EXERGETICS by Göran Wall Bucaramanga 2009 EXERGETICS Foreword This is a guide book to introduce the concept of exergy and its applications. The text assumes a basic skill in science and engineering. The purpose is to give an understanding of the concept of exergy and its potentials, enough for you to carry out exergy analysis of real systems or processes. The material is equivalent to about 200 hours study at graduate level. All proposals to improve the text in order to understand the concept of exergy are highly appreciated. For those who want to put exergy into a social context I recommend the book Time to turn by Bo Lundberg, 1996, ISBN 91-26-94842-7. (http://www.exergy.se/ftp/timetoturn.pdf) Also an excellent book for those not trained in science. From my homepage: http://exergy.se/, you can find more publications on exergy. The present situation for mankind is serious from an increasing lack of natural resources and increasing environmental destruction. I recommend a better understanding of our situation and possibilities by adopting the concept of exergy and a focus on sustainable development. Finally, I am deeply grateful for the kind support of Dr. Darwish M. K. Al Gobaisi at the International Centre for Water and Energy Systems in Abu Dhabi, who have made this work possible. I also want to thank Mei Gong for preparing the manuscript and for all the comments to a previous text I have received from readers on the web. Bucaramanga in January, 2009 Göran Wall Solhemsgatan 46 SE-431 44 Mölndal, Sweden Tel./fax: +46-31-877579 [email protected] http://exergy.se/ 2 EXERGETICS CONTENTS NOMENCLATURE ......................................................................................................... 5 INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................ 7 FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS ....................................................................................... 9 Energy and mass ....................................................................................................... 11 Energy power: ........................................................................................................... 14 Energy efficiency ...................................................................................................... 14 Exergy ....................................................................................................................... 17 Exergy power ............................................................................................................ 18 Exergy efficiency ...................................................................................................... 18 THERMODYNAMICS OR BETTER THERMOSTATICS .......................................... 20 Temperature, heat and internal energy ..................................................................... 20 The ideal gas model .................................................................................................. 22 Work, Mechanical Work and Pressure-Volume Work ............................................. 25 The 1st Law of Thermodynamics — Nothing disappears ........................................ 26 Work and Technical Work ........................................................................................ 28 Closed system ..................................................................................................... 28 Steady-State processes ........................................................................................ 28 State variables and State changes ............................................................................. 33 The 2nd Law of Thermodynamics — Everything disperse ...................................... 38 Additional examples and solutions: .......................................................................... 43 Exercises ................................................................................................................... 46 Answers..................................................................................................................... 47 Solutions ................................................................................................................... 47 EXERGY ........................................................................................................................ 51 Exergy of a general process ...................................................................................... 51 Exergy, work and entropy production ...................................................................... 53 Heat transfer .............................................................................................................. 54 Temperature exchange between two bodies ............................................................. 55 Friction ...................................................................................................................... 56 System in contact with a heat reservoir .................................................................... 57 System in contact with a heat and pressure reservoir ............................................... 57 Exergy of heat and cold ............................................................................................ 58 Exergy of black body radiation ................................................................................. 64 Exergy of materials ................................................................................................... 66 Exergy of nuclear fuel............................................................................................... 68 Exergy and information ............................................................................................ 70 Mixing entropy ................................................................................................... 72 Summary ................................................................................................................... 78 CYCLIC PROCESSES ................................................................................................... 79 Cyclic processes in general ....................................................................................... 79 The Carnot cycle ....................................................................................................... 80 Inverse Carnot cycle ........................................................................................... 82 Thermodynamics of steam ........................................................................................ 83 TS-diagram ......................................................................................................... 85 Mollier or hs-diagram ......................................................................................... 88 3 EXERGETICS Steam power processes ............................................................................................. 89 Refrigerators and heat pumps ................................................................................... 99 HEAT TRANSFER ...................................................................................................... 103 Heat conduction ...................................................................................................... 103 Heat convection ...................................................................................................... 106 Free convection – free current .......................................................................... 106 Forced convection ............................................................................................. 107 Heat radiation .......................................................................................................... 109 Radiation between different bodies .................................................................. 110 Over all heat coefficient, U ..................................................................................... 113 -method ........................................................................................................... 115 U-method .......................................................................................................... 115 Heat exchangers ...................................................................................................... 117 COMBUSTION ............................................................................................................ 121 Enthalpy, Gibbs’ function and exergy of fuels ....................................................... 122 APPENDIX ................................................................................................................... 127 Appendix 1 Internal energy and entropy ................................................................ 127 Appendix 2 Exergy ................................................................................................. 128 Appendix 3 Heat exchange between many systems ............................................... 131 Appendix 4 Reference states................................................................................... 134 4 NOMENCLATURE Symbol Quantity [Unit according to the SI-system] A a, A COP c c, C e, E E/Q F g g, G h h, H H0 I m ni ni0 P P0 q, Q R S S S0 si t T T0 U u, U U v v, V W xi Z µi Area [m2] Specific free energy (= Helmholtz’ function) [J/kg, Wh/kg] and free energy [J, Wh], A = U TS. Sometimes the symbol F is also used. Coefficient of Performance, for heat pumps: produced heat (energy) divided by used work (usually electricity) and for refrigerators: removed heat (energy) divided by used work (usually electricity) [no unit] Velocity of light in vacuum ≈ 2.997925×108 m/s Specific heat capacity [J/kg K] or heat capacity [J/K], gives the amount of heat (internal energy) which per unit mass is captured in a body as the temperature increases by one degree Celsius, i. e. one Kelvin Specific exergy [J/kg, Wh/kg] or exergy, availability or available work [J, Wh] Exergy factor [no unit, %] Power [N] Constant of gravity ≈ 9.81 [m/s2] Specific free enthalpy (= Gibbs’ function) [J/kg, Wh/kg] and free enthalpy [J, Wh], G = H TS. Height [m] Specific enthalpy [J/kg, Wh/kg] or enthalpy, H = U PV [J, Wh]. In German literature often signed by i and I. Enthalpy for systems at environmental state, i.e. in equilibrium with the environment Electric current [A] Mass [kg] Number of mole of substance i [mol] Number of mole of substance i for a system at equilibrium state [mol] Pressure [Pa] Environment pressure [Pa, bar] here 101.3 kPa = 1.013 bar Specific heat [J/kg, Wh/kg] and heat [J, Wh] Molar gas constant ≈ 8.314 [J/mol K], state equation for ideal gases: PV = nRT Entropy, gives degree of disorder, the following relation holds (2nd Law): dS ≥ Q/T [J/K] Distance [m] Entropy of a system at environmental state [J/K] Specific entropy, entropy per unit mass, of substance i, [J/kg K] Time [s, h], 1 year = 8760 h = 31,536,000 s Temperature [K] (0 K = –273.15˚C) Environment temperature [K] usually 20˚C = 293.15 K Electric potential [V] Specific internal energy [J/kg, Wh/kg] or internal energy [J, Wh] Overall heat transfer coefficient, gives the heat transfer rate per unit area of a substance, when the temperature difference is 1˚C, i.e. 1 K [W/m2 K]. Velocity [m/s] Specific volume [m3/kg] and volume [m3] Work [J, Wh], by definition equal to exergy Molar fraction of substance i [no unit] Height [m] Chemical potential of substance i [J/mol], often equal to Gibbs function per mole EXERGETICS µi0 en ex Chemical potential of substance i in environmental state [J/mol] Energy efficiency = Qout/Qin where Q states used energy [no unit or %] Exergy efficiency = Eout/Ein where E states used exergy [no unit or %] Density [kg/m3] Temperature in degrees Celsius, see T above [˚C] Index i 0 Indicates a substance, i.e. element or summation index Indicates environmental state 6 EXERGETICS INTRODUCTION This guide-book will introduce the exergy concept into engineering work. Especially fundamental concepts of thermodynamics are treated to understand and be able to apply the exergy concept. It is offered to engineers of different background and experience. Thus, some parts might be well-known for some readers, but new for others. If you find yourself well aware with what is treated — go ahead but make sure you understand the content being treated. In the text I use the following hints: R: L: S: Q: Read carefully through the indicated text and solve treated examples or problems. Look briefly through the text indicated to be aware of what is treated. Solve indicated problems. Question to answer, maybe a problem to calculate. Indicated literature is written in short accordingly: Exergy: Exergy – a Useful Concept, Wall, G., Ph.D. Thesis (1986). The following complementary paper is also recommended: “Exergy, Ecology and Democracy — Concepts of a Vital Society”, Wall, G., Energy Systems and Ecology, Int. Conf. Krakow, Poland, July 5-9, 1993, pp. 111121. These documents are found on the Internet: http://www.exergy.se. There are also a number of excellent textbooks available, however none of them includes the statistical treatment of entropy and the link to information theory, being carried out in this material. This is a selection of most of them: Ahern, J. E., The Exergy Method of Energy Systems Analysis, Wiley (1980) Barclay, F. J., Combined Power and Process – an Exergy Approach, MEP (1995) Barclay, F. J., Fuel Cells, Engines and Hydrogen: an Exergy Approach, Wiley (1995) Bejan, A., Tsatsaronis, G., Moran, M., Thermal Design and Optimization, Wiley (1996) Bejan, A. Advanced Engineering Thermodynamics (1988) Brodyansky, V. M., Sorin, M. V., Le Goff, P., The Efficiency of Industrial Processes: Exergy Analysis and Optimization, Elsevier (1994) Dincer, I. & Rosen, M. A., Exergy, Energy, Environment and Sustainable Development, Elsevier (2007) Edgerton, R. H., Available Energy and Environmental Economics, Lexington (1982) Fratzscher, W., Brodjanskij, V. M., Michalek, K., Exergie – Theorie und Anwendung, VEB, Springer (1986) Kotas, T. J., The exergy Method of Thermal Plant Analysis, Butterwoods (1985) Moran, M. J., Availability Analysis – A Guide to Efficient Energy Use, ASME (1989) 7 EXERGETICS Sato, N., Chemical Energy and Exergy - An introduction to Chemical Thermodynamics for Engineers, Elsevier (2004) Szargut, J., Morris, D. R., and Steward, F. R., Exergy Analysis of Thermal, Chemical, and Metallurgical Processes, Springer (1988) Yantovskii, E. I., Energy and Exergy Currents, Nova (1994) Modern textbooks in thermodynamics also more often treat the exergy concept. Below are some examples: Van Wylen, G. J. and Sonntag, R. E., Fundamentals of Classical Thermodynamics, Wiley (1985) Moran, M. J., Shapiro, H. N., Fundamentals of Engineering Thermodynamics, Wiley (1995) An excellent hypertext on physics including thermodynamics is found at: http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/hframe.html. This offers explanations to most of the concepts and phenomena presented in this text. Hints: Usually the theory becomes clearer after you have worked through some exercises. Do not become frustrated if you do not understand everything immediately. Also be prepared to repeat some sections more than one time. If you get stuck, sometimes it might be better to read another section to come back later with a new approach. If nothing else helps you should of course ask for help. You are always welcome to ask me through my email address: [email protected] But: this self-instruction guide needs to be improved, e.g. poor language, misspelling and misprinting. Please, let me know your corrections or comments to improve the material! When: you have worked yourself through this guide, and then you are prepared to study done exergy analysis of real processes to later be able to carry out your own exergy analysis. Good Luck! 8 EXERGETICS FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS Energy vs. Exergy Energy vs. Exergy Power Energy vs. Exergy Efficiency Energy: The word energy is derived from the Greek: en (in or internal) and ergon (force or work). The concept was first formulated in the middle of the 19th century by lord Kelvin and Joule, after many scientists (Benjamin, Thomson, Carnot, Mayer and others) for decades had tried to find relations between mechanical work, power (horse power) and heat. Energy can be defined: Energy = motion* or ability of motion Motion might be a train running through the landscape or heat, i.e. moving molecules in a body of temperature above 0 K. At 0 K or -273.15˚C all motion is assumed to stop. We differ between different kinds of energy, such as: Potential energy: A body of mass m [kg] at the height h [m] in a gravitational field with gravitational constant g [m/s2], i.e. weight mg [N] has the potential energy Wpotential = mgh. Kinetic energy: A body of mass m and velocity v [m/s] has the kinetic energy 1 W kinetic mv2 . 2 Pressure energy or external energy is energy stored as high pressure. A body with pressure P and volume V represents the pressure energy (cf. work below) Wpressure = PV. Internal energy U (molecular kinetic energy) is energy stored in a body usually as increased temperature. A body of mass m, specific heat c [J/K kg] and increased temperature T is storing the internal energy U = mcT. Electrical energy: just as a weight has potential energy in a gravitational field a charged particle has potential energy in an electrical field. An electric current of intensity I [A] and electric potential U [V] during time t [s] is equivalent to the electric energy Welectric = UIt. * Motion in a very general meaning, e.g. the molecular motion in a warm body. 9 EXERGETICS Chemical energy is energy stored in substances as binding energy between its components (atoms) and may be released as kinetic energy of the products at a chemical reaction. Values of some substances are listed below Substance gchemical [MJ/kg] Coal Oil Natural gas Petrol Dynamite Firewood Hydrogen gchemical [kWh/kg] 32 42 50 44 4 14 124 9 12 14 12 1 4 34 Nuclear energy is in the same way stored energy as binding energy between its internal components (nuclear particles) and may also be released as kinetic energy of the final products at a nuclear reaction (fission or fusion). This energy is actually stored as mass, i.e. we have the famous expression E = mc2 which will be discussed later. Values of some substances are listed below unuclear [MJ/kg] Substance Uranium ore Uranium (Light Water Reactor) Uranium (Breeder Reactor) Deuterium (Fusion) Mass (E = mc2) 30 1.9×105 1.3×107 3.5×108 9×1010 unuclear [kWh/kg] 8 5.3×104 3.6×106 9.7×107 2.5×1010 The following forms of energy are more than the other related to a process, that something happens, i.e. an energy conversion. Work – if a force F [N] acts over the distance S [m] this is equal to the work: W = FS. Electromagnetic radiation as light and heat radiation emitted from a body of area A [m ] and temperature T [K] during time t [s] gives the energy (“Black body radiation”) 2 Qelectromagnetic = T4At where ≈ 5.67×10–8 [W/m2K4] is usually referred to as the Stefan-Boltzmann’s constant. Heat – can be transferred to or from a body by changing the temperature, i.e. the internal energy Qheat = ∆U = U2 – U1 = mc(T2 – T1) = mc∆T. 10 EXERGETICS Energy and mass From the theory of relativity we know that energy and mass are equal (cf. nuclear energy above) E = mc2. Einstein showed that the mass of a body depends on its speed according to m m0 1 v2 c2 where c is the speed of light in vacuum about 3×108 m/s. Thus, a body has a larger mass when it is in motion than at rest. (We also note that the speed can never exceed the speed of light.) The kinetic energy of a body with rest mass m0 and speed v becomes* E kin mc 2 v 2 v 2 m v 2 2 2 2 m 0 c mc 1 1 2 m 0 c 1 1 2 0 c 2 2c The energy forms we will mainly use are heat, light and mechanical work. Most of the others may be regarded as subsidiary forms. The transformation between different forms of energy is called conversion. Everything that happens involves conversion of energy Whenever something happens energy is converted from one form to an other, i.e. an energy conversion. Everything that can be described as a change in time involves an energy conversion, from a supernova explosion to a thought of mind. The amount of energy being converted may be large or small, but without exception energy is converted in everything that happens. Condensing power plants, see Fig. 1 below, are main energy converters in the society of fossil or fissile fuels, i.e. chemical or nuclear fuels into heat and electricity. The common principal in both cases is to boil water to get steam at high temperature and pressure that through pipes is forced to move in one direction that can turn a turbine connected to an electric generator in order to produce electricity. From experience we know that there is something that always remains no matter what kind of experiment we perform. This thing, which we do not know what it is, this we call energy and energy is always conserved. We may also say that energy is everything and if there was no energy there would not be anything. However, we do not understand what energy actually is, this is beyond our intellectual capacity. The SI unit of energy is J (Joule), Wh, kcal, eV. (1 eV = 0.16×10–18 J) *((1-x)2 = 1-2x+x2≈1-2x when x<<1 and m≈ m0. 11 EXERGETICS Some SI energy units: 2500 kcal = 2500×1.16×10–3 kWh = 2.9 kWh = 10.4 MJ; 1 kWh = 3.6×103 kJ = 3.6×106J; 1 TWh = 3.6 PJ 1 J = 1 Nm = 1 Ws Condensing Power Plant Exhaust gases Steam Electricity Turbine Boiler Pump Heat Water Condenser Generator Fuel Cooling water Waste heat Fig. 1 The principle of condensing power plants is to boil water. 12 EXERGETICS Prefix of multiple units Factor 1024 1021 1018 1015 1012 109 106 103 102 101 10–1 10–2 10–3 10–6 10–9 10–12 10–15 10–18 10–21 10–24 Prefix Notation yotta zetta exa peta tera giga mega kilo hecto deca deci centi milli micro nano pico femto atto zepto yocto Y Z E P T G M k h da d c m µ n p f a z y Definition of 1 cal (between 1 – 100˚C approximately) 1 cal heats 1 g water 1K 1 kcal heats 1 kg water 1K 1.16 Wh heats 1 kg water 1K 4.2 kJ heats 1 kg water 1K Exercise: How much energy is needed to make 1 kg of water at 5˚C to reach boiling temperature? Answer in kWh. Solution:* Q = ∆U(5˚C100˚C) = mc∆T where Q = U = m = c = * heat added internal energy mass specific heat [J/kg K] This will be treated further in the Chapter on thermodynamics below. 13 EXERGETICS ˚C T + 273.15 K ∆˚C ∆T K here: m c ∆T = = = 1 kg 4.2 kJ/kg K ∆100˚C – 5˚C = 95˚C “=” 95 K kg kJ K kJ ≈ Q = ∆U = 1×4.2×95 kg K ≈ 400 kJ = 400×103 J ≈ 400×103×0.28×10–6 kWh ≈ 0.11 kWh Answer: 0.11 kWh (1 J = 0.2777…×10–3 Wh = 0.2777…×10–3×3600 Ws = 1 Ws) Energy power*: Energy power Energy Time Units for power are, e.g. hp, W, J/s, kWh/yr 1 hp 1W ≈ = 735.5 W 1 J/s Definition of 1 hp: lifts 75 kg 1 m in 1 second, i.e. 75×9.80665×1/1≈735.5 W [kg×m/s2×m/s = Nm/s = J/s = W] Exercise: What energy power is at least needed to make 1 kg of water at 5˚C to boil in 5 minutes? Solution: Energy power = 0.11 0.11 60 = 1.32 [kWh/h = kW] 5 5 60 Q: How long time would it at least take with a 500 Watt heater? Energy efficiency† Energy efficiency Utilized energy Used energy N.B.: Efficiency must always refer to a system or a process! Exercise: What is the energy efficiency if we must use 1.5 kW for 7 minutes in the previous exercise? * As we soon will see it is important to distinguish between energy and exergy, which then is valid also for energy and exergy power. † Analogously, as for power we also distinguish between energy and exergy efficiency. 14 EXERGETICS Solution: The energy efficiency becomes = Q: 0.11kWh 0.11 60 ≈ 0.63 = 63%. 7 1.5 7 1.5 kWh 60 Try your own stove or heater. What energy efficiency do you get? Units Used units refer to the metric system or international system of units* (SI). Please, get used to them! Exercise: A. What is the energy power of a hot water-tap if the water is heated from 5˚C to 70˚C? The flow rate is 0.2 kg/s. B. What electric current does this corresponds to at a voltage of 220 V? Solution: A. Q m ∆T cWater = = = = ∆U = mc∆T 1 kg takes the time 1/0.2 s = 5 s T1–T2 = (70–5)˚C 1 kcal/kg˚C ≈ 1.16 Wh/kg˚C ≈ 4.19 kJ/kg˚C Q mc T t t kg Wh/(kg C) C 11.16 (70 5) 54288 54 103 W P 5 hr 3600 P or if you count in SI units mc in J/˚C P kg kJ C 1 4.19 (70 5) 54 kJ/s kW 5 kg C s Q: B. Try yourself by using the relation P = UI (electric power=voltage×current). Q: What is your conclusion from this? Exercise: Estimate the size of a water tank to support the heating needs of a single family dwelling, about 20,000 kWh/yr? The water temperature is 80˚C? Assume the temperature is changed from 80 to 40˚C? Solution: Q = ∆U = mc∆T =20000×103 Wh * The International System of Units (SI) ensures world-wide uniformity of measurements and their traceability see http://www.bipm.org. 15 EXERGETICS Thus: m 20000 103 Q 431034kg 431 ton 431m3 cT 1.16 (80 40) Proposal of practical arrangement Energy storage in a water tank Solarpanel House Radiator Water tank - 400m 3 80°C The tank is charged during the summer with 20 000 kWh solar energy and reach the temperature 80˚C by the winter season. During the winter the tank is discharged 20 000 kWh and the temperature decrease to 40˚C by the summer. However, this proposal is far too simple to be economical. Better options are to store the heat directly in the ground (clay or rock). Q: Consider the relation between heat content and heat losses. What does this imply? Additional illustrations of energy conversions Thus, different forms of energy are convertible into each other. When you lift a stone you perform mechanical work, converting into increased potential energy of the stone. If the stone is dropped this converts to kinetic energy in the motion, which later converts to heat as it reaches the ground. The combustion engine is an engineering application of energy conversions. The stored chemical energy in the fuel is released through combustion and it is converted to heat. The heat implies an increased pressure of the enclosed gas in the cylinder which forces the piston to move, i.e. the volume expands. Through the connecting rod and the crankshaft the linear motion is converted to a circular motion, i.e. rotation of the shaft. We have a torque that may turn the wheels of a car thus generating kinetic energy again. If the engine instead operates a pump the mechanical work may be converted to pressure energy by decreasing the volume of an enclosed gas, to potential energy by lifting a liquid to a higher level or to kinetic energy by increasing the flow rate. 16 EXERGETICS In a hydro power plant the potential energy of water is converted to a torque of the turbine shaft that is connected to an electric generator, where mechanical energy is converted to electrical energy. In an electric motor the electrical energy is converted back to a torque that might operate a fan which may generate potential, kinetic and pressure energy in a gas. As we see a certain form of energy may appear in many different parts of a process. Potential energy is for instance the input in a hydro power plant but might be the output in a pumping process. Electrical energy has the opposite position in these two cases. But different forms of energy have different ability to convert into each other. Heat and electricity are the most familiar forms of energy used in daily life. Of these electrical energy may almost without exceptions be converted to any other form of energy without substantially reducing the amount of energy. This makes electricity a high ranked form of energy, with high availability. Heat or rather internal energy at high temperature can only partly be converted to other forms of energy, e.g. mechanical energy. The rest of the energy is converted to heat at lower temperature. If this lower temperature is close to ambient, e.g. 30-40˚C it is hardly usable at all and must be low ranked. However, this low ranked heat might be useful for space heating, but when the temperature reaches ambient it is useless. The usefulness or availability of heat or internal energy is strongly depending on the temperature of the heat and the environment. In a furnace we convert the highly ranked chemical energy in the fuel into relatively high ranked internal energy in the flame (high temperature), which is then converted into low ranked internal energy in the radiators (30-50˚C). To understand these kinds of processes exergy is a very useful concept. Exergy The word exergy is derived from the Greek ex (out or outer) and ergon (force or work), (ex = outer, ergos = work, cf. energy: en = internal). The phenomenon behind this concept was first noticed in 1824 by Carnot in the relation between heat and work. Exergy can be defined as: Exergy = work (ordered motion) or ability to do work (ordered motion) Exercise: Compare the following two energy conversions. 