Heathrow Explorers Aviation Skills Badge Leaders Pack

Heathrow Explorers Aviation Skills Badge Leaders Pack

Heathrow

Explorers Aviation Skills Badge

Leaders Pack

Contents

Introduction ......................................................................................................................................... 2

Taxiways and Terminals ..................................................................................................................... 2

Aircraft Anatomy ................................................................................................................................. 4

Control Surfaces ................................................................................................................................. 4

Test Pilot ............................................................................................................................................. 9

Aircraft Identification ........................................................................................................................... 9

First Class ........................................................................................................................................... 9

Bird’s Eye View ................................................................................................................................... 9

Get Up to Speed ............................................................................................................................... 10

Whatever the Weather ...................................................................................................................... 10

Loud and Clear ................................................................................................................................. 10

The Circuit ........................................................................................................................................ 11

Planning an Air Journey .................................................................................................................... 12

Airspace Exploration ......................................................................................................................... 14

Aircraft Instrumentation ..................................................................................................................... 15

Jet Set Go ......................................................................................................................................... 17

Piston Power ..................................................................................................................................... 17

Decreasing Temperature .................................................................................................................. 18

Turbo Power ..................................................................................................................................... 18

Introduction

This pack should be used alongside the Explorer

’s Activity Pack to provide specific answers to activities and to assist in guiding them through discussions of particular aviation skills.

Taxiways and Terminals

Activity

The aim of the activity is to make sure that the Explorer understands the basic functions of the main elements of an airfield (runways, taxiways, terminals, control tower) and some principles of good layout.

The rule of thumb for airfield layout is: simple is efficient and simple is safe!

The diagram below provides examples of good and less good runway, taxiway and terminal layouts.

The Explorer is not expected to draw to that level of detail; this diagram is principally meant to give the Scout leaders / parents clues to assess whether the Explorer has a good understanding of the airfield layout.

Aircraft Anatomy

Overview- Aircraft anatomy introduces explorers to the technical language used to describe some key components of aircraft. This language should be used throughout the badge and can be practiced on air experience visits or with images/models of different aircraft.

The list of key components is by no means exhaustive and the same parts may be referred to by other names. Encourage the explorers to learn to identify even more components on an aircraft. A different exercise could be to get the explorers to make their own ‘aircraft anatomy’ but with a helicopter.

Answers to the activity

1- Engines

2- Hold

3- Flight Deck

4- Horizontal Stabiliser

5- Fuselage

6- Nose

7- Wing

8- Vertical Stabiliser

9- Landing Gear

For reference the aircraft pictured is an Airbus A380.

Below are some variations of aircraft type, the Explorers could research what is different about the appearance of each of these aircraft types;

1. Tail dragger (e.g. Piper Cub)

2. Biplane (e.g. Tiger Moth)

3. Amphibious plane (e.g. Cessna Caravan Amphibious)

4. Aerobatic plane (e.g. Extra 300s)

5. Stealth Plane (e.g. F117 Nighthawk)

Control Surfaces

Overview-

The activity is designed to familiarise Explorers with the ‘axis of movement’ an aircraft can move in.

Aircraft can move in 3 different axes- pitch, roll and yaw. It is best to imagine sticking a skewer through an aircraft as the activity does. As you twist each of the different skewers the aircraft will rotate in a different way.

The black skewer moves the aircraft in ‘yaw’ (side to side but remaining flat).

The blue skewer moves the aircraft in pitch (moving the nose up and down).

The purple skewer moves the aircraft in roll (tilting one wing up and one wing down).

Pilots use controls to move the aircraft in each of these axes, often moving them in more than one axis at a time.

Get the Explorers to experiment with moving the aircraft around.

The control surfaces of an aircraft are what allow a pilot to adjust and control the aircraft’s flight. These control surfaces work by moving on hinges or tracks to redirect the air flowing over them to change the forces acting on the plane and so change the direction of the plane.

In order to understand how control surfaces work, it is important to understand the motion of an aircraft.

There are three types of movement:

Pitch – changes the vertical direction that the nose of the aircraft is pointing in

Roll – changes the rotation of the aircraft about an axis through its length, rolling raises one wing and lowers the other

Yaw – changes the horizontal direction that the nose of the aircraft is pointing in

The main control surfaces are: ailerons, elevator, and rudder. Each of these is described in the sections below.

