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National Survey on
Emerging Issues
among Adolescents
in Sri Lanka
Principal Investigator:
Neil Thalagala
(M.B.B.S., M.Sc. Community Medicine, M.D. Community Medicine)
[email protected]
Project Consultant:
Lalini Rajapakse
(M.B.B.S., Dip. Child Health, Dip. Population Studies,
M.Sc. Epidemiology, M.D. Community Medicine)
UNICEF Coordinator:
Harischandra Yakandawala (MBBS, MSc)
Conducted by:
Medistat Research (Pvt) Limited
UNICEF Sri Lanka 2004
Executive Summary
Adolescents comprise one fifth of Sri Lankan population. One of the constraints found in
formulating policies and programmes on the wellbeing of adolescents is the paucity of
information on adolescent issues. UNICEF Colombo initiated the present survey to fulfil
this information gap.
The survey consisted of two main components. The first component was carried out
among 29,911 school-going adolescents representing 25 administrative districts of Sri
Lanka. The second component was carried out among 10,079 out-of-school adolescents
representing 5 sectors ; Colombo Metro, Other Urban, Rural, Estate and North East.
Representative samples of equal sizes were independently taken from each district and
sector respectively, following a multistage stratified cluster sampling procedure.
Information from the school sample was collected using a set of self administered
questionnaires. Taking into consideration the varying educational levels of the out-ofschool sample an interviewer administered questionnaire was used to collect data from
this group. Age appropriate data collection instruments were developed through a
consultative process with inputs from adolescents themselves, educationist, health care
providers, sociologists, planners and researchers.
Life skills
Adolescence need sound life skills to face demands, stresses and conflicts of life
effectively. Life skills include, self awareness (being able to aware about one’s self),
empathy (ability to understand other persons views and feelings ), ability to
communicate effectively, ability to maintain interpersonal relationships, ability to cope
with emotions and stress, ability to think creatively and critically, ability to make
decisions and to solve problems. Usually life skills are exercised in combination, and
hence, cannot be measured in isolation. The survey tried to assess life skills of
adolescents using questions on goal setting, interpersonal relationships, role models,
assessments on various attributes of life and responses to given scenarios.
About 28 % of school- going adolescents surveyed were not certain of their future goals,
further 36 % were having aims to become traditionally popular professionals such as
doctors, engineers, accountants, etc…Boys displayed more variety of choice compared
to girls. Only about quarter of respondents had considered their talents before they set
their future goals. The findings suggest that the stated ambitions are mostly governed by
traditional societal norms that prevail in the country rather than decisions arrived through
critical analysis by persons displaying self awareness. The probable reactions to failure in
reaching stated goals also did not indicate adequate skills in problem solving and coping
with stress. Considering the professional goals stated by many and the highly competitive
and very limited opportunities available in the country towards achieving these, the
response of the majority (67%) that they would keep on trying appears somewhat
unrealistic. Less than quarter (24%) chose the more realistic approach of selecting an
alternative career path.
As could be expected the commonest (72%) stated goal of out-of-school adolescents was
finding employment. Thirty one percent of them felt that they lacked skills useful to
others. A little less than a fifth (18%) was unable to express a specific goal in life.
Considering the current employment opportunities and the perceived lack of skills, it is
likely that there are considerable number of adolescents in society experiencing
significant frustration and stress.
Analysis of reactions to the scenarios that reflect conflict of ideas between adolescents
and parents, empathy towards others and withstanding peer pressure, suggests that 11%
to 35% of adolescents have poor life skills. Nearly 40 % found it stressful to cope with
the academic pressure due to expectations of parents and teachers and a further 13 % felt
that their performance was inhibited by the pressure. More than half (53%) the
adolescents perceived having large sums of money as a prerequisite for prestige, while 10
% did not think having a good character as an attribute that contributed to prestige. This
probably reflects changing attitudes in society. About 10 % admitted to harassing their
peers in school.
In general life skills improved with increasing age and socio-economic status. No gender
differences seen in life skills. The over all pattern indicates the presence of a considerable
percentage of adolescents in Sri Lanka who lack sound life skills. Hence life skill
promotion could be identified as an important focus of attention for the programmes
aimed at adolescent wellbeing. However, an adolescent population of 3.7 million, the
current social environment and prevalent resource and knowledge constraints, could
make life skill promotion a formidable task.
Wellbeing of adolescents
The survey inquired in to the perceptions, aspirations, expectations and frustrations
affecting mental wellbeing of Sri Lankan adolescents. About 14 % of school- going
adolescents and 21% of out-of-school adolescents did not like any attribute they
possessed. On the other hand about 63% of school adolescents and 70 % of out-of-school
adolescents had some attribute that they did not like about themselves. Thirty eight
percent thought that they were not popular among others. These indicators improved with
age and there was no gender variation observed.
About 3 % of school adolescents were worried that their academic performance was poor
compared to others while a majority (nearly 60 %) rated themselves as average. Others
thought their performance to be better than others. This pattern changed with age
demonstrating an increase of those who thought themselves as poor or average with
corresponding reduction in the proportion who thought they were better than others.
There was a clear inverse relation with the proportion who rated themselves as poor in
academic achievements when compared to others, with improving socio-economic status.
Those who felt pressurised due to parents’ and teachers’ persistence of improved
academic performance rose from 29 % among early adolescents to 46 % among late
adolescents and no gender difference was observed in this regard. About 40 % to 60 % of
adolescents seemed to react positively to the academic pressure exerted on them by their
parents and teachers while about one fifth demonstrated negative reactions. Almost half
of school adolescents and 75 % of out-of-school adolescents had some key worry that
bothered them. Fear of failing exam was the most commonly cited worry among schoolgoing adolescents, reflecting the competitive academic environment prevailing in Sri
Lanka. Financial constraints, parental disharmony and absence of mother at home were
the other worries identified by this group. Among out-of-school adolescents financial
problems was the key worry, fear of not been able to find a job, been not able to study
well and parental disharmony were the other worries stated. Key worries seemed
increased wit h age but there were no gender differences. As expected the proportions
citing key worries declined with improving socio-economic status. It is important to note
that only 60 % of adolescents positively concluded that their life in general was happy.
Family, social and environmental factors affecting mental wellbeing:
The family seemed to be a strong influence on adolescents. The majority of school
adolescents perceived their families as intimate and close (60 %) and considered family
as refuge (52%) for a problem. A larger proportion was proud of their families. For a
significant proportion their hero was a family member. Mothers were identified as the
most trusted and liked personal confidantes of adolescents irrespective of age and sex and
socio-economic status. Nearly 75 % of adolescents thought they could depend on their
families and admitted that they would love to spend time with their families. All these
positive indicators improved further with increasing age.
However, about 4 % of adolescents reported serious problems with the family and wished
to be away from it. About 40 % were ambivalent some what neutral and had less warm
feelings towards their families. Nearly one third were worried about their relationship
with family members, felt left out of the family and felt that their parents put too much
restrictions on their lives. About one fifth were ashamed of their family in general or of a
parent. Only 40 % of adolescents felt that their parents were supportive of their decisions,
where as an approximately similar proportion stated that their parents did not accept their
suggestions on family matters.
The bond between out-of-school adolescents and their families seemed to be relatively
loose when compared to that of school going adolescents. Only 32 % of out-of-school
adolescents saw their family as caring and warm. However, further 40 % rated their
perception on family as good. The proportion who wanted to leave the family as it was
not tolerable was only 1 %. The proportion of adolescents who were worried about their
family relationships was less than that of school adolescents (10%). Nine percent said
that they could not depend on their families while 4 % felt left out of the family. Six
percent felt their fathers were placing too many restrictions on them while less than 5 %
were ashamed of their families. The proportion who would love to spend time with the
family was 52 %. On the average both negative and positive indicators seemed to have
lower figures among out-of-school adolescents when compared to school adolescents.
Nearly one fifth of school adolescents strongly felt that they missed a close friend though
this proportion declined with age. Nearly half of the respondents seemed to be in the
company of peers during their free times indicating high opportunities for peer influence.
However considerably higher proportion of adolescents (40 %) said that they spend their
free time mostly with parents. Sense of belonging among peers, and society at large and
trust in being able to obtain others help reflect social capital. The survey tried to assess
the degree of social capital of adolescents. The findings indicate that nearly one third of
adolescents have unfavourable social capital scores. Nearly 13 % did not feel secure in
their homes and a further 23 % were insecure in their living environment. The feeling of
insecurity seemed to be more prevalent among the younger age groups (10 – 13 years)
compared to the older ones (17- 19 years).
Despite relatively unfavourable circumstances, many out-of-school adolescents said that
they could confidently face problems that may occur in the future while 9 %
demonstrated poor coping skills. Only 37 % were confident of a bright future. Half of the
school adolescents felt that they were not popular and 21 % felt discriminated by society.
Nearly, 40 % of out-of-school adolescents were distressed by parental concerns about
their current status.
The overall pattern shows that majority of Sri Lankan adolescents have positive relations
with their families. However, a considerable proportion indicated to have constrained
family relationships.
Interventions aimed at parents, empowering them with better parenting and
communication skills could be a strategy that may have a significant impact on the
mental wellbeing of adolescents. Improving self esteem through improved life skills and
improvement in communication and interpersonal skills resulting in improved empathy
and family relationships could be expected to result in improved wellbeing.
Use of tobacco, alcohol and other addictive substances
The survey estimated the ever prevalence and current prevalence of smoking to be 18 %
and 6 %, respectively, among adolescent boys who attend school, while the
corresponding prevalence among adolescent girls was 6 % and 1 % respectively. The
prevalence increases rapidly from mid adolescence to late adolescence. Among boys, the
ever use prevalence increased from 14 % to 32 % in the 14 – 16 year age group to 17 to
19 year age group. The ever smoking prevalence of out-of-school adolescents were 42 %
while the current smoking prevalence among them was 23 %.
Nearly a quarter (24 %) of adolescent boys and 10 % of adolescent girls have ever used
alcohol. The respective proportions for current alcohol use were 6% and 1 %
respectively. The most common type of alcohol used was reported as beer. The
prevalence of ever taking alcohol among out-of-school adolescents was 34% while the
current prevalence of alcohol use was 19%. About 2 % of in school adolescents and 4 %
of out-of-school adolescents admitted trying some form of mood altering drug.
On the average, most adolescents started substance abuse behaviours such as smoking,
use of alcohol and other abusive substances around 14 to 15 years of age. The most cited
reason for initiation of smoking or use of alcohol was curiosity and the first smoke or
drink was most frequently tried in the company of friends. It is seen that the influence of
outsiders in initiation of smoking and use of alcohol has increased among the younger
cohort (14- 16 years) of adolescents, compared to older cohort (17 – 19 years).
The prevalence of smoking and alcohol use showed a “U” shape pattern with middle
socio-economic quintiles showing the lowest prevalence. This could probably be ascribed
to “middle class morality” the middle class showing greater concern in moral issues such
as substance abuse, sexual behaviour, religious concerns etc...
The attitudes towards smoking and alcohol use appear to be favourable among the
majority. However, more than 60 % of adolescents were of the perception that these
substances could be stopped at any time if the person wants, indicating their unawareness
of the addictive nature of these substances. This is an important point to be considered in
preventive programs.
Knowledge on reproductive health among school-going adolescents
The survey examined the knowledge of adolescents on many dimensions of reproductive
health. Most (>70%) of the 10 – 13 years olds were not aware of the physiological
changes and processes that were taking place in their own bodies during this period. The
girls seemed to know more about the changes specific to them and vice versa. There was
a marginal increase in knowledge with improving socio-economic status.
Knowledge of 14-19 year olds on matters related to reproduction such as production of
sperms, ova, conception, sex hormones, secondary sexual characteristics, nocturnal
emissions, fertility is very limited. The percentages of adolescents who could correctly
answer the questions on the above aspects were less than 50 %. Kno wledge increased
with age and socio-economic status. Yet the proportions of those who could not answer
even in the older age groups and higher socio-economic levels were considerably high.
The knowledge on different aspects of menstruation was limited to approximately 40 %
of the sample. As expected the knowledge among girls was better than boys, the
proportions however did exceed 50 %. Knowledge seemed to improve with improving
socio-economic status. The prevalence of the common misconception about menstruation
was high. Knowledge of adolescents on the possibilities / risk of conception and signs of
pregnancy were very poor and percentage of adolescents who could correctly answer the
questions on these was less than 25 %. The knowledge on risks entailed in induced
abortions, frequent child bearing, was limited to a proportion of adolescents less than 45
percent. Contraceptive methods were known to only a small proportion of adolescents.
Condoms were the most frequently known contraceptive method (29%) followed by pills
(24%). Other methods, Depo-Provera, IUD, Norplant, Vasectomy, LRT and ECP were
known by less than 10 % of adolescents.
Knowledge on reproductive health among out-of-school adolescents
The knowledge of out-of-school adolescents on menstrua tion, reproductive physiology
conception pregnancy and contraception is better than the levels of knowledge among in
school adolescents overall knowledge cannot be considered satisfactory. As expected
they were more aware of contraceptive methods, oral contraceptive pills were known to
70% while emergency contraceptives and condoms were known to 42% and 68%
respectively. However, only a very small proportion of out-of-school adolescents (less
than 4 %) said that they have ever used any form of contraceptive s, emergency
contraceptive pills being the most commonly used method (3.7%).
In general knowledge on reproductive health among adolescents could be considered as
very poor despite the fact that some of the areas of knowledge inquired are included in
the school curriculum. It is important to note that most adolescents in Sri Lanka leave
school after secondary education and thereafter have little opportunity to obtain
knowledge on reproductive matters. Interventions aimed at improving knowledge on
reproductive health among adolescents must be viewed as a priority need.
Knowledge and attitude on STD /HIV/AIDS among in-school adolescents
Knowledge on STD/.HIV /AIDS among adolescents was found to be poor. Only 57 % of
adolescents were aware of the existence of sexually transmitted diseases in general. Fifty
nine percent were aware of HIV /AIDS while Gonorrhoea, Syphilis, Herpes, Genital
warts were known to less than 40 %. Awareness increased with age and increasing socioeconomic status while the gender differences were low. Symptoms and signs of STDs
and the knowledge on prevention of STDs were poor, less than 20 % of adolescents knew
the correct answers for questions on the above aspects. The knowledge on transmission
and prevention of HIV /AIDS was relatively better compared to knowledge on other
STDs. However, proportions of adolescent who had correctly answered to the questions
on HIV/AIDS never exceeded 50 %. About 50 % - 60 % of adolescents demonstrated
positive attitudes towards HIV /AIDS patient s and attitudes improved with age.
Knowledge and attitude on STD /HIV/AIDS among out-of-school
adolescents:
The knowledge of out-of-school adolescents on HIV/AIDS and symptoms and signs of
STDs was marginally higher amo ng out-of school adolescents compared to those in
schools reflecting a knowledge transfer through community channels. However, over all
knowledge could not be considered satisfactory as the overall percentage of those with
correct knowledge rarely exceeded 50 %.
It is estimated that Sri Lanka is still in the beginning of the HIV epidemic and successful
control will depend on knowledge, attitudes and practices of adolescents and youth to a
large extent. Therefore, it is important to plan strategies specific to adolescents to impart
knowledge and improve skills necessary for the prevention of an HIV epidemic.
Sexual behaviour
A fair proportion of in-school adolescents appear to be sexually active. Among 14 – 19
years olds in school, 6 % reported that they have experienced heterosexual intercourse
while 10 % reported having homosexual relations. As could be expected, there is a
considerable gender variation in sexual experience. The prevalence of hetero sexual
experience was 14 % among adolescent boys and that among girls was 2 %. Even if an
allowance is made for the possibility of under reporting of such a sensitive issue among
girls, the gap is considerable. This raises the possibility of males being exposed to high
risk sources such as commercial sex workers. Sexual experience showed a positive
relationship with socio-economic status.
Reports of sexual experience among out-of-school adolescents was the reverse of the
pattern seen among the in-school population. Hetero sexual relationships were commoner
among this group (22%) while 9 % reported homosexual experience. The majority who
had heterosexual relations had intercourse with their girl/boy friend but about 12 %
reported having sex with commercial sex workers. Of those who reported hetero sexua l
experiences only 39 % had used condoms. Although these percentages may appear rather
small, they represent a sizable number in the population and it is important to provide
information and reproductive health services targeting this group.
Sexual abuse
About 10 % of early adolescents and 14 % of mid and late adolescents in school admitted
to have been sexually abused sometime in their lives. More boys (14%) than girls (8%)
were abused during early adolescence while there was no gender difference seen in the
proportions been abused during mid and late adolescence. Abuse seemed to be lowest in
middle socio-economic quintiles. About 10 % of out-of-school adolescents reported
being abused.
The type of perpetrator changed with age. Perpetrators of abuse in early adolescence were
mainly a family member (38%) or a relative (27%). Among mid and late adolescents the
commonest perpetrators (38%) of abuse were still a family member but the proportion of
outsiders rose to 35 %. Little more than quarter of early adolescents was aware of sexua l
abuse and awareness increased with age.
Recommendations
Life skills education programme that uses innovative rapid, effective and feasible
strategies to reach adolescents in all walks of life over a relatively short period of time
could be viewed as the most important and urgent need. Strategies other than imparting
knowledge and skills through traditional class room approaches should be developed. An
important component of any such strategy would be to establish a strong advocacy
campaign and to solicit the support of policy makers and the society in general should be
implemented at all levels. Creating awareness especially among parents and making them
active participants in the programme would be crucial for success of life skill education.
Prevention of tobacco and alcohol abuse should be sufficiently innovative to counter act
the natural curiosity of the adolescent. Peer influence can be used to advantage to change
societal norms within the adolescent population towards no smoking and non use of
alcohol. A close surveillance should be maintained to identify specific targeting of
adolescents by industry specially females. Awareness surveillance to detect covert
advertising is also important. Preventive programmes should have the ability to adjust
rapidly to meet the changing approaches of industry. Although the prevalence of use of
mood altering drugs was low it is important to note that the substances reported are easily
available to adolescents. Strengthening legal frameworks towards restriction of sale and
ban on alcohol and tobacco advertising has been proven to be productive.
Parents especially mothers appear to be a valuable resource and needs to be active
participants in any programmes planned for improving the wellbeing of adolescents.
Improving knowledge on reproductive health among adolescents could be viewed as a
priority issue. It is important to note that a substantial proportion of adolescents leave
school after secondary education and thereafter they may have little opportunity to obtain
knowledge on reproductive matters.
It is important to identify the reasons for failure of school curriculum based reproductive
education and rectify the deficiencies. Measures should be taken to improve the public
awareness on the importance of proper reproductive health education to adolescents.
This could lead to the reduction of cultural resistance that seems to inhibit the teachers
and students to talk about the topic. The skills of school teachers in teaching reproductive
heath to students should be re-assessed and deficiencies corrected. The education and
health ministries should plan integrated strategies to meet this need among in-school as
well as out-of-school adolescents. Provision of reproductive health services acceptable
and accessible to adolescents remains a priority.
A well organized innovative education campaign on the STD, HIV /AIDS to reach all
adolescents is essential. It is essential to ensure comprehensiveness of coverage,
consistency and accuracy of the messages, and equity in distribution of activities. It is
also important to main stream the knowledge regarding these subjects in the curriculum
and to ensure that it is taught in schools. The effectiveness and coverage of existing
awareness campaigns should be evaluated to see why they seemed to fail in educating
target groups.
As sexually active adolescent run number of risks such as possibility of acquiring STD,
pregnancy, abortion, social problems, suicide etc it is very important to start primary and
secondary preventive measures to address these issues. Education of adolescents on the
risks entailed, life skill promotion, diverting attention by increasing recreation activities,
sex education, contraceptive education, empowering the gate keepers such as teachers,
parents, student leaders to identify the high risk individuals and intervene are some of the
interventions suggested. Raising awareness among adolescents on abuse and increasing
skills to avoid situations that may result in abuse are important. Special attention should
be paid to vulnerable groups such as children of migrant mothers, socially disadvantaged,
adolescents in children’s homes etc. Implementation of laws on child abuse, training of
health workers and teachers on child abuse prevention, are some of the other strategies.
Chapter 1
Introduction
Background
Adolescence is the period of life extending from 10 to 19 years. Approximately 1.2
billion of world’s population is in this age group and the majority of them live in
developing countries (WHO/UNFPA/UNICEF, 1999; UNFPA, 2003). Adolescents
account for the 3.7 million (19.7%) of Sri Lankan population (Table 1) (DCS, 2002). Of
these adolescents, only 2.7 million (72.9%) are reported to be in school (MOHECA
2002).
Table 1.1 Population distribution of adolescents: 2000
Age category
Sex
Male
10-14
4.8 %
15-19
5.1%
Total
5.9%
(Source: DHS survey, 2000)
Percentage of total
population
Female
4.5%
5.2%
9.7%
9.4%
10.3%
19.7%
Adolescence could be seen as the second formative stage of life. The growth and
development that has started during childhood takes a second initiative during this period,
the emphasis being on ma turation related to reproduction. The life of an adolescent thus
is one of transition, growth and exploration and opportunity. During this period, young
people become physically and psychologically mature and develop their own identity.
Many aspire to escape from the parent controlled, house dependant environment, to one
with more freedom and the company of peers. The physical and psychological dynamism
associated with adolescence makes adolescents vulnerable to many risks that endanger
their development and sometimes, even, their lives. The danger is exaggerated, when they
are less informed, less experienced and are living in an unsupportive and rapidly
changing environment. Many novel life events such as falling in love, sexual debut, first
smoke, first taste of alcohol, leaving school, starting a carrier etc…are experienced
during adolescence. How successfully they face this transition and proceed to adulthood
in a healthy manner depend on many things such as knowledge on sexuality and
reproduction, life skills, life styles, environment, culture and the support they receive
from their families and communities.
In Sri Lanka, more than 91.4 % adolescents complete primary education, 56.2 % receive
an education beyond secondary level (Central Bank of Sri Lanka 1999). This contributes
to a considerably longer period of dependence on parents; for many, dependence extends
beyond adolescence in to youth. On the other hand today’s adolescents have more
opportunities to become better informed through a wide variety of communication
systems available to them as well as through improved educational opportunities. This
leads to high levels of aspirations, different attitudes and value systems. Yet, very few
have adequate resources necessary to fulfill these aspirations and to materialize their
attitudes and values. The majority has to be dependant on parents for their financial
requirements, where some of the parents may not agree with adolescents’ views
(Abeykoon and Wilson 1998). In this context, the parent-adolescent relationship
becomes an important factor that influences the physical and mental wellbeing of
adolescents.
Common adolescent issues include; problems related to reproductive and sexual health,
accidents, and problems related to mental health (Noble et al. 1996; UNFPA 1997). Life
styles and life skills are considered to be closely associated with many of these problems
and have a tremendous impact on the wellbeing of adolescents.
Mortality and Morbidity during Adolescence
Deaths: Latest published mortality data from the Registrar General are available for the
year 1996. For this year the death rate from all causes among adolescents and youth (15 –
24 yrs) was 278.8/100000 population. Homicides and injuries purposely inflicted by
others ( 114.4/100000) was the leading cause of death in this age group followed by other
forms of violence ( 47.4/100000), suicides and other self inflicted injuries (42.5/100000) ,
and accidents (19.1/100000). The high incidence of homicides, other purposely inflicted
injuries, and suicides as leading causes of death in this age group reflects poor levels of
psycho-social competence among adolescents and youths and emphasizes the importance
of life skill development as an intervention.
A significant gender specific variation is observed in the death rates in this age group.
The age specific mortality rate due to suicide and self inflicted injury among males in 15
– 24 yr was 51.7/100,000 population while that of females was 33.7/100,000 population.
The variation was higher in transport accidents (Males, 10/100,000; Females
2.0/100,000). There is very little information available on morbidity patterns in this age
group.
Smoking: Smoking is identified as a major contributor to the burden of disease among
Sri Lankans. Many commence the habit during adolescence. A resent study carried out
by ADIC (2003) gives an over all prevalence of 18.9% of persons who have ever smoked
tobacco (Males 42.0%; Females, 2.3%). The prevalence of ever smoking in the 15 – 19 yr
age group was 5.2 % (Males, 9.0%; Females 0.7%). The prevalence of current smoking
among adolescents was 1.6% (Males, 2.8%; Females 0.2%). Out of the current tobacco
smoking adolescents, a majority (84.6%) reported smoking 1 to 5 cigarettes per day
(ADIC 2001). This survey revealed that among the males who have ever smoked, 60.5%
had initiated the habit within the ages of 8 to 20 yrs and the ‘influence of friends’( 68.7%)
and ‘to have the experience’ (18.1%) were the two commonest reasons for initiation. The
commonest reason for current smoking given by those in 15-24 yr age group was ‘for
enjoyment’ (ADIC 2003).
Alcohol: The ADDIC survey (2003) also revealed that the all age prevalence of ever
consuming alcohol among Sri Lankan males was 60.0%. Sixty two percent of alcohol
users reported that they consume alcohol only at special occasions such as; weddings,
parties etc, while 29% said that they use alcohol ‘a few times’ a month. The percentage of
daily users was 9 %. More than half (53.9%) of those in the 15-24 year age group
reported consumption of alcohol. The district specific prevalence rates for alcohol use
among males aged 15-24 were; Colombo, 48.8%; Gampaha, 50.0%; Galle 51.9%;
Kegalle 54.2%; Anuradhapura 63.7%, and Hambanthota, 52.1% (ADIC 2003). The types
of alcohol used by them were; Beer (37.7%), Arrack (23.3%) and Kasippu, (4.7%)
(Kasippu is a locally produced illicit brew).
Drugs: Information on the use of narcotic drugs among adolescents is scarce. The
following account is based on the information collected by the National Dangerous Drugs
Control Board in Sri Lanka. The overall trend in heroin related arrest among adolescents
shows an increase while there is a decline in cannabis related arrests. Those at aged 15 to
19 accounted for 0.8% (29 arrests) of Canna bis related arrests in Sri Lanka in 2003. A
declining trend was observed, in terms of percentage as well as in numbers, from
previous years [2000, 2.2% (104 arrests); 2002, 1.0% (48 arrests)]. There were sixty eight
adolescents (15 – 19 yrs) (0.5%) among the heroin related arrests in 2003. This trend
indicates an increase over the figures for the two previous years [2001, 0.2% (23 arrests);
2002, 0.4% (43 arrests)] (NDDCB 2004). Those in 15-19 yrs age group constituted 1.4%
(65 admissions) of all admissions for drug related disorders in various institutions around
the country in the year 2003, and is a reduction compared to the figures from previous
years [2001, 2.5 %( 177 admissions); 2002, 2.5%, (145 admissions)] (NDDCS 2004).
Sexuality
World over, young women are reaching menarche earlier and, in some countries,
marrying later (AGI 1998). The median age at marriage among Sri Lankan women has
been on the increase over the years (1963, 22.1yrs; 2002, 24.6 yrs) (DCS 2002). As a
result, a large number of young people at the peak of their sexuality spend a long period
of time out of marriage. Some of them tend to engage in premarital sexual activities,
exposing themselves to the health and social risks of pregnancy and sexually transmitted
infections (STI) and HIV/AIDS (PRB/CPO 1994). Adolescents who engage in sexual
activity outside of marriage face social stigma, family conflict, problems with school and
the potential need for unsafe abortion. Pregnancy, that occurs before adolescents are fully
developed, can also pose a significant risks to infants, including birth injuries, lower birth
weight, and a lower chance of infant survival (Alauddin and MacLaren, 1999).
Sexual experience : Published data on adolescent sexuality is relatively scarce in Sri
Lanka and the following account is based on the few studies available. Love affairs
among adolescent s, a common primary source of sexual experience, seemed to be quite
common in Sri Lanka. Silva et.al. (1997) in a descriptive study reported that about 50 %
of adolescents had love affairs. Nearly half of those reporting love affairs had informed
their family about it, suggesting that these relationships were meaningful preludes to
lasting relationships. Basnayake (1996) reported that approximately 13 % of unmarried
youth have experienced sexual intercourse. Sexual experience among adolescents aged
15 – 17, was found to be 3.1 %, where as in the 18 – 20 year age group it was 7.4 %.
Premarital sexual activity was found to be higher among urban unmarried youths (25%)
than among rural (16.0 %) youths. A significant gender difference was reported, 42.6%
of urban males reporting sexual experience compared to 6.3% females, while rural male
and female prevalence was 28.5% and 3.9 % respectively.
UNFPA (1996) reported the prevalence of homosexual relationships among 15 - 17 yrs
and 18 – 20 yrs to be 3.8 % and 2.8 % respectively. However an earlier survey by
Basnayake (1996) reported a higher prevalence, (15 %), 25% among males and 3%
among females. Another problem that has attracted the much attention is the presence of
“sexual tourism” in which young boys and adolescents are exploited to satisfy the
paedophilic desire of tourists (Silva et al. 1997).
Nature of sexual relations: Studies done by Silva et al. (1997) showed that the first
sexual encounter was often experimental and most do not use contraceptives even if they
know where to get them. Contraceptives are not freely available to adolescents and
youths and are not socially approved at this stage of life. Commercial sex workers were
reported to be the main sexual contacts of youths. The current socio-demographic and
economic milieu in Sri Lanka appears to promote pre marital sexual practices among
adolescents and youth. Modernization, education, urbanization and busy competitive
lives appears to have led to a culture where parental authority is diminished, family ties
are loosened and adolescents are secularized and left alone to themselves. Uncontrolled
and highly commercialized mass media appeals to them through music, dress and
language promoting a message of liberation, self-development and marginality from
traditional ways, implicitly and explicitly promoting sexual freedom and sexual activity
(Ukwatta & De Silva 2000; De Silva 2000).
Sources of information on reproductive health: There is an inadequacy of sources of
correct information on sexuality and family life and adolescents frequently turn to equally
misinformed peers for information (Abeykoon & Wilson 1998). In a survey conducted in
Sri Lankan adolescents from schools in the western province, friends were found to be
the chief source of information on sexual matters. Sixty one point five percent of male
students and 51% of female students obtained such information from friends. Parents and
siblings were the source in 41% of females but only 13% of males obtained information
from this source (AIDS- Coalition 2000). Silva et. al (1997) also reported very similar
findings in respect of sources of information on sexual matters. Here too friends were
reported to be the commonest source of information on reproductive health (72%)
followed by school (66%), television (57%) news papers (53%) and pornographic media
(Silva et al. 1997). Friends of the same sex were most likely to be cited as the most
suitable source for consultation and help with ‘love problems’ (79%); the doctor was
cited most often for help with sexual problems (59%). In general, the role played by
parents was minimal, although almost 60% of the females reported that they would
consult their mother about love related matters (Silva et al. 1997). In a survey conducted
among nationally representative sample, 80.2% reported that they were taught about the
human reproductive system in schools. There were no differences between the urban and
rural sectors with regard to teaching, but only 11% felt that the subject was dealt with
adequately in school (Basnayake 1996).
Knowledge on reproductive health: The knowledge of Sri Lankan adolescents on the
reproductive health issues were reported to be unsatisfactory by Ratnayake (1999). Males
appeared to have better knowledge on male reproductive organs with low knowledge on
female organs where as females showed the opposite trend (AIDS Collation 2000). Many
traditional myths on masturbation, nocturnal emissions, virginity, and menstruation are
reported to be prevalent (Basnayake 1996). The process of sperm production and
fertilization were also not well understood (Silva et al. 1997).
Attitudes towards sex: A study of adolescents conducted in the Western Province of Sri
Lanka reported that one third of them were visibly uncomfortable in dealing with sexual
issues with the interviewers. Eighty five percent of male students and 66.5% of the
females felt comfortable talking to frie nds on sexual health issues but only 27% of
females and 8% of males were comfortable talking to their parents. They appeared
unlikely to be open to their siblings either, only 7% of females and 3% of males reported
being comfortable in discussing sexual matters with siblings. Very few (4% percent of
females and 7% of males) were comfortable in discussing sexual issues with their
teachers (AIDS Coalition 2000).
Silva et.al (1997) reported that young men had no difficulty in discussing about their
sexual experiences with other men. The opposite was true for young women, who offered
little information on female to female sexual behaviour, especially of their own. The
same report indicated that sexual issues were more comfortably discussed among friends
of the same sex than with those of opposite sex. About half of those who had a boyfriend
or a girl friend said they had discussed sex with their partner. Over one third reported
discussing preserving virginity, family planning, and avoiding STDs. Higher percentage
of males reported discussing about sexual activities with their girlfriends, where as a
higher percentage of females reported talking about family problems, marriage and future
plans with their boy friends (Silva et al. 1997).
About half (52.5%) of Sri Lankan youth were reported to approve pre marital sexual
relationships (UNFPA 1996). Basnayake (1996) reported somewhat lower figures; 40 %
of males and 28 % of females approving premarital sex. A marginally higher proportion
(Males 50 %, Females 25 %), approved pre marital sex among couples engaged to be
married. A smaller proportion (Males 15 % females 6 %) approved pre marital sex
among couples who were ‘in love’ but with no plans to get married ( Basnayake 1989).
Sri Lankan adolescents were reported to generally prefer behaviours perceived to protect
female virginity, such as inter-femoral and other forms of non-penetrative sex (WHO
2003).
Adolescent pregnancy: Teenage fertility rate is defined as the number of live births to
mothers less than 20 years in a given year, per 1000 females in 15 – 19 year group. Given
the adverse health, social and economic outcomes of teenage pregnancy this is an
important indicator reproductive health of adolescent girls. The available data shows a
steady decline of teenage fertility in Sri Lanka, from 38.0 /1000 in 1981 to 27 /1000 in
2000. Seven percent of annual births are among adolescents mothers (Abeykoon &
Wilson 1998).
Sexually transmitted infections (STI) and HIV/ AIDS: STIs pose a significant risk for
adolescents. The lower prevalence of pre marital sexual activity among young women in
Eastern cultures like Sri Lanka and the considerable gender gap observed in reported
prevalence, raises the possibility that a high proportion of young men may be initiating
sexual activity with commercial sex workers and other unknown persons, thus
increasing the risk of STIs and HIV / AIDS (Singh et al., 2000).
The highest rates of infection for STIs including HIV, are found among young people age
20 to 24; the next highest rate occurs among adolescents age 15 to 19 (Noble et al, 1996).
WHO estimates that half of all the people infected with HIV are younger than age 25 and,
live in developing countries, and up to 60 percent of all new infections occur among 15 to
24 year olds (Sha ne, 1997). Every day, 7,000 young people worldwide acquire the virus,
which amounts to around 2.6 million new infections over one year among youth. Some
1.7 million of these are in Africa and 700,000 in Asia and the Pacific (UNAIDS, 1998).
New infections rate among females, out number that of males by a ratio of 2 to 1.
In Sri Lanka available data shows that about 77 % (n = 304) of HIV positives are within
the 20 - 44 age groups. Given the time for the incubation period, some of them would
have initiated the illness during their adolescence (MOH 1999). The current trends
suggest that Sri Lanka is still in the beginning of the left half of epidemic curve, and the
future of the HIV epidemic lies in the hands and behaviour of young people. Young
people's beha viour would largely depend on the information, skills, and services that are
available to them (UNAIDS/WHO, 1997). Although a number of initiatives have been
taken to improve the knowledge of adolescents in reproductive health problems, these
programmes face a number of constraints. They appear to operate in an ad-hoc manner
and in isolation resulting in poor coverage.
Awareness on HIV/AIDS and other STIs among Sri Lankan adolescents has been found
to be unsatisfactory (Attanayake 1999; AIDS C ollation 2000). A survey conducted
among school going adolescents in Sri Lanka reported varying proportions who have
heard of different STIs ( HIV/AIDS 84.0%; Gonorrhoea 68%; Syphilis 57.0% and Herpes
46%). Most other STDs were not known to most respondents. Nine percent of males and
4% of the female respondents advocated keeping infected persons isolated in
one place as a method of preventing STD spread. Some students (Males, 11.5%, Females,
8.5%) believed HIV/AIDS to be curable (AIDS Collation 2000).
Silva et al. (1997) reported that, most young women in Sri Lanka appear to protect
themselves by not being involved in any intimate behaviour (23.6%) and the great
majority felt that they were safe from HIV/AIDS and other risks. However, given the
percentage of men who engage in potentially risky behaviour (23.2%), sex after marriage
or engagement could place women at risk despite their prior abstinence (Silva et al.
1997).
Sexual abuse: Studies carried out in Sri Lanka have reported prevalence of sexual abuse
varying from 5% -16%. Basnayake (1996) carrying out a national level study on youth of
Sri Lanka, reported that 7% had been sexually molested. Thalagala (2003) reported a
somewhat lower prevalence of 5.1 % among children aged 8-14 yrs from another national
level survey. Wickramasekara (1999) found that 16.6 % (16.7% boys & 16.5% girls) of
children in year 11 and 12 classes (16-17 year olds) in the district of Anuradhapura had
experienced sexual abuse. In another study among advanced level students in Sri La nka,
18 % boys and 4.5 % of girls admitted being victims of sexual abuse during childhood.
When the same questionnaire was given to another group who received a prior lecture
explaining the forms of child abuse, 21 % of boys and 11 % of girls admitted that they
were abused during childhood. This shows that many adolescents especially girls were
probably unaware of the acts that constitute abuse. The sex differential reported in this
study is contrary to the trends observed in other parts of the world and may be due to a
reporting bias.
Children are often sexually abused by some one responsible for their care than by a
stranger (Peterson & Urquiza 1993). A similar pattern is identified in studies carried out
in Sri Lanka. Jayasekera (1997) reported that the most common form of sexual abuse was
incest, other common perpetrators being relatives, neighbours, teachers and priests. In Sri
Lanka male sexual partner of the mother (step father), has been identified as a relatively
common perpetrator. It is recorded that some paedophiliac get involved with mothers first
and subsequently approach children. Instances where foreign paedophilias got married to
women in order to approach children have been reported. Teachers, employees of
orphanages or children’s hostels, drivers of school vans or buses were also among the
group of offenders (De. Silva & Hobbs 2000). Basnayake (1996) reported that nearly a
fourth (24%) of the abused have been molested by a ‘friend’. Jayasekara (1997) also
reported 16 instances where older women had abused boys. In the sample studied by
Jayasekera (1997), 6 % of males admitted that they had abused girls or boys in the past or
were currently indulging in such practices. Abuse is reported to be higher among children
from poor social classes (25 % boys, 7 % girls) compared to the middle class (15 % boys,
3.2 % girls) (Jayasekara 1997).
Chapter 2
Objectives and Methodology
Objectives
General Objective
To obtain a profile of Sri Lankan adolescents between the ages 10 – 19, which includes;
an assessment of level of life skills, factors affecting well-being, substance abuse,
knowledge on reproductive health, and vulnerability to STD, HIV/AIDS, sexual
behaviour and sexual abuse.
Specific Objectives
1. To assess the level of life skills among adolescents
2. To describe perceptions, aspirations, expectations, and frustrations those affect
their mental wellbeing
3. To describe family, and social environmental factors that affect their wellbeing
4. To identify the extent of use of tobacco, alcohol, and other addictive substances
among adolescents and to describe circumstances and factors influencing the use
of these substances
5. To describe knowledge on reproductive health among adolescents
6. To assess their knowledge attitudes in relation to prevention and control of STDS
and HIV/AIDS
7. To describe the sexual behaviour and to assess the extent of sexual abuse among
adolescents
Methodology
Study Design
This descriptive cross sectional survey included two components.
1. Component one –A survey of school going adolescents (10 -19 years).
2. Component two – A survey of out-of-school adolescents (15 -19 yrs).
Study Area
This survey included subjects from all 25 districts in the country (Figure 1). The school
compone nt was designed to represent adolescents in each district separately in order to
estimate district parameters in addition to national estimates. Due to logistical constraints
the out-of-school survey was designed to represent the out-of-school adolescents in
broader strata namely; Colombo Urban, Other Urban, Rural and Estate Sectors. The
second component therefore provides sector estimates, in addition to national parameters.
Component One - A Survey of School Going Adolescents
Study Population and Sampling
Study population pertaining to this component was considered as the school- going
adolescents between 10 – 19 years of age in all 25 districts of Sri Lanka. Each district
was sampled using all school going adolescents between 10 – 19 years in the district as
the sampling frame. This age group included students in grades 6 to grade 13.
Sampling Method
A multistage stratified random cluster sample (PPS) was selected from each district. A
class room was considered as a cluster. Considering the diversity of the school
population, the sample was stratified at 2 stages. First, the sample (clusters) was divided
equally in to 3 strata according to school grades, the 3 strata being defined as grades 6-8,
grades 9 -11, and grades 12-13 (Advanced Level classes). Within each of these strata the
sample was divided according to the functional classification of schools adopted by the
Ministry of Education viz. Types 1AB, 1C, type 2 and type 3.
Figure 2.1 Administrative Districts of Sri Lanka
According to the functional classification of the schools, grades 6 to 8 are found in all
types of schools. Grades 9 - 11 are found in type1AB, 1C and type 3 schools where as
A/L classes are found in type 1AB and IC schools.
The sampling frame used was the data from the National School Census 2002 (Data
base). The number of respondents required from a district was allocated in equal numbers
at the first level of stratification (school grades). At the second stage of sampling the
schools in each district were sorted according to the type of school and the number of
students allocated to each grade was divided according to the Probability Proportional to
Size (PPS) of the student population in the specific grades in the different types of
schools (IAB, 1C, Type 2, Type 3). In order to enhance the distribution of the sample
over the district, only one/two of the classes from grades 6-8, 9-11 and one from each
type of A/L classes were randomly selected from a single school.
Sample Size
The sample size was based on following formula (Lowanga and Lemeshow 1991):
Sample size
Z2 p(1 − p) x D
d2
Z2
p
d
=
=
=
D
=
Z value (corresponding to confidence level)
Anticipated population proportion
Absolute precision required for the estimate to fall with in given
percentage points of true proportion
Design effect,
Considering d = 0.05 , p = 0.5 (for maximum sample size) , at the confidence level
of 95 %, and design effect of 3 the sample size necessary for each district was 1152
adolescents.
Data Collection Techniques and Questionnaire (Appendix -1)
Data was collected in the school population using an anonymous self-administered
questionnaire (SAQ). This method was selected considering the sensitive nature of the
information sought in the study and the familiarity and ability of students to respond to
questionnaires. The questions covered a fairly wide area of adolescent issues. The
variables included were identified after considering the findings of literature, opinion of
experts on the subject and views of teachers of different grades. The questions were made
very simple and most were provided with structured responses. However, questions that
were believed to generate diverse responses were provided with an open option which
was later coded. The questionnaire was originally formulated in English and later
translated to Sinhalese and Tamil by subject experts. These were then reviewed by a
panel consisting of teachers, reproductive health experts, and epidemiologists for
coherence of the Tamil and Sinhalese versions, clarity of the questions, and for the
comprehensiveness in terms of objectives.
The final questionnaire included 4 sections. The section one included the general
questions on a) socio-demographic profile, b) routine activities and hobbies, c) questions
on family and school environment, d) information on friends, social capital and media
exposure. This section was common to adolescents in all age categories included in the
study. Section 2 was intended only for adolescents in early adolescence (ages 10 – 13
yrs). It included simple questions on the physiological changes during the early
adolescence and experiences of child abuse. Section 3 was intended for adolescents in
mid and late adolescence (ages 14 – 19 yrs) and included questions on life skills,
substance abuse, relationships, reproductive health and STD and HIV/ AIDS. Section 4
was intended only for those in late adolescence (17 – 19yrs) and included questions on
sexual behaviour and sexual abuse. All components were pre tested in the appropriate age
groups using samples including students from all strata of schools.
Data Collection Procedure
Recently passed out graduates were selected as investigators of this component and were
given the responsibility of administering the SAQ in the selected schools. The number of
schools sampled in a district varied between 16 – 20 and 3 - 4 persons residing in the
district were selected per district. Approximately 20 – 30 working days were needed to
complete the survey in each district. The work of the investigators was facilitated and
supervised by the district coordinators of the survey. The district coordinators of
“Sarvodaya” (NGO) who had considerable field experience of surveys and had a very
good working relationship with education authorities of the area served as district
coordinators of the survey.
The list of schools to be included in the survey was provided to the investigators and they
made a preliminary visit to each school. The Principals were informed about the
objectives of the survey and their permission and cooperation sought to fix a date for the
survey and other logistics arrangements. To facilitate the process a letter of permission
issued by the Ministry of Education for the National survey was given to each
investigator.
The SAQ was administered while students were in the class room. The class teachers
were requested not to be present during the session as their presence would have inhibited
answers given to some of the sensitive questions. The students were informed about the
purpose of the study and anonymity was assured. Basic instructions on answering the
questionnaire were provided by an investigator and during the session they were present
in the class room for any further clarifications. Students took approximately 45 – 60
minutes to complete the questionnaire. At the end of the session the questionnaires were
collected by the investigators and were handed over to the district coordinators.
Component Two- A survey of out-of-school adolescents (15 -19 years)
Study Population and Sampling
Considering the financial and logistical constraints, it was not possible to aim at obtaining
district level estimates for out-of-school adolescents. This component therefore aimed at
sector specific estimates for the four sectors; Colombo metropolitan, other urban, rural
and estate in addition to national level data.
Sample Size
The sample sizes was based on same formula described above and considering d = 0.05 p
= 0.5, confidence level = 95 %, D = 4.8, the number of adolescents to be sampled in each
sector was estimated as 1843. They were recruited as 92 clusters, each comprised of 20
adolescents.
Sampling Method
Adolescents from the 4 sectors were identified observing different procedures. In each
sector the out-of-school adolescents (15- 19 yrs) was the population to be sampled and
there were no sampling frames available. Therefore within each sector a multi stage
stratified cluster sampling procedure was followed.
For the purpose of this stud y a cluster was defined as a randomly selected group of 20
adolescents form 15 to 19 years. A ward in Colombo metropolitan area, Grama Sevaka
(GS) divisions in the other urban and rural sectors and estates in the estate sector were
considered as the Primary Sampling Units (PSU).
Selection of Primary Sampling Units
Identification of the clusters in the Colombo metropolitan sector was carried out as a
single stage procedure. A list of wards with corresponding populations was prepared
alone with the respective population figures. Then, the wards where the 92 clusters were
to be located were identified from that list, in a systematic random manner.
The Other Urban sector spread over 14 districts and urban council areas. In the first stage
the 92 clusters to be identified in this sector were allocated PPS of the population of the
Town Councils (TC). Then in each selected TC the GS divisions were listed with their
populations. GS divisions for location of clusters were identified using systematic
random sampling procedure.
The rural sector covers a wider geographical area and extends among 242 Divisional
Secretary (DS) areas situated in 17 Districts. The 92 clusters of the rural sector were
distributed according to the PPS of the rural population of each district. Within each
district the locations of clusters were identified using systematic random sampling
method from a list of GS divisions.
Estates were distributed in 14 districts in the country and in 5 districts the proportion of
the estate population exceeds 5 %. Therefore the study was limited to these five districts
namely; Kandy (7.3%), Nuwara Eliya (53.3), Badulla (20.4%), Ratnapura (10.1%) and
Kegalle (7.1%). The 92 clusters allocated for estate sector were distributed among theses
5 districts PPS of the estate populations of each district. The estates for allocation of
clusters were identified using systematic random sampling method.
Identification of Clusters
In each PSU the survey team identified the adolescents who are out-of-school by
screening the households and work places by systematically deviating from the centre of
the PSU. This task was made easier as local member of the “Sarvodaya” introduced them
to the households.
Data Collection Technique and Questionnaire (Appendix - 2)
In this component of the study data were collected by interviewing respondents. This
technique of data collection was decided upon considering the varying educational
standards of respondents. The sample was expected to be comprised of those who have
never been to schools, those who have prematurely left schools and these who are at
home after completing secondary school. The questionnaire was prepared as a structured
interviewer schedule. The variables on which questions were formulated were similar to
those used in the SAQ in the first component, but more in depth questions were included
in the section on sexual behaviour. The questions were worded in simple language to
facilitate understanding even by respondents with relatively low levels of education. The
questions were grouped under the following sub headings: a) socio-demographic details,
b) family back ground, income, c) work/ hobbies, d)media exposure, e) social influences
and expectations, f) life skills, g) substance abuse, e)reproductive health , f) STD / HIV
/AIDS, g) sexual behaviour and sexual abuse.
Data Collection Procedure
The field operation involved the identification and interview of approximately 10,000
adolescents distributed among 460 clusters all over the country. District based teams of
interviewers and supervisors were identified for this purpose. The interviewers were A/L
passed youth selected as far as possible from the same district. They worked as teams of
2 persons comprising of a male and a female so that a male respondent could be
interviewed by a male and a female respondent by a female. The number of teams needed
for a particular district varied depending on the number of clusters allocated to that
district. Data collection activities of 3 - 4 teams were supervised by a sociology graduate
and wherever possible graduates living in the same district were recruited as supervisors.
The interviews were conducted after obtaining the consent of the subjects and parents.
The group supervisor was responsible for the logistical arrangements for the survey.
Instructions were given to the interviewers to ensure that every question was answered
and responses recorded correctly before leaving the respondent. Team supervisors carried
out consistency checks on the each questionnaire in the field during the evening of the
day of the interview.
Training of Investigators
Intensive two-day in house training was given to the investigators for both components of
the study. This was conducted by two of the project consultants assisted by 3 other
consultants with experience in field surveys. The training was focused on adolescent
reproductive issues, field procedures, and detailed review of the SAQ & IAQ. Mock
interviews were practiced by the interviewers of IAQ. The supervisors and district
coordinators also participated in these training sessions. In addition field work was
supervised in a systematic fashion by the project consultants.
The Pilot Testing
A Pilot test was conducted both in schools and in the field settings to test planned survey
procedures including the feasibility of identification of respondents for the community
component, logistics and administration. This was also used to test the questionnaires on
a wider scale regarding acceptability related to questions and was carried out in both
languages. The time required for questionnaire administrations was estimated during this
procedure. Procedures for data entry, computer editing and analysis were also tested
using the results of the pilot test.
Data Analysis
As equal sample sizes were taken from each district and sector in the school survey and
field survey respectively, the selection probabilities of the respondents in each stratum
were expected to be different. Therefore in national estimates weighted analysis was
carried out to account for differential selection probabilities. The results are presented as
national estimates as well as differentials with regard to age, sex, ethnicity and socioeconomic status. SPSS 10.5 statistical software was used in the analysis.
Measuring Socio-economic Status
The respondents’ socio-economic status was measured by using an asset index based on
presence or absence of a number of items (assets) available in their households that are
considered to be proxies for socio-economic status. These items included presence of a
range of consumer items such as radio, television, car and dwelling characteristics such
as flooring materials, type of drinking water, toilet facilities and other characteristics
linked to socio-economic levels. The asset index is the composite score that is computed
by summing up a number of asset item scores which reflect the presence or absence of
above mentioned asset items in a particular household. Individual item scores were
computed using the method described by Gawatkin et al.2000). Factor scores needed to
compute these item scores were generated by running principal component analysis on
the DHS 2000 household survey data. Each item considered to be an asset in a household
was given an estimated score depend ing on the presence or absence of the item. The total
asset score was calculated for each household by summing up all item scores. Based on
this composite asset score (asset index) the respondents were divided into quintiles.
These quintiles were used in all comparative analysis to examine the influence of socioeconomic status.
Chapter 3
Findings of the Component One – Issues among School Adolescents
A total of 29,911 adolescents representing 25 districts of the country were studied in this
survey. The results are presented in 7 major sections as follows; socio-demographic
profile, mental wellbeing and life skills, substance abuse behaviour, knowledge on
reproduction and family planning, knowledge attitudes and practices related to sexually
transmitted diseases and HIV/AIDS, sexual behaviour and sexual abuse.
Socio-demographic Profile of the Sample
Age and Sex
Table 3.1 Distribution of adolescents according to age and sex by districts
District
N
Colombo
Gampaha
Kalutara
Kandy
Matale
Nuwara Eliya
Galle
Matara
Hambantota
Ampara
Kurunegala
Puttalam
Anuradhapura
Polonnaruwa
Badulla
Monaragala
Ratnapura
Kegalle
Jaffna
Kilinochchi
Vavunia
Mullaitivu
Mannar
Trincomalee
Batticaloa
Sri Lanka
1205
1200
1206
1206
1210
1400
1203
1203
1198
1440
1206
1200
1203
1200
1188
1200
1200
1197
1200
1113
1066
1060
1006
1319
1082
29911
Sex
Male
(%)
45.4
50.9
48.0
46.3
48.9
52.9
47.5
49.0
46.9
49.9
45.4
48.2
50.2
51.5
44.2
44.1
45.8
48.1
46.2
46.8
40.2
45.4
43.9
56.1
41.0
47.3
Females
(%)
54.6
49.1
52.0
53.7
51.1
47.1
52.5
51.0
53.1
50.1
54.6
51.8
49.8
48.5
55.8
55.9
54.2
50.9
53.8
53.2
51.8
54.6
56.1
43.9
59.0
52.7
Age
10- 13
(%)
33.5
31.2
33.3
33.8
34.9
26.2
33.4
33.2
33.9
33.6
33.5
33.8
33.3
34.0
33.2
34.4
33.3
33.2
33.3
23.4
33.7
34.2
34.4
40.7
35.0
33.2
14 to 16
(%)
33.1
35.5
33.3
32.3
31.4
33.7
32.9
33.4
33.2
35.0
32.7
33.0
33.4
33.0
33.7
32.3
33.7
33.3
33.5
49.0
34.5
31.5
35.8
30.6
31.2
33.8
17-19
(%)
33.4
33.3
33.3
33.8
33.7
40.1
33.7
33.4
32.9
31.4
33.8
33.2
33.3
33.0
33.2
33.4
33.0
33.4
33.3
27.5
31.8
34.4
29.8
28.8
33.8
33.0
In all districts more or less equal proportion of males and females were included in the
sample. In the districts of Kilinochchi, Vavuniya, Mualtivu, Mannar and Batticaloa, the
expected sample size of 1152 could not be met, the shortfall being 3.3%, 7.4%, 8.0%,
12.6% and 6.1% respectively and was due to the smaller class sizes in schools in these
areas.
Ethnicity and Religion
Table 3.2 Percentage distribution of adolescents according to Ethnicity, Religion by
districts
Other
Buddhism
Hinduism
Islam
Christianity
Colombo
1205
Gampaha
1200
Kalutara
1206
Kandy
1206
Matale
1210
Nuwara Eliya 1400
Galle
1203
Matara
1203
Hambantota
1198
Ampara
1440
Kurunegala
1206
Puttalam
1200
Anuradhapura 1203
Polonnaruwa
1200
Badulla
1188
Monaragala
1200
Ratnapura
1200
Kegalle
1197
Jaffna
1200
Kilinochchi
1113
Vavunia
1066
Mullaitivu
1060
Mannar
1006
Trincomalee
1319
Batticaloa
1082
Sri Lanka
29911
Sri Lanka *
29911
(* weighted percent)
Moor
N
Religion
Tamil
Ethnicity
Sinhalese
District
80.1
90.3
82.8
81.3
84.3
50.4
95.0
96.1
97.3
32.7
92.6
73.5
93.1
93.1
88.6
97.0
87.7
87.9
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
7.7
20.7
0.0
62.5
75.8*
10.1
3.5
7.2
8.6
7.4
45.3
1.1
1.5
0.5
27.6
1.1
6.6
0.9
0.5
7.0
1.2
9.7
5.3
100.0
100.0
99.3
100.0
92.3
64.6
97.5
30.4
16.6*
9.1
5.0
9.9
9.8
8.0
3.4
3.9
2.4
1.9
39.5
6.2
19.9
6.0
5.9
4.0
1.5
2.6
6.8
0.0
0.0
0.7
0.0
0.0
14.7
0.3
6.7
7.2*
0.7
1.2
0.0
0.2
0.3
1.0
0.0
0.0
0.4
0.3
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.5
0.4
0.2
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
2.2
0.4
0.3*
74.4
71.6
82.8
76.7
79.9
47.3
90.0
95.8
96.5
32.2
89.9
44.9
92.0
93.1
88.4
96.4
87.0
88.3
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
20.2
0.6
59.9
71.5*
7.1
3.3
3.0
8.6
8.8
40.0
3.9
1.8
0.2
24.6
1.4
3.9
0.0
0.0
6.9
1.1
9.7
4.7
92.3
94.3
87.5
71.0
91.1
52.7
85.7
24.2
14.7*
10.2
5.0
9.9
13.0
9.7
5.4
5.2
2.4
3.1
39.4
6.3
20.0
6.0
6.1
4.2
1.9
2.4
6.7
0.0
0.0
1.4
0.0
0.0
12.1
1.6
7.4
7.8*
8.3
20.0
4.3
1.7
1.6
7.3
1.0
0.0
0.2
3.8
2.4
31.3
2.0
0.8
0.6
0.5
0.9
0.3
7.7
5.7
11.1
29.0
8.9
15.0
12.1
8.5
6.0*
The distribution of different ethnic and religious groups in each district approximates the
corresponding proportions given in the sample estimates from the 2000 census (DCS,
2002 b). The national unweighted proportions of the different ethnic and religious groups
indicate slight over sampling of Tamils and Hindus. This trend was expected as equal
numbers of persons were selected in all 25 districts and 8 out of 25 districts had Tamil
population over 95%. However this disproportion is adjusted for in the analysis by using
weights. The weighted proportions approximate the national distribution from the census
data (Table 3.2).
Mental Wellbeing and Life Skills of Adolescents
Adolescence is full of demands, stresses and conflicts and the mental wellbeing of
adolescents depend on how effectively they deal with these experiences. A core set of
abilities called life skills enable adolescents to deal effectively with these demands. Life
skills include self awareness (being able to be aware about ourselves), empathy (to be
able to understand other persons’ views and feelings ), ability to communicate
effectively, ability to maintain interpersonal relationships, ability to cope with emotions
and stress, ability to think creatively and critically, ability to make decisions and to solve
problems. The psychosocial competence resulting from sound life skills, together with
physical and social environment exert a greater influence on the mental wellbeing of
adolescents (UNICEF 2001).
Hence, in the present study information was collected on the following factors; a) self
awareness b) abilities in relationships, decision making and problems solving and other
types of life skills c) home, school and out of home environment d) involvement in
hobbies; work; and resources available. The findings are presented under each of the
above headings.
Self Awareness
An ability to understand one’s self; strengths, weaknesses, values, outlook, character,
desires and expectations, is called self awareness and is fundamental to the development
of other life skills. When a person has a realistic understanding about him or her self;
understanding others, keeping healthy interpersonal relationships, making decisions, and
solving problems become very much easier. However, certain negative self perceptions
common during adolescence such as dissatisfaction with physical attributes and how they
feel among peers and family can have a formidable impact on their mental wellbeing
(UNICEF 2001). In the present survey aspects of self awareness were examined by
asking about the respondents future ambitions and goals, reasons for choosing these and
their confidence in achieving the stated goals.
Goal Setting
Future Ambitions
Setting goals about one’s life and being confident about achieving these goals need
realistic self awareness, critical thinking abilities and decision making skills. Of the total
of 19,934 adolescents 71.8 % had a future goal set. One fifth of the adolescents seemed to
be inspired by the teaching profession and wanted to be teachers in adult life. The
traditionally popular professional careers such as medicine, engineering, accountancy and
nursing seemed to attract the ambitions of 36.3 %. Four percent wanted to be
businessmen. A small proportion of adolescents (12 %) wanted to be service personnel,
artists or musicians. None of the adolescents wanted to be farmers or take on other
professions like carpentry, masonry, etc. where as 26% of the general population are
agricultural and fishery workers.
Figure 3.1 Distribution of adolescents according to future goals
Not certain
4.0%
5.2%
11.5%
Teacher
28.2%
5.7%
Doctor
Engineer
Accountant
8.6%
Nurse
16.8%
20.0%
Businessman
Misellaneous
As could be expected the proportion of adolescent with definite future ambitions increase
with age, from 71% in mid adolescence (14 - 16 age group) to 79% late adolescence (17 19 age groups). Although there are variations in the proportions choosing different
careers in the two age groups, the pattern observed is very similar. A notable feature is
the reduction in the proportion in the miscellaneous category in late adolescence,
suggesting that with increasing age more have selected a traditionally popular profession
as a goal. There is a reduction in the proportion of late adolescents wanting to be doctors
and a marked increase in those wanting to be an accountant or businessman (Table 3.3).
Nurse
Businessman
Miscellaneou
s
Total
N
4
11.5 100.0
19334
3.4 5.1
12.5 5.4
3.3
6.1
12.5 100.0
8.6 100.0
10074
9860
12.9 13
20.0 5.0
6.5
5.0
1.6
8.2
6.5
1.9
18.3 100.0
6.0 100.0
9429
10505
16.2
21.0
15.2
5.9
5.1
6.8
9
19.9
5.6
4.1
3.4
8.4
4.4
2.0
3.9
15.2
12.4
6.8
12.0
17.1
18687
9106
1999
118
14.8 5.1
3.4
5
2.1
12.5 100.0
5982
16.6 5.3
5.0
7.0
3.5
13.1 100.0
5982
15.2 9.1
4.8
5.5
4.4
11.3 100.0
5982
16.7 8.5
6.3
5.2
3.7
11.4 100.0
5982
20.3 13.2 7.9
3.4
5.6
9.9
5983
Accountant
5.2
Engineer
All
28.2 20
Age category
14-16 yrs
29.2 20.2
17-19 yrs
24.7 19.4
Sex
Males
32.1 9.9
Females
24.9 28.9
Ethnicity
Sinhalese
30.2 17.9
Tamil
18.8 29.7
Moor
27.1 21.5
Other
18.2 12.9
Socio-economic status
Poorest
28.9 28.3
quintile
Second
27.7 21.8
quintile
Middle
30.9 18.7
quintile
Fourth
28.0 20.2
quintile
Richest
25.4 14.3
quintile
16.8 8.6
5.7
17.5 8.6
14.7 8.6
Doctor
Teacher
Goal
Not certain
Table 3.3 Future goals by selected socio-demographic indicators
(Percentages)
8.2
10.7
7.9
2.3
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
Relatively higher proportion of males (32.1 %) was not certain about their future goals
when compared with females (24.9%). On the other hand a relatively larger proportion
of girls wanted to be teachers (28.9 %) and doctors (20 %) when compared with boys
(9.9 % & 12.9 % respectively). The disproportionate share of males and females in the
miscellaneous group (18.3 % vs. 6 %) suggest that boys were having wider spectrum of
goals. Many boys in this group hoped to be armed personnel, computer professionals,
bank officers, and media personnel and musicians etc. while the girls had ambitions to be
air hostesses, actresses, beauticians etc. The selection of careers reflects gender based
norms in operation. The re are ethnic differentials in proportions without stated future
ambitions, most being among Sinhalese (30.2 %), compared to 18 .8 % in Tamils. A
larger proportion of Tamils (68%) had selected to be teachers doctors engineers and
accountants compared to 47% Sinhalese.
Marked differences in adolescent aspirations are observed between the poorest
socioeconomic quintile and the highest in respect of some professions. Most in the lowest
quintile (28%) aspire to be teachers while 41% in the highest quintile aspire to be doctors,
engineers or accountants. Although only 4% overall wanted to become businessmen here
too a marked differential is observed between the highest and lowest socio-economic
quintiles (Table 3.3).
Factors Influencing the Choice of Future Goals
It is believed that most Sri Lankan parents aspire to have their children follow a
traditionally popular professional career path. This situation is known to create conflict of
interest between parents and children as well as add to the severe competition in the
educational system contributing greatly to adolescent stress. Apart from parental
influence, traditional norms, peer and media influence may be considered to have an
influence on the adolescents’ career decisions. The survey tried to gain insight in to the
degree of independence that adolescents have in choosing a career, this also being a
reflection of the level of self awareness and critical thinking ability of an individual.
In the majority the career goals were either their personal choices (53.3 %) or the shared
choice of parent s and themselves (15.4 %). The parents, alone appear to influence only a
very small proportion (5.6 %). A decrease of parental influence and a corresponding
increase in independence in career choice is seen with increasing age. Few admitted to be
influenced by general social norms in choosing a career and more than quarter (25.3 %)
said that they considered their talents before making a choice, this also increased from
22.5 % to 32.9 % from mid adolescence to late adolescence.
Figure 3.2 Reasons for the choice of future goal
Personal choice
Parents choice
25.3%
0.8%
15.4%
53.0%
5.5%
Choice of parents and
mine
As it is the common
choice
it suits my talents
Interestingly parental influence seemed to be marginally more on the career choices of
boys (Boys, 6 %; Girls, 5%). Shared decisions were relatively more common among
girls (17.0%) when compared to boys (13.2%). More girls (27.4%) considered their
talents in making a career choice than boys (22.5%) (Table 3.4).
Choice of
parents and
mine
As it is the
common
choice
it suits my
talents
Total
N
All
53.0
Age categories
14-16 yrs
54.1
17-19 yrs
50.0
Sex
Males
57.5
Females
49.6
Ethnicity
Sinhalese
56.5
Tamil
40.0
Moor
49.6
Other
41.1
Socio-economic status
Poorest
48.4
quintile
Second
49.7
quintile
Middle
58.7
quintile
Fourth
54.2
quintile
Richest
52.3
quintile
Parents
choice
Personal
choice
Reason
Table 3.4 Reasons for the choice of future goal by selected socio-demographic indicators
.(Percentages)
5.5
15.4
0.8
25.3
100.0
14313
6.3
3.5
16.2
13.1
1.0
0.5
22.5
32.9
100.0
100.0
7213
7100
5.9
5.3
13.2
17.0
1.0
0.7
22.5
27.4
100.0
100.0
6782
7531
4.9
7.7
6.8
7.9
13.3
24.4
14.7
13.0
0.6
1.5
1.3
0.0
24.7
26.4
27.7
37.9
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
8938
4359
955
61
6.8
21.2
1.6
21.9
100.0
2862
8.1
13.3
1.3
27.5
100.0
2863
4.8
12.5
0.4
23.7
100.0
2863
4.6
14.7
0.8
25.8
100.0
2863
4.2
16.9
0.4
26.3
100.0
2862
Reaction to Failure in Reaching Future Goals
Given their relative lack of experience on the hardships of life, adolescents, can get easily
distressed in the face of failed expectations. The ability to cope with the stress resulting
from failures depend on the self awareness, emotional control and the degree of social
pressure and support. A question was asked to ascertain what their reaction would be in
case they failed to reach their future ambitions.
Figure 3.3 Adolescents’ reactions to failure in reaching stated goals
Keep on trying until I
reach it
3.3%
23.7%
6.3%
Make up my mind
66.7%
Look for an alternative
career
I am not sure
Majority felt that if they fail to reach their goals they would keep on trying until they
succeed while a quarter (24%) opted to look for an alternative choice. This suggests the
possibility that their reactions were impulsive rather than based on decisions taken after
critical analysis of available options. A high proportions choosing a traditional career
option and majority would keep on trying to achieve this aim reflects the current trends
seen in repeated attempts at entering a higher educational institution. A small percentage
(6%) had opted to accept defeat but not think positively of an alternative. (Figure 3.3).
It is seen that the older age group are more realistic in their responses; e.g. the proportion
of adolescents who would keep on trying until they achieve their goals seemed to reduce
(from 70 %to 59 %), the proportion who would look for an alternative option has
increased (from 20% to 35%) and there is a corresponding decrease in those who would
simply accept their inability to achieve what they set out to do. More girls (25%) tended
to look for alternative options compared to boys (22 %) (Table 3.5). .
.
