Microsoft Access 2013 Step by Step ebook

Microsoft Access 2013 Step by Step ebook
spine = 1.15”
—one step at a time!
Experience learning made easy—and quickly teach yourself
how to create great-looking documents with Microsoft
Word 2013. With Step by Step, you set the pace—building
and practicing the skills you need, just when you need them!
•
•
•
•
•
•
1
2
Create documents on your PC or touch-enabled device
Master core tools for designing and editing docs
3
Manage page layout, style, and navigation
Organize content in tables, lists, and charts
Add pictures, diagrams, and other visuals
Create custom styles and templates
4
1 Follow the easy numbered steps
Microsoft Word 2013
The smart way to learn
Microsoft Word 2013
Build exactly the skills you need. Learn at the pace you want.
2 Use screenshots to check your work
Your Step by Step digital content includes:
• All the book’s practice files—ready to download at:
http://aka.ms/Word2013sbs/files
• Fully searchable ebook. See the instruction page at
the back of the book.
4 Build your skills hands-on with
Microsoft
Access 2013
®
ready-made practice files
Lambert
Cox
®
microsoft.com/mspress
ISBN: 978-0-7356-6912-3
3 Get helpful tips and pointers
U.S.A. $29.99
Canada $31.99
[Recommended]
Microsoft Office/
Microsoft Word
Joyce Cox and Joan Lambert
Practice files
plus ebook
PUBLISHED BY
Microsoft Press
A Division of Microsoft Corporation
One Microsoft Way
Redmond, Washington 98052-6399
Copyright © 2013 by Joyce Cox and Joan Lambert
All rights reserved. No part of the contents of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any
means without the written permission of the publisher.
Library of Congress Control Number: 2013931601
ISBN: 978-0-7356-6908-6
Printed and bound in the United States of America.
First Printing
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Trademarks/EN-US.aspx are trademarks of the Microsoft group of companies. All other marks are property of
their respective owners.
The example companies, organizations, products, domain names, email addresses, logos, people, places, and
events depicted herein are fictitious. No association with any real company, organization, product, domain name,
email address, logo, person, place, or event is intended or should be inferred.
This book expresses the author’s views and opinions. The information contained in this book is provided without
any express, statutory, or implied warranties. Neither the authors, Microsoft Corporation, nor its resellers, or
distributors will be held liable for any damages caused or alleged to be caused either directly or indirectly by
this book.
Acquisitions Editor: Rosemary Caperton
Editorial Production: Online Training Solutions, Inc.
Technical Reviewer: Rob Carr
Copyeditor: Jaime Odell
Indexer: Joyce Cox
Cover: Microsoft Press Brand Team
Contents
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xi
Who this book is for . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xi
How this book is organized . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xii
Download the practice files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xii
Your companion ebook . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xiv
Get support and give feedback . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xiv
Errata . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xiv
We want to hear from you . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xv
Stay in touch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xv
PART 1
Simple database techniques
1
Explore Microsoft Access 2013
3
Identifying new features of Access 2013 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
If you are upgrading from Access 2010 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
If you are upgrading from Access 2007 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
If you are upgrading from Access 2003 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Working in the Access 2013 user interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Identifying program window elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Working with the ribbon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Sidebar: Adapting exercise steps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Sidebar: Getting help with Access 2013 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
Understanding database concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Sidebar: Enabling macros and other active content . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
Exploring tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
Exploring forms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
Exploring queries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
Contents iii
Exploring reports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .43
Previewing and printing database objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
Key points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
2
Create databases and simple tables
53
Creating databases from templates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
Sidebar: Getting started with Access web apps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
Creating databases and tables manually . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
Sidebar: Database design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
Manipulating table columns and rows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
Refining table structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
Defining relationships between tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
Key points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
3
Create simple forms
91
Creating forms by using the Form tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
Formatting forms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
Arranging the layout of forms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
Key points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
4
Display data
115
Sorting information in tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116
Sidebar: How Access sorts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120
Filtering information in tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
Filtering information by using forms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
Sidebar: Wildcards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129
Locating information that matches multiple criteria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129
Sidebar: Saving filters as queries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133
Key points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133
iv Contents
5
Create simple reports
135
Creating reports by using a wizard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136
Modifying report design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142
Previewing and printing reports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150
Key points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154
PART 2
Relational database techniques
6
Maintain data integrity
157
Specifying the type of data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158
Setting the field size . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163
Restricting the format of data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165
Sidebar: Creating custom formats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172
Validating the data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173
Sidebar: Simple validation rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176
Allowing only values in lists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183
Sidebar: Multicolumn lookup lists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188
Allowing only values in other tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188
Sidebar: Multivalued fields . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194
Key points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195
7
Create queries
197
Creating queries by using a wizard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198
Creating queries manually . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203
Summarizing data by using queries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 208
Calculating by using queries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212
Updating records by using queries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 218
Deleting records by using queries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 222
Key points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225
V413HAV
Contents v
8
Create custom forms
227
Modifying forms created by using a wizard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 228
Sidebar: Different types of forms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 230
Adding controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 237
Displaying subforms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 245
Sidebar: Selecting fields for main forms and subforms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 245
Key points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 253
9
Create custom reports
255
Creating reports manually . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 256
Sidebar: Adding hyperlinks, charts, and buttons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 258
Modifying report content . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 262
Sidebar: Layouts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 264
Adding subreports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 270
Key points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 276
PART 3
Database management and security
10
Import and export data
279
Importing information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Importing from other Access databases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Importing from Excel worksheets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Importing from text files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Importing from other database programs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Importing from Outlook folders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Importing from SharePoint lists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Importing from .html files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Importing from .xml files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Sidebar: Linking to information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
vi Contents
280
281
282
282
283
283
283
285
286
295
Exporting information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Exporting to other Access databases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Exporting to Excel worksheets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Exporting to Word documents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Exporting to text files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Exporting to .pdf and .xps files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
295
297
297
297
297
298
Exporting to SharePoint lists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Exporting to .html files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Exporting to .xml files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Copying to and from other Office programs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Key points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
298
299
299
306
309
11
Make databases user friendly
311
Designing navigation forms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 312
Creating custom categories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 319
Controlling which features are available . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 323
Key points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 327
12
Protect databases
329
Assigning passwords to databases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 330
Splitting databases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 334
Securing databases for distribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 338
Sidebar: Packaging and signing databases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 341
Preventing database problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 342
Key points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 347
13
Work in Access more efficiently
349
Changing default program options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 350
Sidebar: Using add-ins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 362
Customizing the ribbon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 363
Sidebar: Customizing the status bar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 369
Manipulating the Quick Access Toolbar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 370
Key points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 375
Contents vii
Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 377
Keyboard shortcuts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 385
Access 2013 keyboard shortcuts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 385
Open, save, and print databases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 385
Work in Design, Layout, or Datasheet view . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 386
Work in the Navigation pane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 386
Work in the Property Sheet pane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 387
Work in the Field List pane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 387
Edit controls in forms or reports in Design view . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 387
Work with combo boxes or list boxes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 388
Set properties for a table in Design view . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 388
Work with text and data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 389
Navigate records . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 391
Navigate in Design view . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 391
Navigate in Datasheet view . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 392
Navigate in Form view . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 393
Navigate in Print Preview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 394
Navigate in the Query Designer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 394
Access web app keyboard shortcuts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 396
Customize a web app in Access . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 396
Work with a web app in a web browser . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 396
Office 2013 keyboard shortcuts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 397
Work with menus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 397
Use Open and Save As in the Backstage view . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 397
Use the Open and Save As dialog boxes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 398
Display and use windows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 398
Navigate on the ribbon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 399
Move around in text or cells . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 399
Work with text . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 400
Move around in and work in tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 400
Work with panes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 400
Work with wizards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 401
Work with dialog boxes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 401
Use edit boxes within dialog boxes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 402
Use the Help window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 402
viii Contents
Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 405
About the authors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 427
How to download your ebook . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 431
Survey page . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 432
Contents ix
Introduction
Over the years, Microsoft has put a lot of effort into making Access not only one of the
most powerful consumer database programs available, but also one of the easiest to learn
and use. Because Access is part of Microsoft Office 2013, you can use many of the techniques you use with Microsoft Word and Microsoft Excel. For example, you can use familiar
commands, buttons, and keyboard shortcuts to open and edit the information in Access
tables. And you can easily share information between Access and Word, Excel, or other
Office programs. Microsoft Access 2013 Step by Step offers a comprehensive look at the
­features of Access that most people will use most frequently.
Who this book is for
Microsoft Access 2013 Step by Step and other books in the Step by Step series are designed
for beginning-level to intermediate-level computer users. If part of your job involves enter­
ing data in or producing reports from a database designed by someone else, this book
will help you understand the behind-the-scenes functionality of the database. If you are
tasked with the maintenance of an existing database, you will learn important techniques
for ­ensuring data integrity. Although we don’t cover the macro and VBA functionality that
enables experienced developers to create full-featured database applications, we do touch
on more advanced topics such as controlling access and preventing problems.
Examples shown in the book generally pertain to small and medium businesses but teach
skills that can be used in organizations of any size. The databases you create and work with
are desktop databases, designed to be used in Access 2013 on a local computer. Access
2013 has powerful new capabilities to enable more advanced users to create applications,
called Access web apps, that are stored as SQL databases on a Microsoft SharePoint 2013
site and can be viewed and manipulated through a web browser. Because of the behindthe-scenes requirements of these databases, we briefly describe them but don’t cover them
in depth.
Whether you are already comfortable working in Access and want to learn about new features in Access 2013 or are new to Access, this book provides invaluable hands-on experience so that you can confidently create and work with many types of desktop databases
Introduction xi
How this book is organized
This book is divided into three parts. Part 1 explains how to get data into a database, either
directly by entering it into tables or indirectly by using forms; and how to get information
out of a database, either by displaying it on the screen or by printing it in reports. Part 2
discusses ways to ensure that the data in related tables is accurate, how to use queries
to extract data from related tables, and how to create forms and reports that use related
­tables. Part 3 covers more advanced Access techniques, including securing the database
and customizing the program to fit the way you work. With this three-part structure, readers who are new to the program can acquire basic skills and then build on them, whereas
readers who are comfortable with Access 2013 basics can focus on material that is of the
most interest to them.
Chapter 1 contains introductory information that will primarily be of interest to readers
who are new to Access or are upgrading from Access 2003 or an earlier version. If you have
worked with a more recent version of Access, you might want to skip directly to Chapter 2.
This book has been designed to lead you step by step through all the tasks a beginninglevel or intermediate-level user is most likely to want to perform with Access 2013. If you
start at the beginning and work your way through all the exercises, you will gain enough
proficiency to be able to create simple databases and work with more complex databases
created by experts. However, each chapter is self-contained, so you can jump in anywhere
to acquire exactly the skills you need.
Download the practice files
Before you can complete the exercises in this book, you need to download the book’s practice files to your computer. These practice files can be downloaded from the following page:
http://aka.ms/Access2013sbs/files
IMPORTANT The Access 2013 program is not available from this website. You should purchase
and install that program before using this book.
xii Introduction
The following table lists the practice files for this book.
Chapter
File
Chapter 1: Explore Microsoft Access 2013
GardenCompany01.accdb
Chapter 2: Create databases and simple tables
None
Chapter 3: Create simple forms
GardenCompany03.accdb
Logo.png
Chapter 4: Display data
GardenCompany04.accdb
Chapter 5: Create simple reports
GardenCompany05.accdb
Chapter 6: Maintain data integrity
GardenCompany06.accdb
Chapter 7: Create queries
GardenCompany07.accdb
Chapter 8: Create custom forms
GardenCompany08.accdb
Hydrangeas.jpg
Chapter 9: Create custom reports
GardenCompany09.accdb
Chapter 10: Import and export data
Customers.xlsx
Employees.txt
GardenCompany10.accdb
ProductsAndSuppliers.accdb
Shippers.xlsx
Chapter 11: Make databases user friendly
GardenCompany11.accdb
Icon.ico
Logo.png
Chapter 12: Protect databases
GardenCompany12.accdb
Chapter 13: Work in Access more efficiently
GardenCompany13.accdb
If you would like to be able to refer to the completed versions of practice files at a later
time, save the modified practice files at the end of each exercise. If you might want to
­repeat the exercises, save the modified practice files with a different name or in a different
folder.
Introduction xiii
Your companion ebook
With the ebook edition of this book, you can do the following:
▪▪ Search the full text
▪▪ Print
▪▪ Copy and paste
To download your ebook, please see the instruction page at the back of the book.
Get support and give feedback
The following sections provide information about getting help with this book and contacting us to provide feedback or report errors.
Errata
We’ve made every effort to ensure the accuracy of this book and its companion content.
Any errors that have been reported since this book was published are listed on our
Microsoft Press site at oreilly.com, which you can find at:
http://aka.ms/Access2013sbs/errata
If you find an error that is not already listed, you can report it to us through the same page.
If you need additional support, email Microsoft Press Book Support at
[email protected]
Please note that product support for Microsoft software is not offered through the
­addresses above.
xiv Introduction
We want to hear from you
At Microsoft Press, your satisfaction is our top priority, and your feedback our most valuable
asset. Please tell us what you think of this book at:
http://www.microsoft.com/learning/booksurvey
The survey is short, and we read every one of your comments and ideas. Thanks in advance
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Stay in touch
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Introduction xv
Simple database
techniques
1 Explore Microsoft Access 2013
3
2 Create databases and simple tables
53
3 Create simple forms
91
4 Display data
115
5 Create simple reports
135
Chapter at a glance
Tables Explore tables,
page 28
Forms Explore forms,
page 33
Queries Reports Explore queries,
page 38
Explore reports,
page 43
Explore Microsoft
Access 2013
1
IN THIS CHAPTER, YOU WILL LEARN HOW TO
▪▪
▪▪
▪▪
▪▪
▪▪
Identify new features of Access 2013.
Work in the Access 2013 user interface.
Understand database concepts.
Explore tables, forms, queries, and reports.
Preview and print database objects.
This chapter introduces Microsoft Access 2013 and is designed to serve different purposes
for different readers, depending on prior knowledge of this program and other Microsoft
Office 2013 programs.
▪▪ If you are a beginning Access user, you might want to skip the lists of new features
and start with “Working in the Access 2013 user interface.”
▪▪ If you have used other Office 2007 or Office 2010 programs but have not worked with
Access before, you might want to skip down to “Understanding database concepts.”
▪▪ If you have upgraded to Access 2013 from Access 2003, you might want to read as far
as the end of “Working in the Access 2013 user interface” and then skip to Chapter 2,
“Create databases and simple tables.”
▪▪ If you have upgraded to Access 2013 from Access 2007 or Access 2010, you might
be interested in the new features that have been introduced in this version of the
program, but you might not need to work through the exercises in the rest of this
chapter.
Throughout this book, you’ll be working with databases that contain information about the
employees, products, suppliers, and customers of a fictional company. As you complete the
exercises, you will develop an assortment of tables, forms, queries, and reports that can be
used to enter, edit, and manipulate the information in a database in many ways.
3
In this chapter, you’ll get an overview of the new features in recent versions of Access to
help you identify changes if you’re upgrading from a previous version. You’ll explore the
program’s user interface, and the concepts and structure of data storage in Access. Then
you’ll look at database objects such as tables, forms, queries, and reports, while learning
about Access features and functionality that you’ll explore in more depth in later chapters.
Finally, you’ll preview and print database objects.
PRACTICE FILES To complete the exercises in this chapter, you need the practice file
contained in the Chapter01 practice file folder. For more information, see “Download
the practice files” in this book’s Introduction.
Identifying new features of Access 2013
Access 2013 builds on previous versions to provide powerful tools for all your database
needs. If you’re upgrading to Access 2013 from a previous version, you’re probably most
­interested in the differences between the old and new versions and how they will affect
you, and you probably want to find out about them in the quickest possible way. The following sections list new features you will want to be aware of, depending on the version of
Access you are upgrading from. Start with the first section and work down to your previous
version to get the complete picture.
If you are upgrading from Access 2010
If you have been using Access 2010, you might be wondering how Microsoft could have
improved on what seemed like a pretty comprehensive set of features and tools. The new
features introduced between Access 2010 and Access 2013 include the following:
▪▪ Access web apps You can still create powerful database applications that are stored
locally or in a central location. But if your organization is running Microsoft SharePoint
with Access Services, you can now create a web form of a database that anyone with
the correct permissions can view and manipulate from a web browser. Judging by the
amount of effort Microsoft is putting into Access web apps, it is likely that this sophisticated evolution of the web capabilities introduced with Access 2010 will be the wave
of the future, at least for larger enterprises.
4 Chapter 1 Explore Microsoft Access 2013
▪▪ Windows 8 functionality Access 2013, like all Office 2013 programs, is a full-featured
Windows 8 application. When it is running on the Windows 8 operating system, it not
only has the sleek new Windows 8 look but it also incorporates the latest touch technologies designed for tablet and mobile devices.
▪▪ Starting screen Access opens to a screen that provides easy access to new database
templates, the databases you recently worked on, and locations where existing databases might be stored.
▪▪ Cloud access When you connect your Office or Access installation to a Microsoft
­ ccount (formerly known as a Windows Live account) or a Microsoft Office 365
a
­account, you have the option of saving desktop databases “in the cloud” to a
SharePoint document library or a Microsoft SkyDrive site, so that it is available
when you are not at your desk.
If you are upgrading from Access 2007
In addition to the features listed in the previous section, if you’re upgrading from Access 2007,
you’ll want to take note of the following features that were introduced in Access 2010:
▪▪ The Backstage view All the tools you need to work with your database files, as opposed to their content, are accessible from one location. You display the Backstage
view by clicking the File tab, which replaces the Microsoft Office Button at the left
end of the ribbon.
▪▪ Customizable ribbon Create your own tabs and groups to suit the way you work.
▪▪ Unifying themes Add pizzazz to database objects such as forms and reports by
­applying a professional-looking theme from a gallery of options.
▪▪ Web databases With Access 2010, companies with employees and clients in differ-
ent geographic locations can make their databases accessible over the Internet in a
web browser. (This technology is still available in Access 2013, but it has been superseded by Access web apps. An Access 2010 web database cannot be converted to an
Access web app.)
▪▪ Navigation forms Offering the sophisticated browsing techniques people are accustomed to using on websites, these forms provide an essential navigation tool that can
increase the usability and data security of any database.
Identifying new features of Access 2013 5
1
▪▪ New database templates Creating common types of databases is easier when you
start with a template. The database templates that come with Access are supplemented by those made available by a community of database developers through
the Office website.
▪▪ Application parts Add predefined database objects to an existing database. In ad-
dition to various types of forms, several Quick Start parts are available. For example,
adding the Contacts part adds one table and associated queries, forms, and reports.
▪▪ Enhanced Layout view and layout controls It is easy to make design changes in
Layout view while viewing the underlying data.
▪▪ Enhanced Expression Builder The layout of the Expression Builder dialog box has
been refined to make building an expression more intuitive. In addition, a feature
called IntelliSense has been incorporated to display options based on what you enter
and to provide syntax guidance.
▪▪ Improved conditional formatting You can use data bars to add at-a-glance insight
into the data in Number fields.
▪▪ Ability to export to PDF and XPS files When you want to make a report or other
database object available to people but don’t want them to be able to manipulate it,
export the object in either PDF or XPS format. You can optimize the file size for printing or publishing online.
If you are upgrading from Access 2003
In addition to the features listed in the previous sections, if you’re upgrading from
Access 2003, you’ll want to take note of the following features that were introduced
in Access 2007:
▪▪ The ribbon The user interface organizes the most common commands for any database object into tabs and groups so that the appropriate commands are immediately
accessible for the current object.
▪▪ Quick Access Toolbar Customize a portion of the toolbar to include commands you
regularly use, regardless of which object is currently active.
▪▪ Navigation pane The customizable Navigation pane replaces the Database window
from Access 2003. Display or hide all tables, queries, forms, reports, macros, and modules, or create a custom group that displays only the objects you want to work with
at the moment. You can even hide the Navigation pane to make more room on the
screen for your database object.
6 Chapter 1 Explore Microsoft Access 2013
▪▪ View Shortcuts toolbar This context-sensitive toolbar in the lower-right corner of
the program window provides single-click switching among the supported views of
the current database object.
▪▪ Tabbed documents Open multiple database objects and switch between them
quickly by clicking tabs on a tab bar.
▪▪ Template library Quickly locate and download professionally designed templates
for common database projects.
▪▪ Improved sorting and filtering Easily sort all records in a table based on one or
more fields, or filter a table or form to display or hide records matching multiple
criteria.
▪▪ Layout view Redesign a form or report while viewing it.
▪▪ Stacked and Tabular layouts Group controls in a form or report layout so that you
can easily manipulate the entire group as one unit.
▪▪ Automatic calendar The Date/Time data type includes an optional calendar control.
Click the calendar, and select the date you want.
▪▪ Rich Text Memo fields support most common formatting options, including fonts,
color, and character formatting. The formatting is stored with the database.
▪▪ Create tab Quickly create a new table, form, query, report, macro, SharePoint list, or
other Access object.
▪▪ Totals function Add a totals row to a query, and select from a list of formulas to
automatically calculate aggregate values for forms and reports.
▪▪ Field List Drag and drop fields from one or more related or unrelated tables onto
your active table.
▪▪ Attachment data type Attach photos and other files to a database record.
▪▪ Embedded macros Macros embedded in a form or report offer a higher level of
security in database applications.
▪▪ Microsoft Access Help Easily search end-user and developer help content from
within Access.
Identifying new features of Access 2013 7
1
▪▪ Improved information sharing Easily import and export data between Access and
other Office applications or .xml, .html, and .pdf files; create or link a database with
a SharePoint list; or publish your database to a SharePoint library and allow users to
update and extract information.
▪▪ Improved report design Quickly create a professional-looking report, complete
with logo, header, and footer; and use Report view, combined with filters, to browse
only selected records in the report.
▪▪ Group, Sort, and Total pane This feature makes it much easier to group and sort
data in reports, and add totals from a drop-down list.
▪▪ Enhanced security Adding password protection to a database causes Access to
­automatically encrypt the database when it closes, and decrypt it when it opens.
Working in the Access 2013 user interface
The program we work with and depict in images throughout this book is a desktop installation of Access 2013, installed from a DVD as part of the Office 2013 suite of programs. You
might have installed Access 2013 as a freestanding program or as part of an Office 365 subscription that allows users to install the desktop programs from the Internet. Regardless of
how you installed Access, the program has the same functionality and works the same way.
TIP Office 365 is a cloud-based solution that small, midsize, and enterprise businesses can
use to provide a variety of products and services to their employees through a subscription
licensing program.
As with all programs in Office 2013, the most common way to start Access is from the Start
screen (Windows 8) or the Start menu (Windows 7) displayed when you click at the left end
of the Windows Taskbar. When you start Access without opening a database, the program’s
starting screen appears. From this screen, you can create a new database or open an existing one. Either way, the database is displayed in a program window that contains all the
tools you need to create database objects and enter and manipulate data. The Access 2013
interface is designed to closely reflect the way people generally work with a database. If you
are not familiar with this interface, which was first introduced with Access 2007, here is a
quick description of the program window elements.
8 Chapter 1 Explore Microsoft Access 2013
1
A new blank table displayed in the Access 2013 program window.
Identifying program window elements
The program window contains the following elements:
▪▪ Title bar This bar across the top of the program window displays the name of the
active database and by default display the path to the folder where it is stored. It
also provides tools for managing the program and the program window.
Working in the Access 2013 user interface 9
You can use the tools on the title bar to move and size the window, undo or redo changes, save
the database, and get help with the program.
At the left end of the title bar is the program icon, which you click to display commands to restore, move, size, minimize, maximize, and close the program window.
To the right of the Access icon is the Quick Access Toolbar. By default, the Quick
Access Toolbar displays the Save, Undo, and Redo buttons, but you can customize
it to display any command you want.
TIP You might find that you work more efficiently if you organize the commands
you use frequently on the Quick Access Toolbar and then display it below the ribbon,
directly above the workspace. For information, see “Manipulating the Quick Access
Toolbar” in Chapter 13, “Work in Access more efficiently.”
At the right end of the title bar are four buttons: a Help button that opens the Access
Help window, in which you can use standard techniques to find information; and the
familiar Minimize, Maximize/Restore Down, and Close buttons.
SEE ALSO For information about the Access Help system, see the sidebar “Getting
help with Access 2013” later in this chapter.
▪▪ Ribbon Below the title bar, all the commands for working with an Access database
are represented as buttons in this central location so that you can work efficiently
with the program.
Each tab of the ribbon contains a specific category of commands.
10 Chapter 1 Explore Microsoft Access 2013
TIP If your ribbon appears as a row of tabs across the top of the workspace, click
the Home tab to temporarily display that tab’s buttons so that you can follow along.
We tell you how to control the display of the ribbon in a minute. Don’t be alarmed if
your ribbon looks different from those shown in our screens. You might have installed
programs that add their own tabs to the ribbon, or your screen settings might be
different. For more information, see “Working with the ribbon” later in this topic.
Across the top of the ribbon is a set of tabs. Clicking a tab displays its associated set
of commands.
Commands related to managing Access and Access databases (rather than their
content) are gathered together in the Backstage view, which you display by clicking
the colored File tab located at the left end of the ribbon. Commands available in the
Backstage view are organized on pages, which you display by clicking the page tabs
in the colored left pane. You redisplay the database and the ribbon by clicking the
Back arrow located above the page tabs.
The Backstage view, where you can manage files and customize the program.
Commands related to working with database content are represented as buttons on
the remaining tabs of the ribbon. When an object is selected in a database, one or
more tool tabs might appear at the right end of the ribbon to make commands related
to that specific object easily accessible. Tool tabs disappear again when their associated object is no longer active or when the current view does not support their use.
Working in the Access 2013 user interface 11
1
TIP Some older commands no longer appear as buttons on the ribbon but are still
available in the program. You can make these commands available by adding them to
the Quick Access Toolbar. For more information, see “Manipulating the Quick Access
Toolbar” in Chapter 13, “Work in Access more efficiently.”
On each tab, buttons representing commands are organized into named groups. You
can point to any button to display a ScreenTip with the command name and its keyboard shortcut (if it has one).
SEE ALSO For information about controlling the display and content of ScreenTips, see
“Changing default program options” in Chapter 13, “Work in Access more efficiently.”
Some buttons include an integrated or separate arrow. If a button and its arrow are
integrated, clicking the button displays options for refining the action of the button.
If the button and its arrow are separate, clicking the button carries out the default
action indicated by the button’s current icon. You can change the default action by
clicking the arrow and then clicking the action you want.
Related but less common commands are not represented as buttons in a group.
Instead, they’re available in a dialog box or pane, which you display by clicking the
dialog box launcher located in the lower-right corner of the group.
To the right of the ribbon group names is the Collapse The Ribbon button. Clicking
this button hides the groups of commands but leaves the tab names visible. You can
then click any tab name to temporarily display its commands. Clicking anywhere
other than the ribbon hides the commands again. When the full ribbon is temporarily visible, you can click the Pin The Ribbon button (the pushpin) to the right of the
group names to make the display permanent.
KEYBOARD SHORTCUT Press Ctrl+F1 to minimize or expand the ribbon. For a list
of keyboard shortcuts, see “Keyboard shortcuts” at the end of this book.
▪▪ Navigation pane On the left side of the program window, the Navigation pane
displays lists of database objects. By default, it displays all the objects in the database by type of object, but you can filter the list by clicking the pane’s title bar and
then clicking the category or group of objects you want to display. You can collapse
and expand the groups in the list by clicking the chevrons in the section bars. If the
12 Chapter 1 Explore Microsoft Access 2013
Navigation pane is in your way, you can click the Shutter Bar Open/Close button in its
upper-right corner to minimize it. To redisplay the Navigation pane, click the Shutter
Bar Open/Close button again. You can drag the right border of the pane to the left or
right to make it wider or narrower.
KEYBOARD SHORTCUT Press F11 to display or hide the Navigation pane.
▪▪ Status bar Across the bottom of the program window, this bar displays information
about the current database and provides access to certain program functions. At the
right end of the bar is the View Shortcuts toolbar, which provides convenient buttons
for switching the view of the active database object.
This status bar tells you the current view and the status of the keyboard.
The goal of all these user interface features is to make working in a database as intuitive as
possible. Commands for tasks you perform often are readily available, and even those you
might use infrequently are easy to find.
Working with the ribbon
As with all Office 2013 programs, the Access ribbon is dynamic, meaning that as its width
changes, its buttons adapt to the available space. As a result, a button might be large or
small, it might or might not have a label, or it might even be an entry in a list.
The width of the ribbon depends on the following three factors:
▪▪ Program window width Maximizing the program window provides the most space
for the ribbon.
▪▪ Screen resolution Screen resolution is the size of your screen display expressed as
pixels wide × pixels high. The greater the screen resolution, the greater the amount
of information that will fit on one screen. Your screen resolution options are dependent on your graphics adapter and monitor. Common screen resolutions range from
800 × 600 to 2560 × 1600. The greater the number of pixels wide (the first number),
the greater the number of buttons that can be shown on the ribbon.
Working in the Access 2013 user interface 13
1
To change your screen resolution:
1 Open the Screen Resolution control panel item by using one of the following
methods:
▪▪ Right-click the Windows desktop, and then click Screen Resolution.
▪▪ Click a blank area at the top of the Windows 8 Start screen, and enter
screen resolution. Then in the Search pane, click Settings, and in the
Settings ­results, click Adjust screen resolution.
▪▪ In Control Panel, open the Display control panel item, and then click Adjust
Resolution. (If Control Panel is set to Category view, click Adjust screen
resolution in the Appearance and Personalization category.)
2 On the Screen Resolution page, click the Resolution arrow, click or drag to
select the screen resolution you want, and then click Apply or OK.
On the Screen Resolution page, you set the resolution by dragging the pointer on the slider.
14 Chapter 1 Explore Microsoft Access 2013
▪▪ The magnification of your screen display If you change the screen magnification
setting in Windows, text and user interface elements are larger and therefore more
legible, but fewer elements fit on the screen. You can set the magnification from 100
to 500 percent.
You can change the screen magnification from the Display control panel item, which
you can open from Control Panel or by using one of the following methods:
▪▪ Right-click the Windows desktop, click Personalize, and then in the lower-left
­corner of the Personalization page, click Display.
▪▪ Enter display at the top of the Windows 8 Start screen, click Settings, and then
click Display in the Settings results.
On the Display page, you can choose one of the standard magnification options or change the
text size of specific elements.
Working in the Access 2013 user interface 15
1
To change the screen magnification to 125 or 150 percent, click that option on the
Display page.
To select another magnification, click the Custom Sizing Options link and then, in
the Custom Sizing Options dialog box, click the magnification you want in the dropdown list or drag the ruler to change the magnification even more.
You can set the magnification as high as 500 percent by dragging the ruler
in the Custom Sizing Options dialog box.
After you click OK in the Custom Sizing Options dialog box, the custom magnification
is shown on the Display page along with any warnings about possible problems with
selecting that magnification. Click Apply on the Display page to apply the selected
magnification.
16 Chapter 1 Explore Microsoft Access 2013
Adapting exercise steps
The screen shots shown in this book were captured at a screen resolution of 1024 x
768, at 100-percent magnification. If your settings are different, the ribbon on your
screen might not look the same as the one shown in this book. As a result, exercise
instructions that involve the ribbon might require a little adaptation.
Our instructions use this format:
▪▪ On the Home tab, in the Sort & Filter group, click the Ascending button.
If the command is in a list, our instructions use this format:
▪▪ On the Home tab, in the Records group, click the More button and then, in the
list, click Hide Fields.
If differences between your display settings and ours cause a button to appear differently on your screen than it does in this book, you can easily adapt the steps to locate
the command. First click the specified tab, and then locate the specified group. If a
group has been collapsed into a group list or under a group button, click the list or
button to display the group’s commands. If you can’t immediately identify the button
you want, point to likely candidates to display their names in ScreenTips.
In this book, we provide instructions based on the traditional keyboard and mouse
input methods. If you’re using Access on a touch-enabled device, you might be giving
commands by tapping with your finger or with a stylus. If so, substitute a tapping action any time we instruct you to click a user interface element. Also note that when we
tell you to enter information in Access, you can do so by typing on a keyboard, tapping an on-screen keyboard, or even speaking aloud, depending on your computer
setup and your personal preferences.
Working in the Access 2013 user interface 17
1
In this exercise, you’ll start Access and explore the Backstage view and ribbon.
SET UP You need the GardenCompany01 database located in the Chapter01 practice
file folder to complete this exercise, but don’t open it yet. Just follow the steps.
1
From the Start screen (Windows 8) or the Start menu (Windows 7), start Access 2013.
2
On the Access starting page, at the bottom of the left pane, click Open Other Files
to display the Open page of the Backstage view.
TIP From the Backstage view, you manage your Access database files, but you don’t
work with the content of databases. For example, you can create a database, but not
a database object. We’ll talk about the tasks you can perform in the Backstage view
in other chapters of this book.
3
In the left pane of the Open page, click Computer, and in the right pane, click the
Browse button. Then in the Open dialog box, navigate to the Chapter01 practice
file folder, and double-click GardenCompany01 to open the database.
4
If a security warning appears, click Enable Content in the security warning bar.
TIP Be sure to read the sidebar “Enabling macros and other active content” later in
this chapter to learn about Access security options.
Let’s save the database so that you can explore it without fear of overwriting the
original practice file.
5
Click the File tab to display the Backstage view, and click Save As. Then with Save
Database As selected in the left pane of the Save As page and Access Database
selected in the Database File Types area of the right pane, click the Save As button.
18 Chapter 1 Explore Microsoft Access 2013
6
In the Save As dialog box, save the database with a different name, such as
MyGardenCompany01.
TIP In this book, we assume you will save files in the practice file folders, but you
can save them wherever you want. When we refer to the practice file folders in the
instructions, simply substitute the save location you chose.
7
Click Enable Content in the security warning bar.
On the left, the Navigation pane displays a list of all the objects in this database.
Spanning the top of the window, the ribbon includes five tabs: File, Home, Create,
External Data, and Database Tools. Because no database object is currently open,
the Home tab is active by default, but none of its buttons are available.
TIP Databases created in Access 2013 use the file storage format introduced with
Access 2007, and their files have the .accdb extension. You can open database files
created in earlier versions of Access (which have an .mdb extension) in Access 2013.
You can then either work with and save them in the old format or work with and save
them in the new format. If you convert them, you can no longer open them in versions prior to Access 2007. For more information about the ACCDB format, search for
accdb in Access Help.
8
In the Navigation pane title bar, click All Access Objects, and then in the Filter By
Group area of the menu, click Tables to list only the tables in the Navigation pane.
9
In the Navigation pane, double-click Categories to open that table on a tabbed
page. Notice that the record navigation bar at the bottom of the page tells you how
many records the table contains and which one is active, and enables you to move
among records. Notice also that the Fields and Table tool tabs appear on the ribbon.
These tool tabs are displayed only when you are working with a table.
Working in the Access 2013 user interface 19
1
Buttons representing commands related to working with database content are organized on the
Home tab in six groups: Views, Clipboard, Sort & Filter, Records, Find, and Text Formatting.
TIP By default, Access 2013 displays database objects on tabbed pages. If you want,
you can display each object in a separate window instead. In the Access Options dialog box, display the Current Database page, and then in the Application Options area,
below Document Window Options, click Overlapping Windows. The window of each
object has its own set of Minimize, Restore Down/Maximize, and Close buttons. You
can move object windows by dragging their title bars, you can size them by dragging
their frames, and you can arrange them by clicking the Switch Windows button in the
Window group and selecting an option. (This group is added to the Home tab when
you select Overlapping Windows in the Access Options dialog box.)
10
On the Home tab, click the Text Formatting dialog box launcher to open the
Datasheet Formatting dialog box.
20 Chapter 1 Explore Microsoft Access 2013
1
From the Datasheet Formatting dialog box, you can access settings
not available as buttons in the Text Formatting group, such as
Gridline Color and Border And Line Styles.
11
12
Close the Datasheet Formatting dialog box.
Click the Create tab.
Buttons representing commands related to creating database objects are organized on the
Create tab in six groups: Templates, Tables, Queries, Forms, Reports, and Macros & Code.
13
Double-click the Create tab.
Double-clicking the active tab hides the ribbon’s button groups and provides more space for the
current database object.
Working in the Access 2013 user interface 21
14
Click the External Data tab to temporarily display the full ribbon, which drops down
over the table.
Buttons representing commands related to moving information between a database and other
sources are organized on the External Data tab in three groups: Import & Link, Export, and Web
Linked Lists.
15
16
Click anywhere in the open table, and notice that the ribbon disappears again.
Double-click the Database Tools tab to permanently display the ribbon and activate
that tab.
Buttons representing commands related to managing, analyzing, and ensuring data reliability
are organized on the Database Tools tab in six groups: Tools, Macro, Relationships, Analyze,
Move Data, and Add-Ins.
Before we finish this exercise, let’s close first the active database object and then the
database. (If you want to close the database and exit Access, click the Close button in
the upper-right corner of the program window.)
17
At the right end of the bar where the page tab for the Categories table is displayed,
click the Close button to close the table without closing the database.
18
Display the Backstage view, and then click Close to close the database without
exiting Access.
TIP If you don’t close the active database before opening another one, Access prompts
you to save your changes and closes the active database for you. You cannot have two
data­bases open simultaneously in a single instance of Access. If you want to have
two data­bases open at the same time, you must start a new instance of Access.
+
CLEAN UP Retain your version of the GardenCompany01 database for use in later
exercises.
22 Chapter 1 Explore Microsoft Access 2013
Getting help with Access 2013
Whenever you have a question about Access 2013 that is not answered by this book,
your next recourse is the Access Help system. This system is a combination of tools
and information available from the Office website for reference when you are online,
and basic information stored on your computer for reference when you are offline.
Online references can include articles, videos, and training tools.
To open the Access Help window and search for information:
1 Near the right end of the title bar, click the Microsoft Access Help button to
open the Access Help window.
KEYBOARD SHORTCUT Press F1 to display the Access Help window.
TIP To switch between online and offline reference content, click the arrow to
the right of Access Help and then click Access Help From Office.com or Access
Help From Your Computer. You can print the information shown in the Help window by clicking the Print button on the toolbar. You can change the font size of
the topic by clicking the Use Large Text button on the toolbar to the left of the
Search Help box.
2 In the search box, enter your search term, and then click the Search button (the
magnifying glass) to display a list of related topics.
3 In the results list, click the topic you’re interested in to display its information.
4 Jump to related information by clicking any hyperlink identified by blue text.
TIP When section links appear at the beginning of an article, you can click a link
to move directly to that section of the article. You can click the Top Of Page link at
the end of an article to return to the beginning.
5 When you finish exploring, close the Access Help window by clicking the Close
button in the upper-right corner.
Working in the Access 2013 user interface 23
1
Understanding database concepts
Simple databases store information in only one table. These simple databases are often
called flat file databases, or just flat databases. More complex database programs, such as
Access, store information in multiple related tables, thereby creating what are referred to as
relational databases. If the information in a relational database is organized correctly, you
can treat these multiple tables as a single storage area and pull information electronically
from different tables in whatever order meets your needs.
Tables are one of the types of database objects you work with in Access. Other types include
forms, queries, reports, macros, and modules. Of these object types, only tables are used to
store information. The others are used to enter, manage, manipulate, analyze, retrieve, or
display the information stored in tables—in other words, to make the information as accessible and therefore as useful as possible.
In its most basic form, a database is the electronic equivalent of an organized list of information. Typically, this information has a common subject or purpose, such as the list of employees shown in the following table.
ID
First name
Last name
Title
Hire date
1
Karen
Berg
Owner
May 1, 2008
2
Kim
Akers
Head Buyer
June 1, 2008
3
Tom
O’Neill
Assistant
November 2, 2008
4
Naoki
Sato
Sales Manager
August 14, 2009
5
Molly
Dempsey
Gardener
October 17, 2009
6
Nancy
Anderson
Sales Rep
May 1, 2010
7
Michael
Entin
Sales Rep
April 1, 2011
8
Kari
Furse
Buyer
May 3, 2011
9
Chase
Carpenter
Gardener
November 15, 2012
24 Chapter 1 Explore Microsoft Access 2013
This list is arranged in a table of columns and rows.
▪▪ Each column represents a field—a specific type of information about an employee:
last name, first name, hire date, and so on.
▪▪ Each row represents a record—all the information about a specific employee.
If a database did nothing more than store information in a table, it would be no more useful than a paper list. But because the database stores information in an electronic format,
you can manipulate the information in powerful ways to extend its usefulness.
For example, suppose you want to find someone’s phone number. You can look up this
­information in a phone book, because its information is organized for this purpose. How­
ever, if you want to find the phone number of your grandmother’s neighbor, a printed
phone book won’t do you much good, because it isn’t organized in a way that makes that
information easy to find.
Storing the information published in a phone book in a database, has the following
advantages:
▪▪ It takes up far less space.
▪▪ It costs less to reproduce and distribute.
▪▪ If the database is designed correctly, the information can be retrieved in many ways.
The real power of a database isn’t in its ability to store information; it is in your ability to
quickly retrieve exactly the information you want from the database.
Understanding database concepts 25
1
Enabling macros and other active content
Some databases contain macros and other active content that can run code on your
computer. In most cases, the code is there to perform a database-related task, but
hackers can also use macros to spread a virus to your computer. When you open
a ­database that is not stored in a trusted location or signed by a trusted publisher,
Access displays a security warning below the ribbon.
While the security warning is displayed, the active content in the database is disabled.
You can enable macros and other active content in three ways:
▪▪ By enabling the macros for use in the current database session.
▪▪ By adding the database publisher to the list of trusted publishers. This option
is available only if the publisher’s digital signature is attached to the database.
Access will then automatically enable macro content in any database that is
also signed by that publisher.
▪▪ By making the location of the database a trusted location, or moving the data­
base to a trusted location. Access automatically enables macro content in any
database saved in that location.
To enable macros for the current database session only:
▪▪ In the security warning bar, click Enable Content.
To add the publisher of a digitally signed database to the Trusted Publishers list:
1 In the security warning bar, click Some active content has been disabled.
2 On the Info page of the Backstage view, click the Enable Content button, and
then click Advanced Options.
26 Chapter 1 Explore Microsoft Access 2013
3 In the Microsoft Office Security Options dialog box, click Trust all documents
from this publisher, and then click OK.
To add the location of a database to the Trusted Locations list:
1 Display the Backstage view, and then click Options.
2 In the left pane of the Access Options dialog box, click Trust Center, and then click
Trust Center Settings.
3 In the left pane of the Trust Center dialog box, click Trusted Locations.
4 On the Trusted Locations page, click Add new location.
5 In the Microsoft Office Trusted Location dialog box, click Browse.
6 In the Browse dialog box, navigate to the folder containing the current database,
and then click OK.
7 In the Microsoft Office Trusted Location dialog box, select the Subfolders of this
location are also trusted check box if appropriate, and then click OK in each of the
open dialog boxes.
If you prefer, you can change the way Access handles macros in all databases:
1 Display the Trust Center, and then in the left pane, click Macro Settings.
2 Select the option for the way you want Access to handle macros:
▪▪ Disable all macros without notification If a database contains macros,
Access disables them and doesn’t display the security warning to give you
the option of enabling them.
▪▪ Disable all macros with notification Access disables all macros and displays
the security warning.
▪▪ Disable all macros except digitally signed macros Access automatically
­enables digitally signed macros.
▪▪ Enable all macros Access enables all macros (not recommended).
3 Click OK to close the Trust Center, and then click OK to close the Access Options
dialog box.
Understanding database concepts 27
1
Exploring tables
Tables are the core database objects. Their purpose is to store information. The purpose
of every other database object is to interact in some manner with one or more tables. An
Access database can contain thousands of tables, and the number of records each table can
contain is limited more by the storage space available than by anything else.
Every Access object has two or more views. For tables, the two most common views are
Datasheet view, in which you can display and modify the table’s data, and Design view, in
which you can display and modify the table’s structure. To open a table in Datasheet view,
either double-click its name in the Navigation pane, or right-click its name and then click
Open. To open a table in Design view, right-click its name and then click Design View. When
a table is open in Datasheet view, clicking the View button in the Views group on the Home
tab switches to Design view; when it is open in Design view, clicking the button switches
to Datasheet view. You can also switch the view by clicking one of the buttons on the View
Shortcuts toolbar in the lower-right corner of the program window.
Datasheet view displays the table’s data in columns (fields) and rows (records). The first row
contains column headings (field names).
In this format, the table is often simply referred to as a datasheet.
28 Chapter 1 Explore Microsoft Access 2013
If two tables have one or more field names in common, you can embed the datasheet from
one table in another. By using an embedded datasheet, called a subdatasheet, you can display the information in more than one table at the same time. For example, you might want
to embed an Orders datasheet in a Customers table so that the orders each customer has
placed are visible in the context of the customer record.
In this exercise, you’ll open existing database tables and explore the table structure in two
views.
SET UP You need the GardenCompany01 database you worked with in the preced-
ing exercise to complete this exercise. (For practice purposes, you might have saved this
database with a different name.) Open the database, ensure that tables are listed in the
Navigation pane, and then follow the steps.
1
In the Navigation pane, double-click Products to open the Products table in
Datasheet view.
2
At the right end of the Navigation pane title bar, click the Shutter Bar Close button
to display more of the table’s fields.
Each row in this table contains information about a product and each column contains one field
from each record. The record navigation bar shows that the selected record is 1 of 189.
TIP To make the graphics in this book readable, from now on we will often work in
a program window that is smaller than full screen with the Navigation pane closed.
More fields and records might be visible in your tables than those shown in our
screen shots.
Exploring tables 29
1
Let’s adjust the width of a couple of columns to accommodate their longest entries.
3
In the row of field names at the top of the table, point to the right border of the
Product Name column, and when the pointer changes to a double-headed arrow,
double-click the border.
4
Double-click the right border of the Category column to adjust that field’s width.
Notice that the products Magic Lily and Autumn Crocus are assigned to the Bulbs
category.
TIP You can also resize a table column by pointing to the border and dragging it to
the left or right.
Now let’s open a second table.
5
In the Navigation pane, click the Shutter Bar Open button, and then double-click
Categories to open the Categories table on a new tabbed page in Datasheet view.
Notice that the Products table is still open and available if you need it.
TIP From now on, open the Navigation pane whenever you need to work with a dif-
ferent object, but feel free to close it if you want to display more of the data.
6
In the Categories table, at the left end of the record for the Bulbs category, click the
Expand button (the plus sign) to display a subdatasheet containing all the records
from the Products table that are assigned to the Bulbs category.
You can display records from two related tables simultaneously.
30 Chapter 1 Explore Microsoft Access 2013
TIP Displaying a subdatasheet is only possible if a relationship has been established
between two tables. For information about relationships, see “Defining relationships
between tables” in Chapter 2, “Create databases and simple tables.”
7
To the left of the record for the Bulbs category, click the Collapse button (the minus
sign) to hide the subdatasheet.
8
Click the Close button at the right end of the page tab bar (not the Close button in
the upper-right corner of the program window) to close the Categories table.
9
Close the Products table, and when Access asks whether you want to save your
changes to this table, click Yes.
TIP In steps 3 and 4, you changed the look of the table by changing the widths of
columns. If you want those changes to be in effect the next time you open the table,
you must save them.
Next let’s use a table containing order-fulfillment information to practice moving
among records.
10
In the Navigation pane, double-click the Orders table.
The record navigation bar at the bottom of the window indicates that this table contains
87 records, and that the active record is number 1 of 87.
11
On the record navigation bar, click the Next record button several times to move the
selection down the active OrderID field.
Exploring tables 31
1
KEYBOARD SHORTCUT Press the Up Arrow or Down Arrow key to move the selection
one record at a time. Press the Page Up or Page Down key to move one screen at a
time. Press Ctrl+Home or Ctrl+End to move the selection to the first or last field in
the table.
12
Click the record navigation bar, select the current record number, enter 40, and then
press the Enter key to move the selection directly to record 40 of 87.
Finally, let’s view the structure of the open table.
13
On the View Shortcuts toolbar, click the Design View button to display the Orders
table structure in Design view. Notice that the Design tool tab now appears on the
ribbon.
Datasheet view displays the data stored in the table, whereas Design view displays the
underlying table structure.
SEE ALSO For information about table structure, see “Refining table structure” in
Chapter 2, “Create databases and simple tables.”
+
CLEAN UP Close the Orders table. Keep the GardenCompany01 database open for use
in later exercises.
32 Chapter 1 Explore Microsoft Access 2013
Exploring forms
Access tables are dense lists of raw information. Working directly with tables in a database
you have created might be quite simple for you, but it might be overwhelming for people
who don’t know much about databases in general or about this database in particular. To
make it easier to enter, display, and print information, you can design forms.
A form acts as a friendly interface for a table. Through a form, you can display and edit the
records of the underlying table, or create new records. Most forms provide an interface
to only one table. However, by embedding subforms within a main form, you can use one
form to interact with multiple tables that are related through one or more common fields.
Forms are essentially collections of controls that either accept information or display information. You can create forms by using a wizard, or you can create them from scratch by
manually selecting and placing the controls. Access provides the types of controls that are
standard in Windows dialog boxes, such as labels, text boxes, option buttons, and check
boxes. With a little ingenuity, you can create forms that look and work much like the dialog
boxes in all Windows programs.
As with tables, you can display forms in several views. The following are the three most
common views:
▪▪ Form In this view, you can display and enter data.
▪▪ Layout In this view, you can work with the elements of the form to refine its appearance and functionality while also displaying the data from the underlying table.
▪▪ Design In this view, you have more precise control over the appearance, placement,
and functionality of form elements, but you cannot display the underlying data.
SEE ALSO For more information about forms, see Chapter 3, “Create simple forms,” and
Chapter 8, “Create custom forms.”
Exploring forms 33
1
In this exercise, you’ll explore forms, subforms, and the available form controls.
SET UP You need the GardenCompany01 database you worked with in the preceding
exercise to complete this exercise. If necessary, open the database, and then follow the
steps.
1
In the Navigation pane, click the title bar to display the category list, and then in the
Filter By Group area, click Forms to display all the forms that have been saved as part
of this database.
2
In the Navigation pane, double-click Products to open the Products form on a
tabbed page.
This form is the interface for the Products table.
3
Click the arrow adjacent to the Supplier box to display a list of all the company’s
suppliers.
34 Chapter 1 Explore Microsoft Access 2013
1
This is an example of a list box control.
Now let’s open a form that includes a main form and a subform.
4
In the Navigation pane, double-click Categories to open that form on its own
tabbed page. Notice that the main form displays information from the Categories
table, and the subform, which looks like a datasheet, displays information from the
Products table for the current record.
This form is the interface for both the Categories and Products tables.
Exploring forms 35
5
On the main form’s record navigation bar, click the Next Record button a few times
to display the next few records. Notice that the subform changes with each click to
display the products in each category.
Next let’s display a form containing customer information in various views.
6
In the Navigation pane, double-click Customers to open that form in Form view.
The purpose of this form is to edit or create customer records.
7
On the Home tab, in the Views group, click the View button, which switches between
Form view and Layout view. Notice that three tool tabs (Design, Arrange, and Format)
appear on the ribbon.
8
In the Views group, click the View arrow, and then click Design View to display the
underlying structure of the form.
36 Chapter 1 Explore Microsoft Access 2013
1
In Design view, you can add controls to a form, rearrange controls, format the controls and
the form itself, and add pictures and lines to help identify the form and its sections.
9
Switch between Form view, Layout view, and Design view, noticing the similarities
and differences.
Finally, let’s take a look at the controls available for designing forms.
10
On the Design tool tab, in the Controls group, do one of the following, depending
on the size of your program window:
▪▪ In the lower-right corner of the Controls gallery, click the More button.
▪▪ Click the Controls button.
Either method displays a menu containing the Controls gallery.
Exploring forms 37
You can use these controls to assemble custom forms for your database.
SEE ALSO For information about form controls, see “Adding controls” in Chapter 8,
“Create custom forms.”
11
12
Click away from the gallery to close it.
Close all the open database objects by right-clicking the tab of the Customers form
and then clicking Close All.
+
CLEAN UP Keep the GardenCompany01 database open for use in later exercises.
Exploring queries
You can locate specific information stored in a table, or in multiple tables, by creating
a query that specifies the criteria you want to match. Queries can be quite simple—for
­example, you might want a list of all products in a specific category that cost less than
$10.00. They can also be quite complex—for example, you might want to locate all outof-state customers who have purchased gloves within the last three months. For the first
example, you might be able to sort and filter the data in the Products table fairly quickly to
come up with a list. For the second example, sorting and filtering would be very tedious.
It would be far simpler to create a query that extracts all records in the Customers table
whose billing addresses are not in your state and whose customer IDs map to records that
appear in the Orders table within the last three months and whose item IDs map to records
classified as gloves in the Products table.
38 Chapter 1 Explore Microsoft Access 2013
You can create queries by using a Query wizard, and you can also create them from scratch.
The most common type is the select query, which extracts matching records from one or
more tables. Less common are queries that perform specific types of actions.
Processing a query, commonly referred to as running a query or querying the database,
displays a datasheet containing only the records that match your search criteria. You
can use the query results as the basis for further analysis, create other database objects
(such as reports) from the results, or export the results in another format, such as an Excel
spreadsheet.
If you create a query that you are likely to want to run more than once, you can save it. It
then becomes part of the database and appears in the list when you display the Queries
group in the Navigation pane. To run the query at any time, you simply double-click it in
the Navigation pane. Each time you run the query, Access evaluates the records in the specified table or tables and displays in Datasheet view the current subset of records that match
the criteria defined in the query.
To set up a query, you work in Design view. Switching to this view displays the Query
Designer, which has two components:
▪▪ The top pane displays boxes listing the fields of the tables the query is designed to
work with. Each box represents one table. In a query that works with more than one
table, lines between the boxes indicate that before the query was created, relationships were established between the tables based on common fields. The relationships
enable the query to draw information from the tables.
SEE ALSO For more information about relationships, see “Defining relationships
­between tables” in Chapter 2, “Create databases and simple tables.”
▪▪ The bottom pane displays the design grid, where the query’s search criteria are defined. Each column of the grid refers to one field from one of the tables in the top
pane. Each row defines a different aspect of the query.
Don’t worry if this all sounds a bit complicated at the moment. When you approach queries
logically, they soon begin to make perfect sense.
SEE ALSO For more information about queries, see Chapter 7, “Create queries.”
Exploring queries 39
1
In this exercise, you’ll explore two existing queries.
SET UP You need the GardenCompany01 database you worked with in the preceding
exercise to complete this exercise. If necessary, open the database, and then follow the
steps.
1
In the Navigation pane, display the Queries group, which includes all the queries that
have been saved as part of this database.
2
In the Navigation pane, right-click the Delete Discontinued Products query, and
then click Object Properties to display the properties of the query, including a
description of its purpose.
The icon at the top of the General tab indicates that this is a select query.
3
In the Delete Discontinued Products Properties dialog box, click Cancel.
Let’s run a query.
4
Right-click the Products By Category query, and then click Open to run the query
and display its results in a datasheet. If necessary, close the Navigation pane so that
you can see all the results.
40 Chapter 1 Explore Microsoft Access 2013
1
The record navigation bar indicates that 171 records meet the criteria of the Products By
Category query.
The Products table contains 189 records. To find out why 18 of the records are missing in the query results, let’s look at this query in Design view.
5
On the View Shortcuts toolbar, click the Design View button to display the query in
the Query Designer.
You use the Query Designer to indicate the tables you want to use and the criteria you want
to match.
Exploring queries 41
The two boxes in the top pane of the Query Designer list the fields in the Categories
and Products tables. The line between the boxes indicates a relationship based on
their common CategoryID field. The design grid in the bottom pane defines a query
that matches information from both tables. Because <> Yes (not equal to Yes) is entered in the Criteria row for the Discontinued field, this query finds all the records
that don’t have a value of Yes in that field (in other words, all the records that have
not been discontinued) and displays them by category.
As an experiment, let’s make a small change to the query design.
6
In the Criteria row of the Discontinued field, replace <> with =. Then on the Design
tool tab, in the Results group, click the Run button to find all the records that have
been discontinued.
The 18 discontinued products account for the difference between the number of records in the
Products table and the number of records displayed by the original query.
TIP You can also run a query by switching to Datasheet view.
7
Close the Products By Category query. When a message asks whether you want to
save your changes to the query, click No.
+
CLEAN UP Keep the GardenCompany01 database open for use in later exercises.
42 Chapter 1 Explore Microsoft Access 2013
Exploring reports
You can display the information recorded in your tables in nicely formatted, easily accessible
reports, either on your computer screen or on paper. A report can include items of information selected from multiple tables and queries, values calculated from information in the
­database, and formatting elements such as headers, footers, titles, and headings.
