to display. Use this option multiple times to increase the amount of
information. For example, -v = verbose, -vv = more verbose, -vvv = debug.
• --version
Display version information and exit.
NOTES
This utility is available as of MySQL Utilities 1.2.0.
This utility can only be applied to servers with the audit log plugin enabled. And the audit log plugin is
available as of MySQL Server versions 5.5.28 and 5.6.10.
This utility support both of the existing audit log file formats (old and new). The new audit log format is
supported as of MySQL Utilities 1.4.3. See The Audit Log File, for more information about available file
formats.
This utility requires the use of Python version 2.6 or higher, but does not support Python 3.
Single or double quote characters (respectively, ' or ") can be used around option values. In fact, quotes
are required to set some options values correctly, such as values with whitespace. For example, to specify
the event types Create DB and Drop DB for the --event-type option, the following syntax must be
used: --event-type='Create DB,Drop DB' or --event-type="Create DB,Drop DB".
EXAMPLES
To display the audit log file statistics and output the results in CSV format, run the following command:
shell> mysqlauditgrep --file-stats --format=CSV /SERVER/data/audit.log
#
# Audit Log File Statistics:
#
File,Size,Created,Last Modified
75
EXAMPLES
audit.log,9101,Thu Sep 27 13:33:11 2012,Thu Oct 11 17:40:35 2012
#
# Audit Log Startup Entries:
#
SERVER_ID,STARTUP_OPTIONS,NAME,TIMESTAMP,MYSQL_VERSION,OS_VERSION,VERSION
1,/SERVER/sql/mysqld --defaults-file=/SERVER/my.cnf,Audit,2012-09-27T13:33:11,5.5.29-log,x86_64-Linux,1
To display the audit log entries of specific users, use the following command:
shell> mysqlauditgrep --users=tester1,tester2 /SERVER/data/audit.log
To display the audit log file statistics, run the following command:
shell> mysqlauditgrep --users=tester1,tester2 /SERVER/data/audit.log
+---------+------------+----------+----------------------+----------------+------------+----------+--------| STATUS | SERVER_ID | NAME
| TIMESTAMP
| CONNECTION_ID | HOST
| USER
| PRIV_USE
+---------+------------+----------+----------------------+----------------+------------+----------+--------| 0
| 1
| Connect | 2012-09-28T11:26:50 | 9
| localhost | root
| tester1
| 0
| 1
| Query
| 2012-09-28T11:26:50 | 9
| None
| root
| tester1
| 0
| 1
| Ping
| 2012-09-28T11:26:50 | 9
| None
| root
| tester1
| 0
| 1
| Query
| 2012-09-28T11:26:50 | 9
| None
| root
| tester1
| 0
| 1
| Query
| 2012-09-28T11:26:50 | 9
| None
| root
| tester1
| 0
| 1
| Ping
| 2012-09-28T11:26:50 | 9
| None
| root
| tester1
| 0
| 1
| Query
| 2012-09-28T11:26:50 | 9
| None
| root
| tester1
| 0
| 1
| Quit
| 2012-09-28T11:26:50 | 9
| None
| root
| tester1
| 0
| 1
| Connect | 2012-10-10T15:55:55 | 11
| localhost | tester2 | root
| 0
| 1
| Query
| 2012-10-10T15:55:55 | 11
| None
| tester2 | root
| 0
| 1
| Query
| 2012-10-10T15:56:10 | 11
| None
| tester2 | root
| 1046
| 1
| Query
| 2012-10-10T15:57:26 | 11
| None
| tester2 | root
| 1046
| 1
| Query
| 2012-10-10T15:57:36 | 11
| None
| tester2 | root
| 0
| 1
| Query
| 2012-10-10T15:57:51 | 11
| None
| tester2 | root
| 0
| 1
| Quit
| 2012-10-10T15:57:59 | 11
| None
| tester2 | root
| 0
| 1
| Connect | 2012-10-10T17:35:42 | 12
| localhost | tester2 | root
| 0
| 1
| Query
| 2012-10-10T17:35:42 | 12
| None
| tester2 | root
| 0
| 1
| Quit
| 2012-10-10T17:47:22 | 12
| None
| tester2 | root
+---------+------------+----------+----------------------+----------------+------------+----------+---------
To display the audit log entries for a specific date/time range, use the following command:
shell> mysqlauditgrep --start-date=2012-09-27T13:33:47 --end-date=2012-09-28 /SERVER/data/audit.log
+---------+----------------------+--------+----------------+-----------------------------------------------| STATUS | TIMESTAMP
| NAME
| CONNECTION_ID | SQLTEXT
+---------+----------------------+--------+----------------+-----------------------------------------------| 0
| 2012-09-27T13:33:47 | Ping
| 7
| None
| 0
| 2012-09-27T13:33:47 | Query | 7
| SELECT * FROM INFORMATION_SCHEMA.PLUGINS WHERE
| 0
| 2012-09-27T13:33:47 | Query | 7
| COMMIT
| 0
| 2012-09-27T13:34:48 | Quit
| 7
| None
| 0
| 2012-09-27T13:34:48 | Quit
| 8
| None
+---------+----------------------+--------+----------------+------------------------------------------------
To display the audit log entries matching a specific SQL LIKE pattern, use the following command:
shell> mysqlauditgrep --pattern="% = ___"; /SERVER/data/audit.log
+---------+----------------------+--------+---------------------------------+----------------+
| STATUS | TIMESTAMP
| NAME
| SQLTEXT
| CONNECTION_ID |
+---------+----------------------+--------+---------------------------------+----------------+
| 0
| 2012-09-27T13:33:39 | Query | SET @@session.autocommit = OFF | 7
|
76
EXAMPLES
| 0
| 2012-09-27T13:33:39 | Query | SET @@session.autocommit = OFF | 8
|
| 0
| 2012-09-28T11:26:50 | Query | SET @@session.autocommit = OFF | 9
|
| 0
| 2012-09-28T11:26:50 | Query | SET @@session.autocommit = OFF | 10
|
+---------+----------------------+--------+---------------------------------+----------------+
To display the audit log entries matching a specific REGEXP pattern, use the following command:
shell> mysqlauditgrep --pattern=".* = ..." --regexp /SERVER/data/audit.log
+---------+----------------------+--------+---------------------------------+----------------+
| STATUS | TIMESTAMP
| NAME
| SQLTEXT
| CONNECTION_ID |
+---------+----------------------+--------+---------------------------------+----------------+
| 0
| 2012-09-27T13:33:39 | Query | SET @@session.autocommit = OFF | 7
|
| 0
| 2012-09-27T13:33:39 | Query | SET @@session.autocommit = OFF | 8
|
| 0
| 2012-09-28T11:26:50 | Query | SET @@session.autocommit = OFF | 9
|
| 0
| 2012-09-28T11:26:50 | Query | SET @@session.autocommit = OFF | 10
|
+---------+----------------------+--------+---------------------------------+----------------+
To display the audit log entries of specific query types, use the following command:
shell> mysqlauditgrep --query-type=show,SET /SERVER/data/audit.log
+---------+----------------------+--------+-------------------------------------------------+-----------| STATUS | TIMESTAMP
| NAME
| SQLTEXT
| CONNECTION_
+---------+----------------------+--------+-------------------------------------------------+-----------| 0
| 2012-09-27T13:33:39 | Query | SET NAMES 'latin1' COLLATE 'latin1_swedish_ci' | 7
| 0
| 2012-09-27T13:33:39 | Query | SET @@session.autocommit = OFF
| 7
| 0
| 2012-09-27T13:33:39 | Query | SHOW VARIABLES LIKE 'READ_ONLY'
| 7
| 0
| 2012-09-27T13:33:39 | Query | SHOW VARIABLES LIKE 'datadir'
| 7
| 0
| 2012-09-27T13:33:39 | Query | SHOW VARIABLES LIKE 'basedir'
| 7
| 0
| 2012-09-27T13:33:39 | Query | SET NAMES 'latin1' COLLATE 'latin1_swedish_ci' | 8
| 0
| 2012-09-27T13:33:39 | Query | SET @@session.autocommit = OFF
| 8
| 0
| 2012-09-27T13:33:39 | Query | SHOW VARIABLES LIKE 'READ_ONLY'
| 8
| 0
| 2012-09-27T13:33:39 | Query | SHOW VARIABLES LIKE 'basedir'
| 8
| 0
| 2012-09-28T11:26:50 | Query | SET NAMES 'latin1' COLLATE 'latin1_swedish_ci' | 9
| 0
| 2012-09-28T11:26:50 | Query | SET @@session.autocommit = OFF
| 9
| 0
| 2012-09-28T11:26:50 | Query | SHOW VARIABLES LIKE 'READ_ONLY'
| 9
| 0
| 2012-09-28T11:26:50 | Query | SET NAMES 'latin1' COLLATE 'latin1_swedish_ci' | 10
| 0
| 2012-09-28T11:26:50 | Query | SET @@session.autocommit = OFF
| 10
| 0
| 2012-09-28T11:26:50 | Query | SHOW VARIABLES LIKE 'READ_ONLY'
| 10
| 0
| 2012-09-28T11:26:50 | Query | SET @@GLOBAL.audit_log_flush = ON
| 10
| 0
| 2012-09-28T11:26:50 | Query | SHOW VARIABLES LIKE 'audit_log_policy'
| 10
| 0
| 2012-09-28T11:26:50 | Query | SHOW VARIABLES LIKE 'audit_log_rotate_on_size' | 10
| 0
| 2012-10-10T15:56:10 | Query | show databases
| 11
| 1046
| 2012-10-10T15:57:26 | Query | show tables test
| 11
| 1046
| 2012-10-10T15:57:36 | Query | show tables test
| 11
| 0
| 2012-10-10T15:57:51 | Query | show tables in test
| 11
+---------+----------------------+--------+-------------------------------------------------+------------
To display the audit log entries of specific event types, use the following command:
shell> mysqlauditgrep --event-type="Ping,Connect" /SERVER/data/audit.log
+---------+----------+----------------------+----------------+------------+---------+------------+------| STATUS | NAME
| TIMESTAMP
| CONNECTION_ID | HOST
| USER
| PRIV_USER | IP
+---------+----------+----------------------+----------------+------------+---------+------------+------| 0
| Connect | 2012-09-27T13:33:39 | 7
| localhost | root
| root
| 127.0.
| 0
| Ping
| 2012-09-27T13:33:39 | 7
| None
| None
| None
| None
| 0
| Ping
| 2012-09-27T13:33:39 | 7
| None
| None
| None
| None
| 0
| Ping
| 2012-09-27T13:33:39 | 7
| None
| None
| None
| None
| 0
| Ping
| 2012-09-27T13:33:39 | 7
| None
| None
| None
| None
| 0
| Connect | 2012-09-27T13:33:39 | 8
| localhost | root
| root
| 127.0.
| 0
| Ping
| 2012-09-27T13:33:39 | 8
| None
| None
| None
| None
77
PERMISSIONS REQUIRED
| 0
| Ping
| 2012-09-27T13:33:39 | 8
| None
| None
| None
| None
| 0
| Ping
| 2012-09-27T13:33:47 | 7
| None
| None
| None
| None
| 0
| Connect | 2012-09-28T11:26:50 | 9
| localhost | root
| tester
| 127.0.0.1
| 0
| Ping
| 2012-09-28T11:26:50 | 9
| None
| None
| None
| None
| 0
| Ping
| 2012-09-28T11:26:50 | 9
| None
| None
| None
| None
| 0
| Connect | 2012-09-28T11:26:50 | 10
| localhost | root
| root
| 127.0.0.1
| 0
| Ping
| 2012-09-28T11:26:50 | 10
| None
| None
| None
| None
| 0
| Ping
| 2012-09-28T11:26:50 | 10
| None
| None
| None
| None
| 0
| Ping
| 2012-09-28T11:26:50 | 10
| None
| None
| None
| None
| 0
| Ping
| 2012-09-28T11:26:50 | 10
| None
| None
| None
| None
| 0
| Ping
| 2012-09-28T11:26:50 | 10
| None
| None
| None
| None
| 0
| Connect | 2012-10-10T15:55:55 | 11
| localhost | tester | root
| 127.0.0.1
| 0
| Connect | 2012-10-10T17:35:42 | 12
| localhost | tester | root
| 127.0.0.1
+---------+----------+----------------------+----------------+------------+---------+------------+----------
To display the audit log entries with a specific status, use the following command:
shell> mysqlauditgrep --status=1100-1199,1046 /SERVER/data/audit.log
+---------+----------------------+--------+----------------------------------------------------------------| STATUS | TIMESTAMP
| NAME
| SQLTEXT
+---------+----------------------+--------+----------------------------------------------------------------| 1046
| 2012-10-10T15:57:26 | Query | show tables test
| 1046
| 2012-10-10T15:57:36 | Query | show tables test
| 1146
| 2012-10-10T17:44:55 | Query | select * from test.employees where salary > 500 and salary < 100
| 1046
| 2012-10-10T17:47:17 | Query | select * from test_encoding where value = '<>"&'
+---------+----------------------+--------+-----------------------------------------------------------------
Note
You can view all successful commands with --status=0, and all unsuccessful
commands with --status=1-9999.
To display the audit log entries matching several search criteria, use the following command:
shell> mysqlauditgrep --users=root --start-date=0 --end-date=2012-10-10 --event-type=Query \
--query-type=SET --status=0 --pattern="%audit_log%" /SERVER/data/audit.log
+---------+------------+--------+----------------------+----------------+-------+------------+-------------| STATUS | SERVER_ID | NAME
| TIMESTAMP
| CONNECTION_ID | USER | PRIV_USER | SQLTEXT
+---------+------------+--------+----------------------+----------------+-------+------------+-------------| 0
| 1
| Query | 2012-09-28T11:26:50 | 10
| root | root
| SET @@GLOBAL.
+---------+------------+--------+----------------------+----------------+-------+------------+--------------
PERMISSIONS REQUIRED
The user must have permissions to read the audit log file(s) on disk.
5.3 mysqldbcompare — Compare Two Databases and Identify
Differences
This utility compares the objects and data from two databases to find differences. It identifies objects
having different definitions in the two databases and presents them in a diff-style format of choice.
Differences in the data are shown using a similar diff-style format. Changed or missing rows are shown in a
standard format of GRID, CSV, TAB, or VERTICAL.
Use the notation db1:db2 to name two databases to compare, or, alternatively just db1 to compare two
databases with the same name. The latter case is a convenience notation for comparing same-named
databases on different servers.
78
mysqldbcompare — Compare Two Databases and Identify Differences
The comparison may be run against two databases of different names on a single server by specifying only
the --server1 option. The user can also connect to another server by specifying the --server2 option.
In this case, db1 is taken from server1 and db2 from server2.
All databases between two servers can also be compared using the --all option. In this case, only the
databases in common (with the same name) between the servers are successively compared. Therefore,
no databases need to be specified but the --server1 and --server2 options are required. Users can
skip the comparison of some of the databases using the --exclude option.
Note
The data must not be changed during the comparison. Unexpected errors may
occur if data is changed during the comparison.
The objects considered in the database include tables, views, triggers, procedures, functions, and events.
A count for each object type can be shown with the -vv option.
The check is performed using a series of steps called tests. By default, the utility stops on the first failed
test, but you can specify the --run-all-tests option to cause the utility to run all tests regardless of
their end state.
Note
Using --run-all-tests may produce expected cascade failures. For example, if
the row counts differ among two tables being compared, the data consistency also
fails.
The tests include the following:
1. Check database definitions
A database existence precondition check ensures that both databases exist. If they do not, no further
processing is possible and the --run-all-tests option is ignored.
2. Check existence of objects in both databases
The test for objects in both databases identifies those objects missing from one or another database.
The remaining tests apply only to those objects that appear in both databases. To skip this test, use the
--skip-object-compare option. That can be useful when there are known missing objects among
the databases.
3. Compare object definitions
The definitions (the CREATE statements) are compared and differences are presented. To skip this
test, use the --skip-diff option. That can be useful when there are object name differences only
that you want to ignore.
4. Check table row counts
This check ensures that both tables have the same number of rows. This does not ensure that the table
data is consistent. It is merely a cursory check to indicate possible missing rows in one table or the
other. The data consistency check identifies the missing rows. To skip this test, use the --skip-rowcount option.
5. Check table data consistency
This check identifies both changed rows as well as missing rows from one or another of the tables in
the databases. Changed rows are displayed as a diff-style report with the format chosen (GRID by
79
mysqldbcompare — Compare Two Databases and Identify Differences
default) and missing rows are also displayed using the format chosen. This check is divided in two
steps: first the full table checksum is compared between the tables, then if this step fails (or is skipped)
the algorithm to find rows differences is executed. To skip the preliminary checksum table step in this
test, use the --skip-checksum-table option. To skip this full test, use the --skip-data-check
option.
You may want to use the --skip-xxx options to run only one of the tests. This might be helpful when
working to bring two databases into synchronization, to avoid running all of the tests repeatedly during the
process.
Each test completes with one of the following states:
• pass
The test succeeded.
• FAIL
The test failed. Errors are displayed following the test state line.
• SKIP
The test was skipped due to a missing prerequisite or a skip option.
• WARN
The test encountered an unusual but not fatal error.
• The test is not applicable to this object.
To specify how to display diff-style output, use one of the following values with the --difftype option:
• unified (default)
Display unified format output.
• context
Display context format output.
• differ
Display differ-style format output.
• sql
Display SQL transformation statement output.
To specify how to display output for changed or missing rows, use one of the following values with the -format option:
• grid (default)
Display output in grid or table format like that of the mysql client command-line tool.
• csv
Display output in comma-separated values format.
80
OPTIONS
• tab
Display output in tab-separated format.
• vertical
Display output in single-column format like that of the \G command for the mysql client command-line
tool.
The --changes-for option controls the direction of the difference (by specifying the object to be
transformed) in either the difference report (default) or the transformation report (designated with the -difftype=sql option). Consider the following command:
shell> mysqldbcompare [email protected] [email protected] --difftype=sql db1:dbx
The leftmost database (db1) exists on the server designated by the --server1 option (host1). The
rightmost database (dbx) exists on the server designated by the --server2 option (host2).
• --changes-for=server1: Produce output that shows how to make the definitions of objects on
server1 like the definitions of the corresponding objects on server2.
• --changes-for=server2: Produce output that shows how to make the definitions of objects on
server2 like the definitions of the corresponding objects on server1.
The default direction is server1.
You must provide connection parameters (user, host, password, and so forth) for an account that has the
appropriate privileges to access all objects in the operation.
If the utility is to be run on a server that has binary logging enabled, and you do not want the comparison
steps logged, use the --disable-binary-logging option.
OPTIONS
mysqldbcompare accepts the following command-line options:
• --all, -a
Compare all database in common (with the same name) between two servers.
The --all option ignores the following databases: INFORMATION_SCHEMA,
PERFORMANCE_SCHEMA, mysql, and sys.
Note
The sys database is ignored as of Utilities 1.5.5.
• --help
Display a help message and exit.
• --license
Display license information and exit.
• --changes-for=direction
81
OPTIONS
Specify the server to show transformations to match the other server. For example, to see the
transformation for transforming object definitions on server1 to match the corresponding definitions on
server2, use --changes-for=server1. Permitted values are server1 and server2. The default is
server1.
• --character-set=charset
Sets the client character set. The default is retrieved from the server variable
character_set_client.
• --difftype=difftype, -ddifftype
Specify the difference display format. Permitted format values are unified, context, differ, and sql. The
default is unified.
• --disable-binary-logging
If binary logging is enabled, disable it during the operation to prevent comparison operations from being
written to the binary log. Note: Disabling binary logging requires the SUPER privilege.
• --exclude=exclude, -xexclude
Exclude one or more databases from the operation using either a specific name such as db1 or a search
pattern. Use this option multiple times to specify multiple exclusions. By default, patterns use database
patterns such as LIKE. With the --regexp option, patterns use regular expressions for matching
names.
Added in release-1.4.0.
• --format=format, -fformat
Specify the display format for changed or missing rows. Permitted format values are grid, csv, tab, and
vertical. The default is grid.
• --compact
Compacts the output by reducing the number of control lines that are displayed in the diff results. This
option should be used together with one of the following difference types: unified or context. It is most
effective when used with the unified difference type and the grid format.
• --quiet, -q
Do not print anything. Return only an exit code of success or failure.
• --regexp, --basic-regexp, -G
Perform pattern matches using the REGEXP operator. The default is to use LIKE for matching.
Added in release-1.4.0.
• --run-all-tests, -t
Do not halt at the first difference found. Process all objects.
• --server1=source
Connection information for the first server.
82
OPTIONS
To connect to a server, it is necessary to specify connection parameters such as the user name, host
name, password, and either a port or socket. MySQL Utilities provides a number of ways to supply this
information. All of the methods require specifying your choice via a command-line option such as -server, --master, --slave, etc. The methods include the following in order of most secure to least secure.
• Use login-paths from your .mylogin.cnf file (encrypted, not visible). Example : login-path[:port]
[:socket]
• Use a configuration file (unencrypted, not visible) Note: available in release-1.5.0. Example :
configuration-file-path[:section]
• Specify the data on the command-line (unencrypted, visible). Example : user[:passwd]@host[:port]
[:socket]
• --server2=source
Connection information for the second server.
To connect to a server, it is necessary to specify connection parameters such as the user name, host
name, password, and either a port or socket. MySQL Utilities provides a number of ways to supply this
information. All of the methods require specifying your choice via a command-line option such as -server, --master, --slave, etc. The methods include the following in order of most secure to least secure.
• Use login-paths from your .mylogin.cnf file (encrypted, not visible). Example : login-path[:port]
[:socket]
• Use a configuration file (unencrypted, not visible) Note: available in release-1.5.0. Example :
configuration-file-path[:section]
• Specify the data on the command-line (unencrypted, visible). Example : user[:passwd]@host[:port]
[:socket]
• --show-reverse
Produce a transformation report containing the SQL statements to conform the object definitions
specified in reverse. For example, if --changes-for is set to server1, also generate the transformation for
server2. Note: The reverse changes are annotated and marked as comments.
• --skip-checksum-table
Skip the CHECKSUM TABLE step in the data consistency check. Added in release-1.4.3.
• --skip-data-check
Skip the data consistency check.
• --skip-diff
Skip the object definition difference check.
• --skip-object-compare
Skip the object comparison check.
• --skip-row-count
Skip the row count check.
83
NOTES
• --span-key-size=number of bytes to use for key
Change the size of the key used for compare table contents. A higher value can help to get more
accurate results comparing large databases, but may slow the algorithm.
Default value is 8.
• --ssl-ca
The path to a file that contains a list of trusted SSL CAs.
• --ssl-cert
The name of the SSL certificate file to use for establishing a secure connection.
• --ssl-key
The name of the SSL key file to use for establishing a secure connection.
• --ssl
Specifies if the server connection requires use of SSL. If an encrypted connection cannot be established,
the connection attempt fails. Default setting is 0 (SSL not required).
• --verbose, -v
Specify how much information to display. Use this option multiple times to increase the amount of
information. For example, -v = verbose, -vv = more verbose, -vvv = debug.
• --version
Display version information and exit.
• --use-indexes
List the index to use. Use this option to select the index to use if the table has no primary key
or it has more than one unique index without null columns. Use this option in the format: --useindexes="table1.indexA[;table2.indexB;]"
• --width=number
Change the display width of the test report. The default is 75 characters.
NOTES
The login user must have the appropriate permissions to read all databases and tables listed.
For the --difftype option, the permitted values are not case sensitive. In addition, values may be
specified as any unambiguous prefix of a valid value. For example, --difftype=d specifies the differ
type. An error occurs if a prefix matches more than one valid value.
The path to the MySQL client tools should be included in the PATH environment variable in order to use the
authentication mechanism with login-paths. This permits the utility to use the my_print_defaults tools
which is required to read the login-path values from the login configuration file (.mylogin.cnf).
If any database identifier specified as an argument contains special characters or is a reserved
word, then it must be appropriately quoted with backticks (`). In turn, names quoted with backticks
84
EXAMPLES
must also be quoted with single or double quotes depending on the operating system, i.e. (") in
Windows or (') in non-Windows systems, in order for the utilities to read backtick quoted identifiers
as a single argument. For example, to compare a database with the name weird`db.name with
other:weird`db.name, the database pair must be specified using the following syntax (in non-Windows):
'`weird``db.name`:`other:weird``db.name`'.
EXAMPLES
Use the following command to compare the emp1 and emp2 databases on the local server, and run all
tests even if earlier tests fail:
shell> mysqldbcompare [email protected] emp1:emp2 --run-all-tests
# server1 on localhost: ... connected.
# Checking databases emp1 on server1 and emp2 on server2
#
# WARNING: Objects in server2:emp2 but not in server1:emp1:
#
TRIGGER: trg
# PROCEDURE: p1
#
TABLE: t1
#
VIEW: v1
#
#
Defn
Row
Data
# Type
Object Name
Diff
Count
Check
# --------------------------------------------------------------------------# FUNCTION f1
pass
# TABLE
departments
pass
pass
#
- Compare table checksum
FAIL
#
- Find row differences
FAIL
#
# Data differences found among rows:
--- emp1.departments
+++ emp2.departments
@@ -1,4 +1,4 @@
*************************
1. row *************************
dept_no: d002
- dept_name: dunno
+ dept_name: Finance
1 rows.
# Rows in emp1.departments not in emp2.departments
*************************
1. row *************************
dept_no: d008
dept_name: Research
1 rows.
# Rows in emp2.departments not in emp1.departments
*************************
1. row *************************
dept_no: d100
dept_name: stupid
1 rows.
# TABLE
#
dept_manager
- Compare table checksum
pass
pass
pass
# Database consistency check failed.
#
# ...done
Given: two databases with the same table layout. Data for each table contains:
mysql> select * from db1.t1;
+---+---------------+
| a | b
|
85
EXAMPLES
+---+---------------+
| 1 | Test 789
|
| 2 | Test 456
|
| 3 | Test 123
|
| 4 | New row - db1 |
+---+---------------+
4 rows in set (0.00 sec)
mysql> select * from db2.t1;
+---+---------------+
| a | b
|
+---+---------------+
| 1 | Test 123
|
| 2 | Test 456
|
| 3 | Test 789
|
| 5 | New row - db2 |
+---+---------------+
4 rows in set (0.00 sec)
To generate the SQL statements for data transformations to make db1.t1 the same as db2.t1, use
the --changes-for=server1 option. We must also include the -a option to ensure that the data
consistency test is run. The following command illustrates the options used and an excerpt from the results
generated:
shell> mysqldbcompare --server1=root:[email protected] \
--server2=root:[email protected] db1:db2 --changes-for=server1 -a \/
--difftype=sql
[...]
#
Defn
Row
Data
# Type
Object Name
Diff
Count
Check
#------------------------------------------------------------------------# TABLE
t1
pass
pass
#
- Compare table checksum
FAIL
#
- Find row differences
FAIL
#
# Transformation for --changes-for=server1:
#
# Data
UPDATE
UPDATE
DELETE
INSERT
differences found among rows:
db1.t1 SET b = 'Test 123' WHERE a = '1';
db1.t1 SET b = 'Test 789' WHERE a = '3';
FROM db1.t1 WHERE a = '4';
INTO db1.t1 (a, b) VALUES('5', 'New row - db2');
# Database consistency check failed.
#
# ...done
Similarly, when the same command is run with --changes-for=server2 and --difftype=sql, the
following report is generated:
shell> mysqldbcompare --server1=root:[email protected] \
--server2=root:[email protected] db1:db2 --changes-for=server2 -a \
--difftype=sql
[...]
#
Defn
Row
Data
# Type
Object Name
Diff
Count
Check
#------------------------------------------------------------------------# TABLE
t1
pass
pass
-
86
LIMITATIONS
#
- Compare table checksum
#
- Find row differences
#
# Transformation for --changes-for=server2:
#
# Data
UPDATE
UPDATE
DELETE
INSERT
FAIL
FAIL
differences found among rows:
db2.t1 SET b = 'Test 789' WHERE a = '1';
db2.t1 SET b = 'Test 123' WHERE a = '3';
FROM db2.t1 WHERE a = '5';
INTO db2.t1 (a, b) VALUES('4', 'New row - db1');
# Database consistency check failed.
#
# ...done
With the --difftype=sql SQL generation option set, --show-reverse shows the object
transformations in both directions. Here is an excerpt of the results:
shell> mysqldbcompare --server1=root:[email protected] \
--server2=root:[email protected] db1:db2 --changes-for=server1 \
--show-reverse -a --difftype=sql
[...]
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
Defn
Row
Data
Type
Object Name
Diff
Count
Check
------------------------------------------------------------------------TABLE
t1
pass
pass
- Compare table checksum
FAIL
- Find row differences
FAIL
Transformation for --changes-for=server1:
# Data
UPDATE
UPDATE
DELETE
INSERT
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
differences found among rows:
db1.t1 SET b = 'Test 123' WHERE a = '1';
db1.t1 SET b = 'Test 789' WHERE a = '3';
FROM db1.t1 WHERE a = '4';
INTO db1.t1 (a, b) VALUES('5', 'New row - db2');
Transformation for reverse changes (--changes-for=server2):
# Data
UPDATE
UPDATE
DELETE
INSERT
differences found among rows:
db2.t1 SET b = 'Test 789' WHERE a = '1';
db2.t1 SET b = 'Test 123' WHERE a = '3';
FROM db2.t1 WHERE a = '5';
INTO db2.t1 (a, b) VALUES('4', 'New row - db1');
# Database consistency check failed.
#
# ...done
LIMITATIONS
The utility reads the primary key of each row into a data structure, which is then used to generate
checksums for each row. The primary key and checksum are then sorted and compared to detect which
rows differ. Due to this design, the utility may exhibit slower performance for very large tables (many rows)
especially for tables with wide primary keys. Use of this utility with tables that have blob fields as part of the
primary key is not recommended.
87
PERMISSIONS REQUIRED
PERMISSIONS REQUIRED
The user must have the SELECT, CREATE TEMPORARY TABLES, and SHOW VIEW privileges for the
databases being compared on both connections. The user must also have SELECT privilege on the mysql
database. If the binary log is enabled and the --disable-binary-logging option is used, the user
must also have the SUPER privilege.
5.4 mysqldbcopy — Copy Database Objects Between Servers
This utility copies a database on a source server to a database on a destination server. If the source and
destination servers are different, the database names can be the same or different. If the source and
destination servers are the same, the database names must be different.
The utility accepts one or more database pairs on the command line. To name a database pair, use
db_name:new_db_name syntax to specify the source and destination names explicitly. If the source and
destination database names are the same, db_name can be used as shorthand for db_name:db_name.
By default, the operation copies all objects (tables, views, triggers, events, procedures, functions, and
database-level grants) and data to the destination server. There are options to turn off copying any or all of
the objects as well as not copying the data.
To exclude specific objects by name, use the --exclude option with a name in db.*obj* format, or you
can supply a search pattern. For example, --exclude=db1.trig1 excludes the single trigger and -exclude=trig_ excludes all objects from all databases having a name that begins with trig and has a
following character.
By default, the utility creates each table on the destination server using the same storage engine as
the original table. To override this and specify the storage engine to use for all tables created on the
destination server, use the --new-storage-engine option. If the destination server supports the new
engine, all tables use that engine.
To specify the storage engine to use for tables for which the destination server does not support the
original storage engine on the source server, use the --default-storage-engine option.
The --new-storage-engine option takes precedence over --default-storage-engine if both are
given.
If the --new-storage-engine or --default-storage-engine option is given and the destination
server does not support the specified storage engine, a warning is issued and the server's default storage
engine setting is used instead.
By default, the operation uses a consistent snapshot to read the source databases. To change the locking
mode, use the --locking option with a locking type value. Use a value of no-locks to turn off locking
altogether or lock-all to use only table locks. The default value is snapshot. Additionally, the utility uses
WRITE locks to lock the destination tables during the copy.
You can include replication statements for copying data among a master and slave or between slaves. The
--rpl option permits you to select from the following replication statements to include in the export.
• master
Create and execute a CHANGE MASTER statement to make the destination server a slave of the server
specified in the --source option. This executes the appropriate STOP and START slave statements.
The STOP SLAVE statement is executed at the start of the copy and the CHANGE MASTER followed
by the START SLAVE statements are executed after the copy.
• slave
88
OPTIONS
Create and execute a CHANGE MASTER statement to make the destination server a slave connected
to the same master as the server specified in the --source option. This executes the appropriate STOP
and START slave statements. The STOP SLAVE statement is executed at the start of the copy and the
CHANGE MASTER followed by the START SLAVE statements after the copy.
To include the replication user in the CHANGE MASTER statement, use the --rpl-user option to
specify the user and password. If this option is omitted, the utility attempts to identify the replication user. In
the event that there are multiple candidates or the user requires a password, the utility aborts with an error.
If you attempt to copy databases on a server with GTIDs enabled (GTID_MODE = ON), a warning is
generated if the copy does not include all databases. This is because the GTID statements generated
include the GTIDs for all databases and not only those databases in the export.
The utility also generates a warning if you copy databases on a GTID enabled server but use the --skipgtid option.
To make the most use of GTIDs, you should copy all of the databases on the server with the --all option.
OPTIONS
mysqldbcopy accepts the following command-line options:
• --help
Display a help message and exit.
• --license
Display license information and exit.
• --character-set=charset
Sets the client character set. The default is retrieved from the server variable
character_set_client.
• --default-storage-engine=def_engine
The engine to use for tables if the destination server does not support the original storage engine on the
source server.
• --destination=destination
Connection information for the destination server.
To connect to a server, it is necessary to specify connection parameters such as the user name, host
name, password, and either a port or socket. MySQL Utilities provides a number of ways to supply this
information. All of the methods require specifying your choice via a command-line option such as -server, --master, --slave, etc. The methods include the following in order of most secure to least secure.
• Use login-paths from your .mylogin.cnf file (encrypted, not visible). Example : login-path[:port]
[:socket]
• Use a configuration file (unencrypted, not visible) Note: available in release-1.5.0. Example :
configuration-file-path[:section]
• Specify the data on the command-line (unencrypted, visible). Example : user[:passwd]@host[:port]
[:socket]
89
OPTIONS
• --exclude=exclude, -xexclude
Exclude one or more objects from the operation using either a specific name such as db1.t1 or a search
pattern. Use this option multiple times to specify multiple exclusions. By default, patterns use LIKE
matching. With the --regexp option, patterns use REGEXP matching.
This option does not apply to grants.
• --drop-first
Drop each database to be copied if exists before copying anything into it. Without this option, an error
occurs if you attempt to copy objects into an existing database.