Table 3.5 Adolescents’ reactions to failures in reaching stated goals by selected
socio-demographic indicators
(Percentages)
Reaction
Look for
Total
N
Keep on
an
trying until Make up
alternative I am not
I reach it
my mind
career
sure
All
66.8
6.3
23.7
3.3
100.0
14313
Age categories
14-16 yrs
69.8
7.2
19.6
3.3
100.0
7213
17-19 yrs
58.3
3.6
34.9
3.2
100.0
7100
Sex
Males
67.7
7.0
22.1
3.1
100.0
6782
Females
66.0
5.7
24.9
3.4
100.0
7531
Ethnicity
Sinhalese
63.3
Tamil
80.6
Moor
70.5
Other
93.4
Socio-economic status
Poorest
67.4
quintile
Second
quintile
68.9
Middle
67.6
quintile
Fourth
quintile
64.0
Richest
66.8
quintile
6.4
5.8
6.0
5.1
26.8
10.9
21.4
1.5
3.6
2.6
2.1
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
8938
4359
955
61
8.6
20.5
3.6
100.0
2862
7.4
19.9
3.7
100.0
2863
5.8
23.2
3.5
100.0
2863
6.4
25.9
3.8
100.0
2863
4.3
26.8
2.1
100.0
2862
More Sinha lese (27 %) would look for alternative options while the majority of Tamil
adolescents said that they would keep on trying (81 %) until they reach their target. It is
interesting to note that the proportion who would accept failure in achievement is
inversely related to socio-economic status while the proportion who would look for an
alternative option shows a positive correlation (Table 3.5).
Perceptions affecting mental wellbeing:
Negative self perceptions can have considerable impact on the mental wellbeing of
adolescents. The study sought information on perceptions such as, what they like or
dislike about themselves, do they feel that they are popular among peers and family?
How do they feel about their family and its members, about school performance? etc… in
an attempt to identify stressors that would have a negative influence on wellbeing.
The Attributes which Adolescents Most Like about Themselves
Figure 3. 4 Attributes which Adolescents Most Like about Themselves
Do not like any
attribute in me
14.3
Sport talents
32.2
Aesthetic abilities
44.6
Academic skills
58.3
Appearance
32
Percent
(More than one response possible)
A significant proportion of adolescents (14%) did not find anything that they liked about
themselves. Most liked attribute was their academic skills. Many seemed to have
aesthetic abilities and be happy with it. A talent for sports and physical appearance each
was liked by 32 % of adolescents (Figure 3. 4).
Table 3.6 Attributes which Adolescents Most Like about themselves by age and sex
(Percentages)
Attribute
Age
Sex
14 -16 years
17- 19 years
Males
Females
Do not like
13.9
anything about
myself
Appearance
30.8
Academic
57.5
abilities
Aesthetic
44.0
talents
Skills in sports 33.8
N
10074
(More than one response possible)
15.5
15.8
13.1
35.4
61.0
32.6
53.3
31.4
62.5
46.5
40.5
48
27.3
9860
38.8
9429
26.8
10505
In late adolescence there is a marginal increase in the proportion who did not find
anything they liked about themselves. This proportion was also more among males (16%)
than females (13%). In both age groups and sexes academic ability is most liked attribute
and a higher percentage of girls rate this attribute (63%) than boys (53%) (Table 3.6).
The attributes that adolescents most dislike about themselves
More than one third of adolescents had no specific attribute they disliked about
themselves. About one fifth were worried that they were not good in sports. Seventeen
percent and 16 % adolescents said that they were worried being not good looking and not
good in studies respectively.
Figure 3.5 Attributes that adolescents most dislike about themselves
40.0
37.5
35.0
Percent
30.0
25.0
22.2
17.5
20.0
15.5
15.0
10.0
5.0
0.0
No dislikes on Being not good
the self
in sports
about my
appearance
As not good in
studies
(More than one response possible)
A greater degree of self assurance is demonstrated in late adolescence proportion of
adolescents who had no dislikes on themselves were higher in the 17 – 19 age group than
in 14 -1 6 age group (40.8 % vs. 36.4 %). it was also higher among girls (Girls, 38.7%;
Boys, 36.1%). Boys were more concerned on their physical appearance than girls (Boys
18.9 %, Girls 16.4%) (Table 3.7).
Table 3.7 Attributes that adolescents most dislike about themselves by age and sex
(Percentages)
Age
Sex
14 -16 years
17- 19 years
Males (%)
Females (%)
(%)
(%)
No dislikes on 36.4
40.8
36.1
38.7
the self
Being not
22.2
21.9
23.4
21.2
good in sports
About my
18.1
15.6
18.9
16.4
appearance
As not good in 17.0
10.9
17.1
14.2
studies
N
10074
9860
9429
10505
(More than one response possible)
Self Popularity
A feeling of being popular among ones peers has a strong influence on self esteem and
mental wellbeing. Adolescents were asked whether they thought that their friends
admired them and also if they were popular among peers. Sixty two percent of
adolescents thought that they were popular among their school mates. Table 3.8 shows
the variations in this proportion according to socio-demographic characteristics.
Table 3.8 Perception of self popularity by selected socio-demographic indicators
(Percentages)
Sample
% thought that they were
N
popular
All
62.0
27160
Age category
10-13 yrs
60.5
9005
14-16 yrs
62.2
9160
17-19 yrs
65.6
8995
Sex
Male
60.4
12802
Female
63.2
14358
Ethnicity
Sinhalese
63.4
16968
Tamil
56.4
8268
Moor
59.8
1815
Other
72.6
108
Socio-economic status
Poorest quintile
55.8
5432
Second quintile
59.1
5432
Middle quintile
62.5
5432
Fourth quintile
61.7
5432
Richest quintile
69.0
5432
Perception on self popularity increased with the age and more girls thought that they were
popular compared to boys. It is important to note that socio-economic status was
positively correlated with the self perception of popularity, the difference between the
richest and poorest groups being 13% (Table 3.8).
Feelings regarding Family
Having caring, supportive and trusted relationships with family members is an important
factor behind the healthy development of adolescents. How adolescent generally feel
about their family, reflect the quality of relationships they have with their families. How
comfortable adolescents feel about their families and family members were inquired into
using a set of direct questions.
Adolescents were asked how they perceive their relationship with family in general
(figure 3.6).
Figure 3.6 Adolescents’ feeling regarding family
1.7%
Intimate and close
3.6%
Good
15.1%
Ordinary
52.8%
26.8%
Do not like & wish to
leave
Cant say
A little more than half described their relationship with the family as intimate and close,
while 26.8 % were ambiguous about their relationship. Only 4% expressed unhappiness
about their relationships to the degree that they wished that they could leave their family
(Figure 3.6). The closeness with family increased with increasing age and so did the
percentage wanting to leave. A higher percentage of girls appeared to be closer to their
families than boys. Proportion wishing to leave the family was higher among Tamils
compared to others and was lowest among the Sinhalese. With increasing socio-economic
status, a higher percentage had more favourable relationship with family, a wish to leave
demonstrating an inverse relationship with socio-economic level (Table 3.9).
Table 3.9 Respondents’ feelings regarding the family by selected socio-demographic
indicators
(Percentages)
Sample
Intimate
Good
Ordinary Do not
Cant
Total
N
and close
like &
say
wish to
leave
All
52.8
26.8
15.1
3.6
1.7
100.0
28302
Age categories
10-13 yrs 50.0
30.2
14.8
3.0
2.0
100.0
9453
14-16 yrs 53.3
25.9
15.6
3.6
1.6
100.0
9500
17-19 yrs 59.8
19.7
14.2
4.9
1.4
100.0
9349
Sex
Males
50.2
28.1
16.7
3.4
1.5
100.0
13381
Females
55.0
25.7
13.7
3.7
1.9
100.0
14921
Ethnicity
Sinhalese 51.7
Tamil
56.7
Moor
55.1
Other
56.9
Socio-economic status
Poorest
46.9
quintile
Second
48.3
quintile
Middle
55.6
quintile
Fourth
52.5
quintile
Richest
59.1
quintile
29.2
18.8
22.3
14.4
15.3
14.0
15.6
17.5
2.2
9.0
4.5
6.0
1.6
1.5
2.6
5.2
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
17678
8620
1889
116
27.9
17.2
5.5
2.5
100.0
5659
28.2
18.4
3.4
1.7
100.0
5660
26.5
13.8
2.8
1.3
100.0
5660
29.4
13.9
3.0
1.2
100.0
5660
22.3
12.9
3.6
2.0
100.0
5660
Perception on School Activities
Learning is greatly valued in Sri Lankan society and it is believed that parents, family and
teachers tend to pressurize children to perform better. This and limited opportunities for
higher education has resulted in extreme competitiveness in education. These
expectations of excellence in academic performance are known to cause considerable
stress among adolescents. The survey therefore included questions on how adolescents
feel about their academic performances and how would they respond to parental pressure
Following tables present the responses given to these questions.
Perceptions of academic performances
The ability to objectively asses one’s academic performance is also an indication of one’s
skills in self awareness and critical thinking.
Figure 3.7 Self evaluations of academic performances
3.1%
38.8%
58.1%
Better than
others
Avarage
Poor
The majority (58 %) felt that their performances were average compared to others. Thirty
nine percent were confident that their performances were above average while just 3%
believed their performances to be poor in comparison to their peers. (Figure 3.8) The self
assessments of performance appear to become more realistic as they grow older. The
proportions who thought that they were better than others gradually decreased with age
and the proportions who thought themselves to be average or poor increased. There was
very little gender difference in perceptions of academic ability (Table 3.10).
The percentage of adolescents who thought themselves better than others was lowest
among Tamils and correspondingly the proportion who rated them selves below the
others were highest among Tamils. Increasing socio-economic status was associated with
increasing proportions of persons who thought their performance were better than others
(Table 3.10).
Table 3.10 Ways in which the adolescents perceived their academic performances, when
compared to peers by selected socio-demographic indicators
(Percentages)
Sample
I do better Average
Poor
than others
Total
N
All
38.8
58.1
3.1
100.0
28265
Age categories
10-13 yrs
43.2
53.8
3.0
100.0
9370
14-16 yrs
37.2
59.9
2.9
100.0
9549
17-19 yrs
29.9
66.1
4.0
100.0
9346
Sex
Males
39.8
56.3
3.9
100.0
13378
Females
37.9
59.6
2.4
100.0
14887
Ethnicity
Sinhalese
41.3
56.5
2.3
100.0
17651
Tamil
28.2
65.8
6.0
100.0
8608
Moor
36.5
58.6
4.9
100.0
1893
Other
51.0
43.2
5.7
100.0
113
Socio-economic status
Poorest
quintile
37.1
57.9
5.1
100.0
5653
Second
37.9
57.6
4.5
100.0
5653
quintile
Middle
quintile
37.5
60.5
2.0
100.0
5653
Fourth
39.4
57.9
2.8
100.0
5653
quintile
Richest
quintile
41.6
56.6
1.9
100.0
5653
Academic stress
The survey tried to assess the level of the pressure that was exerted on the adolescents as
a result of academic expectations of parents and teachers. Figure 3.8 and tables 3.11-3.12
presents the information on these aspects.
Figure 3.8 Parents’ and teachers expectations of academic performances and adolescents
reactions (Percentages)
Percent
Felt pressurized due to parents' and
teachers' expctations
Teachers expect better performances
38.5
91.5
Parents expect better performances
95.8
Think I could do better
93.9
(More than one response possible)
Approximately one third of adolescents felt that they were pressurized due to their
parents and teachers expectations of higher academic performance. Although a great
majority (over 90%) of adolescents reported that their parents and teache rs expected
better performance 94 % reported that they themselves felt that they were capable of
better performance thus justifying parent teacher expectations (Figure 3.9).
Table 3.11 Parents’ and teachers expectations of academic performances and
adolescents reactions by age and sex
(Percentages)
Expectation
Adolescents
thought they
could
perform
better
Parents
expected
better
performances
Teachers
expected
better
performances
Adolescents
felt
pressurized
due to others
expectations
N
Age
11- 13
years
Sex
Males
14 -16
years
17- 19
years
Females
93.2
94.3
94.6
92.0
95.4
95.6
95.9
96.4
94.5
96.9
91.4
91.6
91.6
90.5
92.3
29.0
9392
33.8
9550
46.0
9323
36.0
13378
31.5
14887
The respondent perceptions of parent teacher expectations and their own assessment that
they were capable of better academic performance did not vary according to age.
However, with increasing age an increasing proportion of adolescents felt pressurized by
these expectations. Higher proportion of girls compared to boys reported increased
expectations by parents, teachers and self, but the higher proportion of boys reported
feeling pressurized due to these expectations (Table 3.11).
Table 3.12 Parents’ and teachers expectations of academic performances and adolescents
reactions by ethnicity and socio-economic status
(Percentages)
Muslims
Others
Poorest
quintile
Second
quintile
Middle
quintile
Fourth
quintile
Richest
quintile
N
Tamils
Adolescents
thought they
could perform
better
Parents
expected better
performances
Teachers
expected better
performances
Adolescents felt
pressurized due
to others
expectations
Parents
expected better
performances
Socio-economic status
Sinhalese
Ethnicity
93.5
95.5
94.2
90.8
92.0
92.3
94.3
93.5
96.7
95.9
95.6
95.1
100.0
93.7
95.9
96.1
96.2
96.6
90.8
94.0
93.0
100.0
90.5
90.7
91.3
90.7
94.1
23.4
73.0
43.8
47.9
40.3
37.3
28.7
30.7
33.1
95.9
95.6
95.1
100.0
92.0
92.3
94.3
93.5
96.7
17651
8608
1893
113
5653
5653
5653
5653
5653
(More than one response possible)
There was very little difference in the expectations of parents and teachers among the
different ethnic groups. However, a large percentage (73%) of Tamils felt pressurized due
to these expectations. The Sinhalese were the least pressurized (23 %). It is interesting to
note that the lowest socio-economic quintile had the lowest expectations but felt
pressurized the most (Table 3.12).
Ways of responding to academic pressure
Nine thousand four hundred and sixty nine (33%) of adolescents had indicated that they
felt pressurized due to the parents’ and teachers expectations of higher academic
performance. They were asked how they respond to these pressures. Figure 3.9 presents
the responses to this question.
Figure 3.9 Response to stress caused by academic expectations of parents and teachers
I feel angry with teachers
I feel angry with every one
I feel angey with my parents
I feel I am a useless person
I feel all others are better than me
I wan’t be bothered by it
I feel angry with myself
I feel difficult to work because of this
pressure
I feel guilty for parents spend for me
I feel like proving my skills
Happily take the challenge and attempt to do
better
3.2
3.3
4.2
5.3
8.4
8.5
8.6
13.2
22
39.2
62
Percent
(More than one response possible)
It is heartening to note that the majority (62%) responded positively, that they would
happily take the challenge and would attempt to do better and a further 39% wanted to
prove themselves. A fifth of the adolescents felt guilty as they could not live up parental
expectations adding to the stress. It is important to note that 13% said that their
performance was affected by the pressure to improve. About 10 % felt angry towards
parents, teachers and in general because of high academic expectations (Figure 3.9).
Table 3.13 Response to stress caused by academic expectations of parents and teachers
by age and sex
(Percentages)
Responses /feeling
Age
11- 13 years
Happily take the
challenge and
attempt to do
better
59.7
I feel like proving
my skills
28.7
I feel guilty for
parents spend for
16.0
me
I feel difficult to
work because of
10.8
this pressure
I feel angry with
6.3
myself
N
3132
(More than one response possible)
14 -16 years
17- 19 years
Sex
Males
63.8
62.5
59.3
64.4
40.7
55.7
37.2
41.0
21.6
34.1
21.8
22.2
13.5
17.1
15.0
11.6
7.9
3199
14.2
3138
8.9
4461
8.2
5008
Females
Percentage who said that they would happily take the challenge increased with advancing
age (11-13yr, 59.7%; 17-19 yr, 62.5%). Similarly the percentage who thought that they
could prove their skills was also increased with the age (11-13 yr, 28.7%; 17-19 yr,
55.7%). Proportion who felt guilty has increased from 16.0 % in 11–13 age groups to
34.1 % in the 17 – 19 yr age group. The proportions who felt difficult to work due to this
stress and those who felt angry with themselves also increased with age. Girls seemed to
be more positive in taking the academic stress as a challenge (Girls 64.4 %, Boys 59.3
%). Similarly the percentage who wanted to prove themselves was also high among
females (Girls 41.0 %, Boys 37.2 %). A slightly higher proportion of girls felt guilty as
they could not perform up to their parents’ expectations. Negative reactions were more
common among boys. Fifteen percent of boys felt that it was difficult for them to perform
due to academic stress where as that proportion among girls 11.6% was). More boys
(8.9 % felt angry with themselves than girls (8.2 %). (Table 3.13).
Table 3.14 Response to stress caused by academic expectations of parents and teachers
by ethnicity and socio-economic status
(Percentages)
Second
quintile
Middle
quintile
Fourth
quintile
Richest
quintile
66.6 23.8
58.0
59.3
65.5
64.4
62.7
38.5 55.6
27.1
32.5
45.3
43.5
47.2
18.1 7.7
16.5
18.6
26.5
23.8
24.7
10.1 12.2
10.1 7.7
636 39
12.0 11.2 14.0
4.3
5.7
9.0
1894 1894 1894
Other
Poorest
quintile
Happily take the
challenge and attempt to
do better
61.9 61.5
I feel like proving my
45.2 30.6
skills
I feel guilty for parents
spend for me
26.8 16.3
I feel difficult to work
because of this pressure 15.5 10.8
I feel angry with myself 11.4 4.2
N
5915 2880
(More than one response possible)
Socio-economic status
Moor
Tamil
Ethnicity
Sinhalese
Response
14.9 14.0
10.4 13.3
1894 1893
More less similar proportions (around 60 %) from different ethnic groups were happy to
take academic stress as a challenge. The proportion who felt guilty was highest among
Sinhalese compared to Moors and Tamils. More Sinhalese felt difficult to perform due to
stress and adolescents who felt angry with themselves were also highest among Sinhalese
(Table 3.14.).
Perception on Security
A sense of security at ho me and in the immediate environment has significant impact on
the mental wellbeing of adolescents. Adolescents were questioned on as to how secure
they felt at home and in the environment in which they lived.
Figure 3.10 Perception of secur ity at home and environment
Percent
12.9
Home insecure
Environment
insecure
23.1
It is important to note that 13% of adolescents felt insecure at home and 23% felt insecure
in their environment (Figure 3.10). Sense of insecurity was highest among the Tamils and
the other ethnic groups. The proportions who felt insecure both at home and in the
environment where they lived decreased with increasing socio-economic status (Table
3.15).
Table 3.15 Perception of security at home and environment selected socio-emographic
indicators
(Percentage)
Sample
All
Age categories
10-13 yrs
14-16 yrs
17-19 yrs
Sex
Males
Females
% felt home as a
insecure place
12.9
% felt
environment as
an insecure
place
23.1
N
Total
100.0
25185
15.9
11.1
8.5
27.7
20.9
15.7
100.0
100.0
100.0
8345
8512
8328
15.3
10.9
25.5
21.3
100.0
100.0
12022
13163
Ethnicity
Sinhalese
12.5
Tamil
14.0
Moor
12.9
Other
17.3
Socio-economic status
Poorest quintile
19.2
Second quintile
15.6
Middle quintile
9.7
Fourth quintile
12.4
Richest quintile
9.5
20.9
31.5
25.4
32.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
15725
7673
1686
102
33.0
23.8
21.4
20.4
20.2
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
5037
5037
5037
5037
Key Worry
In order to understand most frustrating problems faced by them, adolescents were asked
to state their current key worry.
Figure 3.11 Percentage of adolescents by their key worry
No Problems
2.2%
2.4%
Fear of failing an
exam
2.6%
12.1%
Financial
constraints
0.1%
Parents' quarrels
49.9%
30.6%
Long standing
illness
Mother is not at
home
Father is not at
home
Half of the adolescents said that they do not have big worries. Fear of failing exams
(31%) were the most common worry cited. A further 12 % found financial constraints as
their key worry. Small percentage of persons (approximately 2%) identified parental
discord, long standing illnesses and the mother been away from home as causes of the
key worry (Figure 3.11)
The proportion of adolescents who had worries increased with age. All reasons given as
causes of worry other than long term illness increased with increasing age. Females
appear to worry more in general and they appear to worry more about examination failure
and parental discord (Table 3. 16).
Table 3.16 Adolescents’ key worry by age and sex
(Percentage)
Type of worry
No Problems
Fear of failing
an exam
Parents' quarrels
Financial
constraints
Long standing
illness
Mother is not at
home
Father is not at
home
N
Age
14 -16 years
53.3
29.2
17- 19 years
39.7
35.1
Sex
Males
52.7
27.5
Females
47.6
33.2
2.5
10.4
3.0
17.6
2.4
12.6
2.8
11.8
2.5
2.2
2.6
2.2
2.2
2.4
2.0
2.4
0.1
0.1
0.2
0.0
8619
8465
8075
8999
Type of worry
Ethnicity
Sinhalese
Tamil
Moor
Other
Poorest
quintile
Second
quintile
Middle
quintile
Fourth
quintile
Richest
quintile
Table 3.17 Adolescents’ key worry by ethnicity and socio-economic status
(Percentage)
Socio-economic status
No Problems
Fear of failing an
exam
Parents' quarrels
Financial constraints
Long standing illness
Mother is not at home
Father is not at home
N
51.5
30.9
42.3
29.5
49.1
30.6
51.3
40.9
37.9
31.6
47.3
26.6
50.1
33.4
52.7
31.6
56.4
29.8
2.4
10.5
2.5
2.1
0.1
10659
3.7
20.0
2.1
2.3
0.1
5197
1.8
1.3
13.1 6.5
2.3
0.0
3.1
0.0
0.0
0.0
1138 70
2.4
23.0
2.8
2.1
0.2
3413
3.6
17.3
2.1
3.0
0.0
3413
2.1
9.8
2.5
2.1
0.0
3413
2.4
9.2
2.7
1.5
0.0
3413
2.6
6.4
2.0
2.5
0.2
3412
Proportion with worries was highest among Tamils. Fear of failing exam was almost
equal among all the ethnic groups except among the other category which was higher
compared to the major ethnic groups. Parental discord and financial constraints as the key
worry was highest among the Tamils while absence of mother from home as a cause of
the key worry was highe st among Moors. Nearly one fifth of respondents in the lowest
socio-economic quintile identified their key worry as financial constraints, who saw
examinations as their key worry were lowest in the second quintile (Table 3.17).
Feelings of Happiness
Happiness is an important component of wellbeing. It may reflect many aspects of life
such as the quality of their physical and social environment, life skills and parental
support. Figure 3.12 presents a picture of how adolescents in general felt about their
lives.
Figure 3.12 Feelings of happiness
1.7% 7.3%
Good
31.2%
Ordinary
Poor
59.8%
Diffcult to say
In general 60 % of adolescents were “good” about their lives. A third felt just ordinary
where as only 2 % were unhappy. A further 3% were undecided about how they felt. It is
important to note that a large percentage of adolescents had little to feel “good” about
their lives (Figure 3.12).
Table 3.18 Feelings of happiness by selected socio-demographic indicators
(Percentage)
Sample
Good
All
59.8
Age categories
14-16 yrs
62.0
17-19 yrs
53.9
Sex
Males
62.1
Females
58.1
Ordinary
Poor
Total
No
1.7
Difficult
to say
7.3
31.2
100.0
17322
28.1
39.9
1.5
2.1
8.5
4.1
100.0
100.0
10475
10262
29.6
32.5
1.9
1.5
6.4
8.0
100.0
100.0
8200
9122
Ethnicity
Sinhalese
61.7
Tamil
50.4
Moor
59.2
Other
61.1
Socio-economic status
Poorest
53.8
quintile
Second
quintile
56.6
Middle
60.9
quintile
Fourth
quintile
60.2
Richest
64.7
quintile
30.1
37.1
30.8
24.2
1.4
2.4
2.2
13.4
6.8
10.1
7.7
1.3
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
10819
5269
1162
72
33.0
1.9
11.3
100.0
3465
31.8
2.3
9.4
100.0
3464
3464
29.7
1.5
7.9
100.0
33.1
1.5
5.2
100.0
29.1
1.3
4.9
100.0
3464
3465
The feel good factor decreased with age and fewer females felt good about their lives
compared to males. Tamils had the smallest proportion of adolescents who fe lt good
about their lives. Feeling good was positively correlated with socio-economic status
(Table 3.18).
Interpersonal Relationships and Social Capital
Family, Friends and Trusted Confidante
Adolescence is frequented by conflicts with others. As suc h, interpersonal relationships
and social networks play an important role in adolescent life and often have a mitigating
role in many adolescent problems. With the development of self identity adolescents
move towards independent decisions regarding their lives while parents and other adults
find it difficult to accept the change and the lessening of influence on their children.
These differences often lead to conflict with adults leaving both parties frustrated.
Nature of Adolescents’ Family Relations
This survey tried to have an insight on family relationships of adolescents by asking
several questions that reflects the nature of their family relations.
3.13 Nature of adolescents’ family relationships
I am worried about my relationship
25.6
with family
I could depend on my family
73.3
28.7
I feel like I am left out of my family
I love to spend time with my family
72.0
Some members of my family get on
my nerves
My father puts too many restrictions
on me
My mother puts too many
restrictions on me
32.5
31.9
29.3
Approximately three quarters of adolescents felt they could depend on and were positive
about spending time with their families. It is important to note that a little over a quarter
of adolescents were worried about their relationship with their families. A third felt that
there were too many restrictions imposed on them by parents and a further third
admitting that some members of their family “got on their nerves” pointing to a high
prevalence of strained relationships. Twenty nine percent felt left out of their family. All
these responses indicate that about 30% of adolescents do not have good relationships
with their families.
Table 3.19 Nature of adolescents’ family relationships by age and sex
Nature of relationship
Age
10- 13
years
Sex
Males
14 -16
years
17- 19
years
70.8
74.9
69.8
Total
Females
75.6
70.8
75.3
73.3
72.3
77.0
69.0
74.3
72.0
25.4
24.8
28.8
28.4
23.6
25.6
30.7
27.6
26.6
31.8
26.4
28.7
I could depend on my
family
I love to spend time with
my family
I am worried about my
relationship with family
I feel like I am left out of
my family
Some members of my
family get on my nerves
31.8
33.1
32.8
33.7
31.6
32.5
32.4
31.5
31.3
35.1
29.4
31.9
27.8
8447
29.5
8625
32.3
8433
31.3
14005
27.7
15500
29.3
29505
My father puts too many
restrictions on me
My mother puts too many
restrictions on me
N
Family relations appear to improve with age and females have more positive
relationships. Adolescents who said that they could depend on their families and those
who said they would love to spend their time with their families increased with the age
and was more among the girls. The proportion of adolescents who were worried about the
relationships with their fa mily was highest among late adolescence and was commoner
among boys. The proportion of adolescents who felt parental restrictions did not vary
with age but more boys reported restrictions compared to girls (Table 3.19).
Table 3.20 Nature of adolescents’ family relationships by ethnicity and sex
Moor
Other
Poorest
quintile
Second
quintile
Middle
quintile
Fourth
quintile
Richest
quintile
Total
Tamil
Nature of
relationship
Socio-economic status
Sinhalese
Ethnicity
77.3
51.6
62.7
90.4
65.7
68.5
73.0
75.9
74.0
72.0
80.9
41.1
67.7
56.7
64.2
71.1
75.6
77.0
74.9
73.3
17.9
60.0
31.8
42.1
33.4
29.2
21.1
23.5
24.6
25.6
20.1
68.9
36.5
63.7
40.0
33.3
25.2
22.3
28.3
28.7
26.0
62.8
35.7
44.0
41.2
35.6
29.9
29.0
30.9
32.5
I love to spend
time with my
family
I could depend
on my family
I am worried
about my
relationship with
family
I feel like I am
left out of my
family
Some members
of my family get
on my nerves
My father puts
too many
restrictions on
me
25.3
61.0
36.8
29.1
36.9
35.7
29.1
29.9
30.4
31.9
22.3
61.0
32.8
54.9
31.7
34.0
26.5
28.4
27.6
29.3
My mother puts
too many
restrictions on
me
Tamils seemed to have the most disrupted patterns of family relationships in that the
lowest proportion of adolescents who would love to spend time with their families as well
as who felt that they could depend on their families were among Tamils.
Correspondingly, higher proportions of Tamil adolescents were worried about their
family relationships, felt left out and reported parental restrictions (Table 3.20).
Socio-economic status correlated positively with better family relationships. For
example, higher the socio-economic level, higher is the percentage of adolescents that
would love to spend time with their families. On the other hand indicators reflecting
negative family relations such as proportion of adolescents that were worried about their
family relationships seemed to exhibit a somewhat “U” shaped relationship with socioeconomic status (Table 3.20).
Perceptions of Family as a Refuge
Proper loving and caring relationship with members of the family can make the
adolescents confident and secure about their lives leading to improved mental well-being.
Following figures and tables present the answers to the question whether adolescent felt
that their family could be seen as a refuge when facing a problem.
Figure 3.14 Adolescents perceptions of family as a refuge
24.3%
Very Strongly
52.2%
23.5%
To a certan extent
No
It is noteworthy that only about half the adolescents (52%) strongly felt that they could
turn to their family when facing a problem. Almost a quarter (24%) felt that they could
not rely on their families (Figure 3.14). Perceived support from families increased with
increasing age and a corresponding decline was seen in the proportion who reported that
they could not rely on their families (Table 3.21).
Table 3.21 Adolescents’ perceptions of family as a refuge by selected socio-demographic
indicators
(Percentage)
Category
All
Age
categories
10-13 yrs
14-16 yrs
17-19 yrs
Sex
Males
Females
Ethnicity
Sinhalese
Tamil
Moor
Other
Very
Strongly
52.2
To a certain
extent
23.5
No
Total
N
24.3
100.0
24647
49.8
51.4
60.3
22.4
23.3
27.2
27.8
25.3
12.5
100.0
100.0
100.0
8217
8306
8124
48.7
54.8
25.3
22.3
26.0
22.9
100.0
100.0
11657
12990
50.8
57.0
55.5
41.1
22.4
29.1
21.8
51.1
26.9
13.9
22.7
7.8
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
15398
7503
1647
98
Socioeconomic
status
Poorest
quintile
Second
quintile
Middle
quintile
Fourth
quintile
Richest
quintile
46.5
28.9
24.7
100.0
4930
50.4
24.8
24.9
100.0
4929
50.5
23.1
26.5
100.0
4929
54.7
20.2
25.0
100.0
4929
56.7
23.1
20.2
100.0
4930
Confidence in family support was less among boys compared to girls and was highest
among the Tamils. The proportion who felt that they had the strong support of their
families increased with increase of socio-economic status while the proportion who felt
that they could not rely on their families was in the middle socio-economic quintile, the
lowest proportion being in the highest quintile (Table 3.21).
Consideration Given to the Opinion of Adolescents
Adolescents expect to participate in family decision making and expect recognition for
their suggestions and opinions. They also like to make their own decisions and expect
parental support and agreement on their decisions. Opportunities for decision making as
well as opportunities to express their opinions, consideration and acceptance of their
views are important to the development of interpersonal skills, psychosocial development
as well as wellbeing. The following section presents information on some of these
aspects.
Parental Support of Decisions Made by Adolescents
Figure 3.15 Parental supports for adolescent decisions
6.8%
8.0%
No never
38.9%
Not usually
Yes sometimes
Yes very helpful
46.3%
About 39% of adolescents said that their parents were supportive of decisions taken by
them, while 46% felt that parents were supportive only on certain occasions. Seven
percent said that their parents were never supportive of their decisions (Figure 3.15).
As could be expected parental support for decisions taken by adolescents increased with
age. Parents appear to be more supportive of the decisions taken by their daughters than
sons. The lowest proportion of adolescents having parental support for decisions made by
them is lowest among the Tamils. Parents who were supportive of adolescent decisions
were most common among the richest socio-economic quintile and the proportion
gradually declined towards the poorest quintile. (Table 3.22)
Table 3. 22 Parental supports for adolescent decisions by
selected socio-demographic indicators
(Percentages)
Sample
Never
All
6.8
Age categories
10-13 yrs
7.5
14-16 yrs
6.6
17-19 yrs
5.1
Sex
Males
7.8
Females
6.0
Ethnicity
Sinhalese
6.9
Tamil
5.9
Moor
7.7
Other
8.0
Socio-economic status
Poorest
quintile
7.8
Second
6.9
quintile
Middle
quintile
7.0
Fourth
7.1
quintile
Richest
quintile
5.4
Not
usually
8.0
Yes
Yes very
sometimes helpful
46.3
38.9
Total
N
100.0
28206
8.4
8.2
6.2
44.7
46.3
50.8
39.4
38.8
37.9
100.0
100.0
100.0
9404
9505
9297
8.7
7.5
47.8
45.0
35.7
41.5
100.0
100.0
13349
14857
8.1
7.3
8.5
8.7
44.4
56.6
43.5
47.3
40.7
30.2
40.2
36.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
17620
8584
1888
114
11.1
49.5
31.6
100.0
5642
9.5
49.7
33.9
100.0
5641
5641
7.5
45.2
40.3
100.0
5641
6.2
44.7
42.0
100.0
5641
6.9
43.3
44.4
100.0
Parental Acceptance of Suggestions Made by Adolescents on Family Matters
Adolescents were asked whether they could remember an occasion where parents had
accepted a suggestion made by them on a family matter. Sixty four percent of adolescents
could remember an occasion where the above happened. As could be expected this
proportion increased with age and was marginally higher for boys. Acceptance of
suggestions on family matters appears to be commoner among “Other” ethnic groups and
Tamils. Such participation and action also is seen to increase with inc reasing socioeconomic status (Table 3.23).
Table 3.23 Parental acceptance of adolescent suggestions on family matters
by selected socio-demographic indicators
(Percentages)
Sample
All
Age categories
10-13 yrs
14-16 yrs
17-19 yrs
Sex
Male
Female
Ethnic differences
Sinhalese
Tamil
Moor
Other
Socio-economic status
Poorest quintile
Second quintile
Middle quintile
Fourth quintile
Richest quintile
% saying yes
63.5
N
28296
60.4
62.8
75.3
9433
9530
9333
64.7
62.6
13377
14919
59.0
81.7
67.8
83.4
17687
8614
1887
108
60.0
62.2
61.2
62.8
70.8
5982
5982
5982
5982
5983
Friends
Being part of a peer group is an adolescent characteristic. Often they share their
aspirations feelings, and ideas. Being part of a group and acceptance among friends and
peers is dependent on the degree of interpersonal skills one has. Those who are poor in
interpersonal skills may fail to have friends despite a great desire for friendship. A
question was asked to ascertain whether respondents felt they had a close friend in their
lives. Seventeen point four percent of adolescents very strongly missed having a close
friend. Only 19% felt that they did not miss a close friend implying that they did have
such support. This proportion declined with age. Lack of a close friend was more among
males. The highest proportion of adolescents who missed a close friend as well as those
who felt that they had some one close were both among the “Other” (Burgher, Malay)
ethnic group. Middle socio-economic quintile had the highest share of those who missed
a close friend the proportion declining towards either end of the socio-economic
quintiles. The highest proportion who felt that they did not miss a close friend was among
the richest socio-economic quintile (Table 3.24).
Table 3. 24 Answer to the question, “Do you miss a close friend” by
selected socio-demographic indicators
(Percentages)
Category
Very
To a
Not so
Do not
Total
strongly
certain
much
feel like
extent
that
All
17.4
22.1
41.4
19.2
100.0
Age categories
10-13 yrs
17.7
20.5
35.4
26.5
100.0
14-16 yrs
17.5
22.8
43.7
16.0
100.0
17-19 yrs
15.7
24.9
53.5
5.8
100.0
Sex
Males
18.4
22.0
38.3
21.3
100.0
Females
16.5
22.1
43.9
17.5
100.0
Ethnicity
Sinhalese
17.5
21.3
41.8
19
100.0
Tamil
17.1
25.5
40.3
17
100.0
Moor
16.7
22.8
40.9
19.7
100.0
Other
18.9
15.8
36.9
28.5
100.0
Socio-economic status
Poorest
16.3
21.0
34.4
28.3
100.0
quintile
Second
quintile
17.5
24.2
36.3
22.0
100.0
Middle
18.9
20.8
41.9
18.4
100.0
quintile
Fourth
quintile
17.1
21.8
45.6
15.6
100.0
Richest
16.7
22.6
46.8
13.9
100.0
quintile
N
29911
9977
10074
9860
14147
15764
18687
9106
1999
119
5982
5982
5982
5982
5983
Leisure Time Companions
A question was asked to ascertain with whom the adolescent spent their free time mostly.
Half of them (50%) identified friends as their leisure time companions. It is interesting to
note that the proportion of adolescents who spend their free time with parents (43%) were
higher than those who spent their free time with siblings (7%) (Figure 3.16).
Figure 3.16 Persons with whom adolescents mostly spend their free time
Friends
42.6%
Brother/Sister/ Other
relative
49.9%
Parents
7.4%
Most respondents in the 10-13 year age group preferred to share their leisure time with
friends. This proportion declined with increasing age and almost equal proportions of
adolescents in 17–19yrs age group preferred friends (47%) and parents (46%) as their
leisure time companions. Males shared their leisure time mostly with friends (60%) while
most females identified parents (50%). Almost equal proportions of Sinhalese
adolescents identified parents (46%) and friends (48%) as most commonly associated
free time companions. The proportion of respondents who said that they spend their
leisure time with friends was lowest among Sinhalese and highest among the “Other”
ethnic group. Higher proportion of adolescents from the poorest socio-economic quintile
seemed to spend their free time with friends, this proportion declining with improving
socio-economic status. A corresponding increase was noted in the proportion of
adolescents who spend their free time mostly with parents, with increasing socioeconomic level (Table 3.25).
Table 3. 25 Persons with whom adolescents mostly spend their free time
by selected socio-demographic indicators (Percentages)
Sample
Friends
All
49.9
Age categories
10-13 yrs
52.1
14-16 yrs
48.5
17-19 yrs
47.2
Sex
Males
59.7
Females
42.0
Siblings
7.4
Parents
42.6
Total
100.0
N
28505
8.2
7.0
6.4
39.7
44.5
46.4
100.0
100.0
100.0
9503
9600
9402
6.3
8.4
34.0
49.6
100.0
100.0
13476
15029
Ethnicity
Sinhalese
47.6
Tamil
58.1
Moor
54.4
Other
65.2
Socio-economic status
Poorest
53.3
quintile
Second
quintile
49.7
Middle
49.6
quintile
Fourth
quintile
48.7
Richest
49.2
quintile
6.0
13.7
8.2
2.7
46.4
28.1
37.4
32.1
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
17818
8678
1901
108
9.8
36.9
100.0
5701
10.0
40.3
100.0
5701
6.3
44.1
100.0
5701
6.3
45.0
100.0
5701
5.6
45.2
100.0
5701
Trusted Persons at Home
A question was asked to ascertain whether respondents had at home, some one they could
trust and with whom they could freely discuss any problem. Eighty two percent answered
in the affirmative. This percentage showed a slightly declining trend with age. More girls
have such a person at home compared to boys. This proportion was higher among Moors
compared to the other ethnic groups and increased with socio-economic status (Table
3.26).
Table 3.26 Adolescents who have trustworthy persons at home
by selected socio-demographic indicators
(Percentages)
Category
% saying yes
N
All
82.4
27668
Age categories
10-13 yrs
84.8
7563
14-16 yrs
80.0
7641
17-19 yrs
81.9
7484
Sex
Male
77.8
10725
Female
85.9
11963
Ethnic differences
Sinhalese
82.7
14180
Tamil
81.5
6910
Moor
82.9
1508
Other
52.2
89
Socio-economic status
Poorest quintile
Second quintile
Middle quintile
Fourth quintile
Richest quintile
75.5
80.6
82.9
85.3
85.5
4537
4538
4538
4538
4537
Most trusted person at home
Most adolescents (61%) had selected mothers as the most trust worthy person at home
with whom they could discuss any problem, followed by the father (15%) and siblings.
The closeness to mothers increased with age. The proportion of girls (68%) who trusted
mothers was higher than that of boys (51%). Almost a quarter of boys identified fathers
as their most trusted person (24%) while only 9% of girls did so. More boys than girls
placed their trust in brothers (Boys, 11%; Girls, 3%), while more girls than boys trusted
their sisters (Boys, 7%; Girls, 13%) (Table 3.27).
Table 3.27 The most trusted person at home by selected socio-demographic indicators
(Percentages)
Category Father Mother Grand Other
Brother Sister Total
N
parents relative
All
15.1
60.7
3.7
3.6
6.5
10.4
100.0
18695
Age categories
10-13 yrs 18.4
60.3
5.2
3.1
6.0
7.1
100.0
6221
14-16 yrs 12.9
60.5
2.7
4.3
6.8
12.7
100.0
6306
17-19 yrs 11.1
62.7
1.7
3.2
7.2
14.1
100.0
6168
Sex
Males
23.5
50.8
3.7
4.4
11.0
6.6
100.0
8841
Females
9.4
67.5
3.7
3.1
3.4
13.0
100.0
9854
Ethnicity
Sinhalese 14.0
65.3
3.1
2.5
5.8
9.3
100.0
11680
Tamil
18.3
43.5
6.1
8.1
9.6
14.3
100.0
5700
Moor
18.0
52.4
4.3
5.4
6.5
13.4
100.0
1241
Other
18.2
49.7
6.2
0.0
6.2
19.7
100.0
73
Socio-economic status
Poorest
18.4
54.3
4.5
4.6
6.7
11.4
100.0
3739
quintile
Second
quintile
15.2
55.7
4.0
4.4
8.1
12.5
100.0
3739
Middle
12.7
64.7
4.1
2.7
5.1
10.7
100.0
3739
quintile
Fourth
quintile
16.1
63.2
3.3
2.8
6.1
8.7
100.0
3739
Richest
14.1
62.5
2.9
4.3
6.8
9.4
100.0
3739
quintile
All ethnic groups identified the mother as the most trusted person at home. This
proportion was highest among Sinhalese (65%), and lowest among Tamils (43%).
Proportion of adolescents who trusted the mother was highest (65%) in the middle socioeconomic quintile where as the share of adolescents, who trusted the father was highest
(18%) in the poorest quintile (Table 3.27).
Person to Whom Adolescents Preferred to Talk about Their Personal Matters
Since it is very important to identify “gatekeepers” who can be involved in dealing with
adolescent problems of sensitive nature, the surve y asked respondents to identify persons
with whom they would prefer to talk about their personal problems.
Figure 3.17 Persons to whom adolescents preferred to talk openly on their personal
matters.
Friend
1.6%
3.7%0.9% 2.8% 0.5%
6.4%
5.9%
Mother
32.4%
Father
Sister
Brother
Teacher
45.9%
Grand parents
Family friend
Have no one
Even when the horizon extends beyond home, still, the mother was identified as the most
preferred person with whom adolescents would like to discuss their personal problems
(46%) with friends being the next preference (32%). The proportion who preferred the
mother declined with age and it appears that in this instance the mother is replaced with
friends. Boys preferred friends where as for girls the most preferred person was the
mother. Among the Sinhalese and Moors their mothers were identified as the most
preferred person, where as Tamils and “Others” identified a friend as the most preferred
person. In all socio-economic strata the most preferred person was the mother followed
by friends (Table 3.28).
Brother
Teacher
Grand
parents
Family
friend
Have no
one
5.9
6.4
3.7
0.9
1.6
2.8
0.5
100.0 27010
8.2
4.2
3.7
4.8
7.1
8.8
3.9
3.8
2.7
1.1
0.9
0.5
2.3
1.1
0.7
2.2
3.8
2.0
0.6
0.4
0.6
100.0 9008
100.0 9090
100.0 8912
9.4
3.2
3.3
8.7
6.2
1.8
1.0
0.9
1.5
1.6
3.8
2.1
0.6
0.5
100.0 8646
100.0 9849
5.8 6.1
5.6 6.5
6.8 9.0
10.2
3.6
4.3
3.2
5.7
0.8
1.4
1.4
0.0
1.5
1.2
2.2
6.7
2.6
3.6
3.8
0.6
0.2
0.8
4.1
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
6.5
6.7
4.2
1.7
1.6
3.2
0.4
6.1
6.9
3.5
1.1
1.7
3.1
0.8
5.0
6.4
3.9
0.5
1.4
3.5
0.6
6.4
5.7
3.1
0.8
1.7
2.4
0.6
5.6
6.3
4.0
0.9
1.4
2.1
0.3
100.0 5402
5402
100.0
5402
100.0
5402
100.0
5402
100.0
N
Total
Sister
All
32.4 45.9
Age categories
10-13 yrs
24.2 52.6
14-16 yrs
36.3 42.5
17-19 yrs
45.4 35.7
Sex
Males
40.1 34.1
Females
26.5 54.8
Ethnicity
Sinhalese
29.8 49.2
Tamil
44.6 32.6
Moor
30.2 42.6
Other
41.4 31.9
Socio-economic status
Poorest
quintile
30.9 45.0
Second
quintile
33.1 43.8
Middle
31.1 47.5
quintile
Fourth
quintile
32.1 47.4
Richest
34.4 45.0
quintile
Father
Mother
Friend
Sample
Table 3.28 Persons to whom adolescents preferred to talk openly on their personal
matters. selected socio-demographic indicators
(Percentages)
11678
5692
1255
69
Social Capital
Social capital means the perceived and actual social supports available for a person. Its
components include the availability of people to associate, for help in case of an
emergency, to share leisure etc. A question was asked to assess, how strongly adolescents
were confident that their friends would come forward in case of an emergency or
sickness. They were also asked whether they thought they could view their teachers as a
source of help for their problems.
Figure 3.18 Availability of friends in an emergency
4.8%
26.9%
Very strongly
To a certain extent
No
68.3%
The majority (68%) of adolescents strongly felt that there friends would help in an
emergency or an illness. Only a very small percentage (5 %) was unsure of help (Figure
3.18). The proportion of adolescents who were very strongly confident and the proportion
that was not confident declined with age.
Table 3.29 Availability of friends in an emergency by selected socio-demographic
indicators
(Percentages)
Category
All
Age categories
10-13 yrs
14-16 yrs
17-19 yrs
Sex
Males
Females
Ethnicity
Sinhalese
Tamil
Moor
Other
Very
strongly
68.2
To a certain
extent
26.9
No
Total
N
4.8
100.0
26052
71.5
66.1
65.8
23.2
29.3
30.3
5.3
4.6
3.9
100.0
100.0
100.0
8687
8780
8585
65.4
70.4
28.3
25.9
6.2
3.7
100.0
100.0
12339
13713
70.0
59.3
71.6
64.5
25.7
33.7
24.0
33.1
4.4
7.1
4.4
2.4
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
16274
7928
1744
106
Socio-economic status
Poorest
quintile
62.7
Second
quintile
66.8
Middle
quintile
67.0
Fourth
69.7
quintile
Richest
quintile
73.0
30.9
6.4
100.0
5211
27.5
5.7
100.0
5210
5210
28.2
4.8
100.0
26.2
4.0
100.0
23.2
3.8
100.0
5210
5211
More females were very strongly confident that friends will come forward to help them in
a time of emergency, compared to males. Moors were the most confident of help from
friends and Tamils the least. The adolescents who were very confident of help increased
with the socio-economic status (Table 3.29).
Teachers play an important role in adolescent lives, especially while in school. Given the
time they spend with adolescents and their capacity as experienced and responsible adults
they could be considered as important sources of help for adolescents problems. The
survey attempted to ascertain if adolescent perceived them as a source of help. Figure
3.19 and tables 3.30 presents the responses given to this question.
Figure 3.19 Adolescent perceptions of teachers as a source of help
30.9%
34.6%
Very much
To a certain extent
No
34.5%
About 1/3 of adolescents did not see teachers as a source of help for their problems while
another 1/3 perceived teachers as a source of help. The other third were in between in
opinion and thought teachers may be able to help to a certain extent. The proportion who
saw a role for teachers decreased with age. Compared to girls, a smaller percentage of
boys perceived teachers as a source of help. The proportion of adolescents who did not
see teachers as a source of help for their problems was highest among the ethnic groups
identified as “others” (Malays, Burghers), followed by Sinhalese, Moors and Tamils.
Socio-economic strata did not influence the way adolescents perceived teachers (Table
3.30)
Table 3.30 Adolescent perceptions of teachers as a source of help
by selected socio-demographic indicators
(Percentages)
Sample
Very much
All
34.6
Age categories
10-13 yrs
39.1
14-16 yrs
32.9
17-19 yrs
27.9
Sex
Males
31.5
Females
36.9
Ethnicity
Sinhalese
36.1
Tamil
28.3
Moor
34.6
Other
14.7
Socio-economic status
Poorest
quintile
35.6
Second
35.1
quintile
Middle
quintile
33.1
Fourth
35.9
quintile
Richest
quintile
33.6
To a certain
extent
34.5
No
Total
N
30.9
100.0
26052
30.2
35.2
43.1
30.7
31.9
29.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
8687
8780
8585
35.0
34.1
33.5
29.1
100.0
100.0
12339
13713
31.2
47.0
39.0
27.3
32.7
24.7
26.4
58.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
16274
7928
1744
106
35.1
29.3
100.0
5211
35.0
29.9
100.0
5210
5210
33.7
33.2
100.0
5210
33.1
31.0
100.0
35.9
30.5
100.0
5211
Adolescent’s Perception on their Social Capital
One’s perception of social capital has an important impact on mental wellbeing. High
social capital results in a sense of belonging among peers and society at large. On the
other hand it reflects how well an individua l relates to fellow members of society, how
helpful and caring they are and how sensitive they to peer acceptance and recognition.
Development of a reasonable social capital needs good self awareness, empathy and
communication skills. Several statements were formulated to reflect adolescent
perception of some aspects given above and respondents were asked about their level of
agreement with those statements. The statements include; a) if something bad happened
to me a lot of people will feel sad, b) I have helped my friends a lot, c) What my friends
think about me matters to me a lot, d) I feel a lot of people will be happy in case of an
achievement of mine. More than 70 % adolescents agreed on these statements. This
indicates that perception of social capital among majority of adolescents is favourable
(Figure 3.20).
Figure 3.20 Pattern of agreement on the statements reflecting different aspect of social
capital
I feel a lot of people will be happy
in case of my achievement
What my friends think about me
matters to me a lot
I have helped my friends a lot
If something bad happened to me a lot
of people would be very sad
41.6
26.4
40.1
8.5
34.2
52.2
4.0
8.5
3.0
38.7
44.8
31.9
Agree
Do not agree
Strongly disagree
13.7
2.22.0 5.1
5.7 3.0
Percent
Strongly agree
19.1
Not sure
14.8
Decision Making, Communication, Critical Thinking, Creativity and
Problem Solving Skills
Role Models
Many adolescents have role models or heroes they admire. The role modelling and
identification of certain figures are based on the self awareness, values, peer pressure and
critical thinking skills. A question was asked to ascertain the most common types of role
models of Sri Lankan adolescents.
Figure 3.21 The most common types of heroes among adolescents
4%1%
3%3%
11%
National Sportsman
A teacher
31%
A Family member
School mate
3%
National hero
A musician
An actor or actress
26%
18%
international figure
A politician
National sports persons were the most admired heroes among adolescents (30%),
followed by a family member (26%), teachers (17.9%), and national heroes (11.3%)
(Figure 3.21).
The proportion of adolescents who admired national sports persons as their favorite
heroes declined with advancing age while the proportion who identified a family
member, national hero, international figure and musician increased with age. National
sports persons were the most admired heroes among boys (40%) where as family
members were the most admired heroes among girls (31%).
National sports persons were the leading figures admired by adolescent Sinhalese (31%)
and Moor (30%) ethnic groups. Among the Tamils (34%) the most admired heroes were
a family member. They may be admiring some family member who died in the war.
All
30.1 17.9
Age
10-13 yrs
30.9 21.2
14-16 yrs
30.1 16.7
17-19 yrs
27.3 11.6
Ethnicity
Males
39.7 15.3
Females
22.6 20.0
Sinhalese
30.7 18.3
Tamil
27.6 16.7
Moor
30.4 17.5
Other
16.7 13.2
Socio-economic status
Poorest
26.2 19.8
quintile
Second
quintile
30.3 20.7
Middle
30.9 20.0
quintile
Fourth
quintile
30.7 15.8
Richest
quintile
30.9 14.0
A politician
A musician
An actor or
actress
international
figure
School mate
National
hero
A teacher
A Family
member
National
Sportsman
Table 3. 32 The most common types of heroes among adolescents by
selected socio-demographic indicators
(Percentages)
Sample
N
26.3 3.3
11.3 3.5
2.8
4.0
0.8
29479
25.3 3.7
26.2 3.4
29.2 2.0
9.8 3.1
12.3 3.4
12.7 4.7
2.3
3.3
3.0
3.1
3.6
8.3
0.6
0.9
1.3
9830
9935
9715
20.6
30.6
24.3
34.2
27.7
16.7
9.7
12.6
13.1
4.4
8.7
21.0
3.7
3.3
3.4
4.1
2.7
2.2
3.3
2.8
2.6
3.6
4.2
4.2
3.9
4.1
3.4
4.3
25.4
1.4
0.4
0.6
1.2
1.9
13952
15527
18415
8971
1973
119
31.8 4.5
9.5
3.4
2.2
1.9
0.6
5895
26.6 3.2
10.3 2.8
2.7
2.6
0.8
5896
5896
22.1 3.5
12.7 3.3
3.0
3.7
0.9
26.4 3.3
12.2 3.5
3.0
4.3
0.7
26.5 2.4
11.0 4.3
3.1
6.9
1.0
3.2
3.4
2.7
5.8
3.3
2.8
5896
5896
from their families, where as respondents from “Other ethnic” groups (25%) admired
international figures. Except the adolescents form poorest socio-economic quintiles, those
form all other socio-economic quintiles identified national sportsman as their heroes.
Members of the family were the heroes for the adolescents from the poorest quintile
(Table 3.32).
Dealing with Disagreements with Parents
Adolescents are fond of taking risks, exploring unfamiliar circumstances with out the
guidance of their parents. Parents as more experienced adults see the danger associated
with these endeavours and tend to oppose participation resulting commonly in
disagreements between adolescents and parents. The parent’s communication skills and
adolescents’ skills related to self awareness, empathy, and critical thinking would decide
the success of negotiations, which ideally should end without hurting the feelings of
either party. The respondents of the survey were presented with a series of hypothetical
scenarios to which responses were sought.
Scenario (A): “your friends asked you to see a musical show in the night. Your father
opposes your going with them”.
Following figure and chart describes the responses to the above.
Figure 3.22 Responses to the situation described in scenario A
I will go without telling my
father
I will not go as I am afraid
to disobey my father
5.7% 3.0% 4.9%
4.6%
21.4%
I will do as my father
says because I trust his
judgment
I will not go if I am
convinced after inquiring
why he is opposing
18.8%
I will not go as I do not like
to hurt my father
41.6%
I will not go because
going in night is risky
I will go as I am confident
of handling difficult
situations
The overall response pattern given by adolescents seemed very favourable. The largest
proportion of adolescents (42%) had said they would not go because they trust their
father’s judgment. This reflects that most adolescents had the empathy and critical
thinking ability to understand that the father’s decision was out of concern for
themselves. One fifth of individuals (21%) wo uld not go because they were afraid to
disobey their fathers, the move which does not reflect a healthy relationship. The
response reflects the existence of authoritative type of father-children relationship among
a considerable proportion of families. The ones who said that they would not go
provided they were convinced of the reason why the father opposed their outing indicated
that they were more inclined to think critically and also would have enough assertiveness
to inquire about their independence (19%) (Figure 3.22)
I will not go if I am convinced
after inquiring why he is
opposing
I will not go as I do not like to
hurt my father
I will not go because going in
night is risky
I will go as I am confident of
handling difficult situations
Total
41.6
18.8
4.6
5.7
3.0
100.
0
14-16 yrs
5.4
23.3
43.4
15.0
4.7
5.7
2.4
17-19 yrs
Sex
3.5
15.7
36.3
30.0
4.2
5.8
4.6
Males
Females
7.7
24.3
39.2
15.3
4.9
3.9
4.7
2.7
19.1
43.4
21.6
4.4
7.2
1.6
All
100.
0
100.
0
100.
0
100.
0
N
I will do as my father says
because I trust his judgment
21.4
I will go without telling my
father
4.9
Age categories
Sample
I will not go as I am afraid to
disobey my father
Table 3.33 Responses to scenario A by selected socio-demographic indicators
(Percentage)
18234
9210
9024
8634
9600
Ethnicity
Sinhalese
4.8
21.7
40.1
20.2
4.6
5.8
2.7
Tamil
5.3
19.7
47.2
13.3
5.2
5.1
4.2
Moor
4.2
21.8
45.2
15.1
3.4
6.8
3.5
Other
10.4
7.3
Socio-economic status
Poorest
quintile
5.0
23.5
Second
5.6
20.1
quintile
Middle
quintile
4.4
21.8
Fourth
5.6
21.7
quintile
Richest
quintile
3.9
20.5
55.5
13.5
0.0
5.4
8.0
43.4
15.0
3.5
7.0
2.7
40.2
19.8
4.9
6.6
2.7
43.4
17.0
4.4
5.9
3.0
39.6
19.6
4.9
5.5
3.1
41.9
21.1
5.0
4.4
3.1
100.
0
100.
0
100.
0
100.
0
100.
0
100.
0
100.
0
100.
0
100.
0
11390
5548
1221
74
3647
3647
3647
3647
3648
The proportion of adolescents who would not go as they trusted the parental judgment as
well as those who said that they would not go as they were afraid of their father, declined
with age and the proportion who would question their father as to why he was opposing
and decide based on reasons given increased with age. This indicates a lessening of
parental control as children grow older. Girls appear to trust their father’s judgment than
boys. Interestingly more girls than boys said that they would have inquired why their
fathers oppose and then make their decision.
The largest proportion of adolescents from all ethnic groups had chosen the response “I
will not go as I trust my father’s judgment”. It was highest among ‘Others’ (Burgher,
Malay), followed by Tamils, Moors and Sinhalese. An authoritative type of fatherchildren relationship was highest among Moors and Sinhalese as indicated by fear to
disobey a parental ruling. There was little difference in the pattern of response by socioeconomic group (Table 3.33).
Conflict of Interest between Parents and Adolescents
Scenario B: “ Nimal is 19 year old boy who has got through O/L examination with
credits, and wishes to follow an electrical course, after leaving the school at this point,
without entering in to A/L class. However his father has different intentions, and wants
him to follow the A/L science stream. Nimal is afraid that if he chooses something
against his fathers’ wishes, he would get angry and will not pay for what he chooses, the
electrical course”.
Conflicts of interests between parents and adolescents are common. To deal effectively
with the type of situation described above adolescents should have proper self awareness
so that they are aware of their educational talents. They should also be able to understand
the reasons behind parental opposition and the advantages of the alternate path proposed
by parents. Tackling the problem needs problem solving and negotiating skills.
Figure 3.23 Responses to the situation described in scenario B
8.5%
2.2%
I will argue with my father
and try to win my point
12.6%
I will listen to my father for
he is opposing for my own
good
I will try to explain why I
want this and try to win his
consent
34.2%
42.6%
I will get one of my father’s
respected persons to talk to
him
I will do what I want and try
to find my own money for
the course
The majority of adolescents (42.6%) said that they would listen to their fathers as they
felt that the parental decision was for their own good. This shows that adolescents tend to
rely on parental judgment. A high proportion of respondents (34%) thought that they
could win their way by explaining the situation to their fathers. These adolescents appear
to have a considerable degree of self awareness and trust in their communication abilities.
It also seemed that they have a sound father–child relationship, a father who was ready to
listen to the child’s point of view. Further 13 % said that they would argue with their
fathers and try to win their point of view. The communication strategy here cannot be
considered sound. Nine percent seemed to have more creative strategy where they would
enlist the help of a person whose opinion their father respected to help in the negotiation.
This could also be interpreted as an authoritative father not prepared to listen to his
children (Figure 3.23).
Table 3.34 Responses to scenario B by selected socio-demographic indicators
(Percentages)
Sample
I will
argue
with my
father
and try
to win
my
point
All
12.6
Age categories
14-16 yrs
13.0
17-19 yrs
11.5
Sex
Males
17.8
Females
8.5
Ethnicity
Sinhalese
11.2
Tamil
17.4
Moor
17.2
Other
17.1
Socio-economic status
Poorest
14.0
quintile
Second
quintile
11.9
Middle
11.9
quintile
Fourth
quintile
12.4
Richest
13.1
quintile
I will
listen to
my
father
for he is
opposing
for my
own
good
42.6
I will
try to
explain
why I
want
this and
try to
win his
consent
34.2
I will get
one of
my
father’s
respected
persons
to talk to
him
Total
N
8.5
I will
do what
I want
and try
to find
my own
money
for the
course
2.2
100.0
18240
48.1
26.9
28.6
49.8
7.9
10.2
2.4
1.6
100.0
100.0
9213
9027
39.4
45.0
32.8
35.2
7.4
9.4
2.5
1.9
100.0
100.0
8637
9603
41.7
47.7
40.7
45.7
35.3
28.9
32.7
37.2
9.8
3.4
6.2
2.0
2.5
3.2
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
11392
5549
1221
77
51.1
24.7
6.8
3.4
100.0
3648
3648
45.1
33.6
7.8
1.7
100.0
3648
43.0
34.4
8.3
2.3
100.0
3648
40.6
35.9
8.8
2.4
100.0
37.1
38.2
10.0
1.6
100.0
3649
The proportion of adolescents who would listen to the advice given by their father on
their career selection declined with age. The proportion who would try to explain their
point of view and those who would enlist someone else’s help to convince their father
increased with the age.
Girls appear to comply with their father’s advice more than boys. Those who would tend
to explain their point of view was also marginally higher among girls. As expected more
boys tend to argue their point of view with their fathers and also would try to do what
they wanted, independent of financial support from parents.
The pattern of answers was more or less similar among different ethnic groups. However,
among Tamils, the proportion that would listen to their fathers was slightly higher, and
those that would try to explain were slightly lower. The proportion who would argue with
their father on the issue was lowest among Sinhalese. Higher the socio-economic level,
lower the proportion of adolescents who would listen to their father’s advice. Those who
would try to explain and win their fathers’ consent were higher in higher socio-economic
quintiles (Table 3.34).
Empathy and Helping Others
Bullying is said to be a common occurrence in schools. Tendency to bully shows poor
empathy and interpersonal skills of the perpetrator. The respondents were asked what
their reaction would be if they observe a newcomer to their classroom being bullied by a
group of students (Scenario C). Following figures and tables present the answers given to
this question.
Figure 3.24 Responses to the situation described in scenario C
I will try to prevent
the incident
2.2%
I will not get involved
since I can’t prevent it
6.3%
19.7%
47.1%
6.4%
18.4%
I will not get involved
as I consider it is not
my business
Bring it to the notice
of the teacher
Afterwards make
friend with the new
comer
I will also join and
bully him
A little less than half (47 %) reported that they would try to prevent the incident. This
pattern shows that the majority of adolescents has empathy towards others and is also
confident enough to come forward for help. Further 20% would inform the teacher. These
adolescents probably would have critically analyzed the situation and thought that bring it
to the notice of teachers would be a more effective strategy. The ones who mentioned that
they would not get involved as they may not be able to prevent it, (18%) shows they have
a degree of self awareness on their limitations but they cannot be considered as having
the sound life skills. The adolescents who would not get involved (6%), thinking that it
was none of their business and those (2%) who would join the bullying of the newcomer
represent those with poor empathy (Figure 3.24).
Those who would try and prevent the incident and those who would bring it to the notice
of the teachers declined with age. Those who would not get involved thinking they could
not stop the incident and those who would join the act of bulling increased with age.
More boys than girls mentioned that they would probably try and prevent the incident.
The proportion of respondents who would not get involved and those who would bring
the incident to the notice of the teachers is higher among girls. The proportion who would
join the act was higher among boys (Table 3.35).
I will not get
involved as I
consider it is not
Bring it to the
notice of the
teacher
After wards make
friend with the
new comer
I will also join and
bully him
Total
N
All
47.1
Age categories
14-16 yrs
49.2
17-19 yrs
40.8
Sex
Males
50.6
Females
44.2
Ethnicity
Sinhalese
45.8
Tamil
54.0
Moor
47.0
Other
33.3
Socio-economic status
Poorest
quintile
53.3
Second
47.1
quintile
Middle
quintile
45.5
Fourth
44.9
quintile
Richest
quintile
47.1
I will not get
involved since I
can’t prevent it
I will try to
prevent the
incident
Sample
Table 3.35 Responses to the situation described in scenario C by selected sociodemographic indicators
(Percentages)
18.4
6.4
19.7
6.3
2.2
100.0
18229
14.9
28.4
6.1
7.0
22.1
12.8
5.7
8.0
1.9
3.1
100.0
100.0
9209
9020
17.6
19.1
6.6
6.2
15.4
23.1
6.4
6.2
3.5
1.2
100.0
100.0
8636
9593
19.0
15.6
17.1
20.1
6.2
7.3
5.9
22.9
20.3
16.5
20.8
5.2
6.3
5.4
8.4
8.3
2.5
1.2
0.7
10.1
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
11388
5545
1220
75
13.3
5.4
22.5
4.3
1.3
100.0
3646
17.8
5.9
22.3
4.6
2.4
100.0
3646
19.1
6.2
20.8
6.6
1.8
100.0
3646
19.3
6.3
19.8
7.4
2.3
100.0
3646
20.4
7.5
14.7
7.5
2.8
100.0
3647
The highest proportion of adolescents who would try to prevent the incident was from
among the Tamil ethnic group, followed by Muslims, Sinhalese and others. Those who
thought they could not prevent it and therefore would not get involved were highest
among ‘Other’ ethnic group (Burgher, Malay). Those who would join the bullying were
also highest among ‘Others’ (Burgher, Malay). Better the socio-economic status, lesser
the proportion of adolescents who would try to prevent the bullying incident (Poorest
quintile, 53.3%; Richest Quintile, 47.1%). Those who said they would join and bully
were lowest among the poorest quintile while the highest proportion was among the
richest (Table 3.35)
Withstanding Peer Pressure
It takes a lot of courage to withstand peer pressure, even when adolescents know what
they do is not right and harmful. It is even more difficult to come forward to safe guard
others against peer pressure. Empathy, critical thinking, assertiveness, communication
skills, decision making skills are important in these situations. The survey presented two
hypothetical scenarios to assess adolescents’ common responses to these situations.
Scenario D: “Imagine that you have gone on a trip and your friends offer you a cigarette.
What would be your most likely reaction in such situation?”
Respondents Reactions to Friends Trying to Force Them to Smoke
This question was only meant for boys since smoking prevalence among girls is low.