1 kJ converted to 1 kg of water as: (1) Internal energy, i.e. disordered motion of the water molecules. (2) Kinetic energy, i.e. ordered motion of the water molecules. 1 kJ U 0.24 C C , i.e. a mc 1 4.2 kg kJ/(kg C) hardly measurable change of the temperature. Solution: 1. U mcT T mv 2 2E kin 2 v 44.7m / s 161km / h , i.e. a 2 m 1 very extensive change of the speed. 2. E kin 17 EXERGETICS J Nm (kg×m/s 2 )m = = =m/s What about units?: kg kg kg Q: What happens if we try to make the processes above in the opposite directions? It is also important to distinguish between energy or exergy power and energy or exergy efficiency. Exergy power Exergy power Exergy Time Exergy efficiency Exergy efficiency Utilized exergy Used exergy Later we will see that everything that happens implies exergy consumption – the consumption of exergy is actually the driving force of everything that happens. Everything that happens involves consumption of exergy To remember Energy = motion or ability of motion. Everything that happens involves conversion of energy. Energy power Energy efficiency 18 Energy Time Utilized energy Used energy EXERGETICS Exergy = work (ordered motion) or ability to do work (ordered motion) Exergy power Exergy efficiency Exergy Time Utilized exergy Used exergy Everything that happens involves consumption of exergy We will now introduce some thermodynamics and later come back to exergy. 19 EXERGETICS THERMODYNAMICS OR BETTER THERMOSTATICS* The history of thermodynamics might be summarized accordingly: 1769, James Watt built the first steam engine, thus starting the development for heat engines. A theory of heat was needed to improve their performance. 1824, Sadi Carnot claimed that the efficiency of a heat engine relates to temperature, what later became the so called Carnot factor. 1834, Clapeyron introduced the pressure-volume diagram to calculate work. 1842, Robert Meyer concluded the mechanical heat equivalence, which led to the definition of the 1st law of thermodynamics. 1845, Joule developed the kinetic theory of gas, which explained heat as the result of molecular motions. 1850 and -51, lord Kelvin and Clausius formulated the 2nd law of thermodynamics; Kelvin also introduced the scale of temperature. 1865, Clausius introduced the concept of entropy, which was an important aid to the theory of thermodynamics. 1872, Belpaire introduced the temperature-entropy diagram. 1873-78, Gibbs presented his phase rule, which increased the usability of thermodynamics into new areas. Gibbs also established a base for the exergy concept. 1877, Boltzmann suggested that probability or order is linked to entropy. 1904, Mollier introduced the enthalpy-entropy diagram. 1906, Nernst formulates the 3rd law of thermodynamics. 1911, Planck generalized the 3rd law such that entropy and specific heat are zero at absolute zero temperature for a chemically homogenous body of limited density. 1905 and -15, Einstein published his works on the relation between energy and mass and the how the mass was related to its speed. Thus, thermodynamics was linked to the modern physics, theory of atoms and quantum mechanics. 1948, Shannon verified the relation between entropy and probability, which linked thermodynamics to information theory through the statistical mechanics. 1953, Rant proposed the word exergy. Thermodynamics may be regarded as the theory of energy and its behavior. A system in thermodynamic equilibrium may be described by state variables. In thermodynamics the three state variables usually are pressure P, volume V and temperature T. Temperature, heat and internal energy Temperature may be described as disordered motion of the substances smallest parts – higher temperature implies faster motions. We distinguish between objects which we call hot or cold. A hot object we say has a high temperature and a cold object has a low temperature, but what we identify is based on that we touch the object, establish a contact. Steel we experience as colder than tree even though they have the same temperature. The reason is the difference in heat conductivity. Steel transfer heat more efficient than tree. The temperature should be regarded as a quality of heat, the intensity of the molecular motions, to be distinguished from the quantity of heat. This sometimes makes it difficult in practice to differentiate between temperature and heat content, which also historically was a problem. * The aspect of thermodynamics concerned with thermal equilibrium. 20 EXERGETICS Q: Why can you walk barefooted on live coal without burning? Thermodynamics is built up of a number of laws, which also defines a number of concepts. The zeroth law, which was defined after the first law, concerns the concept of thermal equilibrium: Two systems in thermal equilibrium with a third one are in thermal equilibrium with each other When two objects are in thermal equilibrium they are said to have the same temperature. Thus temperature of a system has meaning only if the system is in thermal equilibrium. Temperature is a concept for the whole system. Thus, it is meaningless to talk about the temperature of a glass of lukewarm water where you just put a piece of ice. The concepts of heat and heat content Q states the energy being transported between systems. Thus, it is principally wrong to say that a system contains heat, instead it contains energy. This energy, which is the sum of the containing particles’ kinetic and potential energies, we call internal energy U, or sometimes it is called thermal energy. One problem of understanding the concept of heat is that we can not experience heat, instead what we experience when we feel “heat” is heat transfer. mc(T) Q 2 1 Q T1 dT T2 T Assume we add the heat Q, to increase the temperature from to of a substance of mass m, and specific heat c, i.e. we change the internal energy from U till U We have: U2 Q T2 dU m cdT U1 mcˆ (T 2 T1 ) m cˆ T T1 Q U m c = = = = C T cp = = = heat [J] internal energy [J] mass [kg] specific heat capacity [J/kg K], the heat needed to raise the temperature 1 K of 1 kg of the substance. c often increases with temperature (but not for water between 0 and 33.5˚C where it decreases!?). cˆ is the average value of c in the temperature interval (T1, T2). c is also depending on how the state changes occurs when the temperature raises (see below for cp and cv). mc = heat capacity [J/K] temperature [K] specific heat capacity when the state change occurs during constant q dh pressure (P = constant), i.e. c P . The concept T P constant dT enthalpy, H or specific enthalpy, h we will define and examine below. 21 EXERGETICS cv = specific heat capacity when the state change occurs during constant q du volume (V = constant), i.e. c V . T V constant dT Thus, the following holds: (1) supplied heat at constant pressure is equal to the increase in enthalpy and (2) supplied heat at constant volume is equal to the increase in internal energy. For liquids or solids cp ≈ cv since these usually can be regarded as incompressible. Gases needs more heat to raise the temperature at constant pressure than at constant volume, i.e. cp>cv. (The gas increases the volume to maintain constant pressure, i.e. performs work by expansion on the environment in addition to the change of internal energy given by the temperature change). For gases the relation: cP cV has a typical value for specific gases. At low pressures, i.e. more ideal gases, becomes almost constant accordingly.* One atomic gases as inert gases: ≈ 1.66 Two atomic gases as N2, O2, H2 and air: ≈ 1.40 Three atomic gases as CO2 and steam H2O: ≈ 1.30 Before we look closer at the ideal gas model we need to define some further concepts: = density [kg/m3] v = specific volume [m3/kg], v V 1 m M = molar weight of gas [kg/kmol], e.g. MH2 ≈ 2, MAir ≈ 29 and MO2 ≈ 32 S: Calculate the molar weight of Carbon Dioxide and steam. The ideal gas model According to above the equilibrium state of a system is described by the state variables P, V and T. These are not independent of each other – for all substances there are state equations f(P,V,T) = 0. If the state equation is known all state variables may be calculated if we know two of them. I reality the state equation of a substance is often too complicated to derive analytically, but from experiments we may get empirical relations. With modern * The heat capacity may be regarded as the capacity of a substance to store energy by the embodied molecules. This can be done as kinetic energy from three dimensional motion and rotation. This energy depends linearly with temperature, thus not adding any temperature dependens from the heat capacity. This is valid for single atom gases as Ar, Ne and He. Contribution from vibrations and from electrons implies that the heat capacity becomes temperature dependent, especially for two atoms gases as H2, O2 and air. For many atoms gases as CO2 and H2O we have additional contributions from more possible states of vibrations, which make an even stronger temperature dependance in the heat capacity. 22 EXERGETICS computers, we may even describe liquids with fairly good correspondence between theory and practice. An ideal gas is a gas where the molecules only interact by collisions, and they do not occupy any space, i.e. they are infinitely small. For ideal gases there are three important experimental results: Boyles-Mariotte’s law from 1660: P PV = constant, when T = constant V Charles’ law stated 1787: P P/T = constant, when V = constant T Gay-Lussac’s law from 1802: V V /T= constant, when P = constant T All these empirical relations can be summarized in a state equation: PV = mRT named the ideal gas equation, where: P = pressure [N/m2 = Pa (Pascal)] V = total volume [m3] m = mass [kg] 8314.3 ) [J/kg K] were M is the molar mass of R = specific gas constant, R M the substance, sometimes this symbol is also used for the universal gas constant, i.e. R = 8314.3 [J/kmol K], which is experimentally measured. 23 EXERGETICS T = temperature [K] If we insert the specific volume v V m in the ideal gas equation we get: Pv = RT For the ideal gas we also have: cP – cV = R Q: Derive this relation from the definitions of cP, cV , the enthalpy (h = u + Pv) and the ideal gas equation. Ex: A specific amount of air has the temperature 290 K and pressure 0.2 MPa. What is the pressure if the temperature increases to 310 K at constant volume? (For instance car tires subject to heat by friction.) S: Assume ideal gas! before: P1V = mRT1 after: P2V = mRT2 V = constant m = constant P1 T1 PT 2 10 5 310 5 P2 1 2 2.14 10 Pa = 0.214 MPa, i.e. 7% P2 T2 T1 290 pressure increase. (We can also use Charles’ law.) Ex: If the volume in the previous exercise is 10 m3 how much heat is needed? S: Added heat becomes Q U2 U1 mcˆ V (T2 T1 ) From the ideal gas relation we get the mass of the air: m P1 V RT1 The state change appears during constant volume, but we only have data for cP. c cP 1.4 c V P cV 1.4 cˆ P ≈ 1005 [J/kg K] (Average value between 290 and 310 K, however cˆ P ≈ 1.00 [kJ/kg K] is also of course acceptable). 24 EXERGETICS PV cP 2 105 10 103 1005 1 (310 290) 341.84 342 J Q (T2 T1 ) 8314.3 1.4 RT1 1.4 290 29 Nm 3 kg K J K Nm J 2 m J K kgK Work, Mechanical Work and Pressure-Volume Work From Mechanics we have the following well-known relation: Work is equal to the Force times the Distance, W = FS where: W = work [Nm = J] F = force [N] S = distance [m] Assume a cylinder with a mobile piston (no friction) with the cross section area A. In the cylinder we have a gas with pressure P. State 1 P S1 S2 – S1 S2 State 2 P What work is done by the gas if the piston is allowed to move a short distance, so that it does not influence the pressure? If A is the area which is subject to the pressure P, the force becomes F = PA The piston moves the distance S2 – S1 The work done by the piston, assuming constant pressure becomes: W F(S 2 S1 ) PA(S 2 S1 ) P(V2 V1 ) Since the volume in state 1 is V1 = AS1 and in state 2 is V2 = AS2. If we allow the piston to move out a longer distance the pressure will drop according to the ideal gas equation PV = mRT. 25 EXERGETICS 1 P V1 2 dV V2 V The work done by the volume change dV is: W = P(V)dV The total work when the volume changes from V1 to V2 becomes: V2 W P(V )dV V1 W is sometimes called pressure-volume work. If we draw P as a function of V, i.e. P(V) in a PV-diagram, then W becomes the area under the curve P(V) and between V1 and V2, i.e. the indicated area in the figure above. Thus, the work performed by the gas depends on the shape of P(V), i.e. how the state change occurs between 1 and 2. The 1st Law of Thermodynamics — Nothing disappears Energy can not be created nor destroyed. A closed system: is a system where matter is not allowed to cross the system boundary. The cylinder above is a closed system. The piston represents a moving boundary allowing work to be extracted, i.e. energy to cross. In physics, a closed system can exchange heat and work (energy), but not, with its surroundings. In contrast an isolated system can exchange neither heat nor matter with the surroundings. The total energy of an isolated system is constant. The energy before and after a change of state is the same, i.e. we have an energy balance. Energy is defined as that which is always conserved in every process, i.e. energy is always in balance. Consequently, it is wrong to say energy production, instead use energy supply. By the same reason energy consumption is impossible, what we actually mean is that an energy form is consumed or that the energy is converted or maybe used but not consumed. 26 EXERGETICS An open system is a system where mass may cross the system boundary. The mass of the system is determined from in and out flows, mi and me (exit), see the figure below. System boundary mi me Ex: Water is falling 55 m at the rate of 500 m3/s. Estimate the temperature rise, if we assume that all potential energy heats the water. S: From energy conservation the potential energy, Epot = mgh [J], completely converts to increased internal energy, ∆U = mc∆T, i.e. the temperature increases. E pot U mgh mc T gh c T T gh 9.81 55 0.13K c 4.2 103 Nm Nmkg K NmK K Units? kg J J kg J kg K Note that the flow rate is not needed. Q: If you try to verify this by experiment, you might find that the temperature drops. Why, do you think? (Think about pictures of a water fall, e.g. the Niagara falls.) Ex: Estimate the energy power from the water fall above? S: = 500 ton/s = 5×105 kg/s, i.e. in 1 second the energy Epot = mgh is Mass flow: m converted. The energy power P, which is energy per unit time then becomes: P E pot t mgh 5 10 5 9.81 55 269,775,000 J / s 270 MW t 1 kg Nm Nm J W Units? s s skg We will now introduce enthalpy, H, which assigns the total energy of a system, i.e. the sum of the internal and external energies. If the external energy is PV [J], where P = pressure [Pa = N/m2] and V = volume [m3] and the internal energy is, U [J], then the enthalpy is H = U + PV 27 EXERGETICS Work and Technical Work Closed system Assume a system where no matter can cross the system boundary. We add heat, Q and extract work, W and the internal energy changes from U1 to U2, but nothing else happens. The 1st Law then becomes Q = U2 – U1 + W = ∆U + W Q = heat added [J] U1 = internal energy [J] before heat is added U2 = internal energy [J] after heat is added W = extracted work [J]. Note that we regard input heat and output work as positive. where Q W SYSTEM U1 U2 (Warning! By some authors input work is positive!) Steady-State processes In a steady state process the total mass and the total energy enclosed by the system boundary is always conserved. This implies that the total amount of mass and energy input must balance the total output. Such systems are pumps, compressors, fans, turbines, power plants, engines, etc. Assume a process with different inlet and outlet pressures. mi Pi System boundary me m i = me = m Pe The mass input is mi, and from conservation the mass output me is the same as the input, i.e. mi = me = m. Assume that the input specific internal energy is ui [J/kg]. The surrounding air performs a specific external work Pivi [J/kg] on the input mass. 28 EXERGETICS Analogously for the output specific internal energy ue and the mass performs an external work Peve on the surrounding air. We also add heat Q [J] to the system, which also performs work Wt [J], we call this technical work. m(Pi vi + u i) Q SYSTEM Wt m(Pe ve + ue ) The total energy of the system is constant according to the 1st Law, i.e. energy input is equal to energy output. Q m(Piv i u i ) m(Pev e u e ) W t By introducing the enthalpy concept h = Pv + u we get. Q mh i mh e W t Q H i H e W t Q He Hi W t H W t An important case is when no heat is added, Q = 0, i.e. an adiabatic process. W t Hi H e = ∆H Thus, the technical work is equal to the enthalpy change in an adiabatic process. However, for a Steady-State process we also have that Q = ∆U + W = U2 – U1 + W, where i=1 and e=2. U and W refers to the mass element m going through our system. We have Q = ∆U + W = ∆H + Wt U2 – U1 + W = U2 + P2V2 – U1 – P1V1 + Wt W = P2V2 – P1V1 + Wt V2 W t P1 V1 P2 V 2 PdV V1 V2 since W PdV V1 29 EXERGETICS P 1 P1 Wt 2 P2 V1 V2 V If we indicate the pressure as a function of the volume, P(V), in a PV-diagram we see that Wt is the indicated area in the diagrams above and below. P P1 P 1 V1 1 P1 2 P2 P V2 V P1 2 P2 V1 V2 V V2 P1V1 P1V1 PdV V1 The area can also be defined by the integral P1 P2 P2 P1 Wt VdP VdP 30 1 2 P2 V1 V2 V V2 P1V1 PdV P2 V 2 V1 EXERGETICS Thus, we may write the energy balance for a closed system V2 Q U 2 U 1 PdV V1 and for an open system P2 Q H 2 H1 VdP P1 Assume the heat is added during constant volume, dV = 0, then we have T2 Qv m c v (T )dT mc v (T2 T1 ) T1 which in combination with the energy balance of a closed system gives Qv mc v (T2 T1 ) U2 U1 U Thus, for a closed system we have that the heat transferred at constant volume is equal to the change of the internal energy. Instead, assume the heat is added during constant pressure, dP = 0, then we have T2 Q P m cP (T )dT mc P (T2 T1 ) T1 which in combination with the energy balance of an open system gives QP mc P (T2 T1 ) H2 H1 H Thus, for an open system we have that the heat transferred at constant pressure is equal to the change of the enthalpy. This is valid for ∆U and ∆H at all change of state. Ex/S: A closed isolated volume of 2 m3 with air of pressure 0.5 MPa and temperature 293 K, receives 2500 kJ of heat. The internal energy? We have a closed system, thus Q = ∆U + W No work is done ∆U = Q = 2500 kJ 31 EXERGETICS Final temperature of the gas? V const. Q mc v T T Q mc v The mass we can get from the ideal gas relation. Air is approximately an ideal gas with ≈ 1.40, and for an ideal gas we have c P c v R R c P c v ( 1) R c v 1 c v The temperature change: T Q Q QT1 ( 1) PV R mc v P 1 1 V 1 1 RT1 1 2500 3 293(1.4 1) 293K 5 105 2 The final temperature 2 = 1 + ∆ ≈ 586 K The final pressure? From the ideal gas relation we get State 1: P1V1 = mRT1 State 2: P2V2 = mRT2 By dividing these relations we get P1V1 T1 but since V1 = V2 P2 V 2 T 2 we get the final pressure P2 P1 T2 5 10 5 586 5 10 10 Pa 1MPa T1 293 Ex: Air is compressed from 10 to 60 MPa, the temperature increases from 293 to 373 K and the flow rate is 3 kg/s. What is the work needed? S: Assume we can neglect the heat leakage from the compressor, i.e. an adiabatic process. 32 EXERGETICS mi Pi T i System boundary me m i = me = m Pe T e The process is an adiabatic steady state process, i.e. Q = 0. The work output per second then becomes Wt H i H e m(hi he ) mcˆP T 3 1009 (293 373) 242 kJ The minus sign indicates that work is needed, 242 kJ per second, i.e. the needed exergy power is 242 kW. State variables and State changes Volume V, temperature T, enthalpy H and pressure P are called state variables. A state variable has a specific value for a certain state independent from how the state was attained. Thus, a state variable does not contain the history of the state. Work W, technical work Wt and heat Q are depending on how the state of the substance changes, i.e. they are “process related.” Variables may also be extensive, i.e. they are depending on the size of the system, as volume V and enthalpy H, or intensive, i.e. they are not depending of the size, as pressure P and temperature T. The four most common state changes or processes are defined Isochoric process V = constant, i.e. dV = 0 Isobaric process P = constant, i.e. dP = 0 Isothermal process T = constant, i.e. dT = 0 Adiabatic process Q = 0, no heat lost or added to the system. (This is also called isocaloric. Note the “curly” differential sign since the change is not unambiguous because it depends on the state change, as we just mentioned above.) In all four cases we assume that the state changes are reversible. This means that the process is ideal, i.e. no losses occur when the system changes from 1 2 and back again 2 1. In reality there are no reversible processes. In real processes we have always 33 EXERGETICS losses – more or less. A real process must be irreversible, i.e. not reversible, to have a direction. Let us now see what this means for the work W, technical work Wt and heat Q for an ideal gas, i.e. PV = mRT. Isochoric process P constant T p 1 Wt 2 V V2 W PdV 0 V1 P2 W t Vdp V ( P1 P2 ) P1 T2 Q m c V (T )dT m ˆc V (T2 T1 ) T1 where cˆ V is the average value in the temperature region [T1,T2]. Isobaric process V constant T p 1 2 W V V2 W PdV P(V 2 V1 ) V1 34 EXERGETICS P2 W t VdP 0 P1 T2 Q m c P (T )dT m ˆc P (T 2 T1 ) T1 where cˆ P is the average value in the temperature region [T1,T2]. Isothermal process PV = constant p p 1 1 Wt 2 2 W V V2 W PdV V1 V V2 mRT V 2 mRT ln P1 dV mRT ln V V1 P2 V1 P1 Wt Vdp P2 Thus we have W = Wt. P1 P mRT dP mRT ln 1 P P2 P2 V2 Q U 2 U 1 PdV W W t . V1 T2 since U 2 U 1 m c(T)dT 0 . T1 Adiabatic process Q = 0. For a reversible adiabatic process we have Poisson’s relation PV = constant, which also can be written TV-1 = constant or TP p p 1 1 Wt 2 2 W Q: V Derive Poisson’s relation, i.e. show that PV = constant. 35 V 1 constant . EXERGETICS Hint: 1st Law and adiabatic process (Q = 0) PdV + dU = 0, with dU = mcVdT we get PdV + mcVdT = 0. By differentiating the ideal gas model we get: PdV + R VdP = mRdT. Eliminate dT and we have: PdV VdP PdV or cV R c (1 ) PdV VdP 0 . By using that cP = cV + R and P we have: cV cV dV dP which after integration becomes – lnV = lnP + constant or PV = V P constant. From the ideal gas model PV = mRT we also get the relations for T and P and for T and V as above. Work is V2 W PdV V1 but from the 1st law we have V2 Q U 2 U 1 PdV 0 , V1 which gives V2 W PdV U1 U 2 U . V1 but T2 U m cV (T )dT T1 which gives T2 W m cV (T )dT . T1 The technical work is P2 W t VdP P1 but P2 Q H 2 H 1 VdP 0 , P1 and T2 H m cP (T )dT T1 which gives T2 T2 T1 T1 W t m c P (T )dT m c V (T )dT . thus, we have Wt = W. We will now study the polytropic process, which occurs during heat exchange with the environment. The process is characterized by PVn = constant 36 EXERGETICS n is the polytropic coefficient and can have any value larger than zero. A polytropic process summarize all the processes above, where the value of n indicate the kind of process we have Isochoric process n=∞ Isobaric process n=0 Isothermal process n=1 Isentropic process n = Q: Show that when n ∞ a polytropic process becomes an isochoric process. 1 Hint: PVn = constant we can write as V n constant or P 1 0 1 n 1 V constant constant constant when n ∞ P P Ex: A gas with cP = 1.0 kJ/kg K and = 1.4 receives the heat 100 kJ/kg. How much will the temperature rise if the heat is added at 1) constant pressure 2) constant volume? S: 1) Q mcP (T2 T1 ) mcP T T Q 100 103 100 K . mcP 11.0 103 Q mcv (T2 T1 ) T Q 100 103 1.4 T 140 K cP 2) 3 mc 1 1.0 10 P cV Ex: A gas with = 1.4 and the initial values P1 = 0.4 MPa, V1 = 3 m3 and T1 = 473 K is adiabatically expanding to V2 = 9 m3. Estimate final pressure, temperature and the works W and Wt. S: For an adiabatic process we have PV = constant, where cP , i.e. cV V1 5 3 P1V1 P2 V 2 P2 P1 4 10 0.86 10 5 Pa . V 2 9 1 TV 1 V constant T2 T1 1 V2 37 1.41 3 473 305K 9 EXERGETICS V2 V2 V1 V1 W PdV constant 1 1 V dV 1 (P V 1 1 P2 V2 ) 1 (0.4 10 6 3 0.86 10 5 9) 1.04 10 6 J 1.04 J 1.41 1 Wt = W ≈ 1.4×1.06≈ 1.4J The 2nd Law of Thermodynamics — Everything disperse By experience we know that heat spontaneous goes from a warm body to a cold body, but never the opposite. We also know that the energy of heat can not completely be transformed to work, even if we disregard losses as friction and heat losses. This implies the second law, which has been formulated in many ways: Clausius: Heat can not “by itself” go from a low to a higher temperature. Lord Kelvin: Heat can not completely transfer to work. A more poetic interpretation of the second law is offered in the poem of science fiction written by the Swedish Nobel laureate Harry Martinson in 1956 Aniara, which is a story of the space craft Aniara, that during a journey through space loses its course, and subsequently aimlessly floats through space, without destination. As the space travel continues, things become increasingly worn out, and many passengers are dying. The vast halls of the golgonder are cold and empty as told in poem 99: I paced the halls and it was very late, paced Mima’s hall one night and I was cold. Still colder, far from all things temperate roared memory in my soul for Dorisworld. Ever more mute and numb lay Aniara’s ship: a proud goldonder once, now sarcophagus which, having lost all power, through empty space was flung in line with the loxodrome to which in her fall she clung. From the concept entropy S, which was introduced by Clausius the year 1865, we may also make a formulation of the second law. As we saw above work W and technical work Wt can be illustrated as areas in a pressure/volume diagram PV-diagram. Similarly heat Q can be illustrated as an area in a temperature/entropy diagram TS-diagram, see below. 