Note
Before MySQL Utilities 1.4.2, this option was named --force.
• --locking=locking
Choose the lock type for the operation. Permitted lock values are no-locks (do not use any table locks),
lock-all (use table locks but no transaction and no consistent read), and snapshot (consistent read
using a single transaction). The default is snapshot.
• --multiprocess
Specify the number of processes to concurrently copy the specified databases. Special values: 0
(number of processes equal to the number of detected CPUs) and 1 (default - no concurrency).
Multiprocessing works at the database level for Windows and at the table level for Non-Windows
(POSIX) systems.
• --new-storage-engine=new_engine
The engine to use for all tables created on the destination server.
• --quiet, -q
Turn off all messages for quiet execution.
• --regexp, --basic-regexp, -G
Perform pattern matches using the REGEXP operator. The default is to use LIKE for matching.
• --rpl=dump_option, --replication=dump_option
Include replication information. Permitted values are master (make destination a slave of the source
server) and slave (make destination a slave of the same master as the source - only works if the source
server is a slave).
• --rpl-user=replication_user
The user and password for the replication user requirement in the form: user[:password] or loginpath. E.g. rpl:passwd Default = None.
• l --skip-gtid
Skip creation and execution of GTID statements during the copy operation.
• --all
90
NOTES
Copy all of the databases on the server.
• --skip=objects
Specify objects to skip in the operation as a comma-separated list (no spaces). Permitted values are
CREATE_DB, DATA, EVENTS, FUNCTIONS, GRANTS, PROCEDURES, TABLES, TRIGGERS, and
VIEWS.
• --source=source
Connection information for the source server.
To connect to a server, it is necessary to specify connection parameters such as the user name, host
name, password, and either a port or socket. MySQL Utilities provides a number of ways to supply this
information. All of the methods require specifying your choice via a command-line option such as -server, --master, --slave, etc. The methods include the following in order of most secure to least secure.
• Use login-paths from your .mylogin.cnf file (encrypted, not visible). Example : login-path[:port]
[:socket]
• Use a configuration file (unencrypted, not visible) Note: available in release-1.5.0. Example :
configuration-file-path[:section]
• Specify the data on the command-line (unencrypted, visible). Example : user[:passwd]@host[:port]
[:socket]
• --ssl-ca
The path to a file that contains a list of trusted SSL CAs.
• --ssl-cert
The name of the SSL certificate file to use for establishing a secure connection.
• --ssl-key
The name of the SSL key file to use for establishing a secure connection.
• --ssl
Specifies if the server connection requires use of SSL. If an encrypted connection cannot be established,
the connection attempt fails. Default setting is 0 (SSL not required).
• --verbose, -v
Specify how much information to display. Use this option multiple times to increase the amount of
information. For example, -v = verbose, -vv = more verbose, -vvv = debug.
• --version
Display version information and exit.
NOTES
You must provide connection parameters (user, host, password, and so forth) for an account that has the
appropriate privileges to access all objects in the operation.
91
EXAMPLES
On the source to copy all objects from the database, the user must have these privileges: SELECT for
tables, SHOW VIEW for views, EVENT for events and TRIGGER for triggers. Additionally, the SELECT
privilege is also required for the mysql database.
On the destination to copy all objects, the user must have these privileges: CREATE, ALTER, SELECT,
INSERT, UPDATE, LOCK TABLES, DROP if --drop-first option is used, SUPER when binary logging
is enabled, CREATE VIEW for views, CREATE ROUTINE, EXECUTE for procedures and functions,
EVENT for events, TRIGGER for triggers and GRANT OPTION to copy grants. The SUPER privilege might
also be required for some objects (views, procedures, functions, events and triggers), depending on their
DEFINER value.
Actual privileges required may differ from installation to installation depending on the security privileges
present and whether the database contains certain objects such as views or events and whether binary
logging is enabled.
The --new-storage-engine and --default-storage-engine options apply to all destination tables
in the operation.
Some option combinations may result in errors during the operation. For example, eliminating tables but
not views may result in an error a the view is copied.
The --rpl option is not valid for copying databases on the same server. If used in this manner, an error is
generated.
When copying data and including the GTID commands, you may encounter an error similar to
"GTID_PURGED can only be set when GTID_EXECUTED is empty". This occurs because the destination
server is not in a clean replication state. To alleviate this problem, you can issue a "RESET MASTER"
command on the destination prior to executing the copy.
Cloning databases that contain foreign key constraints does not change the constraint in the cloned table.
For example, if table db1.t1 has a foreign key constraint on table db1.t2, when db1 is cloned to db2, table
db2.t1 contains a foreign key constraint on db1.t2.
The path to the MySQL client tools should be included in the PATH environment variable in order to use the
authentication mechanism with login-paths. This permits the utility to use the my_print_defaults tools
which is required to read the login-path values from the login configuration file (.mylogin.cnf).
If any database identifier specified as an argument contains special characters or is a reserved
word, then it must be appropriately quoted with backticks (`). In turn, names quoted with backticks
must also be quoted with single or double quotes depending on the operating system, i.e. (") in
Windows or (') in non-Windows systems, in order for the utilities to read backtick quoted identifiers
as a single argument. For example, to copy a database with the name weird`db.name with
other:weird`db.name, the database pair must be specified using the following syntax (in non-Windows):
'`weird``db.name`:`other:weird``db.name`'.
Keep in mind that you can only take advantage of multiprocessing if your system has multiple CPUs
available for concurrent execution. Also note that multiprocessing is applied at a different level according
to the operating system where the mysqldbcopy utility is executed (due to python limitations). In particular,
it is applied at the database level for Windows (i.e., different databases are concurrently copied) and at
the table level for Non-Windows (POSIX) systems (i.e., different tables within the same database are
concurrently copied).
EXAMPLES
The following example demonstrates how to use the utility to copy a database named util_test to a
new database named util_test_copy on the same server:
92
EXAMPLES
shell> mysqldbcopy \
--source=root:[email protected]:3310:/test123/mysql.sock \
--destination=root:[email protected]:3310:/test123/mysql.sock \
util_test:util_test_copy
# Source on localhost: ... connected.
# Destination on localhost: ... connected.
# Copying database util_test renamed as util_test_copy
# Copying TABLE util_test.t1
# Copying table data.
# Copying TABLE util_test.t2
# Copying table data.
# Copying TABLE util_test.t3
# Copying table data.
# Copying TABLE util_test.t4
# Copying table data.
# Copying VIEW util_test.v1
# Copying TRIGGER util_test.trg
# Copying PROCEDURE util_test.p1
# Copying FUNCTION util_test.f1
# Copying EVENT util_test.e1
# Copying GRANTS from util_test
#...done.
If the database to be copied does not contain only InnoDB tables and you want to ensure data integrity
of the copied data by locking the tables during the read step, add a --locking=lock-all option to the
command:
shell> mysqldbcopy \
--source=root:[email protected]:3310:/test123/mysql.sock \
--destination=root:[email protected]:3310:/test123/mysql.sock \
util_test:util_test_copy --locking=lock-all
# Source on localhost: ... connected.
# Destination on localhost: ... connected.
# Copying database util_test renamed as util_test_copy
# Copying TABLE util_test.t1
# Copying table data.
# Copying TABLE util_test.t2
# Copying table data.
# Copying TABLE util_test.t3
# Copying table data.
# Copying TABLE util_test.t4
# Copying table data.
# Copying VIEW util_test.v1
# Copying TRIGGER util_test.trg
# Copying PROCEDURE util_test.p1
# Copying FUNCTION util_test.f1
# Copying EVENT util_test.e1
# Copying GRANTS from util_test
#...done.
To copy one or more databases from a master to a slave, you can use the following command to copy the
databases. Use the master as the source and the slave as the destination:
shell> mysqldbcopy [email protected]:3310 \
[email protected]:3311 test123 --rpl=master \
--rpl-user=rpl
# Source on localhost: ... connected.
# Destination on localhost: ... connected.
# Source on localhost: ... connected.
# Stopping slave
# Copying database test123
# Copying TABLE test123.t1
# Copying data for TABLE test123.t1
93
LIMITATIONS
# Connecting to the current server as master
# Starting slave
#...done.
To copy a database from one slave to another attached to the same master, you can use the following
command using the slave with the database to be copied as the source and the slave where the database
needs to copied to as the destination:
shell> mysqldbcopy [email protected]:3311 \
[email protected]:3312 test123 --rpl=slave \
--rpl-user=rpl
# Source on localhost: ... connected.
# Destination on localhost: ... connected.
# Source on localhost: ... connected.
# Stopping slave
# Copying database test123
# Copying TABLE test123.t1
# Copying data for TABLE test123.t1
# Connecting to the current server's master
# Starting slave
#...done.
LIMITATIONS
When copying tables with blob fields, the copy operation fails for any table with a blob field that is defined
as NOT NULL. This is because the copy attempts to use a bulk insert technique to copy the data in two
passes; one to copy the data without blob field data, and another to update the rows with the blob data.
This has shown to be efficient for most use cases.
However, if one or more tables have blob fields defined as NOT NULL, the two pass copy process fails
because the server does not permit inserting of null values for fields defined as NOT NULL on the first
pass. Thus, the utility checks the tables in the copy for any blob fields defined as NOT NULL. If any are
found, an error is thrown and the copy aborted.
A workaround for this limitation is to alter the table(s) to remove the NOT NULL restriction on blob fields
identified before the copy and restore the restriction after the copy. Similarly, any indexes that require NOT
NULL on blob fields must be removed before the copy and recreated after the copy.
PERMISSIONS REQUIRED
The user must have SELECT, SHOW VIEW, EVENT and TRIGGER privileges for the database(s) on
the source server. On the destination server, the user must have the following privileges for the copied
database(s): CREATE, ALTER, SELECT, INSERT, UPDATE, LOCK TABLES, DROP if --drop-first
option is used, and SUPER depending on the objects DEFINER value. When copying tables that include
foreign keys, the user must also have the REFERENCES privilege.
5.5 mysqldbexport — Export Object Definitions or Data from a
Database
This utility exports metadata (object definitions) or data or both from one or more databases. By default,
the export includes only definitions.
mysqldbexport differs from mysqldump in that it can produce output in a variety of formats to make your
data extraction/transport much easier. It permits you to export your data in the format most suitable to an
external tool, another MySQL server, or other use without the need to reformat the data.
94
mysqldbexport — Export Object Definitions or Data from a Database
To exclude specific objects by name, use the --exclude option with a name in db.*obj* format, or you
can supply a search pattern. For example, --exclude=db1.trig1 excludes the single trigger and -exclude=trig_ excludes all objects from all databases having a name that begins with trig and has a
following character.
To skip objects by type, use the --skip option with a list of the objects to skip. This enables you to extract
a particular set of objects, say, for exporting only events (by excluding all other types). Similarly, to skip
creation of UPDATE statements for BLOB data, specify the --skip-blobs option.
To specify how to display output, use one of the following values with the --format option:
• sql (default)
Display output using SQL statements. For definitions, this consists of the appropriate CREATE and
GRANT statements. For data, this is an INSERT statement (or bulk insert if the --bulk-insert option
is specified).
• grid
Display output in grid or table format like that of the mysql client command-line tool.
• csv
Display output in comma-separated values format.
• tab
Display output in tab-separated format.
• vertical
Display output in single-column format like that of the \G command for the mysql client command-line
tool.
To specify how much data to display, use one of the following values with the --display option:
• brief
Display only the minimal columns for recreating the objects.
• full
Display the complete column list for recreating the objects.
• names
Display only the object names.
Note
The --display option is ignored when combined with the SQL-format output type.
To turn off the headers for csv or tab display format, specify the --no-headers option.
To turn off all feedback information, specify the --quiet option.
To write the data for individual tables to separate files, use the --file-per-table option. The name
of each file is composed of the database and table names followed by the file format. For example, the
following command produces files named db1.*table_name*.csv:
95
Exporting Data with GTIDs
mysqldbexport [email protected]:3306 --format=csv db1 --export=data
By default, the operation uses a consistent snapshot to read the source databases. To change the locking
mode, use the --locking option with a locking type value. Use a value of no-locks to turn off locking
altogether or lock-all to use only table locks. The default value is snapshot. Additionally, the utility uses
WRITE locks to lock the destination tables during the copy.
You can include replication statements for exporting data among a master and slave or between slaves.
The --rpl option permits you to select from the following replication statements to include in the export.
• master
Include the CHANGE MASTER statement to make the destination server a slave of the server specified
in the --server option. This places the appropriate STOP and START slave statements in the export
whereby the STOP SLAVE statement is placed at the start of the export and the CHANGE MASTER
followed by the START SLAVE statements are placed after the export stream.
• slave
Include the CHANGE MASTER statement to make the destination server a slave connected to the same
master as the server specified in the --server option. It only works if the current server is a slave. This
places the appropriate STOP and START slave statements in the export whereby the STOP SLAVE
statement is placed at the start of the export and the CHANGE MASTER followed by the START SLAVE
statements are placed after the export stream.
• both
Include both the 'master' and 'slave' information for CHANGE MASTER statements for either spawning
a new slave with the current server's master or using the current server as the master. All statements
generated are labeled and commented to enable the user to choose which to include when imported.
To include the replication user in the CHANGE MASTER statement, use the --rpl-user option to
specify the user and password. If this option is omitted, the utility attempts to identify the replication user. In
the event that there are multiple candidates or the user requires a password, these statements are placed
inside comments for the CHANGE MASTER statement.
You can also use the --comment-rpl option to place the replication statements inside comments for later
examination.
If you specify the --rpl-file option, the utility writes the replication statements to the file specified
instead of including them in the export stream.
Exporting Data with GTIDs
If you attempt to export databases on a server with GTIDs enabled (GTID_MODE = ON), a warning is
generated if the export does not include all databases. This is because the GTID statements generated
include the GTIDs for all databases and not only those databases in the export.
The utility also generates a warning if you export databases on a GTID enabled server but use the -skip-gtid option.
To make the most use of GTIDs and export/import, you should export all of the databases on the server
with the --all option. This action generates an export file with all of the databases and the GTIDs
executed to that point.
Importing this file on another server ensures that server has all of the data as well as all of the GTIDs
recorded correctly in its logs.
96
OPTIONS
OPTIONS
mysqldbexport accepts the following command-line options:
• --help
Display a help message and exit.
• --license
Display license information and exit.
• --bulk-insert, -b
Use bulk insert statements for data.
• --character-set=charset
Sets the client character set. The default is retrieved from the server variable
character_set_client.
• --comment-rpl
Place the replication statements in comment statements. Valid only with the --rpl option.
• --display=display, -ddisplay
Control the number of columns shown. Permitted display values are brief (minimal columns for object
creation), full* (all columns), and **names (only object names; not valid for --format=sql). The
default is brief.
• --exclude=exclude, -xexclude
Exclude one or more objects from the operation using either a specific name such as db1.t1 or a
search pattern. Use this option multiple times to specify multiple exclusions. By default, patterns use
LIKE matching. With the --regexp option, patterns use REGEXP matching.
This option does not apply to grants.
• --export=export, -eexport
Specify the export format. Permitted format values include the following. The default is definitions.
Table 5.1 mysqldbexport Export Types
Export Type
Definition
definitions (default)
Only export the definitions (metadata) for the objects in the database list
data
Only export the table data for the tables in the database list
both
Export both the definitions (metadata) and data
• --file-per-table
Write table data to separate files. This is valid only if the export output includes data (that
is, if --export=data or --export=both are given). This option produces files named
db_name.*tbl_name*.*format*. For example, a csv export of two tables named t1 and t2 in database
d1, results in files named db1.t1.csv and db1.t2.csv. If table definitions are included in the export,
they are written to stdout as usual.
97
OPTIONS
• --format=format, -fformat
Specify the output display format. Permitted format values are sql, grid, tab, csv, and vertical. The
default is sql.
• --locking=locking
Choose the lock type for the operation. Permitted lock values are no-locks (do not use any table locks),
lock-all (use table locks but no transaction and no consistent read), and snapshot (consistent read
using a single transaction). The default is snapshot.
• --multiprocess
Specify the number of processes to concurrently export the specified databases. Special values:
0 (number of processes equal to the number of detected CPUs) and 1 (default - no concurrency).
Multiprocessing works at the database level for Windows and at the table level for Non-Windows
(POSIX) systems.
• --no-headers, -h
Do not display column headers. This option applies only for csv and tab output.
• --output-file
Specify the path and filename to store the generated export output. By default the standard output is
used (no file).
• --quiet, -q
Turn off all messages for quiet execution.
• --regexp, --basic-regexp, -G
Perform pattern matches using the REGEXP operator. The default is to use LIKE for matching.
• --rpl=rpl_mode, --replication=rpl_mode
Include replication information. Permitted values are master (make destination a slave of the source
server), slave (make destination a slave of the same master as the source - only works if the source
server is a slave), and both (include the master and slave options where applicable).
• --rpl-file=RPL_FILE, --replication-file=RPL_FILE
The path and filename where the generated replication information should be written. Valid only with the
--rpl option.
• --rpl-user=replication_user
The user and password for the replication user requirement, in the format: user[:password] or loginpath. For example, rpl:passwd. The default is None.
• --server=server
Connection information for the server.
To connect to a server, it is necessary to specify connection parameters such as the user name, host
name, password, and either a port or socket. MySQL Utilities provides a number of ways to supply this
information. All of the methods require specifying your choice via a command-line option such as -server, --master, --slave, etc. The methods include the following in order of most secure to least secure.
98
NOTES
• Use login-paths from your .mylogin.cnf file (encrypted, not visible). Example : login-path[:port]
[:socket]
• Use a configuration file (unencrypted, not visible) Note: available in release-1.5.0. Example :
configuration-file-path[:section]
• Specify the data on the command-line (unencrypted, visible). Example : user[:passwd]@host[:port]
[:socket]
• --ssl-ca
The path to a file that contains a list of trusted SSL CAs.
• --ssl-cert
The name of the SSL certificate file to use for establishing a secure connection.
• --ssl-key
The name of the SSL key file to use for establishing a secure connection.
• --ssl
Specifies if the server connection requires use of SSL. If an encrypted connection cannot be established,
the connection attempt fails. Default setting is 0 (SSL not required).
• --skip=skip-objects
Specify objects to skip in the operation as a comma-separated list (no spaces). Permitted values are
CREATE_DB, DATA, EVENTS, FUNCTIONS, GRANTS, PROCEDURES, TABLES, TRIGGERS, and
VIEWS.
• --skip-blobs
Do not export BLOB data.
• --skip-gtid
Skip creation of GTID_PURGED statements.
• --all
Generate an export file with all of the databases and the GTIDs executed to that point.
• --verbose, -v
Specify how much information to display. Use this option multiple times to increase the amount of
information. For example, -v = verbose, -vv = more verbose, -vvv = debug.
• --version
Display version information and exit.
NOTES
You must provide connection parameters (user, host, password, and so forth) for an account that has the
appropriate privileges to access (e.g., SELECT) all objects in the operation.
99
EXAMPLES
To export all objects from a source database, the user must have these privileges: SELECT and SHOW
VIEW on the database as well as SELECT on the mysql database.
Actual privileges needed may differ from installation to installation depending on the security privileges
present and whether the database contains certain objects such as views, events, and stored routines.
Some combinations of the options may result in errors when the export is imported later. For example,
eliminating tables but not views may result in an error when a view is imported on another server.
For the --format, --export, and --display options, the permitted values are not case sensitive. In
addition, values may be specified as any unambiguous prefix of a valid value. For example, --format=g
specifies the grid format. An error occurs if a prefix matches more than one valid value.
The path to the MySQL client tools should be included in the PATH environment variable in order to use the
authentication mechanism with login-paths. This allows the utility to use the my_print_defaults tools
which is required to read the login-path values from the login configuration file (.mylogin.cnf).
If any database identifier specified as an argument contains special characters or is a reserved word,
then it must be appropriately quoted with backticks (`). In turn, names quoted with backticks must also be
quoted with single or double quotes depending on the operating system, i.e. (") in Windows or (') in nonWindows systems, in order for the utilities to read backtick quoted identifiers as a single argument. For
example, to export a database with the name weird`db.name, it must be specified as argument using the
following syntax (in non-Windows): '`weird``db.name`'.
Keep in mind that you can only take advantage of multiprocessing if your system has multiple CPUs
available for concurrent execution. Also note that multiprocessing is applied at a different level according
to the operating system where the mysqldbexport utility is executed (due to python limitations). In
particular, it is applied at the database level for Windows (i.e., different databases are concurrently
exported) and at the table level for Non-Windows (POSIX) systems (i.e., different tables within the same
database are concurrently exported).
EXAMPLES
To export the definitions of the database dev from a MySQL server on the local host via port 3306,
producing output consisting of CREATE statements, use this command:
shell> mysqldbexport --server=root:[email protected] \
--skip=GRANTS --export=DEFINITIONS util_test
# Source on localhost: ... connected.
# Exporting metadata from util_test
DROP DATABASE IF EXISTS util_test;
CREATE DATABASE util_test;
USE util_test;
# TABLE: util_test.t1
CREATE TABLE `t1` (
`a` char(30) DEFAULT NULL
) ENGINE=MEMORY DEFAULT CHARSET=latin1;
# TABLE: util_test.t2
CREATE TABLE `t2` (
`a` char(30) DEFAULT NULL
) ENGINE=MyISAM DEFAULT CHARSET=latin1;
# TABLE: util_test.t3
CREATE TABLE `t3` (
`a` int(11) NOT NULL AUTO_INCREMENT,
`b` char(30) DEFAULT NULL,
PRIMARY KEY (`a`)
) ENGINE=InnoDB AUTO_INCREMENT=4 DEFAULT CHARSET=latin1;
# TABLE: util_test.t4
CREATE TABLE `t4` (
`c` int(11) NOT NULL,
100
EXAMPLES
`d` int(11) NOT NULL,
KEY `ref_t3` (`c`),
CONSTRAINT `ref_t3` FOREIGN KEY (`c`) REFERENCES `t3` (`a`)
) ENGINE=InnoDB DEFAULT CHARSET=latin1;
# VIEW: util_test.v1
[...]
#...done.
Similarly, to export the data of the database util_test, producing bulk insert statements, use this
command:
shell> mysqldbexport --server=root:[email protected] \
--export=DATA --bulk-insert util_test
# Source on localhost: ... connected.
USE util_test;
# Exporting data from util_test
# Data for table util_test.t1:
INSERT INTO util_test.t1 VALUES ('01 Test Basic database example'),
('02 Test Basic database example'),
('03 Test Basic database example'),
('04 Test Basic database example'),
('05 Test Basic database example'),
('06 Test Basic database example'),
('07 Test Basic database example');
# Data for table util_test.t2:
INSERT INTO util_test.t2 VALUES ('11 Test Basic database example'),
('12 Test Basic database example'),
('13 Test Basic database example');
# Data for table util_test.t3:
INSERT INTO util_test.t3 VALUES (1, '14 test fkeys'),
(2, '15 test fkeys'),
(3, '16 test fkeys');
# Data for table util_test.t4:
INSERT INTO util_test.t4 VALUES (3, 2);
#...done.
If the database to be exported does not contain only InnoDB tables and you want to ensure data integrity
of the exported data by locking the tables during the read step, add a --locking=lock-all option to the
command:
shell> mysqldbexport --server=root:[email protected] \
--export=DATA --bulk-insert util_test --locking=lock-all
# Source on localhost: ... connected.
USE util_test;
# Exporting data from util_test
# Data for table util_test.t1:
INSERT INTO util_test.t1 VALUES ('01 Test Basic database example'),
('02 Test Basic database example'),
('03 Test Basic database example'),
('04 Test Basic database example'),
('05 Test Basic database example'),
('06 Test Basic database example'),
('07 Test Basic database example');
# Data for table util_test.t2:
INSERT INTO util_test.t2 VALUES ('11 Test Basic database example'),
('12 Test Basic database example'),
('13 Test Basic database example');
# Data for table util_test.t3:
INSERT INTO util_test.t3 VALUES (1, '14 test fkeys'),
(2, '15 test fkeys'),
(3, '16 test fkeys');
# Data for table util_test.t4:
INSERT INTO util_test.t4 VALUES (3, 2);
#...done.
101
EXAMPLES
To export a database and include the replication commands to use the current server as the master (for
example, to start a new slave using the current server as the master), use the following command:
shell> mysqldbexport [email protected]:3311 util_test \
--export=both --rpl-user=rpl:rpl --rpl=master -v
# Source on localhost: ... connected.
#
# Stopping slave
STOP SLAVE;
#
# Source on localhost: ... connected.
# Exporting metadata from util_test
DROP DATABASE IF EXISTS util_test;
CREATE DATABASE util_test;
USE util_test;
# TABLE: util_test.t1
CREATE TABLE `t1` (
`a` char(30) DEFAULT NULL
) ENGINE=MEMORY DEFAULT CHARSET=latin1;
#...done.
# Source on localhost: ... connected.
USE util_test;
# Exporting data from util_test
# Data for table util_test.t1:
INSERT INTO util_test.t1 VALUES ('01 Test Basic database example');
INSERT INTO util_test.t1 VALUES ('02 Test Basic database example');
INSERT INTO util_test.t1 VALUES ('03 Test Basic database example');
INSERT INTO util_test.t1 VALUES ('04 Test Basic database example');
INSERT INTO util_test.t1 VALUES ('05 Test Basic database example');
INSERT INTO util_test.t1 VALUES ('06 Test Basic database example');
INSERT INTO util_test.t1 VALUES ('07 Test Basic database example');
#...done.
#
# Connecting to the current server as master
CHANGE MASTER TO MASTER_HOST = 'localhost',
MASTER_USER = 'rpl',
MASTER_PASSWORD = 'rpl',
MASTER_PORT = 3311,
MASTER_LOG_FILE = 'clone-bin.000001' ,
MASTER_LOG_POS = 106;
#
# Starting slave
START SLAVE;
#
Similarly, to export a database and include the replication commands to use the current server's master
(for example, to start a new slave using the same the master), use the following command:
shell> mysqldbexport [email protected]:3311 util_test \
--export=both --rpl-user=rpl:rpl --rpl=slave -v
# Source on localhost: ... connected.
#
# Stopping slave
STOP SLAVE;
#
# Source on localhost: ... connected.
# Exporting metadata from util_test
DROP DATABASE IF EXISTS util_test;
CREATE DATABASE util_test;
USE util_test;
# TABLE: util_test.t1
CREATE TABLE `t1` (
`a` char(30) DEFAULT NULL
) ENGINE=MEMORY DEFAULT CHARSET=latin1;
#...done.
102
PERMISSIONS REQUIRED
# Source on localhost: ... connected.
USE util_test;
# Exporting data from util_test
# Data for table util_test.t1:
INSERT INTO util_test.t1 VALUES ('01 Test Basic
INSERT INTO util_test.t1 VALUES ('02 Test Basic
INSERT INTO util_test.t1 VALUES ('03 Test Basic
INSERT INTO util_test.t1 VALUES ('04 Test Basic
INSERT INTO util_test.t1 VALUES ('05 Test Basic
INSERT INTO util_test.t1 VALUES ('06 Test Basic
INSERT INTO util_test.t1 VALUES ('07 Test Basic
#...done.
#
# Connecting to the current server's master
CHANGE MASTER TO MASTER_HOST = 'localhost',
MASTER_USER = 'rpl',
MASTER_PASSWORD = 'rpl',
MASTER_PORT = 3310,
MASTER_LOG_FILE = 'clone-bin.000001' ,
MASTER_LOG_POS = 1739;
#
# Starting slave
START SLAVE;
#
database
database
database
database
database
database
database
example');
example');
example');
example');
example');
example');
example');
PERMISSIONS REQUIRED
The user account specified must have permission to read all databases listed including access to any
objects exported. For example, if the export includes stored routines, the user specified must be able to
access and view stored routines.
5.6 mysqldbimport — Import Object Definitions or Data into a
Database
This utility imports metadata (object definitions), data, or both for one or more databases from one or more
files.
If an object exists on the destination server with the same name as an imported object, it may be dropped
first by using the --drop-first option.
To skip objects by type, use the --skip option with a list of the objects to skip. This enables you to extract
a particular set of objects, say, for importing only events (by excluding all other types). Similarly, to skip
creation of UPDATE statements for BLOB data, specify the --skip-blobs option.
To specify the input format, use one of the following values with the --format option. These correspond
to the output formats of the mysqldbexport utility:
• sql (default)
Input consists of SQL statements. For definitions, this consists of the appropriate CREATE and GRANT
statements. For data, this is an INSERT statement (or bulk insert if the --bulk-insert option is
specified).
• grid
Display output in grid or table format like that of the mysql client command-line tool.
• csv
Input is formatted in comma-separated values format.
103
Changing Storage Engines
• raw_csv
Input is a simple CSV file containing uniform rows with values separated with commas. The file can
contain a header (the first row) that lists the table columns. The option --table is required to use this
format.
• tab
Input is formatted in tab-separated format.
• vertical
Display output in single-column format like that of the \G command for the mysql client command-line
tool.
To indicate that input in csv or tab format does not contain column headers, specify the --no-headers
option.
To turn off all feedback information, specify the --quiet option.
You must provide connection parameters (user, host, password, and so forth) for an account that has the
appropriate privileges to access all objects in the operation. For details, see NOTES.
Changing Storage Engines
By default, the utility creates each table on the destination server using the same storage engine as
the original table. To override this and specify the storage engine to use for all tables created on the
destination server, use the --new-storage-engine option. If the destination server supports the new
engine, all tables use that engine.
To specify the storage engine to use for tables for which the destination server does not support the
original storage engine on the source server, use the --default-storage-engine option.
The --new-storage-engine option takes precedence over --default-storage-engine if both are
given.
If the --new-storage-engine or --default-storage-engine option is given and the destination
server does not support the specified storage engine, a warning is issued and the server's default storage
engine setting is used instead.
Importing Data with GTIDs
If you attempt to import databases on a server with GTIDs enabled (GTID_MODE = ON), a warning is
generated if the import file did not include the GTID statements generated by mysqldbexport.
The utility also generates a warning if you import databases on a server without GTIDs enabled and there
are GTID statements present in the file. Use the --skip-gtid option to ignore the GTID statements.
To make the most use of GTIDs and export/import, you should export all of the databases on the server
with the --all option. This action generates an export file with all of the databases and the GTIDs
executed to that point. Importing this file on another server ensures that server has all of the data as well
as all of the GTIDs recorded correctly in its logs.
OPTIONS
mysqldbimport accepts the following command-line options:
104
OPTIONS
• --help
Display a help message and exit.
• --license
Display license information and exit.
• --autocommit
Enable autocommit for data import. By default, autocommit is off and data changes are only committed
once at the end of each imported file.
• --bulk-insert, -b
Use bulk insert statements for data.
• --character-set=charset
Sets the client character set. The default is retrieved from the server variable
character_set_client.
• --default-storage-engine=def_engine
The engine to use for tables if the destination server does not support the original storage engine on the
source server.
• --drop-first, -d
Drop each database to be imported if exists before importing anything into it.
• --dryrun
Import the files and generate the statements but do not execute them. This is useful for testing input file
validity.
• --format=format, -fformat
Specify the input format. Permitted format values are sql (default), grid, tab, csv, raw_csv, and
vertical.
• --import=import_type, -iimport_type
Specify the import format. Permitted format values are:
Table 5.2 mysqldbimport Import Types
Import Type
Definition
definitions (default)
Only import the definitions (metadata) for the objects in the database list
data
Only import the table data for the tables in the database list
both
Import both the definitions (metadata) and data
If you attempt to import objects into an existing database, the result depends on the import format. If
the format is definitions or both, an error occurs unless --drop-first is given. If the format is data,
imported table data is added to existing table data.
• --max-bulk-insert
105
OPTIONS
Specify the maximum number of INSERT statements to bulk, by default 30000. This option is only used
with --bulk-insert.
• --multiprocess
Specify the number of processes to concurrently import the specified files. Special values: 0 (number
of processes equal to the number of detected CPUs) and 1 (default - no concurrency). Multiprocessing
works at the files level for any operating systems.
• --new-storage-engine=new_engine
The engine to use for all tables created on the destination MySQL server.
• --no-headers, -h
Input does not contain column headers. This option only applies to the csv and tab file formats.
• --quiet, -q
Turn off all messages for quiet execution.
• --server=server
Connection information for the server.
To connect to a server, it is necessary to specify connection parameters such as the user name, host
name, password, and either a port or socket. MySQL Utilities provides a number of ways to supply this
information. All of the methods require specifying your choice via a command-line option such as -server, --master, --slave, etc. The methods include the following in order of most secure to least secure.
• Use login-paths from your .mylogin.cnf file (encrypted, not visible). Example : login-path[:port]
[:socket]
• Use a configuration file (unencrypted, not visible) Note: available in release-1.5.0. Example :
configuration-file-path[:section]
• Specify the data on the command-line (unencrypted, visible). Example : user[:passwd]@host[:port]
[:socket]
• --skip=skip_objects
Specify objects to skip in the operation as a comma-separated list (no spaces). Permitted values for
this list are; CREATE_DB, DATA, EVENTS, FUNCTIONS, GRANTS, PROCEDURES, TABLES,
TRIGGERS, and VIEWS.
• --skip-blobs
Do not import BLOB data.
• --skip-gtid
Skip execution of GTID_PURGED statements.
• --skip-rpl
Do not execute replication commands.
• --ssl-ca
106
NOTES
The path to a file that contains a list of trusted SSL CAs.
• --ssl-cert
The name of the SSL certificate file to use for establishing a secure connection.
• --ssl-key
The name of the SSL key file to use for establishing a secure connection.
• --ssl
Specifies if the server connection requires use of SSL. If an encrypted connection cannot be established,
the connection attempt fails. Default setting is 0 (SSL not required).
• --table=db,table
Specify the table for importing. This option is required while using --format=raw_csv.
• --verbose, -v
Specify how much information to display. Use this option multiple times to increase the amount of
information. For example, -v = verbose, -vv = more verbose, -vvv = debug.
• --version
Display version information and exit.
NOTES
The login user must have the appropriate permissions to create new objects, access (read) the mysql
database, and grant privileges. If a database to be imported already exists, the user must have read
permission for it, which is needed to check the existence of objects in the database.
Actual privileges needed may differ from installation to installation depending on the security privileges
present and whether the database contains certain objects such as views or events and whether binary
logging is enabled.
Some combinations of the options may result in errors during the operation. For example, excluding tables
but not views may result in an error when a view is imported.
The --new-storage-engine and --default-storage-engine options apply to all destination tables
in the operation.