Ailerons

Ailerons are located at the trailing edge of each wing, near the wingtips. In the photograph below, the ailerons are highlighted in purple. When an aileron is lifted, it reduces the lift on that wing. When an aileron is lowered, it increases the lift on that wing. Therefore, when one aileron is lifted and the other lowered, it causes the aircraft to roll to one side and begin to turn in that direction. For example, if the left aileron was lifted and the right aileron lowered, the aircraft would roll to the left and begin to turn to the left.

The ailerons are controlled by the pilot via a stick. When the pilot moves the stick left, the left aileron goes up and the right aileron goes down, causing the aircraft to roll and turn to the left.

Elevators

The elevators are located on the horizontal tail. In the photograph below, one of the elevators is highlighted in blue. There are two elevators, one on either side of the tail, they move up and down together. Raising the elevators pushes down on the tail; this causes the nose to pitch up, which in turn makes the wings fly at a higher angle of attack. This generates more lift from the wing, as well as more drag.

The elevators are controlled by the pilot via a stick. When the pilot pulls the stick backwards, both elevators are raised, raising the nose of the aircraft. When the pilot pushes the stick forward, the elevators go down and the nose of the aircraft drops.

Rudder

The rudder is located on the fin of the aircraft, highlighted in orange on the photograph below. Deflecting the rudder cause the aircraft to yaw in the same direction. For example, deflecting the rudder to the right causes the nose to yaw to the right.

The rudder is controlled by the pilot via two pedals. When the pilot pushes the right pedal, the rudder deflects to the right, causing the nose of the aircraft to yaw to the right. When the pilot pushes the left pedal, the rudder deflects to the left, causing the nose of the aircraft to yaw to the left.

Uplifting

Lift is the force that allows aircraft to fly; it acts in opposition to the weight of the aircraft. Most of the lift on an aircraft is generated by the wings.

The wings are designed to have a special shape, which maximises the amount of lift generated. If you cut through an aircraft wing along the width, as shown by the line in the photograph below, and looked at the cross section left behind, the wing would have the shape shown by the outline

below.

Leading edge Trailing edge

This shape is called an aerofoil and it is designed so that it can create much more lift than drag. Air flows over the wings as shown in the diagram below.

The shape of the aerofoil causes the flow of air to be deflected, creating curved streamlines. The velocity of the air has different values at different places around the wing. The air molecules move over the top surface of the wind faster than they move over the bottom surface. The pressure acting on the wing is related to the velocity. This means that the pressure on the lower surface of the wing is greater than the pressure on the upper surface. This produces a net force; the component of this force that is perpendicular to the velocity of the air is the lift force.

Summary:

The aerofoil deflects the flow of air

The air flows quicker over the upper surface of the wing than the lower surface

This creates an area of high pressure under the wing and lower pressure above the wing

This means there is a greater force acting on the underside of the wing and this causes lift

Angle of Attack

To understand the cause of stalling, it is important to know about the angle of attack.

In the diagram above, the angle of attack is shown by the symbol: α.

α is the angle between the aerofoil and the flow of air. As the angle of attack increases, the air flowing past the wing is deflected more and this creates more lift. This is true until you reach the critical angle of attack – this is the angle beyond which there is a reduction in the amount of lift created by the aerofoil.

The reason for this reduction in lift is because of a concept called separation:

As the angle of attack increases, the amount of separation increases and this reduces the amount of lift that the wing produces. At the critical angle of attack, the degree of separation is so great that any increase in the angle of attack will reduce the amount of lift produced rather than increasing it. This is called stalling.

Test Pilot

The objective of this section is for the explorers to become familiar with the construction and flight of a balsa wood aircraft.

Please advise the Explorers to be careful when handling cutting equipment.

Aircraft Identification

The aim of this section is to familiarise the Explorers with a number of different aircraft types and the distinctive features of those aircraft. By the end of the activity, Explorers should be able to identify aircraft from images or in real life.

First Class

They are asked to produce their own aircraft fact cards. The only requirement for the leader is to verify that these are correct and, if necessary, to supervise the activity. This could also be conducted as a group session

Bird’s Eye View

Activity

This is a VFR chart of London. Can you spot two major airports on this map?

