Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 Installation Guide

Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 Installation Guide
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 Installation Guide
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6
Installation Guide
Installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 for all architectures
Edition 1.0
Red Hat Engineering Content Services
Rüdiger Landmann
Red Hat Engineering Content Services
[email protected]
Jack Reed
Red Hat Engineering Content Services
[email protected]
David Cantrell
VNC installation
[email protected]
Hans De Goede
iSCSI
[email protected]
Jon Masters
Driver updates
[email protected]
Edited by
Rüdiger Landmann
[email protected]
Edited by
Jack Reed
[email protected]
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Legal Notice
Legal Notice
Copyright © 2011 Red Hat, Inc. and others.
T he text of and illustrations in this document are licensed by Red Hat under a Creative Commons
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http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/. In accordance with CC-BY-SA, if you distribute this
document or an adaptation of it, you must provide the URL for the original version.
Red Hat, as the licensor of this document, waives the right to enforce, and agrees not to assert, Section
4d of CC-BY-SA to the fullest extent permitted by applicable law.
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Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 Installation Guide
Abstract
T his manual explains how to boot the Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 installation program (anaconda) and
to install Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 on 32-bit and 64-bit x86 systems, 64-bit POWER systems, and IBM
System z. It also covers advanced installation methods such as kickstart installations, PXE installations,
and installations over VNC. Finally, it describes common post-installation tasks and explains how to
troubleshoot installation problems.
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Table of Contents
Table of Contents
Preface
1. Document Conventions
1.1. T ypographic Conventions
1.2. Pull-quote Conventions
1.3. Notes and Warnings
2. Getting Help and Giving Feedback
2.1. Do You Need Help?
2.2. We Need Feedback!
3. Acknowledgments
Introduction
1. What's New in this Edition?
2. Architecture-specific Information
3. Installation in Virtualized Environments
4. More to Come
5. Where to Find Other Manuals
1. Obtaining Red Hat Enterprise Linux
2. Making Media
2.1. Making an installation DVD
2.2. Making Minimal Boot Media
2.2.1. Minimal USB boot media for BIOS-based systems
2.2.2. Minimal USB boot media for UEFI-based systems
I. x86, AMD64, and Intel 64 — Installation and Booting
3. Planning for Installation on the x86 Architecture
3.1. Upgrade or Install?
3.2. Is Your Hardware Compatible?
3.3. Supported Installation Hardware
3.4. RAID and Other Disk Devices
3.4.1. Hardware RAID
3.4.2. Software RAID
3.4.3. FireWire and USB Disks
3.5. Do You Have Enough Disk Space?
3.6. Selecting an Installation Method
3.7. Choose a boot method
4. Preparing for Installation
4.1. Preparing for a Network Installation
4.1.1. Preparing for FT P, HT T P, and HT T PS installation
4.1.2. Preparing for an NFS installation
4.2. Preparing for a Hard Drive Installation
5. System Specifications List
6. Updating drivers during installation on Intel and AMD systems
6.1. Limitations of driver updates during installation
6.2. Preparing for a driver update during installation
6.2.1. Preparing to use a driver update image file
6.2.2. Preparing a driver disc
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 Installation Guide
6.2.3. Preparing an initial RAM disk update
6.3. Performing a driver update during installation
6.3.1. Let the installer automatically find a driver update disk
6.3.2. Let the installer prompt you for a driver update
6.3.3. Use a boot option to specify a driver update disk
6.3.4. Select a PXE target that includes a driver update
6.4. Specifying the location of a driver update image file or driver update disk
7. Booting the Installer
7.1. Starting the Installation Program
7.1.1. Booting the Installation Program on x86, AMD64, and Intel 64 Systems
7.1.2. T he Boot Menu
7.1.3. Additional Boot Options
7.2. Installing from a Different Source
7.3. Booting from the Network using PXE
8. Configuring Language and Installation Source
8.1. T he T ext Mode Installation Program User Interface
8.1.1. Using the Keyboard to Navigate
8.2. Language Selection
8.3. Installation Method
8.3.1. Installing from DVD
8.3.2. Installing from a Hard Drive
8.3.3. Performing a Network Installation
8.3.4. Installing via NFS
8.3.5. Installing via FT P, HT T P, or HT T PS
8.4. Verifying Media
9. Installing using anaconda
9.1. T he T ext Mode Installation Program User Interface
9.2. T he Graphical Installation Program User Interface
9.2.1. Screenshots during installation
9.2.2. A Note about Virtual Consoles
9.3. Welcome to Red Hat Enterprise Linux
9.4. Language Selection
9.5. Keyboard Configuration
9.6. Storage Devices
9.6.1. T he Storage Devices Selection Screen
9.7. Setting the Hostname
9.7.1. Edit Network Connections
9.8. T ime Z one Configuration
9.9. Set the Root Password
9.10. Assign Storage Devices
9.11. Initializing the Hard Disk
9.12. Upgrading an Existing System
9.12.1. T he Upgrade Dialog
9.12.2. Upgrading Using the Installer
9.12.3. Upgrading Boot Loader Configuration
9.13. Disk Partitioning Setup
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9.14. Encrypt Partitions
9.15. Creating a Custom Layout or Modifying the Default Layout
9.15.1. Create Storage
9.15.2. Adding Partitions
9.15.3. Create Software RAID
9.15.4. Create LVM Logical Volume
9.15.5. Recommended Partitioning Scheme
9.16. Write changes to disk
9.17. x86, AMD64, and Intel 64 Boot Loader Configuration
9.17.1. Advanced Boot Loader Configuration
9.17.2. Rescue Mode
9.17.3. Alternative Boot Loaders
9.18. Package Group Selection
9.18.1. Installing from Additional Repositories
9.18.2. Customizing the Software Selection
9.19. Installing Packages
9.20. Installation Complete
10. T roubleshooting Installation on an Intel or AMD System
10.1. You are unable to boot Red Hat Enterprise Linux
10.1.1. Are You Unable to Boot With Your RAID Card?
10.1.2. Is Your System Displaying Signal 11 Errors?
10.2. T rouble Beginning the Installation
10.2.1. Problems with Booting into the Graphical Installation
10.3. T rouble During the Installation
10.3.1. No devices found to install Red Hat Enterprise Linux Error
Message
10.3.2. Saving traceback messages
10.3.3. T rouble with Partition T ables
10.3.4. Using Remaining Space
10.3.5. Other Partitioning Problems
10.4. Problems After Installation
10.4.1. T rouble With the Graphical GRUB Screen on an x86-based System?
10.4.2. Booting into a Graphical Environment
10.4.3. Problems with the X Window System (GUI)
10.4.4. Problems with the X Server Crashing and Non-Root Users
10.4.5. Problems When You T ry to Log In
10.4.6. Is Your RAM Not Being Recognized?
10.4.7. Your Printer Does Not Work
10.4.8. Apache HT T P Server or Sendmail stops responding during startup
II. IBM POWER Architecture - Installation and Booting
11. Planning for Installation on the POWER Architecture
11.1. Upgrade or Install?
11.2. Supported Installation Hardware
11.3. Preparation for IBM eServer System p
11.4. RAID and Other Disk Devices
11.4.1. Hardware RAID
11.4.2. Software RAID
11.4.3. FireWire and USB Disks
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 Installation Guide
11.5. Do You Have Enough Disk Space?
11.6. Choose a boot method
12. Preparing for Installation
12.1. Preparing for a Network Installation
12.1.1. Preparing for FT P, HT T P, and HT T PS installation
12.1.2. Preparing for an NFS installation
12.2. Preparing for a Hard Drive Installation
13. Updating drivers during installation on IBM POWER systems
13.1. Limitations of driver updates during installation
13.2. Preparing for a driver update during installation
13.2.1. Preparing to use a driver update image file
13.2.2. Preparing a driver disc
13.3. Performing a driver update during installation
13.3.1. Let the installer automatically find a driver update disk
13.3.2. Let the installer prompt you for a driver update
13.3.3. Use a boot option to specify a driver update disk
13.4. Specifying the location of a driver update image file or driver update disk
14. Booting the Installer
14.1. T he Boot Menu
14.2. Installing from a Different Source
15. Configuring Language and Installation Source
15.1. T he T ext Mode Installation Program User Interface
15.1.1. Using the Keyboard to Navigate
15.2. Language Selection
15.3. Installation Method
15.3.1. Beginning Installation
15.3.2. Installing from a Hard Drive
15.3.3. Performing a Network Installation
15.3.4. Installing via NFS
15.3.5. Installing via FT P, HT T P, or HT T PS
15.4. Verifying Media
16. Installing using anaconda
16.1. T he T ext Mode Installation Program User Interface
16.2. T he Graphical Installation Program User Interface
16.3. A Note about Linux Virtual Consoles
16.4. Using the HMC vterm
16.5. Welcome to Red Hat Enterprise Linux
16.6. Language Selection
16.7. Keyboard Configuration
16.8. Storage Devices
16.8.1. T he Storage Devices Selection Screen
16.9. Setting the Hostname
16.9.1. Edit Network Connections
16.10. T ime Z one Configuration
16.11. Set the Root Password
16.12. Assign Storage Devices
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16.13. Initializing the Hard Disk
16.14. Upgrading an Existing System
16.14.1. T he Upgrade Dialog
16.14.2. Upgrading Using the Installer
16.15. Disk Partitioning Setup
16.16. Encrypt Partitions
16.17. Creating a Custom Layout or Modifying the Default Layout
16.17.1. Create Storage
16.17.2. Adding Partitions
16.17.3. Create Software RAID
16.17.4. Create LVM Logical Volume
16.17.5. Recommended Partitioning Scheme
16.18. Write changes to disk
16.19. Package Group Selection
16.19.1. Installing from Additional Repositories
16.19.2. Customizing the Software Selection
16.20. Installing Packages
16.21. Installation Complete
17. T roubleshooting Installation on an IBM POWER System
17.1. You are unable to boot Red Hat Enterprise Linux
17.1.1. Is Your System Displaying Signal 11 Errors?
17.2. T rouble Beginning the Installation
17.2.1. Problems with Booting into the Graphical Installation
17.3. T rouble During the Installation
17.3.1. No devices found to install Red Hat Enterprise Linux Error
Message
17.3.2. Saving traceback messages
17.3.3. T rouble with Partition T ables
17.3.4. Other Partitioning Problems for IBM™ POWER System Users
17.4. Problems After Installation
17.4.1. Unable to IPL from *NWSST G
17.4.2. Booting into a Graphical Environment
17.4.3. Problems with the X Window System (GUI)
17.4.4. Problems with the X Server Crashing and Non-Root Users
17.4.5. Problems When You T ry to Log In
17.4.6. Your Printer Does Not Work
17.4.7. Apache HT T P Server or Sendmail stops responding during startup
III. IBM System z Architecture - Installation and Booting
18. Planning for Installation on System z
18.1. Pre-Installation
18.2. Overview of the System z Installation Procedure
18.2.1. Booting (IPL) the Installer
18.2.2. Installation Phase 1
18.2.3. Installation Phase 2
18.2.4. Installation Phase 3
18.3. Graphical User Interface with X11 or VNC
18.3.1. Installation using X11 forwarding
18.3.2. Installation using X11
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 Installation Guide
18.3.3. Installation using VNC
18.3.4. Installation using a VNC listener
18.3.5. Automating the Installation with Kickstart
19. Preparing for Installation
19.1. Preparing for a Network Installation
19.1.1. Preparing for FT P, HT T P, and HT T PS installation
19.1.2. Preparing for an NFS installation
19.2. Preparing for a Hard Drive Installation
19.2.1. Accessing Installation Phase 3 and the Package Repository on a Hard Drive
20. Booting (IPL) the Installer
20.1. Installing under z/VM
20.1.1. Using the z/VM Reader
20.1.2. Using a prepared DASD
20.1.3. Using a prepared FCP-attached SCSI Disk
20.1.4. Using an FCP-attached SCSI DVD Drive
20.2. Installing in an LPAR
20.2.1. Using an FT P Server
20.2.2. Using the HMC or SE DVD Drive
20.2.3. Using a prepared DASD
20.2.4. Using a prepared FCP-attached SCSI Disk
20.2.5. Using an FCP-attached SCSI DVD Drive
21. Installation Phase 1: Configuring a Network Device
21.1. A Note on T erminals
22. Installation Phase 2: Configuring Language and Installation Source
22.1. Non-interactive Line-Mode Installation
22.2. T he T ext Mode Installation Program User Interface
22.2.1. Using the Keyboard to Navigate
22.3. Language Selection
22.4. Installation Method
22.4.1. Installing from DVD
22.4.2. Installing from a Hard Drive
22.4.3. Performing a Network Installation
22.4.4. Installing via NFS
22.4.5. Installing via FT P, HT T P, or HT T PS
22.5. Verifying Media
22.6. Retrieving Phase 3 of the Installation Program
23. Installation Phase 3: Installing using anaconda
23.1. T he Non-interactive Line-Mode T ext Installation Program Output
23.2. T he T ext Mode Installation Program User Interface
23.3. T he Graphical Installation Program User Interface
23.4. Configure the Install T erminal
23.5. Welcome to Red Hat Enterprise Linux
23.6. Storage Devices
23.6.1. T he Storage Devices Selection Screen
23.7. Setting the Hostname
23.7.1. Edit Network Connections
23.8. T ime Z one Configuration
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23.9. Set the Root Password
23.10. Assign Storage Devices
23.11. Initializing the Hard Disk
23.12. Upgrading an Existing System
23.12.1. Upgrading Using the Installer
23.13. Disk Partitioning Setup
23.14. Encrypt Partitions
23.15. Creating a Custom Layout or Modifying the Default Layout
23.15.1. Create Storage
23.15.2. Adding Partitions
23.15.3. Create Software RAID
23.15.4. Create LVM Logical Volume
23.15.5. Recommended Partitioning Scheme
23.16. Write changes to disk
23.17. Package Group Selection
23.17.1. Installing from Additional Repositories
23.17.2. Customizing the Software Selection
23.18. Installing Packages
23.19. Installation Complete
23.19.1. IPL under z/VM
23.19.2. IPL on an LPAR
23.19.3. Continuing after Reboot (re-IPL)
24. T roubleshooting Installation on IBM System z
24.1. You are unable to boot Red Hat Enterprise Linux
24.1.1. Is Your System Displaying Signal 11 Errors?
24.2. T rouble During the Installation
24.2.1. No devices found to install Red Hat Enterprise Linux Error
Message
24.2.2. Saving traceback messages
24.2.3. Other Partitioning Problems
24.3. Problems After Installation
24.3.1. Remote Graphical Desktops and XDMCP
24.3.2. Problems When You T ry to Log In
24.3.3. Your Printer Does Not Work
24.3.4. Apache HT T P Server or Sendmail stops responding during startup
25. Configuring an Installed Linux on System z Instance
25.1. Adding DASDs
25.1.1. Dynamically setting DASDs online
25.1.2. Preparing a new DASD with low-level formatting
25.1.3. Persistently setting DASDs online
25.2. Adding FCP-Attached Logical Units (LUNs)
25.2.1. Dynamically activating an FCP LUN
25.2.2. Persistently activating FCP LUNs
25.3. Adding a Network Device
25.3.1. Adding a qeth Device
25.3.2. Adding an LCS Device
25.3.3. Mapping subchannels and network device names
25.3.4. Configuring a System z Network Device for Network Root File System
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 Installation Guide
26. Parameter and Configuration Files
26.1. Required parameters
26.2. T he z/VM configuration file
26.3. Installation network parameters
26.4. VNC and X11 parameters
26.5. Loader parameters
26.6. Parameters for kickstart installations
26.7. Miscellaneous parameters
26.8. Sample parameter file and CMS configuration file
27. IBM System z References
27.1. IBM System z Publications
27.2. IBM Redbooks for System z
27.3. Online resources
IV. Advanced installation options
28. Boot Options
28.1. Configuring the Installation System at the Boot Menu
28.1.1. Specifying the Language
28.1.2. Configuring the Interface
28.1.3. Updating anaconda
28.1.4. Specifying the Installation Method
28.1.5. Specifying the Network Settings
28.2. Enabling Remote Access to the Installation System
28.2.1. Enabling Remote Access with VNC
28.2.2. Connecting the Installation System to a VNC Listener
28.2.3. Enabling Remote Access with ssh
28.2.4. Enabling Remote Access with T elnet
28.3. Logging to a Remote System During the Installation
28.3.1. Configuring a Log Server
28.4. Automating the Installation with Kickstart
28.5. Enhancing Hardware Support
28.5.1. Overriding Automatic Hardware Detection
28.6. Using the Maintenance Boot Modes
28.6.1. Verifying boot media
28.6.2. Booting Your Computer with the Rescue Mode
28.6.3. Upgrading your computer
29. Installing Without Media
29.1. Retrieving Boot Files
29.2. Editing the GRUB Configuration
29.3. Booting to Installation
30. Setting Up an Installation Server
30.1. Setting up the Network Server
30.2. PXE Boot Configuration
30.2.1. Configuring for BIOS
30.2.2. Configuring for EFI
30.3. Starting the tftp Server
30.4. Adding a Custom Boot Message
30.5. Performing the PXE Installation
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31. Installing T hrough VNC
31.1. VNC Viewer
31.2. VNC Modes in Anaconda
31.2.1. Direct Mode
31.2.2. Connect Mode
31.3. Installation Using VNC
31.3.1. Installation Example
31.3.2. Kickstart Considerations
31.3.3. Firewall Considerations
31.4. References
32. Kickstart Installations
32.1. What are Kickstart Installations?
32.2. How Do You Perform a Kickstart Installation?
32.3. Creating the Kickstart File
32.4. Kickstart Options
32.4.1. Advanced Partitioning Example
32.5. Package Selection
32.6. Pre-installation Script
32.6.1. Example
32.7. Post-installation Script
32.7.1. Examples
32.8. Making the Kickstart File Available
32.8.1. Creating Kickstart Boot Media
32.8.2. Making the Kickstart File Available on the Network
32.9. Making the Installation T ree Available
32.10. Starting a Kickstart Installation
33. Kickstart Configurator
33.1. Basic Configuration
33.2. Installation Method
33.3. Boot Loader Options
33.4. Partition Information
33.4.1. Creating Partitions
33.5. Network Configuration
33.6. Authentication
33.7. Firewall Configuration
33.7.1. SELinux Configuration
33.8. Display Configuration
33.9. Package Selection
33.10. Pre-Installation Script
33.11. Post-Installation Script
33.11.1. Chroot Environment
33.11.2. Use an Interpreter
33.12. Saving the File
V. After installation
34. Firstboot
34.1. License Information
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 Installation Guide
34.1. License Information
34.2. Setting up software updates
34.2.1. Content delivery and subscriptions
34.2.2. Set Up Software Updates
34.2.3. Choose Server
34.2.4. Using Certificate-based Red Hat Network (Recommended)
34.2.5. Using RHN Classic
34.3. Create User
34.3.1. Authentication Configuration
34.4. Date and T ime
34.5. Kdump
35. Your Next Steps
35.1. Updating Your System
35.1.1. Driver update rpm packages
35.2. Finishing an Upgrade
35.3. Switching to a Graphical Login
35.3.1. Enabling Access to Software Repositories from the Command Line
36. Basic System Recovery
36.1. Rescue Mode
36.1.1. Common Problems
36.1.2. Booting into Rescue Mode
36.1.3. Booting into Single-User Mode
36.1.4. Booting into Emergency Mode
36.2. Rescue Mode on POWER Systems
36.2.1. Special Considerations for Accessing the SCSI Utilities from Rescue Mode
36.3. Using rescue mode to fix or work around driver problems
36.3.1. Using RPM to add, remove, or replace a driver
36.3.2. Blacklisting a driver
37. Upgrading Your Current System
38. Deregistering from Red Hat Network Entitlement Platforms
39. Removing Red Hat Enterprise Linux from x86-based systems
39.1. Red Hat Enterprise Linux is the only operating system on the computer
39.2. Your computer dual-boots Red Hat Enterprise Linux and another operating system
39.2.1. Your computer dual-boots Red Hat Enterprise Linux and a Microsoft Windows
operating system
39.2.2. Your computer dual-boots Red Hat Enterprise Linux and a different Linux
distribution
39.3. Replacing Red Hat Enterprise Linux with MS-DOS or legacy versions of Microsoft
Windows
40. Removing Red Hat Enterprise Linux from IBM System z
40.1. Running a Different Operating System on your z/VM Guest or LPAR
VI. T echnical appendixes
A. An Introduction to Disk Partitions
A.1. Hard Disk Basic Concepts
A.1.1. It is Not What You Write, it is How You Write It
A.1.2. Partitions: T urning One Drive Into Many
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A.1.2. Partitions: T urning One Drive Into Many
A.1.3. Partitions within Partitions — An Overview of Extended Partitions
A.1.4. Making Room For Red Hat Enterprise Linux
A.1.5. Partition Naming Scheme
A.1.6. Disk Partitions and Other Operating Systems
A.1.7. Disk Partitions and Mount Points
A.1.8. How Many Partitions?
B. ISCSI disks
B.1. iSCSI disks in anaconda
B.2. iSCSI disks during start up
C. Disk Encryption
C.1. What is block device encryption?
C.2. Encrypting block devices using dm-crypt/LUKS
C.2.1. Overview of LUKS
C.2.2. How will I access the encrypted devices after installation? (System Startup)
C.2.3. Choosing a Good Passphrase
C.3. Creating Encrypted Block Devices in Anaconda
C.3.1. What Kinds of Block Devices Can Be Encrypted?
C.3.2. Saving Passphrases
C.3.3. Creating and Saving Backup Passphrases
C.4. Creating Encrypted Block Devices on the Installed System After Installation
C.4.1. Create the block devices
C.4.2. Optional: Fill the device with random data
C.4.3. Format the device as a dm-crypt/LUKS encrypted device
C.4.4. Create a mapping to allow access to the device's decrypted contents
C.4.5. Create filesystems on the mapped device, or continue to build complex storage
structures using the mapped device
C.4.6. Add the mapping information to /etc/crypttab
C.4.7. Add an entry to /etc/fstab
C.5. Common Post-Installation T asks
C.5.1. Set a randomly generated key as an additional way to access an encrypted block
device
C.5.2. Add a new passphrase to an existing device
C.5.3. Remove a passphrase or key from a device
D. Understanding LVM
E. T he GRUB Boot Loader
E.1. Boot Loaders and System Architecture
E.2. GRUB
E.2.1. GRUB and the boot process on BIOS-based x86 systems
E.2.2. GRUB and the boot process on UEFI-based x86 systems
E.2.3. Features of GRUB
E.3. Installing GRUB
E.4. GRUB T erminology
E.4.1. Device Names
E.4.2. File Names and Blocklists
E.4.3. T he Root File System and GRUB
E.5. GRUB Interfaces
E.5.1. Interfaces Load Order
E.6. GRUB Commands
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 Installation Guide
E.6. GRUB Commands
E.7. GRUB Menu Configuration File
E.7.1. Configuration File Structure
E.7.2. Configuration File Directives
E.8. Changing Runlevels at Boot T ime
E.9. Additional Resources
E.9.1. Installed Documentation
E.9.2. Useful Websites
F. Boot Process, Init, and Shutdown
F.1. T he Boot Process
F.2. A Detailed Look at the Boot Process
F.2.1. T he firmware interface
F.2.2. T he Boot Loader
F.2.3. T he Kernel
F.2.4. T he /sbin/init Program
F.2.5. Job definitions
F.3. Running Additional Programs at Boot T ime
F.4. SysV Init Runlevels
F.4.1. Runlevels
F.4.2. Runlevel Utilities
F.5. Shutting Down
G. Alternatives to busybox commands
H. Other T echnical Documentation
I. Revision History
Index
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Preface
Preface
1. Document Conventions
T his manual uses several conventions to highlight certain words and phrases and draw attention to
specific pieces of information.
In PDF and paper editions, this manual uses typefaces drawn from the Liberation Fonts set. T he
Liberation Fonts set is also used in HT ML editions if the set is installed on your system. If not, alternative
but equivalent typefaces are displayed. Note: Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5 and later includes the
Liberation Fonts set by default.
1.1. T ypographic Conventions
Four typographic conventions are used to call attention to specific words and phrases. T hese
conventions, and the circumstances they apply to, are as follows.
Mono-spaced Bold
Used to highlight system input, including shell commands, file names and paths. Also used to highlight
keycaps and key combinations. For example:
T o see the contents of the file m y_next_bestselling_novel in your current working
directory, enter the cat m y_next_bestselling_novel command at the shell prompt
and press Enter to execute the command.
T he above includes a file name, a shell command and a keycap, all presented in mono-spaced bold and
all distinguishable thanks to context.
Key combinations can be distinguished from keycaps by the plus sign that connects each part of a key
combination. For example:
Press Enter to execute the command.
Press Ctrl+Alt+F2 to switch to a virtual terminal.
T he first paragraph highlights the particular keycap to press. T he second highlights two key
combinations (each a set of three keycaps with each set pressed simultaneously).
If source code is discussed, class names, methods, functions, variable names and returned values
mentioned within a paragraph will be presented as above, in m ono-spaced bold. For example:
File-related classes include filesystem for file systems, file for files, and dir for
directories. Each class has its own associated set of permissions.
Proportional Bold
T his denotes words or phrases encountered on a system, including application names; dialog box text;
labeled buttons; check-box and radio button labels; menu titles and sub-menu titles. For example:
Choose System → Preferences → Mouse from the main menu bar to launch Mouse
Preferences. In the Buttons tab, click the Left-handed m ouse check box and click
Close to switch the primary mouse button from the left to the right (making the mouse
suitable for use in the left hand).
T o insert a special character into a gedit file, choose Applications → Accessories →
Character Map from the main menu bar. Next, choose Search → Find… from the
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 Installation Guide
17
Character Map menu bar, type the name of the character in the Search field and click
Next. T he character you sought will be highlighted in the Character T able. Double-click
this highlighted character to place it in the T ext to copy field and then click the Copy
button. Now switch back to your document and choose Edit → Paste from the gedit menu
bar.
T he above text includes application names; system-wide menu names and items; application-specific
menu names; and buttons and text found within a GUI interface, all presented in proportional bold and all
distinguishable by context.
Mono-spaced Bold Italic or Proportional Bold Italic
Whether mono-spaced bold or proportional bold, the addition of italics indicates replaceable or variable
text. Italics denotes text you do not input literally or displayed text that changes depending on
circumstance. For example:
T o connect to a remote machine using ssh, type ssh [email protected] domain.name at a shell
prompt. If the remote machine is exam ple.com and your username on that machine is
john, type ssh [email protected] exam ple.com .
T he m ount -o rem ount file-system command remounts the named file system. For
example, to remount the /hom e file system, the command is m ount -o rem ount /hom e.
T o see the version of a currently installed package, use the rpm -q package command. It
will return a result as follows: package-version-release.
Note the words in bold italics above — username, domain.name, file-system, package, version and
release. Each word is a placeholder, either for text you enter when issuing a command or for text
displayed by the system.
Aside from standard usage for presenting the title of a work, italics denotes the first use of a new and
important term. For example:
Publican is a DocBook publishing system.
1.2. Pull-quote Conventions
T erminal output and source code listings are set off visually from the surrounding text.
Output sent to a terminal is set in m ono-spaced rom an and presented thus:
books
books_tests
Desktop
Desktop1
documentation
downloads
drafts
images
mss
notes
photos
scripts
stuff
svgs
svn
Source-code listings are also set in m ono-spaced rom an but add syntax highlighting as follows:
18
Preface
package org.jboss.book.jca.ex1;
import javax.naming.InitialContext;
public class ExClient
{
public static void main(String args[])
throws Exception
{
InitialContext iniCtx = new InitialContext();
Object
ref
= iniCtx.lookup("EchoBean");
EchoHome
home
= (EchoHome) ref;
Echo
echo
= home.create();
System.out.println("Created Echo");
System.out.println("Echo.echo('Hello') = " + echo.echo("Hello"));
}
}
1.3. Notes and Warnings
Finally, we use three visual styles to draw attention to information that might otherwise be overlooked.
Note
Notes are tips, shortcuts or alternative approaches to the task at hand. Ignoring a note should
have no negative consequences, but you might miss out on a trick that makes your life easier.
Important
Important boxes detail things that are easily missed: configuration changes that only apply to the
current session, or services that need restarting before an update will apply. Ignoring a box
labeled 'Important' will not cause data loss but may cause irritation and frustration.
Warning
Warnings should not be ignored. Ignoring warnings will most likely cause data loss.
2. Getting Help and Giving Feedback
2.1. Do You Need Help?
If you experience difficulty with a procedure described in this documentation, visit the Red Hat Customer
Portal at http://access.redhat.com. T hrough the customer portal, you can:
search or browse through a knowledgebase of technical support articles about Red Hat products.
submit a support case to Red Hat Global Support Services (GSS).
access other product documentation.
Red Hat also hosts a large number of electronic mailing lists for discussion of Red Hat software and
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 Installation Guide
19
technology. You can find a list of publicly available mailing lists at https://www.redhat.com/mailman/listinfo.
Click on the name of any mailing list to subscribe to that list or to access the list archives.
2.2. We Need Feedback!
If you find a typographical error in this manual, or if you have thought of a way to make this manual
better, we would love to hear from you! Please submit a report in Bugzilla: http://bugzilla.redhat.com/
against the product Red Hat Enterprise Linux.
When submitting a bug report, be sure to mention the manual's identifier: doc-Installation_Guide
If you have a suggestion for improving the documentation, try to be as specific as possible when
describing it. If you have found an error, please include the section number and some of the surrounding
text so we can find it easily.
3. Acknowledgments
Certain portions of this text first appeared in the Fedora Installation Guide, copyright © 2009 Red Hat,
Inc. and others, published by the Fedora Project at http://docs.fedoraproject.org/install-guide/.
20
Introduction
Introduction
Welcome to the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Installation Guide.
HT ML, PDF, and EPUB versions of the guides are available online at
https://access.redhat.com/knowledge/docs/Red_Hat_Enterprise_Linux/.
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 Release Notes
Although this manual reflects the most current information possible, read the Red Hat Enterprise
Linux 6 Release Notes for information that may not have been available prior to the
documentation being finalized. You can find the Release Notes on the Red Hat Enterprise Linux
DVD, online at https://access.redhat.com/knowledge/docs/Red_Hat_Enterprise_Linux/, or in the
/usr/share/doc/redhat-release-notes-6variant/ directory after installation, where
variant is Client, Com puteNode, Server, or Workstation.
1. What's New in this Edition?
Be sure to review the Appendix I, Revision History for features and bug fixes for this manual.
2. Architecture-specific Information
T his manual is divided into different sections:
Part I, “ x86, AMD64, and Intel 64 — Installation and Booting”, Part II, “IBM POWER Architecture Installation and Booting”, and Part III, “IBM System z Architecture - Installation and Booting” are
architecture specific, and give instructions on installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 with specific
reference to 32- and 64-bit Intel and AMD systems, IBM POWER-based systems, and IBM System z
architecture systems, respectively.
Part IV, “Advanced installation options” covers more advanced methods of installing Red Hat Enterprise
Linux, including: boot options, installing without media, installing through VNC, and using kickstart to
automate the installation process.
Part V, “After installation” deals with a number of common tasks, covers finalizing the installation and, as
well as some installation-related tasks that you might perform at some time in the future. T hese include
using a Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation disk to rescue a damaged system, upgrading to a new
version of Red Hat Enterprise Linux, and removing Red Hat Enterprise Linux from your computer.
Part VI, “T echnical appendixes” does not contain procedures, but provides technical background that
you might find helpful to understand the options that Red Hat Enterprise Linux offers you at various
points in the installation process.
3. Installation in Virtualized Environments
Virtualization is a broad computing term for running software, usually operating systems, concurrently
and isolated from other programs on one system. Virtualization uses a hypervisor, a software layer that
controls hardware and provides guest operating systems with access to underlying hardware. T he
hypervisor allows multiple operating systems to run on the same physical system by giving the guest
operating system virtualized hardware.
You can install Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 as a fully virtualized guest on a 64-bit x86 host system or in a
logical partition (LPAR) on a POWER or IBM System z system.
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 Installation Guide
21
For more information about installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 in a virtualized environment on a 64-bit
x86 host system, refer to "Part II. Installation" in the Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 Virtualization Guide,
available from http://docs.redhat.com/. For more information about installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 in
a virtualized environment under PowerVM on IBM System p, refer to PowerVM Virtualization on IBM
System p: Introduction and Configuration, available from http://publibb.boulder.ibm.com/abstracts/sg247940.html. For more information about installing Red Hat Enterprise
Linux 6 in a virtualized environment under z/VM on System z, refer to Part III, “IBM System z Architecture
- Installation and Booting” in this guide.