38 EXERGETICS Q T 2 1 S1 S2 dS S If the area below the graph T(S) and between S1 and S2 is the heat content Q, then we have Q = TdS or dS Q T , with the unit J/K. When heat Q is transferred to a system it is the temperature T of the heat that predicts the entropy dS that simultaneously is being transferred. By integration we get 2 2 1 1 S dS S2 S1 Q T The value of the integral is independent of the integration path, i.e. it is only depending on the values of S1 and S2. Thus, the entropy is a state variable, i.e. a function only depending on the state of the system. Therefore we may express the entropy as a function of the state variables pressure, volume, and temperature, S(P,V,T). We will also notice that the entropy is an extensive variable, i.e. depends on the size of the system as mass, volume, and internal energy. The 1st law says that energy is always conserved in any process. The 2nd law states that every process mostly take place in such a way that the entropy is constant for a reversible process or increases for an irreversible process, i.e. ∆S ≥ 0 Everything that happens implies an increase of the total entropy. Locally the entropy may decrease but only if the entropy increases even more somewhere else so that the total entropy increases. Entropy may also be regarded as a value of order. (This we will treat in the section on exergy of information.) Thus the 2nd law states that everything moves towards increased disorder – increased disintegration. Locally we may still create increased order. In the case of creating order on the earth, as in the living nature, this is established by the order offered by the sun and the disorder offered by the space. So far all the state changes we have studied have been reversible. A reversible process is a process where you can always return to the initial state by running the process backwards. Such a process has no losses and assumes all processes to take place during thermodynamic equilibrium, i.e. no differences in temperature and pressure. This makes 39 EXERGETICS such processes infinite in time and unrealistic. By the second law we may say that we consider the irreversible processes which we have in reality. Assume we have two containers with different gases, and . We know which gas we have in each container, i.e. our system is ordered. If we open the valve connecting the containers the gases will spontaneously diffuse into each other and we have lost some order since we do not know where the -gas or -gas is, S increases. We may not predict the exact distribution of and in the two containers. Case 1: Order S1 is small. Case 2: Disorder S2 > S1. Also, we do not expect that the gases will spontaneously return to the initial state. Let us see what this implies for different substances. For a solid or liquid substance, i.e. an incompressible substance we have Q ≈ dU ≈ mcdT, which gives T2 2 T mcdT S dS mc ln 2 , T1 T 1 T1 where we have assumed the specific heat capacity to be constant. Ex: S: 1 kg water is heated from 20 to 90˚C. Estimate the entropy change when the specific heat is constant and compare with steam tables. T 273.15 90 S mc ln 2 1 4.184 ln 0.8959 kJ/K. T1 273.15 20 The steam tables give ∆s ≈ 1.1925 – 0.2966 = 0.8959 kJ/kg K. Thus, a very good resemblance. For an ideal gas the relation becomes more complicated. From 1st law we have: Q = dU + PdV and for an ideal gas we have: dU mc V dT P mR T V Thus, the entropy change becomes 2 S 1 V c mc V mR dT dV m V dT mR ln 2 V1 T T T V 1 1 1 Q 2 2 2 40 EXERGETICS If the specific heat is constant, i.e. independent of the temperature we get T V S mc V ln 2 mR ln 2 T1 V 1 Analogously we have Q = dH – VdP and for an ideal gas we have dH mc P dT V mR T P Thus the entropy change becomes 2 S 1 P c mc P mR dT dP m P dT mR ln 2 P1 T T P 1 1 1 2 Q T 2 2 If the specific heat is constant we get T P S mc P ln 2 mR ln 2 T1 P1 Ex: In a container 2 kg of steam is condensed at temperature T = 100˚C, and a heat Q = 4514 kJ is transferred to the surrounding air at temperature T0 = 20˚C. Calculate the change in entropy in the container S, and the environment S0. Also calculate the total entropy change Stot. The temperature of the environment is constant. Q T0 T S: If we assume that the heat is transferred at constant temperature we have for the entropy S Container: Q T 4514 Q 12.10 kJ/K, the minus sign indicates that T 273 100 entropy and heat is transported out of the system. S Environment: S 0 Q 4514 15.41 kJ/K. T0 273 20 41 EXERGETICS The total entropy change becomes: Stot = S +S0 ≥ –12.10+15.41 = 3.31 kJ/K ≥ 0, i.e. in accordance with the 2nd law. We can summarize the following: Laws 0th law defines the concept of temperature 1st law: Q = dU + W, defines energy as a conserved quantity and work: W = PdV 2nd law: dS ≥ 0, dSreversible = 0, defines the concept of entropy through heat: Q = TdS 3rd law defines the zero level for entropy Concepts Enthalpy: H = U + PV Heat capacity: Q = CdT, Cv and CP Model Ideal gas: PV = n R T = mRT Processes n 0 isobaric n 1 isothermal Ideal gas: PVn = constant n C P adiabatic Cv n isochoric Principally this is all you need to understand of classical thermodynamics to be able to manage this part of science. All other relations can be derived from these relations. Remember! The energy of a closed system is constant (1st law). Energy forms may be destroyed and created, consumed and produced. Energy production should be called energy supply Energy consumption should be called energy use 42 EXERGETICS Additional examples and solutions: We are now ready to study additional examples to repeat thermodynamics. Try to solve the problem before looking at the solution. If you do not succeed, look at the solution part by part and try to solve as much as possible yourself. Simultaneously, repeat appropriate parts of the theory. Ex: A bottle of the volume 0.02 m3 contains hydrogen at 120 bar, 10˚C. What is the weight of the gas? S: V = 0.02 m3 P =120×105 N/m2 8314 8314 R= = 4157 J/kg K M H2 2 T =273.15+ ≈ 273+10 = 283 K PV 120 105 0.02 ≈ 0.204 ≈ 0.20 kg m= RT 4157 283 Ex: 3 kg air of temperature 100˚C expands isothermally in a closed volume from 0.1 m3 to 0.3 m3. How much heat must be added? m = 3 kg, T ≈ (273+100) K = 373 K, V1 = 0.1 m3 and V2 = 0.3 m3. V For a isothermal process we have: Q mRT1 ln 2 V1 8314 8314 The specific gas constant becomes R air 287 J/kg K. M air 29 0.3 352 kJ ≈ 98 Wh. Thus Q 287 3 373 ln 0.1 In PV-diagram: S: W = Q since Q = (U2 – U1) + W where U2 – U1 = mcv(T2 – T1) = 0. Ex: A closed container of 20 liter with air at 20˚C, 1 bar receives heat until the pressure reaches 3 bar. How much heat is received? 43 EXERGETICS S: Heat is being transferred at constant volume, thus the process is an isochor. R Transferred heat is, Q = U2 – U1 = mcv(T2 – T1), cv , air = 1.4, 1 8314 8314 R air cv 716.7 J/kg K 29 29 0.4 The ideal gas model gives: 1 105 0.02 P1V1 RT1 8314 (273 20) 29 ≈ 0.0238 [kg] m We get: T 2 3 P2 T1 293 879 K P1 1 And the added heat becomes: Q ≈ 0.0238××(879 – 293) ≈ 10 kJ Ex: Air (2 kg/s) at 6 bar, 400˚C expands in a turbine to the ambient pressure 1 bar. What is the maximal electric power to be utilized? P1 = 6 bar T1 ≈ (273+400) = 673 K P2 = 1 bar dm m 2 kg/s dt S: The process is a steady state adiabatic process Thus: Wt = W = H1 – H2 = mcP(T1 – T2) P (T1 T2 ) The power Wt is work Wt per time Wt = Wt per second = mc T P We have: 1 1 T2 P2 1 6 1 1.4 1 1.4 60.286 1.67 , i.e. T 2 The average value of cˆ P becomes: cˆ P 44 673 403 K. 1.67 c P (T1 ) c P (T2 ) 1039 J/kg K 2 EXERGETICS (The specific heat is only depending on the temperature, since we assume an ideal gas, thus independent of the pressure difference P1 – P2) kg J K J/s W 561.1 560 kW We get Wt 2 1039 (673 403) s kg K 45 EXERGETICS Exercises Try to solve these problems by yourself, without checking the solutions. 1. Which alternative use most energy? a) To remove the snow by truck that uses 5 liter diesel to remove 5 tons of snow. b) To melt the snow by a diesel burner with 80% efficiency. The enthalpy of melting is 334 kJ/kg. How much diesel will be used for 5 tons of snow? 2. Snow equivalent to 20 mm water falls over a city. What is the energy difference per m2 if this instead was as rain? The difference causes an extra cooling effect, but also other effects. What other effects? 3. How much fuel oil is needed to raise the temperature of the indoor air from 0˚C to 20˚C in a house of 125 m2 and height 2.4 m? The efficiency of the heater is 65%. How is this effected if the volume is fixed or if the volume expands? 4. 10 kg hydrogen gas is heated 100K at constant volume. What is W and Wt? (Hint: use the definition of technical work and the ideal gas model!) 5. What is the volume of the gas in the previous problem if the initial state was +27˚C and 1 bar? (Hint: use the ideal gas model.) 6. 148 kJ of heat is isothermally added to 1 kg air of volume 0.5 m3, so the final volume becomes 2 m3. What was the initial temperature if Rair = 287 J/kg K? (Hint: use 1st law and the ideal gas model for an isothermal process!) 7. What was the initial pressure in the previous problem? (Hint: use the ideal gas model.) 8. A gas with = 1.30 expands adiabatic from P1 = 6 bar to P2 = 2 bar. How many percent does the volume increase? (Hint: adiabatic process.) 9. The air of a combustion engine is compressed polytropically from P1 = 0.9 bar and T1 = 40˚C. Determine the final pressure and temperature if the initial volume is 9 times the final volume and the polytropic coefficient is n = 1.35. (Hint: polytropic process.) 10. A closed container of 5 liter contains air at 1 bar, 20˚C. The air is heated to 50˚C. Calculate a) heat added b) final pressure (Hint: R = 285 J/kg K and the ideal gas model. Calculate the average value of cP between 20-50˚C, and use the relation for cP and cv.) 11. Air is adiabatically compressed from 1 bar, 20˚C to 6 bar. Calculate a) work needed b) temperature after compression c) change of internal energy of the air. (Hint: adiabatic process.) 12. Consider 0.6 m3 of air at 2 bar, 20˚C. Calculate a) internal energy, U b) enthalpy, H if both of them are 0 at 1 bar, 0˚C. (Hint: isothermal and isobaric process.) 46 EXERGETICS Answers 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. To melt the snow “costs” about 60 liter diesel. 6.7 MJ/m3 or 2 kWh/m3 12 MJ or 3.3 kWh W = 0, Wt = – 4200 (4157) kJ, i.e. we must add the technical work 4.2 MJ The volume of the gas is 125 m3 The temperature of the air was 373 K ≈ 100˚C The initial pressure was 2.1×105 Pa The volume increase 130% The final pressure is 17.5×105 Pa. The final temperature is 676 K ≈ 403˚C ≈ 400˚C a) Added heat 130 (128) J, b) Final pressure 110 kPa a) We add the work 200 (199) kJ/kg, b) Final temperature becomes 220 (216)˚C, c) ∆U ≈ 140 kJ/kg 12. a) Internal energy at 20˚C is 20 kJ b) Enthalpy at 20˚C is 28 kJ. Solutions 1. To melt 1 kg snow you need 334 kJ 5 tons of snow need 5000×334×103 J ≈ 1.7×109 J ≈ 1.7 GJ. Heat of melting H melt Efficiency is 80%, i.e. 0.8 Q input Heat input H 1.7 10 9 Qinput melt 2.1 109 . 0.8 0.8 1 liter diesel contains about 10 kWh or 36 MJ. 2.1 10 9 58 60 liter, which is more then 10 times Needed amount becomes: 3.6 107 what is needed for truck removal. 2. Per square meter we get 20×10–3 m3 or 20 liter ice as snow, i.e. about 20 kg snow. To melt 1 kg snow we need 334 kJ 20 kg snow need 20×334×103 ≈ 6.7×106 ≈ 6.7 MJ ≈ 2 kWh, i.e. the energy difference between snow and rain is about 6.7 MJ/m2 or 2 kWh/m2. 3. Amount of air becomes 125×2.4 [m3] ×1.3[kg/m3] ≈ 390 kg. Added heat is Q = cm∆T ≈ 1.0 [kJ/kg K] ×390[kg] ×20[K] = 7.8×106J. Q 7.8 106 The need of fuel oil is Q fuel 12 106 J 3.3 kWh or about 1/3 0.65 liter. 4. Work W PdV 0 , because an isochor process, i.e. dV = 0. Technical work W t VdP (ideal gas model gives) mR dT mR T 8314.3[J/kmolK ] 100[K ] 4.157 106 J 4.2 MJ, i.e. we must add the 2[kg/kmol] technical work 4.2 MJ. 10[kg] 47 EXERGETICS 5. The ideal gas model gives: V mRT P 10[kg ] 8314.3[J/kmolK ] [K ] 2[kg/kmol] 1 105[Pa ] 125 m3. 6. 1st law gives: Q U W mcv dT W 0 W , i.e. Q = W of an isothermal process. 2 2 2 mRT dV V Work W PdV dV mRT mRT ln 2 of an ideal gas and V V V1 1 1 1 isothermal process. Q 148 103[J ] T 373 K or about 100˚C. We get: V2 2 mR ln 1[kg] 287[J/kgK ] ln V1 0.5 7. The ideal gas model gives: mRT 1[kg ] 287[J/kgK ] 373[ K ] 2.14 105 Pa. P 3 0.5[m ] V 8. For an adiabatic process we have PV = constant, where 1 cP , i.e. cv 1 P V V P 6 105 1.3 3 2.33 , i.e. the P1V1 P2V2 1 2 2 1 5 P2 V1 V1 P2 2 10 volume increases 133%. 9. For a polytropic process we have PVn = constant, where n is the polytropic coefficient, i.e. the final pressure becomes P2: n 1.35 V 9V PV P V P2 P1 1 0.9 105 2 0.9 105 91.35 V2 V2 5 17.5 10 Pa From the ideal gas model (PV = mRT) we can rewrite this as: n 1 (1.35 1) V1 9V 2 T 2 T1 (40 273.15) 313 90.35 676 K ≈ 403˚C. V 2 V 2 n 1 1 n 2 2 10. a) To determine Q we must know cv in the temperature interval [T1,T2] and the mass m. The mass we get from the ideal gas model (PV = mRT, where R is the special gas R constant, i.e. “per kg” according to R , where R is the general gas constant M and M is mol): PV 1105 5 103 m 1 1 5.95 10-3 kg RT1 8314 293.15 29 48 EXERGETICS 1.35 n V 9V P1V1n P2V2n P2 P1 1 0.9 105 2 ≈ 0.9×105×91.35 ≈ V2 V2 ≈17.5×105 Pa. From the ideal gas model (PV = mRT) the relation above can be written as if we c have the following relations for cP and cv: P and for air we have ≈ 1.4. From cv tables we get the average value for cP in temperature range 20-50˚C to: c (40 C) cP (60 C) cP (20 C) P c (20 C) cP (50 C) 2 cˆP cP (20 C,50 C) P 2 2 1005 1009 1005 cˆ 2 ≈ 1006 J/kg˚C. Which gives cˆ v P ≈ 719 J/kg˚C. 2 We can now determine the added heat from the definition of the heat capacity: J Q mcˆv (T2 T1 ) mcˆv 21 5.95 103 719 30 128[kg K J] kgK (Always check the dimensions!) b) To determine the final pressure we must know how the pressure changes during the process, since it is an isochoric process we have (according to the ideal gas model): P×constant = T or P1 T1 T 323.15 P2 P1 2 1 105 1.10 105 Pa = 110 kPa. P2 T2 T1 293.15 11. a & b) The process is adiabatic, i.e.: 1 1.4 1 P 6 105 1.4 T2 T1 2 293.15 ≈ 489 K, i.e. 2 ≈ 489–273 ≈ 216˚C. 5 1 10 P1 We may now calculate the average value of the specific heat at constant pressure accordingly: c (20 C) cP (216 C) 1005 1027 cˆP cP (20 C,216 C) P ≈ 1016 J/kg K. 2 2 Added work, i.e. technical work, when we have an open process, can be calculated: 1 w t h1 h2 c PdT cˆ P (T1 T2 ) ≈ 1016×(293.15–489.15) ≈ –199 kJ/kg. (The 2 minus sign indicate that work is being added to the process!) c) The change of the internal energy can be calculated: 2 2 2 u2 u1 cV dT 1 by, u21 1 cP c dT P dT 1 wt , i.e. the internal energy increases (199) ≈ 140 kJ/kg. 1.4 12. The mass m we get from the ideal gas model (PV = mRT) accordingly: PV 2 105 0.6 m 2 2 ≈ 1.4 kg. RT2 287 293.15 49 EXERGETICS 2 2 a) For the internal energy: U 2 U1 m cV dT 1 1 cP dT m cˆP (T2 T1 ) cP (0 C) cP (20 C) c (0 C, 20 C) 2 m P (T2 T1 ) m (T2 T1 ) 1005 1005 2 1.4 (293.15 273.15) ≈ 20 kJ U2 ≈ 20 +U1 ≈ 20 + 0 ≈ 20 kJ. 1.4 2 a) Analogously for the enthalpy: H 2 H1 m cP dT H1 mcˆ p (T2 T1 ) ≈ 0 + 1 1.4×1005× (293.15–273.15) ≈ 28 kJ. 50 EXERGETICS EXERGY We have now concluded that it is a fundamental law of nature that energy neither can be created nor destroyed (the First Law of Thermodynamics). Energy is available in many different forms and may be converted between these forms. However, a strict limitation is always active. Different energies have different qualities, indicating to what extent they are theoretically convertible to mechanical work. This limitation, a Law of Nature, implies that the total energy quality always decreases in each conversion (the Second Law of Thermodynamics). The quality of energy is described by the concept of entropy. High entropy is equal to low quality of energy. The Second Law states that conversions are possible only if the total entropy increases. By introducing exergy, we may treat energy and entropy simultaneously, i.e. “kill two birds with one stone”. At this stage, introducing exergy is mere a matter of putting a name to something we already know. By reading the more verbal treatment of the exergy concept you are well prepared for the more analytic treatment. Exergy of a general process Assume a general (irreversible) process: Q from the environment at temperature T0 W Hi He SYSTEM U2 – U1 The processes involves a change of the internal energy of the system, U2 – U1, and a change of the enthalpy of the flow through the system, He and Hi. Thus, the process is a combination of a closed and open system. Let us make the process reversible by adding a reversible heat engine as below. Q 0 from the environment at temperature T0 E Wc HEAT ENGINE Wrev Hi Qrev SYSTEM He U2 – U1 We can now describe the process in detail. The work from the heat engine is Wc, and the total maximal work we may extract from the system at a reversible process E (= exergy) is 51 EXERGETICS E = Wrev + Wc If we apply the first law on the modified system with a reversible process, we get Qrev + Hi = U2 – U1 + Wrev + He i.e., Wrev = Qrev + Hi – He – (U2 – U1) Since, all processes are reversible the heat exchange with the environment must go through the heat engine, as is shown in the Fig above. The first law applied to the heat engine gives Wc = Q0 – Qrev and the second law gives Q0 S 0 S rev T0 since work Wc is free of entropy (Sc =0) and were Srev is the entropy related to the heat Qrev. The work from the heat engine becomes: Wc = T0Srev – Qrev the second law for the system gives: Srev = S2 – S1 + Se – Si Thus the work from the heat engine becomes Wc = T0(S2 – S1 + Se – Si) – Qrev By replacing Wrev and Wc in the Eq. for E, we get E Q rev Hi He (U2 U1 ) T0 (S 2 S1 S e S i ) Q rev Which may be rewritten as E Hi T0 S i (He T0S e ) (U1 T0 S1 ) (U 2 T0 S 2 ) E i E e E1 E 2 As we see Qrev disappears in the expression for the reversible work that can be extracted from a general process, which involves heat at ambient temperature T0. This reversible work, which is the maximum work that can be extracted, we call the exergy. This is the part of the energy, which is completely convertible into any other forms of energy, i.e. especially work. Other forms of energy, e.g. kinetic and potential mechanical energies and electrical energy may just be directly added. Let us now look closer to special cases of this general exergy expression. R: Appendix 2 in this material or Appendix A in G. Wall, “Exergy — A Useful Concept within Resource Accounting”, 1977, pp. 40-43, that you find on the Internet: http://exergy.se/. (This is an alternative derivation of the exergy concept 52 EXERGETICS based on a closed system in an infinite environment. Thus the environmental relations are stressed, but as we will see the environment only plays the role of reference state. And, the exergy can be related to any reference state.) Exergy, work and entropy production We will now derive an expression for the total entropy production and the relation to exergy. Consider a defined thermodynamic system going through a process from state 1 to 2, where work W is extracted. Further more heat Q is added from a reservoir, e.g. the environment at temperature T0, see Fig. below. The situation is completely general, the only restriction is that the system is defined. W 12 Q T0 The first law gives: Q = U2 – U1 + W (1) The entropy change of the system is Ssys = S2 – S1. Further has the entropy of the reservoir also changed? The reservoir has delivered the heat Q. The entropy change of the reservoir then becomes Q S res (2) T0 We use Stot to indicate the total entropy change of the system and the environment, which becomes S tot Ssys S res S 2 S1 Q T0 (3) By eliminating Q from Eq. 3 and Eq. 1 we get W U1 U 2 T0 ( S1 S 2 ) T0 S tot (4) The total entropy change Stot is always positive (Second Law) S tot 0 so we will from now on call Stot the total entropy production. 53 (5) EXERGETICS Equations 4 and 5 give an upper limit of the work W which may be extracted from the process. This upper limit is given from a reversible process, since the total entropy production Stot of such a process is zero. We now assume a reversible process, which utilizes the given heat reservoir and converts the system from state 1 to 2. Any kind of extra apparatus is allowed. However, these should be in the same state after the reversible process as they were before. The maximal extractable work, i.e. the exergy then becomes according to Eq. 4: E = U1 – U2 – T0(S1 – S2) (6) If we combine Eq. 4 and Eq. 6 we have an important relation W E T0 S tot (7) The exergy obviously gives an upper limit to the work which is extractable from the process, since the entropy production Stot is always positive. Thus the available work W is limited by the exergy E. At an irreversible process as above with the entropy production Stot, this corresponds to a loss of available work or exergy. Thus, for an irreversible process we have: Wloss Eloss T0 S tot tot S 0 (8) Thus, the relation between exergy and entropy is very fundamental. We may say that exergy is the concept which links the universal concept of entropy with the conditions on the Earth through the temperature. In the section on exergy and information we will develop this fundamental relation further. Exergy loss = Ambient temperature ×Entropy production This relation may also be expressed as the following: the maximal available exergy, that is equal to the maximal possible exergy loss, is equal to the ambient temperature times the maximal entropy production. The result of this section may be expressed in many ways as we will see in the coming sections. This simple conclusion is still a very fundamental relation. We will now calculate the entropy production of some simple cases. Heat transfer Assume that a certain amount of heat Q is transferred from a body with the temperature T1 to a body with the temperature T2 and that the temperatures T1 and T2 remain constant. The entropy changes for the bodies are –Q/T1 and Q/T2. We may regard this as if the heat flow is removing the entropy Q/T1 from “T1” and adding the entropy Q/T2 to “T2”, and that the difference gives the entropy production. The heat exchange has occurred through some intermediate medium. This medium is in the same state after the process as before. The intermediate medium does not change its entropy. 54 EXERGETICS Q T1 T2 The total entropy change then becomes S tot Q Q T2 T1 (9) If a heat Q is transferred from T1 to T2 and further to T3 then we get for each transfer S12tot Q Q Q Q and S 23tot T2 T1 T3 T2 (10) and for the total transfer we get S13tot Q Q T3 T1 (11) We could have stated Eq. 11 directly from Eq. 9. It is important to note that the entropy production becomes less if the heat transfer occurs at higher temperature. The entropy production at heat transfer from 610 K to 600 K is only one forth as big as if the same amount of heat is transferred from 310 K to 300 K. Temperature exchange between two bodies We have two bodies with the heat capacities C1, C2 and the temperatures T1 and T2. The volumes are constant, e.g. two buckets of water with different temperatures. C 1, T 1 C 2, T 2 C 1, T e C 2, T e Heat is exchanged to reach equilibrium at temperature Te. First law, i.e. energy conservation gives: Te C1T1 C2T2 C1 C2 The total entropy production becomes: 55 (12) EXERGETICS S tot Te T T T C dT e C dT 1 2 C1 ln e C2 ln e T2 T1 T T T1 T2 (13) if we assume that the heat capacities are constant, i.e. do not depend on the temperature. Ex: Convince yourself that the total entropy production always is positive. S: To check this we set x = T2/T1, which gives: S tot C1 C2 C1 xC2 C1 ln C2 ln x C1 C2 C1 C2 (14) The entropy production is of course zero if x = 1. The derivative with respect to x becomes: dS tot C1C2 1 1 dx C1 C2 x x (15) The derivative is positive for x>l and negative for 0<x<l. Thus, the entropy production is positive for 0<x<∞. Friction Assume wf to be the frictional work of a process, and assume this becomes heat, i.e. no other effects. If the temperature of the frictional heat is T, the entropy production becomes, according to Eq. 2 (Q = –wf): s wf T (16) As we see the entropy production becomes less with increasing temperature, i.e. the friction work is transferred to frictional heat of higher quality. Q: Have you any ideas how this could be used? Do you know where? If the frictional work Wf generates heat at temperature T1 and if the temperature then decreases to T2 we get the entropy production from Eq. 9 and 16: S tot 1 W 1 W f W f f T T1 T1 T2 2 (17) Thus, we get the same entropy production as if the temperature of the frictional heat originally was T2. The total entropy production from friction is given by contributions defined by Eq. 16. The produced frictional heat also creates additional contributions to the total entropy 56 EXERGETICS production according to Eq. 9, and finally the total entropy production becomes according to Eq. 17. Thus, if the total frictional work is Wf, and if all frictional heat is lost to the environment at temperature T0, then the total entropy production from frictional work and heat transfer to the environment becomes: S tot Wf T0 (18) All frictional heat finally reaches the environment, however the entropy production will appear at many sub processes. System in contact with a heat reservoir Our system is now in contact with a heat reservoir of temperature T0 during the process l to 2. The initial and final temperatures must then be equal to T0: T1 T2 T0 (19) We also assume that the volume is constant: V1 = V2 (20) The process will then not generate any work on the environment. These kinds of process usually occur for liquids and solids. The temperature might of course change during the process. The exergy, i.e. the available reversible work then becomes according to Eqs. 6, 19 and the definition of Helmholtz’ function or free energy, A = U – TS: E = A1 – A2 (21) W ≤ A1 – A2 (22) From Eq. 7 we get: Thus, the decrease of Helmholz free energy of the system gives the upper limit of the available work of the process. System in contact with a heat and pressure reservoir In many processes the initial and final pressure is the same, i.e.: P1 = P2 = P0 And often P0 is the ambient pressure, towards which the system performs a work P0 (V 2 V 1 ) during the process. The available work then becomes: 57 (23) EXERGETICS W W P0 (V2 V1 ) (24) The exergy then becomes according to Eq. 21, the definition of enthalpy H = U + PV and Gibbs’ function or free enthalpy G = H – TS: E = G1 – G2 (25) W´≤ G1 – G2 (26) For the available work we get: Thus, the decrease of free enthalpy G for the system gives the upper limit of the available work of the process, i.e. similarly as above for Helmholz’ function. The Eqs. 22 and 26 explains why we use free energy for A and