Answer - Heathrow Airport and Gatwick Airport. London City Airport and Farnborough Airfield are also shown.

Get Up to Speed

Activity

Challenge - Crosswind Component [ANSWERS]

The flight crew of a Boeing 737-900 are on approach to an airport on a stormy day. They have been advised by air traffic control that that they will be landing on runway 27 (270˚) and that the surface wind is 45 knots at 190˚.

The pilots know that the maximum crosswind component they can land their aircraft in is 36 knots.

Is the crosswind low enough for the pilots to land at the airport or do they need to divert?

The difference between the runway direction and the wind direction is 80 degrees

The nearest multiple is 1.0

Therefore the crosswind component is 45 knots

And the pilots must divert

Whatever the Weather

Activity

A high pressure area is called an anticyclone. What is a low pressure area called?

c) Depression

Which area leads to more unsettled and dangerous weather conditions?

b) Low Pressure

Challenge

The only requirement of the leader is to ensure that the Explorer has kept a diary of weather conditions and recorded details as a graph with pressure displayed as a line and wind speed as a bar chart.

Loud and Clear

Codebreaker

Overview- The phonetic alphabet forms the foundation of communications in aviation, not just between pilots but also air traffic controllers and staff on the ground. ‘Radiotelephony’ is the term given to radio communications- there are hours of fun to be had with a couple of walkie talkies and some basic radiotelephony communications; they could even be incorporated into a wide game!

Answer - EVERY YEAR OVER 70 MILLION PASSENGERS FLY FROM HEATHROW.

The Circuit

‘Circuits’ are just patterns flown by arriving or departing aircraft to maintain visual contact with the airfield. They are a fundamental part of pilot training.

Solution

5

3

1

4

2

Note- Only 1 circuit direction is used at a time, usually determined by wind. In the example above the aircraft travelling different directions or using different runways would never happen at the same time.

Planning an Air Journey

Planning an air journey!

– Leader’s Pack

Using the internet plan a journey to the other side of the world. You can choose to plan your journey to anywhere to like! There are lots of websites that allow you to do this easily from your own home.

Where are you going to travel? (make sure it’s far, far aw ay!)…………………………………………………………….

Struggling? Try somewhere in Australia, New Zealand, Hawaii, Alaska etc…

Example of journey planning below. Many other itineraries are possible

– this just an example!

Airline

Air China

Flight Number

CA938

Departure City Departure Airport Departure

Date

Departure Time

(Local)

Departure Time

(Universal)*

London

Arrival City

Heathrow

Arrival Airport

03/11/14 17:40 17:40

Arrival Date Arrival Time

(Local)

04/11/14 12:00

Arrival Time

(Universal)*

04:00 Beijing Capital

Flight Duration

10 hours 20 mins

Airline

Air China

CA173

Departure City Departure Airport

Capital

Flight Number

Departure Time

(Local)

17:00

Beijing

Arrival City Arrival Airport

Departure

Date

04/11/14

Departure Time

(Universal)*

09:00

Sydney Kingsford Smith

Flight Duration

9 hours 40 minutes

Arrival Date Arrival Time

(Local)

05/11/14 07:40

Arrival Time

(Universal)*

20:40 (the previous day)

*Legs - A nonstop section of a flight is called a “leg” or a “segment”. If you stop to refuel, pick up passe ngers or change planes, when you take off again you will be flying a different “leg”, even if it part of the same journey. Most short flights only require one leg, but to fly to the other side of the world you need at least two legs as planes can’t fly for that long without a refuelling stop.

*Universal Time

–sometimes reffered to Greenwich Mean Time, GMT or UTC. You can research time zones online and find out how to calculate universal time from local time wherever you are in the world.

What happens when you try this exercise starting from: a) From Heathrow Airport b) From a smaller airport

(e.g. Southampton, Leeds-

Bradford, London City…….)

How many legs did it take you to get to your destination from Heathrow?

……………………………………

How many legs did it take you to get to your destination from a smaller airport?................................

To get to Australia & New Zealand will require 2(or more) legs from Heathrow and 3(or more) from most other UK airports. Explanation below.