4. More to Come
T he Red Hat Enterprise Linux Installation Guide is part of Red Hat's ongoing commitment to provide
useful and timely support and information to Red Hat Enterprise Linux users.
5. Where to Find Other Manuals
Red Hat Enterprise Linux manuals are available online at
https://access.redhat.com/knowledge/docs/Red_Hat_Enterprise_Linux/.
In addition to this manual, which covers installation, the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Deployment Guide
contains further information on system administration and security.
22
Chapter 1. Obtaining Red Hat Enterprise Linux
Chapter 1. Obtaining Red Hat Enterprise Linux
If you have a Red Hat subscription, you can download ISO image files of the Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6
installation DVD from the Software & Download Center that is part of the Red Hat customer portal. If you
do not already have a subscription, either purchase one or obtain a free evaluation subscription from the
Software & Download Center at https://access.redhat.com/downloads.
If you have a subscription or evaluation subscription, follow these steps to obtain the Red Hat Enterprise
Linux 6 ISO image files:
1. Visit the customer portal at https://access.redhat.com/login and enter your Login and Password.
2. Click Downloads to visit the Software & Download Center.
3. In the Red Hat Enterprise Linux area, click the Download your software link to obtain a list of
all currently supported Red Hat Enterprise Linux products.
4. Select a version of Red Hat Enterprise Linux and click on the link to that version. Note that you
only need to select the most current version of the product; each release is a complete, functional
version of the operating system and does not require previous releases. Ensure that you select a
server release if you plan to deploy Red Hat Enterprise Linux to a server, or a client release if
you plan to deploy to a client machine. Choose between 32-bit and 64-bit versions.
5. Each version of Red Hat Enterprise Linux is available as an ISO image file for a single DVD,
around 3 GB – 4 GB in size.
Figure 1.1. Selecting ISO Image Files
T his same page contains links to ISO image files for the source code for Red Hat Enterprise
Linux. You do not need to download the source code to install the operating system.
T he page also contains a link to boot.iso. Click on this link to download an ISO image named
rhel-variant-version-architecture-boot.iso which is around 200 MB in size. You can
use this image file to produce minimal boot media — bootable CDs, DVDs, or USB devices with
which you can boot a system when you plan to complete the installation from an installation
source available on a hard disk or over a network connection. Refer to Section 2.2, “Making
Minimal Boot Media” for information on how to use the rhel-variant-version-architectureboot.iso file.
Note that the link to every image file is accompanied by MD5 and SHA-256 checksums. After your
download completes, use a checksum tool such as md5sum or sha256sum to generate a
checksum on your local copy of the file. If the value that you generate locally matches the value
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 Installation Guide
23
published on the website, you know that the image file is genuine and uncorrupted.
After you download an ISO image file of the installation DVD from the Red Hat Network, you can:
burn it to a physical DVD (refer to Section 2.1, “Making an installation DVD”).
use it to prepare minimal boot media (refer to Section 2.2, “Making Minimal Boot Media”).
place it on a server to prepare for installations over a network (refer to Section 4.1, “Preparing for a
Network Installation” for x86 architectures, Section 12.1, “Preparing for a Network Installation” for
POWER or Section 19.1, “Preparing for a Network Installation” for IBM System z).
place it on a hard drive to prepare for installation to use the hard drive as an installation source
(refer to Section 4.2, “Preparing for a Hard Drive Installation” for x86 architectures, Section 12.2,
“Preparing for a Hard Drive Installation” for POWER or Section 19.2, “Preparing for a Hard Drive
Installation” for IBM System z).
place it on a pre-boot execution environment (PXE) server to prepare for installations using PXE boot
(refer to Chapter 30, Setting Up an Installation Server).
24
Chapter 2. Making Media
Chapter 2. Making Media
Use the methods described in this section to create the following types of installation and boot media:
an installation DVD
a minimal boot CD or DVD that can boot the installer
a USB flash drive to boot the installer
T he following table indicates the types of boot and installation media available for different architectures
and notes the image file that you need to produce the media.
T able 2.1. Boot and installation media
Architecture
Installation DVD
Boot CD or boot DVD
Boot USB flash drive
BIOS-based 32-bit
x86
x86 DVD ISO
image file
rhel-variant-versioni386-boot.iso
rhel-variant-versioni386-boot.iso
UEFI-based 32-bit
x86
Not available
BIOS-based
AMD64 and Intel 64
x86_64 DVD ISO
image file (to install
64-bit operating
system) or x86
DVD ISO image file
(to install 32-bit
operating system)
rhel-variant-versionx86_64 boot.iso
orrhel-variant-versioni386-boot.iso
rhel-variant-versionx86_64 boot.iso or
rhel-variant-versioni386-boot.iso
UEFI-based AMD64
and Intel 64
x86_64 DVD ISO
image file
rhel-variant-versionx86_64 boot.iso
efidisk.im g (from
x86_64 DVD ISO image
file)
POWER (64-bit
only)
ppc DVD ISO
image file
rhel-server-versionppc64 -boot.iso
Not available
System z
s390 DVD ISO
image file
Not available
Not available
Where variant is the variant of Red Hat Enterprise Linux (for example, server or
workstation) and version is the latest version number (for example, 6.3).
2.1. Making an installation DVD
You can make an installation DVD using the CD or DVD burning software on your computer.
T he exact series of steps that produces a DVD from an ISO image file varies greatly from computer to
computer, depending on the operating system and disc burning software installed. Use this procedure
as a general guide. You might be able to omit certain steps on your computer, or might have to perform
some of the steps in a different order from the order described here.
Make sure that your disc burning software is capable of burning discs from image files. Although this is
true of most disc burning software, exceptions exist.
In particular, note that the disc burning feature built into Windows XP and Windows Vista cannot burn
DVDs; and that earlier Windows operating systems did not have any disc burning capability installed by
default at all. T herefore, if your computer has a Windows operating system prior to Windows 7 installed
on it, you need a separate piece of software for this task. Examples of popular disc burning software for
Windows that you might already have on your computer include Nero Burning ROM and Roxio
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 Installation Guide
25
Creator.
Most widely used disc burning software for Linux, such as Brasero and K3b has the built-in ability to
burn discs from ISO image files.
1. Download an ISO image file of the Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 installation DVD as described in
Chapter 1, Obtaining Red Hat Enterprise Linux.
Refer to T able 2.1, “Boot and installation media” to choose an ISO image file appropriate to your
system. Separate ISO image files are available for:
32-bit x86 (BIOS only)
64-bit x86 (BIOS and UEFI)
64-bit POWER
IBM System z
2. Insert a blank, writable DVD into your computer's DVD burner. On some computers, a window
opens and displays various options when you insert the disc. If you see a window like this, look for
an option to launch your chosen disc burning program. If you do not see an option like this, close
the window and launch the program manually.
3. Launch your disc burning program. On some computers, you can do this by right-clicking (or
control-clicking) on the image file and selecting a menu option with a label like Copy im age to
DVD, or Copy CD or DVD im age. Other computers might provide you with a menu option to
launch your chosen disc burning program, either directly or with an option like Open With. If none
of these options are available on your computer, launch the program from an icon on your
desktop, in a menu of applications such as the Start menu on Windows operating systems.
4. In your disc burning program, select the option to burn a disc from an image file. For example, in
Brasero, this option is called Burn image.
Note that you can skip this step when using certain disc burning software.
5. Browse to the ISO image file that you downloaded previously and select it for burning.
6. Click the button that starts the burning process.
On some computers, the option to burn a disc from an ISO file is integrated into a context menu in the file
browser. For example, when you right-click an ISO file on a computer with a Linux or UNIX operating
system that runs the GNOME desktop, the Nautilus file browser presents you with the option to Write
to disk.
2.2. Making Minimal Boot Media
A piece of minimal boot media is a CD, DVD, or USB flash drive that contains the software to boot the
system and launch the installation program, but which does not contain the software that must be
transferred to the system to create a Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation.
Use minimal boot media:
to boot the system to install Red Hat Enterprise Linux over a network
to boot the system to install Red Hat Enterprise Linux from a hard drive
to use a kickstart file during installation (refer to Section 32.8.1, “Creating Kickstart Boot Media”
to commence a network or hard-drive installation or to use an anaconda update or a kickstart file
with a DVD installation.
You can use minimal boot media to start the installation process on 32-bit x86 systems, AMD64 or
Intel 64 systems, and POWER systems. T he process by which you create minimal boot media for
systems of these various types is identical except in the case of AMD64 and Intel 64 systems with UEFI
firmware interfaces — refer to Section 2.2.2, “Minimal USB boot media for UEFI-based systems”.
26
Chapter 2. Making Media
T o make minimal boot media for 32-bit x86 systems, BIOS-based AMD64 or Intel 64 systems, and
POWER systems:
1. Download the ISO image file named rhel-variant-version-architecture-boot.iso that is
available at the same location as the images of the Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 installation DVD —
refer to Chapter 1, Obtaining Red Hat Enterprise Linux.
2. Burn the .iso file to a blank CD or DVD using the same procedure detailed in Section 2.1,
“Making an installation DVD” for the installation disc.
Alternatively, transfer the .iso file to a USB device with the dd command. As the .iso file is only
around 200 MB in size, you do not need an especially large USB flash drive.
2.2.1. Minimal USB boot media for BIOS-based systems
Unusual USB Media
In a few cases with oddly formatted or partitioned USB media, image writing may fail.
Warning — These instructions could destroy data
When you perform this procedure any data on the USB flash drive is destroyed with no warning.
Make sure that you specify the correct USB flash drive, and make sure that this flash drive does
not contain any data that you want to keep.
1. Plug in your USB flash drive.
2. Become root:
su -
3. Your flash drive must have a single partition with a vfat file system. T o determine how it is
formatted, find the name of this partition and the device itself by running dm esg shortly after
connecting the drive. T he device name (similar to /dev/sdc) and the partition name (similar to
/dev/sdc1) both appear in several lines towards the end of the output.
4. Use the partition name to ensure that the file system type of the USB flash drive is vfat.
# blkid partition
You should now see a message similar to:
LABEL="LIVE" UUID="6676-27D3" TYPE="vfat"
If T YPE is anything other than vfat (for example, T YPE="iso9660"), clear the first blocks of the
USB flash drive:
# dd if=/dev/zero of=partition bs=1M count=100
5. Use the dd command to transfer the boot ISO image to the USB device:
# dd if=path/image_name.iso of=device
where path/image_name.iso is the boot ISO image file that you downloaded from the Red Hat
Customer Portal and device is the device name for the USB flash drive. Ensure you specify the
device name, not the partition name. For example:
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 Installation Guide
27
# dd if=/home/user/Downloads/RHEL6-Server-i386-boot.iso of=/dev/sdc
2.2.2. Minimal USB boot media for UEFI-based systems
Red Hat does not provide an image to produce minimal boot CDs or DVDs for UEFI-based systems. Use
a USB flash drive (as described in this section) to boot the Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 installer, or use
the installation DVD with the linux askm ethod option to boot the installer from DVD and continue
installation from a different installation source — refer to Section 3.6, “Selecting an Installation Method”.
Use the efidisk.im g file in the im ages/ directory on the Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 installation DVD
to produce a bootable USB flash drive for UEFI-based systems.
1. Download an ISO image file of the Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 installation DVD as described in
Chapter 1, Obtaining Red Hat Enterprise Linux.
2. Become root:
su -
3. Create a mount point for the ISO image file:
# mkdir /mnt/dvdiso
4. Mount the image file:
# mount DVD.iso /mnt/dvdiso -o loop
Where DVD.iso is the name of the ISO image file, for example RHEL6-Server-x86_64 DVD.iso.
5. T ransfer efidisk.im g from the ISO image file to your USB flash drive:
# dd if=/mnt/dvdiso/images/efidisk.img of=/dev/device_name
For example:
# dd if=/mnt/dvdiso/images/efidisk.img of=/dev/sdc
6. Unmount the ISO image file:
# umount /mnt/dvdiso
28
Part I. x86, AMD 64, and Intel 64 — Installation and Booting
Part I. x86, AMD64, and Intel 64 — Installation and Booting
T he Red Hat Enterprise Linux Installation Guide for Intel and AMD 32-bit and 64-bit systems discusses
the installation of Red Hat Enterprise Linux and some basic post-installation troubleshooting. For
advanced installation options, refer to Part IV, “Advanced installation options”.
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 Installation Guide
Chapter 3. Planning for Installation on the x86 Architecture
3.1. Upgrade or Install?
For information to help you determine whether to perform an upgrade or an installation refer to
Chapter 37, Upgrading Your Current System.
3.2. Is Your Hardware Compatible?
Hardware compatibility is particularly important if you have an older system or a system that you built
yourself. Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 should be compatible with most hardware in systems that were
factory built within the last two years.
However, hardware specifications change almost daily, so it is difficult to guarantee that your hardware
is 100% compatible.
One consistent requirement is your processor. Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 supports, at minimum, all 32bit and 64-bit implementations of Intel microarchitecture from P6 and onwards and AMD
microarchitecture from Athlon and onwards.
T he most recent list of supported hardware can be found at:
http://hardware.redhat.com/hcl/
3.3. Supported Installation Hardware
For installation of Red Hat Enterprise Linux on x86, AMD64, and Intel 64 systems, Red Hat supports the
following installation targets:
Hard drives connected by a standard internal interface, such as SCSI, SAT A, or SAS
BIOS/firmware RAID devices
Fibre Channel Host Bus Adapters and multipath devices are also supported. Vendor-provided drivers
may be required for certain hardware.
Red Hat does not support installation to USB drives or SD memory cards.
Red Hat also supports installations that use the following virtualization technologies:
Xen Block on Intel in Xen virtual machines.
VirtIO on Intel in KVM virtual machines.
3.4. RAID and Other Disk Devices
29
30
Chapter 3. Planning for Installation on the x86 Architecture
Important — Systems with Intel BIOS RAID sets
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 uses mdraid instead of dmraid for installation onto Intel BIOS RAID
sets. T hese sets are detected automatically, and devices with Intel ISW metadata are recognized
as mdraid instead of dmraid. Note that the device node names of any such devices under mdraid
are different from their device node names under dmraid. T herefore, special precautions are
necessary when you migrate systems with Intel BIOS RAID sets.
Local modifications to /etc/fstab, /etc/crypttab or other configuration files which refer to
devices by their device node names will not work in Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6. Before migrating
these files, you must therefore edit them to replace device node paths with device UUIDs instead.
You can find the UUIDs of devices with the blkid command.
3.4 .1. Hardware RAID
RAID, or Redundant Array of Independent Disks, allows a group, or array, of drives to act as a single
device. Configure any RAID functions provided by the mainboard of your computer, or attached controller
cards, before you begin the installation process. Each active RAID array appears as one drive within
Red Hat Enterprise Linux.
On systems with more than one hard drive you may configure Red Hat Enterprise Linux to operate
several of the drives as a Linux RAID array without requiring any additional hardware.
3.4 .2. Software RAID
You can use the Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation program to create Linux software RAID arrays,
where RAID functions are controlled by the operating system rather than dedicated hardware. T hese
functions are explained in detail in Section 9.15, “ Creating a Custom Layout or Modifying the Default
Layout ”.
3.4 .3. FireWire and USB Disks
Some FireWire and USB hard disks may not be recognized by the Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation
system. If configuration of these disks at installation time is not vital, disconnect them to avoid any
confusion.
Post-installation Usage
You can connect and configure external FireWire and USB hard disks after installation. Most such
devices are recognized by the kernel and available for use at that time.
3.5. Do You Have Enough Disk Space?
Nearly every modern-day operating system (OS) uses disk partitions, and Red Hat Enterprise Linux is no
exception. When you install Red Hat Enterprise Linux, you may have to work with disk partitions. If you
have not worked with disk partitions before (or need a quick review of the basic concepts), refer to
Appendix A, An Introduction to Disk Partitions before proceeding.
T he disk space used by Red Hat Enterprise Linux must be separate from the disk space used by other
OSes you may have installed on your system, such as Windows, OS/2, or even a different version of
Linux. For x86, AMD64, and Intel 64 systems, at least two partitions (/ and swap) must be dedicated to
Red Hat Enterprise Linux.
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 Installation Guide
31
Before you start the installation process, you must
have enough unpartitioned[1 ] disk space for the installation of Red Hat Enterprise Linux, or
have one or more partitions that may be deleted, thereby freeing up enough disk space to install Red
Hat Enterprise Linux.
T o gain a better sense of how much space you really need, refer to the recommended partitioning sizes
discussed in Section 9.15.5, “Recommended Partitioning Scheme”.
If you are not sure that you meet these conditions, or if you want to know how to create free disk space
for your Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation, refer to Appendix A, An Introduction to Disk Partitions.
3.6. Selecting an Installation Method
What type of installation method do you wish to use? T he following installation methods are available:
DVD
If you have a DVD drive and the Red Hat Enterprise Linux DVD you can use this method. Refer
to Section 8.3.1, “Installing from DVD”, for DVD installation instructions.
If you booted the installation from a piece of media other than the installation DVD, you can
specify the DVD as the installation source with the linux askm ethod or linux
repo=cdrom :device:/device boot option, or by selecting Local CD/DVD on the
Installation Method menu (refer to Section 8.3, “Installation Method”).
Hard Drive
If you have copied the Red Hat Enterprise Linux ISO images to a local hard drive, you can use
this method. You need a boot CD-ROM (use the linux askm ethod or linux
repo=hd:device:/path boot option), or by selecting Hard drive on the Installation
Method menu (refer to Section 8.3, “Installation Method”). Refer to Section 8.3.2, “Installing from
a Hard Drive”, for hard drive installation instructions.
NFS
If you are installing from an NFS server using ISO images or a mirror image of Red Hat
Enterprise Linux, you can use this method. You need a boot CD-ROM (use the linux
askm ethod or linux repo=nfs:server :options:/path boot option, or the NFS
directory option on the Installation Method menu described in Section 8.3, “Installation
Method”). Refer to Section 8.3.4, “Installing via NFS” for network installation instructions. Note
that NFS installations may also be performed in GUI mode.
URL
If you are installing directly from an HT T P or HT T PS (Web) server or an FT P server, use this
method. You need a boot CD-ROM (use the linux askm ethod, linux
repo=ftp://user:[email protected] host/path, or linux repo=http://host/path boot
option, or linux repo=https://host/path boot option,or the URL option on the
Installation Method menu described in Section 8.3, “Installation Method”). Refer to
Section 8.3.5, “Installing via FT P, HT T P, or HT T PS”, for FT P, HT T P, and HT T PS installation
instructions.
32
Chapter 3. Planning for Installation on the x86 Architecture
If you booted the distribution DVD and did not use the alternate installation source option askm ethod,
the next stage loads automatically from the DVD. Proceed to Section 8.2, “Language Selection”.
DVD Activity
If you boot from a Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation DVD, the installation program loads its
next stage from that disc. T his happens regardless of which installation method you choose,
unless you eject the disc before you proceed. T he installation program still downloads package
data from the source you choose.
3.7. Choose a boot method
You can use several methods to boot Red Hat Enterprise Linux.
Installing from a DVD requires that you have purchased a Red Hat Enterprise Linux product, you have a
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 DVD, and you have a DVD drive on a system that supports booting from it.
Refer to Chapter 2, Making Media for instructions to make an installation DVD.
Your BIOS may need to be changed to allow booting from your DVD/CD-ROM drive. For more information
about changing your BIOS, refer to Section 7.1.1, “Booting the Installation Program on x86, AMD64, and
Intel 64 Systems”.
Other than booting from an installation DVD, you can also boot the Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation
program from minimal boot media in the form of a bootable CD or USB flash drive. After you boot the
system with a piece of minimal boot media, you complete the installation from a different installation
source, such as a local hard drive or a location on a network. Refer to Section 2.2, “Making Minimal Boot
Media” for instructions on making boot CDs and USB flash drives.
Finally, you can boot the installer over the network from a preboot execution environment (PXE) server.
Refer to Chapter 30, Setting Up an Installation Server. Again, after you boot the system, you complete
the installation from a different installation source, such as a local hard drive or a location on a network.
[1] Unp artitio ned d is k s p ac e means that availab le d is k s p ac e o n the hard d rives yo u are ins talling to has no t b een d ivid ed into
s ec tio ns fo r d ata. When yo u p artitio n a d is k, eac h p artitio n b ehaves like a s ep arate d is k d rive.
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 Installation Guide
33
Chapter 4. Preparing for Installation
4.1. Preparing for a Network Installation
Note
Make sure no installation DVD (or any other type of DVD or CD) is in your system's CD or DVD
drive if you are performing a network-based installation. Having a DVD or CD in the drive might
cause unexpected errors.
Ensure that you have boot media available on CD, DVD, or a USB storage device such as a flash drive.
T he Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation medium must be available for either a network installation (via
NFS, FT P, HT T P, or HT T PS) or installation via local storage. Use the following steps if you are
performing an NFS, FT P, HT T P, or HT T PS installation.
T he NFS, FT P, HT T P, or HT T PS server to be used for installation over the network must be a separate,
network-accessible server. It must provide the complete contents of the installation DVD-ROM.
Note
anaconda has the ability to test the integrity of the installation media. It works with the DVD, hard
drive ISO, and NFS ISO installation methods. We recommend that you test all installation media
before starting the installation process, and before reporting any installation-related bugs (many
of the bugs reported are actually due to improperly-burned DVDs). T o use this test, type the
following command at the boot: prompt:
linux mediacheck
Note
T he public directory used to access the installation files over FT P, NFS, HT T P, or HT T PS is
mapped to local storage on the network server. For example, the local directory
/var/www/inst/rhel6 on the network server can be accessed as
http://network.server.com /inst/rhel6.
In the following examples, the directory on the installation staging server that will contain the
installation files will be specified as /location/of/disk/space. T he directory that will be made
publicly available via FT P, NFS, HT T P, or HT T PS will be specified as
/publicly_available_directory. For example, /location/of/disk/space may be a
directory you create called /var/isos. /publicly_available_directory might be
/var/www/htm l/rhel6, for an HT T P install.
In the following, you will require an ISO image. An ISO image is a file containing an exact copy of the
content of a DVD. T o create an ISO image from a DVD use the following command:
dd if=/dev/dvd of=/path_to_image/name_of_image.iso
where dvd is your DVD drive device, name_of_image is the name you give to the resulting ISO image
file, and path_to_image is the path to the location on your system where the resulting ISO image will be
34
Chapter 4. Preparing for Installation
stored.
T o copy the files from the installation DVD to a Linux instance, which acts as an installation staging
server, continue with either Section 4.1.1, “Preparing for FT P, HT T P, and HT T PS installation” or
Section 4.1.2, “Preparing for an NFS installation”.
4 .1.1. Preparing for FT P, HT T P, and HT T PS installation
Extract the files from the ISO image of the installation DVD and place them in a directory that is shared
over FT P, HT T P, or HT T PS.
Next, make sure that the directory is shared via FT P, HT T P, or HT T PS, and verify client access. T est to
see whether the directory is accessible from the server itself, and then from another machine on the
same subnet to which you will be installing.
4 .1.2. Preparing for an NFS installation
For NFS installation it is not necessary to extract all the files from the ISO image. It is sufficient to make
the ISO image itself, the install.im g file, and optionally the product.im g file available on the
network server via NFS.
1. T ransfer the ISO image to the NFS exported directory. On a Linux system, run:
mv /path_to_image/name_of_image.iso /publicly_available_directory/
where path_to_image is the path to the ISO image file, name_of_image is the name of the ISO
image file, and publicly_available_directory is a directory that is available over NFS or that
you intend to make available over NFS.
2. Use a SHA256 checksum program to verify that the ISO image that you copied is intact. Many
SHA256 checksum programs are available for various operating systems. On a Linux system, run:
$ sha256sum name_of_image.iso
where name_of_image is the name of the ISO image file. T he SHA256 checksum program
displays a string of 64 characters called a hash. Compare this hash to the hash displayed for this
particular image on the Download Software page on the Red Hat Network (refer to Chapter 1,
Obtaining Red Hat Enterprise Linux). T he two hashes should be identical.
3. Copy the im ages/ directory from inside the ISO image to the same directory in which you stored
the ISO image file itself. Enter the following commands:
mount -t iso9660 /path_to_image/name_of_image.iso /mount_point -o loop,ro
cp -pr /mount_point/images /publicly_available_directory/
umount /mount_point
where path_to_image is the path to the ISO image file, name_of_image is the name of the ISO
image file, and mount_point is a mount point on which to mount the image while you copy files
from the image. For example:
mount -t iso9660 /var/isos/RHEL6.iso /mnt/tmp -o loop,ro
cp -pr /mnt/tmp/images /var/isos/
umount /mnt/tmp
T he ISO image file and an im ages/ directory are now present, side-by-side, in the same
directory.
4. Verify that the im ages/ directory contains at least the install.im g file, without which
installation cannot proceed. Optionally, the im ages/ directory should contain the product.im g
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 Installation Guide
35
file, without which only the packages for a Minim al installation will be available during the
package group selection stage (refer to Section 9.18, “Package Group Selection”).
Important — content of the images/ directory
install.im g and product.im g must be the only files in the im ages/ directory.
5. Ensure that an entry for the publicly available directory exists in the /etc/exports file on the
network server so that the directory is available via NFS.
T o export a directory read-only to a specific system, use:
/publicly_available_directory client.ip.address (ro)
T o export a directory read-only to all systems, use:
/publicly_available_directory * (ro)
6. On the network server, start the NFS daemon (on a Red Hat Enterprise Linux system, use
/sbin/service nfs start). If NFS is already running, reload the configuration file (on a Red
Hat Enterprise Linux system use /sbin/service nfs reload).
7. Be sure to test the NFS share following the directions in the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Deployment
Guide. Refer to your NFS documentation for details on starting and stopping the NFS server.
Note
anaconda has the ability to test the integrity of the installation media. It works with the DVD, hard
drive ISO, and NFS ISO installation methods. We recommend that you test all installation media
before starting the installation process, and before reporting any installation-related bugs (many
of the bugs reported are actually due to improperly-burned DVDs). T o use this test, type the
following command at the boot: prompt:
linux mediacheck
4.2. Preparing for a Hard Drive Installation
Note — Not all file systems supported
Hard drive installations only work from ext2, ext3, ext4, or FAT file systems. You cannot use a
hard drives formatted for any other file system as an installation source for Red Hat Enterprise
Linux.
T o check the file system of a hard drive partition on a Windows operating system, use the Disk
Management tool. T o check the file system of a hard drive partition on a Linux operating system,
use the fdisk tool.
Cannot Install from LVM Partitions
You cannot use ISO files on partitions controlled by LVM (Logical Volume Management).
36
Chapter 4. Preparing for Installation
Use this option to install Red Hat Enterprise Linux on systems without a DVD drive or network
connection.
Hard drive installations use the following files:
an ISO image of the installation DVD. An ISO image is a file that contains an exact copy of the
content of a DVD.
an install.im g file extracted from the ISO image.
optionally, a product.im g file extracted from the ISO image.
With these files present on a hard drive, you can choose Hard drive as the installation source when
you boot the installation program (refer to Section 8.3, “Installation Method”).
Ensure that you have boot media available on CD, DVD, or a USB storage device such as a flash drive.
T o prepare a hard drive as an installation source, follow these steps:
1. Obtain an ISO image of the Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation DVD (refer to Chapter 1,
Obtaining Red Hat Enterprise Linux). Alternatively, if you have the DVD on physical media, you can
create an image of it with the following command on a Linux system:
dd if=/dev/dvd of=/path_to_image/name_of_image.iso
where dvd is your DVD drive device, name_of_image is the name you give to the resulting ISO
image file, and path_to_image is the path to the location on your system where the resulting ISO
image will be stored.
2. T ransfer the ISO image to the hard drive.
T he ISO image must be located on a hard drive that is either internal to the computer on which you
will install Red Hat Enterprise Linux, or on a hard drive that is attached to that computer by USB.
3. Use a SHA256 checksum program to verify that the ISO image that you copied is intact. Many
SHA256 checksum programs are available for various operating systems. On a Linux system, run:
$ sha256sum name_of_image.iso
where name_of_image is the name of the ISO image file. T he SHA256 checksum program
displays a string of 64 characters called a hash. Compare this hash to the hash displayed for this
particular image on the Download Software page on the Red Hat Network (refer to Chapter 1,
Obtaining Red Hat Enterprise Linux). T he two hashes should be identical.
4. Copy the im ages/ directory from inside the ISO image to the same directory in which you stored
the ISO image file itself. Enter the following commands:
mount -t iso9660 /path_to_image/name_of_image.iso /mount_point -o loop,ro
cp -pr /mount_point/images /publicly_available_directory/
umount /mount_point
where path_to_image is the path to the ISO image file, name_of_image is the name of the ISO
image file, and mount_point is a mount point on which to mount the image while you copy files
from the image. For example:
mount -t iso9660 /var/isos/RHEL6.iso /mnt/tmp -o loop,ro
cp -pr /mnt/tmp/images /var/isos/
umount /mnt/tmp
T he ISO image file and an im ages/ directory are now present, side-by-side, in the same
directory.
5. Verify that the im ages/ directory contains at least the install.im g file, without which
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 Installation Guide
installation cannot proceed. Optionally, the im ages/ directory should contain the product.im g
file, without which only the packages for a Minim al installation will be available during the
package group selection stage (refer to Section 9.18, “Package Group Selection”).
Important — content of the images/ directory
install.im g and product.im g must be the only files in the im ages/ directory.
Note
anaconda has the ability to test the integrity of the installation media. It works with the DVD, hard
drive ISO, and NFS ISO installation methods. We recommend that you test all installation media
before starting the installation process, and before reporting any installation-related bugs (many
of the bugs reported are actually due to improperly-burned DVDs). T o use this test, type the
following command at the boot: prompt:
linux mediacheck
37
38
Chapter 5. System Specifications List
Chapter 5. System Specifications List
T he most recent list of supported hardware can be found at http://hardware.redhat.com/hcl/.
T he installation program automatically detects and installs your computer's hardware. Although you
should make sure that your hardware meets the minimum requirements to install Red Hat Enterprise
Linux (refer to Section 3.2, “Is Your Hardware Compatible?”) you do not usually need to supply the
installation program with any specific details about your system.
However, when performing certain types of installation, some specific details might be useful or even
essential.
If you plan to use a customized partition layout, record:
T he model numbers, sizes, types, and interfaces of the hard drives attached to the system. For
example, Seagate ST 3320613AS 320 GB on SAT A0, Western Digital WD7500AAKS 750 GB on
SAT A1. T his will allow you to identify specific hard drives during the partitioning process.
If you are installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux as an additional operating system on an existing
system, record:
T he mount points of the existing partitions on the system. For example, /boot on sda1, / on
sda2, and /hom e on sdb1. T his will allow you to identify specific partitions during the partitioning
process.
If you plan to install from an image on a local hard drive:
T he hard drive and directory that holds the image.
If you plan to install from a network location, or install on an iSCSI target:
T he make and model numbers of the network adapters on your system. For example, Netgear
GA311. T his will allow you to identify adapters when manually configuring the network.
IP, DHCP, and BOOT P addresses
Netmask
Gateway IP address
One or more name server IP addresses (DNS)
If any of these networking requirements or terms are unfamiliar to you, contact your network
administrator for assistance.
If you plan to install from a network location:
T he location of the image on an FT P server, HT T P (web) server, HT T PS (web) server, or NFS
server – see Section 8.3.5, “Installing via FT P, HT T P, or HT T PS” and Section 8.3.4, “Installing via
NFS” for examples.
If you plan to install on an iSCSI target:
T he location of the iSCSI target. Depending on your network, you might also need a CHAP
username and password, and perhaps a reverse CHAP username and password – see
Section 9.6.1.1, “ Advanced Storage Options ”.
If your computer is part of a domain:
You should verify that the domain name will be supplied by the DHCP server. If not, you will need
to input the domain name manually during installation.
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 Installation Guide
39
Chapter 6. Updating drivers during installation on Intel and
AMD systems
In most cases, Red Hat Enterprise Linux already includes drivers for the devices that make up your
system. However, if your system contains hardware that has been released very recently, drivers for this
hardware might not yet be included. Sometimes, a driver update that provides support for a new device
might be available from Red Hat or your hardware vendor on a driver disc that contains rpm packages.
T ypically, the driver disc is available for download as an ISO image file.
Often, you do not need the new hardware during the installation process. For example, if you use a DVD
to install to a local hard drive, the installation will succeed even if drivers for your network card are not
available. In situations like this, complete the installation and add support for the piece of hardware
afterward — refer to Section 35.1.1, “Driver update rpm packages” for details of adding this support.