free enthalpy for G. It is important to notice the conditions of these relations. As we have seen Helmholtz’ and Gibbs’ functions are special cases of the exergy for special processes. In Appendix 2, you will find a more detailed analysis between exergy and these and other concepts. Exergy of heat and cold We will now derive expressions for available work in some basic cases where heat transfer is involved. The ambient temperature is T0. Let us first assume that heat Q is transferred between two reservoirs at temperatures T and T0, and T > T0 and find the exergy involved. A reversible heat engine working between the temperatures T and T0 gives the maximal available work. By assuming that the heat is completely lost we may calculate the maximal entropy production which gives us the exergy being lost, i.e. the available exergy which is able to utilize. T Q T0 From above we have: Q Q T E T0 S tot T0 Q1 0 T T0 T (T>T0) (1) If the temperature T <T0 , this only change the direction of the heat flow Q, which then will go from T0 to T, the exergy now becomes: Q Q T E T0 Q 0 1 T T T0 58 (T<T0) (2) EXERGETICS The ratio between the exergy E and the energy of the transferred heat Q we call the exergy factor E/Q. Thus, by multiplying the energy by the exergy factor we get the exergy. The exergy factor of heat from a heat reservoir, i.e. at constant temperature T, that differ from the ambient temperature T0 is E T T0 Q T (3) This is a generalization of the Carnot relation, since it also covers temperature below ambient. Let us exemplify this. Ex: What is the exergy factor of heat at 20˚C (≈ 293 K) in an environment at 5˚C (≈ 278 K)? One example of this is exergy needed to maintain the inside temperature at +20˚C when the outside temperature is 5˚C. S: From Eq. 3 we have: E 293 278 15 15 % 5% Q 293 293 3 So, the exergy factor of heat at 20˚C in an environment at 5˚C is approximately 5 %. Thus, the exergy efficiency of an electric heat radiator (electric short circuit), which maintain the indoor temperature at +20˚C when the outdoor temperature is +5˚C is about 5 %. However, the energy efficiency is 100%. Let us look closer to the relation between energy and exergy efficiencies and exergy factor. Ex: Estimate the energy efficiency of an oil furnace when the exergy efficiency is 3%, the exergy factors for in and out flows are 0.9 and 0.04 respectively? S: We have the following relations: Exergy factor E Exergy , i.e., Energy Q Energy efficiency Energy output Q , i.e., en out Energy input Q in Exergy efficiency E Exergy output , i.e., ex out Ein Exergy input From these relations we may derive the following relation: 59 EXERGETICS Eout Q Eout out Q Eout Eout en out ex E Q Qin Qin in Ein in Ein Ein Qout Qout Eout ex Qin Ein Ein Qin Eout Qout Numerical values gives: 0 .9 en 0.03 0.675 70% 0.04 The energy efficiency becomes about 70 %. Calculate the exergy factor for heat transferred between the following temperatures in degrees Celsius and 0˚C: S: E Q –270 –200 –100 –20 … … … 0 … … 20 100 200 500 1000 5000 … … … … … … Check your values with the black line in the Fig. below. The upper black curve, in Fig. below illustrates Eq. 3. (The lower gray curve will be described below.) As we see cold has exergy, when energy is regarded as negative. We also see that the exergy factor strongly increase for low temperatures, which explains the difficulty to reach absolute zero temperature, i.e. 0K or 273.15˚C. At high temperatures the exergy factor comes closer to 1 (the dotted line), i.e. exergy E and energy Q of the heat becomes almost the same. As we know, high temperatures generate more work in a heat engine. E /Q Liquid nitrogen 1.6 1.4 1.2 1 Furnace 0.8 Stove 0.6 Oven 0.4 Hot steam 0.2 0 T T0 Boiling water Waste heat Freezer 0 Meltedsteel Glowing steel 1 2 3 60 4 EXERGETICS Equation 3 is useful to describe the exergy need to maintain the temperature in hot spaces, e.g. furnaces, stoves, ovens, or houses, as well as in cold spaces, e.g. refrigerators and freezers, or to keep a pleasant indoor climate by air-conditioning a hot summer day. Exergy reflects better than energy that heat or cold is more “expensive” when we need it the most. Thus, it is easier to generate cold in winter and heat in summer. By using the energy concept it seems equal, since energy is not affected by the ambient conditions. So, from an energy point of view it seems independent of whether it is summer or winter. Thus, district heat should be more expensive in the winter than in the summer. This is an example of something obvious which is not explained by the energy concept, but is immediately explained by the exergy concept. The exergy of a body with temperature T is slightly more complicated to calculate since the temperature of the body as well as the delivered heat decreases when heat is removed. Assume that the heat capacity of the body is C(T). Let us calculate the exergy when the temperature decrease from T to T0. The heat content of a temperature change dT´ is C(T´)dT´, then the exergy becomes an integral from T0 to T: T T E C (T )1 0 dT T T0 (4) It is not hard to see that this relation holds at both T>T0 and T<T0. If the heat capacity is not depending on temperature, the exergy becomes T T T E C T T0 T0 ln C (T T0 )1 0 ln T0 T T0 T0 (5) Q C (T T0 ) (7) E T T 1 0 ln Q T T0 T0 (8) Since the exergy factor E/Q becomes: Where the absolute signs make sure that the relation also holds for T<T0. This relation is indicated by the gray line in the Fig. above. In the derivation of exergy for a body we have neglected change in volume, which is usually acceptable for solids and for liquids. Calculate the exergy factor for heat transferred between a body at the following temperatures in degrees Celsius and 0˚C: S: ˚C E Q –270 –200 –100 –20 … … … 0 … … 20 100 200 500 1000 5000 … … … … … … Check your values with the gray line in the Fig. above. (Please observe that at low temperatures the heat capacity C can not be regarded as constant.) 61 EXERGETICS In the Fig. above the exergies of some bodies at different temperatures are indicated, e.g. liquid nitrogen, waste heat, boiling water, hot steam, glowing steel, and melted steel. Let us compare the exergy factors between the two cases, reservoir and body, at temperature T, see the exercises above. If T=100˚C then the exergy factor of the reservoir is 0.27 and for the body 0.15, i.e. almost half. As we would expect the exergy factor E/Q is lower for a body since the temperature decreases with the heat released. At low temperatures, TT0, and for temperatures close to ambient, T0, the exergy factor E/Q of a body is about half that of a reservoir. For high temperatures the exergy factors for a reservoir and a body become closer. Thus, it is important to make sure what kind of heat source is available, reservoir or body, for the system to be studied. We will now examine district heat more in detail. District heat is regarded as a body, thus, the exergy factor becomes from Eq. 8: T E T0 1 ln supply Q Tsupply T0 T0 (9) where Tsupply is the temperature of the supplied heat(Tsupply>T0). Assume this to be 85˚C when T0>2˚C and that it increases linearly with decreasing outdoor temperature to 120˚C when T0<20˚C. Then, we get the lower gray curve in Fig. below. We see that the exergy factor is varying stepwise between about 0.10 and 0.22 when the temperature decreases from 20 to –30˚C. However, since a part of the supplied exergy is returned, we may calculate the utilized exergy to: T E T0 1 ln supply Q Tsupply Treturn Treturn (10) where Treturn is the temperature of the returned exergy, which we assume to 55˚C. Then, we get the upper black curve in the Fig. below. As we expected the exergy factor becomes higher, since the heat now is taken out at a higher average temperature. It now varies stepwise between about 0.15 and 0.32. 62 EXERGETICS E Q 0.35 0.30 0.25 0.20 0.15 0.10 0.05 T0 0 -30 -20 -10 0 +10 +20 Ex: Calculate the exergy factor of district heat when the outdoor temperature is 0˚C? Also calculate the exergy factor of the utilized heat, see Eq. 10 above? S: First we must find the temperature on the supplied district heat Tsupply at the prevailing outdoor temperature T0. When –20˚C <T0<+2˚C we have: Tsupply 85 (120 85) 2 T0 2 (20) which gives Tsupply≈ 88.2˚C ≈ 361K. Numbers in Eq. 9 give: 273 361 273 E ln 1 1 ln(1.3223) 0.13 361 273 273 88 Q Thus, the exergy factor of the supplied heat is 0.13. If we assume the return temperature to be 55˚C, i.e. 328K, then we get for the utilized heat: 273 361 273 E ln 1 1 ln(1.1006) 0.21 361 328 328 33 Q Thus, the exergy factor of the utilized heat is 0.21. S: Verify the expression for the utilized district heat in Eq. 10 above. We will return to exergy of heat and cold when we analyze the exergy conversions in industrial processes. 63 EXERGETICS Here will soon be add something about district cold also, this is interesting from the point of putting a price on the energy. How do you price cold delivered to the consumer, when the consumer is delivering the energy? Exergy of black body radiation For black body radiation* we have the following relations for energy and entropy emission rates per unit area: u T 4 (1) 4 s T 3 3 (2) (Please, note that du Tds .) 2 5 k 4 5.67 108 W/K 4 m 2 is called the Stefan-Boltzmanns constant. where 3 2 15h c Consider the reversible process, radiation from a black body at temperature T is transmitted to another black body at temperature, T0: Black body at temperature T . . u, s . e Radiation . . u0, s0 Black body at temperature T0 Ambientat temperature T0 . q The exergy flow e , which is associated with the heat radiation is derived by applying the first and second law to an ideal reversible process. This process converts the radiation to exergy and heat at ambient temperature. Assume that the converter can not receive radiation without emit radiation, the principal of detailed balance. The converter receives energy and entropy according to Eqs. 1 and 2. Simultaneously, it emits energy, u0 and entropy, s0 according to Eqs. 1 and 2. u0 T04 4 s0 T03 3 The first law gives: u u0 e q * A black body by definition absorbs all incoming radiation. 64 (3) EXERGETICS Since the process is reversible, there is no entropy production, and the second law gives. q s s0 (4) T0 The work or exergy that can be extracted from the radiation becomes e u u0 q u u0 T0 ( s s0 ) 1 T0 4 4 T0 4 4 4 3 3 4 T T0 T0 (T T0 ) T 1 3 3 T 3 T (5) Thus, the exergy factor of black body radiation is 4 e 1T 4 T 1 0 0 u 3 T 3 T (6) Let us apply this result to sunlight*, where Tsun = 6000 K and Tearth =T0 = 300 K, the exergy factor becomes from Eq. 6 4 1 300 4 300 e 1 0.933 3 6000 3 6000 u sunlight Q: What is the exergy factor for heat at heat transfer between these temperatures, 300 and 6000 K? What does the difference indicate? Ex: Compare the energy and exergy efficiencies of the following solar collectors, all working in full sunlight, i.e. 1000 W/m2 and the ambient temperature is 15˚C: 1. A flat solar panel for heat generation of 1m2 which heats 3 dl of water from 10 to 40˚C per minute. 2. A concentration solar collector of 1 m2 which gives 1 g steam at ambient pressure per minute from water at 10˚C. 3. Solar cell 95×65 mm which gives 0.45 V and 400 mA. S: 1. Energy power in Pen, in ≈ 1000×1 = 1000 W Exergy power in Pex, in ≈ 1000×0.933×1 = 933 W 0 .3 4200 ( 40 10) 630W Energy power out Pen,out C T 60 T Exergy power out Pex,out C T T0 ln out Tin 0.3 313.15 4200 40 10 288.15 ln 20.6W 60 283.15 630 63% Energy efficiency en 1000 * The sun and the earth can be regarded as almost black bodies. 65 EXERGETICS Exergy efficiency ex 20.6 2 .2 % 933 2. Energy power in Pen, in ≈ 1000×1 = 1000 W Exergy power in Pex, in ≈ 1000×0.933×1 = 933 W Energy power out Pen,ut C T H phase 0.001 4200 (100 10) 2.3 10 6 44.6W 60 T T T Exergy power out Pex,out C T T0 ln ut H phase out 0 Tin Tout 100 15 0.001 373.15 6 4200100 10 288.15 ln 2.3 10 60 283.15 373.15 ≈ 0.7 + 8.7 = 9.4 W 44.6 4% Energy efficiency en 1000 9 .4 1% Exergy efficiency ex 933 3. Energy power in Pen, in ≈ 1000×95×65×10–6 ≈ 6.2 W Exergy power in Pex, in ≈ 0.933×6.175 ≈ 5.8 W Energy power in Pen, out = UI ≈ 0.45×0.4 = 0.18 W Exergy power in Pex, out = UI ≈ 0.18 W 0.18 2 .9 % Energy efficiency en 6 .2 0.18 3.1% Exergy efficiency ex 5 .8 Q: What are suitable applications of these different collectors? Exergy of materials A simplified introduction to the exergy of substances and materials is given below. Assume the pressure P and the temperature T to be constant, i.e. P = P0 and T = T0, then we have from the general expression of exergy, see App. 2: ~ ~ ) E ni ( i i0 (1) i ~ where i is the generalized chemical potential of substance i in its present state and ~ is the generalized chemical potential of substance i in its environmental state. i0 Further, assume that the substance only depart from the environment in chemical potential µ and concentration c. Also, assume that the general chemical potential may be written ~ 0 RT ln c i i 0 i 66 (2) EXERGETICS where 0i is the chemical potential for the material (substance) i in relation to its standard state, given from chemical tables, usually the pure element. Then the exergy becomes E ni (i0 i00 ) RT0 ni ln ci ci 0 (3) where i 0 is the chemical potential for the material in the environment in relation to its standard state. For only one material we have 0 c E n 0 00 RT0 ln c0 (4) Ex./S: Let us calculate the exergy of the Swedish iron ore production. The Swedish iron ore has an average content of iron of about 60% (weight) and usually consists of magnetite (Fe3O4). The molar weight of iron is 55.8 g, which implies that 1 kg of iron ore contains 600/55.8 = 10.7 mol of iron = 3.58 mol magnetite = 0.83 kg magnetite.* Assume that the reference (environmental) state of iron is hematite (Fe2O3) in solid form and with molar concentration 2.7×10–4 and that oxygen O2 is in gaseous form at partial pressure 20.40 kPa in the environment [Szargut (1980)]. The chemical potentials of iron in magnetite and hematite then become [kJ/mol]:† 1 0 ( Fe magnetite ) ( 1015.5 2 3.84) 335.9 3 1 0 ( Fe hematite ) ( 742.2 1.5 3.84) 368.2 2 Where 3.84 kJ is the amount of exergy released when the partial pressure of 1 mol of oxygen gas (O2) decreases from 101.325 kPa to 20.40 kPa at 15˚C‡, since this part is not included in the Gibbs free energy data. c 101.325 RT0 ln 8.314 ( 273.15 15) ln 3840 J 20.40 c0 Thus, the specific exergy of iron ore and iron then becomes, [MJ/kg]:§ 0.83 0.43 eiron ore 10.7 335.9 (368.2) 103 8.31 288 ln 4 ≈ 2 2.7 10 ≈ 0.51 * Since we lack data on molar fraction of iron in iron ore, we use instead kg iron per kg iron ore. Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, CRC, vol. 63, sida D-72: ∆Gf˚(Fe2O3) = –177.4 kcal/mol = –742.2 kJ/mol, ∆Gf˚(Fe3O4) = –242.7 kcal/mol = –1015.5 kJ/mol. ‡ ISA - International Standard Atmosphere is defined to 101.325 kPa, 15˚C and 0% humidity. § 3 of 7 atoms in the magnetite molecule is iron atoms, i.e. the iron concentration in magnetite is 3/7≈0.43. † 67 EXERGETICS 1 6.91 eiron 17.90 (368.2) 103 8.31 288 ln 4 2 2.7 10 where 1 kg iron corresponds to 17.9 mol. These values are in correspondence with those of others (McGannon, 1971, Gyftopoulos et al., 1974). The Swedish mining of iron ore amounted to 26.9 Mton in 1980, by assuming this to be magnetite it corresponds to 14 PJ. The Swedish steel production was 3.5 Mton, i.e. about 24 PJ of exergy. To produce this 5.7 Mton of ore, i.e. about 3 PJ, about 34 PJ of electricity and about 77 PJ of coal and other fuels where needed. The exergy efficiency then becomes 21%. Q: Use the exergy calculator at http://www.exergoecology.com/excalc/ to see what values you get and compare with the above results? Ex./S: Let us also apply this to desalination and calculate the exergy of fresh water. Assume that the reference (environmental) state of water is sea water. Sea water has an average content of water, H2O of about 96.5% (weight) and the molar weight is 18 g, which implies that 1 kg of sea water contains 965/18 ≈ 53.6 mol of water. The rest is mainly sodium chloride (NaCl) with a molar weight of 58.5 g, i.e. 1 kg of water contains 35/58.5 ≈ 0.598 mol of NaCl. However, when NaCl is dissolved in water it becomes Na+ and Cl- ions, i.e. separate molecules. Thus 1 kg of water contains 53.6 mol of H2O, 0.598 mol of Na+ and 0.598 mol of Cl-, i.e. together about 54.8 mol. The mol concentration of water in sea water then becomes about 97.8%. The exergy of pure water at ambient temperature 15˚C then becomes c 1 E RT0 ln 8.314 ( 273.15 15) ln 54.9 J/mol 0.978 c0 where the chemical potentials vanishes since we assume no chemical effects. The exergy of pure water then becomes about 3.05 kJ/kg or about 0.847 kWh/m3. If we instead assume 4.5% of salt and the ambient temperature of 30˚C, then we get 72.0 J/mol, 4.0 kJ/kg or 1.1 kWh/m3. These exergies of fresh water corresponds to the minimum amount of exergy needed to produce it from the assumed sea water, respectively. The exergy of sodium chloride, on the other hand, becomes 184 kJ/kg and 182 kJ/kg respectively, i.e. less when the salt content in sea water increases. Exergy of nuclear fuel When the nuclear particles, i.e. nucleons, regroup into more probable states, exergy is released. In fission this occurs by splitting heavy atoms and in fusion by putting together light atoms into heavy atoms. 68 EXERGETICS 8 7 Fusion Bindning energy per nucleon [MeV] 9 6 5 4 3 2 Fission 1 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 Atomic weight Energy per nucleon in an atom as function of atomic weight. The difference in binding energies between the initial and the final state is released as scattered motion in the produced particles, like neutrons and new elements. The energy can be expressed as a change of mass, a mass shift, through the well known relation E=mc2 where c is the speed of light in vacuum. However, the lost mass is very small compared to the rest initial mass, e.g. in fission uranium-235 losses about 1‰ of its mass and in fusion to helium deuterium (2H) losses about 64‰ of its mass. Thus, we write instead U = ∆mc2 (1) where we also use U for internal energy, in this case nuclear. Since, a part of the released energy in most cases appear as neutrinos, which can be regarded as invisible and non interactive, i.e. useless, we may write nuclear exergy as E = ∆mc2 – Eneutrino (2) The energy of the neutrinos may sometime exceed up to 5% of the totally released energy. Q: Estimate from the Fig. above the available exergy of 1 kg uranium? Compare this with the extracted exergy (electricity), which in today’s Light Water Reactors is about 1 TJ/kg uranium. What is this difference due to and what consequences does it bring to the waste? 69 EXERGETICS Exergy and information Even though, thermodynamics treats the physics of systems which from a macroscopic point of view may be very small (about 10–15 cm3) are they still from microscopic point of view very big, therefor containing a large amount of particles (10–15 cm3 contains about 109 atoms). Thus, a detailed knowledge of the motion of every particle is impossible. In statistical mechanics we consider the large amount of particles and use statistical methods do explain the macroscopic phenomena as the result of microscopic rules. Statistical mechanics, by this means the theoretical basis of understanding thermodynamics. Statistical mechanics is also strongly linked to information theory, where we study incomplete knowledge. Thus, many concepts and relations are valid in all these fields, thermodynamics, statistical mechanics and information theory. Let us therefor look closer into information theory. Assume a system of N unique particles. The number of allowed states Ω of the system is exponentially depending on N. Let the probability of the j:th state be Pj and the sum of the probabilities of all states to be 1, i.e. the system is in at least one state P j 1 j 1 The entropy of the system is then defined from statistical mechanics as S k Pj ln Pj j 1 where k is the Boltzmann’s constant, 1.38054×10–23 J/K. 0 The probabilities at equilibrium Pj are such that they maximize the entropy S independent of other restrictions on the system. Seq S max k Pj0 ln Pj0 j 1 The available negentropy, negative entropy, of the system then becomes S Seq Seq S k Pj ln Pj Pj0 ln Pj0 j 1 j 1 From information theory we have the information or the information capacity I in binary units (bits) I 1 Pj ln Pj Pj0 ln Pj0 ln 2 j 1 j 1 Let us exemplify by a system of N different particles with 2 possible states each, e.g. 0 0 or 1. Then we have Ω = 2N. If there are no other restrictions then all Pj must be 2–N, see the Table below. 70 EXERGETICS 0 N 1 0,1 2 00,01,10,11 3 000,001,010,100,011,101,110,111 Ω = 2N Pj 1 21=2 2 1 22=4 4 1 23=8 8 etc. Total information about the system (one of Pj equals 1 and all the others equal 0) gives I = N, 2 1 1 N 1 N N I 0 2 N ( N ) ln 2 N 2 ln 2 ln 2 2 j 1 ln 2 N For every particle there is information corresponding to a “yes” or “no” to a specific question. Every such answer corresponds to one binary unit (bit) of information. Thus, negentropy and information are very closely linked Seq S k I where k = k ln2 ≈ 1.0×10–23 [J/K]. One bit of information, thus, is equivalent to 1.0×10–23 J/K of negentropy. Exergy and negentropy is also related from a relation we already know: E T0 ( Seqtot S tot ) ”tot” means the total system, here we only use system. From these relations we now get the following relation between exergy and information E k T0 I where k T0 2.9×10–21 [J] is the amount of exergy related to 1 bit of information at room temperature. It is important to observe that information or information capacity, not necessary need to be meaningful from a human point of view. Information is here used as a measure of order or structure. Within science information is just as fundamental as energy and matter. By small amount of information, processes converting huge amount of energy and matter can be controlled. As we have seen there is a fundamental relation between exergy and information, defined from information theory. However, as we will see information usually has a very small exergy value. Thus, it should be treated as a resource of one’s own. Let us apply the concepts above on a physical system. Consider a container of volume V, with an ideal mixture of two different ideal gases 1 and 2, see the Fig. below. The total 71 EXERGETICS number of molecules is N, divided into N1 and N2 respectively. The molar concentration then becomes x1 = N1/N and x2 = N2/N = 1 – x1. N1, P N, P The gases are mixed in the container with pressure P. N2, P The gases are separated with the same pressure P. If we randomly pick one molecule from a specific place in the left container in the Fig. we face a probability P = (x1, x2)* to get a specific molecule. The information we gain when we discover which molecule it is, becomes according to above I 1 1 1 x1 ln x2 ln ln 2 x1 x2 Let us now split the container in two parts with the volumes V1 = x1V and V2 = x2V respectively, and arrange the molecules so that V1 only contains molecules 1 and V2 only contains molecules 2, see the right part of the Fig. above. If we now randomly pick one molecule from a specified part of the container, then we know which molecule we get, and our knowledge and information increase by 0. By mixing the molecules information is lost, i.e. I per molecule, which can be related to a loss of exergy as above. Let us look closer to this. Mixing entropy Let us now calculate the maximal available work when we mix the two gases 1 and 2 as above. We may then get an expression of the amount of exergy, which should be related to the information I, i.e. we will check the relation above. Assume the container is in thermal equilibrium with the ambient at temperature T0. Since the initial and final volumes are the same we may set the ambient pressure to 0. First allow gas 1 and 2 independently expand isothermally, see the processes atob in the Fig. below. The gases are then mixed reversible by ideal semi-permeable walls, see process b to c. Please note there is no net force on the containers during the mixing process b to c, and also there is not heat flow. So, the mixing is completely reversible, i.e. the entropy is constant. * Please note that we here are forced to use the same symbol for pressure and probability. This problem usually occurs when you simultaneously treat different fields of science. 72 EXERGETICS W1 Q1 T0 Q2 W2 a b c A reversible mixing of the gases through an isothermal expansion (a to b), followed by an iso-exergetic mixing (b to c). When the gases are regarded as ideal the ideal gas model is valid, i.e. PV = nRT = NkT and the work is obtainable as V V Vi Vi Wi Pi dV V 1 N i kT0 dV N i kT0 ln NkT0 xi ln V Vi xi which gives 1 1 W W1 W2 NkT0 x1 ln x2 ln NkT0 ln 2 I x1 x2 Thus, we have the following relation between the exergy per molecule E and information per molecule I in the ordered system E = kT0ln2I (2) This is analogous to what we had above. Since the internal energy U for an ideal gas only is a function of the temperature, we have for the isothermal process (a to b) that Q1 + Q2 = W1 + W2 according to the first law. Thus, the entropy production S for the expansion (a to b) becomes S Q Nk ln 2 I T0 73 EXERGETICS If we assume the molecules to be identical, 1 or 2, then I = 1, i.e. each molecule in the ordered system is carrying 1 bit of information. The container may then be regarded as a binary memory, and in principle one molecule is enough to store 1 bit of information. In practice you need to make the reading easy and storing safe, and therefore repeat the information by using several molecules, i.e. so-called redundancy. Therefore, it is inadvisable to say that the ordered system contains N bits of information. By information capacity we define the amount of information that a system can store or transfer. This amount of information is limited by the available exergy, as above. Since information needs such a small amount of exergy the demand of high efficiency* has been weak. However, one area where increasing efficiency is an absolute necessity is in highly packed integrated circuits, where the exergy losses are converted into heat which may otherwise overheat the circuit. Increased efficiency also makes the circuits faster and more powerful. A limited efficiency is usually needed since it implies that the storage and transfer of information becomes less sensitive for noise and other disturbances. Signals in electronic systems are always subject to thermal noise, and the amount of exergy per bit must be several magnitudes above the noise level kT. However, the information transfer in biological systems when reproducing information and synthesizing proteins is far more efficient and the exergy use is sometimes only 10-100 kT/bit. Even though, the probability of errors, or mutations, is very low.