For the --format and --import options, the permitted values are not case sensitive. In addition, values
may be specified as any unambiguous prefix of a valid value. For example, --format=g specifies the grid
format. An error occurs if a prefix matches more than one valid value.
When importing data and including the GTID commands, you may encounter an error similar to
"GTID_PURGED can only be set when GTID_EXECUTED is empty". This occurs because the destination
server is not in a clean replication state. To solve this problem, you can issue a "RESET MASTER"
command on the destination prior to executing the import.
The path to the MySQL client tools should be included in the PATH environment variable in order to use the
authentication mechanism with login-paths. This permits the utility to use the my_print_defaults tools
which is required to read the login-path values from the login configuration file (.mylogin.cnf).
107
EXAMPLES
Keep in mind that you can only take advantage of multiprocessing if your system has multiple CPUs
available for concurrent execution. Also note that multiprocessing is applied at the file level for the
mysqldbimport utility, which means that only different files can be concurrently imported.
EXAMPLES
To import the metadata from the util_test database to the server on the local host using a file in CSV
format, use this command:
shell> mysqldbimport [email protected] --import=definitions \
--format=csv data.csv
# Source on localhost: ... connected.
# Importing definitions from data.csv.
#...done.
Similarly, to import the data from the util_test database to the server on the local host, importing the
data using bulk insert statements, use this command:
shell> mysqldbimport [email protected] --import=data \
--bulk-insert --format=csv data.csv
# Source on localhost: ... connected.
# Importing data from data.csv.
#...done.
To import both data and definitions from the util_test database, importing the data using bulk insert
statements from a file that contains SQL statements, use this command:
shell> mysqldbimport [email protected] --import=both --bulk-insert --format=sql data.sql
# Source on localhost: ... connected.
# Importing definitions and data from data.sql.
#...done.
PERMISSIONS REQUIRED
You also need permissions to create the new data directory and write data to it including permissions to
create all objects in the import stream such as views, events, and stored routines. Thus, actual permissions
vary based on the contents of the import stream.
5.7 mysqldiff — Identify Differences Among Database Objects
This utility reads the definitions of objects and compares them using a diff-like method to determine
whether they are the same. The utility displays the differences for objects that are not the same.
Use the notation db1:db2 to name two databases to compare, or, alternatively just db1 to compare two
databases with the same name. The latter case is a convenience notation for comparing same-named
databases on different servers.
The comparison may be executed against two databases of different names on a single server by
specifying only the --server1 option. The user can also connect to another server by specifying the -server2 option. In this case, db1 is taken from server1 and db2 from server2.
When a database pair is specified, all objects in one database are compared to the corresponding objects
in the other. Objects not appearing in either database produce an error.
To compare a specific pair of objects, add an object name to each database name using the db.obj
format. For example, use the db1.obj1:db2.obj2 format to compare two named objects, or db1.obj1
108
mysqldiff — Identify Differences Among Database Objects
to compare an object with the same name in databases with the same name. It is not permitted to mix
a database name with an object name. For example, db1.obj1:db2 and db1:db2.obj2 are illegal
formats.
The comparison may be run against a single server for comparing two databases of different names on
the same server by specifying only the --server1 option. Alternatively, you can also connect to another
server by specifying the --server2 option. In this case, the first object to compare is taken from server1
and the second from server2.
By default, the utility generates object differences as a difference report. However, you can generate
a transformation report containing SQL statements for transforming the objects for conformity instead.
Use the 'sql' value for the --difftype option to produce a listing that contains the appropriate ALTER
commands to conform the object definitions for the object pairs specified. If a transformation cannot be
formed, the utility reports the diff of the object along with a warning statement. See important limitations in
the NOTES section.
To specify how to display the diff styled output, use one of the following values with the --difftype
option:
• unified (default)
Display unified format output.
• context
Display context format output.
• differ
Display differ-style format output.
• sql
Display SQL transformation statement output.
The --changes-for option controls the direction of the difference (by specifying the object to be
transformed) in either the difference report (default) or the transformation report (designated with the -difftype=sql option). Consider the following command:
shell> mysqldiff [email protected] [email protected] --difftype=sql \
db1.table1:dbx.table3
The leftmost database (db1) exists on the server designated by the --server1 option (host1). The
rightmost database (dbx) exists on the server designated by the --server2 option (host2).
• --changes-for=server1: Produces output that shows how to make the definitions of objects on
server1 like the definitions of the corresponding objects on server2.
• --changes-for=server2: Produces output that shows how to make the definitions of objects on
server2 like the definitions of the corresponding objects on server1.
The default direction is server1.
For the sql difference format, you can also see the reverse transformation by specifying the --showreverse option.
The utility stops at the first occurrence of missing objects or when an object does not match. To override
this behavior, specify the --force option to cause the utility to attempt to compare all objects listed as
arguments.
109
OPTIONS
OPTIONS
mysqldiff accepts the following command-line options:
• --help
Display a help message and exit.
• --license
Display license information and exit.
• --changes-for=direction
Specify the server to show transformations to match the other server. For example, to see the
transformation for transforming object definitions on server1 to match the corresponding definitions on
server2, use --changes-for=server1. Permitted values are server1 and server2. The default is
server1.
• --character-set=charset
Sets the client character set. The default is retrieved from the server variable
character_set_client.
• --difftype=difftype, -ddifftype
Specify the difference display format. Permitted format values are unified (default), context, differ, and
sql.
• --compact
Compacts the output by reducing the control lines that are displayed in the diff results. This option should
be used together with one of the following difference types: unified or context.
• --force
Do not halt at the first difference found. Process all objects to find all differences.
• --quiet, -q
Do not print anything. Return only an exit code of success or failure.
• --server1=source
Connection information for the first server.
To connect to a server, it is necessary to specify connection parameters such as the user name, host
name, password, and either a port or socket. MySQL Utilities provides a number of ways to supply this
information. All of the methods require specifying your choice via a command-line option such as -server, --master, --slave, etc. The methods include the following in order of most secure to least secure.
• Use login-paths from your .mylogin.cnf file (encrypted, not visible). Example : login-path[:port]
[:socket]
• Use a configuration file (unencrypted, not visible) Note: available in release-1.5.0. Example :
configuration-file-path[:section]
• Specify the data on the command-line (unencrypted, visible). Example : user[:passwd]@host[:port]
[:socket]
110
OPTIONS
• --server2=source
Connection information for the second server.
To connect to a server, it is necessary to specify connection parameters such as the user name, host
name, password, and either a port or socket. MySQL Utilities provides a number of ways to supply this
information. All of the methods require specifying your choice via a command-line option such as -server, --master, --slave, etc. The methods include the following in order of most secure to least secure.
• Use login-paths from your .mylogin.cnf file (encrypted, not visible). Example : login-path[:port]
[:socket]
• Use a configuration file (unencrypted, not visible) Note: available in release-1.5.0. Example :
configuration-file-path[:section]
• Specify the data on the command-line (unencrypted, visible). Example : user[:passwd]@host[:port]
[:socket]
• --show-reverse
Produce a transformation report containing the SQL statements to conform the object definitions
specified in reverse. For example, if --changes-for is set to server1, also generate the transformation
for server2.
Note
The reverse changes are annotated and marked as comments.
• --skip-table-options
Ignore the differences between all table options, such as AUTO_INCREMENT, ENGINE, CHARSET,
etc.). A warning is issued if the --skip-table-options option is used and table option differences
are found.
• --ssl-ca
The path to a file that contains a list of trusted SSL CAs.
• --ssl-cert
The name of the SSL certificate file to use for establishing a secure connection.
• --ssl-key
The name of the SSL key file to use for establishing a secure connection.
• --ssl
Specifies if the server connection requires use of SSL. If an encrypted connection cannot be established,
the connection attempt fails. Default setting is 0 (SSL not required).
• --verbose, -v
Specify how much information to display. Use this option multiple times to increase the amount of
information. For example, -v = verbose, -vv = more verbose, -vvv = debug.
• --version
111
SQL TRANSFORMATION LIMITATIONS
Display version information and exit.
• --width=number
Change the display width of the test report. The default is 75 characters.
SQL TRANSFORMATION LIMITATIONS
The SQL transformation feature has these known limitations:
• When tables with partition differences are encountered, the utility generates the ALTER TABLE
statement for all other changes but prints a warning and omits the partition differences.
• If the transformation detects table options in the source table (specified with the --changes-for
option) that are not changed or do not exist in the target table, the utility generates the ALTER TABLE
statement for all other changes but prints a warning and omits the table option differences.
• Rename for events is not supported. This is because mysqldiff compares objects by name. In this
case, depending on the direction of the diff, the event is identified as needing to be added or a DROP
EVENT statement is generated.
• Changes in the definer clause for events are not supported.
• SQL extensions specific to MySQL Cluster are not supported.
NOTES
You must provide connection parameters (user, host, password, and so forth) for an account that has the
appropriate privileges to access all objects to be compared.
For the --difftype option, the permitted values are not case sensitive. In addition, values may be
specified as any unambiguous prefix of a valid value. For example, --difftype=d specifies the differ
type. An error occurs if a prefix matches more than one valid value.
The path to the MySQL client tools should be included in the PATH environment variable in order to use the
authentication mechanism with login-paths. This permits the utility to use the my_print_defaults tools
which is required to read the login-path values from the login configuration file (.mylogin.cnf).
If any database object identifier specified as an argument contains special characters or is a reserved
word, then it must be appropriately quoted with backticks (`). In turn, names quoted with backticks must
also be quoted with single or double quotes depending on the operating system, i.e. (") in Windows or (')
in non-Windows systems, in order for the utilities to read backtick quoted identifiers as a single argument.
For example, to show the difference between table weird`table1 from database weird`db.name and table
weird`table2 from database other:weird`db.name, the objects pair must be specified using the following
syntax (in non-Windows): '`weird``db.name`.`weird``table1`:`other:weird``db.name`.`weird``table2`'.
EXAMPLES
To compare the employees and emp databases on the local server, use this command:
shell> mysqldiff [email protected] employees:emp1
# server1 on localhost: ... connected.
WARNING: Objects in server1:employees but not in server2:emp1:
EVENT: e1
Compare failed. One or more differences found.
shell> mysqldiff [email protected] \
112
EXAMPLES
employees.t1:emp1.t1 employees.t3:emp1.t3
# server1 on localhost: ... connected.
# Comparing employees.t1 to emp1.t1
# server1 on localhost: ... connected.
# Comparing employees.t3 to emp1.t3
Success. All objects are the same.
[PASS]
[PASS]
shell> mysqldiff [email protected] \
employees.salaries:emp1.salaries --differ
# server1 on localhost: ... connected.
# Comparing employees.salaries to emp1.salaries
# Object definitions are not the same:
CREATE TABLE `salaries` (
`emp_no` int(11) NOT NULL,
`salary` int(11) NOT NULL,
`from_date` date NOT NULL,
`to_date` date NOT NULL,
PRIMARY KEY (`emp_no`,`from_date`),
KEY `emp_no` (`emp_no`)
- ) ENGINE=InnoDB DEFAULT CHARSET=latin1
?
^^^^^
+ ) ENGINE=MyISAM DEFAULT CHARSET=latin1
?
++ ^^^
Compare failed. One or more differences found.
[FAIL]
The following examples show how to generate a transformation report. Assume the following object
definitions:
Host1:
CREATE TABLE db1.table1 (num int, misc char(30));
Host2:
CREATE TABLE dbx.table3 (num int, notes char(30), misc char(55));
To generate a set of SQL statements that transform the definition of db1.table1 to dbx.table3, use
this command:
shell> mysqldiff [email protected] [email protected] \
--changes-for=server1 --difftype=sql \
db1.table1:dbx.table3
#
#
#
#
server1 on host1: ... connected.
server2 on host2: ... connected.
Comparing db1.table1 to dbx.table3
Transformation statements:
[FAIL]
ALTER TABLE db1.table1
ADD COLUMN notes char(30) AFTER a,
CHANGE COLUMN misc misc char(55);
Compare failed. One or more differences found.
To generate a set of SQL statements that transform the definition of dbx.table3 to db1.table1, use
this command:
shell> mysqldiff [email protected] [email protected] \
--changes-for=server2 --difftype=sql \
db1.table1:dbx.table3
113
PERMISSIONS REQUIRED
#
#
#
#
server1 on host1: ... connected.
server2 on host2: ... connected.
Comparing db1.table1 to dbx.table3
Transformation statements:
[FAIL]
ALTER TABLE dbx.table3
DROP COLUMN notes,
CHANGE COLUMN misc misc char(30);
Compare failed. One or more differences found.
To generate a set of SQL statements that transform the definitions of dbx.table3 and db1.table1 in
both directions, use this command:
shell> mysqldiff [email protected] [email protected] \
--show-reverse --difftype=sql \
db1.table1:dbx.table3
#
#
#
#
server1 on host1: ... connected.
server2 on host2: ... connected.
Comparing db1.table1 to dbx.table3
Transformation statements:
[FAIL]
# --destination=server1:
ALTER TABLE db1.table1
ADD COLUMN notes char(30) AFTER a,
CHANGE COLUMN misc misc char(55);
# --destination=server2:
# ALTER TABLE dbx.table3
#
DROP COLUMN notes,
#
CHANGE COLUMN misc misc char(30);
Compare failed. One or more differences found.
PERMISSIONS REQUIRED
The user must have SELECT privileges for both objects on both servers as well as SELECT on the mysql
database.
5.8 mysqldiskusage — Show Database Disk Usage
This utility displays disk space usage for one or more databases. The utility optionally displays disk usage
for the binary log, slow query log, error log, general query log, relay log, and InnoDB tablespaces. The
default is to only show database disk usage.
If the command-line lists no databases, the utility shows the disk space usage for all databases.
Sizes displayed without a unit indicator (such as MB) are in bytes.
The utility determines the location of the data directory by requesting it from the server. For a local server,
the utility obtains size information directly from files in the data directory and InnoDB home directory. In this
case, you must have file system access to read those directories. Disk space usage shown includes the
sum of all storage engine- specific files such as the .MYI and .MYD files for MyISAM and the tablespace
files for InnoDB.
If the file system read fails, or if the server is not local, the utility cannot determine exact file sizes. It is
limited to information that can be obtained from the system tables, which therefore should be considered
an estimate. For information read from the server, the account used to connect to the server must have the
appropriate permissions to read any objects accessed during the operation.
114
OPTIONS
If information requested requires file system access but is not available that way, the utility prints a
message that the information is not accessible. This occurs, for example, if you request log usage but the
server is not local and the log files cannot be examined directly.
To specify how to display output, use one of the following values with the --format option:
• grid (default)
Display output in grid or table format like that of the mysql client command-line tool.
• csv
Display output in comma-separated values format.
• tab
Display output in tab-separated format.
• vertical
Display output in single-column format like that of the \G command for the mysql client command-line
tool.
To turn off the headers for grid, csv, or tab display format, specify the --no-headers option.
OPTIONS
mysqldiskusage accepts the following command-line options:
• --help
Display a help message and exit.
• --license
Display license information and exit.
• --all, -a
Display all disk usage. This includes usage for databases, logs, and InnoDB tablespaces.
• --binlog, -b
Display binary log usage.
• --empty, -m
Include empty databases.
• --format=format, -fformat
Specify the output display format. Permitted format values are grid, csv, tab, and vertical. The default is
grid.
• --innodb, -i
Display InnoDB tablespace usage. This includes information about the shared InnoDB tablespace as
well as .idb files for InnoDB tables with their own tablespace.
115
OPTIONS
• --logs, -l
Display general query log, error log, and slow query log usage.
• --no-headers, -h
Do not display column headers. This option applies only for grid, csv, and tab output.
• --quiet, -q
Suppress informational messages.
• --relaylog, -r
Display relay log usage.
• --server=server
Connection information for the server.
To connect to a server, it is necessary to specify connection parameters such as the user name, host
name, password, and either a port or socket. MySQL Utilities provides a number of ways to supply this
information. All of the methods require specifying your choice via a command-line option such as -server, --master, --slave, etc. The methods include the following in order of most secure to least secure.
• Use login-paths from your .mylogin.cnf file (encrypted, not visible). Example : login-path[:port]
[:socket]
• Use a configuration file (unencrypted, not visible) Note: available in release-1.5.0. Example :
configuration-file-path[:section]
• Specify the data on the command-line (unencrypted, visible). Example : user[:passwd]@host[:port]
[:socket]
• --ssl-ca
The path to a file that contains a list of trusted SSL CAs.
• --ssl-cert
The name of the SSL certificate file to use for establishing a secure connection.
• --ssl-key
The name of the SSL key file to use for establishing a secure connection.
• --ssl
Specifies if the server connection requires use of SSL. If an encrypted connection cannot be established,
the connection attempt fails. Default setting is 0 (SSL not required).
• --verbose, -v
Specify how much information to display. Use this option multiple times to increase the amount of
information. For example, -v = verbose, -vv = more verbose, -vvv = debug.
• --version
Display version information and exit.
116
NOTES
For the --format option, the permitted values are not case sensitive. In addition, values may be specified
as any unambiguous prefix of a valid value. For example, --format=g specifies the grid format. An error
occurs if a prefix matches more than one valid value.
NOTES
You must provide connection parameters (user, host, password, and so forth) for an account that has the
appropriate privileges for all objects accessed during the operation.
The path to the MySQL client tools should be included in the PATH environment variable in order to use the
authentication mechanism with login-paths. This permits the utility to use the my_print_defaults tools
which is required to read the login-path values from the login configuration file (.mylogin.cnf).
EXAMPLES
To show only the disk space usage for the employees and test databases in grid format (the default),
use this command:
shell> mysqldiskusage [email protected] employees test
# Source on localhost: ... connected.
# Database totals:
+------------+--------------+
| db_name
|
total |
+------------+--------------+
| employees | 205,979,648 |
| test
|
4,096 |
+------------+--------------+
Total database disk usage = 205,983,744 bytes or 196.00 MB
#...done.
To see all disk usage for the server in CSV format, use this command:
shell> mysqldiskusage [email protected] --format=csv -a -vv
# Source on localhost: ... connected.
# Database totals:
db_name,db_dir_size,data_size,misc_files,total
test1,0,0,0,0
db3,0,0,0,0
db2,0,0,0,0
db1,0,0,0,0
backup_test,19410,1117,18293,19410
employees,242519463,205979648,242519463,448499111
mysql,867211,657669,191720,849389
t1,9849,1024,8825,9849
test,56162,4096,52066,56162
util_test_a,19625,2048,17577,19625
util_test_b,17347,0,17347,17347
util_test_c,19623,2048,17575,19623
Total database disk usage = 449,490,516 bytes or 428.00 MB
# Log information.
# The general_log is turned off on the server.
# The slow_query_log is turned off on the server.
# binary log information:
Current binary log file = ./mysql-bin.000076
log_file,size
/data/mysql-bin.000076,125
117
PERMISSIONS REQUIRED
/data/mysql-bin.000077,125
/data/mysql-bin.000078,556
/data/mysql-bin.000079,168398223
/data/mysql-bin.index,76
Total size of binary logs = 168,399,105 bytes or 160.00 MB
# Server is not an active slave - no relay log information.
# InnoDB tablespace information:
InnoDB_file,size,type,specification
/data/ib_logfile0,5242880,log file,
/data/ib_logfile1,5242880,log file,
/data/ibdata1,220200960,shared tablespace,ibdata1:210M
/data/ibdata2,10485760,shared tablespace,ibdata2:10M:autoextend
/data/employees/departments.ibd,114688,file tablespace,
/data/employees/dept_emp.ibd,30408704,file tablespace,
/data/employees/dept_manager.ibd,131072,file tablespace,
/data/employees/employees.ibd,23068672,file tablespace,
/data/employees/salaries.ibd,146800640,file tablespace,
/data/employees/titles.ibd,41943040,file tablespace,
Total size of InnoDB files = 494,125,056 bytes or 471.00 MB
#...done.
PERMISSIONS REQUIRED
The user must have permissions to read the data directory or use an administrator, super user (sudo), or
an account with elevated privileges to obtain access to the data directory.
5.9 mysqlfailover — Automatic replication health monitoring and
failover
This utility permits users to perform replication health monitoring and automatic failover on a replication
topology consisting of a single master and its slaves. The utility is designed to run interactively or
continuously refreshing the health information and checking the master status at periodic intervals. Its
primary mission is to monitor the master for failure and when a failure occurs, execute failover to one of the
slaves that is in a valid state. The utility accepts an optional list of slaves to be considered for the candidate
slave.
This utility is designed to work exclusively for servers that support global transaction identifiers (GTIDs)
and have gtid_mode=ON. MySQL server versions 5.6.5 and higher support GTIDs. See Replication
with Global Transaction Identifiers for more information. Thus, this utility does not work with anonymous
replication servers (binary log + position).
The user can specify the interval in seconds to use for detecting the master status and generating the
health report using the --interval option. At each interval, the utility checks to see if the server is alive
via a ping operation followed by a check of the connector to detect if the server is still reachable. The ping
operation can be controlled with the --ping option (see below).
If the master is found to be offline or unreachable, the utility executes one of the following actions based on
the --failover-mode option value. The available values are:
• auto (default): Execute automatic failover to the list of candidates first and if no slaves are viable,
continue to search the remaining slaves for a viable candidate. The command tests each candidate
slave listed for the prerequisites. Once a candidate slave is elected, it is made a slave of each of the
other slaves thereby collecting any transactions executed on other slaves but not the candidate. In this
way, the candidate becomes the most up-to-date slave. If no slave is found to be a viable candidate, the
utility generates an error and exit.
118
mysqlfailover — Automatic replication health monitoring and failover
• elect: This mode is the same as auto, except if no candidates specified in the list of candidate slaves are
viable, then it does not check the remaining slaves, and instead generates an error and then exits. Use
this option to force failover to one or more specific slaves using the --candidates option.
• fail: This mode produces an error and does not failover when the master is detected as down or
unreachable. This mode is used to provide periodic health monitoring without the failover action taken.
For all options that permit specifying multiple servers, the options require a comma-separated list of
connection parameters in the following form (where the password, port, and socket are optional).:
*user*[:*passwd*]@*host*[:*port*][:*socket*] or
*login-path*[:*port*][:*socket*]
The utility permits users to discover slaves connected to the master. The discover slaves feature
is run automatically on each interval. Furthermore, it is required that slaves use the --master-inforepository=TABLE startup setting.
The discover slaves option requires that all slaves use the --report-host and --report-port server
startup options with the correct hostname and port. If these are missing or report incorrect information, the
slave may not be detected and thus not included in the operation of the utility. The discover slaves option
ignores any slaves to which it cannot connect.
Note
If you have one or more slaves which do not report their hostname and port
and should a failover event occur, those slaves are not included in the resulting
topology. That is, they are not a slave of the new master. Be sure to check that all
of your slaves are accounted for in the health report before relying on the utility for
complete automatic failover.
The utility permits the user to specify an external script to execute before and after the switchover and
failover commands. The user can specify these with the --exec-before and --exec-after options.
The return code of the script is used to determine success. Each script must report 0 (success) to be
considered successful. If a script returns a value other than 0, the result code is presented in an error
message.
The utility also permits the user to specify a script to be used for detecting a downed master or an
application-level event to trigger failover. This can be specified using the --exec-fail-check option.
The return code for the script is used to invoke failover. A return code of 0 indicates failover should not take
place. A return code other than 0 indicates failover should take place. This is checked at the start of each
interval if a script is supplied. The timeout option is not used in this case and the script is run once at the
start of each interval.
The utility permits the user to log all actions taken during the commands. The --log option requires a
valid path and filename of the file to use for logging operations. The log is active only when this option is
specified. The option --log-age specifies the age in days that log entries are kept. The default is seven
(7) days. Older entries are automatically deleted from the log file (but only if the --log option is specified).
The format of the log file includes the date and time of the event, the level of the event (informational INFO, warning - WARN, error - ERROR, critical failure - CRITICAL), and the message reported by the
utility.
The interface provides a number of options for displaying additional information. You can choose to view
the replication health report (default), or choose to view the list of GTIDs in use, the UUIDs in use, or view
the log file contents if logging is enabled. Each of these reports is described below.
• health Display the replication health of the topology. This report is the default view for the interface. By
default, this includes the host name, port, role (MASTER or SLAVE) of the server, state of the server
119
MODES OF OPERATION
(UP = is connected, WARN = not connected but can ping, DOWN = not connected and cannot ping), the
GTID_MODE, and health state.
The master health state is based on the following: if GTID_MODE=ON, the server must have the binary
log enabled, and a user must exist with the REPLICATE SLAVE privilege.
The --seconds-behind option is used to detect when a slave is behind the master. It allows users
to set a threshold for reporting purposes only. It does not apply to slave candidacy or selection during
failover.
The slave health state is based on the following: the IO_THREAD and SQL_THREADS must be running,
it must be connected to the master, there are no errors, the slave delay for non-GTID enabled scenarios
is not more than the threshold provided by the --max-position and the slave is reading the correct
master log file, and slave delay is not more than the --seconds-behind threshold option.
At each interval, if the discover slaves option was specified at startup and new slaves are discovered,
the health report is refreshed.
• gtid: Display the master's list of executed GTIDs, contents of the GTID variables;
@@GLOBAL.GTID_EXECUTED, @@GLOBAL.GTID_PURGED, and @@GLOBAL.GTID_OWNED. Thus, you
can toggle through the four screens by pressing the 'G' key.
• UUID: Display universally unique identifiers (UUIDs) for all servers.
• Log: This option displays the contents of the log file, which only visible if the --log option is specified.
This can be helpful to see when failover occurred, and which actions or messages were recorded at the
time.
The user interface is designed to match the size of the terminal window in which it is run. A refresh option
is provided to permit users to resize their terminal windows or refresh the display at any time. However, the
interface automatically resizes to the terminal window on each interval.
The interface displays the name of the utility, the master's status including binary log file, position, and
filters as well as the date and time of the next interval event.
The interface also permits the user to scroll up or down through a list longer than what the terminal window
permits. When a long list is presented, the scroll options become enabled. The user can scroll the list up
with the up arrow key and down with the down arrow key.
Use the --verbose option to see additional information in the health report and additional messages
during failover.
MODES OF OPERATION
The utility supports two modes of operation. The default mode, running as a console, works as described
above. An additional mode that permits you to run the utility as a daemon is provided for POSIX platforms.
When run as a daemon, the utility does not have interactivity. However, all events are written to the log file.
You can control what is written to the log by using the --report-values option.
To run the utility as a daemon, use the --daemon option. There are four commands that can be used in -daemon option. These include:
• start
Starts the daemon. The --log option is required.
120
OPTIONS
• stop
Stops the daemon. If you used the option --pidfile, the value must be the same when starting the
daemon.
• restart
Restarts the daemon. If you used the option --pidfile, the value must be the same when starting the
daemon.
• nodetach
Starts the daemon, but does not detach the process from the console. The --log option is required.
OPTIONS
mysqlfailover accepts the following command-line options:
• --help
Display a help message and exit.
• --license
Display license information and exit.
• --candidates=candidate slave connections
Connection information for candidate slave servers. Valid only with failover command. List multiple
slaves in comma-separated list.
To connect to a server, it is necessary to specify connection parameters such as the user name, host
name, password, and either a port or socket. MySQL Utilities provides a number of ways to supply this
information. All of the methods require specifying your choice via a command-line option such as -server, --master, --slave, etc. The methods include the following in order of most secure to least secure.
• Use login-paths from your .mylogin.cnf file (encrypted, not visible). Example : login-path[:port]
[:socket]
• Use a configuration file (unencrypted, not visible) Note: available in release-1.5.0. Example :
configuration-file-path[:section]
• Specify the data on the command-line (unencrypted, visible). Example : user[:passwd]@host[:port]
[:socket]
• --daemon=command
Run as a daemon. The command can be start (start daemon), stop (stop daemon), restart (stop
then start the daemon) or nodetach (start but do not detach the process). This option is only available
for POSIX systems.
• --discover-slaves-login=user:password
At startup, query master for all registered slaves and use the user name and password specified to
connect. Supply the user and password in the form user[:passwd] or login-path. For example, -discover=joe:secret uses 'joe' as the user and 'secret' as the password for each discovered slave.
• --exec-after=script
121
OPTIONS
Name of script to execute after failover or switchover. Script name may include the path.
• --exec-before=script
Name of script to execute before failover or switchover. Script name may include the path.
• --exec-fail-check=script
Name of script to execute on each interval to invoke failover.
• --exec-post-failover=script
Name of script to execute after failover is complete and the utility has refreshed the health report.
• --failover-mode=mode, -f mode
Action to take when the master fails. 'auto' = automatically fail to best slave, 'elect' = fail to candidate list
or if no candidate meets criteria fail, 'fail' = take no action and stop when master fails. Default = 'auto'.
• --force
Override the registration check on master for multiple instances of the console monitoring the same
master. See notes.
• --interval=seconds, -i seconds
Interval in seconds for polling the master for failure and reporting health. Default = 15 seconds. Minimum
is 5 seconds.
• --log=log_file
Specify a log file to use for logging messages
• --log-age=days
Specify maximum age of log entries in days. Entries older than this are purged on startup. Default = 7
days.
• --master=connection
Connection information for the master server.
To connect to a server, it is necessary to specify connection parameters such as the user name, host
name, password, and either a port or socket. MySQL Utilities provides a number of ways to supply this
information. All of the methods require specifying your choice via a command-line option such as -server, --master, --slave, etc. The methods include the following in order of most secure to least secure.
• Use login-paths from your .mylogin.cnf file (encrypted, not visible). Example : login-path[:port]
[:socket]
• Use a configuration file (unencrypted, not visible) Note: available in release-1.5.0. Example :
configuration-file-path[:section]
• Specify the data on the command-line (unencrypted, visible). Example : user[:passwd]@host[:port]
[:socket]
• --max-position=position
122
OPTIONS
Used to detect slave delay. The maximum difference between the master's log position and the slave's
reported read position of the master. A value greater than this means the slave is too far behind the
master. Default = 0.
• --pedantic, -p
Used to stop failover if some inconsistencies are found, such as errant transactions on slaves or SQL
thread errors, during server checks. By default, the utility only generates warnings if issues are found
when checking a slave's status during failover, and it continues execution unless this option is specified.
• --pidfile=pidfile
Pidfile for running mysqlfailover as a daemon. This file contains the PID (process identifier), that
uniquely identifies a process. It is needed to identify and control the process forked by mysqlfailover.
• --ping=number
The code uses three attempts to contact the server with the ping command as part of the detection
algorithm to check to see if the master is alive. This option sets the number of seconds to wait between
each ping attempt. The default --ping value is 3 seconds.
Note
On some platforms, this is the same as number of seconds to wait for ping to
return.
• --report-values=report_values
Report values used in mysqlfailover running as a daemon. It can be health, gtid or uuid. Multiple values
can be used separated by commas.
• health
Display the replication health of the topology.
• gtid
Display the master's list of executed GTIDs, contents of the GTID variables;
@@GLOBAL.GTID_EXECUTED, @@GLOBAL.GTID_PURGED and @@GLOBAL.GTID_OWNED.
• uuid
Display universally unique identifiers (UUIDs) for all servers.
Default = health.
• --rpl-user=:replication_user
The user and password for the replication user requirement, in the form: user[:password] or loginpath. E.g. rpl:passwd
Default = None.
• --script-threshold=return_code
Value for external scripts to trigger aborting the operation if result is greater than or equal to the
threshold.
123
OPTIONS
Default = None (no threshold checking).
• --seconds-behind=seconds
Used to detect slave delay (only for health reporting purposes). The maximum number of seconds
behind the master permitted before slave is considered behind the master in the health report state.
Default = 0.
• --slaves=slave connections
Connection information for slave servers. List multiple slaves in comma-separated list. The list is
evaluated literally whereby each server is considered a slave to the master listed regardless if they are a
slave of the master.
To connect to a server, it is necessary to specify connection parameters such as the user name, host
name, password, and either a port or socket. MySQL Utilities provides a number of ways to supply this
information. All of the methods require specifying your choice via a command-line option such as -server, --master, --slave, etc. The methods include the following in order of most secure to least secure.
• Use login-paths from your .mylogin.cnf file (encrypted, not visible). Example : login-path[:port]
[:socket]
• Use a configuration file (unencrypted, not visible) Note: available in release-1.5.0. Example :
configuration-file-path[:section]
• Specify the data on the command-line (unencrypted, visible). Example : user[:passwd]@host[:port]
[:socket]
• --ssl-ca
The path to a file that contains a list of trusted SSL CAs.
• --ssl-cert
The name of the SSL certificate file to use for establishing a secure connection.
• --ssl-key
The name of the SSL key file to use for establishing a secure connection.
• --ssl
Specifies if the server connection requires use of SSL. If an encrypted connection cannot be established,
the connection attempt fails. Default setting is 0 (SSL not required).
• --timeout=seconds
Maximum timeout in seconds to wait for each replication command to complete. For example, timeout for
slave waiting to catch up to master.
Default = 3.
• --verbose, -v
Specify how much information to display. Use this option multiple times to increase the amount of
information. For example, -v = verbose, -vv = more verbose, -vvv = debug.
• --version
124
NOTES
Display version information and exit.
NOTES
The login user must have the appropriate permissions for the utility to check servers and monitor
their status (e.g., SHOW SLAVE STATUS, SHOW MASTER STATUS). The user must also
have permissions to execute the failover procedure (e.g., STOP SLAVE, START SLAVE,
WAIT_UNTIL_SQL_THREAD_AFTER_GTIDS, CHANGE MASTER TO ...). Lastly, the user must have the
REPLICATE SLAVE privilege for slaves to connect to their master. The same permissions are required
by the failover utility for master and slaves in order to run successfully. In particular, users connected to
slaves, candidates and master require SUPER, GRANT OPTION, REPLICATION SLAVE, RELOAD,
DROP, CREATE, INSERT and SELECT privileges.
The DROP, CREATE, INSERT and SELECT privileges are required to register the failover instance on
the initial master or the new master (after a successful failover). Therefore, since any slave can become
the new master, slaves and candidates also require those privileges. The utility checks permissions for the
master, slaves, and candidates at startup.
Mixing IP and hostnames is not recommended. The replication-specific utilities attempt to compare
hostnames and IP addresses as aliases for checking slave connectivity to the master. However, if your
installation does not support reverse name lookup, the comparison could fail. Without the ability to do a
reverse name lookup, the replication utilities could report a false negative that the slave is (not) connected
to the master.