In other situations, you might want to add drivers for a device during the installation process to support a
particular configuration. For example, you might want to install drivers for a network device or a storage
adapter card to give the installer access to the storage devices that your system uses. You can use a
driver disc to add this support during installation in one of two ways:
1. place the ISO image file of the driver disc in a location accessible to the installer:
a. on a local hard drive
b. a USB flash drive
2. create a driver disc by extracting the image file onto:
a. a CD
b. a DVD
Refer to the instructions for making installation discs in Section 2.1, “Making an installation DVD”
for more information on burning ISO image files to CD or DVD.
If Red Hat, your hardware vendor, or a trusted third party told you that you will require a driver update
during the installation process, choose a method to supply the update from the methods described in
this chapter and test it before beginning the installation. Conversely, do not perform a driver update
during installation unless you are certain that your system requires it. Although installing an
unnecessary driver update will not cause harm, the presence of a driver on a system for which it was not
intended can complicate support.
6.1. Limitations of driver updates during installation
Unfortunately, some situations persist in which you cannot use a driver update to provide drivers during
installation:
Devices already in use
You cannot use a driver update to replace drivers that the installation program has already
loaded. Instead, you must complete the installation with the drivers that the installation program
loaded and update to the new drivers after installation, or, if you need the new drivers for the
installation process, consider performing an initial RAM disk driver update — refer to
Section 6.2.3, “Preparing an initial RAM disk update”.
Devices with an equivalent device available
Because all devices of the same type are initialized together, you cannot update drivers for a
device if the installation program has loaded drivers for a similar device. For example, consider
a system that has two different network adapters, one of which has a driver update available.
T he installation program will initialize both adapters at the same time, and therefore, you will not
40
Chapter 6. Updating drivers during installation on Intel and AMD systems
T he installation program will initialize both adapters at the same time, and therefore, you will not
be able to use this driver update. Again, complete the installation with the drivers loaded by the
installation program and update to the new drivers after installation, or use an initial RAM disk
driver update.
6.2. Preparing for a driver update during installation
If a driver update is necessary and available for your hardware, Red Hat or a trusted third party such as
the hardware vendor will typically provide it in the form of an image file in ISO format. Some methods of
performing a driver update require you to make the image file available to the installation program, while
others require you to use the image file to make a driver update disk:
Methods that use the image file itself
local hard drive
USB flash drive
Methods that use a driver update disk produced from an image file
CD
DVD
Choose a method to provide the driver update, and refer to Section 6.2.1, “Preparing to use a driver
update image file”, Section 6.2.2, “Preparing a driver disc” or Section 6.2.3, “Preparing an initial RAM disk
update”. Note that you can use a USB storage device either to provide an image file, or as a driver
update disk.
6.2.1. Preparing to use a driver update image file
6.2.1.1. Preparing to use an image file on local storage
T o make the ISO image file available on local storage, such as a hard drive or USB flash drive, you must
first determine whether you want to install the updates automatically or select them manually.
For manual installations, copy the file onto the storage device. You can rename the file if you find it
helpful to do so, but you must not change the filename extension, which must remain .iso. In the
following example, the file is named dd.iso:
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 Installation Guide
41
Figure 6.1. Content of a USB flash drive holding a driver update image file
Note that if you use this method, the storage device will contain only a single file. T his differs from driver
discs on formats such as CD and DVD, which contain many files. T he ISO image file contains all of the
files that would normally be on a driver disc.
Refer to Section 6.3.2, “Let the installer prompt you for a driver update” and Section 6.3.3, “Use a boot
option to specify a driver update disk” to learn how to select the driver update manually during
installation.
For automatic installations, you will need to extract the ISO to the root directory of the storage device
rather than copy it. Copying the ISO is only effective for manual installations. You must also change the
file system label of the device to OEMDRV.
T he installation program will then automatically examine the extracted ISO for driver updates and load
any that it detects. T his behavior is controlled by the dlabel=on boot option, which is enabled by
default. Refer to Section 6.3.1, “Let the installer automatically find a driver update disk”.
6.2.2. Preparing a driver disc
You can create a driver update disc on CD or DVD.
6.2.2.1. Creating a driver update disk on CD or DVD
These instructions assume that you use the GNOME desktop
CD/DVD Creator is part of the GNOME desktop. If you use a different Linux desktop, or a
different operating system altogether, you will need to use another piece of software to create the
CD or DVD. T he steps will be generally similar.
Make sure that the software that you choose can create CDs or DVDs from image files. While this
is true of most CD and DVD burning software, exceptions exist. Look for a button or menu entry
labeled burn from im age or similar. If your software lacks this feature, or you do not select it,
the resulting disk will hold only the image file itself, instead of the contents of the image file.
1. Use the desktop file manager to locate the ISO image file of the driver disc, supplied to you by Red
Hat or your hardware vendor.
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Chapter 6. Updating drivers during installation on Intel and AMD systems
Figure 6.2. A typical .iso file displayed in a file manager window
2. Right-click on this file and choose Write to disc. You will see a window similar to the following:
Figure 6.3. CD/DVD Creator's Write to Disc dialog
3. Click the Write button. If a blank disc is not already in the drive, CD/DVD Creator will prompt
you to insert one.
After you burn a driver update disk CD or DVD, verify that the disk was created successfully by inserting
it into your system and browsing to it using the file manager. You should see a single file named rhdd3
and a directory named rpm s:
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 Installation Guide
43
Figure 6.4 . Contents of a typical driver update disc on CD or DVD
If you see only a single file ending in .iso, then you have not created the disk correctly and should try
again. Ensure that you choose an option similar to burn from im age if you use a Linux desktop other
than GNOME or if you use a different operating system.
Refer to Section 6.3.2, “Let the installer prompt you for a driver update” and Section 6.3.3, “Use a boot
option to specify a driver update disk” to learn how to use the driver update disk during installation.
6.2.3. Preparing an initial RAM disk update
Advanced procedure
T his is an advanced procedure that you should consider only if you cannot perform a driver
update with any other method.
T he Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation program can load updates for itself early in the installation
process from a RAM disk — an area of your computer's memory that temporarily behaves as if it were a
disk. You can use this same capability to load driver updates. T o perform a driver update during
installation, your computer must be able to boot from a preboot execution environment (PXE) server, and
you must have a PXE server available on your network. Refer to Chapter 30, Setting Up an Installation
Server for instructions on using PXE during installation.
T o make the driver update available on your PXE server:
1. Place the driver update image file on your PXE server. Usually, you would do this by downloading
it to the PXE server from a location on the Internet specified by Red Hat or your hardware vendor.
Names of driver update image files end in .iso.
2. Copy the driver update image file into the /tm p/initrd_update directory.
3. Rename the driver update image file to dd.im g.
4. At the command line, change into the /tm p/initrd_update directory, type the following
command, and press Enter:
find . | cpio --quiet -o -H newc | gzip -9 >/tmp/initrd_update.img
5. Copy the file /tm p/initrd_update.im g into the directory the holds the target that you want to
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Chapter 6. Updating drivers during installation on Intel and AMD systems
use for installation. T his directory is placed under the /tftpboot/pxelinux/ directory. For
example, /tftpboot/pxelinux/r6c/ might hold the PXE target for Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6
Client.
6. Edit the /tftpboot/pxelinux/pxelinux.cfg/default file to include an entry that includes
the initial RAM disk update that you just created, in the following format:
label target-dd
kernel target/vmlinuz
append initrd=target/initrd.img,target/dd.img
Where target is the target that you want to use for installation.
Refer to Section 6.3.4, “Select a PXE target that includes a driver update” to learn how to use an initial
RAM disk update during installation.
Example 6.1. Preparing an initial RAM disk update from a driver update image file
In this example, driver_update.iso is a driver update image file that you downloaded from the
Internet to a directory on your PXE server. T he target that you want to PXE boot from is located in
/tftpboot/pxelinux/r6c/
At the command line, change to the directory that holds the file and enter the following commands:
$
$
$
$
cp driver_update.iso /tmp/initrd_update/dd.img
cd /tmp/initrd_update
find . | cpio --quiet -c -o -H newc | gzip -9 >/tmp/initrd_update.img
cp /tmp/initrd_update.img /tftpboot/pxelinux/r6c/dd.img
Edit the /tftpboot/pxelinux/pxelinux.cfg/default file and include the following entry:
label r6c-dd
kernel r6c/vmlinuz
append initrd=r6c/initrd.img,r6c/dd.img
6.3. Performing a driver update during installation
You can perform a driver update during installation in the following ways:
let the installer automatically find a driver update disk.
let the installer prompt you for a driver update.
use a boot option to specify a driver update disk.
6.3.1. Let the installer automatically find a driver update disk
Attach a block device with the filesystem label OEMDRV before starting the installation process. T he
installer will automatically examine the device and load any driver updates that it detects and will not
prompt you during the process. Refer to Section 6.2.1.1, “Preparing to use an image file on local storage”
to prepare a storage device for the installer to find.
6.3.2. Let the installer prompt you for a driver update
1. Begin the installation normally for whatever method you have chosen. If the installer cannot load
drivers for a piece of hardware that is essential for the installation process (for example, if it
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 Installation Guide
45
cannot detect any network or storage controllers), it prompts you to insert a driver update disk:
Figure 6.5. T he no driver found dialog
2. Select Use a driver disk and refer to Section 6.4, “Specifying the location of a driver update
image file or driver update disk”.
6.3.3. Use a boot option to specify a driver update disk
Choose this method only for completely new drivers
T his method only works to introduce completely new drivers, not to update existing drivers.
1. T ype linux dd at the boot prompt at the start of the installation process and press Enter. T he
installer prompts you to confirm that you have a driver disk:
Figure 6.6. T he driver disk prompt
2. Insert the driver update disk that you created on CD, DVD, or USB flash drive and select Yes. T he
installer examines the storage devices that it can detect. If there is only one possible location that
could hold a driver disk (for example, the installer detects the presence of a DVD drive, but no
other storage devices) it will automatically load any driver updates that it finds at this location.
If the installer finds more than one location that could hold a driver update, it prompts you to
specify the location of the update. Refer to to Section 6.4, “Specifying the location of a driver
update image file or driver update disk” .
6.3.4 . Select a PXE target that includes a driver update
1. Select network boot in your computer's BIOS or boot menu. T he procedure to specify this
option varies widely among different computers. Consult your hardware documentation or the
hardware vendor for specifics relevant to your computer.
2. In the preboot execution environment (PXE), choose the boot target that you prepared on your
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Chapter 6. Updating drivers during installation on Intel and AMD systems
PXE server. For example, if you labeled this environment r6c-dd in the
/tftpboot/pxelinux/pxelinux.cfg/default file on your PXE server, type r6c-dd at the
prompt and press Enter.
Refer to Section 6.2.3, “Preparing an initial RAM disk update” and Chapter 30, Setting Up an Installation
Server for instructions on using PXE to perform an update during installation. Note that this is an
advanced procedure — do not attempt it unless other methods of performing a driver update fail.
6.4. Specifying the location of a driver update image file or driver
update disk
If the installer detects more than one possible device that could hold a driver update, it prompts you to
select the correct device. If you are not sure which option represents the device on which the driver
update is stored, try the various options in order until you find the correct one.
Figure 6.7. Selecting a driver disk source
If the device that you choose contains no suitable update media, the installer will prompt you to make
another choice.
If you made a driver update disk on CD, DVD, or USB flash drive, the installer now loads the driver
update. However, if the device that you selected is a type of device that could contain more than one
partition (whether the device currently has more than one partition or not), the installer might prompt you
to select the partition that holds the driver update.
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Figure 6.8. Selecting a driver disk partition
T he installer prompts you to specify which file contains the driver update:
Figure 6.9. Selecting an ISO image
Expect to see these screens if you stored the driver update on an internal hard drive or on a USB
storage device. You should not see them if the driver update is on a CD or DVD.
Regardless of whether you are providing a driver update in the form of an image file or with a driver
update disk, the installer now copies the appropriate update files into a temporary storage area (located
in system RAM and not on disk). T he installer might ask whether you would like to use additional driver
updates. If you select Yes, you can load additional updates in turn. When you have no further driver
updates to load, select No. If you stored the driver update on removable media, you can now safely eject
or disconnect the disk or device. T he installer no longer requires the driver update, and you can re-use
the media for other purposes.
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Chapter 7. Booting the Installer
Chapter 7. Booting the Installer
Important — UEFI for 32-bit x86 systems
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 does not support UEFI for 32-bit x86 systems.
Important — UEFI for AMD64 and Intel 64
Note that the boot configurations of UEFI and BIOS differ significantly from each other. T herefore,
the installed system must boot using the same firmware that was used during installation. You
cannot install the operating system on a system that uses BIOS and then boot this installation on
a system that uses UEFI.
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 supports version 2.2 of the UEFI specification. Hardware that
supports version 2.3 of the UEFI specification or later should boot and operate with Red Hat
Enterprise Linux 6, but the additional functionality defined by these later specifications will not be
available. T he UEFI specifications are available from http://www.uefi.org/specs/agreement/
T o start the installation program from a Red Hat Enterprise Linux DVD or from minimal boot media, follow
this procedure:
1. Disconnect any external FireWire or USB disks that you do not need for installation. Refer to
Section 3.4.3, “ FireWire and USB Disks ” for more information.
2. Power on your computer system.
3. Insert the media in your computer.
4. Power off your computer with the boot media still inside.
5. Power on your computer system.
You might need to press a specific key or combination of keys to boot from the media. On most
computers, a message appears briefly on the screen very soon after you turn on the computer.
T ypically, it is worded something like Press F10 to select boot device, although the specific
wording and the key that you must press varies widely from computer to computer. Consult the
documentation for your computer or motherboard, or seek support from the hardware manufacturer or
vendor.
If your computer does not allow you to select a boot device as it starts up, you might need to configure
your system's Basic Input/Output System (BIOS) to boot from the media.
T o change your BIOS settings on an x86, AMD64, or Intel 64 system, watch the instructions provided on
your display when your computer first boots. A line of text appears, telling you which key to press to
enter the BIOS settings.
Once you have entered your BIOS setup program, find the section where you can alter your boot
sequence. T he default is often C, A or A, C (depending on whether you boot from your hard drive [C] or a
diskette drive [A]). Change this sequence so that the DVD is first in your boot order and that C or A
(whichever is your typical boot default) is second. T his instructs the computer to first look at the DVD
drive for bootable media; if it does not find bootable media on the DVD drive, it then checks your hard
drive or diskette drive.
Save your changes before exiting the BIOS. For more information, refer to the documentation that came
with your system.
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Note — Aborting the Installation
T o abort the installation, either press Ctrl +Alt+Del or power off your computer with the
power switch. You may abort the installation process without consequence at any time prior to
selecting Write changes to disk on the Write partitioning to disk screen. Red Hat
Enterprise Linux makes no permanent changes to your computer until that point. Please be aware
that stopping the installation after partitioning has begun can leave your computer unusable.
7.1. Starting the Installation Program
Important — UEFI for 32-bit x86 systems
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 does not support UEFI for 32-bit x86 systems.
Important — UEFI for AMD64 and Intel 64
Note that the boot configurations of UEFI and BIOS differ significantly from each other. T herefore,
the installed system must boot using the same firmware that was used during installation. You
cannot install the operating system on a system that uses BIOS and then boot this installation on
a system that uses UEFI.
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 supports version 2.2 of the UEFI specification. Hardware that
supports version 2.3 of the UEFI specification or later should boot and operate with Red Hat
Enterprise Linux 6, but the additional functionality defined by these later specifications will not be
available. T he UEFI specifications are available from http://www.uefi.org/specs/agreement/
T o start, first make sure that you have all necessary resources for the installation. If you have already
read through Chapter 3, Planning for Installation on the x86 Architecture, and followed the instructions,
you should be ready to start the installation process. When you have verified that you are ready to
begin, boot the installation program using the Red Hat Enterprise Linux DVD or any boot media that you
have created.
Note
Occasionally, some hardware components require a driver update during the installation. A driver
update adds support for hardware that is not otherwise supported by the installation program.
Refer to Chapter 6, Updating drivers during installation on Intel and AMD systems for more
information.
7.1.1. Booting the Installation Program on x86, AMD64 , and Intel 64 Systems
You can boot the installation program using any one of the following media (depending upon what your
system can support):
Red Hat Enterprise Linux DVD — Your machine supports a bootable DVD drive and you have the
Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation DVD.
Boot CD-ROM — Your machine supports a bootable CD-ROM drive and you want to perform network
or hard drive installation.
USB flash drive — Your machine supports booting from a USB device.
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Chapter 7. Booting the Installer
PXE boot via network — Your machine supports booting from the network. T his is an advanced
installation path. Refer to Chapter 30, Setting Up an Installation Server for additional information on
this method.
T o create a boot CD-ROM or to prepare your USB flash drive for booting or installation, refer to
Section 2.2, “Making Minimal Boot Media”.
Insert the boot media and reboot the system.
You might need to press a specific key or combination of keys to boot from the media. On most
computers, a message appears briefly on the screen very soon after you turn on the computer.
T ypically, it is worded something like Press F10 to select boot device, although the specific
wording and the key that you must press varies widely from computer to computer. Consult the
documentation for your computer or motherboard, or seek support from the hardware manufacturer or
vendor.
If your computer does not allow you to select a boot device as it starts up, you might need to configure
your system's Basic Input/Output System (BIOS) to boot from the media.
T o change your BIOS settings on an x86, AMD64, or Intel 64 system, watch the instructions provided on
your display when your computer first boots. A line of text appears, telling you which key to press to
enter the BIOS settings.
Once you have entered your BIOS setup program, find the section where you can alter your boot
sequence. T he default is often C, A or A, C (depending on whether you boot from your hard drive [C] or a
diskette drive [A]). Change this sequence so that the DVD is first in your boot order and that C or A
(whichever is your typical boot default) is second. T his instructs the computer to first look at the DVD
drive for bootable media; if it does not find bootable media on the DVD drive, it then checks your hard
drive or diskette drive.
Save your changes before exiting the BIOS. For more information, refer to the documentation that came
with your system.
After a short delay, the graphical boot screen appears, which contains information on a variety of boot
options. Installation program automatically begins if you take no action within the first minute. For a
description of the options available on this screen, refer to Section 7.1.2, “T he Boot Menu”.
Alternatively, press the Esc key to access the boot: prompt, at which you can enter additional boot
options as described in Section 7.1.3, “Additional Boot Options”.
7.1.2. T he Boot Menu
T he boot media displays a graphical boot menu with several options. If no key is hit within 60 seconds,
the default boot option runs. T o choose the default, either wait for the timer to run out or hit Enter on
the keyboard. T o select a different option than the default, use the arrow keys on your keyboard, and hit
Enter when the correct option is highlighted. If you want to customize the boot options for a particular
option, press the T ab key. T o access the boot: prompt at which you can specify custom boot options,
press the Esc key and refer to Section 7.1.3, “Additional Boot Options”.
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 Installation Guide
Figure 7.1. T he boot screen
For a listing and explanation of common boot options, refer to Chapter 28, Boot Options.
T he boot menu options are:
Install or upgrade an existing system
T his option is the default. Choose this option to install Red Hat Enterprise Linux onto your
computer system using the graphical installation program.
Install system with basic video driver
T his option allows you to install Red Hat Enterprise Linux in graphical mode even if the
installation program is unable to load the correct driver for your video card. If your screen
appears distorted or goes blank when using the Install or upgrade an existing
system option, restart your computer and try this option instead.
Rescue installed system
Choose this option to repair a problem with your installed Red Hat Enterprise Linux system that
prevents you from booting normally. Although Red Hat Enterprise Linux is an exceptionally
stable computing platform, it is still possible for occasional problems to occur that prevent
booting. T he rescue environment contains utility programs that allow you fix a wide variety of
these problems.
Boot from local drive
T his option boots the system from the first installed disk. If you booted this disc accidentally,
use this option to boot from the hard disk immediately without starting the installer.
7.1.3. Additional Boot Options
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Chapter 7. Booting the Installer
While it is easiest to boot using a DVD and perform a graphical installation, sometimes there are
installation scenarios where booting in a different manner may be needed. T his section discusses
additional boot options available for Red Hat Enterprise Linux.
T o pass options to the boot loader on an x86, AMD64, or Intel 64 system, press the Esc key at boot
time. T he boot: prompt appears, at which you can use the boot loader options described below.
Note
Refer to Chapter 28, Boot Options for additional boot options not covered in this section.
T o perform a text mode installation, at the installation boot prompt, type:
linux text
T o specify an installation source, use the linux repo= option. For example:
linux repo=cdrom:device
linux repo=ftp://username:[email protected]
linux repo=http://URL
linux repo=hd:device
linux repo=nfs:options:server:/path
linux repo=nfsiso:options:server:/path
In these examples, cdrom refers to a CD or DVD drive, ftp refers to a location accessible by FT P,
http refers to a location accessible by HT T P, hd refers to an ISO image file accessible on a hard
drive partition, nfs refers to an expanded tree of installation files accessible by NFS, and nfsiso
refers to an ISO image file accessible by NFS.
ISO images have an SHA256 checksum embedded in them. T o test the checksum integrity of an ISO
image, at the installation boot prompt, type:
linux mediacheck
T he installation program prompts you to insert a DVD or select an ISO image to test, and select OK to
perform the checksum operation. T his checksum operation can be performed on any Red Hat
Enterprise Linux DVD. It is strongly recommended to perform this operation on any Red Hat
Enterprise Linux DVD that was created from downloaded ISO images. T his command works with the
DVD, hard drive ISO, and NFS ISO installation methods.
If you need to perform the installation in serial mode, type the following command:
linux console=<device>
For text mode installations, use:
linux text console=<device>
In the above command, <device> should be the device you are using (such as ttyS0 or ttyS1). For
example, linux text console=ttyS0.
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T ext mode installations using a serial terminal work best when the terminal supports UT F-8. Under
UNIX and Linux, Kermit supports UT F-8. For Windows, Kermit '95 works well. Non-UT F-8 capable
terminals works as long as only English is used during the installation process. An enhanced serial
display can be used by passing the utf8 command as a boot-time option to the installation program.
For example:
linux console=ttyS0 utf8
7.1.3.1. Kernel Options
Options can also be passed to the kernel. For example, to apply updates for the anaconda installation
program from a USB storage device enter:
linux updates
For text mode installations, use:
linux text updates
T his command results in a prompt for the path to the device that contains updates for anaconda. It is
not needed if you are performing a network installation and have already placed the updates image
contents in rhupdates/ on the server.
After entering any options, press Enter to boot using those options.
If you need to specify boot options to identify your hardware, please write them down. T he boot options
are needed during the boot loader configuration portion of the installation (refer to Section 9.17, “x86,
AMD64, and Intel 64 Boot Loader Configuration” for more information).
For more information on kernel options refer to Chapter 28, Boot Options.
7.2. Installing from a Different Source
You can install Red Hat Enterprise Linux from the ISO images stored on hard disk, or from a network
using NFS, FT P, HT T P, or HT T PS methods. Experienced users frequently use one of these methods
because it is often faster to read data from a hard disk or network server than from a DVD.
T he following table summarizes the different boot methods and recommended installation methods to
use with each:
T able 7.1. Boot methods and installation sources
Boot method
Installation source
Installation DVD
DVD, network, or hard disk
Installation USB flash drive
Installation DVD, network, or hard disk
Minimal boot CD or USB, rescue CD
Network or hard disk
Refer to Section 3.6, “Selecting an Installation Method” for information about installing from locations
other than the media with which you booted the system.
7.3. Booting from the Network using PXE
T o boot with PXE, you need a properly configured server, and a network interface in your computer that
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Chapter 7. Booting the Installer
supports PXE. For information on how to configure a PXE server, refer to Chapter 30, Setting Up an
Installation Server.
Configure the computer to boot from the network interface. T his option is in the BIOS, and may be
labeled Network Boot or Boot Services. Once you properly configure PXE booting, the computer
can boot the Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation system without any other media.
T o boot a computer from a PXE server:
1. Ensure that the network cable is attached. T he link indicator light on the network socket should be
lit, even if the computer is not switched on.
2. Switch on the computer.
3. A menu screen appears. Press the number key that corresponds to the desired option.
If your PC does not boot from the netboot server, ensure that the BIOS is configured to boot first from
the correct network interface. Some BIOS systems specify the network interface as a possible boot
device, but do not support the PXE standard. Refer to your hardware documentation for more
information.
Note — Multiple NICs and PXE installation
Some servers with multiple network interfaces might not assign eth0 to the first network interface
as the firmware interface knows it, which can cause the installer to try to use a different network
interface from the one that was used by PXE. T o change this behavior, use the following in
pxelinux.cfg/* config files:
IPAPPEND 2
APPEND ksdevice=bootif
T hese configuration options above cause the installer to use the same network interface the
firmware interface and PXE use. You can also use the following option:
ksdevice=link
T his option causes the installer to use the first network device it finds that is linked to a network
switch.
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 Installation Guide
Chapter 8. Configuring Language and Installation Source
Before the graphical installation program starts, you need to configure the language and installation
source.
8.1. The Text Mode Installation Program User Interface
Important — Graphical installation recommended
We recommend that you install Red Hat Enterprise Linux using the graphical interface. If you are
installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux on a system that lacks a graphical display, consider
performing the installation over a VNC connection – see Chapter 31, Installing Through VNC. If
anaconda detects that you are installing in text mode on a system where installation over a VNC
connection might be possible, anaconda asks you to verify your decision to install in text mode
even though your options during installation are limited.
If your system has a graphical display, but graphical installation fails, try booting with the
xdriver=vesa option – refer to Chapter 28, Boot Options
Both the loader and later anaconda use a screen-based interface that includes most of the on-screen
widgets commonly found on graphical user interfaces. Figure 8.1, “Installation Program Widgets as seen
in URL Setup”, and Figure 8.2, “Installation Program Widgets as seen in Choose a Language”,
illustrate widgets that appear on screens during the installation process.
Note
Not every language supported in graphical installation mode is also supported in text mode.
Specifically, languages written with a character set other than the Latin or Cyrillic alphabets are
not available in text mode. If you choose a language written with a character set that is not
supported in text mode, the installation program will present you with the English versions of the
screens.
Figure 8.1. Installation Program Widgets as seen in URL Setup
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Chapter 8. Configuring Language and Installation Source
Figure 8.2. Installation Program Widgets as seen in Choose a Language
T he widgets include:
Window — Windows (usually referred to as dialogs in this manual) appear on your screen
throughout the installation process. At times, one window may overlay another; in these cases, you
can only interact with the window on top. When you are finished in that window, it disappears,
allowing you to continue working in the window underneath.
Checkbox — Checkboxes allow you to select or deselect a feature. T he box displays either an
asterisk (selected) or a space (unselected). When the cursor is within a checkbox, press Space to
select or deselect a feature.
T ext Input — T ext input lines are regions where you can enter information required by the installation
program. When the cursor rests on a text input line, you may enter and/or edit information on that
line.
T ext Widget — T ext widgets are regions of the screen for the display of text. At times, text widgets
may also contain other widgets, such as checkboxes. If a text widget contains more information than
can be displayed in the space reserved for it, a scroll bar appears; if you position the cursor within
the text widget, you can then use the Up and Down arrow keys to scroll through all the information
available. Your current position is shown on the scroll bar by a # character, which moves up and
down the scroll bar as you scroll.
Scroll Bar — Scroll bars appear on the side or bottom of a window to control which part of a list or
document is currently in the window's frame. T he scroll bar makes it easy to move to any part of a
file.
Button Widget — Button widgets are the primary method of interacting with the installation program.
You progress through the windows of the installation program by navigating these buttons, using the
T ab and Enter keys. Buttons can be selected when they are highlighted.
Cursor — Although not a widget, the cursor is used to select (and interact with) a particular widget.
As the cursor is moved from widget to widget, it may cause the widget to change color, or the cursor
itself may only appear positioned in or next to the widget. In Figure 8.1, “Installation Program Widgets
as seen in URL Setup”, the cursor is positioned on the OK button. Figure 8.2, “Installation Program
Widgets as seen in Choose a Language”, shows the cursor on the Edit button.
8.1.1. Using the Keyboard to Navigate
Navigation through the installation dialogs is performed through a simple set of keystrokes. T o move the
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cursor, use the Left, Right, Up, and Down arrow keys. Use T ab, and Shift-T ab to cycle forward or
backward through each widget on the screen. Along the bottom, most screens display a summary of
available cursor positioning keys.
T o "press" a button, position the cursor over the button (using T ab, for example) and press Space or
Enter. T o select an item from a list of items, move the cursor to the item you wish to select and press
Enter. T o select an item with a checkbox, move the cursor to the checkbox and press Space to select
an item. T o deselect, press Space a second time.
Pressing F12 accepts the current values and proceeds to the next dialog; it is equivalent to pressing the
OK button.
Warning
Unless a dialog box is waiting for your input, do not press any keys during the installation
process (doing so may result in unpredictable behavior).
8.2. Language Selection
Use the arrow keys on your keyboard to select a language to use during the installation process (refer
to Figure 8.3, “Language Selection”). With your selected language highlighted, press the T ab key to
move to the OK button and press the Enter key to confirm your choice.
T he language you select here will become the default language for the operating system once it is
installed. Selecting the appropriate language also helps target your time zone configuration later in the
installation. T he installation program tries to define the appropriate time zone based on what you specify
on this screen.
T o add support for additional languages, customize the installation at the package selection stage. For
more information, refer to Section 9.18.2, “ Customizing the Software Selection ”.
Figure 8.3. Language Selection
Once you select the appropriate language, click Next to continue.
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Chapter 8. Configuring Language and Installation Source
8.3. Installation Method
If you booted the installation from minimal boot media or with the askm ethod boot option, use the arrow
keys on your keyboard to select an installation method (refer to Figure 8.4, “Installation Method”). With
your selected method highlighted, press the T ab key to move to the OK button and press the Enter key
to confirm your choice.
Figure 8.4 . Installation Method
8.3.1. Installing from DVD
T o install Red Hat Enterprise Linux from a DVD, place the DVD your DVD drive and boot your system
from the DVD. Even if you booted from alternative media, you can still install Red Hat Enterprise Linux
from DVD media.
T he installation program then probes your system and attempts to identify your DVD drive. It starts by
looking for an IDE (also known as an AT API) DVD drive.
Note
T o abort the installation process at this time, reboot your machine and then eject the boot media.
You can safely cancel the installation at any point before the Write changes to disk screen.
Refer to Section 9.16, “Write changes to disk” for more information.
If your DVD drive is not detected, and it is a SCSI DVD, the installation program prompts you to choose a
SCSI driver. Choose the driver that most closely resembles your adapter. You may specify options for
the driver if necessary; however, most drivers detect your SCSI adapter automatically.
If the DVD drive is found and the driver loaded, the installer will present you with the option to perform a
media check on the DVD. T his will take some time, and you may opt to skip over this step. However, if
you later encounter problems with the installer, you should reboot and perform the media check before
calling for support. From the media check dialog, continue to the next stage of the installation process
(refer to Section 9.3, “Welcome to Red Hat Enterprise Linux”).
8.3.2. Installing from a Hard Drive
T he Select Partition screen applies only if you are installing from a disk partition (that is, you
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T he Select Partition screen applies only if you are installing from a disk partition (that is, you
selected Hard Drive in the Installation Method dialog). T his dialog allows you to name the disk
partition and directory from which you are installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux. If you used the repo=hd
boot option, you already specified a partition.
Figure 8.5. Selecting Partition Dialog for Hard Drive Installation
Select the partition containing the ISO files from the list of available partitions. Internal IDE, SAT A, SCSI,
and USB drive device names begin with /dev/sd. Each individual drive has its own letter, for example
/dev/sda. Each partition on a drive is numbered, for example /dev/sda1.
Also specify the Directory holding im ages. Enter the full directory path from the drive that
contains the ISO image files. T he following table shows some examples of how to enter this information:
T able 8.1. Location of ISO images for different partition types
Partition type
Volume
Original path to files
Directory to use
VFAT
D:\
D:\Downloads\RHEL6
/Downloads/RHEL6
ext2, ext3, ext4
/home
/home/user1/RHEL6
/user1/RHEL6
If the ISO images are in the root (top-level) directory of a partition, enter a /. If the ISO images are
located in a subdirectory of a mounted partition, enter the name of the directory holding the ISO images
within that partition. For example, if the partition on which the ISO images is normally mounted as
/hom e/, and the images are in /hom e/new/, you would enter /new/.
Use a leading slash
An entry without a leading slash may cause the installation to fail.
Select OK to continue. Proceed with Chapter 9, Installing using anaconda.
8.3.3. Performing a Network Installation
When you start an installation with the askm ethod or repo= options, you can install Red Hat
Enterprise Linux from a network server using FT P, HT T P, HT T PS, or NFS protocols. Anaconda uses
the same network connection to consult additional software repositories later in the installation process.
If your system has more than one network device, anaconda presents you with a list of all available
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Chapter 8. Configuring Language and Installation Source
devices and prompts you to select one to use during installation. If your system only has a single
network device, anaconda automatically selects it and does not present this dialog.