† This is possible because of the specific environment in which the information is transferred. Thus, the transfer of genetic information occurs in a “shielded” environment. This is similar to integrated circuits operating at super conductivity conditions. Q: Give examples of phenomena which seriously may damage the transfer of genetic information. Exergy is a measure of how much a system differs from equilibrium with the environment. The more a system differs from the environment the more information is needed to describe the system and the more information capacity can be carried by the system. The relation between exergy and information (or information capacity) is therefor as we have seen of fundamental significance. Ex: The net flow rate of information to the earth from the sun is about: Pex P 0.933 1.2 1017 0.933 en 4 1037 bits/s kT0 ln 2 kT0 ln 2 1.38 1023 300 0.693 Of this mankind make use of only a tiny fraction or about 5×1013 bits. The relation between used and available information capacity becomes about 10–24. The same relation for energy is about 3×10–5. Thus, mankind is a poor user of available information or exergy. One reason to this will be mentioned below. Information must be stored and transported safely. To reach this we must use redundancy (over-explicitness) in codes and in copying, which implies access dissipation of energy to make the process irreversible (safe) enough. The explicitness in the process * Since the relation between transferred or treated information and the used information capacity, both measurable in exergy, is so small. † It should also be noticed that errors in the information transfer of biological systems is a necessity. The evolution is completely depending on mutations, i.e. errors in the reproduction of DNA. 74 EXERGETICS increases on behalf of the information capacity. In biological systems there is a continuous debugging or control of the transferred information. (As you might know this becomes even more necessary in our increasingly computerized society, with the belonging flourish computer viruses.) In daily communication of information the exergy use is often far too high. Thus the exergy per bit value becomes high, which implies that only a fraction of the available information capacity is utilized, as mentioned before. In the living nature the solar exergy is converted into highly ordered structures in the green plants. From an energy point of view this is a small amount, but from an exergy or information point of view huge amount is being utilized. Let us compare the efficiency of information transfer, exergy per bit, for different systems, see Table below. This has the dimension temperature, Ttransfer. The lower temperature the more efficient is the information transfer, but if this temperature becomes to low the thermal noise in the environment may ruin the information. __________________________________________________________ Exergy per bit [J/bit] Ttransfer [K] __________________________________________________________ Electric typewriter 1 1023 Radio receiver 5×10-4 5×1019 Television 2×10-5 2×1018 Computer memory 10-12 1011 Human speech 10-16 107 Human ear 10-17 106 Human eye 5×10-18 5×105 Protein biosynthesis in a cell 4.6×10-21 460 __________________________________________________________ The sensitivity of the retina is such that the human eye functions near the quantum mechanical limit. It is in fact enough with only a few quanta to cause a reaction in the eye. Storage of information in a computer memory has a characteristic temperature of about 105 times the temperature for sight. But on the other hand the time resolution, and thus the rate, is about 105 times higher than for the eye. The conclusion is that living creatures and computers are each efficient in their use of exergy to receive and transfer information. The biosynthesis in a cell is after all many times more efficient. Electronic circuits, man’s ear and eye, and protein biosynthesis are drawn in a logarithmic information rate (frequency) - power diagram in the Fig. below. The minimum power requirements of integrated circuits or an elementary process in a circuit, such as a measurement, a storage or a logic operation, requires an energy conversion which is large in relation to kT ≈ 4×10-21 J (at room temperature). This is necessary to avoid thermal fluctuations which are the cause of noise in electronic circuits, Brownian movement, etc. The room temperature is marked with a straight line. A process must ordinarily be far above this line to avoid serious disruption from thermal fluctuations. The protein biosynthesis is surprisingly close to this critical line. The transfer from messenger RNA to proteins, which uses half of the power requirements, is actually below this line. This is possible because all of 4.3 bits of information are transferred at each transformation. The ear and the eye occupy strikingly large areas in the diagram, covering many orders of magnitude. Electronics is often regarded as the best technology we know today. However, from an exergy efficient viewpoint, as the figure below shows, life itself is far more efficient in its use of exergy to construct biological structures of matter. 75 EXERGETICS Biological structures live by transforming energy from one form to another. The solar exergy is used to build up complicated organic matter. This information is transferred from generation to generation. The information which is stored in the genetic matter (DNA molecule) directs the construction of matter when suitable conditions are given. When biological material, e.g. wood or cellulose, is used as construction material, it is these structures and this information that we benefit from. Both exergy and information are measures of the deviation from a reference environment. The exergy is the maximal amount of work that can be derived from such a deviation, but the work is also needed to maintain and transfer information. Thus, the relationship between exergy and information is very close. Exergy Power 1W 10 Region of most electronic circuits -5 Micropower circuits 10 10 -10 Human ear e tur a r pe m e t -15 t ien b Am Noise area DNA replication 10 Human eye -20 Information Rate 1 10 3 10 6 9 10 bits/s Information rate - power diagram of information transfer Q: Consider the total information flow towards the earth during its lifetime. What “happened”, from an information perspective after about 2-3 billion years, and what was then the total amount of information that had reached the earth? What “happened”, after another 2-3 billion years? The sun is now about middle age, so if the evolution continues, what do you think will “happen” in the future, after another 2-3 billion years and another 2-3 billion years? Why is this so hard to understand? These are some of my personal ideas about this. Let us consider the total information flow towards the earth during its lifetime, i.e. about 10 billion years, see the Figure below. Matter and the laws of nature were there from the start. After about 2-3 billion 76 EXERGETICS years, when the earth had received about 1054 bits of information life was able to develope on the earth into a myriad of life forms. Then after another 2-3 billion years the ability to be aware of one self appeared, i.e. to be conscious, the mind or the soul. The sun, which is “father”* of our solar system is now about middle age, so if the evolution continues, what will appear in the future, after another 2-3 billion years and another 2-3 billion years? To answer this question is as difficult for us as it would have been for the living organisms some billions of years ago, or a single bacterium of today to realize Homo sapiens. Matter has organized itself into things as life, from attractive forces acting on a microscopic level. In a similar way minds might organize itself into some form of immaterial structure, where love might be one attractive force of importance. In this immaterial universe, which is far beyond the so called Cyberspace, each mind would be just as simple or stupid as molecules in the material world. However, this is just personal speculations that are up to every one to fantasize about. The main reason for bringing up this subject is to give a perspective of the human culture, it’s believes, myths and opinion about the importance of itself, especially the European culture, i.e. the white man. Finally let us compare the efficiency of a modern personal computer with other means of information transfer, see the Table below. Information system Efficiency Reading text by lamplight 10–20 - 10–21 Motorola Power PC or Intel Pentium processor 10–13 DNA-replication, protein synthesis 10–1 - 10–2 As we see a personal computer is far more efficient than reading by lamplight, but compared with living nature a computer is still very poor. Today’s most sophisticated computers are nothing but “steam engines” compared to future computers — please, remember this! *The natives of America use to say father sun and mother earth to describe the forces that creates our world. 77 EXERGETICS Summary Let us close this Chapter with a schematic table of some forms of energy listed by decreasing quality, from “extra superior” to “valueless”. The quality of the energy is indicated by the exergy factor. The quality index ranges from 1 for potential energy, kinetic energy and electricity (which are pure exergy and thus can be totally transformed into all other forms of energy) to 0 for the exergy-lacking heat radiation from the earth. The quality index of heat energy varies considerably from 0.6 for hot steam to zero for heat radiation from the earth. The quality of different forms of energy. _____________________________________________________ Form of energy Quality index (Exergy factor) _____________________________________________________ Extra superior Potential energy1 Kinetic energy2 Electrical energy Superior Nuclear energy3 Sunlight Chemical energy4 Hot steam District heating Inferior Waste heat 1 1 1 about 0.95 0.93 about 1 0.6 0.3 0.05 Valueless Heat radiation from the earth 0 _____________________________________________________ 1 e.g. highly situated water resources 2 e.g. waterfalls 3 e.g. the energy in nuclear fuel 4 e.g. oil, coal, gas or peat 78 EXERGETICS CYCLIC PROCESSES Cyclic processes in general First we will consider cyclic processes in general. A cyclic process is a process where the working medium, e.g. a gas goes through a number of states in a cyclic pattern, i.e. each state is repeated in every cycle. We also assume the process to be reversible. The first law applied to the state change 1 to 2 along the upper curve in Fig. below gives: QH = U2 – U1 + WH where QH is added heat and WH is the performed work, represented by the area between the higher curve 1 to 2 and the V-axis, i.e. PdV . When the medium is returned to the initial state along the lower curve 2 to 1, we get as above: –QL = U1 – U2 + (–WL) where the heat –QL is added and the work –WL is extracted, now represented by the area between the lower curve 2 to 1 and the V-axis. P QH WH 1 W QL 2 WL V For the complete cycle we have: QH – QL = U2 – U1 + WH + U1 – U2 – WL QH – QL = WH – WL = W Thus, the net supply of heat QH – QL is equivalent to the net amount of performed work W, which is indicated by the lined area in the Fig. We can now define a thermal efficiency, t, of the cycle as the relation between the work output and supplied heat. t W QH QL Q 1 L QH QH QH 79 EXERGETICS The Carnot cycle We will now study the Carnot cycle, the cycle which has the highest theoretical efficiency for thermal engines. According to the second law heat must go from high to low temperature in order to produce work. The maximal work, to be extracted for two heat reservoirs at temperatures TH and TL, is the rectangular area in a TS-diagram. This cycle consists of two isothermal (T = constant) and two adiabatic or isentropic (S = constant) processes, see Fig. below. T TH P 1 QH 4 QH 2 2 Wnet W TL 1 W 4 QL 3 QL S S1 3 V S2 A Carnot process consists of two reversible adiabatic and two reversible isothermal processes. 1-2: isothermal “expansion” 2-3: adiabatic expansion 3-4: isothermal “compression” 4-1: adiabatic compression From the Fig. we see: QH = TH(S2 – S1) and QL = TL(S2 – S1), which gives the work W and the efficiency Carnot : W QH QL (TH TL )( S 2 S1 ) Carnot W (TH TL )( S 2 S1 ) T 1 L QH TH S 2 S1 TH Assume the following heat engine to realize the Carnot cycle. An ideal gas is contained in a system of two heat exchangers, a turbine and a compressor, see Fig. below. The turbine and the compressor are on the same axis, and the compressor is powered by the turbine so the output work is W = Wturbine – Wcompressor 80 EXERGETICS QH 1 Wcompressor 2 Heat exchanger Compressor Turbine Wturbine Heat exchanger 4 3 QL We must assume that process is ideal to be able to describe it, which means no heat leakage or friction, i.e. completely reversible conditions. The high temperature in the upper heat exchanger is TH and in the lower TL and TH>TL. Let us follow one unit mass through the cycle. 1-2: isotherm, the heat QH at temperature TH is received in the upper heat exchanger. 2-3: reversible adiabatic, Q = 0, the gas is expanded in the turbine and work Wturbine is extracted, the temperature decrease to TL. 3-4: isotherm, the heat QL at temperature TL is emitted in the lower heat exchanger. 4-1: reversible adiabatic, Q = 0, the gas is compressed, which uses work Wcompressor, and the temperature increase to TH. Let us now analyze the process step by step. Isotherms: Adiabatic: V2 V1 1-2: QH RTH ln 3-4: QL RTL ln 2-3: THV2 1 TLV3 1 4-1: TLV4 1 THV1 1 V4 V RTL ln 3 V3 V4 which gives 1 TH V3 TL V2 1 V 4 V1 V2 V3 V1 V4 The thermal efficiency of the Carnot cycle becomes: 81 EXERGETICS V3 W Q T T V4 t 1 L 1 1 L Carnot , V QH QH TH TH RTH ln 2 V1 RTL ln which is what we should expect. —Why is this efficiency not reachable in practice? At first, we have a temperature difference in the heat exchangers and all mechanical parts suffer from friction. Ex: The surface water in a lake becomes warm in the summer about 20˚C, whereas the bottom water is only 4˚C. What is the highest thermal efficiency we can achieve with this temperature difference? S: The highest efficiency is the Carnot efficiency, thus: Carnot 1 TL 273 4 1 0.0546 5.5% TH 273 20 Inverse Carnot cycle Above we used the Carnot cycle as a heat engine to extract work from two heat reservoirs. We will now reverse the cycle, which is possible because it is reversible. Then instead work will be used to produced heat, QH according to the relation W = QH – QL. P 1 QH 2 W 4 QL 3 V One example of this is a heat pump or a refrigerator, which is actually the same thing. In the heat pump we use the produced heat and in the refrigerator we use the simultaneously produced cold, i.e. the removal of heat. For the refrigerator we have a coefficient of performance (COP) for the produced cold, COPcold Removed heat Used work For a Carnot process we have: 82 EXERGETICS COPcold, Carnot since QL QL 1 1 W QH QL QH 1 TH 1 QL TL QH TH for a Carnot cycle. QL TL For a heat pump we get analogously, COPheat COPheat, Carnot Delivered heat Used work QH QH 1 1 1 W QH QL 1 QL 1 TL Carnot QH TH Thermodynamics of steam Before we study steam cycles we will treat the thermodynamics of steam. Since, steam is a gas close to condensation it can not be treated as an ideal gas. Steam cycles are the most common cycles in power industry, e.g. fossil and nuclear fueled power plants. Let us first look at the steam pressure curve, which shows the different phases of water in a PVdiagram, se the Fig. below. P Criticalpoint Liquid Gas Steam T To the left of the curve we have only water as liquid, to the right only steam and gas. On the curve we have liquid and steam simultaneously, and at the critical point the difference between liquid and gas vanishes, i.e. a liquid is a compressed gas. We will also study the transition between gas and liquid in a PV-diagram, see Fig. below. 83 EXERGETICS P Tcritical T4 T3 T2 liquid T1 critical point 2 gas – superheated steam 3 1 4 damped steam (liquid + gas) steam low phase curve – saturated liquid (f) Vf high phase curve – saturated gas (g) V Vg Let us “walk” along an isotherm, T = T1, and start at the left end in the PV-diagram. Here we are in the liquid region, and if the pressure drops the volume increases only slightly, the liquid is almost incompressible. At 1 we have saturated liquid that starts to boil, and along 1 to 4 the liquid gradually boils to gas, the volume increases but the pressure is constant, and at 4 all liquid has turned to saturated gas. if we continue to right the pressure will decrease and the volume increase, as for an ideal gas. By doing the same procedure for different temperatures we get a lot of data, for saturated liquid and saturated gas. By connecting these we get the phase curves for saturated liquid and saturated gas, and between them we have the damped steam, where liquid and gas appear simultaneously. The critical point we find at the top, where saturated liquid becomes saturated gas without increasing volume. The critical point for water is: Pcritical = 221.29×105Pa Tcritical = 647.3 K critical = 374.15˚C vcritical = 3.1×10–3 m3/kg At temperatures higher than Tcritical=374.15˚C water can only appear as gas. Along the isotherm T = Tcritical to the critical point the liquid turns to gas with no change of volume. From now we assign saturated gas by “g” and saturated liquid by “f” (fluid). The specific gas content or quality of the steam, x, is the relative amount of gas in the damped steam, i.e. kg gas x kg damped steam 84 EXERGETICS The specific liquid content then becomes 1–x, i.e. 1 x kg liquid kg damped steam The specific volume v [m3/kg] of the damped steam (liquid + gas) at a specific temperature can be calculated from: v = xvg + (1–x)vf Ex: A container contains a damped steam at 3 bar. The volume is 20 liter and the mass of the mixture is 0.04 kg. What is the gas content? S: First calculate the specific volume of the damped steam! 20 103 v 0.5 m3 /kg 0.04 From steam tables we find for P= 3 bar: vf = 0.00107 m3/kg vg = 0.60567 m3/kg By rewriting the relation between x, v, vf and vg we get: v vf (1 x) vg x x v vf 0.5 0.00107 0.8. vg vf 0.60567 0.00107 TS-diagram Since dS Q , where S is entropy and Q is heat added of temperature T, then we T can calculate the added heat, Q, of a process 1 to 2, as: 2 Q12 TdS 1 In a TS-diagram the added heat is the area below the curve T(S) and between state 1 and 2, as shown in the Fig. below. T 1 2 Q S 85 EXERGETICS In technical applications one usually set h 0 and s 0 for water as liquid at 0˚C and the corresponding saturation pressure. Let us make a Ts-diagram for steam, see Fig. below. T K critical point T critical P2 liquid gas – superheated steam P1 damp steam (liquid + gas) 273 saturated liquid (f) q 0 steam saturated gas (g) qs r s 0 sf sg ss The isobars almost follow the curve of saturated liquid up to the boiling point. When we add heat to the water at constant pressure we have q = h2 – h1 [J/kg], i.e. the added heat is equal to the change of enthalpy. Assume we have 1 kg 0 degree (273 K) water at p1 to be heated to boiling point. The added heat q then becomes q = hf – 0 = hf where hf is the enthalpy at the boiling point and pressure P1, i.e. at the saturation curve. Thus, q becomes the area in the Ts-diagram below the isobar P = P1. The heat of evaporation, r, we get in the same way if we add heat during constant pressure P1, i.e. r = hg – hf where hg is the enthalpy of the saturated gas and hf is the enthalpy of the saturated liquid. r is also the surface in the Ts-diagram below the isobar P = P1, in the damped zone. To determine the enthalpy of damped steam we use the specific gas content, x. In the same way as we got the specific volume of the damped steam we can now determine the specific enthalpy h [J/kg] of the damped steam h = xhg + (1–x)hf if we use that r = hg – hf we get h = hf + xr. 86 EXERGETICS Similarly, we also get the specific entropy s [J/kg K] of the damped steam s = xsg + (1–x)sf The heat content of the superheated steam then becomes hs = q + r + qs = hf + r + qs = hg + qs R: Make your self acquainted with steam tables! Ex: Liquid water at P = 10 bar and = 120˚C is heated to steam with x = 0.90 at constant pressure. What is the specific heating need? S: From steam tables we get at P = 10 bar saturation state 179.88 ≈ 180˚C and hf = 762.63 kJ/kg. If we assume that cP is constant in the interval 120-180˚C then the enthalpy of water at 120˚C becomes h180 = cP(180 – 0) h120 = cP(120 – 0) Which gives h120 h180 762 .6 120 120 509kJ/kg 180 180 For the damped steam we get h = xhg+(1–x)hf ≈ 0.90×2778+(1–0.9)×762.6 ≈ 2576 [kJ/kg] The added heat then becomes q = h – h120 ≈ 2576 – 509 = 2067 kJ/kg Ex: We have a closed 4 m3 container with 800 kg of water at pressure 0.1 bar. How much heat is required to increase the pressure to 20 bar? S: The volume is constant, so we have q = cv∆T = u2 – u1 = h2 – h1 – v(P2 – P1) the specific volume is v 4 0.005 m3/kg 800 We assume only water in the container, which will be damped steam. From steam tables we get: State 1: P = 0.1 bar vf = 1.01×10–3 m3/kg vg = 14.67 m3/kg v = 0.005 m3/kg 87 EXERGETICS From v = vgx1+(1–x1)vf, we get x1 = 0.00027 When we know x1 we can calculate the enthalpy, i.e. the heat content of the damped steam at P = 0.1 bar. h1 = hgx1+(1–x1)hf ≈ 192.5 kJ/kg State 2: P = 20 bar In the same way we get x2 = 0.0388 and h2 = 981.9 kJ/kg. The added heat then becomes Q = m[h2 – h1 – v(P2 – P1)] ≈ 800[981.9×103 – 192.5×103 – 0.005(20×105 – 0.1×105)] ≈ 623 MJ Mollier or hs-diagram In the same way we have drawn PV-diagrams and Ts-diagrams for steam we can also make hs-diagrams or Mollier-diagrams. In the Mollier-diagram we also have curves for isobars and isotherms. See Fig. below or a steam table. h P2 P1 gas – superheated steam T2 T1 steam liquid critical point x1 damped steam (liquid + gas) saturated gas (g) x2 saturated liquid (f) s Ex: 10 kg steam per second at P = 20 bar, = 400˚C expands adiabatically (isentropically) to P= 2 bar. Determine the available power. S: The available power is work per unit time, and from the first law for an adiabatic process, i.e. Q = 0, we have Wt = H1 – H2 = m(h1 – h2) 88 EXERGETICS The steam expands adiabatically, i.e. the entropy s is constant. State 1: P1 = 20 bar, 1 = 400˚C, gives h1 ≈ 3.25 MJ/kg State 2: P2 = 2 bar, s = constant. Find the point P1,1, then find P2 = 2 bar along the line s = constant and get h2 = 2.70 MJ/kg. wt = h1 – h2 ≈ 3.25-2.70 = 0.55 MJ/kg = 550 kJ/kg So, when 10 kg steam per second expands the available power is Wt = 5500 kW. Steam power processes Steam is often used in industry for heating, drying and cleaning. The power industry uses steam to transfer the power or exergy in a fuel (combustion or fission) trough a steam generator in a furnace to motion in a turbine connected to a electric generator. As we have seen the Carnot process is the most efficient process to transfer exergy of heat to mechanical exergy (work). In the TS-diagram below the Carnot cycle is shown for a steam process. T K 4 TH PH 1 PL TL 2 3 273 s 0 0 s3 s1 An example of such a heat power plant is shown below. 89 EXERGETICS Heat from fuel Saturated liquid 4 Wcompressor QH Heat exchanger Saturated gas Evaporator 1 Compressor Turbine Wturbine Steam = Steam = gas + liquid Heat exchanger gas + liquid Condenser 3 2 QL Heat to cooling water In the evaporator (steam generator) water is converted from saturated liquid, 4 to saturated gas, 1. The heat is usually extracted from the exhaust gases by heat exchangers, and the evaporation occurs at constant pressure PH and constant temperature TH. In the turbine the saturated gas expands adiabatically to 2 with a lower pressure PL. The steam is this state of high quality, i.e. the gas content is high. According to the first law of a steady state reversible adiabatic process, we have: Wturbine = H1 – H2 The steam is condensed at constant pressure PL and constant temperature TL, to state 3. The steam in this state is of low quality, i.e. the gas content is low and the liquid content is high. By a heat exchanger the heat is delivered to cooling water. After that the steam is compressed adiabatically to its initial state 4. In this compression the remaining gas will turn to liquid, i.e. the compressor faces a very big change in volume implying an big and expensive compressor. Thus, it is more economical to cool the steam to saturated liquid at pressure PL and temperature TL, see Fig. below. T K PH TH 4 TL 273 1 PL 2 3 s 0 0 s3 = s4 s1 This process is called Clausius- Rankine process or just Rankine process. The pressure increase from state 3 to 4 can now instead be obtained with a pump, se Fig. below. State 4 90 EXERGETICS will now be in the liquid region since the pressure increase is reversible, s3 = s4. The heating of the liquid to saturated liquid will now occur in the evaporator instead. Heat from fuel Liquid 4 Wpump QH Heat exchanger evaporator Pump Saturated gas 1 Turbine Wturbine Saturated liquid 3 Ex: S: Steam = Heat exchanger gas + liquid condenser 2 QL Heat to cooling water Determine how the energy and exergy conversions change when we choose a Rankine process instead of a Carnot process in the case PH = 5 bar and PL = 1 bar. Also estimate the thermal energy and exergy efficiencies (T0 = 293.15 K). The processes are identical beside states 3 and 4. In state 1 we have saturated gas at PH = 5 bar, i.e. from steam tables we get h1 ≈ 2748.79 kJ/kg s1 ≈ 6.8219 kJ/kg K e1 = h1 – T0s1 ≈ 2748.79 – 293.15×6.8219 ≈ 748.95 kJ/kg We now must determine the quality of steam in state 2, x2. The entropy in states 2 and 1 are the same, i.e. s1 = s2 ≈ x27.3590 + (1 – x2)1.3028 ≈ 6.8219 x2 ≈ 0.91131. From steam tables, we can now calculate the enthalpy and exergy in state 2: h2 ≈ 417.550 + 0.91131×2257.71 ≈ 2475.03 kJ/kg s2 ≈ 0.088691.3028 + 0.91131×7.3590 ≈ 6.8219 kJ/kg K e2 = h2 – T0s2 ≈ 2475.03 – 293.15×6.8219 ≈ 475.19 kJ/kg In state 4 we have for the Carnot process saturated liquid at PH = 5 bar, i.e. from steam tables we get: h4 ≈ 640.16 kJ/kg s4 ≈ 1.8604 kJ/kg K e4 ≈ 640.16 – 293.15×1.8604 ≈ 94.78 kJ/kg For the Rankine process we have liquid at PH = 5 bar and s4 = s3. Let us therefor wait to calculate this state. First we determine the exergy in state 3 for the Carnot process. 