Figure 3.25 Reactions to friends trying to force adolescents to smoke
2.5%
Will try to smoke as I
have to be in the
group
8.9%
Firmly refuse and yet
remanin in the group
44.9%
43.7%
Would leave if they
force to smoke
Would try it as I feel
grown up and think it
is OK to smoke
Over all response patterns showed that most (about 89%) would not yield to the peer
pressure. However, only 44% was confident that they could refuse and yet remain in the
group. This trend reflects good self awareness, confidence and interpersonal skills. Forty
five percent were very confident that they would not yield and would even leave the
group if necessary, reflecting their assertiveness. According to the responses given only
9% would yield to the peer pressure while 3% would smoke on their own initiative
(Figure 3.25)
Table 3.36 Reactions to friends trying to force adolescents to smoke by selected sociodemographic indicators
(Percentage)
Sample
Will try
Firmly
Would
Would
Total
N
to smoke refuse
leave if
try it as
as I have
and yet
they force feeling
to be in
remain in to smoke grown up
the group the group
and think
it is OK
to smoke
All
8.9
43.7
44.9
2.5
100.0
9375
Age categories
14-16 yrs
8.4
39.6
49.8
2.3
100.0
4733
17-19 yrs
10.7
58.6
27.6
3.1
100.0
4642
Ethnicity
Sinhalese
9.7
46.4
41.3
2.5
100.0
5855
Tamil
6.8
32.9
58.5
1.9
100.0
2851
Moor
5.0
37.3
54.3
3.4
100.0
629
Other
2.0
39.5
57.0
1.5
100.0
39
Socio-economic status
Poorest
6.2
33.3
57.1
3.4
100.0
1875
quintile
Second
10.9
39.7
48.3
1.0
100.0
1875
quintile
Middle
4.2
44.6
49.2
2.0
100.0
1875
quintile
Fourth quintile 8.5
50.0
39.5
1.9
100.0
1875
Richest
12.9
44.8
38.4
3.8
100.0
1875
quintile
Contrary to expectation, the proportion of adolescents who would yield to peer pressure
and would smoke increased with age. Those who thought that they could firmly refuse
the urging of friends to smoke and yet could remain in the group also increased with age.
This suggests that assertiveness and self confidence have increased with age. The
adolescents who thought it was all right to smoke also increased with age. The
proportion who would smoke due to peer pressure as well as those who thought they
could firmly refuse and yet remain in the group was highest among Sinhalese. Those
who wanted to try smoking because they were grown up were highest among Moors. The
proportion of those who would firmly refuse and expect to remain in the group increased
with increasing socio-economic status. Those who thought of smoking because they were
grown up were highest among the poorest and richest socio-economic quartiles (Table
3.36).
Decision on Selecting a Partner
Forming loving relationships with those of the opposite sex is a common life event during
adolescence. To make a successful decision on this, one should have self awareness,
empathy, critical thinking, and communication and relationship skills. Parents often clash
with their children on this issue causing enormous mental stress to both parties.
Figure 3.26 Decision on selecting a partner
18.8%
I will choose my own
partner as I have the right
to do so
I will look for my parents’
advise in this matter
50.6%
28.6%
I will look for some one I
respect ( other than
parents) in this matter
I cant think of it yet
2.0%
Adolescents were asked the question “What would you do when time comes for your
marriage?” Half (50.6%) could not still think of an answer to this question. It seemed that
marriage was not yet a matter to have thought about for these adolescents. Majority of the
others (29%) reported that they would look for parent’s advice regarding this matter.
Only 19 % said that they would choose their partner by themselves. It seemed that
thoughts regarding the selection of their future partner are mostly governed by traditional
norms (Figure 3.26).
As could be expected the proportion that could not decide on this matter, declined with
age. With increasing age there was an increase in those who felt that selecting a partner
was their right and those who would seek parental advice declined with age. More boys
thought that selecting a partner was their right compared to girls and more girls depended
on their parents in this regard (Table 3.37).
Table 3.37 Decision on selecting a partner by selected socio-demographic indicators
(Percentage)
Sample
All
Age categories
14-16 yrs
17-19 yrs
Sex
Males
Females
Ethnicity
Sinhalese
Tamil
Moor
Other
Socioeconomic
status
Poorest
quintile
Second
quintile
Middle
quintile
Fourth quintile
Richest
quintile
I will
choose
my own
partner as
I have
the right
to do so
18.8
I will
comply
with my
parents
advise in
this
matter
28.6
I will ask
for help
from an
adult I
respect
I can’t
think of it
yet
Total
N
2.0
50.6
100.0
18056
16.2
25.8
29.3
26.8
2.2
1.5
52.3
45.8
100.0
100.0
9120
8936
25.2
13.5
26.9
30.1
2.7
1.4
45.2
55.0
100.0
100.0
8549
9507
18.9
17.1
20.3
33.2
25.6
41.1
33.0
46.9
1.9
2.5
1.6
0.0
53.5
39.3
45.1
19.9
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
11279
5494
1210
73
15.3
33.6
2.3
48.8
100.0
3611
16.1
30.6
2.3
51.0
100.0
3611
15.5
27.5
1.4
55.7
100.0
3611
20.8
24.4
26.1
27.9
1.9
2.2
51.2
45.6
100.0
100.0
3611
3612
In all ethnic groups a higher proportion of adolescents said they would depend on their
parents. Proportion of adolescents that thought selecting a partner was their own right,
was lowest among the Tamils. The “Other” ethnic group had the smallest proportion of
adolescents who had not thought about choosing a partner yet (Table 3.37).
Perception on Prestige
A question was asked to ascertain the factors that adolescents thought as important to
maintain the prestige. Out of the factors presented ( figure 3.27) being good in academic
work, having a good character, possessing aesthetic talent or being talented in sports
were identified by a large proportion of adolescents (90 - 88%) as factors important for
prestige. Only 53% thought that “having enough money to spend on friends” was
important.
Figure 3.27 Determinants of prestige as perceived by adolescents
Having a good character
89.7
Having aesthetic talents
88.5
Having sports talents
Good in academic work
Having enough money to spend on
friends
Having better cloths
Being a leader in school
activities
Hailing from a prestigious family
89.2
90.2
53.1
63.5
83.9
58.8
Percent
the proportion of adolescents who thought that academic performance, sport talents,
aesthetic talents and taking leading role in school activities as factors determining
prestige increased with age. Those who felt having enough money to spend on friends
and hailing form a good family as important for prestige, declined with age.
There was no difference between boys and girls on this matter. Surprisingly, more boys
than girls thought that having better cloths was important for prestige, where as more
girls than boys thought that hailing from a good family an important factor (Table 3.38).
The largest proportions in all ethnic groups considered academic excellence to be the
most important factor for prestige. A high percentage of respondents from the “Other”
ethnic group (95%) and Tamils (75%) also identified hailing from a good family as an
important factor for prestige. There was no clear relationship between adolescents
opinion on factors important for prestige and socio-economic status (Table 3.38).
Having a good
character
90.2
89.2
88.5
89.7
100.0 26523
67.3 52.6
62.5 54.1
57.0 51.9
88.4
91.3
91.7
88.4
89.6
90.2
87.2
89.4
89.3
86.4
91.5
92.6
100.0 8844
100.0 8939
100.0 8740
67.7 55.4
60.0 51.3
89.1
91.1
88.9
89.4
88.7
88.4
88.5
90.6
100.0 12554
100.0 13969
58.7
76.3
67.2
90.4
52.6
53.5
55.3
74.8
89.2
93.8
89.0
85.8
88.2
92.0
90.6
85.5
87.1
91.7
91.1
88.7
88.5
93.0
89.7
80.5
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
65.6 50.7
89.7
90.8
87.5
90.4
100.0 5304
65.5 53.7
88.5
88.2
86.4
89.1
100.0 5305
61.0 50.9
89.8
88.7
89.0
88.8
100.0 5305
61.6 52.7
89.8
88.2
88.2
89.3
100.0 5305
64.5 56.4
92.7
90.6
90.6
90.8
100.0 5304
N
Having
aesthetic talents
All
58.8
83.9
Age categories
10-13 yrs 63.7
82.2
14-16 yrs 57.6
84.2
17-19 yrs 50.1
87.1
Sex
Males
57.2
82.0
Females 60.2
85.5
Ethnicity
Sinhalese 52.7
82.2
Tamil
74.5
89.9
Moor
60.7
82.6
Other
95.3
76.7
Socio-economic status
Poorest
quintile
61.0
86.6
Second
62.6
81.6
quintile
Middle
quintile
53.6
83.4
Fourth
55.3
82.5
quintile
Richest
quintile
61.9
85.9
Total
Having sports
talents
63.5 53.1
Hailing from a
prestigious
family
Taking a role
of a leader in
school
Having better
cloths
Having enough
money to spend
on friends
Good in
academic work
Sample
Table 3.38 Determinants of prestige as perceived by adolescents according to
selected socio-demographic indicators
16568
8072
1776
108
Home and Family Environment
Home and family environment is an important factor that affects adolescents’ mental
wellbeing. Availability of parents, the quality of relationships between adolescents and
parents, harmony between mother and father, alcohol abuse of the father are some factors
that have an important impact on their mental wellbeing.
Death of Parents
Proportion of adolescents who have lost a father was higher than those who had lost
mothers. This reflects the gender differences in the age specific death rates in the middle
age groups. The highest proportion of adolescents who had lost a parent was among the
Tamils, the ethnic differential being much higher for the loss of a father compared to the
mother. The proportion of respondents who have lost a parent is seen to be inversely
related to social class, the poorest quintile reporting the highest proportion of deaths
(Table 3.39).
Table 3.39 Percentages of adolescents whose parents were dead by ethnicity and socioeconomic status
Category
All
Ethnic differences
Sinhalese
Tamil
Moor
Other
Socio-economic status
Poorest quintile
Second quintile
Middle quintile
Fourth quintile
Richest quintile
% with
father dead
6.9
% with
mother dead
2.0
N
5.9
11.2
7.5
2.8
1.5
3.4
3.2
1.6
18676
9098
2001
120
11.27
8.36
6.78
4.29
4.96
3.8
2.5
1.0
1.3
2.0
5979
5979
5979
5979
5979
29895
Parental deprivation occurs not only due to death, parents may not be available for
reasons such as divorce, separation or because they are working away from home. Table
3.39 shows the information on the parents’ availability at home.
Availability of Parents at Home
Mother works abroad
Father works abroad
Both parents work
abroad
Parents are separated
Total
N
All
88.7
Ethnicity
Sinhalese 89.1
Tamil
87.9
Moor
88.3
Other
71.0
Socio-economic level
Poorest
quintile
88.9
Second
88.6
quintile
Middle
quintile
89.8
Fourth
quintile
87.5
Richest
quintile
88.9
One of the parents
live elsewhere with in
the country
Both parents live with
me
Category
Table 3.40 Availability parents at home selected socio-demographic indicators
(Percentage)
3.6
3.3
2.2
0.3
1.8
100.0
27229
3.4
4.9
3.1
3.3
3.4
2.2
4.1
0.0
1.9
3.1
2.3
22.2
0.3
0.3
0.4
0.0
1.8
1.6
1.9
3.5
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
17010
8287
1823
109
3.5
3.1
1.3
0.5
2.6
100.0
5446
5446
4.0
3.8
1.7
0.3
1.6
100.0
3.3
3.5
1.3
0.2
1.9
100.0
4.0
3.8
2.4
0.1
2.2
100.0
3.3
2.0
4.1
0.6
1.0
100.0
5446
5446
5445
The majority (89%) of adolescents were living with their parents. Less than 2% reported
divorce or separation. More mothers than fathers were reported as working abroad,
moors reporting a higher proportion compared to the other ethnic groups. The lowest
proportion of women working away from home are in the richest quintile, the highest
being from the middle income quintiles. The pattern is different when fathers are
considered, the highest proportion of fathers working abroad are from the richest
quintile and from among “Other ethnic groups” e.g., Burgher, and Malay (Table 3.40).
Father’s Alcohol Use
An alcoholic father can be quite a negative influence on an adolescent’s mental
wellbeing. Alcoholic behaviour may create a sense of shame and loss of face among
peers, may lead to loss of physical and emotional security that adolescents expect from
parents and may result in episodes of domestic violence, physical and sexual abuse. In the
survey respondents were asked about father’s alcohol consumption and associated violent
behaviour if any.
Eighteen percent of adolescents reported that their fathers routinely take alcohol as a
habit and approximately a quarter of those reporting alcohol use reported associated
violence. The percentage of adolescents reporting alcoholic behaviour increased with age.
However, the proportion reporting violence after alcohol use declined with age. More
boys than girls reported regular alcohol use as well as associated violent behaviour.
Regular alcohol consumption was highest among the Sinhalese, followed by Moors and
Tamils. Higher socio-economic strata, reported less alcohol use and less violence
associated with it, compared to the lower socio-economic groups (Table 3.41).
Table 3.41 Prevalence of alcohol use and related violent behaviour among fathers by
selected socio-demographic indicators
(Percentages)
Category
Father takes
alcohol
18.3
Becomes
violent
afterwards***
26.6
All
Age categories
10-13 yrs
17.4
30.2
14-16 yrs
18.9
25.1
17-19 yrs
19.3
21.7
Sex
Males
20.0
29.4
Females
16.9
23.9
Ethnicity
Sinhalese
19.0
25.5
Tamil
15.4
32.1
Moor
18.4
26.5
Other
11.7
16.9
Socio-economic status
Poorest quintile 25.5
35.5
Second quintile
22.5
29.1
Middle quintile
20.2
20.9
Fourth quintile
14.7
27.5
Richest quintile 10.9
17.5
(*** Proportions out of those taking alcohol)
N
Total
100.0
27458
100.0
100.0
100.0
9156
9254
9048
100.0
100.0
12996
14462
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
17152
8356
1838
111
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
5491
5492
5492
5492
5491
Unpleasant Problems At Home
Figure 3.28 Prevalence of unpleasant problems at home
5.8%
3.3%
3.5%
No such events
4.1%
Parents quarrel often
Father becomes drunk
Poor facilities
83.3%
Unsatisfactory environment
Majority of respondents did not report unpleasant problems at home. Poor facilities at
home, frequent quarrels between parents, the environment in which the house is located
being unsatisfactory and fathers drinking were reported as causes of frustration (Figure
3.28). The proportions reporting frustrations did not vary with age. However age related
variations were observed in some of the causes of frustration. The proportion reporting
quarrels between parents reduced with increasing age while the reverse was observed in
respect of paternal drinking. The adolescents who got frustrated by their fathers’
alcoholic behaviour and those who considered their environment to be unsatisfactory
increased with age.
Males reported more problems than girls and this was true of all the causes of
frustrations. Sinhalese adolescents reported the least amount of frustrating events at
home followed by Moors, Tamils and others. The reporting of causes of frustration
appeared to vary with ethnic group. Parental quarrels were highest among the “Other”
ethnic group (Burgher, Malay) while poor facilities and unsatisfactory environment were
highest among the Tamils and the “Other” ethnic group (Table 3.42).
Table 3.42 Prevalence of unpleasant problems at home by selected socio-demographic
indicators
(Percentage)
Category
Parents Father
Unsatisfacto
N
No such quarrel
becomes Poor
ry
events
often
drunk
facilities environment Total
All
83.2
4.1
3.3
5.8
3.5
100.0 28057
Age categories
10-13 yrs 83.4
4.9
3.2
5.9
2.5
100.0 9356
14-16 yrs 83.2
3.5
3.0
6.2
4.1
100.0 9456
17-19 yrs 82.8
3.7
4.6
4.7
4.2
100.0 9246
Sex
Males
80.5
5.1
4.0
7.0
3.6
100.0 13280
Females
85.5
3.3
3.0
4.9
3.4
100.0 14778
Ethnicity
Sinhalese 84.3
4.1
3.4
5.0
3.3
100.0 17527
Tamil
79.6
4.4
2.6
8.8
4.6
100.0 8539
Moor
81.6
3.7
5.1
7.0
2.7
100.0 1878
Other
79.2
6.1
0.0
8.7
5.9
100.0 114
Socio-economic status
Poorest
quintile
72.7
6.0
3.6
13.5
4.3
100.0 5611
Second
79.8
4.2
3.5
8.2
4.4
100.0 5612
quintile
Middle
quintile
85.4
4.0
3.8
3.7
3.2
100.0 5612
Fourth
86.0
3.4
3.9
3.7
3.1
100.0 5612
quintile
Richest
quintile
89.1
3.6
2.0
2.6
2.6
100.0 5611
The proportion of adolescents who did not report unpleasant problems at home increased
with the socio-economic quintile and all causes of frustration were commoner among the
poorest quintile.
School Environment
Effectiveness of learning is dependant on the physical and psycho-social environment
that prevails at schools. In order to have an insight on some of the aspects of school
environment, several questions on general happiness associated with schooling,
prevalence and reasons for absenteeism, harassment in school, corporal punishment, and
the individual’s involvement in extracurricular activities were inquired into.
Do Adolescents Enjoy Schooling?
Figure 3.29 Answers to the question; do you enjoy schooling?
5.6%
2.3%
Yes
No
Can’t say
92.1%
A very large proportion of adolescents (92.1%) enjoyed coming to school. There was a
marginal reduction of this proportion with age and girls enjoyed school more than the
boys. The proportion of adolescent who enjoyed school was highest among the Moors.
There was very little variation in this proportion according to socio-economic quintiles.
Table. 3.43 Answers to the question; do you enjoy schooling?
selected socio-demographic indicators
(Percentages)
Category
Yes
No
Can’t say
Total
All
Age category
10-13 yrs
14-16 yrs
17-19 yrs
Sex
Males
Females
Ethnicity
Sinhalese
Tamil
Moor
Other
92.1
2.3
5.6
100.0
Number
responded
28236
92.0
92.8
90.4
2.6
2.0
2.5
5.4
5.2
7.1
100.0
100.0
100.0
9415
9516
9305
90.6
93.3
2.6
2.1
6.7
4.6
100.0
100.0
13364
14872
91.6
95.9
88.7
92.1
2.3
2.2
2.7
0.0
6.0
2.0
8.6
7.9
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
17639
8593
1890
114
Socio-economic status
Poorest
quintile
92.0
Second
quintile
92.5
Middle
quintile
92.5
Fourth
91.0
quintile
Richest
quintile
92.6
3.0
5.0
100.0
5647
2.3
5.3
100.0
5647
2.2
5.3
100.0
5647
1.8
7.1
100.0
5647
2.6
4.8
100.0
5647
School Absenteeism
Respondents were asked to report the number of days that they did not attend school
during the month preceding the survey. Less than a third (31%) reported daily attendance
and one fifth (20 %) were absent from school for more than 3 days. The proportion
reporting three or more days of absenteeism increased with age was higher among boys
compared to girls and was marginally commoner among the Tamils. School absenteeism
was also not found to vary with socio-economic quintiles (Table 3.44).
Table 3.44 Pattern of school absenteeism of adolescents by selected socio-demographic
indicators
(Percentages)
Category
None
1-2 days 3-5 days More
Can’t
Total
N
than 5
rememb
days
er
All
30.5
30.9
11.7
8.0
18.8
100.0
27817
Age categories
10-13 yrs 30.9
29.9
10.5
7.5
21.2
100.0
9279
14-16 yrs 32.1
30.9
11.7
7.7
17.6
100.0
9378
17-19 yrs 24.8
34.1
15.7
10.2
15.1
100.0
9170
Sex
Males
30.8
Females
30.3
Ethnicity
Sinhalese 30.6
Tamil
30.6
Moor
30.4
Other
20.6
Socio-economic status
Poorest
quintile
29.8
Second
30.0
quintile
Middle
quintile
30.7
Fourth
30.9
quintile
Richest
quintile
31.0
28.0
33.3
12.1
11.5
8.9
7.2
20.1
17.7
100.0
100.0
13170
14657
29.4
37.2
30.9
55.2
11.6
13.7
8.2
11.9
8.2
6.4
10.0
2.9
20.2
12.1
20.5
9.4
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
17383
8469
1863
113
31.5
11.2
9.8
17.7
100.0
5566
30.2
12.5
6.9
20.3
100.0
5565
31.3
11.3
8.6
18.1
100.0
5565
28.8
11.5
8.0
20.8
100.0
5565
33.3
12.2
7.0
16.6
100.0
5566
Reason for Absenteeism
The commonest reason for absenteeism was illness (87.2%). Four point five percent
reported transport difficulties. Nearly 4% admitted to cutting classes purposely. Lack of
money to buy items necessary for school prevented the attendance of 3% of adolescents.
Other reasons given were to attend a funeral, a wedding and going on a trip etc. (Figure
3.30).
Figure 3.30 Reasons for absenteeism during the last month
1.1%
Due to an illness
4.5%
2.8%
Cut classes
4.4%
No money to buy
cloths / Books
87.2%
No transport
other
Table 3.45 analyses the reasons for absenteeism by age, sex, ethnicity and socioeconomic status. The proportions reporting illness as a reason for absenteeism decreased
with age and were commoner among girls than boys. The proportion cutting class on the
other hand increased with age and was commoner among boys than girls.
Illness as a cause for absenteeism was highest among the Sinhalese and lowest among the
poorest quintile while those who purposely avoided classes were more among the richest
quintiles. As could be expected, lack of transport and difficulties in buying books etc.
were more among the poorest quintile (Table 3.45).
Table 3.45 Reasons for absenteeism during the last month by selected socio-demographic
indicators
(Percentages)
Category Due to
Cut
No money No
Other
Total
N
an
classes
to buy
transport
illness
books/clot
hs
All
87.2
4.4
2.8
4.5
1.1
100.0
20035
Age
10-13 yrs 89.4
3.2
3.5
2.9
1.0
100.0
6680
14-16 yrs 88.5
3.1
2.5
4.8
1.1
100.0
6754
17-19 yrs 78.2
10.9
1.9
7.9
1.1
100.0
6601
Sex
Males
83.4
5.9
3.7
5.5
1.6
100.0
9485
Females
90.2
3.2
2.2
3.7
0.7
100.0
10550
Ethnicity
Sinhalese 89.2
4.3
2.2
4.2
0.1
100.0
12515
Tamil
79.6
4.6
4.7
6.2
4.8
100.0
6096
Moor
88.7
2.6
4.1
3.6
1.0
100.0
1342
Other
68.4
28.4
0.0
.0.0
3.1
100.0
82
Socio-economic status
Poorest
quintile
81.0
3.3
7.6
7.1
1.1
100.0
4007
Second
86.1
4.3
4.2
4.1
1.4
100.0
4007
quintile
Middle
quintile
91.0
3.1
1.5
3.8
0.5
100.0
4007
Fourth
quintile
87.4
4.9
0.9
5.3
1.6
100.0
4007
Richest
quintile
89.4
6.3
0.9
2.6
0.8
100.0
4007
Harassment at School
Peer harassment is said to be quite common in schools. These harassments come in
different forms and sometimes could be a formidable obstacle for an adolescents school
performances and mental wellbeing. Table 3.46 describes the types of harassments
encountered by adolescents.
Types of Harassment Experienced
Table 3. 46 Prevalence of harassments experienced by selected socio-demographic
indicators
(Percentages)
Categor Physical Verbal Ignori Threateni Taking
Oth Never
Tota
y
ly
ly
ng
ng to hit
personal er
been
l
belongin
harasse
gs
d
All
Age
10-13
yrs
14-16
yrs
17-19
yrs
Sex
2.9
18.4
18.6
11.9
9.6
10.6
25.3
19.1
18.4
10.8
9.0
10.6
19.1
19.2
11.6
10.1
11.0
3.1
24.3
14.4
17.5
16.0
9.9
9.1
3.0
32.9
2.7
23.9
100.
0
100.
0
100.
0
100.
0
N
2947
9
9830
9935
9715
100.
0
100.
0
1395
2
1552
7
1841
5
Males
26.4
Female
12.1
s
Ethnicity
Sinhale
se
19.1
21.7
13.6
13.0
12.5
3.2
19.6
16.2
10.4
6.8
9.0
2.7
30.0
18.4
11.5
10.4
10.4
2.4
23.8
Tamil
15.8
20.6
12.8
5.6
11.3
4.7
32.7
Moor
18.0
17.3
13.5
10.5
10.2
3.9
25.0
Other
18.6
16.8
Socio-economic status
Poorest
quintile 14.1
16.6
Second 2.8
16.9
21.6
10.0
11.2
4.0
15.7
100.
0
100.
0
100.
0
100.
0
8.8
18.5
6.7
10.7
9.9
10.3
14.1
24.1
24.9
10.3
100.
0
100.
8971
1973
119
5896
5896
quintile
Middle
quintile
Fourth
quintile
Richest
quintile
2.7
18.8
18.9
12.1
9.8
24.5
11.0
2.4
19.7
18.2
13.2
9.6
26.0
10.6
3.3
21.5
20.6
13.6
10.7
27.1
10.8
0
100.
0
100.
0
100.
0
5896
5896
5897
Three quarters of the respondents have experienced some form of harassment at least
once. The most frequent forms of harassments were physical attacks (18.4%), verbal
abuse (18.6%), followed by being ignored (11.9%) by peers. Taking personnel
belongings by force was another form of harassment reported by adolescents (10.6%). All
forms of harassment other than being ignored by peers decreased among the 17-19 year
olds while all forms were commoner among males. There is very little variation in the
forms of harassment across the different ethnic groups except the experience of verbal
abuse which appears to be high among Tamils. A physical attack was the commonest
form of harassment in all ethnic groups except among the Tamils.
The distribution of different forms of harassments according to socio-economic status is
interesting. There is a marked increase in physical attacks among adolescents in the
lowest socio-economic quintile while verbal abuse seemed to be directed at those in the
richer quintiles. Being ignored, threatened with physical violence and loss of personal
belongings were least among the poorest quintiles.
Having Ever Told Anyone about Being Harassed
Less than two thirds (61%), who have experienced harassment have reported such
incidents. Figure 3.31 presents the persons to whom the incidents were reported.
Figure 3.31 Persons to whom adolescents complained about harassment
Mother
37.3
16.1
Father
Sister
8
Brother
8
Teacher
11.5
7.1
Principal
Friend
Prefect
17.5
4
Percent
(More than one response possible)
Although harassment occurred in school the majority of most adolescents reported the
incident to a family member or to a friend and not to the school authorities. About a third
of adolescents did not report episodes of harassment and a little less than a third thought
that it was normal for such things to happen. It is important to note that nearly a fifth
(19%) did not have any one they could trust to whom they could go with the problem
(Figure 3.32).
Figure 3.32 Reasons for not complaining about harassment
thought no one
would understand
19%
34%
many think it is a
normal to harass
Out of fear
16%
31%
No trusted one
Involvements in Harassing Others
Table 3.47 Adolescents ever involved in harassing the peers
by selected socio-demographic indicators
(Percentages)
Category
% saying yes
N
All
10.4
25993
Age
10-13 yrs
11.4
8667
14-16 yrs
8.9
8760
17-19 yrs
11.7
8565
Sex
Male
15.9
12303
Female
6.1
13690
Ethnic differences
Sinhalese
10.2
16237
Tamil
11.2
7910
Moor
10.5
1740
Other
15.7
105
Socio-economic status
Poorest quintile
Second quintile
Middle quintile
Fourth quintile
Richest quintile
9.0
11.6
9.6
10.3
11.3
5198
5199
5199
5199
5198
Ten point four percent of adolescents reported having ever being involved in harassing
one of their peers at school. This proportion was lowest during the mid adolescents years
and twice as many boys were involved in harassing others compared to girls. Boys,
15.9%; Girls, 6.1%). There was no difference in this respect among the major ethnic
groups and no clear trend was observed in the proportions reported by adolescents in the
different socio-economic quintiles, as expected the lowest proportion of adolescents
involved in harassing others was reported from the lowest socio-economic quintile (Table
3.47)
Experience of Punishments in School
Table 3.48 Percentage of adolescents who have ever been punished in schools
by selected socio-demographic indicators
(Percentages)
Category
% punished
N
All
74.4
26471
Age categories
10-13 yrs
75.8
8827
14-16 yrs
76.3
8921
17-19 yrs
64.5
8723
Sex
Male
81.7
12529
Female
68.7
13942
Ethnic differences
Sinhalese
76.6
16536
Tamil
64.9
8056
Moor
72.6
1772
Other
86.4
107
Socio-economic status
Poorest quintile
68.8
5294
Second quintile
74.2
5294
Middle quintile
76.6
5294
Fourth quintile
75.9
5294
Richest quintile
74.5
5295
Almost three quarters of adolescents (74%) have been ever punished in school. The
proportion was highest among mid adolescent age group and among boys. Proportions
experiencing punishment in school was the lowest among Tamils and those in the lowest
socioeconomic quintile. (Sinhalese, 76.6%; Tamils; 64.9%; Moors, 72.6%; Others,
86.4%).
Types of Punishment
The commonest type of punishment used in schools was, hitting students using a cane or
a ruler (76.2%), making students stand in front of class (72.5%), and hitting with the bare
hand were the next common types of punishments. Assigning additional homework was
reported by (64.1%) of adolescents. Knocking on the head with knuckles (45.0%) and
retaining students after school (40.6%) were reported by relatively lower proportions
(Figure 3.33).
Figure 3.33 Types of punishment received by adolescents in schools
62
Kept kneeling in front of class
72.5
Kept standing up in front of class
76.2
Hit by cane /ruler
Hit by hand
67.3
Knock on head with knuckles
45
Kept after the school time
40.6
Additional home work
64.1
0
20
40
60
Percent
80
100
All forms of punishment decreased with increasing age and were commoner among
males. Making students stand or kneel in front of the class, assigning additional
homework and being kept after school were all more prevalent in the youngest age group.
Forms of physical punishment such as slaps, knocks and being hit with a cane were
highest in middle adolescence. Additional homework, being kept after school as well as
standing or kneeling in front of the class were lowest among the Sinhalese, where as use
of physical force was lowest among the Tamils. No definite pattern in type of punishment
was observed with changing socio-economic status (Table 3.49).
Additional
homework
Kept after
school
Knock on
head with
knuckles
Hit with hand
Hit with cane
/ruler
Kept standing
in front of
class
Kept kneeling
in front of
class
All
64.1
40.6
45.0
67.3
76.2
72.5
62.0
1969
4
66.9
42.8
68.6
76.5
74.1
62.8
56.5
6566
63.9
38.3
67.5
77.6
72.4
62.1
51.8
6639
55.7
41.5
62.9
70.3
67.5
59.5
44.1
6489
66.1
61.7
43.2
37.5
70.7
63.4
81.4
70.4
76.5
68.1
68.2
55.2
62.5
41.2
9324
1037
0
36.3
70.3
77.5
74.5
60.8
50.7
52.9
45.2
58.4
57.7
63.7
86.8
72.2
74.4
75.8
63.3
76.5
92.3
66.2
60.7
76.8
57.1
52.6
94.7
1230
2
5993
1319
80
46.0
65.6
75.6
69.9
62.1
50.3
3939
41.7
70.3
74.1
71.5
60.9
57.2
3939
40.2
71.7
79.8
71.4
62.0
51.2
3939
36.7
66.3
77.8
73.6
61.0
51.9
3939
40.4
62.5
72.8
74.5
63.9
52.5
3938
Age
10-13
yrs
14-16
yrs
17-19
yrs
Sex
Males
Females
Ethnicity
Sinhales 61.5
e
Tamil
69.9
Moor
69.8
Other
95.5
Socio-economic status
Poorest 65.2
quintile
Second 68.7
quintile
Middle
62.9
quintile
Fourth
64.2
quintile
Richest 60.0
quintile
N
Category
Table 3.49 Types of punishment received by adolescents in schools by selected sociodemographic indicators
(Percentages)
Extra Curricular Activities
Involvement in extra curricular activities is important in development of psycho-social
competence, generation self esteem etc. However, it is commonly believed that present
day adolescents barely have any leisure time due to pressure of examinations. The study
sought information on the extent to which adolescents of today are involved in extra
curricular activities. Table 3.50 presents the answers given to these questions.
Table 3.50 Participation in extracurricular activities by selected socio-demographic
indicators
(Percentages)
Category
An active
Ordinary
Not a
Total
N
member
member
member
All
15.7
32.7
51.6
100.0
25006
Age
10-13 yrs
14.1
34.4
51.5
100.0
8338
14-16 yrs
16.0
31.0
53.0
100.0
8428
17-19 yrs
19.3
32.9
47.7
100.0
8240
Sex
Males
17.1
31.6
51.3
100.0
11836
Females
14.5
33.6
51.8
100.0
13170
Ethnicity
Sinhalese
14.6
29.9
55.5
100.0
15621
Tamil
19.9
44.8
35.3
100.0
7610
Moor
16.8
33.5
49.7
100.0
1674
Other
12.5
29.0
58.5
100.0
101
Socio-economic status
Poorest
14.9
34.4
50.6
100.0
5001
quintile
Second
13.5
34.8
51.7
100.0
5001
quintile
Middle
15.8
31.3
52.9
100.0
5001
quintile
Fourth
14.6
30.7
54.7
100.0
5001
quintile
Richest
19.3
33.3
47.4
100.0
5002
quintile
It is important to note that a little more than half (52%) of the adolescents surveyed were
not involved in extra curricular activities. The proportion involved in extracurricular
activities was lowest in the middle age category and no difference was observed between
the sexes. Among those who said they participated in societies or clubs only a small
proportion (16%) were active members. Active participation increased with age and was
higher among males. Participation in general was lowest among the Tamils but among
those who participated actively was highest among them. The richest quintiles had the
highest participation (Table 3.50).
Reasons for non participation in extra curricular activities were inquired into. A question
was asked to ascertain the proportion of adolescents who do not participate in extra
curricular activities due to the competitive nature of examinations. Out of those who did
not participate in any extracurricular activities, 16% said that they did not participate as
they could not afford to spare the time due to the heavy academic work load. This
proportion increased with age and was marginally higher among girls. The proportion of
those who saw academic work as a constraint to participating in extra curricular activities
was seen to be lowest among Tamils and adolescents from middle socio-economic
quintiles found academic work load as a constraint for participation in extracurricular
activities.
Table 3.51 Proportions of adolescents who were not involved in extra curricular activities
due to heavy school work load by selected socio-demographic indicators
(Percentages)
Category
% saying yes
N
All
15.6
12903
Age
10-13 yrs
10.6
4301
14-16 yrs
17.8
4352
17-19 yrs
23.7
4250
Sex
Male
15.1
6112
Female
16.0
6791
Ethnicity
Sinhalese
17.0
8059
Tamil
10.1
3925
Moor
14.3
865
Other
19.3
53
Socio-economic status
Poorest quintile
14.1
2580
Second quintile
15.3
2581
Middle quintile
16.5
2581
Fourth quintile
16.0
2581
Richest quintile
15.7
2580
Leisure Time Activities
Figure 3.34 Leisure time activities of adolescents
Going with friends
13.2
15.6
Gardening
Household activities
31.8
26.2
24.5
Self studies
Tuition class
Surfing internet
9.5
20.9
21.2
Painting
Playing music
Listening to music
44.7
63.8
62.5
61.7
Reading
Watch TV
Sports
0
10
20
30
40
Percent
50
60
70
When adolescents were asked to enumerate the common leisure time activities they were
engaged in, reading (63.8%), watching TV (62.5%) and engaging in sports (61.7%) were
identified by most of them. Surfing the internet was the least common leisure time
activity mentioned (9.5%). About one fifth of the sample engaged in aesthetic activities
like painting (20.9%) and playing music (21.2%). Forty four point seven percent listened
to music (Figure 3.34).
Percentage of adolescents who reported that they usually engage in sports activities
decreased with age, while watching TV, reading, listening to music and going out with
friends increased with age (Table 3.52). More boys than girls spent their leisure time on
sports; furthermore this was the commonest type of leisure activity reported by them.
More girls than boys spend their leisure time watching TV, reading, listening to music
and going to tuition classes. Watching TV and reading were the most common free time
activities among girls (Table 3.52). The lowest participation in sports was among the
Sinhalese. A higher proportion of them spent time watching TV and in reading. Among
the Tamils the commonest spare time activity was reading. In all the leisure time
activities listed, the highest proportions were seen among the richest quintiles.
.
44.
7
21.
2
20.
9
36.
7
45.
9
66.
2
20.
4
20.
9
24.
7
24.
7
19.
8
12.
3
21.
3
25.
1
32.
3
24.
2
25.
9
33.
3
40.
7
48.
0
21.
4
21.
0
20.
4
21.
3
8.8
21.
5
26.
9
20.
9
30.
5
44.
4
47.
7
42.
3
42.
9
21.
9
19.
2
19.
9
13.
1
19.
9
23.
8
25.
6
9.3
10.
4
10.
5
11.
7
22.
7
31.
8
27.
2
12.
0
22.
5
41.
8
30.
6
14.
2
29.
6
39.
1
45.
1
48.
9
57.
3
12.
9
15.
7
18.
7
23.
9
33.
1
18.
1
20.
0
18.
1
21.
5
26.
5
8.5
16.
2
21.
2
24.
5
27.
1
31.
4
24.
0
24.
4
24.
5
26.
1
31.
7
9.1
10.
0
9.7
10.
5
4.9
5.6
7.7
10.
0
18.
7
31.8
30.9
31.7
35.1
25.8
36.6
28.4
46.0
36.3
24.7
30.5
33.4
31.4
31.4
32.1
N
26.
2
Gardening
Going with
friends
24.
5
9.5
Household
activities
Self study
Age (yrs)
10-13
65. 57. 60.
9
3
8
14-16
60. 64. 64.
1
2
3
17-19
53. 73. 71.
3
6
4
Sex
Males
73. 62. 56.
9
0
6
Female 51. 63. 69.
s
9
0
6
Ethnicity
Sinhale 59. 63. 61.
se
8
4
8
Tamils 69. 59. 72.
2
4
4
Moors
64. 61. 66.
3
9
0
Others 76. 45. 49.
5
2
6
Socio-economic quintile
Poorest 54. 36. 54.
0
7
1
Second 59. 52. 59.
0
0
5
Middle 62. 67. 65.
4
5
0
Fourth 62. 71. 66.
5
8
0
Richest 68. 77. 71.
9
5
8
Tuition class
63.
8
Painting
Surfing
internet
62.
5
Playing music
61.
7
Reading
Listening to
music
Watch TV
All
Sports
Category
Table 3.52 Adolescents leisure time activities by selected socio-demographic indicators
. (Percentages)
15.
6
13.
2
2947
9
16.
8
14.
6
14.
7
12.
3
12.
7
17.
8
14.
4
16.
6
15.
6
11.
3
1395
2
1552
7
14.
1
21.
8
17.
0
16.
9
11.
2
22.
6
12.
9
23.
8
1841
5
14.
1
15.
8
15.
7
16.
2
15.
7
10.
0
12.
4
14.
2
12.
7
16.
0
9830
9935
9715
8971
1973
119
5896
5896
5896
5896
5896
A quarter of respondents said that they spent the time out-of-school in tuition classes and
little more than a fourth in self study. As expected both these proportions increased to
nearly a third in the 17-19 age groups and the proportion was significantly higher among
girls. The highest proportions attending tuition classes and self study were seen among
the Tamils, and both increased with increasing socio-economic status.
Work
Adolescents who Engaged in Income Generation Activities
Only 9% of adolescents reported that they engage in some form of income generating
activity, this percentage declined with age and more boys than girls were involved in
such activities. The lowest proportion of adolescents engaged in income generating
activities was among Sinhalese and as expected this proportion declined with increasing
socio-economic quintile (Table 3.53).
Table 3.53 Percentage of adolescents involved in income generation activities
(Percentages)
Category
% engaged in income
N
generation
All
8.7
26698
Age
10-13 yrs
9.2
8902
14-16 yrs
8.5
8998
17-19 yrs
8.1
8798
Sex
Male
12.9
12636
Female
5.4
14062
Ethnicity
Sinhalese
6.9
16678
Tamil
16.5
8125
Moor
8.5
1787
Other
22.2
108
Socio-economic status
Poorest quintile
11.8
5339
Second quintile
10.2
5340
Middle quintile
8.9
5340
Fourth quintile
6.0
5340
Richest quintile
7.9
5339
Agriculture and animal husbandry were the commonest part time income generating
activities reported by of adolescents (42%). About 18% reported that they worked as
manual labourers, a further 15% was involved in production related work and 11% were
small scale traders. The category known as other work included, miscellaneous activities
such as working as a sales person, conducting tuition classes, electrical and mechanical
work, dress making, beauty culture etc. (Figure 3.35).
Figure 3.35 Type of income generation activities
Manual labour
14.6%
17.7%
10.7%
15.2%
Production related
Agriculture/animal
husbandry
Small scale trade
41.9%
Other
(N = 2223)
Half of the adolescents (51%) who were involved in income generating activities said
that they gave the money earned by these activities to their parents. Further 21% reported
that they utilised the money to buy the items necessary for school (Figure 3.35).
Figure 3.36 Pattern of utilizations of earnings
Give parents
Give siblings
13.5%
2.0%
Buy things for school
9.9%
50.6%
21.1%
2.9%
To buy things of my
like
Save
To buy foods
(N = 2223)
Media exposure
Exposure to media is an important factor that shapes up adolescent behaviour. The
following section describes the level of media exposure among the respondents.
Reading of News Papers
The majority (89%) read news papers. This proportion increased with age and the habit
was commoner among girls compared to boys. The proportions who read news papers
were highest among Tamils and it rose with improving socio-economic status (Table
3.54).
Table 3.54 Percentage of adolescents who read news papers by selected sociodemographic indicators
(Percentage)
Sample
% saying yes
N
All
88.7
27189
Age categories
10-13 yrs
86.2
9066
14-16 yrs
90.1
9163
17-19 yrs
91.8
8960
Sex
Male
85.4
12869
Female
91.2
14320
Ethnic differences
Sinhalese
88.4
16984
Tamil
92.0
8274
Moor
85.2
1820
Other
68.8
110
Socio-economic status
Poorest quintile
86.2
5438
Second quintile
87.6
5438
Middle quintile
88.5
5438
Fourth quintile
90.5
5438
Richest quintile
89.9
5439
Frequency of reading news papers
Although a very high proportion of respondents reported that they read the papers, when
the frequency of reading is considered it is seen that the great majority read a paper only
once a week and there were some (14%) who read less frequently. Proportions reading
the paper less frequently than once a week increased with increasing age. The proportions
reading the papers daily were higher among males, the Tamils and the category of
“Other” ethnic groups. More persons in the poorest socio-economic quintile and the
highest appeared to read the paper daily and the proportion of those who read the paper
less frequently than once a week shows a clear inverse relationship with socio-economic
status (Table 3.55).
Table 3.55 Frequency of reading newspapers by age, sex, ethnicity and socio-economic
status
Category
Daily
All
25.6
Age
10-13 yrs
27.8
14-16 yrs
23.4
17-19 yrs
26.3
Sex
Males
31.2
Females
21.7
Ethnicity
Sinhalese
22.7
Tamil
37.1
Moor
26.6
Other
51.2
Socio-economic status
Poorest
quintile
28.9
Second
quintile
24.0
Middle
24.1
quintile
Fourth
quintile
24.4
Richest
27.9
quintile
60.4
Less
frequently
than once
a week
14.0
61.8
60.8
55.4
10.4
15.8
18.2
100.0
100.0
100.0
9684
9789
9571
55.1
64.0
13.7
14.2
100.0
100.0
13745
15299
62.9
49.9
61.7
39.1
14.5
13.0
11.7
9.7
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
18144
8839
1944
117
55.8
15.3
100.0
5809
5809
59.6
16.4
100.0
61.6
14.2
100.0
62.4
13.2
100.0
60.6
11.5
100.0
Once a
week
Total
N
100.0
29044
5809
5809
5808
Listening to Radio
A large proportion (88%) reported listening to the radio. The habit increased with age and
showed no gender difference. The habit was similar among Sinhalese and Tamil
adolescents, and the proportion of adolescents listening to the radio increased with
improving socio-economic status (Table 3.56).
Table 3.56 Percentage of adolescents who listen to radio by selected socio-demographic
indicators
(Percentage)
Sample
% saying yes
N
All
88.4
26740
Age categorie s
10-13 yrs
84.4
8915
14-16 yrs
90.4
9013
17-19 yrs
94.0
8812
Sex
Male
88.2
12655
Female
88.6
14085
Ethnic differences
Sinhalese
88.6
16705
Tamil
89.6
8138
Moor
84.2
1790
Other
82.8
107
Socio-economic status
Poorest quintile
82.8
5348
Second quintile
86.9
5348
Middle quintile
90.1
5348
Fourth quintile
91.3
5348
Richest quintile
88.8
5348
Frequency of listening to the radio
Table 3.57 Frequency of listening to radio by selected socio-demographic indicators
(Percentage)
Less than
Catego ry
Daily
Weekly
once a
Total
N
week
All
72.1
19.4
8.5
100.0
23638
Age categories
10-13 yrs
65.1
25.9
9.0
100.0
7881
14-16 yrs
73.5
17.7
8.8
100.0
7968
17-19 yrs
85.8
7.9
6.3
100.0
7789
Sex
Males
72.9
19.4
7.6
100.0
11188
Females
71.5
19.3
9.1
100.0
12450
Ethnicity
Sinhalese
73.4
17.9
8.7
100.0
14767
Tamil
68.5
24.5
7.0
100.0
7193
Moor
67.6
22.7
9.7
100.0
1583
Other
75.1
7.7
17.2
100.0
95
Socio-economic status
Poorest
quintile
69.2
Second
quintile
70.2
Middle
quintile
76.3
Fourth
73.1
quintile
Richest
quintile
70.1
21.9
8.9
100.0
20.5
9.3
100.0
17.1
6.7
100.0
18.3
8.5
100.0
20.5
9.4
100.0
4727
4728
4728
4728
4727
In contrast to reading newspapers, a relatively higher proportion of adolescents reported
listening to radio daily (72.1%). The proportion that listens to radio daily increased with
age and very little difference was observed between boys and girls. Daily listeners were
more common among Sinhalese and Other (Burgher, Malay) ethnic groups than among
Tamils and Moors. The practice did not show a clear relationship with socio-economic
status (Table 3.57).
Most Popular Radio Programmes
Table 3.58 Most popular types of radio programmes
Sample
Musical
programmes
52.6
All
Age
10-13 yrs
38.0
14-16 yrs
55.5
17-19 yrs
80.1
Sex
Males
57.9
Females
48.4
Ethnicity
Sinhalese
53.8
Tamil
47.2
Moor
51.5
Other
81.1
Socio-economic status
Poorest
42.5
quintile
Second
quintile
46.1
Middle
51.7
quintile
N
Drama
10.1
Documentaries
37.3
Total
100.0
23638
12.7
10.1
4.2
49.4
34.5
15.7
100.0
100.0
100.0
7881
7968
7789
11.0
9.5
31.2
42.1
100.0
100.0
11188
12450
9.4
14.4
7.6
10.5
36.8
38.4
40.9
8.4
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
14767
7193
1583
95
13.0
44.5
100.0
4727
4728
13.8
40.0
100.0
9.0
39.3
100.0
4728
Fourth
quintile
Richest
quintile
4728
55.6
8.9
35.5
100.0
62.3
7.6
30.1
100.0
4727
Musical programmes were the most listened to among the adolescents, their popularity
increasing with increasing age. A corresponding decrease was seen in listening to drama
and documentaries (which usually include educational programs). More males listen to
music and drama compared to girls while the reverse is true in respect of documentaries.
As an ethnic group, Tamils had the lowest proportion of adolescents who identified
musical programmes as being the most popular type of programme among them. The
proportion of adolescents who reported musical programmes as their favourites increased
with improved socio-economic status (Table 3.58).
Table 3.59 presents the time of day most frequently spent listening to radio by
adolescents. Most adolescents irrespective of age, sex, ethnicity or socio-economic
condition listen to radio after 6.p.m. or during the 12 noon - 6 p.m. time period.
Table 3.59 The time of day spent
indicators
(Percentage)
Category
6-12 a.m.
All
19.3
Age categories
10-13 yrs
22.2
14-16 yrs
17.2
17-19 yrs
17.8
Sex
Males
20.4
Females
18.4
Ethnicity
Sinhalese
19.9
Tamil
16.7
Moor
18.3
Other
30.6
Socio-economic status
Poorest
14.7
quintile
Second
quintile
15.7
Middle
quintile
18.8
Fourth
quintile
21.2
listening to radio by selected socio-demographic
12 noon 6 p.m.
34.1
Night
46.6
Total
100.0
N
23638
32.3
34.3
38.4
45.5
48.5
43.9
100.0
100.0
100.0
7881
7968
7789
31.1
36.5
48.5
45.1
100.0
100.0
11188
12450
36.3
24.1
36.7
36.6
43.8
59.2
45.0
32.9
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
14767
7193
1583
95
32.2
53.1
100.0
4727
4728
30.6
53.7
100.0
35.1
46.1
100.0
35.4
43.5
100.0
4728
4728
Richest
quintile
23.7
36.2
40.1
100.0
4727
Watching Television
A very high proportion (87%) of adolescents reported watching TV. This proportion
increased with age and was marginally more among the boys. Tamil adolescents reported
lowest percentages and the proportions increased with increasing socio-economic
quintile.
Table 3.60 Percentage of adolescents who watch TV
Sample
All
Age categories
10-13 yrs
14-16 yrs
17-19 yrs
Sex
Male
Female
Ethnic differences
Sinhalese
Tamil
Moor
Other
Socio-economic status
Poorest quintile
Second quintile
Middle quintile
Fourth quintile
Richest quintile
% saying yes
86.8
N
26263
85.3
87.6
88.8
8756
8852
8654
87.8
86.0
12430
13833
88.1
81.4
86.2
89.2
16407
7992
1758
105
66.8
79.4
90.9
94.6
94.6
5253
5253
5253
5253
5254
Frequency of watching television
Most adolescents seemed to watch TV daily (80%). Only 14% and 7 % watched TV once
a week or at a frequency less than that respectively. Frequency of watching was higher
among boys compared to girls. The lowest frequency was among the Tamil adolescents.
Frequency of watching increased with increasing socio-economic quintiles (Table 3.61).
Table 3.61 Frequency of watching TV
(Percentages)
Sample
Daily
All
79.7
Age catego ries
10-13 yrs
76.4
14-16 yrs
81.2
17-19 yrs
84.2
Sex
Males
81.2
Females
78.5
Ethnicity
Sinhalese
85.1
Tamil
57.2
Moor
74.1
Other
83.2
Socio-economic status
Poorest
quintile
55.7
Second
quintile
71.9
Middle
82.6
quintile
Fourth
quintile
86.4
Richest
86.6
quintile
Once a
week
13.7
Less than
once a
week
6.6
N
Total
100.0
22796
15.9
12.8
10.2
7.7
6.0
5.6
100.0
100.0
100.0
7600
7685
7512
13.1
14.1
5.7
7.4
100.0
100.0
10790
12006
9.5
31.3
17.4
16.4
5.4
11.5
8.5
0.3
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
14241
6937
1526
92
30.7
13.6
100.0
4559
4559
19.4
8.8
100.0
11.1
6.3
100.0
9.0
4.6
100.0
9.0
4.4
100.0
4559
4559
4560
The Time of Day Mostly Used for Watching TV
Most common time of watching TV was at night followed by 12 noon to 6.p.m. Night
time watching increased with age and more girls watched after 6 p.m. compared to boys.
A higher proportion of Moors and Other ethnic groups appear to watch TV during the 12
-6 p.m. time period compared to the other ethnic groups. Afternoon watching was also
highest among the richest socio-economic quintile.
Table 3.62 The time of day mostly used for watching TV
(Percentages)
Category
6-12 a.m.
All
6.5
Age categories
10-13 yrs
7.8
14-16 yrs
6.2
17-19 yrs
3.8
Sex
Males
7.5
Females
5.7
Ethnicity
Sinhalese
6.3
Tamil
6.8
Moor
7.7
Other
5.4
Socio-economic status
Poorest
quintile
7.0
Second
quintile
7.9
Middle
6.0
quintile
Fourth
quintile
6.2
Richest
6.0
quintile
12 noon 6 p.m.
23.2
Night
70.3
Total
100.0
N
22796
28.4
21.5
14.2
63.8
72.3
82.1
100.0
100.0
100.0
7600
7685
7512
27.7
19.7
64.8
74.7
100.0
100.0
10790
12006
22.4
24.4
27.5
30.2
71.3
68.7
64.8
64.4
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
14241
6937
1526
92
23.1
70.0
100.0
4559
4559
23.2
68.9
100.0
22.7
71.2
100.0
20.0
73.8
100.0
26.9
67.1
100.0
4559
4559
4560
Most popular television programme
Compared to the radio (53%), the proportion who selected musical programmes as the
most popular type of programme watched was low (32%). More or less equal proportions
of adolescents selected tele-dramas (30%) and educational programmes (28%) as the
most popular type of TV programmes they watched. Watching drama and musical
programmes both increased with age while the percentage watching educational
programmes halved from the lowest to the highest age group. A higher proportion of girls
watched drama and educational programmes compared to boys. The highest proportion of
adolescents watching educational programmes was from the Moor community and from
the lowest socio-economic quintile. Watching musical programmes increased with
increasing socio-economic status (Table 3.63).
3.63 Most popular television programmes by age, sex, ethnicity and socio-economic
status
(Percentages)
Category Musical
Tele
N
Educational Films
Total
Programmes drama
All
32.1
29.5
28.1
10.3
100.0
22796
Age categories
10-13 yrs 30.0
24.9
37.5
7.6
100.0
7600
14-16 yrs 33.1
31.6
23.9
11.4
100.0
7685
17-19 yrs 34.8
35.4
15.9
13.8
100.0
7512
Sex
Males
38.4
25.7
22.8
13.2
100.0
10790
Females
27.2
32.6
32.2
8.0
100.0
12006
Ethnicity
Sinhalese 32.5
31.4
28.6
7.6
100.0
14241
Tamil
30.2
23.5
25.3
21.1
100.0
6937
Moor
33.4
27.0
31.1
8.5
100.0
1526
Other
40.4
20.5
4.8
34.3
100.0
92
Socio-economic status
Poorest
quintile
27.8
25.6
34.8
11.8
100.0
4559
Second
4559
quintile
29.3
29.4
27.8
13.5
100.0
Middle
4559
33.3
26.4
32.1
8.1
100.0
quintile
Fourth
4559
quintile
32.5
34.4
25.3
7.8
100.0
Richest
4560
34.3
29.3
24.3
12.1
100.0
quintile
Substance Abuse
The first smoke of a cigarette, the first taste of alcohol and some times the first use of a
narcotic drug (mood altering substances) occur mostly during adolescence. The survey
attempted to quantify the prevalence of smoking, use of alcohol and drugs and to study
the circumstances and factors influencing behaviour related to substance abuse.
Smoking
Prevalence of Smoking
Figure 3.37 Prevalence of smoking among adolescents
17.8
Percent
Boys
Girls
5.7
5.5
3.7
1.2
Ever smoked
Currently smoking
0.7
Smoked within
past week
(N; boys 9429, girls -10505)
Eighteen percent of boys and 6% of girls admitted that they have smoked at least once in
their lifetime. Prevalence of current smoking was 6 % and 1 % for boys and girls
respectively. Four percent boys and 1% girls reported smoking during the week
preceding the survey.
Table 3.64 Prevalence of smoking among adolescent boys by selected socio-demographic
indicators
(Percentage)
Category
Ever
Currently
Smoked with in past
N
smoked
smoking
week
All
17.8
5.7
3.7
9429
Age
14-16 yrs
14.3
4.8
2.8
4760
17-19 yrs
31.8
9.3
7.5
4669
Ethnicity
Sinhalese
20.0
6.4
4.1
5890
Tamil
8.8
2.5
2.2
2868
Moor
13.6
5.2
3.8
633
Socio-economic status
Poorest
15.0
5.3
3.0
1886
quintile
Second
19.0
6.5
4.4
1886
quintile
Middle
13.5
4.3
2.2
1886
quintile
Fourth quintile 19.4
5.3
4.1
1886
Richest
20.7
6.9
4.8
1886
quintile
All three measures of smoking prevalence increased with age. The highest prevalence of
all measures of smoking was observed among the Sinhalese and the lowest prevalence
among adolescents from the middle socio-economic quintile (Table 3.64).
Although the prevalence of smoking among girls was low, the pattern of smoking
behaviour, the age, ethnic and socio-economic differentials were similar to that observed
among boys (Table 3.65).
Table 3.65 Prevalence of smoking among adolescent girls by selected sociodemographic indicators(Percentage)
Category
Ever
Currently
Smoked with in past
smoked
smoking
week
All
5.5
1.2
0.7
Age
14-16 yrs
17-19 yrs
Ethnicity
Sinhalese
Tamil
Moor
N
1050
5
5.1
6.5
1.2
1.3
0.7
0.7
5304
5201
5.9
3.9
4.2
1.2
1.1
1.0
0.7
0.7
0.4
6562
3195
705
Socio-economic status
Poorest quintile
4.3
Second quintile
6.3
Middle quintile
5.1
Fourth quintile
5.3
Richest quintile
6.3
1.3
1.4
0.6
1.5
1.5
1.2
0.7
0.1
0.7
1.0
2101
2101
2101
2101
2101
Age at First Smoke
The mean age at which adolescent boys started smoking was 14 yrs (SD: 2.5 yrs;
Minimum 7 yrs; Maximum 19 yrs) and among girls 13 yrs (SD: 3.4 yrs; Minimum 7 yrs;
Maximum 18 yrs)). It is important to note that, even though fewer girls smoked than
boys, they start almost a year younger than boys.
Persons who Influenced Adolescent Boys to Start Smoking
Table 3.66 Type of persons who influenced boys to start smoking
Category
A friend
An
outsider
16.2
Total
N
70.1
A family
member
13.6
All
Age
14-16 yrs
17-19 yrs
100.0
1678
60.7
86.2
18.9
4.5
20.3
9.2
100.0
100.0
843
835
The person who influenced the majority of boys (70%) to smoke has been a friend. The
influence of friends increases sharply with increase of age. A noteworthy fact is that in
the younger age group, the influence of an outsider appears to be more than amo ng the
older cohort.
Table 3.67 Type of persons who influenced girls to start smoking
Category
A friend
An
outsider
39.5
Total
N
36.0
A family
member
24.5
All
Age
14-16 yrs
17-19 yrs
100.0
578
27.2
61.3
23.5
27.2
49.3
11.5
100.0
100.0
287
291
Unlike among boys a higher percentage of girls have been influenced to smoke by
outsiders (40%). Another feature is that in the older girls a friend has been the key
influence (61%) while among the younger the key influence remains an outsider (49%).
Circumstances When First Smoked
Table 3.68 Circumstances where the first smoke took place among boys
Catego
ry
At
home
While
with
friends
At a
sports
event
Other
Total
N
41.0
At
special
occasio
n (out
of
home)
31.3
All
Age
14-16
yrs
17-19
yrs
21.1
5.8
0.8
100.0
1678
26.0
35.0
31.0
6.9
1.1
100.0
13.0
50.9
31.6
4.0
0.5
100.0
843
835
The first smoke among boys had taken commonly while with friends (41.0%) and during
special occasions like parties, weddings etc. This general pattern is found among the
older boys, but among the younger cohort the pattern seems to be changing. Although the
majority had their first smoke with friends, a higher percentage of younger boys reported
having their first smoke at home compared to the older cohort.
Table 3.69 Circumstances where the first smoke took place among girls
Categor
y
At
home
While
with
friends
At a
sport
event
Other
Total
N
33.9
At
special
occasio
n (out
of
home)
20.0
All
Age
14-16
yrs
17-19
yrs
37.4
8.7
0.0
100.0
578
28.7
40.3
19.2
11.9
0.0
100.0
56.3
20.1
21.7
1.9
0.0
100.0
287
291
Interestingly the first smoke in the case of girls mostly took place at home, this is the
pattern in the older cohort but in the younger cohort the highest proportion smoked for
the first time while with friends.
Likely Reason for First Smoke
Peer pressure
Can't say
Emulate a
family
member
To prove
masculinity
To be
popular
As all
successful
people smoke
Had no guts
to refuse
All
Age
14-16 yrs
17-19 yrs
Total
Out of
curiosity
Table 3.70 The most likely reason for the first smoke among boys
(Percentage)
Category
56.8
12.3
15.3
4.8
3.7
1.7
0.5
4.9
100.0
1678
48.6
70.3
16.5
5.6
14.0
17.4
7.5
0.3
5.3
1.1
2.7
0.0
0.6
0.3
4.8
5.1
100.0
100.0
843
835
N
Most boys smoked out of curiosity, this reason being the commonest in the older cohort.
The percentage who said they smoked due to peer pressure has increased three fold in
the younger cohort (17%) compared to the older cohort (6%).
Peer
pressure
Can't say
Emulate a
family
member
To prove
masculinity
To be
popular
As all
successful
people
Had no guts
to refuse
All
Age
14-16
yrs
17-19
yrs
Total
Out of
curiosity
Table 3.71 The most likely reason for the first smoke among girls
(Percentage)
Categor
y
N
54.3
22.7
9.9
2.3
5.8
0.0
0.0
5.0
100.0
578
42.7
31.9
8.3
2.7
6.9
0.0
0.0
7.5
100.0
287
77.5
4.1
13.1
1.5
3.7
0.0
0.0
0.0
100.0
291
Curiosity was the commonest reason given for the first smoke among the girls too. There
was an eight fold increase in the proportion giving in to peer pressure among the younger
cohort of girls (32%) compared to the older cohort (4%). This pattern is similar to what
was observed among boys.
Attitude on Smoking
Table 3.72 Attitudes of adolescent boys on smoking
(Percentage)
Attitude
Agree
Students should not smoke
Smoking is a useless act
I am confident never to smoke
Smokers starts it as they have no gut s to refuse
Non smokers are healthier than others
Smoking is nothing to be worried
If there is a will, smoking can be stopped at
any time
(N =9429)
83.2
85.7
70.4
42.5
52.4
26.1
63.1
Disagre
e
10.4
8.9
12.7
31.0
31.8
54.2
16.4
Can’t
say
6.4
5.4
17.0
26.5
15.8
19.7
20.5
Total
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
Most adolescent boys (83%) agreed that students should not smoke and 86 % felt that
smoking was a useless act. A large proportion (70) % was confident that they would
never smoke. About 43% agreed that the inability to overcome peer pressure was the
reason for initiating smoking. It is important to note that only half of the adolescents
thought that non smokers were healthier. A lack of understanding about the possibility of
addiction to tobacco is seen among a large percentage who thought smoking could be
stopped at will at any time.
Table 3.73 Attitudes of adolescent girls on smoking
(Percentage)
Attitude
Agree
Students should not smoke
Smoking is a useless act
I am confident never to smoke
Smokers starts it as they have no gut s to refuse
Non smokers are healthier than others
Smoking is nothing to be worried
If there is a will, smoking can be stopped at
any time
(N = 10505)
88.7
90.5
89.0
41.7
57.9
21.2
60.0
Disagre
e
8.7
6.7
7.1
31.6
30.5
62.3
14.8
Can't
say
2.6
2.8
3.9
26.6
11.6
16.5
25.2
Total
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
More girls than boys agreed that students should not smoke (Boys, 83%; Girls, 89%), and
that smoking is a useless act (Boys, 86%; Girls, 91%), and were confident that they
would never smoke (Boys, 70%; Girls, 89%). A similar proportions of girls and boys
agreed that initiation of smoking was due to the inability withstand peer pressure (Boys,
43%; Girls, 42%). Marginally higher proportion of girls than boys were of the view that
non smokers were healthier than smokers (Boys, 52%; Girls, 58%). A higher percentage
of girls compared to boys disagreed with the statement that smoking is nothing to be
worried about (Boys, 54%; Girls, 62%). The girls too appear unaware of the possibility of
addiction to tobacco.
Alcohol Use among Adolescents
Prevalence of Alcohol Use
Prevalence of alcohol use among adolescents was ascertained. Information was obtained
on three measures of use, namely; ever use of alcohol, current use and use during the last
week.
Figure 3.38 Prevalence of alcohol use among adolescents
Percent
23.7
Boys
Girls
9.1
5.7
3.4
0.8
Ever used
Currently used
0.4
Used during last
week
N; boys 9429, girls -10505)
Nearly a quarter of the boys (24%) and a tenth of the girls (9%) reported that they had
used alcohol at least once in their life time, however only 6% of boys and less than 1% of
girls are current users of alcohol. Three of boys reported alcohol use during the week
preceding the survey.
Table 3.74 Prevalence of alcohol use among adolescent boys
(Percentages)
Category
Ever
Currently
Used with in past
used
using
week
All
23.7
5.7
3.4
Age
14-16 yrs
19.6
4.4
2.6
17-19 yrs
40.4
11.1
6.6
N
9429
4760
4669
Ethnicity
Sinhalese
26.1
Tamil
15.0
Moor
17.8
Socio-economic status
Poorest quintile
14.6
Second quintile
19.2
Middle quintile
24.9
Fourth quintile
27.6
Richest quintile
26.8
6.3
4.6
2.5
3.7
2.1
3.0
5890
2868
633
3.7
5.7
3.1
6.9
8.2
1.2
2.9
2.8
3.0
5.7
1886
1886
1886
1886
1886
Prevalence of alcohol use among boys rose rapidly from mid adolescents to late
adolescents. The rise was apparent in all three types of prevalence described. The highest
proportion of alcohol using adolescents was among Sinhalese, followed by Moors.
Prevalence of all measures of alcohol use increased with increasing socio-economic
status. It is important to note that 11% of male school goers in the 17-19 year age group
are current users of alcohol and that 7% had used alcohol in the week prior to survey,
indicating a fair prevalence of regular use. It may also be important to examine the
characteristics of those who were ever users but are not current users in order to
understand factors that favour discontinuation of use.
Among adolescent girls too, the proportion using alcohol increased with age. Surprisingly
the highest proportion of girls who had used alcohol was among Moors closely followed
by the Sinhalese, Tamils having the lowest prevalence. The lowest proportion of alcohol
use was seen in the middle socio-economic quintile (Table 3.75).
Table 3.75 Prevalence of alcohol use among adolescent girls
(Percentages)
Category
Ever used Currently
Used within past
using
week
All
9.1
0.8
0.4
Age
14-16 yrs
6.9
0.7
0.3
17-19 yrs
14.5
1.1
0.7
Ethnicity
Sinhalese
9.7
0.8
0.4
Tamil
6.0
0.9
0.1
Moor
10.7
0.5
0.9
Socio-economic status
Poorest quintile
9.0
0.7
0.6
Second quintile
9.0
0.7
0.6
Middle quintile
7.8
0.5
0.3
N
1050
5
5304
5201
6562
3195
705
2101
2101
2101
Fourth quintile
Richest quintile
10.5
12.3
0.5
1.8
0.4
0.5
2101
2101
Types of Alcohol Used By Adolescents
The most common type of alcoholic drink used by adolescents was beer (81.1%)
followed by Arrack (8.2%).
Figure 3.39 Types of Alcohol used by adolescents
Percent
81.1
Beer
8.2
Arrack
3.7
Toddy
Kassipu
1.3
Whisky
1.6
Brandy
1.5
Jin
2.7
(N = 19934)
Commencement of Alcohol Use
Adolescent boys initiate use of alcohol at an average age of 14.3y (SD: 2.1). Girls
initiate use around a similar age, the mean age being 14.1y (SD: 2.2).
Persons Who Influenced the First Alcoholic Drink
The majority of adolescent boys and girls were influenced by friends to consume alcohol.
The influence of outsiders is more in the younger adolescent male cohort compared to the
older cohort. Among the girls a little more than a third (37%) were influenced by
outsiders and the outsiders influence is more in the older cohort compared to the younger.