For example, if you setup replication using MASTER_HOST=ubuntu.net on the slave and later connect
to the slave with mysqlrplcheck and have the master specified as --master=192.168.0.6 using the valid
IP address for ubuntu.net, you must have the ability to do a reverse name lookup to compare the IP
(192.168.0.6) and the hostname (ubuntu.net) to determine if they are the same machine.
Similarly, in order to avoid issues mixing local IP '127.0.0.1' with 'localhost', the addresse '127.0.0.1' is
converted to 'localhost' by the utility. Nevertheless, It is best to use the actual hostname of the master
when connecting or setting up replication.
The utility checks to see if the slaves are using the option --master-info-repository=TABLE. If they are not,
the utility stops with an error.
The path to the MySQL client tools should be included in the PATH environment variable in order to use
the authentication mechanism with login-paths. This permits the utility to use the my_print_defaults tools
which is required to read the login-path values from the login configuration file (.mylogin.cnf).
At startup, the console attempts to register itself with the master. If another console is already registered,
and the failover mode is auto or elect, the console is blocked from running failover. When a console quits, it
unregisters itself from the master. If this process is broken, the user may override the registration check by
using the --force option.
The console creates a special table in the mysql database that is used to keep track of which instance is
communicating with the master. If you use the --force option, the console removes the rows in this table.
The table is constructed with:
CREATE TABLE IF NOT EXISTS mysql.failover_console (host char(30), port char(10))
When the console starts, a row is inserted containing the hostname and port of the master. On startup, if a
row matches these values, the console does not start. If you use the --force option, the row is deleted.
125
EXAMPLES
When running the utility using the --daemon=nodetach option, the --pidfile option can be omitted
and is ignored if used in this context.
When using the external scripts, the following parameters are passed in the order shown.
For example, suppose you have a script named 'run_before.sh' and you specify that you want it executing
before the failover is performed (using the --exec-before option). Further, let us assume the master
MySQL Server is using port 3306 on the host ‘host1’ and the MySQL Server that becomes the new master
is using port 3308 on host 'can_host2'. The script would therefore be invoked in the following manner.
% run_before.sh host1 3306 can_host2 3308
Table 5.3 External Script Parameters
MySQL Failover Option
Parameters Passed to External Script
--exec-before
master host, master port, candidate host, candidate port
--exec-after
new master host, new master port
--exec-fail-check
master host, master port
--exec-post-failover (no old master host, old master port, new master host, new master port
errors during failover)
--exec-post-failover
(errors during failover)
old master host, old master port
EXAMPLES
To launch the utility, you must specify at a minimum the --master option and either the --discoverslaves-login option or the --slaves option. The --discover-slaves-login option can be used
in conjunction with the --slaves option to specify a list of known slaves (or slaves that do not report their
host and IP) and to discover any other slaves connected to the master.
An example of the user interface and some of the report views are shown in the following examples.
Note
The "GTID Executed Set" displays the first GTID listed in the SHOW MASTER
STATUS view. If there are multiple GTIDs listed, the utility displays [...] to
indicate there are additional GTIDs to view. You can view the complete list of GTIDs
on the GTID display screens.
The default interface displays the replication health report like the following. In this example the log file is
enabled. A sample startup command is shown below:
shell> mysqlfailover [email protected]:3331 --discover-slaves-login=root --log=log.txt
MySQL Replication Monitor and Failover Utility
Failover Mode = auto
Next Interval = Mon Mar 19 15:56:03 2012
Master Information
-----------------Binary Log File
Position
mysql-bin.000001 571
Binlog_Do_DB
Binlog_Ignore_DB
GTID Executed Set
2A67DE00-2DA1-11E2-A711-00764F2BE90F:1-7 [...]
Replication Health Status
+------------+-------+---------+--------+------------+---------+
126
EXAMPLES
| host
| port | role
| state | gtid_mode | health |
+------------+-------+---------+--------+------------+---------+
| localhost | 3331 | MASTER | UP
| ON
| OK
|
| localhost | 3332 | SLAVE
| UP
| ON
| OK
|
| localhost | 3333 | SLAVE
| UP
| ON
| OK
|
| localhost | 3334 | SLAVE
| UP
| ON
| OK
|
+------------+-------+---------+--------+------------+---------+
Q-quit R-refresh H-health G-GTID Lists U-UUIDs L-log entries
Press Q to exit the utility, R to refresh the current display, and H returns to the replication health report.
Press G key to show a GTID report similar to the following. The first page shown is the master's executed
GTID set:
MySQL Replication Monitor and Failover Utility
Failover Mode = auto
Next Interval = Mon Mar 19 15:59:33 2012
Master Information
-----------------Binary Log File
Position
mysql-bin.000001 571
Binlog_Do_DB
Binlog_Ignore_DB
GTID Executed Set
2A67DE00-2DA1-11E2-A711-00764F2BE90F:1-7 [...]
Master GTID Executed Set
+-------------------------------------------+
| gtid
|
+-------------------------------------------+
| 2A67DE00-2DA1-11E2-A711-00764F2BE90F:1-7 |
| 5503D37E-2DB2-11E2-A781-8077D4C14B33:1-3 |
+-------------------------------------------+
Q-quit R-refresh H-health G-GTID Lists U-UUIDs L-log entries Up|Down-scroll
Continuing to press G key cycles through the three GTID lists.
If the list is longer than the screen permits as shown in the example above, the scroll up and down help is
also shown. In this case, press the down arrow key to scroll down.
Press U to view the list of UUIDs used in the topology, for example:
MySQL Replication Monitor and Failover Utility
Failover Mode = auto
Next Interval = Mon Mar 19 16:02:34 2012
Master Information
-----------------Binary Log File
Position
mysql-bin.000001 571
Binlog_Do_DB
Binlog_Ignore_DB
GTID Executed Set
2A67DE00-2DA1-11E2-A711-00764F2BE90F:1-7 [...]
UUIDs
+------------+-------+---------+---------------------------------------+
| host
| port | role
| uuid
|
+------------+-------+---------+---------------------------------------+
| localhost | 3331 | MASTER | 55c65a00-71fd-11e1-9f80-ac64ef85c961 |
| localhost | 3332 | SLAVE
| 5dd30888-71fd-11e1-9f80-dc242138b7ec |
| localhost | 3333 | SLAVE
| 65ccbb38-71fd-11e1-9f80-bda8146bdb0a |
| localhost | 3334 | SLAVE
| 6dd6abf4-71fd-11e1-9f80-d406a0117519 |
+------------+-------+---------+---------------------------------------+
Q-quit R-refresh H-health G-GTID Lists U-UUIDs L-log entries
127
EXAMPLES
If, once the master is detected as down and failover mode is auto or elect and there are viable candidate
slaves, the failover feature engages automatically and the user sees the failover messages appear. When
failover is complete, the interface returns to monitoring replication health after 5 seconds. The following
shows an example of failover occurring.:
Failover starting...
# Candidate slave localhost:3332 will become the new master.
# Preparing candidate for failover.
# Creating replication user if it does not exist.
# Stopping slaves.
# Performing STOP on all slaves.
# Switching slaves to new master.
# Starting slaves.
# Performing START on all slaves.
# Checking slaves for errors.
# Failover complete.
# Discovering slaves for master at localhost:3332
Failover console will restart in 5 seconds.
After the failover event, the new topology is shown in the replication health report.:
MySQL Replication Monitor and Failover Utility
Failover Mode = auto
Next Interval = Mon Mar 19 16:05:12 2012
Master Information
-----------------Binary Log File
Position
mysql-bin.000001 1117
Binlog_Do_DB
Binlog_Ignore_DB
GTID Executed Set
2A67DE00-2DA1-11E2-A711-00764F2BE90F:1-7 [...]
UUIDs
+------------+-------+---------+--------+------------+---------+
| host
| port | role
| state | gtid_mode | health |
+------------+-------+---------+--------+------------+---------+
| localhost | 3332 | MASTER | UP
| ON
| OK
|
| localhost | 3333 | SLAVE
| UP
| ON
| OK
|
| localhost | 3334 | SLAVE
| UP
| ON
| OK
|
+------------+-------+---------+--------+------------+---------+
Q-quit R-refresh H-health G-GTID Lists U-UUIDs L-log entries
Pressing L with the --log option specified causes the interface to show the entries in the log file, such as:
MySQL Replication Monitor and Failover Utility
Failover Mode = auto
Next Interval = Mon Mar 19 16:06:13 2012
Master Information
-----------------Binary Log File
Position
mysql-bin.000001 1117
Binlog_Do_DB
Binlog_Ignore_DB
GTID Executed Set
2A67DE00-2DA1-11E2-A711-00764F2BE90F:1-7 [...]
Log File
+-------------------------+----------------------------------------| Date
| Entry
+-------------------------+----------------------------------------| 2012-03-19 15:55:33 PM | INFO Failover console started.
| 2012-03-19 15:55:33 PM | INFO Failover mode = auto.
128
... --+
...
|
... --+
...
|
...
|
PERMISSIONS REQUIRED
| 2012-03-19 15:55:33 PM | INFO Getting health for master: localhos ...
|
| 2012-03-19 15:55:33 PM | INFO Master status: binlog: mysql-bin.00 ...
|
+-------------------------+----------------------------------------- ... --+
Q-quit R-refresh H-health G-GTID Lists U-UUIDs L-log entries Up|Down-scroll\
PERMISSIONS REQUIRED
The user must have permissions to monitor the servers on the topology and configure replication to
successfully perform the failover operation. Additional permissions are also required to register and
unregister the running mysqlfailover instance on the master and slaves. Specifically, the login user must
have the following privileges: SUPER, GRANT OPTION, REPLICATION SLAVE, RELOAD, DROP,
CREATE, INSERT, and SELECT.
The referred permissions are required for the login users used for all servers (master, slaves and
candidates).
5.10 mysqlfrm — File reader for .frm files.
The mysqlfrm utility is designed as a recovery tool that reads .frm files and produces equivalent CREATE
statements from the table definition data found in the file. In most cases, the generated CREATE statement
is usable for recreating the table on another server, or for extended diagnostics. However, some features
are not saved in the .frm files and therefore are omitted. The exclusions include but are not limited to:
• foreign key constraints
• auto increment number sequences
The mysqlfrm utility has two modes of operation. The default mode is designed to spawn an instance
of an installed server by referencing the base directory using the --basedir option, or by connecting to
the server with the --server option. The process does not alter the original .frm file(s). This mode also
requires the --port option to specify a port to use for the spawned server. It must be different than the
port for the installed server and no other server must be using the port. The spawned server is shutdown
and all temporary files removed after the .frm files are read.
A diagnostic mode is available by using the --diagnostic option. This switches the utility to read
the .frm files byte-by-byte to recover as much information as possible. The diagnostic mode has additional
limitations in that it cannot decipher character set or collation values without using an existing server
installation specified with either the --server or --basedir option. This can also affect the size of the
columns if the table uses multibyte characters. Use this mode when the default mode cannot read the file,
or if a MySQL server is not installed on the host.
To read .frm files, list each file as a separate argument for the utility as shown in the following examples.
You must specify the path for each .frm file you want to read or supply a path to a directory and all of
the .frm files in that directory to be read.
You can specify the database name to be used in the resulting CREATE statement by adding the name of
the database followed by a colon to the .frm filename. For example, oltp:t1.frm uses 'oltp' for the database
name in the CREATE statement. The optional database name can also be used with paths. For example,
/home/me/oltp:t1.frm uses 'oltp' as the database name. If you leave off the optional database name and
include a path, the last folder is the database name. For example /home/me/data1/t1.frm uses 'data1' as
the database name. If you do not want to use the last folder as the database name, simply specify the
colon like this: /home/me/data1/:t1.frm. In this case, the database is omitted from the CREATE statement.
OPTIONS
• --help
129
OPTIONS
show the program's help page
• --license
Display license information and exit.
• --basedir=basedir
The base directory for the server installed. Use this or --server for the default mode.
• --diagnostic
Turn on diagnostic mode to read .frm files byte-by-byte and generate best-effort CREATE statement.
• --new-storage-engine=engine
Set the ENGINE= option for all .frm files read.
• --port=port
The port to use for the spawned server in the default mode. Must be a free port. Required for default
mode.
• --server=server
Connection information for a server. Use this option or --basedir for the default mode. If provided with
the diagnostic mode, the storage engine and character set information are validated against this server.
To connect to a server, it is necessary to specify connection parameters such as the user name, host
name, password, and either a port or socket. MySQL Utilities provides a number of ways to supply this
information. All of the methods require specifying your choice via a command-line option such as -server, --master, --slave, etc. The methods include the following in order of most secure to least secure.
• Use login-paths from your .mylogin.cnf file (encrypted, not visible). Example : login-path[:port]
[:socket]
• Use a configuration file (unencrypted, not visible) Note: available in release-1.5.0. Example :
configuration-file-path[:section]
• Specify the data on the command-line (unencrypted, visible). Example : user[:passwd]@host[:port]
[:socket]
• --ssl-ca
The path to a file that contains a list of trusted SSL CAs.
• --ssl-cert
The name of the SSL certificate file to use for establishing a secure connection.
• --ssl-key
The name of the SSL key file to use for establishing a secure connection.
• --ssl
Specifies if the server connection requires use of SSL. If an encrypted connection cannot be established,
the connection attempt fails. Default setting is 0 (SSL not required).
130
NOTES
• --show-stats, -s
Show file statistics and general table information for each .frm file read.
• --start-timeout=timeout_in_seconds
Number of seconds to wait for spawned server to start. The default is 10 seconds.
• --user
Execute the spawned server using this user account. Permits the execution of the utility as one user but
the spawned server as another. Required if running the utility as the root user (e.g. su or sudo).
• --quiet
Turn off all messages for quiet execution except CREATE statements and errors.
• --verbose, -v
Control how much information is displayed. For example, -v = verbose, -vv = more verbose, -vvv =
debug
• --version
Show program's version number and exit
NOTES
Tables with certain storage engines cannot be read in the default mode. These include PARTITION,
PERFORMANCE_SCHEMA. You must read these with the --diagnostic mode.
Use the --diagnostic mode for tables that fail to open correctly in the default mode or if there is no
server installed on the host.
To change the storage engine in the CREATE statement generated for all .frm files read, use the --newstorage-engine option
To turn off all messages except the CREATE statement and warnings or errors, use the --quiet option.
Use the --show-stats option to see file statistics for each .frm file.
If you need to run the utility with elevated privileges, use the --user option to execute the spawned server
using a normal user account.
If you encounter connection or similar errors when running in default mode, re-run the command with
the --verbose option and view the output from the spawned server and repair any errors in launching
the server. If mysqlfrm fails in the middle, you may need to manually shutdown the server on the port
specified with --port.
EXAMPLES
The following example reads a single .frm file in the default mode from the current working directory using
the server installed in /usr/local/bin/mysql and port 3333 for the spawned server. Notice the use
of the db:table.frm format for specifying the database name for the table. The database name appears to
the left of ':' and the .frm name to the right. In this case, we have database = test1 and table = city, so the
CREATE statement reads CREATE TABLE test1.city.
131
EXAMPLES
shell> mysqlfrm --basedir=/usr/local/bin/mysql test1:city.frm --port=3333
# Starting the spawned server on port 3333 ... done.
# Reading .frm files
#
# Reading the city.frm file.
#
# CREATE statement for city.frm:
#
CREATE TABLE `test1`.`city` (
`city_id` smallint(5) unsigned NOT NULL AUTO_INCREMENT,
`city` varchar(50) NOT NULL,
`country_id` smallint(5) unsigned NOT NULL,
`last_update` timestamp NOT NULL DEFAULT CURRENT_TIMESTAMP ON UPDATE CURRENT_TIMESTAMP,
PRIMARY KEY (`city_id`),
KEY `idx_fk_country_id` (`country_id`)
) ENGINE=InnoDB DEFAULT CHARSET=utf8
#...done.
The following demonstrates reading multiple .frm files in the default mode using a running server. The .frm
files are located in different folders. Notice the use of the database name option for each of the files. The
t1 file was given the database name temp1 since that is the folder in which it resides, t2 was given db1
since that was specified in the path, and t3 was not given a database name since we used the ':' without
providing a database name.
shell> mysqlfrm --server=root:[email protected]:3306 /mysql/data/temp1/t1.frm \
/mysql/data/temp2/db1:t2.frm --port=3310
# Starting the spawned server on port 3333 ... done.
# Reading .frm files
#
#
# Reading the t1.frm file.
#
# CREATE statement for ./mysql-test/std_data/frm_files/t1.frm:
#
CREATE TABLE `temp1`.`t1` (
`a` int(11) DEFAULT NULL
) ENGINE=MyISAM DEFAULT CHARSET=latin1
# Reading the t2.frm file.
#
# CREATE statement for ./mysql-test/std_data/frm_files/t2.frm:
#
CREATE TABLE `db1`.`t2` (
`a` int(11) DEFAULT NULL
) ENGINE=MyISAM DEFAULT CHARSET=latin1
#
# Reading the t3.frm file.
#
# CREATE statement for ./mysql-test/std_data/frm_files/t3.frm:
#
CREATE TABLE `t3` (
`a` int(11) DEFAULT NULL
) ENGINE=MyISAM DEFAULT CHARSET=latin1
#...done.
The following demonstrates running the utility in diagnostic mode to read all of the .frm files in a directory.
132
PERMISSIONS REQUIRED
shell> mysqlfrm --diagnostic /mysql/data/sakila
# WARNING: Cannot generate character set or collation names without the --server option.
# CAUTION: The diagnostic mode is a best-effort parse of the .frm file. As such, it may not identify all of
# Reading .frm file for /mysql/data/sakila/city.frm:
# The .frm file is a TABLE.
# CREATE TABLE Statement:
CREATE TABLE `city` (
`city_id` smallint(5) unsigned NOT NULL AUTO_INCREMENT,
`city` varchar(150) NOT NULL,
`country_id` smallint(5) unsigned NOT NULL,
`last_update` timestamp NOT NULL DEFAULT CURRENT_TIMESTAMP ON UPDATE CURRENT_TIMESTAMP,
PRIMARY KEY `PRIMARY` (`city_id`),
KEY `idx_fk_country_id` (`country_id`)
) ENGINE=InnoDB;
#...done.
PERMISSIONS REQUIRED
The permissions for using mysqlfrm vary and depend entirely on how you use it. If you use the utility to
read .frm files in a protected folder like the example above (in either mode), you must have the ability to run
the spawned server with privileges that allow you to read the protected files. For example, you could use a
user account that has root-level privileges.
If you use the utility with a server connection, the user you use to connect must have the ability to read
system variables at a minimum including read access to the mysql database.
Note
You should never use the root user to spawn the server nor should you use the
mysql user when spawning the server or running the utility.
5.11 mysqlindexcheck — Identify Potentially Redundant Table
Indexes
This utility reads the indexes for one or more tables and identifies duplicate and potentially redundant
indexes.
To check all tables in a database, only specify the database name. To check a specific table, name the
table in db.table format. It is possible to mix database and table names.
You can scan tables in any database except the internal databases mysql, INFORMATION_SCHEMA,
and performance_schema.
Depending on the index type, the utility applies the following rules to compare indexes (designated as
idx_a and idx_b):
• BTREE
idx_b is redundant to idx_a if and only if all the columns from idx_b are a prefix of idx_a. Order and
uniqueness count.
• HASH
idx_a and idx_b are redundant if they are duplicates, i.e. if and only if they contain the same columns
in the same order.
133
OPTIONS
• SPATIAL
idx_a and idx_b are duplicates if and only if they contain the same column (only one column is
permitted).
• FULLTEXT
idx_b is redundant to idx_a if and only if all columns in idx_b are included in idx_a. Order does not
count.
To see DROP statements drop redundant indexes, specify the --show-drops option. To examine the
existing indexes, use the --verbose option, which prints the equivalent CREATE INDEX (or ALTER
TABLE) for primary keys.
To display the best or worst non-primary key indexes for each table, use the --best or --worst option.
This causes the output to show the best or worst indexes from tables with 10 or more rows. By default,
each option shows five indexes. To override that, provide an integer value for the option.
To change the format of the index lists displayed for the --show-indexes, --best, and --worst
options, use one of the following values with the --format option:
• grid (default)
Display output in grid or table format like that of the mysql client command-line tool.
• csv
Display output in comma-separated values format.
• tab
Display output in tab-separated format.
• sql
Print SQL statements rather than a list.
• vertical
Display output in single-column format like that of the \G command for the mysql client command-line
tool.
Note
The --best and --worst lists cannot be printed as SQL statements.
OPTIONS
mysqlindexcheck accepts the following command-line options:
• --help
Display a help message and exit.
• --license
Display license information and exit.
134
OPTIONS
• --best[=N]
If --stats is given, limit index statistics to the best N indexes. The default value of N is 5 if omitted.
• --format=index_format, -findex_format
Specify the index list display format for output produced by --stats. Permitted format values are grid,
csv, tab, sql, and vertical. The default is grid.
• --report-indexes, -r
Reports if a table has neither UNIQUE indexes nor a PRIMARY key.
• --server=source
Connection information for the server.
To connect to a server, it is necessary to specify connection parameters such as the user name, host
name, password, and either a port or socket. MySQL Utilities provides a number of ways to supply this
information. All of the methods require specifying your choice via a command-line option such as -server, --master, --slave, etc. The methods include the following in order of most secure to least secure.
• Use login-paths from your .mylogin.cnf file (encrypted, not visible). Example : login-path[:port]
[:socket]
• Use a configuration file (unencrypted, not visible) Note: available in release-1.5.0. Example :
configuration-file-path[:section]
• Specify the data on the command-line (unencrypted, visible). Example : user[:passwd]@host[:port]
[:socket]
• --show-drops, -d
Display DROP statements for dropping indexes.
• --show-indexes, -i
Display indexes for each table.
• --skip, -s
Skip tables that do not exist.
• --ssl-ca
The path to a file that contains a list of trusted SSL CAs.
• --ssl-cert
The name of the SSL certificate file to use for establishing a secure connection.
• --ssl-key
The name of the SSL key file to use for establishing a secure connection.
• --ssl
Specifies if the server connection requires use of SSL. If an encrypted connection cannot be established,
the connection attempt fails. Default setting is 0 (SSL not required).
135
NOTES
• --stats
Show index performance statistics.
• --verbose, -v
Specify how much information to display. Use this option multiple times to increase the amount of
information. For example, -v = verbose, -vv = more verbose, -vvv = debug.
• --version
Display version information and exit.
• --worst[=N]
If --stats is also passed in, limit index statistics to the worst N indexes. The default value of N is 5, if
omitted.
NOTES
You must provide connection parameters (user, host, password, and so forth) for an account that has the
appropriate privileges to read all objects accessed during the operation.
For the --format option, the permitted values are not case sensitive. In addition, values may be specified
as any unambiguous prefix of a valid value. For example, --format=g specifies the grid format. An error
occurs if a prefix matches more than one valid value.
The path to the MySQL client tools should be included in the PATH environment variable in order to use the
authentication mechanism with login-paths. This permits the utility to use the my_print_defaults tools
which is required to read the login-path values from the login configuration file (.mylogin.cnf).
EXAMPLES
To check all tables in the employees database on the local server to see the possible redundant and
duplicate indexes, use this command:
shell> mysqlindexcheck [email protected] employees
# Source on localhost: ... connected.
# The following indexes are duplicates or redundant \
for table employees.dept_emp:
#
CREATE INDEX emp_no ON employees.dept_emp (emp_no) USING BTREE
#
may be redundant or duplicate of:
ALTER TABLE employees.dept_emp ADD PRIMARY KEY (emp_no, dept_no)
# The following indexes are duplicates or redundant \
for table employees.dept_manager:
#
CREATE INDEX emp_no ON employees.dept_manager (emp_no) USING BTREE
#
may be redundant or duplicate of:
ALTER TABLE employees.dept_manager ADD PRIMARY KEY (emp_no, dept_no)
# The following indexes are duplicates or redundant \
for table employees.salaries:
#
CREATE INDEX emp_no ON employees.salaries (emp_no) USING BTREE
#
may be redundant or duplicate of:
ALTER TABLE employees.salaries ADD PRIMARY KEY (emp_no, from_date)
# The following indexes are duplicates or redundant \
for table employees.titles:
#
CREATE INDEX emp_no ON employees.titles (emp_no) USING BTREE
136
PERMISSIONS REQUIRED
#
may be redundant or duplicate of:
ALTER TABLE employees.titles ADD PRIMARY KEY (emp_no, title, from_date)
PERMISSIONS REQUIRED
Regarding the privileges needed to run this utility, the user needs SELECT privilege on the mysql database
as well as for the databases which tables are being checked.
5.12 mysqlmetagrep — Search Database Object Definitions
This utility searches for objects matching a given pattern on all the servers specified using instances of the
--server option. It produces output that displays the matching objects. By default, the first non-option
argument is taken to be the pattern unless the --pattern option is given. If the --pattern option is
given, then all non-option arguments are treated as connection specifications.
Internally, the utility generates an SQL statement for searching the necessary tables in the
INFORMATION_SCHEMA database on the designated servers, and then executes it before collecting the
result and printing it as a table. Use the --sql option to have mysqlmetagrep display the statement,
rather than execute it. This can be useful if you want to feed the output of the statement to another
application, such as the mysql client command-line tool.
The MySQL server supports two forms of patterns when matching strings: SQL Simple Patterns (used with
the LIKE operator) and POSIX Regular Expressions (used with the REGEXP operator).
By default, the utility uses the LIKE operator to match the name (and optionally, the body) of objects. To
use the REGEXP operator instead, use the --regexp option.
Note
Because the REGEXP operator does substring searching, it is necessary to anchor
the expression to the beginning of the string if you want to match the beginning of
the string.
To specify how to display output, use one of the following values with the --format option:
• grid (default)
Display output in grid or table format like that of the mysql client command-line tool.
• csv
Display output in comma-separated values format.
• tab
Display output in tab-separated format.
• vertical
Display output in single-column format like that of the \G command for the mysql client command-line
tool.
SQL Simple Patterns
The simple patterns defined by the SQL standard consist of a string of characters with two characters that
have special meaning: % (percent) matches zero or more characters, and _ (underscore) matches exactly
one character.
137
POSIX Regular Expressions
For example:
• 'john%'
Match any string that starts with 'john'.
• '%doe%'
Match any string containing the word 'doe'.
• '%_'
Match any string consisting of one or more characters.
POSIX Regular Expressions
POSIX regular expressions are more powerful than the simple patterns defined in the SQL standard. A
regular expression is a string of characters, optionally containing characters with special meaning.
Documenting these regular expressions goes beyond the scope of this manual, but the full syntax is
described in the MySQL manual and other locations, such as executing 'man regex' in your terminal.
• .
Match any character.
• ^
Match the beginning of a string.
• $
Match the end of a string.
• [axy]
Match a, x, or y.
• [a-f]
Match any character in the range a to f (that is, a, b, c, d, e, or f).
• [^axy]
Match any character except a, x, or y.
• a*
Match a sequence of zero or more a.
• a+
Match a sequence of one or more a.
• a?
Match zero or one a.
• ab|cd
138
OPTIONS
Match ab or cd.
• a{5}
Match five instances of a.
• a{2,5}
Match from two to five instances of a.
• (abc)+
Match one or more repetitions of abc.
OPTIONS
mysqlmetagrep accepts the following command-line options:
• --help
Display a help message and exit.
• --license
Display license information and exit.
• --body, -b
Search the body of stored programs (procedures, functions, triggers, and events). The default is to
match only the name.
• --character-set=charset
Sets the client character set. The default is retrieved from the server variable
character_set_client.
• --database=pattern
Look only in databases matching this pattern.
• --format=format, -fformat
Specify the output display format. Permitted format values are grid (default), csv, tab, and vertical.
• --object-types=types, --search-objects=types
Search only the object types named in types, which is a comma-separated list of one or more of the
values database, trigger, user, routine, column, table, partition, event and view.
The default is to search in objects of all types.
• --pattern=pattern, -e=pattern
The pattern to use when matching. This is required when the first non-option argument looks like a
connection specification rather than a pattern.
If the --pattern option is given, the first non-option argument is treated as a connection specifier, not
as a pattern.
139
NOTES
• --regexp, --basic-regexp, -G
Perform pattern matches using the REGEXP operator. The default is to use LIKE for matching. This
affects the --database and --pattern options.
• --server=source
Connection information for a server. Use this option multiple times to search multiple servers.
To connect to a server, it is necessary to specify connection parameters such as the user name, host
name, password, and either a port or socket. MySQL Utilities provides a number of ways to supply this
information. All of the methods require specifying your choice via a command-line option such as -server, --master, --slave, etc. The methods include the following in order of most secure to least secure.
• Use login-paths from your .mylogin.cnf file (encrypted, not visible). Example : login-path[:port]
[:socket]
• Use a configuration file (unencrypted, not visible) Note: available in release-1.5.0. Example :
configuration-file-path[:section]
• Specify the data on the command-line (unencrypted, visible). Example : user[:passwd]@host[:port]
[:socket]
• --sql, --print-sql, -p
Print rather than executing the SQL code that would be executed to find all matching objects. This can
be useful to save the statement for later execution or to use it as input for other programs.
• --ssl-ca
The path to a file that contains a list of trusted SSL CAs.
• --ssl-cert
The name of the SSL certificate file to use for establishing a secure connection.
• --ssl-key
The name of the SSL key file to use for establishing a secure connection.
• --ssl
Specifies if the server connection requires use of SSL. If an encrypted connection cannot be established,
the connection attempt fails. Default setting is 0 (SSL not required).
• --version
Display version information and exit.
NOTES
For the --format option, the permitted values are not case sensitive. In addition, values may be specified
as any unambiguous prefix of a valid value. For example, --format=g specifies the grid format. An error
occurs if a prefix matches more than one valid value.
The path to the MySQL client tools should be included in the PATH environment variable in order to use the
authentication mechanism with login-paths. This permits the utility to use the my_print_defaults tools
which is required to read the login-path values from the login configuration file (.mylogin.cnf).
140
EXAMPLES
EXAMPLES
Find all objects with a name that matches the pattern 't_' (the letter t followed by any single character):
shell> mysqlmetagrep --pattern="t_" [email protected]
+------------------------+--------------+--------------+-----------+
| Connection
| Object Type | Object Name | Database |
+------------------------+--------------+--------------+-----------+
| john:*@localhost:3306 | TABLE
| t1
| test
|
| john:*@localhost:3306 | TABLE
| t2
| test
|
| john:*@localhost:3306 | TABLE
| tm
| test
|
+------------------------+--------------+--------------+-----------+
To find all object that contain 't2' in the name or the body (for routines, triggers, and events):
shell> mysqlmetagrep -b --pattern="%t2%" [email protected]:3306
+------------------------+--------------+--------------+-----------+
| Connection
| Object Type | Object Name | Database |
+------------------------+--------------+--------------+-----------+
| john:*@localhost:3306 | TRIGGER
| tr_foo
| test
|
| john:*@localhost:3306 | TABLE
| t2
| test
|
+------------------------+--------------+--------------+-----------+
In the preceding output, the trigger name does not match the pattern, but is displayed because its body
does.
This is the same as the previous example, but using the REGEXP operator. Note that in the pattern it is not
necessary to add wildcards before or after t2:
shell> mysqlmetagrep -Gb --pattern="t2" [email protected]
+------------------------+--------------+--------------+-----------+
| Connection
| Object Type | Object Name | Database |
+------------------------+--------------+--------------+-----------+
| root:*@localhost:3306 | TRIGGER
| tr_foo
| test
|
| root:*@localhost:3306 | TABLE
| t2
| test
|
+------------------------+--------------+--------------+-----------+
PERMISSIONS REQUIRED
The user must have the SELECT privilege on the mysql database.
5.13 mysqlprocgrep — Search Server Process Lists
This utility scans the process lists for the servers specified using instances of the --server option and
selects those that match the conditions specified using the --age and --match-xxx options. For a
process to match, all conditions given must match. The utility then either prints the selected processes (the
default) or executes certain actions on them.
If no --age or --match-xxx options are given, the utility selects all processes.
The --match-xxx options correspond to the columns in the INFORMATION_SCHEMA.PROCESSLIST
table. For example, --match-command specifies a matching condition for PROCESSLIST.COMMAND
column values. There is no --match-time option. To specify a condition based on process time, use -age.
Processes that can be seen and killed are subject to whether the account used to connect to the server
has the PROCESS and SUPER privileges. Without PROCESS, the account cannot see processes
141
Options
belonging to other accounts Without SUPER, the account cannot kill processes belonging to other
accounts
To specify how to display output, use one of the following values with the --format option:
• grid (default)
Display output in grid or table format like that of the mysql client command-line tool.
• csv
Display output in comma-separated values format.
• tab
Display output in tab-separated format.
• vertical
Display output in single-column format like that of the \G command for the mysql client command-line
tool.
Options
mysqlprocgrep accepts the following command-line options:
• --help
Display a help message and exit.
• --license
Display license information and exit.
• --age=time
Select only processes that have been in the current state more than a given time. The time value can
be specified in two formats: either using the hh:mm:ss format, with hours and minutes optional, or as a
sequence of numbers with a suffix giving the period size.
The permitted suffixes are s (second), m (minute), h (hour), d (day), and w (week). For example, 4h15m
represents 4 hours and 15 minutes.
For both formats, the specification can optionally be preceded by + or -, where + means older than the
given time, and - means younger than the given time.
• --character-set=charset
Sets the client character set. The default is retrieved from the server variable
character_set_client.
• --format=format, -fformat
Specify the output display format. Permitted format values are grid (default), csv, tab, and vertical.
• --kill-connection
Kill the connection for all matching processes (like the KILL CONNECTION statement).
• --kill-query
142
Options
Kill the query for all matching processes (like the KILL QUERY statement).
• --match-command=pattern
Match all processes where the Command field matches the pattern.
• --match-db=pattern
Match all processes where the Db field matches the pattern.
• --match-host=pattern
Match all processes where the Host field matches the pattern.
• --match-id=pattern
Match all processes where the ID field matches the pattern.
• --match-info=pattern
Match all processes where the Info field matches the pattern.
• --match-state=pattern
Match all processes where the State field matches the pattern.
• --match-user=pattern
Match all processes where the User field matches the pattern.
• --print
Print information about the matching processes. This is the default if no --kill-connection or -kill-query option is given. If a kill option is given, --print prints information about the processes
before killing them.
• --regexp, --basic-regexp, -G
Perform pattern matches using the REGEXP operator. The default is to use LIKE for matching. This
affects the --match-xxx options.
• --server=source
Connection information for a server. Use this option multiple times to search multiple servers.