91 EXERGETICS Then we need to know the quality of the steam, x3. The entropy in states 3 and 4 are the same, i.e. from steam tables we get s4 = s3 ≈ x37.3590 + (1 – x3)1.3028 ≈ 1.8604 x3 ≈ 0.09207. h3 ≈ 417.550 + 0.09207×2257.71 ≈ 625.42 kJ/kg s3 ≈ 0.90793×1.3028 + 0.09207×7.3590 ≈ 1.86039 kJ/kg K e3 ≈ 625.42 – 293.15×1.86039 ≈ 80.05 kJ/kg For the Rankine process it is easier since we have saturated liquid h3 ≈ 417.550 kJ/kg s3 ≈ 1.3028 kJ/kg K e3 ≈ 417.550 – 293.15×1.3028 ≈ 35.63 kJ/kg Thus we know, for state 4 that PH = 5 bar and s4 = s3 ≈ 1.3028 kJ/kg K, which principally is enough to determine the state in detail, but it is better to first calculate the pumping work. We know the specific volume of the liquid to be pumped and the pressure levels. If we assume the liquid to be incompressible we get: wpump = v(PH – PL) ≈ 0.00107(5 – 1)105/1000 ≈ 0.43 kJ/kg Where we used the average value of the specific volume in the two states. As we see the pump work is almost negligible. Thus, the state becomes h4 = h3 + wpump ≈ 417.55 + 0.43 ≈ 417.98 kJ/kg s4 = s3 ≈ 1.3028 kJ/kg K e4 ≈ 417.98 – 293.15×1.3028 ≈ 36.06 kJ/kg, but also as above, i.e.: e4 = e3 + wpump ≈ 35.63 + 0.43 ≈ 36.06 kJ/kg. Thus, for the enthalpy we have: h1 ≈ 2748.79, h2 ≈ 2475.03, h3 ≈ 625.42 (Carnot), h3 ≈ 417.55 (Rankine), h4 ≈ 640.16 kJ/kg (Carnot), and h4 ≈ 417.98 (Rankine) and we get the following values for the energy conversion: For the Carnot process the compressor work becomes: wcompressor = h4 – h3 ≈ 640.16 – 625.42 ≈ 15 kJ/kg. For the Rankine process the pump work becomes: wpump = h4 – h3 ≈ 417.98 – 417.55 ≈ 0.43 kJ/kg, as we already know. For the Carnot process the heat to cooling water becomes: qL = h2 – h3 ≈ 2475.03 – 625.42 ≈ 1850 kJ/kg. For the Rankine process the heat to cooling water becomes: qL = h2 – h3 ≈ 2475.03 – 417.55 ≈ 2057 kJ/kg. For the Carnot process the added heat becomes: qH = h1 – h4 ≈ 2748.79 – 640.16 ≈ 2109 kJ/kg. For Rankine process the added heat becomes: qH = h1 – h4 ≈ 2748.79 – 417.98 ≈ 2331 kJ/kg. The utilized energy in the turbine, which is the same in both cases becomes: wturbine = h1 – h2 ≈ 2748.79 – 2475.03 ≈ 274 kJ/kg. For the exergy we have: e1 ≈ 748.95, e2 ≈ 475.19, e3 ≈ 80.05 (Carnot), e3 ≈ 35.63 (Rankine), e4 ≈ 94.78 kJ/kg (Carnot), and e4 ≈ 36.06 (Rankine), which implies: 92 EXERGETICS Carnot: wcompressor = e4 – e3 ≈ 94.78 – 80.05 ≈ 15 kJ/kg, as above. Rankine: wpump = e4 – e3 ≈ 36.06 – 35.63 ≈ 0.43 kJ/kg, as above. Carnot: qL = e2 – e3 ≈ 475.19 – 80.05 ≈ 395 kJ/kg. Rankine: qL = e2 – e3 ≈ 475.19 – 35.63 ≈ 440 kJ/kg. Carnot: qH = e1 – e4 ≈ 748.95 – 94.78 ≈ 654 kJ/kg. Rankine: qH = e1 – e4 ≈ 748.95 – 36.06 ≈ 713 kJ/kg. Carnot and Rankine: wturbine = e1 – e2 ≈ 748.95 – 475.19 ≈ 274 kJ/kg, as above. The thermal energy efficiency, i.e. en,Carnot wturbine wcompressor en,Clausius Rankine 274 15 12.3% 2109 qH wturbine wpump qH 274 wturbine 11.8% qH 2331 The thermal exergy efficiency, i.e. ex,Carnot wturbine wcompressor ex,ClausiusRankine Net work output becomes in the two cases: Added exergy as heat 274 15 39.6% 654 qH wturbine wpump qH Net work output becomes in the two cases: Added energy as heat wturbine 274 38.4% qH 713 As we expect the Rankine process has a lower efficiency than the Carnot process, which is the most efficient process. Q: Check that we have both energy and exergy balances for the processes, i.e. that both the first and second law is valid. What is the reason for the big difference between the thermal energy and exergy efficiencies and why are they so poor? Let us now also put the Rankine process in a Mollier diagram, i.e. a hs-diagram, see the Fig. below. 93 EXERGETICS h PH PL 1 h1 2 h2 x2 h4 h3 4 3 s s3 s1 Let us see how to improve the efficiency of the Rankine process: 1. Increase the pressure before the turbine, which means that the conversion 1-2 is moved to left in the hs-diagram above. The difference h1 – h2 = e1 – e2 = wturbine then increases, i.e. more work out. 2. Lowering the pressure after the turbine implies that the cooling loss qL = e2 – e3 reduces and we utilize exergy which otherwise would be lost with the cooling water. 3. Superheating; in a real turbine we can not allow the quality of the steam to become less than about 0.90, i.e. in state 2. The liquid will otherwise ruin the turbine blades. Therefor the gas in state 1 must be superheated, which principally also increases the efficiency – according to Carnot. However, material restrictions in the turbine put an upper limit of about 600˚C in today's conventional constructions. 4. Feed water heating; an important reason of the poor efficiency is that a large amount of the heating content of the steam is due to evaporation. By pre heating of the water to the evaporator the efficiency could be improved. This is usually done by draining the turbine of steam, which is mixed with the feed water to increase its temperature. In the treatment above we have assumed no losses in the components. In reality we have a lot of losses, but with adequate combination of high pressures and superheating before the turbine, low pressures after the turbine, and feed water heating we can still reach efficiencies of about 40%. We will now look closer at the losses. Before, we concluded that the available work from a reversible adiabatic steady state process, i.e. Q = 0 and S = constant, is Wt = Ws = H1 – H2 = E1 – E2. In reality we have losses, i.e. Q ≠ 0 and S ≠ constant, so the output work is less and we must add more work to the compressor or the pump. We can represent the internal losses by the energy and exergy efficiency of the turbine, t,en and t,en, which are defined: 94 EXERGETICS t,en w Actual work a t,ex t Reversible work ws Let us see what this implies for the turbine and the compressor in the Carnot process. Turbine PH T h PH 1 PL PL 1 2' 2' 2 2 s s The maximum work appear when ∆S = 0, but as we said before ∆S>0 for all real processes. 1-2 gives maximum work, h1 – h2 and 1-2' gives the real work, h1 – h2', see Fig. above. As we see h1 – h2 > h1 – h2'. The above is valid if no heat loss occur. The efficiency of the turbine becomes: h h t 1 2' h1 h2 which usually is about 0.80-0.85. Compressor The energy and exergy efficiencies of the compressor becomes accordingly: c,en Reversible work ws c,ex c wa Actual work PH T PH h PL 4 PL 4' 3 4' 4 3 s s ∆S>0 for the compressor since the process is irreversible, thus, we have 95 EXERGETICS k h3 h4 h3 h4' which is usually about 0.80-0.85. Let us now return to the Rankine cycle and see how it usually looks, see Fig. below. PH T h PL 1 PL 4 3 PH 1 2 2 4 3 S s For a reversible Rankine cycle we have: 4-1 Liquid water converts to steam at pressure PH, we add heat QH. 1-2 The steam expands adiabatically, i.e. ∆S = 0, to pressure PL, just below saturation. Work is transferred through the turbine to an electric generator in a power plant. 2-3 The steam is condensed at pressure PL, we remove heat QL. 3-4 Liquid water is pumped isentropically, i.e. ∆S = 0, to the boiler and the pressure increases to PH. We feed the pump work Wp. Net produced work becomes from first law: Wnet = QH – QL – Wp The pump work becomes, if we assume the liquid water to be incompressible and the specific volume v = 0.001 m3/kg. Wp≈0.001∆P = 0.001(PH – PL) [J/kg] The theoretical thermal energy efficiency of the Rankine cycle then becomes: tt,en Output work h h 1 2 Input enthalpy h1 h4 And analogously for the theoretical thermal exergy efficiency: tt,ex Output work e1 e2 Input exergy e1 e4 96 EXERGETICS As we already have concluded it is advantageously to superheat the steam to extract more work from the turbine. In practice the pressure is below 200 bar and the temperature below 550-600˚C at the admission state 1. As we see from the Fig. of the Rankine cycle above, the actual work is depending of the pressure drop between the admission state 1 and the final state 2. The lower pressure (back pressure) the more work we get, however, the content of liquid water in the steam must not exceed 10-12 weight-%, which gives the lower limit of the pressure. An other way to improve the steam power cycle is back pressure and cogeneration of power and heat for district heating. If we have a simultaneous need of power and heat this may be a good solution. In the condensing power cycle we extract more power, but the low condensing temperature makes the heat useless. In the cogeneration power cycle we extract less power, but the condensing temperature is now high enough to make the heat useful. The heat can be used for process heat or space heating. In this way the energy efficiency increases, but the exergy efficiency is more or less the same. There are a number of efficiencies to describe the different losses in a steam power plant. Let us just mention some of them in energy units. - Combustion losses in the boiler, the boiler energy efficiency: b Energy in steam for big plants. Energy in fuel - The theoretical thermal energy efficiency depends on the design of the steam power cycle: tt ≈ 0.5 for a good design. - The efficiency of the turbine (energy and exergy): t ≈ 0.8-0.9 - Mechanical (friction) and electrical losses in the turbine and generator. The energy and exergy efficiencies are usually: m+el ≈ 0.9-0.95 for big plants. 97 EXERGETICS The total energy efficiency from fuel to electricity then becomes about tot = btttm+el ≈ 0.35-0.4 (NB, the pump is not included!) Losses are also due to the use of power at the power plant, e.g. for pumps, fans and internal transportation. These losses often add to between 2 and 5% of produced electricity. Ex: A steam turbine has the admission state 60 bar, 500˚C, and the steam flow 10 ton/h. What is the power output if the back-pressure is 6 bar? (t = 0.80) S: From above we have: t h h2 ' Acual work 1 Reversible work h1 h2 Reversible work: ws = h1 – h2 Actual work: wa = h1 – h2' = t(h1 – h2) From steam tables we get: h1 = 3425 kJ/kg and h2 = 2810 kJ/kg (We find h2 by first finding state 1 in the Mollier chart and then follow an isentropic line until it cross the pressure PL= 6 bar then we have state 2. Pturbine m t (h1 h2 ) 10 103 0.8 (3425 2810) 1370kW 3600 In addition to this we also have mechanical and electrical losses, i.e. m+el ≈ 0.90.95, so Pel in reality becomes even less. Ex: a) An industrial cogeneration plant is working with the admission state 100 bar, 500˚C and back-pressure 5 bar. What is the maximum electricity production if the heating need is 15 MW, t = 0.82 and el+m = 0.94. b) The plant is used only for production of electricity, and the pressure after the turbine is 0.08 bar. Determine the electric power and the specific amount of steam at the real state after the turbine. c) Calculate the exergy output in the two cases. (T0 = 20˚C) S: a) PH = 100 bar & = 500˚C h1 = 3.37 MJ/kg PL2 = 5 bar & s = constant h2 = 2.65 MJ/kg h h t 1 2' h2 ' h1 t (h1 h2 ) 3.37 0.82 (3.37 2.65) 2.78 h1 h2 The condensing heat is used when the steam is condensed. The actual enthalpy after the turbine is h2'. If h3 is the state when all the steam is condensed, i.e. saturated liquid, then we get from steam tables: PL2 = 5 bar and saturated liquid h3 = 0.64 MJ/kg The condensing heat is qL = h2' – h3 = 2.78 – 0.64 = 2.14 MJ/kg 98 EXERGETICS We know that the heating need is 15 MW (15 MJ/s). From this we can determine how much steam that must be condensed per second. 15 106 7kg/s 2.14 106 Thus, 7 kg steam is expanded in the turbine per second, which gives: Pel Wel m (h1 h2 ) tmel 7 (3.37 2.65) 3.9MW . b) The theoretical state after the turbine now instead becomes, from steam tables: PL1 = 0.08 bar & s = constant h2 = 2.06 MJ/kg The real state is 2': h2' = h1 – t(h1 – h2) = 2.30 MJ/kg Thus, we have at this state: h2' = 2.30 MJ/kg and P2 = 0.08 bar, and from the hsdiagram we get the gas content of the steam to: x ≈ 0.88 The electric output becomes: Pel Wel m (h1 h2 ) tmel 7 (3.37 2.06) 7.1MW c) The exergy in the produced heat in the cogeneration case becomes: PL,ex WL,ex m (h3 h0 ) T0 ( s3 s0 ) 7 [(640.16 83.90) (273.15 20)(1.8604 0.296)] 684kW 0.7MW The total exergy power then becomes: Pex = PL,ex + Pel ≈ 0.7 + 3.9 ≈ 4.6 [MW] And in the case of pure condensation: Pex = Pel ≈ 7.1 [MW] Let us summarize: a) Cogeneration gives the energy power: 3.9 MW electricity and 15 MW heat. b) The plant gives 7.1 MW electricity and the steam quality is 0.88. c) Pex,a ≈ 4.6 MW (Pen,a ≈ 18.9 MW) and Pex,b ≈ 7.1 MW (≈ Pen,b) Refrigerators and heat pumps We have seen that heat can move from lower to higher temperature by adding work to a Carnot cycles going backwards. This is what happens in refrigerators and heat pumps. The most common systems are based on expansion, compression and absorption. We will treat the compression process, since it is the most common. The compression process is similar to a steam power cycle running backwards, see the Fig. below. In short the boiling temperature of the refrigerant, i.e. the working fluid, is moved by changing the pressure. A liquid boils (evaporates) at a low pressure, i.e. takes up heat at low temperature, and then it condenses at high pressure, i.e. gives away heat at high temperature. 99 EXERGETICS Heat is released at TH 3 Saturated liquid QH Heat exchanger Condenser Expansion valve 2 Gas Compressor W compressor Saturated gas 4 Steam = gas + liquid 1 Heat exchanger Evaporator QL Heat is received atTL For an ideal process we have: 1-2 The refrigerant is adiabatically, i.e. ∆s = 0, compressed to pressure PH. 2-3 The superheated refrigerant (gas) condenses at pressure PH and then releases heat QH at temperature TH. 3-4 The refrigerant expands by an expansion valve to pressure PL. The expansion occurs at constant enthalpy (H = constant) since neither heat nor work is involved (First Law). 4-1 The refrigerant is in the damp region (gas + liquid). The liquid part evaporates and takes up the heat QL at temperature TL. In the Figs. below we see the process in a Ts and Ph-diagram. In the ideal process the expansion occurs at constant enthalpy, which implies that energy is neither added nor removed. However, a lot of exergy is lost in the expansion. Let us apply the First Law: Wcompressor = QH – QL QL = H1 – H4 = H1 – H3, since H3 = H4 Wcompressor = H2 – H1 100 EXERGETICS QH = H2 – H3 The efficiency as a refrigerator is defined by the Coefficient of Performance, COPcooling: COPcooling Received heat QL H H3 1 Added work Wcompressor H 2 H1 The efficiency as a heat pump is similarly defined by COPheating: COPheating Released heat QH H H3 2 Added work Wcompressor H 2 H1 The highest COP we get for a Carnot process. COPcooling,Carnot COPheating,Carnot QL TL QH QL TH TL QH TH 1 COPcooling QH QL TH TL N.B.! T is the absolute temperature, i.e. in Kelvin. In practice COPcooling = 0.4 to 0.6×COPcooling, Carnot and if all heat from the heat pump is being used then COPheating = 1 + 0.4 to 0.6×COPcooling, Carnot. Ex: A house is kept at 20˚C by a compressor heat pump a cold winter day (–20˚C). The heat source is the ground at 0˚C. The refrigerant is R-12, working between – 5˚C and 45˚C, which gives 40˚C in the radiators. a) Calculate the COPheating if the system works ideally between –5˚C and 45˚C. b) What is then the COPheating,Carnot? c) Estimate the COP in practice. S: a) From steam tables for R-12, we find: State 1, L = –5˚C, saturated gas PL ≈ 2.61 bar & h1 ≈ 349 kJ/kg. State 3, H = 45˚C, saturated liquid PH ≈ 10.84 bar & h3 ≈ 244 kJ/kg. 101 EXERGETICS We now have to determine the enthalpy at state 2. Look for state 1 in the Phdiagram. Assume reversible process, i.e. s is constant. Follow the isentropic curve to PH = 10.8 bar, and find h ≈ 376 kJ/ kg. COPheating h2 h3 376 244 4.9 h2 h1 376 349 b) COPheating,Carnot TH 45 273 6.4 TH TL (45 273) (5 273) c) In practice we have COPheating ≈ 1 + 0.4 to 0.6×COPcooling, Carnot ≈ 1 + 0.4 to 5 273 ≈ 3.1-4.2. Thus the result above seem to optimistic, 0.6× (45 273) (5 273) after all we did assume no losses. Ex: A one stage refrigerator should have the cooling power 58 kW. The refrigerant is ammonia, evaporating at –10˚C and condensing at 25˚C. Determine: a) ammonium flow, b) COP, c) ammonium flow and COP when super cooling occur at 15˚C in the condenser and d) the theoretically highest COP in b) and c). S: From the Ph-diagram for ammonia, we have: At evaporation: L = –10˚C, PL= 2.9 bar and h1 = 1452 kJ/kg At condensation: H = 25˚C, PH = 10.0 bar and h3 = 318 kJ/kg At condensation and super cooling: H' = 15˚C, PH' = 10.0 bar and h3' = 270 kJ/kg From the Ph-diagram we have h2 ≈ 1620 kJ/kg Cooling power: Pcooling m (h1 h3 )wherem is the refrigerant flow h h3 Coefficient of Performance: COPcooling 1 h2 h1 TL The theoretically highest COP: COPCarnot TH T L Pcooling 58 0.051 kg/s a) m h1 h3 1452 318 h h 1452 318 6.6 b) COPcooling 1 3 h2 h1 1620 1452 Pcooling 58 0.049 kg/s and c) m h1 h3' 1452 270 h h3' 1452 270 COPcooling 1 6.8 h 2 h1 1620 1452 TL 273 10 7.5 d) Case b: COPCarnot TH TL 273 15 (273 10) TL 273 10 Case c: COPCarnot 10.5 TH T L 273 25 (273 10) 102 EXERGETICS HEAT TRANSFER Heat* is as we have mentioned before a consequence of that two bodies with different temperature exchange internal energy. From the second law of thermodynamics heat (internal energy) will spontaneously go from the warmer to the colder body. Heat should therefor rather be regarded as a process like work, they are not true forms of energy like mechanical and electrical energies. How heat is being transferred is a very complicated science, i.e. involving material properties. This makes this area to a scientific field beside thermodynamics. Heat can principally be transferred in three different ways: 1. Heat conduction 2. Heat convection, by self-convection or by external force 3. Heat radiation Heat conduction In a solid body heat is transferred from the warmer to the colder part by direct contact between the micro particles in the body. The temperature drops linearly through a homogenous body of rectangular shape. T [K] TH Pen Pen Pex,H Pex,L TL x [m] d The energy power Pen that is transferred through conduction is: Pen,l d A(TH TL ) [W = J/s] where TH and TL are the different temperatures [K], since it is a difference it is also valid for ˚C, A is the area which the heat flow is facing [m2], d is the distance the heat flow has to transfer [m] and is the heat conduction [W/m˚C or W/mK] for the body. The exergy power Pex that is transferred through the body consists of firstly the exergy flow in to the body at the temperature TH: * Heat is here reagarded both as energy and exergy. 103 EXERGETICS E T T Pex,l,H Pen,l H 0 Pen,l TH Q H where T0 is the environmental temperature, and secondly of the exergy flow that leaves the body at the temperature TL: E T T Pex,l,L Pen,l L 0 Pen,l TL Q L The difference between these flows becomes: Pex,l Pex,l,H Pex,l,L TH T0 T T Pen,l L 0 Pen,l TH TL TH T0 TL TL T0 TH P en,l THTL d A T0 TH TL Pen,l THTL T0 TH TL 2 THTL This is the exergy needed to “fuel” the process, i.e. to maintain the temperature difference. The heat conductivity, , denotes how much heat passes per unit time through 1 m2 of the body when this is 1 m thick and the temperature difference is 1 K (here equals 1˚C). is a material constant. The higher the the more heat is conducted through the material. If we want a good heat insulator, then we should look for a small . Metals are good heat conductors (≈45 for steel), which is an advantage in e.g. heat radiators, whereas mineral wool (≈0.036) and other porous materials are poor heat conductors, because of enclosed stationary air. In liquids and gases we also have to consider convection, i.e. mass flows, because of the temperature dependence of the density. This we will study below, but first some numerical examples. Ex: A glass window has an area of 1m2, outside temperature is –5˚C and inside is +17˚C. The thickness of the glass is 5 mm. What is the heat rate (energy power) through the window, if we only consider heat conduction? S: A = 1 m2, H = 17˚C, L = –5˚C, d = 5 mm = 5×10–3 m, = 0.9 W/m˚C at 20˚C, from tables. The value is depending on the temperature, however in most cases we can neglect this dependence. From the equations above we get the energy power: 0 .9 Pen, l ATH TL A H L 1 17 (5) 3960 4 kW d d 5 10 3 Thus, a considerable amount of energy and energy loss. For typical two glass windows the value for /d is about 2 W/m2˚C and is called overall heat transfer coefficient and indicated by the symbol U. Ex: What is the exergy loss in the example above? 104 EXERGETICS S: The energy power leaking trough the window is Pen,l as above. Assume the environmental temperature is equal to the outdoor temperature, i.e. T0 = TL then the exergy will be zero for the heat when it reaches the outside temperature. The exergy factor at the temperature TH becomes: E 17 (5) T T T T L H 0 H L H 0.075 7.5%. 273.15 17 TH TH TH Q H The exergy loss then becomes: E Pex Pex,l Pen,l 0.075 3960 300[W ] Q The needed exergy power to maintain the temperature difference, thus, is far less than the energy power. Let us compare this with a situation when we try to keep a leaking bucket, which leaks 300 liter per hour full of water. Then adding more than 300 liters per hour will only flow away, and to pour on more 4000 liter per hour is ridiculous! Since, the heat transfer is towards the environment the exergy flow only becomes a loss, i.e. no exergy is being transferred. Ex: Let us compare dry and wet mineral wool. The area is 2 m2 and the temperatures are 0˚C on outside and +20˚C on inside, the thickness is 10 cm. What are the energy flows and the exergy losses in the two cases? S: We have: A = 2 m2, H = 20˚C, L = 0˚C, d = 10 cm = 0.1 m, = 0.04 for dry wool and for water we have = 0.60 from tables. The energy flows in the two cases become, if we neglect the wool in the wet case: 0.036 Pen,l,dry A(TH TL ) A( H L ) 2 ( 20 0) 14.4 [W] d d 0 .1 0.60 Pen,l,wet 2 ( 20 0) 240 [W] 0 .1 Thus, insulation is very sensitive for water or moist. (Moist is also good if you want to grow mold and fungi.) The exergy factor becomes, in both cases, since T0 = TL: 200 H L 0.068 273.15 20 Q TH Thus, the exergy losses becomes: E Pex,dry Pex,l,dry Pen,l,dry 0.068 14.4 1 [W ] Q Pex,wet Pex,l,wet E Pen,l,wet 0.068 240 16 [W ] Q The energy or exergy need to maintain the temperature difference increase by 16 times if the insulation is wet. 105 EXERGETICS Heat conduction is of course also acting in gases and liquids, but heat transfer in these phases mainly instead relates to mass transfer or convection, see below. This implies that heat conduction is only of interest in gases and liquids if mass transfer is not aloud. Heat convection Convection is heat transfer by transfer of mass. The heat you can feel over a hot radiator is due to that hot air rises when its density decreases, i.e. the air becomes lighter. In the same way water on the stove is heated when the bottom becomes warm, the water rises and replaces by colder heavier water, i.e. natural stirring. This does not occur in a microwave oven, where the heat is being generated inside the substance, so we need to manually “convect” the water, stir it. Thus, we differ between free and forced convection. Free convection – free current A wall of temperature TH is in contact with a gas (or liquid) of temperature TL, TH>TL. From heat conduction, i.e. direct contact heat is being transferred to the medium in contact with the wall. This medium then gets a higher temperature and lower density and rises. Then the left space is being replaced by colder media, and so on. A free current of the media has evolved. T Hot medium P Cold medium TH P TL Transferred energy power by convection then becomes: Pen,c A(TH TL ) where = heat transfer coefficient [W/m2K] A is the area exposed to convection [m2] The heat transfer coefficient , denotes how much heat [W] is transferred per unit time and unit area at a temperature difference of 1 K [˚C] when we have convection. As for heat conduction the exergy power becomes: Pex,c,H T T TH T0 Pen,c A H 0 (TH TL ) TH TH 106 EXERGETICS Pex,c,L Pex,c T T TL T0 Pen,c A L 0 (TH TL ) TL TL T0 (TH TL ) T Pen,c A 0 (TH TL ) 2 THTL THTL Ex: Assume hot water surrounding a pipe with the diameter 55 mm and length 4 m. How much heat (energy and exergy) per unit time is transferred from the water to the pipe if the water temperature is 50˚C and the pipe is 20˚C and if the heat transfer coefficient is 5000 W/m2K? (0 = 0˚C) S: The area A is the area of the pipe, i.e. A = dL ≈ 3.14×55×10–3×4 ≈ 1 m2, H = 50˚C, L = 20˚C, d = 5 mm = 5×10–3 m. From the relations above we have: Pen,c = A(TH–TL) = dL(H–L) ≈ 5000×3.14×55×10–3×4(50–20) ≈ 104 [kW] The exergy power becomes: Pex,c,H TH T0 500 Pen,c H 0 Pen,c 104 16 [kW] TH TH 273 50 Pex,c,L TL T0 20 0 Pen,c L 0 Pen,c 104 7 [kW] TL TL 273 20 Pex,c T0 (TH TL ) 273 (50 20) Pen,c 104 9 [kW] THTL (273 50) (273 20) Thus more than half of the exergy being transferred is lost in the process. Forced convection Force convection appear when we increase the convection by external forces, e.g. by a pump or a fan. As we are familiar with the heat transfer increases with the speed of the fluid, e.g. we experience more heat losses when it is windy. We have the following relations for the heat transfer coefficient at forced convection: Air and steam In pipes between +20˚C and +100˚C = c1(v) 0.79 [W/m2K] where c1 is a constant depending on the shape of the pipe and the flowing medium, the following approximate values are usually used: 107 EXERGETICS Pipe diameter [mm] c1 for air c1 for steam 10 8.1 13.5 20 7.2 12.0 50 6.4 10.7 v is the speed of the flowing medium [m/s] is the density of the flowing medium [kg/m3] For flat areas = 5.8+3.95v v<5 m/s = 7.15v0.78 v>5 m/s Water in pipes = c2v0.87 [W/m2] At pipe diameters between 10 and 30 mm and temperatures between 10 to 50˚C c2 is evaluated from: c2 = 3370 + 55 ( is the temperature in ˚C) For condensing water we have ≈ 10000 W/m2K. Ex: A hot pipe, length 10 m and diameter 10 cm, with water at the temperature 60˚C passes a cold area at environmental temperature 0˚C. How much energy and exergy is lost in this area? Assume that the area of the pipe can be regarded as a flat surface, and assume that the surface of the pipe has the same temperature as the flowing water. S: The area A becomes: A = dL ≈ 3.14×10×10–2×10 = 3.14 m2. The heat transfer coefficient becomes from above (air surrounding a flat area): = 5.8 + 3.95v = 5.8 W/m2K, since v = 0 m/s. The energy power becomes: Pen,c = A(H–L) = 5.8×3.14×(60 – 0) ≈ 1.1 [kW] T (T T L ) The exergy power, being lost, becomes: Pex,c 0 H Pen,c TH T L T TL 60 0 L H Pen,c H Pen,c 1100 200 [W] TH TH 273 60 A very efficient heat transfer occurs if the convection appears simultaneously as a phase change, e.g. if a liquid is evaporation from a surface. This we experience when we are wet or when we are sweating. At the evaporation heat is taken from the skin, which then becomes extra cold. 108 EXERGETICS Heat radiation A body of temperature above the absolute zero (0K or –273.15˚C) emits electromagnetic radiation, as light and heat radiation. High frequency radiation (blue light, ultra violet, or x-ray) has more energy than low frequency radiation (red, infra-red or heat radiation). The radiation is a way of transporting energy or exergy between body which are not in physical contact. Thus, energy and exergy can be transported in vacuum and long distances. The energy and exergy flow from the sun to the earth is one example of this. As we know the color has an important effect on the radiation. Dark clothes absorbs more heat than light clothes. Á black body, by definition absorbs all incoming radiation and it is at all temperatures the most emitting and absorbing body. A white body, by definition reflects all incoming radiation. A gray body absorbs an equal amount of the incoming radiation at all frequencies. A colored body radiates at certain frequencies defined by the color. A reflecting surface reflects the radiation at the same angle as the incoming radiation and a rough surface reflects the incoming radiation in all directions, as scattered light. The so called emission coefficient denotes the amount of the radiation which is emitted, i.e. leaves the surface. A surface with a low emission coefficient emits less of the radiation to the environment and more of the radiation is reflected back into the body. A mirror reflects most of the incoming radiation and only a small part is absorbed. A shiny and white surface has a low emission coefficient, whereas a rough and black surface has a higher emission coefficient and high absorption. A surface that absorbs all incoming radiation or emits all outgoing radiation, has the emission coefficient = 1, i.e. a black body. Q: Perhaps you have seen a little wheel with wings on a vertical axis in a small glass bulb. Usually four wings, like a water-wheel, one side black the other side white. If you put it in the sunlight it starts to move, in which direction and why? The emitted radiation per unit area and time from a black body is determined by Stefan-Boltzmanns law: Pen,r 4 T AT 5.67 10 AT 5.67 A 100 4 8 4 The energy power from a gray body instead becomes: T 100 Pen,r AT 4 5.67 108 AT 4 5.67 A 4 where A is the emitting surface [m2] is the emission coefficient or absorption coefficient, which is found in tables. T is the temperature in Kelvin. As we see the radiation depends on the temperature raised to the 4th power, which implies that when the temperature doubles the radiation increase by a factor of 16! 