Table 3.76 Persons who influenced the first alcoholic drink among adolescent boys
Category
A friend
An
outsider
24.0
Total
N
73.1
A family
member
2.9
All
Age
14-16 yrs
17-19 yrs
100.0
2235
64.0
84.1
4.0
1.7
32.1
14.2
100.0
100.0
1124
1111
Table 3.77 Persons who influenced the first alcoholic drink among adolescent girls
Category
A friend
An
outsider
37.5
Total
N
60.7
A family
member
1.8
All
Age
14-16 yrs
17-19 yrs
100.0
597
66.3
56.0
0.0
3.3
33.7
40.7
100.0
100.0
297
300
Circumstances in which the First Alcoholic Drink Was Taken by Adolescents
Table 3.78 Circumstances of the first alcoholic drink was taken by adolescent boys
Catego
ry
All
Age
14-16
yrs
17-19
yrs
While
with
friends
18.0
At a
party
38.1
While
on a
trip
16.7
New
year/
Christma
s /other
festival
day
16.8
N
12.8
40.3
15.6
20.6
10.8
0.0
0.0
1124
26.2
34.8
18.4
11.0
7.1
0.8
1.7
1111
At a
weddin
g
9.3
At a
At a
sports
funeral event
0.3
0.7
2235
Table 3.79 Circumstances of the first alcoholic drink was taken by adolescent girls
Catego
ry
While
with
friends
At a
party
While
on a
trip
At a
weddin
g
At a
At a
funeral sport
event
N
11.1
New
year/
Christma
s /other
festival
day
23.9
All
Age
14-16
yrs
17-19
yrs
6.7
38.7
17.4
0.2
2.1
599
8.4
38.0
11.4
23.3
14.7
0.0
4.2
298
5.0
39.3
10.9
24.4
20.0
0.3
0.1
301
Most boys and girls took their first alcoholic drink at a party. The second commonest
occasion for boys was while with friends and for girls it was a special festival day (Table
3.78 and 3.79). The influence of outsiders appears to be more important for the younger
cohort of boys compared to the older boys. This pattern was not observed among girls.
Likely Reason for the First Alcoholic Drink
6.2
31.5
3.1
0.4
0.2
0.1
100.0
2235
40.1
47.8
8.3
5.0
7.1
4.7
30.7
32.7
4.2
1.4
0.0
1.0
0.0
0.5
0.0
0.3
100.0
100.0
1124
1111
Total
N
Out of curiosity
To show off
Had no strengths to
refuse
7.0
Out of curiosity
All
Age
14-16 yrs
17-19 yrs
To emulate my
father
Afraid of not being
accepted by friends
43.0
Category
No special reason
Thought could not
enjoy without it
Table 3.80 Likely reason for the first alcoholic drink among adolescent boys
The most common reason for the first alcoholic drink among adolescent boys (43.0%)
was curiosity to know what it was like. Almost one third could not identify a special
reason (31.5%). A similar pattern was seen among adolescent girls (Tables 3.80 and
3.81).
Out of curiosity
N
Had no guts to
refuse
To show off
To emulate my
father
No special reason
Total
All
Age
14-16 yrs
17-19 yrs
Thought could not
enjoy with out it
Afraid of being
cornered from
friends
Category
Out of curiosity
Table 3.81 Likely reason for the first alcoholic drink among adolescent girls
38.4
3.5
2.4
47.4
4.8
0.4
3.1
38.4
100.0
599
36.2
41.1
4.4
2.4
2.3
2.4
52.1
41.9
5.1
4.5
0.0
1.0
0.0
6.6
36.2
41.1
100.0
100.0
298
301
Alcohol Related Behaviour That Was Regretted
The adolescents who reported to have taken an alcoholic drink at least once were asked
whether they had ever experienced any incidents related to alcohol consumption that they
regretted later.
Figure 3.40 types of alcohol related behaviour that has caused adolescents regret.
Hurt the feelings of a
close one
Affected school work
30.8%
45.8%
Involvement with police
Fell in to bad company
8.3%
9.6%
5.6%
Was physically ill
(N = 2834)
The most commonly regretted experience following alcohol use was the experience of
physical ill effects. Almost one third (31%) reported that they regretted having had to
hurt some one close to them. About one tenth (10%) admitted that they regretted the bad
company they were in and about 6% regretted being confronted by law enforcement
authorities.
Attitude on Alcohol Use
The survey tried to ascertain the adolescent attitudes on some aspects of alcohol use.
Larger proportion of adolescents, both boys and girls were of the view that students
should not take alcohol (Boys, 84%; Girls, 90%). The proportions who thought that
taking alcohol is useless were also fairly high (Boys, 82%; Girls, 88%). Less than half of
adolescents (Boys, 43%; Girls, 44%) believed that people start to drink as they are not
strong enough to refuse. Only half of the respondents believed those who did not drink to
be healthier than those who consume alcohol. Half the respondents considered
consumption of alcohol a matter for concern. About two thirds believed that if there is a
will, use of alcohol could be stopped at any time (Tables 3.82 and 3.83).
Table 3.82 Attitudes of adolescent boys on alcohol use
(Percentages)
Attitude
Agreed
Students should not take alcohol
83.5
Not
agreed
10.7
Can't
say
5.8
Drinking alcohol is a useless act
82.4
10.5
7.1
I am confident never to drink any day
64.0
16.5
19.5
Drinkers start as they have no strength to refuse
42.8
33.4
23.8
Those who do not drink alcohol are healthier than
others
Taking alcohol is not a matter to be worried
49.7
35.3
15.0
30.4
50.9
18.6
If there is a will consuming alcohol could be stopped
at any time.
(N = 9430)
69.3
15.5
15.2
Tota
l
100.
0
100.
0
100.
0
100.
0
100.
0
100.
0
100.
0
Table 3.83 Attitudes of adolescent girls on alcohol use (Percentages)
Attitude
Agreed
Not
agreed
Can't
say
90.2
5.6
4.2
88.1
5.1
6.9
76.4
8.7
14.9
43.7
26.2
30.1
48.9
34.7
16.4
24.4
51.5
24.1
66.9
13.3
19.8
Students should not take alcohol
Drinking alcohol is a useless act
I am confident never to drink any day
Drinkers start as they have no strength to refuse
Those who do not drink alcohol are healthier than
others
Taking alcohol is not a matter to be worried
If there is a will consuming alcohol could be stopped
at any time.
(N = 10505)
Tota
l
100.
0
100.
0
100.
0
100.
0
100.
0
100.
0
100.
0
Abuse of Mood Altering Drugs
Only a small proportion of adolescents admitted that they had used some form of mood
altering drug. Table 3.84 presents the percentage of adolescents in mid and late
adolescence that reported ever use of different kinds of mood altering drugs.
Table 3.84 Prevalence of use of mood altering drugs among adolescents
% ever used
Drug
Boys ( N= 9430)
Girls ( N = 10505)
Ganja
6.9
0.8
Abin
2.6
0.4
Madana Modakaya
1.4
0.4
Heroin
1.5
0.1
As the proportion of girls who had taken mood altering drugs was very small further
analysis is restricted to boys.
Only 2.3 % (N = 712) had reported to have taken some form of mood altering drug
during past month. The mean age at first experimenting with a mood altering drug was
13.7 yrs (SD: 5.1).
Figure 3.41 Circumstances of mood altering drug occurred among boys
21%
19%
2%
At home
WIth friends
At a party
At a sports event
21%
37%
While on a trip
(N= 712)
Most adolescents have their first experience with mood altering drugs while in the
company of friends (37 %) and at parties (21%). Further 21% had tried drugs while on a
trip. Nineteen percentadmitted to have taken drugs at home.
Reproductive Health
Knowledge on Physiological Changes during Adolescence
Since knowledge on reproductive health was expected to vary according to the age of
respondents, questions in this section were made in the form of age appropriate modules.
The questions asked from adolescents in early adolescence were much simpler than those
asked from the adolescents in mid and late adolescence.
Knowledge on Reproductive Health among Early Adolescents (10 -13 Years)
Early adolescents were asked to identify the changes that take place in their bodies from a
list of changes given in the questionnaire.
Table 3.85 Knowledge of physiological changes of puberty in a girl
by selected socio-demographic indicators
(Percentage)
Increase
in
weight
&
height
35
Growth
of
axillary
&
pubic
Breast
hair
enlargement
24
22.9
Category
All
Sex
Males
17.7
11.4
Females 48.6
33.9
Ethnicity
Sinhalese 33.2
25.3
Tamil
40.8
19.3
Moor
41.1
22.6
Other
20.4
20.1
Socio-economic status
Poorest
quintile
33.6
18.6
Second
quintile
31.8
19.7
Middle
quintile
32.4
23.6
Fourth
quintile
35.3
23.8
Richest
quintile
43
35.2
Percentage
of overall
Increased Widening
correct
Menarche responses N
sweating of hips
21.4
23
28.5
25.8
9997
12.4
31.2
11.4
29.3
11.1
32.4
20.4
35.0
14.1
35.1
4736
5261
23.7
19
23.4
35.1
22
20.4
18.8
20.1
24.4
17.1
22.8
35.1
29.9
23.3
27
50.9
26.4
23.3
26.0
30.3
6245
3040
671
41
18.1
15.7
17.1
20.3
20.6
2000
18
18.3
20.5
24.1
22.1
1999
23.5
23.2
25.1
28.9
26.1
1999
21.3
20.4
19.9
31
25.3
1999
34.7
29.8
33
38.9
35.8
2000
Knowledge on the physiological changes of early adolescence among the 12-13 year olds
was not satisfactory. Only 35% could identify increase in height and weight as a
physiological change associated with puberty and only 29% were aware of menarche as a
physiological change that occurs during adolescence. Less than a quarter of the sample
were aware about growth of axillary and pubic hair, increased sweating, breast
enlargement and broadening of hips as physiological changes in a girl. As could be
expected more girls than boys were aware about the physiological changes that occur in
them. However, the proportions that knew different types of changes were always less
than half. There was no ethnic difference in knowledge but knowledge of physiological
changes increased with increasing socio-economic status (Table 3.85).
The awareness of the physiological changes that occur in boys was also poor correct
responses varying from 19- 32 %). As expected boys had more correct responses
compared to girls but even their knowledge was poor, percentage of correct responses
varying from (24-43%). No ethnic differences were noted. Here too percentage of correct
responses improved with increasing socio-economic status (Table 3.85)...
Less than one third of early adolescents were aware of the common variations seen in the
timing and rate of occurrence of adolescent physiological changes. Only 31% knew that
timing of menarche could vary, and 26% knew that there could be differences in the rate
of growth among them. Only 15% of adole scents were aware that a girl has the potential
to become pregnant after menarche. The knowledge seemed to increase with improving
socio-economic status. More girls than boys knew about menarche, where as more boys
than girls knew about the differential growth rate (Table 3.85).
Table 3.86 Knowledge of physiological changes of puberty in a boy by selected sociodemographic indicators
(Percentage)
Growth
Increase of
Percentage
axillary
in
of overall
weight &
Broadening
correct
&
pubic
Deepening of
Occurrence responses
Category height
hair
N
of voice
shoulders
of Acne
All
31.7
22.9
24.5
19.2
27.4
25.1
9997
Sex
Males
42.6
27.4
30.4
24.4
29.4
30.8
4736
Females 23.1
19.3
19.9
15
25.8
20.6
5261
Ethnicity
Sinhalese 29.8
23.4
23.9
20
30.6
25.5
6245
Tamil
38.6
21.8
25.1
15.6
16.8
23.6
3040
Moor
34.2
20.8
28.7
19.7
21.1
24.9
671
Other
30.1
20.1
30.1
20.1
15.8
23.2
41
Socio-economic status
Poorest
quintile
28
19
19.3
13.4
22.6
20.5
2000
Second
quintile
28
19.9
22.2
16.8
23.6
22.1
1999
Middle
quintile
31.8
21.9
22.3
19.7
31.4
25.4
1999
Fourth
quintile
32.8
22.6
26.1
19.7
29.6
26.2
1999
Richest
quintile
38.4
31.8
33.4
26.5
29.1
31.8
2000
Table 3.87 Knowledge of early adolescents on selected aspects of physiological processes
of adolescence by selected socio-demographic indicators
(Percentages)
Category
Some girls
Some boys
A girl who
Percentage
N
attain earlier growth in
has attained of overall
than others
height is
menarche
correct
slower than
has a
responses
others
potential to
become
pregnant
All
31.1
25.9
15.0
24.0
9997
Sex
Males
24.3
28.3
14.1
22.2
4736
Females
36.5
24
15.7
25.4
5261
Ethnicity
Sinhalese
30.3
Tamil
34.9
Moor
30.8
Other
25.8
Socio-economic status
Poorest
quintile
27.1
Second
quintile
27.9
Middle
quintile
31.4
Fourth
quintile
32.8
Richest
quintile
36.7
23.6
34.9
27.9
20.1
14.2
19.1
13.3
15.4
22.7
29.6
24.0
20.4
6245
3040
671
41
21.2
14.7
21.0
2000
25.4
14.7
22.7
1999
25.9
12.4
23.2
1999
27.7
15.0
25.2
1999
29.2
18.8
28.2
2000
Less than one third of early adolescents were aware of the common variations seen in the
timing and rate of occurrence of adolescent physiological changes. Only 31% knew that
timing of menarche could vary, and 26% knew that there could be differences in the rate
of growth among them. Only 15% of adolescents were aware that a girl has the potential
to become pregnant after menarche. The knowledge seemed to increase with improving
socio-economic status. More girls than boys knew about menarche, where as more boys
than girls knew about the differential growth rate (Table 3.87).
Knowledge of Reproductive Health among Mid and Late Adolescents (14-19 years)
Knowledge on Reproductive System and Function
Table 3.88 presents the percentage of correct responses to a series of age appropriate
questions on reproductive health .Very low proportions of respondents were aware of
sperm (46%) and ova (55%) production and conception (58%). The majority could not
provide correct responses to the statements related to male and female sex hormones.
Only 42% were aware that nocturnal emissions were a normal phenomenon, this being a
common cause of great anxiety. Only 32% knew the correct answer to the erroneous
perception in society that in sub fertility the problem is always with the woma n. The
share of adolescents that could correctly comment on the above statements increased with
age but even among the 17-19 year olds the level of knowledge varied from 47-80%.
There were no differences between the sexes or ethnic groups. Similar to the younger age
group the percentage correct responses to all questions increased with improving socioeconomic status (Table 3.88).
All
57.9
46.3
Age category
14-16
50.6
39.7
17-19
79.9
66.5
Sex
Males
55.2
46.0
Females 60.0
46.5
Ethnicity
Sinhalese 59.2
53.9
Tamil
51.6
11.8
Moor
56.4
40.4
Other
54.6
18.9
Socio-economic status
Poorest
48.3
29.8
quintile
Second
quintile
53.2
40.4
Middle
57.2
48.6
quintile
Fourth
quintile
62.7
52.6
Richest
63.6
52.9
quintile
N
the problem is always
initthe woman
Percentage of overall
correct responses
normal during
adolescence
Female hormones are
produced in ovaries
Breast enlargement
during adolescence is
due
In a to
subhormones
fertile couple
Male hormones are
produced in testes
Voice changes during
adolescence is due to
hormones
Nocturnal emission is
Union of a sperm and
ovum results in
producing an embryo
Sperm is produced in
Testes
Ova are produced in
ovaries
Category
Table 3.88 Percentages of adolescents that have correctly commented on the accuracy of
the statements on reproductive function by age, sex, ethnicity and socio-economic status
55.1 34.9
44.3
42.1
34.8 34.3
31.7 42.4
19934
48.1 31.0
76.5 46.9
38.2
62.6
39.0
51.5
30.6 29.5
47.7 48.7
24.8 36.8
52.6 59.2
10074
9860
51.9 36.1
57.8 34.0
42.9
45.4
44.6
40.1
32.7 33.0
36.6 35.3
26.0 40.9
36.3 43.6
9429
10505
56.7
47.1
56.5
53.7
34.5
35.6
37.4
42.8
44.2
43.7
46.0
55.6
42.4
38.8
45.3
52.7
36.2
27.4
36.1
40.5
31.1
34.3
32.4
26.0
12454
6069
1332
79
45.4 28.1
36.5
36.0
25.3 26.3
26.2 33.5
50.9 33.5
37.9
36.9
31.0 30.3
27.8 38.0
54.8 34.2
42.9
43.0
35.2 32.1
28.8 41.9
59.3 35.6
46.2
43.6
38.1 37.5
35.1 45.6
61.0 40.7
54.2
48.1
40.4 41.7
37.8 48.9
33.3
37.0
39.1
32.6
43.5
36.4
43.3
41.9
3987
3987
3987
3987
3986
Knowledge on Menstrual Pro cess
Adolescents in 14 –19 year age group were asked to comment on the accuracy of several
statements designed to cover the knowledge on menstruation and its associated practices.
Table 3.89 presents the percentages of adolescents that correctly commented on these
statements.
All
29.
3
39.7
Age categories
14-16
yrs
35.4
17-19
52.8
yrs
Sex
5.1
36.8
37.9
37.7
17.3
20.0
10.4
4.4
31.5
32.5
31.9
14.3
16.2
8.8
7.0
52.9
54.4
55.3
26.6
31.3
15.3
Males
27.2
Females
49.9
Ethnicity
Sinhale
se
43.1
4.9
23.8
28.2
29.1
16.4
19.9
10.7
5.2
47.4
45.9
44.7
18.1
20.0
10.2
4.9
38.9
38.1
39.2
17.8
20.5
10.6
Tamil
26.6
5.7
27.9
35.4
30.8
15.1
16.8
8.9
Moor
32.2
6.0
34.4
42.6
36.6
17.1
21.4
11.3
Other
21.3
2.8
Socio-economic status
Poorest
quintile 33.4
4.4
Second
quintile 36.5
5.0
34.2
33.0
44.7
33.3
33.5
26.7
30.7
33.1
32.4
13.5
19.2
8.2
35.8
36.3
33.4
15.4
16.0
9.6
25.
0
42.
2
22.
9
34.
5
30.
4
23.
9
28.
8
32.
8
25.
0
26.
9
N
Percentage of overall correct responses
A girl can get pregnant during the time
immediately before she reaches menarche
A girl may get pregnant following a single
sexual intercourse
After a girl attains menarche,
she is
capable of becoming pregnant
A girl can get pregnant only in the middle
of the menstrual cycle
if bleeding is heavy with clots and severe
pain the girl should seek medical advise
It is normal for menstrual cycle to be
irregular at its beginning
Menstruation is a process essential for the
cleansing of a woman’s body
Menstruation is a process during which
the lining of the uterus is shed every
month
Category
Table 3.89 Percentage of adolescents who correctly commented on the statements related
to menstruation by selected socio-demographic indicators
(Percentage)
1956
8
9884
9684
9264
1030
4
1222
4
5955
1311
78
3913
3914
Middle
quintile
Fourth
quintile
Richest
quintile
38.4
3.8
33.7
36.5
36.7
16.1
18.5
10.7
42.4
6.1
40.2
38.7
42.3
20.0
22.5
11.1
45.0
5.7
41.2
43.0
40.9
20.0
22.7
11.7
27.
8
31.
9
32.
9
3914
3914
3913
Approximately 40% of adolescents could correctly comment on the statements related to
menstruation such as; menstruation is a process during which the lining of the uterus is
shed every month, it is normal for the menstrual cycle to be irregular at the beginning and
if bleeding is heavy with clots and severe pain the girl should seek medical advise. Very
few (5%) knew that menstruation is not needed in cleansing of the female body. The
correct responses to the statements on pregnancy were given by less than one fifth of the
adolescents (Table 3.89).
Misconceptions about Practices during Menstruation
Misconceptions are considered to be quite common, regarding the routine activities of a
girl during her menstrual process. Adolescents were asked to comment on
appropriateness on engaging in several activities during menstruation. Table 3.90 shows
the percentage of adolescents who had correct concepts on these activities.
Table 3.90 Percentage of adolescents that could correctly comment on the statements
regarding misconceptions on the practices during menstruation by selected sociodemographic indicators
(Percentage)
During menstruation one should not:
eat
fish
All
20.8
Age category
14-16 yrs 17.4
17-19 yrs 31.0
Sex
Males
11.1
Females 28.7
Ethnicity
Sinhalese 21.6
Tamil
16.6
Moor
21.4
Percentage
of overall N
correct
responses
consume
Category
eat
meat
21.9
oily
foods
22.5
engage
in
sports
23.4
18.6
31.8
19.9
30.4
21.0
30.5
20.6
30
17.1
30.2
19.1
30.7
9762
9564
11.9
30.0
12.9
30.3
13.4
31.5
13.1
31
12.3
26.9
12.5
29.7
9149
10177
22.6
17.6
22.9
22.3
20.3
28.9
23.3
23.7
22.6
22.2
27.3
20.7
21.7
14
19.4
22.3
19.9
22.7
12073
5881
1294
visit
shrines
22.9
bathe
20.3
22.0
19326
Other
33.2
34.4
Socio-economic status
Poorest
15.9
17.2
Second
19.1
21.4
Middle
18.4
18.9
Fourth
23.2
23.9
Richest
25.3
26.2
46.1
34.9
37.9
33.2
36.6
77
20.5
20.9
20.1
24.1
25.9
20.8
23.2
21.9
23.5
26.7
22.4
22.9
20.1
23.4
25.7
14.1
18.1
18.7
21.4
26.8
18.5
20.9
19.7
23.3
26.1
3865
3865
3865
3865
3866
Approximately 1/5th of adolescents seemed to have correct understanding regarding the
appropriateness of engaging in sports, eating meat, fish and oily foods, and visiting
religious places while a woman is menstruating. More of those in late adolescence than
those in mid adolescence and more girls than boys were having a correct understanding
regarding these practices. Not much ethnic variation was seen in these proportions except
among “Others” (Malays and Burghers) where the proportions were relatively higher.
The proportion of adolescents with correct understanding regarding appropriateness of
routine activities increased with improving socio-economic status (Table 3.90)
Age at Menarche
Of the total sample of 15760 adolescent girls surveyed, 62% reported to have attained
menarche. Mean age at menarche was 12.5 years (SD = 1.8yrs) and median age was 13
years.
Knowledge on Conception, Pregnancy and Family Planning
Knowledge on Conception and Pregnancy
On average the adolescents’ knowledge on conception and pregnancy was not
satisfactory. Less than one fifth of adolescents had correctly commented on the first 4
questions (Table 3.91) given on these topics. A slightly higher proportion of adolescents
(24%) knew the answer to the question on signs of pregnancy. The proportions of
adolescents that correctly answered rose with age. The knowledge of boys and girls on
conception and pregnancy was not much different. However, more girls than boys knew
the answers to the questions on fertile period and signs of pregnancy (Table 3.91). Those
with knowledge were more common in higher socio-economic strata when compared to
lower socio-economic strata.
Table 3. 91 Percentage of adolescent s who could correctly answer the questions on
conception and pregnancy by selected socio-demographic indicators
(Percentage)
Can a
Can a
From one If yes, In
Percentage
woman get woman
menstrual what is sexually
of overall
pregnant
get
period to the
active
correct
the first
pregnant the next,
most
woman
responses
time she
at any
is their a likely
missing a
has sexual
time
specific
period? period
intercourse? during
period
may be a
Catego ry
her
during
sign of
N
menstrual which a
pregnancy
cycle?
woman is
more
likely to
get
pregnant?
All
16.5
Age category
14-16 yrs 12.9
17-19 yrs 27.2
Sex
Males
19.0
Females 14.4
Ethnicity
Sinhalese 17.1
Tamil
13.1
Moor
17.1
Other
7.0
Socio-economic status
Poorest
quintile
13.7
Second
13.8
quintile
Middle
quintile
16.3
Fourth
quintile
18.4
Richest
quintile
18.7
10.5
13.7
6.0
23.6
14.1
19676
7.9
18.5
10.0
24.9
4.4
10.9
18.1
40.2
10.7
24.3
9939
9737
10.1
10.9
12.8
14.5
5.5
6.4
16.9
29.0
12.9
15.0
9615
10061
10.5
9.9
11.6
22.3
14.3
12.5
9.7
13.4
6.3
5.1
4.8
7.8
24.6
18.0
24.8
14.6
14.6
11.7
13.6
13.0
12292
5987
1318
79
8.6
10.2
5.3
20.1
11.6
3936
10.6
12.1
4.0
21.5
12.4
3935
8.8
13.0
6.1
22.6
13.4
3935
11.1
15.1
7.5
24.2
15.3
3935
12.8
16.4
6.5
28.0
16.5
3935
Knowledge Regarding Child Bearing
Adolescents were also asked to comment on the accuracy of the following statements
related to child bearing.
Table 3.92 Percentage of adolescents that correctly commented on the accuracy of the
statements related to child bearing by selected socio-demographic indicators
(Percentage)
Induced Since
Teenage
If a mother
German
Percentage
abortion pregnancy is pregnancies
develops
measles
of overall
may
a
have more
German
could be
correct
even
physiological complications Measles
prevented
responses
lead to
process
early in
by
death
frequent
pregnancy it vaccination
Category
child bearing
can result in
does not
congenital
affect a
abnormalities
woman’s
in the baby
health.
All
42.3
18.6
Age categories
14-16 yrs 36.4
14.9
17-19 yrs 60.3
29.8
Males
36.9
16.9
Females 46.7
20.0
Ethnicity
Sinhalese 42.3
16.1
Tamil
41.3
30.3
Moor
45.0
19.2
Other
42.0
20.1
Socio-economic status
Poorest
35.7
19.8
quintile
Second
quintile
40.0
18.8
Middle
39.7
14.4
quintile
Fourth
quintile
45.6
19.5
Richest
47.8
21.1
quintile
N
34.0
31.1
35.2
32.2
19676
28.6
50.6
29.5
37.7
24.6
50.8
25.4
35.7
28.0
57.0
29.5
39.8
26.5
49.7
27.6
36.0
9939
9737
9615
10061
33.9
34.6
34.7
31.7
30.0
36.1
31.6
36.9
34.8
37.7
33.1
35.7
31.4
36.0
32.7
33.3
12292
5987
1318
79
28.7
30.3
27.9
29.8
3936
30.0
31.6
28.6
30.8
3935
29.4
33.3
27.6
31.9
3935
33.8
34.4
32.3
37.1
3935
37.8
39.0
37.6
43.7
The seriousness of induced abortions were known to less than half (42%) of the
adolescents surveyed. Problems of frequent child bearing were known by only (19%) of
3935
adolescents. Nearly one third of them knew teenage pregnancies have more
complications and about the importance of German measles (Table 3.92).
Knowledge on Contraception
Adolescents Who Have Ever Heard of Contraceptive Methods
Only 37% of adolescents reported that they had ever heard of contraceptive methods.
This proportion rose with age (14-16yrs, 28; 17-19yrs, 64%). Slightly higher proportion
of boys than girls had ever heard of contraceptive methods. The lowest proportion of
adolescents that had ever heard of contraceptive methods was among Tamils. The higher
the socio-economic level the higher was the proportion of adolescent who have heard of
contraceptive methods.
Table 3.93 Percentage of adolescents who have heard of contraceptive methods by
selected socio-demographic indicators
(Percentage)
% heard of
Category
N
contraceptive methods
All
36.6
19934
Age categories
14-16 yrs
27.7
10074
17-19 yrs
63.5
9860
Sex
Male
38.4
9429
Female
35.1
10505
Ethnic differences
Sinhalese
38.1
12454
Tamil
28.2
6069
Moor
37.7
1332
Other
51.8
79
Socio-economic status
Poorest quintile
24.8
3987
Second quintile
29.3
3987
Middle quintile
36.0
3987
Fourth quintile
41.0
3987
Richest quintile
46.5
3986
Contraceptive Methods Known To Adolescents
Table 3.94 Contraceptive methods known to adolescents by
selected socio-demographic indicators
(Percentage)
DepoCategory Condom Pills
IUD Norplant Vasectomy
Provera
All
28.9
24.2 8.3
5.7 2.3
2.2
Age categories
14-16 yrs 21.5
17.7 6.5
4.2 2.0
1.6
17-19 yrs 51.6
44.0 13.9
10.1 3.3
4.1
Sex
Males
35.4
25.7 9.7
7.1 3.1
2.9
Females 23.7
22.9 7.2
4.5 1.7
1.7
Ethnicity
Sinhalese 30.9
25.4 6.9
5.3 2.5
2.4
Tamil
21.6
19.2 13.9
6.5 1.5
1.6
Moor
23.4
22.2 11.7
8.0 2.2
2.4
Other
29.4
16.5 10.5
0.0 0.0
0.0
Socio-economic quintiles
Poorest
18.6
17.9 7.8
4.2 0.8
0.9
Second
21.3
19.9 7.3
3.5 1.8
1.5
Middle
28.0
22.4 6.3
4.6 1.9
1.8
Fourth
33.9
27.7 8.8
6.3 2.9
2.5
Richest
38.0
29.8 11.2
9.0 3.6
4.0
LRT ECP N
8.4
3.4
6188
5.8
16.2
2.2
7.1
3122
3066
8.1
8.6
3.6
3.2
2935
3253
8.5
7.7
8.6
11.7
3.0
5.3
3.5
1.7
3865
1881
416
25
6.2
6.0
8.3
8.8
11.5
3.1
2.2
2.4
3.7
5.3
1237
1238
1238
1238
1237
Condoms (29%) and pills (24%) were found to be the most commonly known
contraceptive methods to adolescents. The proportions of adolescents who were aware of
other contraceptive methods were relatively low. Emergency contraceptive methods were
known to only 3 % of adolescents. The proportion of adolescents who were aware of
contraceptive methods rose rapidly with age. For example the proportion of adolescents
who were aware of condoms rose from 22% to 52%. Where as the proportion who were
aware of emergency contraceptive methods rose from 2% to 7%. In general, more boys,
than girls were aware of contraceptive methods. Relatively more Sinhalese adolescents
were aware of contraceptive methods than adolescents from other ethnic groups. The
proportion of adolescents that were aware of contraceptive methods also rose with
increasing socio-economic status (Table 3.94).
Adolescents who Knew Dual Protection afforded by Condoms
Only 8 % adolescents were aware that condoms protect individuals from sexually
transmitted diseases in addition to its contraceptive benefit. This proportion rose with age
and socio-economic status. . More boys than girls were aware of the dual role of condoms
(Table 3.95).
Table 3.95 Percentage of adolescents who were aware of duel protection afforded by
condoms
Category
All
Age categories
14-16 yrs
17-19 yrs
Sex
Male
Female
Ethnic differences
Sinhalese
Tamil
Moor
Other
Socio-economic status
Poorest quintile
Second quintile
Middle quintile
Fourth quintile
Richest quintile
%
7.5
N
6188
5.6
13.2
3122
3066
9.8
5.6
2935
3253
8.2
3.4
9.6
10.8
3865
1881
416
25
4.5
5.7
7.0
8.5
10.5
1237
1238
1238
1238
1237
Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Adolescents Awareness on Different Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD).
Adolescents were first asked whether they know about any illnesses that could be
transmitted after a sexual union.
Table 3.96 Percentage of adolescents that were aware of different kinds of STDs by
selected socio-demographic indicators
(Percentage)
Awareness
Genital
Category
HIV/AIDS Gonorrhoea Syphilis Herpes
N
in general
warts
All
57.0
59.0
37.6
21.8
14.4
19.1
19934
Age category
14-16 yrs 51.0
53.6
35.0
20.3
12.5
18.0
10074
17-19 yrs 75.4
75.2
45.2
26.3
20.1
23.9
9860
Sex
Males
55.1
56.7
36.0
22.7
14.9
20.0
9429
Females 58.6
60.8
38.6
21.0
13.9
18.8
10505
Ethnicity
Sinhalese
Tamil
Moor
Other
Ethnicity
Poorest
quintile
Second
quintile
Middle
quintile
Fourth
quintile
Richest
quintile
58.3
50.9
57.2
61.1
58.5
59.7
62.6
63.5
41.1
21.0
36.5
34.2
22.4
17.5
25.2
12.2
15.1
9.8
15.6
16.9
21.0
8.2
18.3
20.4
12454
6069
1332
79
46.6
53.1
27.0
15.8
12.0
15.0
3986
53.1
55.2
34.6
19.1
12.1
16.3
3987
55.9
55.1
37.9
21.1
13.3
17.0
3987
59.3
63.0
41.2
23.1
14.9
23.4
3987
65.9
65.8
42.7
27.1
18.4
21.9
3987
Fifty seven percent of adolescents were aware of STDs. When considering the specific
types of STDs, the most commonly known type of STD was HIV/ AIDS (59%) followed
by gonorrhoea (38%) and syphilis (22%). The awareness on all kinds of STDs rose with
the age and socio-economic status. The awareness was lowest among Tamils. Not much
of a gender difference was seen in the proportions of adolescents who were aware of
STDs.
Knowledge on Symptoms and Sign of STD
Adolescents’ awareness of symptoms of STDs was found to be very low. The proportion
of adolescents who were aware of any form of STD symptoms and signs was less than
20%. The least known symptoms were enlargements of lymph nodes (8%) and lower
abdominal pain (12%). The proportion of adolescents who were aware of any form of
symptom seemed to rise with age. More boys, than girls were aware of STD symptoms.
Among Sinhalese was the highest proportion of adolescents who were aware of STD
symptoms. The adolescents who were aware of STD symptoms show a rise with the
socio-economic level (Table 3.97).
Table 3.97 Percentage of adolescents who were aware of symptoms and signs of STDs by
selected socio-demographic indicators
(Percentage)
Percentage
Foul
Itching Enlarged
Lower
of overall
Genital
Genital in
smell
lymph
Category abdominal
Dysurea
correct
N
secretions from
ulcers genital nodes in
pain
responses
genital
organs groin
All
12.4
Age category
14-16 yrs 12.3
17-19 yrs 12.6
Sex
Males
12.7
Females 12.1
Ethnicity
Sinhalese 12.3
Tamil
13.6
Moor
10.9
Other
10.8
19.1
18.7
15.5
16.2
13.2
7.5
14.7
19934
16.9
25.8
16.0
26.7
14.1
19.8
13.5
24.5
10.3
22.1
6.9
9.0
12.9
20.1
10074
9860
21.0
17.6
20.7
17.0
17.7
13.7
18.1
14.6
14.1
12.5
9.2
6.0
16.2
13.4
9429
10505
20.7
12.8
16.3
22.6
19.3
15.4
18.7
18.8
16.3
11.5
16.2
11.7
16.9
13.0
14.5
27.2
13.8
8.4
17.1
20.2
7.6
7.1
6.3
23.1
15.3
11.7
14.3
19.2
12454
6069
1332
79
Socio-economic status
Poorest
13.3
quintile 12.5
Second
quintile 11.2
17.7
Middle
16.2
quintile 11.5
Fourth
quintile 13.8
22.3
Richest
23.7
quintile 12.9
14.4
10.9
12.8
8.4
4.7
11.0
3986
17.8
13.6
13.4
11.5
7.9
13.3
3987
17.4
15.2
14.8
11.5
6.9
13.4
3987
22.2
17.3
18.0
14.7
7.4
16.5
3987
19.7
18.5
20.3
18.0
9.4
17.5
3987
Adolescents’ Knowledge on Prevention of Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Approximately one fifth or more adolescents were aware that abstaining from sex (21%),
using condoms while having sex (21%), and limiting sex to one faithful partner (24%)
could minimize the risk of contracting a STD. Avoiding sex with commercial sex
workers (18%), and homosexuals (11%) and postponing sex till marriage (8%) were
mentioned as preventive mechanisms by a relatively lower proportions of adolescents.
Table 3.98 Percentage of adolescents who were aware of different methods of preventing
STDs by selected socio-demographic indicators
(Percentage)
Limit
Avoid sex
Percentage
Postpone
Abstain
sex to
with
Avoid sex
of overall
Use
sexual
one
commercial with
correct
Category from
condoms
union till
sex
homosexuals
faithful sex
responses
marriage
partner workers
All
20.9
20.7
24.3
17.6
10.9
8.1
17.1
Sex
14-16 yrs 19.9
16.9
19.4
14.2
8.1
3.7
13.7
17-19 yrs 23.9
32.4
39.3
28.1
19.1
8.1
25.2
Males
22.0
27.3
27.2
20.1
12.3
4.9
19.0
Females 20.0
15.3
22.0
15.6
9.6
4.7
14.5
Sinhalese 19.6
21.3
24.4
18.5
11.3
3.1
16.4
Tamil
24.9
16.5
23.7
13.5
8.6
11.3
16.4
Moor
27.0
23.3
25.0
17.3
11.3
8.9
18.8
Other
15.7
19.8
29.9
13.9
0.5
15.0
15.8
Poorest
12.7
quintile
18.5
14.1
18.6
12.9
8.0
4.1
Second
14.2
19.1
17.3
21.2
15.1
7.2
5.1
quintile
Middle
14.8
quintile
19.8
18.4
22.9
14.9
8.3
4.4
N
19934
10074
9860
9429
10505
12454
6069
1332
79
3986
3987
3987
Fourth
quintile
Richest
quintile
18.9
22.2
24.4
26.6
20.5
13.6
6.1
3987
20.4
23.8
26.4
29.8
22.7
15.5
4.0
3987
In general, the awareness on preventive mechanisms increased with age. More boys, than
girls were aware of these methods. Overall knowledge on preventive methods rose with
improving socio-economic status (Table 3.98).
Adolescents’ Knowledge and Attitudes on HIV /AIDS
Knowledge on Methods of HIV Transmission
Several methods were proposed to the adolescents as possible modes of HIV transmission
and asked them to identify the correct modes of transmission. Table 3.101 presents the
percentages of adolescents who accurately identified correct and incorrect modes of HIV
transmission.
All
44.5
Age category
14-16 yrs 37.5
17-19 yrs 65.8
Sex
Males
44.9
Females 44.3
Ethnicity
Sinhalese 43.7
Tamil
47.2
Moor
47.9
N
Percentage of overall
correct responses
Sharing meals with an
infected person***
Through breast milk of
an infected mother
By sharing cloths with an
infected person ***
Living in same house as
an HIV infected
person***
Using non sterile needles/
syringes
Kissing***
If someone studies with
an HIV infected person
From a HIV infected
mother to newborn child
Through blood
transfusions
Through mosquito bites
***
Through unprotected sex
Category
Table 3.99 Percentages of adolescents who accurately identified correct and incorrect
modes of HIV transmission.
29.9 38.1 40.5 16.7 23.0 25.2 27.2 18.7 20.4 32.8 28.8 19934
23.1 32.0 32.9 14.0 17.3 18.8 24.0 13.4 14.3 27.1 23.1 10074
50.6 56.6 63.4 24.9 40.5 44.8 37.0 34.6 38.8 49.9 46.1 9860
28.3 36.5 37.8 15.1 21.3 23.9 25.8 17.7 19.5 29.9 27.3 9429
31.2 39.4 42.7 18.0 24.5 26.3 28.4 19.5 21.2 35.1 30.1 10505
30.8 38.0 40.4 15.6 23.3 25.3 26.5 18.5 19.7 33.5 28.7 12454
26.8 38.6 40.1 21.9 23.0 24.5 30.0 18.8 23.4 30.7 29.5 6069
26.9 38.3 41.6 17.1 21.2 26.0 29.1 20.9 21.7 29.2 29.1 1332
Other
61.9 32.9 42.9 53.8 11.5 12.7 18.5 44.8 23.9
Socio-economic status
Poorest
37.8 22.2 32.1 32.8 15.4 17.3 18.7 27.4 13.7
Second
38.6 27.2 34.7 34.3 15.6 21.6 23.2 25.2 17.4
Middle
42.4 27.4 34.3 38.8 15.0 19.9 22.7 24.9 16.1
Fourth
48.2 30.6 40.8 44.6 17.2 24.0 26.0 27.2 21.2
Richest
52.3 39.0 46.0 48.1 19.7 30.2 33.0 31.4 22.8
(*** % identified the response as incorrect a mode of transmission)
30.2 40.1 33.9 79
15.1
17.8
16.1
22.8
28.0
26.9
28.5
30.7
34.2
40.8
23.6
25.8
26.2
30.6
35.6
Approximately 40% of adolescents knew HIV could be transmitted through unprotected
sex with infected persons (45%), through blood transfusions (41%), and from infected
mother to her new born child (38%). Proportion of adolescent who were aware that HIV
could be transmitted through sharing injection needles with infected persons (33%), and
through breast milk of infected mothers (27%) were relatively low.
The adolescents who knew that HIV could not be transmitted through casual contacts
with HIV infected persons such as sharing meals, living in the same house , kissing, and
through mosquito bites were less than 25 %.
Adolescents’ Awareness on the Behaviours That Increases the Risk of Getting HIV
Infection
Table 3.100 Percentage of adolescents that knew about high risk behaviours by selected
socio-demographic indicators
(Percentage)
Men
Women
Having sex Percentage
Men
having
having
with
of overall
having
multiple
multiple
commercial correct
Category
N
sex with
sex
sex
sex
responses
men
partners
partners
workers
All
23.4
40.9
38.5
35.8
34.7
19934
Age category
14-16 yrs
21.7
36.6
34.3
31.2
31.0
10074
17-19 yrs
28.4
54.1
51.0
49.7
45.8
9860
Sex
Males
23.7
41.6
38.1
36.4
35.0
9429
Females
23.1
40.4
38.7
35.3
34.4
10505
Ethnicity
Sinhalese
23.6
42.3
40.4
38.5
36.2
12454
Tamil
21.4
33.4
29.6
23.6
27.0
6069
Moor
25.7
42.1
36.8
33.4
34.5
1332
Other
29.0
54.9
41.5
29.8
38.8
79
Socio-economic status
Poorest
16.6
33.5
30.6
26.3
26.8
3986
Second
22.4
38.9
34.9
30.2
31.6
3987
3986
3987
3987
3987
3987
Middle
Fourth
Richest
22.2
26.2
26.8
40
43.3
46.3
37.6
42.4
43.3
35.4
39.9
42.7
33.8
38.0
39.8
3987
3987
3987
Nearly 40 % of adolescents were aware of the high risk behaviours such as men having
sex with multiple women (41%), women having sex with multiple men (39%), having
sex with commercial sex workers. The proportion of adolescents who knew that men
having sex with men as high risk behaviour was relatively low (23%) (Table 3.100).
The knowledge on high risk behaviours seemed to increase with age. Not much of a
difference was observed in the proportion of adolescents who knew about high risk
behaviours. Relatively less Tamil adolescents were aware on the high risk behaviours
when compared to the adolescents from other ethnic groups. Those who were aware of
high risk behaviours rose with rising socio-economic levels.
Adolescents Awareness on Prevention of HIV Infection
Nearly two thirds or more of adolescents were not aware of methods of HIV prevention.
Only 34% of adolescents knew abstinence as an option to prevent HIV infection. Using
condoms while having sex (26%), limiting sex to one faithful partner (29%), and
avoiding sex with many sexual partners (25%) and with homosexuals (18%) was known
to a relatively low proportion of adolescents. Avoiding non sterile needles and syringes
was known to only 17 % of adolescents as a method of prevention (Table 3.101).
Table 3.101 Percentage of adolescents who were aware of modes of HIV prevention by
selected socio-demographic indicators
(Percentage)
Having
Percentage
only
of overall
Avoid
Use
one
correct
Avoiding
Avoiding using
Abstain condoms faithful
responses
sex with
many
non
Category from
while
sexual
homosexuals sex
sterile
sex
having
partner
partners needles
sex
who is
/syringes
not
infected
All
33.9
25.8
29.1
17.9
25.1
17.6
24.9
Age
14-16 yrs 33.9
22.1
24.1
15.4
21.5
15.2
22.0
17-19 yrs 33.8
37.0
44.0
25.3
36.0
24.9
33.5
Sex
Males
33.4
32.9
30.7
20.0
24.8
17.0
26.5
Females 34.3
20.1
27.7
16.1
25.3
18.1
23.6
Ethnicity
Sinhalese 33.1
26.3
29.8
18.5
25.3
19.2
25.4
Tamil
35.6
22.3
25.5
14.9
24.4
10.1
22.1
N
19934
10074
9860
9429
10505
12454
6069
Moor
38.7
27.8
Other
45.9
31.2
Socio-economic status
Poorest
32.1
17.6
Second
31.2
22.0
Middle
33.2
24.0
Fourth
36.8
29.9
Richest
34.9
31.9
28.3
50.9
16.8
23.7
23.1
41.5
16.7
21.9
25.2
35.9
1332
79
22.1
25.6
28.5
30.9
35.1
12.4
13.7
16.9
20.6
23.0
19.8
21.4
24.3
27.6
29.6
12.2
14.4
16.1
20.3
22.6
19.4
21.4
23.8
27.7
29.5
3986
3987
3987
3987
3987
Adolescents’ Attitudes on HIV/AIDS Patients
Adolescents were asked to mention whether they agree or not with a set of statements
regarding the attitudes towards HIV /AIDS patients.
Figure 3.42 Adolescents Attitude on HIV/AIDS patients
People with HIV/ AIDS also has the same
rights as the others
People with HIV /AIDS should be kept
isolated
34.4
15.9 16.5
I will not hesitate to involve in care of
persons who have become very sick with AIDS19.4
I will not get upset if a student with HIV
/AIDS is in my classroom
I will not hesitate to take meals with a person
known to have HIV/AIDS
23.9 13.4 28.3
19.2
35.3
22.9
23.1
34.6
25.1
21.5
34.1
19.6 20.4 23.2
Percent
Strongly agree Agree
(N= 19934)
32.3
Do not agree
Not certain
36.8
Table 3.102 Adolescents Attitude on HIV/AIDS patients
Attitude statement
I will not hesitate to take meals
with a person known to have
HIV/AIDS
I will not get upset if a student with
HIV /AIDS is in my classroom
I will not hesitate to involve in care
of persons who have become very
sick with AIDS
People with HIV /AIDS should be
kept isolated
People with HIV/ AIDS also has
the same rights as the others
Strongly
agree
19.6
20.4
Do not
agree
23.2
Not
certain
36.8
19.2
25.1
21.5
34.1
19.4
22.9
23.1
34.6
15.9
16.5
35.3
32.3
34.4
23.9
13.4
28.3
Agree
Approximately 1/3rd of adolescents were not certain of the different attitudinal
dimensions towards HIV/AIDS patients. Little more than 20% of adolescents did not
agree with the statements; I will not hesitate to take meals with a person known to have
HIV/AIDS, I will not get upset if a student with HIV /AIDS is in my classroom and I will
not hesitate to get involved in the care of persons who have become very sick with AIDS.
Thirty two percent of adolescents were of the view that HIV/AIDS patients should be
kept isolated. However majority agreed (58 %) agreed that People with HIV/AIDS also
have the same rights as the others (Table 3.102).
Adolescents Attitudes on HIV /AIDS by Age
Table 3.103 Adolescents’ attitudes on HIV /AIDS by age
Age
Attitude statement
14-16 yrs
( N= 10074)
I will not hesitate to take meals
with a person known to have
HIV/AIDS
I will not get upset if a student
with HIV/AIDS is in my
classroom
I will not hesitate to involve in
care of persons who have
become very sick with AIDS
People with HIV/AIDS should
be kept isolated
Strongl
y agree
17.0
17.6
Do not
agree
24.2
Not
certain
41.2
16.0
22.8
22.1
39.1
17.3
20.7
23.0
39.1
16.6
15.6
30.3
37.4
Agree
17-19 yrs
(N = 9860 )
People with HIV/ AIDS also
has the same rights as the
others
I will not hesitate to take meals
with a person known to have
HIV/AIDS
I will not get upset if a student
with HIV/AIDS is in my
classroom
I will not hesitate to involve in
care of persons who have
become very sick with AIDS
People with HIV/AIDS should
be kept isolated
People with HIV/AIDS also
has the same rights as the
others
30.9
21.3
14.2
33.6
26.7
27.9
20.6
24.8
27.8
31.3
20.0
20.9
24.9
28.7
23.6
22.8
13.8
19.0
48.7
18.6
44.0
30.7
11.2
14.1
Adolescents’ attitudes towards HIV/AIDS infected persons seemed to become more
favourable with increasing age.
Adolescents Attitudes on HIV/AIDS by Sex
Boys seemed to have more favourable attitudes with regard to having meals together,
studying with HIV infected and providing care for AIDS patients when compared to girls.
However more girl than boys had favourable attitudes towards patients’ rights (Table
3.104)
Table 3.104 Adolescents attitudes on HIV /AIDS by sex
Sex
Attitude statement
Male
(N =9423 )
I will not hesitate to take meals
with a person known to have
HIV/AIDS
I will not get upset if a student
with HIV/AIDS is in my
classroom
I will not hesitate to involve in
care of persons who have
become very sick with AIDS
People with HIV/AIDS should
be kept isolated
Strongl
y agree
Agree
Do not
agree
Not
certain
22.8
21.9
22.7
32.6
21.6
27.2
22.5
28.7
22.4
21.8
24.3
31.5
19.1
18.3
32.8
29.8
Female
(N =10505 )
People with HIV/AIDS also
has the same rights as the
others
I will not hesitate to take meals
with a person known to have
HIV/AIDS
I will not get upset if a student
with HIV/AIDS is in my
classroom
I will not hesitate to involve in
care of persons who have
become very sick with AIDS
People with HIV/AIDS should
be kept isolated
People with HIV/AIDS also
has the same rights as the
others
37.2
23.0
13.4
26.5
17.3
19.2
23.6
39.9
17.4
23.6
20.8
38.2
17.1
23.7
22.3
36.9
13.4
15.2
37.1
34.3
32.4
24.5
13.5
29.6
Intimate Relations & Sexual Behaviour
Adolescents Who Had Love Affairs
Less than 1/3rd, (27%) admitted of ever having a love affair and 15% admitted currently
having a love affair. Very high proportion of adolescents (93%) was of the view that
parents’ have the right to inquire into their love affairs. The proportion was higher among
the adolescents in the older age group and among girls. This reflects the strong family ties
Sri Lankan adolescents have with their families.
Table 3.105 Percentage of adolescents who had love affairs by selected sociodemographic indicators
(Percentage)
% thought
parents
have the
Currently having a
Category
Ever had a love affair
right to
N
love affair
inquire in
to their
affairs
All
27.2
15.4
93.3
19934
Age categories
14-16 yrs
21.4
11.7
92.1
10074
17-19 yrs
43.0
25.6
96.2
9860
Sex
Males
30.2
19.3
90.8
9429
Females
24.9
12.4
95.1
10505
Ethnicity
Sinhalese
28.1
15.1
94.5
12454
Tamil
21.5
15.6
87.3
6069
Moor
29.3
17.6
93.3
1332
Other
36.5
27.4
80.4
79
Socio-economic status
Poorest
quintile
19.9
11.0
90.6
3986
Second
quintile
26.5
13.7
93.0
3987
Middle
26.8
14.5
93.9
3987
quintile
Fourth
quintile
29.7
16.7
93.7
3987
Richest
29.7
18.8
93.9
3987
quintile
A sharp rise was observed in the proportions of adolescents reporting to have love affairs
with age. More boys, than girls admitted to have love affairs. The proportion of
adolescents with love affairs seemed to rise with socio-economic level. However, the
proportion of adolescents who thought that their parents had the right to inquire into their
love affairs remained more or less static across the poverty quintiles. The mean age at
starting a love affair among adolescents was 14.8 yrs (SD: 1.6yrs). There was no gender
difference in the age at which love affairs started (Table 3.105).
Prevalence of Sexual Exposure among Adolescents
One fifth of adolescent’s reported that they knew of friends who were engaging in sex. A
small proportion of adolescents (6%) reported that they have had sex with a member of
the opposite sex. The prevalence homosexual experience was 10%.
Table 3.106 Prevalence of sexual intercourse among adolescence
Category
% who had
friends
having
hetero
sexual
intercourse
20.5
All
Sex
Males
40.1
Females
10.7
Socio-economic quintiles
Poorest
21.0
Second
21.2
Middle
20.0
Fourth
21.9
Richest
19.1
% who has
ever had
hetero
sexual
intercourse
% who
have had
Total
homosexual
relations
N
6.1
10.2
100.0
9860
13.9
2.2
18.2
3.6
100.0
100.0
4664
5196
5.8
6.6
4.1
6.0
7.3
17.5
10.9
11.4
12.5
6.1
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
1972
1972
1972
1972
1972
A significantly higher proportion of boys than girls reported to have had sexual
experiences. The percentage of adolescents who have ever had heterosexual experience
was lowest in the middle socio-economic quintile. It was highest in the richest quintile.
The proportion that had homosexual experiences was highest among the poorest and
lowest among the richest (Table 3.106).
Age at First Sexual Intercourse
The mean age at first sexual intercourse was 15.3 yrs (SD: 2.1 yrs) for males and 14.4 yrs
(SD: 2.6 yrs) for females.
Person with Whom Adolescent Had Their First Sexual Intercourse
Table 3.107 Person with whom adolescent had their first sexual intercourse
Category
All
Sex
Males
Females
With
girl/boy
friend
42.5
45.8
35.2
38.2
With a
With a
commercial
relative
sex worker
10.6
8.6
33.9
53.4
12.6
0.0
With a
friend
7.7
11.4
Total
N
100.0
601
100.0
100.0
284
317
Most sexual debuts (43%) occurred among lovers (girl/boy friends). A significant
proportion of sexual debuts were between friends who were not in love. Little more than
one tenth of adolescents (11%) have had their sexual debut with commercial sex workers.
A relatively smaller proportion (9%) had their first sexual experience with a relative. The
proportion who has had their first sexual debut with a relative was more among girls
(Table 3.107).
Use of Condoms at the Last Sexual Contact
Table 3.108 Percentage of adolescents who had used condoms while having intercourse
Category
All
Sex
Males
Females
24.1
% who
used
condoms
during the
last time
they had
sex
16.7
33.1
14.2
24.2
7.6
% Ever
used a
condom
Total
N
100.0
601
100.0
100.0
284
317
Almost quarter (24%) of adolescents admitted to ever using condoms while having sex.
The proportion that had used condoms at the last intercourse was 17%. More boys than
girls reported to have used condoms (Table 3.108).
Sexual Abuse in Adolescence
Sexual Abuse among Early Adolescents (10 – 13 years)
Awareness on Sexual Abuse of Children
Only 26% of adolescents in 10 -13 age group were aware of sexual abuse.
Prevalence of Sexual Abuse among Early Adolescents
About 10% of adolescents were reported to have been victimized in sexual abuse. There
was no sex difference in the proportions of adolescents who were aware of sexual abuse.
More boys than girls were reported to be sexually abused (Boys, 14%; Girls, 8%). The
proportion of adolescents who were aware of sexual abuse was more common in the
higher socio-economic quintiles. The highest proportions of sexually abused early
adolescents were from the poorest socio-economic class (Table 3.109).
Table 3.109 Percentage of early adolescents (10 – 13 yrs) who have ever heard of sexual
abuse of children by sex, and socio-economic status
Category
% aware of
sexual
abuse
All
25.5
Sex
Males
25.1
Females
25.8
Socio-economic quintile
Poorest
23.8
Second
23.5
Middle
23.3
Fourth
23.5
Richest
34.4
% aware
of a friend
who was
abused
11.3
% who
were ever
abused
N
10.1
9977
15.5
8.3
13.8
7.5
4719
5258
15.8
11.2
7.6
9.7
13.3
14.2
11.9
8.2
6.9
10.0
1996
1995
1995
1995
1996
Perpetrators who Abused Early Adolescents (10 – 13 years)
More than half (57%) of the early adolescents were abused by a family member. Further
36% were abused by a relative, who is not a family member. The proportion of early
adolescents who were abused by outsiders was relatively low (8%). The proportion of
girls who have been abused by a family member was more than that of boys (Boys, 50%;
Girls, 63%) (Table 3.110).
Table 3.110 Person who have abused early adolescents
Category
All
Sex
Males
Females
56.7
A relative
(not a
family
member)
35.8
50.4
62.9
42.9
28.6
A family
member
An
outsider
Total
N
7.6
100.0
1008
6.7
8.5
100.0
100.0
4719
5258
Sexual abuse among mid and Late Adolescents (14 – 19 years)
Prevalence of Sexual Abuse among Mid and Late Adolescents
The adolescent in the age group 14 – 19 years (mid and late adolescents) were asked
whether they have ever been sexually abused. Table 3.111 presents the percentage of
adolescents who reported that they were abused.
Table 3.111 Percentage of mid and late adolescents who were sexually abused
Category
All
Sex
Males
Females
Socio-economic status
Poorest quintile
Second quintile
Middle quintile
Fourth quintile
Richest quintile
% who were abused
13.6
N
19334
13.8
13.4
9429
10505
10.1
10.9
13.3
14.8
16.8
3987
3987
3987
3987
3986
About 14% of adolescents between 14-19years admitted that they were sexually abused
by some one. Males and female s seemed to be equally victimized. The proportion abused
rose with socio-economic status.
Perpetrators Who Were Reported to Have Abused Mid and Late Adolescents
Table 3.112 Type of persons who were reported to have abused mid and late adolescents
Category
All
Sex
Males
Females
37.8
A relative
(not a
family
member)
27.0
34.3
40.5
30.3
24.4
A family
member
An
outsider
Total
N
35.2
100.0
2629
35.3
35.1
100.0
100.0
1244
1385
The perpetrators of sexual abuse among mid and late adolescents were more or less
equally distributed among the categories; family member (38%), a relative who was not a
family member (27%) and an outsider (35.2%). More females than males were victimized
by family members (Boys, 34%; Girls, 40%) (Table 3.112).
Late Adolescent Girls Who Have Been Forced To Have Sex
Late adolescent girls were specifically asked whether they have been forced to have
sexual intercourse by some one. Nearly 3% (N= 5258) girls admitted that they were
forced to have sex. Eighty one percent(N= 260) of them were abused by a relative where
as only 18 % were victimized by an outsider.
District Variations of the Issues among School-going Adolescents
District variations of adolescent problems seemed to demonstrate somewhat complex
pattern. However, in general distinct differences were seen between the adolescents from
Northern and Eastern Provinces and those form other provinces.
Future Goals: Adolescents goals showed a wide variation across districts. A relatively
higher proportion of adolescents in the districts of the Northern and Eastern provinces
wished to be doctors, engineers, accountants and nurses when compared to the
adolescents form other areas of the country. The proportions ranged from 40 % in Jaffna
and 51 % in Batticaloa. It is important to note that these war stricken areas are probably
have the least favourable environments to materialise such goals as the educational and
other social systems in these areas were heavily disrupted due to the war. This pattern
may reflect mere aspirations rather than critically evaluated goals. On the other hand the
establishment of peace after the cease fire agreement may have instilled hopes among
adolescents in the North and East. The districts, Ratnapura, Matale, Hambantota,
Gampaha and Colombo had the highest proportions of adolescents with out future career
goals (Table 3.115). The reasons influencing the career choices varied around the
country. For example, the proportion of adolescents whose career decisions were solely
based on parental influence, ranged from 2 % in Polonnaruwa district, the lowest, to 15
%, the highest, in Manner district. The national average of the same indicator was 6 %
and 12 out of 25 districts had a figure higher than the national average. It is important to
note tha t 7 out of 9 districts belong to the Northern and Eastern regions were among these
12 districts (Table 3.116). With the exception of Jaffna district, majority of (more than 80
%) adolescents form districts in Northern and Eastern provinces; Trincomalee, Mulaitive,
Vavunia, Mannar, Batticaloa and Kilinochchi, said that they would keep on trying until
they reach their goals. The proportion of adolescents who would try an alternative option
was shown to be lowest in these districts when compared to districts form the southern
parts of the country (Table 3.115).
Likes and dislikes about self: Adolescents from the North and East seemed to be
somewhat neutral with regard to the self attributes. Proportions of adolescents who did
not like anything about them selves were relatively lower in the Northern and Eastern
districts where as the proportions with no dislikes with self were relatively higher among
adolescents from the districts in the Northern and Eastern provinces. The most liked
attributes across the country was the academic talents. The shares of adolescents who
liked academic talents were highest in the districts from the North and East (Tables 3.
116 & 3.117).
Popularity: About 62 % adolescents in Sri Lanka processed a sense of self popularity.
Sixteen districts of the country had an estimate lower than the national average. Northern
districts; Vavunia , Batticaloa, reported the proportions lower than 50 %( Table 3.118).
Feelings regarding family: Adolescents who reported that they felt their families as
intimate and close ranged from 41 % 63%. Those from Matara, Kalut ara, and Colombo
district reported the highest proportions of adolescents who felt that way. These
proportions were lowest in the Anuradhapura, Kegalle and Puttalam districts.
Adolescents who wished to leave families as they did not like the family, were highest in
the districts from North and East ( Table 3.119).
Perception on academic performances: Adolescents varied in the manner they
perceived their academic performances across districts. Those form the North and East
seemed to relatively modest in their perceptions reflected by majority choosing the
response “average”. Those who rated their performances as better than others, ranged
from 16 % to 57 %. The highest figure reported from the Matara district where as the
lowest reported from Kilinochchi district. The adolescents who perceived that their
performances were poorer than others ranged from 0.5 % to 13 % with the largest
proportions were shared by the adolescents form the districts in the North and East
(3.120). Nearly or over ninety percent of adolescents from all 25 districts reported that
their parent’s and teachers expected them to perform better academically. Marked
variation was seen between the adolescent in the North and East and those in other areas
with regard to how they would react to the pressure exerted on them due to those
expectations. Considerably higher proportions of adolescents (over 70%), from the
Northern and Eastern districts reported that they had been pressurized due to parents and
teachers expectations, where as lower proportions (less than 30 % on the average) those
from other areas did so (Table 121) . Adolescents from urban districts like, Colombo,
Galle, Kalutara, Kandy seemed to have relatively higher proportions of adolescents who
reported to feel guilty and feel angry with themselves due to the academic pressure.
Perception on Security: Seven to twenty two percent and 16% to 40 % of adolescents
reported to feel insecure at home and in their living environments. As expected the more
adolescents from the North and East region felt insecure in their homes and living
environments when compared to the adolescents from the other regions (Table 3.123).
Key worries and general happiness: Wide variations were seen in the key worries of
adolescents across the country. Proportions without key worries were highest in the
Gampaha, Galle and Polonnaruwa districts. Proportion of adolescents identified “Fear of
failing an examination” as the key worry ranged from 20 % to 39 % from Galle to
Ampara district. Financial constraints were mostly identified as the key worries of
adolescents form the North and East region (Table 124). Proportion of adolescents
reported negatively, to the question asking their general happiness ranged form 6.5 % in
Mannar to 0.7 % in Kegalle. The national average for the same indicator was 1.7 % and
12 out of 25 districts reported the proportions exceeding the national average. Those who
positively answered, saying life was good, also sho wed a variation (39% to 68%).
Matara, Nuwara Eliya , Puttalam , Badulla and Colombo Districts reported relatively
higher proportions of adolescents who answered positively.
Relationships: Indicators reflecting adolescents’ family relations showed a wide
variation between the Northern and Eastern districts and other regions of the country. The
positive indicators such as the proportions of adolescents who would love to spend time
with their families were lowest in these districts where as negative indicators such as the
proportions of adolescents who reported that some members of their families get on their
nerves were highest in these districts (Table 3. 126). However, paradoxically, the
adolescents who perceive their families as refuges in times of problems were also higher
among Northern and Eastern districts (Table 3.127). Parents support to the decisions
taken by adolescents was considered as a facilitating factor for healthy adolescents,
parent relationships. When asked whether their parents were supportive of their
decisions, proportions of adolescents who reported as “never” ranged from 3 % to 11 % .
Colombo, and Matara districts had the highest proportions where as the districts from the
North and East region reported the lowest, such proportions( Table 3. 128).
The proportions of adolescents who could remember an occasion when their parents
approved one of their decisions regarding family a ma tter was also highest among those
form the North and East( Table 3.129). It seems that despite more adolescents from the
North and East region reporting that they would not love to spend times with their
families, and worried about their family relationships, the other indicators reflecting
parent-adolescent relationships such as support on decisions , approving adolescent’s
views were more favourable for them
districts.
when compared with adolescents from other
Puttalam (22%), Badulla (21%), Anuradhpura (20%), Nuwara Eliya (20%) and Gampaha
(19%) districts were having the largest proportions of adolescents who missed a close
friend. Lowest proportions who felt the same way were reported form the North and East
districts (Table 3.130).
Friends seemed to be the most preferred free time companions of adolescents from the
districts; Batticaloa (70%); Vavunia (68%); Mannar (62%); Ampara (59%) and Jaffna
(59%). Five leading districts where parents were identified as the most frequently
associated free time companion were; Galle (62%), Kalutara (53%), Matara (50%), and
Kegalle (49%) (Table 3.131).
Sixty-eight percent to eighty percent adolescents reported to have trustworthy person at
home. Those who had trustworthy persons at home were most prevalent in Galle (92%),
Batticaloa (89%), Matara (86%), Badulla (86%) and Colombo (85%) districts. Vavunia
(68%) and Kilinochchi (69%) had the lowest proportions (Table 3.132). Mother was the
most trusted person at home for the adolescents from all around the country. However,
the share of adolescents who considered the mother as the most trusted person was
distinctly lower in the districts from the North and East (Kilinochchi, 22.5%; Vavunia,
23.9%; Mullaitivu 31.7%; Mannar, 32.9%, Jaffna, 40.0%). All these districts were
inhabited by a Tamil majority (Table 3. 133 ). Table 3.134 presents the district variations
in the most preferred person with whom adolescents liked to discuss their personal
matters. The adolescents from the districts with predominantly Tamil populations;
Vavunia, Mannar, Kilinochchi, Batticaloa, Trincomalee, Nuwara Eliya, Jaffna, Ampara
and Mullaitivu identified friends as the most preferred person to tell their personal
matters, where as in other districts mother had been identified by largest proportion of
adolescents .
Social Capital: Adolescents’ social capital was assessed by the proxies such as the
proportion who felt that a friend would come forward to help them in an illness /
emergency, whether they considered teachers to be source of help in such situations, and
also using the social capital score described in the section 3.22. Adolescents who were
very confident that friends will come forward to help them were highest among Kalutara
(76%), Ratnapura (76%) and Gampaha (72%) districts. This proportion was lowest in
Vavunia (33%), Batticaloa, and Kilinochchi districts. The adolescents who were not
confident of friends help, in an emergency were highest in Kilinochchi (12%), Mannar
(12%), Trincomalee (8%), Ampara (7%), and Vavunia (8%), districts. The same
proportion was lowest in the Colombo (2%) district (Table 3.135). The adolescents who
considered teachers as very much a help for their problems was highest in the districts of
Gampaha (45%), Kurunegala (39%), Kalutara (39%) and Matara (39%). It was lowest in
the districts of the North and East province. The proportion of adolescents who did not
consider teachers as help were highest in Polonnaruwa (40%), Kegalle (39%) and
Ratnapura (38%) districts. It was lowest in the districts in the North and East province.
The adolescents in the North and East, who were mainly Tamils, saw teachers as a source
of help but mostly to a certain extent. This could be expected as most of their problems
could have been related to the war and all were equally helpless (Table 3.136).
Role models: The pattern of heroes identified by adolescents form different parts of the
country showed a complex pattern. However one of the clearest trends was the
identification of a family member as the most frequent hero by the adolescents from the
districts in the North and East. Probably they were inspired by their family members who
were involved in the war that prevailed in these areas (Table 3.138).
Decision making, Communication, Critical thinking , Creativity and Problem
solving skills: Skills of adolescents with regard to above life skills were assessed by
using hypothetical scenario method described in the section 3.23. According to the
scenario A; the proportion of adolescents who trusted their father’s judgment was highest
among districts of Kilinochchi (87%), Vavunia (85%) and Mannar (68%). The
adolescents who would not go as they were afraid to disobey their fathers were highest in
the Polonnaruwa (29%), Gampaha (27%), Kandy (26%) and Colombo (25%) districts
(Table 3.139).