Figure 8.6. Networking Device
If you are not sure which device in the list corresponds to which physical socket on the system, select a
device in the list then press the Identify button. T he Identify NIC dialog appears.
Figure 8.7. Identify NIC
T he sockets of most network devices feature an activity light (also called a link light) — an LED that
flashes to indicate that data is flowing through the socket. Anaconda can flash the activity light of the
network device that you selected in the Networking Device dialog for up to 30 seconds. Enter the
number of seconds that you require, then press OK. When anaconda finishes flashing the light, it
returns you to the Networking Device dialog.
When you select a network device, anaconda prompts you to choose how to configure T CP/IP:
IPv4 options
Dynamic IP configuration (DHCP)
Anaconda uses DHCP running on the network to supply the network configuration
automatically.
Manual configuration
Anaconda prompts you to enter the network configuration manually, including the IP address
for this system, the netmask, the gateway address, and the DNS address.
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IPv6 options
Automatic neighbor discovery
Anaconda uses router advertisement (RA) to create an automatic, stateless configuration.
(Equivalent to the Autom atic option in NetworkManager)
Dynamic IP configuration (DHCPv6)
Anaconda does not use RA, but requests information from DHCPv6 directly to create a stateful
configuration. (Equivalent to the Autom atic, DHCP only option in NetworkManager)
Manual configuration
Anaconda prompts you to enter the network configuration manually, including the IP address
for this system, the netmask, the gateway address, and the DNS address.
Anaconda supports the IPv4 and IPv6 protocols. However, if you configure an interface to use both
IPv4 and IPv6, the IPv4 connection must succeed or the interface will not work, even if the IPv6
connection succeeds.
Figure 8.8. Configure T CP/IP
By default, anaconda uses DHCP to provide network settings automatically for IPv4 and automatic
neighbor discovery to provide network settings for IPv6. If you choose to configure T CP/IP manually,
anaconda prompts you to provide the details in the Manual T CP/IP Configuration dialog:
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Chapter 8. Configuring Language and Installation Source
Figure 8.9. Manual T CP/IP Configuration
T he dialog provides fields for IPv4 and IPv6 addresses and prefixes, depending on the protocols that
you chose to configure manually, together with fields for the network gateway and name server. Enter
the details for your network, then press OK.
When the installation process completes, it will transfer these settings to your system.
If you are installing via NFS, proceed to Section 8.3.4, “Installing via NFS”.
If you are installing via Web or FT P, proceed to Section 8.3.5, “Installing via FT P, HT T P, or HT T PS”.
8.3.4 . Installing via NFS
T he NFS dialog applies only if you selected NFS Image in the Installation Method dialog. If you
used the repo=nfs boot option, you already specified a server and path.
Figure 8.10. NFS Setup Dialog
1. Enter the domain name or IP address of your NFS server in the NFS server nam e field. For
example, if you are installing from a host named eastcoast in the domain exam ple.com , enter
eastcoast.exam ple.com .
2. Enter the name of the exported directory in the Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 directory
field:
If the NFS server is exporting a mirror of the Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation tree, enter
the directory which contains the root of the installation tree. If everything was specified
properly, a message appears indicating that the installation program for Red Hat Enterprise
Linux is running.
If the NFS server is exporting the ISO image of the Red Hat Enterprise Linux DVD, enter the
directory which contains the ISO image.
If you followed the setup described in Section 4.1.2, “Preparing for an NFS installation”, the
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exported directory is the one that you specified as publicly_available_directory.
3. Specify any NFS mount options that you require in the NFS m ount options field. Refer to the
man pages for mount and nfs for a comprehensive list of options. If you do not require any mount
options, leave the field empty.
4. Proceed with Chapter 9, Installing using anaconda.
8.3.5. Installing via FT P, HT T P, or HT T PS
Important — you must specify the protocol
When you provide a URL to an installation source, you must explicitly specify http:// or
https:// or ftp:// as the protocol.
T he URL dialog applies only if you are installing from a FT P, HT T P, or HT T PS server (if you selected
URL in the Installation Method dialog). T his dialog prompts you for information about the FT P,
HT T P, or HT T PS server from which you are installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux. If you used the
repo=ftp or repo=http boot options, you already specified a server and path.
Enter the name or IP address of the FT P, HT T P, or HT T PS site from which you are installing, and the
name of the directory that contains the /im ages directory for your architecture. For example:
/m irrors/redhat/rhel-6/Server/i386/
T o install via a secure HT T PS connection, specify https:// as the protocol.
Specify the address of a proxy server, and if necessary, provide a port number, username, and
password. If everything was specified properly, a message box appears indicating that files are being
retrieved from the server.
If your FT P, HT T P, or HT T PS server requires user authentication, specify user and password as part of
the URL as follows:
{ftp|http|https}://<user>:<password>@ <hostnam e>[:<port>]/<directory>/
For example:
http://install:[email protected] nam e.exam ple.com /m irrors/redhat/rhel-6/Server/i386/
Figure 8.11. URL Setup Dialog
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Proceed with Chapter 9, Installing using anaconda.
8.4. Verifying Media
T he DVD offers an option to verify the integrity of the media. Recording errors sometimes occur while
producing DVD media. An error in the data for package chosen in the installation program can cause the
installation to abort. T o minimize the chances of data errors affecting the installation, verify the media
before installing.
If the verification succeeds, the installation process proceeds normally. If the process fails, create a new
DVD using the ISO image you downloaded earlier.
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T his chapter describes an installation using the graphical user interface of anaconda.
9.1. The Text Mode Installation Program User Interface
Important — Graphical Interface on the Installed System
Installing in text mode does not prevent you from using a graphical interface on your system once
it is installed.
Apart from the graphical installer, anaconda also includes a text-based installer.
If one of the following situations occurs, the installation program uses text mode:
T he installation system fails to identify the display hardware on your computer
You choose the text mode installation from the boot menu
While text mode installations are not explicitly documented, those using the text mode installation
program can easily follow the GUI installation instructions. However, because text mode presents you
with a simpler, more streamlined installation process, certain options that are available in graphical mode
are not also available in text mode. T hese differences are noted in the description of the installation
process in this guide, and include:
configuring advanced storage methods such as LVM, RAID, FCoE, zFCP, and iSCSI.
customizing the partition layout
customizing the bootloader layout
selecting packages during installation
configuring the installed system with firstboot
If you choose to install Red Hat Enterprise Linux in text mode, you can still configure your system to use
a graphical interface after installation. Refer to Section 35.3, “Switching to a Graphical Login” for
instructions.
T o configure options not available in text mode, consider using a boot option. For example, the linux
ip option can be used to configure network settings. Refer to Section 28.1, “Configuring the Installation
System at the Boot Menu” for instructions.
9.2. The Graphical Installation Program User Interface
If you have used a graphical user interface (GUI) before, you are already familiar with this process; use
your mouse to navigate the screens, click buttons, or enter text fields.
You can also navigate through the installation using the keyboard. T he T ab key allows you to move
around the screen, the Up and Down arrow keys to scroll through lists, + and - keys expand and
collapse lists, while Space and Enter selects or removes from selection a highlighted item. You can
also use the Alt+X key command combination as a way of clicking on buttons or making other screen
selections, where X is replaced with any underlined letter appearing within that screen.
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Note
If you are using an x86, AMD64, or Intel 64 system, and you do not wish to use the GUI
installation program, the text mode installation program is also available. T o start the text mode
installation program, use the following command at the boot: prompt:
linux text
Refer to Section 7.1.2, “T he Boot Menu” for a description of the Red Hat Enterprise Linux boot
menu and to Section 8.1, “T he T ext Mode Installation Program User Interface” for a brief overview
of text mode installation instructions.
It is highly recommended that installs be performed using the GUI installation program. T he GUI
installation program offers the full functionality of the Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation
program, including LVM configuration which is not available during a text mode installation.
Users who must use the text mode installation program can follow the GUI installation instructions
and obtain all needed information.
9.2.1. Screenshots during installation
Anaconda allows you to take screenshots during the installation process. At any time during
installation, press Shift+Print Screen and anaconda will save a screenshot to
/root/anaconda-screenshots.
If you are performing a Kickstart installation, use the autostep --autoscreenshot option to
generate a screenshot of each step of the installation automatically. Refer to Section 32.3, “Creating the
Kickstart File” for details of configuring a Kickstart file.
9.2.2. A Note about Virtual Consoles
T he Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation program offers more than the dialog boxes of the installation
process. Several kinds of diagnostic messages are available to you, as well as a way to enter
commands from a shell prompt. T he installation program displays these messages on five virtual
consoles, among which you can switch using a single keystroke combination.
A virtual console is a shell prompt in a non-graphical environment, accessed from the physical machine,
not remotely. Multiple virtual consoles can be accessed simultaneously.
T hese virtual consoles can be helpful if you encounter a problem while installing Red Hat Enterprise
Linux. Messages displayed on the installation or system consoles can help pinpoint a problem. Refer to
T able 9.1, “Console, Keystrokes, and Contents” for a listing of the virtual consoles, keystrokes used to
switch to them, and their contents.
Generally, there is no reason to leave the default console (virtual console #6) for graphical installations
unless you are attempting to diagnose installation problems.
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 Installation Guide
9.3. Welcome to Red Hat Enterprise Linux
T he Welcom e screen does not prompt you for any input.
Click on the Next button to continue.
9.4. Language Selection
Using your mouse, select the language (for example, U.S. English) you would prefer to use for the
installation and as the system default (refer to the figure below).
Once you have made your selection, click Next to continue.
Figure 9.1. Language Configuration
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9.5. Keyboard Configuration
Using your mouse, select the correct layout type (for example, U.S. English) for the keyboard you would
prefer to use for the installation and as the system default (refer to the figure below).
Once you have made your selection, click Next to continue.
Figure 9.2. Keyboard Configuration
Red Hat Enterprise Linux includes support for more than one keyboard layout for many languages. In
particular, most European languages include a latin1 option, which uses dead keys to access certain
characters, such as those with diacritical marks. When you press a dead key, nothing will appear on
your screen until you press another key to "complete" the character. For example, to type é on a latin1
keyboard layout, you would press (and release) the ' key, and then press the E key. By contrast, you
access this character on some other keyboards by pressing and holding down a key (such as Alt-Gr)
while you press the E key. Other keyboards might have a dedicated key for this character.
Note
T o change your keyboard layout type after you have completed the installation, use the
Keyboard Configuration T ool.
T ype the system -config-keyboard command in a shell prompt to launch the Keyboard
Configuration T ool. If you are not root, it prompts you for the root password to continue.
9.6. Storage Devices
You can install Red Hat Enterprise Linux on a large variety of storage devices. T his screen allows you to
select either basic or specialized storage devices.
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 Installation Guide
Figure 9.3. Storage devices
Basic Storage Devices
Select Basic Storage Devices to install Red Hat Enterprise Linux on the following storage
devices:
hard drives or solid-state drives connected directly to the local system.
Specialized Storage Devices
Select Specialized Storage Devices to install Red Hat Enterprise Linux on the following
storage devices:
Storage area networks (SANs)
Direct access storage devices (DASDs)
Firmware RAID devices
Multipath devices
Use the Specialized Storage Devices option to configure Internet Small Computer System
Interface (iSCSI) and FCoE (Fiber Channel over Ethernet) connections.
If you select Basic Storage Devices, anaconda automatically detects the local storage attached to
the system and does not require further input from you. Proceed to Section 9.7, “Setting the Hostname”.
9.6.1. T he Storage Devices Selection Screen
T he storage devices selection screen displays all storage devices to which anaconda has access.
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Figure 9.4 . Select storage devices — Basic devices
Figure 9.5. Select storage devices — Multipath Devices
Figure 9.6. Select storage devices — Other SAN Devices
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Devices are grouped under the following tabs:
Basic Devices
Basic storage devices directly connected to the local system, such as hard disk drives and
solid-state drives.
Firmware RAID
Storage devices attached to a firmware RAID controller.
Multipath Devices
Storage devices accessible through more than one path, such as through multiple SCSI
controllers or Fiber Channel ports on the same system.
Important — device serial numbers must be 16 or 32 characters
T he installer only detects multipath storage devices with serial numbers that are 16 or
32 characters in length.
Other SAN Devices
Any other devices available on a storage area network (SAN).
If you do need to configure iSCSI or FCoE storage, click Add Advanced T arget and refer to
Section 9.6.1.1, “ Advanced Storage Options ”.
T he storage devices selection screen also contains a Search tab that allows you to filter storage
devices either by their World Wide Identifier (WWID) or by the port, target, or logical unit number (LUN) at
which they are accessed.
Figure 9.7. T he Storage Devices Search T ab
T he tab contains a drop-down menu to select searching by port, target, WWID, or LUN (with
corresponding text boxes for these values). Searching by WWID or LUN requires additional values in the
corresponding text box.
Each tab presents a list of devices detected by anaconda, with information about the device to help you
to identify it. A small drop-down menu marked with an icon is located to the right of the column headings.
T his menu allows you to select the types of data presented on each device. For example, the menu on
the Multipath Devices tab allows you to specify any of WWID, Capacity, Vendor, Interconnect,
and Paths to include among the details presented for each device. Reducing or expanding the amount
of information presented might help you to identify particular devices.
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Figure 9.8. Selecting Columns
Each device is presented on a separate row, with a checkbox to its left. Click the checkbox to make a
device available during the installation process, or click the radio button at the left of the column
headings to select or deselect all the devices listed in a particular screen. Later in the installation
process, you can choose to install Red Hat Enterprise Linux onto any of the devices selected here, and
can choose to automatically mount any of the other devices selected here as part of the installed
system.
Note that the devices that you select here are not automatically erased by the installation process.
Selecting a device on this screen does not, in itself, place data stored on the device at risk. Note also
that any devices that you do not select here to form part of the installed system can be added to the
system after installation by modifying the /etc/fstab file.
Important — chain loading
Any storage devices that you do not select on this screen are hidden from anaconda entirely. T o
chain load the Red Hat Enterprise Linux boot loader from a different boot loader, select all the
devices presented in this screen.
when you have selected the storage devices to make available during installation, click Next and
proceed to Section 9.11, “Initializing the Hard Disk”
9.6.1.1. Advanced Storage Options
From this screen you can configure an iSCSI (SCSI over T CP/IP) target or FCoE (Fibre channel over
ethernet) SAN (storage area network). Refer to Appendix B, ISCSI disks for an introduction to iSCSI.
Figure 9.9. Advanced Storage Options
9.6.1.1.1. Select and configure a network interface
If a network interface is not already active on the system, anaconda must activate one through which to
connect to the storage devices. If your system has only a single network interface, anaconda
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automatically activates it. However, if your system has more than one network interface available,
anaconda prompts you with the Select network interface dialog to choose one to use during
installation.
Figure 9.10. Select network interface
1. Select an interface from the drop-down menu.
2. Click OK.
Anaconda activates the interface that you selected, then starts NetworkManager to allow you to
configure the interface.
Figure 9.11. Network Connections
For details of how to use NetworkManager, refer to Section 9.7, “Setting the Hostname”
9.6.1.1.2. Configure iSCSI parameters
T o use iSCSI storage devices for the installation, anaconda must be able to discover them as iSCSI
targets and be able to create an iSCSI session to access them. Each of these steps might require a
username and password for CHAP (Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol) authentication.
Additionally, you can configure an iSCSI target to authenticate the iSCSI initiator on the system to which
the target is attached (reverse CHAP), both for discovery and for the session. Used together, CHAP and
reverse CHAP are called mutual CHAP or two-way CHAP. Mutual CHAP provides the greatest level of
security for iSCSI connections, particularly if the username and password are different for CHAP
authentication and reverse CHAP authentication.
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Repeat the iSCSI discovery and iSCSI login steps as many times as necessary to add all required iSCSI
storage. However, you cannot change the name of the iSCSI initiator after you attempt discovery for the
first time. T o change the iSCSI initiator name, you must restart the installation.
Procedure 9.1. iSCSI discovery
Use the iSCSI Discovery Details dialog to provide anaconda with the information that it needs to
discover the iSCSI target.
Figure 9.12. T he iSCSI Discovery Details dialog
1. Enter the IP address of the iSCSI target in the T arget IP Address field.
2. Provide a name in the iSCSI Initiator Nam e field for the iSCSI initiator in iSCSI qualified
name (IQN) format.
A valid IQN contains:
the string iqn. (note the period)
a date code that specifies the year and month in which your organization's Internet domain or
subdomain name was registered, represented as four digits for the year, a dash, and two
digits for the month, followed by a period. For example, represent September 2010 as 201009.
your organization's Internet domain or subdomain name, presented in reverse order with the
top-level domain first. For example, represent the subdomain storage.exam ple.com as
com .exam ple.storage
a colon followed by a string that uniquely identifies this particular iSCSI initiator within your
domain or subdomain. For example, :diskarrays-sn-a8675309.
A complete IQN therefore resembles: iqn.2010-09.storage.exam ple.com :diskarrayssn-a8675309, and anaconda pre-populates the iSCSI Initiator Nam e field with a name in
this format to help you with the structure.
For more information on IQNs, refer to 3.2.6. iSCSI Names in RFC 3720 - Internet Small Computer
Systems Interface (iSCSI) available from http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc3720#section-3.2.6 and 1.
iSCSI Names and Addresses in RFC 3721 - Internet Small Computer Systems Interface (iSCSI)
Naming and Discovery available from http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc3721#section-1.
3. Use the drop-down menu to specify the type of authentication to use for iSCSI discovery:
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Figure 9.13. iSCSI discovery authentication
no credentials
CHAP pair
CHAP pair and a reverse pair
4. A. If you selected CHAP pair as the authentication type, provide the username and password for
the iSCSI target in the CHAP Usernam e and CHAP Password fields.
Figure 9.14 . CHAP pair
B. If you selected CHAP pair and a reverse pair as the authentication type, provide the
username and password for the iSCSI target in the CHAP Usernam e and CHAP Password
field and the username and password for the iSCSI initiator in the Reverse CHAP Usernam e
and Reverse CHAP Password fields.
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Figure 9.15. CHAP pair and a reverse pair
5. Click Start Discovery. Anaconda attempts to discover an iSCSI target based on the
information that you provided. If discovery succeeds, the iSCSI Discovered Nodes dialog
presents you with a list of all the iSCSI nodes discovered on the target.
6. Each node is presented with a checkbox beside it. Click the checkboxes to select the nodes to
use for installation.
Figure 9.16. T he iSCSI Discovered Nodes dialog
7. Click Login to initiate an iSCSI session.
Procedure 9.2. Starting an iSCSI session
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Use the iSCSI Nodes Login dialog to provide anaconda with the information that it needs to log into
the nodes on the iSCSI target and start an iSCSI session.
Figure 9.17. T he iSCSI Nodes Login dialog
1. Use the drop-down menu to specify the type of authentication to use for the iSCSI session:
Figure 9.18. iSCSI session authentication
no credentials
CHAP pair
CHAP pair and a reverse pair
Use the credentials from the discovery step
If your environment uses the same type of authentication and same username and password for
iSCSI discovery and for the iSCSI session, select Use the credentials from the discovery
step to reuse these credentials.
2. A. If you selected CHAP pair as the authentication type, provide the username and password for
the iSCSI target in the CHAP Usernam e and CHAP Password fields.
Figure 9.19. CHAP pair
B. If you selected CHAP pair and a reverse pair as the authentication type, provide the
username and password for the iSCSI target in the CHAP Usernam e and CHAP Password
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fields and the username and password for the iSCSI initiator in the Reverse CHAP
Usernam e and Reverse CHAP Password fields.
Figure 9.20. CHAP pair and a reverse pair
3. Click Login. Anaconda attempts to log into the nodes on the iSCSI target based on the
information that you provided. T he iSCSI Login Results dialog presents you with the results.
Figure 9.21. T he iSCSI Login Results dialog
4. Click OK to continue.
9.6.1.1.3. Configure FCoE Parameters
T o configure an FCoE SAN, select Add FCoE SAN and click Add Drive.
On the menu that appears in the next dialog box, select the network interface that is connected to your
FCoE switch and click Add FCoE Disk(s).
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Figure 9.22. Configure FCoE Parameters
Data Center Bridging (DCB) is a set of enhancements to the Ethernet protocols designed to increase the
efficiency of Ethernet connections in storage networks and clusters. Enable or disable the installer's
awareness of DCB with the checkbox in this dialog.
9.7. Setting the Hostname
Setup prompts you to supply a host name for this computer, either as a fully-qualified domain name
(FQDN) in the format hostname.domainname or as a short host name in the format hostname. Many
networks have a Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) service that automatically supplies
connected systems with a domain name. T o allow the DHCP service to assign the domain name to this
machine, specify the short host name only.
Valid Hostnames
You may give your system any name provided that the full hostname is unique. T he hostname
may include letters, numbers and hyphens.
Figure 9.23. Setting the hostname
If your Red Hat Enterprise Linux system is connected directly to the Internet, you must pay attention to
additional considerations to avoid service interruptions or risk action by your upstream service provider.
A full discussion of these issues is beyond the scope of this document.
Modem Configuration
T he installation program does not configure modems. Configure these devices after installation
with the Network utility. T he settings for your modem are specific to your particular Internet
Service Provider (ISP).
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Important — Manual configuration is often needed
When a Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 installation boots for the first time, it activates any network
interfaces that you configured during the installation process. However, the installer does not
prompt you to configure network interfaces on some common installation paths, for example,
when you install Red Hat Enterprise Linux from a DVD to a local hard drive.
When you install Red Hat Enterprise Linux from a local installation source to a local storage
device, be sure to configure at least one network interface manually if you require network access
when the system boots for the first time.
Note
T o change your network configuration after you have completed the installation, use the Network
Administration T ool.
T ype the system -config-network command in a shell prompt to launch the Network
Administration T ool. If you are not root, it prompts you for the root password to continue.
T he Network Administration T ool is now deprecated and will be replaced by
NetworkManager during the lifetime of Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.
T o configure a network connection manually, click the button Configure Network. T he Network
Connections dialog appears that allows you to configure wired, wireless, mobile broadband, VPN, and
DSL connections for the system using the NetworkManager tool. A full description of all configurations
possible with NetworkManager is beyond the scope of this guide. T his section only details the most
typical scenario of how to configure wired connections during installation. Configuration of other types of
network is broadly similar, although the specific parameters that you must configure are necessarily
different.
Figure 9.24 . Network Connections
T o add a new connection or to modify or remove a connection configured earlier in the installation
process, click the tab that corresponds to the type of connection. T o add a new connection of that type,
click Add. T o modify an existing connection, select it in the list and click Edit. In either case, a dialog
box appears with a set of tabs that is appropriate to the particular connection type, as described below.
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T o remove a connection, select it in the list and click Delete.
When you have finished editing network settings, click Apply to save the new configuration. If you
reconfigured a device that was already active during installation, you must restart the device to use the
new configuration — refer to Section 9.7.1.6, “Restart a network device”.
9.7.1.1. Options common to all types of connection
Certain configuration options are common to all connection types.
Specify a name for the connection in the Connection nam e name field.
Select Start autom atically to start the connection automatically when the system boots.
When NetworkManager runs on an installed system, the Available to all users option controls
whether a network configuration is available system-wide or not. During installation, ensure that
Available to all users remains selected for any network interface that you configure.
9.7.1.2. T he Wired tab
Use the Wired tab to specify or change the media access control (MAC) address for the network
adapter, and either set the maximum transmission unit (MT U, in bytes) that can pass through the
interface.
Figure 9.25. T he Wired tab
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9.7.1.3. T he 802.1x Security tab
Use the 802.1x Security tab to configure 802.1X port-based network access control (PNAC). Select
Use 802.1X security for this connection to enable access control, then specify details of
your network. T he configuration options include:
Authentication
Choose one of the following methods of authentication:
T LS for Transport Layer Security
T unneled T LS for Tunneled Transport Layer Security, otherwise known as T T LS, or EAPT T LS
Protected EAP (PEAP) for Protected Extensible Authentication Protocol
Identity
Provide the identity of this server.
User certificate
Browse to a personal X.509 certificate file encoded with Distinguished Encoding Rules (DER) or
Privacy Enhanced Mail (PEM).
CA certificate
Browse to a X.509 certificate authority certificate file encoded with Distinguished Encoding Rules
(DER) or Privacy Enhanced Mail (PEM).
Private key
Browse to a private key file encoded with Distinguished Encoding Rules (DER), Privacy
Enhanced Mail (PEM), or the Personal Information Exchange Syntax Standard (PKCS#12).
Private key password
T he password for the private key specified in the Private key field. Select Show password
to make the password visible as you type it.
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Figure 9.26. T he 802.1x Security tab
9.7.1.4 . T he IPv4 Settings tab
Use the IPv4 Settings tab tab to configure the IPv4 parameters for the previously selected network
connection.
Use the Method drop-down menu to specify which settings the system should attempt to obtain from a
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) service running on the network. Choose from the following
options:
Autom atic (DHCP)
IPv4 parameters are configured by the DHCP service on the network.
Autom atic (DHCP) addresses only
T he IPv4 address, netmask, and gateway address are configured by the DHCP service on the
network, but DNS servers and search domains must be configured manually.
Manual
IPv4 parameters are configured manually for a static configuration.
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Link-Local Only
A link-local address in the 169.254/16 range is assigned to the interface.
Shared to other com puters
T he system is configured to provide network access to other computers. T he interface is
assigned an address in the 10.42.x.1/24 range, a DHCP server and DNS server are started,
and the interface is connected to the default network connection on the system with network
address translation (NAT ).
Disabled
IPv4 is disabled for this connection.
If you selected a method that requires you to supply manual parameters, enter details of the IP address
for this interface, the netmask, and the gateway in the Addresses field. Use the Add and Delete
buttons to add or remove addresses. Enter a comma-separated list of DNS servers in the DNS
servers field, and a comma-separated list of domains in the Search dom ains field for any domains
that you want to include in name server lookups.
Optionally, enter a name for this network connection in the DHCP client ID field. T his name must be
unique on the subnet. When you assign a meaningful DHCP client ID to a connection, it is easy to
identify this connection when troubleshooting network problems.
Deselect the Require IPv4 addressing for this connection to com plete check box to
allow the system to make this connection on an IPv6-enabled network if IPv4 configuration fails but IPv6
configuration succeeds.
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Figure 9.27. T he IPv4 Settings tab
9.7.1.4 .1. Editing IPv4 routes
Red Hat Enterprise Linux configures a number of routes automatically based on the IP addresses of a
device. T o edit additional routes, click the Routes button. T he Editing IPv4 routes dialog appears.
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Figure 9.28. T he Editing IPv4 Routes dialog
Click Add to add the IP address, netmask, gateway address, and metric for a new static route.
Select Ignore autom atically obtained routes to make the interface use only the routes
specified for it here.
Select Use this connection only for resources on its network to restrict connections
only to the local network.
9.7.1.5. T he IPv6 Settings tab
Use the IPv6 Settings tab tab to configure the IPv6 parameters for the previously selected network
connection.
Use the Method drop-down menu to specify which settings the system should attempt to obtain from a
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) service running on the network. Choose from the following
options:
Ignore
IPv6 is ignored for this connection.
Autom atic
NetworkManager uses router advertisement (RA) to create an automatic, stateless
configuration.
Autom atic, addresses only
NetworkManager uses RA to create an automatic, stateless configuration, but DNS servers
and search domains are ignored and must be configured manually.
Autom atic, DHCP only
NetworkManager does not use RA, but requests information from DHCPv6 directly to create a
stateful configuration.
Manual
IPv6 parameters are configured manually for a static configuration.
Link-Local Only
A link-local address with the fe80::/10 prefix is assigned to the interface.
If you selected a method that requires you to supply manual parameters, enter details of the IP address
for this interface, the netmask, and the gateway in the Addresses field. Use the Add and Delete
buttons to add or remove addresses. Enter a comma-separated list of DNS servers in the DNS
servers field, and a comma-separated list of domains in the Search dom ains field for any domains
that you want to include in name server lookups.
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Optionally, enter a name for this network connection in the DHCP client ID field. T his name must be
unique on the subnet. When you assign a meaningful DHCP client ID to a connection, it is easy to
identify this connection when troubleshooting network problems.
Deselect the Require IPv6 addressing for this connection to com plete check box to
allow the system to make this connection on an IPv4-enabled network if IPv6 configuration fails but IPv4
configuration succeeds.
Figure 9.29. T he IPv6 Settings tab
9.7.1.5.1. Editing IPv6 routes
Red Hat Enterprise Linux configures a number of routes automatically based on the IP addresses of a
device. T o edit additional routes, click the Routes button. T he Editing IPv6 routes dialog appears.
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Figure 9.30. T he Editing IPv6 Routes dialog
Click Add to add the IP address, netmask, gateway address, and metric for a new static route.
Select Use this connection only for resources on its network to restrict connections
only to the local network.
9.7.1.6. Restart a network device
If you reconfigured a network that was already in use during installation, you must disconnect and
reconnect the device in anaconda for the changes to take effect. Anaconda uses interface
configuration (ifcfg) files to communicate with NetworkManager. A device becomes disconnected when
its ifcfg file is removed, and becomes reconnected when its ifcfg file is restored, as long as
ONBOOT =yes is set. Refer to the Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 Deployment Guide available from
https://access.redhat.com/knowledge/docs/ for more information about interface configuration files.
1. Press Ctrl+Alt+F2 to switch to virtual terminal tty2.
2. Move the interface configuration file to a temporary location:
mv /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-device_name /tmp
where device_name is the device that you just reconfigured. For example, ifcfg-eth0 is the
ifcfg file for eth0.
T he device is now disconnected in anaconda.
3. Open the interface configuration file in the vi editor:
vi /tmp/ifcfg-device_name
4. Verify that the interface configuration file contains the line ONBOOT =yes. If the file does not
already contain the line, add it now and save the file.
5. Exit the vi editor.
6. Move the interface configuration file back to the /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/
directory:
mv /tmp/ifcfg-device_name /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/
T he device is now reconnected in anaconda.
7. Press Ctrl+Alt+F6 to return to anaconda.
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9.8. Time Zone Configuration
Set your time zone by selecting the city closest to your computer's physical location. Click on the map to
zoom in to a particular geographical region of the world.
Specify a time zone even if you plan to use NT P (Network T ime Protocol) to maintain the accuracy of the
system clock.
From here there are two ways for you to select your time zone:
Using your mouse, click on the interactive map to select a specific city (represented by a yellow dot).
A red X appears indicating your selection.
You can also scroll through the list at the bottom of the screen to select your time zone. Using your
mouse, click on a location to highlight your selection.
Figure 9.31. Configuring the T ime Z one
If Red Hat Enterprise Linux is the only operating system on your computer, select System clock uses
UT C. T he system clock is a piece of hardware on your computer system. Red Hat Enterprise Linux uses
the timezone setting to determine the offset between the local time and UT C on the system clock. T his
behavior is standard for systems that use UNIX, Linux, and similar operating systems.
Click Next to proceed.
Windows and the System Clock
Do not enable the System clock uses UT C option if your machine also runs Microsoft
Windows. Microsoft operating systems change the BIOS clock to match local time rather than
UT C. T his may cause unexpected behavior under Red Hat Enterprise Linux.
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Note
T o change your time zone configuration after you have completed the installation, use the T ime
and Date Properties T ool.
T ype the system -config-date command in a shell prompt to launch the T ime and Date
Properties T ool. If you are not root, it prompts you for the root password to continue.
T o run the T ime and Date Properties T ool as a text-based application, use the command
tim econfig.
9.9. Set the Root Password
Setting up a root account and password is one of the most important steps during your installation. T he
root account is used to install packages, upgrade RPMs, and perform most system maintenance.
Logging in as root gives you complete control over your system.
Note
T he root user (also known as the superuser) has complete access to the entire system; for this
reason, logging in as the root user is best done only to perform system maintenance or
administration.
Figure 9.32. Root Password
Use the root account only for system administration. Create a non-root account for your general use and
use the su command to change to root only when you need to perform tasks that require superuser
authorization. T hese basic rules minimize the chances of a typo or an incorrect command doing damage
to your system.
Note
T o become root, type su - at the shell prompt in a terminal window and then press Enter. T hen,
enter the root password and press Enter.
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T he installation program prompts you to set a root password[2 ] for your system. . You cannot proceed to
the next stage of the installation process without entering a root password.
T he root password must be at least six characters long; the password you type is not echoed to the
screen. You must enter the password twice; if the two passwords do not match, the installation program
asks you to enter them again.
You should make the root password something you can remember, but not something that is easy for
someone else to guess. Your name, your phone number, qwerty, password, root, 123456, and anteater
are all examples of bad passwords. Good passwords mix numerals with upper and lower case letters
and do not contain dictionary words: Aard387vark or 420BMttNT, for example. Remember that the
password is case-sensitive. If you write down your password, keep it in a secure place. However, it is
recommended that you do not write down this or any password you create.