109 EXERGETICS Q: Assume that we concentrate sunlight by a big concave mirror. What is the maximal temperature we could get in the focus and why? There are two different explanations! From above we have that the exergy of radiation is: 1 T 4 4 T Pex,r 1 0 0 Pen,r 3 T 3 T Radiation between different bodies Since every body (over 0K) emits radiation we must consider the exchange of radiation between different bodies to be able to calculate the net radiation from the warmer to the colder body. Let us first consider two parallel surfaces of equal size, but with different temperatures TH, TL and emission coefficients H, L, see below. TH , H T L, L PH PL TH TL We have the following radiation situation between the surfaces Pen,r,H HATH4 H 5.67 108 ATH4 4 8 4 Pen,r,L LATL L 5.67 10 ATL The hot surface the receives the energy power Pen,r,L and the surface will absorb the energy power HPen,r,L, while the rest (1-H)Pen,r,L is reflected back to the surface of lower temperature, where the energy power L(1-H)Pen,r,L is absorbed, while the rest (1-L)(1H)Pen,r,L is reflected back, etceteras. The net energy flow, which of course always is directed towards the surface of lower temperature, TL becomes: Pen,r,HL 1 H 1 1 L 1 ATH4 TL4 which is valid for all colored surfaces (black or white) and liquid surfaces. The net exergy flow becomes from above: 110 EXERGETICS Pex,r,HL 1 H 1 1 L 1 T 4 4 T 1 T 4 4 T 4 4 0 0 TL 1 0 0 ATH 1 3 T 3 T 3 TL 3 TL H H 1 For a hot surface completely covered by an other surface at lower temperature, see Fig below, we get the net energy flow: T H, H A P HL H T L, L Pen,r,HL A L 1 TH4 TL4 1 1 1 1 H AH AL L which is valid for all kinds of rooms where the hot body can be randomly placed. If the net power P is negative then TH<TL. The exergy net power becomes as above: Pex,r,HL 1 T 4 4 T 1 T 4 4 T 1 4 4 0 0 0 TL 1 0 TH 1 3 TL 3 TL 3 TH 3 TH 1 1 1 1 H AH AL L Often the radiation conditions are more complicated and thus difficult to calculate, but from handbooks and tables you usually find enough instructions. Other wise, you have to simplify the problem to be able to solve it. Ex: How much heat (energy and exergy) does a naked person loose (surface temperature 35˚C, H = 0.7 and area 1.5 m2) from radiation in a room with black walls, L = 1, L = 20˚C and area 20 m2? (T0 = TL) S: We have a body contained in an other body, thus we have for the energy power, see relation above, where TH ≈ 35+273 = 308 [K] and TL ≈ 20+273 = 293 [K]: Pen,r,HL 1 1 1 1 1 0.7 1.5 20 1 5.67 10 8 1.5 3084 2934 145 [W] The person will probably freeze, which we also might guess. 111 EXERGETICS For the exergy we have: Pex,r,HL 1 1 1 1 1 0.7 1.5 20 1 5.67 108 1 293 4 4 293 1.5 308 1 3.7 [W] 3 308 3 308 4 Thus, there are three ways for energy and exergy to be transferred as heat between bodies: conduction, which was simple to describe, convection and radiation, which were more complicated to describe. At temperatures close to ambient, i.e. ±20-30˚C we can assume the following relation: Pen,total Pen,conduction Pen,convection Pen,radiation UA(TH TL ) Hereby, all phenomena are summarized in one expression and concept, the over all heat coefficient U. Analogously, we have for the exergy flows: Pex,total,H Pex,conduction,H Pex,convection,H Pex,radiation,H TH T0 Pen,total TH Pex,total,L Pex,conduction,L Pex,convection,L Pex,radiation,L TL T0 Pen,total TL The exergy loss then becomes: Pex,total Pex,total,H Pex,total,L T0 TH TL T 2 Pen,total UA 0 TH TL THTL THTL As we see, the energy is always conserved, the first law, whereas exergy is always lost, the second law. We also see that the exergy loss increases by the square of the temperature difference TH–TL, which is an important conclusion. Q: Which form of heat has the highest exergy factor: Pex T T0 conduction: T Pen conduction 1 T0 4 4 T0 Pex 1 or radiation: Pen radiation 3 T 3 T Thus, which form of heat is most ordered? 112 EXERGETICS Over all heat coefficient, U Regard the heat transport through a homogenous wall 1 T1 T1w Pen Pen Pen T2w 2 T2 d Since the same energy flow passes all layers we can put up the following equations, we neglect the radiation since the temperature differences (1 – T1w) and (T2w – T2) are assumed to be small: Pen 1 A(T1 T1w ) Pen A(T1w T2 w ) d Pen 2 A(T2 w T2 ) By writing the expressions for the temperature differences we get: Pen A T1 T1w 1 Pen d T1w T2 w A Pen A T2 w T2 2 By adding all these expressions we get: Pen Pen d Pen T1 T1w T1w T2 w T2 w T2 1 A A 2 A or: Pen 1 d 1 T1 T2 A 1 2 which can be written: Pen = UA(T1–T2) 113 EXERGETICS 1 1 1 d 1 . where the overall heat coefficient is defined as U 1 d 1 or U 1 2 1 2 The unit of U is W/m2K, i.e. it gives the energy that per unit time and unit area passes through the construction when the temperature difference is 1 K [˚C]. The U-coefficient depends on the construction, d and and the heat transfer coefficients, 1 and 2 . We also see that at heat insulation, e.g. in houses the U-coefficient should be small, but at heat conduction, e.g. in heat exchangers the U-coefficient should be large. For a construction with several layers of materials, i and air, i.e. a sandwich construction we write the U-coefficient accordingly: 1 1 1 d 1 i U 1 2 U air i i where Uair combine conduction, convection and radiation for each air layer. Ex: A wall with the area 20 m2 has a mineral wool insulation with thickness 170 mm. The indoor temperature is +20˚C and outdoor is –5˚C. How much heat (energy and exergy) per unit time leaks trough the wall if the wind velocity is 1m/s? (0 = –5˚C) S: We have the following data: d = 170 mm = 0.17 m, A = 20 m2, 1= +20˚C, 2= – 5˚C and = 0.04 W/m˚C. Pen = UA(1–2) where 1 1 d 1 , since we only have one layer. U 1 2 For flat surfaces we have from tables = 5.8+3.95v if v<5 m/s 1 is the inside heat transfer coefficient inside is v = 0 1 = 5.8 W/m2˚C 2 is the outside heat transfer coefficient outside is v = 1 m/s 2 = 5.8+3.95 = 9.75 W/m2˚C 1 1 0.17 1 5 U 5.8 0.04 9.75 U 1 0.2 [W/m2K] 5 Pen = UA(1–2) = 0.2×20(20–(–5)) = 0.2×20×25 = 100 W TL T0 Pex,L 0 Pex Pex,H 114 T0 (TH TL ) Pen,total THTL EXERGETICS T0 (TH T0 ) T T 20 (5) Pen,total H 0 Pen,total H 0 Pen,total 100 8.5 [W] THT0 TH TH 273 20 Thus, 100 W energy is leaking out and 8.5 W exergy is lost. There are two ways of determine the over all heat coefficient U: the -method and Umethod. -method In this method we consider each layer of the construction. The -value for a layer is the average value of the -values of the different areas in proportion to its area perpendicular to the direction of the heat flow, i.e. a, for a mixed layer is a A A i i i i 1 A1 2 A2 3 A3 ... A1 A2 A3 ... i where i is the -value of layer i [W/mK] Ai is the layer i’s area perpendicular to the heat flow [m2]. The overall heat coefficient U [W/m2K] then becomes: U a d where d is the thickness [m]. -method gives a slightly to high U-value compared to experiments. Q: Why? U-method We now consider each cross-section of the construction along the direction of the heat flow. The U-value for each section is calculated separately, and the total U-value is given by the sum of the U-values for each cross-section in proportion to its area, i.e. U A U A i i i i U1 A1 U 2 A2 U 3 A3 ... A1 A2 A3 ... i where Ui is the U-value of section i [W/m2K] Ai is the area of section i perpendicular to the direction of the heat flow [m2] The U-method give a slightly lower U-value compared to experiments. Q: Why? 115 EXERGETICS Ex: Assume a wall, 20 m2, that from outside consists of 100 mm wood ( = 0.14 W/mK), 100 mm mineral wool ( = 0.036 W/mK) between wood bars (10% of the area) and towards the inside a board, 40 mm ( = 0.05 W/mK). How much heat leaks trough the construction per unit time if the outdoor temperature is –5˚C and the indoor temperature is +20˚C? a) According the -method b) According the Umethod. S: a) -method: We calculate a for the mineral wool and the wood bars: a 1 A1 2 A2 A1 A2 0.036 0.9 0.14 0.1 0.046 [W/m2 K] 0.9 0.1 The U-value for the construction becomes 1 0.1 0.1 0.04 d i 3.69 U wall 0.27 [W/m2K] 0.14 0.046 0.05 U i i The energy power becomes Pen = UA(1–2) ≈ 0.27×20×25 = 135 [W] 20 (5) 135 11.5 [W] The exergy power becomes Pex 1 2 Pen T1 273 20 b) U-method: the U-value where we have the wood bars becomes 1 U wood i di i 0.1 0.1 0.04 2.23 U wood 0.45 [W/m2 K ] 0.14 0.14 0.05 The U-value where we have the mineral wool becomes 1 U mineral wool i di i 0.1 0.1 0.04 4.29 U mineral wool 0.23 [W/m2 K ] 0.14 0.036 0.05 The U-value for the construction becomes U U1 A1 U 2 A2 0.45 0.1 0.23 0.9 0.25 [W/m2 K] 0.1 0.9 A1 A2 The energy power becomes Pen UA(1 2 ) 0.25 20 25 125 [W] 20 (5) 125 10.7 [W] The exergy power becomes Pex 1 2 Pen T1 273 20 Thus, the-method gives that 135 W energy is leaking out and that 11.5 W exergy is lost, but the U-method gives 125 W energy and 10.7 W exergy respectively. 116 EXERGETICS Ex: Determine the U-value, the position where the temperature is 0˚C and where condensation may occur in the following wall, from outside to inside: 100 mm wood, 100 mm mineral wool and 40 mm board. Inside Outside Air speed [m/s] 0 4 Temperature [˚C] 20 –10 Relative humidity [%] 80 50 A: From tables we get The U-value ≈ 0.23 W/m2K, the relative humidity exceeds 100% between the wood and the mineral wool, where condensation may occur. The temperature 0˚C passes in the mineral wool. The temperature increases linearly in the wool. If we assume that 0˚C is x mm in the mineral wool from the outside, then we have: 0 – (–4.6) x 100 = 12.9 – (–4.6) x ≈ 26 mm. (The problem can also be solved graphically.) Heat exchangers We will now look closer into heat exchangers, which are used to transfer heat between two different media by heat transfer. We find heat exchangers as heat radiators, hot water tanks, solar panels and car engine cooler. There are two main kinds of heat exchangers, parallel and counter flow. Let us assume a simple model one tube in an other, see Fig. below. In a parallel heat exchanger the final temperature of the colder flow never can exceed the final temperature of the hot flow, i.e. TH2>TC2. However, in a counter flow heat exchanger we may have that TH2<TC2. The energy power being transferred in a heat exchanger can be determined from Pen = UA∆Tm [W] where U is the overall heat coefficient [W/m2K] A is the area of heat transfer [m2] ∆Tm is the average temperature difference, i.e. Tm T1 T2 T ln 1 T2 where ∆T1 and ∆T2 is defined according to the Fig. below. (To use temperatures in degrees Celsius is also allowed because the relation only contains temperature differences.) 117 EXERGETICS Parallel flow Counter flow TC1 TC2 TH1 TH1 TH2 TH2 TC2 TC1 TH1 TH1 ² T1 TC2 TH2 ² T2 TC2 ² T1 TH2 ² T2 TC1 TC1 Temperature profile Temperature profile Ex: In a counter flow heat exchanger 2 kg per second of lubrication oil for a ship engine is cooled from 70˚C to 40˚C by water. The water is then heated from 20˚C to 40˚C. The transfer surface is 6 m2. What is the U-value if the heat capacity of the oil c is 1.9 kJ/kgK? What are the exergy losses if the ambient temperature is 0 = 20˚C? Use: Pen m c(1 2 ) S: ∆1 = 70–40 = 30˚C and ∆2 = 40–20 = 20˚C The average temperature difference is: m 1 2 30 20 24.7˚C 1 30 ln ln 20 2 The transferred energy power becomes: Pen = UA∆m For the oil we have: Pen m c( H1 H2 ) , where mÝ is the mass flow [kg/s], i.e. Pen,oil = 2×1.9(70–40) = 114 [kW] For the water we have: Pen,oil = Pen,water = UA∆m, i.e. 114×103 = U×6×24.7 U ≈ 770 [W/m2K] For water we further have: Pen m watercwater ( H1 H2 ) , i.e. m water Pen cwater ( H1 H2 ) 114 1.4 [kg/s] 4.18 (40 20) 118 EXERGETICS For a heat content, which decreases its temperature with the heat revealed, we have, according to the section above on exergy of heat and cold, if the heat capacity is constant. E T T 1 0 ln Q T T0 T0 which gives the following exergy flows for the hot oil: T Pex,H1 m oilcoil TH1 T0 T0 ln H1 T0 T Pex,H2 m oilcoil TH2 T0 T0 ln H2 T0 The exergy power that the oil looses in the heat exchanger then becomes: T Pex,H Pex,H1 Pex,H2 m oil coil TH 1 TH 2 T0 ln H 1 TH 2 T m oil coil H1 H2 T0 ln H1 TH2 273 70 2 1.9 70 40 (273 20) ln 12.1 [kW] 273 40 Similarly we have for the water on the cold side. The exergy power being received by the water in the heat exchanger becomes: T Pex,C Pex,C2 Pex,C1 m water cwater C 2 C1 T0 ln C 2 TC1 273 40 3.7 [kW] 1.4 4.18 40 20 (273 20)ln 273 20 Thus, the exergy loss in the heat exchanger becomes: ∆Pex = ∆Pex,H – ∆Pex,C ≈ 8.4 [kW] The exergy efficiency of the heat exchanger becomes: ex Pex,C 3.7 31% Pex,H 12.1 The energy efficiency is of course as we assumed 100%. 119 EXERGETICS Ex: A condenser heats water by steam at temperature 100˚C. The water temperature increases from 30˚C to 75˚C and the condenser has a surface of 200 m2 and the Uvalue is 3000 W/m2K. How much hot water is produced per hour? What are the exergy losses and the exergy efficiency when 0 = 20˚C? S: When steam is condensed the heat of evaporation is delivered to the colder flow. The temperature differences at the in and out let becomes: ∆1 = 100–30 = 70˚C and ∆2 = 100–75 = 25˚C. The average temperature then becomes: m 1 2 70 25 44˚C 1 70 ln ln 25 2 The energy power which is being transferred to the water becomes: Pen = UA∆m ≈ 3000×200×44 = 26.4 [MW]. The water is being heated from 30 to 75˚C. Added energy power to the water is Pen,w m c(1 2 ) where c ≈ 4.18 [kJ/kgK], i.e. the specific heat capacity of water from table. Thus we have Pen,w m c(1 2 ) which gives m 26.4 106 Pen 140 [kg/s] c(1 2 ) 4.18 103 (75 30) From above we get the following exergy power being released from the steam Pex,H TH T0 100 20 Pen H 0 Pen 26.4 5.7 [MW] TH TH 273 100 since the temperature is constant at the heat transfer. In the same way as in the previous example we have for the water, which receives heat, that the exergy power received becomes: T Pex,C Pex,C2 Pex,C1 m water cwater C2 C1 T0 ln C2 TC1 273 75 140 4.18 75 30 (273 20) ln 2.6 [MW] 273 30 The exergy loss at the heat exchange then becomes: ∆Pex = ∆Pex,H – ∆Pex,C ≈ 3.1 [MW] The exergy efficiency becomes: ex Pex,C 2.6 46% Pex,H 5.7 Please, remember that the energy efficiency usually is assumed to be 100%! 120 EXERGETICS COMBUSTION First some common concepts: nm3 – normal cubic meter. The gas volume is usually measured in nm3, which is the amount of gas at the temperature 0˚C, i.e. 273.15 K and the pressure 1 bar, i.e. 0.1 MPa. Normal cubic meter, nm3. mol – one mol is the number of molecules or atoms that are in 0.012 kg of the element carbon, C 12. Thus, one mol is a number, actually 6.0231027 pieces. This means that 1 mol of a substance has the same weight in gram as is given by its atom weight, and 1 kmol corresponds to kg. Hs – Calorimetric heat value or high heat value – is measured by the amount of enthalpy being released when a certain mass is combusted in a bomb calorimeter, principally a completely isolated container. The combustion products are cooled so that the moist in the fuel and the produced steam is condensed. This means that the enthalpy of the generated steam is included in Hs. Hi – Effective heat value or low heat value – is the enthalpy released at normal combustion, i.e. the generated steam is excluded. Thus H i H s . The combustion reaction 2H2 O2 2H2O means that if 1 kmol H2, i.e. 2 kg, burns you get 1 kmol H2O, i.e. 18 kg. In weight, you get 9 times as much water as hydrogen. Thus, if we know the amount of hydrogen and moist in the fuel we may approximately calculate Hi from Hs. The enthalpy of steam is about 2.5 MJ/kg at 293 K (≈20˚C). For solid and liquid fuels we have accordingly: Hi = Hs – 2.5(9H + F) [MJ/kg] where H is the weight percentage of hydrogen F is the weight percentage of moist (water) For dry fire wood, independent of kind we have Hi ≈ 19.2 MJ/kg and for damped: Hi = 19.2 – 21.7F [MJ/kg] Ex: At fuel oil combustion, Hi = 42 MJ/kg the air surplus is 40%. Calculate the amount of exhaust gas and the combustion temperature? S: Hi = 42 MJ/kg theoretical amount of exhaust gas go = 11.8 nm3/kg, from tables and theoretical amount of air (dry air) lo = 11.1 nm3/kg The air surplus is 40%, i.e. l lo l 0.4 airfactor: m 1.4 lo lo Real amount of exhaust gas g = go + lo(m – l) = 11.8+11.1(1.4-1) = 16.24 nm3/kg The heat content of the exhaust gas h max and from tables we get ≈1920 K. 121 Hi 42 3 2600kJ / nm g 16.24 EXERGETICS Ex: A boiler combusts 2 kg oil/hr, Hi = 42 MJ/kg, with an air surplus of 20%. The temperature of the exhaust gases are 620 K. Estimate the heat power, losses and efficiency of the boiler. Enthalpy, Gibbs’ function and exergy of fuels When we have chemical reactions it is necessary to define a common reference state. This is usually defined at 25˚C (298.15 K) and 101.3 kPa (T0,P0) and that gases are treated as ideal gases. Regard the following stationary combustion process, solid carbon is combusted with oxygen (ideal gas), where both are supplied at the reference state, T0,P0. The produced carbon dioxide (ideal gas) is leaving the combustion chamber at the reference state, T0,P0. If we could measure the heat transfer to the process (the reaction chamber) it would be –393,522 kJ/kmol CO2 (the minus sign because heat is released, an exothermic reaction). Q - –393522 kJ 1 kmol C T0 ,P0 1 kmol CO2 T0 ,P0 = 298.15 K, 101.3 kPa 1 kmol O2 T0 ,P0 The chemical reaction is: C + O2 CO2 The first law gives: Q HR HP where the indices R and P refer to reactants and products. First law is usually written Q n i hi ne h e R P where the sum involves all reactants and products respectively, n the number of mol and h indicates the enthalpy per mol of the substance. The enthalpy of formation is tabulated for most substances in standard states at T0,P0. Usually this is put to zero for the substance in its standard state, pure and normal form. For carbon, C this is pure carbon in solid state 0 0 and for oxygen as O2 in gas state, i.e. (hf ) C,s,graphite 0 and (hf ) O2 ,g 0 . Thus the 0 enthalpy of formation for carbon dioxide becomes, (hf ) CO2 ,g –393522 kJ/kmol. If we instead assume the enthalpy of formation of O2 and of CO2 as gases to zero, i.e. (h0f ) O2 ,g 0 and (h0f ) CO2 ,g 0 , then we get the enthalpy of formation of C as solid (h0f ) C,s,graphite , or shorter h C = 393522 kJ/kmol. This is usually called the heat content of the fuel at constant pressure (and temperature), in the same way the internal energy of formation UC the heat content at constant volume (and temperature). Sometimes you also say the “high” and “low” heat content as above. The high value refers to the case when 122 EXERGETICS water in the exhaust gases is as liquid, and the low value when it is as gas. Note, that this sometimes gives confusing values of the energy efficiency. The enthalpy at an arbitrary temperature is: h T ,P (h 0f ) h T0 ,P0 T, P where h T0 ,P0 T , P represents the difference in enthalpy between a given state at T,P and at T0,P0. If we apply the second law to this combustion process and change the heat extracted Q by the maximal extractable (reversible process) exergy E we get E ER EP. As above this can be written E ni e i n e e e R P where the sum includes all reactants and products respectively and e is the exergy per mol of the substance in relation to its environmental state, which is called exergy of formation and is tabulated for the most common substance, see App. 4. When the reactants and the products are in pressure and temperature equilibrium with the environment we can write E ni gi n e g e R P where g is the Gibbs’ function per mol. Let us calculate the change in Gibbs’ function when forming CO2 from the reaction C + O2 CO2 where C, O2 and CO2 are all separated and at T0,P0. The change in Gibbs’ function can be calculated accordingly G P G R HP HR T0 (S P S R ) i.e. n (g e P 0 0 ) ni ( g 0f )i ne (h f0 ) e ni (h f0 )i T0 ne ( s298 ) e ni ( s298 )i R P R R P 0 f e From tables, e.g. Table A.13, Van Wylen, G. J. and Sonntag, R. E., Fundamentals of Classical Thermodynamics, Wiley (1985) we get 0 0 0 ( g 0f ) P ( g 0f ) R (h f0 )CO2 0 298.15[(s298 )CO2 ( s298 )C ( s298 )O2 ] ≈ –393522 – 298.15(213.795 – 5.686 – 205.142) ≈ – 394407 kJ/kmol. If the Gibbs’ function for the reactants are set to zero, i.e. ( g0f ) R 0 , the Gibbs’ function for forming CO2 becomes ( g 0f ) P ( g 0f ) CO 2 ≈ – 394407 kJ/kmol. 123 EXERGETICS If we instead assume Gibbs’ function of O2 and CO2 to zero, as we did above for the enthalpy, we have that gC (g 0f )C ≈ 394407 kJ/kmol. Thus, we see that hC < gC, i.e. the enthalpy is less than the Gibbs’ function for C, because the entropy S of the products are much larger than for the reactants – “heat” Q = T0S is captured by the products. Let us now calculate the exergy change for this reaction. The reactants and the products are now instead related to their individual environmental states. The difference between the enthalpy and Gibbs’ function is that in Gibbs’ function we also include the change of entropy of the reactants and the products in relation to their individual standard states. The difference between Gibbs’ function and the exergy is that in exergy we also include the environment state, i.e. in what regard the reactants and products differ from environmental state, e.g. in concentration or chemically. From tables of exergy for different substances, App. 4 we have (e f0 )C,s,graphite ≈ 410260 kJ/kmol (e f0 )O2 ,g ≈ 3970 kJ/kmol (e f0 )CO2 ,g ≈ 19870 kJ/kmol, which gives the exergy change eC ni ei neee ≈ 410260 + 3970 – 19870 = 394360. R P Let us summarize, for C we have Gibbs’ function hC ≈ 393522 kJ/kmol gC ≈ 394407 kJ/kmol Exergy eC ≈ 394360 kJ/kmol Enthalpy The relation between the exergy and enthalpy for C is eC 394360 ≈ 1.002 or 100.2% hC 393522 Q: Why is enthalpy less than exergy? We have seen that from exergy tables of different substances we may calculate the exergy change of any chemical reaction. In same way as for enthalpy we may also calculate exergy at any temperature eT , P (e f0 )T0 , P0 eT0 , P0 T , P the term eT0 , P0 T , P represents the difference in exergy between a given state at T,P and the exergy at T0,P0. This exergy sometimes is called the thermal exergy to differ from the chemical exergy. Finally, we will just see what happens with the exergy in a real process, e.g. an combustion engine, se the figure below. 124 EXERGETICS Exergy Compression Combustion Work Exergy of Fuel Expansion Work, etc., i.e. Exergy to the Environment Exergy Losses from Irreversibilities Combustion Losses and Pollutants to the Environment Heat transfer Mechanical Work, i.e. the Exergy Output Utility Turning Point of the Piston As we see most of the exergy is used to get the exhaust gases into the environment, i.e. a pressure-volume work, P0∆V, performed on the surrounding air. Q: Reflect on what this means for a car with a combustion engine. Example: 1000 ton of CO2 or 1000 ton of cooling water Let us compare an emission of 1000 ton of CO2 at ambient pressure and temperature with 1000 ton of cooling water. From exergy tables we have for the different chemical compounds of C and H: Substance C C CCl4 CN C2N2 CO CO2 … H2O H2O H3PO4 H2S H2SO4 … State s, graphite s, diamond l g, cyano g, cyanogen g g g l s g l Mol mass m Enthalpy of formation ( h0f ) Exergy ( ef0 ) [kg/kmol] 12.01115 12.01115 153.823 26.01785 52.0357 28.0105 44.0095 [kJ/mol] 393.509 395.406 578.95 858.00 1096.14 282.984 0 [kJ/mol] 410.26 413.16 473.1 845.0 1118.9 275.10 19.87 18.01534 18.01534 98.0013 34.080 98.077 0 –44.012 –76.26 946.61 153.25 9.5 0.9 104.0 812.0 163.4 125 EXERGETICS Thus we have for 1000 ton of CO2 ECO2 19.87 1000 1000 kJ kg 4.5 105 MJ 0.45TJ kg 44.0095 mol kmol For water the chemical exergy becomes: EH 2O,chemical 0.9 1000 1000 5 10 4 MJ 0.05TJ 18.01534 The thermal exergy becomes: T T Ethermal C (T )1 0 dT T T0 If the heat capacity C is not depending on temperature, the exergy becomes T Ethermal C T T0 T0 ln T0 Assume C = 4.2 kJ/kg and To=298.15K, then Ethermal=0.4 TJ correspond to a temperature increase for 1000 ton of water of about 400K, i.e. some of the water will be steam. The exergy of the water at boiling temperature, i.e. at 373.15 K is 373.15 10 Ethermal 4.2 103 1000 103 373.15 298.15 298.15 ln 3.4 10 J 298 . 15 Thus 0.4–0.034=0.366 TJ = 366 GJ is left for steam production at ambient pressure. The enthalpy of steam is about 2300 kJ/kg so the exergy of steam becomes kJ T 298.15 esteam hsteam 1 0 23001 462 T 373.15 kg The mass converted to steam them becomes msteam Esteam 366 GJ 0.792 106 kg 792ton 462 462 kJ/kg Thus, from an exergy point of view, an emission of 1000 ton of CO2 is equivalent to 792 ton of steam and 208 ton of water at 373.15 K, if the environment is at ambient pressure and temperature, i.e. 101.3 kPa and 298.15 K. 126 EXERGETICS APPENDIX Appendix 1 Internal energy and entropy To be written. 127 EXERGETICS Appendix 2 Exergy A derivation of the exergy concept can be made from simple thermodynamic relations of state changes which are related to the concept of work. P,T , i A U,V ,S,n i P , T , A 0 0 i0 U 0 ,V 0 ,S0 ,n i 0 Fig. 1 The system A in an environment A0 Assume we have a system A in a very large homogenous environment (reservoir) A0 ˜ i0 (pressure, temperature and which is defined by the intensive parameters P0, T0 and ˜ i . The generalized chemical potential*). The intensive parameters of A are P, T and corresponding extensive parameters of A and A0 are U, V, S and ni (internal energy, volume, entropy and number of mol of different substances) respectively U0, V0, S0 and ni0 for A0, Fig. l. Also assume that A and A0 each are in internal equilibrium. Assume that all extensive parameters of A are much smaller than those of A0 and further that the total system A A 0 is isolated from the surrounding except for the extraction of work W which is extracted from the total system, then we have the following relations U U 0 V V0 n n i0 i (1) U U 0 W constant V V0 constant n n constant i i0 (2) dU dU 0 dW 0 dV dV0 0 dn dn 0 i0 i (3) Interaction between A and A0 can take place in a controlled way through the interface of A. Since A is small, Eq. 1, this does not change the intensive parameters of A0, * The generelized chemical potential includes all potentials realted to the substance, e.g. chemical, electrical, magnetical, mechanical, and gravitational potentials. 