According to the scenario B; The adolescents from the districts from North and East;
Vavunia (74%), Batticaloa (67%), Mannar (62%) and Kilinochchi (60%) had the largest
proportions of adolescents who would listen to their fathers advice. The proportions who
would try to explain their point of view and try to win their fathers consent was highest in
the districts Kalutara (41%), Monaragala (40%), Ratnapura (38%) and Gampaha. Those
who would try to argue their point of view was highest in the districts of Mullaitivu
(25%) , Jaffna (23%), Colombo (21%), Kilinochchi (17%), Trincomalee (17%), Mannar
(16%), Batticaloa (15%) and Ampara (14%). It is important to notice that all of these
districts except Colombo are mostly inhabited by Tamils (Table 3.140).
According to scenario C; The districts from North and East; Jaffna (66%), Mannar
(52%), Ampara (59%), Kilinochchi (55%), Trincomalee (53%) reported the highest
proportions of adolescents who would prevent the incident. Those who would not
intervene as they thought they could not stop it were highest in Polonnaruwa, Kandy,
Batticaloa and Colombo districts (Table 3.141).
According to scenario D; The highest proportions of adolescents who would be urged to
smoke by peers were found in the districts of Hambantota (16%), Mullaitivu (14%),
Kilinochchi (13%), Colombo (12%) and Vavunia (12%). It was lowest in Ratnapura
(2%), Ampara (4%) and Kalutara (4%) Monaragala (6%) Hambantota (7%), Colombo
(4%) and Kandy (4%) had the largest proportions of adolescents who thought it was all
right to smoke (Table 3.142).
Table 3.143 presents the probable reactions of adolescents when they would come to the
age of getting married. The proportion of adolescents who thought that selecting a partner
was their own right was highest among Gampaha (31%), Colombo (26%), Kilinochchi
(25%) and Kurunegala districts (22%). This proportion was lowest in Kegalle (12%) and
Ratnapura (13%) districts. According to the majority of adolescents of the districts form
North and East, they would look for parent’s advice in selecting their future partner.
Kilinochchi (56%), Batticaloa (50%), Mullaitivu (48%), Jaffna (47%), Mannar (46%),
Vavunia (46%), Trincomalee (40%) and Ampara (37%).
Perception on prestige: Perception on prestige was accessed to have an insight on the
critical thinking ability and the value systems of adolescents. Proportion of adolescents
who thought that hailing from a good family was important to the prestige was highest
among districts from the North and East; Vavunia (90%), Batticaloa (87%), Mannar
(83%), and Kilinochchi (80%). Proportion who thought academic performance as
important to the prestige was also highest among the districts from the North and East
with the exception of Nuwara Eliya ( Nuwara Eliya,96%; Kilinochchi, 96%; Jaffna,96%)
(Table 3.144).
School environment: The highest proportions of adolescents who enjoyed schooling was
form Batticaloa (99%), Vavunia (98%), Jaffna (98%) and Mullaitivu (96%) districts. The
lowest proportion (87%) was from the Gampaha district (Table 3.148). Hambanthota
(25%), Kilinochchi (24%), Kalutara (23%), Colombo (22%) and Galle (22%) districts
reported the highest proportions of adolescents who were absent from school for 3 or
more days during last month (Table 3.149). Table 3.150 presents the reasons for
absenteeism by districts. The proportion of adolescents who gave being ill as the reason
for absenteeism was highest in the Kalutara (95%), Badulla (95%) and Gampaha (94%)
districts. The highest proportions of adolescents who said they did not attend classes
during last month as they were purposefully avoiding classes were among Batticaloa
(11%), Galle (8%), Polonnaruwa (8%) and Colombo districts (7%). The highest
proportion of adolescents who did not attend school, as they had no money to buy books
and cloths was from Puttalam (9%), Kilinochchi (7%), Ampara (6%), Mannar (6%) and
Ratnapura (6%) districts. The proportion of adolescents that did not attend school due to
lack of transport facilities were highest in the districts of Vavunia (9%), Anuradhapura
(9%), Nuwara Eliya (8%) and Kegalle (7%). Table 3.151 presents the patterns of
harassments experienced by the adolescents from their peers. Highest proportions of
those who have never been harassed were reported from Vavunia (43%), Jaffna (42%),
Galle (41%), Trincomalee (35%) and Hambanthota (34%) districts. The adolescents who
reported to experience physical attacks were highest in Colombo (26%), Mullaitivu
(25%), Kalutara (22%) and Mannar (21%) districts. The highest verbal abuse proportions
were reported by the adolescents from Batticaloa (34%), Colombo (34%), Puttalam
(33%) and Mannar (29%) districts. The highest proportions of adolescents who were
ever involved in harassing others were reported form Mannar (23%), Kilinochchi (18%),
and Mullaitivu districts. It was lowest in Matara (5%) and Galle (7%) districts (Table
3.151).
Punishments were common in schools. Proportions of adolescents who reported ever
been punished in schools were highest in Puttalam (92%), Kurunegala (88%) and
Colombo (85%) districts. The proportions were lowest in Kilinochchi (52%), Vavunia
(54%), Jaffna (57%) and Ampara (62%) districts (Table 3.153).
Extra curricular activities: Table 3.155 present the distribution of adolescents by their
degree of involvement in extra curricular activities such as participating in societies or
clubs by districts. Except in the Nuwara Eliya district, the districts with the highest
proportions of actively involved adolescents were mainly from the North and East region
of the country; Batticaloa (27%), Mullaitivu (25%), Mannar (23%), Nuwara Eliya (23%),
Ampara (22%), Jaffna (21%) and Trincomalee (21%). However, Nuwara Eliya district
also share a common characteristic of having a larger proportion of Tamils as in these
other districts. Highest proportions of adolescents who said they did not participate in
extracurricular activities as they have too much academic work were from Matale (24%),
Kegalle (12%), Monaragala (22%), and Matara (22%) districts. The districts, Batticaloa
(6%), Jaffna (9%), Vavunia (7%) districts reported the lowest proportions of such
adolescents (Table 3.157). Table 3.158 presents the percentage of adolescents that
reported to be engaged in income generating activities. The highest proportions of
adolescents who were engaged in income generation activities were from the districts in
the Northern and Eastern provinces; Vavunia (32%), Mannar (21%), Mullaitivu (21%),
Jaffna (20%), Kilinochchi (18%), Batticaloa (17%), and Trincomalee (16%). The lowest
proportions were seen in the districts of; Galle (3%), Kalutara (5%) and Badulla (5%).
Smoking: The adolescent boys from Kandy (29%), Kurunegala (28%), Polonnaruwa
(27%), Putthlum (256%) and Nuwara Eliya (23%) reported the highest proportions who
ever smoked. The proportion ever smoked was lowest in the districts Kilinochchi (2%),
Vavunia (3%), Batticaloa (5%), Jaffna (5%), and Ampara (8%). The highest proportions
of girls who ever smoked were reported from Kegalle (10%), Colombo (10%) and
Polonnaruwa (9%) districts. This proportion was lowest in the districts Kilinochchi
(0.4%), Mannar (1.0%), and Vavunia (1.6%).
The mean age at which adolescent boys started smoking was 14 yrs (SD: 2.5 yrs;
Minimum 7 yrs; Maximum 19 yrs). The figure 3.43 presents the district variation in the
mean age at which boys started to smoke. Ratnapura, Kurunegala, Puttalam and Matara
and Polonnaruwa reported the lowest ages at which smoking was started.
Alcohol use: Table 3.163 presents the prevalence of ever use of alcohol among
adolescents according to districts. The districts; Kurunegala (43%), Puttalam (42%),
Kandy (37%), Kalutara (30%) and Colombo (27%) had the highest proportions of
adolescent boys who ever used alcohol. Vavunia (2%), Kilinochchi (3%) and Batticaloa
(5%) had the lowest proportions of adolescents who ever used alcohol. Figures 3.45 and
3.46 present the mean ages at start of alcohol use among adolescent boys and girls,
according to districts. Adolescent boys who use alcohol started to use alcohol at the
average age of 14.3y (SD: 2.1). The mean age at start of alcohol use among girls was
14.1yrs (SD: 2.2). Batticaloa district reported the oldest starters of alcohol use in both
boys and girls. The earliest was in the Ratnapura district (Figures 3.43 and 3.44).
Knowledge on reproductive health: Only a selected number of questions that reflect
different dimensions of reproductive knowledge were used to ascertain the district
variations in the knowledge on physical growth and physiological changes among early
adolescents . Table 3.164 presents the district variation in knowledge. On average;
Colombo, Jaffna, Batticaloa, Kalutara and Kandy distrcts recorded relatively higher
proportions of adolescents(10 -13 years) with knowledge on physiological changes
during adolescence.
Table 3.165 presents the district differences in the average knowledge of adolescents on
reproductive system and function. On average the knowledge of the adolescents from the
districts in the North and East region and Nuwara Eliya district was lower than that of the
adolescents in other areas. The knowledge on menstruation also showed a similar pattern
(Table 3.166). The knowledge on conception, pregnancy and child bearing was found to
be lowest among adolescents in the districts of Northern and Eastern provinces and
among those from Nuwara Eliya district (Table 3.168). Colombo (49%), Kalutara (47%),
Puttalam (43%) and Kurunegala (42%) districts reported the highest proportions of
adolescents who had heard of contraceptive methods (Table 3.169). Table 3.170 – 3.176
show the district differences in the proportions of adolescents who were aware of
different STDs.
Of the total sample of 15760 adolescent girls surveyed, 62% reported to have attained
menarche. Mean age at menarche was 12.5 years (SD = 1.8yrs) and median age was 13
years. Table 3.167 presents the district variations in the mean age at menarche among
adolescent girls. There was not much of an inter-district variation observed in the mean
age at menarche.
Sexual abuse: Adolescents ( 10 – 13 years) who were aware of sexual abuse were
highest form the Gampaha , Colombo and Hambantota districts. The proportion of
adolescents who were aware of sexual abuse ranged between 10 % to 47%. The highest
proportions of adolescents who were victims of sexual abuses was reported from the
districts, Badulla, Matara and Polonnaruwa ( Table 3.177). Wide district variation was
seen in the proportions of mid and late adolescents who were been sexually abused. The
prevalence ranged from 1 % in Kilinochchi to 18 % in Galle. On the average the
adolescents form the districts of North and East had lower prevalence of sexual abuse (
Table 3.113).
Engineer
Accountant
Nurse
9.2
16.9
17.9
21.1
22.5
13.2
13.2
14.4
13.2
13.1
11.1
26.4
14.3
6.2
9.5
6.4
5.2
12.5
7.2
7.2
3.8
5
5
7.9
3.3
4.8
6.3
4.9
4.5
1.8
Total
Doctor
35.3
35.5
33.6
32.8
39.4
22.2
Miscellaneo
us
Teacher
1205
1200
1206
1200
1210
1390
Businessma
n
Not certain
Colombo
Gampaha
Kalutara
Kandy
Matale
Nuwara Eliya
N
District
Table 3.113 Future goals according to districts
(Percentages)
6.7
5.2
4.3
5.1
2.8
1
10.9
9.8
11.4
11.6
9.5
14.9
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
Galle
Matara
Hambantota
Ampara
Kurunegala
Puttalam
Anuradhapura
Polonnaruwa
Badulla
Monaragala
Ratnapura
Kegalle
Jaffna
Kilinochchi
Vavunia
Mullaitivu
Mannar
Trincomalee
Batticaloa
Sri Lanka
1203
1203
1198
1440
1206
1200
1203
1200
1188
1193
1200
1197
1200
1101
1062
1048
1006
1318
1070
29847
19.9
21.7
36.6
16.9
23.2
30.4
28.0
35.0
24.6
30.7
39.7
25.3
26.6
25.6
22.3
20.3
22.4
16.8
23.6
28.2
25.5
26.6
17.4
31.8
13.5
20.9
17.2
18.2
15.7
20.1
14.4
18.7
25.5
23.7
25.0
24.8
29.2
24.9
23.5
19.9
17.5
18.7
15.7
21.1
13.9
18.5
17.5
11.5
28.2
18.8
17
17.2
23.7
24.0
18.6
23.9
25.3
21.5
26.3
16.8
7.8
5.6
5.5
4.9
14.6
5
3.4
5.6
8.4
6
5.8
7.8
11.3
22.9
16.9
16.8
4.4
18.1
14.6
8.6
6.7
2.9
2
14.5
3.7
3.6
11.1
4.7
2.5
5.1
1.7
4.8
3.1
1.9
4.9
5.3
5.5
7.2
9.4
5.7
9.1
6.2
5.8
3.7
6.9
5.6
3
5.9
7.1
6
9.4
5.8
2.2
2.1
0.3
0.9
2.2
1.2
0.5
5.2
5
1.6
2.6
2
7
5.6
5.5
6.2
3.3
2.9
2.4
3.2
0.2
0.2
0.7
0.9
1.1
1.6
1.6
4.1
8.7
16.7
14.5
5.1
17.3
10.4
14.2
12.9
10.3
10.6
9.6
17.2
7.4
1.9
11.3
7.1
9.9
8.7
0.5
11.5
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
Table 3.114 Reasons behind career selection according to districts
(Percentages)
District
N
Personal Parents
choice
choice
Colombo
Gampaha
Kalutara
Kandy
Matale
N’ Eliya
Galle
Matara
Hambantota
Kurunegala
Puttalam
Anuradhapura
Polonnaruwa
Badulla
Monaragala
Ratnapura
Kegalle
Jaffna
Mannar
Vavunia
Mullaitivu
Kilinochchi
Batticaloa
Ampare
Trincomalee
Sri Lanka
573
595
581
567
564
736
578
574
565
689
572
569
580
565
566
558
576
576
578
608
508
492
477
566
498
14313
65.7
53.9
55.6
62.5
53.0
48.7
48.9
54.0
50.9
31.0
56.4
53.4
52.9
64.4
64.7
51.6
60.8
52.8
27.3
39.4
40.7
34.0
34.2
43.7
48.9
53.0
7.9
5.3
2.6
4.1
5.0
8.1
4.1
3.5
8.6
7.8
4.7
4.1
1.8
7.1
2.7
2.9
8.6
4.6
15.0
8.4
8.6
6.2
6.3
4.4
11.1
5.6
Choice
of
parents
and
mine
8.8
22.1
13.8
6.6
14.7
19.7
13.7
11.5
10.7
20.9
13.8
19.4
16.3
7.5
9.9
12.2
12.1
13.3
32.6
29.6
36.4
39.2
34.2
22.6
15.1
15.4
As it is
it suits
the
my
common
talents
choice
1.0
0.3
1.1
0.0
0.4
0.0
0.9
0.5
1.9
0.0
1.7
0.2
3.3
0.0
1.6
0.8
1.9
3.9
2.3
0.0
0.0
1.3
0.7
2.3
0.8
17.7
17.7
27.7
25.6
27.2
23.1
33.2
30.1
29.3
38.4
25.2
21.4
28.8
17.6
22.7
31.7
17.8
27.4
21.3
20.3
14.3
20.6
24.1
28.5
22.6
25.3
Total
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
Table 3.115 Adolescents’ reaction to failure of reaching career goals by district
(Percentages)
Keep on
Look for
trying
Make up an
I am not
District
N
Total
my mind alternative sure
until I
reach it
career
Colombo
573
63.4
4.0
30.3
2.3
100.0
Gampaha
595
66.2
8.3
20.9
4.6
100.0
Kalutara
581
65.2
7.9
25.9
1.0
100.0
Kandy
567
64.0
9.6
21.7
4.8
100.0
Matale
564
58.6
5.1
30.5
5.9
100.0
N’ Eliya
736
80.3
2.6
13.9
3.2
100.0
Galle
578
58.8
3.7
36.8
0.7
100.0
Matara
574
68.7
2.8
26.2
2.3
100.0
Hambantota
565
66.7
6.7
20.6
6.0
100.0
Kurunegala
689
70.7
7.5
20.3
1.5
100.0
Puttalam
572
61.8
4.6
29.3
4.3
100.0
Anuradhapura
569
62.0
6.9
29.4
1.7
100.0
Polonnaruwa
580
62.3
7.6
27.4
2.7
100.0
Badulla
565
70.1
9.1
15.4
5.4
100.0
Monaragala
566
52.2
7.9
35.8
4.1
100.0
Ratnapura
558
62.7
8.0
26.4
2.9
100.0
Kegalle
576
65.7
7.9
23.9
2.6
100.0
Jaffna
576
63.5
7.0
21.4
8.1
100.0
Mannar
578
83.8
6.4
8.6
1.2
100.0
Vavunia
608
89.2
4.5
5.3
1.0
100.0
Mullaitivu
508
89.9
4.3
4.3
1.4
100.0
Kilinochchi
492
78.9
8.4
9.5
3.2
100.0
Batticaloa
477
82.3
6.3
7.6
3.8
100.0
Ampare
566
74.8
7.4
14.4
3.3
100.0
Trincomalee
498
91.4
5.5
2.0
1.2
100.0
Sri Lanka
14313
66.8
6.3
23.7
3.3
100.0
Table 3.116 Attributes that adolescents most like about themselves by districts
(Percentages)
Distrct
N
Academic Aesthetic Sport
Appearance talents
abilities
talents
Colombo
Gampaha
Kalutara
Kandy
Matale
N’ Eliya
Galle
Matara
Hambantota
Kurunegala
Puttalam
Anuradhapura
Polonnaruwa
Badulla
Monaragala
Ratnapura
Kegalle
Jaffna
Mannar
Vavunia
Mullaitivu
Kilinochchi
Batticaloa
Ampare
Trincomalee
Sri Lanka
801
826
804
794
788
1026
801
804
792
956
802
794
802
792
794
783
800
799
801
843
704
690
660
782
696
19934
37.3
29.9
37.2
33.9
30.1
26.8
39.9
26.9
31.6
26.4
31.5
31.6
33.0
36.1
34.4
36.0
35.6
37.0
20.4
14.8
17.7
26.5
25.6
27.2
16.5
32.0
57.2
53.0
58.0
49.9
45.3
50.7
66.1
62.2
60.9
72.8
59.5
58.1
57.3
55.7
56.8
59.6
53.4
58.0
57.9
45.0
44.9
61.9
70.0
69.3
77.4
58.3
38.5
40.9
52.8
47.2
37.7
40.8
60.9
32.1
48.6
45.1
54.1
47.5
47.2
43.5
45.8
46.6
41.3
55.5
16.4
19.9
18.6
33.9
33.3
39.2
23.4
44.6
31.2
37.5
30.4
29.5
25.8
33.1
38.7
25.2
44.2
30.5
35.2
37.4
33.9
34.9
33.7
32.4
29.3
35.4
24.1
10.5
12.9
32.7
24.4
34.0
17.1
32.2
Do not
like
anything
about
self
19.6
10.0
18.9
17.7
21.3
19.0
12.4
10.7
14.3
14.5
11.7
8.7
17.2
15.8
14.8
14.0
14.7
13.4
9.9
9.8
5.9
14.2
15.6
8.5
12.4
14.3
Table 3.117 Attributes that adolescents most dislike about themselves according to
districts
(Percentages)
No
Being not
As not
About my
District
N
dislikes on good in
good in
appearance
the self
sports
studies
Colombo
801
26.7
26.1
23.5
18.0
Gampaha
826
49.7
18.6
11.8
10.7
Kalutara
804
33.6
26.5
14.8
12.0
Kandy
794
35.9
19.7
17.1
14.6
Matale
788
33.2
16.8
14.4
15.2
Nuwara Eliya
1026
49.2
15.8
5.9
10.1
Galle
801
37.7
24.2
21.5
14.7
Matara
804
42.9
19.9
17.6
10.3
Hambantota
792
34.6
25.8
25.5
25.2
Ampara
956
57.6
22.9
12.3
17.4
Kurunegala
802
30.3
25.2
21.0
18.6
Puttalam
794
37.2
17.9
16.4
15.7
Anuradhapura
802
25.8
26.3
22.3
18.5
Polonnaruwa
792
34.9
20.2
14.4
13.5
Badulla
794
33.1
23.1
19.8
10.5
Monaragala
783
36.1
22.7
22.7
17.7
Ratnapura
800
27.9
16.2
13.6
17.2
Kegalle
799
26.3
29.2
30.3
19.7
Jaffna
801
43.8
19.3
11.2
10.1
Kilinochchi
843
43.7
2.7
1.1
6.5
Vavunia
704
30.5
17.0
1.8
20.7
Mullaitivu
690
29.6
9.9
5.7
8.7
Mannar
660
25.7
14.5
7.1
11.3
Trincomalee
782
29.2
11.6
5.8
8.1
Batticaloa
696
33.2
8.3
4.4
6.7
Sri Lanka
19934
37.5
22.2
17.5
15.5
.
Table 3.118 Percentage of adolescents who thought that they were popular by districts
District
Colombo
Gampaha
Kalutara
Kandy
Matale
Nuwara Eliya
Galle
Matara
Hambantota
Ampara
Kurunegala
Puttalam
Anuradhapura
Polonnaruwa
Badulla
Monaragala
Ratnapura
Kegalle
Jaffna
Kilinochchi
Vavunia
Mullaitivu
Mannar
Trincomalee
Batticaloa
Sri Lanka
% who thought that they were popular
59.0
67.5
58.4
62.8
55.6
60.5
65.4
72.3
64.6
55.7
62.1
60.1
59.3
61.3
64.9
69.1
69.6
58.4
60.2
60.1
41.5
53.6
61.4
57.1
48.4
62.0
N
1119
1069
1078
1140
1031
1274
1090
1054
1107
1323
1131
1117
1105
1075
1055
1070
1037
1090
1163
1009
840
985
944
1222
1033
27160
Table 3.119 Adolescents’ feelings regarding their family by districts
(Percentages)
Do not
Intimate
like and
Can’t
and
District
Good
Ordinary feel
say
close
like
leaving
Colombo
57.8
21.2
16.5
2.7
1.8
Gampaha
53.6
26.0
17.4
1.8
1.1
Kalutara
59.9
25.8
11.0
0.4
3.0
Kandy
52.9
30.3
13.3
1.5
2.0
Matale
48.3
29.7
17.8
2.2
2.0
Nuwara Eliya
53.1
20.1
17.9
6.4
2.6
Galle
52.6
30.0
12.9
2.2
2.3
Matara
62.5
23.8
9.7
2.8
1.2
Hambantota
49.8
31.2
15.5
2.5
1.0
Ampara
56.6
21.0
13.2
7.2
2.0
Kurunegala
53.5
27.9
15.2
2.1
1.3
Puttalam
46.5
28.9
20.7
2.4
1.5
Anuradhapura
41.4
38.0
16.1
3.0
1.4
Polonnaruwa
46.7
28.0
20.3
0.9
4.1
Badulla
55.4
29.9
10.9
1.3
2.5
Monaragala
50.9
28.6
17.7
1.9
0.9
Ratnapura
51.4
29.4
15.4
2.9
0.8
Kegalle
41.7
35.8
18.0
2.5
2.1
Jaffna
54.6
14.7
14.4
14.0
2.2
Kilinochchi
48.4
17.9
7.4
16.3
0.0
Vavunia
55.3
12.2
6.1
26.0
0.4
Mullaitivu
52.8
22.8
8.8
14.5
1.0
Mannar
52.3
17.6
11.8
17.6
0.7
Trincomalee
51.8
22.1
12.7
12.3
1.1
Batticaloa
53.3
23.8
12.7
9.5
0.7
Sri Lanka
52.8
26.8
15.1
3.6
1.7
Total
N
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
1091
1142
1085
1166
1036
1349
1088
1075
1144
1332
1131
1136
1151
1134
1131
1096
1185
1137
1211
1069
1023
997
987
1290
1114
28302
Table 3.120 Adolescents perceptions on the academic performances when compared to
peers according to districts
(Percentages)
I do better
Distrct
N
Average
Poor
than others
Colombo
1157
38.6
58.4
3.0
Gampaha
1107
41.3
54.4
4.3
Kalutara
1149
34.4
63.1
2.5
Kandy
1162
34.3
65.0
0.7
Matale
1082
36.5
58.5
4.9
Nuwara Eliya
1273
37.4
59.8
2.8
Galle
1174
35.5
64.0
0.5
Matara
1122
57.3
38.8
3.9
Hambantota
1136
53.3
44.9
1.7
Ampara
1359
30.5
61.6
7.9
Kurunegala
1168
33.9
64.0
2.0
Puttalam
1148
35.1
61.8
3.1
Anuradhapura
1142
41.1
57.0
1.9
Polonnaruwa
1102
46.3
49.0
4.7
Badulla
1110
41.9
56.6
1.5
Monaragala
1094
44.8
54.4
0.8
Ratnapura
1098
46.1
51.5
2.4
Kegalle
1140
46.5
52.9
0.6
Jaffna
1174
22.8
69.4
7.7
Kilinochchi
1056
16.1
77.2
6.7
Vavunia
1032
18.0
78.3
3.7
Mullaitivu
1004
28.1
59.0
12.9
Mannar
953
20.6
70.6
8.8
Trincomalee
1263
31.5
62.3
6.3
Batticaloa
1060
32.2
59.8
8.0
Sri Lanka
28265
38.8
58.1
3.1
Table 3.121 Parents’ and teachers’ expections on the academic performances and the
adolescents’ reactions to it by districts
(Percentages)
Pressurized
Thought
Parents
Teachers
due to the
they
expected
expected
pressure
could
District
N
better
better
from
perform
performance performances parents /
better
teachers
Colombo
1134
96.1
96.5
93.7
22.5
Gampaha
1173
89.3
91.7
91.1
20.2
Kalutara
1144
95.0
97.9
92.0
17.3
Kandy
1123
93.7
96.3
90.8
26.1
Matale
1115
92.5
95.7
93.9
24.5
Nuwara Eliya
1454
93.1
94.9
93.5
58.9
Galle
1139
96.6
98.1
89.3
22.5
Matara
1137
94.6
96.1
95.3
17.5
Hambantota
1119
90.9
93.9
91.7
23.3
Ampara
1359
91.9
95.8
91.5
73.9
Kurunegala
1133
94.0
97.2
93.3
25.9
Puttalam
1125
94.2
94.9
89.0
25.4
Anuradhapura
1141
94.4
95.1
86.7
21.0
Polonnaruwa
1119
88.8
95.5
88.5
19.5
Badulla
1122
94.2
97.9
90.0
21.7
Monaragala
1106
92.9
96.8
88.1
33.6
Ratnapura
1136
94.2
94.0
89.0
29.7
Kegalle
1135
94.7
97.8
86.8
28.1
Jaffna
1139
93.3
94.1
93.7
80.7
Kilinochchi
1198
91.8
92.7
91.5
85.6
Vavunia
1001
96.7
97.6
97.1
91.5
Mullaitivu
975
92.4
92.3
92.7
84.3
Mannar
939
96.7
94.8
94.6
87.2
Trincomalee
1114
96.7
94.9
94.2
73.9
Batticaloa
985
98.1
97.6
98.6
96.7
Sri Lanka
28265
93.9
95.8
91.5
33.5
Table 3.122 The reactions to the academic stress due to parents’ and teachers’
expectations according to districts
(Percentages)
Happily
I feel
I feel
take the
I feel
difficult
challenge
guilty for
like
to work
Distrct
N
and
parents
proving
because
spend for
attempt
my skills
of this
to do
me
pressure
better
Colombo
378
59.8
51.5
41.2
22.7
Gampaha
394
52.0
45.2
27.0
12.1
Kalutara
386
52.7
52.7
37.8
16.2
Kandy
374
63.9
51.8
32.5
18.7
Matale
372
61.2
50.4
25.9
15.1
Nuwara Eliya
486
58.3
39.3
17.1
13.1
Galle
383
56.7
41.1
31.1
23.3
Matara
379
69.3
58.7
32.0
14.7
Hambantota
372
73.3
50.0
36.0
19.3
Ampara
457
73.1
43.2
20.0
11.5
Kurunegala
377
66.3
57.8
34.3
18.7
Puttalam
376
69.1
69.7
37.5
11.2
Anuradhapura
385
66.9
43.0
27.3
10.7
Polonnaruwa
372
47.4
32.5
19.3
14.0
Badulla
373
66.9
50.0
22.1
16.2
Monaragala
368
62.4
51.6
28.5
8.1
Ratnapura
382
64.0
43.9
35.4
15.9
Kegalle
382
56.9
50.5
30.3
12.8
Jaffna
383
61.8
30.9
14.7
15.3
Kilinochchi
403
48.7
17.9
4.7
8.5
Vavunia
337
57.6
21.1
6.7
10.0
Mullaitivu
325
56.5
27.5
14.1
11.8
Mannar
317
65.6
35.8
17.8
16.8
Trincomalee
376
68.5
33.1
13.5
11.6
Batticaloa
329
54.9
38.0
12.3
1.4
Sri Lanka
9469
62.0
39.2
22.0
13.2
I feel
angry
with
myself
20.6
13.7
10.8
13.3
8.6
5.1
17.8
6.7
16.7
3.2
16.3
13.8
9.9
17.4
16.2
12.9
15.9
4.6
4.9
4.1
6.7
5.6
9.2
6.6
0.4
3.6
Environment
Pollonnaruwa
Badulla
Monaragala
Ratnapura
Kegalle
Jaffna
Kilinochchi
Vavunia
Mullaitivu
Mannar
Trincomalee
Batticaloa
Sri Lanka
Home
20.5
16.0
20.6
21.7
21.5
29.7
16.4
20.2
25.1
26.7
19.1
21.5
22.2
Number
responded
11.7
12.1
10.4
8.5
12.2
9.0
6.9
18.3
15.0
15.3
8.6
12.9
17.0
District
Environment
1010
1017
1019
1018
1026
1172
1020
1007
1003
1215
1014
1008
1019
Home
Colombo
Gampaha
Kalutara
Kandy
Matale
Nuwara Eliya
Galle
Matara
Hambantota
Ampara
Kurunegala
Puttalam
Anuradhapura
Number
responded
District
Table 3.123 Perceptions of security at home and environment by districts
(Percentage)
1007
998
1009
1018
1004
1018
929
896
891
852
1119
909
25185
20.3
13.0
15.4
19.5
11.1
13.4
19.5
12.4
17.0
13.3
11.7
22.3
12.9
22.9
22.1
24.8
27.9
25.3
32.7
32.5
35.7
40.4
32.2
29.1
40.9
23.1
Table 3.124 Key worries of adolescents’ according to districts
(Percentage )
District
N
No
Problems
District
Colombo
Gampaha
Kalutara
Kandy
Matale
Nuwara Eliya
Galle
Matara
Hambantota
Ampara
Kurunegala
Puttalam
Anuradhapura
Polonnaruwa
Badulla
Monaragala
Ratnapura
Kegalle
Jaffna
Kilinochchi
Vavunia
Mullaitivu
Mannar
Trincomalee
Batticaloa
Sri Lanka
684
709
692
677
673
877
689
685
674
821
683
679
691
674
676
666
687
686
689
725
606
588
568
674
594
684
17064
50.2
54.8
64.1
51.0
45.7
56.1
55.7
58.0
43.3
41.2
44.7
44.5
43.2
55.2
56.2
48.1
52.9
51.0
40.3
37.4
32.8
39.1
29.2
50.2
39.7
50.2
49.9
Fear
of
failing
an
exam
31.3
28.4
25.6
31.4
31.0
26.4
28.2
20.0
33.4
32.0
38.6
32.4
36.3
25.0
28.5
31.4
31.5
31.9
34.6
36.4
31.1
31.3
33.2
24.3
33.3
31.3
30.6
Mother
Long
Parents' Financial
is not
standing
Total
quarrels constraints
at
illness
home
2.0
2.7
0.9
1.9
5.1
4.4
1.1
3.2
1.9
1.7
2.4
0.6
2.4
6.2
2.9
5.5
1.2
4.6
5.0
1.5
3.6
6.0
5.9
4.4
2.5
2.0
2.6
10.9
9.5
5.6
11.2
9.9
9.9
13.0
14.2
16.0
20.5
9.0
12.5
11.8
8.3
10.1
9.8
9.1
8.3
14.4
23.4
30.0
17.0
28.0
17.3
21.5
10.9
12.1
2.4
2.3
1.8
2.4
3.5
1.7
0.5
3.2
2.9
3.7
2.3
3.9
3.5
1.3
1.4
4.2
4.5
1.5
3.0
0.8
1.0
4.3
2.3
1.5
2.6
2.4
2,4
3.2
2.4
1.9
2.0
4.7
1.6
1.5
1.3
2.6
1.0
3.0
6.2
2.7
4.0
0.9
1.0
0.8
2.7
2.7
0.4
1.4
2.4
1.4
2.3
0.5
3.2
2.2
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
Table 3.125 Perception of happiness by district
(Percentage)
District
N
Good
Ordinary
Poor
Colombo
Gampaha
Kalutara
Kandy
Matale
Nuwara Eliya
Galle
Matara
Hambantota
Ampara
Kurunegala
Puttalam
Anuradhapura
Polonnaruwa
Badulla
Monaragala
Ratnapura
Kegalle
Jaffna
Kilinochchi
Vavunia
Mullaitivu
Mannar
Trincomalee
Batticaloa
Sri Lanka
694
720
703
687
683
891
699
696
684
834
693
689
701
684
686
676
697
696
699
736
615
597
577
685
603
17322
64.2
59.5
54.9
62.3
57.9
66.4
60.8
67.7
59.5
51.2
61.6
66.2
57.9
65.4
64.4
58.8
64.0
60.6
39.6
54.4
39.9
55.6
39.3
52.7
57.3
59.8
28.4
33.0
35.4
28.0
37.5
24.4
33.3
26.0
30.3
37.4
30.7
26.3
33.8
21.6
25.2
31.8
26.8
35.1
44.7
39.3
31.1
31.9
39.8
34.7
26.8
31.2
1.6
1.2
2.8
0.7
0.8
1.9
0.8
1.5
0.8
3.7
1.9
1.6
0.8
4.9
1.2
1.0
2.0
0.7
3.3
4.6
1.3
4.2
6.5
3.6
1.1
1.7
Difficult
to judge
5.7
6.4
6.9
9.1
3.8
7.3
5.1
4.9
9.4
7.6
5.8
5.8
7.5
8.2
9.2
8.4
7.1
3.6
12.4
1.7
27.7
8.3
14.4
9.0
14.8
7.3
Total
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
1022
1027
1033
1036
1024
1190
1026
1029
1019
1228
1028
1029
1026
1017
1013
1031
1023
1013
1023
958
909
895
858
1131
917
25505
77.5
79.2
80.3
79.5
81.0
49.7
76.7
76.9
74.6
44.0
77.5
71.1
76.4
73.1
78.7
78.4
74.0
78.9
47.4
47.5
43.6
44.7
38.6
46.7
48.4
72.0
82.9
82.1
80.2
83.0
85.0
55.6
78.9
76.8
79.3
44.9
81.8
75.8
79.2
75.8
84.5
75.2
76.7
82.5
33.5
24.9
14.0
32.3
26.5
46.1
29.3
73.3
I am
worried
about my
Irelation
feel like I
am left out
of my
members
family
of my
family get
on my
puts too
many
restrictions
My mother
on me
puts
too
many
restrictions
on me
N
Colombo
Gampaha
Kalutara
Kandy
Matale
Nuwara Eliya
Galle
Matara
Hambantota
Ampara
Kurunegala
Puttalam
Anuradhapura
Polonnaruwa
Badulla
Monaragala
Ratnapura
Kegalle
Jaffna
Kilinochchi
Vavunia
Mullaitivu
Mannar
Trincomalee
Batticaloa
Sri Lanka
I love to
spend time
with my
family
I could
depend on
my family
District
Table 3.126 Nature of adolescents’ family relations by districts
22.8
16.7
16.7
16.3
16.8
50.0
17.4
15.2
16.2
55.3
15.0
20.1
22.1
16.6
16.1
17.1
23.9
18.1
77.7
49.4
82.6
69.8
72.9
64.6
63.8
25.6
18.1
21.3
20.3
19.0
18.9
49.4
19.3
22.5
21.0
61.9
19.0
26.4
21.7
28.7
20.2
20.5
21.4
17.7
87.8
77.8
93.5
84.2
87.4
70.0
83.3
28.7
29.3
24.2
23.7
20.5
22.1
49.8
26.5
26.0
25.1
50.4
21.8
31.2
30.8
35.5
24.1
27.8
30.2
26.6
73.8
78.7
91.2
73.0
73.5
65.4
79.2
32.5
28.6
28.5
22.2
22.0
26.3
46.8
22.2
22.3
27.6
50.5
23.8
27.9
28.6
36.2
25.1
23.9
28.0
22.4
81.4
71.4
60.6
72.2
75.2
65.5
64.5
31.9
24.8
26.4
18.4
21.3
22.8
39.2
19.3
22.4
23.9
45.6
23.2
23.8
19.6
29.4
23.0
24.4
24.4
21.4
84.2
80.3
63.4
69.1
74.6
65.3
66.0
29.3
Table 3.127 Adolescents who believed their family as a refuge according to district
(Percentage)
District
N
Very
strongly
Colombo
Gampaha
Kalutara
Kandy
Matale
Nuwara Eliya
Galle
Matara
Hambantota
Ampara
Kurunegala
Puttalam
Anuradhapura
Polonnaruwa
Badulla
Monaragala
Ratnapura
Kegalle
Jaffna
Kilinochchi
Vavunia
Mullaitivu
Mannar
Trincomalee
Batticaloa
Sri Lanka
993
996
998
997
999
1147
998
985
981
1190
993
987
997
986
977
988
997
982
997
909
876
896
890
998
890
24647
53.4
61.3
53.3
45.0
43.8
64.5
57.6
45.8
51.6
60.1
50.9
45.7
46.6
44.3
52.9
41.2
49.2
43.5
60.5
49.4
57.0
60.6
72.8
58.4
48.0
52.2
To a
certain
extent
22.5
18.3
25.2
26.1
25.0
22.2
17.4
21.1
19.3
25.8
23.1
29.9
25.5
24.7
19.8
26.7
19.6
19.5
34.4
39.2
13.6
29.4
20.1
26.8
40.9
23.5
N
Total
24.1
20.5
21.5
29.0
31.2
13.3
25.0
33.1
29.1
14.1
26.0
24.4
28.0
31.0
27.3
32.1
31.2
37.0
5.1
11.4
29.5
10.1
7.1
14.9
11.1
24.3
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
Table 3.128 Parents support on adolescents decisions according to districts
(Percentage)
District
No never
Not
usually
Colombo
Gampaha
Kalutara
Kandy
Matale
Nuwara Eliya
Galle
Matara
Hambantota
Ampara
Kurunegala
Puttalam
Anuradhapura
Polonnaruwa
Badulla
Monaragala
Ratnapura
Kegalle
Jaffna
Kilinochchi
Vavunia
Mullaitivu
Mannar
Trincomalee
Batticaloa
Sri Lanka
9.4
6.0
5.1
7.8
7.4
5.5
6.9
11.3
4.1
8.9
6.4
7.5
7.2
7.8
4.7
6.0
8.9
4.2
4.1
7.4
3.4
5.0
3.8
4.8
3.0
6.8
7.6
7.7
5.4
7.9
9.1
7.0
3.7
8.8
8.6
5.5
7.8
11.1
11.4
8.3
7.2
8.9
10.0
9.6
5.4
11.9
2.9
8.0
5.7
8.0
17.9
8.0
Yes
some
times
43.0
40.7
47.3
45.4
46.0
48.8
43.2
43.5
43.6
53.7
44.6
44.7
42.9
51.9
40.7
46.5
42.6
50.0
61.7
57.8
50.1
57.7
59.5
53.8
66.2
46.3
Yes
always
Total
N
40.0
45.5
42.2
38.9
37.5
38.8
46.2
36.5
43.6
31.9
41.2
36.7
38.4
32.0
47.3
38.6
38.4
36.2
28.8
22.9
43.6
29.3
31.1
33.5
12.9
38.9
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
1139
1139
1141
1132
1148
1313
1128
1141
1124
1356
1136
1130
1140
1129
1118
1131
1140
1125
1140
1042
1003
998
954
1252
1023
28206
Table 3.129 Adolescents that could remember an occasion when, their parents ever
approved one of their suggestions regarding a family matter by district.
(Percentages)
District
Colombo
Gampaha
Kalutara
Kandy
Matale
Nuwara Eliya
% said yes
58.3
64.2
61.5
56.8
63.3
71.3
Number responded District
% said yes
1134.9
Polonnaruwa 51.6
1140.2
Badulla
60.0
1144.9
Monaragala
60.3
1143.9
Ratnapura
56.5
1151.7
Kegalle
58.8
1317.4
Jaffna
89.1
Number responded
1135.2
1123.9
1135.2
1135.2
1132.4
1143.2
Galle
Matara
Hambantota
Ampara
Kurunegala
Puttalam
Anuradhapura
59.2
57.3
61.3
79.3
60.9
55.8
59.7
1150.0
1132.0
1127.3
1362.2
1140.9
1132.2
1138.0
Kilinochchi
Vavunia
Mullaitivu
Mannar
Trincomalee
Batticaloa
Sri Lanka
78.5
90.8
87.9
90.6
81.2
86.5
63.5
Table 3.130 Adolescents who missed a close friend” according to districts
(Percentages)
To a
Do not
Very
Not so
District
Total
certain
feel like
strongly
much
extent
that
Colombo
18.0
23.6
42.2
16.1
100.0
Gampaha
19.5
20.5
41.4
18.6
100.0
Kalutara
18.9
20.3
48.4
12.4
100.0
Kandy
13.1
24.0
49.0
13.8
100.0
Matale
16.6
19.5
39.3
24.7
100.0
Nuwara Eliya
19.9
16.8
39.3
24.0
100.0
Galle
18.3
23.2
42.2
16.2
100.0
Matara
14.6
17.8
46.2
21.4
100.0
Hambantota
16.9
18.8
45.6
18.8
100.0
Ampara
13.7
22.2
38.8
25.3
100.0
Kurunegala
19.2
26.4
42.3
12.1
100.0
Puttalam
21.6
24.9
40.0
13.5
100.0
Anuradhapura
20.5
20.9
37.0
21.6
100.0
Polonnaruwa
16.6
24.2
34.5
24.7
100.0
Badulla
20.6
21.0
40.9
17.4
100.0
Monaragala
15.8
17.2
34.7
32.3
100.0
Ratnapura
15.3
19.2
31.2
34.3
100.0
Kegalle
15.1
16.2
44.2
24.4
100.0
Jaffna
13.9
28.8
46.6
10.7
100.0
Kilinochchi
11.0
10.9
42.3
35.8
100.0
Vavunia
10.0
16.5
51.0
22.5
100.0
Mullaitivu
18.9
26.0
27.8
27.3
100.0
Mannar
19.4
23.8
31.6
25.2
100.0
Trincomalee
19.0
25.0
33.3
22.8
100.0
Batticaloa
17.2
37.9
36.8
8.1
100.0
Sri Lanka
17.4
22.1
41.4
19.2
100.0
1044.9
1008.4
1000.8
953.7
1247.8
1023.6
28296.0
N
1205
1200
1206
1206
1210
1400
1203
1203
1198
1440
1206
1200
1203
1200
1188
1200
1200
1197
1200
1113
1066
1060
1006
1319
1082
29911
Table 3.131 Adolescents by their most common free time companions according to
districts
(Percentages)
District
Friends
Siblings Parents
Total
N
Colombo
48.8
7.4
43.8
100.0
1143
Gampaha
54.2
4.4
41.4
100.0
1149
Kalutara
40.7
5.9
53.3
100.0
1153
Kandy
50.9
5.3
43.8
100.0
1152
Matale
45.1
9.2
45.7
100.0
1160
Nuwara Eliya
57.5
10.3
32.2
100.0
1327
Galle
30.9
7.6
61.5
100.0
1158
Matara
45.0
5.3
49.7
100.0
1140
Hambantota
50.9
4.9
44.3
100.0
1136
Ampara
59.2
10.5
30.3
100.0
1372
Kurunegala
45.7
5.4
49.0
100.0
1149
Puttalam
47.7
4.7
47.6
100.0
1141
Anuradhapura
48.3
7.0
44.7
100.0
1146
Polonnaruwa
53.6
8.1
38.3
100.0
1144
Badulla
50.6
5.3
44.1
100.0
1132
Monaragala
58.3
4.9
36.8
100.0
1144
Ratnapura
52.6
5.2
42.2
100.0
1144
Kegalle
42.4
8.7
48.8
100.0
1141
Jaffna
58.9
16.2
24.9
100.0
1152
Kilinochchi
54.8
20.2
25.0
100.0
1053
Vavunia
67.7
10.2
22.1
100.0
1016
Mullaitivu
54.3
17.5
28.2
100.0
1008
Mannar
61.9
13.5
24.7
100.0
961
Trincomalee
55.8
14.2
30.0
100.0
1257
Batticaloa
69.6
17.2
13.2
100.0
1031
Sri Lanka
48.8
7.4
43.8
100.0
28505
Table 3.132 Adolescents who had a trustworthy person at home according to districts
District
Colombo
Gampaha
Kalutara
Kandy
Matale
Nuwara Eliya
Galle
Matara
Hambantota
Ampara
Kurunegala
Puttlam
Anuradhapura
% said yes
84.9
84.3
82.8
79.8
81.1
81.8
91.7
86.4
78.9
80.9
83.4
81.9
84.3
Number responded District
% said yes
909
Polonnaruwa 73.1
917
Badulla
86.3
919
Monaragala
77.4
918
Ratnapura
78.1
925
Kegalle
79.0
1055
Jaffna
76.0
919
Kilinochchi 68.9
906
Vavunia
68.1
903
Mullaitivu
75.6
1095
Mannar
80.4
914
Trincomalee 83.0
908
Batticaloa
89.0
918
Sri Lanka
82.4
N
907.2
899.1
909.2
918.2
903.9
918.2
836.2
806.6
802.0
768.1
1008.5
818.7
22688.0
Table 3.133 Most trusted persons of adolescents at home according to districts
District
Father
Mother
Colombo
Gampaha
Kalutara
Kandy
Matale
Nuwara Eliya
Galle
Matara
Hambantota
Ampara
Kurunegala
Puttalam
Anuradhapura
Polonnaruwa
Badulla
Monaragala
Ratnapura
Kegalle
Jaffna
Kilinochchi
Vavunia
Mullaitivu
Mannar
13.8
15.8
16.8
15.7
14.5
16.8
9.3
13.2
15.5
18.3
14.9
10.9
18.2
17.2
12.7
17.6
14.9
9.3
19.6
22.4
14.4
19.5
19.9
65.4
61.1
65.8
63.0
63.9
51.1
76.9
63.4
57.9
51.0
66.7
63.8
58.8
57.4
65.7
63.3
59.4
67.0
40.0
22.5
23.9
31.7
32.9
Grand
parents
1.8
4.2
1.3
2.1
2.7
4.4
2.3
7.0
2.6
3.8
2.8
5.8
2.5
5.7
2.5
3.1
4.6
6.0
4.7
17.6
3.0
4.9
5.8
Other
relative
2.8
2.6
2.6
4.0
3.3
4.5
1.7
1.6
5.0
5.3
2.2
3.5
3.4
2.6
2.3
2.4
3.5
1.1
10.1
13.5
4.3
6.5
7.5
Brother Sister
Total
N
5.5
8.3
5.5
6.1
4.1
12.6
1.8
4.8
6.5
9.8
3.5
6.3
7.4
5.8
6.7
6.4
7.8
5.5
9.3
19.8
14.4
16.7
15.8
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
748
757
758
757
763
868
759
746
743
903
753
748
758
747
741
749
758
744
758
688
664
661
634
10.6
8.1
7.9
9.1
11.5
10.7
8.0
9.9
12.5
11.9
9.9
9.7
9.7
11.3
10.2
7.1
9.8
11.1
16.3
4.2
40.0
20.7
18.1
Trincomalee
Batticaloa
Sri Lanka
18.5
22.1
15.1
41.2
41.5
60.7
5.8
8.4
3.7
10.0
12.1
3.6
9.8
4.2
6.5
14.7
11.6
10.4
100.0
100.0
100.0
832
674
18695
Father
Sister
Brother
Teacher
45.5
46.3
48.7
51.0
49.8
31.2
60.9
49.7
43.2
33.6
51.8
50.1
47.6
39.4
54.9
45.3
46.3
49.6
32.8
24.2
19.4
34.4
23.7
30.7
24.9
49.4
4.4
7.5
10.1
6.9
5.5
6.4
4.9
4.5
2.1
5.1
8.1
4.4
6.5
10.2
2.2
7.0
5.3
4.2
4.7
2.6
5.7
8.3
4.0
5.1
7.2
6.0
5.0
6.1
5.9
5.8
6.5
6.5
6.4
9.1
8.5
8.4
5.6
6.6
4.9
8.0
6.4
4.9
4.8
7.6
6.9
9.8
9.1
5.3
8.1
7.1
6.2
6.7
5.8
4.9
2.2
3.0
4.1
4.4
1.4
3.0
5.3
4.8
2.3
2.1
2.6
4.5
2.8
3.9
4.4
4.6
4.0
6.1
4.2
6.5
5.8
5.3
2.0
3.7
0.4
1.1
0.1
1.0
1.4
1.2
0.3
2.3
0.5
1.1
0.5
1.5
0.1
1.1
2.0
1.4
0.3
0.5
1.4
0.8
1.7
3.1
1.4
1.5
2.4
0.8
1.3
1.6
0.8
1.8
1.1
2.5
0.7
2.1
1.4
1.7
1.5
2.5
1.8
1.7
2.2
0.6
2.3
1.2
1.4
0.8
1.3
0.5
2.0
2.1
0.5
1.6
3.6
0.6
0.8
3.4
2.4
6.6
1.4
3.3
4.5
3.0
1.6
1.4
2.5
2.7
4.6
2.9
4.3
2.4
4.1
3.7
0.9
4.1
1.1
3.4
4.1
2.2
0.1
1.2
0.1
0.5
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.4
1.1
0.6
1.1
0.3
0.7
0.5
0.3
1.7
1.1
0.4
0.0
1.6
0.5
0.6
0.0
0.3
0.0
0.4
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
N
Mother
33.8
30.8
31.2
26.6
29.1
41.0
24.0
25.6
33.4
41.6
27.7
31.0
33.4
32.0
24.7
32.2
31.2
29.6
44.7
50.5
57.2
37.2
54.0
44.4
52.7
29.2
Total
A friend
Colombo
Gampaha
Kalutara
Kandy
Matale
Nuwara Eliya
Galle
Matara
Hambantota
Ampara
Kurunegala
Puttalam
Anuradhapura
Polonnaruwa
Badulla
Monaragala
Ratnapura
Kegalle
Jaffna
Kilinochchi
Vavunia
Mullaitivu
Mannar
Trincomalee
Batticaloa
Sri Lanka
Grand
parents
A family
friends
Have no
one
District
Table 3.134 Most preferred person whom the adolescent is likely to talk openly on
personal matters by districts.
1083
1091
1093
1092
1100
1257
1093
1080
1076
1303
1088
1082
1092
1081
1071
1083
1092
1077
1092
997
961
955
913
1199
975
27010
Table 3.135 Adolescents who felt confident that friends will help them in an illness or
an emergency by districts
(Percentages)
District
Colombo
Gampaha
Kalutara
Kandy
Matale
Nuwara Eliya
Galle
Matara
Hambantota
Ampara
Kurunegala
Puttalam
Anuradhapura
Polonnaruwa
Badulla
Monaragala
Ratnapura
Kegalle
Jaffna
Kilinochchi
Vavunia
Mullaitivu
Mannar
Trincomalee
Batticaloa
Sri Lanka
Very strongly
71.7
72.3
76.4
71.3
69.8
69.3
69.3
64.4
68.4
67.2
71.4
59.4
67.1
64.0
68.4
67.8
75.8
70.6
58.0
52.7
33.4
53.8
54.4
62.2
51.6
68.2
To a certain extent
25.9
24.1
19.5
24.4
26.3
25.7
24.7
30.4
27.5
25.4
24.8
34.7
25.6
30.8
25.3
27.7
21.4
25.6
36.4
35.0
59.1
39.1
33.4
29.3
42.8
26.9
No
2.4
3.7
4.2
4.3
3.9
5.0
6.1
5.3
4.1
7.5
3.8
5.9
7.4
5.3
6.2
4.6
2.8
3.8
5.6
12.3
7.5
7.1
12.2
8.5
5.6
4.8
Total
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
N
1053
1052
1054
1045
1061
1212
1042
1055
1037
1252
1049
1043
1054
1042
1033
1044
1053
1039
1053
961
926
921
881
1157
945
26052
Table 3. 136 Adolescents who thought that their to be a source of help in most problems
they had by districts
(Percentages)
District
Very much To a certain extent No
Total
N
Colombo
33.4
38.2
28.4
100.0
1053
Gampaha
45.2
27.9
26.9
100.0
1052
Kalutara
39.0
32.1
28.9
100.0
1054
Kandy
37.4
28.4
34.2
100.0
1045
Matale
30.6
34.4
35.0
100.0
1061
Nuwara Eliya 35.7
39.3
24.9
100.0
1212
Galle
31.9
33.6
34.4
100.0
1042
Matara
38.7
27.4
33.9
100.0
1055
Hambantota
36.3
30.9
32.8
100.0
1037
Ampara
36.6
41.7
21.7
100.0
1252
Kurunegala
39.2
28.6
32.2
100.0
1049
Puttalam
31.5
36.2
32.3
100.0
1043
Anuradhapura 36.5
31.5
32.0
100.0
1054
Polonnaruwa 30.9
28.8
40.3
100.0
1042
Badulla
29.9
37.3
32.9
100.0
1033
Monaragala
29.9
33.2
36.9
100.0
1044
Ratnapura
35.7
26.6
37.7
100.0
1053
Kegalle
33.5
27.9
38.7
100.0
1039
Jaffna
25.9
49.0
25.1
100.0
1053
Kilinochchi
16.6
64.6
18.8
100.0
961
Vavunia
12.5
72.1
15.5
100.0
926
Mullaitivu
27.0
50.3
22.6
100.0
921
Mannar
22.2
50.5
27.3
100.0
881
Trincomalee
27.2
47.1
25.7
100.0
1157
Batticaloa
21.6
53.0
25.4
100.0
945
Sri Lanka
33.4
38.2
28.4
100.0
26052
Table 3.137 Adolescents perceptions regarding social capital according to districts
(Percentages)
District
Colombo
Gampaha
Kalutara
Kandy
Matale
Nuwara Eliya
Galle
Matara
Hambantota
Ampara
Kurunegala
Puttalam
Anuradhapura
Polonnaruwa
Badulla
Monaragala
Ratnapura
Kegalle
Jaffna
Kilinochchi
Vavunia
Mullaitivu
Mannar
Trincomalee
Batticaloa
Sri Lanka
Poor
22.4
24.4
20.0
30.6
30.5
29.4
21.0
24.9
25.2
31.4
35.8
23.8
37.2
34.0
36.7
32.0
27.6
30.5
43.7
43.8
38.1
37.9
41.9
35.7
47.8
29.5
Average
33.5
28.0
36.3
33.7
40.6
33.8
29.8
34.4
32.2
45.3
25.3
37.3
29.9
26.1
27.6
34.5
29.2
36.3
41.2
30.4
48.4
42.3
40.4
43.5
37.3
32.9
Favorable
44.0
47.6
43.7
35.7
28.9
36.8
49.2
40.8
42.6
23.3
38.9
38.9
32.9
39.9
35.6
33.5
43.2
33.2
15.1
25.8
13.4
19.8
17.7
20.8
14.9
37.5
Total
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
N
748
776
750
740
736
959
757
750
737
899
747
742
754
739
741
729
752
751
753
792
661
643
621
734
650
18660
15.5
15.6
14.5
15.5
14.2
19.7
15.0
21.3
17.7
21.5
15.0
18.7
19.8
18.9
20.9
21.2
23.1
26.0
11.9
15.1
12.0
18.3
16.0
18.8
27.7
17.9
A musician
An actor or
actress
internation
al figure
A
politician
32.4
32.0
31.4
25.6
26.9
32.1
33.0
28.5
28.1
32.5
31.5
29.2
28.0
34.0
32.3
28.2
35.0
26.9
34.7
27.0
13.0
27.6
24.3
25.6
18.8
30.1
A Family
member
School
mate
National
hero
Colombo
Gampaha
Kalutara
Kandy
Matale
Nuwara Eliya
Galle
Matara
Hambantota
Ampara
Kurunegala
Puttalam
Anuradhapura
Polonnaruwa
Badulla
Monaragala
Ratnapura
Kegalle
Jaffna
Kilinochchi
Vavunia
Mullaitivu
Mannar
Trincomalee
Batticaloa
A teacher
District
National
Sportsman
Table 3.138 The most common types of heroes among adolescents by according to
districts
27.2
21.0
27.5
27.8
25.9
31.7
24.8
24.0
23.2
31.5
24.3
23.5
24.9
14.8
20.7
22.0
24.0
29.5
33.9
39.1
42.1
34.8
43.1
30.2
32.7
26.3
1.9
4.4
2.2
2.6
5.8
2.9
0.8
1.7
3.1
2.6
5.6
3.2
3.9
4.8
7.2
3.3
3.7
2.4
6.8
7.8
2.6
3.9
4.3
3.0
1.8
3.5
1.6
1.3
1.2
2.6
2.8
4.4
2.5
3.4
6.8
5.4
2.9
3.1
4.1
4.1
2.0
3.8
3.5
0.7
3.8
9.3
25.3
5.8
4.6
7.2
4.4
3.3
11.7
16.1
16.8
17.5
14.6
4.3
12.0
15.3
13.3
2.9
11.7
14.2
12.3
13.8
8.8
15.7
7.4
10.3
2.9
0.3
1.4
2.6
3.4
6.4
2.1
11.3
3.2
3.7
2.8
3.1
5.6
2.0
2.3
2.3
2.3
0.6
4.2
2.1
2.9
4.2
4.4
2.4
2.0
0.3
3.6
0.9
1.6
3.0
2.8
3.2
1.3
2.8
5.6
5.0
3.5
4.7
3.5
1.7
8.4
2.9
5.3
1.9
4.6
5.3
2.1
4.2
2.4
3.2
0.7
2.7
1.3
0.1
1.2
1.4
0.7
3.8
10.5
4.0
N
0.9 1191
0.9 1190
1193
0.5 1184
0.6 1200
1.3 1373
1.2 1180
0.5 1193
0.3 1175
1.1 1417
0.3 1188
0.6 1181
2.0 1192
1.1 1180
1.4 1169
0.2 1182
0.6 1191
1.2 1176
1.1 1191
0.3 1089
0.7 1049
2.5 1043
0.8 996
1.7 1308
0.5 1069
0.8 29479
Table 3. 139 Adolescents probable responses to the scenario A by districts.