Choose your own password
Do not use one of the example passwords offered in this manual. Using one of these passwords
could be considered a security risk.
T o change your root password after you have completed the installation, use the Root Password T ool.
T ype the system -config-users command in a shell prompt to launch the User Manager, a powerful
user management and configuration tool. If you are not root, it prompts you for the root password to
continue.
Enter the root password into the Root Password field. Red Hat Enterprise Linux displays the
characters as asterisks for security. T ype the same password into the Confirm field to ensure it is set
correctly. After you set the root password, select Next to proceed.
9.10. Assign Storage Devices
If you selected more than one storage device on the storage devices selection screen (refer to
Section 9.6, “Storage Devices”), anaconda asks you to select which of these devices should be
available for installation of the operating system, and which should only be attached to the file system for
data storage. If you selected only one storage device, anaconda does not present you with this screen.
During installation, the devices that you identify here as being for data storage only are mounted as part
of the file system, but are not partitioned or formatted.
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Figure 9.33. Assign storage devices
T he screen is split into two panes. T he left pane contains a list of devices to be used for data storage
only. T he right pane contains a list of devices that are to be available for installation of the operating
system.
Each list contains information about the devices to help you to identify them. A small drop-down menu
marked with an icon is located to the right of the column headings. T his menu allows you to select the
types of data presented on each device. Reducing or expanding the amount of information presented
might help you to identify particular devices.
Move a device from one list to the other by clicking on the device, then clicking either the button labeled
with a left-pointing arrow to move it to the list of data storage devices or the button labeled with a rightpointing arrow to move it to the list of devices available for installation of the operating system.
T he list of devices available as installation targets also includes a radio button beside each device. Use
this radio button to specify the device that you want to use as the boot device for the system.
Important — chain loading
If any storage device contains a boot loader that will chain load the Red Hat Enterprise Linux boot
loader, include that storage device among the Install T arget Devices. Storage devices
that you identify as Install T arget Devices remain visible to anaconda during boot loader
configuration.
Storage devices that you identify as Install T arget Devices on this screen are not
automatically erased by the installation process unless you selected the Use All Space option
on the partitioning screen (refer to Section 9.13, “Disk Partitioning Setup”).
When you have finished identifying devices to be used for installation, click Next to continue.
9.11. Initializing the Hard Disk
If no readable partition tables are found on existing hard disks, the installation program asks to initialize
the hard disk. T his operation makes any existing data on the hard disk unreadable. If your system has a
brand new hard disk with no operating system installed, or you have removed all partitions on the hard
disk, click Re-initialize drive.
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T he installation program presents you with a separate dialog for each disk on which it cannot read a
valid partition table. Click the Ignore all button or Re-initialize all button to apply the same
answer to all devices.
Figure 9.34 . Warning screen – initializing hard drive
Certain RAID systems or other nonstandard configurations may be unreadable to the installation
program and the prompt to initialize the hard disk may appear. T he installation program responds to the
physical disk structures it is able to detect.
T o enable automatic initializing of hard disks for which it turns out to be necessary, use the kickstart
command clearpart --initlabel (refer to Chapter 32, Kickstart Installations)
Detach Unneeded Disks
If you have a nonstandard disk configuration that can be detached during installation and
detected and configured afterward, power off the system, detach it, and restart the installation.
9.12. Upgrading an Existing System
Red Hat does not support upgrades from earlier major versions
Red Hat does not support in-place upgrades between any major versions of Red Hat Enterprise
Linux. A major version is denoted by a whole number version change. For example, Red Hat
Enterprise Linux 5 and Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 are both major versions of Red Hat Enterprise
Linux.
In-place upgrades across major releases do not preserve all system settings, services or custom
configurations. Consequently, Red Hat strongly recommends fresh installations when upgrading
from one major version to another.
T he installation system automatically detects any existing installation of Red Hat Enterprise Linux. T he
upgrade process updates the existing system software with new versions, but does not remove any
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data from users' home directories. T he existing partition structure on your hard drives does not change.
Your system configuration changes only if a package upgrade demands it. Most package upgrades do
not change system configuration, but rather install an additional configuration file for you to examine
later.
Note that the installation medium that you are using might not contain all the software packages that you
need to upgrade your computer.
9.12.1. T he Upgrade Dialog
If your system contains a Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation, a dialog appears asking whether you
want to upgrade that installation. T o perform an upgrade of an existing system, choose the appropriate
installation from the drop-down list and select Next.
Figure 9.35. T he Upgrade Dialog
Manually Installed Software
Software you have installed manually on your existing Red Hat Enterprise Linux system may
behave differently after an upgrade. You may need to manually reinstall or recompile this software
after an upgrade to ensure it performs correctly on the updated system.
9.12.2. Upgrading Using the Installer
Installations are Recommended
In general, Red Hat recommends that you keep user data on a separate /hom e partition and
perform a fresh installation. For more information on partitions and how to set them up, refer to
Section 9.13, “Disk Partitioning Setup”.
If you choose to upgrade your system using the installation program, any software not provided by Red
Hat Enterprise Linux that conflicts with Red Hat Enterprise Linux software is overwritten. Before you
begin an upgrade this way, make a list of your system's current packages for later reference:
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rpm -qa --qf '%{NAME} %{VERSION}-%{RELEASE} %{ARCH}\n' > ~/old-pkglist.txt
After installation, consult this list to discover which packages you may need to rebuild or retrieve from
sources other than Red Hat.
Next, make a backup of any system configuration data:
su -c 'tar czf /tmp/etc-`date +%F`.tar.gz /etc'
su -c 'mv /tmp/etc-*.tar.gz /home'
Make a complete backup of any important data before performing an upgrade. Important data may
include the contents of your entire /hom e directory as well as content from services such as an Apache,
FT P, or SQL server, or a source code management system. Although upgrades are not destructive, if
you perform one improperly there is a small possibility of data loss.
Storing Backups
Note that the above examples store backup materials in a /hom e directory. If your /hom e
directory is not a separate partition, you should not follow these examples verbatim! Store your
backups on another device such as CD or DVD discs or an external hard disk.
For more information on completing the upgrade process later, refer to Section 35.2, “Finishing an
Upgrade”.
9.12.3. Upgrading Boot Loader Configuration
Your completed Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation must be registered in the boot loader to boot
properly. A boot loader is software on your machine that locates and starts the operating system. Refer
to Appendix E, The GRUB Boot Loader for more information about boot loaders.
Figure 9.36. T he Upgrade Boot Loader Dialog
If the existing boot loader was installed by a Linux distribution, the installation system can modify it to
load the new Red Hat Enterprise Linux system. T o update the existing Linux boot loader, select Update
boot loader configuration. T his is the default behavior when you upgrade an existing Red Hat
Enterprise Linux installation.
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GRUB is the standard boot loader for Red Hat Enterprise Linux on 32-bit and 64-bit x86 architectures. If
your machine uses another boot loader, such as BootMagic, System Commander, or the loader installed
by Microsoft Windows, then the Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation system cannot update it. In this
case, select Skip boot loader updating. When the installation process completes, refer to the
documentation for your product for assistance.
Install a new boot loader as part of an upgrade process only if you are certain you want to replace the
existing boot loader. If you install a new boot loader, you may not be able to boot other operating
systems on the same machine until you have configured the new boot loader. Select Create new
boot loader configuration to remove the existing boot loader and install GRUB.
After you make your selection, click Next to continue. If you selected the Create new boot loader
configuration option, refer to Section 9.17, “x86, AMD64, and Intel 64 Boot Loader Configuration”. If
you chose to update or skip boot loader configuration, installation continues without further input from
you.
9.13. Disk Partitioning Setup
Warning — Back up your data
It is always a good idea to back up any data that you have on your systems. For example, if you
are upgrading or creating a dual-boot system, you should back up any data you wish to keep on
your storage devices. Mistakes do happen and can result in the loss of all your data.
Important — Installing in text mode
If you install Red Hat Enterprise Linux in text mode, you can only use the default partitioning
schemes described in this section. You cannot add or remove partitions or file systems beyond
those that the installer automatically adds or removes. If you require a customized layout at
installation time, you should perform a graphical installation over a VNC connection or a kickstart
installation.
Furthermore, advanced options such as LVM, encrypted filesystems, and resizable filesystems
are available only in graphical mode and kickstart.
Important — Booting from RAIDs
If you have a RAID card, be aware that some BIOSes do not support booting from the RAID card.
In cases such as these, the /boot/ partition must be created on a partition outside of the RAID
array, such as on a separate hard drive. An internal hard drive is necessary to use for partition
creation with problematic RAID cards.
A /boot/ partition is also necessary for software RAID setups.
If you have chosen to automatically partition your system, you should select Review and
manually edit your /boot/ partition.
Partitioning allows you to divide your hard drive into isolated sections, where each section behaves as
its own hard drive. Partitioning is particularly useful if you run multiple operating systems. If you are not
sure how you want your system to be partitioned, read Appendix A, An Introduction to Disk Partitions for
more information.
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Figure 9.37. Disk Partitioning Setup
On this screen you can choose to create the default partition layout in one of four different ways, or
choose to partition storage devices manually to create a custom layout.
T he first four options allow you to perform an automated installation without having to partition your
storage devices yourself. If you do not feel comfortable with partitioning your system, choose one of
these options and let the installation program partition the storage devices for you. Depending on the
option that you choose, you can still control what data (if any) is removed from the system.
Your options are:
Use All Space
Select this option to remove all partitions on your hard drives (this includes partitions created by
other operating systems such as Windows VFAT or NT FS partitions).
Warning
If you select this option, all data on the selected hard drives is removed by the
installation program. Do not select this option if you have information that you want to
keep on the hard drives where you are installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux.
In particular, do not select this option when you configure a system to chain load the Red
Hat Enterprise Linux boot loader from another boot loader.
Replace Existing Linux System(s)
Select this option to remove only partitions created by a previous Linux installation. T his does
not remove other partitions you may have on your hard drives (such as VFAT or FAT 32
partitions).
Shrink Current System
Select this option to resize your current data and partitions manually and install a default Red
Hat Enterprise Linux layout in the space that is freed.
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Warning
If you shrink partitions on which other operating systems are installed, you might not be
able to use those operating systems. Although this partitioning option does not destroy
data, operating systems typically require some free space in their partitions. Before you
resize a partition that holds an operating system that you might want to use again, find
out how much space you need to leave free.
Use Free Space
Select this option to retain your current data and partitions and install Red Hat Enterprise Linux
in the unused space available on the storage drives. Ensure that there is sufficient space
available on the storage drives before you select this option — refer to Section 3.5, “Do You
Have Enough Disk Space?”.
Warning
If your 64-bit x86 system uses UEFI instead of BIOS, you will need to manually create a
/boot partition. T his partition must have an ext3 file system. If you choose to partition
automatically, your system will not boot.
Create Custom Layout
Select this option to partition storage devices manually and create customized layouts. Refer to
Section 9.15, “ Creating a Custom Layout or Modifying the Default Layout ”
Choose your preferred partitioning method by clicking the radio button to the left of its description in the
dialog box.
Select Encrypt system to encrypt all partitions except the /boot partition. Refer to Appendix C, Disk
Encryption for information on encryption.
T o review and make any necessary changes to the partitions created by automatic partitioning, select
the Review option. After selecting Review and clicking Next to move forward, the partitions created for
you by anaconda appear. You can make modifications to these partitions if they do not meet your
needs.
Important — chain loading
T o configure the Red Hat Enterprise Linux boot loader to chain load from a different boot loader,
you must specify the boot drive manually. If you chose any of the automatic partitioning options,
you must now select the Review and m odify partitioning layout option before you
click Next or you cannot specify the correct boot drive.
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Important — Mixing multipath and non-multipath devices
When you install Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 on a system with multipath and non-multipath
storage devices, the automatic partitioning layout in the installer might create volume groups that
contain a mix of multipath and non-multipath devices. T his defeats the purpose of multipath
storage.
We advise that you select only multipath or only non-multipath devices on the disk selection
screen that appears after selecting automatic partitioning. Alternatively, select custom partitioning.
Click Next once you have made your selections to proceed.
9.14. Encrypt Partitions
If you selected the Encrypt System option, the installer prompts you for a passphrase with which to
encrypt the partitions on the system.
Partitions are encrypted using the Linux Unified Key Setup — refer to Appendix C, Disk Encryption for
more information.
Figure 9.38. Enter passphrase for encrypted partition
Choose a passphrase and type it into each of the two fields in the dialog box. You must provide this
passphrase every time that the system boots.
Warning — Do not lose this passphrase
If you lose this passphrase, any encrypted partitions and the data on them will become completely
inaccessible. T here is no way to recover a lost passphrase.
Note that if you perform a kickstart installation of Red Hat Enterprise Linux, you can save
encryption passphrases and create backup encryption passphrases during installation. Refer to
Section C.3.2, “Saving Passphrases” and Section C.3.3, “Creating and Saving Backup
Passphrases”.
9.15. Creating a Custom Layout or Modifying the Default Layout
If you chose one of the four automatic partitioning options and did not select Review, skip ahead to
Section 9.18, “Package Group Selection”.
If you chose one of the automatic partitioning options and selected Review, you can either accept the
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current partition settings (click Next), or modify the setup manually in the partitioning screen.
If you chose to create a custom layout, you must tell the installation program where to install Red Hat
Enterprise Linux. T his is done by defining mount points for one or more disk partitions in which Red Hat
Enterprise Linux is installed. You may also need to create and/or delete partitions at this time.
Warning
If your 64-bit x86 system uses UEFI instead of BIOS, you will need to manually create a /boot
partition. T his partition must have an ext3 file system. If you choose to partition automatically, your
system will not boot.
If you have not yet planned how to set up your partitions, refer to Appendix A, An Introduction to Disk
Partitions and Section 9.15.5, “Recommended Partitioning Scheme”. At a bare minimum, you need an
appropriately-sized root partition, and usually a swap partition appropriate to the amount of RAM you
have on the system.
Anaconda can handle the partitioning requirements for a typical installation.
Figure 9.39. Partitioning on x86, AMD64 , and Intel 64 Systems
T he partitioning screen contains two panes. T he top pane contains a graphical representation of the
hard drive, logical volume, or RAID device selected in the lower pane.
Above the graphical representation of the device, you can review the name of the drive (such as
/dev/sda or LogVol00), its size (in MB), and its model as detected by the installation program.
Using your mouse, click once to highlight a particular field in the graphical display. Double-click to edit an
existing partition or to create a partition out of existing free space.
T he lower pane contains a list of all drives, logical volumes, and RAID devices to be used during
installation, as specified earlier in the installation process — refer to Section 9.10, “ Assign Storage
Devices ”
Devices are grouped by type. Click on the small triangles to the left of each device type to view or hide
devices of that type.
Anaconda displays several details for each device listed:
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Device
the name of the device, logical volume, or partition
Size (MB)
the size of the device, logical volume, or partition (in MB)
Mount Point/RAID/Volume
the mount point (location within a file system) on which a partition is to be mounted, or the name
of the RAID or logical volume group of which it is a part
T ype
the type of partition. If the partition is a standard partition, this field displays the type of file
system on the partition (for example, ext4). Otherwise, it indicates that the partition is a
physical volum e (LVM), or part of a software RAID
Format
A check mark in this column indicates that the partition will be formatted during installation.
Beneath the lower pane are four buttons: Create, Edit, Delete, and Reset.
Select a device or partition by clicking on it in either the graphical representation in the upper pane of in
the list in the lower pane, then click one of the four buttons to carry out the following actions:
Create
create a new partition, logical volume, or software RAID
Edit
change an existing partition, logical volume, or software RAID. Note that you can only shrink
partitions with the Resize button, not enlarge partitions.
Delete
remove a partition, logical volume, or software RAID
Reset
undo all changes made in this screen
9.15.1. Create Storage
T he Create Storage dialog allows you to create new storage partitions, logical volumes, and
software RAIDs. Anaconda presents options as available or unavailable depending on the storage
already present on the system or configured to transfer to the system.
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Figure 9.4 0. Creating Storage
Options are grouped under Create Partition, Create Software RAID and Create LVM as
follows:
Create Partition
Refer to Section 9.15.2, “Adding Partitions” for details of the Add Partition dialog.
Standard Partition — create a standard disk partition (as described in Appendix A, An
Introduction to Disk Partitions) in unallocated space.
Create Software RAID
Refer to Section 9.15.3, “ Create Software RAID ” for more detail.
RAID Partition — create a partition in unallocated space to form part of a software RAID device.
T o form a software RAID device, two or more RAID partitions must be available on the system.
RAID Device — combine two or more RAID partitions into a software RAID device. When you
choose this option, you can specify the type of RAID device to create (the RAID level). T his option is
only available when two or more RAID partitions are available on the system.
Create LVM Logical Volume
Refer to Section 9.15.4, “ Create LVM Logical Volume ” for more detail.
LVM Physical Volum e — create a physical volume in unallocated space.
LVM Volum e Group — create a volume group from one or more physical volumes. T his option is
only available when at least one physical volume is available on the system.
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LVM Logical Volum e — create a logical volume on a volume group. T his option is only available
when at least one volume group is available on the system.
9.15.2. Adding Partitions
T o add a new partition, select the Create button. A dialog box appears (refer to Figure 9.41, “Creating a
New Partition”).
Note
You must dedicate at least one partition for this installation, and optionally more. For more
information, refer to Appendix A, An Introduction to Disk Partitions.
Figure 9.4 1. Creating a New Partition
Mount Point: Enter the partition's mount point. For example, if this partition should be the root
partition, enter /; enter /boot for the /boot partition, and so on. You can also use the pull-down
menu to choose the correct mount point for your partition. For a swap partition the mount point should
not be set — setting the filesystem type to swap is sufficient.
File System T ype: Using the pull-down menu, select the appropriate file system type for this
partition. For more information on file system types, refer to Section 9.15.2.1, “File System T ypes”.
Allowable Drives: T his field contains a list of the hard disks installed on your system. If a hard
disk's box is highlighted, then a desired partition can be created on that hard disk. If the box is not
checked, then the partition will never be created on that hard disk. By using different checkbox
settings, you can have anaconda place partitions where you need them, or let anaconda decide
where partitions should go.
Size (MB): Enter the size (in megabytes) of the partition. Note, this field starts with 200 MB; unless
changed, only a 200 MB partition will be created.
Additional Size Options: Choose whether to keep this partition at a fixed size, to allow it to
"grow" (fill up the available hard drive space) to a certain point, or to allow it to grow to fill any
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"grow" (fill up the available hard drive space) to a certain point, or to allow it to grow to fill any
remaining hard drive space available.
If you choose Fill all space up to (MB), you must give size constraints in the field to the
right of this option. T his allows you to keep a certain amount of space free on your hard drive for
future use.
Force to be a prim ary partition: Select whether the partition you are creating should be
one of the first four partitions on the hard drive. If unselected, the partition is created as a logical
partition. Refer to Section A.1.3, “Partitions within Partitions — An Overview of Extended Partitions”,
for more information.
Encrypt: Choose whether to encrypt the partition so that the data stored on it cannot be accessed
without a passphrase, even if the storage device is connected to another system. Refer to
Appendix C, Disk Encryption for information on encryption of storage devices. If you select this option,
the installer prompts you to provide a passphrase before it writes the partition to the disk.
OK: Select OK once you are satisfied with the settings and wish to create the partition.
Cancel: Select Cancel if you do not want to create the partition.
9.15.2.1. File System T ypes
Red Hat Enterprise Linux allows you to create different partition types and file systems. T he following is
a brief description of the different partition types and file systems available, and how they can be used.
Partition types
standard partition — A standard partition can contain a file system or swap space, or it can
provide a container for software RAID or an LVM physical volume.
swap — Swap partitions are used to support virtual memory. In other words, data is written to a swap
partition when there is not enough RAM to store the data your system is processing. Refer to the
Red Hat Enterprise Linux Deployment Guide for additional information.
software RAID — Creating two or more software RAID partitions allows you to create a RAID
device. For more information regarding RAID, refer to the chapter RAID (Redundant Array of
Independent Disks) in the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Deployment Guide.
physical volum e (LVM) — Creating one or more physical volume (LVM) partitions allows you to
create an LVM logical volume. LVM can improve performance when using physical disks. For more
information regarding LVM, refer to the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Deployment Guide.
File systems
ext4 — T he ext4 file system is based on the ext3 file system and features a number of
improvements. T hese include support for larger file systems and larger files, faster and more efficient
allocation of disk space, no limit on the number of subdirectories within a directory, faster file system
checking, and more robust journaling. T he ext4 file system is selected by default and is highly
recommended.
ext3 — T he ext3 file system is based on the ext2 file system and has one main advantage —
journaling. Using a journaling file system reduces time spent recovering a file system after a crash as
there is no need to fsck [3 ] the file system.
ext2 — An ext2 file system supports standard Unix file types (regular files, directories, symbolic
links, etc). It provides the ability to assign long file names, up to 255 characters.
xfs — XFS is a highly scalable, high-performance file system that supports filesystems up to 16
exabytes (approximately 16 million terabytes), files up to 8 exabytes (approximately 8 million
terabytes) and directory structures containing tens of millions of entries. XFS supports metadata
journaling, which facilitates quicker crash recovery. T he XFS file system can also be defragmented
and resized while mounted and active.
vfat — T he VFAT file system is a Linux file system that is compatible with Microsoft Windows long
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filenames on the FAT file system.
Btrfs — Btrfs is under development as a file system capable of addressing and managing more
files, larger files, and larger volumes than the ext2, ext3, and ext4 file systems. Btrfs is designed to
make the file system tolerant of errors, and to facilitate the detection and repair of errors when they
occur. It uses checksums to ensure the validity of data and metadata, and maintains snapshots of
the file system that can be used for backup or repair.
Because Btrfs is still experimental and under development, the installation program does not offer it
by default. If you want to create a Btrfs partition on a drive, you must commence the installation
process with the boot option btrfs. Refer to Chapter 28, Boot Options for instructions.
Btrfs is still experimental
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 includes Btrfs as a technology preview to allow you to experiment
with this file system. You should not choose Btrfs for partitions that will contain valuable data
or that are essential for the operation of important systems.
9.15.3. Create Software RAID
Redundant arrays of independent disks (RAIDs) are constructed from multiple storage devices that are
arranged to provide increased performance and — in some configurations — greater fault tolerance.
Refer to the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Deployment Guide for a description of different kinds of RAIDs.
T o make a RAID device, you must first create software RAID partitions. Once you have created two or
more software RAID partitions, select RAID to join the software RAID partitions into a RAID device.
RAID Partition
Choose this option to configure a partition for software RAID. T his option is the only choice
available if your disk contains no software RAID partitions. T his is the same dialog that appears
when you add a standard partition — refer to Section 9.15.2, “Adding Partitions” for a
description of the available options. Note, however, that File System T ype must be set to
software RAID
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Figure 9.4 2. Create a software RAID partition
RAID Device
Choose this option to construct a RAID device from two or more existing software RAID
partitions. T his option is available if two or more software RAID partitions have been configured.
Figure 9.4 3. Create a RAID device
Select the file system type as for a standard partition.
Anaconda automatically suggests a name for the RAID device, but you can manually select
names from m d0 to m d15.
Click the checkboxes beside individual storage devices to include or remove them from this
RAID.
T he RAID Level corresponds to a particular type of RAID. Choose from the following options:
RAID 0 — distributes data across multiple storage devices. Level 0 RAIDs offer increased
performance over standard partitions, and can be used to pool the storage of multiple
devices into one large virtual device. Note that Level 0 RAIDS offer no redundancy and that
the failure of one device in the array destroys the entire array. RAID 0 requires at least two
RAID partitions.
RAID 1 — mirrors the data on one storage device onto one or more other storage devices.
Additional devices in the array provide increasing levels of redundancy. RAID 1 requires at
least two RAID partitions.
RAID 4 — distributes data across multiple storage devices, but uses one device in the
array to store parity information that safeguards the array in case any device within the
array fails. Because all parity information is stored on the one device, access to this device
creates a bottleneck in the performance of the array. RAID 4 requires at least three RAID
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partitions.
RAID 5 — distributes data and parity information across multiple storage devices. Level 5
RAIDs therefore offer the performance advantages of distributing data across multiple
devices, but do not share the performance bottleneck of level 4 RAIDs because the parity
information is also distributed through the array. RAID 5 requires at least three RAID
partitions.
RAID 6 — level 6 RAIDs are similar to level 5 RAIDs, but instead of storing only one set of
parity data, they store two sets. RAID 6 requires at least four RAID partitions.
RAID 10 — level 10 RAIDs are nested RAIDs or hybrid RAIDs. Level 10 RAIDs are
constructed by distributing data over mirrored sets of storage devices. For example, a level
10 RAID constructed from four RAID partitions consists of two pairs of partitions in which
one partition mirrors the other. Data is then distributed across both pairs of storage devices,
as in a level 0 RAID. RAID 10 requires at least four RAID partitions.
9.15.4 . Create LVM Logical Volume
Important — LVM Unavailable in Text-Mode Installations
LVM initial set up is not available during text-mode installation. If you need to create an LVM
configuration from scratch, press Alt+F2 to use a different virtual console, and run the lvm
command. T o return to the text-mode installation, press Alt+F1.
Logical Volume Management (LVM) presents a simple logical view of underlying physical storage space,
such as a hard drives or LUNs. Partitions on physical storage are represented as physical volumes that
can be grouped together into volume groups. Each volume group can be divided into multiple logical
volumes, each of which is analogous to a standard disk partition. T herefore, LVM logical volumes
function as partitions that can span multiple physical disks.
T o read more about LVM, refer to the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Deployment Guide. Note, LVM is only
available in the graphical installation program.
LVM Physical Volume
Choose this option to configure a partition or device as an LVM physical volume. T his option is
the only choice available if your storage does not already contain LVM Volume Groups. T his is
the same dialog that appears when you add a standard partition — refer to Section 9.15.2,
“Adding Partitions” for a description of the available options. Note, however, that File System
T ype must be set to physical volum e (LVM)
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Figure 9.4 4 . Create an LVM Physical Volume
Make LVM Volum e Group
Choose this option to create LVM volume groups from the available LVM physical volumes, or to
add existing logical volumes to a volume group.
Figure 9.4 5. Make LVM Volume Group
T o assign one or more physical volumes to a volume group, first name the volume group. T hen
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select the physical volumes to be used in the volume group. Finally, configure logical volumes
on any volume groups using the Add, Edit and Delete options.
You may not remove a physical volume from a volume group if doing so would leave insufficient
space for that group's logical volumes. T ake for example a volume group made up of two 5 GB
LVM physical volume partitions, which contains an 8 GB logical volume. T he installer would not
allow you to remove either of the component physical volumes, since that would leave only 5 GB
in the group for an 8 GB logical volume. If you reduce the total size of any logical volumes
appropriately, you may then remove a physical volume from the volume group. In the example,
reducing the size of the logical volume to 4 GB would allow you to remove one of the 5 GB
physical volumes.
Make Logical Volum e
Choose this option to create an LVM logical volume. Select a mount point, file system type, and
size (in MB) just as if it were a standard disk partition. You can also choose a name for the
logical volume and specify the volume group to which it will belong.
Figure 9.4 6. Make Logical Volume
9.15.5. Recommended Partitioning Scheme
9.15.5.1. x86, AMD64 , and Intel 64 systems
Unless you have a reason for doing otherwise, we recommend that you create the following partitions for
x86, AMD64, and Intel 64 systems:
A swap partition
A /boot partition
A / partition
A hom e partition
A swap partition (at least 256 MB) — swap partitions are used to support virtual memory. In other
words, data is written to a swap partition when there is not enough RAM to store the data your
system is processing.
In years past, the recommended amount of swap space increased linearly with the amount of RAM in
the system. But because the amount of memory in modern systems has increased into the hundreds
of gigabytes, it is now recognized that the amount of swap space that a system needs is a function
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of the memory workload running on that system.
T he following table provides the recommended size of a swap partition depending on the amount of
RAM in your system and whether you want sufficient memory for your system to hibernate. T he
recommended swap space is established automatically during installation, but to also allow for
hibernation you will need to edit the swap space in the custom partitioning stage.
T able 9.2. Recommended System Swap Space
Amount of RAM in the
system
Recommended swap space
Recommended swap space
if allowing for hibernation
2GB of RAM or less
2 times the amount of RAM
3 times the amount of RAM
2GB to 8GB of RAM
Equal to the amount of RAM
2 times the amount of RAM
8GB to 64GB of RAM
0.5 times the amount of RAM
1.5 times the amount of RAM
64GB of RAM or more
4GB of swap space
No extra space needed
Note that you can obtain better performance by distributing swap space over multiple storage
devices, particularly on systems with fast drives, controllers, and interfaces.
A /boot/ partition (250 MB)
T he partition mounted on /boot/ contains the operating system kernel (which allows your system to
boot Red Hat Enterprise Linux), along with files used during the bootstrap process. For most users, a
250 MB boot partition is sufficient.
Important — Supported file systems
T he GRUB bootloader in Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 supports only the ext2, ext3, and ext4
(recommended) file systems. You cannot use any other file system for /boot, such as Btrfs,
XFS, or VFAT .
Note
If your hard drive is more than 1024 cylinders (and your system was manufactured more than
two years ago), you may need to create a /boot/ partition if you want the / (root) partition to
use all of the remaining space on your hard drive.
Note
If you have a RAID card, be aware that some BIOSes do not support booting from the RAID
card. In cases such as these, the /boot/ partition must be created on a partition outside of
the RAID array, such as on a separate hard drive.
A root partition (3.0 GB - 5.0 GB)
T his is where "/" (the root directory) is located. In this setup, all files (except those stored in /boot)
are on the root partition.
A 3.0 GB partition allows you to install a minimal installation, while a 5.0 GB root partition lets you
perform a full installation, choosing all package groups.
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Root and /root
T he / (or root) partition is the top of the directory structure. T he /root directory/root
(sometimes pronounced "slash-root") directory is the home directory of the user account for
system administration.
A hom e partition (at least 100 MB)
T o store user data separately from system data, create a dedicated partition within a volume group
for the /hom e directory. T his will enable you to upgrade or reinstall Red Hat Enterprise Linux without
erasing user data files.
Many systems have more partitions than the minimum listed above. Choose partitions based on your
particular system needs. Refer to Section 9.15.5.1.1, “Advice on Partitions” for more information.
If you create many partitions instead of one large / partition, upgrades become easier. Refer to the
description of the Edit option in Section 9.15, “ Creating a Custom Layout or Modifying the Default Layout
” for more information.
T he following table summarizes minimum partition sizes for the partitions containing the listed
directories. You do not have to make a separate partition for each of these directories. For instance, if
the partition containing /foo must be at least 500 MB, and you do not make a separate /foo partition,
then the / (root) partition must be at least 500 MB.
T able 9.3. Minimum partition sizes
Directory
Minimum size
/
250 MB
/usr
250 MB, but avoid placing this on a separate
partition
/tm p
50 MB
/var
384 MB
/hom e
100 MB
/boot
250 MB
Leave Excess Capacity Unallocated
Only assign storage capacity to those partitions you require immediately. You may allocate free
space at any time, to meet needs as they occur. T o learn about a more flexible method for
storage management, refer to Appendix D, Understanding LVM.
If you are not sure how best to configure the partitions for your computer, accept the default partition
layout.
9.15.5.1.1. Advice on Partitions
Optimal partition setup depends on the usage for the Linux system in question. T he following tips may
help you decide how to allocate your disk space.
Consider encrypting any partitions that might contain sensitive data. Encryption prevents
unauthorized people from accessing the data on the partitions, even if they have access to the
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physical storage device. In most cases, you should at least encrypt the /hom e partition.
Each kernel installed on your system requires approximately 10 MB on the /boot partition. Unless
you plan to install a great many kernels, the default partition size of 250 MB for /boot should suffice.
Important — Supported file systems
T he GRUB bootloader in Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 supports only the ext2, ext3, and ext4
(recommended) file systems. You cannot use any other file system for /boot, such as Btrfs,
XFS, or VFAT .
T he /var directory holds content for a number of applications, including the Apache web server. It
also is used to store downloaded update packages on a temporary basis. Ensure that the partition
containing the /var directory has enough space to download pending updates and hold your other
content.
Warning
T he PackageKit update software downloads updated packages to /var/cache/yum / by
default. If you partition the system manually, and create a separate /var/ partition, be sure to
create the partition large enough (3.0 GB or more) to download package updates.
T he /usr directory holds the majority of software content on a Red Hat Enterprise Linux system. For
an installation of the default set of software, allocate at least 4 GB of space. If you are a software
developer or plan to use your Red Hat Enterprise Linux system to learn software development skills,
you may want to at least double this allocation.