To connect to a server, it is necessary to specify connection parameters such as the user name, host
name, password, and either a port or socket. MySQL Utilities provides a number of ways to supply this
information. All of the methods require specifying your choice via a command-line option such as -server, --master, --slave, etc. The methods include the following in order of most secure to least secure.
• Use login-paths from your .mylogin.cnf file (encrypted, not visible). Example : login-path[:port]
[:socket]
• Use a configuration file (unencrypted, not visible) Note: available in release-1.5.0. Example :
configuration-file-path[:section]
• Specify the data on the command-line (unencrypted, visible). Example : user[:passwd]@host[:port]
[:socket]
143
Options
• --sql, --print-sql, -Q
Instead of displaying the selected processes, emit the SELECT statement that retrieves information
about them. If the --kill-connection or --kill-query option is given, the utility generates a
stored procedure named kill_processes() for killing the queries rather than a SELECT statement.
• --sql-body
Like --sql, but produces the output as the body of a stored procedure without the CREATE
PROCEDURE part of the definition. This could be used, for example, to generate an event for the server
Event Manager.
When used with a kill option, code for killing the matching queries is generated. Note that it is not
possible to execute the emitted code unless it is put in a stored routine, event, or trigger. For example,
the following code could be generated to kill all idle connections for user www-data:
shell> mysqlprocgrep --kill-connection --sql-body \
--match-user=www-data --match-state=sleep
DECLARE kill_done INT;
DECLARE kill_cursor CURSOR FOR
SELECT
Id, User, Host, Db, Command, Time, State, Info
FROM
INFORMATION_SCHEMA.PROCESSLIST
WHERE
user LIKE 'www-data'
AND
State LIKE 'sleep'
OPEN kill_cursor;
BEGIN
DECLARE id BIGINT;
DECLARE EXIT HANDLER FOR NOT FOUND SET kill_done = 1;
kill_loop: LOOP
FETCH kill_cursor INTO id;
KILL CONNECTION id;
END LOOP kill_loop;
END;
CLOSE kill_cursor;
• --ssl-ca
The path to a file that contains a list of trusted SSL CAs.
• --ssl-cert
The name of the SSL certificate file to use for establishing a secure connection.
• --ssl-key
The name of the SSL key file to use for establishing a secure connection.
• --ssl
Specifies if the server connection requires use of SSL. If an encrypted connection cannot be established,
the connection attempt fails. Default setting is 0 (SSL not required).
• --verbose, -v
Specify how much information to display. Use this option multiple times to increase the amount of
information. For example, -v = verbose, -vv = more verbose, -vvv = debug.
144
NOTES
• --version
Display version information and exit.
NOTES
For the --format option, the permitted values are not case sensitive. In addition, values may be specified
as any unambiguous prefix of a valid value. For example, --format=g specifies the grid format. An error
occurs if a prefix matches more than one valid value.
The path to the MySQL client tools should be included in the PATH environment variable in order to use the
authentication mechanism with login-paths. This permits the utility to use the my_print_defaults tools
which is required to read the login-path values from the login configuration file (.mylogin.cnf).
EXAMPLES
For each example, assume that the root user on localhost has sufficient privileges to kill queries and
connections.
Kill all queries created by user john that are less than 1 minute:
shell> mysqlprocgrep [email protected] \
--match-user=john --age=-1m --kill-query
Kill all connections that have been idle for more than 1 hour:
shell> mysqlprocgrep [email protected] \
--match-command=sleep --age=1h --kill-connection
PERMISSIONS REQUIRED
The user must have the SELECT privilege on the mysql database.
5.14 mysqlreplicate — Set Up and Start Replication Between Two
Servers
This utility permits an administrator to setup and start replication from one server (the master) to another
(the slave). The user provides login information for the slave and connection information for connecting to
the master. It is also possible to specify a database to be used to test replication.
The utility reports conditions where the storage engines on the master and the slave differ for older
versions of the server. It also reports a warning if the InnoDB storage engine type (plugin verus built-in)
differs on the master and slave. For InnoDB to be the same, both servers must be running the same "type"
of InnoDB (built-in or the InnoDB Plugin), and InnoDB on both servers must have the same major and
minor version numbers and enabled state.
By default, the utility issues warnings for mismatches between the sets of storage engines, the default
storage engine, and the InnoDB storage engine. To produce errors instead, use the --pedantic option,
which requires storage engines to be the same on the master and slave.
The -vv option displays any discrepancies between the storage engines and InnoDB values, with or
without the --pedantic option.
145
OPTIONS
Replication can be started using one of the following strategies.
• Start from the current position (default)
Start replication from the current master binary log file and position. The utility uses the SHOW MASTER
STATUS statement to retrieve this information.
• Start from the beginning
Start replication from the first event recorded in the master binary log. To do this, use the --startfrom-beginning option.
• Start from a binary log file
Start replication from the first event in a specific master binary log file. To do this, use the --masterlog-file option.
• Start from a specific event
Start replication from specific event coordinates (specific binary log file and position). To do this, use the
--master-log-file and --master-log-pos options.
OPTIONS
mysqlreplicate accepts the following command-line options:
• --help
Display a help message and exit.
• --license
Display license information and exit.
• --master=master
Connection information for the master server.
To connect to a server, it is necessary to specify connection parameters such as the user name, host
name, password, and either a port or socket. MySQL Utilities provides a number of ways to supply this
information. All of the methods require specifying your choice via a command-line option such as -server, --master, --slave, etc. The methods include the following in order of most secure to least secure.
• Use login-paths from your .mylogin.cnf file (encrypted, not visible). Example : login-path[:port]
[:socket]
• Use a configuration file (unencrypted, not visible) Note: available in release-1.5.0. Example :
configuration-file-path[:section]
• Specify the data on the command-line (unencrypted, visible). Example : user[:passwd]@host[:port]
[:socket]
• login-path (.mylogin.cnf) : login-path[:port][:socket]
• Configuration file : configuration-file-path[:section]
• Command-line : user[:passwd]@host[:port][:socket]
• --master-log-file=master_log_file
146
OPTIONS
Begin replication from the beginning of this master log file.
• --master-log-pos=master_log_pos
Begin replication from this position in the master log file. This option is not valid unless --master-logfile is given.
• --pedantic, -p
Fail if both servers do not have the same set of storage engines, the same default storage engine, and
the same InnoDB storage engine.
• --rpl-user=replication_user
The user and password for the replication user, in the format: user[:password] or login-path.
• --slave=slave
Connection information for the slave server.
To connect to a server, it is necessary to specify connection parameters such as the user name, host
name, password, and either a port or socket. MySQL Utilities provides a number of ways to supply this
information. All of the methods require specifying your choice via a command-line option such as -server, --master, --slave, etc. The methods include the following in order of most secure to least secure.
• Use login-paths from your .mylogin.cnf file (encrypted, not visible). Example : login-path[:port]
[:socket]
• Use a configuration file (unencrypted, not visible) Note: available in release-1.5.0. Example :
configuration-file-path[:section]
• Specify the data on the command-line (unencrypted, visible). Example : user[:passwd]@host[:port]
[:socket]
• --start-from-beginning, -b
Start replication at the beginning of events logged in the master binary log. This option is not valid unless
both --master-log-file and --master-log-pos are given.
• --ssl-ca
The path to a file that contains a list of trusted SSL CAs.
• --ssl-cert
The name of the SSL certificate file to use for establishing a secure connection.
• --ssl-key
The name of the SSL key file to use for establishing a secure connection.
• --ssl
Specifies if the server connection requires use of SSL. If an encrypted connection cannot be established,
the connection attempt fails. Default setting is 0 (SSL not required).
• --test-db=test_database
147
NOTES
The database name to use for testing the replication setup. If this option is not given, no testing is done,
only error checking.
• --verbose, -v
Specify how much information to display. Use this option multiple times to increase the amount of
information. For example, -v = verbose, -vv = more verbose, -vvv = debug.
• --version
Display version information and exit.
NOTES
The login user for the master server must have the appropriate permissions to grant access to all
databases, and have the ability to create user accounts. For example, the user account used to connect to
the master must have the WITH GRANT OPTION privilege.
The server IDs on the master and slave must be nonzero and unique. The utility reports an error if the
server ID is 0 on either server or the same on the master and slave. Set these values before starting this
utility.
Mixing IP and hostnames is not recommended. The replication-specific utilities attempt to compare
hostnames and IP addresses as aliases for checking slave connectivity to the master. However, if your
installation does not support reverse name lookup, the comparison could fail. Without the ability to do a
reverse name lookup, the replication utilities could report a false negative that the slave is (not) connected
to the master.
For example, if you setup replication using "MASTER_HOST=ubuntu.net" on the slave and later connect
to the slave with mysqlrplcheck and have the master specified as "--master=192.168.0.6" using the
valid IP address for "ubuntu.net", you must have the ability to do a reverse name lookup to compare the IP
(192.168.0.6) and the hostname (ubuntu.net) to determine if they are the same machine.
The path to the MySQL client tools should be included in the PATH environment variable in order to use the
authentication mechanism with login-paths. This permits the utility to use the my_print_defaults tools
which is required to read the login-path values from the login configuration file (.mylogin.cnf).
EXAMPLES
To set up replication between two MySQL instances running on different ports of the same host using the
default settings, use this command:
shell> mysqlreplicate [email protected]:3306 \
[email protected]:3307 --rpl-user=rpl:rpl
# master on localhost: ... connected.
# slave on localhost: ... connected.
# Checking for binary logging on master...
# Setting up replication...
# ...done.
The following command uses --pedantic to ensure that replication between the master and slave is
successful if and only if both servers have the same storage engines available, the same default storage
engine, and the same InnoDB storage engine:
148
EXAMPLES
shell> mysqlreplicate [email protected]:3306 \
[email protected]:3307 --rpl-user=rpl:rpl -vv --pedantic
# master on localhost: ... connected.
# slave on localhost: ... connected.
# master id = 2
# slave id = 99
# Checking InnoDB statistics for type and version conflicts.
# Checking storage engines...
# Checking for binary logging on master...
# Setting up replication...
# Flushing tables on master with read lock...
# Connecting slave to master...
# CHANGE MASTER TO MASTER_HOST = [...omitted...]
# Starting slave...
# status: Waiting for master to send event
# error: 0:
# Unlocking tables on master...
# ...done.
The following command starts replication from the current position of the master (which is the default):
shell> mysqlreplicate [email protected]:3306 \
[email protected]:3307 --rpl-user=rpl:rpl
# master on localhost: ... connected.
# slave on localhost: ... connected.
# Checking for binary logging on master...
# Setting up replication...
# ...done.
The following command starts replication from the beginning of recorded events on the master:
shell> mysqlreplicate [email protected]:3306 \
[email protected]:3307 --rpl-user=rpl:rpl \
--start-from-beginning
# master on localhost: ... connected.
# slave on localhost: ... connected.
# Checking for binary logging on master...
# Setting up replication...
# ...done.
The following command starts replication from the beginning of a specific master binary log file:
shell> mysqlreplicate [email protected]:3306 \
[email protected]:3307 --rpl-user=rpl:rpl \
--master-log-file=my_log.000003
# master on localhost: ... connected.
# slave on localhost: ... connected.
# Checking for binary logging on master...
# Setting up replication...
# ...done.
The following command starts replication from specific master binary log coordinates (specific log file and
position):
shell> mysqlreplicate [email protected]:3306 \
[email protected]:3307 --rpl-user=rpl:rpl \
--master-log-file=my_log.000001 --master-log-pos=96
# master on localhost: ... connected.
# slave on localhost: ... connected.
# Checking for binary logging on master...
# Setting up replication...
149
RECOMMENDATIONS
# ...done.
RECOMMENDATIONS
You should set read_only=1 in the my.cnf file for the slave to ensure that no accidental data changes,
such as INSERT, DELETE, UPDATE, and so forth, are permitted on the slave other than those produced
by events read from the master.
Use the --pedantic and -vv options for setting up replication on production servers to avoid possible
problems with differing storage engines.
PERMISSIONS REQUIRED
The users on the master need the following privileges: SELECT and INSERT privileges on mysql
database, REPLICATION SLAVE, REPLICATION CLIENT and GRANT OPTION. The slave users need
the SUPER privilege. The repl user, used as the argument for the --rpl-user option, is either created
automatically or if it exists, it needs the REPLICATION SLAVE privilege.
5.15 mysqlrplms — Set Up and Start Replication from a Slave to
Multiple Masters
This utility permits a user to start replication from multiple master servers (also called multi-source
replication) to a single slave. The user provides login information for the slave and each of the masters.
The utility reports conditions where the storage engines on the masters and the slave differ. It also reports
a warning if the InnoDB storage engine differs on the master and slave. For InnoDB to be the same, both
servers must be running the same "type" of InnoDB (built-in or the InnoDB Plugin), and InnoDB on both
servers must have the same major and minor version numbers and enabled state. By default, the utility
issues warnings for mismatches between the sets of storage engines, the default storage engine, and the
InnoDB storage engine.
The -vv option displays any discrepancies between the storage engines and InnoDB values.
A round-robin scheduling is used to setup replication among the masters and slave.
The mysqlrplms utility follows these assumptions:
• All servers must have GTIDs enabled.
• There are no conflicts between transactions from different masters. For example, there are no updates to
the same object from multiple masters.
• Replication is asynchronous.
OPTIONS
mysqlrplms accepts the following command-line options:
• --daemon=command
Run as a daemon. The command can be start (start daemon), stop (stop daemon), restart (stop
then start the daemon) or nodetach (start but do not detach the process). This option is only available
for POSIX systems.
• --format=format, -f format
150
OPTIONS
Display the replication health output in either grid (default), tab, csv, or vertical format.
• --help
Display a help message and exit.
• --interval=seconds, -i seconds
Interval in seconds for reporting health. Default = 15 seconds. Minimum is 5 seconds.
• --license
Display license information and exit.
• --log=log_file
Specify a log file to use for logging messages
• --log-age=days
Specify maximum age of log entries in days. Entries older than this are purged on startup. Default = 7
days.
• --masters=master connections
Connection information for master servers. List multiple masters in comma-separated list.
To connect to a server, it is necessary to specify connection parameters such as the user name, host
name, password, and either a port or socket. MySQL Utilities provides a number of ways to supply this
information. All of the methods require specifying your choice via a command-line option such as -server, --master, --slave, etc. The methods include the following in order of most secure to least secure.
• Use login-paths from your .mylogin.cnf file (encrypted, not visible). Example : login-path[:port]
[:socket]
• Use a configuration file (unencrypted, not visible) Note: available in release-1.5.0. Example :
configuration-file-path[:section]
• Specify the data on the command-line (unencrypted, visible). Example : user[:passwd]@host[:port]
[:socket]
• --report-values=report_values
Report values used in mysqlrplms. It can be health, gtid or uuid. Multiple values can be used separated
by commas.
• health
Display the replication health of the topology.
• gtid
Display the master's list of executed GTIDs, contents of the GTID variables;
@@GLOBAL.GTID_EXECUTED, @@GLOBAL.GTID_PURGED and @@GLOBAL.GTID_OWNED.
• uuid
Display universally unique identifiers (UUIDs) for all servers.
151
OPTIONS
Default = health.
• --rpl-user=replication_user
The user and password for the replication user, in the format: user[:password] or login-path.
• --slave=slave
Connection information for the slave server.
To connect to a server, it is necessary to specify connection parameters such as the user name, host
name, password, and either a port or socket. MySQL Utilities provides a number of ways to supply this
information. All of the methods require specifying your choice via a command-line option such as -server, --master, --slave, etc. The methods include the following in order of most secure to least secure.
• Use login-paths from your .mylogin.cnf file (encrypted, not visible). Example : login-path[:port]
[:socket]
• Use a configuration file (unencrypted, not visible) Note: available in release-1.5.0. Example :
configuration-file-path[:section]
• Specify the data on the command-line (unencrypted, visible). Example : user[:passwd]@host[:port]
[:socket]
• --ssl-ca
The path to a file that contains a list of trusted SSL CAs.
• --ssl-cert
The name of the SSL certificate file to use for establishing a secure connection.
• --ssl-key
The name of the SSL key file to use for establishing a secure connection.
• --ssl
Specifies if the server connection requires use of SSL. If an encrypted connection cannot be established,
the connection attempt fails. Default setting is 0 (SSL not required).
• --start-from-beginning, -b
Start replication at the beginning of events logged in the master binary log.
• --switchover-interval=seconds
Interval in seconds for switching masters. Default = 60 seconds. Minimum is 30 seconds.
• --pidfile=pidfile
Pidfile for running mysqlrplms as a daemon. This file contains the PID (process identifier), that uniquely
identify a process. It is needed to identify and control the process forked by mysqlrplms.
• --verbose, -v
Specify how much information to display. Use this option multiple times to increase the amount of
information. For example, -v = verbose, -vv = more verbose, -vvv = debug.
152
NOTES
• --version
Display version information and exit.
NOTES
The login user for the master servers must have the appropriate permissions to grant access to all
databases, and have the ability to create user accounts. For example, the user accounts used to connect
to each of the masters must have the WITH GRANT OPTION privilege.
The server IDs on the masters and slave must be nonzero and unique. The utility reports an error if the
server ID is 0 on either server or the same on the masters and slave. Set these values before starting this
utility.
Mixing IP and hostnames is not recommended. The replication-specific utilities attempts to compare
hostnames and IP addresses as aliases for checking slave connectivity to the master. However, if your
installation does not support reverse name lookup, the comparison could fail. Without the ability to do a
reverse name lookup, the replication utilities could report a false negative that the slave is (not) connected
to the master.
The path to the MySQL client tools should be included in the PATH environment variable in order to use the
authentication mechanism with login-paths. This permits the utility to use the my_print_defaults tools
which is required to read the login-path values from the login configuration file (.mylogin.cnf).
Due to a known server issue, there are some limitations with the use of temporary tables with multi-source
replication. In order to avoid problems, we recommend the execution of all statements for a temporary
table in a single transaction. See Replication and Temporary Tables, for more information.
EXAMPLES
To set up multi-source replication among two masters and a slave, running on different ports of the same
host using the default settings, use this command:
shell> mysqlrplms --slave=root:[email protected]:3306 \
--masters=root:[email protected]:3307,root:[email protected]:3308
# Starting multi-source replication...
# Press CTRL+C to quit.
# Switching to master 'localhost:3307'.
# master on localhost: ... connected.
# slave on localhost: ... connected.
#
# Current Master Information:
+-------------------+-----------+---------------+-------------------+
| Binary Log File
| Position | Binlog_Do_DB | Binlog_Ignore_DB |
+-------------------+-----------+---------------+-------------------+
| clone-bin.000001 | 594
| N/A
| N/A
|
+-------------------+-----------+---------------+-------------------+
# GTID Executed Set: 00a4e027-a83a-11e3-8bd6-28d244017f26:1-2
#
# Health Status:
+------------+-------+---------+--------+------------+---------+
| host
| port | role
| state | gtid_mode | health |
+------------+-------+---------+--------+------------+---------+
| localhost | 3307 | MASTER | UP
| ON
| OK
|
| localhost | 3306 | SLAVE
| UP
| ON
| OK
|
| localhost | 3308 | MASTER | UP
| ON
| OK
|
+------------+-------+---------+--------+------------+---------+
#
153
EXAMPLES
(...)
The following command uses --report-values to report health, GTID and UUID status:
shell> mysqlrplms --slave=root:[email protected]:3306 \
--masters=root:[email protected]:3307,root:[email protected]:3308\n
--report-values=health,gtid,uuid
# Starting multi-source replication...
# Press CTRL+C to quit.
# Switching to master 'localhost:3307'.
# master on localhost: ... connected.
# slave on localhost: ... connected.
#
# Current Master Information:
+-------------------+-----------+---------------+-------------------+
| Binary Log File
| Position | Binlog_Do_DB | Binlog_Ignore_DB |
+-------------------+-----------+---------------+-------------------+
| clone-bin.000001 | 594
| N/A
| N/A
|
+-------------------+-----------+---------------+-------------------+
# GTID Executed Set: 00a4e027-a83a-11e3-8bd6-28d244017f26:1-2
#
# Health Status:
+------------+-------+---------+--------+------------+---------+
| host
| port | role
| state | gtid_mode | health |
+------------+-------+---------+--------+------------+---------+
| localhost | 3307 | MASTER | UP
| ON
| OK
|
| localhost | 3306 | SLAVE
| UP
| ON
| OK
|
| localhost | 3308 | MASTER | UP
| ON
| OK
|
+------------+-------+---------+--------+------------+---------+
#
# GTID Status - Transactions executed on the servers:
+------------+-------+---------+-------------------------------------------+
| host
| port | role
| gtid
|
+------------+-------+---------+-------------------------------------------+
| localhost | 3307 | MASTER | 00a4e027-a83a-11e3-8bd6-28d244017f26:1-2 |
| localhost | 3306 | SLAVE
| 00a4e027-a83a-11e3-8bd6-28d244017f26:1-2 |
| localhost | 3306 | SLAVE
| faf0874f-a839-11e3-8bd6-28d244017f26:1
|
+------------+-------+---------+-------------------------------------------+
#
# UUID Status:
+------------+-------+---------+---------------------------------------+
| host
| port | role
| uuid
|
+------------+-------+---------+---------------------------------------+
| localhost | 3307 | MASTER | 00a4e027-a83a-11e3-8bd6-28d244017f26 |
| localhost | 3306 | SLAVE
| faf0874f-a839-11e3-8bd6-28d244017f26 |
+------------+-------+---------+---------------------------------------+
#
(...)
Start multi-source replication running as a daemon (POSIX only):
shell> mysqlrplms --slave=root:[email protected]:3306 \
--masters=root:[email protected]:3307,root:[email protected]:3308 \
--log=rplms_daemon.log --pidfile=rplms_daemon.pid --daemon=start
Restart multi-source replication running as a daemon:
shell> mysqlrplms --slave=root:[email protected]:3306 \
--masters=root:[email protected]:3307,root:[email protected]:3308 \
--log=rplms_daemon.log --pidfile=rplms_daemon.pid --daemon=restart
Stop multi-source replication running as a daemon:
154
RECOMMENDATIONS
shell> mysqlrplms --slave=root:[email protected]:3306 \
--masters=root:[email protected]:3307,root:[email protected]:3308 \
--log=rplms_daemon.log --pidfile=rplms_daemon.pid --daemon=stop
RECOMMENDATIONS
You should set read_only=1 in the my.cnf file for the slave to ensure that no accidental data changes,
such as INSERT, DELETE, UPDATE, and so forth, are permitted on the slave other than those produced
by events read from the master.
PERMISSIONS REQUIRED
The users on the masters need the following privileges: SELECT and INSERT privileges on mysql
database, REPLICATION SLAVE, REPLICATION CLIENT and GRANT OPTION. The slave users need
the SUPER privilege. The rpl user, used as the argument for the --rpl-user option, is either created
automatically or if it exists, it needs the REPLICATION SLAVE privilege.
5.16 mysqlrpladmin — Administration utility for MySQL replication
This utility permits users to perform administrative actions on a replication topology consisting of a single
master and its slaves. The utility is designed to make it easy to recover from planned maintenance of the
master, or from an event that takes the master offline unexpectedly.
The act of taking the master offline intentionally and switching control to another slave is called switchover.
In this case, there is no loss of transactions as the master is locked and all slaves are allowed to catch up
to the master. Once the slaves have read all events from the master, the master is shutdown and control
switched to a slave (in this case called a candidate slave).
Recovering from the loss of a downed master is more traumatic and since there is no way to know what
transactions the master may have failed to send, the new master (called a candidate slave) must be the
slave that is most up-to-date. How this is determined depends on the version of the server (see below).
However, it can result in the loss of some transactions that were executed on the downed master but not
sent to the slaves.
The utility accepts a list of slaves to be considered the candidate slave. If no slave is found to meet the
requirements, the operation searches the list of known slaves.
Detection of a downed master is performed as follows. If the connection to the master is lost, wait -ping seconds and check again. If the master connection is lost and the master cannot be pinged or
reconnected, the failover event occurs.
For all commands that require specifying multiple servers, the options require a comma-separated list of
connection parameters in the following form (where the password, port, and socket are optional).:
*user*[:*passwd*]@*host*[:*port*][:*socket*] or
*login-path*[:*port*][:*socket*]
The utility permits users to discover slaves connected to the master.
The discover slaves option requires that all slaves use the --report-host and --report-port server
startup options with the correct hostname and port. If these are missing or report incorrect information, the
slave may not be detected and thus not included in the operation of the utility. The discover slaves option
ignores any slaves to which it cannot connect.
155
mysqlrpladmin — Administration utility for MySQL replication
Note
If discovered slaves are missing or report the incorrect information, the slaves
health may not be reported correctly or the slave may not be listed at all.
The utility permits the user to demote a master to a slave during the switchover operation. The --demotemaster option tells the utility to, once the new master is established, make the old master a slave of the
new master. This permits rotation of the master role among a set of servers.
The utility permits the user to specify an external script to execute before and after the switchover and
failover commands. The user can specify these with the --exec-before and --exec-after options.
The return code of the script is used to determine success thus each script must report 0 (success) to
be considered successful. If a script returns a value other than 0, the result code is presented in an error
message.
The utility permits the user to log all actions taken during the commands. The --log option requires a
valid path and filename of the file to use for logging operations. The log is active only when this option is
specified. The option --log-age specifies the age in days that log entries are kept. The default is seven
(7) days. Older entries are automatically deleted from the log file (but only if the --log option is specified).
The format of the log file includes the date and time of the event, the level of the event (informational INFO, warning - WARN, error - ERROR, critical failure - CRITICAL), and the message reported by the
utility.
The utility has a number of options each explained in more detail below. Some of the options are specific
to certain commands. Warning messages are issued whenever an option is used that does not apply to
the command requested. A brief overview of each command and its options is presented in the following
paragraphs.
The start, stop, and reset commands require the --slaves option to list all of the slaves in the topology.
Optionally, the --master option can be specified for the utility to check if the specified slaves are
associated to the given master before executing the command, making sure that the command is only
applied to slaves connected to the right replication master.
The options required for the elect, health and gtid commands include the --master option to specify
the existing master, and either the --slaves option to list all of the slaves in the topology or the -discover-slaves-login option to provide the user name and password to discover any slaves in the
topology that are registered and connected to the master.
The options required for switchover include the --master option to specify the existing master, the -new-master option to specify the candidate slave (the slave to become the new master), and either the
--slaves option to list the considered slaves in the topology or the --discover-slaves-login option
to provide the user name and password to discover any slaves in the topology that are registered and
connected to the master.
The failover command requires only the --slaves option to explicitly list all of the slaves in the topology
because it is expected that the master is down when this command is used.
Note
The option to pass in --slaves without also passing in --master was added in
MySQL Utilities 1.6.0.
Use the --verbose option to see additional information in the health report and additional messages
during switchover or failover.
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COMMANDS
COMMANDS
The utility also provides a number of useful commands for managing a replication topology including the
following.
elect This command is available to only those servers supporting global transaction identifiers (GTIDs),
perform slave election and report the candidate slave to use in the event a switchover or failover is
required. Slave election is simply the first slave to meet the prerequisites. GTIDs are supported in version
5.6.5 and higher. This command requires the options --master and either --slaves or --discoverslaves-login.
failover This command is available to only those servers supporting GTIDs. Conduct failover to the best
slave. The command tests each candidate slave listed for the prerequisites. Once a candidate slave
is elected, it is made a slave of each of the other slaves thereby collecting any transactions executed
on other slaves but not the candidate. In this way, the candidate becomes the most up-to-date slave.
This command requires the --slaves option. The --discover-slaves-login option is not allowed
because, for failover, the master is presumed to be offline or otherwise unreachable (so there is no way to
discover the slaves). The --master option is ignored for this command.
gtid This command is available to only those servers supporting GTIDs. It displays the contents
of the GTID variables, @@GLOBAL.GTID_EXECUTED, @@GLOBAL.GTID_PURGED, and
@@GLOBAL.GTID_OWNED. The command also displays universally unique identifiers (UUIDs) for all
servers. This command requires one of the following combinations: --master and --slaves, or -master and --discover-slaves-login.
health Display the replication health of the topology. By default, this includes the host name, port, role
(MASTER or SLAVE) of the server, state of the server (UP = is connected, WARN = not connected but can
ping, DOWN = not connected and cannot ping), the GTID_MODE, and health state. This command can be
run with the following combination of options:
• --master and --slaves
• --master and --discover-slaves-login
• --slaves
Note
The health column displays "no master specified" when generating a health report
for a collection of slaves and no --master option specified.
The master health state is based on the following; if GTID_MODE=ON, the server must have binary log
enabled, and there must exist a user with the REPLICATE SLAVE privilege.
The slave health state is based on the following; the IO_THREAD and SQL_THREADS must be running, it
must be connected to the master, there are no errors, the slave delay for non-gtid enabled scenarios is not
more than the threshold provided by the --max-position and the slave is reading the correct master log
file, and slave delay is not more than the --seconds-behind threshold option.
reset Execute the STOP SLAVE and RESET SLAVE commands on all slaves. This command requires the
--slaves option. The --discover-slaves-login option is not allowed because it might not provide
the expected result, excluding slaves with the IO thread stopped. Optionally, the --master option can
also be used and in this case the utility performs an additional check to verify if the specified slaves are
associated (replication is configured) to the given master.
start Execute the START SLAVE command on all slaves. This command requires the --slaves option.
The --discover-slaves-login option is not allowed because it might not provide the expected result,
excluding slaves with the IO thread stopped. Optionally, the --master option can also be used and in this
157
OPTIONS
case the utility performs an additional check to verify if the specified slaves are associated (replication is
configured) to the given master.
stop Execute the STOP SLAVE command on all slaves. This command requires the --slaves option.
The --discover-slaves-login option is not allowed because it might not provide the expected result,
excluding slaves with the IO thread stopped. Optionally, the --master option can also be used and in this
case the utility performs an additional check to verify if the specified slaves are associated (replication is
configured) to the given master.
switchover Perform slave promotion to a specified candidate slave as designated by the --new-master
option. This command is available for both gtid-enabled servers and non-gtid-enabled scenarios. This
command requires one of the following combinations:
• --master, --new-master and --slaves
• --master, --new-master and --discover-slaves-login
OPTIONS
mysqlrpladmin accepts the following command-line options:
• --help
Display a help message and exit.
• --license
Display license information and exit.
• --candidates=candidate slave connections
Connection information for candidate slave servers for failover. Valid only with failover command. List
multiple slaves in comma-separated list.
To connect to a server, it is necessary to specify connection parameters such as the user name, host
name, password, and either a port or socket. MySQL Utilities provides a number of ways to supply this
information. All of the methods require specifying your choice via a command-line option such as -server, --master, --slave, etc. The methods include the following in order of most secure to least secure.
• Use login-paths from your .mylogin.cnf file (encrypted, not visible). Example : login-path[:port]
[:socket]
• Use a configuration file (unencrypted, not visible) Note: available in release-1.5.0. Example :
configuration-file-path[:section]
• Specify the data on the command-line (unencrypted, visible). Example : user[:passwd]@host[:port]
[:socket]
• --demote-master
Make master a slave after switchover.
• --discover-slaves-login=slave_login
At startup, query master for all registered slaves and use the user name and password specified to
connect. Supply the user and password in the form user[:passwd] or login-path. For example, -discover=joe:secret uses 'joe' as the user and 'secret' as the password for each discovered slave.
• --exec-after=script
158
OPTIONS
Name of external script to execute after failover or switchover. Script name may include the full path.
The return code of the script is used to determine success, thus each script must report 0 (success)
to be considered successful. If a script returns a value other than 0, the result code is presented in an
error message. The script specified using this option only runs if the switchover/failover executed with
success.
• --exec-before=script
Name of external script to execute before failover or switchover. Script name may include the full path.
The return code of the script is used to determine success, thus each script must report 0 (success) to
be considered successful. If a script returns a value other than 0, the result code is presented in an error
message.
• --force
Ignore prerequisite checks or any inconsistencies found, such as errant transactions on the slaves or
SQL thread errors, thus forcing the execution of the specified command. This option must be used
carefully as it does not solve any detected issue, but only ignores them and displays a warning message.
• --format=format, -f format
Display the replication health output in either grid (default), tab, csv, or vertical format.
• --log=log_file
Specify a log file to use for logging messages
• --log-age=days
Specify maximum age of log entries in days. Entries older than this are purged on startup. Default = 7
days.
• --master=connection
Connection information for the master server.
To connect to a server, it is necessary to specify connection parameters such as the user name, host
name, password, and either a port or socket. MySQL Utilities provides a number of ways to supply this
information. All of the methods require specifying your choice via a command-line option such as -server, --master, --slave, etc. The methods include the following in order of most secure to least secure.
• Use login-paths from your .mylogin.cnf file (encrypted, not visible). Example : login-path[:port]
[:socket]
• Use a configuration file (unencrypted, not visible) Note: available in release-1.5.0. Example :
configuration-file-path[:section]
• Specify the data on the command-line (unencrypted, visible). Example : user[:passwd]@host[:port]
[:socket]
• --max-position=position
Used to detect slave delay. The maximum difference between the master's log position and the slave's
reported read position of the master. A value greater than this means the slave is too far behind the
master. Default = 0.
159
OPTIONS
• --new-master=connection
Connection information for the slave to be used to replace the master for switchover. Valid only with
switchover command.
To connect to a server, it is necessary to specify connection parameters such as the user name, host
name, password, and either a port or socket. MySQL Utilities provides a number of ways to supply this
information. All of the methods require specifying your choice via a command-line option such as -server, --master, --slave, etc. The methods include the following in order of most secure to least secure.
• Use login-paths from your .mylogin.cnf file (encrypted, not visible). Example : login-path[:port]
[:socket]
• Use a configuration file (unencrypted, not visible) Note: available in release-1.5.0. Example :
configuration-file-path[:section]
• Specify the data on the command-line (unencrypted, visible). Example : user[:passwd]@host[:port]
[:socket]
• --no-health
Turn off health report after switchover or failover.
• --ping=number
Number of ping attempts for detecting downed server. Note: on some platforms this is the same as
number of seconds to wait for ping to return. This value is also used to check down status of master.
Failover waits for ping seconds to check master response. If no response, failover event occurs.
• --quiet, -q
Turn off all messages for quiet execution.
• --rpl-user=replication_user
The user and password for the replication user requirement, in the format: user[:password] or loginpath. E.g. rpl:passwd Default = None.
• --script-threshold=return_code
Value for external scripts to trigger aborting the operation if result is greater than or equal to the
threshold.
Default = None (no threshold checking).
• --seconds-behind=seconds
Used to detect slave delay. The maximum number of seconds behind the master permitted before slave
is considered behind the master. Default = 0.