(Percentages)
I will
not
go
since
I will do I will not I do
I will go
I will
as my
go if I am not I will as I am
go
I will not father
convinced like not go confident
go
as
I
am
without
says
after
to
because of
telling afraid of because I inquiring hurt going handling
my
disobeying trust his why he is my in night difficult
District
father my father judgment opposing father is risky situations Total N
Colombo
6.1
25.4
40.3
18.3
4.7 2.1
3.1
100 731
Gampaha
6.7
27.4
31.5
19.6
7.7 4.9
2.2
100 759
Kalutara
4.8
21
40
20.8
3.2 7.4
2.8
100 732
Kandy
2.9
25.9
39.9
14.9
6.2 7.5
2.6
100 723
Matale
3.1
25.3
34.6
20
5.9 7.6
3.6
100 719
Nuwara Eliya 9.2
Galle
3.7
Matara
3.4
21.3
17
17.5
44.3
45
46.8
15.2
26.7
22.2
3.2
2.9
2.4
2.7
3
5.6
3.9
1.6
2.1
100 938
100 740
100 732
Hambantota
Ampara
3.7
4.1
23.6
17.6
40.1
47.6
16.6
16.3
5.3
3.9
8.5
4.8
2.3
5.7
100 720
100 878
Kurunegala
Puttalam
6.9
2.3
16.4
19.6
41.3
48.8
21.7
15.5
4.8
4.8
6.2
6.8
2.8
2.1
100 730
100 725
Anuradhapura 3.2
22.3
39.7
21
3.3
7.3
3.2
100 737
Polonnaruwa 10.6
Badulla
5.3
29.3
22.1
36.1
40.1
10.4
19.9
5.8
4.1
4.9
7.1
3
1.4
100 722
100 724
Monaragala
5.2
17.6
41.8
24.3
4.6
5.1
1.4
100 712
Ratnapura
Kegalle
Jaffna
5.2
3.3
3.2
20.5
22.8
1.2
40.1
39.4
64.2
19.2
21
10.6
2.7
3.1
9
9
6.8
4.8
3.4
3.5
7
100 735
100 734
100 736
Kilinochchi
Vavunia
Mullaitivu
Mannar
0.9
0.7
6.4
4.2
1.5
1.2
3.2
4.1
86.7
85.2
69.2
67.5
6.2
6.2
7.6
5.3
2.1
2.1
2.1
7.2
1.1
1.8
4.1
6.3
1.5
2.8
7.4
5.4
100
100
100
100
774
646
628
607
Trincomalee 4.5
Batticaloa
8.1
Sri Lanka
4.9
17.5
10.2
21.4
40.3
61.2
41.6
12.3
10.4
18.8
7.8
3.9
4.6
9.6
3.9
5.7
8
2.3
3
100 717
100 635
100 18234
Table 3.140 Adolescents probable responses to the scenario B by districts
(Percentage)
District
I will
argue
with
my
father
and try
to win
my
point
Colombo
Gampaha
Kalutara
Kandy
Matale
Nuwara Eliya
Galle
Matara
Hambantota
Ampara
Kurunegala
Puttala m
Anuradhapura
Polonnaruwa
Badulla
Monaragala
Ratnapura
Kegalle
Jaffna
Kilinochchi
Vavunia
Mullaitivu
Mannar
20.9
12.2
14.2
8.0
11.7
13.0
9.8
7.2
8.6
14.3
9.1
8.8
13.6
12.9
12.5
7.1
13.0
9.7
23.4
17.4
10.6
24.5
16.4
I will
I will
I will
do
I will get
listen to try to
what I
one of
my
explain
want
my
father
why I
and try
father’s
for he is want
respected to find
opposing this and
my
persons
for my
try to
own
to talk to
own
win his
money
him
good
consent
for the
course
32.4
36.9
7.3
2.5
39.3
37.7
8.6
2.3
33.1
40.8
10.4
1.4
42.3
35.9
12.1
1.6
40.4
35.6
9.7
2.5
49.1
32.0
3.9
1.9
38.9
37.6
10.5
3.2
51.7
31.2
6.7
3.2
48.9
29.9
10.6
2.0
44.3
33.4
4.3
3.7
41.0
35.6
13.1
1.2
48.0
32.7
8.4
2.1
51.4
24.3
8.4
2.4
48.1
29.4
5.1
4.4
39.6
35.8
10.0
2.1
43.2
39.8
8.8
1.1
38.2
38.3
7.6
2.8
44.0
34.3
11.9
50.2
20.2
0.6
5.6
59.6
21.3
0.6
1.1
73.9
15.0
0.3
0.2
49.5
22.6
0.9
2.6
62.3
15.2
1.1
5
Total
N
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
731
759
733
724
719
938
740
733
721
879
730
726
737
723
725
712
735
734
736
774
646
628
607
Trincomalee
Batticaloa
Sri Lanka
17.4
15.1
12.6
43.6
66.5
42.6
31.7
17.1
34.2
5.7
0.8
8.5
1.5
0.5
2.2
100.0
100.0
100.0
718
635
18240
Table 3.141 Adolescents’ probable responses to the scenario C according to districts
(Percentage)
I will
After
I will
Bring
not get
wards I will
I will
not get
involved it to
make
also
try to
involved as I
the
friend
join
District
prevent since I
Total N
consider notice with
and
the
cant
it is not
of the
the
bully
incident prevent my
teacher new
him
it
business
comer
Colombo
Gampaha
Kalutara
Kandy
Matale
Nuwara Eliya
Galle
Matara
Hambantota
Ampara
Kurunegala
Puttalam
Anuradhapura
Polonnaruwa
Badulla
Monaragala
Ratnapura
Kegalle
Jaffna
Kilinochchi
Vavunia
Mullaitivu
Mannar
Trincomalee
Batticaloa
Sri Lanka
48.1
49.7
47.8
40.4
34.2
51.2
40.2
48.4
52.5
59.4
46.7
42.9
50.6
37.1
41.4
49.0
44.9
40.7
65.6
55.2
52.2
61.8
52.3
53.1
48.3
47.1
20.9
17.0
15.6
18.6
22.8
18.6
23.3
14.9
16.0
11.0
21.2
12.5
15.0
18.3
18.6
19.5
24.3
23.7
8.8
2.6
5.7
11.8
11.8
15.0
30.0
18.4
8.8
7.7
3.1
11.0
4.4
7.3
5.0
4.1
4.6
5.6
4.0
8.0
6.7
14.2
3.2
4.7
7.6
4.9
6.7
1.2
0.9
5.4
3.5
3.8
9.9
6.4
14.2
18.4
24.6
20.3
11.5
13.0
24.5
27.3
18.6
18.3
18.6
28.6
21.3
14.5
22.4
19.8
13.0
26.8
15.2
39.3
38.7
14.7
17.7
17.1
9.7
19.7
7.3
4.0
8.2
7.3
20.1
8.2
5.8
3.7
6.6
4.7
5.0
6.2
5.1
12.2
9.3
6.1
5.7
3.7
2.7
1.4
2.1
5.8
11.2
9.7
1.6
6.3
0.7
3.2
0.8
2.4
7.1
1.7
1.2
1.5
1.7
1.1
4.6
1.9
1.3
3.7
5.2
0.8
4.6
0.2
1.0
0.2
0.5
0.4
3.5
1.3
0.6
2.2
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
730
758
732
723
719
937
739
732
720
878
729
725
736
722
724
712
735
734
735
774
646
628
607
717
634
18229
Table 3.142 Adolescents’ probable responses to the scenario D according to districts
(Percentage)
District
Will try
to smoke
as I have
to be in
the group
Firmly
refuse
and yet
remain
in the
group
Would
leave if
they
force to
smoke
Colombo
Gampaha
Kalutara
Kandy
Matale
Nuwara Eliya
Galle
Matara
Hambantota
Ampara
Kurunegala
Puttalam
Anuradhapura
Polonnaruwa
Badulla
Monaragala
Ratnapura
Kegalle
Jaffna
Kilinochchi
Vavunia
Mullaitivu
Mannar
Trincomalee
Batticaloa
Sri Lanka
12.2
9.2
3.9
7.7
8
7.8
7.2
8.7
16.4
3.6
10.6
8.4
6.5
10.8
8.8
6.3
1.7
6.4
8.9
12.5
12.2
14.3
9.2
10.2
8.8
8.9
45.3
47.1
46.1
59.2
43
37.1
31.2
39.7
44.5
40.8
48.4
34.5
52.1
43.4
43.2
43.6
38.7
39.7
34.6
22.9
23.9
33.6
27.1
25.6
22
43.7
38.9
41.1
47.8
29.6
48.4
51.8
58.9
48.5
31.7
52.4
39.3
56.2
39.1
42.5
46.0
49.7
58.0
52.2
55.7
63.7
62.3
52.0
62.1
61.5
67.8
44.9
Would
try it as I
feel
grown
up and
think it is
OK to
smoke
3.6
2.6
2.2
3.6
0.6
3.3
2.7
3.1
7.4
3.2
1.6
0.8
2.3
3.3
2.0
0.3
1.6
1.7
0.8
0.9
1.6
1.2
1.6
2.7
1.5
2.5
Total
N
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
375
391
375
370
369
482
384
375
368
454
373
372
380
370
371
364
379
379
380
399
333
322
313
370
325
9375
Table 3.143 How would adolescents would choose their partner by districts
(Percentages)
District
I will
choose
my own
partner
as I
have that
right
I will
look for
my
parents
advise in
this
matter
Colombo
Gampaha
Kalutara
Kandy
Matale
Nuwara Eliya
Galle
Matara
Hambantota
Ampara
Kurunegala
Puttalam
Anuradhapura
Polonnaruwa
Badulla
Monaragala
Ratnapura
Kegalle
Jaffna
Kilinochchi
Vavunia
Mullaitivu
Mannar
Trincomalee
Batticaloa
Sri Lanka
25.5
31.4
20.2
15.0
18.0
15.7
16.1
16.7
14.4
21.9
22.2
18.8
13.6
17.2
18.3
17.4
13.5
12.0
15.0
25.2
16.7
20.9
15.7
19.6
15.0
18.8
23.4
23.7
32.2
24.3
22.9
30.1
27.1
26.1
25.3
37.3
23.6
21.9
29.7
30.5
31.1
20.4
25.3
28.4
47.0
55.9
45.6
48.1
45.8
39.6
49.5
28.6
I will
look for
some one
I respect
(other
than
parents)
in this
matter
4.8
2.0
0.8
1.1
2.8
3.0
0.5
1.7
1.2
1.3
0.8
1.9
2.1
6.2
1.0
3.9
1.2
0.0
4.9
0.6
0.5
2.1
1.9
3.8
3.3
2.0
I cant
think of
it yet
Total
N
46.3
42.9
46.7
59.6
56.3
51.2
56.4
55.4
59
39.5
53.3
57.4
54.6
46.2
49.6
58.3
60
59.6
33.1
18.2
37.2
28.9
36.7
37
32.1
50.6
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
724
751
725
716
712
928
733
725
713
870
722
718
729
715
717
705
728
727
729
767
640
622
601
710
628
18056
Table 3.144 Perceptions regarding prestige according to districts
(Percentage)
District
Colombo
Gampaha
Kalutara
Kandy
Matale
Having
enough
Taking a
money
part of a
Hailing
to
from a
leader in Having spend
prestigious school better on
family
activities cloths friends
57.8
80.8
55.7
54.2
48.6
81.8
64.1
56.5
52.5
87.9
54.9
47.4
60.3
90.2
66
57.3
59.6
78.9
61.8
50.7
Good in Having
academic sports
work
talents
87.1
84.9
90.5
88.8
85.2
90.5
91.8
91.3
87.6
84.6
Having Having a
aesthetic good
talents character Total
86.4
86.8
100
88.5
84.7
100
87.1
89.8
100
88.7
89.6
100
84.9
87.4
100
N
1072
1071
1073
1064
1080
Nuwara Eliya 72.1
Galle
59.8
Matara
51.6
87.8
82
83.9
69.6
61
56.3
52.2
56.2
52.3
96.4
87.8
90.8
91.1
89
90.7
94
84.7
85.8
89.7
91.8
91.4
100
100
100
1234
1061
1074
Hambantota
Ampara
47.1
71.1
78.3
89.7
55.9
74.2
48.5
60.9
89.1
90.9
85.7
89.5
79.4
90.4
80.1
92.6
100
100
1056
1275
Kurunegala
Puttalam
49.5
25.9
81.5
65
60.4
48.3
53.8
45.4
90.7
82.2
90.8
84.9
89.3
87.3
89
87.7
100
100
1068
1062
Anuradhapura 52.8
77.4
63.6
51.4
83.2
87.4
85.2
87
100
1073
Polonnaruwa 49.1
Badulla
48.4
78.9
87.3
60.1
61.1
54.8
48
87.1
94
87.7
88.3
79.2
90.9
80.6
90.8
100
100
1061
1051
Monaragala
57.4
72.8
51.3
46.3
87.1
85.3
89.8
91.2
100
1063
Ratnapura
Kegalle
Jaffna
65.2
47.7
68.9
85.8
74.6
91.1
56.7
51.9
80.3
52.6
44.1
52.2
88.5
92.2
95.6
85.1
86.5
94
87.1
89
92.7
90.7
86.4
97.8
100
100
100
1072
1057
1072
Kilinochchi
Vavunia
Mullaitivu
Mannar
79.9
89.5
71.4
82.6
92.6
94.9
94.4
94
76.6
69.4
74.6
81.1
60.8
22.6
43.8
57.4
96.2
95.6
91.9
94.1
96.9
94.1
93.6
92.1
95.5
95.2
90
91.6
93.8
94.8
91.3
95.4
100
100
100
100
979
943
938
897
Trincomalee 76.9
Batticaloa
86.8
Sri Lanka
58.8
93.6
90.2
83.9
80
86
63.5
52.2
73
53.1
95.1
95.5
90.2
94.8
93.5
89.2
92.7
93.3
88.5
93.5
91.8
89.7
100
100
100
1178
962
26523
Table 3.145 Percentages of adolescents whose parents were dead according to districts
Father
dead %
Colombo
7.0
Gampaha
6.1
Kalutara
5.7
Kandy
5.3
Matale
6.3
Nuwara Eliya 7.4
Galle
3.8
Matara
5.4
Hambanthota 6.6
Ampara
13.3
Kurunegala
6.1
Puttalam
6.5
Anuradhapura 6.2
District
Mother
dead %
0.6
1.5
0.7
1.4
2.2
2.4
0.9
1.9
1.6
5.3
1.9
0.9
2.0
N
1207
1206
1209
1200
1216
1392
1196
1209
1191
1437
1204
1197
1208
Father
dead %
Polonnaruwa 5.1
Badulla
4.1
Monaragala 4.4
Ratnapura
7.5
Kegalle
6.7
Jaffna
9.1
Kilinochchi 19.9
Vavunia
5.5
Mullaitivu
16.7
Mannar
12.0
Trincomalee 11.9
Batticaloa
14.5
Sri Lanka
6.9
District
Mother
dead %
1.5
1.3
2.2
3.6
1.3
3.6
6.5
2.9
5.2
5.3
2.5
6.3
2.0
N
1196
1185
1198
1207
1192
1207
1104
1063
1057
1010
1326
1084
29895
Table 3. 146 Prevalence of alcohol use and related violence among fathers by districts
(Percentages)
Becomes
Becomes
Father
Father
violent
violent
District
N
District
takes
takes
afterwards
afterwards
alcohol
alcohol
***
***
Colombo
15.8
34.9
1109
Polonnaruwa 24.9
28.3
Gampaha
20.6
20.0
1109
Badulla
21.2
8.9
Kalutara
12.9
17.8
1111
Monaragala
25.1
22.3
Kandy
18.3
21.3
1102
Ratnapura
24.8
31.1
Matale
23.9
33.6
1118
Kegalle
20.7
21.3
Nuwara Eliya 17.9
25.7
1278
Jaffna
9.8
40.5
Galle
8.8
4.2
1098
Kilinochchi 15.1
50.3
Matara
15.1
24.3
1111
Vavunia
9.4
63.0
Hamabanthota 14.3
21.8
1094
Mullaitivu
17.2
58.8
Ampara
20
22.1
1320
Mannar
18.5
37.4
Kurunegala
18.6
39.1
1106
Trincomalee 17.2
42.5
Puttalam
25.7
26.0
1100
Batticaloa
22.2
30.8
Anuradhapura 21.3
31.5
1110
Sri Lanka
18.3
26.6
(*** Proportions out of who takes alcohol)
N
1099
1089
1101
1110
1095
1110
1014
977
971
928
1219
996
27458
Table 3.147 Presence of unpleasant and frustration problems at home by districts
No
such
events
Colombo
86.1
Gampaha
84.3
Kalutara
87.3
Kandy
82.8
Matale
81.1
Nuwara Eliya 82.0
Galle
90.9
Matara
86.7
Hambanthota 80.9
Ampara
78.0
Kurunegala
84.3
Puttalam
77.1
Anuradhapura 81.3
Polonnaruwa 84.7
Badulla
87.2
Monaragala
82.3
Ratnapura
79.0
Kegalle
85.7
Jaffna
80.4
Kilinochchi
68.0
Vavunia
66.2
Mullaitivu
86.1
Mannar
77.5
Trincomalee
86.1
Batticaloa
74.3
Sri Lanka
83.2
District
Parents
quarrel
often
3.3
3.3
3.2
3.5
5.0
5.3
3.3
2.7
5.1
2.4
4.5
5.7
5.6
4.2
2.7
5.3
7.2
3.4
4.2
10.8
4.9
3.9
5.3
4.1
3.2
4.1
Father
Becomes
drunk
4.1
4.1
2.5
2.5
4.1
3.1
1.1
3.5
2.8
7.9
3.0
4.0
2.5
4.9
2.4
2.9
4.1
3.7
1.6
6.9
1.7
1.8
3.4
2.4
4.3
3.3
Poor
Unsatisfactory
Total
facilities environment
N
4.1
3.6
4.1
6.9
7.3
6.3
1.9
4.5
8.7
8.2
5.1
10.4
6.6
3.2
3.8
5.8
7.8
4.1
8.5
10.6
4.3
3.6
9.0
4.6
16.5
5.8
1133
1133
1135
1126
1142
1306
1122
1135
1118
1349
1130
1124
1134
1123
1112
1125
1134
1119
1134
1036
998
992
949
1245
1018
28058
2.4
4.8
2.8
4.4
2.5
3.3
2.8
2.7
2.4
3.4
3.2
2.7
4.0
3.0
3.9
3.7
1.9
3.0
5.3
3.6
22.9
4.6
4.8
2.7
1.6
3.5
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
83.2
Table 3.148 Adolescents who enjoyed schooling by districts
(Percentages)
District
Yes
No
Can't say
Colombo
89.6
1.9
8.6
Gampaha
87.4
4
8.6
Kalutara
94.6
2.2
3.2
Kandy
93
1.5
5.5
Matale
89.5
3.7
6.8
Total
100
100
100
100
100
N
1141
1140
1142
1133
1149
Nuwara Eliya
Galle
Matara
95.7
91.7
92.4
2.9
2
3.2
1.4
6.4
4.4
100
100
100
1315
1130
1143
Hambanthota
Ampara
91.8
94
3.1
3.2
5.1
2.8
100
100
1125
1357
Kurunegala
Puttalam
90.8
91.5
1.9
1.3
7.3
7.2
100
100
1137
1131
Anuradhapura
91
1.8
7.2
100
1142
Polonnaruwa
Badulla
89.9
91.7
3.1
2.2
7
6.1
100
100
1130
1119
Monaragala
92
3
4.9
100
1132
Ratnapura
Kegalle
Jaffna
92.6
91.4
97.6
2.1
2
1.3
5.3
6.6
1
100
100
100
1141
1126
1141
Kilinochchi
Vavunia
Mullaitivu
Mannar
93.8
98.1
95.9
97.2
6.2
1.2
2.6
2.2
0
0.8
1.4
0.6
100
100
100
100
1043
1004
999
955
Trincomalee
Batticaloa
Sri Lanka
95.4
99
92.1
2
1
2.3
2.6
0
5.6
100
100
100
1253
1024
28236
Table 3.149 Pattern of school absenteeism by districts
District
None
1 -2
days
3 -5
days
Colombo
Gampaha
Kalutara
Kandy
Matale
Nuwara Eliya
Galle
Matara
Hambantota
Ampara
Kurunegala
Puttalam
Anuradhapura
Polonnaruwa
Badulla
Monaragala
Ratnapura
Kegalle
Jaffna
Kilinochchi
Vavunia
Mullaitivu
Mannar
Trincomalee
Batticaloa
Sri Lanka
32.1
33.8
23.6
30.3
29.7
35.7
21.2
30.1
28.9
38.5
34.5
31.5
28.2
28.3
29.8
33.2
28.4
31.2
27.0
36.8
38.7
33.2
37.1
33.4
24.2
30.5
27.8
25.1
21.5
31.4
29.8
30.2
36.9
31.8
29.9
32.6
34.9
35.1
30.8
25.2
31.5
26.1
25.9
23.7
41.6
31.4
42.5
31.4
39.1
34.7
51.4
30.9
12.2
11.5
15.0
10.2
10.5
10.9
12.4
10.2
15.0
11.3
10.1
8.8
11.2
11.1
10.6
8.6
15.4
10.4
12.1
16.6
8.2
11.5
9.6
13.5
18.6
11.7
More
than 5
days
10.2
9.0
8.0
7.1
7.3
4.0
10.2
7.9
9.7
8.4
4.3
11.4
10.2
9.6
7.3
11.3
5.9
10.3
7.6
7.4
2.8
8.7
6.0
5.8
2.8
8.0
Can’t
Total
remember
N
17.7
20.6
31.9
21.0
22.8
19.2
19.4
19.9
16.5
9.2
16.2
13.2
19.6
25.8
20.8
20.8
24.3
24.4
11.6
7.9
7.8
15.3
8.2
12.6
3.0
18.8
1164
1164
1166
1157
1173
1342
1153
1166
1149
1386
1161
1155
1165
1154
1143
1156
1165
1150
1165
1065
1025
1020
975
1279
1046
28827
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
Table 3.150 Reasons for absenteeism during last month by districts
District
Illness
Skip /
cut
school
Colombo
Gampaha
Kalutara
Kandy
Matale
Nuwara Eliya
Galle
Matara
Hambanthota
Ampara
Kurunegala
Puttalam
Anuradhapura
Polonnaruwa
Badulla
Monaragala
Ratnapura
Kegalle
Jaffna
Kilinochchi
Vavunia
Mullaitivu
Mannar
Trincomalee
Batticaloa
Sri Lanka
87.4
91.3
95.2
90.3
86.9
73.3
89.0
87.5
87.1
85.2
90.2
83.7
84.7
83.7
95.1
87.7
87.2
88.0
84.6
83.5
81.2
87.7
86.0
85.6
84.3
87.2
6.8
4.2
2.0
2.4
3.9
4.5
7.6
5.6
2.5
1.6
2.6
6.6
4.8
7.5
2.2
3.2
4.2
3.8
2.3
4.2
0.6
2.6
0.9
0.2
10.7
4.4
No
money
to by
books /
cloths
1.7
0.9
0.7
1.5
5.1
3.9
1.6
1.3
5.4
6.1
0.9
8.8
2.0
2.4
1.1
4.2
5.5
1.7
5.0
7.3
2.8
4.2
5.5
2.9
2.3
2.8
No
transport other
facility
Total
N
4.1
3.6
2.2
5.3
3.5
8.1
1.8
5.6
5.0
5.3
5.8
0.9
8.5
6.2
1.5
4.9
3.0
6.5
3.0
2.9
9.2
2.8
2.5
3.4
0.8
4.5
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
810
811
812
803
817
931
800
813
796
963
807
802
812
801
794
803
812
798
812
738
712
708
679
891
728
20035
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.5
0.6
10.2
0.0
0.0
0.0
1.8
0.5
0.0
0.0
0.1
0.0
0.0
0.1
0.0
5.1
2.0
6.2
2.7
5.1
7.9
1.9
1.1
10.7
7.2
9.4
8.1
9.9
6.3
15.1
7.4
16.7
11.9
12.1
11.4
15.1
14.9
9.1
16.4
10.3
15.1
16.9
11.5
7.5
11.3
5.8
9.2
8.5
10.6
Other
3.3
0.0
1.6
3.4
4.9
4.5
5.0
1.1
4.7
4.2
2.5
2.4
3.5
3.3
0.9
1.7
3.4
2.1
6.5
2.4
2.8
2.2
2.0
4.8
2.4
2.9
Total
10.8
2.5
8.5
7.7
7.7
6.1
15.0
6.7
15.0
7.4
10.2
16.2
14.8
16.0
9.9
15.2
11.0
20.6
3.5
3.2
0.5
3.5
3.9
4.9
2.4
9.6
Taking
personal
belongings
16.9
5.5
14.4
10.5
9.4
7.3
16.3
7.3
12.8
11.4
10.4
18.2
16.1
13.7
12.0
11.8
14.5
11.6
7.5
9.1
23.6
11.6
10.7
12.2
19.7
11.9
Threatened
to hit
34.1
18.1
28.3
19.6
14.7
18.2
18.4
14.3
16.7
15.4
16.8
32.6
19.6
22.9
19.3
20.9
12.7
12.3
12.9
8.1
11.1
20.7
28.7
16.0
34.3
18.6
Never been
bullied
26.2
11.4
21.6
12.9
8.4
12.9
5.8
9.3
9.0
11.9
9.0
16.7
11.8
15.0
11.1
16.9
13.0
10.0
9.4
12.3
6.6
25.1
20.5
10.4
20.4
18.4
Being
ignored
Colombo
Gampaha
Kalutara
Kandy
Matale
Nuwara Eliya
Galle
Matara
Hambanthota
Ampara
Kurunegala
Puttalam
Anuradhapura
Polonnaruwa
Badulla
Monaragala
Ratnapura
Kegalle
Jaffna
Kilinochchi
Vavunia
Mullaitivu
Mannar
Trincomalee
Batticaloa
Sri Lanka
Verbally
abused
District
Physically
attacked
Table 3.151 Types of harassments experienced by district
32.4
32.1
25.9
29.3
24.4
27.2
40.7
20.3
34.1
29.1
28.9
23.5
18.8
20.1
25.9
16.0
17.6
19.2
42.3
31.9
42.8
33.9
27.3
35.3
20.9
25.3
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
N
1191
1190
1193
1184
1200
1373
1180
1193
1175
1417
1188
1181
1192
1180
1169
1182
1191
1176
1191
1089
1049
1043
996
1308
1069
29479
Table 3.152 Percentage of adolescents who ever involved in harassing others in school
according to districts
District
Colombo
Gampaha
Kalutara
Kandy
Matale
Nuwara Eliya
Galle
Matara
Hambanthota
Ampara
Kurunegala
Puttalam
Anuradhapura
% involved
10.3
13.4
9.3
9.5
10.8
9.2
7.3
4.5
9.5
9.9
8.8
13.0
13.6
N
1034
1034
1036
1027
1042
1191
1023
1036
1019
1230
1031
1025
1035
District
Polonnaruwa
Badulla
Monaragala
Ratnapura
Kegalle
Jaffna
Kilinochchi
Vavunia
Mullaitivu
Mannar
Trincomalee
Batticaloa
Sri Lanka
% involved
14
11.5
7.8
11.2
9.4
9.4
18.2
8.6
18.1
23.1
12.4
12.7
10.4
N
1024
1014
1026
1035
1020
1035
944
910
905
866
1137
929
25593
Table 3.153 Percentage of adolescents who have ever been punished in schools according
to districts
District
% been punished N
District
% been punished N
Colombo
Gampaha
Kalutara
Kandy
Matale
Nuwara Eliya
Galle
Matara
Hambanthota
Ampara
Kurunegala
Puttalam
Anuradhapura
85.2
74.7
77.7
68.6
74.6
69.3
62.3
65.1
73.9
62.0
87.9
92.3
78.8
Polonnaruwa
Badulla
Monaragala
Ratnapura
Kegalle
Jaffna
Kilinochchi
Vavunia
Mullaitivu
Mannar
Trincomalee
Batticaloa
SriLanka
75.1
76.5
73.8
78.2
72.0
56.5
51.9
54.3
65.5
67.1
67.4
73.8
74.4
1069
1069
1071
1062
1078
1232
1059
1072
1054
1272
1066
1060
1071
1059
1049
1061
1070
1055
1070
977
941
936
895
1175
961
26471
Table 3.154 Types of punishments received by adolescents in schools according to
districts
Keep
Kept
Kept
Knock
Hit
Additional after
Hit
standing kneeling
on head
by
home
the
by
up in
down in
District
with
cane
work
hand
school
front of front of
knuckles
/ruler
time
class
class
Colombo
55.7
37.4
39.0
55.3 70.6 77.4
65.5
Gampaha
56.4
23.9
25.2
59.0 65.2 69.3
51.0
Kalutara
58.7
27.9
29.5
65.9 74.9 80.5
65.8
Kandy
74.4
55.6
49.6
74.9 81.6 75.0
64.9
Matale
67.1
34.7
47.5
73.2 79.6 63.3
59.6
Nuwara Eliya 68.9
50.6
48.8
57.3 85.6 68.1
45.8
Galle
59.8
37.5
35.5
65.9 69.8 72.6
71.0
Matara
69.0
32.0
40.8
71.4 71.8 66.4
50.8
Hambanthota 65.0
47.9
52.8
71.9 75.5 74.1
49.8
Ampara
66.8
44.9
50.6
51.7 69.8 63.2
55.7
Kurunegala
69.0
35.3
40.7
76.9 87.2 84.3
62.5
Puttalam
52.8
36.8
42.7
71.8 82.3 88.1
69.6
Anuradhapura 50.7
23.9
48.2
75.9 75.9 66.3
58.5
Polonnaruwa 66.3
42.7
47.7
78.8 84.3 77.5
71.6
Badulla
67.7
43.7
50.4
82.9 87.8 81.7
72.4
Monaragala
64.0
35.3
40.3
79.8 84.4 60.7
57.6
Ratnapura
62.0
51.5
56.4
80.0 74.5 73.8
43.6
Kegalle
47.5
30.5
48.9
72.2 70.0 47.1
50.7
Jaffna
71.1
46.4
55.9
42.2 61.9 49.8
68.7
Kilinochchi
49.1
39.7
34.8
22.8 55.0 46.8
40.1
Vavunia
42.6
70.1
33.4
31.5 39.2 27.9
78.8
Mullaitivu
71.0
51.6
50.5
49.7 70.3 53.7
60.5
Mannar
83.1
49.2
65.8
59.7 79.4 60.2
61.6
Trincomalee
78.5
42.8
50.2
61.8 71.8 59.9
73.1
Batticaloa
89.1
67.9
68.5
83.8 85.9 75.8
71.1
Sri Lanka
64.1
40.6
45.0
67.3 76.2 72.5
62.0
N
796
797
798
789
804
915
786
799
783
946
793
788
798
787
780
789
798
784
798
725
700
696
667
876
715
19694
Table 3.155 Participation of extracurricular activities by adolescents according to districts
(Percentages)
Active
Ordinary
Not a
District
Total N
member
member
member
Colombo
15.2
31.3
53.6
100.0 1010
Gampaha
13.3
30.8
55.9
100.0 1010
Kalutara
13.9
30.3
55.8
100.0 1012
Kandy
16.4
31.7
51.9
100.0 1003
Matale
7.6
28.1
64.3
100.0 1019
Nuwara Eliya 22.9
44.0
33.1
100.0 1163
Galle
14.9
31.6
53.5
100.0 1000
Matara
12.1
24.9
63.1
100.0 1013
Hambanthota 14.8
30.0
55.2
100.0 996
Ampara
22.4
48.8
28.8
100.0 1202
Kurunegala
15.3
30.2
54.5
100.0 1007
Puttalam
8.4
33.2
58.4
100.0 1001
Anuradhapura 11.8
28.5
59.6
100.0 1012
Polonnaruwa 13.2
28.4
58.4
100.0 1000
Badulla
17.1
24.2
58.7
100.0 991
Monaragala
12.1
27.6
60.3
100.0 1002
Ratnapura
14.8
32.5
52.7
100.0 1011
Kegalle
18.0
21.6
60.4
100.0 997
Jaffna
20.9
52.7
26.4
100.0 1011
Kilinochchi
11.0
48.6
40.3
100.0 922
Vavunia
15.5
41.5
43.0
100.0 889
Mullaitivu
25.4
47.0
27.6
100.0 884
Mannar
23.3
51.3
25.4
100.0 846
Trincomalee
20.8
48.7
30.6
100.0 1111
Batticaloa
26.6
37.5
35.9
100.0 908
Sri Lanka
15.7
32.7
51.6
100.0 25006
Table 3.156 Percentage of adolescents who said they were not involved in
extracurricular activities due to heavy school work load by districts
District
Colombo
Gampaha
Kalutara
Kandy
Matale
Nuwara Eliya
Galle
Matara
Hambanthota
% who said yes
18.4
12.6
15.3
12.7
23.8
9.6
18.4
21.7
17.1
N
1010
1010
1012
1003
1019
1163
1000
1013
996
District
Polonnaruwa
Badulla
Monaragala
Ratnapura
Kegalle
Jaffna
Kilinochchi
Vavunia
Mullaitivu
% who said yes
15
18.6
22
14.5
23.4
8.5
18
7.1
9.5
N
1000
991
1002
1011
997
1011
922
889
884
Ampara
Kurunegala
Puttalam
Anuradhapura
10.3
15.4
18.6
15.9
1202
1007
1001
1012
Mannar
Trincomalee
Batticaloa
Sri Lanka
9.8
11.4
6.4
15.6
846
1111
908
25006
Colombo
Gampaha
Kalutara
Kandy
Matale
Nuwara Eliya
Galle
Matara
Hambantota
Ampara
Kurunegala
Puttalam
Anuradhapura
Polonnaruwa
Badulla
Monaragala
Ratnapura
Kegalle
Jaffna
Kilinochchi
Vavunia
Mullaitivu
Mannar
Trincomalee
Batticaloa
Sri Lanka
66.9
58.1
60.6
63.1
66.4
70.6
72.7
65.8
54.0
73.6
69.1
60.9
52.9
53.4
54.9
56.7
53.8
62.9
71.7
65.3
81.2
71.1
62.2
68.3
82.7
63.8
49.6
38.5
39.5
43.5
48.9
51.0
55.3
40.7
38.8
42.2
48.9
48.7
36.9
40.2
46.7
39.3
36.3
46.6
50.1
33.1
49.3
42.2
48.7
41.8
56.6
44.7
25.5
20.9
20.3
21.7
23.6
20.2
33.5
14.9
20.2
19.1
21.5
25.5
19.1
22.4
16.8
21.3
16.3
19.6
20.3
6.8
9.5
12.4
11.2
19.4
27.8
21.2
26.2
20.3
18.0
20.6
23.5
29.0
27.7
13.2
25.0
26.1
17.9
21.4
17.3
16.8
20.3
17.9
15.4
11.5
23.7
18.0
17.2
22.2
24.0
26.6
24.4
20.9
25.1
6.8
11.5
5.7
12.7
8.6
8.8
5.7
11.2
6.1
7.7
4.2
8.3
11.6
6.9
8.3
5.7
4.9
12.3
4.6
7.3
6.8
7.1
11.4
15.1
9.5
30.2
25.1
21.3
23.1
29.9
23.5
36.3
23.5
22.1
27.3
25.8
16.9
14.7
17.9
24.9
20.0
12.1
13.6
31.3
24.4
36.8
28.6
30.6
33.8
38.0
24.5
28.8
27.8
22.2
22.3
27.8
38.3
29.6
23.9
20.6
34.4
25.7
23.9
17.6
18.0
23.5
14.8
13.0
10.6
48.5
25.1
45.1
45.7
45.5
43.4
45.9
26.2
28.5
37.6
26.4
31.6
33.3
36.1
37.0
30.2
26.2
35.9
34.5
31.0
20.1
21.0
39.6
20.2
15.8
13.2
51.8
35.6
50.0
54.9
59.5
48.4
49.7
31.8
Gardening
Going with
friends
Studying
household
activities
71.4
62.6
71.5
64.2
67.3
64.7
69.1
50.9
57.7
60.1
64.3
61.6
66.4
57.4
57.3
52.6
58.9
65.8
55.7
18.6
50.3
36.3
50.5
55.8
75.7
62.5
Painting
Surfing
internet
Tuition
class
68.2
59.3
65.2
57.6
52.5
73.4
63.5
51.4
60.3
67.0
56.5
58.6
66.4
54.5
56.8
53.6
57.5
59.8
66.2
54.7
78.5
69.1
67.3
73.8
78.3
61.7
Reading
Listening
to music
Playing
music
Watch TV
District
Sports
Table 3.157 Adolescents leisure time activities by districts
14.9
18.8
16.5
13.0
17.5
21.9
21.2
13.9
8.9
18.1
16.1
10.5
6.8
10.8
19.4
11.2
9.1
7.0
21.4
11.3
15.5
22.5
20.5
26.4
33.2
15.6
15.2
16.8
13.6
11.5
13.9
16.6
9.2
14.4
8.6
13.5
11.8
11.5
4.6
11.8
14.3
5.5
5.9
4.4
23.3
8.3
32.2
20.5
21.6
27.2
35.5
13.2
N
1191
1190
1193
1184
1200
1373
1180
1193
1175
1417
1188
1181
1192
1180
1169
1182
1191
1176
1191
1089
1049
1043
996
1308
1069
29479
Table 3.158 Percentage of adolescents who were involved in income generation activities
by districts
District
Colombo
Gampaha
Kalutara
Kandy
Matale
Nuwara Eliya
Galle
Matara
Hambantota
Ampara
Kurunegala
Puttalam
Anuradhapura
% working
5.5
6
4.6
6.9
7.7
11.4
2.5
5.5
7.7
12.6
14.5
7.4
7.3
N
1079
1078
1080
1071
1087
1243
1068
1081
1063
1283
1075
1069
1080
District
Polonnaruwa
Badulla
Monaragala
Ratnapura
Kegalle
Jaffna
Kilinochchi
Vavunia
Mullaitivu
Mannar
Trincomalee
Batticaloa
Sri Lanka
% working
8.6
5.3
7.4
7.2
5.7
20.3
17.6
31.5
21.2
21.4
16.1
16.8
8.7
N
1068
1058
1070
1079
1064
1079
985
949
944
903
1185
969
26698
Table 3.159 Percentage of adolescents who read news papers by districts
District
Colombo
Gampaha
Kalutara
Kandy
Matale
Nuwara Eliya
Galle
Matara
Hambantota
Ampara
Kurunegala
Puttalam
Anuradhapura
% reading News papers
87.3
79.1
92.9
88.8
87.2
96.4
93.2
88.7
78.5
92.4
91.6
82.6
87.3
N
1098
1098
1100
1091
1107
1266
1088
1101
1083
1307
1095
1089
1100
District
Polonnaruwa
Badulla
Monaragala
Ratnapura
Kegalle
Jaffna
Kilinochchi
Vavunia
Mullaitivu
Mannar
Trincomalee
Batticaloa
Sri Lanka
% reading News papers
74.9
88.1
86.1
89.4
94.9
94.5
96.5
97.1
94
92.5
89.6
90.7
88.7
N
1088
1078
1090
1099
1084
1099
1004
967
962
919
1207
987
27189
Table 3.160 percentage of adolescents that read news papers according to districts
District
Colombo
Gampaha
Kalutara
Kandy
Matale
Nuwara Eliya
Galle
Matara
Hambantota
Ampara
Kurunegala
Puttalam
Anuradhapura
% listening to radio
87.8
79.4
90.3
88.7
88.8
95.4
91.0
90.5
87.8
87.7
88.6
83.6
88.2
N
1080
1080
1082
1073
1089
1245
1069
1082
1065
1285
1077
1071
1081
District
Polonnaruwa
Badulla
Monaragala
Ratnapura
Kegalle
Jaffna
Kilinochchi
Vavunia
Mullaitivu
Mannar
Trincomalee
Batticaloa
Sri Lanka
% listening to radio
91.6
89.3
85.3
87.3
91.9
90.1
90.3
93.7
90.9
87.3
87.7
92.2
88.4
N
1070
1060
1072
1081
1066
1081
987
951
946
904
1187
970
26740
Table 3.161 Percentage of adolescents who watched TV according to districts
District
Colombo
Gampaha
Kalutara
Kandy
Matale
Nuwara Eliya
Galle
Matara
Hambantota
Ampara
Kurunegala
Puttalam
Anuradhapura
% watched TV
90.7
91.1
91.3
88.2
88.6
88.7
86.7
79.7
79.2
82.4
91.2
88.7
89
N
1061
1061
1063
1054
1069
1222
1050
1063
1046
1262
1058
1052
1062
District
Polonnaruwa
Badulla
Monaragala
Ratnapura
Kegalle
Jaffna
Kilinochchi
Vavunia
Mullaitivu
Mannar
Trincomalee
Batticaloa
Sri Lanka
% watched TV
85.2
87
80.4
84.7
90.2
76.6
50.6
87.4
72.1
79.2
83.5
85.8
86.8
N
1051
1041
1053
1062
1047
1062
969
934
929
888
1166
953
26263
Table 3.162 Prevalence of ever smoking among adolescent boys and girls by districts
(Percentages)
District
Boys
N
Girls
N
Colombo
16.7
377
9.6
420
Gampaha
13.5
394
2.6
438
Kalutara
17.7
377
5.7
421
Kandy
29.2
373
6.2
415
Matale
18.7
371
5.1
413
Nuwara Eliya
23.2
484
4.3
540
Galle
9.0
386
7.0
429
Matara
18.2
377
8.2
421
Hambantota
18.8
371
5.3
413
Ampara
7.9
456
4.5
508
Kurunegala
27.5
375
3.7
419
Puttalam
24.6
375
6.4
417
Anuradhapura
22.3
382
6.4
426
Polonnaruwa
26.9
373
9.1
415
Badulla
12.8
374
2.2
416
Monaragala
18.1
366
6.4
409
Ratnapura
11.5
381
5.5
425
Kegalle
18.3
381
9.9
424
Jaffna
5.2
382
2.1
425
Kilinochchi
2.3
402
0.4
447
Vavunia
2.9
335
1.6
373
Mullaitivu
10.8
323
1.8
361
Mannar
17.4
315
1.0
351
Trincomalee
10.2
372
3.1
414
Batticaloa
5.2
327
2.4
365
Sri Lanka
17.8
9429
5.5
10505
Table 3.163 Prevalence of alcohol ever use among adolescent boys and girls according to
districts
District
Colombo
Gampaha
Kalutara
Kandy
Matale
Nuwara Eliya
Galle
Matara
Hambantota
Ampara
Kurunegala
Puttalam
Anuradhapura
Polonnaruwa
Badulla
Monaragala
Ratnapura
Kegalle
Jaffna
Kilinochchi
Vavunia
Mullaitivu
Mannar
Trincomalee
Batticaloa
Sri Lanka
Boys
26.9
20.5
30.4
37.2
25.0
20.0
24.7
17.2
19.9
7.5
42.7
41.5
24.5
21.9
23.8
17.6
4.9
17.1
8.8
3.2
2.4
6.0
19.6
13.2
4.6
23.7
N
377
394
377
373
371
484
386
377
371
456
375
375
382
373
374
366
381
381
382
402
335
323
315
372
327
9429
Girls
14.4
12.2
14.6
10.6
15.0
4.9
6.2
6.7
3.7
4.6
11.6
21.3
6.4
6.7
5.8
10.1
7.0
11.1
5.2
0.0
2.1
0.7
3.0
11.5
1.7
9.1
N
420
438
421
415
413
540
429
421
413
508
419
417
426
415
416
409
425
424
425
447
373
361
351
414
365
10505
Table 3.164 Knowledge of early adolescents on the physiological changes during
adolescence by districts
An attained
Increase in
girl has a
Breast
Deepening of
weight
&
District
Menarche voice
potential to
enlargement
height
become
pregnant
Colombo
52.9
29.4
42.5
12.9
13.7
Gampaha
49.7
35.5
38.8
47.0
26.8
Kalutara
40.8
13.6
43.2
32.8
9.6
Kandy
47.3
14.9
37.8
33.3
11.4
Matale
39.3
23.7
29.9
22.3
14.7
Nuwara Eliya 21.1
11.7
13.3
17.2
9.4
Galle
36.8
24.1
31.6
25.6
8.3
Matara
19.7
25.0
22.0
12.9
18.2
Hambantota
13.1
11.1
13.6
18.1
27.1
Ampara
34.4
11.7
10.9
16.9
15.7
Kurunegala
28.1
19.1
30.7
32.2
8.5
Puttalam
32.5
19.8
26.9
40.1
15.2
Anuradhapura 25.9
26.4
23.4
12.2
16.2
Polonnaruwa 33.3
18.2
31.8
26.8
14.1
Badulla
29.2
26.6
41.7
27.6
18.2
Monaragala
28.1
15.8
23.7
7.9
12.3
Ratnapura
21.4
16.8
15.3
13.8
12.2
Kegalle
19.0
27.3
25.7
15.2
8.8
Jaffna
62.3
30.0
34.6
40.8
21.5
Kilinochchi
30.2
5.8
5.8
15.1
5.8
Vavunia
38.5
20.7
14.0
21.8
12.8
Mullaitivu
23.7
10.2
9.6
18.6
9.6
Mannar
26.6
12.1
7.5
18.5
17.3
Trincomalee
28.2
4.9
5.1
7.6
10.6
Batticaloa
50.3
29.0
30.1
32.2
34.4
Sri Lanka
35.0
21.4
28.5
24.5
15.0
Colombo
Gampaha
Kalutara
Kandy
Matale
Nuwara Eliya
Galle
Matara
Hambantota
Ampara
Kurunegala
Puttalam
Anuradhapura
Polonnaruwa
Badulla
Monaragala
Ratnapura
Kegalle
Jaffna
Kilinochchi
Vavunia
Mullaitivu
Mannar
Trincomalee
Batticaloa
Sri Lanka
70.2
56.3
62.9
60.8
57.6
35.5
67.4
44.1
54.0
56.0
66.7
56.8
61.5
45.4
59.7
54.9
48.6
53.6
51.9
46.1
47.5
43.8
44.4
49.1
43.5
57.9
60.1
54.8
66.6
63.1
58.1
29.8
66.8
47.0
51.5
54.7
65.9
53.0
60.4
40.4
51.0
50.3
43.3
53.8
47.5
45.8
40.0
46.3
46.6
50.1
43.5
55.1
50.8
38.6
43.1
53.3
41.2
24.9
46.9
34.1
44.9
42.3
48.1
34.7
48.3
31.6
39.1
37.6
31.0
39.9
33.9
25.7
21.9
23.9
29.4
25.4
21.6
42.1
42.1
35.7
44.4
40.5
38.8
14.7
48.5
32.5
32.3
29.0
39.4
26.8
39.2
24.8
27.7
33.3
30.2
35.2
21.6
32.4
31.0
23.3
20.9
21.3
31.8
34.8
42.1
33.5
36.2
33.1
36.8
20.5
40.2
29.3
25.7
42.1
36.0
31.3
35.0
27.1
27.9
26.7
31.1
31.2
33.8
26.0
22.4
21.8
26.3
28.6
27.0
34.3
32.0
32.4
33.2
30.5
26.9
19.5
42.6
28.7
28.9
32.3
40.2
26.9
31.3
23.7
31.8
25.0
18.9
32.3
31.0
26.7
25.2
20.9
28.9
27.3
19.6
31.7
N
A women is always
at fault in a sub
fertile situation
Breast enlargement
during adolescence is
due to hormones
Female hormones are
produced in ovaries
Nocturnal emission
is normal during
adolescence
Ova are produced in
ovaries
Union of a sperm
and ovum results in
producing an embryo
District
Table 3.165 District differences in the average knowledge of adolescents on reproductive
system and function
801
826
804
794
788
1026
801
804
792
956
802
794
802
792
794
783
800
799
801
843
704
690
660
782
696
19934
District
Menstruation is a
process during
which the lining
of the uterus is shed
in every month
A girl can get
pregnant only in the
middle of the
menstrual cycle
Eating meat
Engaging in sports
Visiting Shrines
Bathing
N
Table 3.166 District variation in the knowledge of adolescents on menstruation
Colombo
Gampaha
Kalutara
Kandy
Matale
Nuwara Eliya
Galle
Matara
Hambantota
Ampara
Kurunegala
Puttalam
Anuradhapura
Polonnaruwa
Badulla
Monaragala
Ratnapura
Kegalle
Jaffna
Kilinochchi
Vavunia
Mullaitivu
Mannar
Trincomalee
Batticaloa
Sri Lanka
42.5
41.4
46.6
46.2
39.4
20.3
55.3
28.1
42.1
20.2
46.2
46.1
42.9
32.8
37.6
38.4
43.7
44.0
24.8
20.7
10.7
16.2
18.9
21.5
22.9
39.7
19.6
20.5
16.2
12.5
18.0
7.4
22.3
13.5
18.1
20.3
17.2
19.5
22.0
17.0
15.0
17.6
16.9
20.0
19.0
19.7
6.2
12.6
12.5
12.2
13.4
17.3
17.3
27.7
27.8
22.3
19.7
11.5
35.3
20.5
19.0
17.9
22.6
23.6
20.1
18.0
23.4
17.8
25.6
20.4
24.8
15.3
7.1
10.3
11.3
11.7
13.7
21.9
18.0
29.7
25.7
23.8
21.5
12.9
30.8
17.9
25.0
24.7
25.7
25.3
21.5
20.6
20.0
20.7
23.9
22.7
12.1
8.9
9.9
8.4
11.0
17.1
16.6
23.4
17.8
26.6
23.1
24.5
21.5
13.0
31.4
18.1
24.9
25.1
22.5
28.1
20.3
18.7
18.2
18.4
19.0
22.8
21.2
16.3
11.2
10.2
11.4
11.7
18.5
22.9
21.4
26.3
23.9
23.8
15.5
8.3
33.6
17.7
19.5
14.9
21.4
20.3
14.4
16.4
19.1
18.9
21.2
21.9
21.9
3.3
6.3
7.4
5.7
9.6
4.1
20.3
775
804
776
767
762
994
784
776
764
931
774
769
781
766
768
755
779
778
780
820
685
666
643
760
673
19326
Table 3.167 Mean and standard deviation of the age at menarche by districts
District
Mean
Colombo
Gampaha
Kalutara
Kandy
Matale
Nuwara Eliya
Galle
Matara
Hambantota
Ampara
Kurunegala
Puttalam
Anuradhapura
12.4
12.1
12.4
12.2
12.5
12.6
12.3
13.1
12.9
11.8
12.5
12.5
12.3
Std.
Deviation
1.42
2.06
1.60
1.59
1.53
1.23
2.02
1.37
1.35
3.13
1.61
1.40
2.09
District
Mean
Polonnaruwa
Badulla
Monaragala
Ratnapura
Kegalle
Jaffna
Kilinochchi
Vavunia
Mullaitivu
Mannar
Trincomalee
Batticaloa
Total
12.4
12.1
12.4
12.5
12.6
12.8
13.3
13.7
12.9
13.4
12.7
13.0
12.5
Std.
Deviation
1.95
1.91
1.65
1.82
1.88
1.02
1.16
1.60
1.37
1.29
1.23
1.73
1.76
Table 3.168 District variation in the percentage of adolescents that correctly commented
on the accuracy of the statements related to conception, pregnancy and child bearing
District
Colombo
Gampaha
Kalutara
Kandy
Matale
Nuwara
Eliya
Galle
Matara
Hambantota
Ampara
Kurunegala
Puttalam
Anuradhapu
ra
Polonnaruw
a
Badulla
Monaragala
Ratnapura
Kegalle
Jaffna
Kilinochchi
Vavunia
Mullaitivu
Mannar
Trincomale
e
Batticaloa
Sri Lanka
If yes, what
is the most
likely period,
during which
a woman
could
become
pregnant?
4.5
7.1
5.8
4.6
6.8
1.9
Can missing
a period of a
woman who
had a sexual
intercourse
be a sign of
pregnancy?
Induced
abortion may
even lead to
death
Teenage
pregnancies
have more
complications
German
measles
could be
prevented
by
vaccination
28.7
19.3
24.8
24.1
28.6
11.7
44.5
39.8
44.8
43.3
37.5
29.4
35.6
29.6
34.5
34.4
31.9
23.4
35.8
38.8
41.4
35.6
31.4
22.4
7.8
5.1
6.6
2.4
9.7
8.5
9.0
31.4
17.3
23.7
21.6
27.4
23.0
30.5
49.3
31.6
39.3
47.9
49.0
46.3
45.6
39.0
28.9
36.0
38.4
41.2
27.0
37.8
40.7
23.7
30.8
36.2
41.0
32.5
34.6
4.5
19.9
36.4
23.7
21.2
3.0
5.6
4.5
7.6
5.2
2.7
3.6
1.8
2.3
5.0
22.3
20.3
23.6
28.8
21.0
5.6
1.2
2.9
1.9
1.8
45.3
35.1
37.4
37.9
25.1
17.4
17.3
19.5
15.7
29.6
30.2
28.8
33.2
32.1
18.8
14.2
15.0
18.9
13.7
23.8
35.1
29.2
28.0
35.2
22.0
16.6
14.8
24.4
18.1
18.8
2.2
6.0
2.3
23.6
24.1
42.3
23.5
34.0
18.9
35.2
Table 3.169 Percentage of adolescents who have heard of contraceptive methods by
districts
%
aware
Colombo
48.6
Gampaha
42.2
Kalutara
46.6
Kandy
35.0
Matale
27.5
Nuwara Eliya 22.7
Galle
42.1
Matara
25.0
Hambantota
34.1
Ampara
29.1
Kurunegala
42.3
Puttalam
42.9
Anuradhapura 38.1
District
N
665
691
667
659
655
854
674
667
656
801
664
661
671
%
aware
Polonnaruwa 29.4
Badulla
38.0
Monaragala
30.5
Ratnapura
30.8
Kegalle
38.1
Jaffna
27.6
Kilinochchi 41.7
Vavunia
12.9
Mullaitivu
30.9
Mannar
35.0
Trincomalee 30.6
Batticaloa
23.3
Sri Lanka
36.6
District
N
658
660
648
670
669
670
705
589
572
553
654
578
16609
Table 3.170 Percentage of adolescents who were aware of different kinds of STDs by
districts
Awareness
in general
Colombo
62.2
Gampaha
55.1
Kalutara
65.8
Kandy
58.1
Matale
47.7
Nuwara Eliya 31.1
Galle
63.1
Matara
36.9
Hambantota
57.5
Ampara
54.0
Kurunegala
75.4
Puttalam
57.4
Anuradhapura 61.5
Polonnaruwa 46.5
Badulla
61.2
Monaragala
46.9
Ratnapura
46.9
Kegalle
67.0
Jaffna
50.5
District
HIV
/AIDS
67.0
57.2
70.7
58.4
48.6
35.5
61.2
36.5
54.8
68.2
74.7
58.9
60.8
51.6
59.4
47.4
43.5
60.9
64.6
Gonorrhea Syphilis Herpes
50.3
37.7
41.4
39.7
34.1
16.6
47.4
25.1
44.1
26.6
48.9
35.3
42.2
34.7
42.7
33.8
37.1
41.9
23.9
29.5
21.7
25.6
18.8
17.8
8.8
31.6
13.7
21.7
22.8
26.5
16.1
18.0
21.8
26.4
18.4
17.4
20.7
27.0
19.2
17.7
14.4
18.8
11.7
5.5
20.7
5.7
15.1
8.4
19.2
9.8
16.4
12.3
16.9
9.5
11.3
11.6
11.4
Genital
Warts
27.8
18.3
15.9
21.3
20.7
3.4
28.8
10.3
32.0
16.2
32.9
18.6
21.4
15.5
15.1
18.4
14.1
16.5
5.6
N
799
829
801
791
786
1025
808
801
788
960
798
793
805
790
792
779
803
802
804
Kilinochchi
Vavunia
Mullaitivu
Mannar
Trincomalee
Batticaloa
Sri Lanka
57.7
59.4
48.6
58.6
55.3
48.8
57.0
59.4
60.6
65.1
64.5
61.2
63.6
59.0
2.9
4.6
25.2
10.4
21.9
16.5
37.6
4.0
8.6
27.4
16.1
18.8
13.8
21.8
2.1
1.7
13.5
10.6
10.9
9.9
14.4
1.9
1.1
6.5
5.3
6.7
6.9
19.1
846
706
687
663
784
694
19934
Dysurea
Genital
ulcers
Itching in
genital
organs
Enlarged
lymph
nodes in
groin
15.9
16.9
15.5
10.3
11.5
28.1
31.1
18.7
22.9
21.7
20.9
24.9
13.4
20.0
15.7
21.8
19.2
18.5
16.1
17.9
22.6
19.9
18.5
17.1
20.6
19.6
16.3
14.5
12.0
14.5
11.4
8.7
7.6
6.1
7.7
3.7
13.2
7.1
10.9
10.6
17.8
10.5
6.3
12.3
13.3
20.3
10.8
27.4
16.4
5.1
16.5
15.0
20.6
16.0
25.7
13.3
5.1
16.0
14.6
19.0
8.1
19.0
15.6
6.0
12.2
13.7
18.4
5.8
23.5
17.6
5.6
14.2
12.0
13.3
12.8
20.2
12.8
2.6
6.6
4.4
10.0
2.2
10.9
6.0
10.8
20.6
22.2
15.2
15.1
12.3
8.0
N
Foul smell
from
genital
Colombo
Gampaha
Kalutara
Kandy
Matale
Nuwara
Eliya
Galle
Matara
Hambantota
Ampara
Kurunegala
Puttalam
Anuradhapu
ra
Polonnaruw
a
Badulla
Monaragala
Ratnapura
Kegalle
Jaffna
Kilinochchi
Vavunia
Mullaitivu
Mannar
Trincomale
e
Batticaloa
Lower
abdominal
pain
Genital
secretions
District
Table 3.171 Percentage of adolescents who were aware of symptoms and signs of STDs
by districts
799
829
801
791
786
1025
808
801
788
960
798
793
805
790
12.0
9.1
8.0
8.1
6.6
5.9
3.3
3.5
4.2
7.5
15.5
12.4
13.3
12.5
20.8
23.2
2.1
3.7
4.6
3.6
15.9
17.5
17.1
16.5
21.4
25.9
8.6
4.9
6.9
5.3
15.1
15.3
13.3
10.3
12.2
18.1
1.7
3.6
3.4
2.7
16.6
18.0
9.9
9.9
12.4
20.4
17.2
4.8
5.4
4.2
12.9
13.0
10.6
7.5
9.4
10.1
1.2
2.9
9.8
7.5
4.6
7.8
6.7
3.5
5.5
14.2
16.8
3.6
7.5
6.5
11.1
11.1
8.9
7.4
5.6
10.3
3.1
5.2
13.6
6.9
6.7
9.7
8.0
3.0
792
779
803
802
804
846
706
687
663
784
694
Sri Lanka
12.4
19.1
18.7
15.5
16.2
13.2
7.5
19934
Table 3.172 Percentage of adolescents who were aware of different methods of
preventing STDs by districts
District
Abstain
from sex
Use
condoms
Colombo
Gampaha
Kalutara
Kandy
Matale
Nuwara Eliya
Galle
Matara
Hambantota
Ampara
Kurunegala
Puttalam
Anuradhapura
Polonnaruwa
Badulla
Monaragala
Ratnapura
Kegalle
Jaffna
Kilinochchi
Vavunia
Mullaitivu
Mannar
Trincomalee
Batticaloa
Sri Lanka
21.8
22.7
25.9
27.4
16.0
11.5
18.1
9.7
19.7
14.1
22.3
15.3
21.7
19.1
17.4
15.7
15.0
15.9
15.8
14.5
7.8
10.3
18.6
19.5
13.4
20.9
29.2
26.4
20.3
21.2
15.3
11.3
21.9
13.3
19.5
19.9
25.6
15.1
27.7
25.6
20.1
15.5
12.4
18.8
24.9
4.2
5.6
13.1
11.9
17.9
9.6
20.7
Limit sex
to one
faithful
partner
32.9
26.6
25.7
23.0
16.2
12.3
23.9
17.1
21.3
27.5
33.3
21.5
25.2
23.1
24.5
18.4
16.2
19.8
33.9
22.4
11.0
5.4
8.6
6.5
8.9
24.3
Avoid sex
with
commercial
sex workers
24.5
23.4
21.8
17.4
13.1
10.9
15.6
14.2
21.4
12.2
22.8
14.0
16.5
22.1
17.2
13.2
11.6
16.3
18.7
5.2
6.2
10.1
15.3
14.4
6.5
17.6
Postphone
Avoid sex
sexual
with
union till
homosexuals
marriage
18.4
6.8
10.7
3.4
13.8
3.9
11.1
4.1
6.2
1.3
6.5
1.6
12.0
2.0
8.4
2.5
13.2
2.5
4.0
15.5
13.6
3.8
8.0
2.5
9.5
1.6
13.1
3.9
10.6
1.2
7.8
1.1
7.7
1.6
9.6
2.3
12.1
19.1
2.3
19.9
4.4
9.5
5.7
6.0
8.4
8.5
10.4
4.5
3.4
8.0
10.9
8.1
Table 3.173 Percentages of adolescents who accurately identified correct modes of HIV
transmission according to districts
District
Through
unprotected
sex
Colombo
Gampaha
Kalutara
Kandy
Matale
Nuwara Eliya
Galle
Matara
Hambantota
Ampara
Kurunegala
Puttalam
Anuradhapura
Polonnaruwa
Badulla
Monaragala
Ratnapura
Kegalle
Jaffna
Kilinochchi
Vavunia
Mullaitivu
Mannar
Trincomalee
Batticaloa
Sri Lanka
55.5
45.4
47.7
43.6
31.9
28.7
43.4
28.1
41.3
57.3
52.4
42.2
48.6
36.5
42.0
30.7
34.6
42.7
37.8
38.3
38.4
33.7
38.2
33.2
31.5
44.5
From a
HIV
infected
mother to
newborn
child
44.8
41.2
48.1
37.7
33.4
22.2
42.3
19.2
37.9
40.5
44.1
34.3
42.6
28.2
29.8
28.3
30.0
39.1
39.2
35.8
35.3
35.1
30.3
45.3
22.5
38.1
Through
blood
transfusions
Through
breast milk
of an
infected
mother
Using
unsterilized
N
needles/
syringes
47.3
40.5
54.3
44.7
36.4
24.4
43.8
25.0
39.8
40.3
48.1
34.9
39.9
31.9
37.1
31.1
32.3
38
36.9
37.3
36.3
33.4
32.9
35.3
23.7
40.5
29.1
22.8
34.1
26.9
17.7
12.8
30.2
15.6
26.5
35.7
32.3
22.6
29.6
23.0
23.3
21.1
20.5
33.1
36.6
33.7
31.1
30.2
32.8
34.2
20.9
27.2
37.6
35.8
41.8
30.7
26.5
18.0
38.3
21.5
30.6
27.4
45.6
25.3
35.7
29.0
27.5
24.3
25.9
30.7
40.6
26.2
16.3
23.3
28.5
40.0
15.4
32.8
799
829
801
791
786
1025
808
801
788
960
798
793
805
790
792
779
803
802
804
846
706
687
663
784
694
19934
Table 3.174 Percentages of adolescents who accurately identified incorrect modes of
HIV transmission according to districts
If
By
someone
Sharing
Living in
sharing
meals
same house
studies
Through
cloths
District
with an
mosquito Kissing with an
as an HIV
with an
HIV
infected
infected
bites
infected
person
person
infected
person
person
Colombo
30.8
15.1
24.4
24.6
18.1
18.1
Gampaha
35.1
9.7
24.3
26.4
23.2
23.2
Kalutara
37.5
16.2
27.8
33.2
17.7
17.7
Kandy
32.0
20.7
20.1
27.0
18.2
18.2
Matale
26.1
15.2
19.3
20.2
13.1
13.1
Nuwara Eliya 19.9
9.9
12.6
14.4
9.3
9.3
Galle
33.6
16.6
29.7
30.3
20.6
20.6
Matara
18.0
10.7
17.1
17.9
15.8
15.8
Hambantota
26.2
15.2
25.2
24.6
19.6
19.6
Ampara
21.5
15.6
16.8
18.9
20.1
20.1
Kurunegala
39.6
20.4
28.5
35.2
22.0
22.0
Puttalam
31.1
17.0
23.8
26.0
19.3
19.3
Anuradhapura 31.1
16.2
21.9
22.1
18.7
18.7
Polonnaruwa 24.9
15.2
20.6
20.1
15.4
15.4
Badulla
27.8
12
18.6
23.9
15.4
15.4
Monaragala
21.7
11.6
15.2
16.7
12.7
12.7
Ratnapura
28.5
19.9
23.3
23.6
17.4
17.4
Kegalle
27.4
16.1
22.0
21.9
17.4
17.4
Jaffna
26.6
33.0
32.6
23.6
21.5
31.5
Kilinochchi
15.8
16.3
14.1
11.2
8.6
8.6
Vavunia
11.7
19.6
9.7
10.9
10.1
10.1
Mullaitivu
15.8
15.0
9.3
5.5
4.9
5.9
Mannar
19.6
15.4
8.5
9.1
3.5
3.5
Trincomalee
16.5
16.7
9.6
8.2
8.6
8.6
Batticaloa
12.1
11.7
5.9
6.9
9.2
9.2
Sri Lanka
29.9
16.7
23
25.2
18.7
20.4
N
799
829
801
791
786
1025
808
801
788
960
798
793
805
790
792
779
803
802
804
846
706
687
663
784
694
19934
Table 3.175 Percentage of adolescents who knew about high risk behaviors by districts
District
Colombo
Gampaha
Kalutara
Kandy
Matale
Nuwara
Eliya
Galle
Matara
Hambantota
Ampara
Kurunegala
Puttalam
Anuradhapu
ra
Polonnaruw
a
Badulla
Monaragala
Ratnapura
Kegalle
Jaffna
Kilinochchi
Vavunia
Mullaitivu
Mannar
Trincomale
e
Batticaloa
Sri Lanka
31
29.6
34.5
30.3
19.3
Men having
sex with
multiple
women
52.9
41.3
56.1
47.3
31.4
Women
having sex
with multiple
men
50.7
35.5
50
47.7
27.2
Having sex
with
commercial
sex workers
45.2
36.8
49.4
47.7
27.8
13.5
23.4
14.3
20
24.5
25.5
27.1
18.3
42.4
26.8
40.3
33.8
57.5
43.7
17.6
47.2
25.1
41.9
32.9
46.6
38.2
15.9
46.2
22.6
35
23
51.1
32.4
19.1
45.8
45.2
39.1
Men having
sex with men
N
799
829
801
791
786
1025
808
801
788
960
798
793
805
790
23.3
15.9
20.7
15.7
21.0
23.8
3.8
4.8
16.3
19.4
35.4
38.1
30.5
24.5
37.3
42.8
24.8
15.8
27.3
21.3
34.5
32.5
31.1
25.1
40.7
34.2
53.7
14.1
17.1
18.1
34.3
30.3
29.8
20.7
38.7
24.6
6.7
9.9
7.9
8.6
20.7
18.7
23.4
29.3
14.4
40.9
17.2
12.8
38.5
5.2
6.3
35.8
792
779
803
802
804
846
706
687
663
784
694
19934
Table 3.176 Percentage of adolescents who were aware of modes of HIV prevention by
districts
District
Abstain
from
sex
Colombo
Gampaha
Kalutara
Kandy
Matale
Nuwara Eliya
Galle
Matara
Hambantota
Ampara
Kurunegala
Puttalam
Anuradhapura
Polonnaruwa
Badulla
Monaragala
Ratnapura
Kegalle
Jaffna
Kilinochchi
Vavunia
Mullaitivu
Mannar
Trincomalee
Batticaloa
Sri Lanka
29.3
30.7
49.8
44.0
31.3
16.6
34.7
22.7
33.5
44.5
44.7
24.8
32.7
21.2
32.1
29.0
23.4
29.9
32.2
26.0
17.7
14.4
18.5
13.9
11.1
33.9
Having
only
Use
one
condoms faithful
while
sexual
having
partner
sex
who is
not
infected
36.9
35.3
33.8
31.4
29.5
31.7
23.1
35.1
15.8
22.2
14.6
15.2
22.7
25.1
18.8
18.2
27.1
32.8
28.6
29.2
35.6
39.3
21.3
27.8
20.8
27.3
21.0
28.5
26.4
30.0
20.1
23.2
17.9
19.5
19.9
22.7
31.1
25.9
16.5
15.0
8.6
14.5
14.3
12.5
9.2
14.7
13.7
17.3
15.3
16.6
25.8
29.1
Avoid
Avoiding
Avoiding
using un
many
sex with
sterilized N
sex
homosexuals
needles /
partners
syringes
25.4
20.7
25.6
22.6
11.5
10.3
11.6
12.4
19.3
13.1
19.6
19.6
16.1
16.9
18.4
17.9
13.8
17.6
16.1
13.5
5.2
19.0
16.1
15.8
10.7
17.9
33.0
20.8
29.3
26.9
23.1
11.1
24.1
12.9
28.7
21.8
42.4
20.3
21.4
23.4
21.5
19.3
15.0
21.9
24.5
12.4
13.8
12.2
14.7
18.5
14.0
25.1
27.9
16.6
23.7
23.5
17.1
7.3
23.4
12.2
16.9
10.4
32.7
13.6
13.6
16.0
11.2
13.3
10.5
11.8
8.5
1.3
1.2
14.5
9.7
11.7
5.9
17.6
799
829
801
791
786
1025
808
801
788
960
798
793
805
790
792
779
803
802
804
846
706
687
663
784
694
19934
Table 3.177 Percentage of early adolescents (10 – 13 yrs) who have ever heard of sexual
abuse of children by district
District
% aware
of sexual
abuse
Badulla
Matara
Polonnaruwa
Monaragala
Kandy
Mullaitivu
9.5
21.9
29.7
29.0
25.0
31.4
% who
were ever
been
abused
25.0
19.0
17.3
16.8
15.0
14.6
Kilinochchi
Hambantota
Ampara
Anuradhapura
Vavunia
Ratnapura
Trincomalee
20.0
43.2
20.6
25.5
25.7
29.2
27.2
14.0
12.6
12.3
11.7
11.6
11.1
10.0
N
District
390
404
393
395
393
348
Matale
Mannar
Colombo
Jaffna
Batticaloa
Nuwara
Eliya
Kegalle
Kurunegala
Puttalam
Galle
Gampaha
Kalutara
Sri Lanka
356
474
397
403
350
404
444
29.7
23.0
33.7
25.6
16.4
32.3
% who
have ever
been
abused
9.7
9.6
9.1
9.1
9.1
8.5
22.5
14.3
24.7
20.9
47.1
12.7
25.5
7.9
7.7
7.0
5.0
4.9
4.3
10.1
% aware
of sexual
abuse
N
407
337
401
404
360
455
391
397
394
391
403
402
9997
Table 3.178 Percentage of mid and late adolescents who were sexually abused by districts
Distrct
Colombo
Gampaha
Kalutara
Kandy
Matale
Nuwara Eliya
Galle
Matara
Hambantota
Ampara
Kurunegala
Puttalam
Anuradhapura
% abused
16.0
14.7
13.6
15.8
16.4
11.0
17.9
15.2
11.2
17.1
13.0
13.6
13.8
N
801
826
804
794
788
1026
801
804
792
956
802
794
802
Distrct
Polonnaruwa
Badulla
Monaragala
Ratnapura
Kegalle
Jaffna
Kilinochchi
Vavunia
Mullaitivu
Mannar
Trincomalee
Batticaloa
Sri Lanka
% abused
9.0
13.9
7.0
12.0
13.1
6.9
1.1
4.3
5.2
7.9
11.2
14.8
13.6
N
792
794
783
800
799
801
843
704
690
660
782
696
19934.0
Chapter 4
Findings of the Component Two – Issues among Out-of-school
Adolescents
Socio-demographic Profile of the Sample
Distribution of the Sample by Sector and Sex
The main purpose of this component of the study was to analyze emerging issues among
non-school-going adolescents 15-19 years of age, from different geographic sectors of the
country. An equal number of subjects were randomly recruited from each sector studied.
The resulting differential probabilities of selection were accounted for by weighting the
sample in the analysis. Table 4.1 presents the sex distribution of sample by sector.
Please note that in all the tables, N represents un-weighted counts and % represents
weighted proportions.
Table 4.1 Distribution of the sample by sector and by sex
(Percentages)
Sex
Sector
Total
Male
Female
Colombo Metropolitan
49.8
50.2
100.0
Other Urban
51.0
49.0
100.0
Rural
49.6
50.4
100.0
Estate
49.0
51.0
100.0
North & East
50.2
49.8
100.0
Total
49.7
50.3
100.0
% across
sectors
6.2
6.5
71.9
4.6
10.9
100.0
N
1995
2014
2040
2030
2000
10079
Weighted proportions approximated the national estimates of the population distribution
in these sectors (DCS, 2002 b).
Age
This survey included out-of-school adolescents between 15 – 19 years. Mean age of the
sample was 17.6 yrs (SD 1.2 yrs).
Ethnicity and Religion
Table 4.2 Distribution of sample by ethnicity and religion
(Percentages)
Ethnicity
Sinhalese
Tamil
Moor
Other
Total
%
73.1
20.5
6.1
0.3
100.0
N
5097
3935
996
51
10079
Religion
Buddhist
Hindu
Islam
Christian
Total
%
68.4
17.9
6.1
7.6
100.0
N
4549
3406
996
1128
10079
Educational Status
The total sample included 12.8 % (10079) of those who never been to a school. There
were more females (60.6%), than males (39.4%) among those who have never been to
school. Ten point nine percent were educated only up to primary level. Further 19.5%
has had an education up to the secondary level, while 42 % and 16.1 % had educated up
to Ordinary and Advanced Level General Certificate of Education, respectively.
It was interesting to see that the most common reason given by these adolescents (of
those who have ever been to school) for leaving school was that they were not good at
studies (29%).It is a note worthy fact that economic hardship i.e. parent’s inability to
afford further education, the necessity of the individual to earn money for the family and
wanting to do a job, together constituted 39% of the reasons for leaving school. As
expected there is a clear drop in the percentages that gave the reasons for leaving as,
‘parents unable to afford’ and ‘having to earn money for the family’ from the poorest to
the richest socio-economic quintile. Similarly the proportion that had finished their
schooling years shows a clear rise with the socio-economic quintile. Interestingly the
proportion who gave the reason for stopping school as being “wanting to do a job” is
similar in all the socio-economic groups. Explaining their school leaving in terms of not
being good in studies, shows an inverted ‘U’ shape in the socio- economic gradient, with
it’s peak at the middle quintile (33%).
Table 4.3 Reasons that made adolescents to leave school by selected socio-demographic
indicators
(Percentages)
Category
Parents Completed Had
Wanted Not
Can’t Total N
could
schooling to
to do a good
think
not
years
earn
job
at
of a
afford
for
studies reason
the
family
All
17.2
21.0
9.3
12.1
29.4
10.8
100.0 7304
Sex
Males
17.0
17.1
7.4
14.7
32.5
11.3
100.0 3795
Females
17.5
25.1
11.4
9.5
26.2
10.3
100.0 3509
Ethnicity
Sinhalese
15.0
24.3
5.6
13.4
30.0
11.8
100.0 3786
Tamil
25.7
10.7
21.4
7.2
27.6
7.4
100.0 2905
Moor
18.8
12.3
20.1
13.2
26.2
9.4
100.0 576
Other
7.0
13.0
7.3
2.9
52.6
17.2
100.0 37
Educational status
Primary
34.5
4.9
25.0
5.3
15.6
14.6
100.0
(Grade 1-5 )
825
Secondary
31.2
0.7
9.1
9.0
34.3
15.8
100.0
2275
(Grade 6-10)
GCE(O/L)
12.2
4.3
8.7
19.4
43.8
11.6
100.0 2921
GCE(A/L)
3.3
85.7
2.7
3.9
2.7
1.6
100.0 1283
Socio-economic quintiles
Poorest
32.9
8.3
13.1
11.7
23.5
10.5
100.0 1644
Second
20.6
13.2
12.5
12.5
29.5
11.8
100.0 1432
Middle
12.6
19.1
10.0
13.2
32.8
12.3
100.0 1522
Fourth
12.7
27.7
6.7
9.9
31.9
11.0
100.0 1388
Richest
7.2
38.5
3.8
13.1
29.2
8.3
100.0 1318
Sector
Colombo
100.0
12.3
10.3
15.1
29.1
15.4
1442
Metropolitan 17.8
Other urban 9.0
29.7
7.8
12.4
29.0
12.2
100.0 1291
Rural
15.0
23.5
8.0
13.1
28.8
11.6
100.0 1319
Estate
32.1
8.8
6.9
6.2
39.4
6.6
100.0 1577
North &
100.0
East
26.3
13.2
17.4
7.9
29.3
6.0
1675
Adolescents in the Estate and North & East sectors of residence has given, “parents not
being able to afford the expenses of going to school” as the second commonest reason for
stopping school, (second only to: ‘not being good at studies’). There seem no obvious
explainable patterns in the different sectors of residence (Table 4.3).