Do not place /usr on a separate file system
If /usr is on a separate file system from /, the boot process becomes much more complex
because /usr contains boot-critical components. In some situations (like installations on
iSCSI drives), the boot process might not work at all.
Consider leaving a portion of the space in an LVM volume group unallocated. T his unallocated space
gives you flexibility if your space requirements change but you do not wish to remove data from other
partitions to reallocate storage.
If you separate subdirectories into partitions, you can retain content in those subdirectories if you
decide to install a new version of Red Hat Enterprise Linux over your current system. For instance, if
you intend to run a MySQL database in /var/lib/m ysql, make a separate partition for that
directory in case you need to reinstall later.
T he following table is a possible partition setup for a system with a single, new 80 GB hard disk and 1
GB of RAM. Note that approximately 10 GB of the volume group is unallocated to allow for future growth.
Example Usage
T his setup is not optimal for all use cases.
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Example 9.1. Example partition setup
T able 9.4 . Example partition setup
Partition
Size and type
/boot
250 MB ext3 partition
swap
2 GB swap
LVM physical volume
Remaining space, as one LVM volume group
T he physical volume is assigned to the default volume group and divided into the following logical
volumes:
T able 9.5. Example partition setup: LVM physical volume
Partition
Size and type
/
13 GB ext4
/var
4 GB ext4
/hom e
50 GB ext4
9.16. Write changes to disk
T he installer prompts you to confirm the partitioning options that you selected. Click Write changes
to disk to allow the installer to partition your hard drive and install Red Hat Enterprise Linux.
Figure 9.4 7. Writing storage configuration to disk
If you are certain that you want to proceed, click Write changes to disk.
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Last chance to cancel safely
Up to this point in the installation process, the installer has made no lasting changes to your
computer. When you click Write changes to disk, the installer will allocate space on your
hard drive and start to transfer Red Hat Enterprise Linux into this space. Depending on the
partitioning option that you chose, this process might include erasing data that already exists on
your computer.
T o revise any of the choices that you made up to this point, click Go back. T o cancel installation
completely, switch off your computer. T o switch off most computers at this stage, press the power
button and hold it down for a few seconds.
After you click Write changes to disk, allow the installation process to complete. If the
process is interrupted (for example, by you switching off or resetting the computer, or by a power
outage) you will probably not be able to use your computer until you restart and complete the Red
Hat Enterprise Linux installation process, or install a different operating system.
9.17. x86, AMD64, and Intel 64 Boot Loader Configuration
T o boot the system without boot media, you usually need to install a boot loader. A boot loader is the
first software program that runs when a computer starts. It is responsible for loading and transferring
control to the operating system kernel software. T he kernel, in turn, initializes the rest of the operating
system.
Installing in text mode
If you install Red Hat Enterprise Linux in text mode, the installer configures the bootloader
automatically and you cannot customize bootloader settings during the installation process.
GRUB (GRand Unified Bootloader), which is installed by default, is a very powerful boot loader. GRUB
can load a variety of free operating systems, as well as proprietary operating systems with chain-loading
(the mechanism for loading unsupported operating systems, such as Windows, by loading another boot
loader). Note that the version of GRUB in Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 is an old and stable version now
known as "GRUB Legacy" since upstream development moved to GRUB 2.[4 ] Red Hat remains
committed to maintaining the version of GRUB that we ship with Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6, just as we
do with all packages that we ship.
The GRUB boot menu
T he GRUB menu defaults to being hidden, except on dual-boot systems. T o show the GRUB
menu during system boot, press and hold the Shift key before the kernel is loaded. (Any other
key works as well but the Shift key is the safest to use.)
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Figure 9.4 8. Boot Loader Configuration
If there are no other operating systems on your computer, or you are completely removing any other
operating systems the installation program will install GRUB as your boot loader without any
intervention. In that case you may continue on to Section 9.18, “Package Group Selection”.
You may have a boot loader installed on your system already. An operating system may install its own
preferred boot loader, or you may have installed a third-party boot loader.If your boot loader does not
recognize Linux partitions, you may not be able to boot Red Hat Enterprise Linux. Use GRUB as your
boot loader to boot Linux and most other operating systems. Follow the directions in this chapter to
install GRUB.
Installing GRUB
If you install GRUB, it may overwrite your existing boot loader.
By default, the installation program installs GRUB in the master boot record or MBR, of the device for the
root file system. T o decline installation of a new boot loader, unselect Install boot loader on
/dev/sda.
Warning
If you choose not to install GRUB for any reason, you will not be able to boot the system directly,
and you must use another boot method (such as a commercial boot loader application). Use this
option only if you are sure you have another way of booting the system!
If you have other operating systems already installed, Red Hat Enterprise Linux attempts to automatically
detect and configure GRUB to boot them. You may manually configure any additional operating systems
if GRUB does not detect them.
T o add, remove, or change the detected operating system settings, use the options provided.
Add
Select Add to include an additional operating system in GRUB.
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Select the disk partition which contains the bootable operating system from the drop-down list
and give the entry a label. GRUB displays this label in its boot menu.
Edit
T o change an entry in the GRUB boot menu, select the entry and then select Edit.
Delete
T o remove an entry from the GRUB boot menu, select the entry and then select Delete.
Select Default beside the preferred boot partition to choose your default bootable OS. You cannot
move forward in the installation unless you choose a default boot image.
Note
T he Label column lists what you must enter at the boot prompt, in non-graphical boot loaders, in
order to boot the desired operating system.
Once you have loaded the GRUB boot screen, use the arrow keys to choose a boot label or type
e for edit. You are presented with a list of items in the configuration file for the boot label you have
selected.
Boot loader passwords provide a security mechanism in an environment where physical access to your
server is available.
If you are installing a boot loader, you should create a password to protect your system. Without a boot
loader password, users with access to your system can pass options to the kernel which can
compromise your system security. With a boot loader password in place, the password must first be
entered before selecting any non-standard boot options. However, it is still possible for someone with
physical access to the machine to boot from a diskette, CD-ROM, DVD, or USB media if the BIOS
supports it. Security plans which include boot loader passwords should also address alternate boot
methods.
GRUB Passwords Not Required
You may not require a GRUB password if your system only has trusted operators, or is
physically secured with controlled console access. However, if an untrusted person can get
physical access to your computer's keyboard and monitor, that person can reboot the system and
access GRUB. A password is helpful in this case.
If you choose to use a boot loader password to enhance your system security, be sure to select the
checkbox labeled Use a boot loader password.
Once selected, enter a password and confirm it.
GRUB stores the password in encrypted form, so it cannot be read or recovered. If you forget the boot
password, boot the system normally and then change the password entry in the
/boot/grub/grub.conf file. If you cannot boot, you may be able to use the "rescue" mode on the
first Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation disc to reset the GRUB password.
If you do need to change the GRUB password, use the grub-m d5-crypt utility. For information on
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using this utility, use the command m an grub-m d5-crypt in a terminal window to read the manual
pages.
GRUB recognizes only the QWERTY keyboard layout
When selecting a GRUB password, be aware that GRUB recognizes only the QWERT Y keyboard
layout, regardless of the keyboard actually attached to the system. If you use a keyboard with a
significantly different layout, it might be more effective to memorize a pattern of keystrokes rather
than the word that the pattern produces.
T o configure more advanced boot loader options, such as changing the drive order or passing options
to the kernel, be sure Configure advanced boot loader options is selected before clicking
Next.
9.17.1. Advanced Boot Loader Configuration
Now that you have chosen which boot loader to install, you can also determine where you want the boot
loader to be installed. You may install the boot loader in one of two places:
T he master boot record (MBR) — T his is the recommended place to install a boot loader, unless the
MBR already starts another operating system loader, such as System Commander. T he MBR is a
special area on your hard drive that is automatically loaded by your computer's BIOS, and is the
earliest point at which the boot loader can take control of the boot process. If you install it in the MBR,
when your machine boots, GRUB presents a boot prompt. You can then boot Red Hat Enterprise
Linux or any other operating system that you have configured the boot loader to boot.
T he first sector of your boot partition — T his is recommended if you are already using another boot
loader on your system. In this case, your other boot loader takes control first. You can then configure
that boot loader to start GRUB, which then boots Red Hat Enterprise Linux.
GRUB as a Secondary Boot Loader
If you install GRUB as a secondary boot loader, you must reconfigure your primary boot loader
whenever you install and boot from a new kernel. T he kernel of an operating system such as
Microsoft Windows does not boot in the same fashion. Most users therefore use GRUB as the
primary boot loader on dual-boot systems.
Figure 9.4 9. Boot Loader Installation
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Note
If you have a RAID card, be aware that some BIOSes do not support booting from the RAID card.
In cases such as these, the boot loader should not be installed on the MBR of the RAID array.
Rather, the boot loader should be installed on the MBR of the same drive as the /boot/ partition
was created.
If your system only uses Red Hat Enterprise Linux, you should choose the MBR.
Click the Change Drive Order button if you would like to rearrange the drive order or if your BIOS
does not return the correct drive order. Changing the drive order may be useful if you have multiple SCSI
adapters, or both SCSI and IDE adapters, and you want to boot from the SCSI device.
Note
While partitioning your hard drive, keep in mind that the BIOS in some older systems cannot
access more than the first 1024 cylinders on a hard drive. If this is the case, leave enough room
for the /boot Linux partition on the first 1024 cylinders of your hard drive to boot Linux. T he
other Linux partitions can be after cylinder 1024.
In parted, 1024 cylinders equals 528MB. For more information, refer to:
http://www.pcguide.com/ref/hdd/bios/sizeMB504-c.html
9.17.2. Rescue Mode
Rescue mode provides the ability to boot a small Red Hat Enterprise Linux environment entirely from
boot media or some other boot method instead of the system's hard drive. T here may be times when
you are unable to get Red Hat Enterprise Linux running completely enough to access files on your
system's hard drive. Using rescue mode, you can access the files stored on your system's hard drive,
even if you cannot actually run Red Hat Enterprise Linux from that hard drive. If you need to use rescue
mode, try the following method:
Boot an x86, AMD64, or Intel 64 system from any installation medium, such as CD, DVD, USB, or PXE,
and type linux rescue at the installation boot prompt. Refer to Chapter 36, Basic System
Recovery for a more complete description of rescue mode.
For additional information, refer to the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Deployment Guide.
9.17.3. Alternative Boot Loaders
GRUB is the default bootloader for Red Hat Enterprise Linux, but is not the only choice. A variety of
open-source and proprietary alternatives to GRUB are available to load Red Hat Enterprise Linux,
including LILO, SYSLINUX, and Acronis Disk Director Suite.
Important
Red Hat does not provide customer support for third-party boot loaders.
9.18. Package Group Selection
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Now that you have made most of the choices for your installation, you are ready to confirm the default
package selection or customize packages for your system.
T he Package Installation Defaults screen appears and details the default package set for
your Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation. T his screen varies depending on the version of Red Hat
Enterprise Linux you are installing.
Installing in text mode
If you install Red Hat Enterprise Linux in text mode, you cannot make package selections. T he
installer automatically selects packages only from the base and core groups. T hese packages
are sufficient to ensure that the system is operational at the end of the installation process, ready
to install updates and new packages. T o change the package selection, complete the installation,
then use the Add/Remove Software application to make desired changes.
Figure 9.50. Package Group Selection
By default, the Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation process loads a selection of software that is
suitable for a system deployed as a basic server. Note that this installation does not include a graphical
environment. T o include a selection of software suitable for other roles, click the radio button that
corresponds to one of the following options:
Basic Server
T his option provides a basic installation of Red Hat Enterprise Linux for use on a server.
Database Server
T his option provides the MySQL and PostgreSQL databases.
Web server
T his option provides the Apache web server.
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Enterprise Identity Server Base
T his option provides OpenLDAP and the System Security Services Daemon (SSSD) to
create an identity and authentication server.
Virtual Host
T his option provides the KVM and Virtual Machine Manager tools to create a host for virtual
machines.
Desktop
T his option provides the OpenOffice.org productivity suite, graphical tools such as the GIMP,
and multimedia applications.
Software Development Workstation
T his option provides the necessary tools to compile software on your Red Hat Enterprise Linux
system.
Minimal
T his option provides only the packages essential to run Red Hat Enterprise Linux. A minimal
installation provides the basis for a single-purpose server or desktop appliance and maximizes
performance and security on such an installation.
If you choose to accept the current package list, skip ahead to Section 9.19, “Installing Packages”.
T o select a component, click on the checkbox beside it (refer to Figure 9.50, “Package Group Selection”).
T o customize your package set further, select the Custom ize now option on the screen. Clicking Next
takes you to the Package Group Selection screen.
9.18.1. Installing from Additional Repositories
You can define additional repositories to increase the software available to your system during
installation. A repository is a network location that stores software packages along with metadata that
describes them. Many of the software packages used in Red Hat Enterprise Linux require other software
to be installed. T he installer uses the metadata to ensure that these requirements are met for every
piece of software you select for installation.
T he basic options are:
T he High Availability repository includes packages for high-availability clustering (also known
as failover clustering) using the Red Hat High-availability Service Management component.
T he Load Balancer repository includes packages for load-balancing clustering using Linux Virtual
Server (LVS).
T he Red Hat Enterprise Linux repository is automatically selected for you. It contains the
complete collection of software that was released as Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6, with the various
pieces of software in their versions that were current at the time of release.
T he Resilient Storage repository includes packages for storage clustering using the Red Hat
global file system (GFS).
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For more information about clustering with Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6, refer to the Red Hat Enterprise
Linux 6 Cluster Suite Overview, available from https://access.redhat.com/knowledge/docs/manuals/.
Figure 9.51. Adding a software repository
T o include software from extra repositories, select Add additional software repositories and
provide the location of the repository.
T o edit an existing software repository location, select the repository in the list and then select Modify
repository.
If you change the repository information during a non-network installation, such as from a Red Hat
Enterprise Linux DVD, the installer prompts you for network configuration information.
Figure 9.52. Select network interface
1. Select an interface from the drop-down menu.
2. Click OK.
Anaconda activates the interface that you selected, then starts NetworkManager to allow you to
configure the interface.
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Figure 9.53. Network Connections
For details of how to use NetworkManager, refer to Section 9.7, “Setting the Hostname”
If you select Add additional software repositories, the Edit repository dialog appears.
Provide a Repository nam e and the Repository URL for its location.
Once you have located a mirror, to determine the URL to use, find the directory on the mirror that
contains a directory named repodata.
Once you provide information for an additional repository, the installer reads the package metadata over
the network. Software that is specially marked is then included in the package group selection system.
Backtracking Removes Repository Metadata
If you choose Back from the package selection screen, any extra repository data you may have
entered is lost. T his allows you to effectively cancel extra repositories. Currently there is no way
to cancel only a single repository once entered.
9.18.2. Customizing the Software Selection
Additional Language Support
Your Red Hat Enterprise Linux system automatically supports the language that you selected at
the start of the installation process. T o include support for additional languages, select the
package group for those languages from the Languages category.
Select Custom ize now to specify the software packages for your final system in more detail. T his
option causes the installation process to display an additional customization screen when you select
Next.
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Figure 9.54 . Package Group Details
Red Hat Enterprise Linux divides the included software into package groups. For ease of use, the
package selection screen displays these groups as categories.
You can select package groups, which group components together according to function (for example, X
Window System and Editors), individual packages, or a combination of the two.
T o view the package groups for a category, select the category from the list on the left. T he list on the
right displays the package groups for the currently selected category.
T o specify a package group for installation, select the check box next to the group. T he box at the
bottom of the screen displays the details of the package group that is currently highlighted. None of the
packages from a group will be installed unless the check box for that group is selected.
If you select a package group, Red Hat Enterprise Linux automatically installs the base and mandatory
packages for that group. T o change which optional packages within a selected group will be installed,
select the Optional Packages button under the description of the group. T hen use the check box
next to an individual package name to change its selection.
In the package selection list on the right, you can use the context menu as a shortcut to select or deselect base and mandatory packages or all optional packages.
Figure 9.55. Package Selection List Context Menu
After you choose the desired packages, select Next to proceed. T he installer checks your selection,
and automatically adds any extra packages required to use the software you selected. When you have
finished selecting packages, click Close to save your optional package selections and return to the
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Chapter 9. Installing using anaconda
main package selection screen.
T he packages that you select are not permanent. After you boot your system, use the Add/Remove
Software tool to either install new software or remove installed packages. T o run this tool, from the
main menu, select System → Administration → Add/Remove Software. T he Red Hat Enterprise
Linux software management system downloads the latest packages from network servers, rather than
using those on the installation discs.
9.18.2.1. Core Network Services
All Red Hat Enterprise Linux installations include the following network services:
centralized logging through syslog
email through SMT P (Simple Mail T ransfer Protocol)
network file sharing through NFS (Network File System)
remote access through SSH (Secure SHell)
resource advertising through mDNS (multicast DNS)
T he default installation also provides:
network file transfer through HT T P (HyperT ext T ransfer Protocol)
printing through CUPS (Common UNIX Printing System)
remote desktop access through VNC (Virtual Network Computing)
Some automated processes on your Red Hat Enterprise Linux system use the email service to send
reports and messages to the system administrator. By default, the email, logging, and printing services
do not accept connections from other systems. Red Hat Enterprise Linux installs the NFS sharing,
HT T P, and VNC components without enabling those services.
You may configure your Red Hat Enterprise Linux system after installation to offer email, file sharing,
logging, printing and remote desktop access services. T he SSH service is enabled by default. You may
use NFS to access files on other systems without enabling the NFS sharing service.
9.19. Installing Packages
At this point there is nothing left for you to do until all the packages have been installed. How quickly this
happens depends on the number of packages you have selected and your computer's speed.
Depending on the available resources, you might see the following progress bar while the installer
resolves dependencies of the packages you selected for installation:
Figure 9.56. Starting installation
Red Hat Enterprise Linux reports the installation progress on the screen as it writes the selected
packages to your system.
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125
Figure 9.57. Packages completed
For your reference, a complete log of your installation can be found in /root/install.log once you
reboot your system.
After installation completes, select Reboot to restart your computer. Red Hat Enterprise Linux ejects
any loaded discs before the computer reboots.
9.20. Installation Complete
Congratulations! Your Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation is now complete!
T he installation program prompts you to prepare your system for reboot. Remember to remove any
installation media if it is not ejected automatically upon reboot.
After your computer's normal power-up sequence has completed, Red Hat Enterprise Linux loads and
starts. By default, the start process is hidden behind a graphical screen that displays a progress bar.
Eventually, a login: prompt or a GUI login screen (if you installed the X Window System and chose to
start X automatically) appears.
T he first time you start your Red Hat Enterprise Linux system in run level 5 (the graphical run level), the
FirstBoot tool appears, which guides you through the Red Hat Enterprise Linux configuration. Using
this tool, you can set your system time and date, install software, register your machine with Red Hat
Network, and more. FirstBoot lets you configure your environment at the beginning, so that you can get
started using your Red Hat Enterprise Linux system quickly.
Chapter 34, Firstboot will guide you through the configuration process.
[2] A ro o t p as s wo rd is the ad minis trative p as s wo rd fo r yo ur Red Hat Enterp ris e Linux s ys tem. Yo u s ho uld o nly lo g in as ro o t when
need ed fo r s ys tem maintenanc e. The ro o t ac c o unt d o es no t o p erate within the res tric tio ns p lac ed o n no rmal us er ac c o unts , s o
c hang es mad e as ro o t c an have imp lic atio ns fo r yo ur entire s ys tem.
[3] The f sck ap p lic atio n is us ed to c hec k the file s ys tem fo r metad ata c o ns is tenc y and o p tio nally rep air o ne o r mo re Linux file
s ys tems .
[4] http ://www.g nu.o rg /s o ftware/g rub /g rub -leg ac y.en.html
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Chapter 10. Troubleshooting Installation on an Intel or AMD System
Chapter 10. Troubleshooting Installation on an Intel or AMD
System
T his section discusses some common installation problems and their solutions.
For debugging purposes, anaconda logs installation actions into files in the /tm p directory. T hese files
include:
/tm p/anaconda.log
general anaconda messages
/tm p/program .log
all external programs run by anaconda
/tm p/storage.log
extensive storage module information
/tm p/yum .log
yum package installation messages
/tm p/syslog
hardware-related system messages
If the installation fails, the messages from these files are consolidated into /tm p/anacondatb-identifier, where identifier is a random string.
All of the files above reside in the installer's ramdisk and are thus volatile. T o make a permanent copy,
copy those files to another system on the network using scp on the installation image (not the other way
round).
10.1. You are unable to boot Red Hat Enterprise Linux
10.1.1. Are You Unable to Boot With Your RAID Card?
If you have performed an installation and cannot boot your system properly, you may need to reinstall
and create your partitions differently.
Some BIOSes do not support booting from RAID cards. At the end of an installation, a text-based screen
showing the boot loader prompt (for example, GRUB: ) and a flashing cursor may be all that appears. If
this is the case, you must repartition your system.
Whether you choose automatic or manual partitioning, you must install your /boot partition outside of
the RAID array, such as on a separate hard drive. An internal hard drive is necessary to use for partition
creation with problematic RAID cards.
You must also install your preferred boot loader (GRUB or LILO) on the MBR of a drive that is outside of
the RAID array. T his should be the same drive that hosts the /boot/ partition.
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127
Once these changes have been made, you should be able to finish your installation and boot the system
properly.
10.1.2. Is Your System Displaying Signal 11 Errors?
A signal 11 error, commonly known as a segmentation fault, means that the program accessed a
memory location that was not assigned to it. A signal 11 error may be due to a bug in one of the software
programs that is installed, or faulty hardware.
If you receive a fatal signal 11 error during your installation, it is probably due to a hardware error in
memory on your system's bus. Like other operating systems, Red Hat Enterprise Linux places its own
demands on your system's hardware. Some of this hardware may not be able to meet those demands,
even if they work properly under another OS.
Ensure that you have the latest installation updates and images. Review the online errata to see if newer
versions are available. If the latest images still fail, it may be due to a problem with your hardware.
Commonly, these errors are in your memory or CPU-cache. A possible solution for this error is turning
off the CPU-cache in the BIOS, if your system supports this. You could also try to swap your memory
around in the motherboard slots to check if the problem is either slot or memory related.
Another option is to perform a media check on your installation DVD. Anaconda, the installation
program, has the ability to test the integrity of the installation media. It works with the DVD, hard drive
ISO, and NFS ISO installation methods. Red Hat recommends that you test all installation media before
starting the installation process, and before reporting any installation-related bugs (many of the bugs
reported are actually due to improperly-burned DVDs). T o use this test, type the following command at
the boot: or yaboot: prompt:
linux mediacheck
For more information concerning signal 11 errors, refer to:
http://www.bitwizard.nl/sig11/
10.2. Trouble Beginning the Installation
10.2.1. Problems with Booting into the Graphical Installation
T here are some video cards that have trouble booting into the graphical installation program. If the
installation program does not run using its default settings, it tries to run in a lower resolution mode. If
that still fails, the installation program attempts to run in text mode.
One possible solution is to use only a basic video driver during installation. You can do this either by
selecting Install system with basic video driver on the boot menu, or using the
xdriver=vesa boot option at the boot prompt. Alternatively, you can force the installer to use a specific
screen resolution with the resolution= boot option. T his option may be most helpful for laptop users.
Another solution to try is the driver= option to specify the driver that should be loaded for your video
card. If this works, you should report it as a bug, because the installer failed to detect your video card
automatically. Refer to Chapter 28, Boot Options for more information on boot options.
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Note
T o disable frame buffer support and allow the installation program to run in text mode, try using
the nofb boot option. T his command may be necessary for accessibility with some screen
reading hardware.
10.3. Trouble During the Installation
10.3.1. No devices found to install Red Hat Enterprise Linux Error Message
If you receive an error message stating No devices found to install Red Hat Enterprise
Linux, there is probably a SCSI controller that is not being recognized by the installation program.
Check your hardware vendor's website to determine if a driver update is available that fixes your
problem. For more general information on driver updates, refer to Chapter 6, Updating drivers during
installation on Intel and AMD systems.
You can also refer to the Red Hat Hardware Compatibility List, available online at:
http://hardware.redhat.com/hcl/
10.3.2. Saving traceback messages
If anaconda encounters an error during the graphical installation process, it presents you with a crash
reporting dialog box:
Figure 10.1. T he Crash Reporting Dialog Box
Details
shows you the details of the error:
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 Installation Guide
Figure 10.2. Details of the Crash
Save
saves details of the error locally or remotely:
Exit
exits the installation process.
If you select Save from the main dialog, you can choose from the following options:
Figure 10.3. Select reporter
Logger
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saves details of the error as a log file to the local hard drive at a specified location.
Red Hat Customer Support
submits the crash report to Customer Support for assistance.
Report uploader
uploads a compressed version of the crash report to Bugzilla or a URL of your choice.
Before submitting the report, click Preferences to specify a destination or provide authentication
details. Select the reporting method you need to configure and click Configure Event.
Figure 10.4 . Configure reporter preferences
Logger
Specify a path and a filename for the log file. Check Append if you are adding to an existing log
file.
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 Installation Guide
Figure 10.5. Specify local path for log file
Red Hat Customer Support
Enter your Red Hat Network username and password so your report reaches Customer
Support and is linked with your account. T he URL is prefilled and Verify SSL is checked by
default.
Figure 10.6. Enter Red Hat Network authentication details
Report uploader
Specify a URL for uploading a compressed version of the crash report.
Figure 10.7. Enter URL for uploading crash report
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Chapter 10. Troubleshooting Installation on an Intel or AMD System
Bugzilla
Enter your Bugzilla username and password to lodge a bug with Red Hat's bug-tracking system
using the crash report. T he URL is prefilled and Verify SSL is checked by default.
Figure 10.8. Enter Bugzilla authentication details
Once you have entered your preferences, click OK to return to the report selection dialog. Select how you
would like to report the problem and then click Forward.
Figure 10.9. Confirm report data
You can now customize the report by checking and unchecking the issues that will be included. When
finished, click Apply.
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133
Figure 10.10. Report in progress
T his screen displays the outcome of the report, including any errors in sending or saving the log. Click
Forward to proceed.
Figure 10.11. Reporting done
Reporting is now complete. Click Forward to return to the report selection dialog. You can now make
another report, or click Close to exit the reporting utility and then Exit to close the installation process.
10.3.3. T rouble with Partition T ables
If you receive an error after the Disk Partitioning Setup (Section 9.13, “Disk Partitioning Setup”)
phase of the installation saying something similar to
T he partition table on device hda was unreadable. T o create new partitions it must be
initialized, causing the loss of ALL DAT A on this drive.
you may not have a partition table on that drive or the partition table on the drive may not be
recognizable by the partitioning software used in the installation program.
Users who have used programs such as EZ -BIOS have experienced similar problems, causing data to
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be lost (assuming the data was not backed up before the installation began) that could not be
recovered.
No matter what type of installation you are performing, backups of the existing data on your systems
should always be made.
10.3.4 . Using Remaining Space
You have a swap and a / (root) partition created, and you have selected the root partition to use the
remaining space, but it does not fill the hard drive.
If your hard drive is more than 1024 cylinders, you must create a /boot partition if you want the / (root)
partition to use all of the remaining space on your hard drive.
10.3.5. Other Partitioning Problems
If you create partitions manually, but cannot move to the next screen, you probably have not created all
the partitions necessary for installation to proceed.
You must have the following partitions as a bare minimum:
A / (root) partition
A <swap> partition of type swap
Refer to Section 9.15.5, “Recommended Partitioning Scheme” for more information.
Note
When defining a partition's type as swap, do not assign it a mount point. Anaconda automatically
assigns the mount point for you.
10.4. Problems After Installation
10.4 .1. T rouble With the Graphical GRUB Screen on an x86-based System?
If you are experiencing problems with GRUB, you may need to disable the graphical boot screen. T o do
this, become the root user and edit the /boot/grub/grub.conf file.
Within the grub.conf file, comment out the line which begins with splashim age by inserting the #
character at the beginning of the line.
Press Enter to exit the editing mode.
Once the boot loader screen has returned, type b to boot the system.
Once you reboot, the grub.conf file is reread and any changes you have made take effect.
You may re-enable the graphical boot screen by uncommenting (or adding) the above line back into the
grub.conf file.
10.4 .2. Booting into a Graphical Environment
If you have installed the X Window System but are not seeing a graphical desktop environment once you
log into your system, you can start the X Window System graphical interface using the command
startx.
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135
Once you enter this command and press Enter, the graphical desktop environment is displayed.
Note, however, that this is just a one-time fix and does not change the log in process for future log ins.
T o set up your system so that you can log in at a graphical login screen, you must edit one file,
/etc/inittab, by changing just one number in the runlevel section. When you are finished, reboot the
computer. T he next time you log in, you are presented with a graphical login prompt.
Open a shell prompt. If you are in your user account, become root by typing the su command.
Now, type the following to edit the file with gedit.
gedit /etc/inittab
T he file /etc/inittab opens. Within the first screen, a section of the file which looks like the following
appears:
# Default runlevel. The runlevels used are:
#
0 - halt (Do NOT set initdefault to this)
#
1 - Single user mode
#
2 - Multiuser, without NFS (The same as 3, if you do not have networking)
#
3 - Full multiuser mode
#
4 - unused
#
5 - X11
#
6 - reboot (Do NOT set initdefault to this)
#
id:3:initdefault:
T o change from a console to a graphical login, you should change the number in the line
id:3:initdefault: from a 3 to a 5.
Warning
Change only the number of the default runlevel from 3 to 5.
Your changed line should look like the following:
id:5:initdefault:
When you are satisfied with your change, save and exit the file using the Ctrl+Q keys. A window
appears and asks if you would like to save the changes. Click Save.
T he next time you log in after rebooting your system, you are presented with a graphical login prompt.
10.4 .3. Problems with the X Window System (GUI)
If you are having trouble getting X (the X Window System) to start, you may not have installed it during
your installation.
If you want X, you can either install the packages from the Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation media or
perform an upgrade.
If you elect to upgrade, select the X Window System packages, and choose GNOME, KDE, or both,
during the upgrade package selection process.
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Chapter 10. Troubleshooting Installation on an Intel or AMD System
Refer to Section 35.3, “Switching to a Graphical Login” for more detail on installing a desktop
environment.
10.4 .4 . Problems with the X Server Crashing and Non-Root Users
If you are having trouble with the X server crashing when anyone logs in, you may have a full file system
(or, a lack of available hard drive space).
T o verify that this is the problem you are experiencing, run the following command:
df -h
T he df command should help you diagnose which partition is full. For additional information about df
and an explanation of the options available (such as the -h option used in this example), refer to the df
man page by typing m an df at a shell prompt.
A key indicator is 100% full or a percentage above 90% or 95% on a partition. T he /hom e/ and /tm p/
partitions can sometimes fill up quickly with user files. You can make some room on that partition by
removing old files. After you free up some disk space, try running X as the user that was unsuccessful
before.
10.4 .5. Problems When You T ry to Log In
If you did not create a user account in the firstboot screens, switch to a console by pressing
Ctrl+Alt+F2, log in as root and use the password you assigned to root.
If you cannot remember your root password, boot your system as linux single.
If you are using an x86-based system and GRUB is your installed boot loader, type e for edit when the
GRUB boot screen has loaded. You are presented with a list of items in the configuration file for the boot
label you have selected.
Choose the line that starts with kernel and type e to edit this boot entry.
At the end of the kernel line, add:
single
Press Enter to exit edit mode.
Once the boot loader screen has returned, type b to boot the system.
Once you have booted into single user mode and have access to the # prompt, you must type passwd
root, which allows you to enter a new password for root. At this point you can type shutdown -r now
to reboot the system with the new root password.
If you cannot remember your user account password, you must become root. T o become root, type su and enter your root password when prompted. T hen, type passwd <usernam e>. T his allows you to
enter a new password for the specified user account.
If the graphical login screen does not appear, check your hardware for compatibility issues. T he
Hardware Compatibility List can be found at:
http://hardware.redhat.com/hcl/
10.4 .6. Is Your RAM Not Being Recognized?
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137
Sometimes, the kernel does not recognize all of your memory (RAM). You can check this with the cat
/proc/m em info command.
Verify that the displayed quantity is the same as the known amount of RAM in your system. If they are
not equal, add the following line to the /boot/grub/grub.conf:
mem=xxM
Replace xx with the amount of RAM you have in megabytes.
In /boot/grub/grub.conf, the above example would look similar to the following:
# NOTICE: You have a /boot partition. This means that
# all kernel paths are relative to /boot/
default=0
timeout=30
splashimage=(hd0,0)/grub/splash.xpm.gz
title Red Hat Enterprise Linux Client (2.6.32.130.el6.i686)
root (hd0,1)
kernel /vmlinuz-(2.6.32.130.el6.i686 ro root=UUID=04a07c13-e6bf-6d5a-b207002689545705 mem=1024M
initrd /initrd-(2.6.32.130.el6.i686.img
Once you reboot, the changes made to grub.conf are reflected on your system.