You can look at reports in four views:
▪▪ Report view In this view, you can scroll through the information in the report without being distracted by the page breaks that will be inserted when it is printed.
▪▪ Print Preview In
this view, Access displays your report exactly as it will look when
printed.
▪▪ Layout view This view displays the data in the report (similar to Print Preview) but
enables you to edit the layout.
▪▪ Design view In this view, you can manipulate the design of a report in the same way
that you manipulate a form.
SEE ALSO For more information about reports, see Chapter 5, “Create simple reports,” and
Chapter 9, “Create custom reports.”
In this exercise, you’ll preview a report as it will appear when printed. You’ll also examine
another report in Design view.
SET UP You need the GardenCompany01 database you worked with in the preceding
exercise to complete this exercise. If necessary, open the database, and then follow the
steps.
1
In the Navigation pane, display the Reports group, which includes all the reports that
have been created and saved as part of this database.
2
In the Navigation pane, right-click Customer Labels, and then click Print Preview to
open the Customer Labels report in a view that is much like Print Preview in other
Office programs.
TROUBLESHOOTING If Access notifies you that some data may not be displayed
­ ecause of column widths and spacing, for the purposes of this exercise, simply
b
click OK to continue.
Exploring reports 43
1
TIP Access provides a wizard that can help you create a mailing label report. You
can also create labels like these by using the Customers table as a data source for
the Microsoft Word 2013 mail merge tool. For information about mail merge, refer to Microsoft Word 2013 Step By Step by Joan Lambert and Joyce Cox (Microsoft
Press, 2013)
The report is too small to read easily in Print Preview, so let’s adjust the zoom
percentage.
3
Move the pointer over the report, where it changes to a magnifying glass. Then with
the pointer over the middle label at the top of the report, click the mouse button to
change the zoom percentage to 100%.
This report prints customer names and addresses in a mailing label format.
44 Chapter 1 Explore Microsoft Access 2013
TIP Click the Zoom Level button in the lower-right corner to switch back and forth
between the current and previous zoom levels. You can also adjust the zoom percentage by clicking the Zoom In or Zoom Out button (the plus or minus sign) at the
ends of the Zoom slider or by dragging the Zoom slider. To set a specific zoom percentage, click the Zoom arrow in the Zoom group on the Print Preview tab and then
click the percentage you want.
Now let’s look at another report.
4
In the Navigation pane, right-click the Sales By Category report, and then click Print
Preview. This report generates several pages of information by combining data from
the Categories table and the Products table.
5
6
Use any method to zoom the page to 100%.
On the page navigation bar in the lower-left corner of the page, click the Last Page
button to move to the end of the report.
In this report, each category appears on its own page with a list of the products in that category
and their prices.
7
Click the Previous Page button a few times to view a few more pages of the report.
Let’s look at the structure of this report in Design view.
8
On the View Shortcuts toolbar, click the Design View button. Notice that in this view,
the report looks similar to a form.
Exploring reports 45
1
You create reports by using the same techniques you use to create forms.
+
CLEAN UP Close the open reports. Keep the GardenCompany01 database open for
use in the last exercise.
Previewing and printing database objects
Because Access is a Windows application, it interacts with your printer through standard
Windows dialog boxes and drivers. This means that any printer that you can use from other
programs can be used from Access, and any special features of that printer, such as color
printing or duplex printing, are available in Access.
The commands for printing database objects are available from the Print page of the
Backstage view. From this page, you can do the following:
▪▪ Print the active object by using the default settings.
▪▪ Display the Print dialog box, where you can select the printer you want to use, in
addition to adjusting various other settings appropriate to the active object and the
current view.
▪▪ Display the active object in Print Preview.
46 Chapter 1 Explore Microsoft Access 2013
In this exercise, you’ll explore the printing options for a table and a form.
SET UP You need the GardenCompany01 database you worked with in the preceding
exercise to complete this exercise. If necessary, open the database, and then follow the
steps.
1
In the Navigation pane, display the All Access Objects group.
2
In the Tables group, double-click the Employees table to open it in Datasheet view.
Access will not print data that is not visible on the screen, so let’s first make sure all
the columns display all their data.
3
Manually adjust the widths (don’t double-click between the columns) of all the
columns so that all the values in the fields are visible. (Don’t worry about showing
the complete column heading; just focus on the values.)
4
Display the Backstage view, and in the left pane, click Print.
From the Print page of the Backstage view, you can print the current database object with
the default print settings, change the settings, and preview the object.
5
On the Print page, click Print Preview to preview the first page of the Employees
table.
Previewing and printing database objects 47
1
By default, the Employees table is displayed in Portrait orientation.
TIP This is the only way to preview a table, a query results datasheet, or a form.
There is no Print Preview command available when you right-click one of these objects, and there is no Print Preview button on the View Shortcuts toolbar or in the
View button list, as there is for reports.
6
On the page navigation bar at the bottom of the window, click the Next Page
button. Then click the First Page button to move back to page 1.
With the current settings, this datasheet will print as two short, vertically oriented
pages. Let’s adjust the settings.
7
On the Print Preview tab, in the Page Layout group, click the Landscape button to
switch to that orientation. Then click the Next Page button. Notice that the datasheet
still occupies two pages, with only one field on the second page.
8
In the Page Size group, click the Margins button, and then click Narrow.
48 Chapter 1 Explore Microsoft Access 2013
1
The buttons on the page navigation bar are now gray, indicating that the Employees table fits
on one page.
TIP You can set custom margins by clicking the Page Setup button in the Page Lay-
out group and then adjusting the Top, Bottom, Left, and Right settings on the Print
Options page of the Page Setup dialog box.
9
In the Print group, click the Print button to open the Print dialog box.
In the Print dialog box, you can select the printer and set print options such as the pages
or records to print, and the number of copies.
Previewing and printing database objects 49
10
Click Cancel to close the Print dialog box, and then in the Close Preview group, click
the Close Print Preview button.
Now let’s take a look at a report.
11
In the Navigation pane, in the Reports group, double-click Alphabetical List of
Products.
12
On the View Shortcuts toolbar, click the Print Preview button to display the report
information as it will be printed.
13
On the Print Preview tab, in the Zoom group, click the Two Pages button to display
the first two pages of the report side by side.
You can preview more than one page at a time.
14
On the View Shortcuts toolbar, click the Report View button to return to that view.
+
CLEAN UP Close the Alphabetical List Of Products report and the Employees table,
saving your changes if you want to. Then close the GardenCompany01 database.
50 Chapter 1 Explore Microsoft Access 2013
Key points
▪▪ The Access user interface provides intuitive access to all the tools you need to create
and maintain a database.
▪▪ A database is the computer equivalent of an organized list of information.
▪▪ Tables are the core database objects. They organize data in columns and rows, called
fields and records.
▪▪ In a relational database, tables can be related based on common fields, enabling the
retrieval of information from more than one table at the same time.
▪▪ The purpose of the other database objects—forms, reports, queries, macros, and
modules—is to interact with one or more tables.
▪▪ Every database object has two or more views. For example, you view data in a table in
Datasheet view and define how the data is structured in Design view.
▪▪ If you want to print a database object, be sure the information you need is visible on
the screen before you print.
Key points 51
1
Chapter at a glance
Create Create databases from templates,
page 54
Manipulate Manipulate table columns and rows,
page 74
Refine Define Refine table structure,
page 77
Define relationships between tables,
page 83
Create databases and
simple tables
2
IN THIS CHAPTER, YOU WILL LEARN HOW TO
▪▪
▪▪
▪▪
▪▪
▪▪
Create databases from templates.
Create databases and tables manually.
Manipulate table columns and rows.
Refine table structure.
Define relationships between tables.
Microsoft Access 2013 takes a lot of the difficult and mundane work out of creating and
customizing a database by providing database templates. Access also provides templates
for common elements that you might want to plug into a database. These application parts
consist of sets of objects—a table and related forms, queries, or reports—that together
provide a complete, functioning part of a database, ready for you to customize. If none of
the templates meet your needs, you can create databases manually. However, an empty
­database is no more useful than an empty document or worksheet. It is only when you fill
a database with data (referred to as populating a database), that it starts to serve a purpose.
In this chapter, you’ll examine web app templates and create a desktop database from a
template. You’ll also create a table manually. Next, you’ll adjust the display of a table to
meet your needs. Finally, you’ll define relationships between tables. By the end of this
chapter, you’ll have a desktop database that contains a few tables and you’ll understand
a bit about how the database tables you will use for the exercises in the remaining chap­
ters of the book were created.
PRACTICE FILES You don’t need any practice files to complete the exercises in this chapter.
53
Creating databases from templates
Access 2013 comes with templates for several databases typically used in business and
education, and when you are connected to the Internet, many more are available from the
Microsoft Office website. By using predefined templates, you can create a database in far
less time than it used to take to design one, because someone has already done the design
work for you.
SEE ALSO For information about the basic concepts of database design, see the sidebar
“Database design” later in this chapter.
By using templates, you can create two types of database applications:
▪▪ Desktop databases These databases are stored on your computer or a network
server. After using a desktop database template to create the database, you can
view and modify it by using Access 2013 on your local computer.
▪▪ Web apps These database applications are hosted in a Microsoft SharePoint 2013
environment. They are designed to provide an online interface through which people
can view and enter data from a web browser. Web apps make it possible for people
to access company information from wherever they are and from any computer,
whether or not it has Access installed. Several of the templates that come with Access
and many of the templates available from the Office website are for web apps. For
more information, see the sidebar “Getting started with Access web apps” later in this
chapter.
Although using an Access template might not produce exactly the database you want,
it can quickly create something you can customize to meet your needs. However, you
can customize a database only if you know how to manipulate its basic building blocks:
tables, forms, queries, and reports. Due to the complexity of these templates, you probably shouldn’t try to modify them until you’re comfortable working with database objects
in Design view and Layout view. By the time you finish this book, you will know enough to
be able to confidently work with the sophisticated pre-packaged database templates that
come with Access.
In this exercise, you’ll explore the templates that come with Access, and you’ll create a desktop database based on the Desktop Task Management template.
54 Chapter 2 Create databases and simple tables
SET UP You don’t need any practice files to complete this exercise. Close any open
databases, and then follow the steps.
1
With either the Access starting screen or the New page of the Backstage view dis­
played, scroll the page to display the range of available templates. Notice that the
icons of desktop database templates are designated by a blank page, and the icons
of web app templates are designated by a stylized page with a globe.
The globe distinguishes web app templates from desktop database templates.
2
In the list of templates, click the Task management web app template icon.
Clicking a web app template icon displays a description of the template and asks you to name
the database and identify the SharePoint site on which it will be stored.
Creating databases from templates 55
2
TIP If no template seems to be a good starting point for the database you want to
create, you can search for additional templates on the Office website by entering a
category in the Search For Online Templates box and then clicking the Start Searching button.
3
To the left and right of the creation window, click the back and forward arrows to
scroll through the list of available templates, reading their descriptions. Stop when
the creation window for the Desktop task management template is displayed.
Unlike other programs that allow you to create a file and then assign a name and storage
location, Access requires that you assign a name and storage location before you create a
new database file.
4
In the File Name box, enter MyTasks.
TIP Naming conventions for Access database files follow those for Windows files. File
names cannot contain the following characters: \ / : * ? “ < > |. Although you can use
spaces between words, because database files are sometimes referenced in programming code, most database developers use words with initial capital letters and no
spaces between them.
5
Click the adjacent Browse button, and then in the File New Database dialog box,
navigate to the Chapter02 practice file folder.
56 Chapter 2 Create databases and simple tables
TIP By default, Access creates new databases in your Documents folder. You can
change the location when you create each database, or you can change the default
folder. To specify a different default folder, open the Access Options dialog box, and
then on the General page, in the Creating Databases area, click the Browse button
to the right of Default Database Folder. In the Default Database Path dialog box,
browse to the folder you want to be the default, and then click OK in each of the
open dialog boxes.
6
With Microsoft Access 2007-2013 Databases selected in the Save as type box,
click OK.
7
With the path to the specified folder displayed below the File Name box in the
window, click the Create button.
This Getting Started window is a form that provides two videos to help you understand
how to use and modify your MyTasks database.
Creating databases from templates 57
2
8
If you want, watch the videos to understand how this template works. Then clear
the Show Getting Started when this database is opened check box, and close the
window.
9
Enable the content of the database, and ensure that the Navigation pane is open.
Then if any of the groups are collapsed, click their chevrons to open them.
By default, the Task List form is displayed in Form view so that you can start adding tasks.
TIP Below the form name is a toolbar that has commands created by embedded
macros. A database that has commands like these is called a database application.
The topic of macros is beyond the scope of this book. For information, search for
macros in Access Help.
10
Click the field below Task Title, enter Monthly Report, and click the field below it
to create a record.
11
In the Navigation pane, in the Tables group, double-click Tasks to display the table
on which the Task List form is based. Notice that the task you just entered in the
form is the first record in this table.
58 Chapter 2 Create databases and simple tables
12
Right-click the Tasks tab, and click Close All to close both of the open objects.
Let’s use an application part to add a form to this new database.
13
In the Navigation pane, click the All Access Objects title, and display the Forms
group. It is now easier to focus on just the seven forms in the database.
14
On the Create tab, in the Templates group, click the Application Parts button to
display the Application Parts gallery.
You can add various types of forms and several sets of related tables
and other database objects to this or any other database.
TIP These ready-made objects give you a jump start on creating a fully functional
database application. But like templates, they involve behind the scenes functionality
that you might not know how to manage yet. You can come back and explore application parts more fully when you have a better understanding of them.
V413HAV
Creating databases from templates 59
2
15
Point to each thumbnail in turn to display its description, and then in the Blank
Forms area, click 1 Right. Notice that when you add this form to the database,
Access adds an eighth form called SingleOneColumnRightLabels to the Forms
group in the Navigation pane. It also runs a macro that opens the Task List form.
16
In the Navigation pane, double-click SingleOneColumnRightLabels to open the
new form.
You can customize this form to meet the needs of your own database.
SEE ALSO For information about customizing forms, see Chapter 8, “Create custom
forms.”
17
On your own, continue exploring the objects that are part of the MyTasks database.
For each type of object, first filter the Navigation pane to display only that group,
and then explore its objects.
+
CLEAN UP Close the MyTasks database.
60 Chapter 2 Create databases and simple tables
Getting started with Access web apps
An Access web app is a database that is designed in Access 2013, stored in Microsoft
SQL Server, and hosted on a SharePoint site in such a way that users can connect to
the web app through a web browser, even if they don’t have Access installed on a
­local device.
Office 365 plans that include SharePoint (Small Business Premium and Enterprise)
are ready to host Access web apps with no extra setup required. Web apps can also
be hosted by organizations that set up SharePoint 2013 and SQL Server 2012 on an
internal network. To create an Access web app, you must first log in to Office with
a SharePoint 2013–enabled account. (This account might not be the same as your
Windows account.) Deployment, management, and security of the web app are all
controlled within the SharePoint infrastructure.
To create a web app:
1 Start Access, and in the upper-right corner of the program’s starting screen, verify
that you are logged in to Office with a SharePoint-enabled account. If the account
shown is not a SharePoint-enabled account, click Switch account, and then click
the account you want to use; or click Add Account and enter the appropriate
credentials.
2 In the right pane of the Access starting screen, click Custom web app to create
a new blank web app, or click one of the many available ready-made web app
templates.
TIP If you aren’t sure which template to choose, enter a keyword in the Search box
at the top of the pane, and search online for suggestions.
3 When prompted, enter a name for the web app and the location of the SharePoint
site on which it will be hosted. Then click Create to download the template and
­create the application on the designated SharePoint site.
Creating databases from templates 61
2
When you create a web app, the Add Tables pane is displayed, giving you four easy
ways to add a new table:
▪▪ Click an item in the Suggested searches list.
▪▪ Enter a search term in the Search box, and then click an item in the results.
▪▪ Add a new blank table.
▪▪ Create a table from an existing data source.
From the initial web app screen, you can add or view existing objects.
The tables you add to the web app are displayed as tiles in the Tile pane on the left
side of the page. For each table, Access automatically creates an associated Datasheet
form and a List form. Clicking a table shows you an image of the table’s form in the
right pane. To edit a table’s form, display the form in the view you want, and click the
Edit button. You can manage the data source and actions of a form’s fields, in addition
to the formatting of the form itself, in the List and Datasheet form views.
To edit a table, right-click the table’s tile, and click Edit Table. You can also open the
Navigation pane and edit the tables and forms from there.
62 Chapter 2 Create databases and simple tables
In Access web apps, relationships between tables are defined by using the Lookup
data type. Start by opening a table in Design view, and then do one of the following:
▪▪ To create a relationship, either add a new field or select an existing field, and then
set the data type to Lookup to start the Lookup wizard.
▪▪ To manage an existing relationship, select a field that has the Lookup data type,
and on the Design tool tab, click Modify Lookups to start the Lookup wizard.
The wizard guides you through the process of establishing the relationship. For information about using this wizard, see “Allowing only values in lists” in Chapter 6,
“Maintain data integrity.”
When you have created the structure for the web app in Access, you can preview it in
your web browser by clicking Launch App in the View group on the Home tab.
By default, you can view and edit the data in a table in either List view or Datasheet view.
To make the Access web app available to other users, simply share the web address
of the SharePoint site with them. When they launch the web app in their web browser,
they can view and manipulate its data by using the buttons on the Action bar (located
to the right of the Search box) to add, delete, edit, save, and cancel record edits. Their
changes are saved in the centrally stored SQL database.
TIP If you need to make more extensive changes to the database, you can click the
Settings button in the upper-right corner of the web app and click Customize In
Access to open the database in Access 2013 on your local computer.
Creating databases from templates 63
2
Creating databases and tables manually
Suppose you need to store different types of information for different types of people. For
example, you might want to maintain information about employees, customers, and suppliers. In addition to the standard information—such as names, addresses, and phone numbers—you might want to track these other kinds of information:
▪▪ Employee identification numbers, hire dates, marital status, deductions, and pay rates
▪▪ Customer orders and account status
▪▪ Supplier contacts, current order status, and discounts
You could start with a template, add fields for all the different items of information to
a ­single Contacts table, and then fill in only the relevant fields for each type of contact.
However, cramming all this information into one table would soon get messy. It’s better
to create a new database based on the Blank Desktop Database template and then manually create separate tables for each type of contact: employee, customer, and supplier.
When you create a new blank database or insert a new table into an existing database, the
table is displayed on a tabbed page in Datasheet view with one empty row that is ready to
receive data.
TIP When you create a new database, Access displays its name and a path to its storage
location in the title bar. For information about how to reduce the clutter caused by the
path, see “Controlling which features are available” in Chapter 11, “Make databases user
friendly.”
64 Chapter 2 Create databases and simple tables
2
Because the active object is a table, Access adds the Table Tools tabs (Fields and Table) to the ribbon
so that you can work with the table.
If you close the table at this point, Access discards the table. The simplest way to make the
table a permanent part of the database is to create at least one record by entering data.
TIP When you enter data in a new table, Access assigns placeholder field names and cre-
ates a basic table structure to hold the data. You can also define the structure of the table
without entering data. For information about table structure, see “Refining table structure”
later in this chapter. For information about adding new blank fields to a table, see “Specifying the type of data” in Chapter 6, “Maintain data integrity.”
Obviously, to create a record, you need to know what information to enter and how.
Creating databases and tables manually 65
Every table has an empty row that is ready to receive a new record, as indicated by the asterisk icon in the record selector at the left end of the row. By default, the first field in each
new table is an ID field designed to contain an entry that will uniquely identify the record.
Also by default, this field is designated as the table’s primary key. No two records in this
table can have the same value in this primary key field.
The asterisk icon indicates that the first record is ready for you to enter data.
Behind the scenes, the data type of this field is set to AutoNumber, so Access will enter
a sequential number in this field for you.
In Design view, you can verify that the primary key ID field is assigned the AutoNumber data type.
TIP As you’ll discover in a later exercise, the primary key field does not have to be the
default AutoNumber data type. If you need to you create your own primary key field,
­anything meaningful and unique will work. For information about data types, see
“Refining table structure” later in this chapter.
The first field you need to be concerned about is the active field labeled Click To Add. You
enter the first item of information for the new record in this field, and then press the Tab or
Enter key to move to the first cell in the field to the right. Access then assigns the value 1 to
the ID field, assigns the name Field1 to the second field, and moves the Click To Add label
to the third field. The icon in the record selector at the left end of the record changes to
two dots and a pencil to indicate that this record has not yet been saved, and the New icon
moves to the record selector of the next row.
66 Chapter 2 Create databases and simple tables
The pencil icon indicates that the data in the first record has not yet been saved.
When creating a new table in Datasheet view, you need to save the first record after entering the first item of data. If you don’t, Access increments the ID value for each field you add
to that record. For example, if you add seven fields, Access assigns the value 7 to the ID field
of the first record. To avoid this problem, you simply click the icon in the record selector after
you enter your first value in the first record. This saves the record with the value 1 ­assigned
to the ID field, and subsequent records will be numbered sequentially.
Having entered the first item of data and saved the record, you continue entering items of
information in consecutive fields and pressing Tab or Enter. When you finish entering the
last item for the first record, you click anywhere in the row below it to tell Access that the
record is complete.
After you complete the first record of a new table, you might want to change the default
field names to something more meaningful. To rename a field, you simply double-click its
field name and then enter the name you want.
At any time while you are entering data in a new table, you can save the table by clicking the Save button on the Quick Access Toolbar and naming the table. If you try to close
the table without explicitly saving it, Access prompts you to save the table. If you click No,
Access discards the table and any data you have entered.
After you have saved the table for the first time, Access automatically saves each record
when you move away from it. You don’t have to worry about losing your changes, but you
do have to remember that most data entries can be undone only by editing the record.
Databases almost always contain more than one table. You can create additional empty
tables by clicking the Table button in the Tables group on the Create tab. If you need to
­create a table that is similar in structure to an existing one, simply copy and paste the existing table to create a new one. When you paste the table, Access gives you the option of
naming the table and of specifying whether you want the new table to have the existing
table’s structure or both its structure and its data.
Creating databases and tables manually 67
2
For some kinds of tables, Access provides Quick Start fields that you can use to add common sets of fields or kinds of fields to a table. The Quick Start options take the work out
of defining these fields and can be very useful when you know exactly what type of field
you need.
In this exercise, you’ll create a blank database, enter information in the first record of its
­default table, assign field names, add another record, and save and close the table. Then
you’ll copy that table to create a second one. Finally, you’ll create a new table and experiment with Quick Start fields.
SET UP You don’t need any practice files to complete this exercise. Close any open
databases, display the New page of the Backstage view, and then follow the steps.
1
2
On the New page, click the Blank desktop database icon.
In the creation window, in the File Name box, enter MyTables. Then click the Browse
button, navigate to the Chapter02 practice file folder, and click OK.
TIP Remember, you can’t create a blank database without saving it. If you don’t pro-
vide a file name and location, Access saves the file with the name Database followed
by a sequential number in the default location (your Documents folder, unless you
have changed it).
3
Click the Create button to create the blank database in the specified location.
Let’s enter data in the first record.
4
With the empty field below Click to Add selected in the new blank Table1 table,
enter Scott, and then press the Tab key to move to the next field.
5
Notice that the icon in the record selector has changed to a pencil to indicate that
this record has not yet been saved. The value 1 appears in the ID field, the name of
the second column has changed to Field1, and the Click to Add label has moved to
the third column.
6
Click the pencil icon in the record selector to save the record before you move on.
TIP Clicking the record selector is necessary only after you enter the first value in a
new table. This action sets the ID field value to 1.
7
Click the cell below Click to Add, and enter the following information into the next
seven cells. Press Tab after each entry.
68 Chapter 2 Create databases and simple tables
Bishop
612 E. 2nd
Pocatello
ID
73204
USA
208 555-0161
2
The names of the fields in which you enter data change to Field followed by a sequential
number.
TIP Don’t be concerned if your screen does not look exactly like ours. In this graphic,
we’ve scrolled the page and adjusted the widths of the columns to display all the
fields. For information about adjusting columns, see “Manipulating table columns
and rows” later in this chapter.
Before we move to the next record, let’s make the field names more useful.
8
Double-click the ID field name (not the ID value in Field5), and then enter
CustomerID to rename it.
TIP Field names can include spaces, but the spaces can affect how queries have to
be constructed, so it is best not to include them.
9
Repeat step 8 for the other fields, changing the field names to the following:
Field1
Field2
Field3
FirstName
LastName
Street
Field4
Field5
Field6
City
State
ZIP
Field7
Field8
Country
Phone
For readability, capitalize each word of a field name and remove the spaces, or use underscores
instead of spaces.
Creating databases and tables manually 69
10
Add another record containing the following field values to the table, pressing Tab to
move from field to field:
FirstName
LastName
Street
John
Yokim
43 rue St.
Laurent
Montreal
State Quebec
City
ZIP
Country
Phone
Canada
514 555-0167
(press Tab to
skip this field)
Now let’s save and close the table.
11
12
At the right end of the tab bar, click the Close button.
When Access asks whether you want to save the design of the table, click Yes to open
the Save As dialog box.
You must save the table’s design (its structure) before closing it.
TIP Clicking No will delete the new table and its data from the database.
13
In the Table Name box, enter Customers, and then click OK to close the table and
add it to the Tables group in the Navigation pane.
The database now contains one table.
TIP You can rename a table by right-clicking it in the Navigation pane and then click-
ing Rename. You can delete a table by right-clicking it, clicking Delete, and then confirming the deletion in the message box that appears. (You can also delete a table by
selecting it in the Navigation pane and then clicking the Delete button in the Records
group on the Home tab, or by pressing the Delete key.)
70 Chapter 2 Create databases and simple tables
Let’s create a new table with the same structure as Customers.
14
15
In the Navigation pane, click the Customers table to select it.
On the Home tab, in the Clipboard group, click the Copy button. Then click the
Paste button to open the Paste Table As dialog box.
2
If you need to create a table that is similar to an existing table, it is sometimes easier
to customize a copy than to create it from scratch.
KEYBOARD SHORTCUT Press Ctrl+C to copy data. Press Ctrl+V to paste data. For a list
of keyboard shortcuts, see “Keyboard shortcuts” at the end of this book.
16
In the Table Name box, enter Employees. In the Paste Options area, click Structure
Only to capture the fields from the Customers table but not the customer records.
Then click OK to create the table and add it to the Tables group in the Navigation
pane.
TIP You can also use the Copy and Paste commands to append the information in
the selected table to another existing table. In that case, in the Paste Table As dialog
box, enter the name of the destination table in the Table Name box, click Append
Data To Existing Table, and then click OK.
17
Double-click Employees to open it in Datasheet view so that you can view its fields.
Then close the table again.
TIP Although you specified that you wanted to copy only the structure of the Cus-
tomers table, the ZIP field in the Employees table contains 0. This is because Access
has automatically assigned this default value to this field. For information about default values, see “Allowing only values in lists” in Chapter 6, “Maintain data integrity.”
Creating databases and tables manually 71
Now let’s create another table and add a couple of Quick Start fields to it.
18
On the Create tab, in the Tables group, click the Table button to create a new table
containing an ID field and a Click to Add field placeholder.
19
With the Click to Add field active, on the Fields tool tab, in the Add & Delete group,
click the More Fields button to display a menu containing the Fields gallery. Then
scroll to the bottom of the gallery.
The Quick Start fields are at the bottom of the Fields gallery.
20
In the Quick Start area of the gallery, click Name to insert ready-made LastName
and FirstName fields.
21
Click the field below Click to Add, and then repeat step 19, this time clicking Address
in the Quick Start list to add ready-made Address, City, State Province, ZIP Postal,
and Country Region fields.
TIP Notice that the Address Quick Start option includes a Country Region field. In
our practice databases, we use the field name Country. However, you might want to
use the more explicit Country Region field name if the tables you create will store international addresses.
22
Close the table, saving it with the name Shippers when prompted.
+
CLEAN UP Keep the MyTables database open for use in later exercises.
72 Chapter 2 Create databases and simple tables
Database design
In a well-designed database, each item of data is stored in only one table. If you’re
capturing the same information in multiple places, that is a sure sign that you need to
analyze the data and figure out a way to put the duplicated information in a separate
table.
For example, an Orders table should not include information about the customer placing each order, for two significant reasons. First, if the same customer orders more
than once, all his or her information has to be repeated for each order, which inflates
the size of the Orders table and the database. Second, if the customer moves, his or
her address will need to be updated in the record for every order placed.
The way to avoid this type of problem is to put customer information in a Customers
table and assign each customer a unique identifier, such as a sequential number or
unique string of letters, in the primary key field. Then in the Orders table, you can
identify the customer by the unique ID. If you need to know the name and address of
the customer who placed a particular order, you can have Access use the unique ID to
look up that information in the Customers table.
The process of ensuring that a set of information is stored in only one place is called
normalization. This process tests a database for compliance with a set of normalization
rules that ask questions such as “If I know the information in the primary key field of a
record, can I retrieve information from one and only one record?” For example, knowing that a customer’s ID is 1002 means you can pull the customer’s name and address
from the Customers table, whereas knowing that a customer’s last name is Jones does
not mean that you can pull the customer’s name and address from the table, because
more than one customer might have the last name Jones.
A detailed discussion of normalization processes is beyond the scope of this book. For
more information, see Access Help, or search for Database design basics on the Office
website.
Creating databases and tables manually 73
2
Manipulating table columns and rows
In Chapter 1, “Explore Microsoft Access 2013,” we showed you how to quickly adjust the
width of table columns to efficiently display their data. In addition to adjusting column
width, sometimes you might want to rearrange a table’s columns to get a better view of
the data. For example, if you want to look up a phone number but the names and phone
numbers are several columns apart, you will have to scroll the table to get the information
you need. You might want to rearrange or hide a few columns to be able to simultaneously
view all the fields you are interested in.
You can manipulate the columns and rows of an Access table without affecting the under­
lying data in any way. You can size rows and size, hide, move, and freeze columns. You can
save your table formatting so that the table will look the same the next time you open it, or
you can discard your changes without saving them.
In this exercise, you’ll open a table and manipulate its columns and rows.
SET UP You need the MyTables database you worked with in the preceding exercise to
complete this exercise. If necessary, open the database. Then follow the steps.
1
2
In the Navigation pane, double-click the Customers table to open it in Datasheet view.
3
Double-click the right border of any column that seems too wide or too narrow to
adjust the column to fit its contents.
In the field name row, point to the right border of the Street column, and when the
pointer changes to a double-headed arrow, drag to the right until all of the street
addresses are visible.
TIP This technique is particularly useful in a large table in which you can’t easily
­determine the length of a field’s longest entry.
Now let’s adjust the height of the table’s rows.
4
Increase the height of all rows in the table by pointing to the border between any
two record selectors and dragging downward.
74 Chapter 2 Create databases and simple tables
2
You cannot adjust the height of just one row.
5
On the Home tab, in the Records group, click the More button, and then click Row
Height to open the Row Height dialog box.
You can set the rows to the precise height you want.
6
In the Row Height dialog box, select the Standard Height check box, and then click
OK to reset the height of the rows to the default setting.
Next let’s experiment with hiding columns.
7
Click anywhere in the FirstName column. Then in the Records group, click the More
button, and click Hide Fields.
TIP If you select several columns before clicking Hide Fields, they all disappear. You
can select adjacent columns by clicking the field name of the first one, holding down
the Shift key, and then clicking the field name of the last one. The two columns and
any columns in between are selected.
8
To restore the hidden column, in the Records group, click the More button, and then
click Unhide Fields to open the Unhide Columns dialog box.
Manipulating table columns and rows 75
You can select and clear check boxes to control which fields are visible.
TIP If you want to hide several columns that are not adjacent, display the Unhide
­Columns dialog box and clear their check boxes.
9
In the Unhide Columns dialog box, select the FirstName check box, and then click
Close.
Let’s freeze the first three columns so that they remain in view as you scroll the table.
10
For the purposes of this exercise, if all of the fields in the table are displayed, adjust
the size of the program window until some of the fields are no longer visible.
11
Point to the CustomerID field name, and drag through the FirstName and LastName
field names. With these three columns selected, click the More button in the Records
group, and then click Freeze Fields.
12
Scroll the page to the right, noticing that the first three columns remain in view as
you scroll.
76 Chapter 2 Create databases and simple tables
13
When the Phone field is adjacent to the LastName field, in the Records group,
click More, and then click Unfreeze All Fields to restore the fields to their normal
condition.
TIP The commands to hide, unhide, freeze, and unfreeze columns are also available
from the shortcut menu that appears when you right-click a field name.
Suppose we want to always display the customer’s phone number next to his or her
name. Let’s move the Phone column.
14
Click the Phone field name to select that field. Then drag the field to the left,
releasing the mouse button when the thick black line appears to the right of the
LastName field.
15
Close the Customers table, clicking Yes to save the changes you have made to the
column widths and field order. If a message box appears, warning you that this action
will clear the Clipboard, click Yes.
+
CLEAN UP Keep the MyTables database open for use in later exercises.
Refining table structure
Although you can create the structure of a database in Datasheet view, some structural
refinements can be carried out only in Design view. When you are familiar with tables,
you might even want to create your tables from scratch in Design view, where you have
more control over the fields. You can open a new table in Design view by clicking the Table
Design button in the Tables group on the Create tab.
When you display an existing table in Design view, the page shows the underlying structure
of the table.
Refining table structure 77
2
The table design page consists of two parts: a field definition grid and a field properties area.
The top part of the table design page consists of the following:
▪▪ Field selector Identifies the active field with an arrow in the shaded box at the left
end of a row. Click any field selector to select the entire field. You can then insert a
row above the selected one, delete the row (thereby deleting the field), or drag the
row up or down to reposition its field in the table.
The field selector also identifies the primary key field of the table by displaying the
Primary Key icon (a key with a right-pointing arrow).
TIP If you don’t want a table to have a primary key (for example, if none of the fields
will contain a unique value for every record), select the field designated as the pri­
mary key, and on the Design tool tab, in the Tools group, click the Primary Key ­button
to turn it off. If you want to designate a different field as the primary key, select the
new field, and click the Primary Key button to turn it on. (You don’t have to remove
the primary key from the current field first; it will happen automatically.)
78 Chapter 2 Create databases and simple tables
▪▪ Field Name column Contains the names you specified when you created the table.
You can edit the names by using regular text-editing techniques. You can add a new
field by entering its name in the first empty cell in this column.
▪▪ Data Type column Specifies the type of data that the field can contain. By default,
the ID field in a new table is assigned the AutoNumber data type, and if you add a
new field in Design view, it is assigned the Short Text data type. (If you add a new field
in Datasheet view, it is assigned the data type that most closely corresponds with the
kind of data you enter in the field.) With the exception of fields with the OLE Object
and Attachment data types, you can change the type of any field by clicking its Data
Type entry, clicking the arrow that appears, and clicking a new data type in the list.
Clicking an entry in the Data Type column displays
a list of the available data types.
SEE ALSO For more information about data types, see “Specifying the type of data”
in Chapter 6, “Maintain data integrity.”
▪▪ Description column Contains an optional description of the field.
The Field Properties area in the bottom part of the table design page displays the properties of the field selected in the top part. Different properties are associated with different
data types. They determine attributes such as the number of characters allowed in a field,
the value inserted if the user doesn’t enter anything, and whether an entry is required.
Properties can also assess whether an entry is valid and can force the user to select from
a list of values rather than entering them manually (with the inherent risk of errors).
Refining table structure 79
2
All fields, no matter what their data type, can be assigned a Caption property that appears
in place of the field name in tables or in other database objects. For example, you might
want to use captions to display spaces in the names of fields, such as First Name for the
FirstName field.
SEE ALSO For information about using properties to control the accuracy of data entry, see
Chapter 6, “Maintain data integrity.” For a comprehensive list of data types and properties,
search for data types on the Office website.
In this exercise, you’ll open a table in Design view, add and delete fields, change a data
type, set field sizes, and add a caption.
SET UP You need the MyTables database you worked with in the preceding exercise to
complete this exercise. If necessary, open the database. Then follow the steps.
1
In the Navigation pane, right-click the Employees table, and then click Design View.
This table was created by copying the Customers table. Let’s make a few changes to
the fields.
2
In the Field Name column, select CustomerID, enter EmployeeID, and then press
the Tab key twice.
3
4
In the Description column, enter Unique identifying number.
5
In the empty row below the Phone field, click the Field Name cell, and enter
Birthdate. Then click the Data Type cell, which indicates that the default Short Text
data type is assigned to the new field.
6
7
8
Click the arrow at the right end of the Data Type cell, and in the list, click Date/Time.
Click the Country field’s selector, and then on the Design tool tab, in the Tools
group, click the Delete Rows button.
Repeat steps 5 and 6 to add another Date/Time field named DateHired.
Select the ZIP field name, change it to PostalCode, and then change its data type to
Short Text.
80 Chapter 2 Create databases and simple tables
2
The Field Properties area shows the properties you can set for the Short Text data type.
TIP If you use only five-digit ZIP codes, the Number data type is fine. But by setting
it to Short Text, you can enter ZIP+4 codes or the letter-number postal codes used in
Canada and some other countries.
Now let’s change some of the properties for the PostalCode field.
9
10
In the box to the right of Field Size, double-click 255, and enter 10 to limit the
entries in this field to 10 characters.
Change the Field Size property of the following fields as shown:
FirstName
LastName
50
50
City
State
50
20
Phone
30
TIP Sometimes changing the field properties of a table that already contains data
can produce unanticipated results. If you make a change to a field property that
might cause data to be lost (for example, if you make the Field Size property smaller
than one of the field’s existing values), Access warns you of this problem when you
attempt to save the table. For more information, see Chapter 6, “Maintain data
integrity.”
Refining table structure 81
11
Click the State field. Then in the Field Properties area, click the Caption box, and
enter State or Region.
You have changed the Field Size and Caption properties of the State field.
12
Notice that in the top part of the design page, the entry in the Field Name column
remains State. Then switch to Datasheet view.
13
When Access tells you that you must save the table before leaving Design view, click
Yes to save the table.
14
If necessary, widen the State field, and notice that in this view, the field name is
replaced by the State or Region caption property.
While the table is displayed in Datasheet view, let’s add another field.
15
Click the LastName field name. Then on the Fields tool tab, in the Add & Delete
group, click the Short Text button to add a new Field1 that has the specified
data type.
TIP You can also click the Click To Add label to the right of the last field in the field
name row, and then in the list that appears, click the data type you want.
16
With Field1 selected, enter Title, and then press the Enter key.
82 Chapter 2 Create databases and simple tables
17
Click the Title field name. Then on the Fields tool tab, in the Properties group, click
255 in the Field Size box to select it, enter 50, and press the Enter key.
18
Enter the following information in the first record, pressing the Tab key after each
entry:
FirstName
LastName
Title
Karen
Berg
Owner
2
The Employees table is now ready for you to enter more employee records.
19
Close the Employees table, clicking Yes to save changes to the layout when
prompted.
+
CLEAN UP Keep the MyTables database open for use in the last exercise.
Defining relationships between tables
In Access, a relationship is an association that links the primary key field in one table to
a field that contains the same information in another table. The field in the other table
is called the foreign key. For example, if customer accounts are assigned to specific sales
employees, you can establish a relationship by linking the primary key EmployeeID field
in the Employees table with the foreign key EmployeeID field in the Customers table. Each
customer account is assigned to only one employee, but each employee can manage many
customer accounts, so this type of relationship—the most common—is known as a one-tomany relationship.
Similarly, if every order is associated with a customer, you can establish a relationship
by linking the primary key CustomerID field in the Customers table and foreign key
CustomerID field in the Orders table. Each order is placed by only one customer, but
each customer can place many orders. So again, this is a one-to-many relationship.
Defining relationships between tables 83
Less common relationships include:
▪▪ One-to-one In this type of relationship, each record in one table can have one and
only one related record in the other table. This type of relationship isn’t commonly
used because it is easier to put all the fields in one table. However, you might use two
related tables instead of one to break up a table with many fields, or to track information that applies to only some of the records in the first table.
▪▪ Many-to-many This type of relationship is really two one-to-many relationships
tied together through a third table. You might find this relationship in a database
that contains Products, Orders, and Order Details tables. The Products table has one
record for each product, and each product has a unique ProductID. The Orders table
has one record for each order placed, and each record in it has a unique OrderID.
However, the Orders table doesn’t specify which products were included in each
order; that information is in the Order Details table—the table in the middle that
ties the other two tables together. Products and Orders each have a one-to-many
relationship with Order Details. Products and Orders therefore have a many-tomany relationship with each other. In plain language, this means that every prod­­
uct can a
­ ppear in many orders, and every order can include many products.
The most common way of creating a relationship between two tables is to add the
tables to the Relationships page displayed when you click the Relationships button in
the Relationships group on the Database Tools tab. You then drag a field in one table to
the common field in the other table and complete the relationship definition in the Edit
Relationships dialog box. In this dialog box, you are given the opportunity to impose a
restriction called referential integrity on the data, which means that an entry will not be
­allowed in one table unless it already exists in the other table.
After you have created a relationship, you can delete it by deleting the line connecting the
tables on the Relationships page. You can clear all the boxes from the page by clicking
the Clear Layout button in the Tools group on the Design tool tab.
TIP The coverage of relationships in this topic is deliberately simple. However, relationships
are what make relational databases tick, and Access provides a number of fairly complex
mechanisms to ensure the integrity of the data on either end of the relationship. Some of
these mechanisms are covered in Chapter 6, “Maintain data integrity.” For a good overview,
search for Guide to table relationships in Access Help.
84 Chapter 2 Create databases and simple tables
TIP Access web apps don’t use the Relationships page to create and manage relationships.
Instead, they use fields set to the Lookup data type. For information about this data type,
see “Allowing only values in other tables” in Chapter 6, “Maintain data integrity.”
In this exercise, you’ll create relationships between one table and two other tables. Then
you’ll test the referential integrity of one of the relationships.
SET UP You need the MyTables database you worked with in the preceding exercise to
complete this exercise. If necessary, open the database. Then follow the steps.
1
On the Create tab, in the Tables group, click the Table button to create a new table.
Before we add fields to this table, let’s save it.
2
On the Quick Access Toolbar, click the Save button, name the table Orders, and
click OK.
3
To the right of Click to Add, click the arrow, and in the data type list, click Number.
Repeat this step to create a second field that has the Number data type.
4
Rename Field1 as CustomerID and Field2 as EmployeeID.
Each order in the Orders table will be placed by one customer and will be handled by
one employee. Let’s create relationships between the Orders table and the Customers
and Employees tables so that we don’t create records for orders from customers who
don’t exist or that seem to have been handled by employees who don’t exist.
5
Close the Orders table.
TIP You cannot create a relationship for an open table.
6
On the Database Tools tab, in the Relationships group, click the Relationships
button to open the Show Table dialog box.
Defining relationships between tables 85
2
You select the tables for which you want to create relationships
from the Tables page of the Show Table dialog box.
TROUBLESHOOTING If the dialog box doesn’t open automatically, click the Show
Table button in the Relationships group on the Design tool tab.
7
To indicate that you want to create a relationship for the selected Customers table,
click Add. Then double-click Orders, and click Close. Then on the Relationships page,
notice that the CustomerID field appears in the field lists of both tables.
The two boxes list all the fields in their respective tables.
86 Chapter 2 Create databases and simple tables
8
In the Customers field list, click CustomerID, and drag it down and over CustomerID
in the Orders field list. Release the mouse button to open the Edit Relationships
dialog box.
2
At the bottom of the dialog box, Access indicates that this will be
a one-to-many relationship.
9
Select the Enforce Referential Integrity check box, and then click Create. Notice
on the Relationships page that a line now connects the two field lists, linking the
primary key in the Customers table and the foreign key in the Orders table.
The symbols at each end of the line indicate that each Customer ID value appears only once in
the Customers table but can appear many times in the Orders table.
Defining relationships between tables 87
Let’s add the Employees table to the Relationships page so that we can create a
­relationship that links that table to the Orders table.
10
On the Design tool tab, in the Relationships group, click the Show Table button.
Then in the Show Table dialog box, double-click the Employees table, and click
Close.
TIP You can also add tables by dragging them from the Tables group of the Naviga-
tion pane to the Relationships page.
11
If necessary, drag the title bars of the three field lists to arrange them so that they are
side by side and equidistant.
12
In the Employees field list, click the EmployeeID field, and drag it down and over the
EmployeeID field in the Orders field list. Then in the Edit Relationships dialog box,
select the Enforce Referential Integrity check box, and click Create.
13
After Access draws the relationship line between the primary key and the foreign key,
close the Relationships page, clicking Yes to save its layout.
Now let’s test the relationships.
14
Open the Orders table. Then in the CustomerID field of the first record, change the 0
value to 11, and click below the record to complete it. Access displays a message box
telling you that you cannot add the new record to the table.
The value in the CustomerID field in the Orders table must match a value in the primary key
CustomerID field in the Customer table.
15
16
Click OK. Then change the value to 1.
In the EmployeeID field, change the 0 value to 1, and then click below the record to
complete it. Access accepts the record because there is a record with the value 1 in
the primary key CustomerID field of the Customers table and a record with the value
1 in the primary key EmployeeID field of the Employees table.
+
CLEAN UP Close the Orders table, and then close the My Tables database.
88 Chapter 2 Create databases and simple tables
Key points
▪▪ Access 2013 includes templates to help you create web apps and desktop databases,
and application parts to help you add related tables and other database objects.
▪▪ Rather than storing all information in one table, create different tables for each type
of information, such as customers, orders, and suppliers.
▪▪ In Datasheet view, you can create a simple table structure by entering data and
­naming fields. You can also set the data type and certain properties.
▪▪ Manipulating or hiding columns and rows has no effect on the underlying data.
▪▪ In Design view, you can modify the structure of any table, whether you created it
manually or as part of a template.
▪▪ Data types and properties determine what data can be entered in a field, and how the
data will look on the screen. Caution: changing some properties might affect the data.
▪▪ By creating a relationship between the primary key field of one table and the foreign
key field of another, you can combine information from both tables.
Key points 89
2
Chapter at a glance
Create Create forms by using the Form tool,
page 92
Arrange Arrange the layout of forms,
page 107
Format Format forms,
page 98
3
Create simple forms
IN THIS CHAPTER, YOU WILL LEARN HOW TO
▪▪
▪▪
▪▪
Create forms by using the Form tool.
Format forms.
Arrange the layout of forms.
A database that contains the day-to-day records of an active company is useful only if it is
kept current and if the information stored in it can be found quickly. Entering, editing, and
retrieving information from tables in Datasheet view is fairly easy for someone who is familiar with Access. But for occasional users or people who are not familiar with Access, these
tasks might be tedious and inefficient and leave far too much room for error, especially if
details of complex transactions have to be entered into several related tables. The solution
to this problem is to create and use forms.
A form is an organized and formatted view of some or all of the fields from one or more
tables. Forms work interactively with the tables in a database. You use controls in the form
to enter new information, to edit or remove existing information, or to locate information.
The controls you will use most frequently in an Access form are as follows:
▪▪ Text box controls You can view or enter information in these controls. Think of a
text box control as a little window through which you can insert data into the corresponding field of the related table or view information that is already in that field.
▪▪ Label controls You can tell what type of information you are looking at in the cor-
responding text box control, or what you are expected to enter in the text box control
by using these controls.
TIP An Access form can also include a variety of other controls that transform the form
into something very much like a Windows dialog box or wizard page. For information, see
“Allowing only values in lists” in Chapter 6, “Maintain data integrity.”
In this chapter, you’ll discover how easy it is to create forms to view and enter information.
You’ll also modify forms to suit your needs by changing their appearance and the arrangement of their controls.
91
PRACTICE FILES To complete the exercises in this chapter, you need the practice files
contained in the Chapter03 practice file folder. For more information, see “Download
the practice files” in this book’s Introduction.
Creating forms by using the Form tool
Before you begin creating a form for a desktop database, you need to know the following:
▪▪ Which table the form should be based on
▪▪ How the form will be used
After making these decisions, you can create a form in the following ways:
▪▪ Click the table you want in the Navigation pane, and then click the Form button in
the Forms group on the Create tab. This method creates a simple form that uses all
the fields in the table.
▪▪ Use a wizard. This method enables you to choose which of the table’s fields you want
to use in the form.
SEE ALSO For information about using wizards to create forms, see “Modifying forms
created by using a wizard” in Chapter 8, “Create custom forms.”
▪▪ Switch to Layout view, where you can create the form manually while viewing the
underlying data, or switch to Design view, where you have more control over form
elements.
SEE ALSO For information about manipulating forms in Layout view, see the other
two topics in this chapter. For information about manually creating forms in Design
view, see “Adding controls” in Chapter 8, “Create custom forms.”
TIP When you create an Access web app, you can view the data in tables in List view,
which includes a mechanism for adding, deleting, and editing records in a pane that
is much like a form.
You will usually want to start the process of creating forms that are based on tables by
­using the Form tool or a wizard—not because the manual process is especially difficult,
but because it is simply more efficient to have the tool or a wizard create the basic form
for you and then refine that form manually.
92 Chapter 3 Create simple forms
In this exercise, you’ll use the Form tool to create a form based on a table. You will then
enter a couple of records by using the new form and refresh the table to reflect the new
entries.
SET UP You need the GardenCompany03 database located in the Chapter03 practice
file folder to complete this exercise. The practice file for this exercise contains tables that
look similar to those in the practice file for Chapter 1. However, to simplify the steps, we
have removed the relationships between the tables. Be sure to use the practice database
for this chapter rather than continuing on with the database from an earlier chapter.
Open the database, and if you want, save your own version to avoid overwriting the
original. Then follow the steps.
1
With All Access Objects displayed in the Navigation pane, in the Tables group,
double-click Customers to open the Customers table in Datasheet view.
The record navigation bar shows that there are 108 records in this table.
TIP The CustomerID field contains a unique identifier for each customer and is the
table’s primary key field. In this case, the unique identifier is not an autogenerated
number, but the first three letters of the customer’s last name combined with the first
two letters of his or her first name. For more information about this type of primary
key, see “Allowing only values in other tables” in Chapter 6, “Maintain data integrity.”
2
On the Create tab, in the Forms group, click the Form button to create a simple form
based on the active table and display the form in Layout view.
Creating forms by using the Form tool 93
3
TIP You don’t have to open a table to create a form based on it. You can simply click
the table in the Navigation pane to select it and then click the Form button in the
Forms group on the Create tab. But it is sometimes useful to have the table open behind the form so that you can verify the form contents against the table contents.
The form displays the first record in the Customers table in Layout view. (We have closed the
Navigation pane to show more of the form.)
The Form tool has configured all the field names in the table as label controls and all
the fields as text box controls. In the header at the top of the form, the name of the
table appears as a title, and the form icon appears to the left of the title as a placeholder for a logo. Because the form is displayed in Layout view, the Design, Arrange,
and Format tool tabs appear on the ribbon so that you can modify selected controls.
3
Move the mouse pointer over the form, and click any label or text box control to
select it for manipulation.
94 Chapter 3 Create simple forms
We won’t make any changes to the form right now. Instead let’s experiment with how
the form looks and behaves in Form view.
4
Switch to Form view. Then move the mouse pointer over the form, and click the City
label.
3
In Form view, the tool tabs are no longer displayed, and clicking a label selects the entry in
the adjacent text box, ready for editing.
5
In the record navigation bar at the bottom of the form, click the Next record button
to display the second record in the table.
6
Use the record navigation bar to display a few more records.
TIP You can easily compare the information shown in the form to that in the table
by alternately clicking the Customers table tab and the Customers form tab to switch
back and forth between their pages.
Now let’s use the form to enter a couple of new records in the table.
7
At the right end of the record navigation bar, click the New (blank) record button to
display a blank Customers form.
Creating forms by using the Form tool 95
The record navigation bar shows that this will be record number 109.
8
9
10
Click the CustomerID label to position the cursor in the text box to the right.
Enter ASHCH, noticing that the icon that indicates a record is receiving data (two
dots and a pencil) appears at the top of the bar to the left. Then press the Tab key,
which moves the cursor to the next text box.
Enter the following information, pressing Tab after each entry except the last one to
move to the next text box.
FirstName
Chris
LastName
Ashton
Address
89 Cedar Way
City Redmond
11
Region
WA
PostalCode
88052
Country
USA
PhoneNumber
(425) 555-0191
When you finish entering the phone number (the last field value in the record), press
the Enter key to complete the record and display another blank form. Notice that the
record navigation bar shows that this will be record number 110 in the table.
96 Chapter 3 Create simple forms
12
Enter the following information, pressing Tab after each entry except the last one to
move from text box to text box.
CustomerID
BASSH
FirstName
Shai
LastName
Bassli
Address
407 Sunny Way
City Kirkland
13
Region
WA
PostalCode
88053
Country
USA
PhoneNumber
(425) 555-0187
3
When you finish entering the phone number, press Enter. Then in the record navi­
gation bar, click the Previous record button to cancel the new record and display
the record you just created.
The information you entered for record number 110.
Let’s verify that the two records you entered in the form also appear in the table.
14
Click the Customers table tab, and on the record navigation bar, click the Last record
button. Notice that the two records you entered in the form do not appear at the
bottom of the table, and the record navigator bar indicates that there are only 108
records in the table.
Creating forms by using the Form tool 97
15
On the Home tab, in the Records group, click the Refresh All button to synchronize
the table and the form data input.
The two new records have been added to the Customers table and appear in alphabetical order
based on their CustomerID field values.
16
17
Close the Customers table.
On the Quick Access Toolbar, click the Save button. Then in the Save As dialog box,
click OK to accept Customers as the form name and add the form to the Forms
group in the Navigation pane.
+
CLEAN UP Close the form. Keep the GardenCompany03 database open for use in
later exercises.
Formatting forms
When you create a form by using the Form tool, as you did in the previous exercise, the
form includes every field in the table on which it is based. Each field is represented on
the form by a text box control and its associated label control. The form is linked, or
bound, to the table, and each text box is bound to its corresponding field. The table is
called the r­ ecord source, and the field is called the control source.
98 Chapter 3 Create simple forms
Forms and their controls have properties that determine how they behave and look. A form
inherits some of its properties from the table on which it is based. For example, each text
box name on the form reflects the corresponding field name in the source table. The text
box label also reflects the field name, unless the field has been assigned a Caption property,
in which case it reflects the caption. The width of each text box is determined by the Field
Size property in the table.
Even though a form is bound to its table, the properties of the form are not bound to the
table’s properties. After you have created the form, you can change the properties of the
form’s fields independently of those in the table. You might want to change these properties to improve the form’s appearance—for example, you can change the font, font size,
alignment, fill color, and border.
One of the quickest ways to change the look of a form is to change the theme applied to
the database. A theme is a combination of colors and fonts that controls the look of certain
objects. In the case of a form, it controls the color and text of the header at the top of the
form and the text of the labels and text boxes. By default, the Office theme is applied to all
databases based on the Blank Desktop Database template and their objects, but you can
easily change the theme by clicking the Themes button in the Themes group on the Design
tool tab, and then making a selection from the Themes gallery. While the gallery is displayed, you can point to a theme to display a live preview of how the active database object
will look with that theme’s colors and fonts applied.
If you like the colors of one theme and the fonts of another, you can mix and match theme
elements. First apply the theme that most closely resembles the look you want, and then in
the Themes group, change the colors by clicking the Colors button or the fonts by clicking
the Fonts button.
TIP If you create a combination of colors and fonts that you would like to be able to use
with other databases, you can save the combination as a new theme by clicking Save Current Theme at the bottom of the menu containing the Themes gallery.
If you like most of the formatting of a theme but you want to fine-tune some form elements, you can do so by changing properties in Layout view. In this view, you can view the
records from the table to which the form is bound, so when you make formatting adjustments, you can assess the impact on the data. (Changes to the data can be made only in
Form view.) You might also want to add your organization’s logo or a small graphic that
represents the form’s contents.
Formatting forms 99
3
In this exercise, you’ll first apply a theme to a form and add a logo to the form’s title. Then
you’ll change the form properties that control its colors and text attributes.
SET UP You need the GardenCompany03 database you worked with in the preceding
exercise and the Logo graphic located in the Chapter03 practice file folder to complete
this exercise. If necessary, open the database. Then follow the steps.
1
In the Navigation pane, in the Forms group, right-click Customers, and then click
Layout View.
2
On the Design tool tab, in the Themes group, click the Themes button to display a
menu containing the Themes gallery.
Each thumbnail represents a theme. By default, the Office theme
is applied to this database.
3
4
Point to each thumbnail in turn, pausing until its name appears in a ScreenTip.
Click the Wisp thumbnail to apply that theme.
Now let’s replace the form icon to the left of the title in the form header with a logo.
5
On the Design tab, in the Header/Footer group, click the Logo button.
100 Chapter 3 Create simple forms
6
In the Insert Picture dialog box, navigate to the Chapter03 practice file folder, and
double-click the Logo picture.
3
You have inserted a custom logo in the form header.