Marital Status
Table 4.4 presents the marital status of the sample. Majority of the sample (91%) were
unmarried while 7.2% and 0.3 % were married and living together respectively. About 2
% were married and later separated.
Table 4.4 Distribution of the sample by marital status by selected
indicators
(Percentages)
Category
Living
Unmarried Married
Separated together
All
90.8
7.2
1.7
0.3
Sex
Males
85.5
11.6
2.9
0.0
Females
96.2
2.7
0.5
0.5
Ethnicity
Sinhalese
91.8
7.5
0.3
0.4
Tamil
93.3
4.0
2.7
0.0
Moor
71.4
13.2
15.4
0.0
Other
71.7
28.3
0.0
0.0
Educational status
No formal
86.3
8.3
5.4
0.0
education
Primary
83.0
8.8
8.2
0.1
Secondary
89.9
9.4
0.8
0.0
GCE(O/L)
93.4
6.0
0.2
0.4
GCE(O/L)
93.4
5.9
0.7
Socio-economic quintiles
Poorest
88.3
9.5
2.1
0.1
Second
87.9
7.1
3.9
1.1
Middle
91.0
7.8
1.2
0.0
Fourth
91.5
7.7
0.8
0.0
Richest
95.6
3.7
0.4
0.3
Sector
Colombo
88.0
10.8
0.3
1.0
Metro
Other urban
77.2
7.4
15.3
0.1
Rural
90.9
8.0
0.8
0.3
Estate
91.0
6.2
2.8
0.0
North & East 99.8
0.2
0.0
0.0
socio-demographic
Total
N
100.0
10079
100.0
100.0
5042
5037
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
5097
3935
996
51
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
1257
1243
2494
3719
1366
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
2015
2016
2016
2016
2016
100.0
1995
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
2014
2040
2030
2000
Mean Age at Marriage
About 9.2 % of adolescents interviewed were either married, living together or separated.
Their mean age at marriage was 17.1 yrs (SD: 1.35 yrs).
Factors Affecting Mental Wellbeing of Out-of-school Adolescents and their
Life Skills
Self Awareness
Future Expectations
Unlike among school-going adolescents out-of-school adolescents expressed a limited
range of expectations. The most common expectation was to find a job (71%). About 7%
expected to look after family property. Less than 1% of these youths were planning to
study further. Nearly 2% of them had no specific target identified but said that they
expected further progress in life. A significant proportion were probably undecided
(18%) could not mention a future expectation.
Table 4.5 Future expectations of out school adolescents by selected socio-demographic
indicators
(Percentages)
Category
Finding Look
Further
a job
after
education
family
property
71.7
6.9
0.8
All
Sex
Males
74.5
Females
69.0
Ethnicity
Singhalese
73.7
Tamil
68.5
Moor
62.4
Education al status
No /Primary
(Grade 1-5 ) 64.8
Secondary
(Grade 6-10) 63.7
O/L
73.8
Help
To get
Progress Can’t Total
my
married further
say
family
in life
N
0.6
0.3
1.9
17.7
100.0 10079
6.4
7.5
0.1
1.4
0.5
0.6
0.2
0.5
1.3
2.6
17.1
18.3
100.0 5037
100.0 5042
5.8
10.3
8.2
1.0
0.2
0.0
0.5
0.3
1.5
0.1
0.3
2.2
2.5
0.5
1.0
16.3
19.8
24.7
100.0 5097
100.0 3935
100.0 996
5.9
0.2
0.5
0.2
0.7
27.7
100.0 2500
8.5
6.7
0.2
1.2
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.4
1.6
2.2
24.9
15.0
100.0 2494
100.0 3719
A/L
82.1
5.4
Socio-economic quintiles
Poorest
66.2
6.8
Second
70.8
7.9
Middle
73.2
5.3
Fourth
74.6
6.9
Richest
74.2
8.2
Sector
Colombo
Metropolitan 70.8
7.9
Other urban 73.2
5.3
Rural
74.8
5.8
Estate
72.3
7.5
North &
63.0
15.1
East
0.6
0.4
0.0
3.7
7.8
100.0 1366
0.4
0.5
1.0
0.5
1.7
0.4
0.9
0.6
0.4
0.5
0.4
0.5
0.2
0.4
0.0
0.9
1.3
2.0
2.6
3.2
24.9
18.1
17.8
14.5
12.2
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
2015
2016
2016
2016
2016
0.5
1.0
0.9
0.0
0.9
0.6
0.3
1.4
0.5
0.2
0.2
1.8
1.3
2.0
1.6
2.5
18.1
17.8
16.4
14.4
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
1995
2014
2040
2030
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
21.9
100.0 2000
.
The proportion of adolescents who were expecting to find a job increased with age and
was higher among boys while more girls expected to study further. The highest
proportion of who wanted to find a job (74%) were among the Sinhalese while the
highest proportion of those who did not express any future expectations were among the
Moors (25%), followed by Tamils.
The North & East sector had the highest proportion of adolescents (22%) who expressed
no future expectations and a lower proportion (63%) expecting to find a job relative to
other sectors. They had the highest proportion (15%) of those who wanted to look after
their own property (Table 4.5).
Confidence on Being Able to Face Problems Occurring in Future
The majority of out-of-school adolescents seemed to be confident about their ability to
face problems occurring in the future, 40 % said that they were very confident, while
further 47.4% were somewhat confident. Less than 10 % had reservations about their
ability to face future challenges. There is no difference between males and females in the
level of confidence expressed. The highest proportion of persons who responded as “very
confident” and “confident” was among the Sinhalese while the percentage of Moors and
Tamils were more or less equal. The proportion of adolescents who were not so confident
declined from 17 % among those with no formal education and primary education to 5 %
among those who were educated up to GCE Advanced Level (Table 4.6).
Table 4.6 Confidence on being able to face any problems occurring in the future
by selected socio-demographic indicators
(Percentages)
Category
Very
confident
44.0
All
Sex
Males
46.1
Females
42.0
Ethnicity
Sinhalese
45.7
Tamil
39.7
Moor
39.3
Other
10.8
Educational status
No/ Primary
(Grade 1-5 )
34.8
Secondary
(Grade 6-10)
32.8
GCE(O/L)
48.5
GCE(A/L)
55.9
Socio-economic quintiles
Poorest
36.1
Second
39.0
Middle
40.8
Fourth
48.5
Richest
57.3
Sector
Colombo Metro 34.8
Other urban
44.5
Rural
45.8
Estate
24.5
North & East
45.9
Some what
confident
47.4
Not so
confident
8.5
Total
N
100.0
10079
46.2
48.7
7.7
9.3
100.0
100.0
5037
5042
46.8
48.7
50.1
66.9
7.5
11.6
10.6
22.3
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
5097
3935
996
51
48.3
16.9
55.9
46.3
39.3
11.3
5.2
4.8
100.0
100.0
2494
3719
1366
49.6
51.5
51.1
45.8
37.9
14.3
9.5
8.0
5.7
4.7
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
2015
2016
2016
2016
2016
48.3
46.9
46.5
65.6
45.9
16.8
8.7
7.7
9.9
8.3
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
1995
2014
2040
2030
2000
100.0
2500
100.0
The overall level of confidence seemed to rise with increasing socio-economic level. The
highest proportion of adolescents, who were not so confident was found in Colombo
Metro sector where as the lowest was from the rural sector (Table 4.6).
Certainty about Having a Bright Future
Out-of-school adolescents, were asked how confident they were about having a bright
future. About half of them stated that they were somewhat confident, while 37% were
very confident of a brighter future. There was no notable gender or ethnic difference in
this respect (excluding Burghers and Malays whose numbers are very small). There
appears to be no clear pattern in the relationship between confidence level and
educational status, however, the proportion of adolescents who were not confident of a
bright future showed a sharp drop among those with an O/L or A/L education.
Table 4.7 Confidence on having bright future, by selected socio-demographic indicators
(Percentages)
Category
Very
confident
37.0
All
Sex
Males
37.1
Females
36.9
Ethnicity
Sinhalese
37.1
Tamil
37.8
Moor
33.9
Other
10.2
Educational status
No/ Primary
(Grade 1-5 )
30.7
Secondary
(Grade 6-10)
27.2
GCE(O/L)
39.8
GCE(A/L)
47.6
Socio-economic quintiles
Poorest
27.2
Second
31.8
Middle
36.0
Fourth
43.3
Richest
47.7
Sector
Colombo Metro 28.7
Other urban
41.7
Rural
37.5
Estate
22.6
North & East
42.0
Some what
confident
50.4
Not so
confident
12.6
Total
N
100.0
10079
50.3
50.5
12.6
12.6
100.0
100.0
5037
5042
51.1
47.9
49.7
62.4
11.8
14.3
16.4
27.4
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
5097
3935
996
51
47.7
21.6
53.8
52.0
44.4
19.0
8.2
8.0
100.0
100.0
2494
3719
1366
51.6
53.8
53.9
46.5
45.1
21.2
14.4
10.1
10.1
7.1
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
2015
2016
2016
2016
2016
53.0
46.2
50.6
64.8
43.7
18.4
12.1
11.9
12.5
14.3
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
1995
2014
2040
2030
2000
100.0
2500
100.0
A steady increase in the proportion of those who were very confident of a bright future
and a gradual decline in those who were not confident were seen with increasing socioeconomic quintiles. Adolescents from the North & East had the highest proportion who
were very confident of a bright future (42%), followed by the other urban sector (41%),
rural sector (38%). Colombo metropolitan and estate sectors had the lowest proportions
(19%) and (23 %) respectively (Table 4.7).
Adolescents Self Awareness on Their Skills
Adolescents were asked; to what extent they thought that they possessed a skill which
was of some value to others.
Table 4.8 Out-of-school adolescents who perceived to have a special skill useful to
others, by selected socio-demographic indicators
(Percentages)
Category
Very
To a certain
I have no
Total
N
strongly
extent
such skills
All
23.5
45.6
31.0
100.0
10079
Sex
Males
25.3
44.4
30.4
100.0
5037
Females
21.7
46.8
31.5
100.0
5042
Ethnicity
Sinhalese
23.4
47.8
28.8
100.0
5097
Tamil
23.7
39.7
36.6
100.0
3935
Moor
23.4
38.0
38.6
100.0
996
Other
30.6
45.9
23.5
100.0
51
Educational status
No/ Primary
(Grade 1-5 )
18.9
39.3
41.8
100.0
2500
Secondary
100.0
(Grade 6-10)
18.4
37.6
44.0
2494
GCE(O/L)
25.4
47.4
27.2
100.0
3719
GCE(A/L)
27.1
54.0
18.9
100.0
1366
Socio-economic quintiles
Poorest
20.3
37.1
42.6
100.0
2015
Second
22.2
42.8
35.0
100.0
2016
Middle
21.6
45.6
32.8
100.0
2016
Fourth
27.3
49.8
22.9
100.0
2016
Richest
26.5
53.1
20.3
100.0
2016
Sector
Colombo Metro 15.6
43.2
41.2
100.0
1995
Other urban
22.1
51.3
26.6
100.0
2014
Rural
23.9
47.5
28.6
100.0
2040
Estate
19.4
49.0
31.7
100.0
2030
North & East
27.6
28.5
43.9
100.0
2000
About 1/3 of adolescents perceived themselves as persons with no skills valuable to
others. Males and female were similar in their perceptions. Sinhalese had the lowest
proportion (29%) who thought that they had no skills, while the proportions among
Moors (37 %) and Tamils (38%) were more or less equal.
The proportion who thought that they had no skills declined gradually as the socioeconomic level increased. The highest proportion who perceived themselves as persons
with out valuable skills was from the North and East (44%) sector followed by Colombo
Metro (41%) Table 4.8).
Attributes That Adolescents Most Like About Them Selves
Little more than one fifth of adolescents did not like any thing about themselves. About
33% liked their external appearance. Academic talents, aesthetic abilities and sports
talents were mentioned by less than 30 % of them. In comparison to those in school, a
lower percentage of out-of-school adolescents had attributes they liked.
Marginally more males (23%) compared to females (20%) reported not liking any
attribute they possessed. This proportion was highest among Tamils (29 %) and in the
North and East, while the lowest was among Sinhalese (18%) and those from rural sector.
The socio-economic status is inversely proportional to this proportion ( Table 4.9).
Table 4.9 Out-of-school adolescent’s most liked attributes about themselves
by selected socio-demographic indicators
(Percentages)
Category
I do not
like
anything
about
myself
21.0
All
Sex
Males
22.5
Females
19.5
Ethnicity
Sinhalese
18.2
Tamil
28.8
Moor
27.7
Other
26.2
Educational status
No/ Primary
(Grade 1-5 )
33.9
Secondary
(Grade 6-10)
30.2
I like my
external
appearance
I like my
academic
talents
I like my
aesthetic
abilities
I like
my
sports
talents
N
33.0
28.6
23.3
23.5
10079
29.4
36.5
24.8
32.4
20.9
25.8
28.2
18.9
5037
5042
33.6
32.0
29.9
7.9
29.6
26.0
25.7
18.9
25.4
17.8
17.9
11.3
25.7
18.0
16.8
2.3
5097
3935
996
51
24.9
26.8
13.5
14.8
2500
29.1
12.8
15.9
20.6
2494
GCE(O/L)
16.5
GCE(A/L)
12.5
Socio-economic quintiles
Poorest
30.6
Second
25.4
Middle
19.2
Fourth
16.4
Richest
12.8
Sector
Colombo
Metro
21.4
Other urban
17.9
Rural
18.7
Estate
20.2
North & East 38.5
35.9
36.6
27.5
54.6
28.0
31.2
28.2
21.7
3719
1366
31.2
27.4
33.7
32.4
40.5
20.0
25.9
28.7
30.1
39.1
17.6
20.7
22.7
26.5
29.9
21.5
21.9
24.5
22.3
27.3
2015
2016
2016
2016
2016
32.1
35.3
33.7
28.6
29.0
10.4
26.7
32.3
12.3
22.9
23.7
26.0
24.3
16.1
18.5
18.4
22.2
25.9
19.7
13.2
1995
2014
2040
2030
2000
Attributes That Adolescents Most Dislike About Them Selves
Table 4.10 Out-of-school adolescent’s most disliked qualities about themselves
by selected socio-demographic indicators
(Percentages)
Category
I do not
regret
anything
about me
30.0
All
Sex
Males
30.6
Females
29.4
Ethnicity
Sinhalese
28.9
Tamil
32.6
Moor
34.1
Other
40.7
Educational status
No/ Primary
23.9
(Grade 1-5 )
Secondary
(Grade 6-10) 25.2
GCE(O/L)
31.7
I regret
not being
good in
sport
6.5
I do not
I regret
like my
being
appearance weak in
studies
6.6
34.7
I regret
not
having a
job
30.4
N
6.0
6.9
7.2
6.0
34.0
35.4
30.9
29.9
5037
5042
5.8
8.9
6.0
18.8
5.8
8.6
10.7
0.0
35.4
32.2
34.6
30.4
31.3
27.9
29.2
10.2
5097
3935
996
51
6.0
7.5
46.6
34.7
2500
3.9
6.5
7.9
5.9
44.1
36.7
25.2
28.6
2494
3719
10079
GCE(A/L)
36.7
Socio-economic quintiles
Poorest
26.5
Second
25.6
Middle
29.5
Fourth
30.9
Richest
38.2
Sector
Colombo
Metro
30.9
Other urban
30.0
Rural
28.1
Estate
24.0
North & East 45.1
7.8
6.0
10.9
40.6
1366
7.0
7.6
5.1
7.0
5.8
6.2
9.1
6.2
5.7
5.8
40.8
36.7
35.2
29.6
30.2
32.2
30.3
33.3
27.8
27.7
2015
2016
2016
2016
2016
5.1
6.5
6.1
6.2
9.8
2.5
6.6
6.3
7.7
10.7
41.5
38.9
35.1
39.7
23.4
22.1
30.1
33.2
18.2
22.0
1995
2014
2040
2030
2000
About 30% did not have any attribute that they disliked. Poor academic performance
(35%) followed by lack of a job (30%) were the problem mentioned by the most. Very
few were worried about their external appearance (less than 7%) or lack of talent for
sports (Table 4.10). There was no gender or ethnic variation seen in the pattern of
responses given to this question but the proportion of those who did not have anything
that they like about themselves was highest in the North and East sector. The proportion
of adolescents who did not regret about themselves increased with increasing education
and with increasing socio-economic status (Table 4.10).
Perceptions Affecting Mental Wellbeing
Taking into consideration the current problems in society it could be assumed that non
school- going youth were more likely to have worries and frustrations affecting their
mental wellbeing when compared to school-going adolescents. The survey tried to
ascertain their perception of happiness, popularity and prestige, experiences of
discrimination, and worries.
Perception of Happiness in General
The out-of-school adolescents were asked to describe the ir general level happiness after
considering all aspects of their lives. More than half of the respondents said they were
very happy with their lives. About 10 % were not happy and perceived their life as being
not good. About 10% found it difficult to sate an opinion. There was no variation seen in
the level of happiness according to sex and ethnicity. Those who had no education or had
only primary level education were the worst affected, they had the highest proportion of
adolescents who were not happy with their lives, the proportion declining with higher
levels of education. Higher, the socio-economic status, higher was the proportion of
adolescents who were generally happy with their lives (Table 4.11).
Table 4.11 Overall happiness in life, by selected socio-demographic indicators
(Percentages)
Category
I live very Not happy,
I cant say
Total
N
happily
life is not
good for me
All
51.8
10.2
38.0
100.0
10079
Sex
Males
51.4
10.5
38.0
100.0
5037
Females
52.1
9.9
38.0
100.0
5042
Ethnicity
Sinhalese
53.1
10.0
36.9
100.0
5097
Tamil
48.0
11.1
40.9
100.0
3935
Moor
49.4
9.6
41.0
100.0
996
Other
40.2
2.7
57.1
100.0
51
Educational status
No /Primary
42.5
15.8
41.7
100.0
(Grade 1-5)
2500
Secondary
43.6
14.5
41.8
100.0
2494
(Grade 6-10)
GCE(O/L)
54.9
6.3
38.8
100.0
3719
GCE(A/L)
59.9
8.3
31.8
100.0
1366
Socio-economic quintiles
Poorest
36.4
16.2
47.5
100.0
2015
Second
44.5
12.5
43.0
100.0
2016
Middle
51.8
10.5
37.7
100.0
2016
Fourth
58.6
5.8
35.7
100.0
2016
Richest
69.1
5.4
25.5
100.0
2016
Sector
Colombo Metro 44.1
9.2
46.6
100.0
1995
Other urban
53.7
10.8
35.4
100.0
2014
Rural
53.2
10.5
36.3
100.0
2040
Estate
62.3
11.4
26.3
100.0
2030
North & East
40.6
8.0
51.4
100.0
2000
Perception of Self Popularity
A perception of popularity among peers influences ones self esteem. A question was
asked to ascertain what proportion of out-of-school adolescent perceived themselves as
being popular among their peers. About half of adolescent felt they were popular among
their peers (Table 4.12).
Table 4.12 Perception of self popularity, by selected socio-demographic indicators
(Percentages)
Category
All
Sex
Male
Female
Ethnic differences
Sinhalese
Tamil
Moor
Other
Educational status
No/ Primary (Grade 1-5)
Secondary (Grade 6-10)
GCE(O/L)
GCE (A/L)
Socio-economic status
Poorest quintile
Second quintile
Middle quintile
Fourth quintile
Richest quintile
Sector
Colombo Metropolitan
Other urban
Rural
Estate
North & East
% said yes
49.1
N
10079
52.0
45.7
5037
5042
52.1
36.8
36.8
35.8
5097
3935
996
51
24.4
37.1
52.6
63.5
2500
2494
3719
1366
37.1
44.9
47.1
56.8
60.8
2015
2016
2016
2016
2016
42.1
52.8
52.4
42.9
34.5
1995
2014
2040
2030
2000
More males (52%) than females (46%) thought that they were popular. Relatively higher
proportion of Sinhalese adolescents (52%) felt that they were popular compared to other
ethnic groups. The proportion of out-of-school adolescents who were confident of their
popularity increased with rising educational and socio-economic levels. The lowest
proportion of adolescents (35%) who thought they were popular was among those from
the North and East (Table 4.12).
Experience of Discrimination
Discrimination is usually seen in relation to race, religion, gender, occupation and many
social divisions. When this happens among population groups it may lead to conflicts
between the concerned groups. At an individual level, there could be short term and longterm repercussions that affects an individual’s mental wellbeing and his or her way of
dealing with society as a whole. Out-of-school adolescent were asked whether they ever
felt being discriminated on the grounds of religion, wealth, education or lack of job etc...
Table 4.13 Out-of-school adolescent who have experiences of discrimination
by selected socio-demographic indicators
(Percentages)
Category
All
Sex
Male
Female
Ethnic differences
Sinhalese
Tamil
Moor
Other
Educational status
No/ Primary
(Grade 1-5)
Secondary
(Grade 6-10)
GCE(O/L)
GCE (A/L)
Socio-economic status
Poorest quintile
Second quintile
Middle quintile
Fourth quintile
Richest quintile
Sector
Colombo Metropolitan
Other urban
Rural
Estate
North & East
%
20.7
N
10079
21.3
20.0
5037
5042
17.9
28.7
27.3
31.2
5097
3935
996
51
25.8
2500
25.1
17.0
18.7
2494
3719
1366
30.7
22.3
16.8
19.0
14.7
2015
2016
2016
2016
2016
18.7
21.0
18.0
20.2
40.2
1995
2014
2040
2030
2000
Figure 4.1 Grounds on which out-of-school adolescents felt that they were discriminated
against
From a different
ethnic group
12.8% 0.7%
9.6%
4.3%
Follow a different
religion
Being poor
24.7%
As not educated
47.9%
As no job
other
About 21% of out-of-school adolescents felt that they have been discriminated against,
the most common reason being poverty (48%), followed by poor academic achievement
(25%). About 14 % felt that they were discriminated against on ethnic or religious
grounds. There was no gender difference in the proportion of adolescents who reported
experiencing discrimination. Tamils reported the highest proportion of discrimination
(29%), followed by Moors. The experience of discrimination was highest among those
who have never been to a school and those with only a primary education. The proportion
reporting discrimination increased with increasing socio-economic level.
Key Worry
Adolescents were asked about their key worry in life. Table 4.14 present the responses
given to this question.
Table 4.14 Key worries of out-of-school adolescents by selected socio-demographic
indicators
(Percentages)
Category
I do
I am
I am
I am
I
As
Total N
not
afraid
worried worried
could there
have
that I
as my
about
not
is no
any
will not parents my
study
one
worry have a are not
family’s
to
job
getting
financial
care
on well problems
for
me
All
24.5
25.0
4.6
28.4
14.4
3.2
100.0 10079
Sex
Males
24.7
24.1
Females
24.3
25.9
Ethnicity
Sinhalese
25.9
24.0
Tamil
20.2
29.3
Moor
22.4
23.1
Other
32.4
6.8
Educational status
No
/Primary
(Grade 1-5) 15.1
27.0
Secondary
(Grade 616.8
21.7
10)
GCE(O/L) 27.5
22.4
GCE(A/L) 33.1
34.7
Socio-economic quintiles
Poorest
13.6
25.4
Second
17.7
21.8
Middle
19.7
25.9
Fourth
33.2
28.8
Richest
40.1
23.8
Sector
Colombo
Metro
26.6
21.8
Other
26.3
23.8
urban
Rural
24.7
25.2
Estate
21.7
34.0
North &
East
22.1
23.3
4.6
4.6
28.8
28.0
13.9
14.8
4.0
2.4
100.0
100.0
5037
5042
4.2
6.0
4.0
0.0
27.9
29.8
28.0
45.6
14.4
13.3
17.4
15.2
3.5
1.4
5.0
0.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
5097
3935
996
51
2.4
36.1
16.0
3.4
100.0
100.0
2500
8.0
4.1
3.9
33.0
28.1
21.7
19.0
14.3
4.2
1.5
3.8
2.5
100.0
100.0
2494
3719
1366
6.8
5.1
4.5
3.1
3.3
41.6
34.7
30.1
19.2
14.9
11.0
17.0
16.8
13.3
13.2
1.6
3.7
3.0
2.5
4.9
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
2015
2016
2016
2016
2016
6.2
25.7
14.9
4.9
100.0
100.0
1995
2014
4.2
3.8
3.5
24.5
28.9
28.3
16.6
14.1
8.9
4.6
3.4
3.7
100.0
100.0
100.0
2040
2030
2000
9.0
28.7
16.9
0.0
Quarter of out-of-school adolescents did not report any big worries in life. The most felt
worry was the family’s financial status (28%), followed by the fear of not being able to
find a job (25%). A small proportion of adolescents were worried about their
relationships with parents (5%) and about not having any one who cared about them
(3%). There were no difference by sex and ethnicity. Those who had been educated up to
secondary education were most worried about not being able to study further. About 4 %
of those who studied up to A/L identified failing to study further as their Key worry. The
proportion of adolescents who had no big worries increased with increasing socioeconomic status. The highest proportion who identified “being unable to study”, as their
Key worry was from the North and East sector.
Perception on Family in General
Out-of-school adolescent were asked how they perceived their relationship with the
family. Table 4.15 presents the responses given to this question.
Table 4.15 Out-of-school adolescents’ perceptions on family relationships by selected
socio-demographic indicators
(Percentage)
Category
Caring Good
and
warm
All
32.3
39.4
Sex
Males
29.2
40.6
Females
35.9
38.0
Ethnicity
Sinhalese
32.3
40.9
Tamil
32.0
33.1
Moor
35.1
33.2
Other
16.2
33.2
Educational status
No/
17.9
33.2
Primary
Secondary 23.2
39.7
GCE(O/L) 34.9
41.2
GCE(A/L) 41.1
37.8
Socio-economic quintiles
Poorest
27.0
32.0
Second
27.6
38.7
Middle
26.4
46.5
Fourth
35.6
42.3
Richest
45.8
37.6
Sector
Colombo
28.2
37.4
Metro
Other
urban
29.0
40.9
Rural
33.1
41.1
Estate
17.5
53.6
North &
38.1
24.1
East
Average Not
very
good,
but
tolerable
21.2
3.9
Intolerable, Can’t Total
I wish I
say
could leave
N
1.1
2.1
100.0
10079
23.2
18.8
3.8
4.1
1.0
1.2
2.2
2.0
100.0
100.0
5037
5042
19.9
26.1
26.3
34.3
3.7
4.9
2.9
6.8
1.1
1.0
1.2
0.0
2.0
3.0
1.3
9.5
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
5097
3935
996
51
35.7
26.8
17.7
18.0
6.5
6.0
3.3
2.2
2.1
1.7
1.1
0.4
4.7
2.6
1.9
0.5
100.0
100.0
100.0
2500
2494
3719
1366
28.2
25.6
21.9
16.7
12.8
6.3
5.2
3.4
2.2
2.2
2.3
0.9
0.5
1.3
0.6
4.1
2.2
1.3
1.9
1.1
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
2015
2016
2016
2016
2016
28.2
2.2
0.6
3.5
100.0
100.0
1995
2014
23.1
19.0
24.8
4.0
3.8
3.4
1.4
1.2
0.5
1.6
1.9
0.2
100.0
100.0
100.0
2040
2030
2000
27.6
5.5
0.9
3.7
100.0
The majority (72%) of respondents perceived their families in a positive manner. About
one third perceived their families as caring and warm and further 39 % perceived there
relationship as good. For 21 % family relationships were average. The perceptions of
males and females were very similar with girls being marginally more positive about
family relationships. No ethnic differences were noted. Those who had no education or
only a primary education had the poorest family relationships. The lowest proportion of
respondents who perceived the family as caring and warm and the highest proportion
who wished to leave home as they were unhappy. Improving socio-economic status saw a
more positive relationship pattern (Table 4.15).
Family Relationships
Adolescents were asked several questions reflecting the quality of their family
relationships, and aspects that might affect their mental wellbeing. Table 4.16 presents
the pattern of answers given to these questions. The feelings indicating positive family
relationships were seen among approximately 40 – 50 % of respondents, about 50 % of
out-of-school adolescents reported that they loved to spend time with their families and
40% were proud of their families. The proportion of adolescents reporting negative
family relationships was 10% or less. Ten percent were not happy about their current
relationships with family members while 9% were not confident that they could depend
on their families, 7 %, reported that some members of their family got on their nerves and
4% felt left out of the family and 3-4% were ashamed of their family. Six percent felt that
their fathers put too many restrictions on them. Review of table 4.16 shows that education
and socio-economic status improved the positive feelings and reduced the negative
feelings.
6.1
3.4
3.3
4.7
39.9
10079
10.9
9.7
9.1
8.1
4.1
3.4
49.0
55.6
6.4
7.5
4.7
7.5
3.2
3.7
2.7
3.8
3.9
5.5
38.4
41.3
5037
5042
9.7
12.0
5.6
18.4
3.1
5.5
55.6
43.1
6.3
8.3
5.3
8.4
1.7
7.9
1.5
7.9
3.3
8.3
40.9
37.8
5097
3935
N
6.9
I am proud of my family
52.3
I feel ashamed of my
father
3.8
I feel ashamed of my
mother
8.6
I feel ashamed of my
family
I love to spend time with
my family
I think my father puts too
many limits on me
I feel left out of my
family
10.3
Some members of my
family get on my nerves
I can’t depend on my
family
All
Sex
Males
Females
Ethnicity
Sinhalese
Tamil
Do you worry about the
relationship you have
with your family?
Category
Table 4.16 Feelings and perceptions of out-of-school adolescents on their family and
family relationships, by selected socio-demographic indicators
(Percent age)
Moor
11.6
12.3
Other
21.1
2.0
Educational status
No/
Primary
(Grade 15)
11.6
9.6
Secondary
(Grade 6 13.4
10.3
10)
GCE(O/L) 7.7
7.8
GCE(A/L) 9.2
5.8
Socio-economic quintiles
Poorest
12.6
13.7
Second
10.1
12.0
Middle
7.7
7.3
Fourth
10.6
5.4
Richest
11.0
4.3
Sector
Colombo
Metro
7.2
3.7
Other
8.6
4.7
urban
Rural
10.4
6.1
Estate
9.4
5.3
North &
East
12.6
32.1
4.9
18.8
44.9
39.4
9.2
16.2
8.1
12.2
8.3
22.7
8.2 9.1
15.8 15.8
34.0
49.1
996
51
5.1
49.0
7.9
7.6
4.5
3.1
4.8
31.6
2500
4.2
3.1
3.5
42.9
55.8
59.2
8.5
6.8
4.5
7.2
5.2
5.4
4.1
2.9
1.9
3.9
2.8
1.7
6.5
3.6
2.6
29.3
43.9
50.5
2494
3719
1366
6.1
4.9
2.8
2.3
2.6
47.0
46.3
54.7
53.5
60.4
8.9
8.3
7.4
5.1
4.5
9.0
7.2
5.9
4.6
3.8
6.5
4.3
2.5
2.0
1.7
7.0
4.2
2.2
1.6
1.3
7.8
5.8
3.6
3.3
3.0
30.5
33.4
37.5
38.6
61.0
2015
2016
2016
2016
2016
2.2
40.5
7.1
6.4
1.5
0.7
2.3
32.6
1995
4.7
3.1
3.4
52.7
56.5
35.0
7.4
6.4
3.1
6.8
5.5
5.6
1.9
2.2
1.8
1.3
1.9
1.0
3.9
3.7
2.9
44.0
41.3
12.6
2014
2040
2030
8.3
38.4
11.4
10.1
14.6
15.7 13.7
43.9
2000
Support Given to Adolescents’ Decisions by the Parents
Table 4.17 Out-of-school adolescents’ perceptions on parent’s supportiveness regarding
their decisions
(Percentage)
Category
Not at
No
Yes
Can’t say Total
N
all
All
6.5
9.6
59.9
24.0
100.0
10079
Sex
Males
4.5
7.1
61.3
27.1
100.0
5037
Females
8.5
12.1
58.5
20.9
100.0
5042
Ethnicity
Sinhalese
4.1
6.1
64.0
25.8
100.0
5097
Tamil
12.6
18.3
50.0
19.1
100.0
3935
Moor
14.8
22.4
43.4
19.4
100.0
996
Other
8.4
Educational status
No/ Primary
21.8
(Grade 1-5)
Secondary(Grade
6-10)
4.2
GCE(O/L)
3.9
GCE(A/L)
2.8
Socio-economic quintiles
Poorest
7.1
Second
6.9
Middle
7.0
Fourth
5.9
Richest
5.4
Sector
Colombo Metro 5.0
Other urban
4.4
Rural
7.5
Estate
1.2
North & East
4.3
18.2
51.4
22.0
100.0
51
20.9
37.6
19.7
100.0
100.0
2500
10.3
5.6
4.0
60.3
64.0
71.5
25.1
26.4
21.6
100.0
100.0
2494
3719
1366
11.3
11.2
10.4
10.8
4.0
53.6
57.8
59.9
61.1
67.5
28.0
24.0
22.8
22.2
23.1
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
2015
2016
2016
2016
2016
7.9
13.2
9.3
7.8
11.5
54.0
63.5
59.7
73.9
55.9
33.1
18.9
23.5
17.1
28.3
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
1995
2014
2040
2030
2000
According to 60% of out-of-school adolescents, their parents were supportive of their
decisions and 24% reported that they could not give a definite answer to this question.
More males (61%) than females (59%) were of the view that their parents were
supportive of their decisions. Sinhalese parents seemed to be the most supportive (64%)
where as the least supportive were among Moors (43%). The proportion of adolescents
who felt that their parents were supportive increased from the lowest level to the highest
level of education. Parental support is positively correlated with the socio-economic
level. And the highest proportion of parents who were supportive was from the Estate
sector while the lowest was from Colombo Metro sector (Table 4.17).
Appreciation of Adolescents’ Suggestion on a Family Mater by Parents
Respondents were asked whether they could remember an occasion when their parents
has appreciated any of the suggestions made by them on a family matter.
Table 4.18 Out-of-school adolescents who remembered an occasion when their parents
appreciated a suggestion made by them on a family matter by selected socio-demographic
indicators
(Percentage)
Category
%
No
All
79.2
10079
Sex
Male
82.9
5037
Female
74.8
5042
Ethnic differences
Sinhalese
Tamil
Moor
Other
Educational status
No/ Primary (Grade 1-5)
Secondary (Grade 6-10)
GCE(O/L)
GCE (A/L)
Socio-economic status
Poorest quintile
Second quintile
Middle quintile
Fourth quintile
Richest quintile
Sector
Colombo Metropolitan
Other urban
Rural
Estate
North & East
82.0
69.9
60.5
62.3
5097
3935
996
51
59.2
72.7
82.6
88.3
2500
2494
3719
1366
70.0
74.2
77.8
84.7
90.0
2015
2016
2016
2016
2016
70.7
84.0
81.8
60.9
73.9
1995
2014
2040
2030
2000
Nearly 80% of the respondents could remember at least one occasion when their parents
appreciated a decision they had made regarding a family matter. A larger percentage of
boys remembered such an occasion when compared to girls. Comparing ethnic groups,
the Singhalese had the highest proportion of who appreciated a suggestion by an
adolescent. The proportion increased with the increasing educational and socio-economic
status (Table 4.18).
Distress about Parents’ Concern on Their Current Status
Usually parents are worried about their children when they are not educated enough and
not having a proper base for a future career. Adolescents also tend to feel stressed and
guilty due to parental worry on their score. They were asked whether they were worried
about their parent’s feelings on their current status.
Table 4.19 Out-of-school adolescents’ feelings regarding their parent’s worries about
their present situation by selected socio-demographic indicators
(Percentage)
Category
% Reporting that
Total
N
they are distressed
because of parent’s
dissatisfaction
All
37.8
100.0
10079
Sex
Males
36.6
100.0
5037
Females
39.0
100.0
5042
Ethnicity
Sinhalese
Tamil
Moor
Other
Education
No/ Primary (Grade 1-5)
Secondary (Grade 6-10)
GCE(O/L)
GCE(A/L)
Socio-economic status
Poorest
Second
Middle
Fourth
Richest
Sector
Colombo Metro
Other urban
Rural
Estate
North & East
36.3
41.8
38.7
60.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
5097
3935
996
51
37.1
40.1
36.7
35.2
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
2500
2494
3719
1366
43.1
41.2
37.2
39.4
27.4
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
2015
2016
2016
2016
2016
17.4
38.2
37.9
25.6
49.1
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
1995
2014
2040
2030
2000
Nearly 38 % of adolescents reported that they were distressed by their parent’s
unhappiness about their current status. Females were more worried on this score than
males and adolescents from Tamil community more than the other ethnic groups. The
proportions of adolescents distressed by their parents’ anxiety reduced with the
improving socio-economic status. A higher percentage of adolescents from the North and
East reported being distressed by their parents concern than from the others, the lowest
percentage being from the Colombo Metro sector (Table 4.19).
.
Figure 4.2 Out-of-school adolescents’ reactions to the stress created by parent’s worries
about their present situation
(N= 2351)
4.1%
4.3%
2.5%
I feel I have to develop more than this
1.9%
I feel guilty because of the money my
parents spent on me
I feel helpless
4.5%
5.7%
I am not bothered by it
47.6%
It makes me angry with myself
It makes me angry with parents
12.4%
It makes me angry with the world
I feel that I am a useless person
Ii is not fair by me
17.0%
Most adolescents seemed to react positively to this situation. About 48 % said they felt
that they had to do better and improve their situation. A further 17 % felt guilty about
failing to satisfy their parents’ wishes. Twelve percent felt helpless about the situation
while 6 % said that they were not bothered by parental concerns. Relatively smaller
proportions of adolescents felt angry with themselves, parents and with the world at
large. They also felt useless and felt that parental pressure on this score was not fair by
them. Table 4.20 analyses the adolescent’s reactions by sex, ethnicity, education, socioeconomic status and sector.
It makes me angry with
the world
I feel that I am a useless
person
4.5
1.9
2.5
4.1
4.3
100.0 2351
8.8
15.9
6.0
5.3
4.4
4.7
2.4
1.4
3.6
1.5
4.2
3.9
5.1
3.5
100.0 1108
100.0 1243
11.1
15.3
14.3
6.5
5.6
6.3
2.7
12.9
4.4
4.5
6.2
0.0
1.4
2.9
2.2
6.5
2.3
3.9
0.0
0.0
2.1
6.5
12.2
19.4
3.8
4.8
6.1
12.9
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
924
1156
253
18
18.1
11.6
9.2
12.2
6.5
7.4
6.1
2.6
4.3
4.6
4.4
4.6
2.5
1.6
2.4
0.2
2.5
3.1
2.4
4.0
9.4
5.0
1.4
0.9
12.0
4.2
3.6
3.1
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
648
520
868
315
13.7
12.7
10.5
14.4
10.0
5.3
5.0
4.0
3.5
13.1
5.0
5.4
5.2
2.8
3.9
2.9
2.3
1.3
0.4
2.8
6.2
1.6
1.5
1.5
1.1
5.3
7.9
1.8
1.6
2.8
4.6
3.7
3.4
5.6
3.9
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
470
470
470
470
470
11.2
11.7
3.9
1.0
3.9
4.4
2.9
16.5
11.6
13.4
7.4
5.0
13.4
3.6
4.2
5.3
2.2
1.3
3.1
0.9
2.1
1.6
5.1
2.5
12.1
2.7
4.4
1.2
100.0 205
100.0
448
100.0 476
100.0 321
14.2
5.3
6.0
3.9
4.6
7.9
4.9
100.0 901
N
It makes me angry with
parents
5.7
Total
It makes me angry with
myself
12.4
Ii is not fair by me
I am not bothered by it
All
47.6 17.0
Sex
Males
50.7 14.5
Females
44.7 19.3
Ethnicity
Sinhalese 50.5 18.7
Tamil
43.3 12.5
Moor
37.5 18.9
Other
41.9 0.0
Educational status
No/
Primary
33.0 11.7
Secondary 46.8 15.7
GCE(O/L) 50.5 20.0
GCE(A/L) 55.7 16.8
Socio-economic quintiles
Poorest
46.7 10.3
Second
47.4 14.0
Middle
51.7 20.5
Fourth
52.6 17.5
Richest
35.8 26.7
Sector
Colombo
Metro
45.4 15.6
Other
43.5 18.1
urban
Rural
50.0 18.9
Estate
31.5 18.4
North &
East
43.4 9.9
I feel helpless
I feel I have to develop
more than this
I feel guilty because of
the money my parents
spent on me
Category
Table 4.20 Out-of-school adolescent’s reactions to the stress created by parent’s worries
about their present situation by selected socio-demographic indicators
(Percentage)
Critical Thinking, Decision Making, Problem Solving Skills and the Ability
to Empathise
Heroes and Other Admired Personalities of Out-of-school Adolescents
Many people have their own heroes or role models. One’s self-awareness, critical
thinking skills and values influence the identification of these role models. The survey
attempted to obtain information about personalities admired by out-of-school adolescents.
N
Other*
A
politician
A film star
A musician
An
internation
al figure
Total
All
24.3
34.1
Sex
Males
30.1
28.3
Females
18.7
39.8
Ethnicity
Sinhalese 22.0
33.4
Tamil
30.3
35.1
Moor
30.3
38.4
Other
11.5
40.8
Educational status
No
/Primary
(Grade 15)
25.7
36.9
Secondar
y
(Grade 610)
31.0
29.2
GCE(O/L
21.3
35.4
)
GCE(A/L
)
15.0
40.2
Socio-economic quintiles
Poorest
26.8
31.7
Second
25.6
36.1
Middle
22.4
33.7
A national
hero
A member
of family
A national
sportsman
Category
Table 4.21 Heroes and other admired personalities among out-of-school adolescents by
selected socio-demographic indicators
(Percentage)
15.2
3.7
6.4
9.3
4.6
2.4
100.0
10079
14.9
15.5
4.3
3.0
7.4
5.5
6.8
11.8
6.0
3.1
2.2
2.6
100.0
100.0
5037
5042
18.5
6.6
6.3
8.6
4.1
2.8
1.5
0.0
7.4
3.8
3.7
0.0
8.4
11.9
11.1
6.5
4.1
6.2
4.0
26.8
2.0
3.2
4.6
5.8
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
5097
3935
996
51
8.8
2.5
6.6
9.6
7.3
2.6
100.0
2500
7.9
3.0
7.0
13.5
6.5
2.0
100.0
100.0
2494
18.6
4.5
5.9
7.9
4.2
2.2
22.1
4.5
6.3
4.6
3.3
4.0
12.0
13.4
15.9
2.8
2.9
4.5
7.3
5.5
6.6
12.9
8.8
9.7
4.6
5.0
4.7
1.9
2.7
2.5
3719
100.0
1366
100.0
100.0
100.0
2015
2016
2016
Fourth
23.9
33.6
17.6
3.1
5.9
8.4
4.9
2.7
100.0
Richest
23.2
35.4
17.1
4.9
6.7
6.8
3.6
2.3
100.0
Sector
Colombo
27.7
32.9
8.6
1.0
7.4
20.6
1.6
0.2
100.0
Metro
Other
urban
25.6
30.0
15.2
5.5
6.7
10.2
4.4
2.5
100.0
Rural
22.7
34.4
17.9
3.8
7.4
7.8
3.9
2.1
100.0
Estate
49.3
12.4
5.9
1.6
6.5
20.6
2.0
1.7
100.0
North &
21.9
43.5
6.0
4.2
0.0
7.7
11.3
5.5
100.0
East
*Others included religious leaders, a friend, lover, scientists, businessmen, writers, media
personnel, and artists.
The most commonly admired figure by the out-of-school adolescents was a member of
their own family (34%) followed by a national sports personality (24%), a national hero
(15%) and a film star (9%). Interestingly unlike the school- going adolescents about 7 %
of out-of-school adolescents were inspired by politicians. Males were more in favour of
sports figures, musicians and politicians; while a higher percent age of females had an
admiration for their own family members and film stars (Table 4. 21).
Dealing With Parents’ Disagreements
Adolescents frequently want to go out with their peers, and they are prone to engage in
risky behaviours such as smoking, drinking, reckless driving etc. Parents being aware of
these risks often oppose an adolescent’s decision such as to go out with friends especially
at inappropriate times. Respondent’s reactions to the following hypothetical situation
were sought.
Situation A: “If your parents advise you regarding something that you have done, for
example, associating with someone they wouldn’t approve of, going out with friends
during the night; what will be your most likely reaction?”
Table 4.22 presents the responses given to this question.
The most common response given to this question reflects high degree of skills among
nearly half (45%) of adolescents. According to them they would no get angry because
they knew their parents would have been worried about their safety. Only 26 % were
concerned with their own rights to do what they liked, demonstrating poor empathy.
Another 13 % said “I will try to discuss with my parents and come to a consensus”
showing communication and problem solving skills. Eleven percent responded that “This
type of thing never occur between me and my family since we understand each other”
reflecting a sound relationship among parents and adolescents. Table 4.22 further
analyzes the responses according to sex, ethnicity, educational standard, socio-economic
status and sector.
2016
2016
1995
2014
2040
2030
2000
Table 4.22 Out-of-school adolescents’ reaction to situation "A", above by selected sociodemographic indicators
(Percentage)
Category I might
I will not This
I will
I will try Total
N
get
get
type of
stick to
to
angry
angry
thing
my
discuss
because because never
decision with my
I think I I know
occur
as I am
parents
should
my
between confiden and
have
parents
me and
t of my
come to
freedom are
my
senses
a
to do
worried family
consensu
what I
about
since we
s
like
my
understa
safety
nd each
other
All
25.9
44.9
11.0
4.9
13.3
100.0
10079
Sex
Males
29.6
43.7
9.6
5.1
12.0
100.0
5037
Females 22.1
46.1
12.5
4.7
14.7
100.0
5042
Ethnicity
Sinhales
100.0
5097
e
26.3
44.1
10.0
4.7
14.9
Tamil
23.8
49.1
14.5
5.7
6.9
100.0
3935
Moor
26.7
39.7
11.4
5.2
16.9
100.0
996
Other
36.5
43.2
13.9
0.0
6.3
100.0
51
Educational status
No/
Primary
(Grade
1-5)
31.6
40.6
8.4
4.4
15.1
100.0
2500
Seconda
ry(Grade
6-10)
33.6
41.6
10.4
4.4
10.0
100.0
2494
GCE(O/
22.8
46.6
11.5
4.5
14.6
100.0
3719
L)
GCE(A/
L)
14.8
54.3
11.4
5.6
13.9
100.0
1366
Socio-economic quintiles
Poorest
29.9
42.3
10.5
4.9
12.5
100.0
2015
Second
27.8
42.3
12.4
6.5
11.0
100.0
2016
Middle
25.1
44.1
9.5
5.5
15.8
100.0
2016
Fourth
26.5
49.8
8.1
3.5
12.0
100.0
2016
Richest
Sector
Colomb
o Metro
Other
urban
Rural
Estate
North &
East
19.9
46.6
14.8
3.8
14.9
100.0
2016
30.2
43.9
5.3
0.4
20.2
100.0
1995
25.9
26.2
38.2
39.9
44.2
40.5
13.8
9.9
8.5
3.6
5.1
3.0
16.8
14.6
9.8
100.0
100.0
100.0
2014
2040
2030
15.7
55.1
21.4
7.9
0.0
100.0
2000
Concern for Others Sake
Helping others and coming forward for another person’s sake needs self confidence,
ability to empathize, a sense of duty and also reflects one’s leadership qualities.
Adolescents were asked for their most probable response in the following situation.
Situation B: “A group of persons are trying to force a friend of your's to take alcohol. If
you were to witness such a situation what would be your most likely reaction”?
Table 4.23 Out-of-school adolescents’ reaction to situation B by selected sociodemographic indicators
(Percentage)
You
You feel You will At a
I will
Total
would
it is your do
later
also
try to
friends
nothing time
join
intervene business because you
with
and take to make
you feel will
them
Category
your
up his
helpless advice
because
N
friend
mind and
your
boys
away
will not
friend
should
intervene
to avoid drink
that
alcohol
group
All
55.4
12.1
10.0
22.1
0.5
100.0
10079
Sex
Males
57.9
14.3
10.9
16.6
0.2
100.0
5037
Females
52.8
10.0
9.1
27.4
0.7
100.0
5042
Ethnicity
Sinhalese
55.3
11.2
9.8
23.6
0.1
100.0
5097
Tamil
55.8
14.4
10.3
17.8
1.7
100.0
3935
Moor
56.2
15.2
10.9
17.7
0.1
100.0
996
Other
20.5
25.5
10.6
22.2
21.3
100.0
51
Educational status
No/ Primary
(Grade 1-5)
52.4
Secondary
(Grade 6-10) 55.4
GCE(O/L)
57.5
GCE(A/L)
54.7
Socio-economic quintiles
Poorest
48.8
Second
50.8
Middle
56.7
Fourth
61.6
Richest
59.0
Sector
Colombo
Metro
66.3
Other urban
46.8
Rural
54.9
Estate
71.6
North & East 49.4
100.0
14.6
12.7
19.7
0.6
2500
11.9
10.1
11.2
10.9
8.8
5.9
20.8
23.1
28.2
1.1
0.5
0.1
100.0
100.0
2494
3719
1366
12.4
16.3
9.5
11.3
11.5
12.2
11.4
10.3
8.6
7.2
25.5
21.0
23.2
18.1
22.1
1.1
0.5
0.2
0.4
0.3
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
2015
2016
2016
2016
2016
100.0
1995
16.7
20.4
10.6
11.9
14.5
7.2
11.3
10.4
4.5
10.7
9.8
21.4
24.0
11.7
21.7
0.0
0.1
0.1
0.4
3.7
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
2014
2040
2030
2000
The responses to above question showed that the majority said they would intervene and
get the friend out of the situation (55%). A little more than one fifth (22%) opted for the
less confrontational choice of advising the friend to avoid the group on a later occasion.
Passive reactions were chosen by a further 22%. The pattern of answers demonstrates
favourable trend in the leadership qualities and the degree of empathy in the out-ofschool population of adolescents. It also showed that many were concerned with their
limitations and avoided the confrontational approaches (Table 4.23).
Selecting Future Partner
For most, establishment of intimate relationships begins during adolescence. In addition
to biological attractions that influence coupling, a number of factors influence the
decisions related to selecting a future partner. These include degree of self-awareness,
parental pressure, peer influence, social norms, communication skills, empathy etc.
Adolescents were asked; who would influence their decision regarding choosing their
future partners.
The largest proportion of adolescents (46%) said that they would select their partner on
their own, as it was their right, while a third (31%) said they would look for parents’
advice in this matter. Five percent would turn to someone, other than parents, whom they
respect for advice. Seventeen percent were not sure of their choice yet. The overall
answer pattern reflects a mixed picture of decision making abilities.
Completely rights based decisions could no be considered as optimal because these are
frequently emotion based and not taken after proper exercise of life skills like, empathy,
critical thinking and problem solving abilities. Thus, those who said that they would
select their partners as it was their right seemed to be relatively less efficient in decisionmaking skills. Those who would look for advice seemed to have better life skills as they
have more empathy, communication and critical thinking abilities.
. I will look for the advise of
some one I respect other than
parents
. I can’t think of it yet
Total
N
All
46.1
Sex
Males
53.4
Females
39.0
Ethnicity
Sinhalese
49.4
Tamil
36.1
Moor
40.4
Other
47.3
Educational status
No/ Primary
44.2
(Grade 1-5)
Secondary
(Grade 6-10) 46.0
GCE(O/L)
43.0
GCE(A/L)
47.7
Socio-economic quintiles
Poorest
43.6
Second
45.2
Middle
47.3
Fourth
47.6
Richest
46.8
Sector
Colombo
Metro
47.1
Other urban
45.3
I will look for my parents
advise in such matters
I will choose my own partner
on my own, as I have a right
to choose, as it is my life
Category
Table 4.24 Manner in which out-of-school adolescents would select their future partner,
by selected socio-demographic indicators
(Percentage)
31.3
5.4
17.1
100.0
10079
24.3
38.2
5.4
5.4
16.9
17.4
100.0
100.0
5037
5042
30.2
36.1
28.8
26.4
4.9
7.1
5.5
16.3
15.5
20.7
25.2
10.1
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
5097
3935
996
51
27.4
6.7
21.7
100.0
2413
31.5
33.4
35.0
6.0
5.8
3.4
16.4
17.8
14.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
2494
3806
1366
29.3
30.8
30.0
33.9
33.2
6.5
6.8
4.0
5.0
4.9
20.6
17.3
18.7
13.4
15.1
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
2015
2016
2016
2016
2016
100.0
1995
37.9
32.5
4.3
5.7
10.7
16.5
100.0
2014
Rural
Estate
North & East
49.3
44.7
25.1
28.8
46.2
37.5
5.1
1.4
9.9
16.8
7.7
27.5
100.0
100.0
100.0
2040
2030
2000
Inter- personal Relationships & Social Capital
Social Capital
One’s quality and quantity of social involvement and potential support that one could
expect from society is known as social capital. Social capital indirectly reflects the
quality of inters personnel relationships and it is considered to be an important factor that
influences one’s self esteem. Table 4.25 present the answers provided for the questions
reflecting social capital.
Do you think your friends
admire you?
Does what your friends think
about you, matters to you very
much?
Do you think you are helpful to
your friends?
Do you think that you are a
person wanted by your
community?
Do you have any special skill
that is useful for many people?
N
All
Sex
Males
Females
Ethnicity
Sinhalese
Tamil
Moor
Other
Educational
No/
Primary
(Grade 15)
Secondary
Do you feel confident that
friends will help you in an
emergency/ illness / problem?
Do you consider your family to
be a source of help in most
problems that you have?
Do you sometimes feel that
you miss a close friend?
Category
Table 4.25 Indicators of out-of-school adolescents’ social capital, by selected sociodemographic indicators
(Percentage)
84.4
91.4
53.0
57.5
53.5
89.4
78.9
69.0
10079
85.1
83.7
92.4
90.4
52.6
53.3
61.1
53.9
51.1
55.8
89.4
89.4
79.7
78.1
69.6
68.5
5037
5042
86.0
78.7
83.6
82.6
status
93.7
84.7
85.3
84.2
51.4
58.0
55.4
42.7
58.9
52.5
56.8
67.6
57.5
39.8
50.0
35.1
92.9
78.5
84.5
72.1
81.6
69.8
77.6
73.0
71.2
63.4
61.4
76.5
5097
3935
996
51
79.9
79.8
87.7
86.2
51.4
53.2
51.8
56.4
45.4
47.1
83.4
84.3
68.7
69.4
58.2
56.0
2500
2494
(Grade 610)
GCE(O/L) 86.9
93.5
GCE(A/L) 83.4
94.8
Socio-economic quintiles
Poorest
74.9
85.1
Second
81.4
86.5
Middle
86.8
92.4
Fourth
90.2
96.6
Richest
88.7
96.4
Sector
Colombo
Metro
90.9
95.6
Other
urban
86.2
92.7
Rural
86.6
93.6
Estate
92.9
95.9
North &
60.5
69.9
East
54.5
45.0
57.4
59.3
54.8
63.0
92.2
94.1
81.4
86.3
72.8
81.1
3719
1366
51.7
58.0
53.1
54.3
47.4
49.7
53.1
59.0
61.0
64.8
45.8
48.7
53.9
60.5
59.0
81.4
85.1
92.0
93.8
94.9
70.0
75.0
80.3
83.6
85.9
57.4
65.0
67.2
77.1
79.7
2015
2016
2016
2016
2016
50.5
54.8
54.9
90.6
72.7
58.8
1995
2014
51.1
53.0
76.0
58.7
60.3
54.3
54.4
57.9
48.1
89.5
92.9
89.3
81.0
82.7
78.0
73.4
71.4
68.3
2040
2030
44.7
40.4
21.7
64.9
54.9
56.1
2000
Over 91 % of adolescents saw their family as a source of help for their problems. Slightly
lower proportion (84%) reported that their friends would come forward to help them in
case of an emergency (Table 4.25). Eighty-nine percent said they were helpful to their
friends. These trends indicate the existence of considerable sense of social capital among
out-of-school adolescents. Fifty eight percent of out-of-school adolescents felt that their
friends admire them and what their friends thought about them were important to 54% of
the out-of-school adolescents. Seventy nine percent thought that the community wanted
them. All these trends indicate the existence of sound social relations among the
adolescents.
Media Exposure
Reading Newspapers
Table 4.26 Frequency of reading newspapers by out-of-school adolescents by selected
socio-demographic indicators
(Percentage)
Category
Do not
Daily
Once a
Less than Total
N
read
week
once a
week
All
28.9
12.9
40.1
18.1
100.0
10079
Sex
Males
34.4
15.3
39.2
11.2
100.0
5037
Females
23.4
10.6
41.0
25.0
100.0
5042
Ethnicity
Sinhalese
29.9
Tamil
27.3
Moor
21.3
Other
42.7
Educational status
No / Primary
38.7
(Grade 1-5)
Secondary
(Grade 6-10) 49.5
GCE(O/L)
23.7
GCE(A/L)
15.8
Socio-economic quintiles
Poorest
23.4
Second
38.7
Middle
49.5
Fourth
23.7
Richest
15.8
Sector
Colombo
Metro
33.9
Other urban
25.6
Rural
25.4
Estate
50.2
North & East 30.5
12.8
14.7
8.0
17.1
48.4
19.1
12.2
28.4
8.9
38.8
58.5
11.9
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
5097
3935
996
51
6.6
8.4
50.3
100.0
100.0
2500
9.8
14.3
24.4
29.3
51.4
53.5
11.4
10.6
6.3
100.0
100.0
2494
3719
1366
6.6
2.6
9.8
14.3
24.4
26.5
8.4
29.3
51.4
53.5
43.5
50.3
11.4
10.6
6.3
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
2015
2016
2016
2016
2016
100.0
1995
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
2014
2040
2030
2000
11.0
11.9
11.3
11.8
25.7
29.0
39.3
43.7
23.4
30.0
26.1
23.3
19.6
14.5
13.7
Of the out-of-school adolescents, 40% read newspapers only once a week, while 29% did
not read any newspaper at all. More males compared to females did not read the
newspapers. However, the percentage of males who read newspapers on a daily basis was
higher than among females. Highest proportion of daily newspaper readers was among
Tamils and the proportion who read newspapers daily increased with educational status
(Table 4.26).
Listening to Radio
Table 4.27 Frequency of listening to radio, by selected socio-demographic indicators
(Percentage)
Category
Do not
Daily
Once a
Less than Total
N
listen
week
once a
week
All
11.1
78.1
7.0
3.8
100.0
10079
Sex
Males
9.4
78.8
7.6
4.1
100.0
5037
Females
13.0
77.2
6.3
3.5
100.0
5042
Ethnicity
Sinhalese
9.7
Tamil
16.7
Moor
16.0
Other
33.3
Educational status
No/ Primary
23.4
(Grade 1-5)
Secondary
(Grade 6-10) 15.2
GCE(O/L)
8.0
GCE(A/L)
8.4
Socio-economic quintiles
Poorest
17.3
Second
13.9
Middle
9.6
Fourth
7.9
Richest
6.5
Sector
Colombo
Metro
8.7
Other urban
12.9
Rural
9.9
Estate
23.3
North & East 13.4
79.1
73.7
76.7
49.0
7.0
7.2
5.5
3.9
4.1
2.4
1.7
13.9
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
5097
3935
996
51
65.4
8.2
3.0
100.0
100.0
2500
73.5
81.1
82.2
7.1
7.0
5.7
4.2
4.0
3.7
100.0
100.0
2494
3719
1366
69.4
75.3
79.6
82.2
84.1
7.7
6.3
8.4
5.6
6.7
5.6
4.5
2.3
4.3
2.7
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
2015
2016
2016
2016
2016
100.0
1995
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
2014
2040
2030
2000
71.7
78.2
79.6
73.9
74.5
8.4
5.3
6.9
1.5
10.2
11.1
3.6
3.6
1.2
1.9
The proportions of adolescents (78%) who listen to radio daily basis were higher than
those who read newspapers daily (13%). Table 4.27 presents the variations seen in the
frequency of out-of-school adolescents’ listening to radio by socio-demographic
characteristics.
Most Popular Type of Radio Programs Among Non-School-going Adolescents
Figure 4.3 Most popular type of radio programmes among non-school-going adolescents
1%
4%
5%
Musical
Drama
Educational
90%
Other
(N= 8960)
Most popular radio programs among out-of-school adolescents were musical programmes
followed by drama and educational programmes.
Most Frequent Time of Listening To Radio
Figure 4.4 Most frequent time of listening to radio
32%
44%
6 a.m - 12.00 noon
12.00 noon - 6.p.m.
After 6 p.m.
24%
Most frequent time of listing to radio was reported as after 6 p.m.
Watching Television
Table 4.28 Frequency of watching television of out-of-school adolescents by sex,
ethnicity, educational level, socio-economic status and sector
Category
Do not
watch
All
16.4
Sex
Males
14.6
Females
18.2
Ethnicity
Sinhalese
14.3
Tamil
23.0
Moor
20.6
Other
9.3
Educational status
No/ Primary
(Grade 1-5)
27.3
Secondary
(Grade 6-10) 24.5
GCE(O/L)
12.9
GCE(A/L)
8.3
Socio-economic quintiles
Poorest
36.4
Second
25.0
Middle
8.1
Fourth
9.6
Richest
2.7
Sector
Colombo
16.3
Metro
Other urban
9.3
Rural
15.6
Estate
23.5
North & East 23.2
Once a
week
Daily
Total
N
20.5
Less than
once a
week
3.2
59.9
100.0
10079
23.4
17.6
3.4
3.0
58.6
61.2
100.0
100.0
5037
5042
17.5
31.0
20.2
28.3
1.6
8.0
5.7
19.8
66.7
37.9
53.5
42.7
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
5097
3935
996
51
24.8
4.1
43.8
100.0
100.0
2500
24.1
20.4
15.6
6.0
2.7
1.7
45.4
63.9
74.4
100.0
100.0
2494
3719
1366
21.0
19.7
20.2
20.1
21.5
6.5
5.4
1.4
1.3
1.5
36.1
49.9
70.3
69.1
74.4
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
2015
2016
2016
2016
2016
100.0
1995
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
2014
2040
2030
2000
10.8
14.7
19.0
16.5
41.0
0.7
2.5
1.6
1.9
16.5
72.2
73.5
63.9
58.1
19.2
Nearly 60% of out-of-school adolescents, watched television daily. Sixteen percent
reported that they do not to watch TV. Table 4.28 presents the variations seen in the
frequency of watching TV by socio-demographic characteristics.
Most Popular Types of TV Programs among Non-school-going Adolescents
Figure 4.5 Most popular types of TV programs among non school- going adolescents
17%
1%
16%
Musical
Drama
Educational
15%
Films
51%
Others
More than half the adolescents who watched TV reported drama as the most popular TV
programs, followed by films (17%), musical programmes (16%) and educational
programmes (15%) (Figure 4.5).
Figure 4.6 Most frequent time of watching Television
4%
9%
6 a.m. - 12 noon
12 noon - 6 p.m.
After 6 p.m.
87%
Although most TV broadcasts in Sri Lanka have telecasts from early morning to late
night, greater percentage watched TV mostly in the evenings. This probably is due to
being occupied in other activities during the daytime and the TV stations showing the
most popular programs such as Tele-dramas in the evenings (Figure 4.6).
Free Time Activities - Hobbies
Table 4.29 Out-of-school adolescents’ free time activities, by to gender
Hobbies
Sports
Watching TV
Reading
Listening to songs
Playing music
Drawing
Self studies
Helping house work
Gardening
Going to town /for
walk
Visit religious
places
Internet / computer
use
Taking alcohol
All
44.2
65.6
46.9
59.7
19.0
8.8
10.5
45.0
22.6
Males
61.8
68.1
38.9
60.0
16.9
8.5
8.5
40.0
21.4
Females
25.5
63.2
54.9
59.3
21.1
9.1
12.5
49.9
23.7
15.8
21.7
9.9
15.3
12.8
17.8
8.3
3.5
7.9
5.2
8.8
0.0
The commonest free time hobby among these adolescents was watching TV, followed by
listening to music (Table 4.29)
Substance Abuse
Smoking among out-of-school adolescents
Prevalence of Smoking
Prevalence of ever smoking among non-school- going adolescent boys and girls were
42% and 9% respectively. However as the proportions of girls who are currently smoking
was very low (less than 1 %); the detailed analysis was restricted to males.
Table 4.30 Prevalence of smoking among non-school- going adolescent boys, by selected
socio-demographic indicators
(Percentage)
Category
Ever smoked Currently
Smoked
N
smoking
during last
week
All
42.3
23.0
19.7
5042
Ethnicity
Sinhalese
47.5
Tamil
20.6
Moor
31.0
Other
30.6
Educational status
No/ Primary
33.9
(Grade 1 -5)
Secondary
(Grade 6-10)
45.2
GCE(O/L)
43.1
GCE(A/L)
43.6
Socio-economic quintiles
Poorest
40.0
Second
41.5
Middle
42.1
Fourth
42.4
Richest
45.0
Sector
Colombo Metro
50.9
Other urban
44.3
Rural
46.0
Estate
54.8
North & East
6.2
25.2
12.7
23.8
22.7
21.5
11.3
18.5
22.7
2758
1930
321
23
26.4
27.5
1006
28.4
22.5
16.0
23.3
19.4
12.4
1314
2077
635
23.2
28.3
21.6
21.9
20.4
20.2
25.2
17.1
20.6
16.2
1007
1006
1006
1006
1007
35.6
20.6
24.2
40.2
2.1
30.3
16.2
20.9
30.7
2.9
995
1026
1012
996
995
Of the out-of-school adolescent boys 42% have smoked at least once, only 23% are
current smokers and nearly 20 % had smoked during last week. Table 4.31 presents the
variation of smoking prevalence by ethnicity, education, socio-economic status and
sector. The highest prevalence of smoking among out-of-school adolescents was among
the Sinhalese and the lowest among Tamils. The highest prevalence of smoking was seen
among those who had been educated up to secondary level and it also increased with
improving socio-economic status. Prevalence was highest among adolescents from the
estate sector while those form North and East had the lowest smoking prevalence (Tale
4.30).
Age at Starting Smoking among Non-School-going Adolescents
Table 4.31 Mean age at starting to smoke among out-of-school boys by selected sociodemographic indicators
(Percentage)
Category
Mean
Standard deviation
All
14.9
2.15
Ethnic differences
Sinhalese
14.9
2.2
Tamil
15.4
1.8
Moor
Other
Educational status
No/ Primary (Grade 1-5)
Secondary (Grade 6-10)
GCE(O/L)
GCE (A/L)
Socio-economic status
Poorest quintile
Second quintile
Middle quintile
Fourth quintile
Richest quintile
Sector
Colombo Metropolitan
Other urban
Rural
Estate
North & East
14.9
17.8
1.6
2.7
13.8
14.5
15.3
15.3
1.4
2.3
2.1
2.2
14.5
14.8
15.5
15.0
15.0
1.7
2.5
2.1
2.0
2.2
14.9
14.8
15.0
14.8
17.5
1.7
2.1
2.2
1.6
1.9
The mean age at the start of smoking among out-of-school adolescents was 15 years (SD2.15) (Table 4.31).