Once you have loaded the GRUB boot screen, type e for edit. You are presented with a list of items in
the configuration file for the boot label you have selected.
Choose the line that starts with kernel and type e to edit this boot entry.
At the end of the kernel line, add
mem=xxM
where xx equals the amount of RAM in your system.
Press Enter to exit edit mode.
Once the boot loader screen has returned, type b to boot the system.
Remember to replace xx with the amount of RAM in your system. Press Enter to boot.
10.4 .7. Your Printer Does Not Work
If you are not sure how to set up your printer or are having trouble getting it to work properly, try using
the Printer Configuration T ool.
T ype the system -config-printer command at a shell prompt to launch the Printer Configuration
T ool. If you are not root, it prompts you for the root password to continue.
10.4 .8. Apache HT T P Server or Sendmail stops responding during startup
If Apache HT T P Server (httpd) or Sendmail stops responding during startup, make sure the
following line is in the /etc/hosts file:
127.0.0.1
localhost.localdomain
localhost
138
Part II. IBM POWER Architecture - Installation and Booting
Part II. IBM POWER Architecture - Installation and Booting
T he Red Hat Enterprise Linux Installation Guide for IBM POWER systems discusses the installation of
Red Hat Enterprise Linux and some basic post-installation troubleshooting. For advanced installation
options, refer to Part IV, “Advanced installation options”.
Important — only 64-bit POWER architecture is supported
Previous releases of Red Hat Enterprise Linux supported the 32-bit and 64-bit POWER
architectures (ppc and ppc64 respectively). Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 supports only the 64-bit
POWER architecture (ppc64 ).
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139
Chapter 11. Planning for Installation on the POWER
Architecture
11.1. Upgrade or Install?
For information to help you determine whether to perform an upgrade or an installation refer to
Chapter 37, Upgrading Your Current System.
11.2. Supported Installation Hardware
For installation of Red Hat Enterprise Linux on POWER systems, Red Hat supports hard drives
connected by a standard internal interface, such as SCSI, SAT A, or SAS.
Fibre Channel Host Bus Adapters and multipath devices are also supported. Vendor-provided drivers
may be required for certain hardware.
Red Hat does not support installation to USB drives or SD memory cards, but does support virtualized
installation on POWER systems using vSCSI in LPAR.
11.3. Preparation for IBM eServer System p
Important — Check the real-base boot parameter
Ensure that the real-base boot parameter is set to c00000, otherwise you might see errors such
as:
DEFAULT CATCH!, exception-handler=fff00300
T he IBM eServer System p introduces many options for partitioning, virtual or native devices, and
consoles. Both versions of the system use the same kernel and have many of the same options
available, depending on the system configuration.
If you are using a non-partitioned system, you do not need any pre-installation setup. For systems using
the HVSI serial console, hook up your console to the T 2 serial port.
If using a partitioned system the steps to create the partition and start the installation are largely the
same. You should create the partition at the HMC and assign some CPU and memory resources, as well
as SCSI and Ethernet resources, which can be either virtual or native. T he HMC create partition wizard
steps you through the creation.
For more information on creating the partition, refer to IBM's Infocenter book on Partitioning for Linux with
an HMC available online at:
http://publib.boulder.ibm.com/infocenter/powersys/v3r1m5/topic/iphbi_p5/iphbibook.pdf
If you are using virtual SCSI resources, rather than native SCSI, you must configure a 'link' to the virtual
SCSI serving partition, and then configure the virtual SCSI serving partition itself. You create a 'link'
between the virtual SCSI client and server slots using the HMC. You can configure a virtual SCSI server
on either AIX or i5/OS, depending on which model and options you have.
For more information on using virtual devices, see the IBM Redbook Virtualizing an Infrastructure with
System p and Linux at: http://publib-b.boulder.ibm.com/abstracts/sg247499.html
14 0
Chapter 11. Planning for Installation on the POWER Architecture
Once you have your system configured, you need to Activate from the HMC or power it on. Depending on
what type of install you are doing, you may need to configure SMS to correctly boot the system into the
installation program.
11.4. RAID and Other Disk Devices
Important — Systems with Intel BIOS RAID sets
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 uses mdraid instead of dmraid for installation onto Intel BIOS RAID
sets. T hese sets are detected automatically, and devices with Intel ISW metadata are recognized
as mdraid instead of dmraid. Note that the device node names of any such devices under mdraid
are different from their device node names under dmraid. T herefore, special precautions are
necessary when you migrate systems with Intel BIOS RAID sets.
Local modifications to /etc/fstab, /etc/crypttab or other configuration files which refer to
devices by their device node names will not work in Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6. Before migrating
these files, you must therefore edit them to replace device node paths with device UUIDs instead.
You can find the UUIDs of devices with the blkid command.
11.4 .1. Hardware RAID
RAID, or Redundant Array of Independent Disks, allows a group, or array, of drives to act as a single
device. Configure any RAID functions provided by the mainboard of your computer, or attached controller
cards, before you begin the installation process. Each active RAID array appears as one drive within
Red Hat Enterprise Linux.
On systems with more than one hard drive you may configure Red Hat Enterprise Linux to operate
several of the drives as a Linux RAID array without requiring any additional hardware.
11.4 .2. Software RAID
You can use the Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation program to create Linux software RAID arrays,
where RAID functions are controlled by the operating system rather than dedicated hardware. T hese
functions are explained in detail in Section 16.17, “ Creating a Custom Layout or Modifying the Default
Layout ”.
11.4 .3. FireWire and USB Disks
Some FireWire and USB hard disks may not be recognized by the Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation
system. If configuration of these disks at installation time is not vital, disconnect them to avoid any
confusion.
Post-installation Usage
You can connect and configure external FireWire and USB hard disks after installation. Most such
devices are recognized by the kernel and available for use at that time.
11.5. Do You Have Enough Disk Space?
Nearly every modern-day operating system (OS) uses disk partitions, and Red Hat Enterprise Linux is no
exception. When you install Red Hat Enterprise Linux, you may have to work with disk partitions. If you
have not worked with disk partitions before (or need a quick review of the basic concepts), refer to
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 Installation Guide
14 1
Appendix A, An Introduction to Disk Partitions before proceeding.
T he disk space used by Red Hat Enterprise Linux must be separate from the disk space used by other
OSes you may have installed on your system.
Before you start the installation process, you must
have enough unpartitioned[5 ] disk space for the installation of Red Hat Enterprise Linux, or
have one or more partitions that may be deleted, thereby freeing up enough disk space to install Red
Hat Enterprise Linux.
T o gain a better sense of how much space you really need, refer to the recommended partitioning sizes
discussed in Section 16.17.5, “Recommended Partitioning Scheme”.
11.6. Choose a boot method
Installing from a DVD requires that you have purchased a Red Hat Enterprise Linux product, you have a
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 DVD, and you have a DVD drive on a system that supports booting from it.
Refer to Chapter 2, Making Media for instructions to make an installation DVD.
Other than booting from an installation DVD, you can also boot the Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation
program from minimal boot media in the form of a bootable CD. After you boot the system with boot CD,
you complete the installation from a different installation source, such as a local hard drive or a location
on a network. Refer to Section 2.2, “Making Minimal Boot Media” for instructions on making boot CDs.
[5] Unp artitio ned d is k s p ac e means that availab le d is k s p ac e o n the hard d rives yo u are ins talling to has no t b een d ivid ed into
s ec tio ns fo r d ata. When yo u p artitio n a d is k, eac h p artitio n b ehaves like a s ep arate d is k d rive.
14 2
Chapter 12. Preparing for Installation
Chapter 12. Preparing for Installation
12.1. Preparing for a Network Installation
Important — eHEA does not work with huge pages
T he eHEA module fails to initialize if 16 GB huge pages are assigned to a system or partition and
the kernel command line does not contain the huge page parameters. T herefore, when you
perform a network installation through an IBM eHEA ethernet adapter, you cannot assign huge
pages to the system or partition during the installation. Large pages should work.
Note
Make sure no installation DVD (or any other type of DVD or CD) is in your system's CD or DVD
drive if you are performing a network-based installation. Having a DVD or CD in the drive might
cause unexpected errors.
Ensure that you have boot media available on CD, DVD, or a USB storage device such as a flash drive.
T he Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation medium must be available for either a network installation (via
NFS, FT P, HT T P, or HT T PS) or installation via local storage. Use the following steps if you are
performing an NFS, FT P, HT T P, or HT T PS installation.
T he NFS, FT P, HT T P, or HT T PS server to be used for installation over the network must be a separate,
network-accessible server. It must provide the complete contents of the installation DVD-ROM.
Note
anaconda has the ability to test the integrity of the installation media. It works with the DVD, hard
drive ISO, and NFS ISO installation methods. Red Hat recommends that you test all installation
media before starting the installation process, and before reporting any installation-related bugs
(many of the bugs reported are actually due to improperly-burned DVDs). T o use this test, type
the following command at the yaboot: prompt:
linux mediacheck
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Note
T he public directory used to access the installation files over FT P, NFS, HT T P, or HT T PS is
mapped to local storage on the network server. For example, the local directory
/var/www/inst/rhel6 on the network server can be accessed as
http://network.server.com /inst/rhel6.
In the following examples, the directory on the installation staging server that will contain the
installation files will be specified as /location/of/disk/space. T he directory that will be made
publicly available via FT P, NFS, HT T P, or HT T PS will be specified as
/publicly_available_directory. For example, /location/of/disk/space may be a
directory you create called /var/isos. /publicly_available_directory might be
/var/www/htm l/rhel6, for an HT T P install.
In the following, you will require an ISO image. An ISO image is a file containing an exact copy of the
content of a DVD. T o create an ISO image from a DVD use the following command:
dd if=/dev/dvd of=/path_to_image/name_of_image.iso
where dvd is your DVD drive device, name_of_image is the name you give to the resulting ISO image
file, and path_to_image is the path to the location on your system where the resulting ISO image will be
stored.
T o copy the files from the installation DVD to a Linux instance, which acts as an installation staging
server, continue with either Section 12.1.1, “Preparing for FT P, HT T P, and HT T PS installation” or
Section 12.1.2, “Preparing for an NFS installation”.
12.1.1. Preparing for FT P, HT T P, and HT T PS installation
Extract the files from the ISO image of the installation DVD and place them in a directory that is shared
over FT P, HT T P, or HT T PS.
Next, make sure that the directory is shared via FT P, HT T P, or HT T PS, and verify client access. T est to
see whether the directory is accessible from the server itself, and then from another machine on the
same subnet to which you will be installing.
12.1.2. Preparing for an NFS installation
For NFS installation it is not necessary to extract all the files from the ISO image. It is sufficient to make
the ISO image itself, the install.im g file, and optionally the product.im g file available on the
network server via NFS.
1. T ransfer the ISO image to the NFS exported directory. On a Linux system, run:
mv /path_to_image/name_of_image.iso /publicly_available_directory/
where path_to_image is the path to the ISO image file, name_of_image is the name of the ISO
image file, and publicly_available_directory is a directory that is available over NFS or that
you intend to make available over NFS.
2. Use a SHA256 checksum program to verify that the ISO image that you copied is intact. Many
SHA256 checksum programs are available for various operating systems. On a Linux system, run:
$ sha256sum name_of_image.iso
where name_of_image is the name of the ISO image file. T he SHA256 checksum program
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displays a string of 64 characters called a hash. Compare this hash to the hash displayed for this
particular image on the Download Software page on the Red Hat Network (refer to Chapter 1,
Obtaining Red Hat Enterprise Linux). T he two hashes should be identical.
3. Copy the im ages/ directory from inside the ISO image to the same directory in which you stored
the ISO image file itself. Enter the following commands:
mount -t iso9660 /path_to_image/name_of_image.iso /mount_point -o loop,ro
cp -pr /mount_point/images /publicly_available_directory/
umount /mount_point
where path_to_image is the path to the ISO image file, name_of_image is the name of the ISO
image file, and mount_point is a mount point on which to mount the image while you copy files
from the image. For example:
mount -t iso9660 /var/isos/RHEL6.iso /mnt/tmp -o loop,ro
cp -pr /mnt/tmp/images /var/isos/
umount /mnt/tmp
T he ISO image file and an im ages/ directory are now present, side-by-side, in the same
directory.
4. Verify that the im ages/ directory contains at least the install.im g file, without which
installation cannot proceed. Optionally, the im ages/ directory should contain the product.im g
file, without which only the packages for a Minim al installation will be available during the
package group selection stage (refer to Section 16.19, “Package Group Selection”).
Important — content of the images/ directory
install.im g and product.im g must be the only files in the im ages/ directory.
5. Ensure that an entry for the publicly available directory exists in the /etc/exports file on the
network server so that the directory is available via NFS.
T o export a directory read-only to a specific system, use:
/publicly_available_directory client.ip.address (ro)
T o export a directory read-only to all systems, use:
/publicly_available_directory * (ro)
6. On the network server, start the NFS daemon (on a Red Hat Enterprise Linux system, use
/sbin/service nfs start). If NFS is already running, reload the configuration file (on a Red
Hat Enterprise Linux system use /sbin/service nfs reload).
7. Be sure to test the NFS share following the directions in the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Deployment
Guide. Refer to your NFS documentation for details on starting and stopping the NFS server.
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Note
anaconda has the ability to test the integrity of the installation media. It works with the DVD, hard
drive ISO, and NFS ISO installation methods. We recommend that you test all installation media
before starting the installation process, and before reporting any installation-related bugs (many
of the bugs reported are actually due to improperly-burned DVDs). T o use this test, type the
following command at the boot: prompt:
linux mediacheck
12.2. Preparing for a Hard Drive Installation
Note — Not all file systems supported
Hard drive installations only work from ext2, ext3, ext4, or FAT file systems. You cannot use a
hard drives formatted for any other file system as an installation source for Red Hat Enterprise
Linux.
T o check the file system of a hard drive partition on a Windows operating system, use the Disk
Management tool. T o check the file system of a hard drive partition on a Linux operating system,
use the fdisk tool.
Cannot Install from LVM Partitions
You cannot use ISO files on partitions controlled by LVM (Logical Volume Management).
Use this option to install Red Hat Enterprise Linux on systems without a DVD drive or network
connection.
Hard drive installations use the following files:
an ISO image of the installation DVD. An ISO image is a file that contains an exact copy of the
content of a DVD.
an install.im g file extracted from the ISO image.
optionally, a product.im g file extracted from the ISO image.
With these files present on a hard drive, you can choose Hard drive as the installation source when
you boot the installation program (refer to Section 15.3, “Installation Method”).
Ensure that you have boot media available on CD, DVD, or a USB storage device such as a flash drive.
T o prepare a hard drive as an installation source, follow these steps:
1. Obtain an ISO image of the Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation DVD (refer to Chapter 1,
Obtaining Red Hat Enterprise Linux). Alternatively, if you have the DVD on physical media, you can
create an image of it with the following command on a Linux system:
dd if=/dev/dvd of=/path_to_image/name_of_image.iso
where dvd is your DVD drive device, name_of_image is the name you give to the resulting ISO
image file, and path_to_image is the path to the location on your system where the resulting ISO
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image will be stored.
2. T ransfer the ISO image to the hard drive.
T he ISO image must be located on a hard drive that is either internal to the computer on which you
will install Red Hat Enterprise Linux, or on a hard drive that is attached to that computer by USB.
3. Use a SHA256 checksum program to verify that the ISO image that you copied is intact. Many
SHA256 checksum programs are available for various operating systems. On a Linux system, run:
$ sha256sum name_of_image.iso
where name_of_image is the name of the ISO image file. T he SHA256 checksum program
displays a string of 64 characters called a hash. Compare this hash to the hash displayed for this
particular image on the Download Software page on the Red Hat Network (refer to Chapter 1,
Obtaining Red Hat Enterprise Linux). T he two hashes should be identical.
4. Copy the im ages/ directory from inside the ISO image to the same directory in which you stored
the ISO image file itself. Enter the following commands:
mount -t iso9660 /path_to_image/name_of_image.iso /mount_point -o loop,ro
cp -pr /mount_point/images /publicly_available_directory/
umount /mount_point
where path_to_image is the path to the ISO image file, name_of_image is the name of the ISO
image file, and mount_point is a mount point on which to mount the image while you copy files
from the image. For example:
mount -t iso9660 /var/isos/RHEL6.iso /mnt/tmp -o loop,ro
cp -pr /mnt/tmp/images /var/isos/
umount /mnt/tmp
T he ISO image file and an im ages/ directory are now present, side-by-side, in the same
directory.
5. Verify that the im ages/ directory contains at least the install.im g file, without which
installation cannot proceed. Optionally, the im ages/ directory should contain the product.im g
file, without which only the packages for a Minim al installation will be available during the
package group selection stage (refer to Section 9.18, “Package Group Selection”).
Important — content of the images/ directory
install.im g and product.im g must be the only files in the im ages/ directory.
Note
anaconda has the ability to test the integrity of the installation media. It works with the DVD, hard
drive ISO, and NFS ISO installation methods. We recommend that you test all installation media
before starting the installation process, and before reporting any installation-related bugs (many
of the bugs reported are actually due to improperly-burned DVDs). T o use this test, type the
following command at the boot: prompt:
linux mediacheck
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Chapter 13. Updating drivers during installation on IBM
POWER systems
In most cases, Red Hat Enterprise Linux already includes drivers for the devices that make up your
system. However, if your system contains hardware that has been released very recently, drivers for this
hardware might not yet be included. Sometimes, a driver update that provides support for a new device
might be available from Red Hat or your hardware vendor on a driver disc that contains rpm packages.
T ypically, the driver disc is available for download as an ISO image file.
Often, you do not need the new hardware during the installation process. For example, if you use a DVD
to install to a local hard drive, the installation will succeed even if drivers for your network card are not
available. In situations like this, complete the installation and add support for the piece of hardware
afterward — refer to Section 35.1.1, “Driver update rpm packages” for details of adding this support.
In other situations, you might want to add drivers for a device during the installation process to support a
particular configuration. For example, you might want to install drivers for a network device or a storage
adapter card to give the installer access to the storage devices that your system uses. You can use a
driver disc to add this support during installation in one of two ways:
1. place the ISO image file of the driver disc in a location accessible to the installer:
a. on a local hard drive
b. a USB flash drive
2. create a driver disc by extracting the image file onto:
a. a CD
b. a DVD
Refer to the instructions for making installation discs in Section 2.1, “Making an installation DVD”
for more information on burning ISO image files to CD or DVD.
If Red Hat, your hardware vendor, or a trusted third party told you that you will require a driver update
during the installation process, choose a method to supply the update from the methods described in
this chapter and test it before beginning the installation. Conversely, do not perform a driver update
during installation unless you are certain that your system requires it. Although installing an
unnecessary driver update will not cause harm, the presence of a driver on a system for which it was not
intended can complicate support.
13.1. Limitations of driver updates during installation
Unfortunately, some situations persist in which you cannot use a driver update to provide drivers during
installation:
Devices already in use
You cannot use a driver update to replace drivers that the installation program has already
loaded. Instead, you must complete the installation with the drivers that the installation program
loaded and update to the new drivers after installation.
Devices with an equivalent device available
Because all devices of the same type are initialized together, you cannot update drivers for a
device if the installation program has loaded drivers for a similar device. For example, consider
a system that has two different network adapters, one of which has a driver update available.
T he installation program will initialize both adapters at the same time, and therefore, you will not
be able to use this driver update. Again, complete the installation with the drivers loaded by the
installation program and update to the new drivers after installation, or use an initial RAM disk
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installation program and update to the new drivers after installation, or use an initial RAM disk
driver update.
13.2. Preparing for a driver update during installation
If a driver update is necessary and available for your hardware, Red Hat or a trusted third party such as
the hardware vendor will typically provide it in the form of an image file in ISO format. Some methods of
performing a driver update require you to make the image file available to the installation program, while
others require you to use the image file to make a driver update disk:
Methods that use the image file itself
local hard drive
USB flash drive
Methods that use a driver update disk produced from an image file
CD
DVD
Choose a method to provide the driver update, and refer to Section 13.2.1, “Preparing to use a driver
update image file” or Section 13.2.2, “Preparing a driver disc”. Note that you can use a USB storage
device either to provide an image file, or as a driver update disk.
13.2.1. Preparing to use a driver update image file
13.2.1.1. Preparing to use an image file on local storage
T o make the ISO image file available on local storage, such as a hard drive or USB flash drive, you must
first determine whether you want to install the updates automatically or select them manually.
For manual installations, copy the file onto the storage device. You can rename the file if you find it
helpful to do so, but you must not change the filename extension, which must remain .iso. In the
following example, the file is named dd.iso:
Figure 13.1. Content of a USB flash drive holding a driver update image file
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Note that if you use this method, the storage device will contain only a single file. T his differs from driver
discs on formats such as CD and DVD, which contain many files. T he ISO image file contains all of the
files that would normally be on a driver disc.
Refer to Section 13.3.2, “Let the installer prompt you for a driver update” and Section 13.3.3, “Use a boot
option to specify a driver update disk” to learn how to select the driver update manually during
installation.
For automatic installations, you will need to extract the ISO to the root directory of the storage device
rather than simply copy it. Copying the ISO is only effective for manual installations. You must also
change the file system label of the device to OEMDRV.
T he installation program will then automatically examine it for driver updates and load any that it detects.
T his behavior is controlled by the dlabel=on boot option, which is enabled by default. Refer to
Section 6.3.1, “Let the installer automatically find a driver update disk”.
13.2.2. Preparing a driver disc
You can create a driver update disc on CD or DVD.
13.2.2.1. Creating a driver update disk on CD or DVD
These instructions assume that you use the GNOME desktop
CD/DVD Creator is part of the GNOME desktop. If you use a different Linux desktop, or a
different operating system altogether, you will need to use another piece of software to create the
CD or DVD. T he steps will be generally similar.
Make sure that the software that you choose can create CDs or DVDs from image files. While this
is true of most CD and DVD burning software, exceptions exist. Look for a button or menu entry
labeled burn from im age or similar. If your software lacks this feature, or you do not select it,
the resulting disk will hold only the image file itself, instead of the contents of the image file.
1. Use the desktop file manager to locate the ISO image file of the driver disc, supplied to you by Red
Hat or your hardware vendor.
Figure 13.2. A typical .iso file displayed in a file manager window
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2. Right-click on this file and choose Write to disc. You will see a window similar to the following:
Figure 13.3. CD/DVD Creator's Write to Disc dialog
3. Click the Write button. If a blank disc is not already in the drive, CD/DVD Creator will prompt
you to insert one.
After you burn a driver update disk CD or DVD, verify that the disk was created successfully by inserting
it into your system and browsing to it using the file manager. You should see a single file named rhdd3
and a directory named rpm s:
Figure 13.4 . Contents of a typical driver update disc on CD or DVD
If you see only a single file ending in .iso, then you have not created the disk correctly and should try
again. Ensure that you choose an option similar to burn from im age if you use a Linux desktop other
than GNOME or if you use a different operating system.
Refer to Section 13.3.2, “Let the installer prompt you for a driver update” and Section 13.3.3, “Use a boot
option to specify a driver update disk” to learn how to use the driver update disk during installation.
13.3. Performing a driver update during installation
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You can perform a driver update during installation in the following ways:
let the installer automatically find a driver update disk.
let the installer prompt you for a driver update.
use a boot option to specify a driver update disk.
13.3.1. Let the installer automatically find a driver update disk
Attach a block device with the filesystem label OEMDRV before starting the installation process. T he
installer will automatically examine the device and load any driver updates that it detects and will not
prompt you during the process. Refer to Section 13.2.1.1, “Preparing to use an image file on local
storage” to prepare a storage device for the installer to find.
13.3.2. Let the installer prompt you for a driver update
1. Begin the installation normally for whatever method you have chosen. If the installer cannot load
drivers for a piece of hardware that is essential for the installation process (for example, if it
cannot detect any network or storage controllers), it prompts you to insert a driver update disk:
Figure 13.5. T he no driver found dialog
2. Select Use a driver disk and refer to Section 13.4, “Specifying the location of a driver update
image file or driver update disk”.
13.3.3. Use a boot option to specify a driver update disk
Choose this method only for completely new drivers
T his method only works to introduce completely new drivers, not to update existing drivers.
1. T ype linux dd at the boot prompt at the start of the installation process and press Enter. T he
installer prompts you to confirm that you have a driver disk:
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Figure 13.6. T he driver disk prompt
2. Insert the driver update disk that you created on CD, DVD, or USB flash drive and select Yes. T he
installer examines the storage devices that it can detect. If there is only one possible location that
could hold a driver disk (for example, the installer detects the presence of a DVD drive, but no
other storage devices) it will automatically load any driver updates that it finds at this location.
If the installer finds more than one location that could hold a driver update, it prompts you to
specify the location of the update. Refer to to Section 13.4, “Specifying the location of a driver
update image file or driver update disk” .
13.4. Specifying the location of a driver update image file or driver
update disk
If the installer detects more than one possible device that could hold a driver update, it prompts you to
select the correct device. If you are not sure which option represents the device on which the driver
update is stored, try the various options in order until you find the correct one.
Figure 13.7. Selecting a driver disk source
If the device that you choose contains no suitable update media, the installer will prompt you to make
another choice.
If you made a driver update disk on CD, DVD, or USB flash drive, the installer now loads the driver
update. However, if the device that you selected is a type of device that could contain more than one
partition (whether the device currently has more than one partition or not), the installer might prompt you
to select the partition that holds the driver update.
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Figure 13.8. Selecting a driver disk partition
T he installer prompts you to specify which file contains the driver update:
Figure 13.9. Selecting an ISO image
Expect to see these screens if you stored the driver update on an internal hard drive or on a USB
storage device. You should not see them if the driver update is on a CD or DVD.
Regardless of whether you are providing a driver update in the form of an image file or with a driver
update disk, the installer now copies the appropriate update files into a temporary storage area (located
in system RAM and not on disk). T he installer might ask whether you would like to use additional driver
updates. If you select Yes, you can load additional updates in turn. When you have no further driver
updates to load, select No. If you stored the driver update on removable media, you can now safely eject
or disconnect the disk or device. T he installer no longer requires the driver update, and you can re-use
the media for other purposes.
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Chapter 14. Booting the Installer
Chapter 14. Booting the Installer
Important — initrd.img sometimes fails to load
On some machines yaboot may not boot, returning the error message:
Cannot load initrd.img: Claim failed for initrd memory at 02000000
rc=ffffffff
T o work around this issue, change real-base to c00000. You can obtain the value of realbase from the OpenFirmware prompt with the printenv command and set the value with the
setenv command.
T o boot an IBM System p system from a DVD, you must specify the install boot device in the System
Managem ent Services (SMS) menu.
T o enter the System Managem ent Services GUI, press the 1 key during the boot process when
you hear the chime sound. T his brings up a graphical interface similar to the one described in this
section.
On a text console, press 1 when the self test is displaying the banner along with the tested components:
Figure 14 .1. SMS console
Once in the SMS menu, select the option for Select Boot Options. In that menu, specify Select
Install or Boot a Device. T here, select CD/DVD, and then the bus type (in most cases SCSI). If
you are uncertain, you can select to view all devices. T his scans all available buses for boot devices,
including network adapters and hard drives.
Finally, select the device containing the installation DVD. Yaboot is loaded from this device and you are
presented with a boot: prompt. Press Enter or wait for the timeout to expire for the installation to
begin.
Use yaboot with vm linuz and ram disk to boot your system over a network. You cannot use the
ppc64 .im g to boot over a network; the file is too large for T FT P.
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14.1. The Boot Menu
T he installer displays the boot: prompt. For example:
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time since release of system processors: 276 mins 49 secs
System has 128 Mbytes in RMA
Config file read, 227 bytes
Welcome to the 64-bit Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.0 installer!
Hit <TAB> for boot options.
Welcome to yaboot version 1.3.14 (Red Hat 1.3.14-35.el6)
Enter "help" to get some basic usage information
boot:
T o proceed with installation, type linux and press Enter.
You can also specify boot options at this prompt; refer to Chapter 28, Boot Options for more information.
For example, to use the installer to rescue a previously installed system, type linux rescue and
press Enter.
14.2. Installing from a Different Source
You can install Red Hat Enterprise Linux from the ISO images stored on hard disk, or from a network
using NFS, FT P, HT T P, or HT T PS methods. Experienced users frequently use one of these methods
because it is often faster to read data from a hard disk or network server than from a DVD.
T he following table summarizes the different boot methods and recommended installation methods to
use with each:
T able 14 .1. Boot methods and installation sources
Boot method
Installation source
Installation DVD
DVD, network, or hard disk
Installation USB flash drive
Installation DVD, network, or hard disk
Minimal boot CD or USB, rescue CD
Network or hard disk
Refer to Section 3.6, “Selecting an Installation Method” for information about installing from locations
other than the media with which you booted the system.
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Chapter 15. Configuring Language and Installation Source
Chapter 15. Configuring Language and Installation Source
Before the graphical installation program starts, you need to configure the language and installation
source.
15.1. The Text Mode Installation Program User Interface
Important — Graphical installation recommended
We recommend that you install Red Hat Enterprise Linux using the graphical interface. If you are
installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux on a system that lacks a graphical display, consider
performing the installation over a VNC connection – see Chapter 31, Installing Through VNC. If
anaconda detects that you are installing in text mode on a system where installation over a VNC
connection might be possible, anaconda asks you to verify your decision to install in text mode
even though your options during installation are limited.
If your system has a graphical display, but graphical installation fails, try booting with the
xdriver=vesa option – refer to Chapter 28, Boot Options
Both the loader and later anaconda use a screen-based interface that includes most of the on-screen
widgets commonly found on graphical user interfaces. Figure 15.1, “Installation Program Widgets as
seen in URL Setup”, and Figure 15.2, “Installation Program Widgets as seen in Choose a Language”,
illustrate widgets that appear on screens during the installation process.
Figure 15.1. Installation Program Widgets as seen in URL Setup
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Figure 15.2. Installation Program Widgets as seen in Choose a Language
T he widgets include:
Window — Windows (usually referred to as dialogs in this manual) appear on your screen
throughout the installation process. At times, one window may overlay another; in these cases, you
can only interact with the window on top. When you are finished in that window, it disappears,
allowing you to continue working in the window underneath.
Checkbox — Checkboxes allow you to select or deselect a feature. T he box displays either an
asterisk (selected) or a space (unselected). When the cursor is within a checkbox, press Space to
select or deselect a feature.
T ext Input — T ext input lines are regions where you can enter information required by the installation
program. When the cursor rests on a text input line, you may enter and/or edit information on that
line.
T ext Widget — T ext widgets are regions of the screen for the display of text. At times, text widgets
may also contain other widgets, such as checkboxes. If a text widget contains more information than
can be displayed in the space reserved for it, a scroll bar appears; if you position the cursor within
the text widget, you can then use the Up and Down arrow keys to scroll through all the information
available. Your current position is shown on the scroll bar by a # character, which moves up and
down the scroll bar as you scroll.
Scroll Bar — Scroll bars appear on the side or bottom of a window to control which part of a list or
document is currently in the window's frame. T he scroll bar makes it easy to move to any part of a
file.
Button Widget — Button widgets are the primary method of interacting with the installation program.
You progress through the windows of the installation program by navigating these buttons, using the
T ab and Enter keys. Buttons can be selected when they are highlighted.
Cursor — Although not a widget, the cursor is used to select (and interact with) a particular widget.
As the cursor is moved from widget to widget, it may cause the widget to change color, or the cursor
itself may only appear positioned in or next to the widget. In Figure 15.1, “Installation Program
Widgets as seen in URL Setup”, the cursor is positioned on the OK button. Figure 15.2, “Installation
Program Widgets as seen in Choose a Language”, shows the cursor on the Edit button.
15.1.1. Using the Keyboard to Navigate
Navigation through the installation dialogs is performed through a simple set of keystrokes. T o move the
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cursor, use the Left, Right, Up, and Down arrow keys. Use T ab, and Shift-T ab to cycle forward or
backward through each widget on the screen. Along the bottom, most screens display a summary of
available cursor positioning keys.
T o "press" a button, position the cursor over the button (using T ab, for example) and press Space or
Enter. T o select an item from a list of items, move the cursor to the item you wish to select and press
Enter. T o select an item with a checkbox, move the cursor to the checkbox and press Space to select
an item. T o deselect, press Space a second time.
Pressing F12 accepts the current values and proceeds to the next dialog; it is equivalent to pressing the
OK button.
Warning
Unless a dialog box is waiting for your input, do not press any keys during the installation
process (doing so may result in unpredictable behavior).