• --slaves=slave connections
Connection information for slave servers. List multiple slaves in comma-separated list. The list is
evaluated literally whereby each server is considered a slave to the master listed regardless if they are a
slave of the master.
To connect to a server, it is necessary to specify connection parameters such as the user name, host
name, password, and either a port or socket. MySQL Utilities provides a number of ways to supply this
160
NOTES
information. All of the methods require specifying your choice via a command-line option such as -server, --master, --slave, etc. The methods include the following in order of most secure to least secure.
• Use login-paths from your .mylogin.cnf file (encrypted, not visible). Example : login-path[:port]
[:socket]
• Use a configuration file (unencrypted, not visible) Note: available in release-1.5.0. Example :
configuration-file-path[:section]
• Specify the data on the command-line (unencrypted, visible). Example : user[:passwd]@host[:port]
[:socket]
• --ssl-ca
The path to a file that contains a list of trusted SSL CAs.
• --ssl-cert
The name of the SSL certificate file to use for establishing a secure connection.
• --ssl-key
The name of the SSL key file to use for establishing a secure connection.
• --ssl
Specifies if the server connection requires use of SSL. If an encrypted connection cannot be established,
the connection attempt fails. Default setting is 0 (SSL not required).
• --timeout=seconds
Maximum timeout in seconds to wait for each replication command to complete. For example, timeout for
slave waiting to catch up to master. Default = 300 seconds.
• --verbose, -v
Specify how much information to display. Use this option multiple times to increase the amount of
information. For example, -v = verbose, -vv = more verbose, -vvv = debug.
• --version
Display version information and exit.
NOTES
The login user must have the appropriate permissions to execute SHOW SLAVE STATUS, SHOW
MASTER STATUS, and SHOW VARIABLES on the appropriate servers as well as grant the REPLICATE
SLAVE privilege. The utility checks permissions for the master, slaves, and candidates at startup.
Mixing IP and hostnames is not recommended. The replication-specific utilities attempts to compare
hostnames and IP addresses as aliases for checking slave connectivity to the master. However, if your
installation does not support reverse name lookup, the comparison could fail. Without the ability to do a
reverse name lookup, the replication utilities could report a false negative that the slave is (not) connected
to the master.
For example, if you setup replication using "MASTER_HOST=ubuntu.net" on the slave and later connect
to the slave with mysqlrplcheck and have the master specified as "--master=192.168.0.6" using the
161
EXAMPLES
valid IP address for "ubuntu.net", you must have the ability to do a reverse name lookup to compare the IP
(192.168.0.6) and the hostname (ubuntu.net) to determine if they are the same machine.
Similarly, if you use localhost to connect to the master, the health report may not show all of the slaves. It
is best to use the actual hostname of the master when connecting or setting up replication.
If the user does not specify the --rpl-user and the user has specified the switchover or failover
command, the utility checks to see if the slaves are using --master-info-repository=TABLE. If they
are not, the utility stops with an error.
All the commands require either the --slaves or --discover-slaves-login option but both cannot
be used at the same time. In fact, some commands only allow the use of the --slaves option which is
safer to specify the list slaves, because --discover-slaves-login might not provide an up to date list
of available slaves.
The path to the MySQL client tools should be included in the PATH environment variable in order to use the
authentication mechanism with login-paths. This permits the utility to use the my_print_defaults tools
which is required to read the login-path values from the login configuration file (.mylogin.cnf).
When using the external scripts for the failover command, the following parameters are passed in the order
shown to the external script.
Suppose you have a script run_before.sh and you specify that you want it executing before the failover
is performed (using the --exec-before option). Further, let us assume the master MySQL Server is
using port 3306 on the host ‘host1’ and the MySQL Server that becomes the new master is using port 3308
on host 'can_host2'. The script would therefore be invoked in the following manner.
% run_before.sh host1 3306 can_host2 3308
Table 5.4 External Script Parameters
External Script Option
Parameters Passed to External Script
--exec-before
master host, master port, candidate host, candidate port
--exec-after
new master host, new master port
--exec-fail-check
master host, master port
--exec-post-failover (no old master host, old master port, new master host, new master port
errors during failover)
--exec-post-failover
(errors during failover)
old master host, old master port
EXAMPLES
To perform best slave election for a topology with GTID_MODE=ON (server version 5.6.5 or higher) where
all slaves are specified with the --slaves option, run the following command.:
shell> mysqlrpladmin [email protected]:3331 \
[email protected]:3332,[email protected]:3333,[email protected]:3334 elect
# Electing candidate slave from known slaves.
# Best slave found is located on localhost:3332.
# ...done.
To perform best slave election supplying a candidate list, use the following command.:
shell> mysqlrpladmin [email protected]:3331 \
[email protected]:3332,[email protected]host:3333,[email protected]:3334 \
162
EXAMPLES
[email protected]:3333,[email protected]:3334 elect
# Electing candidate slave from candidate list then slaves list.
# Best slave found is located on localhost:3332.
# ...done.
To perform failover after a master has failed, use the following command.:
shell> mysqlrpladmin \
[email protected]:3332,[email protected]:3333,[email protected]:3334 \
[email protected]:3333,[email protected]:3334 failover
# Performing failover.
# Candidate slave localhost:3333 will become the new master.
# Preparing candidate for failover.
# Creating replication user if it does not exist.
# Stopping slaves.
# Performing STOP on all slaves.
# Switching slaves to new master.
# Starting slaves.
# Performing START on all slaves.
# Checking slaves for errors.
# Failover complete.
# ...done.
To see the replication health of a topology with GTID_MODE=ON (server version 5.6.5 or higher) and
discover all slaves attached to the master, run the following command. We use the result of the failover
command above.:
shell> mysqlrpladmin [email protected]:3333 \
[email protected]:3332,[email protected]:3334 health
# Getting health for master: localhost:3333.
#
# Replication Topology Health:
+------------+-------+---------+--------+------------+---------+
| host
| port | role
| state | gtid_mode | health |
+------------+-------+---------+--------+------------+---------+
| localhost | 3333 | MASTER | UP
| ON
| OK
|
| localhost | 3332 | SLAVE
| UP
| ON
| OK
|
| localhost | 3334 | SLAVE
| UP
| ON
| OK
|
+------------+-------+---------+--------+------------+---------+
# ...done.
To view a detailed replication health report but with all of the replication health checks revealed, use the -verbose option as shown below. In this example, we use vertical format to make viewing easier.:
shell> mysqlrpladmin [email protected]:3331 \
[email protected]:3332,[email protected]:3333,[email protected]:3334 \
--verbose health
# Getting health for master: localhost:3331.
# Attempting to contact localhost ... Success
# Attempting to contact localhost ... Success
# Attempting to contact localhost ... Success
# Attempting to contact localhost ... Success
#
# Replication Topology Health:
*************************
1. row *************************
host: localhost
port: 3331
role: MASTER
state: UP
gtid_mode: ON
health: OK
version: 5.6.5-m8-debug-log
master_log_file: mysql-bin.000001
163
EXAMPLES
master_log_pos: 571
IO_Thread:
SQL_Thread:
Secs_Behind:
Remaining_Delay:
IO_Error_Num:
IO_Error:
*************************
2. row *************************
host: localhost
port: 3332
role: SLAVE
state: UP
gtid_mode: ON
health: OK
version: 5.6.5-m8-debug-log
master_log_file: mysql-bin.000001
master_log_pos: 571
IO_Thread: Yes
SQL_Thread: Yes
Secs_Behind: 0
Remaining_Delay: No
IO_Error_Num: 0
IO_Error:
*************************
3. row *************************
host: localhost
port: 3333
role: SLAVE
state: UP
gtid_mode: ON
health: OK
version: 5.6.5-m8-debug-log
master_log_file: mysql-bin.000001
master_log_pos: 571
IO_Thread: Yes
SQL_Thread: Yes
Secs_Behind: 0
Remaining_Delay: No
IO_Error_Num: 0
IO_Error:
*************************
4. row *************************
host: localhost
port: 3334
role: SLAVE
state: UP
gtid_mode: ON
health: OK
version: 5.6.5-m8-debug-log
master_log_file: mysql-bin.000001
master_log_pos: 571
IO_Thread: Yes
SQL_Thread: Yes
Secs_Behind: 0
Remaining_Delay: No
IO_Error_Num: 0
IO_Error:
4 rows.
# ...done.
To run the same failover command above, but specify a log file, use the following command.:
shell> mysqlrpladmin \
[email protected]:3332,[email protected]:3333,[email protected]:3334 \
[email protected]:3333,[email protected]:3334 \
--log=test_log.txt failover
# Performing failover.
# Candidate slave localhost:3333 will become the new master.
164
EXAMPLES
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
Preparing candidate for failover.
Creating replication user if it does not exist.
Stopping slaves.
Performing STOP on all slaves.
Switching slaves to new master.
Starting slaves.
Performing START on all slaves.
Checking slaves for errors.
Failover complete.
...done.
After this command, the log file contains entries like the following:
2012-03-19
2012-03-19
2012-03-19
2012-03-19
2012-03-19
2012-03-19
2012-03-19
2012-03-19
2012-03-19
2012-03-19
2012-03-19
2012-03-19
2012-03-19
14:44:17
14:44:17
14:44:17
14:44:17
14:44:19
14:44:19
14:44:19
14:44:19
14:44:20
14:44:20
14:44:20
14:44:21
14:44:21
PM
PM
PM
PM
PM
PM
PM
PM
PM
PM
PM
PM
PM
INFO
INFO
INFO
INFO
INFO
INFO
INFO
INFO
INFO
INFO
INFO
INFO
INFO
Executing failover command...
Performing failover.
Candidate slave localhost:3333 will become the new master.
Preparing candidate for failover.
Creating replication user if it does not exist.
Stopping slaves.
Performing STOP on all slaves.
Switching slaves to new master.
Starting slaves.
Performing START on all slaves.
Checking slaves for errors.
Failover complete.
...done.
To perform switchover and demote the current master to a slave, use the following command.:
shell> mysqlrpladmin [email protected]:3331 \
[email protected]:3332,[email protected]:3333,[email protected]:3334 \
[email protected]:3332 --demote-master switchover
# Performing switchover from master at localhost:3331 to slave at localhost:3332.
# Checking candidate slave prerequisites.
# Waiting for slaves to catch up to old master.
# Stopping slaves.
# Performing STOP on all slaves.
# Demoting old master to be a slave to the new master.
# Switching slaves to new master.
# Starting all slaves.
# Performing START on all slaves.
# Checking slaves for errors.
# Switchover complete.
# ...done.
If the replication health report is generated on the topology following the above command, it displays the
old master as a slave as shown below.:
# Replication Topology Health:
+------------+-------+---------+--------+------------+---------+
| host
| port | role
| state | gtid_mode | health |
+------------+-------+---------+--------+------------+---------+
| localhost | 3332 | MASTER | UP
| ON
| OK
|
| localhost | 3331 | SLAVE
| UP
| ON
| OK
|
| localhost | 3333 | SLAVE
| UP
| ON
| OK
|
| localhost | 3334 | SLAVE
| UP
| ON
| OK
|
+------------+-------+---------+--------+------------+---------+
You can use the discover slaves feature, if and only if all slaves report their host and port to the master.
A sample command to generate a replication health report with discovery is shown below. Note that the
option --discover-slaves-login cannot be used in conjunction with the --slaves option.:
165
PERMISSIONS REQUIRED
shell> mysqlrpladmin [email protected]:3332 --discover-slaves-login=root
health
# Discovering slaves for master at localhost:3332
# Discovering slave at localhost:3331
# Found slave: localhost:3331
# Discovering slave at localhost:3333
# Found slave: localhost:3333
# Discovering slave at localhost:3334
# Found slave: localhost:3334
# Checking privileges.
#
# Replication Topology Health:
+------------+-------+---------+--------+------------+---------+
| host
| port | role
| state | gtid_mode | health |
+------------+-------+---------+--------+------------+---------+
| localhost | 3332 | MASTER | UP
| ON
| OK
|
| localhost | 3331 | SLAVE
| UP
| ON
| OK
|
| localhost | 3333 | SLAVE
| UP
| ON
| OK
|
| localhost | 3334 | SLAVE
| UP
| ON
| OK
|
+------------+-------+---------+--------+------------+---------+
# ...done.
PERMISSIONS REQUIRED
The users on the master need the following privileges: SELECT and INSERT privileges on mysql
database, REPLICATION SLAVE, REPLICATION CLIENT and GRANT OPTION. The slave users need
the SUPER privilege. The repl user, used as the argument for the --rpl-user option, is either created
automatically or if it exists, it needs the REPLICATION SLAVE privilege.
To run the mysqlrpladmin utility with the health command, the account used on the master needs an
extra SUPER privilege.
As for the switchover command all the users need the following privileges: SUPER, GRANT OPTION,
SELECT, RELOAD, DROP, CREATE and REPLICATION SLAVE
5.17 mysqlrplcheck — Check Replication Prerequisites
This utility checks the prerequisites for replication between a master and a slave. These checks (called
tests) are designed to ensure a healthy replication setup. The utility performs the following tests:
1. Is the binary log enabled on the master?
2. Are there binary logging exceptions (such as *_do_db or *_ignore_db settings)? If so, display them.
3. Does the replication user exist on the master with the correct privileges?
4. Are there server_id conflicts?
5. Is the slave connected to this master? If not, display the master host and port.
6. Are there conflicts between the master.info file on the slave and the values shown in SHOW
SLAVE STATUS on the master?
7. Are the InnoDB configurations compatible (plugin vs. native)?
8. Are the storage engines compatible (have same on slave as master)?
9. Are the lower_case_tables_names settings compatible? Warn if there are settings for lowercase/
uppercase table names that can cause problems. See Bug #59240.
10. Is the slave behind the master?
166
OPTIONS
The utility runs each test in turn unless there is a fatal error preventing further testing, such as a loss of
connection to the servers.
Each test can complete with one of the following states: pass (the prerequisites are met), fail (the
prerequisites were met but one or more errors occurred or there are exceptions to consider), or warn (the
test found some unusual settings that should be examined further but may not be in error).
Use the --verbose option to see additional information such as server IDs, lower_case_table_name
settings, and the contents of the master information file on the slave.
To see the values from the SHOW SLAVE STATUS statement, use the --show-slave-status option.
OPTIONS
mysqlrplcheck accepts the following command-line options:
• --help
Display a help message and exit.
• --license
Display license information and exit.
• --master=source
Connection information for the master server.
To connect to a server, it is necessary to specify connection parameters such as the user name, host
name, password, and either a port or socket. MySQL Utilities provides a number of ways to supply this
information. All of the methods require specifying your choice via a command-line option such as -server, --master, --slave, etc. The methods include the following in order of most secure to least secure.
• Use login-paths from your .mylogin.cnf file (encrypted, not visible). Example : login-path[:port]
[:socket]
• Use a configuration file (unencrypted, not visible) Note: available in release-1.5.0. Example :
configuration-file-path[:section]
• Specify the data on the command-line (unencrypted, visible). Example : user[:passwd]@host[:port]
[:socket]
• --master-info-file=file
The name of the master information file on the slave. The default is master.info read from the data
directory. Note: This option requires that you run the utility on the slave and that you have appropriate
read access for the file.
• --quiet, -q
Turn off all messages for quiet execution. Note: Errors and warnings are not suppressed.
• --show-slave-status, -s
Display the values from SHOW SLAVE STATUS on the master.
• --slave=source
Connection information for the slave server.
167
NOTES
To connect to a server, it is necessary to specify connection parameters such as the user name, host
name, password, and either a port or socket. MySQL Utilities provides a number of ways to supply this
information. All of the methods require specifying your choice via a command-line option such as -server, --master, --slave, etc. The methods include the following in order of most secure to least secure.
• Use login-paths from your .mylogin.cnf file (encrypted, not visible). Example : login-path[:port]
[:socket]
• Use a configuration file (unencrypted, not visible) Note: available in release-1.5.0. Example :
configuration-file-path[:section]
• Specify the data on the command-line (unencrypted, visible). Example : user[:passwd]@host[:port]
[:socket]
• --suppress
Suppress warning messages.
• --ssl-ca
The path to a file that contains a list of trusted SSL CAs.
• --ssl-cert
The name of the SSL certificate file to use for establishing a secure connection.
• --ssl-key
The name of the SSL key file to use for establishing a secure connection.
• --ssl
Specifies if the server connection requires use of SSL. If an encrypted connection cannot be established,
the connection attempt fails. Default setting is 0 (SSL not required).
• --verbose, -v
Specify how much information to display. Use this option multiple times to increase the amount of
information. For example, -v = verbose, -vv = more verbose, -vvv = debug.
• --version
Display version information and exit.
• --width=number
Change the display width of the test report. The default is 75 characters.
NOTES
The login user must have the appropriate permissions to execute SHOW SLAVE STATUS, SHOW
MASTER STATUS, and SHOW VARIABLES on the appropriate servers.
Mixing IP and hostnames is not recommended. The replication-specific utilities attempt to compare
hostnames and IP addresses as aliases for checking slave connectivity to the master. However, if your
installation does not support reverse name lookup, the comparison could fail. Without the ability to do a
reverse name lookup, the replication utilities could report a false negative that the slave is (not) connected
to the master.
168
EXAMPLES
For example, if you setup replication using MASTER_HOST=ubuntu.net on the slave and later connect
to the slave with mysqlrplcheck and have the master specified as --master=192.168.0.6 using the valid
IP address for ubuntu.net, you must have the ability to do a reverse name lookup to compare the IP
(192.168.0.6) and the hostname (ubuntu.net) to determine if they are the same machine.
The path to the MySQL client tools should be included in the PATH environment variable in order to use
the authentication mechanism with login-paths. This permits the utility to use the my_print_defaults tools
which is required to read the login-path values from the login configuration file (.mylogin.cnf).
EXAMPLES
To check the prerequisites of a master and slave that currently are actively performing replication, use the
following command:
shell> mysqlrplcheck [email protected]:3310 [email protected]:3311
# master on host1: ... connected.
# slave on host2: ... connected.
Test Description
Status
-----------------------------------------------------------------------Checking for binary logging on master
[pass]
Are there binlog exceptions?
[pass]
Replication user exists?
[pass]
Checking server_id values
[pass]
Is slave connected to master?
[pass]
Check master information file
[pass]
Checking InnoDB compatibility
[pass]
Checking storage engines compatibility
[pass]
Checking lower_case_table_names settings
[pass]
Checking slave delay (seconds behind master)
[pass]
# ...done.
As shown in the example, you must provide valid login information for both the master and the slave.
To perform the same command but also display the contents of the master information file on the slave and
the values of SHOW SLAVE STATUS as well as additional details, use this command:
shell> mysqlrplcheck [email protected]:3310 [email protected]:3311 \
--show-slave-status -vv
# master on host1: ... connected.
# slave on host2: ... connected.
Test Description
Status
-----------------------------------------------------------------------Checking for binary logging on master
[pass]
Are there binlog exceptions?
[pass]
Replication user exists?
[pass]
Checking server_id values
[pass]
master id = 10
slave id = 11
Is slave connected to master?
Check master information file
#
# Master information file:
#
Master_Log_File
Read_Master_Log_Pos
Master_Host
Master_User
Master_Password
Master_Port
[pass]
[pass]
:
:
:
:
:
:
clone-bin.000001
482
host1
rpl
XXXX
3310
169
PERMISSIONS REQUIRED
Connect_Retry
Master_SSL_Allowed
Master_SSL_CA_File
Master_SSL_CA_Path
Master_SSL_Cert
Master_SSL_Cipher
Master_SSL_Key
Master_SSL_Verify_Server_Cert
: 60
: 0
:
:
:
:
:
: 0
Checking InnoDB compatibility
Checking storage engines compatibility
Checking lower_case_table_names settings
[pass]
[pass]
[pass]
Master lower_case_table_names: 2
Slave lower_case_table_names: 2
Checking slave delay (seconds behind master)
[pass]
#
# Slave status:
#
Slave_IO_State
Master_Host
Master_User
Master_Port
Connect_Retry
Master_Log_File
Read_Master_Log_Pos
Relay_Log_File
Relay_Log_Pos
Relay_Master_Log_File
Slave_IO_Running
Slave_SQL_Running
Replicate_Do_DB
Replicate_Ignore_DB
Replicate_Do_Table
Replicate_Ignore_Table
Replicate_Wild_Do_Table
Replicate_Wild_Ignore_Table
Last_Errno
Last_Error
Skip_Counter
Exec_Master_Log_Pos
Relay_Log_Space
Until_Condition
Until_Log_File
Until_Log_Pos
Master_SSL_Allowed
Master_SSL_CA_File
Master_SSL_CA_Path
Master_SSL_Cert
Master_SSL_Cipher
Master_SSL_Key
Seconds_Behind_Master
Master_SSL_Verify_Server_Cert
Last_IO_Errno
Last_IO_Error
Last_SQL_Errno
Last_SQL_Error
# ...done.
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
Waiting for master to send event
host1
rpl
3310
60
clone-bin.000001
482
clone-relay-bin.000006
251
clone-bin.000001
Yes
Yes
0
0
482
551
None
0
No
0
No
0
0
PERMISSIONS REQUIRED
The users on the master need the following privileges: SELECT and INSERT privileges on mysql
database, REPLICATION SLAVE, REPLICATION CLIENT and GRANT OPTION. The slave users need
the SUPER privilege.
170
mysqlrplshow — Show Slaves for Master Server
Also, when using GTIDs, the slave users must also have SELECT privilege over the mysql database.
5.18 mysqlrplshow — Show Slaves for Master Server
This utility shows the replication slaves for a master. It prints a graph of the master and the slaves
connected labeling each with the host name and port number.
You must specify the --discover-slaves-login option to provide the user name and password to
discover any slaves in the topology.
The discover slaves option requires that all slaves use the --report-host and --report-port server
startup options with the correct hostname and port. If these are missing or report incorrect information, the
slave may not be detected and thus not included in the operation of the utility. The discover slaves option
ignores any slaves to which it cannot connect.
To explore the slaves for each client, use the --recurse option. This causes the utility to connect to each
slave found and attempt to determine whether it has any slaves. If slaves are found, the process continues
until the slave is found in the list of servers serving as masters (a circular topology). The graph displays the
topology with successive indents. A notation is made for circular topologies.
If you use the --recurse option, the utility attempts to connect to the slaves using the user name and
password provided for the master. By default, if the connection attempt fails, the utility throws an error and
stops. To change this behavior, use the --prompt option, which permits the utility to prompt for the user
name and password for each slave that fails to connect. You can also use the --num-retries=n option
to reattempt a failed connection 'n' times before the utility fails.
An example graph for a typical topology with relay slaves is shown here:
# Replication Topology Graph::
localhost:3311 (MASTER)
|
+--- localhost:3310 - (SLAVE)
|
+--- localhost:3312 - (SLAVE + MASTER)
|
+--- localhost:3313 - (SLAVE)
MASTER, SLAVE, and SLAVE+MASTER indicate that a server is a master only, slave only, and both slave
and master, respectively.
A circular replication topology is shown like this, where <--> indicates circularity:
# Replication Topology Graph
localhost:3311 (MASTER)
|
+--- localhost:3312 - (SLAVE + MASTER)
|
+--- localhost:3313 - (SLAVE + MASTER)
|
+--- localhost:3311 <--> (SLAVE)
To produce a column list in addition to the graph, specify the --show-list option. In this case, to specify
how to display the list, use one of the following values with the --format option:
• grid (default)
Display output in grid or table format like that of the mysql client command-line tool.
• csv
171
OPTIONS
Display output in comma-separated values format.
• tab
Display output in tab-separated format.
• vertical
Display output in single-column format like that of the \G command for the mysql client command-line
tool.
The utility uses of the SHOW SLAVE HOSTS statement to determine which slaves the master has. If
you want to use the --recurse option, slaves must have been started with the --report-host and
--report-port options set to their actual host name and port number or the utility may not be able to
connect to the slaves to determine their own slaves.
OPTIONS
mysqlrplshow accepts the following command-line options:
• --help
Display a help message and exit.
• --license
Display license information and exit.
• --discover-slaves-login=slave-login
Supply the user and password in the form user[:passwd] or login-path for discovering slaves and
relay slaves in the topology. For example, --discover=joe:secret uses 'joe' as the user and 'secret' as the
password for each discovered slave.
• --format=format, -fformat
Specify the display format for column list output. Permitted format values are grid, csv, tab, and
vertical. The default is grid. This option applies only if --show-list is given.
• --master=source
Connection information for the master server.
To connect to a server, it is necessary to specify connection parameters such as the user name, host
name, password, and either a port or socket. MySQL Utilities provides a number of ways to supply this
information. All of the methods require specifying your choice via a command-line option such as -server, --master, --slave, etc. The methods include the following in order of most secure to least secure.
• Use login-paths from your .mylogin.cnf file (encrypted, not visible). Example : login-path[:port]
[:socket]
• Use a configuration file (unencrypted, not visible) Note: available in release-1.5.0. Example :
configuration-file-path[:section]
• Specify the data on the command-line (unencrypted, visible). Example : user[:passwd]@host[:port]
[:socket]
• --max-depth=N
172
OPTIONS
The maximum recursion depth. This option is valid only if --recurse is given.
• --num-retries=num_retries, -nnum_retries
The number of retries permitted for failed slave login attempts. This option is valid only if --prompt is
given.
• --prompt, -p
Prompt for the slave user and password if different from the master user and password.
If you give this option, the utility sets --num-retries to 1 if that option is not set explicitly. This ensures
at least one attempt to retry and prompt for the user name and password should a connection fail.
• --quiet, -q
Turn off all messages for quiet execution. This option does not suppress errors or warnings.
• --recurse, -r
Traverse the list of slaves to find additional master/slave connections. User this option to map a
replication topology.
• --show-list, -l
Display a column list of the topology.
• --ssl-ca
The path to a file that contains a list of trusted SSL CAs.
• --ssl-cert
The name of the SSL certificate file to use for establishing a secure connection.
• --ssl-key
The name of the SSL key file to use for establishing a secure connection.
• --ssl
Specifies if the server connection requires use of SSL. If an encrypted connection cannot be established,
the connection attempt fails. Default setting is 0 (SSL not required).
• --verbose, -v
Specify how much information to display. If this option is used, the IO thread status of each slave is
also displayed. Use this option multiple times to increase the amount of information. For example, -v =
verbose, -vv = more verbose, -vvv = debug. If you use -vvv, the output contains the state of the IO and
SQL threads for each slave.
• --version
Display version information and exit.
173
NOTES
NOTES
The login user must have the REPLICATE SLAVE and REPLICATE CLIENT privileges to successfully
execute this utility. Specifically, the login user must have appropriate permissions to execute SHOW
SLAVE STATUS, SHOW MASTER STATUS, and SHOW SLAVE HOSTS.
For the --format option, the permitted values are not case sensitive. In addition, values may be specified
as any unambiguous prefix of a valid value. For example, --format=g specifies the grid format. An error
occurs if a prefix matches more than one valid value.
Mixing IP and hostnames is not recommended. The replication-specific utilities attempt to compare
hostnames and IP addresses as aliases for checking slave connectivity to the master. However, if your
installation does not support reverse name lookup, the comparison could fail. Without the ability to do a
reverse name lookup, the replication utilities could report a false negative that the slave is (not) connected
to the master.
For example, if you setup replication using MASTER_HOST=ubuntu.net on the slave and later connect
to the slave with mysqlrplcheck and have the master specified as --master=192.168.0.6 using the valid
IP address for ubuntu.net, you must have the ability to do a reverse name lookup to compare the IP
(192.168.0.6) and the hostname (ubuntu.net) to determine if they are the same machine.
The path to the MySQL client tools should be included in the PATH environment variable in order to use
the authentication mechanism with login-paths. This permits the utility to use the my_print_defaults tools
which is required to read the login-path values from the login configuration file (.mylogin.cnf).
EXAMPLES
To show the slaves for a master running on port 3311 on the local host, use the following command:
shell> mysqlrplshow [email protected]:3311 --discover-slaves-login=root
# master on localhost: ... connected.
# Finding slaves for master: localhost:3311
# Replication Topology Graph
localhost:3311 (MASTER)
|
+--- localhost:3310 - (SLAVE)
|
+--- localhost:3312 - (SLAVE)
As shown in the example, you must provide valid login information for the master.
To show additional information about the IO thread status (to confirm if the slaves are really connected to
the master) use the option --verbose:
shell> mysqlrplshow [email protected]:3311 --discover-slaves-login=root --verbose
# master on localhost: ... connected.
# Finding slaves for master: localhost:3311
# Replication Topology Graph
localhost:3311 (MASTER)
|
+--- localhost:3310 [IO: Yes, SQL: Yes] - (SLAVE)
|
+--- localhost:3312 [IO: Yes, SQL: Yes] - (SLAVE)
To show the full replication topology of a master running on the local host, use the following command:
174
PERMISSIONS REQUIRED
shell> mysqlrplshow [email protected]:3311 --recurse --discover-slaves-login=root
# master on localhost: ... connected.
# Finding slaves for master: localhost:3311
# Replication Topology Graph
localhost:3311 (MASTER)
|
+--- localhost:3310 - (SLAVE)
|
+--- localhost:3312 - (SLAVE + MASTER)
|
+--- localhost:3313 - (SLAVE)
To show the full replication topology of a master running on the local host, prompting for the user name
and password for slaves that do not have the same user name and password credentials as the master,
use the following command:
shell> mysqlrplshow --recurse --prompt --num-retries=1 \
[email protected]:3331 --discover-slaves-login=root
Server localhost:3331 is running on localhost.
# master on localhost: ... connected.
# Finding slaves for master: localhost:3331
Server localhost:3332 is running on localhost.
# master on localhost: ... FAILED.
Connection to localhost:3332 has failed.
Please enter the following information to connect to this server.
User name: root
Password:
# master on localhost: ... connected.
# Finding slaves for master: localhost:3332
Server localhost:3333 is running on localhost.
# master on localhost: ... FAILED.
Connection to localhost:3333 has failed.
Please enter the following information to connect to this server.
User name: root
Password:
# master on localhost: ... connected.
# Finding slaves for master: localhost:3333
Server localhost:3334 is running on localhost.
# master on localhost: ... FAILED.
Connection to localhost:3334 has failed.
Please enter the following information to connect to this server.
User name: root
Password:
# master on localhost: ... connected.
# Finding slaves for master: localhost:3334
# Replication Topology Graph
localhost:3331 (MASTER)
|
+--- localhost:3332 - (SLAVE)
|
+--- localhost:3333 - (SLAVE + MASTER)
|
+--- localhost:3334 - (SLAVE)
PERMISSIONS REQUIRED
The user connected to the master must have the REPLICATION SLAVE privilege.
The user specified with the --discover-slaves-login option that logs into each slave must have the
REPLICATION CLIENT privilege.
175
mysqlrplsync — Replication synchronization checker
5.19 mysqlrplsync — Replication synchronization checker
This utility permits you to check replication servers for synchronization of replicated events. The utility
permits users to check data consistency between a master and slaves or between two slaves. The utility
reports missing objects as well as missing data. The utility can also be used to synchronize the replicated
data on the servers.
The utility can operate on an active replication topology applying a synchronization process to check the
data. Those servers where replication is not active can still be checked but the synchronization process is
skipped. In that case, it is up to the user to manually synchronize the servers.
The user must provide connection parameters for the servers. That is, the utility requires the master and
slaves using the --master and --slaves options. To compare only slaves, the user need only provide
the --slaves option.
The utility also provides a feature to discover slaves connected to the master using the --discoverslaves-login and --master options.
The discover slaves option requires that all slaves use the --report-host and --report-port server
startup options with the correct hostname and port. If these are missing or report incorrect information, the
slave may not be detected and thus not included in the operation of the utility. The discover slaves option
ignores any slaves to which it cannot connect.
By default, all data is included in the comparison. To check specific databases or tables, list each element
as a separated argument for the utility using fully qualified names. The user can also choose to exclude
some databases or tables from the check using the --exclude option.
The utility also provides some important features that allow users to adjust the execution of the
consistency check to their system. For example, the user may wish the utility to minimize execution of the
synchronization process. To do so, the user uses the --rpl-timeout to define the maximum time for
each slave to synchronize. More specifically, allow slaves to catch up with the master in order to compare
the data. During this waiting step, the slaves status is periodically polled according to a predefined time
interval. This polling interval to verify if the slaves are synced can be adjusted with the --interval
option. A checksum query is used to compare the data of each table between servers. The checksum
calculation step is skipped if its execution exceeds a predefined time, avoiding undesirable performance
impacts on the target system if it takes too long to execute. The user can change the checksum timeout
using the --checksum-timeout option.
Users can also use the --verbose option to see additional information when the utility executes.
This utility is designed to work exclusively for servers that support global transaction identifiers (GTIDs)
and have gtid_mode=ON. Servers with GTID disabled are skipped by the utility. See Replication with
Global Transaction Identifiers, for more information about GTID.
The utility takes into consideration the use of replication filtering rules on the servers skipping the check for
filtered databases and tables according to the defined options. Nevertheless, the use of replication filters
can still lead to data consistency issues depending on how statements are evaluated. See How Servers
Evaluate Replication Filtering Rules, for more information.
OPTIONS
mysqlrplsync accepts the following command-line options:
• --help
Display a help message and exit.
176
OPTIONS
• --license
Display license information and exit.
• --checksum-timeout=checksum_timeout_in_seconds
Maximum timeout in seconds to wait for the checksum query to complete.
Default = 3 seconds.
• --discover-slaves-login=user_login
Detect registered slaves at startup and use the user name and password specified to connect in the
format: user [:password] or login-path. For example, --discover-slaves-login=joe:secret uses 'joe'
as the user and 'secret' as the password for each discovered slave.
• --exclude=databases_tables_to_exclude
Fully qualified name for the databases or tables to exclude: db_name [.tbl_name]. List multiple data
objects in a comma-separated list.
• --interval=interval_in_seconds, -i interval_in_seconds
Interval in seconds for periodically polling the slaves sync status to verify if the sync point was reached.
Default = 3 seconds.
• --master=master_connection
Connection information for the master server.
To connect to a server, it is necessary to specify connection parameters such as the user name, host
name, password, and either a port or socket. MySQL Utilities provides a number of ways to supply this
information. All of the methods require specifying your choice via a command-line option such as -server, --master, --slave, etc. The methods include the following in order of most secure to least secure.