Next let’s experiment with properties.
7
On the Customers form, click the CustomerID label control (not its text box) to select
it for manipulation.
8
On the Format tool tab, in the Font group, click the Font Size arrow, and then in the
list, click 8 to make the label text significantly smaller.
9
Click the CustomerID text box control (not its label), and then on the Design tool
tab, in the Tools group, click the Property Sheet button to open the Property Sheet
pane.
KEYBOARD SHORTCUT Press Alt+Enter to open and close the Property Sheet pane.
For a list of keyboard shortcuts, see “Keyboard shortcuts” at the end of this book.
Formatting forms 101
The properties of the CustomerID text box control are organized
on four pages: Format, Data, Event, and Other. As its name suggests,
the All page displays all the properties on one page.
TIP Don’t change the properties on the Data page until you know more about
­controls and their sources.
10
Notice that the Property Sheet pane displays the properties for the object whose
name appears in the text box at the top of the pane, and that above the box, the
type of object is identified.
11
In the Property Sheet pane, click the Format tab
102 Chapter 3 Create simple forms
3
The Format page of the Property Sheet pane displays all
the commands available in the Font group on the Format tab
of the ribbon (plus a few more).
12
On the Format page, click Font Size, click the arrow to the right of the adjacent
property, and in the list, click 8.
13
Set the Font Weight property to Bold.
TIP If the Property Sheet pane obscures your view of the controls on the form,
change its width (or the width of any pane) by dragging its left border to the left or
right. To change the width of the Property Sheet columns, drag the right border of
the first column to the left or right. You can undock the Property Sheet pane from
the edge of the window and move it elsewhere by dragging its title bar. Double-click
the title bar to dock it again.
Formatting forms 103
Let’s use the Property Sheet pane to display the properties of a different control and
then change its properties.
14
At the right end of the box at the top of the Property Sheet pane, click the arrow,
and then in the object list, click Label3 to select the FirstName label.
15
Repeat step 12 to change the font size of the FirstName label to 8 points.
These different ways of selecting a control and changing its properties provide some
flexibility and convenience, but using this technique to make changes to several controls in a form is tedious. Let’s use a faster method.
16
In the upper-left corner of the dotted frame surrounding all the controls on the form,
click the Select All button (the four headed arrow) to surround all the controls with
thick orange borders to indicate that they are selected.
17
In the Property Sheet pane, notice that the selection type is Multiple selection,
and the box below is blank. Only the settings that are the same for all the selected
controls are displayed. Because the changes you made in the previous steps are not
shared by all the selected controls, the Font Size and Font Weight settings are now
blank.
18
Repeat steps 12 and 13 to set the Font Size and Font Weight properties of the
selected controls to 8 and Bold.
You have applied character formatting to all the label and text box controls in the form.
104 Chapter 3 Create simple forms
Although it’s not apparent, the background of the labels is transparent. Let’s change
this property and then apply a theme color and effect.
19
20
With the controls still selected, set the Back Style property to Normal.
Click the Back Color property, and then click the Ellipsis button at the right end of
the property to display a menu containing two color palettes.
3
The colors in the Theme Colors palette reflect the color scheme that is part of the Wisp theme.
TIP The Ellipsis button has different names and serves different purposes for differ-
ent properties.
21
In the top row of the Theme Colors palette, click the third swatch (Light Green,
Background 2) to change the background of all the controls to light green.
TIP If the palettes on the Back Color menu don’t include a color you want to use,
click More Colors at the bottom of the menu, select a color on the Standard or Custom page of the Colors dialog box, and then click OK to set the color and add it to
the Recent Colors palette at the bottom of the menu.
22
Set the Special Effect property to Shadowed, and the Border Color property to the
eighth swatch in the first row of the Theme Colors palette (Olive Green, Accent 4).
23
Close the Property Sheet pane, and in the form, click away from the selected controls
to release the selection and display the results.
Formatting forms 105
Applying a color and shadow effect to the labels and text boxes makes them stand out.
The label controls reflect the field names assigned to the table fields they are bound
to. Let’s assign captions to some of the label controls so that their names include
spaces.
24
In the form, click the FirstName label control. Then open the Property Sheet pane,
click the Caption property, change FirstName to First Name, and press Enter.
25
Repeat step 24 to change LastName to Last Name and PhoneNumber to Phone.
TIP Changing the Caption property of the form does not affect the Caption property
of the bound field in the table.
26
On the Quick Access Toolbar, click the Save button to save the design of the
Customers form. Then close the form, which also closes the Property Sheet pane.
+
CLEAN UP Keep the GardenCompany03 database open for use in the last exercise.
106 Chapter 3 Create simple forms
Arranging the layout of forms
Forms generated with the Form tool are functional, not fancy. By default, they are arranged
in the Stacked layout, which arranges all the label controls in a single column on the left
and all their corresponding text box controls in a single column to their right. All the boxes
of each type are the same size, and in the boxes, the text is left-aligned.
If it suits the needs of your data better to display records in a tabular layout much like that
of a table in Datasheet view, click Tabular in the Table group on the Arrange tool tab.
SEE ALSO For more information about layouts, see the sidebar “Layouts” in Chapter 9,
“Create custom reports.”
If the default layout doesn’t suit your needs or preferences, you can customize it. Most of
the rearranging you are likely to want to do can be accomplished in Layout view, where you
can view the impact on the underlying data. If you want to make more extensive changes to
the layout of a database, you can switch to Design view.
SEE ALSO For information about customizing forms in Design view, see Chapter 8, “Create
custom forms.”
In Layout view, you can do the following to improve the form’s layout and make it attractive
and easy to use:
▪▪ Add and delete a variety of controls.
▪▪ Change the size of controls.
▪▪ Move controls.
▪▪ Change text alignment.
▪▪ Change the margins of controls.
TIP The order in which you make changes can have an impact on the results. If the results
aren’t what you expect, click the Undo button on the Quick Access Toolbar to reverse your
previous action, or click the Undo arrow, and click an action in the list to reverse more than
one action.
Arranging the layout of forms 107
3
In this exercise, you’ll align, size, and rearrange the label and text box controls in a form.
SET UP You need the GardenCompany03 database you worked with in the preceding
exercise to complete this exercise. If necessary, open the database. Then follow the steps.
1
In the Navigation pane, in the Forms group, right-click Customers, click Layout View.
TIP If the Property Sheet pane was open when you last closed the form, it is dis-
played with the form.
2
Click the CustomerID label control (not its text box), and on the Arrange tool tab, in
the Rows & Columns group, click the Select Column button.
TIP You can also point above the selected control, and when the pointer changes to
a single downward-pointing arrow, click to select the column of controls.
3
With all the label controls selected, on the Format page of the Property Sheet pane,
set the Text Align property to Right to right-align all the labels in their controls.
You can efficiently adjust the alignment of multiple selected controls by changing the Text Align
property in the Property Sheet pane.
108 Chapter 3 Create simple forms
The Property Sheet pane indicates that the Width property of the label controls is
1.0611”. Let’s make them narrower.
TIP Throughout this book, we refer to measurements in inches. If your computer
is set to display measurements in centimeters, substitute the equivalent metric
measurement. As long as you are entering the default units, you don’t have to
specify the unit type.
4
Point to the right border of the CustomerID label, and when the pointer changes to
a two-headed horizontal arrow, drag to the left until CustomerID just fits in its box.
5
In the Property Sheet pane, adjust the Width property to 0.85”, and press Enter.
TIP It is often easier to adjust the size of controls visually and then fine-tune them
in the Property Sheet pane than it is to guess what property settings might work.
6
Select the CustomerID text box (not its label), change its Width property to 1.5”,
and press Enter. Notice that when you size one control in a Stacked layout, all the
controls in the same column are adjusted, not just the selected control.
In a Stacked layout, all the controls in each column are the same width.
Arranging the layout of forms 109
3
The controls are the same width but have different heights and interior margins. Let’s
fix that next.
7
Above the upper-left corner of the dotted border that surrounds all the controls, click
the Select All button to select all the controls within the border. Then in the Property
Sheet pane, set the Height property to 0.25”, and press Enter.
8
On the Arrange tool tab, in the Position group, click the Control Margins button,
and then click Narrow.
You can control not only the size of the controls but also the distance from the control’s border
to its text.
Now let’s rearrange some controls.
9
Click the Phone label (not its text box), and on the Arrange tool tab, in the Rows &
Columns group, click the Select Row button.
TIP You can also point to the left of the selected control, and when the pointer
changes to a single right-pointing arrow, click to select the row of controls.
110 Chapter 3 Create simple forms
10
Point anywhere in the selection, and drag upward, releasing the mouse button when
the insertion line sits below the Last Name label or text box.
11
12
Click the Last Name label, and then press the Delete key.
Click the LastName text box, point to the A in Ackerman, and drag the four-headed
arrow pointer up and to the right until the pointer sits slightly to the right of the
FirstName text box. When the insertion bar appears, release the mouse button.
TIP The control snaps to an invisible grid that helps maintain consistent spacing on
the form.
13
14
Repeat step 11 to delete the Region and PostalCode labels.
15
Select the City controls row and move it down one grid space. Then do the same for
the Address controls row.
Repeat step 12 to move the Region and PostalCode text boxes to the right of the
City text box.
Now that the controls are arranged, let’s remove the Stacked layout from the form so
that we can make more extensive layout adjustments.
16
In the upper-left corner of the dotted layout border, click the Select All button. Then
right-click the selection, click Layout, and click Remove Layout.
With the Stacked layout removed, let’s adjust the widths of individual controls.
17
Select the Region text box, and on the Format page of the Property Sheet pane,
adjust the Width property to .5”.
18
Select the PostalCode text box. Then adjust the Width property to .5” and the Left
property to 3.25”.
19
Click the First Name label, and change the label’s Caption property to Name. Then
repeat the process to change the City label’s caption to City/State/ZIP.
20
Close the Property Sheet pane, and release the selection by clicking a blank area.
Arranging the layout of forms 111
3
In Layout view, this kind of arrangement can be achieved only if you remove the default layout,
which constrains sizing and positioning of individual controls.
TIP If you rearrange controls or add new controls to a form and then find that press-
ing Tab jumps around erratically instead of sequentially from one control to the next,
you can change the tab order. When working in Layout view, click the Other tab in
the Property Sheet pane, and set the Tab Index property for each control in the tab
order you want. When working in Design view, click the Tab Order button in the Tools
group on the Design tool tab to display the Tab Order dialog box, where you can
drag fields into the correct order. For more information about working with forms in
Design view, see Chapter 8, “Create custom forms.”
21
Close the Customers form, clicking Yes when prompted to save its layout.
+
CLEAN UP Close the GardenCompany03 database.
112 Chapter 3 Create simple forms
Key points
▪▪ The quickest way to create a form that includes all the fields from one table is by
­using the Form tool. You can then use the form to view and enter records.
▪▪ A form that is based on a table is bound to that table. The table is called the record
source.
▪▪ By default, the form displays one text box control and its associated label control for
each field in the table.
▪▪ Each text box control is bound to its field, which is called the control source.
▪▪ Each control has several properties that you can change in Layout view or Design
view to improve the look and layout of the form
Key points 113
3
Chapter at a glance
Sort Sort information in tables,
page 116
Filter Filter information in tables,
page 121
Filter Locate Filter information by using forms,
page 125
Locate information that matches multiple
criteria, page 129
4
Display data
IN THIS CHAPTER, YOU WILL LEARN HOW TO
▪▪
▪▪
▪▪
▪▪
Sort information in tables.
Filter information in tables.
Filter information by using forms.
Locate information that matches multiple criteria.
A database is a repository for information. It might contain only a few records or thousands
of records, stored in one table or multiple tables. No matter how much information a database contains, it is useful only if you can locate the information you need when you need it.
In a small database, you can find information simply by scrolling through a table until you
find what you are looking for. But as a database grows in size and complexity, locating and
analyzing information becomes more difficult.
Microsoft Access 2013 provides a variety of tools you can use to organize the display of information stored in a database. For example, you can organize all the records in a table by
quickly sorting it based on any field or combination of fields. You can also filter the table so
that information containing a combination of characters is displayed or excluded from the
display.
In this chapter, you’ll first sort information in a table based on one and two columns. Then
you’ll explore ways to filter tables and forms to display only the records that meet specific
criteria.
PRACTICE FILES To complete the exercises in this chapter, you need the practice file
contained in the Chapter04 practice file folder. For more information, see “Download
the practice files” in this book’s Introduction.
115
Sorting information in tables
You can sort the information stored in a table based on the values in one or more fields, in
either ascending or descending order. For example, you could sort customer information
alphabetically by last name and then by first name. This would result in the order found
in telephone books.
Last name
First name
Smith
Brian
Smith
Denise
Smith
Jeff
Taylor
Daniel
Taylor
Maurice
Sorting a table groups all entries of one type together, which can be useful. For example,
to qualify for a discount on postage, you might want to group customer records by postal
code before printing mailing labels.
Access can sort by more than one field, but it always sorts sequentially from left to right.
You can sort by the first field, and if the second field you want to sort by is immediately to
the right of the first, you can then add the next field to the sort. If you want to sort by more
than one field in one operation, the fields must be adjacent, and they must be arranged in
the order in which you want to sort them.
SEE ALSO For information about moving fields, see “Manipulating table columns and rows”
in Chapter 2, “Create databases and simple tables.”
TIP You can sort records while viewing them in a form. Click the field on which you want to
base the sort, and then click the Sort command you want. You can’t sort by multiple fields
at the same time in Form view, but you can sort by one field and then the next to achieve
the same results.
In this exercise, you’ll sort records first by one field, and then by multiple fields.
SET UP You need the GardenCompany04 database located in the Chapter04 practice
file folder to complete this exercise. Be sure to use the practice database for this chapter
rather than continuing on with the database from an earlier chapter. Open the database,
and if you want, save your own version to avoid overwriting the original. Then follow
the steps.
116 Chapter 4 Display data
1
With All Access Objects displayed in the Navigation pane, in the Tables group,
double-click Customers to open the Customers table in Datasheet view.
2
Click the arrow to the right of the Region field name to display a menu of sorting
and filtering options.
4
The list at the bottom of the menu includes check boxes
for every unique value in the field.
3
Click Sort A to Z to rearrange the records in ascending alphabetical order by region.
The upward-pointing arrow at the right end of the Region field name indicates that the table
is sorted in ascending order on this field.
Sorting information in tables 117
Suppose we want to display the records for customers living in Washington (WA) at
the top of the list. Let’s reverse the sort order by using a different method.
4
On the Home tab, in the Sort & Filter group, click the Descending button.
In both sorts, the region was sorted alphabetically, but the City field was left in a
seemingly random order. Let’s sort the City field and then the Region field to display
the records arranged by city within each region..
5
Click the arrow to the right of the City field name, and then click Sort A to Z to sort
the records alphabetically by city.
6
To finish the process, right-click anywhere in the Region column, and then click Sort
A to Z.
Both the City and Region field names have upward-pointing arrows, indicating that the records
have been sorted on both fields.
Now let’s sort both fields at the same time. First we have to revert to the previously
saved sort order.
7
On the Home tab, in the Sort & Filter group, click the Remove Sort button to clear
the sort from both fields.
118 Chapter 4 Display data
8
Click the City field name, hold down the Shift key, and click the Region field name.
Then in the Sort & Filter group, click the Ascending button. Notice that because
the City field is to the left of the Region field, this sort does not achieve the result
you want.
4
The City sort is overriding the Region sort.
9
10
Click the Region field name, and drag the field name to the left of the City field
name, releasing the mouse button when a heavy black line appears between the
Address and City field names.
11
With the Region field selected, hold down the Shift key, and click the City field name
to include that field in the selection.
12
In the Sort & Filter group, click the Ascending button to arrange the records with the
regions in ascending order and the cities in ascending order within each region.
13
Experiment with various ways of sorting the records to display different results. Then
close the Customers table, clicking No when prompted to save the table layout.
+
Remove the sort, and then click away from the City and Region fields to clear the
selection.
CLEAN UP Keep the GardenCompany04 database open for use in later exercises.
Sorting information in tables 119
How Access sorts
The concept of sorting seems quite intuitive, but sometimes the way Access sorts
numbers might seem puzzling. In Access, numbers can be treated as either text or
numerals. Because of the spaces, hyphens, and punctuation typically used in street
addresses, postal codes, and phone numbers, the data type of these fields is usually
Short Text, and the numbers are sorted the same way as all other text. In contrast,
numbers in a field assigned the Number or Currency data type are sorted as numerals.
When Access sorts text, it sorts first on the first character in the selected field in every
record, then on the next character, then on the next, and so on—until it runs out of
characters. When Access sorts numbers, it treats the contents of each field as a single
value, and sorts the records based on that value. This tactic can result in seemingly
strange sort orders. For example, sorting the list in the first column of the following
table as text produces the list in the second column. Sorting the same list as numerals
produces the list in the third column.
Original
Sort as text
Sort as numerals
1
1
1
1234
11
3
23
12
4
3
1234
11
11
22
12
22
23
22
12
3
23
4
4
1234
If a field with the Short Text data type contains numbers, you can sort the field
­numerically by padding the numbers with leading zeros so that all entries are the
same length. For example, 001, 011, and 101 are sorted correctly even if the num­
b­ers are defined as text.
120 Chapter 4 Display data
Filtering information in tables
Sorting the information in a table organizes it in a logical manner, but you still have the
­entire table to deal with. For locating only the records containing (or not containing) specific information, filtering is more effective than sorting. For example, you could quickly
­create a filter to locate only customers who live in Seattle, only items that were purchased
on January 13, or only orders that were not shipped by standard mail.
When you filter a table, Access doesn’t remove the records that don’t match the filter; it
simply hides them. To filter information by multiple criteria, you can apply additional filters
to the results of the first one.
The Filter commands are available in the Sort & Filter group on the Home tab, on the menu
displayed when you click the arrow at the right end of a field name, and on the shortcut
menu displayed when you right-click anywhere in a field’s column. However, not all Filter
commands are available in all of these places.
TIP You can filter records while displaying them in a form by using the same commands as
you do to filter records in a table.
In this exercise, you’ll filter records by using a single criterion and then by using multiple
criteria.
SET UP You need the GardenCompany04 database you worked with in the preceding
exercise to complete this exercise. If necessary, open the database. Then follow the steps.
1
In the Navigation pane, in the Tables group, double-click Customers to open the
Customers table in Datasheet view.
2
3
In the City field, click any instance of Vancouver.
On the Home tab, in the Sort & Filter group, click the Selection button, and then in
the list, click Equals “Vancouver”. Notice that a small filter icon shaped like a funnel
appears at the right end of the City field name to indicate that the table is filtered
by that field. The record navigation bar at the bottom of the table changes to 1 of
6 because only six records have the value Vancouver in the City field. Also on the
record navigation bar, the filter status changes to Filtered.
Filtering information in tables 121
4
Only the six records for customers who live in Vancouver are displayed in the table.
TIP In the list displayed when you click the arrow to the right of a field name (or the
Filter button in the Sort & Filter group) are check boxes for all the unique entries in
the active field. Clearing the Select All check box clears all the boxes, and you can
then select the check boxes of any values you want to be displayed in the filtered
table.
In the Sort & Filter group on the Home tab, the Toggle Filter button is now active.
This button is dynamic; it is called Apply Filter and is inactive when no filter is applied,
and it is called Remove Filter and is active when a filter is applied. Let’s use this button to quickly turn off the applied filter.
4
In the Sort & Filter group, click the Remove Filter button to toggle off the filter and
display all the records.
TIP If you click the Toggle Filter button again, the current filter will be reapplied.
Now let’s display a list of all customers with postal codes starting with 880.
5
Click the arrow to the right of the PostalCode field name, and point to Text Filters
to display a list of criteria.
122 Chapter 4 Display data
4
You start specifying filtering criteria for the text you want to find
by selecting an option from the Text Filters list.
TIP The sort and filter options displayed when you click the arrow to the right of a
field name (or when you click the Filter button in the Sort & Filter group) are determined by the data type of the field. The PostalCode field is assigned the Short Text
data type to allow for ZIP+4 codes. If you display the sort and filter list for a field that
is assigned the Number data type, the sort and filter list includes Number Filters instead of Text Filters, and different options are available.
6
In the list, click Begins With to open the Custom Filter dialog box.
The name of the text box is customized with the field name and the filter you chose.
7
In the PostalCode begins with box, enter 880. Then click OK to filter the table and
display only the records that match your criteria.
Filtering information in tables 123
Only the 30 records for customers who live in postal codes starting with 880 are displayed
in the table.
8
In the Sort & Filter group, click the Remove Filter button to turn off the filter and
display all the records.
Now let’s display only the records of the customers who live outside of the United
States.
9
In the Country field, right-click any instance of USA, and then click Does Not Equal
“USA” to display the records of all the customers from countries other than the
United States (in this case, only Canada).
TIP If the text you want to base this filter on is buried in a large table, you can quickly
locate it by clicking the Find button in the Find group on the Home tab, entering the
term you want in the Find What box in the Find And Replace dialog box, and clicking
Find Next. Then right-click the found text to apply the filter.
10
Turn off the filter, and close the Customers table, clicking No when prompted to save
your changes.
Finally, let’s filter a different table to create a list of orders placed with a selected
­employee on or after a specified date.
11
12
Open the Orders table in Datasheet view.
In the EmployeeID field, right-click Entin, Michael, and then click Equals “Entin,
Michael”.
124 Chapter 4 Display data
13
With 19 records displayed in the filtered table, right-click 2/1/2012 in the OrderDate
field, and then click On or After 2/1/2012 to find the six records that meet this
criterion.
TIP To display a list of the available options for date filters, right-click any cell in the
OrderDate field, and then point to Date Filters.
14
Close the Orders table, clicking No when prompted to save the table layout.
+
CLEAN UP Keep the GardenCompany04 database open for use in later exercises.
Filtering information by using forms
When you want to filter a table based on the information in several fields, the quickest
method is to use the Filter By Form command, which is available from the Advanced Filter
Options list in the Sort & Filter group on the Home tab. If you choose this command when
a table is active, Access displays a filter form that resembles a datasheet. Each of the cells in
the form has an associated list of all the unique values in that field in the underlying table.
In the filter form for a table, clicking the cell below a field name displays an arrow that you can use
to display a list of that field’s unique values.
Filtering information by using forms 125
4
For each field, you can select a value from the list or enter a value. When you have finished
defining the filter values, click the Apply Filter button to display only the records that contain the specified values.
Using Filter By Form on a table that has only a few fields, such as the one shown in the preceding graphic, is easy. But using it on a table that has a few dozen fields can be cumbersome, and it is often simpler to find information in the form version of the table. Using Filter
By Form on a form replaces the form with its Filter By Form version, which has a blank box
for each field.
In the filter form for a form, clicking a text box displays an arrow that you can use to display a list
of that field’s unique values.
In any field, you can select filtering criteria from the field’s associated list of unique values,
or you can enter the criteria you want. If you know only part of the value you are looking
for, you can use the asterisk wildcard character to represent the character or string of characters you don’t know. For example, to filter out all the records with Philip, Philips, Phillip, or
Phillips in the LastName field, you can enter Phil*. Access then converts your entry to Like
“Phil*”, which is the correct format, called the syntax, for this type of criterion.
SEE ALSO For information about wildcards, see the sidebar “Wildcards” following this topic.
If you want to enter alternative criteria to those you entered on the Look For page of
the filter form, use the Or page. Clicking the Or tab at the bottom of the form displays
­another form with blank fields so that you can enter alternatives for the same fields.
126 Chapter 4 Display data
When you display the Or page, a second Or tab appears so that you can include a third
criterion for the same field if you want.
After you have applied the filter, you can click the buttons on the record navigation bar at
the bottom of the filter form to move among the matched records in the usual way.
In this exercise, you’ll filter a form by using the Filter By Form command.
SET UP You need the GardenCompany04 database you worked with in the preceding
exercise to complete this exercise. If necessary, open the database. Then follow the steps.
1
In the Navigation pane, in the Forms group, double-click Customers to open the
Customers form in Form view.
2
On the Home tab, in the Sort & Filter group, click the Advanced Filter Options
button, and then in the list, click Filter By Form to replace the form with its filter
version.
3
Click the second text box to the right of the Name label (the box that normally
displays the customer’s last name), enter s*, and then press the Enter key to replace
the entry with its correct syntax, Like “s*”.
4
In the Sort & Filter group, click the Apply Filter button to toggle the filter on and
display the first record that has a LastName value starting with S.
The record navigation bar shows that six records match the filter criterion.
Filtering information by using forms 127
4
Now let’s add a second criterion that filters out only the records that have a Region
value of CA.
5
Click the Advanced Filter Options button and then click Filter By Form to redisplay
the filter form, which still contains the current filter criterion.
TIP No matter what method you use to enter filter criteria, the criteria are saved as
a form property and are available until they are replaced by other criteria.
6
Click the second box to the right of the City/State/ZIP label (the box that normally
displays the state or region), click the arrow that appears, and then in the list, click
CA.
Only records matching both of the criteria will be displayed.
7
Click the Apply Filter button to display the first of three records that have both a
Region value of CA and LastName values starting with S.
Next let’s enter alternative filtering criteria.
8
9
10
Switch back to the filter form, and at the bottom of the form page, click the Or tab.
Enter s* in the second Name box, and click WA in the list for the second City/State/
ZIP box.
Click the Apply Filter button to find and display records that have either a Region
value of CA and LastName values starting with S, or a Region value of WA and
LastName values starting with S.
128 Chapter 4 Display data
11
12
Use the record navigation bar to view the six records in the filtered Customers form.
Click the Remove Filter button to turn off the filter. Then close the form.
+
CLEAN UP Keep the GardenCompany04 database open for use in the last exercise.
Wildcards
If you want to filter a table to display records containing certain information but you
aren’t sure of all the characters, or if you want your filter to match variations of a base
set of characters, include wildcard characters in your filter criteria. The most common
wildcards are the following:
▪▪ * The asterisk represents any number of characters. For example, filtering the
LastName field on Co* returns records containing Colman and Conroy.
▪▪ ? The question mark represents any single alphabetic character. For example,
­filtering the FirstName field on Er?? returns records containing Eric and Erma.
▪▪ # The number sign represents any single numeric character. For example, filter­
ing the ID field on 1## returns any ID from 100 through 199.
TIP Access supports several other wildcards. For more information, search for
­wildcards in Access Help.
When searching for information in a Short Text or Long Text field, you can also use the
Contains text filter to locate records containing words or character strings.
Locating information that matches
multiple criteria
As long as your filter criteria are fairly simple, filtering is a quick and easy way to narrow
down the amount of information displayed in a table or to locate information that matches
what you are looking for. But suppose you need to locate something more complex, such
as all the orders shipped to Midwestern states between specific dates by either of two
shippers. When you need to search a single table for records that meet multiple criteria,
or when the criteria involve complex expressions, use the Advanced Filter/Sort command,
available from the Advanced Filter Options list.
Locating information that matches multiple criteria 129
4
Choosing the Advanced Filter/Sort command displays the Query Designer, which you use
to enter filtering criteria. As you’ll discover, filters with multiple criteria are actually simple
queries.
SEE ALSO For information about queries, see Chapter 7, “Create queries.”
In this exercise, you’ll filter a table to display the data for customers located in two states.
Then you’ll experiment with the Query Designer to better understand its filtering capabilities.
SET UP You need the GardenCompany04 database you worked with in the preceding
exercise to complete this exercise. If necessary, open the database. Then follow the steps.
1
In the Navigation pane, in the Tables group, double-click Customers to open the
Customers table in Datasheet view.
2
On the Home tab, in the Sort & Filter group, click the Advanced Filter Options but­
ton, and then in the list, click Advanced Filter/Sort to display the Query Designer
with the Customers field list in the top pane and a design grid in the bottom pane.
Clicking the Advanced Filter/Sort button displays the Query Designer.
3
In the Customers field list, double-click LastName to copy it to the Field row of the
first column in the design grid.
4
In the Criteria row of the LastName field, enter s*, and then press Enter. Notice that
because you have used the * wildcard, the criterion changes to Like “s*”.
130 Chapter 4 Display data
Suppose we want this query to filter the table to display the records for only those
customers with last names beginning with the letter S who live in California or
Washington. Let’s add the second criterion.
5
If necessary, scroll the field list box or enlarge it by dragging its bottom border
downward. Then in the Customers field list, double-click Region to copy it to the
Field row of the next available column in the design grid.
6
In the Criteria row of the Region field, enter ca or wa, and then press Enter. Notice
that this entry changes to “ca” Or “wa”.
TIP If you want to find the records for customers who live in California or Oregon,
you cannot enter ca or or, because Access treats or as a reserved word. You must
enter ca or “or” in the Criteria row. Anytime you want to enter a criterion that will be
interpreted as an instruction rather than a string of characters, enclose the characters
in quotation marks to achieve the results you want.
You have entered two criteria involving two fields in the design grid.
7
In the Sort & Filter group, click the Apply Filter button to display only the records
that match the criteria.
Six customers with last names beginning with S live in either California or Washington.
Locating information that matches multiple criteria 131
4
Now let’s filter the table to display only the records for customers with last names
­beginning with the letter S or B who live in California or Washington.
8
9
Click the CustomersFilter1 tab to switch to the filter page.
In the or row of the LastName field, enter b*, and then press Enter.
You have entered two criteria involving two fields in the design grid.
10
In the Sort & Filter group, click the Apply Filter button to apply the filter to the
Customers table. Then notice that the result includes records for all customers with
last names that begin with S or B, but some of the B names live in Montana and
Oregon.
11
Click the CustomersFilter1 tab to switch to the filter page, and look carefully at the
design grid.
The filter first works with the two criteria in the Criteria row and searches for customers with names beginning with S who live in California or Washington. Then it works
with the criteria in the Or row and searches for customers with names beginning with
B, regardless of where they live. To get the results we want, we need to repeat the
criterion from the Region field in the Or row.
12
13
In the or row of the Region field, enter ca or wa, and then press Enter.
14
Close the Customers table, clicking Yes when prompted to save changes to the
design of the table.
Apply the filter, which now correctly displays only the records for customers with last
names beginning with S or B who are located in California or Washington.
+
CLEAN UP Close the GardenCompany04 database.
132 Chapter 4 Display data
V413HAV
Saving filters as queries
If a filter takes more than a few minutes to set up and you are likely to want to use it
again, you might want to save it as a query. Then you can run the query to display the
filtered results at any time.
To save a filter as a query:
1 On the Home tab, in the Sort & Filter group, click the Advanced Filter Options
button and then click Advanced Filter/Sort.
2 In the Sort & Filter group, click the Advanced Filter Options button again, and
then click Save As Query.
SEE ALSO For information about queries, see Chapter 7, “Create queries.”
Key points
▪▪ You can sort a table in either ascending or descending order, based on the values
in any field or field combination.
▪▪ You can filter a table so that information containing a combination of characters
is displayed or excluded from the display.
▪▪ To further refine a search, apply another filter to the results of the previous one.
▪▪ The Filter By Form command filters a table or form based on the information in
­several fields.
▪▪ To search a single table for records that meet multiple criteria, use the Advanced
Filter/Sort command.
Key points 133
4
Chapter at a glance
Create Create reports by using a wizard,
page 136
Preview Preview and print reports,
page 150
Modify Modify report design,
page 142
5
Create simple reports
IN THIS CHAPTER, YOU WILL LEARN HOW TO
▪▪
▪▪
▪▪
Create reports by using a wizard.
Modify report design.
Preview and print reports.
Like forms, reports give people easy access to the information stored in a database. How­
ever, there are several differences between forms and reports, including the following:
▪▪ Forms are used to view, enter, and edit information. Reports are used only to view
information.
▪▪ Forms are usually displayed on the screen. Reports can be previewed on the screen,
but they are usually printed.
▪▪ Forms generally provide a detailed look at records, and they are usually for people
who actually work with the database. Reports are often used to group and summarize
data, and they are often for people who don’t work with the database but who use
the information stored in the database for other business tasks.
Reports usually present summaries of larger bodies of information. For example, your database might hold detailed information about thousands of orders. If you want to edit those
orders or enter new ones, you can do so directly in the table or through a form. If you want
to summarize those orders to illustrate the rate of growth of the company’s sales, you generate a report.
Like a book report or an annual report of an organization’s activities, a report created
in Microsoft Access 2013 is typically used to summarize and organize information to express a particular point of view to a specific audience. When you are designing a report,
it is important to consider the point you are trying to make, the intended audience, and
the level of information they will need.
In this chapter, you’ll create a report by using a wizard. After modifying the layout and
­content of the report, you’ll preview how it will look when printed.
135
PRACTICE FILES To complete the exercises in this chapter, you need the practice file
contained in the Chapter05 practice file folder. For more information, see “Download
the practice files” in this book’s Introduction.
Creating reports by using a wizard
You can divide the content of an Access report into two general categories: information derived from records in one or more tables, and everything else. The everything else category
includes the title, page headers and footers, introductory and explanatory text, and any
logos and other graphics.
Just as you can create a form that includes all the fields in a table by using the Form tool,
you can create a report that includes all the fields by using the Report tool, which is located
in the Reports group on the Create tab. But such a report is merely a prettier version of the
table, and it does not summarize the data in any meaningful way. You are more likely to
want to create a report based on only some of the fields in the table, and that is a job for
the Report wizard.
TIP In addition to basing a report on a table, you can base it on the datasheet created
when you run a query. For information about queries, see Chapter 7, “Create queries.”
The Report wizard leads you through a series of questions and then creates a report based
on your answers. So the first step in creating a report is to consider the end result you want
and what information you need to include in the report to achieve that result. After you
provide that information, the wizard creates a simple report layout and adds a text box
­control and its associated label control for each field you specify.
For example, you might want to use a Products table as the basis for a report that groups
products by category. When you give the grouping instruction to the wizard, it first sorts
the table based on the category, and then sorts the products in each category. In the space
at the top of each group (called the group header), the wizard inserts the name of the
category.
136 Chapter 5 Create simple reports
In this exercise, you’ll use the Report wizard to create a simple report that displays an alphabetical list of products.
SET UP You need the GardenCompany05 database located in the Chapter05 practice
file folder to complete this exercise. Be sure to use the practice database for this chapter
rather than continuing on with the database from an earlier chapter. Open the database,
and if you want, save your own version to avoid overwriting the original. Then follow the
steps.
1
With All Access Objects displayed in the Navigation pane, in the Tables group, click
(don’t double-click) Categories.
2
On the Create tab, in the Reports group, click the Report button to create a report
based on all the fields in the Categories table and display it in Layout view.
5
By using the Report tool, you can create a report that contains all the fields in the table.
3
This is not the report we want, so close the Categories report, clicking No when
prompted to save it.
4
On the Create tab, in the Reports group, click the Report Wizard button to start
the wizard.
Creating reports by using a wizard 137
Because the Categories table was still selected in the Navigation pane, that table is
specified in the wizard’s Tables/Queries box and its fields are listed in the Available
Fields box. Let’s tell the wizard that we want to base this report on the Products table
instead.
5
Display the Tables/Queries list, and then click Table: Products to list that table’s fields
in the Available Fields box.
On the first page of the Report wizard, you can specify the table you want to work with.
6
In the Available Fields list, double-click ProductName, QuantityPerUnit, and
UnitsInStock to move them to the Selected Fields box.
TIP Fields appear in a report in the order in which they appear in the Selected Fields
list. You can save yourself the effort of rearranging the fields in the report by entering
them in the desired order in the wizard.
7
At the bottom of the page, click Next.
The wizard asks whether you want to group the records. When you group by a field,
the report inserts a group header at the top of each group of records that have the
same value in that field. Let’s specify that we want the products grouped by the first
letter of their names.
138 Chapter 5 Create simple reports
8
In the field list on the left, double-click ProductName to move that field into the
group header area of the box on the right.
9
In the lower-left corner of the page, click Grouping Options to open the Grouping
Intervals dialog box.
You can refine the grouping specification in the Grouping Intervals dialog box.
10
In the Grouping intervals list, click 1st Letter, and then click OK.
The types of grouping intervals available vary depending on the data type of the field
by which you are grouping records.
Creating reports by using a wizard 139
5
11
Click Next to move to a page on which you can sort and summarize the grouped
records.
You can sort by up to four fields, each in ascending or descending order.
TIP For any field that contains numeric information, you can click Summary Options
near the bottom of the wizard page to display the Summary Options dialog box, in
which you can instruct Access to insert a group footer in the report and to display
the sum, average, minimum, or maximum value for the field. The only numeric field
in this report is UnitsInStock, and it is not appropriate to summarize that field.
12
Click the arrow to the right of the 1 box to display a list of fields, and click
ProductName. Then click Next.
The wizard asks which of three layouts and which orientation you want for this
­report. Let’s set this report up in outline format.
13
In the Layout area, click each option in turn to display a preview in the report
thumbnail to the left.
14
When you have finished exploring, click Outline.
140 Chapter 5 Create simple reports
5
The preview on the left shows the effect of the options on the right.
15
With Portrait selected in the Orientation area and the Adjust the field width
so all fields fit on a page check box selected, click Next.
By default, the report will have the same title as the table on which it is based.
Creating reports by using a wizard 141
Let’s give this report a title that easily conveys its content.
16
In the title box, enter Alphabetical List of Products, and then with Preview the
report selected, click Finish to create the report and display it in Print Preview.
You can use the scroll bar and page navigation bar to preview the report.
17
Page through the nine-page report, noticing how it is arranged. Then close it.
+
CLEAN UP Keep the GardenCompany05 database open for use in later exercises.
Modifying report design
You can use the Report wizard to get a quick start on a report, but you will frequently want
to modify the report to obtain the result you need. As with forms, the report consists of
text box controls that are bound to the corresponding fields in the underlying table and
their associated labels. You can add labels, text boxes, images, and other controls, and you
can format them, either by using commands on the ribbon or by setting their properties in
the Property Sheet pane.
142 Chapter 5 Create simple reports
TIP For reports, the Property Sheet pane works the same way as it does for forms. For
information, see “Formatting forms” in Chapter 3, “Create simple forms.”
You can adjust the layout and content of reports in either Layout view or Design view. For
simple adjustments, it is easier to work in Layout view so that you can view the layout with
live data, making the process more intuitive.
SEE ALSO For information about creating and modifying reports in Design view, see
­Chapter 9, “Create custom reports.”
TIP Automatic error checking identifies common errors in forms and reports and gives you
a chance to fix them. For example, Access informs you if a report is wider than the page it
will be printed on. Error checking is turned on by default. If you want to turn it off, display
the Backstage view, and click Options to open the Access Options dialog box. In the left
pane, click Object Designers, clear the error-checking check boxes at the bottom of the
page, and then click OK.
In this exercise, you’ll modify the layout of a report. You’ll then apply a theme, change some
of the colors, and dress up the text by using character formatting. You will also apply a simple rule that formats values differently if they meet a specific criterion.
SET UP You need the GardenCompany05 database you worked with in the preceding
exercise to complete this exercise. If necessary, open the database. Then follow the steps.
1
In the Navigation pane, in the Reports group, open the Alphabetical List of
Products report in Print Preview.
2
With the program window maximized, point to the previewed report page. Notice
that the pointer changes to a magnifying glass with a plus sign in it, indicating that
you can magnify the page
TIP You can also zoom in and out by dragging the Zoom slider at the right end of
the status bar. The current zoom level appears to the right of the slider.
Modifying report design 143
5
In Print Preview, the magnifying glass pointer indicates that you can zoom in on the page.
3
Click the previewed page once to zoom in.
Notice that the report has the following design problems:
▪▪ Extraneous text
▪▪ Spacey arrangement
▪▪ Uninviting formatting
Let’s fix these problems.
4
Switch to Layout view, and if the Field List pane opens, close it. Then on the Design
tool tab, in the Grouping & Totals group, click the Hide Details button. Notice that
the controls that are bound to fields in the Products table are now hidden so that
you can concentrate on the group header controls.
144 Chapter 5 Create simple reports
5
Below the title, click ProductName by 1s, and press the Delete key to remove that
label from all the group headers.
6
Click the control containing A, and drag it to the left edge of the header. Notice that
when you release the mouse button, all the corresponding controls move to the
corresponding location in their own group headers.
KEYBOARD SHORTCUT Press the Arrow keys to move the selected control in small
increments. When the shadow box is positioned where you want it, click away from
the control. For a list of keyboard shortcuts, see “Keyboard shortcuts” at the end of
this book.
7
Point to the right border of the selected A control, and when the pointer changes to
a double-headed arrow, drag to the left until the control is just big enough to hold
its contents. Notice that this action changes the size of all the corresponding controls.
It is easier to work with the controls in the group header when the report details are hidden.
Let’s consolidate the controls in the group header so that they require less room.
8
With the A control still selected, hold down the Ctrl key, and in turn, click the
Product Name, Quantity Per Unit, and Units In Stock label controls to add them to
the selection.
9
On the Design tab, in the Tools group, click the Property Sheet button to open the
Property Sheet pane.
Modifying report design 145
5
Because more than one control is selected, the Selection Type
in the Property Sheet pane is Multiple Selection.
10
On the Format page of the Property Sheet pane, in the Top property box, enter
0.25” and press the Enter key to align the controls a quarter inch from the top of
the group header. Then close the Property Sheet pane.
11
To view how the group header looks with its data, in the Grouping & Totals group,
click the Hide Details button to turn it off.
The numbers in the Units In Stock column are right-aligned. Let’s center them.
12
Click the first text box control in the Units In Stock column, and on the Format tool
tab, in the Font group, click the Center button.
146 Chapter 5 Create simple reports
Now let’s add some color and format the text.
13
On the Design tool tab, in the Themes group, click the Themes button, and in the
gallery, click the Whisp thumbnail.
TIP Although nothing much appears to change, the report has taken on the color
scheme and font scheme assigned to the selected theme.
14
Inside the shaded area of the report header, but away from the title, click a blank
area. On the Format tool tab, in the Control Formatting group, click the Shape Fill
button. Then in the Theme Colors palette, click the third swatch in the third column
row (Light Green, Background 2, Darker 25%).
By default, alternate group headers are a different color, which confuses rather than
clarifies the report structure. Let’s turn off this alternate row color.
15
Click outside the dotted border to the left of the first group header. In the Background
group, click the Alternate Row Color arrow, and in the menu, below the palettes, click
No Color.
16
In the Control Formatting group, click the Shape Fill button, and in the Theme
Colors palette, click a light orange color. (We chose the third swatch in the sixth
column: Orange, Accent 2, Lighter 60%.)
TIP The entire group header is shaded except the alphabet controls (A, B, C, and so
on) that you moved earlier. If you want them to be shaded, select one of them and
repeat step 16 to apply the light orange fill.
17
Click outside the dotted border to the left of the first row of data in the report, and
remove the alternate row color of the data rows. Then click the white space above
the report header to verify that only the backgrounds of the report header and
group headers are now colored.
TIP In Layout view, the only places you can click that don’t select at least one object
are above the first object and below the last object.
Modifying report design 147
5
Removing the alternate row color makes the structure of this report more obvious.
Next let’s format the text in the controls. It is usually most efficient to change the
character formatting of all the controls and then adjust the ones you want to be
different.
18
Click any control, and then on the Format tool tab, in the Selection group, click the
Select All button.
KEYBOARD SHORTCUT Press Ctrl+A to select all the controls.
19
In the Font group, click the Font Size arrow, and then click 9.
20
Click the report’s title control, and then use the commands in the Font group to
make the text 24 points, Bold, and dark green. (We chose the fifth swatch in the
ninth column, Olive Green, Accent 5, Darker 25%.)
21
22
Select the controls in the group header, and make them bold and dark green.
Scroll the report, noticing that a few of the values in the Units In Stock column are 0.
Let’s make zero values bold and red so that they stand out in the report and alert
buyers that it is time to order more of these products.
23
Click any control in the Units In Stock column. Then in the Control Formatting group,
click the Conditional Formatting button to open the Conditional Formatting Rules
Manager.
148 Chapter 5 Create simple reports
24
Click New Rule to open the New Formatting Rule dialog box.
You can create rules that compare the current field value to a specific value or to other values in
the same field.
25
With Check values in the current record or use an expression selected as the rule
type, in the Format only cells where the area, click the arrow for the second box,
and click less than. Then in the third box, enter 1.
26
In the Preview area, click the Bold button, and change the Font color setting to red.
Then click OK.
This rule for the Units In Stock field will cause values less than 1 to be bold and red.
Modifying report design 149
5
27
28
Click OK. Then switch to Report view, and scroll down the report.
Close the report, clicking Yes to save your changes to its design.
+
CLEAN UP Keep the GardenCompany05 database open for use in the last exercise.
Previewing and printing reports
Using Print Preview to preview Access reports is very similar to using this view in other
Microsoft Office 2013 programs. If you preview your reports carefully, you won’t have any
major surprises when you print them.
When previewing reports, you will want to pay special attention to how the pages break.
In a grouped report, you can control whether group headings are allowed to appear at the
bottom of a page with no data and whether groups are allowed to break across pages.
You can make changes to the setup of your report pages from the Page Setup tool tab in
Layout view or from the tab displayed when you switch to Print Preview. For example, you
can specify the following:
▪▪ Paper size
▪▪ Margins
▪▪ Orientation
▪▪ Number of columns
▪▪ Whether Access should print the report’s structural elements or only its data
You can also click the Page Setup button to display the Page Setup dialog box, in which you
can change all these settings in one place, in addition to making other refinements.
When you are ready to print, click the Print button on the Print Preview tab to display the
Print dialog box. You can also display the Print page of the Backstage view and then print
one copy of the report with the default print settings by clicking the Quick Print button.
In this exercise, you’ll preview a report, and you’ll specify that groups should not break
across pages. Then you’ll explore the available page setup and printing options.
150 Chapter 5 Create simple reports
SET UP You need the GardenCompany05 database you worked with in the preceding
exercise to complete this exercise. If necessary, open the database. Then follow the steps.
1
In the Navigation pane, right-click the Alphabetical List of Products report, and
then click Print Preview.
2
On the page navigation bar at the bottom of the window, click the Next Page button
repeatedly to view the six pages of this report.
5
The group at the top of this page is a continuation of one that started on the previous page.
Several of the groups start on one page and continue on the next page. For readability, let’s fix this layout problem.
3
Switch to Layout view, and then on the Design tool tab, in the Grouping & Totals
group, click the Group & Sort button to open the Group, Sort, and Total pane.
Previewing and printing reports 151
4
In the Group, Sort, and Total pane, in the Group on bar, click More to display
additional layout options.
In the Group On area, you can verify the current grouping settings.
5
Click the do not keep group together on one page arrow, and in the list, click keep
whole group together on one page. Then close the Group, Sort, and Total pane by
clicking the Group & Sort button again.
6
Switch to Print Preview, and page through the report, noticing that groups are no
longer broken across pages.
Let’s make the top, left, and right margins wider.
7
On the Print Preview tab, in the Page Layout group, click the Page Setup button to
open the Page Setup dialog box.
You can set margins on the Print Options page of the Page Setup dialog box.
152 Chapter 5 Create simple reports
8
9
10
Click the Page tab, and verify that the paper size is Letter.
Return to the Print Options page, and change the Top, Left, and Right margins to
0.75. Then click OK.
Scroll through the report to examine the results.
Although all the data in the report fits on the page, the page number in the footer is
set too far to the right. Let’s move the page number control so that it no longer produces extra pages.
11
Switch to Layout view, scroll down to the bottom of the report, and then scroll to the
right until the page number appears.
12
Click the page number control, and move and resize it so that it aligns approximately
with the Units In Stock column heading. Then click below the report footer to release
the selection.
By adjusting the position of the page number, you can eliminate the extra pages in the report.
Previewing and printing reports 153
5
13
Switch to Print Preview, and page through the report, which now fits neatly on seven
pages.
14
If you want, print the report by using the same techniques you would use to print any
database object.
15
Close the report, clicking Yes to save your changes.
+
CLEAN UP Close the GardenCompany05 database.
Key points
▪▪ When designing a report, consider the point you are trying to make, the intended
audience, and the level of detail needed.
▪▪ You can create a report that displays only some of the fields in a table by using the
Report wizard. The report can be sorted and grouped to summarize the data in a
meaningful way.
▪▪ In Layout view, you can refine a report by manipulating its controls and setting its
properties. You can also format the controls to structure and highlight data.
▪▪ In Print Preview, you can preview how the report will look when printed and make
adjustments before you print.
154 Chapter 5 Create simple reports
Relational database
techniques
6 Maintain data integrity
157
7 Create queries
197
8 Create custom forms
227
9 Create custom reports
255
Chapter at a glance
Specify Specify the type of data,
page 158
Restrict Restrict the format of data,
page 165
Validate Allow Validate the data,
page 173
Allow only values in lists,
page 183
6
Maintain data integrity
IN THIS CHAPTER, YOU WILL LEARN HOW TO
▪▪
▪▪
▪▪
▪▪
▪▪
▪▪
Specify the type of data.
Set the field size.
Restrict the format of data.
Validate the data.
Allow only values in lists.
Allow only values in other tables.
Depending on how organized you are, you might compare a database to a file cabinet into
which you toss items such as bills, receipts, statements, and a variety of other paperwork for
later retrieval. The cabinet does not restrict what items you can place in it (unless they are
simply too big to physically fit) or impose any order on the items. It is up to you to decide
what you store there and to organize it so that you can find it the next time you need it.
When you create a database by using Microsoft Access 2013, you can set properties that
restrict what data can be entered and you can impose a structure on the data to help
you keep the database organized and useful. For example, you can prevent employees
from ­entering text in a Price field, and you can require a simple “yes” or “no” answer in a
Signature Required field.
In this chapter, you’ll restrict the type, amount, and format of data allowed in a field. You’ll
create validation rules that accept only data that meets specific criteria. You’ll also use lookup lists and lookup fields to limit the possible values allowed in a field.
PRACTICE FILES To complete the exercises in this chapter, you need the practice file
contained in the Chapter06 practice file folder. For more information, see “Download
the practice files” in this book’s Introduction.
157
Specifying the type of data
You learned in Chapter 2, “Create databases and simple tables,” that a field’s data type
­restricts entries in that field to a specific type of data. For example, if the data type is set
to Number and you try to enter text, Access refuses the entry and displays a warning.
When setting the data type of a field in a table in Design view, you can choose from the
­following types:
▪▪ Short Text Use for text fields that require up to 255 alphanumeric characters.
▪▪ Long Text Use for text fields that require up to 65,535 alphanumeric characters.
TIP When adding fields in Datasheet view, you can assign the Rich Text data type to
fields that require up to 65,535 alphanumeric characters with character formatting.
This is actually the Long Text data type with the Text Format property set to Rich Text
instead of Plain Text.
▪▪ Number Use for numeric values. The size of the entry is controlled by the Field Size
property.
SEE ALSO For information about the possible settings for Number fields, see “Setting
the field size” later in this chapter.
▪▪ Date/Time Use for dates in the years from 100 through 9999. Dates and times can
be expressed in a variety of formats.
▪▪ Currency Use for decimal values with up to 15 digits to the left of the decimal point
and up to 4 digits to the right.
▪▪ AutoNumber Use when you want Access to assign a unique number to each new
record. If you delete a record, its AutoNumber value is not reused, and remaining
records are not updated.
▪▪ Yes/No Use for fields that can have only two possible mutually exclusive values, such
as True or False.
TIP In the database world, the Yes/No data type is more commonly called Boolean,
in honor of George Boole, an early mathematician and logistician.
▪▪ OLE Object Use to hold a graphic or object such as a Microsoft Excel worksheet or
Microsoft Word document.
▪▪ Hyperlink Use to hold a clickable path to a folder on your hard disk, a network
­location, or a website.
158 Chapter 6 Maintain data integrity
▪▪ Attachment Use to attach a file to a record in the same way that you might attach
a file to an email message.
TIP The Attachment data type can be assigned to a field only when the field is first
created. You can’t assign the Attachment type to an existing field, nor can you change
an Attachment field to another data type. For information about the Attachment data
type, search for Attach files and graphics to the records in your database in Access Help.
▪▪ Calculated Use to hold the results of a calculation based on other fields in the same
table.
TIP The last option in the list displayed when you click the Data Type arrow in Design
view is Lookup Wizard. For information about using this wizard, see “Allowing only
values in lists” later in this chapter.
You can also click the More Fields button in the Add & Delete group on the Fields tool tab
to display a menu containing a list of data types with predefined properties that produce
fields with common data type refinements.
In this exercise, you’ll use various methods to add fields of the most common data types to
a table. Then you’ll enter data to test the data type restrictions.
SET UP You need the GardenCompany06 database located in the Chapter06 practice
file folder to complete this exercise. Be sure to use the practice database for this chapter
rather than continuing on with the database from an earlier chapter. Open the database,
and if you want, save your own version to avoid overwriting the original. Then follow the
steps.
1
On the Create tab, in the Tables group, click the Table button to start a new blank
table with an ID field that has been assigned the AutoNumber data type.
Let’s add five fields with specific data types.
2
On the Fields tool tab, in the Add & Delete group, click the Short Text button. Then
change the selected field name to fShortText.
TIP If you use the name of a data type as the name of a field, Access warns you that
the name might cause problems. We will identify all the fields in this table by their
data type, preceded by the letter f.
3
Display the Click to Add list, click Currency, and then change the field name to
fMoney.
Specifying the type of data 159
6
4
In the Add & Delete group, click the More Fields button to display a menu
containing a list of data types, some with refinements.
Clicking an option in the list sets the data type and
any predefined property settings.
TIP At the bottom of the data types list is a group of Quick Start options that
­ rovide ready-made fields for common business tables. Clicking some Quick Start
p
­options, such as Address, inserts more than one field with the appropriate properties
already set.
5
In the Number area of the list, click Standard. Then change the field name to
fNumber.
160 Chapter 6 Maintain data integrity
6
Display the More Fields menu, click Medium Date in the Date and Time area of the
list, and change the field name to fDate. Then display the menu again, click Check
Box in the Yes/No area, and name the field fBoolean.
Clicking the check box in the fBoolean field will indicate a Yes or True entry.
7
Save the table with the name FieldTest.
KEYBOARD SHORTCUT Press Ctrl+S to display the Save As dialog box. For a list of
keyboard shortcuts, see “Keyboard shortcuts” at the end of this book.
8
9
Switch to Design view.
In turn, click each entry in the Field Name column at the top of the design page,
noticing the setting in the Data Type column and the property settings in the Field
Properties area. In particular, notice that the Default Value property of the fMoney
and fNumber fields is set to 0.
Now let’s examine how the data type restricts what you can enter in a field.
10
Switch back to Datasheet view. Then in the fShortText field of the first record, enter
This entry is 32 characters long (don’t add ending punctuation).
11
In the fMoney field, replace $0.00 with the word currency, and then press the
Tab key.
When you press Tab, Access blocks the entry, explaining that it is the wrong data type and
providing options for fixing the error.
12
In the list, click Enter new value. Then enter –45.3456, and press Tab.
Specifying the type of data 161
6
TIP Access stores the number the way you entered it but displays ($45.35), the
­ efault format for negative currency numbers. Your currency symbol might be
d
different—for example, it might be the pound, peso, or euro symbol—because
Access uses your computer’s region and language settings to determine the display format for date, time, currency, and other numbers. If you want the symbol to
remain the same no matter what the region and language settings, you can create
a custom format to ensure that currency values always display a specific symbol.
For information about custom formats, see the sidebar “Creating custom formats”
later in this chapter.
13
14
In the fNumber field, enter Five hundred, and then press Tab.
15
16
In the fDate cell, enter 123456, and press Tab.
When Access displays a message that it cannot accept this type of entry in this field,
click Enter new value in the list of options, enter 500, and press Tab.
When Access blocks the entry, click the Calendar button to the right of the field, and
click Today to insert today’s date. Then press Tab.
TIP All Date/Time fields come with an associated interactive calendar. Using the Cal-
endar button to insert a date works well if the date you want is close to the current
date. (You can click the arrows at either end of the title bar to display the previous
or next month.) However, for distant dates such as birthdates, it is easier to ignore
the Calendar button and enter the date. Access accepts almost any entry that can be
recognized as a date and displays it in the format you specified when you created the
field. If you enter a month and day but no year in a Date/Time field, Access assumes
the date is in the current year. If you enter a month, day, and two-digit year from 00
through 29, Access assumes the year is 2000 through 2029. If you enter a two-digit
year that is greater than 29, Access assumes you mean 1930 through 1999.
17
In the fBoolean field, try to enter abc and 123. Then click several times anywhere in
the field to toggle the check box between the selected and cleared states, finishing
with the field in the selected state.
The table, after entering the correct type of data in each field.
162 Chapter 6 Maintain data integrity
TIP Fields that have been assigned the Yes/No data type won’t accept anything you
enter; you can only switch between two predefined values. The stored value of a Yes/
No field is always either 1 (Yes) or 0 (No). On the General page of the Field Properties area in Design view, you can set the Format property of the field to interpret the
stored value as True/False, Yes/No, or On/Off. On the Lookup page, you can set the
field to display as a check box, text box, or combo box. (In a combo box, you can
­select from a list or enter an entry.)