Persons Who Influenced the First Smoke
Figure 4.7 Persons who influenced initiation of smoking among non school- going
adolescent boys
A friend
7.5%
10.6%
A family member
5.3%
An outsider
76.6%
An advertisement
(N = 2502)
More than ¾ of the boys, first smoke was influenced by a friend. About 8% of the boys
claimed that a tobacco advertisement had influenced them to try out smoking for the first
time (Figure 4.7).
Circumstances in Which the First Smoke Occurred
Figure 4.8 Circumstances in which of first smoke occurred among non school- going
adolescents boys
At home
12.9% 2.4%
14.7%
10.7%
Whiling away time with
friends
At a party
59.3%
While on a trip
At a sports event
(N= 2502)
Whiling away time with friends provides an environment that is free from adult
supervision, and thus had been the commonest scenario for a first smoke (59%) followed
by smoking at a party (14%) while on a trip (12%). It is interesting to note that one in ten
had there first tobacco experience at home (Figure 4.8).
Reason for the First Smoke
Figure 4.9 Reasons for the first smoke among non school- going adolescents boys
Out of curiosity
Because I felt that I would be rejected
if I did not follow the others
1.6%
3.0%
9.0%
Cannot give specific reason
3.1%
To emulate a family member
18.4%
56.3%
Because I thought it is a manly thing to
do
8.6%
To be popular one has to smoke
I had no guts to refuse
(N =2502)
Most stated smoking out of curiosity (56%). Fear of being rejected and not being
courageous enough to refuse, had lead to the initial smoking experience for 9%. About
18% failed to give a reason for starting to smoke (Figure 4.9).
Non School-going Adolescent Boys’ Attitudes Regarding Smoking
Table 4.32 Attitudes regarding smoking of non schooling adolescent boys
Attitude statement
Agreed
Young people should not smoke
Smoking is a useless behavior
I am sure I will never smoke in my life
People starts smoking since they have no guts to
78.1
84.9
63.1
47.9
Not
agreed
10.1
7.1
11.6
26.2
Not sure
11.8
8.0
25.3
25.9
refuse
Non smokers are more healthier than others
Smoking can be stopped at any time if one really
wants it
(N = 5032)
69.2
17.0
13.9
79.0
8.9
12.1
Close to 80% believed that young people should not smoke, a still higher percentage
(85%) considered it as a useless behavior and 69% agreed that non smokers were
healthier than smokers, yet only 63% was confident enough to say that they would never
smoke in the future (Table 4.32).
Non School-going Adolescent Girls’ Attitudes Regarding Smoking
Table 4.33 Attitudes regarding smoking of non schooling adolescent girls
Attitude statement
Agreed
Not sure
87.4
91.7
88.4
Not
agreed
7.1
4.4
5.6
Young people should not smoke
Smoking is a useless behavior
I am sure I will never smoke in my life
People starts smoking since they have no guts to
refuse
Non smokers are more healthier than others
Smoking can be stopped at any time if one really
wants it
(N =5047)
52.6
72.5
21.5
15.2
25.8
12.3
80.7
7.6
11.7
5.5
3.9
5.9
More females than males seemed to have positive attitudes regarding smoking reflecting
the relatively lower smoking prevalence among females (Table 4.33).
Alcohol Use among Non School-going Adolescents
Prevalence of Alcohol Use among Non-School-going Adolescents
Table 4.34 Prevalence of alcohol use among out-of-school adolescents by selected sociodemographic indicators
(Percentage)
Category
Ever taken
Currently taking Taken alcohol
N
alcohol
alcohol
during past
week
All
34.0
18.5
7.5
10079
Sex
Male
48.9
29.2
12.7
5042
Female
19.2
7.9
2.4
5037
Ethnic differences
Sinhalese
38.1
20.6
7.7
5097
Tamil
21.5
11.3
6.8
3935
Moor
26.2
17.2
7.7
996
Other
29.4
17.6
14.1
51
Educational status
No/ Primary
25.2
13.9
8.5
2500
(Grade 1-5)
Secondary (Grade
6-10)
34.3
21.2
10.3
2494
GCE (O/L)
35.0
18.4
6.5
3719
GCE (A/L)
35.0
18.4
6.5
1366
Socio-economic status
Poorest quintile
27.7
14.7
6.5
2015
Second quintile
31.6
17.5
9.2
2016
Middle quintile
35.1
17.2
6.1
2016
Fourth quintile
35.3
19.0
8.0
2016
Richest quintile
40.3
24.6
7.8
2016
Sector
Colombo
1995
Metropolitan
33.3
23.5
11.1
Other urban
38.2
22.4
8.7
2014
Rural
37.5
19.9
7.4
2040
Estate
25.2
18.6
11.9
2030
North & East
12.0
3.8
3.5
2000
Around 1/3rd of all adolescents who are not schooling have taken alcohol at least once in
their life. It is seen that nearly half of the males and 1/5th of the females have ever
consumed alcohol. Nineteen percentreported current use, 30% of boys and 8% of girls.
As in the case of smoking, Singhalese had the highest and Tamils the lowest proportions
of ever users and current users both. Socio-economic status showed a positive correlation
with the prevalence of ever and current use. Those in the North & East reported the
lowest prevalence of alcohol using adolescents while “Other urban” sector had the
highest prevalence (Table 4.34).
Age at Starting Alcohol among Non School-going Adolescents
Table 4.35 Mean age at starting got take alcohol among out-of-school adolescents by
selected socio-demographic indicators
(Percentage)
Category
Mean (Yrs)
SD (Yrs)
All
15.6
1.9
Sex
Male
15.6
1.8
Female
15.4
2.2
Ethnic differences
Sinhalese
15.6
1.9
Tamil
15.7
1.9
Moor
15.4
1.8
Other
16.8
1.0
Educational status
Primary (Grade 1-5)
14.7
1.8
Secondary(Grade 6-10)
15.2
2.0
GCE(O/L)
15.8
1.8
GCE (A/L)
16.1
2.2
Socio-economic status
Poorest quintile
15.3
1.8
Second quintile
15.4
2.2
Middle quintile
15.8
1.7
Fourth quintile
15.5
2.0
Richest quintile
15.8
1.9
Sector
Colombo Metropolitan
15.7
1.3
Other urban
15.5
2.0
Rural
15.5
2.0
Estate
15.4
1.5
North & East
17.1
1.7
The average age at first drink for non-schooling adolescents was 15.6 years. Even though
the prevalence of alcohol use is much lower among females, they have had their first
drink at a slightly lower age than the males (Table 4.35).
Types of Alcohol Used By Non School-going Adolescents
Table 4.36 The percentage of types of alcohol the non schooling adolescents use
Type
Beer
Arrack
Toddy
Kasippu
Whisky
Brandy
Gin
% used
26.6
15.1
9.4
4.3
2.8
2.5
3.3
More than a quarter of those who took alcohol, consumed beer. Arrack and toddy were
used by 15% and 10% respectively. The illicit and potentially toxic local brew of
Kassippu was used by less than 5% of the respondents (Table 4.36).
Persons Who Influenced the Use of Alcohol among Non School-going Adolescents
Figure 4.10 Persons who influenced the use of alcohol among non school- going
adolescents
7.5%
4.5%
A friend
13.2%
A family member
An outsider
74.8%
Advertisement
(N = 2950)
A friend has been the main influence for the first alcohol experience for about 3/4 of the
out-of-school adolescents. Unlike with tobacco, a family member had been the initiator in
taking a drink for the first time. Advertisements had influence about 5 % of adolescents
to try alcohol (Figure 4.10).
Reason for the First Drink
14.0
Sex
Males
43.0
Female
s
37.9
18.2
14.8
15.4
9.8
18.
7
35.
6
1.7
0.4
0.3
N
1.6
Total
22.
9
All the successful
persons do it
17.3
To be popular one
has to drink
41.7
Because I think it is a
manly thing to do
All
To emulate my father
/ older brother
Because I thought
that the alcohol
increases the joy of
the occasion
Because I felt that I
would be rejected if I
did not follow the
others
Cannot give specific
reason
Out of curiosity
Category
Table 4.37 Reasons for the first alcohol drink, in relation to sex
100.0
2328
100.0
1.8
2.1
0.5
0.4
1876
100.0
1.1
0.6
0.1
0.1
452
Most adolescents took their first alcoholic drink out of curiosity. The belief that alcohol
has the ability to increase the enjoyment of an occasion and the worry of being rejected
by others if a drink was refused were the two reasons that had lead a significant
proportion of respondents to drink for the first time, while 23% had no specific reason
for taking that first drink of alcohol(Table 4.37).
Attitude of Non School-going Adolescent Boys on Alcohol Consumption
Table 4.38 Attitudes of the non schooling adolescent boys on taking alcohol
Attitude statement
Agreed
Not sure
78.5
84.3
53.8
Not
agreed
9.6
7.7
16.1
Adolescents should not drink alcohol
Drinking alcohol is a useless behaviour
I am sure I will never take alcohol in my life
People start taking alcohol since they have no guts to
refuse
Teetotallers are more healthier than others
Taking alcohol is not a big thing to worry about
If anyone is really up to it he /she can stop taking
alcohol
(N =5032)
47.8
67.7
23.4
25.9
17.1
58.3
26.4
15.2
18.3
81.7
5.4
12.9
11.9
8.0
30.1
Nearly 50% of male respondents had consumed alcohol (Table 4.35), yet almost 80%
were of the attitude that adolescents should not drink, and about 84% thought that
drinking was a useless behaviour. While 68% believed that teetotallers were healthier
than those who take alcohol, 58% believed that taking alcohol was not a problem to
worry about, only 54% had the resolve to state that that they will never take alcohol
(Table 4.38).
Attitude of Non School-going Adolescent Girls on Taking Alcohol
Table 4.39 Attitudes of the non schooling adolescent girls on taking alcohol
Attitude statement
Agreed
Not
agreed
5.0
4.8
8.3
Not sure
Adolescents should not drink alcohol
89.4
5.7
Drinking alcohol is a useless behavior
91.0
4.1
I am sure I will never take alcohol in my life
82.3
9.4
People start taking alcohol since they have no guts to
refuse
55.4
23.1
21.4
Teetotalers are more healthier than others
72.1
16.5
11.5
Taking alcohol is not a big thing to worry about
18.6
71.6
9.8
If anyone really up to it he /she can stop taking
83.2
3.8
13.0
alcohol
(N= 5047)
As expected more girls than boys had agreed to statements that are against taking alcohol.
(Table 4.39).
Use of Mood Altering Drugs by Non School-going Adolescents
Table 4.40 Proportion of non schooling adolescents that had ever used
different types of substances, in relation to sex
Type of drug
Cannabis
Abin
Heroin or other
% Ever used among
males (N =5032)
9.9
1.0
10.7
% ever used among
females (N =5042)
1.8
0.3
2.5
Cannabis was used by 10% males surveyed and nearly 1.8% of females. A further 11% of
males and 2.5% of the females had taken Heroin or other illicit substances. These results
need careful consideration as this level of ever use of illegal drugs, especially among
females was not anticipated. The prevalence of adolescents who have used any mood
altering substance during the month preceding the survey was 6.1 %. Table 4.41 presents
the distribution of adolescent who have used any form of mood altering drug by sociodemographic characteristics.
Table 4.41 Use of any form of mood altering drug by out-of-school adolescents by
selected socio-demographic indicators
(percentage)
Category
%
N
All
3.9
10079
Sex
Male
6.1
5042
Female
0.6
5037
Ethnic differences
Sinhalese
3.6
5097
Tamil
3.9
3935
Moor
6.3
996
Other
0.0
51
Educational status
No/ Primary (Grade 1-5)
6.3
2500
Secondary (Grade 6-10)
3.9
2494
GCE(O/L)
3.1
3719
GCE (A/L)
2.1
1366
Socio-economic status
Poorest quintile
3.7
2015
Second quintile
4.0
2016
Middle quintile
3.5
2016
Fourth quintile
4.0
2016
Richest quintile
4.2
2016
Sector
Colombo Metropolitan
6.4
1995
Other urban
5.1
2014
Rural
3.9
2040
Estate
4.6
2030
North & East
0.9
2000
About 4% of the respondents have used a mood altering drug at least once. The rates in
males were ten times higher than in females. Moors had the highest prevalence rate (6%)
followed by Tamils (4%) when compared with other ethnic groups. Prevalence rates
show a decline with increasing level of education, the sharpest drop being noted between
those with the lowest (no schooling or primary level only) to those with a secondary
education. As could be expected urban areas of the country, especially Colombo, had the
highest rates of those who had ever abused substances. As with tobacco and alcohol
North & East sector reported the lowest prevalence (Table 4.41).
Age at Starting the Use of Mood Altering Drug
The mean age at starting mood altering drug was 15.6 years (SD: 1.9). There was no
difference in the mean age of initiation between males and females. [Boys 15.9 (SD: 1.9);
Girls 15.5 (SD: 1.8)].
Circumstances Where the First Use of Mood Altering Drug Took Place
Table 4.42 Circumstances of the first use of a mood-altering drug among
out-of-school adolescents by sex
Category
At
home
At a
party
At a
sports
event
On a
trip
Total
N
6.3
While
going
with
friends
73.6
All
Sex
Males
Females
11.3
3.7
5.1
100.0
719
5.8
8.3
74.4
70.3
10.8
13.7
4.1
2.0
4.9
5.8
100.0
100.0
585
134
About 3/4th of adolescents have had their first experience with mood altering substances
while whiling away time with friends. The next common situation was at a party. A
higher proportion of girls, than boys had experienced drugs for the first time while at
home, at a party or on a trip (Table 4.42).
Reproductive Health of Out-of-school Adolescents
Knowledge on Menstruation
Table 4.43 and 4.44 describes the pattern of the answers given to the set of
menstruation by out-of-school adolescents.
Table 4.43 Percentage of correct responses to the questions on menstruation
by selected socio-demographic indicators
(Percentage)
Category
It is a
It is a
It is
A girl
A girl is
process
process
normal
should
capable
where the
essential for the
seek
of
lining of
for
menstrual medical getting
the womb
cleansing process
advice
pregnant
is shed
of a
to be
if her
after she
periodically woman’s irregular
bleeding attains
every
body
at the
is heavy puberty
month
beginning with
clots
and
severe
pain
All
57
7.1
49.6
47.1
44.9
Sex
Males
47.1
4.6
33.9
37
37.8
Females
66.8
9.5
65.1
57.2
52
Ethnicity
Sinhalese
59
7.5
52.2
48.2
47.9
Tamil
51.6
5.4
41.4
44.8
36.7
Moor
51.1
7.8
47
43.3
37.7
Other
48.1
6.3
38.2
21
27.6
Educational status
No/
55.4
4.7
57.1
46.6
43.3
Primary(Grade
1-5)
Secondary
40.5
4.7
34.1
36.7
30.7
(Grade 6-10)
GCE(O/L)
59.2
6.4
49.7
46.2
45.6
GCE(A/L)
80
12.1
71.4
67.8
65.9
Socio-economic quintiles
Poorest
48.8
7.4
42
45.2
37.2
Second
52.2
5.3
43.3
43.7
41
Middle
60.7
8.5
51.7
49
46.7
Fourth
59.7
7.6
54.2
44.8
45.8
questions on
Percentage N
of overall
correct
responses
41.1
10079
32.1
50.1
5032
5037
43.0
36.0
37.4
28.2
5097
3935
996
51
41.4
2500
29.3
41.4
59.4
2494
3719
1366
36.1
37.1
43.3
42.4
2015
2016
2016
2016
Richest
Sector
Colombo
Metro
Other urban
Rural
Estate
North & East
63.6
6.6
57.6
52.9
54.6
47.1
2016
61.7
4
52.1
37.1
51.1
41.2
1995
58.6
59
40
47.1
7.7
7.5
2.7
7.5
50.9
53.3
34.7
29.3
48
49.3
30.1
45.2
48.8
47.4
24.2
31.6
42.8
43.3
26.3
32.1
2014
2040
2030
2000
Overall average score for the questions reflecting was only 40 %. Girls (50%) seemed to
have more overall knowledge on menstruation than boys (32%). Sinhalese, those who
had educated up to A/L and those form richest socio-economic quintile had the overall
scores of the knowledge on menstruation
The five statements covered aspects of knowledge on menstrual physiology, social
beliefs, variations in pattern and the significance of menarche. The only statement, which
more than 50% answered correctly, was that, “menses is the periodical shedding of the
lining of the womb”. The incorrect statement that it is cleansing process was marked
correctly by a mere 7%. It was not surprising to see that the knowledge regarding
menstruation was better in the girls than boys. Among the ethnic groups the Sinhalese
had the higher proportions of those who gave correct answers. There was no gradual
increase in the knowledge with increasing level of education but there was a marked
increase noted in those with an A/L education. A rising trend was observed in knowledge
with improving socio-economic standards (Table 4.43).
Misconceptions Regarding Menstruation
Researchers have shown that there are many misconceptions related to the activities of
daily living such as eating, bathing, engaging in sports during menstruation. Adolescents
were given a set of statements based on some of the common myths prevalent in society.
The overall analysis shows a significant gap in the knowledge regarding the process of
menstruation. The only response that was answered correctly by more than 50% was the
statement regarding taking a bath around the time of menses. All other statements were
given the right answer by less than 40% of respondents. As could be expected females
had better knowledge on the taboos during menstruation compared to males. As was
seen in the previous table a marked improvement in the knowledge was seen among the
adolescents with an A/L education. Percentage correct answers to menstruation related
misconceptions increased with improvement in socio-economic status while adolescent
form North & East had the lowest proportion with correct knowledge (Table 4.44).
Table 4.44 Percentage of out-of-school adolescents with correct views on myths
regarding menstruation, by selected socio-demographic indicators
(Percentage)
Category
It is all
right to
eat
fish/meat
All
37.9
Sex
Males
22.7
Females
53
Ethnicity
Sinhalese
38.4
Tamil
35.2
Moor
42.1
Other
31.4
Educational status
No
48.8
education/Primary
Secondary
28.6
GCE(O/L)
35.5
GCE(A/L)
55.5
Socio-economic quintiles
Poorest
31.6
Second
35
Middle
45.8
Fourth
38
Richest
38.4
Sector
Colombo Metro
38
Other urban
42.4
Rural
39.7
Estate
33.4
North & East
25.7
It is all
right to
eat oily
food
Should
not go
to
religious
places
27.8
Should
have a
bath
Percentage N
of overall
correct
responses
24.7
Should
not
engage
in
sports
30.3
54.1
35.0
10079.0
15.5
33.7
18.5
42
19.7
35.9
43.6
64.5
24.0
45.8
5032.0
5037.0
24.5
24.6
28
13.8
31.5
26.6
29.8
11.5
29.8
21.3
26.9
15.2
55.6
51
47.8
14.6
36.0
31.7
34.9
17.3
5097.0
3935.0
996.0
51.0
29.9
34.2
25.6
59.7
39.6
19.5
22.9
36.7
21.1
28.6
48.2
18.8
28.4
40.2
42.8
53.7
74.5
26.2
33.8
51.0
2500
3719
2500
2494
21.4
22.7
28
24.2
26.8
23.3
27.6
33.9
31.3
35.5
21.9
25
31.5
25.5
35.1
46.6
51
60.2
55.3
56.8
29.0
32.3
39.9
34.9
38.5
2015.0
2016.0
2016.0
2016.0
2016.0
20
31
24.6
28.9
22.3
24.7
31.2
32.8
23.5
19.1
23.4
26.2
30.9
15.4
16.1
40.6
55.4
57.3
45.8
43.6
29.3
37.2
37.1
29.4
25.4
1995.0
2014.0
2040.0
2030.0
2000.0
Knowledge on Reproductive Physiology and Fertility
Table 4.45 Percentage correct answers to the questions on reproductive physiology
by selected socio-demographic indicators
(Percentage)
Category
If a couple
It is
Nocturnal Percentage N
does not get common
emissions of overall
babies the
and
result in
correct
woman is
normal
weakening responses
always
for
of body
responsible adolescent
males to
have
nocturnal
emissions
(“wet
dreams”)
All
63.3
50.2
26.8
46.8
10079
Sex
Males
59.3
61.8
33.4
51.5
5032
Females
67.3
38.7
20.3
42.1
5037
Ethnicity
Sinhalese
67.9
55.8
29.9
51.2
5097
Tamil
49.8
34.8
17.2
33.9
3935
Moor
54.5
35.4
22.4
37.4
996
Other
46.3
52.3
22.1
40.2
51
Educational status
No/ Primary
56.3
35.9
13.4
35.2
2500
Secondary
52
42.3
19.5
37.9
2494
GCE(O/L)
64.9
53.2
28.6
48.9
3719
GCE(A/L)
82.1
62.4
39.8
61.4
1366
Socio-economic quintiles
Poorest
53.2
40.9
23
39.0
2015
Second
55.7
44.9
22.1
40.9
2016
Middle
70
53.5
29.8
51.1
2016
Fourth
66.4
55.6
27.1
49.7
2016
Richest
71.3
56.6
32
53.3
2016
Sector
Colombo Metro
62.1
63.1
17.6
47.6
1995
Other urban
71.9
58.2
33.7
54.6
2014
Rural
66.9
52.9
29
49.6
2040
Estate
40.8
31.1
15.4
29.1
2030
North & East
45.1
28.4
18
30.5
2000
The statement regarding sub fertility was correctly answered by only 63% of the
adolescents. Only half of the respondents knew that nocturnal emissions were normal.
The misconception that nocturnal emissions weaken the body that is prevalent in society
was held by 73% (Table 4.45). More females than males knew the correct answer to the
statement regarding sub fertility, while more males knew the correct answers to the
statements on nocturnal emission. Sinhalese had the largest proportion of adolescents
with correct knowledge (68%) and Tamils the lowest proportion (50%). As expected
percentage with correct knowledge was higher among those who were educated up to
O/L and A/L. Knowledge increased with increasing socio-economic status. The
proportion of adolescents with correct knowledge was lower among adolescents from
North and East and the Estate sector.
Knowledge on Conception and Pregnancy
Table 4.46 presents the proportions of adolescents who gave the correct answers to the
questions on conception and pregnancy according to different social and demographic
strata.
Table 4.46 Percentage of out-of-school adolescents who ga ve correct answers to the
questions on pregnancy by selected socio-demographic indicators
(Percentage)
Category
It is all
right to
eat
fish/meat
All
37.9
Sex
Males
22.7
Females
53
Ethnicity
Sinhalese
38.4
Tamil
35.2
Moor
42.1
Other
31.4
Educational status
No/
48.8
Primary
Secondary
28.6
GCE(O/L)
35.5
GCE(A/L)
55.5
It is all
right to
eat oily
food
Should
not go
to
religious
places
27.8
Should
have a
bath
Percentage N
of overall
correct
responses
24.7
Should
not
engage
in
sports
30.3
54.1
35.0
10079.0
15.5
33.7
18.5
42
19.7
35.9
43.6
64.5
24.0
45.8
5032.0
5037.0
24.5
24.6
28
13.8
31.5
26.6
29.8
11.5
29.8
21.3
26.9
15.2
55.6
51
47.8
14.6
36.0
31.7
34.9
17.3
5097.0
3935.0
996.0
51.0
29.9
34.2
25.6
59.7
39.6
19.5
22.9
36.7
21.1
28.6
48.2
18.8
28.4
40.2
42.8
53.7
74.5
26.2
33.8
51.0
2500
2494
3719
1366
Socio-economic quintiles
Poorest
31.6
Second
35
Middle
45.8
Fourth
38
Richest
38.4
Sector
Colombo
38
Metro
Other urban 42.4
Rural
39.7
Estate
33.4
North &
25.7
East
21.4
22.7
28
24.2
26.8
23.3
27.6
33.9
31.3
35.5
21.9
25
31.5
25.5
35.1
46.6
51
60.2
55.3
56.8
29.0
32.3
39.9
34.9
38.5
2015.0
2016.0
2016.0
2016.0
2016.0
20
24.7
23.4
40.6
29.3
1995.0
31
24.6
28.9
22.3
31.2
32.8
23.5
19.1
26.2
30.9
15.4
16.1
55.4
57.3
45.8
43.6
37.2
37.1
29.4
25.4
2014.0
2040.0
2030.0
2000.0
The fact that conception was a possibility just with the first sexual intercourse was known
only to 46% of the respondents. Only 36% knew that there was specific period in
menstrual cycle during which a woman can get pregnant and just 17 % could identify the
fertile period correctly. More males than females were aware of the fertile period and
could identify it correctly. A higher percentage of Sinhalese knew the correct answers to
compared to other ethnic groups. Overall knowledge increased with education and also
with increasing socio-economic standards. Adolescents from North and East and Estate
sector had the lowest levels of knowledge (Table 4.46).
Awareness on Contraception
All
Sex
Males
Females
Ethnicity
Sinhalese
N
Rhythm
method
Withdrawal
Vasectomy
LRT
Implants
ECP
Condom
Injection
IUD
Pill
Category
Table 4.47 Out-of-school adolescents who were aware of different types of contraceptive
methods by selected socio-demographic indicators
(Percentage)
70.4 35.4 40.3 67.7 42.3 28.8 49.2 38.0 32.7 25.9 10079
69.1 34.6 36.1 72.3 44.7 28.3 46.1 39.7 35.5 27.2 5032
71.7 36.3 44.5 63.1 39.8 29.3 52.3 36.3 30.0 24.6 5037
72.5 33.2 38.4 69.8 40.4 26.3 48.1 36.5 30.7 22.8 5097
Tamil
64.1 42.7
Moor
65.9 37.2
Other
67.6 55.2
Educational status
No/
Primary
(Grade 1-5) 71.7 34.2
Secondary
(Grade 664.0 34.8
10)
GCE(O/L)
72.0 35.1
GCE(A/L)
77.4 42.2
Socio-economic quintiles
Poorest
63.2 35.2
Second
67.3 34.4
Middle
76.2 36.8
Fourth
72.2 33.8
Richest
72.6 36.6
Sector
Colombo
Metro
77.7 27.9
Other urban 76.3 34.9
Rural
71.3 33.6
Estate
57.0 20.7
North &
62.7 58.5
East
45.7 61.9 47.1 37.3 51.9 42.9 40.1 36.5 3935
43.5 62.0 48.3 29.9 53.2 39.1 31.6 26.7 996
66.3 70.0 52.5 48.3 67.6 42.3 37.6 35.5 51
45.9 66.3 43.6 28.8 53.9 34.8 32.3 29.6 2500
37.8 62.7 38.3 27.4 41.8 32.7 31.0 25.5 2494
39.9 68.6 41.6 28.5 48.3 38.2 32.8 25.1 3719
47.7 75.3 50.7 35.3 59.2 47.5 38.5 31.0 1366
39.2
42.3
41.4
37.8
40.4
59.3
65.4
73.3
69.0
71.1
40.7
41.9
43.2
38.8
46.6
30.0
29.3
29.4
26.1
28.9
45.1
47.2
52.7
47.8
53.0
34.3
37.2
39.8
35.1
43.5
31.2
31.8
35.7
30.3
34.0
27.5
25.4
26.9
23.4
25.9
2015
2016
2016
2016
2016
1995
14.5
27.6 2014
23.3 2040
9.6 2030
2000
60.9 59.7 56.0 55.7 56.7 55.9 55.4 55.7
29.3
40.5
39.4
20.7
73.0
74.8
68.5
56.2
41.0
42.6
41.4
24.4
24.9
26.3
26.1
16.8
50.0
55.4
48.4
34.7
34.6
43.1
35.8
27.2
26.7
33.4
31.1
12.4
The most commonly known contraceptive methods among out-of-school adolescents
were Pills (70%) and condoms (68%). The rhythm method and implants were the least
known (26% and 29% respectively). More males than females were aware of condoms,
emergency contraceptive pills, vasectomy and natural family planning methods. The
other methods, Pills, Injection, IUD, implants and LRT were known more by females
than males. The knowledge of adolescents from North East and Estate sectors were found
to be lower than that of adolescents from other sectors of the country (Table 4.47).
Use of Contraceptive Methods by Out-of-school Adolescents
Injection
Condom
ECP
N
All
Sex
Males
Females
Pill
Category
Table 4.48 Out-of-school adolescents who had ever used different contraceptive methods
by selected socio-demographic indicators
(Percentage)
1.9
2.7
2.8
3.7
10079
1.6
2.1
2.8
2.7
3.3
2.3
3.7
3.6
5032
5037
The most commonly used method by out-of-school adolescents was the emergency
contraceptive pill (4%). Oral contraceptive pill was used only by about 2%; condom use
was less than 3%. Emergency contraceptive use was similar among the sexes while more
males reported use of condoms (Table 4.48).
Sexually Transmitted Diseases and HIV / AIDS
Awareness on Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Table 4.49 Out-of-school adolescents who were aware of different types of sexually
transmitted diseases by selected socio-demographic indicators
(Percentage)
Category
Syphilis Gonorrhea Herpes HIV/AIDS Genital Hepatitis N
warts
All
17.1
27.3
20.0
81.9
21.1
6.8
10079
Sex
Males
17.5
26.7
21.1
83.9
22.7
5.9
5032
Females
16.6
27.9
18.9
79.9
19.6
7.8
5037
Ethnicity
Sinhalese
18.6
30.8
22.3
83.4
24.9
7.9
5097
Tamil
11.2
16.4
13.8
77.8
9.7
3.5
3935
Moor
17.1
21.6
13.0
78.3
15.6
5.3
996
Other
27.4
36.6
10.1
60.9
6.8
2.3
51
Educational status
No/
Primary
21.4
17.4
77.7
13.4
3.6
2500
(Grade 1-5) 10.0
Secondary 8.6
17.2
9.5
75.6
14.6
3.3
2494
(Grade 610)
GCE(O/L) 16.0
26.6
GCE(A/L) 30.0
42.2
Socio-economic quintiles
Poorest
10.2
19.1
Second
14.6
23.5
Middle
16.3
27.2
Fourth
19.1
30.0
Richest
25.9
37.6
Sector
Colombo
Metro
25.0
34.4
Other
urban
17.9
31.9
Rural
18.0
30.4
Estate
7.7
12.2
North &
9.4
6.5
East
19.3
33.1
83.3
88.9
22.8
30.0
7.1
11.4
3719
1366
10.5
17.6
23.6
20.0
28.0
69.7
79.0
87.6
85.3
87.8
14.8
18.4
23.1
23.4
26.3
3.1
6.2
8.7
6.8
9.2
2015
2016
2016
2016
2016
27.8
89.6
18.5
5.0
1995
2014
25.8
22.2
8.6
84.5
82.8
63.2
22.9
25.2
7.0
8.5
8.2
1.2
2.0
77.6
0.7
0.2
2040
2030
2000
HIV/AIDS was the most commonly known STI among out-of-school adolescents (82%).
Gonorrhea, the next commonest infection known to them was mentioned by only 27%.
Syphilis. Herpes and genital warts were known to small proportions of respondents.
Table 4.49 presents the percentage of adolescents who were aware of different STDs by
socio-demographic characteristics.
Knowledge on Symptoms and Signs of STDs
Discharge from
genital organs
Foul smell from
genitals
Burning pain on
urination
Ulceration in
genitals
Itching in
genitals
Swelling in
groins
Percentage of
overall correct
responses
N
All
Sex
Males
Females
Ethnicity
Sinhalese
Tamil
Abdominal pain
Category
Table 4.50 Out-of-school adolescents who knew symptoms and signs o f STDs by
selected socio-demographic indicators
(Percentage)
16
36.9
36.1
25.5
43.2
38.9
7.3
29.1
10079
16.4 39.3
15.6 34.6
36.9
35.2
28.4
22.6
47
39.4
40.2
37.7
6.7
7.9
30.7
27.6
5032
5037
16.8 41
13.1 24
39.4
25.9
27.5
18.4
48.7
26.3
44.2
22.8
8
4.4
32.2
19.3
5097
3935
Moor
14.6 31.3
Other
23.3 27.1
Educational status
No
8.7 22.7
education /
Primary
Secondary
14.2 29
GCE(O/L)
16.6 39
GCE(A/L)
18.9 49.5
Socio-economic quintiles
Poorest
14.9 27.8
Second
15.2 34.6
Middle
14.1 36.3
Fourth
14.1 37.7
Richest
22
48.9
Sector
Colombo
14.3 49
Metro
Other urban 15
45.3
Rural
17
39.2
Estate
5.1 20.7
North &
15.6 16.9
East
31
11.5
24.2
32.4
35
22.4
32
4.5
7.9
10.8
25.1
18.9
29.3
15.8
31.3
30.9
6.7
20.8
996
51
26.8
36.8
45.2
19.9
26.6
30.7
34.9
45.1
53.8
30.7
40.4
50.6
6
6.6
11.1
23.1
30.2
37.1
2500
2494
3719
1366
28.9
32.6
36.5
37.3
45.7
21.4
24.9
24.8
27.4
29.4
31.8
37.3
47.3
47.3
52.7
29.5
33.8
43.6
40.1
47.8
6.4
7.8
5.7
7.2
9.5
23.0
26.6
29.8
30.2
36.6
2015
2016
2016
2016
2016
38.1
30.1
52.2
48.9
7.8
34.3
1995
47.4
38.7
27.7
14.4
33.7
27.2
11.8
12.2
56.4
46.5
23.2
16.4
46.7
42.7
20.8
11.5
11.6
7.9
2
2.2
36.6
31.3
15.9
12.7
2014
2040
2030
2000
Knowledge on symptoms and signs of STDs was very poor among the out-of-school
adolescents. The most commonly known symptom, ulcers on genitals, was known only
by 43% of adolescents. Other symptoms such as genital itching genital discharge and a
foul smell from genital area were correctly identified by proportions varying from 3639% (Table 4.50).
Adolescents Who were Aware of Methods of Preventing STDs
Table 4.51 Out-of-school adolescents who that identified different methods of STD
prevention by selected socio-demographic indicators
(Percentage)
Category
Abstain Using
Limit
Avoid sex
Avoid sex
Percentage N
from
condoms sex to a with
with
of overall
sex
one
commercial homosexuals correct
faithful sex
responses
partner workers
All
28.3
51.7
55.5
47.1
29.4
42.4
10079
Sex
Males
30
59.4
54.7
49.8
30.5
44.9
5032
Females
26.7
44
56.3
44.5
28.3
40.0
5037
Ethnicity
Sinhalese
29.6
56.3
59.7
51.3
31.9
45.8
5097
Tamil
24.8
36.6
42
34.7
21.1
31.8
3935
Moor
26
48.4
51.8
39.2
27.5
38.6
996
Other
16.3
33.3
30.9
39.1
14.7
26.9
51
Educational status
No
21.5
38.2
45.4
40.8
24.2
34.0
education/
2500
Primary
Secondary 26.4
42.2
42.3
37.6
20.6
33.8
2494
GCE(O/L) 29.5
53.2
58.2
48.9
27.6
43.5
3719
GCE(A/L) 33.7
63.2
70.9
56.9
45.3
54.0
1366
Socio-economic quintiles
Poorest
23.5
35.4
40.9
33.2
19.8
30.6
2015
Second
26.6
44.2
49.9
40.3
22.1
36.6
2016
Middle
29.5
57.4
59.1
50.2
30.2
45.3
2016
Fourth
29.1
55.7
59.9
51.5
32.8
45.8
2016
Richest
33.4
66.2
68.4
61.4
43.3
54.5
2016
Sector
Colombo
Metro
Other
urban
Rural
Estate
North &
East
23.1
67.2
58.1
58.8
35.6
48.6
1995
29.5
57.3
61.8
52.8
36.5
47.6
2014
29.7
16.6
26.8
54.9
35.9
24.8
59.3
37.9
32.3
50.8
28
20.9
32.2
13.6
9.7
45.4
26.4
22.9
2040
2030
2000
The knowledge among the out-of-school adolescents on method of preventing STDs was
found to be poor. Limiting sex to a single faithful partner was the method identified by
the highest percentage (56%) and condom use by (52%). Avoiding commercial sex
workers (47%) and abstinence (29%) was known among a smaller percentage of
adolescents.
All methods except limiting sex to a single partner were known by a higher proportion of
males than females. The level of awareness was highest among Singhalese, followed by
Moors and Tamils. Awareness increased in general with socio-economic status and
education (Table 4.51).
All
Sex
Males
Females
N
Percentage of overall correct responses
HIV is transmitted through Breast Milk of an
infected mother
HIV is transmitted by sharing meals with an
infected person
HIV is transmitted through Kissing an infected
person
HIV is transmitted through Mosquito bites
HIV is transmitted through blood transfusion
HIV is transmitted from a infected mother to
newborn child
HIV is transmitted by casual association of an
infected person
HIV is transmitted through Sexual contacts
A person could reduce the chance of getting
HIV by having just one sexual partner who is
not infected and who has no other partners
Category
Knowledge on HIV/ AIDS
HIV Transmission
Table 4.52 Out of out-of-school adolescents who correctly commented on the statements
on HIV/AIDS transmission by selected socio-demographic indicators
(Percentage)
73.4
83.4 47.7
58.9 71.9 29.7
44.0 53.0
48.8 56.8
10079
71.9
74.9
82.5 45.6
84.2 49.6
57.1 68.7 29.1
60.8 75.1 30.3
41.9 52.0
46.1 53.9
49.0 55.3
48.6 58.2
5032
5037
Ethnicity
Sinhalese
80.6
86.5
Tamil
51.5
74.3
Moor
61.8
77.4
Other
34.5
77.4
Educational status
No/Primary
74.1
(Grade 1-5) 71.1
Secondary
(Grade 661.9
75.7
10)
GCE(O/L) 75.8
86.7
GCE(A/L) 84.5
91.6
Socio-economic status
Poorest
57.1
71.2
Second
66.8
81.7
Middle
81.5
88.4
Fourth
81.0
85.9
Richest
80.5
89.6
Sector
Colombo
82.2
88.7
Metro
Other
urban
75.2
85.7
Rural
80.3
85.7
Estate
59.6
57.0
North &
27.1
74.6
East
49.0
43.4
46.3
46.3
60.6
52.1
62.4
62.4
75.8
60.4
65.2
65.2
59.9
46.8
52.6
49.5
5097
3935
996
51
38.0
51.3 58.0 23.8
36.3 43.8
39.3 48.4
2500
39.3
50.8
61.0
51.4 62.4 24.5
59.9 76.1 29.7
72.0 85.2 43.6
35.6 42.8
44.5 54.1
64.1 72.0
43.8 48.6
51.1 58.7
57.1 70.1
2494
3719
1366
39.2
44.6
50.1
48.0
56.7
48.0
59.2
58.8
62.5
67.1
33.0
40.3
43.6
49.3
55.0
41.7
51.8
49.7
50.6
50.4
45.9
54.1
58.7
60.1
65.6
2015
2016
2016
2016
2016
56.6
66.8 72.5 48.5
58.1 63.4
46.1 64.8
1995
52.2
47.4
31.6
66.1 77.5 32.7
60.3 75.2 29.4
31.9 43.0 8.8
45.7 55.6
46.0 55.6
17.0 27.6
58.0 61.0
50.6 58.9
26.9 33.7
2014
2040
2030
48.3
52.3 59.1 27.9
33.0 39.2
42.3 44.9
2000
60.1
69.4
72.9
73.9
84.3
31.5
23.2
29.6
29.6
23.7
24.8
27.9
32.7
40.7
47.6
33.3
37.9
37.9
56.3
42.7
48.4
48.4
39.1
48.5
55.2
56.7
66.4
51.5
40.7
44.0
44.0
Eighty-three percent of respondents knew that HIV was transmitted through sexual
contacts. The fact that “A person could reduce the risk of infection by having a single
sexual partner who is not infected and who has no other partners” and that “HIV is
transmitted by blood transfusion” were known to 73% and 72% respectively. Only 30 %
could correctly comment on the statement; ‘HIV is transmitted by mosquito bites (Table
4.52).
Knowledge on High Risk Behaviours
Table 4.53 Out-of-school adolescent’s who were aware of high risk behaviours for HIV
transmission, by selected socio-demographic indicators
(Percentage)
Category
Men
Men
Women Having Having Percentage N
having having having oral
anal
of overall
sex
sex
sex
sex
sex
correct
with
with
with
responses
men
more
more
than
than
one
one
woman man
All
32.7
74
68
22.6
22.3
43.9
10079
Sex
Males
35.4
74.5
67.6
26.4
26.1
46.0
5032
Females
30
73.6
68.4
18.9
18.5
41.9
5037
Ethnicity
Sinhalese
35.9
79.8
72.7
25.9
25.1
47.9
5097
Tamil
22.9
56
53.5
12.7
13.8
31.8
3935
Moor
28.6
66.6
61
16.5
15.9
37.7
996
Other
12.8
46.3
59.1
21.1
35.1
34.9
51
Educational status
No/
27.6
62.9
59.3
14.1
17.3
36.2
Primary
2500
Secondary
30.7
63.4
57.4
18.3
18.3
37.6
3719
GCE(O/L)
31
77.6
70.5
23.3
22.2
44.9
2500
GCE(A/L)
39.8
83.4
80.6
31.3
29.8
53.0
2494
Socio-economic quintiles
Poorest
23.8
59
53.1
17.9
15.5
33.9
2015
Second
29.4
70.2
63.3
19.5
17.6
40.0
2016
Middle
32.4
81.8
75.5
20.5
21.2
46.3
2016
Fourth
34.1
75.4
68.4
21.6
24.3
44.8
2016
Richest
44.6
83.4
79.3
34.6
34.1
55.2
2016
Sector
Colombo
41.4
83.6
76.8
16.4
19.8
47.6
1995
Metro
Other urban 40.5
78.4
72.6
33.8
31.7
51.4
2014
Rural
35.5
79
71.5
25.3
25
47.3
2040
Estate
18.2
45.4
44.3
6.3
3.5
23.5
2030
North &
10.6
45.3
46.8
8.2
8
23.8
2000
East
Having multiple sex partners was identified by many (74%) out-of-school adolescents as
a high- risk behaviour. The risks associated with homosexuality and oral and anal sex was
identified by less than one third of respondents. On average more males than females
were aware of high-risk behaviours. Sinhalese had better awareness when compared to
other ethnic groups. Awareness increased with educational status and socio-economic
standards. Adolescents from estate sector and the North East sector had the least
knowledge on high risk behaviours (Table 4.53).
Awareness on HIV Preventive Methods
Avoid kissing**
Using a drug**
68.4
36.4
16.9
13.6
10.4 35.7 10079
65.3
71.4
37.8
35
18.5
15.3
14.5
12.6
9.3 37.0 5032
11.5 34.4 5037
73.9
51.2
60.6
35.6
39.2
27.5
32.3
35.3
17.4
15.3
15
25.1
15.7
7.6
8.2
12.8
11.9
5.9
7.7
17.3
38.7
26.6
30.1
34.0
5097
3935
996
51
60.1
55.4
71.4
83
31.7
26.5
35.3
48.8
15.1
15.6
16.9
16.7
12.1
12.1
15.3
13.7
11
10.4
9.7
11.1
30.4
30.4
36.8
41.8
2500
3719
2500
2494
54.1
62.1
73.2
73.6
79.4
25.8
29.7
35.5
40.5
52
12.7
16.4
15
20.3
20.8
12.7
12.5
12.6
13.5
17
7.3
10.5
9.5
12.5
12.7
27.6
32.6
36.9
38.6
43.2
2015
2016
2016
2016
2016
69.8
40.7
12.6
5.3
4.8
35.0 1995
74.4
74.1
45.1
39.9
15.8
18.5
18.8
15.4
12.5 39.3 2014
12.2 38.9 2040
Percentage of
overall correct
N
Having many sex
partners**
All
43.3 60.8
Sex
Males
43.6 70
Females
43
51.8
Ethnicity
Sinhalese
45.9 66.7
Tamil
35.9 42.9
Moor
36.2 50.7
Other
54.2 57.5
Educational status
No/Primary
38
45
Secondary
41
51.8
GCE(O/L)
46.1 63.2
GCE(A/L)
46.7 72.3
Socio-economic quintiles
Poorest
38.7 42.1
Second
41.9 55.1
Middle
46.9 65.8
Fourth
43.9 66.1
Richest
44.7 75.9
Sector
Colombo
34.7 76.8
Metro
Other urban 42.4 66.2
Rural
46.9 65.2
Having sex with
only one partner
who is faithful
Avoiding sex with
homosexuals
Use condoms
Abstain from sex
Category
Table 4.54 Out-of-school adolescents who were aware of method of preventing HIV
infection by selected socio-demographic indicators
(Percentage)
Estate
20.6 36.3 45
21.8
7.7
5.7
North & East 34.6 29.8 35.8
11.8
12.9
6.6
(** percentage of adolescents who gave the incorrect answer)
2.2
4.4
19.9 2030
19.4 2000
Of the methods that are considered as being effective in reducing the risk of contracting
HIV, confining sex to a single faithful partner (68%) and the use of condoms (61%) were
identified by most. Abstinence and avoiding homosexuality were noted by a lesser
percentage. The risk associated with multiple partners, kissing and use of drugs were
answered correctly by less than 20% of the respondents. The value of condoms in
prevention of transmission was known to more males than females while the usefulness
of a single faithful sexual partner was known to a larger percentage of females than males
(Table 4.54).
Intimate Relations & Sexual Behaviour
Love Affairs Among Out-of-school Adolescents
Table 4.55 Out-of-school adolescent having love affairs by selected socio-demographic
indicators
(Percentage)
Category
Ever had a love affair
Currently having a love N
affair
All
51.4
36.5
10079
Sex
Males
53.3
36.1
5032
Females
49.5
36.9
5037
Ethnicity
Sinhalese
57.4
39.5
5097
Tamil
33.7
27.0
3935
Moor
39.6
33.2
996
Other
36.6
29.5
51
Education
No / Primary
(Grade 1-5)
41.4
27.5
2500
Secondary
(Grade 6-10)
40.6
30.6
2494
GCE(O/L)
55.4
37.7
3719
GCE(A/L)
62.7
45.0
1366
Socio-economic status
Poorest
40.4
28.4
2015
Second
43.0
30.4
2016
Middle
58.2
41.1
2016
Fourth
57.1
42.3
2016
Richest
Sector
Colombo Metro
Other urban
Rural
Estate
North & East
58.3
40.4
2016
59.9
60.0
55.7
40.7
19.9
44.6
41.9
38.0
33.2
17.6
1995
2014
2040
2030
2000
About half of adolescents reported ever having a love affair while 36% were currently
having an affair. Males reported a slightly higher prevalence of ever having an affair
compared to girls; however, the current prevalence rates were almost the same. Among
the three main ethnic groups, Singhalese reported more love affairs compared to other
ethnic groups. Prevalence of love affairs seemed to increase with increasing educational
and socio-economic status (Table 4.55).
Age at Starting a Love Affair
Table 4.56 Mean and standard deviations of out-of-school adolescents’ age at starting the
first love affair by selected socio-demographic indicators
(percentage)
Category
Mean (Yrs)
SD (Yrs)
All
15.8
1.6
Sex
Males
15.9
1.5
Females
15.6
1.7
Ethnicity
Sinhalese
15.7
1.6
Tamil
16.0
1.6
Moor
15.7
1.7
Other
15.7
1.4
Educational status
No/ Primary
(Grade 1-5)
15.6
1.7
Secondary
1.7
(Grade 6-10) 15.3
GCE(O/L)
15.7
1.5
GCE(A/L)
16.3
1.7
Socio-economic quintiles
Poorest
15.6
1.7
Second
15.8
1.7
Middle
15.5
1.6
Fourth
16.0
1.7
Richest
Sector
Colombo
Metro
Other urban
Rural
Estate
North & East
15.9
1.5
15.3
15.6
15.8
15.7
16.6
1.4
1.6
1.6
1.4
1.7
The mean age for the first love affair was approximately 16 years and was similar among
boys and girls (Table 4.56).
Adolescents Who Discussed Sexual Matters with the Girl/ Boy Friend
Table 4.57 Out-of-school adolescents who discussed sexual matters with the girl/boy
friend by selected socio-demographic indicators
(Percentage)
Category
% Who discussed sexual
N
matters with the girl/boy
friend
All
35.2
3489
Sex
Male
38.7
1682
Female
31.8
1807
Ethnic differences
Sinhalese
35.1
2139
Tamil
34.9
1031
Moor
37.3
299
Other
33.4
20
Educational status
No/ Primary (Grade 1-5)
26.0
708
Secondary (Grade 6-10)
40.3
760
GCE(O/L)
31.6
1453
GCE (A/L)
41.2
568
Socio-economic status
Poorest quintile
32.7
560
Second quintile
33.1
609
Middle quintile
34.2
849
Fourth quintile
36.4
713
Richest quintile
38.8
758
Sector
Colombo Metropolitan
27.7
1549
Other urban
35.7
1556
Rural
Estate
North & East
36.1
34.0
33.4
1503
1363.
1209.
Among all those who reported to have a love affair currently only 35% said that they
have discussed sexual matters (Table 4.57).
Sexual Behaviour
Table 4.58 Out-of-school adolescents who have ever had sexual experiences
by selected socio-demographic indicators
(Percentage)
Category
% Who
% Who ever N
ever had
had
sexual
homosexual
experience
experience
All
22.2
9.3
10079
Sex
Male
27.6
13.0
5042
Female
16.8
6.0
5037
Ethnic differences
Sinhalese
23.8
9.5
5097
Tamil
24.2
10.6
3935
Moor
24.2
10.6
996
Other
24.7
13.8
51
Educational status
No/ Primary (Grade 1-5)
21.1
6.6
2500
Secondary (Grade 6-10)
25.6
7.5
2494
GCE(O/L)
21.8
9.9
3719
GCE (A/L)
21.8
9.9
1366
Socio-economic status
Poorest quintile
22.9
8.3
2015
Second quintile
21.3
7.9
2016
Middle quintile
19.8
9.9
2016
Fourth quintile
25.2
11.4
2016
Richest quintile
22.4
9.1
2016
Sector
Colombo Metropolitan
30.1
9.8
1995
Other urban
25.9
13.6
2014
Rural
23.0
9.4
2040
Estate
21.3
13.7
2030
North & East
11.1
4.0
2000
About 22% of out-of-school adolescents admitted sexual experience, this being more
among boys than girls. Nine percent of adolescents have had a homosexual
relationship... Table 4.58describes the socio-demographic differentials associated with
prevalence of sexual experience among out of adolescents. There is very little variation
associated with ethnicity, level of education or socio-economic status but sexual
experience is highest among adolescents from the Colombo Metropolitan sector and
homosexuality among “other urban” and estate sectors.
Persons with Whom, Out-of-school Adolescents Had Sexual Experiences
Table 4.59 Type of persons with whom out-of-school adolescents had sexual experiences,
in relation to selected socio-demographic indicators
(Percentage)
Category
With the
With a
With a
Other
N
girl/boy
friend
commercial
friend
sex workers
All
53.7
Sex
Males
53.6
Females
53.9
Ethnicity
Sinhalese
53.6
Tamil
56.1
Moor
50.8
Other
40.0
Educational status
No/ Primary
60.2
(Grade 1-5)
Secondary
(Grade 6-10)
45.8
GCE(O/L)
54.9
GCE(A/L)
62.0
Socio-economic quintiles
Poorest
51.0
Second
47.8
Middle
56.9
Fourth
59.5
Richest
53.0
Sector
Colombo Metro 30.8
Other urban
51.0
Rural
55.7
16.8
12.2
12.7
2245
21.9
8.6
17.5
0.0
6.0
23.6
1338
857
18.1
10.0
17.4
16.0
12.4
12.6
9.4
0.0
13.6
7.4
11.8
50.5
1317
682
228
18
7.6
2.5
20.1
524
10.2
21.3
16.8
12.7
12.2
12.5
21.3
8.9
10.1
580
851
290
7.7
18.4
20.2
15.2
23.5
10.7
16.9
8.3
13.3
12.1
20.1
15.6
11.6
9.3
6.5
389
369
409
554
524
11.6
28.0
17.1
33.8
14.8
10.1
16.5
11.5
13.3
601
522
467
Estate
North & East
60.4
61.0
8.1
12.6
13.0
4.9
13.7
0.0
432
223
More than half of the sexual encounters that had taken place among out-of-school
adolescents were with their lover. About 17% claimed to have had the experience with a
friend while 12% reported sex with commercial sex workers. Highest proportion that had
sexual relationships with commercial sex workers was among the adolescents in the
Colombo Metro area (Table 4.59).
Prevalence of Condom Use among Sexually Active Out-of-school
Adolescents
Table 4.60 Out-of-school adolescents who have ever used condoms
by selected socio-demographic indicators
(Percentage)
Category
All
Sex
Male
Female
Ethnic differences
Sinhalese
Tamil
Moor
Other
Educational status
No/ Primary
(Grade 1-5)
Secondary
(Grade 6-10)
GCE(O/L)
GCE (A/L)
Socio-economic status
Poorest quintile
Second quintile
Middle quintile
Fourth quintile
Richest quintile
Sector
Colombo Metropolitan
% Ever used
39.0
N
2245
45.8
26.1
1338
857
37.6
45.5
42.2
84.1
1317
682
228
18
32.1
524
35.0
42.9
42.7
580
851
290
29.3
32.9
46.4
44.3
41.8
389
369
409
554
524
60.0
601
Other urban
Rural
Estate
North & East
44.0
34.6
38.0
92.0
522
467
432
223
Only 39% of the sexually active non-schooling adolescents reported the use of condoms.
More males than females had used condoms. Tamils had the highest prevalence of use
while the Singhalese had the lowest prevalence. O/L and A/L educated adolescents
showed the higher rate of ever having used condoms during a sexual encounter. A very
high rate of condom use was found in the North East sector (92%), the lowest rates being
among rural respondents (Table 4.60).
Unwanted Pregnancy & Abortions among Girls
Eighty one girls out of 4427 female respondents reported that they had been pregnant, 48
of them had resorted to abortion. Of this 81, 11 did not respond to this questio n asking
about abortion.
Unmarried Boys Who Fathered a Child
Two point eight percent of unmarried boys said that they had got a girl pregnant (N =
4622).
Sexual Abuse
Table 4.61 Out-of-school adolescents who were sexually abused by selected sociodemographic indicators
(Percentage)
Category
% Abused
N
All
9.8
10079
Sex
Male
8.0
5042
Female
11.5
5037
Ethnic differences
Sinhalese
8.8
5097
Tamil
10.8
3935
Moor
17.3
996
Other
17.8
51
Educational status
No / Primary (Grade 1-5)
18.2
2500
Secondary (Grade 6-10)
10.1
2494
GCE(O/L)
GCE (A/L)
Socio-economic status
Poorest quintile
Second quintile
Middle quintile
Fourth quintile
Richest quintile
Sector
Colombo Metropolitan
Other urban
Rural
Estate
North & East
8.6
7.0
3719
1366
11.1
10.3
11.5
9.8
5.5
2015
2016
2016
2016
2016
7.7
12.4
10.6
8.1
4.5
1995
2014
2040
2030
2000
One in ten persons among the out school adolescents reported that they had been sexually
molested. The proportion was more among girls than among boys. Moors reported the
highest prevalence while Singhalese had the lowest proportion. With the increase of
educational level and socio-economic standards a declining trend in the prevalence of
abused was noted. Highest proportion of sexual abuse was reported from adolescents in
the “other urban” areas. The lowest rate was from the North & East sector of the island
(Table 4.61).
Conclusions and Recommendations
Life Skills and Mental Wellbeing
Survey suggests considerable room for improvement of life skills among adolescents. For
example. Findings indicate that about 28 % of in-school adolescents surveyed were not
certain of their future goals, further 36 % aim to enter in to the traditionally popular
professions such as doctors, engineers, accountants. The findings indicate that adolescent
ambitions are mostly governed by traditional societal norms rather than on a critical
analysis based on availability of opportunities and capabilities. The probable reactions to
failure in reaching goals also did not indicate adequate skills in problem solving and
handling stress. Considering the professional goals of many and the competitive and
limited opportunities available, the response of the majority that they would keep on
trying appears somewhat unrealistic. Less than quarter chose the more realistic approach
of selecting an alternative career path.
The goal of the majority of out-of school adolescents was to find a job. It is important to
note that 18 % did not have an identified goal and 31% felt deficient in useful skills.
Considering the current employment opportunities these adolescents represent a sizable
number of the population experiencing frustration and stress.
The results indicate a significant proportion of adolescents who have poor life skills.
Nearly 40 % percent found it was stressful to cope with the academic pressure exerted on
them by parents and teachers and further 13 % felt inhibited due to this pressure.
Self esteem was found to be low; 14 % of in school adolescents and 21% of out-of-school
adolescents did not find any attribute they liked in themselves while 63 % of school
adolescents and 70 % of out-of-school adolescents had some attribute in them that they
did not like. Thirty eight percent thought that they were not popular among others.
About 40 % to 60 % of adolescents seemed to react positively to the academic pressure
while about one fifth demonstrated negative reactions. Fear of failing exams financial
problems parental disharmony and absence of mother at home were some of the worries
identified by in-school adolescents. Financial worries fear of not being able to find a job,
being not able to study and parental disharmony were the worries expressed by out-of
school adolescents. Only 60 % of adolescents reported that they lead a happy life.
The overall pattern of responses reflects a presence of a sizable group of adolescents in
Sri Lanka who lack sound life skills while there is a high prevalence in society of
situations that require considerable life skills.
Recommendation 1: Considering the large adolescent population (3.7 million), in Sri
Lanka, and the prevailing environment, improvement of life skills of adolescents is a
priority. It is important to identify innovative rapid, effective and feasible strategies to
reach adolescents in all walks of life over a relatively short period of time. Strategies
other than imparting knowledge and skills through traditional class room approaches
should be developed. An important component of any such strategy would be to establish
A strong advocacy campaign and to solicit the support of policy makers and the society
in general should be implemented at all levels. Creating awareness especially among
parents and making them active participants in the program would be crucial for success.
Creation of supportive policy environment for life skill education for both school-going
and out-of-school adolescents is recommended. As most adolescents could be found in
schools, school system could be recommended as the most appropriate channel of life
skill education. However, this needs considerable amount of reorientation of education
system. Revision of curriculum, development IEC, training of teachers, recognition of life
skill education as an exam worthy subject so that it will be able to capture adequate
adolescent attention are some of the important consideration. Main streaming the life
skill to the school education in graded fashion is also recommended.
Incorporation life skill as a mandatory subject to the basic training curriculum of all the
teachers, promoting in service training on life skill education, Development of indicators
to assess life skills education at school level, creating awareness among parents,
involvement of the existing school nexus such as health clubs, anti narcotic groups etc...
by integrating the life skill to their agendas are some of the strategies to be considered.
Development of proper life skill training manual to be used at different levels is also
important. When targeting out-of-school adolescents, involvement of local health staff is
in valuable. Heath staff should be given adequate training and skills to develop the life
skills of out-of-school adolescents. Local social structures such as village societies, youth
clubs etc... could be involved as logistically feasible channels to the target groups.
Substance Abuse
The survey had identified ever prevalence and current prevalence of smoking among
adolescent boys who attend school to be 18% and 6% respectively. The prevalence
among adolescents girls were 6 % to 1 % respectively. These proportions seemed to rise
rapidly from mid adolescent to late adolescents. The habit was more prevalent among
out-of-school youth, ever smoking prevalence was 42 % while the current smoking
prevalence among them was 23 %. Nearly a quarter (24 %) of adolescent boys and 10 %
of adolescent s girls have experimented with alcohol. The respective proportions for
current alcohol use were 6% and 1 % respectively. The most common type of alcohol
used was beer. The prevalence of ever taking alcohol among out-of-school adolescents
was 34% while the current prevalence of alcohol use was 19%. About 2.3 % of in school
adolescents and 4 % of out-of-school adolescents admitted to have tired some form of
mood altering drug.
Initiation into the use of tobacco and alcohol occurs at the relatively young age of 14- 15
years. The most cited reason for trying these substances was curiosity and was first tried
out in the company of friends. It is important to note that there is an increasing influence
of outsiders in initiation of both tobacco and alcohol in the younger cohort of adolescents,
especially among girls. This may be suggestive of specific targeting of young
adolescents by industry. The attitude on smoking and alcohol seemed to be favourable
among many. However it appears that more than 60 % believed that the use of these
substances could be stopped at any time a person wishes to, indicating a degree of
unawareness of the addictive nature of these substances. This needs attention in
preventive programmes.
Recommendation 2: Prevention of tobacco and alcohol abuse should be sufficiently
innovative to counter act the natural curiosity of the adolescent. Peer influence can be
used to advantage to change societal norms within the adolescent population towards no
smoking and non use of alcohol. A close surveillance should be maintained to identify
specific targeting of adolescents by industry specially females. Awareness surveillance to
detect covert advertising is also important. Preventive programs should have the ability
to adjust rapidly to meet the changing approaches of industry. Although the prevalence of
use of mood altering drugs was low it is important to note that the substances reported
are easily available to adolescents. Strengthening legal frameworks towards restriction
of sale and ban on alcohol and tobacco advertising has been proven to be productive. As
the average age of starting smoking is 14 years preventive programmes should be started
at an earlier age than 14. Prevention attempts of diverse stakeholders should be coordinated at national and sub national levels by apex bodies. The main responsibilities of
the apex body should include, strengthening legal frame work, establishing sound media
policy, counter acting of adverse publicity, controlling supply of abusive substances,
and encouragement of research based action. Smoking, alcohol and other substance
abuse prevention should be integrated with life skill education.
Factors Affecting Mental Wellbeing
The survey findings indicate that families have a strong influence on adolescents.
Mothers were identified as the most trusted and liked personal confidantes of adolescents
irrespective of age and sex and social-economic status. Nearly 75 % of in school
adolescents thought they could depends on their families and admitted that they would
love to spend time with their families. However, about 4 % of adolescents reported
serious problems with the family and wished to be away from it and about 40 % had less
warm feelings towards their families. Nearly one third were worried about their
relationship with family members, felt left out of the family and felt that their parents put
too much restrictions on their lives. The bond between out-of-school adolescents and
their families seemed to be relatively loose when compared to that of school- going
adolescents. Among this latter group the proportion who would love to spend time with
the family was 52 %.
Recommendation 3: Parents especially mothers appear to be a valuable resource and
needs to be active participants in any programs planned for improving the wellbeing of
adolescents. The closeness and influence observed between the adolescents and families
should be used as a vehicle of mental health promotion. The empowering of parenting
skills could be expected to have a positive impact.
Knowledge on reproductive health
The survey had looked in to the many dimensions of reproductive health. Most of the
early adolescents (10 – 14 years) (>70%) were not aware of the physiological changes
and processes that are taking place in their own bodies during this period. Although many
of the questions on the reproductive system were based on the school curriculum
knowledge was unacceptably poor.
Knowledge of adolescents on the possibilities/ risk of conception and signs of pregnancy
were very poor, the percentage of adolescents who could correctly answer the questions
being less than 25 %. Risks associated with induced abortions, frequent child bearing,
were known to less than 45 % of adolescents. Contraceptive methods were known only to
a small proportion of adolescents. The knowledge of reproductive health among out-ofschool adolescents was poor although better than among the in-school youth.
Recommendation 3: Improving knowledge on reproductive health among adolescents
could be viewed as a priority issue. It is important to note that a substantial proportion
of adolescents leave school after secondary education and thereafter they may have little
opportunity to obtain knowledge on reproductive matters. Reasons for the failure of
curriculum based reproductive education should be identified and rectify the deficiencies.
Measures should be taken to improve the public awareness on the importance of proper
reproductive health education to adolescents. This could lead to the reduction of cultural
resistance that seems to inhibit the teachers and students to talk about the topic. The
skills of school teachers in teaching reproductive heath to students should be re-assessed
and deficiencies corrected. The education and health ministries should plan integrated
strategies to meet this need among in school as well as out-of-school adolescents.
Provision of reproductive health services acceptable and accessible to adolescents
remains a priority. The revision of the curriculum should be considered in terms of
comprehensiveness and the time of introduction of different topics. Development of IEC
material, training teachers, ensuring proper monitoring and evaluation of RH education
activities in the school system are some of the actions to be expected...
STD /HIV/AIDS
Majority of adolescents were not aware of different kinds of STDs and HIV infection.
The modes of transmission of STDs and HIV, methods of prevention, common symptoms
and signs were known by only a small percentage of adolescents. Even though many
attempts have been made to improve the awareness of adolescents and youth on STD and
HIV/ AIDS, the findings of the study shows that the knowledge of adolescents on the
subject was poor.
Recommendation 4: A well organized innovative education campaign on the STD, HIV
/AIDS to reach all adolescents is essential. It is essential to ensure comprehensiveness of
coverage, consistency and accuracy of the messages, and equity in distribution of
activities. It is also important to main stream the knowledge regarding these subjects in
the curriculum and to ensure that it is taught in schools. The effectiveness and coverage
of existing awareness campaigns should be evaluated to see why they seemed to fail in
educating target groups. The awareness programmes conducted by health system should
be well coordinated in terms of coverage and contents, and should be integrated as far as
possible with the other activities.
Sexual Behaviour
A fair proportion of school adolescents seemed to be sexually active. Among in-school
adolescents (14 – 19years) 6 % admitted to ever having heterosexual intercourse while 10
% reported having homosexual relations. There is a considerable gender variation in the
sexual experience. The prevalence of hetero sexual experience was 14 % among
adolescent boys and in girls this was 2 %. Even if an allowance is made for the possibility
of under reporting of such a sensitive issue among girls, the gap is considerable. This
raises the possibility of males being exposed to high risk sources such as commercial sex
workers. Only a very small proportion of out-of-school adolescents (less than 4 %) have
ever used any form of contraception, emergency contraceptive pills being the most
commonly used method (3.7%).
Recommendation 5: As sexually active adolescent run number of risks such as
possibility of acquiring STD, pregnancy, abortion, social problems, suicide etc…, it is
very important to start primary and secondary preventive measures to address these
issues. Education of adolescents on the risks entailed, life skill promotion, diverting
attention by increasing recreation activities, sex education, contraceptive education,
empowering the gate keepers such as teachers, parents, student leaders to identify the
high risk individuals and intervene are some of the interventions suggested.
Sexual Abuse
About 10 % of early adolescents and 14 % of mid and late adolescents admitted to have
been sexually abused. More boys (14%) than girls (8%) were abused during early
adolescence while there was no gender difference among adolescents in mid and late
adolescence. Abuse seemed to be lowest in fourth and middle socio-economic quintiles.
About 10 % of out-of-school adolescents admitted to have been sexually abused.
Perpetrators of abuse of early adolescents were mainly a family member (38%) or a
relative (27%),
Recommendation 6: Raising awareness among adolescents on abuse and increasing
skills to avoid situations that may result in abuse are important. Special attention should
be paid to vulnerable groups such as children of migrant mothers, socially
disadvantaged, adolescents in children’s homes etc. Implementation of laws on child
abuse, training of health workers and teachers on child abuse prevention, are some of the
other strategies.
District Variations
Section 3.7 deals with diverse patterns of districts variations of the indicators considered
in the survey. On the average the adolescents form the North and East and Estate sector
seemed to be relatively disadvantaged. However, the variations are not wide enough to
deprive any parts of the country of proposed interventions.
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