• Use login-paths from your .mylogin.cnf file (encrypted, not visible). Example : login-path[:port]
[:socket]
• Use a configuration file (unencrypted, not visible) Note: available in release-1.5.0. Example :
configuration-file-path[:section]
• Specify the data on the command-line (unencrypted, visible). Example : user[:passwd]@host[:port]
[:socket]
• --rpl-timeout=rpl_timeout_in_seconds
Maximum timeout in seconds to wait for synchronization. More precisely, the time to wait for the
replication process on a slave to reach a sync point (GTID set).
Default = 300 seconds.
• --slaves=slaves_connections
Connection information for slave servers . List multiple slaves in comma-separated list.
To connect to a server, it is necessary to specify connection parameters such as the user name, host
name, password, and either a port or socket. MySQL Utilities provides a number of ways to supply this
177
NOTES
information. All of the methods require specifying your choice via a command-line option such as -server, --master, --slave, etc. The methods include the following in order of most secure to least secure.
• Use login-paths from your .mylogin.cnf file (encrypted, not visible). Example : login-path[:port]
[:socket]
• Use a configuration file (unencrypted, not visible) Note: available in release-1.5.0. Example :
configuration-file-path[:section]
• Specify the data on the command-line (unencrypted, visible). Example : user[:passwd]@host[:port]
[:socket]
• --ssl-ca
The path to a file that contains a list of trusted SSL CAs.
• --ssl-cert
The name of the SSL certificate file to use for establishing a secure connection.
• --ssl-key
The name of the SSL key file to use for establishing a secure connection.
• --ssl
Specifies if the server connection requires use of SSL. If an encrypted connection cannot be established,
the connection attempt fails. Default setting is 0 (SSL not required).
• --verbose, -v
Specify how much information to display. Use this option multiple times to increase the amount of
information. For example, -v = verbose, -vv = more verbose, -vvv = debug.
• --version
Display version information and exit.
NOTES
The data consistency check is performed per table using a checksum on the table. If the calculated
checksum differs, it indicates the tables are not synchronized. Nevertheless, since the checksum operation
is not collision free, there is a very small probability that two tables with differing data can produce the
same checksum.
Mixing IP and hostnames is not recommended. The replication-specific utilities attempt to compare
hostnames and IP addresses as aliases for checking slave connectivity to the master. However, if your
installation does not support reverse name lookup, the comparison could fail. Without the ability to do a
reverse name lookup, the replication utilities could report a false negative that the slave is (not) connected
to the master.
For example, if you setup replication using MASTER_HOST=ubuntu.net on the slave and later connect
to the slave with mysqlrplcheck and have the master specified as --master=192.168.0.6 using the valid
IP address for ubuntu.net, you must have the ability to do a reverse name lookup to compare the IP
(192.168.0.6) and the hostname (ubuntu.net) to determine if they are the same machine.
Similarly, in order to avoid issues mixing local IP '127.0.0.1' with 'localhost', the addresse '127.0.0.1' is
converted to 'localhost' by the utility.
178
LIMITATIONS
The path to the MySQL client tools should be included in the PATH environment variable in order to use
the authentication mechanism with login-paths. This permits the utility to use the my_print_defaults tools
which is required to read the login-path values from the login configuration file (.mylogin.cnf).
LIMITATIONS
This utility is designed to work exclusively for servers that support global transaction identifiers
(GTIDs) and have gtid_mode=ON. Due to known server issues with some operations required for the
synchronization process, only MySQL Server versions 5.6.14 and higher are supported by this utility.
Some replication filtering options are not supported by this utility due to known issues on the server side,
namely: replicate_do_db, replicate_ignore_db, and replicate_wild_do_table. In case a non supported
replication filtering option is detected on a server, the utility issues an appropriate error and exits. This
check is performed at the beginning when the utility starts.
EXAMPLES
To check the data consistency on an active replication system explicitly specifying the master and slaves:
shell> mysqlrplsync --master=user:[email protected]:3310 \
--slaves=rpl:[email protected]:3311,rpl:[email protected]:3312
#
# GTID differences between Master and Slaves:
# - Slave '[email protected]' is 15 transactions behind Master.
# - Slave '[email protected]' is 12 transactions behind Master.
#
# Checking data consistency.
#
# Using Master '[email protected]' as base server for comparison.
# Checking 'test_rplsync_db' database...
# - Checking 't0' table data...
#
[OK] `test_rplsync_db`.`t0` checksum for server '[email protected]'.
#
[OK] `test_rplsync_db`.`t0` checksum for server '[email protected]'.
# - Checking 't1' table data...
#
[OK] `test_rplsync_db`.`t1` checksum for server '[email protected]'.
#
[OK] `test_rplsync_db`.`t1` checksum for server '[email protected]'.
# Checking 'test_db' database...
# - Checking 't0' table data...
#
[OK] `test_db`.`t0` checksum for server '[email protected]'.
#
[OK] `test_db`.`t0` checksum for server '[email protected]'.
# - Checking 't1' table data...
#
[OK] `test_db`.`t1` checksum for server '[email protected]'.
#
[OK] `test_db`.`t1` checksum for server '[email protected]'.
#
#...done.
#
# SUMMARY: No data consistency issue found.
#
To check the data consistency on an active replication system using slave discovery:
shell> mysqlrplsync --master=user:[email protected]:3310 \
--discover-slaves-login=rpl:pass
# Discovering slaves for master at localhost:3310
# Discovering slave at localhost:3311
# Found slave: localhost:3311
# Discovering slave at localhost:3312
# Found slave: localhost:3312
#
# GTID differences between Master and Slaves:
# - Slave '[email protected]' is 15 transactions behind Master.
179
EXAMPLES
# - Slave '[email protected]' is 15 transactions behind Master.
#
# Checking data consistency.
#
# Using Master '[email protected]' as base server for comparison.
# Checking 'test_rplsync_db' database...
# - Checking 't0' table data...
#
[OK] `test_rplsync_db`.`t0` checksum for server '[email protected]'.
#
[OK] `test_rplsync_db`.`t0` checksum for server '[email protected]'.
# - Checking 't1' table data...
#
[OK] `test_rplsync_db`.`t1` checksum for server '[email protected]'.
#
[OK] `test_rplsync_db`.`t1` checksum for server '[email protected]'.
# Checking 'test_db' database...
# - Checking 't0' table data...
#
[OK] `test_db`.`t0` checksum for server '[email protected]'.
#
[OK] `test_db`.`t0` checksum for server '[email protected]'.
# - Checking 't1' table data...
#
[OK] `test_db`.`t1` checksum for server '[email protected]'.
#
[OK] `test_db`.`t1` checksum for server '[email protected]'.
#
#...done.
#
# SUMMARY: No data consistency issue found.
#
To check the data consistency on an active replication system, but only between specific slaves:
shell> mysqlrplsync --slaves=rpl:[email protected]:3311,rpl:[email protected]:3312
#
# Checking data consistency.
#
# Using Slave '[email protected]' as base server for comparison.
# Checking 'test_rplsync_db' database...
# - Checking 't0' table data...
#
[OK] `test_rplsync_db`.`t0` checksum for server '[email protected]'.
# - Checking 't1' table data...
#
[OK] `test_rplsync_db`.`t1` checksum for server '[email protected]'.
# Checking 'test_db' database...
# - Checking 't0' table data...
#
[OK] `test_db`.`t0` checksum for server '[email protected]'.
# - Checking 't1' table data...
#
[OK] `test_db`.`t1` checksum for server '[email protected]'.
#
#...done.
#
# SUMMARY: No data consistency issue found.
#
To check the data consistency of a specific database and table on an active replication system:
shell> mysqlrplsync --master=user:[email protected]:3310 \
--slaves=rpl:[email protected]:3311,rpl:[email protected]:3312 \
test_rplsync_db test_db.t1
#
# GTID differences between Master and Slaves:
# - Slave '[email protected]' is 15 transactions behind Master.
# - Slave '[email protected]' is 12 transactions behind Master.
#
# Checking data consistency.
#
# Using Master '[email protected]' as base server for comparison.
# Checking 'test_rplsync_db' database...
# - Checking 't0' table data...
#
[OK] `test_rplsync_db`.`t0` checksum for server '[email protected]'.
#
[OK] `test_rplsync_db`.`t0` checksum for server '[email protected]'.
180
EXAMPLES
# - Checking 't1' table data...
#
[OK] `test_rplsync_db`.`t1` checksum for server '[email protected]'.
#
[OK] `test_rplsync_db`.`t1` checksum for server '[email protected]'.
# Checking 'test_db' database...
# - Checking 't1' table data...
#
[OK] `test_db`.`t1` checksum for server '[email protected]'.
#
[OK] `test_db`.`t1` checksum for server '[email protected]'.
#
#...done.
#
# SUMMARY: No data consistency issue found.
#
To check the data consistency on an active replication system excluding a specific database and table:
shell> mysqlrplsync --master=user:[email protected]:3310 \
--slaves=rpl:[email protected]:3311,rpl:[email protected]:3312 \
--exclude=test_rplsync_db,test_db.t1
#
# GTID differences between Master and Slaves:
# - Slave '[email protected]' is 15 transactions behind Master.
# - Slave '[email protected]' is 12 transactions behind Master.
#
# Checking data consistency.
#
# Using Master '[email protected]' as base server for comparison.
# Checking 'test_db' database...
# - Checking 't0' table data...
#
[OK] `test_db`.`t0` checksum for server '[email protected]'.
#
[OK] `test_db`.`t0` checksum for server '[email protected]'.
#
#...done.
#
# SUMMARY: No data consistency issue found.
#
The following is an example of a replication check that has data inconsistencies:
shell> mysqlrplsync --master=user:[email protected]:3310 \
--slaves=rpl:[email protected]:3311,rpl:[email protected]:3312
#
# GTID differences between Master and Slaves:
# - Slave '[email protected]' is up-to-date.
# - Slave '[email protected]' is up-to-date.
#
# Checking data consistency.
#
# Using Master '[email protected]' as base server for comparison.
# [DIFF] Database NOT on base server but found on '[email protected]': only_on_slave_db
# Checking 'test_rplsync_db' database...
#
[DIFF] Table NOT on base server but found on '[email protected]': t3
#
[DIFF] Table NOT on base server but found on '[email protected]': t3
#
[DIFF] Table 'test_rplsync_db.t0' NOT on server '[email protected]'.
# - Checking 't0' table data...
#
[DIFF] `test_rplsync_db`.`t0` checksum for server '[email protected]'.
# - Checking 't1' table data...
#
WARNING: Slave not active '[email protected]' - Sync skipped.
#
[DIFF] `test_rplsync_db`.`t1` checksum for server '[email protected]'.
#
[OK] `test_rplsync_db`.`t1` checksum for server '[email protected]'.
# - Checking 't2' table data...
#
WARNING: Slave not active '[email protected]' - Sync skipped.
#
[OK] `test_rplsync_db`.`t2` checksum for server '[email protected]'.
#
[OK] `test_rplsync_db`.`t2` checksum for server '[email protected]'.
# Checking 'only_on_master_db' database...
#
[DIFF] Database 'only_on_master_db' NOT on server '[email protected]'.
181
PERMISSIONS REQUIRED
#
[DIFF] Database 'only_on_master_db' NOT on server '[email protected]'.
#
#...done.
#
# SUMMARY: 8 data consistency issues found.
#
Check a replication topology with filtering:
shell> mysqlrplsync --master=user:[email protected]:3310 \
--slaves=rpl:[email protected]:3311,rpl:[email protected]:3312 \
--verbose
# Checking users permission to perform consistency check.
#
# WARNING: Replication filters found on checked servers. This can lead data consistency issues depending on ho
# More information: http://dev.mysql.com/doc/en/replication-rules.html
# Master '[email protected]':
#
- binlog_do_db: test_rplsync_db1
# Slave '[email protected]':
#
- replicate_do_table: test_rplsync_db1.t1
# Slave '[email protected]':
#
- replicate_ignore_table: test_rplsync_db1.t2
#
- replicate_wild_ignore_table: test\_rplsync\_db1.%3
#
# GTID differences between Master and Slaves:
# - Slave '[email protected]' is up-to-date.
# - Slave '[email protected]' is up-to-date.
#
# Checking data consistency.
#
# Using Master '[email protected]' as base server for comparison.
# Checking 'test_rplsync_db1' database...
# [SKIP] Table 't0' check for '[email protected]' - filtered by replication rule.
# - Checking 't0' table data...
#
Setting data synchronization point for slaves.
#
Compute checksum on slaves (wait to catch up and resume replication).
#
[OK] `test_rplsync_db1`.`t0` checksum for server '[email protected]'.
# - Checking 't1' table data...
#
Setting data synchronization point for slaves.
#
Compute checksum on slaves (wait to catch up and resume replication).
#
[OK] `test_rplsync_db1`.`t1` checksum for server '[email protected]'.
#
[OK] `test_rplsync_db1`.`t1` checksum for server '[email protected]'.
# [SKIP] Table 't2' check for '[email protected]' - filtered by replication rule.
# [SKIP] Table 't2' check for '[email protected]' - filtered by replication rule.
# [SKIP] Table 't3' check for '[email protected]' - filtered by replication rule.
# [SKIP] Table 't3' check for '[email protected]' - filtered by replication rule.
# [SKIP] Database 'test_rplsync_db0' check - filtered by replication rule.
# [SKIP] Database 'test_rplsync_db2' check - filtered by replication rule.
# [SKIP] Database 'test_rplsync_db3' check - filtered by replication rule.
#
#...done.
#
# SUMMARY: No data consistency issue found.
#
PERMISSIONS REQUIRED
The user for the master must have permissions to lock tables, perform the checksum, and get information
about the master status. Specifically, the user used to connect to the master requires the following
privileges: SUPER or REPLICATION CLIENT, LOCK TABLES and SELECT.
The user for the slaves must have permissions to start/stop the slave, perform the checksum, and get
information about the slave status. More specifically, the login user to connect to slaves requires the
following privileges: SUPER and SELECT.
182
mysqlserverclone — Clone Existing Server to Create New Server
5.20 mysqlserverclone — Clone Existing Server to Create New
Server
This utility enables you to clone an existing MySQL server instance to create a new server instance on the
same host. The utility creates a new datadir (--new-data), and, on Unix systems, starts the server with a
socket file. You can optionally add a password for the login user account on the new instance.
If the user does not have read and write access to the folder specified by the --new-data option, the
utility issues an error.
Similarly, if the folder specified by --new-data exists and is not empty, the utility does not delete the
folder and issues an error message. Users must specify the --delete-data option to permit the utility to
remove the folder prior to starting the cloned server.
The utility does not copy any data. It merely creates a new running instance of the cloned server with the
same options (or additional options if specified). Thus, to create a copy of a server, you must copy the data
after the server is cloned.
OPTIONS
mysqlserverclone accepts the following command-line options:
• --help
Display a help message and exit.
• --license
Display license information and exit.
• --delete-data
Delete the folder specified by --new-data if it exists and is not empty.
• --basedir
The base directory for the MySQL server source, as an alternative to the --server option.
shell> mysqlserverclone --basedir=/source/mysql-5.6 \
--new-data=/source/temp_3007 --new-port=3007 --new-id=101 \
--root=root --mysqld="--log-bin --gtid-mode=on --log-slave-updates \
--enforce-gtid-consistency --master-info-repository=table \
--report-host=localhost --report-port=3007" --delete
• --force
Ignore the maximum path length and the low space checks for the --new-data option.
• --mysqld=options
Additional options for mysqld. To specify multiple options, separate them by spaces. Use appropriate
quoting as necessary. For example, to specify --log-bin=binlog and --general-logfile="mylogfile", use:
If the option --skip-innodb is included when connecting to a MySQL server version 5.7.5 or higher, the
option is ignored and a warning is issued.
183
OPTIONS
--mysqld="--log-bin=binlog --general-log-file='my log file'"
• --new-data=path_to_new_datadir
The full path to the location of the data directory for the new instance. The path size must be 200
characters or less and it requires at least 120 MB of free space.
• --new-id=server_id
The server_id value for the new server instance. The default is 2.
• --new-port=port
The port number for the new server instance. The default is 3307.
• --quiet, -q
Turn off all messages for quiet execution.
• --root-password=password
The password for the root user of the new server instance.
• --server=source
Connection information for the server to be cloned.
To connect to a server, it is necessary to specify connection parameters such as the user name, host
name, password, and either a port or socket. MySQL Utilities provides a number of ways to supply this
information. All of the methods require specifying your choice via a command-line option such as -server, --master, --slave, etc. The methods include the following in order of most secure to least secure.
• Use login-paths from your .mylogin.cnf file (encrypted, not visible). Example : login-path[:port]
[:socket]
• Use a configuration file (unencrypted, not visible) Note: available in release-1.5.0. Example :
configuration-file-path[:section]
• Specify the data on the command-line (unencrypted, visible). Example : user[:passwd]@host[:port]
[:socket]
• --ssl-ca
The path to a file that contains a list of trusted SSL CAs.
• --ssl-cert
The name of the SSL certificate file to use for establishing a secure connection.
• --ssl-key
The name of the SSL key file to use for establishing a secure connection.
• --ssl
Specifies if the server connection requires use of SSL. If an encrypted connection cannot be established,
the connection attempt fails. Default setting is 0 (SSL not required).
184
EXAMPLES
• --start-timeout=timeout_in_seconds
Number of seconds to wait for server to start. Default = 10 seconds.
• --verbose, -v
Specify how much information to display. Use this option multiple times to increase the amount of
information. For example, -v = verbose, -vv = more verbose, -vvv = debug.
• --version
Display version information and exit.
• --write-command=file_name, -wfile_name
Path name of file in which to write the command used to launch the new server instance.
EXAMPLES
The following command demonstrates how to create a new instance of a running server, set the root user
password and enable binary logging:
shell> mkdir /source/test123
shell> mysqlserverclone --server=root:[email protected] \
--new-data=/Users/cbell/source/test123 --new-port=3310 \
--root-password=pass --mysqld=--log-bin=mysql-bin
# Cloning the MySQL server running on localhost.
# Creating new data directory...
# Configuring new instance...
# Locating mysql tools...
# Setting up empty database and mysql tables...
# Starting new instance of the server...
# Testing connection to new instance...
# Success!
# Setting the root password...
# ...done.
PERMISSIONS REQUIRED
The user must have permission to read all databases. Since we are using the root account for these
examples (and you typically would), permissions are not generally a problem.
You also need permissions to create the new data directory and write data to it.
5.21 mysqlserverinfo — Display Common Diagnostic Information
from a Server
This utility displays critical information about a server for use in diagnosing problems. The information
displayed includes the following:
• Server connection information
• Server version number
• Data directory path name
• Base directory path name
• Plugin directory path name
185
OPTIONS
• Configuration file location and name
• Current binary log coordinates (filename and position)
• Current relay log coordinates (filename and position)
This utility can be used to see the diagnostic information for servers that are running or offline. If you want
to see information about an offline server, the utility starts the server in read-only mode. In this case, you
must specify the --basedir, --datadir, and --start options to prevent the utility from starting an
offline server accidentally. Note: Be sure to consider the ramifications of starting an offline server on the
error and similar logs. It is best to save this information prior to running this utility.
To specify how to display output, use one of the following values with the --format option:
• grid (default)
Display output in grid or table format like that of the mysql client command-line tool.
• csv
Display output in comma-separated values format.
• tab
Display output in tab-separated format.
• vertical
Display output in single-column format like that of the \G command for the mysql client command-line
tool.
To turn off the headers for grid, csv, or tab display format, specify the --no-headers option.
To see the common default settings for the local server's configuration file, use the --show-defaults
option. This option reads the configuration file on the machine where the utility is run, not the machine for
the host that the --server option specifies.
To run the utility against several servers, specify the --server option multiple times. In this case, the
utility attempts to connect to each server and read the information.
To see the MySQL servers running on the local machine, use the --show-servers option. This shows all
the servers with their process ID and data directory. On Windows, the utility shows only the process ID and
port.
OPTIONS
mysqlserverinfo accepts the following command-line options:
• --help
Display a help message and exit.
• --license
Display license information and exit.
• --basedir=basedir
The base directory for the server. This option is required for starting an offline server.
186
OPTIONS
Is also used to access server tools, such as my_print_defaults that is required to read the login-path
values from the login configuration file (.mylogin.cnf).
• --datadir=datadir
The data directory for the server. This option is required for starting an offline server.
• --format=format, -fformat
Specify the output display format. Permitted format values are grid, csv, tab, and vertical. The default is
grid.
• --no-headers, -h
Do not display column headers. This option applies only for grid, csv, and tab output.
• --port-range=start:end
The port range to check for finding running servers. This option applies only to Windows and is ignored
unless --show-servers is given. The default range is 3306:3333.
• --server=server
Connection information for a server. Use this option multiple times to see information for multiple
servers.
To connect to a server, it is necessary to specify connection parameters such as the user name, host
name, password, and either a port or socket. MySQL Utilities provides a number of ways to supply this
information. All of the methods require specifying your choice via a command-line option such as -server, --master, --slave, etc. The methods include the following in order of most secure to least secure.
• Use login-paths from your .mylogin.cnf file (encrypted, not visible). Example : login-path[:port]
[:socket]
• Use a configuration file (unencrypted, not visible) Note: available in release-1.5.0. Example :
configuration-file-path[:section]
• Specify the data on the command-line (unencrypted, visible). Example : user[:passwd]@host[:port]
[:socket]
• --show-defaults, -d
Display default settings for mysqld from the local configuration file. It uses my_print_defaults to
obtain the options.
• --show-servers
Display information about servers running on the local host. The utility examines the host process list to
determine which servers are running.
• --ssl-ca
The path to a file that contains a list of trusted SSL CAs.
• --ssl-cert
The name of the SSL certificate file to use for establishing a secure connection.
187
EXAMPLES
• --ssl-key
The name of the SSL key file to use for establishing a secure connection.
• --ssl
Specifies if the server connection requires use of SSL. If an encrypted connection cannot be established,
the connection attempt fails. Default setting is 0 (SSL not required).
• --start, -s
Start the server in read-only mode if it is offline. With this option, you must also give the --basedir and
--datadir options.
• --start-timeout
Number of seconds to wait for the server to be online when started in read-only mode using the -start option. The default value is 10 seconds.
The --start-timeout option is available as of MySQL Utilities 1.2.4 / 1.3.3.
• --verbose, -v
Specify how much information to display. Use this option multiple times to increase the amount of
information. For example, -v = verbose, -vv = more verbose, -vvv = debug.
• --version
Display version information and exit.
For the --format option, the permitted values are not case sensitive. In addition, values may be specified
as any unambiguous prefix of a valid value. For example, --format=g specifies the grid format. An error
occurs if a prefix matches more than one valid value.
The path to the MySQL client tools should be included in the PATH environment variable in order to use
the authentication mechanism with login-paths. This permits the utility to use the my_print_defaults tools
which is required to read the login-path values from the login configuration file (.mylogin.cnf).
EXAMPLES
To display the server information for the local server and the settings for mysqld in the configuration file
with the output in a vertical list, use this command:
shell> mysqlserverinfo --server=root:[email protected] -d --format=vertical
# Source on localhost: ... connected.
*************************
1. row *************************
server: localhost:3306
version: 5.1.50-log
datadir: /usr/local/mysql/data/
basedir: /usr/local/mysql-5.1.50-osx10.6-x86_64/
plugin_dir: /usr/local/mysql-5.1.50-osx10.6-x86_64/lib/plugin
config_file: /etc/my.cnf
binary_log: my_log.000068
binary_log_pos: 212383
relay_log: None
relay_log_pos: None
1 rows.
Defaults for server localhost:3306
--port=3306
188
PERMISSIONS REQUIRED
--basedir=/usr/local/mysql
--datadir=/usr/local/mysql/data
--server_id=5
--log-bin=my_log
--general_log
--slow_query_log
--innodb_data_file_path=ibdata1:778M;ibdata2:50M:autoextend
#...done.
PERMISSIONS REQUIRED
The permissions required include the ability to read the mysql database and to have read access to the
data directory.
The user must have permissions to read the data directory or use an administrator or super user (sudo)
account to obtain access to the data directory.
5.22 mysqluc — Command line client for running MySQL Utilities
This utility provides a command line environment for running MySQL Utilities.
The mysqluc utility, hence console, allows users to execute any of the currently installed MySQL Utilities
commands (the MySQL Utility scripts such as mysqluserclone). The option --utildir is used to provide
a path to the MySQL Utilities scripts if the location is different from where the utility is executed.
The console has a list of console or base commands. These allow the user to interact with the features of
the console itself. The list of base commands is shown below along with a brief description.
Command
---------------------help utilities
help <utility>
help | help commands
exit | quit
set <variable>=<value>
show options
show variables
<ENTER>
<ESCAPE>
<DOWN>
<UP>
<TAB>
<TAB><TAB>
Description
--------------------------------------------------Display list of all utilities supported.
Display help for a specific utility.
Show this list.
Exit the console.
Store a variable for recall in commands.
Display list of options specified by the user on
launch.
Display list of variables.
Press ENTER to execute command.
Press ESCAPE to clear the command entry.
Press DOWN to retrieve the previous command.
Press UP to retrieve the next command in history.
Press TAB for type completion of utility, option,
or variable names.
Press TAB twice for list of matching type
completion (context sensitive).
One of the most helpful base commands is the ability to see the options for a given utility by typing 'help
utility'. When the user enters this command, the console displays a list of all of the options for the
utility.
The console provides tab completion for all commands, options for utilities, and user-defined variables.
Tab completion for commands allows users to specify the starting N characters of a command and press
TAB to complete the command. If there are more than one command that matches the prefix, and the user
presses TAB twice, a list of all possible matches is displayed.
Tab completion for options is similar. The user must first type a valid MySQL Utility command then types
the first N characters of a command and presses TAB, for example –-verbTAB. In this case, the console
completes the option. For the cases where an option requires a value, the console completes the option
name and append the '=' character. Tab completion for options works for both the full name and the alias
189
OPTIONS
(if available). If the user presses TAB twice, the console displays a list of matching options. Pressing TAB
twice immediately after typing the name of a MySQL Utility displays a list of all options for that utility.
Tab completion for variables works the same as that for options. In this case, the user must first type the
'$' character then press TAB. For example, if a variable $SERVER1 exists, when the user types –-server=
$SERTAB, the console completes the $SERVER variable name. For cases where there are multiple
variables, pressing TAB twice displays a list of all matches to the first $+N characters. Pressing TAB twice
after typing only the $ character displays a list of all variables.
Note
The 'mysql' prefix is optional in the console. For example, typing 'diskuTAB' in the
console completes the command as 'diskusage '.
Executing utilities is accomplished by typing the complete command and pressing ENTER. The user does
not have to type 'python' or provide the '.py' file extension. The console adds these if needed when the
command is executed.
The user can also run commands using the option --execute. The value for this option is a semi-colon
separated list of commands to execute. These can be base commands or MySQL Utility commands. The
console executes each command and display the output. All commands to be run by the console must
appear inside a quoted string and separated by semi-colons. Commands outside of the quoted string are
treated as arguments for the mysqluc utility itself and thus ignored for execution.
Note
In the console, an error in the console or related code stop sexecuting commands
at the point of failure. Commands may also be piped into the console using a
mechanism such as 'echo "commands" | mysqluc'.
The console also allows users to set user-defined variables for commonly used values in options. The
syntax is simply 'set VARNAME=VALUE'. The user can see a list of all variables by entering the 'show
variables' command. To use the values of these variables in utility commands, the user must prefix the
value with a '$'. For example, --server=$SERVER1 substitutes the value of the SERVER1 user-defined
variable when the utility is executed.
Note
User-defined variables have a session lifetime. They are not saved from one
execution to another in the users console.
User-defined variables may also be set by passing them as arguments to the mysqluc command. For
example, to set the SERVER1 variable and launch the console, the user can launch the console using this
command.:
shell> mysqluc [email protected]
The user can provide any number of user-defined variables but they must contain a value and no spaces
around the '=' character. Once the console is launched, the user can see all variables using the 'show
variables' command.
OPTIONS
• --version
show program's version number and exit
190
NOTES
• --help
show the program's help page
• --license
Display license information and exit.
• --verbose, -v
control how much information is displayed. For example, -v = verbose, -vv = more verbose, -vvv =
debug
• --quiet
suppress all informational messages
• --execute commands, -e commands
Execute commands and exit. Multiple commands are separated with semi-colons.
Note
Some platforms may require double quotes around the command list.
• --utildir path
location of utilities
• --width number
Display width
NOTES
Using the --execute option or piping commands to the console may require quotes or double quotes (for
example, on Windows).
EXAMPLES
To launch the console, use this command:
shell> mysqluc
The following demonstrates launching the console and running the console command 'help utilities' to see
a list of all utilities supported. The console executes the command then exits.:
shell> mysqluc -e "help utilities"
Utility
---------------mysqlindexcheck
mysqlrplcheck
mysqluserclone
mysqldbcompare
mysqldiff
mysqldbcopy
Description
--------------------------------------------------------check for duplicate or redundant indexes
check replication
clone a MySQL user account to one or more new users
compare databases for consistency
compare object definitions among objects where the
difference is how db1.obj1 differs from db2.obj2
copy databases from one server to another
191
PERMISSIONS REQUIRED
mysqlreplicate
mysqldbexport
mysqldbimport
mysqlmetagrep
mysqlprocgrep
mysqldiskusage
mysqlserverinfo
mysqlserverclone
establish replication with a master
export metadata and data from databases
import metadata and data from files
search metadata
search process information
show disk usage for databases
show server information
start another instance of a running server
The following demonstrates launching the console to run several commands using the --execute option to
including setting a variable for a server connection and executing a utility using variable substitution.
Note
It may be necessary to escape the '$' on some platforms, such as Linux.
The output below is an excerpt and is representational only:
shell> mysqluc -e "set [email protected]; mysqldiskusage --server=\$SERVER"
# Source on host123: ... connected.
NOTICE: Your user account does not have read access to the datadir. Data
sizes will be calculated and actual file sizes may be omitted. Some features
may be unavailable.
# Database totals:
+--------------------+--------------+
| db_name
|
total |
+--------------------+--------------+
...
| world
|
0 |
...
+--------------------+--------------+
Total database disk usage = 1,072,359,052 bytes or 1022.00 MB
#...done.
The following demonstrates launching the console using the commands shown above but piped into the
console on the command line. The results are the same as above.:
shell> echo "set [email protected]; mysqldiskusage --server=\$SERVER" | mysqluc
The following demonstrates launching the console and setting variables via the command line.:
shell> mysqluc [email protected] VAR_A=57 -e "show variables"
Variable
-------SERVER
VAR_A
Value
-----[email protected]host123
57
PERMISSIONS REQUIRED
There are no special permissions required to run mysqluc however, you must have the necessary
privileges to execute the desired utilities. See the PERMISSIONS REQUIRED section for each command
you wish to execute.
5.23 mysqluserclone — Clone Existing User to Create New User
192
OPTIONS
This utility uses an existing MySQL user account on one server as a template, and clones it to create one
or more new user accounts with the same privileges as the original user. The new users can be created on
the original server or a different server.
To list users for a server, specify the --list option. This prints a list of the users on the source (no
destination is needed). To control how to display list output, use one of the following values with the -format option:
• grid (default)
Display output in grid or table format like that of the mysql client command-line tool.
• csv
Display output in comma-separated values format.
• tab
Display output in tab-separated format.
• vertical
Display output in single-column format like that of the \G command for the mysql client command-line
tool.
OPTIONS
mysqluserclone accepts the following command-line options:
• --help
Display a help message and exit.
• --license
Display license information and exit.
• --destination=destination
Connection information for the destination server.
To connect to a server, it is necessary to specify connection parameters such as the user name, host
name, password, and either a port or socket. MySQL Utilities provides a number of ways to supply this
information. All of the methods require specifying your choice via a command-line option such as -server, --master, --slave, etc. The methods include the following in order of most secure to least secure.
• Use login-paths from your .mylogin.cnf file (encrypted, not visible). Example : login-path[:port]
[:socket]
• Use a configuration file (unencrypted, not visible) Note: available in release-1.5.0. Example :
configuration-file-path[:section]
• Specify the data on the command-line (unencrypted, visible). Example : user[:passwd]@host[:port]
[:socket]
• --dump, -d
Display the GRANT statements to create the account rather than executing them. In this case, the utility
does not connect to the destination server and no --destination option is needed.
193
OPTIONS
• --format=list_format, -flist_format
Specify the user display format. Permitted format values are grid, csv, tab, and vertical. The default is
grid. This option is valid only if --list is given.
• --force
Drop the new user account if it exists before creating the new account. Without this option, it is an error
to try to create an account that already exists.
• --include-global-privileges
Include privileges that match [email protected]% as well as [email protected]
• --list
List all users on the source server. With this option, a destination server need not be specified.
• --quiet, -q
Turn off all messages for quiet execution.
• --source=source
Connection information for the source server.
To connect to a server, it is necessary to specify connection parameters such as the user name, host
name, password, and either a port or socket. MySQL Utilities provides a number of ways to supply this
information. All of the methods require specifying your choice via a command-line option such as -server, --master, --slave, etc. The methods include the following in order of most secure to least secure.
• Use login-paths from your .mylogin.cnf file (encrypted, not visible). Example : login-path[:port]
[:socket]
• Use a configuration file (unencrypted, not visible) Note: available in release-1.5.0. Example :
configuration-file-path[:section]
• Specify the data on the command-line (unencrypted, visible). Example : user[:passwd]@host[:port]
[:socket]
• --ssl-ca
The path to a file that contains a list of trusted SSL CAs.
• --ssl-cert
The name of the SSL certificate file to use for establishing a secure connection.
• --ssl-key
The name of the SSL key file to use for establishing a secure connection.
• --ssl
Specifies if the server connection requires use of SSL. If an encrypted connection cannot be established,
the connection attempt fails. Default setting is 0 (SSL not required).
• --verbose, -v
194
NOTES
Specify how much information to display. Use this option multiple times to increase the amount of
information. For example, -v = verbose, -vv = more verbose, -vvv = debug.
• --version
Display version information and exit.
NOTES
For the --format option, the permitted values are not case sensitive. In addition, values may be specified
as any unambiguous prefix of a valid value. For example, --format=g specifies the grid format. An error
occurs if a prefix matches more than one valid value.
The path to the MySQL client tools should be included in the PATH environment variable in order to use
the authentication mechanism with login-paths. This permits the utility to use the my_print_defaults tools
which is required to read the login-path values from the login configuration file (.mylogin.cnf).