18
Press Tab to complete the record.
+
CLEAN UP Close the FieldTest table. Keep the GardenCompany06 database open for
use in later exercises.
Setting the field size
In Chapter 2, “Create databases and simple tables,” you changed the Field Size property of
several Short Text fields. You entered the new sizes by making adjustments to the Field Size
setting in the Properties group on the Fields tool tab and to the Field Size property in the
Field Properties area in Design view. As you saw, changing the size of a Short Text field is
a simple matter of estimating the largest number of characters that will be entered in the
field, up to 255.
Like the Short Text data type, the AutoNumber and Number data types have an associated
Field Size property that restricts the number of digits that can be entered in the field. Of
the two, the Field Size property of the Number data type is the most complex. You can set
Number fields to any of the sizes shown in the following table.
Size
Description
Byte
Whole numbers from 0 to 255
Integer
Whole numbers from –32,768 to 32,767
Long Integer
Whole numbers from –2,147,483,648 to 2,147,483,647 (the default)
Single
Numeric floating point values from –3.4 x 10 to the 38th to +3.4 x 10 to
the 38th
Double
Numeric floating point values from –1.797 x 10 to the 38th to +1.797 x 10
to the 38th
Replication ID
Randomly generated numbers that are 16 bytes long
Decimal
Numbers from -9.999… x 10 to the 27th to +9.999… x 10 to the 27th
Setting the field size 163
6
The Field Size property of AutoNumber fields can be set to either Long Integer (the default)
or Replication ID.
By setting the Field Size property to the setting that allows the largest valid entry, you
­prevent the entry of invalid values. Access rejects any value that is below or above the
size limits of the field when you try to move out of the field.
SEE ALSO For more information about field sizes, search for Introduction to data types and
field properties on the Office.com website.
In this exercise, you’ll change the Field Size property for two fields to examine the impact
on data already in the table and on new data that you enter.
SET UP You need the GardenCompany06 database you worked with in the preced-
ing exercise to complete this exercise. If necessary, open the database. Then display the
FieldTest table in Datasheet view, and follow the steps.
1
Review the field values in the only record in the FieldTest table, and then switch to
Design view.
2
Click anywhere in the fShortText row, and then in the Field Properties area, change
the Field Size property from 255 to 18 to restrict the number of characters to that
maximum.
3
Click anywhere in the fNumber row, click anywhere in the Field Size property, click
the arrow that appears, and then in the list, click Byte to restrict the number of
characters to the range 0 through 255 (inclusive).
4
Switch to Datasheet view, and click Yes when prompted to save the table. Access
displays a warning that some data might be lost.
The table contains data that doesn’t fit the new property settings.
164 Chapter 6 Maintain data integrity
5
Click Yes to acknowledge the risk, and click Yes again to accept the deletion of the
contents of one field.
Now let’s examine the impact of the field size changes on the fields.
6
Double-click the right border of the fShortText field to widen the column to fit its
entry.
The fShortText value has been truncated, and the fNumber value has been deleted.
You entered 32 characters in the fShortText field. It can now hold only 18, so 14 characters have been permanently deleted. You entered 500 in the fNumber field. It can
now hold only whole numbers from 0 through 255, so the value has been permanently deleted.
7
In the fNumber field, enter 2.5, and press Tab. Notice that Access rounds the value
to the nearest whole number.
TIP Because you chose Standard when setting the data type for this field in the
­previous exercise, the whole number is displayed as 2.00.
+
CLEAN UP Close the FieldTest table, saving your changes. Keep the Garden­
Company06 database open for use in later exercises.
Restricting the format of data
Two properties control the appearance of information in database tables: the Format property and the Input Mask property. Both properties affect how information is displayed after
it has been entered in a table, but the Input Mask property also serves an important function during data entry. As its name implies, when you use an input mask, anyone entering
new records knows the format required for the field and how long the entry should be.
SEE ALSO For information about the Format property, see the sidebar “Creating custom
­formats” later in this chapter.
Restricting the format of data 165
6
You can use the Input Mask property to control how data is entered in Short Text, Number,
Date/Time, and Currency fields. For Short Text and Date/Time fields, an Input Mask wizard is available to help you apply several common, predefined masks. For Number and
Currency fields, you have to know how to create a mask from scratch.
The Input Mask property has three sections, separated by semicolons. For example, the
­following mask is for a phone number:
!\(000”) “000\-0000;1;#
The first section contains characters that are used as placeholders for the information to
be entered, in addition to characters such as parentheses and hyphens. Together, all these
characters control the appearance of the entry. The following table explains the purpose of
the most common input mask characters.
Character
Description
0
Required digit (0 through 9).
9
Optional digit or space.
#
Optional digit or space; blank positions are converted to spaces; plus and
minus signs are allowed.
L
Required letter (A through Z).
?
Optional letter (A through Z).
A
Required letter or digit.
a
Optional letter or digit.
&
Required character (any kind) or a space.
C
Optional character (any kind) or a space.
<
All characters that follow are converted to lowercase.
>
All characters that follow are converted to uppercase.
!
Characters entered into the mask fill it from left to right. You can include
the exclamation point anywhere in the input mask.
\
Character that follows is displayed as a literal character.
“any text”
Characters enclosed in double quotation marks are treated as literal
characters.
Any characters not included in this list are displayed the way you enter them and are known
as literal characters. If you want to use one of the special characters in this list as a literal
character, precede it with the \ (backslash) character.
The second and third sections of the input mask are optional. Including a 1 in the second
section (or leaving it blank) tells Access to store only the characters entered; including a
166 Chapter 6 Maintain data integrity
0 tells Access to store both the characters entered and the literal characters. Entering a
character in the third section causes Access to display that character as the placeholder for
each of the characters to be entered; leaving it blank causes Access to display an underscore as the placeholder.
The input mask !\(000”) “000\-0000;1;# creates this display in a field in either a table or a
form:
(###) ###-####
In this example, the 0s in the first part of the mask restrict the entry to 10 digits—no more
and no less. The database user does not enter the literal characters—the parentheses,
space, and hyphen. The 1 in the second part tells Access to store only the 10 digits, not the
literal characters. The # sign in the third part tells Access to use that character as the placeholder for the required 10 digits.
TIP An input mask can contain text in addition to placeholders for the data to be entered.
For example, if you enter The number is in front of the phone number input mask, the
default entry for the field is The number is (###) ###-####. The numbers you enter re­place
the # placeholders, not the text. The Field Size property does not apply to the l­iteral characters in the mask, so if this property is set to 15, the entry will not be truncated even
though the number of displayed characters (including spaces) is 28.
In this exercise, you’ll use the Input Mask wizard to apply a predefined input mask for a
phone number to a Short Text field. Then you’ll modify the input mask to display the phone
number in a slightly different way. Finally, in another field you’ll create a custom mask that
displays a text entry with an initial capital letter, no matter how it is actually entered.
SET UP You need the GardenCompany06 database you worked with in the preced-
ing exercise to complete this exercise. If necessary, open the database. Then display the
FieldTest table in Design view, and follow the steps.
1
Click the row selector for the fShortText field, and on the Design tool tab, in the
Tools group, click the Insert Rows button.
2
Add a new field named fPhone that is assigned the Short Text data type. Then save
the table.
Now let’s use the Input Mask wizard to create an input mask that shows the format
expected for a phone number.
3
With the fPhone field still selected, in the Field Properties area, click anywhere in the
Input Mask property.
Restricting the format of data 167
6
4
Click the Ellipsis button to the right of the property to open the Input Mask wizard.
You can click the Try It box to display how the mask will look and then
enter a number to test how the mask behaves.
5
With Phone Number selected in the Input Mask column, click Next.
You can change the structure of the input mask and the placeholder character
that will indicate what to enter.
168 Chapter 6 Maintain data integrity
The barely visible exclamation point at the left end of the mask causes Access to fill
the mask from left to right with whatever characters are entered. The parentheses
and hyphen are characters that Access will insert in the specified places. The nines
represent optional digits, and the zeros represent required digits. By using this combination, you can enter a phone number either with or without an area code.
TIP Because Access fills the mask from left to right, you need to press the Right
­ rrow key to move the insertion point past the first three placeholders to enter a
A
phone number without an area code.
6
Change 999 to 000 to require an area code. Then display the Placeholder character
list, click #, and click Next.
6
If you store the symbols, they will always be included when the data
is displayed in tables, forms, and reports. However, they take up space,
meaning that your database will be larger.
7
Accept the default selection—to store the data without the symbols—by clicking
Finish. (Clicking Next simply displays a page announcing that the wizard has all the
information it needs to create the mask.)
Restricting the format of data 169
The edited mask is inserted into the Input Mask property.
8
Press Enter to accept !\(000”) “000\-0000;;# as the mask. Double quotation marks
ensure that the closing parenthesis and following space are treated as literal char­
acters. Two semicolons separate the mask into its three sections. Because you told
Access to store data without the symbols, nothing is displayed in the second section
of the mask.
Now let’s test this input mask.
9
10
Save the table, and then switch to Datasheet view.
Click the ID field in the first record, and press the Tab key to move to the fPhone
field. Then enter a series of 8 digits, and press Tab. Access displays a message that
the entry is not in the correct format.
The input mask requires 10, and only 10, digits.
11
Click OK to acknowledge the message. Then enter a series of 11 digits, and press
Tab. Notice that Access formats the first 10 digits as a phone number and ignores
the additional digit.
Now let’s create an input mask that controls the case of text entries.
12
Switch to Design view, and click anywhere in the fShortText field.
170 Chapter 6 Maintain data integrity
13
In the Field Properties area, click the Input Mask property, enter the following, and
then press Enter:
>L<???????????????? (16 question marks)
The Field Size setting must be greater than the maximum number of characters
allowed by the input mask.
The greater than symbol (>) forces all following text to be uppercase. The L requires a
letter. The less than symbol (<) forces all following text to be lowercase. Each question
mark allows any letter or no letter. The total number of characters (17) is one fewer
than the maximum number allowed in the field by this field’s Field Size property (18).
TIP When you press Enter, the Property Update Options button appears. Clicking this
button displays a list of options. In this case, the only options are to apply the input
mask everywhere fShortText is used (which is called propagating the field property)
and to display Access Help to find out more about this task. This button disappears
when you edit any other property or move to a different field, so you can ignore it.
Let’s test this input mask.
14
15
16
Save the table, and then switch to Datasheet view.
Delete the current entry in the fShortText field, enter smith, and press Tab.
Replace the entry with SMITH, and then with McDonald. Notice that regardless of
how you enter the name, only its first letter is capitalized.
TIP You can create custom input masks and have the Input Mask wizard store them
for future use. On the wizard’s first page, click Edit List, and in the record navigation
bar of the Customize Input Mask Wizard dialog box, click the New Record button.
Then enter the information for the custom mask, and click Close.
+
CLEAN UP Close the FieldTest table. Keep the GardenCompany06 database open for
use in later exercises.
Restricting the format of data 171
6
Creating custom formats
For all data types except AutoNumber, an arrow appears at the right end of the
Format box when you click it. For some data types, clicking the arrow displays predefined Format property options. For example, clicking the arrow after selecting the
Format box for a field assigned the Yes/No data type displays a list that includes the
True/False, Yes/No, and On/Off formatting options, with their default values. Clicking
the arrow after selecting the Format box for a field assigned the Date/Time data type
displays a list of predefined date and time formats. However, a field assigned the Short
Text data type has no default predefined formats.
You can construct custom Format properties to control the display of fields assigned
the Short Text data type in much the same way you construct input masks. The following table describes the characters that are available.
Character
Description
@
Required character (can be blank).
&
Optional character.
!
Characters entered into the placeholder string fill it from left to right.
You can include the exclamation point anywhere in the string.
<
All characters that follow are converted to lowercase.
>
All characters that follow are converted to uppercase.
*
Character that follows becomes a fill character.
\
Character that follows is displayed as a literal character.
“any text”
Characters enclosed in double quotation marks are treated as literal
characters.
[color]
Applies a color to all characters in a section of the format. Can be black,
blue, cyan, magenta, red, yellow, or white.
TIP Blank spaces; plus (+), minus (-), and financial symbols ($, £, ¥); and parenthe-
ses are recognized as literal characters without double quotation marks and can be
placed anywhere in the format. Other common math symbols, such as slash (\ or /)
and the asterisk (*), must be surrounded with double quotation marks.
172 Chapter 6 Maintain data integrity
To build a custom format:
1 With the table open in Design view, select the field you want to apply the custom
format to.
2 In the Field Properties area, in the Format box, enter the format.
3 Switch to Datasheet view, saving the table.
Any existing data will be displayed according to the format. New data you enter will
conform to the format when you leave the field. As an example, consider the following
format:
@”.com”;”no link”[red]
This format specifies two customizations separated by a semicolon. The part before
the semicolon specifies what Access should do if characters are entered—in this case,
append .com; and the part after the semicolon specifies what Access should do if the
field is empty—in this case, display no link in red.
Validating the data
A validation rule precisely defines the information that will be accepted in one or several
fields in a record. You might use a validation rule in a field containing the date an employee was hired to prevent a date in the future from being entered. Or if you deliver
orders to only certain local areas, you might use a validation rule on the postal code field
to refuse entries from other areas. You can create validation rules for all data types except
AutoNumber, OLE Object, and Attachment.
In a table, you might want to create validation rules for individual fields or for entire
records:
▪▪ Field validation At this level, Access uses the validation rule to test an entry when
you attempt to leave the field.
▪▪ Record validation At this level, Access uses the rule to test the contents of more
than one field when you attempt to leave the record.
Validating the data 173
6
If a field or record doesn’t satisfy the rule, Access rejects the entry and displays a message
explaining why.
TIP If you create a form by using one of the commands in the Form group on the Create
tab, the form’s controls inherit any validation rules set for the corresponding fields in the
table on which the form is based. To prevent errors likely to be introduced by inexperienced
users of the form, you can add more restrictive rules to the form’s controls, in the same way
you set rules for table fields. For information, search on validation in Access Help.
You create a validation rule by building an expression. In Access jargon, the term expression is synonymous with formula. It is a combination of operators, constants, functions, and
identifiers that evaluates to a single value. Access builds a formula in the format a=b+c,
where a is the result and =b+c is the expression.
TIP In addition to using expressions as validation rules, you can use them to assign proper-
ties to tables or forms, to determine values in fields or reports, to define a set of conditions
that a record must meet to be included in the result of a query, and so on. For information
about queries, see Chapter 7, “Create queries.”
The expression you use in a validation rule combines multiple criteria to define a set of conditions that a value in a field must meet in order to be a valid entry for that field. Multiple
criteria are combined using logical, comparison, and arithmetic operators. Different types
of expressions use different operators. The following are the most common operators:
▪▪ Logical operators
▪▪ And Selects records that meet all the specified criteria
▪▪ Or Selects records that meet at least one of the criteria
▪▪ Not Selects records that don’t match the criteria
▪▪ Comparison operators
▪▪ < Less than
▪▪ > Greater than
▪▪ = Equal to
174 Chapter 6 Maintain data integrity
You can combine these basic operators to form the following:
▪▪ <= Less than or equal to
▪▪ >= Greater than or equal to
▪▪ <> Not equal to
The Like operator is sometimes grouped with the comparison operators and is used
to test whether or not text matches a pattern.
▪▪ Arithmetic operators
▪▪ + Add
▪▪ - Subtract
▪▪ * Multiply
▪▪ / Divide
A related operator, & (a text form of +) is used to concatenate (combine) two text
strings.
You can enter validation rules in the Validation Rule property box by hand, or you can use
a tool called the Expression Builder to create them. The Expression Builder isn’t a wizard; it
doesn’t lead you through the process of building an expression. It provides a hierarchical
list of common elements that you might want to include in an expression, and an expression box to build the expression in. To open the Expression Builder dialog box, click the
Validation button in the Field Validation group on the Fields tool tab, and then click either
Field Validation Rule or Validation Rule. In the dialog box, either select functions, operators,
and other elements from the list to copy them into the expression box, or enter the expression directly in the expression box.
To explain a validation rule to users, you can create a message that appears if someone
tries to enter an invalid value. A well-crafted message tells users what data is expected
and what format it should be entered in. For example, the message Please enter a whole
number between 1 and 99 is more useful than Invalid entry.
Validating the data 175
6
Simple validation rules
The Field Validation group on the Fields tool tab includes two commands that provide
simple validation tests for fields without requiring you to build an expression:
▪▪ Required By default, the Required property is set to No. Selecting the Required
check box in the Field Validation group sets this property to Yes, meaning that
every record must have an entry in this field; it cannot be blank. (A blank field is
called a Null field.)
▪▪ Unique By default, the Indexed property of all fields except AutoNumber fields is
set to No. This property has two Yes options:
▪▪ Yes (Duplicates OK) This option is set if you select the Indexed check box in
the Field Validation group.
▪▪ Yes (No Duplicates) This option is set if you select the Unique check box. (It is
set by default for AutoNumber fields.)
In both Yes cases, Access creates an index of the data in the field and its location,
similar to the index in a book. The index speeds up data searching, because Access
can look up the location of the data in the index instead of searching the actual
database.
In terms of validation, selecting the Required check box causes Access to verify that
there is an entry in the field before it accepts the record. Selecting the Unique check
box causes Access to verify that no other record has the same value in the field before
it accepts the field entry.
TIP For Short Text, Long Text, and Hyperlink fields, the Required property can be
refined by the Allow Zero Length property. When this property is set to Yes (the
default), you can enter an empty string (two quotation marks with nothing between
them) and the field will not be considered blank. In other words, a required field can
be empty but not Null. The differentiation between Null and empty might seem silly,
but it becomes important if someone uses programming code to work with the database, because some commands produce different results for Null fields than they do
for empty fields.
176 Chapter 6 Maintain data integrity
In this exercise, you’ll create and test a field validation rule and a record validation rule in a
table.
SET UP You need the GardenCompany06 database you worked with in the preced-
ing exercise to complete this exercise. If necessary, open the database. Then display the
FieldTest table in Database view, and follow the steps.
1
Point at the left end of the fPhone field, and when the pointer changes to a thick
cross, click to select the contents of the field. Then replace the current entry with
6785550101, allowing the mask to format the entry for you.
2
With the fPhone field still selected, on the Fields tool tab, in the Field Validation
group, click the Validation button to display a list of options.
6
The top set of options is for validating the field and the bottom set is for validating
the entire record.
3
Click Field Validation Rule to open the Expression Builder dialog box.
Validating the data 177
You build an expression in the box at the top of the dialog box by selecting elements,
categories, and values from the boxes at the bottom.
Let’s specify that only phone numbers in the 206 or 425 area codes can be accepted
in the fPhone field.
4
In the Expression Elements list, click Operators; in the Expression Categories list,
click Comparison; and in the Expression Values list, double-click Like to transfer that
operator to the expression box.
5
With the cursor positioned to the right of the space following the word Like in the
expression box, enter “206*” (including the quotation marks and the asterisk), and
then press the Spacebar.
TROUBLESHOOTING Be sure to include the asterisk after 206. The fPhone field con-
tains the phone number in addition to the area code, so you need the wildcard to
allow the additional characters. For information about wildcards, see the sidebar
“Wildcards” in Chapter 4, “Display data.”
178 Chapter 6 Maintain data integrity
6
In the Expression Categories list, click Logical, and in the Expression Values list,
double-click Or.
7
In the Expression Categories list, click Comparison, and in the Expression Values list,
double-click Like.
TIP The Expression Builder inserts <<Expr>> before the Like operator as a placeholder
for any other expressions you might add. You can ignore this for now.
8
With the cursor positioned to the right of the space following the second Like in the
expression box, enter “425*” (including the quotation marks and the asterisk).
9
Click <<Expr>>, and press the Delete key. Then delete the extra space before the
second Like.
6
If you want to enter an expression directly in the expression box, you can click Less to hide
the hierarchical boxes.
10
Click OK to close the Expression Builder dialog box.
Validating the data 179
11
When Access warns that existing data violates the new validation rule, click Yes to
close the message box and keep the rule. Notice that the fPhone field is now active
so that you can change the phone number to one that is in either of the required
area codes.
12
Enter 4255550101.
Let’s add an error message that will appear if someone attempts to enter a phone
number with an invalid area code.
13
On the Fields tool tab, in the Field Validation group, click the Validation button,
and then click Field Validation Message to open the Enter Validation Message
dialog box.
You can enter a guiding message here.
14
15
In the box, enter Area code must be 206 or 425, and then click OK.
Save the table, and then switch to Design view. Notice that, in the Field Properties
area, the Validation Rule property and Validation Text property are set to the new
rule and message.
If you prefer, you can enter the rule and message directly in their boxes
in the Field Properties area.
180 Chapter 6 Maintain data integrity
TROUBLESHOOTING If the message does not appear in the Validation Text property,
verify that you did not press Tab after entering the new phone number and then inadvertently assign the message to the adjacent fShortText field.
Let’s test this field validation rule.
16
Switch to Datasheet view. Then click anywhere in the fPhone entry, and press the
Home key to place the cursor at the beginning of the field.
17
Enter 3605550109, and then press Tab, which displays a warning.
Access warns that the area code must be either 206 or 425.
TIP The Was This Information Helpful? link appears only if you have enrolled in the
Microsoft Customer Experience Improvement Program. Clicking the link displays a
dialog box in which you can give your opinion about the usefulness of warnings generated by the Access program. Because this warning was generated by a validation
rule that you have created, you can ignore the link.
18
Click OK to close the alert box, enter a new phone number with one of the allowed
area codes, and press Tab.
Now let’s create a record validation rule that compares one date with another to
verify that it is later.
19
Click the Click to Add field. Then create a Date/Time field that has the Medium Date
format, name the field fDate2, and click the field below it.
20
On the Fields tool tab, in the Field Validation group, click the Validation button.
Then click Validation Rule. Notice that the Expression Builder dialog box opens with
the FieldTest table selected in the Expression Elements list and its fields displayed in
the Expression Categories list.
Validating the data 181
6
21
In the Expression Categories list, double-click fDate2 to insert it into the expression
box. Then double-click fDate.
The field names are enclosed in square brackets to indicate that those field values will be used
when this expression is evaluated.
22
In the expression box, click <<Expr>>. Then in the Expression Elements list, click
Operators; in the Expression Categories list, click Comparison; and in the Expression
Values list, double-click > to replace <<Expr>> with the greater than sign.
23
Click OK to close the Expression Builder dialog box, and then click Yes to keep the
new rule.
24
Create a record validation message that says fDate2 must be later than fDate,
and then save the table.
Let’s test this record validation rule.
25
26
Replace the entry in the fDate field with 11/22/22.
Click the fDate2 field, click the Calendar button, and click Today. Then click in the
record below it, which displays a warning box containing the record validation text.
182 Chapter 6 Maintain data integrity
You cannot leave the record until you resolve this data error.
27
Click OK, change the value in fDate2 to 12/22/22, and then click in the record
below it.
+
CLEAN UP Close the FieldTest table. Keep the GardenCompany06 database open for
use in later exercises.
Allowing only values in lists
It is interesting how many different ways people can come up with to enter the same items
of information in a database. Asked to enter the name of their home state, for example,
residents of the state of Washington will enter Washington, Wash, or WA, plus various typographical errors and misspellings.
Minor inconsistencies in the way data is entered might not be really important to someone
who later reads the information and makes decisions. For example, Arizona and AZ refer to
the same state. But a computer is very literal, and if you tell it to create a list so that you can
send catalogs to everyone living in AZ, the computer won’t include anyone whose state is
listed in the database as Arizona.
You can limit the options for entering information in a database in several ways:
▪▪ If one entry is more likely than any other, you can set the Default Value property of
the field to that entry. Users can then press Tab to skip over that field, leaving the
default entry intact. Even if users enter something else, the format of the default entry
might guide them when choosing their entry’s format.
▪▪ For only two options, you can use a Yes/No field represented by a check box. A
selected check box indicates one choice, and a cleared check box indicates the other
choice.
Allowing only values in lists 183
6
▪▪ For a short list of choices that won’t change often, you can use a combo box. Clicking
the arrow at the right end of the combo box displays the list of choices, which you
provide as a lookup list. Depending on the properties associated with the combo box,
database users might be able to enter something else or they might be able to add
entries to the lookup list displayed in the future. Although you can create a lookup list
by hand, it is a lot easier to use the Lookup wizard.
TIP Access comes with three Quick Start lookup lists that are commonly used in businesses:
Payment Type, Priority, and Status. You can efficiently add one of these ready-made lookup
lists to a table by clicking the More Fields button in the Add & Delete group on the Fields
tool tab, and then clicking the field you want.
In this exercise, you’ll use the Lookup wizard to create a list of states and provinces from
which users can choose.
SET UP You need the GardenCompany06 database you worked with in the preced-
ing exercise to complete this exercise. If necessary, open the database. Then display the
FieldTest table in Datasheet view, and follow the steps.
1
At the right end of the first record in the table, click the Click to Add field. On the
Fields tool tab, in the Add & Delete group, click the More Fields button, and then in
the Basic Types area, click Lookup & Relationship to start the Lookup wizard.
You can specify that the values in the list already exist in another table or that you will enter
them manually.
184 Chapter 6 Maintain data integrity
TIP If a field has only a few possible entries that won’t change, typing the list di-
rectly in the wizard is easier. If a field has a lot of potential entries, or if the entries
will change often, you can link them to a table. (You might have to create a table
expressly for this purpose.) For information about creating lookup fields based on
­another table, see “Allowing only values in other tables” later in this chapter.
2
3
4
Click I will type in the values that I want, and then click Next.
Leave the number of columns set to 1, and click in the first cell in the Col1 column.
Enter the following state and province abbreviations, pressing Tab (not Enter) after
each one to move to a new row.
BC
CA
ID
MT
OR
WA
5
6
Click Next.
You assign a name to the new field on this page.
SEE ALSO For information about creating fields that can hold multiple values, see the
sidebar “Multivalued fields” later in this chapter.
Allowing only values in lists 185
6
Enter fLookup as the name of the field, and select the Limit To List check box. Then
click Finish.
7
8
Save the table, and switch to Design view.
Click anywhere in the fLookup field, and then in the Field Properties area, click the
Lookup tab to display the properties that control the lookup list.
The list you entered is stored in the Row Source property.
Let’s set a default value for the fLookup field.
9
In the Field Properties area, click the General tab. Then click anywhere in the Default
Value property, enter WA , and press Enter.
Now let’s test how the lookup list works.
10
Switch to Datasheet view, clicking Yes to save your changes to the table. Notice that
WA appears in the fLookup field of the new record.
11
Click in the fLookup field of the first record, and then click the arrow at the right end
of the field to display the list of possible entries.
The list reflects the entries you entered on the wizard’s second page.
186 Chapter 6 Maintain data integrity
TIP Clicking the button that appears below the options list opens the Edit List Items
dialog box. If you don’t want users to be able to edit the list, you can disable this
property, as we do later in this exercise.
12
13
Click MT to enter the abbreviation for Montana in the field.
14
After Access completes the entry by displaying C, click the record below it, and watch
as Access converts bC to BC.
15
Select BC, enter Utah, and press Tab. When Access tells you that the entry isn’t in the
list and asks whether you want to edit the list, click Yes to open the Edit List Items
dialog box. Notice that Utah has been added to the bottom of the lookup list.
16
17
Click Cancel, and then click BC in the list.
With MT selected, enter b.
Switch to Design view, and in the Field Properties area, click the Lookup tab. Notice
on the Lookup page for the fLookup field that the Limit To List property is set to
Yes, but the Allow Value List Edits property is also set to Yes, meaning that users can
change the list.
Let’s ensure that users can select values from the list but cannot change it.
18
Click the Allow Value List Edits property, click the arrow that appears, and then click
No.
19
Save the table, and switch to Datasheet view. Then enter Utah in the fLookup field
of the first record, and press Tab. Notice that the message that appears now has no
option to edit the list.
Access will not accept your entry and won’t allow you to change the lookup list.
20
Click OK to close the message box. Then click BC in the list, and press Tab.
+
CLEAN UP Close the FieldTest table. Keep the GardenCompany06 database open for
use in the last exercise.
Allowing only values in lists 187
6
Multicolumn lookup lists
If you want people to be able to select a friendly name from a list but you want the
database to store a different name or even a number, create a two-column lookup list
that associates the two types of entries. For example, you might want to associate employees’ first names or nicknames with their employee ID numbers.
To set up a multicolumn lookup list:
1 Create a new lookup field, and indicate on the first page of the Lookup wizard
that you want to enter the values.
2 On the second page, change the Number of columns setting to 2. Then enter
the data you want Access to store in Col1 and the friendly name in Col2, and
click Next.
3 On the third page, designate the column in which the data to be stored is
located—in this case, Col1—and then click Next.
4 On the last page, assign a name to the field, select the Limit To List check box
if ­appropriate, and click Finish.
Clicking the field’s arrow will then display a two-column list from which the user can
select an entry. The stored value will be displayed in the field.
To display only the friendly name in the list and in the table:
1 Switch to Design view.
2 In the Field Properties area, on the Lookup tab for the multicolumn field, change
the Column Widths property from 1”;1” to 0;1”.
3 Save the table.
Allowing only values in other tables
In “Defining relationships between tables” in Chapter 2, “Create databases and simple tables,”
you learned how to link tables in such a way that a user could not enter a CustomerID that
did not exist in the Customers table or an EmployeeID that did not exist in the Employees
table. These relationships are critical to ensuring that any specific item of data is stored in the
database only once. But relationships also provide a powerful means to improve the accuracy of the database’s data.
188 Chapter 6 Maintain data integrity
If you ask a dozen sales clerks to enter the name of a specific customer, product, and shipper in an invoice, it is unlikely that all of them will enter the same thing. In cases like this,
in which the number of correct choices is limited (to actual customer, actual product, and
actual shipper), providing the means to choose the correct information from a list derived
from the Customers table, the Products table, and the Shippers table will improve your
­database’s accuracy and consistency.
One of the key concerns when looking up information in another table is the efficiency of
the process. Looking up an employee in an Employees table with 9 records is not very difficult. Looking up a customer in a Customers table with 200 records, however, could be quite
tedious. If you use an intuitive CustomerID instead of relying on an autogenerated number
as the primary key of the Customers table, database users can enter the CustomerID and
then verify it in the list. For example, using the first three letters of a customer’s last name
plus the first two of his or her first name will almost certainly result in unique CustomerID
values. These values will not only serve as the primary key for the Customers table but will
be easy for users to intuit when working in other tables linked to the Customers table.
In this exercise, you’ll use the Lookup wizard to create a list of possible field values from the
entries in a field in a related table. You’ll also change the primary key in a table to facilitate
the lookup process.
SET UP You need the GardenCompany06 database you worked with in the preceding
exercise to complete this exercise. If necessary, open the database. Then follow the steps.
1
On the Database Tools tab, in the Relationships group, click the Relationships
button. On the Relationships page, notice that there are relationships between the
Customers and Orders tables and between the Employees and Orders tables.
We want to create Customer and Employee lookup fields in the Orders table, so first
let’s delete the existing relationships and fields.
2
Right-click the diagonal part of the line between the Customers and Orders tables,
and click Delete, clicking Yes to confirm the deletion. Repeat this step for the line
between the Employees and Orders tables. Then close the Relationships page.
TIP If you want to remove a table’s box from the Relationships page, right-click the
box and click Hide Table. If you want to remove all the boxes, click the Clear Layout
button in the Tools group on the Design tool tab.
Allowing only values in other tables 189
6
3
Open the Orders table, and drag across the CustomerID and EmployeeID field names
to select those fields. On the Fields tool tab, in the Add & Delete group, click the
Delete button. Then click Yes to permanently delete the fields and Yes to delete their
indexes.
Now let’s add a new Employee lookup field.
4
At the right end of the table, click the Click to Add field. On the Fields tool tab, in
the Add & Delete group, click the More Fields button, and then click Lookup &
Relationship to start the Lookup wizard.
5
With I want the lookup field to get the values from another table or query
selected, click Next.
6
To identify the table on which the lookup field will be based, click Table: Employees
in the list. Then click Next.
7
On the third page, in the Available Fields list, double-click EmployeeID, then
FirstName, and then LastName to transfer those fields to the Selected Fields list.
Then click Next.
8
On the fourth page, click the arrow for the first sort box, and click LastName in the
list. Then click Next. Notice on the fifth wizard page that by default, the EmployeeID
field (the key column) is hidden.
You can adjust the column widths to fit the values the same way you would adjust field widths.
190 Chapter 6 Maintain data integrity
9
Click Next. On the wizard’s last page, enter Employee as the name of the field, and
select the Enable Data Integrity check box. Then click Finish.
Let’s test the list.
10
Click in the Employee field of the first record, and then click the arrow at the right
end of the field to display a list of possible entries.
The list is in alphabetical order by last name.
11
Click Nancy Anderson to enter the name Nancy as the salesperson for this order.
Next let’s change the CustomerID field of the Customers table so that it accepts
­manually entered, intuitive IDs.
12
Open the Customers table in Design view. Then on the Design tool tab, in the Tools
group, click the Primary Key button to turn it off.
13
14
Change the Data Type setting for the CustomerID field to Short Text.
15
Click the CustomerID field in the Field Name column, and in the Tools group, click
the Primary Key button. Then save the table.
Change the Field Size property to 5, and enter an Input Mask property of >LLLLL;;
to force Access to display the CustomerID value in capital (uppercase) letters, no
matter how it is entered.
Let’s test the new field.
16
Switch to Datasheet view. For each customer, assign a CustomerID that consists
of the first three letters of the last name and the first two letters of the first name.
Try entering an ID in all lowercase letters and notice that Access displays them in
uppercase.
Allowing only values in other tables 191
6
17
Sort the table in ascending order on the CustomerID field, and then close it, clicking
Yes to save your changes.
Now let’s create a new lookup field in the Orders table.
18
In the Orders table, use the Lookup wizard to create a new lookup field based on
the CustomerID, FirstName, and LastName fields of the Customers table. Sort the
lookup list on LastName, and then click Next.
19
On the page that asks you to adjust the width of the columns in the lookup field,
point to the right border of the FirstName field name, and when the pointer changes
to a double-headed arrow, drag all the way to the left to hide that column. Click
Next.
20
Name the field Customer, and select the Enable Data Integrity check box. Then
click Finish.
Let’s test the new field by entering an order for Pilar Ackerman.
21
In the Customer field of the first record, enter ack. Notice that because Ackerman
is the only LastName value beginning with those letters, Access completes the entry
for you.
22
Click the field in the record below it to enter the name Ackerman as it appears in the
Customers table.
23
In the active record, enter c, which Access completes as campbell, the first LastName
value beginning with c in the Customers table.
24
This is not the customer we want, so click the arrow at the right end of the field to
display the list of possible values with Campbell highlighted.
192 Chapter 6 Maintain data integrity
Because Access has scrolled the list to the Campbell entry,
it is easy to select the name you want.
25
Click Cox, and press Tab. Then close the Orders table.
Let’s take a look at the one-to-many relationships between the Customers and
Orders tables and between the Employees and Orders tables that make the lookup
lists possible.
26
On the Database Tools tab, in the Relationships group, click the Relationships
button.
Access created these relationships to support the lookup fields in the Orders table.
+
CLEAN UP Close the GardenCompany06 database.
Allowing only values in other tables 193
6
Multivalued fields
Usually, you will be able to build database tables in which each field holds only one
value. However, sometimes you might need to store more than one value in a single
field. For example, in a Projects table, you might need to store multiple employee
names in a Team field.
To set up a multivalued field that restricts values to those in a table:
1 Create a new lookup field, and indicate on the first page of the Lookup wizard that
you want to look up the values in a table.
2 On the second page, select a table from the list.
3 On the third page, select the fields you want to include.
4 On the fourth page, indicate any sorting.
5 On the fifth page, make any necessary adjustments to the column width.
6 On the last page of the wizard, enter a name for the field, and select the Allow
Multiple Values check box.
When the table is open in Datasheet view, clicking the field’s arrow displays a list from
which users can choose entries by selecting their check boxes. Clicking OK then displays the selected values in the field.
TIP Think carefully about how your database will be used before creating multivalued
fields. They are not easy to change, and they can produce unexpected results in filters
and queries.
194 Chapter 6 Maintain data integrity
Key points
▪▪ The Data Type setting restricts the data that can be entered into a field to a
specific type.
▪▪ The Field Size property for the Short Text, Number, and AutoNumber data types re-
stricts the number of characters allowed in a Short Text field or the number of digits
allowed in a Number or AutoNumber field.
▪▪ The Input Mask property controls the format in which data can be entered.
▪▪ You can use a validation rule to precisely define acceptable data. Access tests entries
against the rule and rejects any that don’t comply.
▪▪ For fields with a fixed set of possible entries, a lookup list ensures consistent data entry.
▪▪ If it is important that values in one table match values in another, you can create a
lookup field based on that table to keep entries accurate.
6
Key points 195
Chapter at a glance
Create Create queries manually,
page 203
Summarize Summarize data by using queries,
page 208
Update Delete Update records by using queries,
page 218
Delete records by using queries,
page 222
7
Create queries
IN THIS CHAPTER, YOU WILL LEARN HOW TO
▪▪
▪▪
▪▪
▪▪
▪▪
▪▪
Create queries by using a wizard.
Create queries manually.
Summarize data by using queries.
Calculate by using queries.
Update records by using queries.
Delete records by using queries.
Microsoft Access 2013 provides a variety of tools you can use to locate specific items of information. In Chapter 4, “Display data,” you learned how to sort and filter tables and forms.
With a little more effort, you can create two basic types of queries:
▪▪ Select Finds records in the database that match the criteria you specify and then
display those records in a datasheet, form, or report. You can use select queries to
display specific fields from specific records from one or more tables.
▪▪ Action Finds records in the database that match the criteria you specify and then
do something with those records. You can use action queries to ensure the ongoing
accuracy of a database—for example, by updating information or deleting selected
records from a table.
You can save both types of queries and run the saved queries at any time to generate
­updated results when data changes.
In this chapter, you’ll use different methods to create queries that locate information matching multiple criteria. Then you’ll create queries to summarize data and perform calculations.
Finally, you’ll create an update query and a delete query.
197
PRACTICE FILES To complete the exercises in this chapter, you need the practice file
contained in the Chapter07 practice file folder. For more information, see “Download
the practice files” in this book’s Introduction.
Creating queries by using a wizard
In Chapter 4 “Display data,” you learned how to retrieve information from a database table
by filtering it. These techniques are effective, but limited in the following ways:
▪▪ The filters are not saved, or are saved only temporarily.
▪▪ The filters are applied only to the table or form that is currently open.
If you want a filter to be permanently available, or if you want to filter more than one table
or tables that are not open, you need to move beyond filters and into the realm of queries.
The most common type of query is the select query. The easiest way to set up a select
­query, especially when you are first learning about them, is to use a query wizard. Four
­wizards are available:
▪▪ Simple Sets up a query to retrieve data from one or more tables and displays the
results in a datasheet. For example, you could use a simple query to extract the name
and address of every customer who has ever placed an order.
▪▪ Find Duplicates Sets up a query to locate records that have the same informa-
tion in one or more fields that you specify. For example, you could use this type
of query to extract the name and address of every customer who has placed more
than one order.
▪▪ Find Unmatched Sets up a query to locate records in one table that don’t have
related records in another table. For example, you could use this type of select query
to locate people in the Customer table who have never placed an order.
▪▪ Crosstab Sets up a query to calculate and restructure data for easier analysis. You can
use a crosstab query to calculate a sum, average, count, or other type of total for data
that is grouped by two types of information, one down the left side of the datasheet
and one across the top. The cell at the junction of each row and column displays the
results of the query’s calculation.
198 Chapter 7 Create queries
For a query to work effectively with multiple tables, Access must understand the relationships between the fields in those tables.
SEE ALSO For more information about creating relationships, see “Defining relationships
between tables” in Chapter 2, “Create databases and simple tables.”
Regardless of whether you create a query by using a wizard or manually, what you create is
a statement describing the conditions that must be met for records to be matched in one or
more tables. When you run the query, the matching records appear in a new datasheet.
In this exercise, you’ll use the Simple Query wizard to create a query that combines information from two tables that are related through a common field. You’ll then look at the underlying structure of the query, hide some fields, and sort the query results.
SET UP You need the GardenCompany07 database located in the Chapter07 practice
file folder to complete this exercise. Be sure to use the practice database for this chapter
rather than continuing on with the database from an earlier chapter. Open the database,
and if you want, save your own version to avoid overwriting the original. Then follow the
steps.
1
On the Create tab, in the Queries group, click the Query Wizard button to open the
New Query dialog box.
In this dialog box, you choose which of the four query wizards you want to use.
2
With Simple Query Wizard selected in the list, click OK to start the wizard.
V413HAV
Creating queries by using a wizard 199
7
If no table is selected in the Navigation pane when you click the Query Wizard button,
the first table in the list is selected on the wizard’s first page.
3
Display the Tables/Queries list, and click Table: Customers. Then click the Move All
button to move all the fields from the Available Fields list to the Selected Fields list.
4
In the Selected Fields list, click the PhoneNumber field, and then click the Remove
button.
TIP The quickest way to move all but one or two fields to the Selected Fields list,
especially if a table has many fields, is to move them all and then remove those you
don’t want.
5
6
Display the Tables/Queries list, and click Table: Orders.
In the Available Fields list, double-click the OrderID, OrderDate, ShippedDate, and
RequiredDate fields to move them to the Selected Fields list. Then click Next.
TIP If a relationship between the tables hasn’t already been defined, you will be
prompted to define it. You will then need to restart the wizard.
7
We want to display detailed query results, so with Detail selected, click Next.
SEE ALSO For information about using a query to summarize data, see “Summarizing
data by using queries” later in this chapter.
200 Chapter 7 Create queries
8
On the wizard’s last page, change the query title to Customer Orders. Then with
Open the query to view information selected, click Finish to run the query and
display the results in a datasheet.
9
Scroll the datasheet to the right, and notice that the requested order information
is displayed to the right of each customer’s information.
7
Only the customers who have placed orders appear in the query results.
Let’s make a few adjustments to the query in Design view.
10
Switch to Design view to display the query in the Query Designer.
The top pane identifies the tables used by the query and the relationship between them. In the
design grid, the Field row identifies the fields used, the Table row identifies each field’s table, and
selected check boxes in the Show row indicate the fields to display in the results.
Creating queries by using a wizard 201
SEE ALSO For more information about the Query Designer, see the next section,
“Creating queries manually.”
Suppose we want to use the CustomerID, Address, Country, and OrderID fields in the
query, but we don’t want to display these fields in the results datasheet. Let’s hide
them, and also sort the results.
11
In the Show row, clear the check boxes for CustomerID, Address, Country, and
OrderID.
12
In the Sort row, click the PostalCode field, click the arrow that appears, and then
click Ascending to sort the results on this field.
The fields with cleared check boxes will not appear in the query’s results.
13
On the Design tool tab, in the Results group, click the Run button to display the
datasheet with the new results.
Four fields no longer appear in the results datasheet, and the extracted records are sorted on
the PostalCode field.
202 Chapter 7 Create queries
TIP When a query is open, you can also simply switch to Datasheet view to run the query.
+
CLEAN UP Close the Customer Orders query, saving your changes. Keep the
GardenCompany07 database open for use in later exercises.
Creating queries manually
The query wizards guide you through the creation of common queries, but you create less
common queries manually in the Query Designer.
7
This query was created manually in the Query Designer.
Let’s review the features of the Query Designer:
▪▪ In the top pane are field lists for the tables that can be included in the query.
▪▪ Lines connecting the field lists indicate that the tables are related by common fields.
▪▪ A table’s primary key field is indicated in its field list by a key icon.
▪▪ The Field row of the design grid contains the names of the fields actually included in
the query.
▪▪ The Table row shows which table each field belongs to.
▪▪ The Sort row indicates which field(s) the query results will be sorted on, if any.
Creating queries manually 203
▪▪ A selected check box in the Show row means that the field will be displayed in the
results datasheet. (If the check box isn’t selected, the field can be used in determining
the query results, but it won’t be displayed.)
▪▪ The Criteria row can contain criteria that determine which records will be displayed.
▪▪ The Or row sets up alternate criteria.
When you create a query manually, you add field lists for the tables you want to use to
the top pane of the Query Designer and either double-click or drag fields from the lists to
consecutive columns of the design grid. You then indicate which field to sort the matched
records on and which field values to show in the results datasheet. As with filters, the power
of queries lies in the criteria you set up in the Criteria and Or rows. This is where you specify
precisely which information you want to extract.
SEE ALSO For information about filters, see Chapter 4, “Display data.”
If you want to run an existing query with a variation of the same basic criteria, you can
display the existing query in Design view, modify the criteria, and then rerun the query.
However, it would be tedious to do this more than a couple of times. If you know you will
often run variations of the same query, you can set it up as a parameter query. Parameter
queries display a dialog box to prompt for the information to be used in the query. For
example, suppose you know you are getting low on the stock of an item and you need to
place an order for more of that product with the supplier. You might use a parameter query
to request the name of a supplier so that you can identify other products you purchase
from that supplier before placing the order. This type of query is particularly useful when
used as the basis for a report that you run periodically.
In this exercise, you’ll create a query by manually setting it up in the Query Designer. You’ll
add criteria to extract the records for specific dates, and then convert the query into a
­parameter query that requests the dates to extract at run time.
SET UP You need the GardenCompany07 database you worked with in the preceding
exercise to complete this exercise. If necessary, open the database. Then follow the steps.
1
On the Create tab, in the Queries group, click the Query Design button to display a
blank Query Designer and open the Show Table dialog box.
204 Chapter 7 Create queries
You select the tables you want to work with on the Tables page. You can also use existing
queries or a combination of tables and queries as the basis for a new query.
Let’s manually recreate the Customer Orders query from the previous exercise.
2
In the dialog box, double-click Customers, double-click Orders, and then click Close.
TIP To add the field list for another table to an existing query, display the Show Table
dialog box at any time by clicking the Show Table button in the Query Setup group
on the Design tool tab. You can also drag the table from the Navigation pane to the
top pane of the Query Designer. To delete a table from a query, right-click the table’s
field list, and then click Remove Table.
3
Double-click the title of the Customers field list to select all the fields in the list.
Then point to the selection, and drag down to the Field row of the first column in
the design grid. Notice that the fields occupy consecutive columns and that the
Table row of each column designates the Customers table as the source of the field.
TIP The asterisk at the top of each field list represents all the fields in the table. Drag-
ging the asterisk to a column in the Field row inserts a single field that represents all
the fields, meaning that you cannot then manipulate the fields individually.
4
Scroll the grid to the right, and click in the Field row of the next blank column. Then
in the Orders field list, in turn double-click the OrderID, OrderDate, ShippedDate,
and RequiredDate fields to add those fields to the next four columns.
Creating queries manually 205
7
You have added fields from two tables to the design grid.
5
Point to the gray field selector above the PhoneNumber field, and when the pointer
changes to a black down arrow, click to select the column. Then in the Query Setup
group, click the Delete Columns button.
KEYBOARD SHORTCUT Press Delete to delete the selected column. For a list of
­keyboard shortcuts, see “Keyboard shortcuts” at the end of this book.
6
In the Show row, clear the check boxes of the OrderID, Country, Address, and
CustomerID fields.
7
8
In the Sort row, set the PostalCode field to Ascending.
In the Results group, click the Run button. Check the datasheet to ensure that the
query produces the correct results.
Let’s make this query return the records for a specific range of dates.
9
Switch to Design view. In the Criteria row of the OrderDate field, enter the following,
and then press the Enter key:
Between 1/1/2012 And 1/8/2012
TIP When you enter the A of And, Access displays a list of operators you might be
intending to use. You can click an option in the list to save yourself a few keystrokes.
In this case, ignore the list, and it will disappear.
10
Widen the OrderDate field to fit its contents, so that the entire criterion is visible in
this field.
Access has added # signs to designate a date format.
11
Run the query to extract the matching records.
206 Chapter 7 Create queries
Only five orders were placed in the requested period.
Now let’s have the query request the range of dates each time you run it.
12
Switch to Design view. In the Criteria row of the OrderDate field, replace the existing
criterion with the following, entering this criterion exactly as shown and then pressing
the Enter key:
Between [Enter the beginning date:] And [Enter the ending date:]
13
Run the query, which opens the Enter Parameter Value dialog box.
The first Enter Parameter Value dialog box requests the beginning date in the range.
14
15
In the text box, enter 1/8/12, and click OK.
16
Save the query as Orders By Date.
In the second Enter Parameter Value dialog box, enter 1/15/12, and click OK.
Notice that the results datasheet lists only the nine orders placed between the
specified dates.
+
CLEAN UP Close the query. Keep the GardenCompany07 database open for use in
later exercises.
Creating queries manually 207
7
Summarizing data by using queries
You typically use a query to locate all the records that meet some criteria. But sometimes
you are not as interested in the details of all the records as you are in summarizing the
­query results in some way. For example, you might want to know how many orders have
been placed this year or the total dollar value of all orders placed.
The easiest way to extract summary information is by creating a query that groups the necessary fields and does the math for you. The calculations are performed by using one of the
following aggregate functions:
▪▪ Sum Calculates the total of the values in a field
▪▪ Avg Calculates the average of the values in a field
▪▪ Min Extracts the lowest value in a field
▪▪ Max Extracts the highest value in a field
▪▪ Count Counts the number of values in a field, not counting Null (blank) values
▪▪ StDev Calculates the standard deviation of the values in a field
▪▪ Var Calculates the variance of the values in a field
When you use the Simple Query wizard to create a query based on a table that has fields
containing numeric data, the wizard gives you the option of creating a summary query. If
you select Summary on the wizard’s second page and then click Summary Options, the wizard displays a dialog box in which you can specify the aggregate function you want to use.
208 Chapter 7 Create queries
If you are using the Simple Query wizard to build a query with fields that contain numeric data,
you can have the wizard add an aggregate function to the query.
When creating a query manually, or modifying an existing query, you can click the Totals
button in the Show/Hide group on the Design tool tab to add a Total row to the grid. You
can then select the aggregate function you want from a list. The list also allows you to
group fields, select the first or last record that meets the specified criteria, enter an expression, or make additional criteria refinements.
TIP You don’t have to create a query to summarize all the data in a table. You can display
the table in Datasheet view and then on the Home tab, in the Records group, click the
Totals button to add a Total row at the bottom of the table. (Clicking the Totals button
again removes the row from the table.) In the Total row of each field, you can select the
type of summary data you want to appear from a list. The types available for each field
depend on its data type. For example, you can count all fields, but you can only calculate
the sum or average of fields containing numeric data.
Summarizing data by using queries 209
7
In this exercise, you’ll create a query that calculates the total number of products in an
­inventory, the average price of all the products, and the total value of the inventory.
SET UP You need the GardenCompany07 database you worked with in the preceding
exercise to complete this exercise. If necessary, open the database. Then follow the steps.
1
2
3
Open the Query Designer, and add the Products table to the query.
In the Products field list, double-click ProductID, and then double-click UnitPrice.
On the Design tool tab, in the Show/Hide group, click the Totals button to add a
Total row below the Table row in the design grid, with the Group By aggregate
function in the Total row of each field.
TIP If you need to adjust the height of the design grid after adding the Total row,
drag the bar that separates the design grid and the top pane upward.
4
Click in the Total row of the ProductID field, click the arrow, and then in the list,
click Count to replace Group By with the Count aggregate function.
5
Display the Total list for the UnitPrice field, and click Avg.
This simple query summarizes the data in two fields in different ways.
Let’s run the query to count the number of records containing a value in the
ProductID field and the average of all the UnitPrice values.
6
Run the query.
The results show that the average price of 189 products is $17.92.
210 Chapter 7 Create queries
Now let’s add a new field that uses data from two fields in the Products table to
­perform a calculation.
7
8
Switch to Design view.
9
Widen the third column so that its entire contents are displayed. Notice that the
expression you entered has changed to the following:
In the Field row of the third column, enter UnitPrice*UnitsInStock , and press the
Enter key.
Expr1: [UnitPrice]*[UnitsInStock]
This expression will multiply the price of each product by the number of units in stock.
10
11
12
13
14
Double-click Expr1, and enter Value of Inventory as the expression’s label.
Display the Total list for the third column, and then click Sum.
Save the query with the name Product Analysis.
Run the query, which returns the sum of all the values calculated by the expression.
Widen the columns of the results datasheet so that their entire contents are
displayed.
This query now summarizes the data in three ways.
+
CLEAN UP Close the query, saving your layout changes. Keep the GardenCompany07
database open for use in later exercises.
Summarizing data by using queries 211
7
Calculating by using queries
As you saw in the previous exercise, you can not only use a query to summarize data by
using built-in aggregate functions but you can also perform a calculation and create a new
field in which to store it. For example, you might want to calculate an extended price or
how long employees have worked for the company.
One of the basic tenets of good database design is that you should never store information
that can be calculated from existing data. Instead of creating a new field in a table and increasing the size of the database with redundant information, use an expression in a query
to compute the desired information from existing data whenever you need it.
TIP It is possible to use the results of one query as a field in another query. The nested
query involves use of a Structured Query Language (SQL) Select statement and is called
a subquery. For more information about subqueries, search for Nest a query inside
another query in Access Help.
In this exercise, you’ll create a query that combines information from two tables into a
datasheet and calculates the extended price of an item based on the unit price, quantity
ordered, and discount.
SET UP You need the GardenCompany07 database you worked with in the preceding
exercise to complete this exercise. If necessary, open the database. Then follow the steps.
1
Open the Query Designer, and add the Order Details and Products tables to the
query.
2
Drag the following five fields from their field lists to consecutive columns in the
design grid.
From this field list
Drag this field
Order Details
OrderID
Products
ProductName
Order Details
UnitPrice
Order Details
Quantity
Order Details
Discount
212 Chapter 7 Create queries
The results datasheet will display the extracted information in the order of the fields in the
design grid.
3
Run the query.
7
The results show that the query is working correctly.
4
5
Save the query with the name Order Details Extended.
Switch to Design view. Then in the OrderID column, display the Sort list, and click
Ascending.
Now in a new field in the design grid, let’s use the Expression Builder to insert an
­expression that computes the extended price by multiplying the unit price by the
quantity sold, minus any discount.
Calculating by using queries 213
6
In the Field row, right-click in the first blank column, and then click Build to open the
Expression Builder dialog box.
In the Expression Builder dialog box, the Order Details Extended query is selected in the
Expression Elements box, and the Expression Categories box displays the fields from the query.
Here is the expression you are going to build in the expression box:
CCur([Order Details]![UnitPrice]*[Order Details]![Quantity]*
(1-[Order Details]![Discount]))
The CCur function converts the results of the math inside its parentheses to currency
format.
TIP If you wanted to enter this expression directly into the field, you could simplify
it to this:
CCur([Order Details]![UnitPrice]*[Quantity]*(1-[Discount]))
The [Order Details]! part is required only for the UnitPrice field, which appears in both
tables. It tells the query which table to use.
7
In the Expression Elements list, double-click Functions, and then click Built-In
Functions.
214 Chapter 7 Create queries
8
In the Expression Categories list, click Conversion. Then in the Expression Values list,
double-click CCur.
The <<expression>> inside the parentheses represents the expressions that will eventually
result in the number Access should convert to currency format.
9
In the expression box, click <<expression>> to select it, so that the next thing you
enter will replace it. (The next expression element is the UnitPrice field from the
Order Details table.)
10
In the Expression Elements list, click the minus icon to the left of Functions to
collapse that element. Then click the plus icon to the left of GardenCompany07.
accdb (or your version of that file—ours is MyGardenCompany07), double-click
Tables, and click Order Details.
11
In the Expression Categories list, double-click UnitPrice to replace the
<<expression>> placeholder with the table/field information.
Now let’s multiply the amount in the UnitPrice field by the amount in the Quantity
field.
12
With the cursor after [UnitPrice] in the expression box, click Operators in the
Expression Elements list; click Arithmetic in the Expression Categories list; and
double-click * (multiply) in the Expression Values list.
Calculating by using queries 215
7
13
In the expression box, click <<Expr>> to select it. In the Expression Elements list, in
the Tables area of the GardenCompany07.accdb list, click Order Details. Then in the
Expression Categories list, double-click Quantity.
So far, we have entered an expression that calculates the total cost by multiplying
the price of an item by the quantity ordered. However, suppose the sale price is discounted due to quantity or another factor. The discount, which is stored in the Order
Details table, is expressed as the percentage to deduct. But it is easier to compute
the percentage to be paid than it is to compute the discount and subtract it from the
total cost.
TIP The Discount field values are displayed in the Order Details table as percentages,
but they are stored in the database as decimal numbers between 0 and 1. (For example, a discount displayed as 10% is stored as 0.1). So if the discount is 10 percent,
the percentage to be paid is 1-Discount, or 0.9. In other words, the expression will
multiply the unit price by the quantity and then multiply that result by 0.9.