The reason you can get to your destination with fewer flights from Heathrow than from a smaller airport is that Heathrow is a hub airport. A hub airport is an airport where local passengers combine with transfer passengers to allow airlines to fly to more destinations. This means a choice of longhaul flights around the world is only available at a few hub airports. Heathrow is the only hub in the

UK and other hubs in Europe include Amsterdam Schiphol and Paris Charles de Gaulle airports.

Did your journey from the smaller airport take you through one of these hub airports?

Airspace Exploration

Requirement: Explain the system of controlled airspace and the air traffic control organisation in the United

Kingdom and European Union countries.

EU and UK Airspace:

The flight that you planned in the previous exercise by Airline A required you to fly over and land in several countries.

a. Explain for the first two ‘legs’ of the journey what Air Traffic Control organizations you as the pilot would have had to contact. (tip: some organizations of ATC do not belong to one country)

The explorer should have written the names of the two organizations for Air Traffic Control in at least two of the countries they have flown through in the previous flight planning exercise. NB:

Eurocontrol should also be mentioned since this is the organ for high level flights above a big part of

Europe.

b. And describe what Airline A should have negotiated looking at the ‘Freedoms of the air’ to fly over those countries and/or land in other countries during the trip you planned.

The explorer should name for every boundary they over fly and every landing they make, what freedom right the countries should have negotiated.

c. Mark wants to fly with his private airplane around London when Airline A is departing from

London Heathrow. Explain why it is not possible for Marc to fly in the same airspace as Airline A.

Define in what Airspace classifications Marc could depart and what that means in terms of separation and Flight Rules.

The Explorer should mention here something about hazards that could happen, but merely the restrictions that are there around big aerodromes’ airspace to show that they understand how heavily regulated the airspace is to support international aviation.

These restrictions are defined as follows:

The UK airspace (reaching over surrounding waters) from the surface to FL 245 is divided into two

Flight Information Regions (FIRs); the London FIR and the Scottish FIR. The airspace above the FIR is known as the Upper Flight Information Region (UIR). The airspace within the FIR/UIR is divided into 6 classes using the ICAO Airspace Classification System, allocated depending on the need to actively control access to airspace and the nature of the activity that takes place within it: (Classes E and F, are not widely used in the UK and no UK airspace is currently designated as Class B)

Class A

Instrument Flight Rules flights only are permitted

All flights are provided with air traffic control service and are separated from each other.

Require an air traffic control clearance to enter the airspace and receipt of an air traffic service is mandatory.

Class C

• IFR and VFR flights are permitted

Require an air traffic control clearance to enter the airspace and receipt of an air traffic service is mandatory.

IFR flights are separated from other IFR flights and from VFR flights.

VFR flights are separated from IFR flights and receive traffic information in respect of other

VFR flights.

Class D

• IFR and VFR flights are permitted

• Require an air traffic control clearance to enter the airspace and receipt of an air traffic service is mandatory

• IFR flights are separated from other IFR flights and receive traffic information in respect of

VFR flights

• VFR flights receive traffic information in respect of all other flights.

Class E

• IFR and VFR flights are permitted

• IFR flights are provided with air traffic control service and are separated from other IFR flights.

• All flights receive traffic information as far as is practical.

• Class E shall not be used for control zones.

Class F

• Uncontrolled.

IFR and VFR flights are permitted

All participating IFR flights receive an air traffic advisory service

• All flights receive flight information service if requested.

Class G

• Uncontrolled.

• IFR and VFR flights are permitted and receive flight information service if requested.

In general, separation standards are not applied by ATC to or between VFR flights and therefore separation from other aircraft remains the responsibility of the pilot in command of a VFR flight.

Aircraft Instrumentation

Activity - Take it Away Mr Navigator! Or should he add it on?

A pilot has taken off from Heathrow and wants to head in the direction of true north. The magnetic variation at Heathrow is -1°

11’, so Magnetic North lies just over 1° WEST of True North. What direction should he follow on his compass?

Get hold of a local map or aeronautical navigation chart and see if you can find out what the magnetic variation is. Should a pilot be adding that on to his True Course or taking it off?

Answer

– He should be adding 1° 11’ to his map course.