128 EXERGETICS dT0 0 dP0 0 d~ 0 i0 (4) The entropy differential of the environment A0 is dS 0 1 ˜ i0 dn i 0 ) (dU 0 P0 dV0 T0 i (5) which can be written by using Eq. 3 dS0 1 ~ dn dW dU P0 dV i0 i T0 i T0 (6) The total entropy differential of the system and the environment is dS tot dS dS0 1 ~ dn dW dU P0 dV T0 dS i0 i T0 i T0 (7) This may be written as dS tot 1 (dE dW ) T0 (8) where we have introduced exergy E, ˜ i0 ni E U P0 V T0 S (9) ~n U TS PV i i (10) ~ ~ ) E S (T T0 ) V ( P P0 ) ni ( i i0 (11) i If we use the Gibbs relation i in (9) we get i which shows that E vanishes at equilibrium, i.e. P P0 T T0 E 0 ~ ~ i i0 129 (12) EXERGETICS Assume now that A evolves towards equilibrium with its environment A0 and the work ∆W is performed during this process. The exergy is then changed by -E from E to 0 tot tot and the total entropy S is changed by S . By integrating (8) we then get S tot 1 E W T0 (13) and thus Since according to the second law W E T0 S tot (14) S 0 tot (15) ∆W ≤ E (16) we get where equality only holds when ∆Stot = 0, i.e. reversible processes. Thus, the exergy E is the maximum work that can be extracted from a system through interaction with its environment. We may subtract from (A.7) the corresponding equation at equilibrium, i.e. ~ n Eeq U eq P0Veq T0 Seq i 0 i ,eq (17) i Since E vanishes at equilibrium, i.e. E eq 0 we then find ~ n n E U U eq P0 V Veq T0 S Seq i0 i i ,eq (18) i which is a useful relation for practical determinations of exergy. In special cases exergy differences are related to differences of other, better known, thermodynamic potentials, e.g. Gibbs’ function, Helmholtz’ function and enthalpy as described in the Table below. By differentiating the definition of exergy, Eq. 9, we can easily find the following relations to these potentials Table: Relations between differences in exergy and in other thermodynamic potentials. _______________________________________________________________ Definition of X Usually named Case ∆E=∆X _______________________________________________________________ ∆E=∆G0 G0=UP0V–T0S ∆ni=0 ∆E=∆F0 F0=U–T0S ∆ni=0, ∆V=0 ∆E=∆H0 H0=UP0V ∆ni=0, ∆S=0 ∆E=∆G G=UPV–TS Gibbs’ function ∆ni=0, P=P0, T=T0 ∆E=∆F F=U–TS Helmholz’ function ∆ni=0, ∆V=0, T=T0 ∆E=∆H H = UPV Enthalpy ∆ni=0, ∆S=0, P=P0 _______________________________________________________________ 130 EXERGETICS Appendix 3 Heat exchange between many systems Let us derive an expression for the exergy when heat is exchanged between many systems. T1 C1 T2 C2 • • • Ti Ci Q1 Q2 dE Q i • • • We have: Energy conservation: Q i dE 0 (1) i dS Entropy conservation: i 0 (reversible process) (2) i dS i We have for the entropy: and for the heat: Eqs. l and 4: Q i Ti (3) Qi Ci (Ti )dTi (4) dE Ci (Ti )dTi (5) C i (Ti )dTi 0 Ti (6) i Eqs. 2, 3, and 4: i Tif Integration gives: E Ci (Ti )dTi i (7) Ti0 Tif C i (Ti )dTi 0 Ti Ti0 i (8) where T i0 is the initial temperatures and T if is the final temperature. Thus, we have two equations which completely describes the available exergy of the system. If T if = T f for all i then Eq. 8 gives T f which in Eq. 7 gives the exergy. 131 EXERGETICS Assume that the heat capacities are constants and that the final temperature is the same for all subsystems, i.e. Ci(Ti) = Ci and T if = T f : E Ci Ti T 0 f i C (9) i i 1 C i T f (Ti0 )Ci i i (10) E Ci (T T ) (11) Equation 9 may be written: 0 f i where T0 C T C 0 i i i (12) i i 0 f T is a weighted arithmetic average value and T is a weighted geometric average value. We can also find that the work obtainable from the system becomes: S tot C i (ln T – ln T ) 0 f (13) i And the exergy becomes: * E T S tot (14) where T0 Tf T ln T 0 ln T f * (15) Thus, we are able to calculate the exergy of a system of arbitrary numbers of bodies with arbitrary heat capacity and temperature and with a reference environment. Let us look at some simple special cases, which we already are familiar with. Ex: Assume only two systems, one limited and the other unlimited (ambient). We get: T T T 1 ln C T T0 T0 ln T T0 T0 0 E CT0 where T and C are temperature and heat capacity of the limited system and T0 is ambient temperature. This we recognize from before. Ex: Assume all subsystems are identical, but with different temperatures, i.e.: 132 EXERGETICS Ci = C for all i then we get: 1 0 n T E nC i Ti 0 i n i where n is number of subsystems. For n = 2 we get: E C T10 T20 133 2 EXERGETICS Appendix 4 Reference states† Table A.4.1 Enthalpy and exergy of formation for inorganic substances at reference state (T0 = 298.15 K, P0 = 101.325 kPa) Substance Ag Ag2CO3 AgCl AgF AgNO3 Ag2O Ag2O2 Ag2S Ag2SO4 Al Al4C3 AlCl3 Al2O3 Al2O3·H2O Al2O3·3H2O Al2S3 Al2(SO4)3 Al2SiO5 Al2SiO5 Al2SiO5 Al2Si2O5(OH)4 3AI2O3·2SiO2 Ar As As2O5 Au AuCl AuCl3 AuF3 Au2O3 B B2O3 Ba BaCO3 BaCl2 BaF2 BaO BaO2 Ba(OH)2 BaS State Molar mass [kg/kmol] 107.870 275.749 143.323 126.868 169.875 231.739 247.739 247.804 311.802 26.9815 143.959 133.3405 101.9612 119.9765 156.0072 150.155 342.148 162.046 162.046 162.046 258.1615 426.0536 39.948 74.9216 229.8402 196.967 232.42 303.326 253.962 441.932 10.811 69.6202 137.34 197.35 208.25 175.34 153.34 169.34 171.36 169.40 s s s s s s s s, s s s s s, , corundum s, boermite s, gibbsite s s s, andalusite s, kyanite s, sillimanite s, kaolinite s, mullite g s s s s s s s s s s, II s, II s s s s s s † Enthalpy [kJ/mol] 47.48 –17.38 0 47.60 –76.91 63.91 70.69 787.79 104.50 930.69 4694.51 467.18 185.69 128.35 24.13 3313.81 596.80 28.03 25.94 0 68.25 630.11 0 462.44 0 0 45.49 123.09 246.46 –80.81 636.39 0 747.77 –75.18 48.69 –53.24 194.15 113.38 45.93 1012.88 Exergy [kJ/mol] 70.2 115.0 22.2 118.5 43. I 57.6 172.1 709.5 139.6 888.4 4588.2 444.9 200.4 195.3 209.5 2890.7 529.7 43.9 45.1 15.4 197.8 618.8 11.69 494.6 216.9 15.4 62.2 155.5 437.3 114.7 628.5 69.4 747.7 26.3 61.3 57.2 224.6 169.3 132.9 901.9 Szargut, J., Morris, D. R., and Steward, F. R., Exergy Analysis of Thermal, Chemical, and Metallurgical Processes, Springer (1988) 134 EXERGETICS Substance BaSO4 Bi Bi2O3 Bi2S3 Br2 C C CCl4 CN C2N2 CO CO2 CS2 Ca CaC2 CaCO3 CaCO3·MgCO3 CaCl2 CaF2 CaFe2O4 Ca2Fe2O4 Ca2Mg5Si8O22(OH)2 Ca(NO3)2 CaO CaO·Al2O3 CaO·2Al2O3 3CaO·Al2O3 12CaO·7Al2O3 CaO·Al2O3·2SiO2 Ca(OH)2 Ca3(PO4)2 CaS CaSO4 CaSO4·1/2H2O CaSO4·2H2O CaSiO3 Ca2SiO4 Ca3SiO5 Cd Cd CdCO3 CdCl2 CdO Cd(OH)2 CdS CdSO4 CdSO4·H2O Cl2 State Molar mass [kg/kmol] 233.40 208.980 465.958 514.152 159.812 12.01115 12.01115 153.823 26.01785 52.0357 28.0105 44.0095 76.139 40.08 64.10 100.09 184.411 110.99 78.077 215.77 271.85 812.41 164.0898 56.08 158.04 260.00 270.20 1386.68 222.038 74.09 310.18 72.14 136.14 145.15 172.17 116.16 172.24 282.32 112.40 112.40 172.41 183.31 128.40 146.41 144.46 208.46 226.48 70.906 s, barite s s s l s, graphite s, diamond l g, cyano g, cyanogen g g l s, II s s, aragonite s, dolomite s s s s s, tremolite s s s s s s s, anortite s s, s s, anhydrite s, s, gypsum s, volastonite s, s s, s, s s s s s s s g 135 Enthalpy [kJ/mol] 0 286.94 0 2607.05 — 393.509 395.406 578.95 858.00 1096.14 282.984 0 1934.09 813.57 1541.18 0 0 178.21 0 161.07 321.00 425.49 –124.90 178.44 351.66 541.71 716.72 3415.71 273.92 69.04 0 1056.57 104.88 83.16 0 90.24 232.28 424.94 357.10 356.51 0 126.04 98.95 38.26 920.60 149.24 84.79 160.44 Exergy [kJ/mol] 3.4 274.5 61.4 2237.3 101.2 410.26 413.16 473.1 845.0 1118.9 275.10 19.87 1694.7 712.4 1468.3 1.0 15.1 87.9 11.4 104.0 194.7 81.6 –18.1 110.2 275.4 460.4 500.6 2526.8 218.3 53.7 19.4 844.6 8.2 12.1 8.6 23.6 95.7 219.8 293.8 293.2 40.6 73.4 67.3 59.5 746.9 88.6 80.6 123.6 EXERGETICS Substance Cl Co CoCO3 CoCl2 CoO Co3O4 Co(OH)2 CoS CoSO4 Cr Cr3C2 Cr7Cl CrCl2 CrCl3 Cr2O3 Cs CsCl CsNO3 Cs2O Cs2SO4 Cu CuC03 CuCl CuCl2 CuFe2O4 CuO Cu2O Cu(OH)2 CuS Cu2S CuS04 Cu2SO4 D2 D2O D2O F2 Fe Fe3C FeCO3 FeCl2 FeCl3 FeCr2O4 Fe0.947O FeO Fe2O3 Fe3O4 Fe(OH)3 FeS State Molar mass [kg/kmol] 35.453 58.9332 118.9426 129.839 74.9326 240.7872 92.9479 90.997 154.995 51.996 180.010 400.005 122.902 158.355 151.990 132.905 168.358 194.910 281.809 361.872 63.54 123.55 98.99 134.45 239.23 79.54 143.08 97.55 95.60 159.14 159.60 223.14 4.02946 20.02886 20.02886 37.9968 55.847 179.552 115.856 126.753 162.206 223.837 68.8865 71.846 159.692 231.539 106.869 87.911 g s, , hexagonal s s s s s, pink s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s g g l g s, , cementite s, siderite s s s s, wustite s s, hematite s, magnetite s s, 136 Enthalpy [kJ/mol] 201.90 297.06 –22.38 144.96 59.12 0 –0.86 942.27 134.22 569.86 2415.85 5007.63 361.91 281.05 0 362.68 0 –80.22 407.75 30.53 201.59 0 144.57 141.95 60.62 44.27 234.56 –6.37 873.87 1049.10 155.65 377.15 249.199 0 –45.401 406.07 412.12 1654.97 65.06 230.77 253.29 107.10 124.01 140.16 0 117.98 –48.14 1037.54 Exergy [kJ/mol] 87.1 265.0 45.8 118.8 52.8 38.2 50.7 792.2 99.8 544.3 2372.0 4874.2 311.9 261.6 36.5 404.4 51.5 18.2 521.8 127.0 134.2 31.5 76.2 82.1 36.1 6.5 124.4 15.3 690.3 791.8 89.8 253.6 263.8 31.2 22.3 466.3 376.4 1560.2 125.9 197.6 230.2 129.1 113.3 127.0 16.5 121.6 39.6 885.6 EXERGETICS Substance FeS2 FeSO4 FeSi FeSiO3 Fe2SiO4 FeTiO3 H2 H HCl HDO HDO HF HNO3 H2O H2O H3PO4 H2S H2SO4 He Hg Hg2CO3 HgCl2 Hg2Cl2 HgO HgS HgSO4 Hg2SO4 I2 K KAlSi3O4 K2CO3 KCl KClO4 KF KNO3 K2O KOH K2S K2SO3 K2SO4 K2SiO3 Kr Li Li2CO3 LiCl Li2O LiOH Li2SO4 State s, pyrite s s s s, fayalite s g g g g l g l g l s g l g l s s s s, red, orthorhombic s, red s s s s s, adularia s s s s s s s s s s s g s s s s s s 137 Molar mass [kg/kmol] 119.975 151.909 83.933 131.931 203.778 151.75 2.01594 1.00797 36.461 19.0213 19.0213 20.0064 63.0129 18.01534 18.01534 98.0013 34.080 98.077 4.0026 200.59 461.189 271.50 472.09 216.59 232.65 296.65 497.24 253.8088 39.102 278.337 138.213 75.555 138.553 58.100 101.1069 94.203 56.109 110.268 158.266 174.266 154.288 83.80 6.939 73.887 42.392 29.877 23.946 109.940 Enthalpy [kJ/mol] 1684.72 209.11 1249.42 118.07 255.30 118.90 241.818 338.874 108.82 0.21 –44.38 52.82 –53.19 0 –44.012 –76.26 946.61 153.25 0 63.82 –12.39 0 22.86 –27.01 731.08 81.73 110.36 — 356.63 66.26 –43.58 0 6.67 –7.77 –135.90 350.04 52.72 1024.40 300.47 4.62 75.9 0 328.10 –166.33 0 57.38 –35.73 –52.86 Exergy [kJ/mol] 1428.7 173.0 1157.3 161.7 236.2 131.4 236.1 331.3 84.5 18.8 10.0 80.0 43.5 9.5 0.9 104.0 812.0 163.4 30.37 115.9 179.8 60 8 144.5 57.3 674.8 146.0 223.4 174.7 366.6 99.9 85.1 19.6 136.0 62.2 –19.4 413.1 107.6 943.0 302.6 35.0 137.9 34.36 393.0 70.1 70.7 225.7 74.1 204.3 EXERGETICS Substance Mg MgAl2O4 MgCO3 MgCl2 MgFe2O4 MgO Mg(OH)2 Mg(NO3)2 Mg3(PO4)2 MgS MgSO4 MgSiO3 Mg2SiO4 Mg3Si2O5(OH)4 Mg3Si4O10(OH)2 Mg2TiO4 Mn Mn3C MnCO3 MnCl2 MnFe2O4 MnO MnO2 Mn2O3 Mn3O4 Mn(OH)2 MnS MnSO4 MnSiO3 Mo Mo2C MoO2 MoO3 Mo2S3 MoS2 N2 N2, atmospheric NH3 NH4CL NH4NO3 (NH4)2SO4 NO NO2 N2O N2O4 N2O5 Na NaAlO2 State Molar mass [kg/kmol] 24.312 142.273 84.321 95.218 200.004 40.311 58.327 148.3218 262.879 56.376 120.374 100.396 140.708 277.134 379.289 160.52 54.9381 176.82545 114.9475 125.844 230.630 70.9375 86.9369 157.8744 228.8119 88.9528 87.002 151.000 131.022 95.94 203.89 127.94 143.94 288.07 160.068 28.0134 28.1541 17.0305 53.491 80.04348 132.138 30.0061 46.0055 44.0128 92.0110 108.0104 22.9898 81.9701 s s, spinel s s s s s s s s s s s s, chrysolite s, talc s s, s s s s s s s s s, amorphous s, green s s s s s s g g g s s s g g g g g s s 138 Enthalpy [kJ/mol] 725.71 274.17 23.43 244.65 121.53 124.38 42.73 –64.34 76.59 1105.11 166.22 87.73 188.35 117.06 140.26 231.48 520.03 1958.20 19.42 199.18 118.36 134.81 0 81.09 172.26 66.47 1031.23 180.20 110.08 745.09 1838.88 156.15 0 3302.43 1960.78 0 0 316.62 249.43 118.08 511.84 90.25 33.18 82.05 9.163 11.30 330.90 128.40 Exergy [kJ/mol] 633.8 230.3 37.9 165.9 77.9 66.8 40.9 57.4 130.0 901.6 80.7 22.0 74.9 61.3 36.5 134.3 482.3 1862.3 81.8 165.4 121.4 119.4 21.1 89.4 171.6 107.3 873.5 142.4 102.3 730.3 1824.6 201.2 68.2 2891.2 1723.1 0.72 0.69 337.9 331.3 294.8 660.6 88.9 55.6 106.9 106.5 125.7 336.6 151.7 EXERGETICS Substance NaAlSi2O6·H2O NaAlSi3O8 Na2CO3 NaCl NaHCO3 NaI NaNO3 Na2O NaOH Na2S Na2SO3 Na2SO4 Na2SiO3 Na2Si2O5 Na4SiO4 Ne Ni Ni3C NiCO3 NiCl2 NiO Ni(OH)2 NiS Ni3S2 NiSO4 NiSO4·6H20 O2 O O3 P P P4O10 Pb PbCO3 PbCl2 PbO PbO PbO2 Pb3O4 Pb(OH)2 PbS PbSO4 PbSiO3 Pb2SiO4 Rb Rb2CO3 RbCl Rb2O State s, analcime s, low albite s s s s s s s s s s s s s g s s s s s s s s s s, , tetragonal, green g g g s, , white s, red, triclinic s, hexagonal s s s s, yellow s, red s s s s s s s s s s s 139 Molar mass [kg/kmol] 220.055 262.2245 105.9891 58.443 84.0071 149.8942 84.9947 61.9790 39.9972 78.044 126.042 142.041 122.064 182.149 184.043 20.183 58.71 188.14 11 8.72 129.62 74.71 92.72 90.77 240.26 154.77 262.86 31.9988 15.9994 47.9982 30.9738 30.9738 283.8892 207.19 267.20 278.10 223.19 223.19 239.19 685.57 241.20 239.25 303.25 283.27 506.46 85.47 230.95 120.92 186.94 Enthalpy [kJ/mol] 35.41 72.75 75.62 0 –101.94 –135.62 243.82 23.79 1014.84 297.63 0 11.31 13.28 151.45 0 239.74 1180.09 –49.93 94.85 0 –48.13 883.15 1967.14 92.25 –266.75 0 249.17 142.67 840.06 822.49 376.21 305.64 0 106.67 88.32 86.65 28.24 198.53 32.48 930.64 111.12 70.88 159.07 350.38 –33.90 0 370.60 Exergy [kJ/mol] 104.2 105.5 41.5 14.3 21.6 136.1 –22.7 296.2 74.9 921.4 287.5 21.4 66.1 67.6 256.6 27.19 232.7 1142.9 36.4 97.2 23.0 25.5 762.8 1720.2 90.4 53.6 3.97 233.7 169.1 875.8 863.6 825.3 232.8 23.5 42.3 46.9 45.9 19.4 105.2 20.6 743.7 37.2 31.2 75.5 388.6 152.4 48.6 491.3 EXERGETICS Substance S SO2 SO3 Sb Sb2O3 Sb2O4 Sb2O5 Se Si SiC SiCl4 SiO2 SiO2 SiO2 SiS2 Sn Sn SnCl2 SnO SnO2 SnS SnS2 Sr SrCO3 SrCl2 SrO SrO2 SrS SrSO4 Ti TiC TiO TiO2 Ti2O3 Ti3Os TiS2 U UCl3 UCl4 UCl5 UO2 UO3 U3O8 V VC VO VO2 V2O3 State Molar mass [kg/kmol] 32.064 64.0628 80.0622 121.75 291.50 307.50 323.60 78.96 28.086 40.097 169.898 60.085 60.085 60.085 92.214 118.69 118.69 189.60 134.69 150.69 150.75 182.82 87.62 143.63 158.53 103.62 119.62 119.68 183.68 47.90 59.91 63.90 79.90 143.80 223.70 112.03 238.03 344.39 379.84 415.30 270.03 286.03 842.085 50.942 62.953 66.941 82.940 149.882 s, rhombic g g s, III s s s s, black s s, , hexagonal l s, , quartz s, , cristobalite s, amorphous s s, I, white s, II, gray s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s, rutile s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s 140 Enthalpy [kJ/mol] 725.42 428.59 329.70 485.97 263.07 62.63 0 – 910.94 1241.69 544.81 0 1.46 7.45 2149.23 580.74 578.65 416.08 294.97 0 1205.74 1863.8 826.34 0 157.93 234.30 191.96 1098.99 98.66 944.75 1154.16 425.14 0 368.66 375.10 2060.45 1230.10 577.35 499.39 536.93 145.19 0 115.49 775.30 1067.96 343.51 57.74 322.60 Exergy [kJ/mol] 609.6 313.4 249.1 435.8 251.2 83.7 52.3 346.5 854.6 1204.6 481.9 1.9 2.8 7.9 1866.3 544.8 544.9 386.4 289.9 29.1 1056.1 1604.6 730.2 6.2 72.6 170.2 140.4 891.8 7.1 906.9 1136.7 418.5 21.4 385.5 413.2 1875.9 1190.7 550.1 475.2 513.6 162.9 43.9 218.5 721.1 1032.6 318.9 61.9 299.7 EXERGETICS Substance V2O5 W WC WO2 WO3 WS2 Xe Zn ZnCO3 ZnCl2 ZnFe2O4 ZnO Zn(OH)2 ZnS ZnSO4 Zn2SiO4 State Molar mass [kg/kmol] 181.881 183.85 195.86 215.85 231.85 249.98 131.30 65.37 125.38 136.28 241.06 81.37 99.38 97.43 161.43 222.82 s s s s s s g s s s s s s, s, sphalerite s s 141 Enthalpy [kJ/mol] 0 842.87 1195.84 253.18 0 2084.51 0 419.27 0 583.93 74.08 70.99 19.18 938.71 161.87 112.74 Exergy [kJ/mol] 32.5 827.5 1199.5 297.5 69.3 1796.6 40.33 339.2 23.9 93.4 36.4 22.9 25.7 747.6 82.3 17.8 EXERGETICS Table A.4.2 Enthalpy and exergy of formation for organic substances at reference state (T0 = 298.15 K, P0 = 101.325 kPa) Chemical formula Namne CH2 CH3 Methylene Methyl State g g Molar mass kg/kmol Enthalpy Exergy of formation [kJ/mol] [kJ/mol] 14.02709 15.03506 1032.9 889.9 1030.5 900.5 802.33 1427.79 2045.4 2658.4 3274.3 3247.2 3889.3 3857.6 4464.7 5074.4 5684.2 6294.0 6908.6 7518.8 8129.0 8739.2 9349.4 9959.6 831.65 1495.84 2154.0 2805.8 3463.3 3461.8 4118.5 4114.5 4761.7 5413.1 6064.9 6716.8 7376.9 8029.4 8682.0 9334.5 9984.8 10639.7 1959.2 2388.7 3691.4 3658.3 3673.5 4295.5 4914.3 4873.8 5483.3 6094.3 2043.2 2516.2 3914.3 3909.2 3910.8 4556.9 5228.5 5205.9 5857.7 6511.5 1323.1 1927.7 2542.9 1361.1 2003.9 2659.7 Enthalpy Exergy Aliphatic saturated hydrocarbons CnH2n+2 CH4 C2H6 C3H8 C4H10 C5H12 Methane Ethane Propane n-Butane n-Pentane C6H14 n-Hexane C7H16 C8H18 C9H20 C10H22 C11H24 C12H26 C13H28 C14H30 C15H32 C16H34 n-Heptane n-Octane n-Nonane n-Decane n-Undecane n-Dodecane n-Tridecane n-Tetradecane n-Pentadecane n-Hexadecane g g g g g l g l l l l l l l l l l l 16.04303 30.07012 44.09721 58.1243 72.15139 86.17848 100.20557 114.23266 128.25975 142.28684 156.31393 170.34102 184.36811 198.3952 212.42229 226.44938 Cycloparaffins CnH2n C3H6 C4H8 C6H12 Cyclopropane Cyclobutane Cyclohexane C6H12 C7H14 C8H16 Methylcyclopentane Methylcyclohexane Ethylcyclohexane C9H18 C10H20 n-Propylcyclohexane n-Butylcyclohexane g g g l l g g l l l 42.08127 56.10836 84.16254 84.16254 98.18963 112.21672 126.24381 140.2709 Olefins (ethylenic hydrocarbons) CnH2n C2H4 C3H6 C4H8 Ethylene Propylene 1-Butylene Chemical Namne g g g State 142 28.05418 42.08127 56.10836 Molar EXERGETICS formula C6H12 1-Hexylene C7H14 1-Heptylene g l g l mass kg/kmol of formation [kJ/mol] [kJ/mol] 84.16254 3772.9 3742.2 4388.0 4338.5 3970.5 3967.9 4625.5 4604.6 98.18963 Acetylene hydrocarbons CnH2n-2 C2H2 C3H4 C4H6 C6H10 C7H12 C8H14 C9H16 Acetylene Propyne 1-Butyne 1-Hexyne 1-Heptyne 1-Octyne 1-Nonyne g g g g g g g 26.03824 40.06533 54.09242 82.1466 96.17369 110.20078 124.22787 1255.6 1850.9 2465.6 3696.3 4311.4 4923.2 5537.9 1265.8 1899.5 2552.3 3865.1 4520.5 5170.3 5825.1 g g 40.06533 68.11951 1472.1 2789.2 1523.8 2914.8 Diene hydrocarbons CnH2n-2 C3H4 C5H8 Propadiene Pentadiene Aromatic hydrocarbons (benzene derivatives) C6H6 Benzene C7H8 Toluene C8H10 Ethylbenzene C8H10 C9H12 C10H14 C16H26 o-Xylene n-Propylbenzene n-Butylbenzene n-Decylbenzene g l g l g l l l l l 78.11472 106.1689 120.19599 134.22308 218.38562 3171.6 3137.7 3774.4 3736.4 4390.0 4347.7 4332.8 4957.5 5567.7 9198.3 3303.6 3298.5 3943.4 3931.0 4598.8 4587.9 4573.1 5249.1 5892.0 9700.8 s s s s s s s s s s s 128.17526 4984.2 134.22308 5533.0 142.20235 5574.9 148.25017 6131.6 162.27726 6739.1 178.2358 6850.9 178.2358 6835.9 182.26768 7250.9 254.50356 11116.7 244.33937 9579.7 306.41106 11850.1 5255.0 5880.0 5881.4 6516.0 7171.0 7218.1 7201.8 7665.9 11937.4 10109.2 12490.3 92.14181 106.1689 Solid hydrocarbons C10H8 C10H14 C10H10 C11H16 C12H18 C14H10 C14H10 C14H14 C18H38 C19H16 C24H18 Naphthalene 1,2,4,5-Tetramethylbenzene 2-Methylnaphthalene Pentamethylbenzene Hexamethylbenzene Anthracene Phenanthrene 1,1-Diphenylethan n-Octadecane Triphenylmethane 1,3,5-Triphenylbenzene Chemical Namne State 143 Molar Enthalpy Exergy EXERGETICS formula C25H20 mass kg/kmol Tetraphenylmethane s of formation [kJ/mol] [kJ/mol] 320.43815 12544.1 13231.6 Organic compounds containing oxygen CH2O CH2O3 Formaldehyde Formic acid CH4O C2H6O Methanol Ethyl alcohol C2H6O C2H4O C2H4O C2H6O2 C2H4O2 Dimethyl ether Acetic aldehyde Ethyleneoxyde Ethylene glycol Acetic acid C3H8O C3H6O Propylalcohol-2 Acetone C4H8O C4H8O C4H40 Butylaldehyde-1 Butylketone-2 Furane C4H8O2 C4H8O2 C5H12O C5H12O C5H10O C5H6O2 C6H14O C6H12O C7H16O C7H8O C4H10O4 C4H6O4 C4H4O4 C4H4O4 C6H6O C6H14O6 C6H14O6 C6H12O6 C6H12O6 C7H6O2 C7H6O3 C8H4O3 C8H6O4 Butyric acid Ethyl acetate Amyl alcohol 2-Methylbutanol-2 Cyclopentanol Furfuryl alcohol Hexyl alcohol-l Cyclohexanol Heptyl alcohol-l Benzyl alcohol Erythrite Succinic acid Malonic acid Fumaric acid Phenol Dulcite Mannit -D-Galactose L-Sorbose Benzoic acid Hydroxybenzoic acid Phthalic acid anhydride Phthalic acid Chemical Namne g g l l g l g g g l g l l g l l l g l l l l l l l l l l l s s s s s s s s s s s s s State 144 30.02649 46.02589 32.04243 46.06952 46.06952 44.05358 44.05358 62.06892 60.05298 60.09661 58.08067 72.10776 72.10776 68.07588 88.10716 88.10716 88.15079 88.15079 86.13485 98.10237 102.17788 100.16194 116.20497 108.14121 122.1219 118.09002 116.07408 116.07408 94.11412 182.17488 182.17488 180.15894 180.15894 122.12467 138.12407 148.11928 166.13462 Molar 519.4 259.1 213.0 638.4 1278.2 1235.9 1328.1 1105.5 1220.5 1058.6 834.1 786.6 1830.6 1690.9 1659.6 2296.5 2264.1 2024.4 1996.7 2018.8 2073.6 3060.7 3017.2 2878.7 2418.6 3668.9 3465.4 4285.6 3563.4 1874.7 1356.9 1271.3 1249.1 2925.9 2729.6 2739.6 2529.6 2544.6 3097.2 2888.1 3173.8 3094.3 538.4 301.3 291.7 718.0 1363.9 1357.7 1419.5 1163.3 1284.4 1207.3 919.0 908.0 1998.6 1791.5 1788.5 2463.3 2432.6 2118.8 2118.2 2215.8 2269.6 3311.7 3275.7 3109.7 2687.7 3961.1 3750.8 4619.2 3795.8 2193.0 1609.4 1495.7 1471.5 3128.5 3196.3 3204.8 2928.8 2939.0 3343.5 3151.2 3434.8 3412.6 Enthalpy Exergy EXERGETICS formula C12H10O C12H22O11 C12H22O11 C12H24O12 C12H24O12 C16H34O C16H32O2 C2H2O4 mass kg/kmol Diphenyl ether -Lactose Saccharose -Lactose monohydrate -Maltose monohydrate Cetyl alcohol Palmitin acid Oxalic acid s s s s s s s s 170.2129 342.30254 342.30254 360.31788 360.31788 242.44878 256.43224 90.03584 of formation [kJ/mol] [kJ/mol] 5903.1 5154.2 5166.2 5152.2 5173.2 9731.3 9290.3 202.7 6282.4 5988.1 6007.8 6043.3 6063.4 10493.9 10052.3 368.7 Organic compounds containing nitrogen and oxygen C2H4N4 C3H6N6 C5H5N5 C6H4N2 C12H11N Dicyanodiamide Melamine Adenine 2-Cyanopyridine Diphenylamine s s s s s 84.08098 126.12147 135.1291 104.11218 169.22817 1296.5 1835.6 2664.9 3106.1 6188.1 1477.4 2120.5 2941.0 3246.9 6540.7 CH4ON2 CH6O2N2 C2H5O2N C3H7O2N C4H7O4N C4H8O3N2 C4H2O4N2 C4H7ON3 C4H9O2N3 C4H6O3N4 C5H9O4N C5H4ON4 C5H4O2N4 C5H5O3N4 C5H5ON5 C9H9O3N C12H5O12N7 Urea Ammonium urethane Aminoacetic acid D,L-Alanine L-Aspartic acid L-Asparagine Alloxan Creatinine Creatine Allantoin D-Glutamic acid Hypoxanthine Xanthine Uric acid Guanine Hypuric acid 1,3,5-Hexanitrodiphenylamine s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s 60.05583 78.06037 75.06765 89.09474 133.10469 132.11996 142.07154 113.11989 131.13523 158.11742 147.13178 136.11383 152.11323 169.1206 151.1285 179.17698 439.21335 544.7 474.8 867.6 1462.4 1445.2 1749.9 813.1 2179.7 2123.1 1580.0 2047.9 2337.3 2068.8 1950.6 2385.2 4014.3 5397.2 689.0 666.7 1049.5 1689.4 1743.8 2061.3 1053.8 2440.6 2442.8 1909.9 2393.2 2602.4 2361.7 2289.1 2691.2 4388.1 6167.8 62.134 62.134 76.161 76.161 90.188 90.188 90.188 90.188 2164.9 2173.2 2784.3 2783.6 3386.2 3378.9 3392.9 3386.2 2134.0 2145.4 2794.7 2795.0 3438.7 3434.3 3446.3 3442.6 Enthalpy Exergy Organic compounds containing sulfur C2H6S C2H6S C3H8S C3H8S C4H10S C4H10S C4H10S C4H10S Ethyl mercaptan Dimethyl sulfide Propyl mercaptan Methylethyl sulfide Butyl mercaptan 2-Methylpropyl mercaptan Diethyl sulfide Methylpropyl sulfide Chemical Namne l l l l l l l l State 145 Molar EXERGETICS formula C4H4S C4H10S2 C5H12S C5H6S C5H6S C6H6S C6H14S2 C6H10O4S2 C3H7OSN C6H12O4S2N2 mass kg/kmol Thiophene Ethylbutyl disulfide Amyl mercaptan 2-Methylthiophene 3-Methylthiophene Thiophenol Dipropyl disulfide Milk acid ,'-dithiane 1-Cysteine 1-Cystine l l l l l l l s s s 146 84.140 122.252 104.215 98.168 98.168 110.179 150.306 210.272 105.159 240.302 of formation [kJ/mol] [kJ/mol] 2865.9 4117.1 3994.8 3374.5 3376.1 3876.6 5336.5 4053.1 2219.3 4212.8 2847.0 4055.4 4091.3 3396.5 3398.2 3916.1 5358.4 4168.6 2285.8 4415.5 EXERGETICS Table A.4.3 Enthalpy and exergy of formation for organic substances by groups Gases Enthalpy Exergy of formation [kJ/mol] [kJ/mol] Group Liquids Enthalpy Exergy of formation [kJ/mol] [kJ/mol] C 398.57 462.77 403.54 462.64 CH 509.77 557.40 485.75 545.27 CH2 CH3 614.91 713.47 654.51 747.97 607.38 715.35 651.46 752.03 C 440.53 513.35 443.16 473.02 CH CH2 C C CH 551.86 660.26 543.04 510.20 625.37 576.31 678.74 554.23 519.58 630.28 535.08 680.26 539.28 494.34 623.86 569.95 675.68 559.21 515.27 634.34 (ring) 413.34 461.01 379.03 425.11 CH (ring) 522.78 561.37 468.76 543.05 CH2 (ring) 629.05 662.29 614.16 653.63 C 442.71 466.41 559.18 576.65 542.95 568.28 414.22 436.03 416.14 435.03 415.47 440.00 426.22 436.45 528.26 549.91 519.93 547.15 C (ring) CH (ring) C C HC 147 — — EXERGETICS Gases Group (ring) O O O O Liquids Enthalpy Exergy of formation [kJ/mol] [kJ/mol] Enthalpy Exergy of formation [kJ/mol] [kJ/mol] –111.59 –246.86 –117.42 –89.11 –245.09 –97.12 –131.17 –91.46 –126.27 –106.64 –89.96 –83.59 –84.43 –73.13 –137.54 –80.08 –86.52 ( C ) –68.42 –165.48 OH to ( CH ) 63.90 –66.78 OH (to OH (to CH2 ) CH3 ) –56.66 –77.00 –42.89 –25.52 –84.82 –76.87 –51.34 –33.97 OH (to CH ring) -65.16 –46.78 –70.47 –58.16 OH (attached to aromatic) –66.12 –52.01 81.64 –47.57 C O 262.38 293.87 231.58 281.36 O 388.64 412.68 356.72 400.21 O 65.69 108.30 35.90 101.15 296.94 382.66 244.81 362.70 OH to –85 11 –52 H C O C O C O O C O C OH O O C — H 168.04 207.01 250.09 — 155.11 183.96 O C (ring) — 305.66 148 — 277.76 EXERGETICS Gases Liquids Enthalpy Exergy of formation [kJ/mol] [kJ/mol] Group Enthalpy Exergy of formation [kJ/mol] [kJ/mol] H C O (attached to aromatic) 382.87 415.07 379.60 410.21 N 97.03 142.05 64.60 131.09 NH 181.49 213.38 137.18 195.56 NH2 258.43 290.20 235.43 284.39 N 56.82 72.98 –103.43 N 24.18 23.06 0 29.97 NH (ring) 186.19 209.24 151.20 199.37 NH2 (attached to aromatic) 237.80 240.16 216.84 269.24 NH (attached to aromatic) 153.58 196.27 77.07 134.06 69.08 81.68 72.34 83.33 –42.30 1.45 –58.32 12.16 19.66 –89.91 585.26 516.93 761.07 862.06 692.04 18.89 –89.77 592.73 527.50 636.88 724.36 553.78 — –121.71 551.97 510.53 741.74 848.67 696.47 — –23.88 584.03 522.14 642.32 732.26 566.88 660.53 562.95 686.39 (attached to aromatic) N N NO2 N O O N C S SH SO SO NO O2 C 149 EXERGETICS SO 2 439.87 Enthalpy Exergy of formation [kJ/mol] [kJ/mol] Group (ring) 414.68 Liquids Enthalpy Exergy of formation [kJ/mol] [kJ/mol] 764.08 633.45 755.42 687.25 S 781.15 653.56 762.45 654.41 F Cl F (attached to aromatic) Cl (attached to aromatic) Ortho (1,2) Meta (1,3) Para (1,4) 1,2,3 Position 1,2,4 Position 1,3,5 Position 1,2,3,5 Position 1,2,3,5 Position 1,2,4,5 Position 1,2,3,4,5 Position 1,2,3,4,5,6 Position 3 Atom saturated ring 4 Atom saturated ring 5 Atom saturated ring 6 Atom saturated ring 7 Atom saturated ring 8 Atom saturated ring Pentene ring Hexene ring –15.00 46.08 15.08 46.08 4.35 1.76 1.26 12.89 9.05 6.28 14.06 12.80 12.38 17.99 19.66 62.30 50.84 –50.38 –83.05 –73.81 –72.59 –50.38 –83.05 16.25 26.24 45.16 26.24 7.66 3.47 4.60 20.08 13.60 14.27 26.94 23.93 24.27 35.36 62.34 49.04 43.76 –45.52 –61.25 –46.32 –33.47 –45.52 –61.25 –8.85 42.89 –8.85 42.89 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 83.68 87.82 0.00 –28.79 34.70 32.01 34.70 32.01 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 83.68 82.30 0.00 0.00 0.00 –28.79 0.00 0.00 S 373.78 Gases 150 EXERGETICS Table A.4.4 Exergy of substances in ideal water solution (molarity 1 mol/kg H2O), (T0 = 298.15 K, P0 = 101.325 kPa) Exergy Solved Chemical formula Unsolved [kJ/mol] Form [kJ/mol] AgCl CaCl2 59.4 — Ag2+, Cl– Ca2+, 2Cl– 77.9 19.7 CuCl CuCl2 — — Cu+, Cl Cu2+, 2Cl– 114.7 61.2 FeCl2 — Fe2+, 2Cl– 158.7 29.57 2H+, CO3,2 – H+, HCO3,– H+, Cl– 124.6 H2CO3 HCl HF 56.6 HNO3 H3PO4 H2S H2SO4 48.9 H+, F– 74.6 H+, NO3 20.9 3H+, PO4,3 – 2H+, HPO4,2 – 80.6 817.9 — 65.6 48.5 13.0 204.4 — 134.1 — 2H+, SO4,2 – 108.6 K+, Cl– 14.6 –20.7 KCl KNO3 15.0 –19.8 KOH K2SO4 46.9 — LiCl MgCl2 NH3 NH4OH 58.1 — 327.4 328.8 Na2CO3 — 2Na+, CO3,2 – 37.7 5.5 21.4 Na+, Cl– 5.1 21.4 NaCl NaHCO3 NaNO3 –29.4 NaOH Na2SO4 O2 37.7 — 20.3 PbCl2 ZnCl2 ZnSO4 K+, NO3,– K+, OH 2K+, SO4,2 – Li+, Cl Mg2+, 2Cl — NH4, OH Na+, HCO3,– Na+, NO3,– Na+, OH– 46.9 41.3 29.7 40.4 — 322.1 –30.2 — 37.7 22.2 — — Pb2+, 2Cl– 69.5 — Zn2+, 2Cl– 53.2 51.8 Zn2+, SO4,2 – 80.2 2Na+, SO4,2 – 151

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Download PDF

advertisement