14
With the cursor to the left of the closing parenthesis in the expression box, enter
*(1-. In the Expression Categories list, double-click Discount. Then enter ) (closing
parenthesis).
The entire expression now appears in the expression box.
216 Chapter 7 Create queries
TIP If the entire expression isn’t visible in the expression box, you can widen the
­Expression Builder dialog box by dragging its left or right border.
15
In the Expression Builder dialog box, click OK to insert the expression into the
design grid.
16
Press Enter to complete the entry of the expression. Then widen the column so that
the entire expression is visible.
Access has assigned the label Expr1 to the field. (This label is known as the field alias.)
Let’s change the label to something more meaningful.
17
18
In the design grid, double-click Expr1, and then enter ExtendedPrice.
Run the query.
7
The orders are sorted by the OrderID field, and the extended price is calculated in the last field.
19
In the few records with discounts, verify that the query calculates the extended price
correctly.
+
CLEAN UP Close the query, saving it when prompted. Keep the GardenCompany07
database open for use in later exercises.
Calculating by using queries 217
Updating records by using queries
As you use a database and as it grows, you might discover that errors creep in or that some
information becomes out of date. You can tediously scroll through the records looking for
those that need to be changed, but it is more efficient to use the tools and techniques provided by Access for that purpose.
If you want to find or replace multiple instances of the same word or phrase, you can use
the Find and Replace commands in the Find group on the Home tab. These commands
work much like the same commands in Microsoft Word or Microsoft Excel.
If you want to manipulate information stored in the database only under certain circumstances, you need the power of an action query. An action query finds records that match
the selection criteria and performs an action on them. For example, you can increase the
price of all products in one category by a certain percentage, or remove all the items belonging to a specific product line. This type of data manipulation is easy to do with an action
query. Not only does using a query save time, but it helps to avoid errors.
Four types of actions are available:
▪▪ Append Adds records from one or more tables to the end of one or more other
tables.
▪▪ Delete Deletes records from one or more tables.
▪▪ Make-table Creates a new table from all or part of the data in one or more tables.
▪▪ Update Makes changes to records in one or more tables. Running an update query
makes irreversible changes to the underlying table, so you should always create a
backup copy of the table before running this type of query. You can quickly create a
copy of a table by displaying the Tables list in the Navigation pane, clicking the table
you want to copy, pressing Ctrl+C, and then pressing Ctrl+V to paste a copy. In the
Paste Table As dialog box, enter a name for the new table, and then click OK. The
backup table then becomes part of the database. You can delete it when you are sure
that the update query produced the results you want.
TIP In addition to these queries, you can create SQL queries, including union, pass through,
and data definition queries. SQL queries are beyond the scope of this book.
218 Chapter 7 Create queries
You can’t create an action query directly; you must first create a select query and then
convert it. With an existing select query open in the Query Designer, click the appropriate
button in the Query Type group on the Design tool tab. (You can also right-click the query
in the Query Designer, click Query Type, and then click the type of query you want.)
In this exercise, you’ll create an update query to increase the price of selected items by
10 percent.
SET UP You need the GardenCompany07 database you worked with in the preceding
exercise to complete this exercise. If necessary, open the database. Then follow the steps.
1
In the Navigation pane, copy and paste the Categories table, naming the new
object Copy Of Categories, so that you have a backup in the event that your query
produces unexpected results.
2
On the Create tab, in the Queries group, click the Query Wizard button. Then with
Simple Query Wizard selected in the New Query dialog box, click OK.
3
Display Table: Categories in the Tables/Queries list, and in the Available Fields list,
double-click CategoryName to move it to the Selected Fields list.
4
Display Table: Products in the Tables/Queries list, and in the Available Fields list,
double-click ProductName and UnitPrice to move them to the Selected Fields list.
5
Click Finish to create the query by using the default detail setting and title and to run
the query.
Only the Category Name, Product Name, and Unit Price fields are displayed.
Updating records by using queries 219
7
The current query results include the products in all categories. We want to raise
the prices of the products in only the Bulbs and Cacti categories, so let’s change
the query to select only those categories.
6
Switch to Design view.
This Categories Query was created and named by the Simple Query wizard.
7
In the Criteria row of the CategoryName field, enter bulbs, and in the or row of the
same field, enter cacti. Then press the Enter key.
8
Run the query to confirm that only bulbs and cacti are listed, and then return to
Design view.
The query now selects the records we want to change. Let’s convert this select query
to an update query so that we can make a change to the selected records.
9
On the Design tool tab, in the Query Type group, click the Update button.
In the design grid, the Sort and Show rows disappear and an Update To row appears.
220 Chapter 7 Create queries
10
In the Update To row of the UnitPrice column, enter [UnitPrice]*1.1. Then press the
Enter key.
TIP Enclosing UnitPrice in square brackets indicates that it is a database object—in
this case, a field in a table. If you use the Expression Builder to insert this expression,
it looks like this:
[Products]![UnitPrice]*1.1
Because this description of the field includes the table in which it is found, you can
insert this expression in other tables.
11
Without running the query, switch to Datasheet view to display a list of the same unit
prices you viewed earlier; they have not been changed yet.
TIP In a select query, clicking the View button on the Home tab or the Datasheet
View button on the View Shortcuts toolbar is the same as clicking the Run button.
But in an update query, clicking the View button or the Datasheet View button simply displays a list of the fields that will be updated.
12
Switch to Design view. Then run the query, which displays a message box asking you
to confirm that you want to update the records.
This message box cautions that you can’t undo the changes you are about to make.
13
In the message box, click Yes, and then switch to Datasheet view. Notice that the
prices in the UnitPrice field have been increased by 10 percent.
+
CLEAN UP Close the Categories Query, saving your changes. Keep the
GardenCompany07 database open for use in the last exercise.
Updating records by using queries 221
7
Deleting records by using queries
Over time, some of the information stored in a database might become obsolete. For example, the Products table lists all the products the company currently offers for sale or has
sold in the past. You can indicate that a product is no longer available for sale by placing a
check mark in a Discontinued field. Discontinued products aren’t displayed in the catalog or
offered for sale, but they are kept in the database for a while in case it becomes practical to
sell them again. A similar situation could exist with customers who haven’t placed an order
in a long time or who have asked to be removed from a mailing list but might still place
orders.
To maintain an efficient database, it is a good idea to discard outdated records from time to
time. You could scroll through the tables and delete records manually, but if all the records
you want to delete match some pattern, you can use a delete query to quickly get rid of all
of them.
It is important to keep two things in mind when deleting records from a database:
▪▪ You can’t recover deleted records.
▪▪ The effects of a delete query can be more far-reaching than you intend.
If the table from which you are deleting records is related to another table, and the Cascade
Delete Related Records option for that relationship is selected, records in the second table
will also be deleted. (Cascade Delete essentially means that the deletion is also applied to
related records.) Sometimes this is what you want, but sometimes it isn’t. For example, you
probably don’t want to delete records of previous sales at the same time that you delete
discontinued products.
As a precaution, before actually deleting records, you might want to display the Relationships
page by clicking the Relationships button in the Relationships group on the Database Tools
tab. If the table you are deleting data from has a relationship with any table containing information that shouldn’t be deleted, right-click the relationship line, click Edit Relationship,
and make sure that if the Enforce Referential Integrity check box is selected, the Cascade
Delete Related Records check box is not selected.
As a further safeguard against potential problems, you will want to back up your database
before deleting the records. You might also want to create a new table (perhaps named
Deleted<file name>) and then move the records you want to delete to the new table, in
which you can review them before deleting them permanently.
222 Chapter 7 Create queries
SEE ALSO For information about backing up a database, see “Preventing database
­problems” in Chapter 12, “Protect databases.”
In this exercise, you’ll create a delete query that will remove the records of discontinued
products from a table.
SET UP You need the GardenCompany07 database you worked with in the preceding
exercise to complete this exercise. If necessary, open the database. Then follow the steps.
1
2
Open the Query Designer, and add the Products table to the query.
In the Products field list, double-click * (the asterisk) to enter Products.* in the Field
row and Products in the Table row of the first column of the design grid.
TIP Double-clicking the asterisk in the field list is a quick way to move all the fields
to the query, without each field taking up a column in the design grid and possibly
making it necessary to scroll from side to side to view them all. However, selecting
all the fields in this way prevents you from setting Sort, Show, and Criteria values for
individual fields. To set these values, you have to add the specific fields to the design
grid, thereby adding them twice. To avoid displaying the fields twice in the results,
clear the check box in the Show row of the duplicate individual fields.
3
In the Products field list, double-click Discontinued to copy it to the next available
column in the design grid.
Let’s convert this select query to a delete query and then use criteria to identify the
records we want to delete.
4
On the Design tool tab, in the Query Type group, click the Delete button to convert
this select query to a delete query.
In the query design grid, the Sort and Show rows disappear, and a Delete row appears.
In the first column, which contains the reference to all fields in the Products table,
the Delete row contains the word From, indicating that this is the table from which
records will be deleted. When you add individual fields to the remaining columns,
as you did with the Discontinued field, the Delete row displays Where, indicating
Deleting records by using queries 223
7
that this field can include deletion criteria. The Discontinued field is set to the Yes/
No data type, which is represented in the datasheet as a check box that is selected
to indicate Yes and cleared to indicate No. To locate all discontinued products, you
need to identify records with the Discontinued field set to Yes.
5
In the Criteria row of the Discontinued field, enter Yes, and then press the Enter key.
Before we do anything else, let’s test the query.
6
Without running the query, switch to Datasheet view, which displays the 18
discontinued products that will be deleted if you run the query.
7
Scroll to the right to verify that for all records, the Products.Discontinued check box
is selected.
8
Switch back to Design view, and run the query.
Before deleting the records, Access warns you of the permanence of this action.
9
In the message box, click Yes, which displays another warning.
Access cannot delete two of the discontinued records.
224 Chapter 7 Create queries
10
In the message box, click No to cancel the deletion. Two discontinued records cannot
be deleted because they have entries in the Order Details table. If this were a real
database, you would need to decide whether to set the Discontinued field of these
products to No (clear their check boxes) or to delete the entries from the Order
Details table before allowing the query to delete the product records.
Suppose you are concerned that someone might accidentally run this delete query
and destroy records you aren’t ready to destroy. Let’s change the query back to a
­select query before saving it.
11
On the Design tool tab, in the Query Type group, click the Select button. Notice that
in the query design grid, the Delete row has disappeared and the Sort and Show
rows are now displayed.
12
Save the query with the name Delete Discontinued Products.
TIP If you want to delete obsolete records in the future, open the select query in
­Design view, convert it to a delete query, and then run it.
+
CLEAN UP Close the query, and then close the GardenCompany07 database.
7
Key points
▪▪ Create a query to display specific fields from specific records from one or more tables.
You can save the query for later use.
▪▪ You can use wizards or create queries manually in the Query Designer.
▪▪ Queries can use aggregate functions such as Sum and Avg to summarize data, and
they can perform calculations on matched data.
▪▪ An update query performs an updating action on its results, such as replacing the
contents of a field.
▪▪ A delete query deletes records that meet specific criteria. Use caution with this type
of query; the effects can be far reaching, and you can’t recover deleted records.
Key points 225
Chapter at a glance
Modify Modify forms created by using a wizard,
page 228
Display Display subforms,
page 245
Add Add controls,
page 237
8
Create custom forms
IN THIS CHAPTER, YOU WILL LEARN HOW TO
▪▪
▪▪
▪▪
Modify forms created by using a wizard.
Add controls.
Display subforms.
Every form has three basic sections: Form Header, Detail, and Form Footer. When you use
the Form tool or a wizard to create a form, a logo placeholder and a title is added to the
Form Header section, a set of text box and label controls for each field in the underlying
table is added to the Detail section, and the Form Footer section is left blank. You can customize any form by adding controls to its sections and by rearranging controls to make the
form easy to work with.
Ease of data entry is the major consideration when designing a form, because the easier
this process is, the less likely people are to make mistakes. One of the ways to eliminate
mistakes is to have Microsoft Access 2013 enter data automatically based on existing
­entries. Another is to make it possible to enter data in more than one table at a time by
using subforms.
In this chapter, you’ll control a form’s function and appearance by inserting controls and
modifying the form and control properties. You’ll also present information from multiple
tables in one form by using subforms.
TIP This chapter builds on the discussion of forms in Chapter 3, “Create simple forms.”
PRACTICE FILES To complete the exercises in this chapter, you need the practice files
contained in the Chapter08 practice file folder. For more information, see “Download
the practice files” in this book’s Introduction.
227
Modifying forms created by using a wizard
When a form is intended as the primary method of entering new records, it usually includes
all the fields from the underlying table. As demonstrated in Chapter 3, “Create simple forms,”
the quickest way to create a form that includes all the fields from one table is to use the
Form tool. Another method, which provides more control over the creation of the form, is
to use a wizard. In either case, you can easily customize the form after it is created.
In Chapter 3, we showed you how to work with forms in Layout view. Because the data
in the underlying table or tables is displayed in this view, you can more easily gauge the
­effects of moving and sizing the controls and their labels. You can display the Property
Sheet pane and adjust properties to fine-tune form elements, and you can make most of
the adjustments you are likely to want in the custom form.
When you want more control over the layout of a form, you can work in Design view. In
this view, you can modify the structure of the form on a design grid, but the data from
the underlying table or tables is not visible.
In Design View, Access displays horizontal and vertical rulers and a grid to help you position
controls and labels.
228 Chapter 8 Create custom forms
The form design grid is divided into three sections:
▪▪ Form Header Contains information to be displayed at the top of the form, such as
a title.
▪▪ Detail Contains a text box control and an associated label control for each of the
fields you selected for inclusion in the form.
▪▪ Form Footer Can contain information to be displayed at the bottom of the form.
By default, this section is blank, so it is closed.
In Design view, you can work with the form in the following ways:
▪▪ Adjust the size of sections.
▪▪ Apply a theme.
▪▪ Change the size of controls.
▪▪ Arrange controls logically to facilitate data entry.
▪▪ Adjust the properties of form elements in the Property Sheet pane.
▪▪ Add fields from the Field List pane.
▪▪ Add controls to limit data entry choices or add functionality to the form.
SEE ALSO For information about adding controls to forms, see “Adding controls” later
in this chapter.
In this exercise, you’ll use the Form wizard to create a form that displays a list of product
categories. You’ll then modify the form in Design view by formatting its title, making a
control inaccessible to users, changing a label, and adding and resizing a control for a new
field.
Modifying forms created by using a wizard 229
8
Different types of forms
Most forms facilitate data entry—adding or editing records in one or more tables. How­
ever, some forms are more specialized than others, and some serve purposes ­other than
data entry. The following is an overview of the types of forms you can ­create by clicking
buttons in the Forms group on the Create tab:
▪▪ Form Design Displays a blank design grid in Design view, in which you can
­design a form from scratch.
▪▪ Blank form Displays a blank canvas in Layout view and opens the Field List pane,
from which you can drag fields from the database tables onto the form.
▪▪ Navigation Displays a gallery of predefined navigation form layouts.
SEE ALSO For information about navigation forms, see “Designing navigation forms”
in Chapter 11, “Make databases user friendly.”
Clicking the More Forms button displays a gallery of additional types of forms:
▪▪ Multiple items Displays more than one record at a time on a single form page.
Sometimes called a continuous form.
▪▪ Datasheet Looks and behaves like a datasheet (table).
▪▪ Split Provides two synchronized views of the same data, one in a form and the
other in a datasheet. This greatly simplifies the process of finding and editing
records.
▪▪ Modal dialog Looks and behaves like a dialog box. It has default OK and Cancel
buttons. When the form is active, nothing else can be done until it is closed.
230 Chapter 8 Create custom forms
SET UP You need the GardenCompany08 database located in the Chapter08 practice
file folder to complete this exercise. Be sure to use the practice database for this chapter
rather than continuing on with the database from an earlier chapter. Open the database,
and if you want, save your own version to avoid overwriting the original. Then follow the
steps.
1
In the Navigation pane, in the Tables group, click Customers. Then on the Create
tab, in the Forms group, click the Form Wizard button to start the Form wizard.
8
If a table is selected in the Navigation pane when you click the Form Wizard button,
that table’s information populates the wizard’s first page.
2
Display the Tables/Queries list, and click Table: Categories. In the Available Fields
list, double-click CategoryID to move it to the Selected Fields list, and double-click
CategoryName. Then click Next to move to the next page, where you choose a
layout for the new form.
TIP The preview area on the left shows how the form will look with the selected
­option applied.
3
Explore the layout options, and then with Columnar selected, click Next.
Modifying forms created by using a wizard 231
4
With Open the form to view or enter information selected, click Finish to accept
the suggested title and open the form.
The new form displays the first record in the Categories table.
5
Scroll through a few records by using the controls on the record navigation bar at
the bottom of the form.
Let’s make a few changes in Design view.
6
Switch to Design view.
The design grid for the Categories form includes a Form Header that contains the title, a Details
area that contains label and text box controls for two fields, and an empty Form Footer.
232 Chapter 8 Create custom forms
7
On the Design tool tab, in the Themes group, click the Themes button. Then in the
Themes gallery, click the Whisp thumbnail to make the color scheme of that theme
available to the form.
8
Click the Form Header section bar to select that section. Then on the Format tool
tab, in the Control Formatting group, click the Shape Fill button. In the top row of
the Theme Colors palette, click the third swatch (Light Green, Background 2).
9
Point to the bottom of the Form Header section (just above the Detail section bar),
and when the pointer changes to a two-headed arrow, drag downward to enlarge
the section until the entire Categories title control is visible.
10
Click the Categories title control. On the Arrange tool tab, in the Sizing & Ordering
group, click the Size/Space button to display a list of sizing and spacing options.
8
The list includes commands for adjusting the size and spacing of controls,
in addition to grid and grouping options.
11
In the Size area of the list, click To Fit.
Modifying forms created by using a wizard 233
12
Make the Form Header section just tall enough to contain the title control.
Next, suppose we don’t want users to be able to change the value in the CategoryID
text box control. Let’s disable it so that its text and background are gray.
13
In the Detail section, click the CategoryID text box control, and on the Design tool
tab, in the Tools group, click the Property Sheet button.
KEYBOARD SHORTCUT Press F4 to open and close the Property Sheet pane. For a list
of keyboard shortcuts, see “Keyboard shortcuts” at the end of this book.
14
In the Property Sheet pane, click the Data tab. Click the Enabled property, click its
arrow, and click No. Then close the Property Sheet pane.
15
Click the Category Name label control, double-click Category, and then delete it and
the following space.
Now let’s add the category description from the Categories table to this form.
16
Drag the bottom of the Detail section down until the section is about 2.5 inches tall.
Then drag the right border until the form design grid is about 5 inches wide.
TIP You cannot change the width of sections independently; widening one section
widens the entire form.
17
On the Design tool tab, in the Tools group, click the Add Existing Fields button to
open the Field List pane.
You can click Show All Tables to display the fields from other tables in the database.
234 Chapter 8 Create custom forms
KEYBOARD SHORTCUT Press Alt+F8 to open and close the Field List pane.
18
In the Field List pane, click Description, drag the field below the Category Name
text box control in the Detail section, and then close the Field List pane.
19
Point to the border of the Description text box control, and drag the control so that
its left edge is aligned with the Category Name control and its top edge sits at the 1
inch mark on the vertical ruler.
20
Click the Description label control, and drag the large handle in the upper-left corner
to the left until the control is aligned with the labels above it. Then widen the control
to match the other controls.
21
With the Description label control still selected, hold down the Ctrl key, and click
the Name and CategoryID label controls to add them to the selection. Then on the
Format tool tab, in the Font group, click the Align Right button.
22
On the Arrange tool tab, in the Sizing & Ordering group, click Size/Space. Then in
the Spacing area of the list, click Equal Vertical.
23
Display the Size/Space list again, and in the Size area, click To Tallest to make all the
label controls the same size.
24
Select all the text box controls, display the Property Sheet pane, and on the Format
page, set Left to 2”.
25
Make the Detail section just tall enough to contain its controls so that the form
occupies the smallest possible amount of space.
You have added a text box control and its associated label control, and changed the controls’
alignment, size, and spacing.
Modifying forms created by using a wizard 235
8
TIP If you point to the border of a text box control and drag it to a new location, the
associated label moves with it. Similarly, if you point to the border of a label control
and drag, the associated text box control also moves. If you want to move either control independently of the other, you must drag the large gray square in the control’s
upper-left corner.
Let’s look at the results of the changes.
26
Switch to Form view.
The labels and their controls now look neater on the form.
27
Scroll through a few category records. Try to edit entries in the CategoryID field to
confirm that you can’t.
The record selector bar down the left side of this form isn’t needed right now, so let’s
turn it off.
28
Switch to Design view, and click the form selector (the box in the upper-left corner
at the junction of the horizontal and vertical rulers) to display the properties for the
entire form in the Property Sheet pane .
29
On the Format page of the Property Sheet pane, change the Record Selectors
property to No. Then close the Property Sheet pane.
236 Chapter 8 Create custom forms
30
Switch to Form view to verify that the form no longer has a record selector.
+
CLEAN UP Close the Categories form, saving your changes. Keep the
GardenCompany08 database open for use in later exercises.
Adding controls
Although text box and label controls are the most common controls found in forms, you
can also enhance your forms with many other types of controls. For example, you can add
combo boxes, check boxes, and list boxes to present people with choices instead of having
them make entries in text boxes.
When a form is displayed in Layout view or Design view, the controls available in that view
are located in the Controls gallery on the Design tool tab. Each control is one of the following types:
▪▪ Bound A control that is linked to a field in a table or the datasheet created by a
query. These controls include:
▪▪ Text boxes and labels
▪▪ Option groups and buttons, combo boxes, list boxes, and check boxes
▪▪ Charts
▪▪ Subforms/subreports
▪▪ Unbound A control that is not bound to any underlying data. These controls include:
▪▪ Buttons and toggle buttons
▪▪ Tabs and page breaks
▪▪ Hyperlinks, web browser controls, and navigation controls
▪▪ Attachments
▪▪ Frames
▪▪ Lines and images
Adding controls 237
8
In this exercise, you’ll insert a picture into the Form Header of a form and replace the
­default title with a custom one. You’ll also replace a text box control in the Detail section
with a combo box control.
SET UP You need the GardenCompany08 database you worked with in the preceding exercise and the Hydrangeas graphic located in the Chapter08 practice file folder
to complete this exercise. If necessary, open the database. Then open the Customers
form in Design view, and follow the steps.
1
2
In the Customers form, make the Form Header section about 1.5 inches tall.
3
On the Design tool tab, in the Controls group, click the More button to display a
menu containing the Controls gallery.
In the Form Header section, select the logo control, hold down the Ctrl key, and
select the label control. Then press the Delete key.
From the Controls gallery, you can insert bound and unbound controls.
4
In the gallery, click the Image thumbnail, and then on the left side of the Form
Header section, draw a control approximately 1 inch high and 1.5 inches wide.
When you release the mouse button, the Insert Picture dialog box opens.
5
In the dialog box, navigate to your Chapter08 practice file folder, and double-click
Hydrangeas.
238 Chapter 8 Create custom forms
The hydrangeas photo has been inserted into the Form Header section.
TIP How an image fits into an image control is determined by the Size Mode prop-
erty of the control. If the property is set to Clip and the control isn’t large enough to
display the entire image, the image is cropped. If the property is set to Stretch, you
can enlarge the control to display the entire image. If the property is set to Zoom
(the default), the image automatically resizes to fit the control.
Now let’s add a label control so that we can enter a title for the form.
6
In the Controls group, display the Controls gallery, and then click the Label
thumbnail.
7
To the right of the picture in the Form Header section, drag diagonally to draw a
control about 2 inches wide and 0.5 inch tall.
8
In the active label control, enter Garden Company. Press Shift+Enter to insert a line
break, and then enter Customers.
9
Click the Form Header section bar. On the Format tool tab, in the Control
Formatting group, click the Shape Fill button. Then in the top row of the Theme
Colors palette, click the third swatch (Light Green, Background 2).
Adding controls 239
8
10
Select the label text, and in the Font group, make the text 20 points, bold, and any
dark green color. Then center the text.
11
If Garden Company wraps to two lines, drag the sizing handle in the middle of the
right side of the label frame to the right until the two words fit on one line. Then on
the Arrange tool tab, in the Sizing & Ordering group, click the Size/Space button,
and in the Size area of the Size/Space list, click To Fit.
12
Reduce the height of the Form Header section so that it is just big enough to contain
its controls.
You have completed all the adjustments to the controls in the Form Header section.
Next let’s create a combo box that displays a list of possible countries but that also
allows users to enter the country if it is not already in the list. First we’ll turn off the
Control Wizards feature so that we can add a control with all its default settings,
without having to work through the associated wizard’s pages.
13
On the Design tool tab, in the Controls group, click the More button. At the bottom
of the menu, do one of the following:
▪▪ If the icon associated with Use Control Wizards is not orange (inactive), press Esc
to close the menu.
▪▪ If the icon is orange (active), click Use Control Wizards to deactivate the
command.
240 Chapter 8 Create custom forms
14
Enlarge the Detail section to create at least an inch of space below the Country
controls.
15
Display the Controls gallery, and click the Combo Box thumbnail. Then drag
diagonally to draw a control below the Country text box control. Make it
approximately 1.5 inches wide and 0.25 inch tall.
Because the combo box control is not attached to a field in the Customers table, its name is
Unbound.
TIP Access assigns a number to each control when it is created. Don’t be concerned
if the numbers associated with the controls you create are different from those in our
graphics.
16
Click the Country text box control. On the Format tool tab, in the Font group, click
the Format Painter button, and then click the combo box control.
TIP The formatting of the Country text box is copied to both the combo box control
and its label.
Now let’s create a simple query that extracts one example of every country in the
Country field of the Customers table and displays the results as a list when users click
the combo box arrow.
17
Right-click the combo box, and then click Properties to open the Property Sheet
pane.
Adding controls 241
8
18
In the pane, click the Data tab. Then click the Control Source arrow, and in the list,
click Country to bind the combo box control to the Country field in the Customers
table.
19
Verify that the Row Source Type property is set to Table/Query. Then in the Row
Source box, enter the following:
SELECT DISTINCT Customers.Country FROM Customers;
Be sure to include the period (but no space) between Customers and Country, and
the semicolon at the end of the text. (The words in capital letters are instructions and
the remaining words are variables that identify the field and the table to which the
instructions should be applied.)
To display the entire query, you can widen the Property Sheet pane by dragging its left border
to the left.
20
Click the combo box label control. Click the Format tab of the Property Sheet pane,
and change the Caption property to Country.
242 Chapter 8 Create custom forms
21
Click the original Country text box control, and press Delete to delete the control
and its associated label. Then move the new combo box and label into their places,
sizing them as needed.
TIP To ensure that new controls are aligned with existing controls, you can click an
existing control and make a note of its Width, Height, Top, and Left properties. Then
use whichever of those settings is relevant to fine-tune the new control. You can also
use the Arrow keys to nudge the controls into place.
22
Shrink the size of the Detail section until it is only as tall as it needs to be to hold its
controls. Also shrink the width of the form so that the contents of all the sections fit
neatly.
Let’s draw a dark green line across the form, below the Phone control, and make sure
that no matter what size the program window is, the line always stretches across the
width of the form.
23
If the entire form design grid is not visible, close the Property Sheet pane. Then
from the Design tool tab, display the Controls gallery, click the Line thumbnail, and
drag a line across the width of the form design grid to separate the name and phone
number information from the address.
24
If the Property Sheet pane is closed, open it, and set the Height property to 0 and
the Border Width property to 2 pt. Then close the pane.
TIP Setting the height to 0 does not make the line invisible; it ensures that the line is
straight.
25
With the line still selected, on the Format tool tab, in the Control Formatting group,
click the Shape Outline button, and set the line color to the same dark green color as
the title in the Form Header section.
26
On the Arrange tool tab, in the Position group, click the Anchoring button to display
the Anchoring gallery.
Adding controls 243
8
You can anchor a control in four positions and make it stretch in five directions.
27
28
In the gallery, click Stretch Across Top.
Switch to Form view, and try making the program window various sizes. Notice that
although the width of the form was only about 7 inches in Design view, the form
header and the line always span the width of the window, no matter what its size.
As a last step, let’s test the combo box control.
29
Scroll through a couple of records, and then click the Country combo box arrow to
display the country list.
Selecting possible entries is quick and easy with a combo box.
+
CLEAN UP Close the Customers form, saving your changes. Keep the
GardenCompany08 database open for use in the last exercise.
244 Chapter 8 Create custom forms
Displaying subforms
As you saw in “Exploring forms” in Chapter 1, “Explore Microsoft Access 2013,” if a one-tomany relationship exists between two tables, you can display information from both the
“one” and the “many” sides of the relationship by using a main form and a subform. For
example, the main form for related Customers and Orders tables might display information
about a customer (the “one” side), and the subform might list all the orders that the customer has placed (the “many” side).
Suppose you want to create a main form that includes all the fields of one table with a subform that includes all the fields of another table. As long as there is only one one-to-many
relationship between the tables already defined on the Relationships page, the fastest way
to create the form and its subform is by using the Form tool. Simply click the primary table
in the Navigation pane, and then on the Create tab, in the Forms group, click the Form button. The Form tool creates and displays a main form and subform, each containing all the
fields of its source table.
Selecting fields for main forms and subforms
If you want to create a main form and subform that include only some of the fields in
their underlying tables, use the Form wizard, as follows:
1 Ensure that there is a relationship between the tables. Then on the Create tab, in
the Forms group, click the Form Wizard button.
2 On the wizard’s first page, in the Tables/Queries list, click the table on which you
want to base the form.
3 In the Available Fields list, double-click the fields you want to include in the main
form to move them to the Selected Fields list.
4 In the Tables/Queries list, click the table on which you want to base the subform.
5 In the Available Fields list, double-click the fields you want to include in the subform, and then click Next.
6 On the wizard’s second page, with the primary table and Form with subform(s)
selected, click Next.
7 On the third page, select the layout you want, and then click Next.
8 On the last page, enter the titles you want for your forms, and with Open the form
to view or enter information selected, click Finish.
Displaying subforms 245
8
If you have already created a main form and you now want to add a subform to it, you can
add a subform/subreport control to the main form.
In this exercise, you’ll add a subform to an existing form in Design view, and you’ll then
modify its appearance in Layout view.
SET UP You need the GardenCompany08 database you worked with in the preced-
ing exercise to complete this exercise. If necessary, open the database. Then open the
Categories form in Design view, and follow the steps.
1
Enlarge your workspace by expanding the Detail section until it is approximately
3 inches tall.
2
On the Design tab, display the Controls menu. If the Use Control Wizards icon near
the bottom of the menu is not active (orange), click the command.
3
In the Controls gallery, click the Subform/Subreport thumbnail. Then in the Detail
section, below the Description label and text box controls, drag a control, which
starts the SubForm wizard.
On the first page of the SubForm wizard, you select the source of the subform data.
246 Chapter 8 Create custom forms
4
5
6
With Use existing Tables and Queries selected, click Next.
Display the Tables/Queries list, and click Table: Products.
In the Available Fields list, double-click the ProductName, CategoryID, Quantity­
PerUnit, UnitPrice, and UnitsInStock fields to add them to the Selected Fields list.
Then click Next.
On the third page of the SubForm wizard, you specify how the main form and
subform are linked.
TIP Because there is a relationship between the Products table and the Categories
table that is based on the CategoryID field, the wizard selects Choose From A List
and indicates the relationship it will use. If the wizard can’t identify which fields are
related, it selects the Define My Own option and displays list boxes in which you can
specify which fields should be related.
Displaying subforms 247
8
7
With Choose from a list selected, click Next, and then click Finish to accept the
suggested name for the subform and embed it in the Categories form.
The subform control has its own Form Header, Detail, and Form Footer sections, and can be
scrolled independently of the main form.
8
Above the upper-left corner of the subform control, click the Products subform
label, and press Delete.
Let’s explore the subform in various views.
9
Switch to Form view, where by default, the subform looks like a datasheet.
248 Chapter 8 Create custom forms
The subform has its own scroll bars and record navigation bar.
TIP This main form and subform are ideal for checking which products are assigned
to which categories and for looking up information about the products in a category.
But if you want to create a form whose main purpose is data entry, be sure to include
all the fields in which the database user will need to enter information.
10
Right-click the subform, point to Subform, and then click Form. Notice that when the
subform is in Form view, it reflects its layout in Design view.
Displaying subforms 249
8
The form layout is not as useful as the datasheet layout.
11
Switch the subform back to Datasheet view.
Let’s modify the layout of the subform.
12
Switch to Layout view. Then click any field in the subform, and on the Home tab, in
the Text Formatting group, change the font size to 9.
13
Double-click the right border of each field name to adjust the column to its widest
entry.
14
Widen the subform so that Units in Stock is visible, by dragging the subform’s right
border to the right.
250 Chapter 8 Create custom forms
Adjusting field widths is often easier in Layout view, where the underlying data from the table is
visible.
Let’s test the subform.
15
Switch to Form view. Then use the record navigation bar for the main form to display
each category in turn, verifying that the products in that category are listed in the
datasheet in the subform.
16
Click the First record button to return to the first category (Bulbs). Then in the
subform, click Bulbs in the Category column to the right of the first product
(Magic Lily).
TIP Because the Category field is a combo box control, an arrow appears at the right
end of the field to indicate that you can select a field value from a list.
17
Click the field’s arrow to display the list of categories, and then change the category
to Cacti.
Displaying subforms 251
8
18
On the main form’s record navigation bar, click the Next record button to move to
the Cacti category. Notice that the subform now includes the Magic Lily record.
19
Display the Category list for the Magic Lily record, and return it to the Bulbs
category.
Let’s delete the product category from the subform to ensure that it can’t be
changed.
20
Switch to Design view, and click Yes when prompted to save the form and the
subform.
21
22
In the subform, click the CategoryID combo box control, and then press Delete.
23
Switch to Form view, and scroll through the main form categories to view the results.
Save the form, switch back to Layout view, and then adjust the width of the subform,
allowing space for the scroll bar.
You can easily use this form to check the assignments of products to categories.
+
CLEAN UP Close the Categories form, and click Yes twice to save your changes.
Then close the GardenCompany08 database.
252 Chapter 8 Create custom forms
Key points
▪▪ Forms have three main sections: Form Header, Detail, and Form Footer. You can
size them to suit the needs of the form.
▪▪ You can customize any section of your form’s layout by adding and deleting
labels, moving labels and text box controls, and adding graphics.
▪▪ After you define a relationship between tables, you can add a subform to a
main form.
8
Key points 253
Chapter at a glance
Create Create reports manually,
page 256
Add Add subreports,
page 270
Modify Modify report content,
page 262
9
Create custom reports
IN THIS CHAPTER, YOU WILL LEARN HOW TO
▪▪
▪▪
▪▪
Create reports manually.
Modify report content.
Add subreports.
Reports often include sets of information that are related to the topic of the report, but not
necessarily related to each other. For example, a report might include information about the
production, marketing, and sales activities of a company. Or it might include information
about compensation and the company’s pension plan. Each topic is related to a particular
aspect of running the business, but the topics don’t all fit nicely into the structure of an individual Microsoft Access 2013 report.
One solution to this problem is to create separate reports, print them, and store them together in a binder. Another is to save them in electronic format in a folder or on a network.
An easier and more sophisticated solution is to combine them by using subreports.
In this chapter, you’ll build a fairly complex report. You’ll start by creating the report shell
(the main report) manually in Design view. Then you’ll modify the layout and content of the
shell report. Finally, you’ll provide detailed information by embedding a subreport within
the main report.
TIP This chapter builds on the discussion of reports in Chapter 5, “Create simple reports.”
PRACTICE FILES To complete the exercises in this chapter, you need the practice file
contained in the Chapter09 practice file folder. For more information, see “Download
the practice files” in this book’s Introduction.
255
Creating reports manually
When a report includes controls that are bound to specific fields in one or more tables,
usually the most efficient way to create the report is by using the Report wizard. When you
include more than one table in a report, the wizard evaluates the relationships between the
tables and offers to group the records in any logical manner available. As with multitable
forms, if you haven’t already established the relationships between the tables, you have to
cancel the wizard and establish them before continuing.
TIP If you are using more than two tables in a report, or if you will be using the same com-
bination of tables in several reports or forms, you can save time by creating a query based
on those tables and then using the results of that query as the basis for the report or form.
For information about queries, see Chapter 7, “Create queries.”
When a report will include mostly unbound controls, which don’t pull information from
underlying tables, it is easier to create the report manually in Design view. In this view, the
structure of the report is laid out on a design grid, in much the same arrangement as a form
in Design view.
Reports have five main sections and can include additional grouping sections.
256 Chapter 9 Create custom reports
The report design grid is divided into five main sections:
▪▪ Report Header Contains information to be displayed at the top of the first page of
the report, such as the report title.
▪▪ Page Header Contains information to be displayed at the top of every page of the
report, like the header in a Microsoft Word document.
▪▪ Detail Usually contains the controls that make up the main body of the report.
▪▪ Page Footer Contains information to be displayed at the bottom of every page, such
as a page number.
▪▪ Report Footer Contains information to be displayed at the bottom of the last page
of the report.
By default, the Report Header and Report Footer sections are not present on the report.
You can hide and display the Report Header, Report Footer, Page Header, or Page Footer
sections by right-clicking the design grid and then clicking the respective command. You
can also close a section without removing it by setting the Height property in its Property
Sheet pane to 0”. (This technique can be useful if you want to concentrate on one section
without being distracted by another.)
To organize a report, you can group and sort its contents. When you group information,
such as grouping all customers by region or all products by category, a Group Header section is added to the report for each grouping level you specify. Group headers are identified by the field name in their section bars.
As with forms, you can work with reports in Design view in the following ways:
▪▪ Apply a theme.
▪▪ Adjust the size of sections.
▪▪ Add, size, and arrange controls.
▪▪ Adjust the properties of report elements in the Property Sheet pane.
Creating reports manually 257
9
Adding hyperlinks, charts, and buttons
A variety of additional controls are available to enhance the usefulness of reports and
forms, such as the following:
▪▪ Hyperlink Clicking the Hyperlink button in the Controls gallery displays the
Insert Hyperlink dialog box. You can insert a static link to a file, a webpage,
­another object in the database, or an email message window by using the same
techniques you would use to insert a hyperlink in other Microsoft Office 2013 programs. For example, you might want to add a link to your organization’s website.
TIP In forms, you can use a Web Browser control to insert a dynamic hyperlink
that changes depending on the data displayed. To set up dynamic links, click
Hyperlink Builder in the Link to bar of the Insert Hyperlink dialog box to separate
the target address into its component parts. For more information about the Web
Browser control, search for Add Web browsing to a form in Access Help.
▪▪ Chart You can use the Chart wizard to plot the data in an existing table or query
(or both). In the Controls gallery, click the Chart button, and then drag to create
the control that will hold the chart and start the Chart wizard. Follow the wizard’s
instructions to select the data that will be plotted, the type of chart, and the layout. When you click Finish, the chart appears in the control, which you can move
and size like any other control.
▪▪ Button You can create a button that performs a specific task, such as displaying
the Print dialog box. To add a button to a report, click the Button button, and
click to create the button control. Right-click the control, and click Build Event.
Double-click Macro Builder, and in the Actions area in the Action Catalog pane,
expand the type of action you want. Double-click the action to open a page on
which you can add any information the macro needs, and then close the page. You
can assign a name and picture to the button on the Format page of its Property
Sheet pane.
TIP Adding a button to a form is much easier than adding one to a report. In
the Controls gallery, click the Button button, and then click to create the button
control and start the Command Button wizard. Follow the wizard’s instructions to
select the action, icon, and name for the button. Click Finish to insert the button
in the location you clicked. You can then move and size it like any other control.
Behind the scenes, the wizard embeds a macro in the control’s On Click property.
To view the macro, display the Event page of the button’s Property Sheet pane,
and then click the Ellipsis button to open the page containing the macro.
258 Chapter 9 Create custom reports
In this exercise, you’ll manually create a shell report that contains a Report Header section, a
Page Footer section, and a section in which you will add grouped data in a later exercise.
SET UP You need the GardenCompany09 database located in the Chapter09 practice
file folder to complete this exercise. Be sure to use the practice database for this chapter
rather than continuing on with the database from an earlier chapter. Open the database,
and if you want, save your own version to avoid overwriting the original. Then follow the
steps.
1
Without selecting a table or query in the Navigation pane, on the Create tab, in the
Reports group, click the Report Design button to display a blank report design grid
that has the default sections for a new report: Page Header, Detail, and Page Footer.
2
Right-click anywhere in the design grid, and then click Report Header/Footer to
enclose the default sections with Report Header and Report Footer sections.
Now let’s add the category name from the Categories table to this form.
3
On the Design tool tab, in the Tools group, click the Add Existing Fields button to
open the Field List pane, which is currently empty because no source table or query
is selected in the Navigation pane.
KEYBOARD SHORTCUT Press Alt+F8 to open and close the Field List pane. For a list
of keyboard shortcuts, see “Keyboard shortcuts” at the end of this book.
4
In the Field List pane, click Show all tables
9
The Field List pane displays a list of all the tables whose fields
you can add to the report.
Creating reports manually 259
5
6
In the Field List pane, expand the Categories table by clicking the adjacent plus sign.
7
Close the Field List pane and resize the Details section of the report until all the
sections are visible.
Double-click the CategoryName field to add label and text box controls for that field
to the Detail section of the report design grid.
Let’s group the records in the report by category.
8
On the Design tool tab, in the Grouping & Totals group, click the Group & Sort
button to open the Group, Sort, and Total pane at the bottom of the report page.
9
In the Group, Sort, and Total pane, click Add a group to add a Group on bar with
the select field list displayed.
10
In the select field list, click CategoryName to add a CategoryName Header section
to the report.
In the final report, records will be grouped by the category whose name appears in the
CategoryName Header section.
260 Chapter 9 Create custom reports
11
12
Close the Group, Sort, and Total pane.
Save the report as Sales By Category.
Let’s make a few changes to the report layout.
13
Point to the border of the CategoryName text box control (not the gray handle),
and drag the control into the CategoryName Header section, which also moves the
associated label control.
14
In the Tools group, click the Property Sheet button.
KEYBOARD SHORTCUT Press F4 to open and close the Property Sheet pane.
15
Click the Report Header section bar, and then on the Format page of the Property
Sheet pane, set the Height property to 1”.
TIP You complete the setting of a property by clicking another property or by
­pressing Enter.
16
Repeat step 15 to set the Height property for the other sections of the report as
follows:
PageHeader 0” (closes the section)
CategoryName Header
2.2”
Detail
0” (closes the section)
Page Footer
0.2”
Report Footer
0” (closes the section)
TIP You can manually set the height of a section by dragging its bottom edge up
or down.
17
Close the Property Sheet pane.
Creating reports manually 261
9
Only the Report Header, CategoryName Header, and Page Footer sections are now open.
18
Switch to Print Preview to display the results of your work.
+
CLEAN UP Close the Sales By Category report, saving your changes. Keep the
GardenCompany09 database open for use in later exercises.
Modifying report content
Reports are like forms in the following ways:
▪▪ You can create them by using wizards and then modify them in Layout view or
Design view.
▪▪ You can display information from one or more records from one or more tables
or queries.
▪▪ You can have multiple sets of headers and footers to group and describe their
­contents.
262 Chapter 9 Create custom reports
Whether you create a report with the Report wizard or manually, you can always modify it
by adding controls or changing the layout or formatting of the existing controls. As with
forms, you can modify reports in either Layout view or Design view. Layout view is more
intuitive because the data is visible while you make adjustments, but Design view gives
you more control. In Design view, refining a report can be an iterative process, and you
will ­often find yourself switching back and forth between Design view and Print Preview
to evaluate each change and plan the next.
In this exercise, you’ll modify the content of a report by inserting a title and date in the
­report header and page numbers in the report footer. You’ll also insert and remove labels
and change the appearance of text.
SET UP You need the GardenCompany09 database you worked with in the preceding
exercise to complete this exercise. If necessary, open the database. Then open the Sales
By Category report in Design view, and follow the steps.
1
In the upper-left corner of the report, double-click the report selector (the box at the
junction of the horizontal and vertical rulers), which both selects the entire report
and opens the Property Sheet pane.
2
On the Format page of the Property Sheet pane, set the Grid X and Grid Y
properties to 10 to make the grid larger. Then close the Property Sheet pane.
TIP You can quickly turn the grid or the rulers on and off by right-clicking the report
and then clicking Grid or Ruler.
9
Let’s make some formatting changes.
3
Click the Report Header section bar, and on the Format tool tab, in the Control
Formatting group, click the Shape Fill button. Then in the top row of the Theme
Colors palette, click the third swatch (Light Green, Background 2).
4
On the Design tool tab, in the Header/Footer group, click the Title button to insert a
control layout containing the following cells and controls:
▪▪ In the cell on the left, a logo placeholder
▪▪ In the cell in the center, a label control containing the report title
▪▪ In the upper-right cell, a date placeholder
▪▪ In the lower-right cell, a time placeholder
V413HAV
Modifying report content 263
Layouts
Layouts are optional mechanisms for constraining the alignment of controls. By default,
Access provides two layout formats:
▪▪ Tabular Inserts controls in cells arranged in columns and rows. The label controls
are always in the section above the text box controls so that they resemble column headings. By default, Access uses the Tabular layout for reports created with
the Report tool and for blank reports populated by dragging fields from the Field
List pane.
▪▪ Stacked Inserts controls in cells arranged in two columns, with label controls in
the left column’s cells and text box controls in the right column’s cells. By default,
Access uses the Stacked layout for forms created with the Form tool and for blank
forms populated by dragging fields from the Field List pane.
To impose a layout or switch from one layout to the other:
▪▪ On the Arrange tool tab, in the Table group, click the button for the layout
you want.
To remove a layout so that you can place controls where you want them:
▪▪ Select all the controls in the layout. Then click the Remove Layout button in the
Table group.
▪▪ Right-click the selection, click Layout, and then click Remove Layout.
To add a row of controls to an existing layout:
▪▪ Select an adjacent cell, and in the Rows & Columns group, click the Insert Above
or Insert Below button.
To add a column of controls to an existing layout:
▪▪ Select an adjacent cell, and in the Rows & Columns group, click the Insert Left or
Insert Right button.
264 Chapter 9 Create custom reports
To delete a row or column from a layout:
▪▪ Right-click a cell in the row or column, and click Delete Row or Delete Column.
▪▪ Select the row or column, and then press Delete.
To merge two cells in a layout (so that one control can span two columns or two rows):
▪▪ Select the cells, and in the Merge/Split group, click the Merge button.
To split a cell in a layout (so that two controls can fit in one column or one row):
▪▪ Select the cell, and in the Merge/Split group, click the Split Horizontally or Split
Vertically button.
5
With the title selected, on the Format tool tab, in the Font group, make the title
20 points, bold, and any dark green color.
6
On the Arrange tool tab, in the Sizing & Ordering group, click the Size/Space
button, and then click To Fit to make the label control fit the title.
Now let’s add the date.
7
On the Design tool tab, in the Header/Footer group, click the Date and Time button
to open the Date and Time dialog box.
You can specify options for both date controls and time controls
in this dialog box.
Modifying report content 265
9
8
With the Include Date check box and the first date format option selected, clear the
Include Time check box. Then click OK to insert a control containing the =Date()
function in the upper-right cell of the layout in the Report Header section.
Because the layout constrains the controls, the control containing the title shrinks to make room
for the control containing the date.
TIP If you insert a date and time control in a report that doesn’t have a Report Header
section, Access adds the section and inserts the control. This control’s function will
­insert the current date whenever you generate the report.
Let’s remove the layout from the Report Header section so that we have more
­options for arranging the controls.
9
Hold down the Ctrl key, and select all the controls and placeholders in the Report
Header section. Then right-click the selection, click Layout, and click Remove Layout.
10
Point to the alert button that appears, and read the warning about the two controls
in this section not being associated with each other. Then click the button, and in the
list, click Dismiss Error.
TIP It is always wise to investigate these alerts, but in this exercise, you can dismiss
any alerts displayed about unassociated controls.
11
Click a blank area of the section to release the selection. Then drag the date control
below the title control.
TIP When you release the mouse button, the date control snaps into position against
the grid. You can prevent grid snapping by clicking the Size/Space button in the
­Sizing & Ordering group on the Arrange tab, and then clicking Snap To Grid to turn it
off. If you want to override Snap To Grid and position a control precisely, set the Top
and Left properties in the Property Sheet pane.
266 Chapter 9 Create custom reports
12
Right-click the title control, click Size, and click To Fit. Then Use the Width and Left
properties to adjust the width and position of the date control to match the title
control.
13
Center the date control, and then click away from the control.
The Report Header section now contains only two controls.
TIP If you need to format or move several controls in a section, first group them
together. Select the controls, click the Size/Space button in the Sizing & Ordering
group on the Arrange tool tab, and then in the Grouping area of the list, click Group.
Grouped controls can be manipulated as a unit, but not individually. To change just
one of the controls, you must first ungroup all the controls.
Now let’s turn our attention to the CategoryName Header section.
14
15
In the CategoryName Header section, delete the Category Name label.
Select the CategoryName text box control, and make it 16 points, bold, and the
same dark green you used previously. Then open the Property Sheet pane, set the
Height property to 0.3” and the Width property to 2.0”, and close the Property
Sheet pane.
16
Move the control so that its top sits against the top of the section and its left border
sits two grid points in from the left edge of the section.
17
On the Design tool tab, display the Controls gallery, and click the Label thumbnail.
Then click directly below the lower-left corner of the CategoryName text box
control.
TIP To precisely align the left edge of one control with that of another, set their Left
properties to the same value.
Modifying report content 267
9
18
In the label control, enter Product: (including the colon), and then press Enter.
Notice that, because this label is unassociated, an alert button appears.
19
20
Click the alert button, and then in the list, click Ignore Error.
Make the label 12 points, bold, and italic. Then if necessary, size the control to fit
its contents.
The CategoryName Header section now contains a text box control and a label control.
Now let’s add a page number to the Page Footer section.
21
On the Design tool tab, in the Header / Footer group, click the Page Numbers
button to open the Page Numbers dialog box.
You can set the format, position, and alignment of page numbers all in one dialog box.
268 Chapter 9 Create custom reports
22
In the Format area, click Page N of M. In the Position area, click Bottom of Page
[Footer]. Then with Center as the Alignment setting and the Show Number on First
Page check box selected, click OK. Notice that a control containing ”Page “ & [Page]
& “ of “ & [Pages] appears in the center of the Page Footer section.
TIP In this expression, “Page” and “ of “ are literal strings of characters, & is the Con-
catenate operator, and [Page] and [Pages] are two identifiers derived from the report
itself. For information about expressions and operators, see “Validating the data” in
Chapter 6, “Maintain data integrity.”
23
Save the report, and then switch to Print Preview.
9
You can page through the report to view all the product categories.
+
CLEAN UP Close the Sales By Category report. Keep the GardenCompany09 database
open for use in the last exercise.
Modifying report content 269
Adding subreports
When you want to be able to show data from two related tables in a report, you can insert
a subreport into a main report. You create the main report as you would any other report.
Then you use a wizard to insert either the subreport itself or a subreport control into the
main report. In either case, both the main report and the subreport appear as objects in
the Reports group of the Navigation pane.
TIP After establishing the correct table relationships, you can quickly insert an existing
report as a subreport of another by opening the main report in Design view and then
dragging the second report from the Reports group of the Navigation pane to the appropriate section of the main report.
Depending on the nature of the information in a report or subreport, you might be able to
enhance the usefulness of both types of reports by performing calculations in them. You
can insert unbound controls and then use the Expression Builder to create expressions that
tell Access what to calculate and how, thereby making summary information and statistics
readily available in one report.
In this exercise, you’ll select a query as a record source for a report and insert a subreport
into a main report to display sales per product and per category. Then you’ll display calculated totals for each category.
SET UP You need the GardenCompany09 database you worked with in the preceding
exercise to complete this exercise. If necessary, open the database. Then open the Sales
By Category report in Design view, and follow the steps.
1
Double-click the report selector to select the report and open the Property
Sheet pane.
2
On the Data page, click the Record Source arrow, and in the list, click Sales By
Category to base the report on the results of that existing query. Then close the
Property Sheet pane.
3
On the Design tool tab, display the menu containing the Controls gallery, and ensure
that Use Control Wizards is active. Next click the Subform/Subreport button. Then
click in the CategoryName Header section approximately two grid points below the
lower-left corner of the Product label control to insert a blank, unbound subreport
control into the main report and start the SubReport wizard.
270 Chapter 9 Create custom reports
The first step is to choose the object on which the subreport will be based.
4
5
6
With Use existing Tables and Queries selected, click Next.
7
With Choose from a list and Show Sales By Category for each record in Sales By
Category using CategoryID selected, click Next.
In the Tables/Queries list, click Query: Sales By Category.
Move CategoryID, ProductName, and ProductSales from the Available Fields list
to the Selected Fields list, and then click Next.
TIP The option selected in the list box is displayed in its entirety below the list box.
8
Click Finish to replace the unbound subreport control with a control named Sales by
Category subreport.
Let’s adjust the size of the subreport and delete the controls we don’t need.
9
With the entire subreport control selected, open the Property Sheet pane.
TROUBLESHOOTING If the subreport control is not selected, click its top edge to
­select it.
10
On the Format page, set the Width property to 6.6” and the Height property to
2.0”. Then close the Property Sheet pane.
Adding subreports 271
9
11
12
Delete all the controls in the Report Header section of the subreport.
In the main report, delete the partially hidden Sales by Category subreport label
control.
TIP If you accidentally delete a control, click the Undo button on the Quick Access
Toolbar to undo the deletion.
13
In the Detail section of the subreport, delete the CategoryID text box control.
The sales for each product will appear in the subreport’s Detail section.
Now let’s make some formatting changes to the controls in the Detail section.
14
Select the ProductName text box control, display the Format page of the Property
Sheet pane, change the Font Size property to 9, and change the Width property to
2.125”.
15
At the top of the Property Sheet pane, change the control selection to ProductSales,
change the Font Size property to 9, change the Left property to 3.5”, and change
the Width property to 1”.
272 Chapter 9 Create custom reports
You have formatted the two controls in the Detail section of the subreport.
Next let’s create a summarizing function that will calculate the total of the
ProductSales values in the subreport’s Report Footer section.
16
In the Property Sheet pane, change the control selection to Report Footer, set its
Height property to 0.333”, and press Enter. Then scroll the subreport until the entire
Report Footer section is visible.
17
On the Design tool tab, display the Controls gallery, click the Text Box thumbnail,
and click in the center of the Report Footer section to insert an unbound control and
its label.
18
Select the label of the unbound control, and in the Property Sheet pane, set the
following properties:
Caption
Total:
Font Size
9
Font Weight
Bold
9
19
In the subreport, click the unbound control, and then on the Data page of the
Property Sheet pane, in the Control Source property, click the Ellipsis button to
open the Expression Builder dialog box.
20
In the Expression Elements list, double-click Functions, and then click Built-In
Functions.
21
In the Expression Values list, double-click Sum to display Sum (<<expression>>)
in the expression box.
Adding subreports 273
22
Click <<expression>>. In the Expression Elements list, click Sales By Category
subreport, and then in the Expression Categories list, double-click ProductSales.
You have built an expression that calculates the total of the ProductSales values.
23
Click OK to close the Expression Builder and enter the calculation both in the
unbound control and as the Control Source property in the Property Sheet pane.
Let’s make the two controls in the Report Footer section match the locations and
sizes of the controls in the Detail section.
24
With the calculated control still selected, on the Format page, set Font Size to 9 and
Font Weight to Bold.
25
26
Set the Format property to Currency, and change the Left property to 3.5”.
27
Switch to Print Preview to examine the results.
Click the Total label control, and change its Left property to 1.3” and its Width
property to 2.125”.
274 Chapter 9 Create custom reports
For each product category, the report shows the total of the sales per product and per category.
As a final touch, let’s adjust the position of the Product label control and remove the
subreport’s border.
28
Switch back to Design view, cut and paste the Product: label control from the
CategoryName Header section to the subreport’s Report Header section, and
then align it with the ProductName control in the Detail section.
29
Click the top edge of the subreport to select it. Then on the Format page of the
Property Sheet pane, change the Border Style property to Transparent.
30
Preview the report.
TIP Several factors affect the layout of the subreport. The width of the subreport
sets the width of the space available for the display of text. The minimum height of
the area in which field values (in this case, product information) are displayed is the
height you set for the subreport (because the Can Shrink property for the subreport
is set to No). The maximum height of the field value display area is the length of the
list (because the Can Grow property is set to Yes) plus the space between the bottom
of the subreport and the bottom of the Detail section. You might want to experiment
with these settings to understand how they interact.