Activity – The Altimeter is Lying

Pressure measurement is often achieved with a barometer, which you might have heard is associated with weather prediction, which often relies on changes in air pressure.

See how much air pressure changes day-to-day

– either try and get hold of a barometer and measure it daily over the course of a week, or get the daily measurement of air pressure from a newspaper or the internet.

How would this change the indicated altitude on an aircraft? If the average pressure at sea level is

1013 millibars and a change in altitude of 10 feet is accompanied by a change in pressure of 34 millibars, what alitiude is represented by 1353 millibar?

[Answer 100 feet]

How do you think pilots would account for this?

[Answer

– by finding out the local air pressure

before flying]

Activity – A Need for Speed

Label

2

8

1

5

4

7

3

6

Name

V

S1

- a lower limit, this is known as the “Power-

Off Stall Speed with

Flaps and Landing Gear

Retracted”

Description

This defines minimum speed at which the plane can be flown in cruise configuration without stalling.

V

NE

-

Never Exceed Speed”

This line dictates the maximum speed at which the plane can be operated in smooth air. The pilot should never fly faster than this airspeed or risk structural damage.

V

SO

- a lower limit, this is known as the “Power –

Off Stall Speed with

Flaps Extended and

Landing

Deployed

Flaps

This defines the minimum speed at which the plane can be flown in landing configuration without stalling.

Normal Operating Range

V

FE

– an upper limit, this is known as “Maximum

Flaps Extended Speed”

Caution Range

Flap Operating Range

This arc specifies the range of airspeeds over which the plane can be safely flown in cruise configuration with flaps and landing gear retracted.

This defines the maximum airspeed at which the flaps can be fully extended. Speeds higher than this could damage to the aircraft.

This arc yellow arc specifies a speed range the pilot should avoid unless flying in very smooth air.

This arc represents the range of speeds in which the wing flaps can be extended

V

NO

- an upper limits this is known

“Maximum as

Normal

Operation S peed “ the This defines the maximum cruise speed with no flaps or landing gear extended

Jet Set Go

Question: What are the main differences between a jet engine and piston engine?

Answer: It is worth pointing out to the Explorers that the engines do share a lot of similaritites. In both there is a combustion chamber where fuel is mixed with oxygen and then ignited. Once it is ignited gas is created which expands rapidly.

The major difference between the two is that in a jet engine these gases are allowed to escape and produce thrust directly by exiting the rear of the engine, forcing the engine forward. In a piston engine these gases are constrained which causes a piston to move, this moves a mechanism which indirectly turns a propeller or a wheel.

They could also list the differences in components of jet and piston engines (pistons vs compressor/turbine etc.)

The sections of the jet engine are as follows:

1. Intake

2. Low pressure compression

3. High pressure compression

4. Combustion

5. Exhaust

6. Hot section

7. Turbines Low and High pressure

8. Combustion chambers

9. Cold section

10. Air inlet

Piston Power

The correct order, following the principle of suck, squeeze, bang, blow is as follows:

Decreasing Temperature

Overview- This activity challenges Explorers to learn about how piston engines work. The activity could use internet searches or could be asked of a pilot on the air experience visit. Carburettors are devices which blend air and fuel, it is important that they remain clear of ice otherwise the engine may become starved of oxygen.

Answers-

A carburettor heater is used to thaw ice built up in the carburettor. Ice can build up even if air temperatures are above freezing as the temperature difference between outside air and the carburettor can be enough to cause freezing. A warm day with moist air presents a higher risk of carburettor icing than a winter’s day.

1. A carburettor heater works by diverting air warmed by the heat exchanger near the exhaust manifold. The warm air is less dense than the air previously inside the carburettor, this leads to a change in fuel mixture whilst the heater is in use. The change in fuel mixture may lower engine power whilst the heater is in use. The heater melts the ice, clearing the carburettor.

2. Because ice restricts the air flow into the engine the power of the engine may be reduced when ice has built up. A pilot would be able to tell if ice had built up as power would increase after carburettor heating had been used.

Turbo Power

The answers to the matching exercise are as follows:

4.

5.

Turbojet

5.

Turbofan

2. Ramjet

3.

Turboprop

1.

Rocket

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