EXAMPLES
To clone joe as sam and sally with passwords and logging in as root on the local machine, use this
command:
shell> mysqluserclone [email protected] \
[email protected] \
[email protected] sam:[email protected] sally:[email protected]
# Source on localhost: ... connected.
# Destination on localhost: ... connected.
# Cloning 2 users...
# Cloning [email protected] to user sam:[email protected]
# Cloning [email protected] to user sally:[email protected]
# ...done.
The following command shows all users on the local server in the most verbose output in CSV format:
shell> mysqluserclone [email protected] --list --format=csv -vvv
# Source on localhost: ... connected.
user,host,database
joe,localhost,util_test
rpl,localhost,
sally,localhost,util_test
sam,localhost,util_test
joe,user,util_test
PERMISSIONS REQUIRED
The account used on the source server must have privileges to read the mysql database. The account
used to connect to the destination server must have privileges to execute CREATE USER (and DROP
USER if the --force option is given), and privileges to execute GRANT for all privileges to be granted to
the new accounts.
195
196
Chapter 6 Extending MySQL Utilities
Table of Contents
6.1 Introduction to extending the MySQL Utilities .............................................................................
6.2 MySQL Utilities copy_server.py sample .....................................................................................
6.3 Specialized Operations .............................................................................................................
6.3.1 mysql.utilities.command.grep — Search Databases for Objects ...........................
6.3.2 mysql.utilities.command.proc — Search Processes on Servers ............................
6.4 Parsers ....................................................................................................................................
6.4.1 mysql.utilities.parser — Parse MySQL Log Files ..............................................................
197
203
206
206
207
208
208
This chapter introduces the architecture for the MySQL Utilities library and demonstrates how to get started
building your own utilities.
6.1 Introduction to extending the MySQL Utilities
Administration and maintenance on the MySQL server can at times be complicated. Sometimes tasks
require tedious or even repetitive operations that can be time consuming to type and re-type. For these
reasons and more, the MySQL Utilities were created to help both beginners and experienced database
administrators perform common tasks.
What are the internals of the MySQL Utilities?
MySQL Utilities are designed as a collection of easy to use Python scripts that can be combined to provide
more powerful features. Internally, the scripts use the mysql.utilities module library to perform its various
tasks. Since a library of common functions is available, it is easy for a database administrator to create
scripts for common tasks. These utilities are located in the /scripts folder of the installation or source
tree.
If you have a task that is not met by these utilities or one that can be met by combining one or more of
the utilities or even parts of the utilities, you can easily form your own custom solution. The following
sections present an example of a custom utility, discussing first the anatomy of a utility and then what the
mysql.utilities module library has available.
Anatomy of a MySQL Utility
MySQL Utilities use a three-tier module organization. At the top is the command script, which resides in the
/scripts folder of the installation or source tree. Included in the script is a command module designed to
encapsulate and isolate the bulk of the work performed by the utility. The command module resides in the
/mysql/utilities/command folder of the source tree. Command modules have names similar to the
script. A command module includes classes and methods from one or more common modules where the
abstract objects and method groups are kept. The common modules reside in the /mysql/utilities/
common folder of the source tree. The following illustrates this arrangement using the mysqlserverinfo
utility:
/scripts/mysqlserverinfo.py
|
+--- /mysql/utilities/command/serverinfo.py
|
+--- /mysql/utilities/common/options.py
|
+--- /mysql/utilities/common/server.py
|
+--- /mysql/utilities/common/tools.py
197
The MySQL Utilities Library
|
+--- /mysql/utilities/common/format.py
Each utility script is designed to process the user input and option settings and pass them on to the
command module. Thus, the script contains only such logic for managing and validating options. The work
of the operation resides in the command module.
Command modules are designed to be used from other Python applications. For example, one could
call the methods in the serverinfo.py module from another Python script. This enables developers to
create their own interfaces to the utilities. It also permits developers to combine several utilities to form a
macro-level utility tailored to a specified need. For example, if there is a need to gather server information
as well as disk usage, it is possible to import the serverinfo.py and diskusage.py modules and
create a new utility that performs both operations.
Common modules are the heart of the MySQL Utilities library. These modules contain classes that abstract
MySQL objects, devices, and mechanisms. For example, there is a server class that contains operations to
be performed on servers, such as connecting (logging in) and running queries.
The MySQL Utilities Library
Although the library is growing, the following lists the current common modules and the major classes and
methods as of the 1.0.1 release:
Module
---------database
dbcompare
format
options
rpl
server
table
tools
Class/Method
------------------------Database
get_create_object
diff_objects
check_consistency
format_tabular_list
Description
---------------------------------------Perform database-level operations
Retrieve object create statement
Diff definitions of two objects
Check data consistency of two tables
Format list in either GRID or
delimited format to a file
format_vertical_list
Format list in a vertical format to
a file
print_list
Print list based on format (CSV,
GRID, TAB, or VERTICAL)
setup_common_options
Set up option parser and options common
to all MySQL Utilities
add_skip_options
Add common --skip options
check_skip_options
Check skip options for validity
check_format_option
Check format option for validity
add_verbosity
Add verbosity and quiet options
check_verbosity
Check whether both verbosity and quiet
options are being used
add_difftype
Add difftype option
add_engines
Add engine, default-storage-engine
options
check_engine_options
Check whether storage engines listed
in options exist
parse_connection
Parse connection values
Replication
Establish replication connection
between a master and a slave
get_replication_tests
Return list of replication test function
pointers
get_connection_dictionary Get connection dictionary
find_running_servers
Check whether any servers are
running on the local host
connect_servers
Connect to source and destination server
Server
Connect to running MySQL server
and perform server-level operations
Index
Encapsulate index for a given table
as defined by SHOW INDEXES
Table
Encapsulate table for given database
to perform table-level operations
get_tool_path
Search for MySQL tool and return its
198
General Interface Specifications and Code Practices
user
delete_directory
parse_user_host
User
full path
Remove directory (folder) and contents
Parse user, passwd, host, port from
user:[email protected]
Clone user and its grants to another
user and perform user-level operations
General Interface Specifications and Code Practices
The MySQL Utilities are designed and coded using mainstream coding practices and techniques common
to the Python community. Effort has been made to adhere to the most widely accepted specifications and
techniques. This includes limiting the choice of libraries used to the default libraries found in the Python
distributions. This ensures easier installation, enhanced portability, and fewer problems with missing
libraries. Similarly, external libraries that resort to platform-specific native code are also not used.
The class method and function signatures are designed to make use of a small number of required
parameters and all optional parameters as a single dictionary. Consider the following method:
def do_something_wonderful(position, obj1, obj2, options={}):
"""Does something wonderful
A fictional method that does something to object 2 based on the
location of something in object 1.
position[in]
obj1[in]
obj2[in]
options[in]
width
iter
ok_to_fail
Position in obj1
First object to manipulate
Second object to manipulate
Option dictionary
width of printout (default 75)
max iterations (default 2)
if True, do not throw exception
(default True)
Returns bool - True = success, Fail = failed
"""
This example is typical of the methods and classes in the library. Notice that this method has three
required parameters and a dictionary of options that may exist.
Each method and function that uses this mechanism defines its own default values for the items in the
dictionary. A quick look at the method documentation shows the key names for the dictionary. This can be
seen in the preceding example where the dictionary contains three keys and the documentation lists their
defaults.
To call this method and pass different values for one or more of the options, the code may look like this:
opt_dictionary = {
'width'
: 100,
'iter'
: 10,
'ok_to_fail' : False,
}
result = do_something_wonderful(1, obj_1, obj_2, opt_dictionary)
The documentation block for the preceding method is the style used throughout the library.
Example
Now that you are familiar with the MySQL utilities and the supporting library modules, let us take a look at
an example that combines some of these modules to solve a problem.
Suppose that you want to develop a new database solution and need to use real world data and user
accounts for testing. The mysqlserverclone MySQL utility looks like a possibility but it makes only an
199
Example
instance of a running server. It does not copy data. However, mysqldbcopy makes a copy of the data
and mysqluserclone clones the users. You could run each of these utilities in sequence, and that would
work, but we are lazy at heart and want something that not only copies everything but also finds it for us.
That is, we want a one-command solution.
The good news is that this is indeed possible and very easy to do. Let us start by breaking the problem
down into its smaller components. In a nutshell, we must perform these tasks:
• Connect to the original server
• Find all of the databases
• Find all of the users
• Make a clone of the original server
• Copy all of the databases
• Copy all of the users
If you look at the utilities and the modules just listed, you see that we have solutions and primitives for each
of these operations. So you need not even call the MySQL utilities directly (although you could). Now let us
dive into the code for this example.
The first task is to connect to the original server. We use the same connection mechanism as the other
MySQL utilities by specifying a --server option like this:
parser.add_option("--server", action="store", dest="server",
type="string", default="[email protected]:3306",
help="connection information for original server in " + \
"the form: user:[email protected]:port:socket")
Once we process the options and arguments, connecting to the server is easy: Use the
parse_connection method to take the server option values and get a dictionary with the connection
values. All of the heavy diagnosis and error handling is done for us, so we just need to check for
exceptions:
from mysql.utilities.common.options import parse_connection
try:
conn = parse_connection(opt.server)
except:
parser.error("Server connection values invalid or cannot be parsed.")
Now that we have the connection parameters, we create a class instance of the server using the Server
class from the server module and then connect. Once again, we check for exceptions:
from mysql.utilities.common.server import Server
server_options = {
'conn_info' : conn,
'role'
: "source",
}
server1 = Server(server_options)
try:
server1.connect()
except UtilError, e:
print "ERROR:", e.errmsg
The next item is to get a list of all of the databases on the server. We use the new server class instance to
retrieve all of the databases on the server:
db_list = []
200
Example
for db in server1.get_all_databases():
db_list.append((db[0], None))
If you wanted to supply your own list of databases, you could use an option like the following. You could
also add an else clause which would enable you to either get all of the databases by omitting the -databases option or supply your own list of databases (for example, --databases=db1,db2,db3):
parser.add_option("-d", "--databases", action="store", dest="dbs_to_copy",
type="string", help="comma-separated list of databases "
"to include in the copy (omit for all databases)",
default=None)
if opt.dbs_to_copy is None:
for db in server1.get_all_databases():
db_list.append((db[0], None))
else:
for db in opt.dbs_to_copy.split(","):
db_list.append((db, None))
Notice we are creating a list of tuples. This is because the dbcopy module uses a list of tuples in the form
(old_db, new_db) to enable you to copy a database to a new name. For our purposes, we do not want a
rename so we leave the new name value set to None.
Next, we want a list of all of the users. Once again, you could construct the new solution to be flexible by
permitting the user to specify the users to copy. We leave this as an exercise.
In this case, we do not have a primitive for getting all users created on a server. But we do have the ability
to run a query and process the results. Fortunately, there is a simple SQL statement that can retrieve all of
the users on a server. For our purposes, we get all of the users except the root and anonymous users, then
add each to a list for processing later:
users = server1.exec_query("SELECT user, host "
"FROM mysql.user "
"WHERE user != 'root' and user != ''")
for user in users:
user_list.append(user[0]+'@'+user[1])
Now we must clone the original server and create a viable running instance. When you examine
the mysqlserverclone utility code, you see that it calls another module located in the /mysql/
utilities/command sub folder. These modules are where all of the work done by the utilities take place.
This enables you to create new combinations of the utilities by calling the actual operations directly. Let's
do that now to clone the server.
The first thing you notice in examining the serverclone module is that it takes a number of parameters
for the new server instance. We supply those in a similar way as options:
parser.add_option("--new-data", action="store", dest="new_data",
type="string", help="the full path to the location "
"of the data directory for the new instance")
parser.add_option("--new-port", action="store", dest="new_port",
type="string", default="3307", help="the new port "
"for the new instance - default=%default")
parser.add_option("--new-id", action="store", dest="new_id",
type="string", default="2", help="the server_id for "
"the new instance - default=%default")
from mysql.utilities.command import serverclone
try:
res = serverclone.clone_server(conn, opt.new_data, opt.new_port,
opt.new_id, "root", None, False, True)
except exception.UtilError, e:
print "ERROR:", e.errmsg
sys.exit()
201
Example
As you can see, the operation is very simple. We just added a few options we needed like --new-data,
--new-port, and --new-id (much like mysqlserverclone) and supplied some default values for the
other parameters.
Next, we need to copy the databases. Once again, we use the command module for mysqldbcopy to do
all of the work for us. First, we need the connection parameters for the new instance. This is provided in
the form of a dictionary. We know the instance is a clone, so some of the values are going to be the same
and we use a default root password, so that is also known. Likewise, we specified the data directory and,
since we are running on a Linux machine, we know what the socket path is. (For Windows machines, you
can leave the socket value None.) We pass this dictionary to the copy method:
dest_values = {
"user"
: conn.get("user"),
"passwd" : "root",
"host"
: conn.get("host"),
"port"
: opt.new_port,
"unix_socket" : os.path.join(opt.new_data, "mysql.sock")
}
In this case, a number of options are needed to control how the copy works (for example, if any objects are
skipped). For our purposes, we want all objects to be copied so we supply only the minimal settings and let
the library use the defaults. This example shows how you can 'fine tune' the scripts to meet your specific
needs without having to specify a lot of additional options in your script. We enable the quiet option on so
as not to clutter the screen with messages, and tell the copy to skip databases that do not exist (in case we
supply the --databases option and provide a database that does not exist):
options = {
"quiet" : True,
"force" : True
}
The actual copy of the databases is easy. Just call the method and supply the list of databases:
from mysql.utilities.command import dbcopy
try:
dbcopy.copy_db(conn, dest_values, db_list, options)
except exception.UtilError, e:
print "ERROR:", e.errmsg
sys.exit()
Lastly, we copy the user accounts. Once again, we must provide a dictionary of options and call the
command module directly. In this case, the userclone module provides a method that clones one user to
one or more users so we must loop through the users and clone them one at a time:
from mysql.utilities.command import userclone
options = {
"overwrite" : True,
"quiet"
: True,
"globals"
: True
}
for user in user_list:
try:
res = userclone.clone_user(conn, dest_values, user,
(user,), options)
except exception.UtilError, e:
print "ERROR:", e.errmsg
sys.exit()
We are done. As you can see, constructing new solutions from the MySQL utility command and common
modules is easy and is limited only by your imagination.
202
Enhancing the Example
Enhancing the Example
A complete solution for the example named copy_server.py is located in the appendix. It is complete
in so far as this document explains, but it can be enhanced in a number of ways. The following briefly lists
some of the things to consider adding to make this example utility more robust.
• Table locking: Currently, databases are not locked when copied. To achieve a consistent copy of the
data on an active server, you may want to add table locking or use transactions (for example, if you are
using InnoDB) for a more consistent copy.
• Skip users not associated with the databases being copied.
• Do not copy users with only global privileges.
• Start replication after all of the users are copied (makes this example a clone and replicate scale out
solution).
• Stop new client connections to the server during the copy.
Conclusion
If you find some primitives missing or would like to see more specific functionality in the library or scripts,
please contact us with your ideas or better still, write them yourselves! We welcome all suggestions in
code or text. To file a feature request or bug report, visit http://bugs.mysql.com. For discussions, visit http://
forums.mysql.com/list.php?155.
6.2 MySQL Utilities copy_server.py sample
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
Copyright (c) 2010, 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
the Free Software Foundation; version 2 of the License.
This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the
GNU General Public License for more details.
You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
along with this program; if not, write to the Free Software
Foundation, Inc., 51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA
"""
This file contains an example of how to build a customized utility using
the MySQL Utilities scripts and libraries.
"""
import optparse
import os
import sys
from
from
from
from
from
from
mysql.utilities import VERSION_FRM
mysql.utilities.command import dbcopy
mysql.utilities.command import serverclone
mysql.utilities.command import userclone
mysql.utilities.common.server import Server
mysql.utilities.common.options import parse_connection
203
MySQL Utilities copy_server.py sample
from mysql.utilities.exception import UtilError
# Constants
NAME = "example - copy_server "
DESCRIPTION = "copy_server - copy an existing server"
USAGE = "%prog --server=user:[email protected]:port:socket " \
"--new-dir=<path> --new-id=<server_id> " \
"--new-port=<port> --databases=<db list> " \
"--users=<user list>"
# Setup the command parser
parser = optparse.OptionParser(
version=VERSION_FRM.format(program=os.path.basename(sys.argv[0])),
description=DESCRIPTION,
usage=USAGE,
add_help_option=False)
parser.add_option("--help", action="help")
# Setup utility-specific options:
# Connection information for the source server
parser.add_option("--server", action="store", dest="server",
type="string", default="[email protected]:3306",
help="connection information for original server in " + \
"the form: <user>:<password>@<host>:<port>:<socket>")
# Data directory for new instance
parser.add_option("--new-data", action="store", dest="new_data",
type="string", help="the full path to the location "
"of the data directory for the new instance")
# Port for the new instance
parser.add_option("--new-port", action="store", dest="new_port",
type="string", default="3307", help="the new port "
"for the new instance - default=%default")
# Server id for the new instance
parser.add_option("--new-id", action="store", dest="new_id",
type="string", default="2", help="the server_id for "
"the new instance - default=%default")
# List of databases
parser.add_option("-d", "--databases", action="store", dest="dbs_to_copy",
type="string", help="comma-separated list of databases "
"to include in the copy (omit for all databases)",
default=None)
# List of users
parser.add_option("-u", "--users", action="store", dest="users_to_copy",
type="string", help="comma-separated list of users "
"to include in the copy (omit for all users)",
default=None)
# Now we process the rest of the arguments.
opt, args = parser.parse_args()
# Parse source connection values
try:
conn = parse_connection(opt.server)
except:
parser.error("Server connection values invalid or cannot be parsed.")
# Get a server class instance
print "# Connecting to server..."
server_options = {
'conn_info' : conn,
'role'
: "source",
204
MySQL Utilities copy_server.py sample
}
server1 = Server(server_options)
try:
server1.connect()
except UtilError, e:
print "ERROR:", e.errmsg
# Get list of databases from the server if not specified in options
print "# Getting databases..."
db_list = []
if opt.dbs_to_copy is None:
for db in server1.get_all_databases():
db_list.append((db[0], None))
else:
for db in opt.dbs_to_copy.split(","):
db_list.append((db, None))
# Get list of all users from the server
print "# Getting users..."
user_list=[]
if opt.users_to_copy is None:
users = server1.exec_query("SELECT user, host "
"FROM mysql.user "
"WHERE user != 'root' and user != ''")
for user in users:
user_list.append(user[0]+'@'+user[1])
else:
for user in opt.users_to_copy.split(","):
user_list.append(user)
# Build options
options = {
'new_data'
'new_port'
'new_id'
'root_pass'
'mysqld_options'
}
:
:
:
:
:
opt.new_data,
opt.new_port,
opt.new_id,
'root',
'--report-host=localhost --report-port=%s' % opt.new_port,
# Clone the server
print "# Cloning server instance..."
try:
res = serverclone.clone_server(conn, options)
except UtilError, e:
print "ERROR:", e.errmsg
sys.exit()
# Set connection values
dest_values = {
"user"
: conn.get("user"),
"passwd" : "root",
"host"
: conn.get("host"),
"port"
: opt.new_port,
"unix_socket" : os.path.join(opt.new_data, "mysql.sock")
}
# Build dictionary of options
options = {
"quiet" : True,
"force" : True
}
print "# Copying databases..."
try:
dbcopy.copy_db(conn, dest_values, db_list, options)
except UtilError, e:
print "ERROR:", e.errmsg
205
Specialized Operations
sys.exit()
# Build dictionary of options
options = {
"overwrite" : True,
"quiet"
: True,
"globals"
: True
}
print "# Cloning the users..."
for user in user_list:
try:
res = userclone.clone_user(conn, dest_values, user,
(user,), options)
except UtilError, e:
print "ERROR:", e.errmsg
sys.exit()
print "# ...done."
6.3 Specialized Operations
6.3.1 mysql.utilities.command.grep — Search Databases for Objects
This module provides utilities to search for objects on a server. The module defines a set of object types to
be searched. Searches target the fields of each object. The notion of an object field is very loosely defined
and means any names occurring as part of the object definition. For example, the fields of a table include
the table name, the column names, and the partition names (if it is a partitioned table).
Constants
The following constants denote the object types that can be searched.
• mysql.utilities.command.grep.ROUTINE
• mysql.utilities.command.grep.EVENT
• mysql.utilities.command.grep.TRIGGER
• mysql.utilities.command.grep.TABLE
• mysql.utilities.command.grep.DATABASE
• mysql.utilities.command.grep.VIEW
• mysql.utilities.command.grep.USER
The following constant is a sequence of all the object types that are available. It can be used to generate a
version-independent list of object types that can be searched; for example, options and help texts.
• mysql.utilities.command.grep.OBJECT_TYPES
Classes
class mysql.utilities.command.grep.ObjectGrep(pattern[, database_pattern=None,
types=OBJECT_TYPES, check_body=False, use_regexp=False])
Search MySQL server instances for objects where the name (or content, for routines, triggers, or events)
matches a given pattern.
206
mysql.utilities.command.proc — Search Processes on Servers
sql() - string
Return the SQL code for executing the search in the form of a SELECT statement.
Returns:
SQL code for executing the operation specified by the options.
Return type:
string
execute(connections[, output=sys.output, connector=mysql.connector])
Execute the search on each of the connections in turn and print an aggregate of the result as a grid table.
Parameters:
• connections Sequence of connection specifiers to send the query to
• output File object to use for writing the result
• connector Connector to use for connecting to the servers
6.3.2 mysql.utilities.command.proc — Search Processes on Servers
This module searches processes on a server and optionally kills either the query or the connection for all
matches.
Processes are matched by searching the fields of the INFORMATION_SCHEMA.PROCESSLIST table
(which is available only for servers from MySQL 5.1.7 and later). Internally, the module operates by
constructing a SELECT statement for finding matching processes, and then sending it to the server. Instead
of performing the search, the module can return the SQL code that performs the query. This can be useful
if you want to execute the query later or feed it to some other program that processes SQL queries further.
Constants
The following constants correspond to fields in the INFORMATION_SCHEMA.PROCESSLIST table. They
indicate which columns to examine when searching for processes matching the search conditions.
• mysql.utilities.command.proc.ID
• mysql.utilities.command.proc.USER
• mysql.utilities.command.proc.HOST
• mysql.utilities.command.proc.DB
• mysql.utilities.command.proc.COMMAND
• mysql.utilities.command.proc.TIME
• mysql.utilities.command.proc.STATE
• mysql.utilities.command.proc.INFO
The following constants indicate actions to perform on processes that match the search conditions.
• mysql.utilities.command.proc.KILL_QUERY
Kill the process query
• mysql.utilities.command.proc.KILL_CONNECTION
Kill the process connection
207
Parsers
• mysql.utilities.command.proc.PRINT_PROCESS
Print the processes
Classes
class mysql.utilities.command.proc.ProcessGrep(matches, actions=[], use_regexp=False)
This class searches the INFORMATION_SCHEMA.PROCESSLIST table for processes on MySQL servers
and optionally kills them. It can be used to perform a search (and optionally kill), or to generate the SQL
statement for doing the same.
For example, to kill all queries with user 'mats', use the following code:
>>> from mysql.utilities.command.proc import *
>>> grep = ProcessGrep(matches=[(USER, "mats")], actions=[KILL_QUERY])
>>> grep.execute("[email protected]", "[email protected]")
Parameters:
• matches (List of (var, pat) pairs) Sequence of field comparison conditions. In each
condition, var is one of the constants listed earlier that specify PROCESSLIST
table fields and pat is a pattern. For a process to match, all field conditions must
match.
sql([only_body=False])
Return the SQL code for executing the search (and optionally, the kill).
If only_body is True, only the body of the function is shown. This is useful if the SQL code is to be used
with other utilities that generate the routine declaration. If only_body is False, a complete procedure is
generated if there is any kill action supplied, and just a SELECT statement if it is a plain search.
Parameters:
• only_body (boolean) Show only the body of the procedure. If this is False, a
complete procedure is returned.
Returns:
SQL code for executing the operation specified by the options.
Return type:
string
execute(connections, ...[, output=sys.stdout, connector=mysql.connector])
Execute the search on each of the connections supplied. If output is not None, the value is treated as a
file object and the result of the execution is printed on that stream. Note that the output and connector
arguments must be supplied as keyword arguments. All other arguments are treated as connection
specifiers.
Parameters:
• connections Sequence of connection specifiers to send the search to
• output File object to use for writing the result
• connector Connector to use for connecting to the servers
6.4 Parsers
6.4.1 mysql.utilities.parser — Parse MySQL Log Files
This module provides classes for parsing MySQL log files. Currently, Slow Query Log and General Query
Log are supported.
208
mysql.utilities.parser — Parse MySQL Log Files
Classes
class mysql.utilities.parser.GeneralQueryLog(stream)
This class parses the MySQL General Query Log. Instances support iteration, but the class does not
provide multiple independent iterators.
For example, to read the log and print the entries:
>>> general_log = open("/var/lib/mysql/mysql.log")
>>> log = GeneralQueryLog(general_log)
>>> for entry in log:
...
print entry
Parameters:
• stream (file type) – a valid file type; for example, the result of the built-in Python
function open()
version
Returns:
Version of the MySQL server that produced the log
Return type:
tuple
program
Returns:
Full path of the MySQL server executable
Return type:
str
port
Returns:
TCP/IP port on which the MySQL server was listening
Return type:
int
socket
Returns:
Full path of the MySQL server Unix socket
Return type:
str
start_datetime
Returns:
Date and time of the first read log entry
Return type:
datetime.datetime
lastseen_datetime
Returns:
Date and time of the last read log entry
Return type:
datetime.datetime
class mysql.utilities.parser.SlowQueryLog(stream)
This class parses the MySQL Slow Query Log. Instances support iteration, but the class does not provide
multiple independent iterators.
For example, to read the log and print the entries:
209
mysql.utilities.parser — Parse MySQL Log Files
>>> slow_log = open("/var/lib/mysql/mysql-slow.log")
>>> log = SlowQueryLog(slow_log)
>>> for entry in log:
...
print entry
Parameters:
• stream (file type) – a valid file type; for example, the result of the built-in Python
function open()
version
Returns:
Version of the MySQL server that produced the log
Return type:
tuple
program
Returns:
Full path of the MySQL server executable
Return type:
str
port
Returns:
TCP/IP port on which the MySQL server was listening
Return type:
int
socket
Returns:
Full path of the MySQL server Unix socket
Return type:
str
start_datetime
Returns:
Date and time of the first read log entry
Return type:
datetime.datetime
lastseen_datetime
Returns:
Date and time of the last read log entry
Return type:
datetime.datetime
210
Chapter 7 MySQL Utilities Testing (MUT)
Table of Contents
7.1 mut — MySQL Utilities Testing ................................................................................................. 211
7.1 mut — MySQL Utilities Testing
This utility executes predefined tests to test the MySQL Utilities. The tests are located under the /mysqltest directory and divided into suites (stored as folders). By default, all tests located in the /t folder are
considered the 'main' suite.
You can select any number of tests to run, select one or more suites to restrict the tests, exclude suites
and tests, and specify the location of the utilities and tests.
The utility requires the existence of at least one server to clone for testing purposes. You must specify at
least one server, but you may specify multiple servers for tests designed to use additional servers.
The utility has a special test suite named 'performance' where performance-related tests are placed. This
suite is not included by default and must be specified with the --suite option to execute the performance
tests.
OPTIONS
mut accepts the following command-line options:
• --help
Display a help message and exit.
• --do-tests=prefix
Execute all tests that begin with prefix.
• --force
Do not abort when a test fails.
• --record
Record the output of the specified test if successful. With this option, you must specify exactly one test to
run.
• --server=server
Connection information for the server to use in the tests. Use this option multiple times to specify multiple
servers.
To connect to a server, it is necessary to specify connection parameters such as the user name, host
name, password, and either a port or socket. MySQL Utilities provides a number of ways to supply this
information. All of the methods require specifying your choice via a command-line option such as -server, --master, --slave, etc. The methods include the following in order of most secure to least secure.
• Use login-paths from your .mylogin.cnf file (encrypted, not visible). Example : login-path[:port]
[:socket]
211
OPTIONS
• Use a configuration file (unencrypted, not visible) Note: available in release-1.5.0. Example :
configuration-file-path[:section]
• Specify the data on the command-line (unencrypted, visible). Example : user[:passwd]@host[:port]
[:socket]
• --skip-long
Exclude tests that require greater resources or take a long time to run.
• --skip-suite=name
Exclude the named test suite. Use this option multiple times to specify multiple suites.
• --skip-test=name
Exclude the named test. Use this option multiple times to specify multiple tests.
• --skip-tests=prefix
Exclude all tests that begin with prefix.
• --sort
Execute tests sorted by suite.name either ascending (asc) or descending (desc). Default is ascending
(asc).
• --start-port=port
The first port to use for spawned servers. If you run the entire test suite, you may see up to 12 new
instances created. The default is to use ports 3310 to 3321.
• --start-test=prefix
Start executing tests that begin with prefix.
• --stop-test=prefix
Stop executing tests at the first test that begins with prefix.
• --suite=name
Execute the named test suite. Use this option multiple times to specify multiple suites.
• --testdir=path
The path to the test directory.
• --utildir=path
The location of the utilities.
• --verbose, -v
Specify how much information to display. Use this option multiple times to increase the amount of
information. For example, -v = verbose, -vv = more verbose, -vvv = debug. To diagnose test
execution problems, use -vvv to display the actual results of test cases and ignore result processing.
• --version
212
NOTES
Display version information and exit.
• --width=number
Specify the display width. The default is 75 characters.
NOTES
The connection specifier must name a valid account for the server.
Any test named ???_template.py is skipped. This enables the developer to create a base class to import
for a collection of tests based on a common code base.
EXAMPLES
The following example demonstrates how to invoke mut to execute a subset of the tests using an existing
server which is cloned. The example displays the test name, status, and relative time:
shell> mut [email protected] --do-tests=clone_user --width=70
MySQL Utilities Testing - MUT
Parameters used:
Display Width
Sorted
Force
Test directory
Utilities directory
Starting port
Test wildcard
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
70
True
False
'./t'
'../scripts'
3310
'clone_user%'
Servers:
Connecting to localhost as user root on port 3306: CONNECTED
---------------------------------------------------------------------TEST NAME
STATUS
TIME
======================================================================
main.clone_user
[pass]
54
main.clone_user_errors
[pass]
27
main.clone_user_parameters
[pass]
17
---------------------------------------------------------------------Testing completed: Friday 03 December 2010 09:50:06
All 3 tests passed.
PERMISSIONS REQUIRED
There are no special permissions required to run mysqluc however, you must have the necessary
privileges to execute the desired utilities in the tests. Generally, MUT is run with a root user.
213
214
Chapter 8 Appendix
Table of Contents
8.1 MySQL Utilities Frequently Asked Questions .............................................................................. 215
This chapter includes additional information about MySQL Utilities including a list of frequently asked
questions.
Licensing information.
This product may include third-party software, used under license. If you are
using a Commercial release of MySQL Utilities, see this document for licensing information, including
licensing information relating to third-party software that may be included in this Commercial release. If you
are using a Community release of MySQL Utilities, see this document for licensing information, including
licensing information relating to third-party software that may be included in this Community release.
8.1 MySQL Utilities Frequently Asked Questions
FAQ Categories
• General Questions
• Storage Engine Questions
• The mysqlfrm Utility: .frm File Reader Questions
General
8.1.1 Are these utilities present in the community version of MySQL? ............................................... 215
8.1.1. Are these utilities present in the community version of MySQL?
Yes, see Chapter 1, How to Install MySQL Utilities.
Storage Engines
8.1.1 Can the utilities be used with MyISAM or CSV? ...................................................................... 215
8.1.1. Can the utilities be used with MyISAM or CSV?
Yes. There are no storage engine specific limitations in using the utilities. There are some features
written specifically for InnoDB so those may not apply but in general no utility is storage engine
specific. For example, the mysqldiskusage utility shows exact sizes for MyISAM and InnoDB files
but uses estimated sizes for any other storage engine based on number of rows and row size.
The mysqlfrm Utility: .frm File Reader
8.1.1 Can the .frm reader read a .frm file without the associated data files? .......................................
8.1.2 Will the .frm reader modify my original .frm file? ......................................................................
8.1.3 What is diagnostic mode and why doesn't it produce the same output as the default mode? ........
8.1.4 If the diagnostic mode is only a best-effort compilation, why use it? ..........................................
8.1.5 Why does the default mode require a server? .........................................................................
8.1.6 Can the .frm reader read any .frm file? ...................................................................................
8.1.7 My .frm files are tucked away in a restricted folder. How do I get access to them to run the .frm
reader without copying or modifying file privileges? ................................................................
215
216
216
216
216
216
216
216
MySQL Utilities Frequently Asked Questions
8.1.8 Will the default mode display a 100% accurate CREATE statement? ........................................ 216
8.1.1. Can the .frm reader read a .frm file without the associated data files?
Yes! The .frm reader was designed to read the contents of an .frm file without requiring the data
files.
8.1.2. Will the .frm reader modify my original .frm file?
No, it does not modify the original .frm file in either default or diagnostic mode.
8.1.3. What is diagnostic mode and why doesn't it produce the same output as the default mode?
The diagnostic mode does not use a spawned server to read the .frm file. Instead, it attempts to
read the contents of the file byte-by-byte and forms a best-effort approximation of the CREATE
statement. Due to the many complexities of the server code, the diagnostic mode does not currently
process all features of a table. Future revisions will improve the accuracy of the diagnostic mode.
8.1.4. If the diagnostic mode is only a best-effort compilation, why use it?
The diagnostic mode is used to attempt to read corrupt or otherwise damaged .frm files. You would
also use it if you had no access to a server installation on the local machine.
8.1.5. Why does the default mode require a server?
The default mode uses a server to create a temporary working copy of the server instance. It does
not access the donor server in any way other than to execute the mysqld[.exe] process.
8.1.6. Can the .frm reader read any .frm file?
Although it can read most .frm files, there are known limits to which storage engines it can process
correctly. Currently, tables with storage engines partition and performance_schema cannot be read.
However, these .frm files can be read by the diagnostic mode,
8.1.7. My .frm files are tucked away in a restricted folder. How do I get access to them to run the .frm
reader without copying or modifying file privileges?
You can use elevated privileges such as su or sudo to execute the .frm reader. You must use the -user option to specify a user to launch the spawned server, however. This will permit the .frm reader
to read the original .frm file and copy it to the spawned server and access the copy without requiring
additional privileges.
8.1.8. Will the default mode display a 100% accurate CREATE statement?
For most tables and all views, yes. However, there are at least two features that are not stored in
the .frm file and therefore will not be included. These are autoincrement values and foreign keys.
That being said, the CREATE statement produced will be syntactically correct.
216
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