+
CLEAN UP Close the Sales By Category report, saving both the main report and
­subreport when prompted. Then close the GardenCompany09 database.
Adding subreports 275
9
Key points
▪▪ When a report includes mostly unbound controls, it is easier to create the report
manually in Design view.
▪▪ Refining a report in Design view gives you more control than working in Layout view,
but be prepared to switch back and forth between Design view and Print Preview to
evaluate each change.
▪▪ Insert a subreport within another report to show grouped information in meaningful ways.
▪▪ You can often enhance the usefulness of a subreport by performing calculations in
unbound controls to summarize its data.
276 Chapter 9 Create custom reports
Database
management
and security
10 Import and export data
279
11 Make databases user friendly
311
12 Protect databases
329
13 Work in Access more efficiently
349
Chapter at a glance
Import Import information,
page 280
Copy Copy to and from other Office programs,
page 306
Export Export information,
page 295
Import and export data
10
IN THIS CHAPTER, YOU WILL LEARN HOW TO
▪▪
▪▪
▪▪
Import information.
Export information.
Copy to and from other Office programs.
Good database design saves keystrokes when you’re entering new information and maintaining a database. But when you are populating a database, you can save even more time
and effort in another way: by importing data from existing files in other formats.
When you import information into a Microsoft Access 2013 database, the data being im­
ported usually needs to match certain patterns, or the import process might fail. There
aren’t any such restrictions when exporting data from an Access database, and the process
rarely fails. However, some exported database objects aren’t very useful in certain formats.
All the methods of importing and exporting data described in this chapter work well, but
they aren’t the only ways to share information with other programs. Sometimes simple copy
and paste techniques are the most efficient methods, especially when you want to make
Access data available to other Microsoft Office 2013 programs.
TIP Importing from and exporting to Microsoft SQL Server (the OBDC Database options
in the Import & Link group on the External Data tab) is beyond the scope of this book. For
information, search for SQL Server in Access Help.
In this chapter, you’ll experiment with getting information into and out of an Access data­
base. After an overview of the import processes for different types of files, you’ll import
data from various sources. Then you’ll export data to other Office 2013 programs. Finally,
you’ll copy and paste data directly from an Access database into a Microsoft Word document and a Microsoft Excel worksheet.
279
PRACTICE FILES To complete the exercises in this chapter, you need the practice files
contained in the Chapter10 practice file folder. For more information, see “Download
the practice files” in this book’s Introduction.
Importing information
If the information you intend to store in an Access database already exists in almost any
other electronic document, it is quite likely that you can move it into Access without re­
entering it, by using the Get External Data wizard. With this wizard, the standard steps for
importing data into an Access 2013 database are as follows:
1 On the External Data tab, in the Import & Link group, click the button for the type
of source file you want to import, which starts the Get External Data wizard.
TIP Clicking the Data Services button doesn’t start the wizard. Instead, it opens the
Create Link To Data Services dialog box. A discussion of Data Services is beyond the
scope of this book.
2 On the wizard’s first page, specify the source file’s location. Depending on the source
type, also specify whether to import the source file as a new table, to append the
source file’s data to an existing table, or to create a linked table. Then click OK to
open the appropriate import wizard or open the dialog box necessary to complete
the next step.
TIP If you want to import data into an existing table but the data structure isn’t the
same as the table structure, it’s often easier to import the data into Excel, manipulate it there, and then import it into Access.
3 Follow the instructions for selecting data from the source file, formatting the data,
choosing a primary key, and naming the target object. Then click Finish.
When the import process is complete, you return to the Get External Data wizard, which
gives you the opportunity to save the import steps so that you don’t have to repeat them
for other similar import processes. To save the import steps:
1 In the Get External Data wizard, select the Save Import Steps check box to display
the settings necessary to save the process.
2 Name the saved import process, and enter a description (optional).
280 Chapter 10 Import and export data
3 If you use Microsoft Outlook and want to create an Outlook task to remind you to
run the import process at some specific time in the future, select the Create Outlook
Task check box.
4 Click Save Import.
TIP If you chose to create an Outlook task, Outlook opens a task window that
­ lready contains information about the task. You simply set a due date, make any
a
other necessary adjustments to the settings, and click Save & Close in the Actions
group on the Task tab.
To run a saved import operation:
1 In the Import & Link group on the External Data tab, click the Saved Imports
­button.
2 Click the import you want to run, and then click Run.
TIP If you have created an Outlook task for the import process, you can click Run
Import in the Microsoft Access group on the Task tab of the task window.
In the sections that follow, we discuss some of the issues to bear in mind when importing
data from a specific source.
Importing from other Access databases
Suppose you have one Access database that includes tables of information about products
and orders and another that includes customer contact information. You want just one
­database containing all the information. You can save time by importing the product and
order information into the contacts database (or vice versa), rather than re-creating it all.
You can easily import any of the standard Access objects: tables, queries, forms, and reports. (Macros and modules can also be imported, but they are beyond the scope of this
book.) When you import a table, you have the option of importing only the table definition (the structure displayed in Design view), or both the definition and the data. When
you import a query, you can import it as a query or you can import the results of the
query as a table.
TIP If you need only some of the fields or records from a table in another database, you
can create a query in the other database to select only the information you need and then
import the results of the query as a table. Alternatively, you can import the table and either
edit it in Design view or clean it up by using queries.
Importing information 281
10
When you import an Access object, the entire object is imported as an object with the same
name into the active database. You can’t import only selected fields or records. If the active
database already has an object with the same name, Access imports the new object with a
number appended to the end of the name.
Importing from Excel worksheets
Access works seamlessly with Excel. You can import an entire worksheet or a named range
from a worksheet into either a new table (one that is created during the import process) or
an existing table. You can also import specific fields from a worksheet or range.
Excel is a good intermediate format to use when importing information that isn’t set up to
import directly into Access. For example, if you want to add or remove fields, combine or
split fields, or use complex mathematical functions to manipulate data before importing it
into Access, Excel is a great place to do it.
Importing from text files
Text files are the common denominator of all document types. Almost every program that
works with words and numbers can generate some kind of text file. Access can import tabular data (tables and lists) from text files that contain data structured in two ways:
▪▪ Delimited text file Each record ends with a paragraph mark, and each field in the
table or list is separated from the next by a comma or some other special character,
called a delimiter. If the data in a field includes the delimiting special character, the
entire field must be enclosed in quotation marks. (Some people enclose all fields in
quotation marks to avoid having to locate those containing the special character.)
▪▪ Fixed-width text file In every record, the data in a particular field includes the same
number of characters. If the actual data doesn’t fill the field, the field is padded with
spaces so that the starting point of the data in the next field is the same number of
characters from the beginning of every record. For example, if the first field contains
12 characters, the second field always starts 13 characters from the beginning of the
record, even if the actual data in the first field is only 4 characters.
Fixed-width text files used to be difficult to import into databases because you had
to carefully count the number of characters in each field and then specify the field
sizes in the database or in the import program. If the length of any field was even
one character off, all records from that point on would be jumbled. That is no longer
a problem with Access, because the Import Text wizard makes importing a fixedwidth text file simple.
282 Chapter 10 Import and export data
Importing from other database programs
Importing information from databases created in programs other than Access is usually an
all-or-nothing situation, and quite often, what you get isn’t in the exact format you need.
For example, you might find that transaction records include redundant information, such
as the name of the product or purchaser, in every record. A database containing information about people might include the full name and address in one field, when you would
prefer to have separate fields for the first name, last name, street address, and so on. You
can choose to import information as it is and manipulate it in Access, or you can move
it into a program such as Excel or Word and manipulate it there before importing it into
Access.
TIP The only way to import the data from some older database programs is to export the
data from that program to a fixed-width text file and then import that file into Access.
Importing from Outlook folders
You can import address books and other folders from Outlook into an Access database. This
can be particularly useful if you want to import contact information.
Importing from SharePoint lists
If your organization uses a Microsoft SharePoint site, you can import content from
SharePoint lists into Access in two ways:
▪▪ Importing Creates a copy of the list in the Access database. During the import
operation, you select the lists you want to copy, and for each selected list, you
specify whether you want to import the entire list or only a specific view. The im­
port operation creates a table in Access and then copies the source list (or view)
into that table as fields and records. Changes made to the imported data in either
Access or SharePoint are not replicated.
▪▪ Linking Creates a table in Access containing data that is linked to the source data.
This process is more efficient than importing if you want to work with data from a
SharePoint list in Access but keep the information in both locations current. Linked
tables are indicated in the Access Navigation pane by a blue arrow pointing to a yellow table. Information you update in Access is reflected in the SharePoint list when
you refresh the view, and vice versa.
Importing information 283
10
Whichever method you choose, before you import a SharePoint list into a new table in an
Access database, it is a good idea to do the following:
1 Make a note of the SharePoint site’s URL.
2 On the SharePoint site, identify the lists you want to copy to the database, and then
decide whether you want the entire list or just a particular view.
TIP You can import multiple lists in a single import operation, but you can import
only one view of each list. If one of the standard views doesn’t fit your needs, create
a custom view containing only the fields and list items you want before proceeding
with the import process.
3 Review the columns in the source list or view, and identify the database into which
you want to import the lists.
TIP When you import a SharePoint list, Access creates a table with the same name
as the source list. If that name is already in use, Access appends a number to the
new table name—for example, Contacts1. Access will not overwrite a table in the
destination database or append the contents of a list or view to an existing table.
To import the SharePoint list or lists you have identified, follow these steps:
1 Open a new blank database.
2 On the External Data tab, in the Import & Link group, click the More button. Then
click SharePoint List to start the Get External Data wizard, which displays a list of
known SharePoint sites. (You are not limited to the sites in this list.)
3 On the Select the source and destination of the data page, in the Specify a
­SharePoint site area, click the address of the site you want to connect to, or
enter it in the box.
4 Click either Import the source data or Link to the data source. Then click Next.
5 If prompted to enter your site credentials, do so.
6 On the Import data from list page, in the Import column, select the check box of
each list you want to import into the database.
284 Chapter 10 Import and export data
7 In the Items to import column, for each of the selected lists, select the view
­(arrangement of data) you want to import into the database.
8 With the Import display values instead of IDs for fields that look up values stored
in another list check box selected, click OK.
TROUBLESHOOTING No progress bar appears while Access imports the lists, and
this process can take some time. Resist clicking the OK button more than once.
9 When the last page of the wizard appears, click Close. Or choose to save the import
steps, provide the necessary information, and then click Save Import.
After you import or link to a list, you should open the resulting table in Datasheet view to
verify that all of the fields and records were imported and that there were no errors. You
can review the data type and other field properties by switching to Design view.
Importing from .html files
HTML is used to create webpages. It uses tags to control the appearance and alignment of
the content displayed in a web browser. For a table to display correctly on a webpage, the
table’s rows and cells must be enclosed in appropriate HTML tags. For example, a simple
HTML table might look like the following.
...<table><tr>
<td>LastName</td><td>FirstName</td></tr>
<td>Anderson</td>
<td>Nancy</td></tr></table>...
In an .html file, the <table>, <tr> (table row), and <td> (table data) tags and their corresponding </table>, </tr>, and </td> end tags make the data look like a structured table
when it is viewed in a web browser.
All the Office 2013 programs can save a document in HTML format, and to a limited extent,
they can read or import a document that was saved in HTML format by another program.
When you import an .html file into Access, the program scans the document and identifies
anything that looks like structured data. You can then evaluate what Access has found and
decide whether to import it.
Importing information 285
10
Importing from .xml files
XML format is often used for exchanging information between programs, both on and off
the web. XML format is similar to HTML format in two ways: both are plain text that indicate
formatting within tags, and both use start and end tags. However, HTML tags describe how
elements should look, whereas XML tags specify the structure of the elements in a document. Also, as its name implies, the XML tag set is extensible—there are ways to add your
own tags. The following is an example of a simple .xml file.
<?xml version=”1.0”?><ORDER>
<PRODUCT>
<CUSTOMER>Michele Martin</CUSTOMER>
<ITEM>Sterilized soil</ITEM>
<QUANTITY>1 bag</QUANTITY>
<PRICE>$8.65</PRICE>
</PRODUCT></ORDER>
This simple file describes an order that Michele Martin (the customer) placed for one bag
(the quantity) of Sterilized soil (the item) at a cost of $8.65 (the price). Because XML tags the
data’s structure rather than its appearance, you can easily import the data from an .xml file
into a database table. An actual file created for this purpose would contain one instance of
the <ORDER> through </ORDER> block for each order.
An.xml file might store both the data and the structure for a table; or the data might be
stored in an .xml file for which the structure is defined by an accompanying schema stored
in an .xsd file. If the structure is defined by a scheme, be sure the schema’s .xsd file is in the
same folder as the corresponding .xml file; otherwise Access will import only the data and
assign default properties to all fields.
TIP Access 2013 can apply a transform to XML data as you import or export it. A transform is
a type of template used to convert XML data to other formats. When you apply a transform
during the import process, the data is transformed before it enters the table, so you can
adapt an .xml file to a different table structure. In-depth coverage of transforms is beyond
the scope of this book.
286 Chapter 10 Import and export data
In this exercise, you’ll populate a database from multiple sources. You’ll import three tables
and a form from an Access database. Then you’ll import data from a comma-delimited text
file into an existing table. Finally, you’ll import information from an Excel worksheet into a
new table.
SET UP You need the GardenCompany10 database, the Customers workbook, the
Employees text file, and the ProductsAndSuppliers database located in the Chapter10
practice file folder to complete this exercise. Be sure to use the practice database for this
chapter rather than continuing on with the database from an earlier chapter. Open the
GardenCompany10 database, and if you want, save your own version to avoid overwriting the original. Then follow the steps.
1
On the External Data tab, in the Import & Link group, click the Access button to
start the Get External Data wizard.
10
Access Database appears in the title bar because the pages of the wizard are specific to the
import process you selected.
Importing information 287
2
3
On the Select the source and destination of the data page, click Browse.
4
With Import tables, queries, forms, reports, macros, and modules into the current
database selected in the wizard, click OK to open the Import Objects dialog box.
In the File Open dialog box, navigate to the Chapter10 practice file folder, click the
ProductsAndSuppliers database, and then click Open.
In the Import Objects dialog box, you select the Access objects you want to import.
5
On the Tables page, click Select All, and then click Options to display additional
choices.
288 Chapter 10 Import and export data
On the expanded Tables page, the default settings will import relationships that exist
between the selected tables, their data, and their structure.
6
Click the Forms tab, click Categories, and then click OK to close the dialog box and
begin the import process.
7
8
When the import process is complete, on the Save Import Steps page, click Close.
From the Navigation pane, open the Categories, Products, and Suppliers tables,
review their records to verify that all three tables have been successfully imported
into the database, and then close them.
Importing information 289
10
Now let’s populate the empty Employees table.
9
On the External Data tab, in the Import & Link group, click the Text File button to
start the Get External Data wizard.
TIP Text files typically have a .txt extension. However, some programs save delimited
text files with a .csv or .tab extension. You will also occasionally find text files with an
.asc (for ASCII) extension. Some programs save fixed-width text files with a .prn (for
printer) extension, which Access doesn’t recognize; you would need to change this
extension to one that Access does recognize. Access treats text files with all acceptable extensions the same way.
10
Browse to the Chapter10 practice file folder, click the Employees text file, and then
click Open.
11
Click Append a copy of the records to the table. Display the adjacent list, and click
Employees. Then click OK, which starts the Import Text wizard and displays the
content of the selected delimited text file.
Each field is enclosed in quotation marks, and the fields are separated by commas.
290 Chapter 10 Import and export data
TIP When information is imported into an existing table, all the field names and
data types must match exactly; otherwise, Access displays an error. If the structure
matches but data in a field is too long or has some other minor problem, Access
might import the record containing the field into an ImportError table, rather than
into the intended table. You can fix the problem in the ImportError table and then
copy and paste the record into the correct table.
12
In the lower-left corner of the page, click Advanced to open the Employees Import
Specification dialog box.
10
You can make changes to the default settings in this dialog box.
TIP If you want to import several files by using the same custom settings, you can
specify the settings and save them. Then as you open each file, you can click Specs
in this dialog box to apply the saved specifications.
Importing information 291
13
In the Employees Import Specification dialog box, click Cancel. Then in the Import
Text wizard, click Next.
The wizard separates the file into fields at the commas.
TIP If the columns are jumbled, you can choose a different delimiter from the
­options at the top of the page to view that delimiter’s results.
14
Select the First Row Contains Field Names check box, and click Next. Then click
Finish.
15
16
On the Save Import Steps page, click Close.
Open the Employees table to confirm that Access successfully imported the records
from the text file. Then close the table.
292 Chapter 10 Import and export data
Now let’s import customer information from an Excel worksheet into a new table.
17
On the External Data tab, in the Import & Link group, click the Excel button to start
the Get External Data wizard.
18
Browse to the Chapter10 practice file folder, click the Customers workbook, and then
click Open.
19
With Import the source data into a new table in the current database selected, click
OK, which starts the Import Spreadsheet wizard.
Sample data from the selected worksheet or named range appears in a tabular format.
20
21
With Show Worksheets and Customers selected, click Next.
Select the First Row Contains Column Headings check box, and then click Next.
Importing information 293
10
You can set the Data Type and Indexed properties of each field. You can also exclude a field
from the import process.
22
23
Click Next.
24
25
On the Save Import Steps page, click Close.
On the page that sets the primary key, click Choose my own primary key. Then with
the CustomerID field selected in the adjacent box, click Finish.
Open the Customers table to confirm that Access imported the customer records
correctly.
+
CLEAN UP Close the Customers table. Keep the GardenCompany10 database open for
use in later exercises.
294 Chapter 10 Import and export data
Linking to information
If your information is still being actively maintained in another program and you want
to bring it into Access to analyze it, create reports, or export it to another format, you
should consider linking your Access database to the existing information in its original
program rather than importing the information. Although working with data that is
stored in your own database is faster, safer, and more flexible, sometimes linking is
preferable, especially if it is important that the data in Access is always up to date.
The most common reason for linking to data in another Access database or a different program is because you don’t own the data. Perhaps another department in your
organization maintains the data in a SQL database, and that department is willing to
give you permission to read the tables and queries but not to change them. Other
reasons are security and ease of data distribution.
You can usually link to information in any application from which you can import information. The only difference in the process is that you select the Link To The Data
Source By Creating A Linked Table option on the Select The Source And Destination
Of The Data page of the Get External Data wizard. Access indicates a linked table by
an arrow to the left of the table icon.
TIP If you link to a file stored on your network, be sure to use a universal naming con-
vention (UNC) path, rather than a mapped network drive, because a UNC path is less
likely to change.
10
Exporting information
You can export Access database objects in all the file formats from which you can import
data. You can also export information in Portable Document Format (PDF) and XML Paper
Specification (XPS) format.
Exporting information 295
The specific formats available depend on the object you are exporting, as shown in the
­following table.
Database object
Valid export format
Table
ACCDB, XLS, XLSB, XLSX, SharePoint List, PDF, XPS, RTF, TXT, XML, ODBC,
HTML, Word Merge
Query
ACCDB, XLS, XLSB, XLSX, SharePoint List, PDF, XPS, RTF, TXT, XML, ODBC ,
HTML, Word Merge
Form
ACCDB, XLS, XLSB, XLSX, PDF, XPS, RTF, TXT, XML, HTML
Report
ACCDB, XLS, PDF, XPS, RTF, TXT, XML, HTML
TIP To display a list of the export file formats available for a specific Access object, right-
click the object in the Navigation pane, and then point to Export.
Like the import process, the export process for most file types is orchestrated by an easyto-follow wizard by using these standard steps:
1 In the Navigation pane, select the object you want to export.
2 On the External Data tab, in the Export group, click the button for the program or
type of file you want to create, which starts the Export wizard.
3 On the wizard’s first page, depending on the export format, specify one or all of the
following:
▪▪ The destination file’s location and format
▪▪ Whether to export just data, or data with formatting
▪▪ Whether to open the file when the export process is complete
▪▪ Whether to export only selected records
4 Click OK.
When the export process is complete, you return to the Export wizard, which gives you the
opportunity to save the export steps so that you don’t have to repeat them for future similar export processes. The process for saving export steps is nearly identical to the process
for saving import steps.
The steps for exporting Access database objects in PDF or XPS format or as email attach­
ments are slightly different but are still quite automated. You can also use an Access table or
query as the data source for the Word 2013 mail merge process; this process is not covered
in this topic, but if you are familiar with mail merge in Word, it is relatively straightforward.
296 Chapter 10 Import and export data
In the sections that follow, we discuss some of the issues to bear in mind when exporting
data to a specific type of file.
Exporting to other Access databases
It is very simple to export any single object from one Access 2013 database to either another
Access 2013 database or to a database in an earlier version of Access. You can’t, however,
export multiple objects in one operation.
Exporting to Excel worksheets
You can export a single table, form, report, or query from an Access 2013 database to an
Excel 2013 workbook, or to a workbook that can be opened by earlier versions of Excel.
When you export a table that contains a subdatasheet or a form that contains a subform,
Access exports only the main datasheet or form. To export a subdatasheet or subform, you
must perform another export operation on that object.
To combine multiple Access objects into a single Excel workbook, first export the individual
objects to different workbooks. Then merge all the worksheets in Excel.
Exporting to Word documents
If you need to move a table or the results of a query to an existing Word document, it is
often easiest to simply copy and paste the records from the datasheet. But if you want to
work with the contents of a report in Word, you need to export the report.
When you export information from Access 2013 to Word, Access creates a Rich Text Format
(RTF) document, which can be opened by Word and several other applications.
Exporting to text files
Text files are the lowest-common-denominator file format. Most applications can open, display, and save information in text format. The downside to text files is that they don’t contain any formatting information, so they look consistently plain in all applications.
Depending on what type of content you are trying to export from a database, you might
have the option to export the layout with the data. If you select this option, the unformatted text will be arranged in the text file much as it is in the Access object. If you don’t
choose this option, the information will be saved in either delimited or fixed-length lines.
Exporting information 297
10
Exporting to .pdf and .xps files
If you want people to be able to view a database object but not change it, save the object
in the Portable Document Format (PDF) or the XML Paper Specification (XPS) format. Both
the PDF and XPS formats are designed to deliver objects as electronic representations of
the way they look when printed. The data in .pdf and .xps files is essentially static, and content cannot be easily edited, so these formats are ideal for objects that will be part of legal
documents. Both types of files can easily be sent by email to many recipients and can be
made available on a webpage for downloading by anyone who wants them. However, .xps
files cannot be opened, viewed, or edited in Office 2013 programs
When you indicate that you want to export a database object in PDF or XPS format by clicking the PDF Or XPS button in the Export group on the External Data tab, the Publish As
PDF Or XPS dialog box opens so that you can select the destination location and format,
assign a name, and optimize the size of the file for your intended distribution method. Click
Options to display a dialog box in which you can specify the records or pages to include
in the PDF or XPS version of the object and whether to include or exclude accessibility
structure tags. When you click Publish, the object is saved with your specifications, and the
Export wizard gives you the opportunity to save the export steps.
TIP Another way to create a .pdf or .xps file is to display the Save As page of the Backstage
view, and in the File Types pane, click Save Object As to display the available formats in the
right pane. Clicking PDF Or XPS and then clicking the Save As button displays the Publish As
PDF Or XPS dialog box, in which you can save the file in the usual way.
Exporting to SharePoint lists
If you have permission to create content on a SharePoint site, you can export a table or
query database object to the site as a SharePoint list. The list content is static and will not
reflect changes made to the source table or query after the export operation. You can’t
overwrite or add data to an existing list.
TIP You can export only one object to a SharePoint list at a time. However, when Access
exports a table, it also exports all related tables.
298 Chapter 10 Import and export data
Exporting to .html files
Many organizations that store accounting, manufacturing, marketing, sales, and other information on their computers have discovered the advantages of sharing this information
within the company or with the rest of the world through a website. With Access, you can
export tables, queries, forms, and reports as web-ready .html files. You can then view the
objects in a web browser, such as Windows Internet Explorer.
When you export a table, query, or form, Access converts it to an HTML table. When you
export a report, Access converts it to a series of linked .html files (one for each page of the
report).
TIP To display the HTML tags that define the structure of the file, you can either view the
file in a web browser or open it in a text editor.
Exporting to .xml files
You can export tables, queries, forms, and reports from Access in an XML format that can
be used by other applications. To export to an .xml file:
1 In the Export group on the External Data tab, click the XML File button to start the
Export wizard, in which you specify the destination location and assign a name.
2 Click OK to open the Export XML dialog box, in which you can do one of the
­following:
▪▪ Select the Data (XML) check box to export the data.
▪▪ Select the Schema of the data (XSD) check box to create a separate .xsd schema
that contains the structure of the XML data.
▪▪ Select the Presentation of your data (XSL) check box to export an .xls stylesheet
that describes how to display the XML data.
TIP To export a table as a combined data/schema file, in the Export XML dialog
box, click More Options, click the Schema tab, click Embed Schema In Exported
XML Data Document, and then click OK.
3 Click OK to save the object with your specifications. The Export wizard then gives
you the opportunity to save the export steps.
You can view the tagged .xml file in Internet Explorer and the .xsd file in any text editor.
Exporting information 299
10
In this exercise, you’ll export an Access table to another Access database and to an Excel
workbook. Then you’ll export the table as both a formatted and an unformatted text file.
SET UP You need the GardenCompany10 database you worked with in the preceding
exercise to complete this exercise. Create a blank desktop database named Exported in
the Chapter10 practice file folder, and close the open table. Then if necessary, open the
GardenCompany10 database, and follow the steps.
1
In the Navigation pane, in the Tables group, click Suppliers.
TIP When you export an entire table, there is no need to open it first.
2
On the External Data tab, in the Export group, click the Access button to start the
Export – Access Database wizard.
3
4
On the wizard’s first page, click Browse.
5
In the Export – Access Database wizard, click OK, which opens the Export
dialog box.
In the File Save dialog box, navigate to the Chapter10 practice file folder, click
Exported, and then click Save.
You can export the table’s structure and data or only the structure.
6
With Suppliers displayed in the Export Suppliers to box and Definition and Data
selected in the Export Tables area, click OK to export the selected table.
7
On the Save Export Steps page, click Close.
Let’s check that the export was successful.
8
Display the Exported database in a separate instance of Access.
300 Chapter 10 Import and export data
TIP You can open only one database at a time in a single instance of Access. If you
open a second database without first closing the one you are working in, Access
prompts you to save recent changes and then closes the first database before opening the second. To open two databases at the same time, start a second instance of
Access from the Start screen (Windows 8) or the Start menu (Windows 7), and then
open the second database from the Backstage view. You can also double-click the
database file in File Explorer (Windows 8) or Windows Explorer (Windows 7).
9
In the Navigation pane, in the Tables group, double-click Suppliers, verify that the
table exported correctly, and then close the Exported database.
Now suppose we need to provide the information in the Suppliers table to someone
who doesn’t have Access installed on her computer. Let’s export the same table as an
Excel workbook.
10
In the GardenCompany10 database, open the Suppliers table in Datasheet view.
Then on the External Data tab, in the Export group, click the Excel button to start
the Export – Excel Spreadsheet wizard.
11
On the wizard’s first page, click the Browse button. Then verify that the Chapter10
practice file folder is selected in the File Save dialog box, and click Save.
10
By default, the spreadsheet has the same name as the table it’s based on and will be saved
in the Excel Workbook (*.xlsx) format.
Exporting information 301
TIP You can change the name and format in the File Save dialog box, or you can edit
the name and select a different format in the wizard.
12
Select the Export data with formatting and layout check box and the Open the
destination file after the export operation is complete check box. Then click OK,
which starts Excel and opens the exported workbook.
The Suppliers table has been exported to the Suppliers sheet in the workbook.
13
Close the workbook and Excel, and then on the Save Export Steps page of the
Export – Excel Spreadsheet wizard, click Close.
TIP If you want to make the data in a table available in Outlook, you can export
the table as an attachment to an email message by clicking the Email button in the
­Export group.
Now let’s export data from Access to a text file.
14
With the Suppliers table open in Datasheet view, on the External Data tab, in the
Export group, click the Text File button to start the Export – Text File wizard.
302 Chapter 10 Import and export data
15
With the path to the Chapter10 practice file folder displayed in the File name box,
change the default file name from Suppliers.txt to Suppliers_fixed.txt.
16
Select the Export data with formatting and layout and Open the destination file
after the export operation is complete check boxes. Then click OK, which opens the
Encode ‘Suppliers’ As dialog box.
In this dialog box, you can select the encoding format options you want.
17
With Windows (default) selected, click OK to start your default text editor and open
the exported text file.
10
In Notepad, the rows and columns of the table are separated by dashes and pipe characters.
18
Close the text file, and then close the wizard without saving the export steps.
Exporting information 303
19
Repeat steps 14 through 18 to export the table again, but this time change the
name to Suppliers_delim.txt, and don’t select the Export data with formatting
and layout and Open the destination file after the export operation is complete
check boxes.
Because you didn’t select the formatting and layout option on the wizard’s first page, you can
refine the export results.
TIP You can experiment with different wizard options, moving as far as the last page
and then backing up to try a different approach. At any point, you can click Finish to
accept the default settings for all the wizard’s remaining options.
20
Switch between the Delimited and Fixed Width options, noticing the difference in
the data in the Sample export format box.
304 Chapter 10 Import and export data
21
With Delimited selected, click Next.
TIP The options on the wizard’s next page vary depending on whether you are
­exporting a delimited or fixed-width file.
22
Leave Comma selected, select the Include Field Names on First Row check box, and
click Finish to export the table as an unformatted text file.
23
24
Close the wizard without saving the export steps.
To check the exported file, navigate to the Chapter10 practice file folder in File
Explorer or Windows Explorer, and double-click Suppliers_delim.
10
In Notepad, the fields of the table are separated by commas.
+
CLEAN UP Close the text file and the Suppliers table. Keep the GardenCompany10
database open for use in the last exercise.
Exporting information 305
Copying to and from other Office programs
Sometimes the quickest and easiest way to get information into or out of a database is to
just copy it and paste it where you want it. This technique works particularly well for getting
data out of an Access table and into Word or Excel. Information that you paste into a Word
document becomes a Word table, complete with a heading row containing the field captions as column headings. Information that you paste into an Excel worksheet appears in
the normal row-and-column format.
Getting data into another Access table by using this technique is a little more complicated.
The data you are pasting must meet all the criteria for entering it by hand (input mask, validation rules, field size, and so on), and you must have the correct table cells selected when
you use the Paste command. If Access encounters a problem when you attempt to paste a
group of records, it displays an error message and pastes the problem records into a Paste
Errors table. You can then troubleshoot the problem in that table, fix whatever is wrong,
and try copying and pasting again.
TIP To copy an entire table from one Access database to another, open both databases,
copy the table from the source database to the Microsoft Office Clipboard, and then paste
it into the destination database. You can paste the table data and/or table structure as a
new table or append the data to an existing table.
In this exercise, you’ll copy and paste records between an Access database table, an Excel
worksheet, and a Word document.
SET UP You need the GardenCompany10 database you worked with in the preceding
exercise and the Shippers workbook located in the Chapter10 practice file folder to complete this exercise. Start Excel and open a blank workbook. Then if necessary, open the
GardenCompany10 database, open the Customers table in Datasheet view, and follow
the steps.
1
Point to the row selector of the first record in the table, and when the pointer
changes to a right arrow, drag through six records to select them.
2
On the Home tab, in the Clipboard group, click the Copy button.
KEYBOARD SHORTCUT Press Ctrl+C to copy a selection to the Clipboard. For a list
of keyboard shortcuts, see “Keyboard shortcuts” at the end of this book.
306 Chapter 10 Import and export data
3
Display the blank Excel worksheet. Then with cell A1 selected, on the Excel Home tab,
in the Clipboard group, click the Paste button.
KEYBOARD SHORTCUT Press Ctrl+V to paste a cut or copied item from the Clipboard.
The Access field names have become Excel column headings.
4
Switch back to the Access database.
Now let’s copy and paste only a few fields of a few records.
5
In the FirstName field, point to the left border of the value Ted, and when the
pointer changes to a thick cross, drag down and to the right until the FirstName
through Region fields are selected for six records.
6
7
In the Clipboard group, click the Copy button.
Switch back to Excel, click cell A9, and then in the Excel Clipboard group, click the
Paste button to paste in the new selection, again with column headings.
Copying to and from other Office programs 307
10
8
Start Word, and create a new blank document. Then on the Home tab, in the
Clipboard group, click the Paste button to create a nicely formatted table.
The Customers title reflects the name of the table from which this data came.
9
Exit Word and Excel, without saving your changes. Then close the Customers table.
Now let’s copy the data from an Excel worksheet and paste it into a new table in the
current database.
10
In File Explorer or Windows Explorer, navigate to the Chapter10 practice file folder,
and double-click the Shippers Excel workbook.
308 Chapter 10 Import and export data
11
In Excel, select cells A1:H6 of the active worksheet, and on the Home tab, in the
Clipboard group, click the Copy button.
12
Switch back to Access, right-click in the Tables group of the Navigation pane, and
click Paste.
13
When Access asks whether the first row of data contains column headings, click Yes.
14
Click OK to acknowledge that the import process was successful, and then notice that
the new Shippers table has been added to the Tables group of the Navigation pane.
15
Double-click the Shippers table to open it, and verify that all records were
successfully copied.
+
CLEAN UP Exit Excel. Then close the Shippers table and the GardenCompany10
database.
Key points
▪▪ Importing information into Access 2013 from other programs is an easy way to add
data without reentering it.
▪▪ If data is actively maintained in another program and you want to work with it in
­Access, you can link the Access database to the data without actually importing it.
▪▪ You can export information from an Access database in a variety of formats, depending on the object you are exporting.
▪▪ Copying and pasting information from an Access database is often the easiest way to
make the data available to other Office programs.
▪▪ If the data in other Office programs is set up appropriately, you can copy and paste it
into an Access database.
Key points 309
10
Chapter at a glance
Design Design navigation forms,
page 312
Control Control which features are available,
page 323
Create Create custom categories,
page 319
Make databases
user friendly
11
IN THIS CHAPTER, YOU WILL LEARN HOW TO
▪▪
▪▪
▪▪
Design navigation forms.
Create custom categories.
Control which features are available.
A Microsoft Access 2013 database can be a complex combination of objects and the tools
for managing and manipulating them. If information will be entered and retrieved from your
database by people who aren’t proficient with Access, the information will be safer and the
database users happier if you insulate them from the inner workings of Access. When you
turn your collection of objects and information into an application that organizes related
tasks, users can focus on the job at hand, rather than on learning how to use the program
the database is running in. With a little extra effort on your part, you can make it easier for
them to access and manipulate data, and more difficult for them to unintentionally change
or delete it.
In Access 2013, the most common way to control access to a database is either by creating
a navigation form or by creating custom categories and groups in the Navigation pane. You
can also control which commands and which parts of the database users can interact with.
In this chapter, you’ll create a simple navigation form, create a custom category and groups,
and set various startup options that control the users’ working environment.
PRACTICE FILES To complete the exercises in this chapter, you need the practice files
contained in the Chapter11 practice file folder. For more information, see “Download
the practice files” in this book’s Introduction.
311
Designing navigation forms
A navigation form appears as a set of navigation buttons that the user can click to display
and work with forms and reports. You can add a navigation form to any database to make
it easier for users who don’t have extensive Access knowledge to enter information and find
exactly what they need.
TIP You cannot work with tables and queries directly from a navigation form. If you want
users to be able to view a table or the results of a query in a navigation form, you need to
create datasheet forms based on those objects and then insert those forms into the navigation form.
You can choose from the following six navigation form layouts:
▪▪ Horizontal Tabs Assigns each object to a button, which looks like a tab, across the
top of the form.
▪▪ Vertical Tabs, Left Assigns each object to a button down the left side of the form.
▪▪ Vertical Tabs, Right Assigns each object to a button down the right side of the
form.
▪▪ Horizontal Tabs, 2 levels Assigns each primary object to a button in the first row
across the top of the form, and assigns each secondary object to a button on the second row. For example, if you assign the Customers form to a button at the first level,
you might assign the New Customer form to a button at the second level. Users can
refer to the Customers form to find out whether a customer record already exists. If it
doesn’t, they can click the button for the New Customer form to display a new blank
record, in which they can enter the customer’s information.
▪▪ Horizontal Tabs and Vertical Tabs, Left Assigns each object to a button across the
top or down the left side of the form, depending on where you insert it. With this
­arrangement, you can have one navigation form that satisfies the needs of two separate groups—for example, order-related buttons across the top, and inventory-related
buttons down the side.
▪▪ Horizontal Tabs and Vertical Tabs, Right Assigns each object to a button across the
top or down the right side of the form, depending on where you insert it.
The layout you choose depends on the number and type of database objects you want to
be available from the form, and the way you want to arrange them.
312 Chapter 11 Make databases user friendly
When you create a navigation form, it is displayed in Layout view so that you can begin to
design it. The functionality of the form is supplied by a navigation control that consists of
a placeholder for a navigation button and a subform or subreport control. When you drag a
form or report from the Navigation pane to the button placeholder, the Navigation Target
Name property on the Data page of the button’s Property Sheet pane is set to the name
of the form or report, and that name is also displayed on the button. (You can change the
name on the button by changing its Caption property.) The form or report itself is displayed
in the subform or subreport control. A new placeholder navigation button is added to the
navigation bar, ready to receive the next form or report you insert.
This navigation form has the Horizontal Tabs layout, three buttons, and a subform.
A navigation form makes a convenient “home page” for a database, especially if it is displayed automatically when the database is opened. Providing a default startup page makes
it easy for users of the database to quickly access the database objects they are most likely
to need to work with.
In this exercise, you’ll create a datasheet form for viewing existing customers and a form for
entering new customer information. You’ll create a simple two-level navigation form to provide easy access to the customer information, and you’ll add three forms and a report to it.
Designing navigation forms 313
11
SET UP You need the GardenCompany11 database and the Logo graphic located in the
Chapter11 practice file folder to complete this exercise. Be sure to use the practice database for this chapter rather than continuing on with the database from an earlier chapter. Open the database, and if you want, save your own version to avoid overwriting the
original. Then with All Access Objects displayed in the Navigation pane, follow the steps.
1
In the Tables group in the Navigation pane, click Customers. Then on the Create
tab, in the Forms group, click More Forms, and in the list, click Datasheet to create a
datasheet form that looks like the Customers table.
2
Save the form as Customer List. Then open the Property Sheet pane, and on the
Data page, set the Allow Additions, Allow Deletions, and Allow Edits properties
to No.
3
4
Close the Property Sheet pane, and then close the form, saving your changes.
5
Open the New Customer form in Layout view, right-click the form’s title, and click
Form Properties to open the Property Sheet pane for the form. On the Data page,
set the Data Entry, Allow Additions, Allow Deletions, and Allow Edits properties
to Yes.
6
Close the Property Sheet pane, and then close the form, saving your changes.
In the Forms group in the Navigation pane, right-click Customer Records, and click
Copy. Then right-click anywhere in the Forms group, and click Paste. In the Paste As
dialog box, enter New Customer as the name of the form, and click OK.
We’ve now created two new forms, one exclusively for data lookup and the other
­exclusively for data entry. Now let’s create a navigation form so that the new forms
are easy to identify and access.
7
On the Create tab, in the Forms group, click the Navigation button, and then click
Horizontal Tabs, 2 Levels. If Access opens the Field List pane, close it.
314 Chapter 11 Make databases user friendly
In Layout view, you can view the two levels of navigation controls.
First let’s customize the form’s tab and title.
8
Display the Property Sheet pane for the form. On the Format page, in the Caption
property, enter Home Page, and press the Enter key. Then close the Property
Sheet pane.
9
In the Form Header, click the Navigation Form title, click it again to activate it for
editing, change the title to Forms and Reports, and press Enter. Then make the title
20 points, bold, and any dark green color.
10
Click in the Form Header away from the title control and logo placeholder, and apply
the Light Green, Background 2 color.
11
On the Design tool tab, in the Header / Footer group, click the Logo button, and
insert the Logo graphic from the Chapter11 practice file folder.
Designing navigation forms 315
11
The fonts and colors available for formatting the form are provided by the object’s theme.
12
Save the form with the name Home Page.
Now let’s populate the navigation form by adding forms and reports to it. You can do
this by assigning the forms and reports to the two rows of buttons on the navigation
bar above the subform control.
13
In the Forms group in the Navigation pane, click Customer Records, and drag it to
the first-level placeholder button at the top of the navigation control. Notice that the
first-level button is now labeled Customer Records, and because the button is active,
the Customer Records form is displayed in the subform control. Also notice that an
Add New button has been added to the first-level navigation bar.
316 Chapter 11 Make databases user friendly
The Customer Records form displays the first record in the Customers table.
14
In the Forms group in the Navigation pane, click Customer List, and drag it to the
second-level placeholder button below Customer Records. Notice that the secondlevel button is now labeled Customer List, and because the button is active, the
datasheet form appears in the subform control.
15
Drag the New Customer form to the second-level placeholder button to the right of
Customer List. The first-level Customer Records button now has two second-level
buttons and a second-level placeholder button.
16
In the Reports group in the Navigation pane, drag Customer Orders to the first-level
placeholder button to the right of Customer Records.
Let’s test the work we have done so far.
17
11
Switch to Form view.
Designing navigation forms 317
Customer Orders has a second-level placeholder button in Layout view, but the placeholder
button is not visible in Form view.
18
Click the Customer Records button, and then in turn click the Customer List and
New Customer buttons, observing the effect in the form.
Now let’s format the navigation buttons to more clearly define the hierarchy.
19
Switch back to Layout view. Then click the Customer Records button, hold down the
Ctrl key, and click the Customer Orders button.
20
On the Format tool tab, in the Control Formatting group, click the Change Shape
button, and then click the second shape in the second column (Round Same Side
Corner Rectangle).
21
Without changing the selection, in the Control Formatting group, click the Quick
Styles button, and then click the fourth thumbnail in the rightmost column (Subtle
Effect – Orange, Accent 6).
22
Repeat steps 20 and 21 for the first Customer Records second-level button
(Customer List), making it the same shape as the first-level buttons but applying the
fourth thumbnail in the second column (Subtle Effect – Green, Accent 1).
23
24
Use Format Painter to copy the formatting of Customer List to New Customer.
Switch to Form view, where the buttons now resemble colored tabs. Then click the
Customer Records button.
318 Chapter 11 Make databases user friendly
You can use shapes and colors to categorize forms and reports.
+
CLEAN UP Close the Home Page form, saving your changes. Keep the Garden­
Company11 database open for use in later exercises.
Creating custom categories
The Navigation pane is organized into categories and groups to make it easy to select the
database object you want to work with. A number of built-in categories are available, and
you can filter by group in various ways.
To provide database users with access to specific database objects, you can create custom categories, each containing multiple custom groups. You can drag and drop any
valid Access object into a custom group to create a shortcut to the object; the object itself
­remains in its original group. This combination of categories, groups, and object shortcuts
can be used to make frequently used objects more accessible. For example, if the accounting department runs a set of reports on the last day of each month, you could create an
Accounting category containing a Month End Reports group and then add shortcuts to the
reports to that group. Or if the Marketing department routinely works with several forms,
queries, and reports, you could create a Marketing category containing either a group
holding shortcuts to all the objects, or a group for each object type. There are no restrictions on the mix of objects you can place in a group.
Creating custom categories 319
11
In this exercise, you’ll create a custom category, add two groups to it, and then add shortcuts to database objects to the groups.
SET UP You need the GardenCompany11 database you worked with in the preceding
exercise to complete this exercise. If necessary, open the database, and then follow the
steps.
1
At the top of the Navigation pane, right-click All Access Objects, and then click
Navigation Options to open the Navigation Options dialog box.
You can hide a group by clearing its check box in the list on the right.
2
In the Grouping Options area, below the Categories list, click Add Item to add a
new category named Custom Category 1 to the list.
3
Replace Custom Category 1 with Garden Company, and press Enter. Notice that
the heading above the list on the right changes to Groups for “Garden Company”
to reflect the category selected in the list on the left.
4
Below the Groups for “Garden Company” list, click Add Group. Then replace
Custom Group 1 with Forms, and press Enter.
320 Chapter 11 Make databases user friendly
TIP Every custom category contains a default group named Unassigned Objects. This
group contains all the objects in the database and is the source for the shortcuts you
create in your custom groups.
5
Repeat step 4 to add a group named Reports. Then click OK.
Although it’s not visible yet, the Garden Company category has been added to the
Navigation pane. Let’s assign a few forms and reports to the groups of the new
category.
6
At the top of the Navigation pane, click All Access Objects to display the list of
available categories, and then click Garden Company. Notice that this category
contains an empty Forms group, an empty Reports group, and the Unassigned
Objects group.
11
In the Unassigned Objects group, the object icons
distinguish items of the same name.
Creating custom categories 321
7
In the Unassigned Objects group, click the Customer List form. Then hold down the
Shift key, and click the New Customer form to select the Customer List, Customer
Records, Home Page, and New Customer forms.
8
Drag the selection up to the top of the Navigation pane, releasing the mouse button
when the selection is on top of the Forms group header. Notice that the selected
forms no longer appear in the Unassigned Objects group; instead, shortcuts for
them appear in the custom Forms group.
9
In the Unassigned Objects group, select the Alphabetical List of Products and Sales
By Category reports.
10
11
Right-click the selection, click Add to group, and then click Reports.
Click the chevron at the right end of the Unassigned Objects group header to hide
its objects.
This uncluttered Navigation pane makes it easy
for users to spot what they need.
322 Chapter 11 Make databases user friendly
TIP To remove the Unassigned Objects group from the Navigation pane, display the
Navigation Options dialog box, click Garden Company, clear the Unassigned Objects
check box, and then click OK.
12
Test the new shortcuts by opening each form and report.
+
CLEAN UP Keep the GardenCompany11 database open for use in the last exercise.
Controlling which features are available
If your database will be used by people with little or no experience with Access, you might
want to control which features are available when a database opens. You can control the
user environment by setting startup options for the database. For example, you can use
startup options to control whether ribbon tabs and the Navigation pane are available,
whether a specified object (such as a navigation form) is displayed on startup, and other
features.
TIP Additional control can be achieved by the use of macros and Microsoft Visual Basic for
Applications (VBA) procedures. These topics are beyond the scope of this book. For information, search for Introduction to Access Programming on the Office website.
In this exercise, you’ll set startup options that create a version of the database that is appropriate for inexperienced users. You’ll give the database the appearance of being a custom
application, display the Home Page form when the database is opened, and hide program
elements that users don’t need. Then you’ll find out how to bypass the startup options.
SET UP You need the GardenCompany11 database you worked with in the preceding
exercise and the Icon image located in the Chapter11 practice file folder to complete this
exercise. If necessary, open the database, and then follow the steps.
1
Display the Backstage view, and click Options to open the Access Options dialog
box. Then in the left pane, click Current Database to display that page.
V413HAV
Controlling which features are available 323
11
On the Current Database page, you can set options for controlling the active database.
SEE ALSO For information about the other pages of the Access Options dialog
box, see “Changing default program options” in Chapter 13, “Work in Access more
efficiently.”
Let’s change the title in the title bar and replace the Access icon with one that visually
identifies this particular database.
2
In the Application Options area, in the Application Title box, change the Garden
Company title to Customer Service, and then press the Tab key.
TIP By default, the name and path of the active database appears in the title bar. To
avoid confusion, we assigned the title Garden Company to all the practice files for this
book. If you want to show the name and path of any practice database, display the
Current Database page of the Access Options dialog box, and delete the contents of
the Application Title box.
324 Chapter 11 Make databases user friendly
3
To the right of the Application Icon box, click Browse. Then navigate to the
Chapter11 practice file folder, and double-click the Icon image to enter the path
of the icon in the box.
4
Below the Application Icon box, select the Use as Form and Report Icon check box.
TIP Now the icon will appear not only at the left end of the title bar, but also adja-
cent to the names of form and report pages.
Next let’s set a home page for the database and make it harder for users to inadvertently make changes to the design of database objects.
5
6
Display the Display Form list, and then click Home Page.
7
In the Navigation area, clear the Display Navigation Pane check box.
Clear the Enable Layout View and Enable design changes for tables in Datasheet
view check boxes.
TIP When the Use Access Special Keys check box is selected in the Application
Options area, database users can open and close the Navigation pane by pressing
the F11 key. If you clear the Display Navigation Pane check box and the Use Access
Special Keys check box, users can’t open the Navigation pane at all.
8
9
10
In the Ribbon and Toolbar Options area, clear the Allow Full Menus and Allow
Default Shortcut Menus check boxes to prevent users from using these tools to
make inappropriate changes to the database. (Only the File and Home tabs will be
visible to users.)
Click OK to implement the changes and close the Access Options dialog box.
When Access tells you that you must close and reopen the database for the changes
to take effect, click OK.
Initially, the only visible change is that Customer Service and a colorful icon appear in
the title bar. Let’s close and reopen the database to view the other changes.
11
Close the GardenCompany11 database, and then reopen it.
Controlling which features are available 325
11
The database opens with the Home Page form displayed, the Navigation pane closed, and only
the File and Home tabs on the ribbon.
12
Press the F11 key. Notice that because you did not clear the Use Access Special Keys
check box in the Access Options dialog box, pressing this keyboard shortcut still
opens or closes the Navigation pane.
SEE ALSO For a list of keyboard shortcuts, see “Keyboard shortcuts” at the end of
this book.
13
Display the Backstage view, where only the Print page, a Privacy Options button,
and an Exit button are available.
TIP Clicking the Privacy Options button displays the Access Options dialog box,
where you can easily reverse the changes you made on the Current Database page.
326 Chapter 11 Make databases user friendly
14
Click Exit to close the database and exit Access.
Let’s open the database in such a way that we can make a change that ordinary users
are restricted from making.
15
Restart Access, and in the Recent area of the Backstage view, hold down the Shift
key, and click your GardenCompany11 file to bypass all the startup options.
+
CLEAN UP If you want, reverse all the changes you made to settings in the Access
Options dialog box. Then close the GardenCompany11 database.
Key points
▪▪ Navigation forms provide a web-like interface that makes it easy for people who are
not familiar with Access to enter data in forms and view reports.
▪▪ Custom categories and groups provide users with access to the forms and reports
they need, while restricting access to the objects they don’t need.
▪▪ Setting startup options is another way to make it more difficult for users to unintentionally change or delete data.
11
Key points 327
Chapter at a glance
Assign Assign passwords to databases,
page 330
Prevent Prevent database problems,
page 342
Split Split databases,
page 334
12
Protect databases
IN THIS CHAPTER, YOU WILL LEARN HOW TO
▪▪
▪▪
▪▪
▪▪
Assign passwords to databases.
Split databases.
Secure databases for distribution.
Prevent database problems.
Database protection takes two forms: ensuring that the database’s data is secure, and
­ensuring that its data is available and useable.
The need for database security is an unfortunate fact of life. As with your house, car, office,
or briefcase, the level of security required for your database depends on the value of what
you have and whether you are trying to protect it from curious eyes, accidental damage,
malicious destruction, or theft. The security of a company’s business information can be
critical to its survival. For example, you might not be too concerned if a person gained
unauthorized access to your products list, but you would be very concerned if a competitor managed to obtain your customer list. And the destruction or deletion of your critical
order information would be a disaster. Your goal is to provide adequate protection without
imposing unnecessary restrictions on the people who need access to your database. The
protection techniques you choose depend to a large extent on how many people are using
the database and where it is stored.
In addition to ensuring that a database is secure, you need to ensure that it is well maintained. Normal usage can result in conditions that increase the size of a database and slow
it down, so ongoing maintenance is essential for reliable performance. This is especially
true if the database is stored on a network rather than on a local drive, and if it is accessed
by multiple users.
329
In this chapter, you’ll assign a password to a database, protect data from accidental or
intentional corruption by splitting the database, and prepare the database for broader
distribution. You’ll also back up a database and run various utilities to assist with database
maintenance.
PRACTICE FILES To complete the exercises in this chapter, you need the practice file
contained in the Chapter12 practice file folder. For more information, see “Download
the practice files” in this book’s Introduction.
Assigning passwords to databases
You can keep unauthorized users out of a database by assigning it a password. Access then
prompts anyone attempting to open the database for the password, and opens it only if the
password is correct.
To assign a password to or remove a password from a database, you must first open the
­database for exclusive use, meaning that no one else can have the database open. This will
not be a problem for a database stored on your own computer and used only by you, but if
you want to set or remove a password for a database that is located on a network, you will
first need to make sure nobody else is using it.
You can use any word or phrase as a database password, but to create a secure password,
keep the following in mind:
▪▪ Passwords are case sensitive.
▪▪ You can include letters, accented characters, numbers, spaces, and most punctuation
marks.
▪▪ A good password includes uppercase letters, lowercase letters, and symbols or
­numbers, and isn’t a word found in a dictionary.
SEE ALSO For more information about creating secure passwords, search for the article
“Create strong passwords” on the Microsoft website.
330 Chapter 12 Protect databases
Assigning a password to a database has an important secondary benefit. A database created in Access is a binary file (a file that stores instructions and data in such a way that it
can usually be understood only by a computer). If you open the file in a word processor
or a text editor, its content is mostly unreadable, but if you look closely enough at the file,
you can discover quite a bit of information. It is unlikely that enough information will be
exposed to allow anyone to steal anything valuable. However, people can and do scan files
with computer tools designed to look for key words that lead them to restricted information. When you assign a password to a database, the database is automatically encrypted
each time it is closed, making it more unreadable. Opening the file in Access with the correct password decrypts the file and makes its data readable again.
A caveat: it is easy to assign a database password, and certainly better than providing no
protection at all, in that it keeps most unauthorized people out of the database. However,
many inexpensive password recovery utilities are available, theoretically to help people recover a lost password. Anyone can buy one of these utilities and “recover” the password to
your database. Also, because the same password works for all users (and nothing prevents
one person from giving the password to many other people), simple password protection is
most appropriate for a database that has only a few users.
In this exercise, you’ll assign a password to a database, test it, and then remove it.
SET UP You need the GardenCompany12 database located in the Chapter12 practice
file folder to complete this exercise. Be sure to use the practice database for this chapter
rather than continuing on with the database from an earlier chapter. Open the database,
and if you want, save your own version to avoid overwriting the original. Then close the
database without exiting Access, and follow the steps.
1
With Access running but no database open, display the Open page of the Backstage
view.
2
Open the Open dialog box, navigate to the Chapter12 practice file folder, and click
(don’t double-click) your version of the GardenCompany12 database. (We saved our
version as MyGardenCompany12.) Then click the Open arrow, and in the list, click
Open Exclusive.
If other people need to work on the database, they cannot open it until you close it.
So it’s now safe to set a password.
Assigning passwords to databases 331
12
3
Display the Info page of the Backstage view.
From this page, you can run utilities to help prevent database problems, assign a password, and
assign file properties that help identify the file.
TIP Clicking View And Edit Database Properties in the right pane doesn’t display the
Property Sheet pane. It displays the Properties dialog box for the active database. In
this dialog box, you can assign properties, such as a title, subject, and keywords, that
help identify the file and make it easier to find in browsing dialog boxes and programs such as File Explorer.
4
Click Encrypt with Password to open the Set Database Password dialog box.
As you enter the characters of the password in this dialog box,
Access disguises them as asterisks.
5
In the Password box, enter [email protected]@[email protected]!, and then press the Tab key.
332 Chapter 12 Protect databases
6
In the Verify box, enter [email protected]@[email protected]!. Then click OK. A message box warns
that row-level locking will be ignored.
Row-level locking is one of the settings that prevent two people from making changes to the
same record (row) at the same time.
TIP If you have not enrolled in the Microsoft Customer Experience Improvement Pro-
gram, the Was This Information Helpful link will not be included in the message box.
7
Click OK to close the message box, and then close the database without exiting
Access.
Now let’s test the password.
8
Try to open the database. Instead of displaying the Home Page navigation form,
Access opens the Password Required dialog box.
You cannot work with the database unless you know the password.
9
In the Enter database password box, enter 2013Database, and click OK.
12
Access warns that the password is not valid.
Assigning passwords to databases 333
10
11
In the message box, click OK.
When the Password Required dialog box is redisplayed, enter the correct password,
[email protected]@[email protected]!, and then click OK.
Now let’s remove the password.
12
Display the Info page of the Backstage view, and click Decrypt Database. A mes­
sage warns that the password cannot be removed unless the database is open for
exclusive use.
13
14
15
Click OK, and then close the database without exiting Access.
Open the database for exclusive use, entering the password when prompted.
On the Info page of the Backstage view, click Decrypt Database. Then in the Unset
Database Password dialog box, enter the password, and click OK to remove the
password.
+
CLEAN UP Close the database to release the exclusive use.
Splitting databases
When a database user works over a network on a database that is not stored on his or her
own computer, Access has to move database objects over the network from the computer
where the objects are stored to the computer where the user is working on them. If several
people are working on the database at the same time, processing times can get noticeably
slower. Under these circumstances, you might want to consider splitting the database to
speed up performance.
Splitting a database involves organizing the database into two parts:
▪▪ Back-end database Contains the tables that store all the data. It remains on the
network computer.
▪▪ Front-end database Contains the forms, queries, and reports that people use to
work with the data. It is copied to the local computer of any user who needs to work
with the database.
334 Chapter 12 Protect databases
Because Access can move the data required by a database object over the network much
faster than it can move the entire object, database performance is improved. But another
major benefit of splitting the database is that it helps protect the core data in the tables
from problems that might affect its reliability and usability.
You split a database by using the Database Splitter wizard, which you start by clicking the
Access Database button in the Move Data group on the Database Tools tab.
In this exercise, you’ll use the Database Splitter wizard to organize a database into back-end
and front-end components.
SET UP You need the GardenCompany12 database you worked with in the preceding
exercise to complete this exercise. Open the database, and then follow the steps.
1
Close any open database objects, and then save the database as
GardenCompany12_split.
TIP You should ALWAYS make a local copy of a database you want to split. Then if
the results are not what you expected, you have an unsplit version available for use.
2
When the new version of the database opens with the Home Page navigation form
displayed, close the form.
3
On the Database Tools tab, in the Move Data group, click the Access Database
button to start the Database Splitter wizard.
12
The wizard explains the process before you begin.
Splitting databases 335
4
Click Split Database. The Create Back-end Database dialog box opens, with
GardenCompany12_split_be (in our case, MyGardenCompany12_split_be)
suggested as the name of the back-end part of the database.
5
If the contents of the Chapter12 practice file folder are not displayed in the dialog
box, navigate to that folder now.
TIP In practice, you would navigate to the network location in which you want to
store the back-end database. Or you could avoid including a drive letter in the path
to the back-end database location by entering the UNC path (\\<server>\<share>) of
the storage location to the left of the file name in the File Name box. Either way, the
location must be specified at this time in order for the links that the wizard establishes between the back-end and front-end databases to work.
6
Click Split.
TIP The splitting operation for this practice file is very short, but for some working
databases, the process can take quite a long time.
7
When a message notifies you that the database has been successfully split, click OK
to close the message box and the wizard.
The GardenCompany12_split file (the one you started with) is now the front-end file.
Let’s try working with the split database.
8
In the Navigation pane, right-click the Garden Company category, click Category,
and click Object Type to display the All Access Objects category.
336 Chapter 12 Protect databases
The Tables group now contains shortcuts to the tables in the back-end database,
as indicated by the arrows to the left of the table icons.
You can now distribute the GardenCompany12_split database to anyone who needs
to use it. Provided that person has a connection to the computer on which the associated back-end database is stored, the front-end database will automatically connect
to the back-end to retrieve data as needed.
+
CLEAN UP Close the GardenCompany12_split database.
12
Splitting databases 337
Securing databases for distribution
When a database is used on your own computer or on your company’s network, it is not
difficult to control who has access to it. But if you send the database out into the world,
on its own or as part of a larger application, you lose that control. There is no way you
can know who is using the database or what tools they might have available to hack into
it. If this is of concern to you, consider distributing your database as an Access Database
Executable (.accde) file.
Suppose you want to make a database available for use by several organizations, but you
don’t want the organizations’ members to be able to change the database objects. You can
save the database as an .accde file and distribute that file instead of the .accdb file. Saving
a database as an .accde file compiles and compacts the resulting database. Users of the
.accde file can view forms and reports, update information, and run queries, but they cannot change the design of forms and reports.
TIP ACCDE databases also restrict what can be done with macros, modules, and VBA code.
These topics are beyond the scope of this book.
You can’t save a database in ACCDE format back to the source ACCDB format, so after saving a database as an .accde file, be sure to retain the original .accdb file in a safe place. If
you need to change a form or report in the database, you will need to make the change in
the original database and then save it as an .accde file again.
TIP When creating an ACCDE database that is accessed by multiple users, first ensure that
no user has the database open. In File Explorer or Windows Explorer, navigate to the location of the file, and verify that there is no file of the same name with an .laccdb (Locked
Access Database) extension. If you attempt to create an .accde file for an open database,
you will be warned that the database has already been opened by someone else (the user
name and computer name are provided) and told to try again later.
In this exercise, you’ll create a secure database by saving it as a distributable .accde file.
You’ll then test the file.
338 Chapter 12 Protect databases
SET UP You need the GardenCompany12 database you worked with in the preceding
exercise to complete this exercise. Open the database (not the GardenCompany12_split
database), and then follow the steps.
1
Close any open database objects, and then display the Save As page of the
Backstage view.
2
3
In the Advanced area of the right pane, double-click Make ACCDE.
4
Close the database without exiting Access.
In the Save As dialog box, verify that the contents of the Chapter12 practice file
folder are displayed, change the name of the database to GardenCompany12_accde,
and then click Save.
Let’s verify that Access has created a database executable file.
5
Display the Open page of the Backstage view, and then display the contents of the
Chapter12 practice file in the Open dialog box.
12
The icon for an ACCDE database displays a red lock over the standard Access icon.
TIP You might need to adjust column widths to display the file types.
Securing databases for distribution 339
6
Double-click the version of the GardenCompany12 database that is identified as a
Microsoft Access ACCDE Database. A somewhat scary security notice is displayed.
This security warning is displayed when you open an executable file that is from
an untrusted publisher or that is stored in an untrusted location.
7
8
Because you trust the source of this file (you!), click Open.
In the Navigation pane, right-click each object. Notice that the Design View com­
mand is not available. Neither is it available on the Home tab or the View Shortcuts
toolbar, meaning that you cannot make any design changes to the forms and reports
in the Garden Company category.
TIP If you change the Navigation pane category to All Access Objects, you can right-
click tables and display them in Design view. To prevent the possibility of changes
to table design in an .accde file, eliminate access to the Navigation pane as described
in “Controlling which features are available” in Chapter 11, “Make databases user
friendly,” and then create the file.
+
CLEAN UP Close the ACCDE database, and if you want, delete it.
340 Chapter 12 Protect databases
Packaging and signing databases
If you want to convey to users of a database executable file that they can trust the file,
use the Package And Sign tool to create an Access Deployment (.accdc) file. An .accdc
file contains one database that has been compressed. The file is signed by using a
digital signature, signifying that no changes have been made since the package was
created.
TIP You can purchase a digital signature from a third-party company. For information,
search for digital signature in Access Help.
To package the current database as a signed .accdc file:
1 With all database objects closed, display the Save As page of the Backstage view.
2 In the Advanced area of the right pane, double-click Package and Sign.
3 When a security message asks you to confirm that you want to use the installed
certificate, click OK.
4 In the Create Microsoft Access Signed Package dialog box, specify a location for
the package and assign a name. Then with Save as type set to Microsoft Access
Signed Package, click Create.
To use the packaged file:
1 In File Explorer or Windows Explorer, navigate to the location in which the signed
ACCDC database is stored.
2 Double-click the package, and when Access displays a security notice, click Show
Signature Details.
3 Check the signature in the Digital Signature Details dialog box, and then click OK.
TIP To trust all files originating from this publisher, you can click Trust All From
Publisher to add the source to the Trusted Publishers list in the Trust Center. For
information about the Trust Center, see “Changing default program options” in
Chapter 13, “Work in Access more efficiently.”
4 In the security notice box, click Open.
5 In the Extract Database To dialog box, navigate to the location to which you want
to extract the database, and click OK.
You can then work on the database as you normally would.
Securing databases for distribution 341
12
Preventing database problems
Normal database use can cause the internal structure of any database in any database program to become fragmented, sometimes resulting in a bloated file and inefficient use of
disk space. Fortunately, Access monitors the condition of database files as you open and
work with them, but you still need to pay attention, particularly if the performance of the
database seems slow or erratic.
You can take a variety of steps to help keep an Access 2013 database healthy and running
smoothly. Your first line of defense against damage or corruption in any kind of file is to
back it up. Database files can rapidly become very large, so you need to choose an appropriate place to store a backup copy, such as a DVD, another computer on your network, or
removable media such as a USB flash drive or external hard disk.
TIP To back up a split database, you must back up the front end and back end separately.
You might want to back up the back end (the data) on a regular schedule and the front end
only after a design change.
In addition to regularly backing up the database, you can use the following Access utilities
to keep it running smoothly:
▪▪ Compact and Repair Database Optimizes performance by rearranging how the
file is stored on your hard disk, and then attempts to repair any corruption in tables,
forms, and reports.
TIP It’s a good idea to compact and repair a database often. You might even want
to have Access run this utility automatically each time the database is closed. To
­automatically run the utility, display the Current Database page of the Access Op­
tions dialog box, select the Compact On Close check box in the Application Options
area, and then click OK.
▪▪ Database Documenter Produces a detailed report that contains enough information
to rebuild the database structure if necessary.
▪▪ Analyze Performance Analyzes the objects in the database and offers three types of
feedback: ideas, suggestions, and recommendations. You can instruct Access to optimize the file by following through on any of the suggestions or recommendations.
▪▪ Analyze Table Tests database tables for compliance with standard database design
principles, suggests solutions to problems, and implements those solutions at your
request.
342 Chapter 12 Protect databases
In this exercise, you’ll first back up a database. Then you’ll run the Compact And Repair
Database, Analyze Performance, and Database Documenter utilities.
SET UP You need the GardenCompany12 database you worked with in the preceding
exercise to complete this exercise. Open the database file FOR EXCLUSIVE USE, and then
follow the steps.
1
Close any open database objects, and then display the Save As page of the
Backstage view.
2
3
In the Advanced area of the right pane, double-click Back Up Database.
In the Save As dialog box, verify that the contents of the Chapter12 practice file
folder are displayed, and then click Save, which creates a copy of the database with
the current date appended to the file name in the specified folder.
TIP As with any file name, you can change the name to suit your needs.
Now let’s run the Compact And Repair Database utility.
4
Display the Info page of the Backstage view, and then click Compact & Repair
Database.
TIP You can also click the Compact And Repair Database button in the Tools group
on the Database Tools tab.
TROUBLESHOOTING If you don’t have enough space on your hard disk to store a tem-
porary copy of the database, you don’t have appropriate permissions, or another user
also has the database open, the Compact And Repair Database utility will not run.
The utility takes only a few seconds to run, and the database will not look any different. If you have been using a database regularly and have not compacted it for a
while, running the Compact And Repair Database utility can sometimes reduce the
file size by as much as 25 percent.
Next let’s run the Analyze Performance utility.
5
Close any open database objects, and then in the Forms area of the Navigation
pane, click Home Page.
6
On the Database Tools tab, in the Analyze group, click the Analyze Performance
button to open the Performance Analyzer dialog box. Notice that each type of data­
base object is represented by a page, and there are also pages for all objects and for
the database as a whole.
Preventing database problems 343
12
The active page reflects the object that is selected in the Navigation pane when you start
the utility.
7
Click the All Object Types tab, click Select All, and then with the check boxes for all
the objects in the database selected, click OK to start the analyzer.
The Key tells you the nature of each item in the Analysis Results list.
TIP In previous versions of Access, Access Database Executable (.accde) files were
called Microsoft Database Executable (.mde) files, hence the use of the MDE acronym
in the first item in the Analysis Results list shown in this graphic.
344 Chapter 12 Protect databases
8
Click each entry in turn, and read the information in the Analysis Notes area.
TIP Always scrutinize the suggestions. Some will help you refine the database and
correct aberrations before problems develop; others are not valid in context. For
example, the suggestion to create a relationship for the Products table and the
­suggestion to change the data type of the PostalCode field to Long Integer are not
appropriate for this database.
9
Close the Performance Analyzer dialog box.
Finally, let’s create a report of the structure of the database.
10
On the Database Tools tab, in the Analyze group, click the Database Documenter
button to open the Documenter dialog box. Notice that this dialog box is identical to
the Performance Analyzer dialog box, with a page for each type of object the utility
can document and a page for all the existing database objects.
11
Click the Tables tab, and then click Options, which opens the Print Table Definition
dialog box.
12
These print options are associated with tables.
TIP The options associated with each type of database object vary, but they all
­ nable you to specify what items you want to include in the documentation for
e
that type of object.
12
In the Print Table Definition dialog box, click Cancel.
Preventing database problems 345
13
Click the All Object Types tab, click Select All, and then click OK to start the docu­
mentation process and create the report, which Access displays in Print Preview.
The report for this simple database is more than 200 pages long.
14
Zoom in on the report to examine the kinds of things included in the documentation.
Then use the page navigation bar to scroll through a few pages.
The report details the structure of every object in the database.
346 Chapter 12 Protect databases
TIP You probably don’t want to print this long report, but it is a good idea to create
and print a report such as this one for your own databases, in case you ever need
to reconstruct them. You can’t save the report, but you can export it in a variety of
formats by right-clicking the report, clicking Export, and then clicking the format
you want.
+
CLEAN UP Close the Object Definition report and the GardenCompany12 database.
Key points
▪▪ You can assign a password to a database to prevent unauthorized users from opening
it. Assigning a password automatically encrypts the database.
▪▪ Splitting a database can enhance database performance and safeguard data in a
multiuser environment.
▪▪ If you save the database as an .accde file, people can use its forms and reports but
not create new ones.
▪▪ Access automatically fixes many problems that can arise with a database. You can
prevent problems by frequently using the utilities provided for that purpose.
▪▪ The simplest way to protect your database is to back it up regularly.
12
Key points 347
Chapter at a glance
Change Change default program options,
page 350
Manipulate Manipulate the Quick Access Toolbar,
page 370
Customize Customize the ribbon,
page 363
Work in Access more
efficiently
13
IN THIS CHAPTER, YOU WILL LEARN HOW TO
▪▪
▪▪
▪▪
Change default program options.
Customize the ribbon.
Manipulate the Quick Access Toolbar.
If you use Microsoft Access 2013 only occasionally, you might be perfectly happy creating
new databases by using the wide range of tools we have already discussed in this book. And
you and the people who use your databases might be comfortable with the default working environment and behind-the-scenes settings of the Access program installed on your
computers.
However, if you create a lot of databases of various types, you might find that you want to
streamline the development process or change aspects of the program to make it more
suitable for the users of the databases you create.
In this chapter, you’ll take a tour of the pages of the Access Options dialog box to understand the ways in which you can customize the program. Then you’ll manipulate the ribbon and the Quick Access Toolbar to put the tools you need for your daily work at your
fingertips.
PRACTICE FILES To complete the exercises in this chapter, you need the practice file
contained in the Chapter13 practice file folder. For more information, see “Download
the practice files” in this book’s Introduction.
349
Changing default program options
In earlier chapters, we accomplished most common database tasks by working with the
default Access program settings. After you work with Access for a while, you might want to
refine these settings to tailor the program to the way you work. Knowing which settings are
where in the Access Options dialog box makes the customization process more efficient.
In this exercise, you’ll take a closer look at the Access Options dialog box and explore
­several of the available pages.
SET UP You don’t need any practice files to complete this exercise. Open a blank
­database, and then follow the steps.
1
Display the Backstage view, and then click Options to open the Access Options
dialog box with the General page displayed.
The options on this page control the user interface appearance, the availability of Live Preview,
the default file format and storage location, and user identification.
350 Chapter 13 Work in Access more efficiently
TIP As you work your way through this exercise, don’t worry if the settings in your
Access Options dialog box are different from ours. Settings can vary depending on
changes you might have made while working through the exercises, or your system
administrator might have configured some settings to comply with your company’s
policy. Also don’t worry about the height of the dialog box; for screen shot purposes,
we sized the dialog box to best fit its contents.
The options in the bottom area of the General page apply to all Microsoft Office
­programs, not just Access.
2
In the Personalize your copy of Microsoft Office area, click the Office Background
arrow to display its list.
Choosing an option from this list adds a background effect to the top
of all Office program windows.
3
Click away from the list or press Esc to close the list without choosing an option.
13
Changing default program options 351
4
In the left pane, click Current Database to display the options that control the
features available to the current database.
The options on this page apply only to the active database, not to all databases.
352 Chapter 13 Work in Access more efficiently
5
Scroll to the bottom of the page to view all the options.
You will probably use these options less frequently.
SEE ALSO For information about how to use several of the options on the Current
Database page, see “Controlling which features are available” in Chapter 11, “Make
databases user friendly.”
13
Changing default program options 353
6
In the Navigation area, click the Navigation Options button to open the Navigation
Options dialog box.
In this dialog box, you can change the display and behavior of the Navigation pane.
7
Click Cancel. Then in the left pane of the Access Options dialog box, click Datasheet.
The options on this page affect the default appearance of gridlines, cells, and fonts in tables and
query results in Datasheet view.
354 Chapter 13 Work in Access more efficiently
8
Display the Object Designers page. Scroll down to view all the options available.
The options on this page affect the way Design view looks and behaves when you are
manipulating tables, queries, forms, and reports.
TIP Most of the settings on this page have no effect when an object is displayed in
Datasheet or Layout view.
9
Display the Proofing page.
13
Changing default program options 355
Access includes the same tools for checking spelling as the other Office 2013 programs.
10
In the AutoCorrect options area, click the AutoCorrect Options button to display
the AutoCorrect dialog box.
The table lists entries that will automatically be replaced.
356 Chapter 13 Work in Access more efficiently
11
If you are not already familiar with AutoCorrect, scroll the list at the bottom of the
dialog box, noticing the built-in replacements, and then close the dialog box.
12
Display the Language page.
You can make additional languages available for databases that will be used by international
audiences, and specify the editing, display, and Help languages.
13
Changing default program options 357
13
Display the Client Settings page, which controls default program behavior on the
local computer. Scroll down to view all the options available.
The options on this page affect default behaviors of Access on your local computer.
358 Chapter 13 Work in Access more efficiently
14
Skipping over Customize Ribbon and Quick Access Toolbar, which we discuss in later
topics in this chapter, click Add-ins.
You can use the Manage options at the bottom of the page to add and remove add-ins.
TIP Don’t worry if your Add-ins page looks different from ours. We have no installed
add-ins on this computer. For information about add-ins, see the sidebar “Using addins” following this topic.
13
Changing default program options 359
15
Display the Trust Center page.
The links on this page provide information about the privacy and security of your databases.
16
In the Microsoft Access Trust Center area, click the Trust Center Settings button to
display the Trust Center.
The Trusted Publishers page stores the names of any publishers whose digitally signed files you
have specified are safe for Access to open.
360 Chapter 13 Work in Access more efficiently
TIP You cannot add publishers on this page. You add them in response to a message
Access displays when you open a digitally signed file. For more information about
digitally signing databases, see the sidebar “Packaging and signing databases” in
Chapter 12, “Protect databases.”
17
In the right pane, click Trusted Locations to display the locations from which Access
won’t block content.
The Access wizards are stored in a trusted user location, meaning that Access will not block them
from running on your computer.
TIP From this page, you can also control the actions Access takes in response to
­ atabases that are provided by certain people or companies (publishers) or that
d
­contain ActiveX controls or macros.
18
Explore the other pages of the Trust Center dialog box, and then click Cancel to
return to the Access Options dialog box.
+
CLEAN UP Close the Access Options dialog box.
13
Changing default program options 361
Using add-ins
Add-ins are utilities that add specialized functionality to a program (but aren’t
full-fledged programs themselves). Access includes two primary types of add-ins:
Component Object Model (COM) add-ins and Access add-ins.
There are several sources of add-ins:
▪▪ You can purchase add-ins from third-party vendors—for example, you can purchase an add-in that creates forms that have controls automatically sized to fit
their data.
▪▪ You can download free add-ins from the Office website or other websites.
▪▪ When you install a third-party program, you might install an add-in to allow it
to interact with Microsoft Office 2013 programs.
TIP Be careful when downloading add-ins from websites other than those you trust.
Add-ins are executable files that can easily be used to spread viruses and otherwise
wreak havoc on your computer. For this reason, default settings in the Trust Center
intervene when you attempt to download or run add-ins.
To use some add-ins, you must first install them on your computer and then load
them into your computer’s memory, as follows:
1 At the bottom of the Add-ins page of the Access Options dialog box, display the
Manage list, click either COM Add-ins or Access Add-ins, and then click Go to
open an Add-Ins dialog box corresponding to the type of add-in you chose.
2 In the dialog box, click Add or Add New.
3 In the dialog box that opens, navigate to the folder in which the add-in you want
to install is stored, and double-click its name to add it to the list of those that are
available for use.
4 In the list, select the check box of the new add-in, and then either click OK or click
an option to load the add-in. (For example, you might be given the option of
always loading the add-in when you start your computer.)
TIP You can also manage add-ins in the Add-In Manager dialog box that is displayed
when you click the Add-Ins button in the Add-Ins group on the Database Tools tab.
362 Chapter 13 Work in Access more efficiently
Customizing the ribbon
In “Controlling which features are available” in Chapter 11, “Make databases user-friendly,”
we described options you can set for a specific database that determine what Access features are available for that database. However, you can also control what people can do
with any database by customizing the Access program installed on a local computer.
Many people use Access to perform the same set of tasks all the time, and for them, the
plethora of buttons on the ribbon is just a form of clutter. Would you prefer to have fewer
commands displayed, not more? Or would you prefer to have more specialized groups of
commands? Or do you want to make only specific commands available to users to prevent
inadvertent changes to your databases?
Well, you can. Clicking Customize Ribbon in the left pane of the Access Options dialog box
displays the Customize Ribbon page.
13
In the box on the left, you can list all the commands available in Access. In the one on the right,
you can display the commands currently available on the ribbon.
Customizing the ribbon 363
You can customize the ribbon in the following ways:
▪▪ Turn off tabs you rarely use.
▪▪ If you use the commands in only a few groups on each tab, remove the groups you
don’t use. (The group is not removed from the program, just from its tab.)
▪▪ Move a predefined group by removing it from one tab and then adding it to another.
▪▪ Duplicate a predefined group by adding it to another tab.
▪▪ Create a custom group on any tab and then add commands to it. (You cannot add
commands to a predefined group.)
▪▪ For the ultimate in customization, create a custom tab. For example, you might want
to do this if you or the people who work with your databases use only a few commands from each tab and it is inefficient to flip between them.
Don’t be afraid to experiment with the ribbon to come up with the configuration that best
suits your Access databases and the type of work performed with them. For example, someone who only does data entry might need a different configuration than someone who creates queries to produce reports. If at any point you find that the new ribbon configuration is
harder to work with rather than easier, you can always reset everything back to the default
configuration.
TIP If you have upgraded from Access 2003 or an earlier version, you might have identified
a few commands that no longer seem to be available. A few old features have been abandoned, but others that people used only rarely have simply been pushed off to one side. If
you miss one of these sidelined features, you can make it a part of your Access environment
by adding it to the ribbon. You can find a list of all the commands that do not appear on
the ribbon but are still available in Access by displaying the Customize Ribbon page of the
Access Options dialog box and then clicking Commands Not In The Ribbon in the Choose
Commands From list.
364 Chapter 13 Work in Access more efficiently
In this exercise, you’ll turn off tabs, remove groups, create a custom group, and add commands to the new group. Then you’ll create a tab and move predefined groups of buttons
to it. Finally, you’ll reset the ribbon to its default state.
SET UP You need the GardenCompany13 database located in the Chapter13 practice
file folder to complete this exercise. Be sure to use the practice database for this chapter
rather than continuing on with the database from an earlier chapter. Open the database,
and if you want, save your own version to avoid overwriting the original. Then follow the
steps.
1
2
Display the Customize Ribbon page of the Access Options dialog box.
In the Customize the Ribbon list, clear the check boxes of the External Data and
Database Tools tabs. Then click OK to remove all but the File, Home, and Create
tabs.
You cannot remove the File tab.
3
Redisplay the Customize Ribbon page of the Access Options dialog box, and in the
Customize the Ribbon list box, select the Database Tools check box.
Now let’s work with groups.
4
In the Customize the Ribbon list box, click the plus sign adjacent to Database Tools
to display the groups on this tab.
5
On the left, display the Choose commands from list, and click Main Tabs. Then in the
list box, click the plus sign adjacent to Database Tools to display the groups that are
predefined for this tab.
13
Customizing the ribbon 365
6
In the Customize the Ribbon list box, click the Move Data group, and then click
Remove to remove the group from the Database Tools tab on the ribbon. Notice
that the group is still available in the Choose commands from list box, so you can
move it back to the Database Tools tab, or add it to a different tab, at any time.
7
If the Home group is not expanded in the Customize the Ribbon list box, click the
plus sign adjacent to Home to displays its groups, and then click the word Home.
8
Below the list box, click New Group. When the New Group (Custom) group is added
to the bottom of the Home group list, click Rename, enter Final in the Display name
box, and click OK. Then click the Move Up button until the Final (Custom) group is
above Views in the group list.
Because of its location in the hierarchy, the custom group will appear
at the left end of the Home tab.
9
With Final (Custom) selected, display the Choose commands from list, and click File
Tab to display only the commands available in the Backstage view in the list box
below it.
366 Chapter 13 Work in Access more efficiently
10
In the Choose commands from list box, click Encode/Decode Database, and then
click Add. Then repeat this step to add Package and Sign.
You can add commands to a custom group, but not to a predefined group.
Next let’s create a custom Search tab.
11
In the Customize the Ribbon list box, remove the Find and Sort & Filter groups from
the Home tab.
12
Click the word Home, and then below the list box, click New Tab. Notice that Access
adds a new tab called New Tab (Custom) to the list, selects it for display on the
ribbon, and assigns it one custom group.
13
14
For the purposes of this exercise, we don’t need the custom group, so remove it.
Click New Tab (Custom), and then click Rename. In the Rename dialog box, enter
Search in the Display name box, and click OK.
TIP The name appears on the ribbon with the capitalization you use in the Rename
dialog box. If you want Search to appear as SEARCH, enter it that way. However, bear
in mind that entering the tab name with an initial capital letter visually identifies it as
a custom tab.
Customizing the ribbon 367
13
15
With the Search (Custom) tab selected, display the Choose commands from list, and
click Main Tabs. Then in the list box, expand the Home tab.
16
Add the Sort & Filter and Find groups from Home in the Choose commands from
list box to Search (Custom) in the Customize the Ribbon list box.
You have created a new tab that contains two predefined groups.
17
Close the Access Options dialog box.
The Home tab now has a Final group that contains two buttons.
368 Chapter 13 Work in Access more efficiently
18
Display the Customers table in Datasheet view, and then click the Search tab.
The custom Search tab contains all the commands for filtering, sorting, and finding records.
Let’s restore the default ribbon configuration.
19
Display the Customize Ribbon page of the Access Options dialog box. Below the
Customize the Ribbon list box, click Reset, and then click Reset all customizations.
20
In the message box that asks you to confirm that you want to delete all ribbon
and Quick Access Toolbar customizations, click Yes. Then close the Access Options
dialog box.
+
CLEAN UP Close the Customers table. Keep the GardenCompany13 database open for
use in the last exercise.
Customizing the status bar
You can easily add or remove controls from the status bar by right-clicking any blank
area of the status bar and then, on the Customize Status Bar menu, clicking the control you want to add or remove.
13
On the Customize Status Bar menu, a check mark indicates a control that is
currently shown or will be shown when information of that type is available.
Customizing the ribbon 369
Manipulating the Quick Access Toolbar
By default, the Save, Undo, and Repeat/Redo buttons appear on the Quick Access Toolbar.
If you regularly use a few buttons that are scattered on various tabs of the ribbon and you
don’t want to switch between tabs to access the buttons or crowd your ribbon with a custom tab, you might want to add these frequently used buttons to the Quick Access Toolbar.
They are then always visible in the upper-left corner of the program window.
Clicking the Customize Quick Access Toolbar button at the right end of the Quick Access
Toolbar displays a menu that lists commonly used commands. Check marks appear to the
left of commands currently available on the Quick Access Toolbar. You can click these commands to remove them, and click other commands to add them.
You can customize the Quick Access Toolbar by selecting or clearing
buttons on the Customize Quick Access Toolbar menu.
As you add buttons to the Quick Access Toolbar, it expands to accommodate them. If you
add many buttons, some of them might not be visible, which defeats the purpose of adding
them. To resolve this problem, you can move the Quick Access Toolbar below the ribbon
by clicking the Customize Quick Access Toolbar button, and then clicking Show Below The
Ribbon.
370 Chapter 13 Work in Access more efficiently
Clicking More Commands on the Customize Quick Access Toolbar menu opens the Access
Options dialog box with the Quick Access Toolbar page displayed. This page gives you more
options for displaying commands on the toolbar.
In the box on the left, you can list all the commands available in Access. The box on the right displays
the commands currently available on the Quick Access Toolbar.
13
Manipulating the Quick Access Toolbar 371
You can customize the Quick Access Toolbar in the following ways:
▪▪ Define a custom Quick Access Toolbar for all databases, or define a custom Quick
­Access Toolbar for a specific database.
▪▪ Add any command from any group of any tab, including tool tabs, to the toolbar.
TIP A quick way to add a command is to right-click it on the ribbon and then click
Add To Quick Access Toolbar.
▪▪ Display a separator between different types of buttons.
▪▪ Move buttons around on the toolbar until they are in the order you want.
▪▪ Reset everything back to the default Quick Access Toolbar configuration.
If you never use more than a few buttons, add those buttons to the Quick Access Toolbar
and then hide the ribbon by double-clicking the active tab or by clicking the Collapse The
Ribbon button. Only the Quick Access Toolbar and tab names remain visible. You can temporarily redisplay the ribbon by clicking the tab you want to view. You can permanently
­redisplay the ribbon by double-clicking any tab or by clicking the Pin The Ribbon button.
KEYBOARD SHORTCUT Press Ctrl+F1 to minimize or expand the ribbon. For a list of
keyboard shortcuts, see “Keyboard shortcuts” at the end of this book.
In this exercise, you’ll add a few buttons to the Quick Access Toolbar for all databases, and
then you’ll test some of the buttons.
SET UP You need the GardenCompany13 database you worked with in the preceding exercise to complete this exercise. Open the database, open the Employees table
in Datasheet view, and then follow the steps.
1
Display the Quick Access Toolbar page of the Access Options dialog box. Then
display the Choose commands from list, and click All Commands.
TIP If you want to create a Quick Access Toolbar that is specific to the active data­
base, display the Customize Quick Access Toolbar list on the right, and click For
<path of database>. Then any command you select will be added to that specific
toolbar instead of the toolbar for all databases.
2
In the Customize Quick Access Toolbar list box, click Redo. Then at the top of the
Choose commands from list box, double-click Separator to divide the default Save,
Undo, and Redo commands from the custom commands you are about to add to the
toolbar.
372 Chapter 13 Work in Access more efficiently
V413HAV
3
Scroll about two-thirds of the way down the Choose commands from list box, click
Quick Print, and then click Add.
TIP You can also add the Quick Print button to the Quick Access Toolbar by clicking
the Customize Quick Access Toolbar button and then clicking Quick Print.
4
Repeat step 3 to add the Forms, Reports, and Tables ribbon groups, so that you can
use their commands without having to display the Create tab of the ribbon.
TIP To quickly find a particular command in the Choose Commands From list box,
click any command and then enter the first letter of the command you want. The list
box scrolls to the first command that starts with that letter.
5
Rearrange these groups so that they appear in this order: Tables, Forms, and then
Reports.
The down-arrows to the right of Tables, Forms, and Reports indicate
that clicking these buttons on the Quick Access Toolbar will display
the associated group’s commands.
13
Manipulating the Quick Access Toolbar 373
6
Close the Access Options dialog box. Notice that the Quick Access Toolbar now
includes the default Save, Undo, and Repeat/Redo buttons, separated by a line from
the custom Quick Print button and the Tables, Forms, and Reports group buttons.
You have added a button and three groups to the Quick Access Toolbar.
Now let’s test the new Quick Access Toolbar.
7
Verify that your printer is turned on, and then on the Quick Access Toolbar, click the
Quick Print button.
8
9
Close the Employees table.
With Employees selected in the Navigation pane, on the Quick Access Toolbar, click
the Forms button to display the commands in that group.
All of the buttons in the Forms group are active because the Employees table is selected
in the Navigation pane.
Let’s restore the default Quick Access Toolbar configuration.
10
Display the Quick Access Toolbar page of the Access Options dialog box. Below
the Customize Quick Access Toolbar list box, click Reset, and then click Reset only
Quick Access Toolbar.
11
In the Reset Customizations message box, click Yes to return the Quick Access
Toolbar to its default contents. Then close the Access Options dialog box.
+
CLEAN UP Close the GardenCompany13 database.
374 Chapter 13 Work in Access more efficiently
Key points
▪▪ The Access environment is flexible and can be customized to meet your needs.
▪▪ Most of the settings that control the working environment are gathered on the pages
of the Access Options dialog box.
▪▪ For efficiency and security, customize the ribbon to make only the database tools
each user needs available.
▪▪ Provide one-click access to any Access command by adding a button for it to the
Quick Access Toolbar, either for all databases or for a specific database.
13
Key points 375
Glossary
Access Database Executable (.accde) file An
Access database file that has been compiled and compacted for distribution. The
ACCDE format allows users to view forms
and reports, update information, and run
queries, but prevents them from changing
database objects.
binary file A file that contains encoded infor­
mation that is interpreted by a computer
according to the application that created
it. In general, a binary file can be edited
only by the application in which it was created. A binary file is not encrypted and is
therefore not secure.
Access Deployment (.accdc) file An Access
­database file that has been compressed
and digitally signed for distribution.
boolean A Yes/No data type used for fields that
can have only two possible mutually exclusive values, such as True or False. This data
type is named after George Boole, an early
mathematician and logistician.
action query A type of query that performs an
action on matched records, such as updating fields or deleting the records. See also
select query.
add-ins Utilities that provide specialized functionality to a program but aren’t fullfledged programs themselves.
bound Linked, as when a text box control is
linked to a specific field in a table. See also
unbound.
Cascade Delete A deletion of data that is also
implemented in related records.
aggregate function A function that performs a
calculation, such as Sum or Avg (average),
on multiple values and returns a single
summary value.
combo box A control that combines a text
box with a list box. With a combo box, the
user can type an entry or choose one from
a list.
append query A query that adds, or appends,
records from one or more tables to the
end of one or more tables.
comma-delimited text file A text file in which
each field is separated from the next by a
comma.
application parts Predefined database objects
that you can add to an existing database.
command button Any button with which users
initiate an immediate action. You can add
command button controls to forms and
reports.
arithmetic operator An operator that is used
with numerals: + (addition), - (subtraction),
* (multiplication), or / (division).
back-end database The portion of a split database that contains the tables that store all
the data. The back-end database is kept
on a central computer. See also front-end
­database and split database.
comparison operator An operator that compares two expressions, expressed as >
(greater than), < (less than), = (equal to),
>= (greater than or equal to), <= (less
than or equal to), <> (not equal to), or
like (­ pattern matching).
Glossary 377
constant A value that is not calculated and does
not change. For example, the number 210
and the text Quarterly Earnings are constants. An expression, or a value resulting
from an expression, is not a constant.
control An object, such as a text box, combo
box, or command button, that displays
data or choices, performs an action, or
makes a database object easier to use.
control property A setting that determines the
control’s appearance, what kind of data it
can display, and its behavior. The properties for a selected control are displayed in
the Property Sheet pane.
control source The object, such as a field, table,
or query, to which a control is bound. See
also record source.
crosstab query A type of query that displays
data for summarized values from a field or
table and then groups them by two sets of
facts: one down the left side, and the other
across the top of the datasheet.
data type A property that restricts entries in a
field to a specific type of data.
database application A database that is made
easier to use by the inclusion of queries,
forms, reports, custom categories and
groups, macros, and other tools.
database object One of the components of an
Access database, such as a table, query,
form, report, macro, or module.
database security Measures adopted to protect data from accidental or intentional
corruption and to make it difficult for
­un­authorized people to gain access to
­private information; for example, passwords, ­encryption, and .accde files.
datasheet A table with data displayed in columns (fields) and rows (records). The first
row contains column headings (field
names).
378 Glossary
Datasheet view The view in which you can
­review and modify the data in a table
or returned by a query.
delete query A query that deletes records that
match a specified pattern from one or
more tables.
delimited text file A text file in which each field
is separated from the next by a specific
character, such as a comma or a tab.
delimiter A character, such as a comma (,), semicolon (;), or backslash (\), that is used to
separate records and fields in a delimited
text file.
design grid In Design view, the grid in which you
can manually work with advanced filters
and queries.
Design view The view in which you can review
and modify the structure of a table, query,
form, or report.
dialog box launcher On the ribbon, a button in
the lower-right corner of some groups that
opens a dialog box with features related to
the group.
duplicate query A type of select query that finds
records containing identical information
in one or more specified fields. Can be
created with the assistance of the Find
Duplicates Query wizard.
empty string A string with the value “” (two
quotation marks with nothing between
them).
encrypting To encode (scramble) information
in such a way that it is unreadable to all
but those individuals possessing the key
to the code.
exclusive use A setting that permits only one
person to have a database open. Generally
used when setting or removing a database
password.
exporting The process of converting an Access
table or database into a format that can
be used by other programs. See also
importing.
flat database A simple database that can store
information in only one table. Also known
as a flat file database. See also relational
database.
expression A combination of functions, field
values, constants, and operators that can
be used to assign properties to tables or
forms, to determine values in fields or reports, as part of a query, and in many other
places. Also known as a formula.
foreign key In related tables, the foreign key
field in one table corresponds with the
­primary key field in the other table.
Expression Builder A tool used to create an expression. The Expression Builder includes
a list of common expressions that you can
select from to define the properties you
want to target.
field An element of a table that contains a specific item of information, such as a last
name. A field is represented in Access as a
column in a database table. See also record.
field alias A label assigned to a field. You can
change the labels Access assigns to make
them more meaningful.
field names The names assigned to fields that
appear as column headings in the first row
of a database table.
field property A property that controls what
data can be entered in a field, how it must
look, and what Access should do with it.
filter A set of criteria that specifies what table
data should be displayed.
fixed-width text file A common text file format
that is often used to transfer data from
older programs. The same field in every
record contains the same number of characters. If the actual data doesn’t fill a field,
the field is padded with spaces so that the
starting point of the data in the next field
is the same number of characters from the
beginning of every record.
form An organized and formatted view of some
or all of the fields from one or more tables
or query results. Forms work interactively
with the tables in a database and are often
used to simplify data entry.
form selector The box at the intersection of the
vertical and horizontal rulers when a form
is displayed in Design view. You click the
form selector to select the entire form.
front-end database The portion of a split database that contains the forms, queries, and
reports people use to work with data. The
front end can be copied to the local computer of any user who needs to work with
the database. See also back-end database
and split database.
function A named procedure or routine,
­often used for mathematical or financial
calculations.
group On a ribbon tab, an area containing buttons related to a specific database object,
element, or function. On the Navigation
bar, a list that is part of a category.
grouping level The level by which records are
grouped in a report. When you group on
a field, the report adds a group header
and footer around each group of records
that have the same value in that field.
HTML A markup language used to create hypertext documents that are portable from one
platform to another. HTML files are simple
ASCII text files with embedded markup
tags that control formatting and hypertext
links. See also XML.
Glossary 379
HTML tag A code that identifies an element in
an HTML document, such as a heading or
paragraph, for the purposes of formatting,
indexing, and linking information in the
document.
importing The process of converting external
data into a format that can be used by
Access. See also exporting.
input mask A property that controls the appearance, format, and type of data in a field.
label control A control that contains text as it
will appear on a form or report.
linking The process of connecting to data in
other programs so that you can view and
edit it both in Access and the originating
program.
logical operator An operator, such as AND, OR,
or NOT, that is used in queries and filters
to extract matching records from tables.
Lookup wizard An Access wizard with which
you can create a lookup list.
main form A form that contains embedded
­subforms. See also subform.
main report A report that serves as a shell for
one or more embedded subreports. See
also subreport.
make-table query A query that combines all or
part of the data from one or more tables
into a new table.
many-to-many relationship A relationship between two tables in which records in each
table have multiple matching records in
the related table. For example, each sales
invoice can contain multiple products, and
each product can appear on multiple sales
invoices. See also one-to-many relationship
and one-to-one relationship.
380 Glossary
Microsoft Database Executable (.mde) file The
equivalent of an .accde file created by
previous versions of Access. See Access
Database Executable (.accde) file.
named range A group of related spreadsheet
cells defined by a single name.
navigation control A control on a navigation
form that consists of a placeholder for a
navigation button and a subform or sub­
report control.
navigation form A form that presents the user
with a set of navigation buttons that can
be clicked to display and work with forms
and reports. Database designers can use
navigation forms to make it easier for users
to access and manipulate data and more
difficult for them to unintentionally change
or delete it.
Navigation pane An area of the Access program
window that enables the user to quickly
open database objects.
normalization The process of ensuring that a
set of data is stored in only one table. The
rules that govern normalization are designed to minimize data redundancy and
result in a database in which referential
integrity can be enforced.
Null Nothing; a field with no entry.
one-to-many relationship In relational databases, a relationship between two tables in
which a single record in the first table can
be related to one or more records in the
second table, but a record in the second
table can be related to only one record
in the first table. See also many-to-many
­relationship and one-to-one relationship.
one-to-one relationship In relational databases,
a relationship between two tables in which
a single record in the first table can be
related to only one record in the second
table, and a record in the second table can
be related to only one record in the first
table. See also many-to-many relationship
and one-to-many relationship.
operator See arithmetic operator, comparison
operator, and logical operator.
option button A control that allows a user to
select from a fixed set of mutually exclusive
choices.
parameter query A type of query that, when
run, prompts for the values (criteria) to use
to match records. Because the criteria are
entered at run time, the same parameter
query can be used to match different rec­
ords. See also action query, crosstab query,
and select query.
parsing The process of analyzing an imported
document, such as an HTML document,
and identifying anything that looks like
structured data.
password A string of characters used to access information or log on to a computer.
Passwords help prevent unauthorized
people from accessing files, programs, and
other resources. See also secure password.
populating To add data to a table or other
object.
primary key One or more fields whose value or
values uniquely identify each record in a
table. A primary key field cannot contain
a Null value. In related tables, the primary
key field in one table corresponds with the
foreign key field in the other table.
property A named attribute of a control, a field,
or an object that you set to define one of
the object’s characteristics (such as size,
color, or screen location) or an aspect of
its behavior (such as whether the object is
hidden).
publisher The person or entity who digitally
signs a database or other file, thereby
guaranteeing its source.
query A database object that locates specific information stored in a table and allows you
to view and manipulate the results. The
results of a query can be used as the basis
for forms and reports.
Quick Access Toolbar A small, customizable
toolbar that displays frequently used
commands.
record All the related information about an item.
A record in Access is represented as a row
in a database table. See also field.
record selector The gray bar along the left edge
of a form in Form view. You can select an
entire record by clicking its record selector.
record source The source from which the data in
a bound record originates. See also control
source.
referential integrity A restriction on data in two
related tables that does not allow an entry
in one table unless it already exists in the
other table.
relational database A type of database that
stores information in related tables. Rela­
tional databases use matching values to
relate data in one table to data in the other
table. In a relational database, you typically
store a specific type of data just once. See
also flat database.
Glossary 381
relationship An association between common
fields in two or more tables.
report A database object used to display table
information in a formatted, easily accessible manner, either on the screen or on
paper. It can include items from multiple
tables and queries, values calculated from
information in the database, and formatting elements such as headers, footers,
titles, and headings.
report selector The box at the intersection of
the vertical and horizontal rulers when
a report is displayed in Design view. You
click the report selector to select the entire
report.
results datasheet The presentation of the rec­
ords matched by a query and any specified
calculations in a table-like structure.
ribbon A user interface design that organizes
commands into logical groups, which
­appear on separate tabs.
row selector The gray box at the left end of
each row in the field definition area when
a ­table’s structure is displayed in Design
view.
secure password A password that includes
upper­case letters, lowercase letters, and
symbols or numbers, and that is not a word
found in a dictionary. Also called a strong
password. See also password.
security warning A warning that appears when a
database that contains one or more m
­ acros
is opened.
select query A query that matches records from
one or more tables and displays them in
a results datasheet. Can contain specifications for which fields to display in what
order and how to group (summarize) their
values. See also action query.
382 Glossary
signing The act of guaranteeing the source
and content of a file by attaching a digital
signature.
sorting A method of arranging data based on
the order of specified information.
split database A database that has been organ­
ized into two parts: a back-end database
that contains the tables that store all the
data, and a front-end database that contains the forms, queries, and reports that
people use to work with the data. See also
back-end database and front-end database.
SQL database A database based on Structured
Query Language (SQL).
subdatasheet A datasheet that is contained
within another datasheet.
subform A form that is contained within another
form. See also main form.
subquery A nested query that uses the results
of one query as a field in another query.
The nested query involves the use of a
Structured Query Language (SQL) Select
statement.
subreport A report that is contained within
­another report. See also main report.
syntax The required format in which expressions
must be entered.
tab A component of the ribbon that contains
buttons organized in groups
tabbed page The display area allocated to an
open database object in the Access program window workspace. You click the tab
to display the object’s page. By default,
database objects are displayed on tabbed
pages. Alternatively, you can display objects in their own windows.
table A structured arrangement of one or more
rows and one or more columns. The intersection of each row and column is a cell. All
the items of information in a row constitute
a record, and all the items of information in
a column constitute a field.
tag A code in HTML or XML that provides
­instructions for formatting or defining
the structure of a document.
template A ready-made pattern that can be
used to create a specific type of database.
Access 2013 comes with several templates,
all of which can be customized.
text box control A control on a form or report in
which text can be viewed, entered, or edited. A text box control is bound to a field
in the underlying table.
unbound Not linked. An unbound control is not
linked to a field in an underlying table;
instead it might be used, for example, to
calculate values from multiple fields. See
also bound.
undocking To drag a toolbar, pane, or similar item so that it floats in the program
window.
Universal Naming Convention (UNC) The system of naming files among computers on a
network so that a file on a given computer
will have the same path when it is accessed
from any of the other computers on the
network.
unmatched query A select query that locates
records in one table that do not have any
related records in another table. This query
can be created with the assistance of the
Find Unmatched Query wizard.
update query A query that changes the values
in one or more fields of matched records in
a table.
validation rule A field property that ensures that
entries contain only the correct type, size,
or range of data.
view The display of information from a specific
perspective. Each Access object has two or
more views, such as Datasheet view and
Design view.
View Shortcuts toolbar A set of buttons at the
right end of the status bar that provides
convenient methods for switching the view
of the active database object.
wildcard character A keyboard character that
can be used to represent one or many
characters in a search. The question mark
(?) represents a single character, and
the asterisk (*) represents one or more
characters.
XML A format for delivering rich, structured
data in a standard, consistent way. XML
tags describe the content of a web document, whereas HTML tags describe how
the document looks. Designers can use
XML to create their own customized tags.
See also HTML.
Glossary 383
Keyboard shortcuts
Throughout this book, we provide information about how to perform tasks quickly and
efficiently by using keyboard shortcuts. This section presents information about keyboard
shortcuts that are built in to Microsoft Access 2013 and Microsoft Office 2013.
TIP In the following lists, keys you press at the same time are separated by a plus sign (+),
and keys you press sequentially are separated by a comma (,).
Access 2013 keyboard shortcuts
This section provides a comprehensive list of keyboard shortcuts built into Access 2013. The
list has been excerpted from Access Help and formatted in tables for convenient lookup.
Open, save, and print databases
Action
Keyboard shortcut
Display the New page of the Backstage view.
Ctrl+N
Display the Open page of the Backstage view.
Ctrl+O
Open the Save As dialog box for an unsaved object,
or save a previously saved object.
Ctrl+S or Shift+F12
Open the Save As dialog box.
F12
Open the Print dialog box.
Ctrl+P
Open the Print dialog box from Print Preview.
P or Ctrl+P
Open the Page Setup dialog box from Print Preview.
S
Cancel Print Preview or Layout Preview.
C or Esc
Keyboard shortcuts 385
Work in Design, Layout, or Datasheet view
Action
Keyboard shortcut
Cycle between open objects.
Ctrl+F6
Close the active object.
Ctrl+W or Ctrl+F4
Display the Property Sheet pane in Design view.
Alt+Enter
Open or close the Property Sheet pane (form or report Design
view and Layout view).
F4
Switch to Form view from form Design view.
F5
Cycle through the upper and lower parts of the Query Designer,
Navigation pane, access keys in the Keyboard Access System, and
Zoom controls (query Design view, and the Advanced Filter/Sort
window).
F6
Cycle through the field grid, field properties, Navigation pane, access
keys in the Keyboard Access System, Zoom controls, and the security
bar (table Design view).
F6
Open the Choose Builder dialog box (form or report Design view).
F7
Open the Expression Builder dialog box (query Design view).
Ctrl+F2
Open the Zoom box to enter expressions and other text in small
input areas.
Shift+F2
Open the Visual Basic Editor from a selected property in the Property
Sheet pane (form or report).
F7
Switch from the Visual Basic Editor to form or report Design view.
Alt+F11
Work in the Navigation pane
Action
Keyboard shortcut
Open or close the Navigation pane
F11
Open the selected database object.
Enter
Run the selected macro.
Enter
Open the selected table, query, form, report, macro, or module
in Design view.
Ctrl+Enter
Display the Immediate window in the Visual Basic Editor.
Ctrl+G
Move up or down one line.
Up Arrow or Down Arrow
Move up or down one window.
Page Up or Page Down
Move to the last object.
End
Rename a selected object.
F2
With the Navigation pane active, display its Search box.
Ctrl+F
386 Keyboard shortcuts
Work in the Property Sheet pane
Action
Keyboard shortcut
Open or close the Property Sheet pane (Design or Layout view).
F4
Move among choices in the control drop-down list one item
at a time.
Down Arrow or Up Arrow
Move among choices in the control drop-down list one page
at a time.
Page Down or Page Up
Move to the Property Sheet tabs from the control drop-down list.
Tab
Move among the Property Sheet tabs with a tab selected, but no
property selected.
Left Arrow or Right Arrow
With a property selected, move down one property on a tab.
Tab
With a property selected, move up one property on a tab; or if
already at the top, move to the tab.
Shift+Tab
Toggle forward or backward between tabs when a property is
selected.
Ctrl+Tab or Ctrl+Shift+Tab
Work in the Field List pane
Action
Keyboard shortcut
Open or close the Field List pane.
Alt+F8
Add the selected field to the form or report detail section.
Enter
Move up or down the Field List pane.
Up Arrow or Down Arrow
Move between Fields Available lists in the Field List pane.
Tab
Edit controls in forms or reports in Design view
Action
Keyboard shortcut
Copy the selected control to the Clipboard.
Ctrl+C
Cut the selected control and copy it to the Clipboard.
Ctrl+X
Paste the contents of the Clipboard in the upper-left corner
of the selected section.
Ctrl+V
Move the selected control to the right (except controls that are
part of a layout).
Right Arrow or
Ctrl+Right Arrow
Move the selected control to the left (except controls that are
part of a layout).
Left Arrow or
Ctrl+Left Arrow
Keyboard shortcuts 387
Action
Keyboard shortcut
Move the selected control up (except controls that are
part of a layout).
Up Arrow or Ctrl+Up Arrow
Move the selected control down (except controls that are
part of a layout).
Down Arrow or
Ctrl+Down Arrow
Increase or reduce the height of the selected control.
Shift+Down Arrow or
Shift+Up Arrow
Increase or reduce the width of the selected control. (If used
with controls that are in a layout, the entire layout is resized.)
Shift+Right Arrow or
Shift+Left Arrow
Work with combo boxes or list boxes
Action
Keyboard shortcut
Open a combo box.
F4 or Alt+Down Arrow
Refresh the contents of a Lookup field list box or combo box.
F9
Move up or down one line.
Up Arrow or Down Arrow
Move up or down one page.
Page Up or Page Down
Exit the combo box or list box.
Tab
Set properties for a table in Design view
Action
Keyboard shortcut
Move from the field grid to the field properties area.
F6
Pressing F6 continuously also activates the Navigation pane,
access keys in the Keyboard Access System, Zoom controls,
and the security bar.
With a tab selected, but no property selected, move between
the General and Lookup tabs.
Left Arrow or Right Arrow
Move between the tabs when a property is selected.
Ctrl+Tab
Move to the first property of a tab when no property is selected.
Tab
Move down one property on a tab.
Tab
Move up one property on a tab; or if already at the top, select
the tab itself.
Shift+Tab
388 Keyboard shortcuts
Work with text and data
TIP Although many of these keyboard shortcuts also work in other Office programs, they
are gathered here for convenience.
Select text in a field
Action
Keyboard shortcut
Change the size of the selection by one character to the right.
Shift+Right Arrow
Change the size of the selection by one word to the right.
Ctrl+Shift+Right Arrow
Change the size of the selection by one character to the left.
Shift+Left Arrow
Change the size of the selection by one word to the left.
Ctrl+Shift+Left Arrow
Select a field or record
TIP To cancel a selection, use the opposite Arrow key.
Action
Keyboard shortcut
Select the next field.
Tab
Select all records.
Ctrl+A or
Ctrl+Shift+Spacebar
Extend a selection
Action
Keyboard shortcut
Extend selection from the current record to the previous or
next record when Extend mode is not turned on.
Shift+Up Arrow or
Shift+Down Arrow
Extend selection from the current column to the previous or
next column when Extend mode is not turned on.
Shift+Left Arrow or
Shift+Right Arrow
Turn on Extend mode; pressing F8 repeatedly extends the
selection to the word, the field, the record, and all records.
F8
In Extend mode, extend a selection to adjacent fields in the
same row in Datasheet view.
Left Arrow or Right Arrow
In Extend mode, extend a selection to adjacent rows in
Datasheet view.
Up Arrow or Down Arrow
Undo the previous extension.
Shift+F8
Cancel Extend mode.
Esc
Keyboard shortcuts 389
Move a column in Datasheet view
Action
Keyboard shortcut
Turn on Move mode.
Ctrl+Shift+F8
Move selected column(s) to the right or left in Move mode.
Right Arrow or Left Arrow
Move the cursor in a field
Action
Keyboard shortcut
Move the cursor one character to the right or left.
Right Arrow or Left Arrow
Move the cursor one word to the right or left.
Ctrl+Right Arrow or
Ctrl+Left Arrow
Move the cursor to the end of the field, in single-line fields;
or move it to the end of the line in multiple-line fields.
End
Move the cursor to the end of the field, in multiple-line fields.
Ctrl+End
Move the cursor to the beginning of the field, in single-line fields;
or move it to the beginning of the line in multiple-line fields.
Home
Move the cursor to the beginning of the field, in multiple-line fields.
Ctrl+Home
Enter data in Datasheet or Form view
Action
Keyboard shortcut
Insert the current date.
Ctrl+Semicolon (;)
Insert the current time.
Ctrl+Shift+Colon (:)
Insert the default value for a field.
Ctrl+Alt+Spacebar
Insert the value from the same field in the previous record.
Ctrl+Apostrophe (‘)
Add a new record.
Ctrl+Plus Sign (+)
In a datasheet, delete the current record.
Ctrl+Minus Sign (-)
Save changes to the current record.
Shift+Enter
Switch between the values in a check box or option button.
Spacebar
Insert a new line in a Short Text or Long Text field.
Ctrl+Enter
Undo changes in the current field or current record; if both have
been changed, press Esc twice to undo changes, first in the current
field and then in the current record.
Esc
390 Keyboard shortcuts
Refresh fields with current data
Action
Keyboard shortcut
Recalculate the fields in the window.
F9
Requery the underlying tables; in a subform, this requires
the underlying table for the subform only.
Shift+F9
Refresh the contents of a Lookup field list box or combo box.
F9
Find and replace text or data (Datasheet view or Form view)
Action
Keyboard shortcut
Open the Find tab in the Find And Replace dialog box.
Ctrl+F
Open the Replace tab in the Find And Replace dialog box.
Ctrl+H
Find the next occurrence of the text specified in the Find
And Replace dialog box when the dialog box is closed.
Shift+F4
Navigate records
Navigate in Design view
Action
Keyboard shortcut
Switch between Edit mode (with cursor displayed) and
Navigation mode.
F2
Switch to Form view from form Design view.
F5
Cycle through the upper and lower parts of the Query Designer,
Navigation pane, access keys in the Keyboard Access System, and
Zoom controls (query Design view, and the Advanced Filter/Sort
window).
F6
Cycle through the field grid, field properties, Navigation pane,
access keys in the Keyboard Access System, Zoom controls, and
the security bar (table Design view).
F6
Open the Visual Basic Editor from a selected property in the
Property Sheet pane for a form or report.
F7
Open or close the Field List pane in a form or report.
Alt+F8
Switch from the Property Sheet pane to the design grid without
changing the selected control ( form or report Design view).
Shift+F7
Keyboard shortcuts 391
Navigate in Datasheet view
Navigate between fields and records
Action
Keyboard shortcut
Move to the next field.
Tab or Right Arrow
Move to the previous field.
Shift+Tab or Left Arrow
Move to the first or last field in the current record, in
Navigation mode.
Home or End
Move to the current field in the previous or next record.
Up Arrow or Down Arrow
Move to the current field in the last record, in Navigation mode.
Ctrl+Down Arrow
Move to the last field in the last record, in Navigation mode.
Ctrl+End
Move to the current field in the first record, in Navigation mode.
Ctrl+Up Arrow
Move to the first field in the first record, in Navigation mode.
Ctrl+Home
Navigate to another screen of data
Action
Keyboard shortcut
Move up or down one screen.
Page Up or Page Down
Move left or right one screen.
Ctrl+Page Up or
Ctrl+Page Down
Navigate in subdatasheets
TIP You can navigate between fields and records in a subdatasheet with the same shortcut
keys used in Datasheet view.
Action
Keyboard shortcut
Move from the datasheet to expand the record’s subdatasheet.
Ctrl+Shift+Down Arrow
Collapse the subdatasheet.
Ctrl+Shift+Up Arrow
Enter the subdatasheet from the last field of the previous record
in the datasheet.
Tab
Enter the subdatasheet from the first field of the following record
in the datasheet.
Shift+Tab
Exit the subdatasheet and move to the first field of the next record
in the datasheet.
Ctrl+Tab
Exit the subdatasheet and move to the last field of the previous
record in the datasheet.
Ctrl+Shift+Tab
392 Keyboard shortcuts
Action
Keyboard shortcut
From the last field in the subdatasheet to enter the next field in
the datasheet.
Tab
From the datasheet to bypass the subdatasheet and move to the
next record in the datasheet.
Down Arrow
From the datasheet to bypass the subdatasheet and move to the
previous record in the datasheet.
Up Arrow
Navigate in Form view
Navigate between fields and records
Action
Keyboard shortcut
Move to the next or previous field.
Tab or Shift+Tab
Move to the last control on the form and remain in the current
record, in Navigation mode.
End
Move to the last control on the form and set focus in the last
record, in Navigation mode.
Ctrl+End
Move to the first control on the form and remain in the current
record, in Navigation mode.
Home
Move to the first control on the form and set focus in the first
record, in Navigation mode.
Ctrl+Home
Move to the current field in the previous or next record.
Ctrl+Page Up or
Ctrl+Page Down
Navigate in forms with more than one page
Action
Keyboard shortcut
Move down one page; at the end of the record, moves to the
equivalent page on the next record.
Page Down
Move up one page; at the end of the record, moves to the
equivalent page on the previous record.
Page Up
Keyboard shortcuts 393
Navigate in Print Preview
Action
Keyboard shortcut
Open the Print dialog box from the Print page of the Backstage view,
or from datasheets, forms, and reports.
Ctrl+P
Open the Page Setup dialog box (forms and reports only).
S
Zoom in or out on a part of the page.
Z
View the next page (when Fit To Window is selected).
Page Down or
Down Arrow
View the previous page (when Fit To Window is selected).
Page Up or Up Arrow
Move to the page number box.
Alt+F5
Then enter the page number, and press Enter.
Scroll up or down in small increments.
Up Arrow or
Down Arrow
Scroll up or down one full screen.
Page Up or Page Down
Move to the top or bottom of the page.
Ctrl+Up Arrow or
Ctrl+Down Arrow
Scroll to the left or right in small increments.
Left Arrow or
Right Arrow
Move to the left or right edge of the page.
Home or End
Move to the upper-left or upper-right corner of the page.
Ctrl+Home or Ctrl+End
Cancel Print Preview.
C or Esc
Navigate in the Query Designer
Action
Keyboard shortcut
Move among the Query Designer panes.
F6 or Shift+F6
394 Keyboard shortcuts
Navigate in the top pane
TIP If multiple items are selected, pressing the Spacebar affects all selected items. Select
multiple items by holding down the Shift key while clicking them. Toggle the selected state
of a single item by holding down the Ctrl key while clicking it.
Action
Keyboard shortcut
Move among tables, views, and functions, (and to join lines, if available).
Tab or Shift+Tab
Move between columns in a table, view, or function.
Arrow keys
Choose the selected data column for output.
Spacebar or Plus key
Remove the selected data column from the query output.
Spacebar or Minus key
Remove the selected table, view, or function, or join line from the query.
Delete
Navigate in the query design grid
Action
Keyboard shortcut
Move among cells.
Arrow keys or Tab or
Shift+Tab
Move to the last row in the current column.
Ctrl+Down Arrow
Move to the first row in the current column.
Ctrl+Up Arrow
Move to the upper-left cell in the visible portion of the grid.
Ctrl+Home
Move to the lower-right cell.
Ctrl+End
Move in a drop-down list.
Up Arrow or
Down Arrow
Select an entire grid column.
Ctrl+Spacebar
Toggle between edit mode and cell selection mode.
F2
Toggle between insert and overstrike mode while editing in a cell.
Ins
Toggle the check box in the Show column. (If multiple items are
selected, pressing this key affects all selected items.)
Spacebar
Clear the selected contents of a cell.
Delete
Navigate in the SQL pane
You can use the standard Windows editing keys when working in the SQL pane, such as
Ctrl+Arrow keys to move between words, and the Cut, Copy, and Paste commands on the
Home tab.
TIP You can only insert text; there is no overstrike mode.
Keyboard shortcuts 395
Access web app keyboard shortcuts
Use the following keyboard shortcuts while working with Access web apps.
Customize a web app in Access
TIP Many of the shortcuts listed earlier in “Access 2013 keyboard shortcuts” are also avail-
able when customizing a web app.
Action
Keyboard shortcut
Advance through all tables and views (when not in Edit mode).
Tab
Move a table or view selector.
Arrow keys
Show or hide the Navigation pane.
F11
Advance through the controls in a view (when in Edit mode).
Tab
Move the selected control(s).
Arrow keys
Open or close the properties for the selected control.
F4
Show or hide the Field List.
Alt+F8
Work with a web app in a web browser
TIP You can also use any keyboard shortcut keys that are provided by the browser itself.
Action
Keyboard shortcut
Move between the table list, view selector, action bar, search box,
and controls in views
Tab, Shift+Tab, or
Arrow keys
Create a new item.
N
Delete an item.
Delete
Edit an item.
E
Save an item.
Ctrl+S
Cancel an action.
Escape
Edit a filter.
/
Close a popup view.
Escape
396 Keyboard shortcuts
Office 2013 keyboard shortcuts
This section provides a comprehensive list of keyboard shortcuts available in all Office 2013
programs, including Access.
Work with menus
Action
Keyboard shortcut
Display the shortcut menu.
Shortcut key (lower right
of most keyboards) or
Shift+F10
Display the access keys.
Alt or F10
Display the program icon menu (on the program title bar).
Alt+Spacebar
With the menu or submenu visible, select the next or previous
command.
Down Arrow or Up Arrow
Select the menu to the left or right; or, when a submenu is visible,
to switch between the main menu and the submenu.
Left Arrow or Right Arrow
Select the first or last command on the menu or submenu.
Home or End
Close the visible menu and submenu at the same time.
Alt
Close the visible menu; or, with a submenu visible, close the
submenu only.
Esc
Use Open and Save As in the Backstage view
Action
Keyboard shortcut
Display the Open page of the Backstage view.
Ctrl+O
Display the Save As page of the Backstage view.
Ctrl+S
Save new version of a file that has a file name and location.
Ctrl+S
Return to the file from the Backstage view.
Esc
Keyboard shortcuts 397
Use the Open and Save As dialog boxes
Action
Keyboard shortcut
View the Open dialog box.
Ctrl+F12
View the Save As dialog box.
F12
Open the selected folder or file.
Enter
Open the folder one level above the selected folder.
Backspace
Delete the selected folder or file.
Delete
Display a shortcut menu for a selected item such as a folder or file.
Shift+F10
Move forward through options.
Tab
Move back through options.
Shift+Tab
Display and use windows
Action
Keyboard shortcut
Switch to the next window.
Alt+Tab
Switch to the previous window.
Alt+Shift+Tab
Close the active window.
Ctrl+W or Ctrl+F4
Move to a pane from another pane in the program window
(clockwise). You might need to press F6 more than once.
F6
Note: If pressing F6 doesn’t display the pane you want, try pressing
Alt to place focus on the ribbon and then pressing Ctrl+Tab to move
to the pane.
When multiple windows are open, switch to the next window.
Ctrl+F6
Switch to the previous window.
Ctrl+Shift+F6
Turn on Resize mode for the active window when it is not
maximized.
Ctrl+F8
Resize the window in Resize mode.
Arrow keys
Apply the new size.
Enter
Minimize a window to an icon (works for only some Microsoft
Office programs).
Ctrl+F9
Maximize or restore a selected window.
Ctrl+F10
Copy a picture of the screen to the Clipboard.
Print Screen
Copy a picture of the selected window to the Clipboard.
Alt+Print Screen
398 Keyboard shortcuts
Navigate on the ribbon
1 Press the Alt key to display KeyTips over each feature that is available in the current
view.
2 Press the letter shown in the KeyTip over the feature that you want to use. Depending on which letter you press, you might be shown additional KeyTips. For example,
if the External Data tab is active and you press C, the Create tab is displayed, along
with KeyTips for the groups on that tab.
3 Continue pressing letters until you press the letter of the command or control that
you want to use. In some cases, you must first press the letter of the group that
contains the command.
TIP To cancel the action that you are taking and hide the KeyTips, press Alt.
Move around in text or cells
Action
Keyboard shortcut
Move one character to the left.
Left Arrow
Move one character to the right.
Right Arrow
Move one line up.
Up Arrow
Move one line down.
Down Arrow
Move one word to the left.
Ctrl+Left Arrow
Move one word to the right.
Ctrl+Right Arrow
Move to the end of a line.
End
Move to the beginning of a line.
Home
Move up one paragraph.
Ctrl+Up Arrow
Move down one paragraph.
Ctrl+Down Arrow
Move to the end of a text box.
Ctrl+End
Move to the beginning of a text box.
Ctrl+Home
Keyboard shortcuts 399
Work with text
Action
Keyboard shortcut
Copy the selection to the Clipboard.
Ctrl+C
Cut the selection and copy it to the Clipboard.
Ctrl+X
Paste the contents of the Clipboard at the cursor.
Ctrl+V
Delete the selection or the character to the left of the cursor.
Backspace
Delete the selection or the character to the right of the cursor.
Delete
Delete all characters to the right of the cursor.
Ctrl+Delete
Undo typing.
Ctrl+Z or Alt+Backspace
Check spelling.
F7
Move around in and work in tables
Action
Keyboard shortcut
Move to the next cell.
Tab
Move to the preceding cell.
Shift+Tab
Move to the next row.
Down Arrow
Move to the preceding row.
Up Arrow
Insert a tab in a cell.
Ctrl+Tab
Start a new paragraph.
Enter
Add a new row at the bottom of the table.
Tab at the end of the
last row
Work with panes
Action
Keyboard shortcut
Move to a pane from another pane in the program window.
(You might need to press F6 more than once.)
F6
Note: If pressing F6 doesn’t display the pane you want, try pressing
Alt to place focus on the menu bar and then pressing Ctrl+Tab to
move to the pane.
When a menu or toolbar is active, move to a pane. (You might
need to press Ctrl+Tab more than once.)
Ctrl+Tab
When a pane is active, select the next or previous option in
the pane.
Tab or Shift+Tab
400 Keyboard shortcuts
Action
Keyboard shortcut
Display the full set of commands on the pane menu.
Ctrl+Down Arrow
Move among choices on a selected submenu; move among certain
options in a group of options in a dialog box.
Down Arrow or Up Arrow
Open the selected menu, or perform the action assigned to the
selected button.
Spacebar or Enter
Open a shortcut menu; open a drop-down menu for the selected
gallery item.
Shift+F10
When a menu or submenu is visible, select the first or last
command on the menu or submenu.
Home or End
Scroll up or down in the selected gallery list.
Page Up or Page Down
Move to the top or bottom of the selected gallery list.
Ctrl+Home or Ctrl+End
Work with wizards
Action
Keyboard shortcut
Toggle the focus forward between controls in the wizard.
Tab
Move to the next page of the wizard.
Alt+N
Move to the previous page of the wizard.
Alt+B
Complete the wizard.
Alt+F
Work with dialog boxes
Action
Keyboard shortcut
Move to the next option or option group.
Tab
Move to the previous option or option group.
Shift+Tab
Switch to the next tab in a dialog box.
Ctrl+Tab
Switch to the previous tab in a dialog box.
Ctrl+Shift+Tab
Move between options in an open drop-down list, or between
options in a group of options.
Arrow keys
Perform the action assigned to the selected button; select or
clear the selected check box.
Spacebar
Open the list if it is closed and move to that option in the list.
First letter of an option in
a list
Select an option; select or clear a check box.
Alt+ the underlined letter in
an option
Keyboard shortcuts 401
Action
Keyboard shortcut
Open a selected drop-down list.
Alt+Down Arrow
Close a selected drop-down list; cancel a command and close a
dialog box.
Esc
Perform the action assigned to a default button in a dialog box.
Enter
Close a dialog box. If no dialog box is open, exits program.
Alt+F4
Use edit boxes within dialog boxes
TIP An edit box is a blank in which you enter or paste an entry.
Action
Keyboard shortcut
Move to the beginning of the entry.
Home
Move to the end of the entry.
End
Move one character to the left or right.
Left Arrow or Right Arrow
Move one word to the left.
Ctrl+Left Arrow
Move one word to the right.
Ctrl+Right Arrow
Select or cancel selection one character to the left.
Shift+Left Arrow
Select or cancel selection one character to the right.
Shift+Right Arrow
Select or cancel selection one word to the left.
Ctrl+Shift+Left Arrow
Select or cancel selection one word to the right.
Ctrl+Shift+Right Arrow
Select from the cursor to the beginning of the entry.
Shift+Home
Select from the cursor to the end of the entry.
Shift+End
Use the Help window
Action
Keyboard shortcut
Open the Help window.
F1
Close the Help window
Alt+F4
Switch between the Help window and the active program.
(Cycles through all open programs.)
Alt+Tab
Go back to <program name> Home.
Alt+Home
Select the next item in the Help window.
Tab
Select the previous item in the Help window.
Shift+Tab
Perform the action for the selected item.
Enter
402 Keyboard shortcuts
Action
Keyboard shortcut
In the Browse <program name> Help section of the Help
window, select the next or previous item, respectively.
Tab or Shift+Tab
In the Browse <program name> Help section of the Help
window, expand or collapse the selected item, respectively.
Enter
Select the next hidden text or hyperlink, including Show All or
Hide All at the top of a topic.
Tab
Select the previous hidden text or hyperlink.
Shift+Tab
Perform the action for the selected Show All, Hide All, hidden
text, or hyperlink.
Enter
Move back to the previous Help topic (Back button).
Alt+Left Arrow or
Backspace
Move forward to the next Help topic (Forward button).
Alt+Right Arrow
Scroll small amounts up or down, respectively, within the
currently displayed Help topic.
Up Arrow or Down Arrow
Scroll larger amounts up or down, respectively, within the
currently displayed Help topic.
Page Up or Page Down
Stop the last action (Stop button).
Esc
Refresh the window (Refresh button).
F5
Print the current Help topic.
Ctrl+P
Note: If the cursor is not in the current Help topic, press F6,
and then press Ctrl+P.
Change the connection state.
F6, and then press Enter to
open the list of choices
Switch among areas in the Help window; for example, switch
between the toolbar and the Search list.
F6
In a Table of Contents in tree view, select the next or previous
item, respectively.
Up Arrow or Down Arrow
In a Table of Contents in tree view, expand or collapse the
selected item, respectively.
Left Arrow or Right Arrow
Keyboard shortcuts 403
Index
Symbols
& (text concatenation) operator, 269
* (asterisk)
icon, 66
in query field lists, 205, 223
wildcard character, 126, 129
wildcard character, in validation rules, 178
# (number sign) wildcard character, 129
A
.accdb files, 19
.accdc files, 341
.accde files, 338, 339
Access
exiting, 10, 22
getting help, 23
starting, 8, 18
Access 2003, upgrading from, 6
Access 2007, upgrading from, 5
Access 2010, upgrading from, 4
Access add-ins, 362
Access Database Executable (.accde) files, 377
Access Deployment (.accdc) files, 377
Access program icon, 10
Access Options dialog box, 350
Add-Ins page, 359
Client Settings page, 358
Current Database page, 323, 352
Customize Ribbon page, 363
Datasheet page, 354
General page, 350
Language page, 357
Object Designers page, 355
Proofing page, 355
Quick Access Toolbar page, 371
Trust Center page, 360
Access web apps, 54, 55, 61
action queries, 197, 218
defined, 377
converting to select queries, 225
creating, 219
activating Control Wizards, 246
adding
application parts to databases, 59
charts to forms/reports, 258
combo box controls to forms, 240
command buttons to forms/reports, 258
dates/times to reports, 265
fields to forms, 234
fields to reports, 259
fields to tables, 78, 79, 80, 82, 159, 167
forms/reports to navigation forms, 316
groups to ribbon tabs, 364, 365
headers/footers to reports, 259
hyperlinks to forms/reports, 258
icons to database applications, 324
logos to forms, 100, 315
page numbers to reports, 268
pictures to forms, 238
subforms to forms, 246
subreports to reports, 270
tables to query design grid, 205
tables to Relationships page, 88
tabs to ribbon, 364
titles to forms, 239
titles to reports, 263
Total row to query design grid, 209
Total row to tables, 209
adding 405
add-ins, 362
defined, 377
options, setting, 359
Add-Ins page (Access Options dialog box), 359
advanced filtering criteria, 129, 130
saving as queries, 133
aggregate functions
defined, 377
in queries, 208
in reports, 273
aliases, field, 217, 379
aligning
controls in forms, 108, 235
controls in reports, 146, 267
alternate row colors, 147
Analyze Performance utility, 342, 343
Analyze Table utility, 342
Anchoring gallery, 243
And operator, 174
append queries, 218
defined, 377
appending table data, 71
application parts, 53
defined, 377
adding to databases, 59
Application Parts gallery, 59
arithmetic operators, 175
defined, 377
asterisk (*)
icon, 66
in query field lists, 205, 223
wildcard character, 126, 129
wildcard character, in validation rules, 178
Attachment data type, 159
AutoCorrect options, setting, 356
automatic error checking, 143
AutoNumber data type, 66, 158
size, 164
averaging field values, 208
Avg function, 208
406 add-ins
B
back-end databases, 334
defined, 377
background color of controls, 105
backing up, 342, 343
Backstage view, 11
displaying, 18
Info page, 332
Print page, 47
binary files, 377
blank databases, creating, 68
blank forms, 230
boolean, defined, 377
Boolean data type, 158
border color of controls, 105
borders, subreport, making transparent, 275
bound controls, 237
defined, 377
button controls, 258
buttons, 12
Quick Access Toolbar, adding/removing,
370, 372
ribbon group, adding/removing, 365
ScreenTips, 12
Byte size (Number data type), 163, 164
C
calculated controls, 273
Calculated data type, 159
calculating
with queries, 212, 213
in reports, 270, 273
vs. storing data, 212
calendars, using to enter date, 162
Caption property, 82
captions
assigning to fields, 82
assigning to label controls, 106, 242
Cascade Delete Related Records option, 222
defined, 377
case of characters, forcing, 170
categories, Navigation pane, assigning objects, 321
Ccur function, 215
centering controls, 146
characters, forcing case, 170
chart controls, 258
charts, adding to forms/reports, 258
checking spelling, options, setting, 356
Client Settings page (Access Options dialog box), 358
closing
database objects, 22
database objects, all, 38
databases, 22
Navigation pane, 12, 29
tables, 31, 70
collapsing subdatasheets, 31
color
of control background, 105
of control borders, 105
of form sections, 233, 315
of group headers, 147
of report sections, 263
columns, 25, 28
deleting from query design grid, 206
freezing, 76
hiding, 75
moving, 77
selecting adjacent, 75, 119
selecting in forms, 108
selecting in query design grid, 206
sizing, 30, 74
sizing to fit contents, 30, 74
unfreezing, 77
unhiding, 75
COM add-ins, 362
combo box controls, 377
adding to forms, 240
combo boxes, 184
comma-delimited text files, 377
command button controls, 377
command buttons, adding to forms/reports, 258
commands
Quick Access Toolbar, adding/removing,
370, 372
ribbon group, adding/removing, 365
Compact And Repair Database utility, 342, 343
compacting databases, 342, 343
comparison operators, 174
defined, 377
Concatenate operator, 175, 269
conditional formatting, 148
constants, 378
continuous forms, 230
control properties, 378
controlling database feature availability, 323,
325, 352
controls, 142
defined, 378
aligning in forms, 108, 235
aligning in reports, 146, 267
background color, 105
bold text, 103
border color, 105
bound, 237, 377
combo box, 377
command button, 377
copying formatting, 241
deleting, 238
disabling, 234
font size, 101, 148, 265
font weight, 103
formatting, 142, 145
on forms, 33, 37, 91
grouping, 267
height, 110
keyboard shortcuts for moving, 145
label, 380
margins, 110
moving, 110, 145, 235, 261
controls 407
controls (continued)
navigation, 380
option button, 381
properties, 99, 101
Quick Styles, applying, 318
on reports, 259
selecting, 94
selecting all, 104, 110, 148
selecting multiple, 145
selecting in Property Sheet pane, 104
shadow effects, 105
sizing, 109, 145, 233, 265
snapping to grid, 266
tab order, 112
text box, 383
unbound, 237, 383
validating, 174
control sources, 98, 242
defined, 378
Control Wizards
activating, 246
deactivating, 240
Controls gallery, 37, 238
converting currency, 215
copying
control formatting, 241
to Excel worksheets, 307
to export data, 306
to import data, 306, 308
keyboard shortcut for, 306
tables, 306
table structure, 67, 71
Count function, 208
counting fields, 208
criteria, filter, 122
criteria, query, 204
entering, 206, 220, 223
crosstab queries, 198, 378
currency
converting with function, 215
format, 162
408 control sources
Currency data type, 158, 161
Current Database page (Access Options dialog box),
323, 352
custom
filters, 122
form layouts, 107, 111, 232
formats, 172
group headers in reports, 144
input masks, 171
navigation forms, 315
Navigation pane categories/groups, 319, 320
Quick Access Toolbar, 370, 372
Quick Access Toolbar, resetting, 374
report layouts, 143, 144, 261, 266
ribbon, 363, 365
ribbon groups, 364, 365
ribbon, resetting, 369
ribbon tabs, 364, 367
status bar, 369
subform layouts, 250
Custom Filter dialog box, 123
Customize Ribbon page (Access Options
dialog box), 363
customizing status bar, 369
D
data types, 79, 80
defined, 378
Attachment, 159
AutoNumber, 66, 158
AutoNumber, size, 164
Boolean, 158
Calculated, 159
changing, 191
Currency, 158, 161
Date/Time, 158, 162
Hyperlink, 158
Long Text, 158
Number, 158, 162
Number, size, 163
OLE Object, 158
Rich Text, 158
Short Text, 158, 161
specifying, 79, 158, 159
Yes/No, 158, 162, 183
Yes/No, specifying display, 163
for ZIP codes, 81
database applications
defined, 378
assigning icons, 324
database design, 73, 212
analyzing tables, 342
Database Documenter utility, 342, 345
database objects, 3, 24. See also tables; forms;
queries; reports
defined, 378
assigning to Navigation pane categories/
groups, 319, 321
closing, 22
closing all, 38
Design view options, setting, 355
exporting, 295, 300, 379
identifying with square brackets, 221
importing, 281
printing, 46
database properties, 332
database security, 329
defined, 378
.accdc files, 341
.accde files, 338
passwords, 330
splitting databases, 334
Database Splitter wizard, 335
database structure, documenting, 342, 345
databases
adding application parts, 59
analyzing performance, 342, 343
applying themes, 99, 100, 233
assigning icons, 324
assigning titles, 324
back-end, 377
backing up, 342, 343
basing on templates, 54, 55
blank, 68
closing, 22
compacting/repairing, 342, 343
controlling feature availability, 323, 325, 352
creating based on templates, 54, 55
creating blank, 68
creating manually, 64
default file format, 350
default location, 57, 350
designing, 73, 212
desktop, 54
distributing as .accde files, 338
exporting to, 297, 300
file format, 350
flat, 379
flat vs. relational, 24
front-end, 379
icons, 324
importing, 281, 287
importing non-Access, 283
linking, 295
linking to SharePoint lists, 283
maintaining, 329, 342
naming, 56
non-Access, importing, 283
opening, 18
opening for exclusive use, 330, 331
opening multiple, 301
opening password-protected, 333
packaging as .accdc files, 341
performance, 342, 343
populating, 53, 381
relational, 381
saving, 18
SharePoint lists, linking to, 283
split, 382
splitting, 334, 335
SQL, 382
templates, 54, 55
themes, 99, 100, 233
titles, 324
databases 409
Datasheet Formatting dialog box, 20
datasheet forms, 230, 314
Datasheet page (Access Options dialog box), 354
Datasheet view, 378
Datasheet view (delete queries), 224
Datasheet view (queries), 39
Datasheet view (tables), 28
Datasheet view (update queries), 221
datasheets, 28. See also tables
defined, 378
default gridlines/cell effects/font, 354
embedded, 29
results, 382
Date And Time dialog box, 265
date format, 162
date/time controls, 265
Date/Time data type, 158, 162
dates
adding to reports, 265
checking validity, 181
entering with calendar, 162
entering manually, 162
filtering in tables, 124
in parameter queries, 207
deactivating Control Wizards, 240
Decimal size (Number data type), 163
default
field values, 183, 186
file format, 350
file location, 57, 350
gridlines/cell effects/font in datasheets, 354
startup page, 313, 325
Default Value property, 183, 186
delete queries, 218, 222, 223
defined, 378
deleting
columns from query design grid, 206
controls, 238
fields from subforms, 252
fields from tables, 78, 80, 189
410 Datasheet Formatting dialog box
layouts, 264
records, with queries, 222
relationships, 189
tables, 70
tables from query design grid, 205
tables from Relationships page, 189
delimited text files
defined, 378
importing, 282, 290
delimiters, 378
design grid, form, 228
design grid, query, 39
defined, 378
adding Total row, 209
height, adjusting, 210
design grid, report, 256
adding headers/footers, 259
controlling snapping, 266
setting, 263
turning on/off, 263
Design view (all objects)
defined, 378
options, setting, 355
Design view (forms), 33, 36, 228
Design view (queries), 39, 41, 201
Design view (reports), 43, 45, 256, 263
Design view (tables), 28, 32
opening tables in, 80
designing
databases, 73
forms, 228
reports, 256
desktop databases, 54, 55
Detail section (forms), 229
Detail section (reports), 257
dialog box launchers, 12
defined, 378
digital signatures, 341
disabling controls, 234
displaying report sections, 257
distributing databases as .accde files, 338
documenting database structure, 342, 345
documents, Word, exporting to, 297
Double size (Number data type), 163
drawing lines on forms, 243
duplicate queries, 378
duplicate records, finding, 198
duplicating ribbon groups, 364
E
Edit Relationships dialog box, 87
editing of lookup lists, disabling, 187
effects, adding to controls, 105
embedded datasheets, 29
empty fields vs. Null fields, 176
empty strings, 378
enabling/disabling macros, 26
encryption
defined, 378
password-generated, 331
enforcing referential integrity, 87, 191
Enter Parameter Value dialog box, 207
Enter Validation Message dialog box, 180
entering
dates, 162
field values from lists, 183, 184
records in forms, 95
records in tables, 65, 68
Equal to operator, 174
error checking, 143
error messages for validation rules, 175, 180
Excel worksheets
copying to, 307
exporting to, 297, 301
importing, 282, 293
exclusive use, opening databases for, 330, 331
defined, 378
exiting Access, 10, 22
expanding subdatasheets, 30
Export dialog box, 300
exporting, 296
by copying, 306
database objects, 295, 300, 379
to Excel worksheets, 297, 301
to .html files, 299
to other databases, 297, 300
to .pdf files, 298
to SharePoint lists, 298
tables, 300
to text files, 297, 302
to Word documents, 297
to .xml files, 299
to .xps files, 298
Expression Builder, 379
Expression Builder dialog box, 175, 177, 214
sizing, 217
expressions
defined, 379
operators, 174
in queries, 213
in reports, 273
in validation rules, 174
extensions, file name, 290
extracting unique values from field, 241
F
field aliases, 217
defined, 379
Field List pane
displaying, 234, 259
keyboard shortcut for, 235, 259
field lists, query, asterisk (*) in, 205, 223
field names, 28, 67, 69
defined, 379
avoiding spaces in, 69
field properties, 79, 81, 379. See also properties
field selectors, 78
primary key icon, 78
field selectors 411
field size, 163
Field Size property, 81, 163
field values
averaging, 208
calculating standard deviation, 208
calculating variance, 208
default, 183, 186
finding, 124
finding highest, 208
finding lowest, 208
restricting to lists, 183, 184
totaling, 208, 273
fields, 25, 28. See also columns
defined, 379
adding to forms, 234
adding to reports, 259
adding to tables, 78, 79, 80, 82, 159, 167
captions, assigning, 82
counting, 208
data type, 79, 80
data type, changing, 191
data type, specifying, 79, 158, 159
default value, 183, 186
deleting, 78, 80, 189
deleting from subforms, 252
descriptions, 79
empty, 176
format, 172
hiding in query results, 202
indexing, 176
linking to tables, 185
moving among in tables, 66
multivalued, 194
naming, 79, 80
Null, 176, 380
numeric, summarizing in reports, 140, 273
numeric, summarizing in tables, 209
numeric, summarizing with queries, 208, 210
properties, 81
properties, restricting data with, 157
properties, viewing, 79
412 field size
Quick Start, 68, 72, 160
requiring, 176
selecting contents, 177
selecting in Design view, 78
size, specifying maximum, 81, 163, 164
unique, 176
validating, 173, 177
Fields gallery, 72
file format, default, 350
file location, default, 57
file name extensions, 290
File New Database dialog box, 56
files
Access Database Executable (.accde), 377
Access Deployment (.accdc), 377
attaching to records, 159
binary, 377
comma-delimited text, 377
delimited text, 378
fixed-width text, 379
Microsoft Database Executable (.mde), 380
filter forms, 125, 127
filtered records, moving among, 127
filtering
Navigation pane, 12, 19
records with advanced criteria, 129, 130
records by date, 124
records in forms, 121
records with forms, 125, 127
records in tables, 121
wildcard characters, 126, 129
filters
defined, 379
custom, 122
saving as queries, 133
toggling, 122
finding
duplicate records, 198
field values, 124
text, 218
unmatched records, 198
fixed-width text files
defined, 379
importing, 282
flat databases, 24
defined, 379
font size of controls, 101, 148, 265
font weight of controls, 103
forcing case, 170
foreign keys, 83
defined, 379
Form Footer section (forms), 229
Form Header section (forms), 229
form layouts, 264
custom, 107, 111, 232
removing, 111
Stacked, 107
Tabular, 107
undoing changes, 107
form selectors, 379
form structure, 33, 36, 228
Form view, 33
Form wizard, 231
format
of fields, 172
of files, default, 350
Format Painter, 241
Format property, 172
formats, custom, 172
formatting
conditional, 148
controls, 142, 145
copying, 241
forms, 99
navigation form buttons, 318
navigation forms, 315
reports, 263, 272
forms, 33, 91
defined, 379
adding charts, 258
adding combo box controls, 240
adding command buttons, 258
adding fields, 234
adding hyperlinks, 258
adding lines, 243
adding logos, 315
adding to navigation forms, 316
adding pictures, 238
adding titles, 239
automatic error checking, 143
charts, 258
combo box controls, 240
command buttons, 258
continuous, 230
controls. See controls
control sources, 98, 242
creating manually, 230
creating with all fields, 92, 93, 228
creating with wizards, 92, 228, 231
customizing layout, 107, 111, 232
datasheet, 230, 314
designing, 228
Design view options, setting, 355
drawing lines, 243
entering records, 95
Field List pane, displaying, 234
fields, 234
filter, 125
filtering records, 121, 127
formatting, 99
hyperlinks, 258
layout, 107, 111, 232
lines, 243
logos, 100
main, 380
modal dialog, 230
moving among filtered records, 127
moving among records, 36, 95
multiple items, 230
navigation, 230, 380
opening, 34
opening in Layout view, 100
properties, 99, 101
forms 413
forms (continued)
Property Sheet pane, displaying, 101, 234
record selector, hiding, 236
record sources, 98
vs. reports, 135, 262
restricting changes, 314
saving, 98, 106
sections. See sections, form
sorting records, 116
split, 230
subforms, 33, 35
synchronizing with tables, 97
validating controls, 174
viewing, 33
viewing design, 36, 100, 232
freezing columns, 76
front-end databases, 334
defined, 379
functions
defined, 379
aggregate, in queries, 208
aggregate, in reports, 273
G
General page (Access Options dialog box), 350
Get External Data wizard, 287
getting help, 23
Greater than operator, 174
Group Header section (reports), 257
group headers
color, 147
customizing, 144
Group, Sort, And Total pane, 151
grouping
controls, 267
records in reports, 136, 138, 257, 260
records in tables, 116
Grouping Intervals dialog box, 139
414 freezing columns
grouping levels, 379
groups, Navigation pane, 379
assigning objects, 321
hiding, 322
removing, 323
groups, ribbon, 12, 379
buttons (commands), adding/removing, 365
creating custom, 364, 365
duplicating, 364
moving, 364
removing from tabs, 364, 365
H
headers/footers, adding to reports, 259
height
of controls, 110
of query design grid, 210
of rows, 74
help with Access, 10, 23
hidden columns, 75
hiding
columns, 75
fields in query results, 202
Navigation pane groups, 322
record selectors in forms, 236
report sections, 257
ribbon, 12, 21, 372
subdatasheets, 31
highest field value, 208
home pages, navigation forms as, 313, 325
Horizontal Tabs layouts (navigation forms), 312
.html files
exporting to, 299
importing, 285
HTML, 379
HTML tags, 380
hyperlink controls, 258
Hyperlink data type, 158
I
icons
Access program, 10
assigning to current database, 324
asterisk, 66
pencil, 66
primary key, 78
image controls, 238
effect of Size Mode property, 239
Import Objects dialog box, 288
import process, saving, 280
Import Specification dialog box, 291
Import Spreadsheet wizard, 293
Import Text wizard, 290
importing, 280
by copying, 306, 308
database objects, 281
delimited text files, 282, 290
Excel worksheets, 282, 293
fixed-width text files, 282
.html files, 285
vs. linking, 295
non-Access databases, 281, 283, 287
Outlook folders, 283
queries, 281
with saved process, 281
SharePoint lists, 283
tables, 281, 380
text files, 282
.xml files, 286
inconsistent field values, avoiding, 183, 184
Indexed property, 176
indexing fields, 176
Info page (Backstage view), 332
Input Mask property, 165
Input Mask wizard, 168
input masks, 165
defined, 380
common characters, 166
creating, 167
custom, saving, 171
for forcing case, 170
literal characters, 166
for phone numbers, 166, 167
text, 167
Integer size (Number data type), 163
K
keyboard shortcuts
for copying text, 306
for Field List pane, 235, 259
for moving controls, 145
for navigating, 32
for Navigation pane, 325
for pasting text, 307
for Property Sheet pane, 101, 234, 261
for Save As dialog box, 161
for selecting all controls, 148
keys
foreign, 379
primary, 381
L
label controls, 91, 142
defined, 380
captions, 106, 242
as form titles, 239
moving without text box controls, 236
labels, creating, 44
.laccdb files, 338
Language page (Access Options dialog box), 357
languages, making available, 357
Layout view (forms), 33, 228
opening forms in, 100
Layout view (reports), 43, 144, 263
Layout view (reports) 415
layouts. See form layouts; report layouts
Less than operator, 174
levels, grouping, 379
Like operator, 175, 178
lines, drawing on forms, 243
linked tables, 283, 295
linking
defined, 380
fields to tables, 185, 190
vs. importing, 295
SharePoint lists to databases, 283
lists of field values, 183, 184
literal characters in input masks, 166
Live Preview options, setting, 350
location of files, default, 350
logical operators, 174
defined, 380
logos, adding to forms, 100, 315
Long Integer size (Number data type), 163
Long Text data type, 158
lookup lists, 183, 184
creating, 184, 192
disabling editing, 187
linking to tables, 190
multicolumn, 188
Quick Start, 184
Lookup wizard, 184, 380
lowest field value, 208
many-to-many relationships, 84
defined, 380
margins
of controls, 110
of reports, 152
of tables, 48
masks, input, 380
Max function, 208
maximum field size , 81, 163, 164
.mdb files, 19
Microsoft Database Executable (.mde) files, 380
Min function, 208
minimizing program window, 10
modal dialog forms, 230
modifying queries , 201
moving
columns, 77
controls, 110, 145, 235, 261
among fields in tables, 66
among filtered records, 127
among pages in reports, 45, 151
panes, 103
Quick Access Toolbar, below ribbon, 370
among records in forms, 36, 95
among records in tables, 31
ribbon groups, 364
text box/label controls, independently, 236
multiple items forms, 230
multiplying with queries, 215
multivalued fields, 194
M
macros, enabling/disabling, 26
magnification of screen, 15
mailing label reports, 44
main forms, 380
main reports, 380
maintaining databases, 329, 342
make-table queries, 218
defined, 380
416 layouts
N
named ranges, 380
names, field, 379
naming
databases, 56
fields, 79, 80
V413HAV
navigating
fields in tables, 66
filtered records, 127
keyboard shortcuts for, 32
pages in reports, 45, 151
records in forms, 36, 95
records in tables, 31
navigation controls, 380
navigation form structure, 313
navigation forms, 230, 312
defined, 380
adding forms/reports, 316
creating, 313, 314
formatting, 315
formatting buttons, 318
as home pages, 313, 325
layouts, 312
tables/queries in, 312
Navigation Options dialog box, 320, 354
Navigation pane
defined, 380
custom categories/groups, 319, 320, 379
customizing, 319, 354
filtering, 12, 19
keyboard shortcut for, 325
opening/closing, 12, 29, 30
nested queries, 212
New Formatting Rule dialog box, 149
New Query dialog box, 199
normalization, 73
defined, 380
Not operator, 174
Null, 176, 380
Null fields vs. empty fields, 176
Number data type, 158, 162
size, 163
number format, 162
number sign (#) wildcard character, 129
numbers
sorting, 120
summarizing in reports, 140, 273
summarizing with queries, 208, 210
summarizing in tables, 209
O
Object Designers page (Access Options
dialog box), 355
object shortcuts, 319, 321
Office 365, 8
OLE Object data type, 158
one-to-many relationships, 83
defined, 380
one-to-one relationships, 84
defined, 381
On/Off data type display, 163
opening
.accdc files, 341
.accde files, 339
databases, 18
databases, for exclusive use, 330, 331
forms, 34
forms, in Layout view, 100
multiple databases, 301
Navigation pane, 12, 30
password-protected databases, 333
reports, 43
tables, 19, 28, 29, 74
tables, in Design view, 77, 80
operators, 174
arithmetic, 175, 377
comparison, 174, 377
logical, 174, 380
text concatenation (&), 269
option button controls, 381
orientation
of reports, 140
of tables, 48
Or operator, 174, 179
Outlook folders, importing, 283
overlapping windows vs. tabbed pages, 20
overlapping windows vs. tabbed pages 417
P
Package And Sign tool, 341
packaging databases as .accdc files, 341
page breaks in reports, 150, 151
Page Footer section (reports), 257
Page Header section (reports), 257
page number controls, 153, 268
Page Numbers dialog box, 268
page setup, 48, 150, 152
Page Setup dialog box, 152
pages, moving among in reports, 45, 151
panes
moving, 103
sizing, 103
parameter queries, 204, 207
defined, 381
supplying values, 207
Password Required dialog box, 333
passwords, 330
defined, 381
removing, 334
secure, 382
setting, 331
Paste Table As dialog box, 71
.pdf files, 298
pencil icon, 66
Performance Analyzer dialog box, 343
performance of databases, analyzing, 342, 343
phone number input masks, 166, 167
pictures
adding to forms, 238
effect of Size Mode property, 239
populating databases, 53, 381
previewing
reports, 43, 50, 143, 150, 151
tables, 47
themes, 99, 100
primary key icon, 78
primary keys, 66, 83
defined, 381
designating, 78, 191
418 Package And Sign tool
manual vs. autogenerated, 189
removing, 78, 191
Print dialog box, 49
Print page (Backstage), 47
Print Preview (reports), 43, 151, 263
Print Table Definition dialog box, 345
printing
database objects, 46
help topics, 23
reports, 150
tables, 47
program icon, 10
Proofing page (Access Options dialog box), 355
propagating properties, 171
properties
defined, 381
Caption, 82
control, 99, 101, 378
database, 332
Default Value, 183, 186
field, 79, 81, 379
field, restricting data with, 157
Field Size, 81, 163
form, 99, 101
Format, 172
Indexed, 176
Input Mask, 165
propagating, 171
query, 40
report, 145
Required, 176
Size Mode, 239
Property Sheet pane
displaying, 145, 234, 261
keyboard shortcut for, 101, 234, 261
moving, 103
opening/closing, 101
selecting controls, 104
sizing, 103
publishers, of databases, 381
Q
queries, 38
defined, 381
action, 197, 218, 219, 377
adding/deleting tables, 205
adding Total row, 209
append, 218
calculating with, 212, 213
columns, deleting from design grid, 206
columns, selecting in design grid, 206
converting action to select, 225
converting select to action, 219, 220, 223
creating manually, 203, 204
creating with wizards, 198, 199
criteria, 204, 206, 220, 223
crosstab, 198, 378
delete, 218, 222, 223, 378
Design view options, 355
duplicate, 378
expressions, 213
finding duplicate records, 198
finding unmatched records, 198
hiding fields in results, 202
importing, 281
make-table, 218, 380
modifying, 201
multiplying with, 215
in navigation forms, 312
nested, 212
operator list, 206
parameter, 204, 207, 381
parameter, supplying values, 207
properties, 40
running, 39, 40, 202, 206
saving, 39
saving from filters, 133
select, 197, 382
sorting results, 202
SQL, 218
summarizing numeric data, 208, 210
summary, 208
update, 218, 219, 383
viewing design, 41, 201
Query Designer, 39, 41, 201, 203
filtering with, 130
query field lists, asterisk (*) in, 205, 223
query structure, 39, 41, 201
question mark wildcard character, 129
Quick Access Toolbar, 10, 381
customizing, 10, 370, 372
moving below ribbon, 370
restoring original configuration, 374
Quick Access Toolbar page (Access Options
dialog box), 371
Quick Start fields, 68, 72, 160
Quick Start lookup lists, 184
Quick Styles, control, 318
R
read-only forms, 314
rearranging report layouts, 144
record selectors
defined, 381
asterisk icon, 66
in forms, turning off, 236
pencil icon, 66
record sources, 98
defined, 381
selecting for reports, 270
records, 25, 28. See also rows
defined, 381
attaching files to, 159
completing, 67
deleting with queries, 222
duplicate, finding, 198
entering, 65, 68
entering in forms, 95
filtering with advanced criteria, 129, 130
filtering in forms, 121
records 419
records (continued)
filtering with forms, 125, 127
filtering in tables, 121
grouping in reports, 136, 138, 257, 260
grouping in tables, 116
keeping up to date, 218
moving among in forms, 36, 95
moving among in tables, 31
removing sort, 118
saving, 68
saving first, 67
sorting, 382
sorting in forms, 116
sorting in reports, 257
sorting in tables, 116, 117
unmatched, finding, 198
validating, 173, 181
referential integrity, 84
defined, 381
enforcing, 87, 191
refreshing table data, 97
region and language settings, 162
relational databases, 24
defined, 381
relationships, 39, 83
defined, 382
Cascade Delete Related Records option, 222
creating, 84, 85
deleting, 189
enforcing referential integrity, 87, 191
many-to-many, 84, 380
one-to-many, 83, 380
one-to-one, 84, 381
restricting data with, 189
Relationships page
tables, deleting, 189
viewing, 222
removing
form layouts, 111
420 referential integrity
report layouts, 264
Navigation pane groups, 323
passwords, 334
Quick Access Toolbar customization, 374
ribbon customization, 369
sort from tables, 118
tabs/groups from ribbon, 364, 365
renaming
fields, 67, 69
tables, 70
repairing databases, 342, 343
replacing text. 218
Replication ID size (Number data type), 163
Report Footer section (reports), 257
Report Header section (reports), 257
report layouts, 140, 264
custom, 143, 144, 261, 266
rearranging, 144
removing, 264
Stacked, 264
Tabular, 264
undoing changes, 272
report selectors, 263
defined, 382
report structure, 45, 136, 256
Report view, 43
reports, 43
defined, 382
adding charts, 258
adding command buttons, 258
adding date/time, 265
adding fields, 259
adding hyperlinks, 258
adding to navigation forms, 316
adding subreports, 270
adding titles, 263
aligning controls, 146, 267
applying themes, 147
automatic error checking, 143
calculating in, 270, 273
charts, 258
command buttons, 258
conditional formatting, 148
controls. See controls
creating manually, 256, 259
creating with all fields, 136, 137
creating with wizards, 136, 137, 256
customizing layout, 143, 144, 261
date/time, 265
design grid, setting, 263
designing, 256
Design view options, setting, 355
Field List pane, displaying, 259
fields, 259
formatting, 263, 272
vs. forms, 135, 262
group headers, 144
grouping records, 136, 138, 257, 260
hyperlinks, 258
magnifying, 44, 144
main, 380
margins, 152
modifying, 263
moving among pages, 45, 151
opening, 43
orientation, 140
page breaks, 150, 151
page numbers, 268
page setup, 150, 152
previewing, 43, 50, 143, 150, 151
printing, 150
Property Sheet pane, displaying, 145, 261
query-based, 256
rearranging, 144
record sources, selecting, 270
sections. See sections, report
sorting records, 257
subreports, 270
summarizing numeric data, 140, 273
viewing, 43
viewing design, 45, 144
required fields, 176
Required property, 176
restricting
data via data types, 158
data via default values, 183, 186
data via field format, 172
data via field properties, 157
data via field size, 163
data via input masks, 165
data via lookup lists, 183, 184
data via relationships, 189
data via validation rules, 173
data via Yes/No data type, 183
database use, 323, 325, 338
form changes, 314
results datasheets, 382
ribbon, 10
defined, 382
buttons, 12
customizing, 363, 365
groups, 12, 379
hiding/displaying, 12, 21, 372
restoring original configuration, 369
tabs, 11
tool tabs, 11
ribbon tabs, 382
Rich Text data type, 158
Row Height dialog box, 75
row selectors, 382
rows, 25, 28
alternate colors, 147
selecting in forms, 110
sizing, 74
rulers, turning on/off, 263
running queries, 39, 40, 202, 206
running queries 421
S
Save As dialog box, 70
saving
.accdc files, 341
.accde files, 338, 339
databases, 18
first record, 67
forms, 98, 106
import process, 280
input masks, custom, 171
keyboard shortcut for, 161
.pdf files, 298
queries, 39
records, 68
tables, 67, 70
themes, 99
.xps files, 298
screen magnification, 15
screen resolution, 13
ScreenTips, 12
searching text, 218
sections, form, 229
color, 233, 315
selecting, 233
sizing, 233
sections, report, 257
color, 263
hiding/displaying, 257
sizing, 261
secure passwords, 382
security warning for macros, 26, 382
select queries, 39, 197
defined, 382
converting to action queries, 219, 220, 223
creating manually, 203, 204
creating with wizards, 198, 199
selecting
adjacent columns, 75, 119
all controls, 104, 110, 148
all controls, keyboard shortcut for, 148
422 Save As dialog box
columns in forms, 108
columns in query design grid, 206
controls, 94
field contents, 177
fields in Design view, 78
form sections, 233
multiple controls, 145
rows in forms, 110
selectors
form, 379
record, 381
report, 382
row, 382
Set Database Password dialog box, 332
shadow effects, 105
SharePoint lists
exporting to, 298
importing, 283
linking to, 283
Short Text data type, 158, 161
Show Table dialog box, 85, 204
signing database packages, 382
Simple Query wizard, 199
Single size (Number data type), 163
size
of fields, 163, 164
of fields, specifying maximum, 81
of font, controls, 265
Size Mode property, 101, 148, 239
sizing
columns, 30, 74
columns, to fit contents, 30, 74
controls, 109, 145, 233, 265
Expression Builder dialog box, 217
form sections, 233
Navigation pane, 12
panes, 103
program window, 10
report sections, 261
rows, 74
subreports, 271
snapping to grid, controlling, 266
sorting
defined, 382
numbers, 120
query results, 202
records in forms, 116
records in reports, 257
records in tables, 116, 117
removing sort, 118
spaces in field names, avoiding, 69
speeding up performance, 334, 342
spelling, checking, 356
split forms, 230
splitting databases, 334, 335
defined, 382
SQL databases, 382
SQL queries, 218
square brackets, 221
Stacked layout, 107, 264
standard deviation, calculating, 208
starting Access, 8, 18
startup pages, navigation forms as, 313, 325
status bar, 13
customizing, 369
StDev function, 208
strings, empty, entering, 176
structure
database, documenting, 342, 345
form, 33, 36, 228
navigation form, 313
query, 39, 41, 201
report, 45, 136, 256
table, 24, 32, 77, 80
table, copying, 67, 71
subdatasheets, 29
defined, 382
collapsing, 31
expanding, 30
exporting, 297
hiding, 31
SubForm wizard, 246
subform/subreport controls, 246
subforms, 33, 35, 245
defined, 382
creating, 246
customizing, 250
deleting fields, 252
exporting, 297
subqueries, 212, 382
subreport controls, 270
SubReport wizard, 270
subreports
defined, 382
adding to reports, 270
border, making transparent, 275
sizing, 271
Sum function, 208, 273
summarizing numeric data
with queries, 208, 210
in reports, 140, 273
in tables, 209
summary queries, 208
synchronizing forms and tables, 97
syntax, 382
T
tab order of controls, 112
tabbed pages, 382
vs. overlapping windows, 20
table data, appending, 71
table structure, 24, 32, 77, 80
copying, 67, 71
tables, 24, 28
defined, 383
adding fields, 78, 79, 80, 82, 159, 167
adding to query design grid, 205
adding to Relationships page, 88
adding Total row, 209
analyzing, 342
appending data, 71
tables 423
tables (continued)
closing, 31, 70
copying, 306
copying structure, 67, 71
creating, 67, 159
deleting, 70
deleting fields, 78, 80, 189
deleting from query design grid, 205
deleting from Relationships page, 189
Design view options, setting, 355
exporting, 300
field names, 67, 69
filtering, 121
filtering with advanced criteria, 129, 130
filtering by date, 124
filtering with forms, 125
grouping records, 116
importing, 281
margins, 48
moving among fields, 66
moving among records, 31
in navigation forms, 312
opening, 19, 28, 29, 74
opening in Design view, 77, 80
orientation, 48
page setup, 48
previewing, 47
primary key field, 66, 78, 191
printing, 47
refreshing data, 97
removing sort, 118
renaming, 70
saving, 67, 70
sorting, 116, 117
summarizing numeric data, 209
viewing, 28
viewing design, 32, 77, 80
tabs, ribbon, 11
defined, 382
creating custom, 364, 367
424 tabs, ribbon
removing, 364, 365
removing groups, 364, 365
Tabular layout, 107, 264
tags, HTML, 380, 383
templates, 53
defined, 383
basing databases on, 54, 55
text
concatenation operator (&), 269
finding/replacing, 218
text box controls, 91, 142
defined, 383
moving without label controls, 236
text files
exporting to, 297, 302
importing, 282
themes, 99
applying, 100, 233
applying to reports, 147
previewing, 99, 100
saving, 99
Themes gallery, 100
time, adding to reports, 265
time format, 162
title bar, 9
titles
adding to forms, 239
adding to reports, 263
assigning to current database, 324
toggling filters, 122
tool tabs, ribbon, 11
Total row
adding to query design grid, 209
adding to tables, 209
totaling field values, 208, 273
transparent borders, 275
True/False data type display, 163
Trust Center page (Access Options dialog box), 360
trusted locations, 26
trusted publishers, 26, 341
U
unbound controls, 237
defined, 383
undocking, 383
undoing layout changes, 107, 272
unfreezing columns, 77
Unhide Columns dialog box, 75
unhiding
columns, 75
ribbon, 372
unique fields, 176
unique values, extracting from field, 241
Universal Naming Convention (UNC), 383
unmatched queries, 383
unmatched records, finding, 198
update queries, 218, 219
defined, 383
updating records, 218
upgrading
from Access 2003, 6
from Access 2007, 5
from Access 2010, 4
user ID, 350
user interface options, setting, 350
V
valid dates, checking for, 181
validation rules, 173, 176
defined, 383
control, 174
creating, 175
error messages, 175, 180
field, 173, 177
record, 173, 181
required fields, 176
unique fields, 176
wildcard characters, 178
values
extracting unique from field, 241
finding, 124
Var function, 208
variance, calculating, 208
Vertical Tabs layouts (navigation forms), 312
viewing
form design, 36, 100, 232
forms, 33
query design, 41, 201
Relationships page, 222
report design, 45, 144
reports, 43
table design, 32, 77, 80
tables, 28
views
defined, 383
Backstage, 11
Datasheet, 378
Datasheet (delete queries), 224
Datasheet (queries), 39
Datasheet (tables), 28
Datasheet (update queries), 221
Design, 378
Design (forms), 33, 36, 228
Design (queries), 39, 41, 201
Design (reports), 43, 45, 256, 263
Design (tables), 28, 32
Form, 33
Layout (forms), 33, 100, 228
Layout (reports), 43, 144, 263
Print Preview (reports), 43, 263
Report, 43
switching, 28
View Shortcuts toolbar, 13
defined, 383
W
web apps, 54, 55, 61
web browser controls, 258
weight of control font, 103
width of columns, 30
adjusting, 74
width of columns 425
wildcard characters, 126, 129
defined, 383
in validation rules, 178
windows. overlapping, vs. tabbed pages, 20
wizards
control wizards, activating, 246
control wizards, deactivating, 240
Database Splitter, 335
Form, 231
Get External Data, 287
Import Spreadsheet, 293
Import Text, 290
Input Mask, 168
Lookup, 184, 380
Simple Query, 199
SubForm, 246
SubReport, 270
Word documents, exporting to, 297
worksheets, Excel
copying to, 307
exporting to, 297, 301
importing, 282, 293
426 wildcard characters
X
.xml files
exporting to, 299
importing, 286
XML, 383
.xps files, 298
Y
years in dates, 162
Yes/No data type, 158, 162, 183
specifying display, 163
Z
ZIP codes, data type for, 81
zooming in/out, 44, 144
About the authors
Joyce Cox
Joyce has more than 30 years’ experience in the development of training materials about technical subjects for non-technical audiences, and
is the author of dozens of books about Microsoft Office and Windows
technologies. She is the Vice President of Online Training Solutions, Inc.
(OTSI).
As President of and principal author for Online Press, she developed
the Quick Course series of computer training books for beginning and
intermediate adult learners. She was also the first managing editor of
Microsoft Press, an editor for Sybex, and an editor for the University
of California.
Joan Lambert
Joan has worked in the training and certification industry for 16 years.
As President of OTSI, Joan is responsible for guiding the translation of
technical information and requirements into useful, relevant, and measurable training and certification tools.
Joan is a Microsoft Office Certified Master, a Microsoft Certi­fied Appli­
cation Specialist Instructor, a Microsoft Certified Technology Specialist,
a Microsoft Certified Trainer, and the author of more than two dozen
books about Windows and Office (for Windows and Mac). Joan enthusiastically shares her love of technology through her participation in the
creation of books, learning materials, and certification exams. She greatly
enjoys communicating the benefits of new technologies by ­delivering
training and facilitating Microsoft Experience Center events.
Joan currently lives in a nearly perfect small town in Texas with her
daughter, Trinity.
The team
This book would not exist without the support of these hard-working members of the OTSI
publishing team:
▪▪ Jan Bednarczuk
▪▪ Rob Carr
▪▪ Susie Carr
▪▪ Jeanne Craver
▪▪ Kathy Krause
▪▪ Marlene Lambert
▪▪ Jaime Odell
▪▪ Jean Trenary
We are especially thankful to the support staff at home who make it possible for our team
members to devote their time and attention to these projects.
Rosemary Caperton provided invaluable support on behalf of Microsoft Learning.
Online Training Solutions, Inc. (OTSI)
OTSI specializes in the design, creation, and production of Office and Windows training
products for information workers and home computer users. For more information about
OTSI, visit:
www.otsi.com
How to
download
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Tell us how well this book meets your needs—what works effectively, and what we can
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Thank you in advance for your input!
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