15.2. Language Selection
Use the arrow keys on your keyboard to select a language to use during the installation process (refer
to Figure 15.3, “Language Selection”). With your selected language highlighted, press the T ab key to
move to the OK button and press the Enter key to confirm your choice.
T he language you select here will become the default language for the operating system once it is
installed. Selecting the appropriate language also helps target your time zone configuration later in the
installation. T he installation program tries to define the appropriate time zone based on what you specify
on this screen.
T o add support for additional languages, customize the installation at the package selection stage. For
more information, refer to Section 16.19.2, “ Customizing the Software Selection ”.
Figure 15.3. Language Selection
Once you select the appropriate language, click Next to continue.
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15.3. Installation Method
Use the arrow keys on your keyboard to select an installation method (refer to Figure 15.4, “Installation
Method”). With your selected method highlighted, press the T ab key to move to the OK button and press
the Enter key to confirm your choice.
Figure 15.4 . Installation Method
15.3.1. Beginning Installation
15.3.1.1. Installing from DVD
T o install Red Hat Enterprise Linux from a DVD, place the DVD your DVD drive and boot your system
from the DVD. Even if you booted from alternative media, you can still install Red Hat Enterprise Linux
from DVD media.
T he installation program then probes your system and attempts to identify your DVD drive. It starts by
looking for an IDE (also known as an AT API) DVD drive.
If your DVD drive is not detected, and it is a SCSI DVD, the installation program prompts you to choose a
SCSI driver. Choose the driver that most closely resembles your adapter. You may specify options for
the driver if necessary; however, most drivers detect your SCSI adapter automatically.
If the DVD drive is found and the driver loaded, the installer will present you with the option to perform a
media check on the DVD. T his will take some time, and you may opt to skip over this step. However, if
you later encounter problems with the installer, you should reboot and perform the media check before
calling for support. From the media check dialog, continue to the next stage of the installation process
(refer to Section 16.5, “Welcome to Red Hat Enterprise Linux”).
15.3.2. Installing from a Hard Drive
T he Select Partition screen applies only if you are installing from a disk partition (that is, you
selected Hard Drive in the Installation Method dialog). T his dialog allows you to name the disk
partition and directory from which you are installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux. If you used the repo=hd
boot option, you already specified a partition.
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Figure 15.5. Selecting Partition Dialog for Hard Drive Installation
Select the partition containing the ISO files from the list of available partitions. Internal IDE, SAT A, SCSI,
and USB drive device names begin with /dev/sd. Each individual drive has its own letter, for example
/dev/sda. Each partition on a drive is numbered, for example /dev/sda1.
Also specify the Directory holding im ages. Enter the full directory path from the drive that
contains the ISO image files. T he following table shows some examples of how to enter this information:
T able 15.1. Location of ISO images for different partition types
Partition type
Volume
Original path to files
Directory to use
VFAT
D:\
D:\Downloads\RHEL6
/Downloads/RHEL6
ext2, ext3, ext4
/home
/home/user1/RHEL6
/user1/RHEL6
If the ISO images are in the root (top-level) directory of a partition, enter a /. If the ISO images are
located in a subdirectory of a mounted partition, enter the name of the directory holding the ISO images
within that partition. For example, if the partition on which the ISO images is normally mounted as
/hom e/, and the images are in /hom e/new/, you would enter /new/.
Use a leading slash
An entry without a leading slash may cause the installation to fail.
Select OK to continue. Proceed with Chapter 16, Installing using anaconda.
15.3.3. Performing a Network Installation
When you start an installation with the askm ethod or repo= options, you can install Red Hat
Enterprise Linux from a network server using FT P, HT T P, HT T PS, or NFS protocols. Anaconda uses
the same network connection to consult additional software repositories later in the installation process.
If your system has more than one network device, anaconda presents you with a list of all available
devices and prompts you to select one to use during installation. If your system only has a single
network device, anaconda automatically selects it and does not present this dialog.
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Figure 15.6. Networking Device
If you are not sure which device in the list corresponds to which physical socket on the system, select a
device in the list then press the Identify button. T he Identify NIC dialog appears.
Figure 15.7. Identify NIC
T he sockets of most network devices feature an activity light (also called a link light) — an LED that
flashes to indicate that data is flowing through the socket. Anaconda can flash the activity light of the
network device that you selected in the Networking Device dialog for up to 30 seconds. Enter the
number of seconds that you require, then press OK. When anaconda finishes flashing the light, it
returns you to the Networking Device dialog.
When you select a network device, anaconda prompts you to choose how to configure T CP/IP:
IPv4 options
Dynamic IP configuration (DHCP)
Anaconda uses DHCP running on the network to supply the network configuration
automatically.
Manual configuration
Anaconda prompts you to enter the network configuration manually, including the IP address
for this system, the netmask, the gateway address, and the DNS address.
IPv6 options
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Automatic neighbor discovery
Anaconda uses router advertisement (RA) to create an automatic, stateless configuration.
(Equivalent to the Autom atic option in NetworkManager)
Dynamic IP configuration (DHCPv6)
Anaconda does not use RA, but requests information from DHCPv6 directly to create a stateful
configuration. (Equivalent to the Autom atic, DHCP only option in NetworkManager)
Manual configuration
Anaconda prompts you to enter the network configuration manually, including the IP address
for this system, the netmask, the gateway address, and the DNS address.
Anaconda supports the IPv4 and IPv6 protocols. However, if you configure an interface to use both
IPv4 and IPv6, the IPv4 connection must succeed or the interface will not work, even if the IPv6
connection succeeds.
Figure 15.8. Configure T CP/IP
By default, anaconda uses DHCP to provide network settings automatically for IPv4 and automatic
neighbor discovery to provide network settings for IPv6. If you choose to configure T CP/IP manually,
anaconda prompts you to provide the details in the Manual T CP/IP Configuration dialog:
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Figure 15.9. Manual T CP/IP Configuration
T he dialog provides fields for IPv4 and IPv6 addresses and prefixes, depending on the protocols that
you chose to configure manually, together with fields for the network gateway and name server. Enter
the details for your network, then press OK.
When the installation process completes, it will transfer these settings to your system.
If you are installing via NFS, proceed to Section 15.3.4, “Installing via NFS”.
If you are installing via Web or FT P, proceed to Section 15.3.5, “Installing via FT P, HT T P, or HT T PS”.
15.3.4 . Installing via NFS
T he NFS dialog applies only if you selected NFS Image in the Installation Method dialog. If you
used the repo=nfs boot option, you already specified a server and path.
Figure 15.10. NFS Setup Dialog
1. Enter the domain name or IP address of your NFS server in the NFS server nam e field. For
example, if you are installing from a host named eastcoast in the domain exam ple.com , enter
eastcoast.exam ple.com .
2. Enter the name of the exported directory in the Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 directory
field:
If the NFS server is exporting a mirror of the Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation tree, enter
the directory which contains the root of the installation tree. If everything was specified
properly, a message appears indicating that the installation program for Red Hat Enterprise
Linux is running.
If the NFS server is exporting the ISO image of the Red Hat Enterprise Linux DVD, enter the
directory which contains the ISO image.
If you followed the setup described in Section 12.1.2, “Preparing for an NFS installation”, the
exported directory is the one that you specified as publicly_available_directory.
3. Specify any NFS mount options that you require in the NFS m ount options field. Refer to the
man pages for mount and nfs for a comprehensive list of options. If you do not require any mount
options, leave the field empty.
4. Proceed with Chapter 16, Installing using anaconda.
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Important — you must specify the protocol
When you provide a URL to an installation source, you must explicitly specify http:// or
https:// or ftp:// as the protocol.
T he URL dialog applies only if you are installing from a FT P, HT T P, or HT T PS server (if you selected
URL in the Installation Method dialog). T his dialog prompts you for information about the FT P,
HT T P, or HT T PS server from which you are installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux. If you used the
repo=ftp or repo=http boot options, you already specified a server and path.
Enter the name or IP address of the FT P, HT T P, or HT T PS site from which you are installing, and the
name of the directory that contains the /im ages directory for your architecture. For example:
/m irrors/redhat/rhel-6/Server/ppc64 /
T o install via a secure HT T PS connection, specify https:// as the protocol.
Specify the address of a proxy server, and if necessary, provide a port number, username, and
password. If everything was specified properly, a message box appears indicating that files are being
retrieved from the server.
If your FT P, HT T P, or HT T PS server requires user authentication, specify user and password as part of
the URL as follows:
{ftp|http|https}://<user>:<password>@ <hostnam e>[:<port>]/<directory>/
For example:
http://install:[email protected] nam e.exam ple.com /m irrors/redhat/rhel-6/Server/ppc64 /
Figure 15.11. URL Setup Dialog
Proceed with Chapter 16, Installing using anaconda.
15.4. Verifying Media
T he DVD offers an option to verify the integrity of the media. Recording errors sometimes occur while
producing DVD media. An error in the data for package chosen in the installation program can cause the
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installation to abort. T o minimize the chances of data errors affecting the installation, verify the media
before installing.
If the verification succeeds, the installation process proceeds normally. If the process fails, create a new
DVD using the ISO image you downloaded earlier.
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Chapter 16. Installing using anaconda
T his chapter describes an installation using the graphical user interface of anaconda.
16.1. The Text Mode Installation Program User Interface
While text mode installations are not explicitly documented, those using the text mode installation
program can easily follow the GUI installation instructions. However, because text mode presents you
with a simpler, more streamlined installation process, certain options that are available in graphical mode
are not also available in text mode. T hese differences are noted in the description of the installation
process in this guide, and include:
configuring advanced storage methods such as LVM, RAID, FCoE, zFCP, and iSCSI.
customizing the partition layout
customizing the bootloader layout
selecting packages during installation
configuring the installed system with firstboot
16.2. The Graphical Installation Program User Interface
If you have used a graphical user interface (GUI) before, you are already familiar with this process; use
your mouse to navigate the screens, click buttons, or enter text fields.
You can also navigate through the installation using the keyboard. T he T ab key allows you to move
around the screen, the Up and Down arrow keys to scroll through lists, + and - keys expand and
collapse lists, while Space and Enter selects or removes from selection a highlighted item. You can
also use the Alt+X key command combination as a way of clicking on buttons or making other screen
selections, where X is replaced with any underlined letter appearing within that screen.
If you would like to use a graphical installation with a system that does not have that capability, such as
a partitioned system, you can use VNC or display forwarding. Both the VNC and display forwarding
options require an active network during the installation and the use of boot time arguments. For more
information on available boot time options, refer to Chapter 28, Boot Options
Note
If you do not wish to use the GUI installation program, the text mode installation program is also
available. T o start the text mode installation program, use the following command at the
yaboot: prompt:
linux text
Refer to Section 14.1, “T he Boot Menu” for a description of the Red Hat Enterprise Linux boot
menu and to Section 15.1, “T he T ext Mode Installation Program User Interface” for a brief
overview of text mode installation instructions.
It is highly recommended that installs be performed using the GUI installation program. T he GUI
installation program offers the full functionality of the Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation
program, including LVM configuration which is not available during a text mode installation.
Users who must use the text mode installation program can follow the GUI installation instructions
and obtain all needed information.
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16.3. A Note about Linux Virtual Consoles
T his information only applies to users of non-partitioned System p systems using a video card as their
console. Users of partitioned System p systems should skip to Section 16.4, “Using the HMC vterm”.
T he Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation program offers more than the dialog boxes of the installation
process. Several kinds of diagnostic messages are available to you, as well as a way to enter
commands from a shell prompt. T he installation program displays these messages on five virtual
consoles, among which you can switch using a single keystroke combination.
A virtual console is a shell prompt in a non-graphical environment, accessed from the physical machine,
not remotely. Multiple virtual consoles can be accessed simultaneously.
T hese virtual consoles can be helpful if you encounter a problem while installing Red Hat Enterprise
Linux. Messages displayed on the installation or system consoles can help pinpoint a problem. Refer to
T able 16.1, “Console, Keystrokes, and Contents” for a listing of the virtual consoles, keystrokes used to
switch to them, and their contents.
Generally, there is no reason to leave the default console (virtual console #6) for graphical installations
unless you are attempting to diagnose installation problems.
T able 16.1. Console, Keystrokes, and Contents
console
keystrokes
contents
1
ctrl+alt+f1
installation dialog
2
ctrl+alt+f2
shell prompt
3
ctrl+alt+f3
install log (messages from
installation program)
4
ctrl+alt+f4
system-related messages
5
ctrl+alt+f5
other messages
6
ctrl+alt+f6
x graphical display
16.4. Using the HMC vterm
T he HMC vterm is the console for any partitioned IBM System p. T his is opened by right clicking on the
partition on the HMC, and then selecting Open T erm inal Window. Only a single vterm can be
connected to the console at one time and there is no console access for partitioned system besides the
vterm. T his often is referred to as a 'virtual console', but is different from the virtual consoles in
Section 16.3, “A Note about Linux Virtual Consoles” .
16.5. Welcome to Red Hat Enterprise Linux
T he Welcom e screen does not prompt you for any input.
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Click on the Next button to continue.
16.6. Language Selection
Using your mouse, select the language (for example, U.S. English) you would prefer to use for the
installation and as the system default (refer to the figure below).
Once you have made your selection, click Next to continue.
Figure 16.1. Language Configuration
16.7. Keyboard Configuration
Using your mouse, select the correct layout type (for example, U.S. English) for the keyboard you would
prefer to use for the installation and as the system default (refer to Figure 16.2, “Keyboard
Configuration”).
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Once you have made your selection, click Next to continue.
Figure 16.2. Keyboard Configuration
Note
T o change your keyboard layout type after you have completed the installation, use the
Keyboard Configuration T ool.
T ype the system -config-keyboard command in a shell prompt to launch the Keyboard
Configuration T ool. If you are not root, it prompts you for the root password to continue.
16.8. Storage Devices
You can install Red Hat Enterprise Linux on a large variety of storage devices. T his screen allows you to
select either basic or specialized storage devices.
Figure 16.3. Storage devices
Basic Storage Devices
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Select Basic Storage Devices to install Red Hat Enterprise Linux on the following storage
devices:
hard drives or solid-state drives connected directly to the local system.
Specialized Storage Devices
Select Specialized Storage Devices to install Red Hat Enterprise Linux on the following
storage devices:
Storage area networks (SANs)
Direct access storage devices (DASDs)
Firmware RAID devices
Multipath devices
Use the Specialized Storage Devices option to configure Internet Small Computer System
Interface (iSCSI) and FCoE (Fiber Channel over Ethernet) connections.
If you select Basic Storage Devices, anaconda automatically detects the local storage attached to
the system and does not require further input from you. Proceed to Section 16.9, “Setting the Hostname”.
16.8.1. T he Storage Devices Selection Screen
T he storage devices selection screen displays all storage devices to which anaconda has access.
Figure 16.4 . Select storage devices — Basic devices
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 Installation Guide
Figure 16.5. Select storage devices — Multipath Devices
Figure 16.6. Select storage devices — Other SAN Devices
Devices are grouped under the following tabs:
Basic Devices
Basic storage devices directly connected to the local system, such as hard disk drives and
solid-state drives.
Firmware RAID
Storage devices attached to a firmware RAID controller.
Multipath Devices
Storage devices accessible through more than one path, such as through multiple SCSI
controllers or Fiber Channel ports on the same system.
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Important — device serial numbers must be 16 or 32 characters
T he installer only detects multipath storage devices with serial numbers that are 16 or
32 characters in length.
Other SAN Devices
Any other devices available on a storage area network (SAN).
If you do need to configure iSCSI or FCoE storage, click Add Advanced T arget and refer to
Section 16.8.1.1, “ Advanced Storage Options ”.
T he storage devices selection screen also contains a Search tab that allows you to filter storage
devices either by their World Wide Identifier (WWID) or by the port, target, or logical unit number (LUN) at
which they are accessed.
Figure 16.7. T he Storage Devices Search T ab
T he tab contains a drop-down menu to select searching by port, target, WWID, or LUN (with
corresponding text boxes for these values). Searching by WWID or LUN requires additional values in the
corresponding text box.
Each tab presents a list of devices detected by anaconda, with information about the device to help you
to identify it. A small drop-down menu marked with an icon is located to the right of the column headings.
T his menu allows you to select the types of data presented on each device. For example, the menu on
the Multipath Devices tab allows you to specify any of WWID, Capacity, Vendor, Interconnect,
and Paths to include among the details presented for each device. Reducing or expanding the amount
of information presented might help you to identify particular devices.
Figure 16.8. Selecting Columns
Each device is presented on a separate row, with a checkbox to its left. Click the checkbox to make a
device available during the installation process, or click the radio button at the left of the column
headings to select or deselect all the devices listed in a particular screen. Later in the installation
process, you can choose to install Red Hat Enterprise Linux onto any of the devices selected here, and
can choose to automatically mount any of the other devices selected here as part of the installed
system.
Note that the devices that you select here are not automatically erased by the installation process.
Selecting a device on this screen does not, in itself, place data stored on the device at risk. Note also
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that any devices that you do not select here to form part of the installed system can be added to the
system after installation by modifying the /etc/fstab file.
Important — chain loading
Any storage devices that you do not select on this screen are hidden from anaconda entirely. T o
chain load the Red Hat Enterprise Linux boot loader from a different boot loader, select all the
devices presented in this screen.
when you have selected the storage devices to make available during installation, click Next and
proceed to Section 16.13, “Initializing the Hard Disk”
16.8.1.1. Advanced Storage Options
From this screen you can configure an iSCSI (SCSI over T CP/IP) target or FCoE (Fibre channel over
ethernet) SAN (storage area network). Refer to Appendix B, ISCSI disks for an introduction to iSCSI.
Figure 16.9. Advanced Storage Options
16.8.1.1.1. Select and configure a network interface
If a network interface is not already active on the system, anaconda must activate one through which to
connect to the storage devices. If your system has only a single network interface, anaconda
automatically activates it. However, if your system has more than one network interface available,
anaconda prompts you with the Select network interface dialog to choose one to use during
installation.
Figure 16.10. Select network interface
1. Select an interface from the drop-down menu.
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2. Click OK.
Anaconda activates the interface that you selected, then starts NetworkManager to allow you to
configure the interface.
Figure 16.11. Network Connections
For details of how to use NetworkManager, refer to Section 16.9, “Setting the Hostname”
16.8.1.1.2. Configure iSCSI parameters
T o use iSCSI storage devices for the installation, anaconda must be able to discover them as iSCSI
targets and be able to create an iSCSI session to access them. Each of these steps might require a
username and password for CHAP (Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol) authentication.
Additionally, you can configure an iSCSI target to authenticate the iSCSI initiator on the system to which
the target is attached (reverse CHAP), both for discovery and for the session. Used together, CHAP and
reverse CHAP are called mutual CHAP or two-way CHAP. Mutual CHAP provides the greatest level of
security for iSCSI connections, particularly if the username and password are different for CHAP
authentication and reverse CHAP authentication.
Repeat the iSCSI discovery and iSCSI login steps as many times as necessary to add all required iSCSI
storage. However, you cannot change the name of the iSCSI initiator after you attempt discovery for the
first time. T o change the iSCSI initiator name, you must restart the installation.
Procedure 16.1. iSCSI discovery
Use the iSCSI Discovery Details dialog to provide anaconda with the information that it needs to
discover the iSCSI target.
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Figure 16.12. T he iSCSI Discovery Details dialog
1. Enter the IP address of the iSCSI target in the T arget IP Address field.
2. Provide a name in the iSCSI Initiator Nam e field for the iSCSI initiator in iSCSI qualified
name (IQN) format.
A valid IQN contains:
the string iqn. (note the period)
a date code that specifies the year and month in which your organization's Internet domain or
subdomain name was registered, represented as four digits for the year, a dash, and two
digits for the month, followed by a period. For example, represent September 2010 as 201009.
your organization's Internet domain or subdomain name, presented in reverse order with the
top-level domain first. For example, represent the subdomain storage.exam ple.com as
com .exam ple.storage
a colon followed by a string that uniquely identifies this particular iSCSI initiator within your
domain or subdomain. For example, :diskarrays-sn-a8675309.
A complete IQN therefore resembles: iqn.2010-09.storage.exam ple.com :diskarrayssn-a8675309, and anaconda pre-populates the iSCSI Initiator Nam e field with a name in
this format to help you with the structure.
For more information on IQNs, refer to 3.2.6. iSCSI Names in RFC 3720 - Internet Small Computer
Systems Interface (iSCSI) available from http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc3720#section-3.2.6 and 1.
iSCSI Names and Addresses in RFC 3721 - Internet Small Computer Systems Interface (iSCSI)
Naming and Discovery available from http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc3721#section-1.
3. Use the drop-down menu to specify the type of authentication to use for iSCSI discovery:
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Figure 16.13. iSCSI discovery authentication
no credentials
CHAP pair
CHAP pair and a reverse pair
4. A. If you selected CHAP pair as the authentication type, provide the username and password for
the iSCSI target in the CHAP Usernam e and CHAP Password fields.
Figure 16.14 . CHAP pair
B. If you selected CHAP pair and a reverse pair as the authentication type, provide the
username and password for the iSCSI target in the CHAP Usernam e and CHAP Password
field and the username and password for the iSCSI initiator in the Reverse CHAP Usernam e
and Reverse CHAP Password fields.
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Figure 16.15. CHAP pair and a reverse pair
5. Click Start Discovery. Anaconda attempts to discover an iSCSI target based on the
information that you provided. If discovery succeeds, the iSCSI Discovered Nodes dialog
presents you with a list of all the iSCSI nodes discovered on the target.
6. Each node is presented with a checkbox beside it. Click the checkboxes to select the nodes to
use for installation.
Figure 16.16. T he iSCSI Discovered Nodes dialog
7. Click Login to initiate an iSCSI session.
Procedure 16.2. Starting an iSCSI session
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Use the iSCSI Nodes Login dialog to provide anaconda with the information that it needs to log into
the nodes on the iSCSI target and start an iSCSI session.
Figure 16.17. T he iSCSI Nodes Login dialog
1. Use the drop-down menu to specify the type of authentication to use for the iSCSI session:
Figure 16.18. iSCSI session authentication
no credentials
CHAP pair
CHAP pair and a reverse pair
Use the credentials from the discovery step
If your environment uses the same type of authentication and same username and password for
iSCSI discovery and for the iSCSI session, select Use the credentials from the discovery
step to reuse these credentials.
2. A. If you selected CHAP pair as the authentication type, provide the username and password for
the iSCSI target in the CHAP Usernam e and CHAP Password fields.
Figure 16.19. CHAP pair
B. If you selected CHAP pair and a reverse pair as the authentication type, provide the
username and password for the iSCSI target in the CHAP Usernam e and CHAP Password
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fields and the username and password for the iSCSI initiator in the Reverse CHAP
Usernam e and Reverse CHAP Password fields.
Figure 16.20. CHAP pair and a reverse pair
3. Click Login. Anaconda attempts to log into the nodes on the iSCSI target based on the
information that you provided. T he iSCSI Login Results dialog presents you with the results.
Figure 16.21. T he iSCSI Login Results dialog
4. Click OK to continue.
16.8.1.1.3. Configure FCoE Parameters
T o configure an FCoE SAN, select Add FCoE SAN and click Add Drive.
On the menu that appears in the next dialog box, select the network interface that is connected to your
FCoE switch and click Add FCoE Disk(s).
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Figure 16.22. Configure FCoE Parameters
Data Center Bridging (DCB) is a set of enhancements to the Ethernet protocols designed to increase the
efficiency of Ethernet connections in storage networks and clusters. Enable or disable the installer's
awareness of DCB with the checkbox in this dialog.
16.9. Setting the Hostname
Setup prompts you to supply a host name for this computer, either as a fully-qualified domain name
(FQDN) in the format hostname.domainname or as a short host name in the format hostname. Many
networks have a Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) service that automatically supplies
connected systems with a domain name. T o allow the DHCP service to assign the domain name to this
machine, specify the short host name only.
Valid Hostnames
You may give your system any name provided that the full hostname is unique. T he hostname
may include letters, numbers and hyphens.
Figure 16.23. Setting the hostname
If your Red Hat Enterprise Linux system is connected directly to the Internet, you must pay attention to
additional considerations to avoid service interruptions or risk action by your upstream service provider.
A full discussion of these issues is beyond the scope of this document.
Modem Configuration
T he installation program does not configure modems. Configure these devices after installation
with the Network utility. T he settings for your modem are specific to your particular Internet
Service Provider (ISP).
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Important — Manual configuration is often needed
When a Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 installation boots for the first time, it activates any network
interfaces that you configured during the installation process. However, the installer does not
prompt you to configure network interfaces on some common installation paths, for example,
when you install Red Hat Enterprise Linux from a DVD to a local hard drive.
When you install Red Hat Enterprise Linux from a local installation source to a local storage
device, be sure to configure at least one network interface manually if you require network access
when the system boots for the first time.
Note
T o change your network configuration after you have completed the installation, use the Network
Administration T ool.
T ype the system -config-network command in a shell prompt to launch the Network
Administration T ool. If you are not root, it prompts you for the root password to continue.
T he Network Administration T ool is now deprecated and will be replaced by
NetworkManager during the lifetime of Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.
T o configure a network connection manually, click the button Configure Network. T he Network
Connections dialog appears that allows you to configure wired, wireless, mobile broadband, VPN, and
DSL connections for the system using the NetworkManager tool. A full description of all configurations
possible with NetworkManager is beyond the scope of this guide. T his section only details the most
typical scenario of how to configure wired connections during installation. Configuration of other types of
network is broadly similar, although the specific parameters that you must configure are necessarily
different.
Figure 16.24 . Network Connections
T o add a new connection or to modify or remove a connection configured earlier in the installation
process, click the tab that corresponds to the type of connection. T o add a new connection of that type,
click Add. T o modify an existing connection, select it in the list and click Edit. In either case, a dialog
box appears with a set of tabs that is appropriate to the particular connection type, as described below.
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T o remove a connection, select it in the list and click Delete.
When you have finished editing network settings, click Apply to save the new configuration. If you
reconfigured a device that was already active during installation, you must restart the device to use the
new configuration — refer to Section 9.7.1.6, “Restart a network device”.
16.9.1.1. Options common to all types of connection
Certain configuration options are common to all connection types.
Specify a name for the connection in the Connection nam e name field.
Select Start autom atically to start the connection automatically when the system boots.
When NetworkManager runs on an installed system, the Available to all users option controls
whether a network configuration is available system-wide or not. During installation, ensure that
Available to all users remains selected for any network interface that you configure.
16.9.1.2. T he Wired tab
Use the Wired tab to specify or change the media access control (MAC) address for the network
adapter, and either set the maximum transmission unit (MT U, in bytes) that can pass through the
interface.
Figure 16.25. T he Wired tab
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16.9.1.3. T he 802.1x Security tab
Use the 802.1x Security tab to configure 802.1X port-based network access control (PNAC). Select
Use 802.1X security for this connection to enable access control, then specify details of
your network. T he configuration options include:
Authentication
Choose one of the following methods of authentication:
T LS for Transport Layer Security
T unneled T LS for Tunneled Transport Layer Security, otherwise known as T T LS, or EAPT T LS
Protected EAP (PEAP) for Protected Extensible Authentication Protocol
Identity
Provide the identity of this server.
User certificate
Browse to a personal X.509 certificate file encoded with Distinguished Encoding Rules (DER) or
Privacy Enhanced Mail (PEM).
CA certificate
Browse to a X.509 certificate authority certificate file encoded with Distinguished Encoding Rules
(DER) or Privacy Enhanced Mail (PEM).
Private key
Browse to a private key file encoded with Distinguished Encoding Rules (DER), Privacy
Enhanced Mail (PEM), or the Personal Information Exchange Syntax Standard (PKCS#12).
Private key password
T he password for the private key specified in the Private key field. Select Show password
to make the password visible as you type it.
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Figure 16.26. T he 802.1x Security tab
16.9.1.4 . T he IPv4 Settings tab
Use the IPv4 Settings tab tab to configure the IPv4 parameters for the previously selected network
connection.
Use the Method drop-down menu to specify which settings the system should attempt to obtain from a
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) service running on the network. Choose from the following
options:
Autom atic (DHCP)
IPv4 parameters are configured by the DHCP service on the network.
Autom atic (DHCP) addresses only
T he IPv4 address, netmask, and gateway address are configured by the DHCP service on the
network, but DNS servers and search domains must be configured manually.
Manual
IPv4 parameters are configured manually for a static configuration.
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Link-Local Only
A link-local address in the 169.254/16 range is assigned to the interface.
Shared to other com puters
T he system is configured to provide network access to other computers. T he interface is
assigned an address in the 10.42.x.1/24 range, a DHCP server and DNS server are started,
and the interface is connected to the default network connection on the system with network
address translation (NAT ).
Disabled
IPv4 is disabled for this connection.
If you selected a method that requires you to supply manual parameters, enter details of the IP address
for this interface, the netmask, and the gateway in the Addresses field. Use the Add and Delete
buttons to add or remove addresses. Enter a comma-separated list of DNS servers in the DNS
servers field, and a comma-separated list of domains in the Search dom ains field for any domains
that you want to include in name server lookups.
Optionally, enter a name for this network connection in the DHCP client ID field. T his name must be
unique on the subnet. When you assign a meaningful DHCP client ID to a connection, it is easy to
identify this connection when troubleshooting network problems.
Deselect the Require IPv4 addressing for this connection to com plete check box to
allow the system to make this connection on an IPv6-enabled network if IPv4 configuration fails but IPv6
configuration succeeds.
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Figure 16.27. T he IPv4 Settings tab
16.9.1.4 .1. Editing IPv4 routes
Red Hat Enterprise Linux configures a number of routes automatically based on the IP addresses of a
device. T o edit additional routes, click the Routes button. T he Editing IPv4 routes dialog appears.
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Figure 16.28. T he Editing IPv4 Routes dialog
Click Add to add the IP address, netmask, gateway address, and metric for a new static route.
Select Ignore autom atically obtained routes to make the interface use only the routes
specified for it here.
Select Use this connection only for resources on its network to restrict connections
only to the local network.
16.9.1.5. T he IPv6 Settings tab
Use the IPv6 Settings tab tab to configure the IPv6 parameters for the previously selected network
connection.
Use the Method drop-down menu to specify which settings the system should attempt to obtain from a
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) service running on the network. Choose from the following
options:
Ignore
IPv6 is ignored for this connection.
Autom atic
NetworkManager uses router advertisement (RA) to create an automatic, stateless
configuration.
Autom atic, addresses only
NetworkManager uses RA to create an automatic, stateless configuration, but DNS servers
and search domains are ignored and must be configured manually.
Autom atic, DHCP only
NetworkManager does not use RA, but requests information from DHCPv6 directly to create a
stateful configuration.
Manual
IPv6 parameters are configured manually for a static configuration.
Link-Local Only
A link-local address with the fe80::/10 prefix is assigned to the interface.
If you selected a method that requires you to supply manual parameters, enter details of the IP address
for this interface, the netmask, and the gateway in the Addresses field. Use the Add and Delete
buttons to add or remove addresses. Enter a comma-separated list of DNS servers in the DNS
servers field, and a comma-separated list of domains in the Search dom ains field for any domains
that you want to include in name server lookups.
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Optionally, enter a name for this network connection in the DHCP client ID field. T his name must be
unique on the subnet. When you assign a meaningful DHCP client ID to a connection, it is easy to
identify this connection when troubleshooting network problems.
Deselect the Require IPv6 addressing for this connection to com plete check box to
allow the system to make this connection on an IPv4-enabled network if IPv6 configuration fails but IPv4
configuration succeeds.
Figure 16.29. T he IPv6 Settings tab
16.9.1.5.1. Editing IPv6 routes
Red Hat Enterprise Linux configures a number of routes automatically based on the IP addresses of a
device. T o edit additional routes, click the Routes button. T he Editing IPv6 routes dialog appears.
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Figure 16.30. T he Editing IPv6 Routes dialog
Click Add to add the IP address, netmask, gateway address, and metric for a new static route.
Select Use this connection only for resources on its network to restrict connections
only to the local network.
16.9.1.6. Restart a network device
If you reconfigured a network that was already in use during installation, you must disconnect and
reconnect the device in anaconda for the changes to take effect. Anaconda uses interface
configuration (ifcfg) files to communicate with NetworkManager. A device becomes disconnected when
its ifcfg file is removed, and becomes reconnected when its ifcfg file is restored, as long as
ONBOOT =yes is set. Refer to the Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 Deployment Guide available from
https://access.redhat.com/knowledge/docs/ for more information about interface configuration files.
1. Press Ctrl+Alt+F2 to switch to virtual terminal tty2.
2. Move the interface configuration file to a temporary location:
mv /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-device_name /tmp
where device_name is the device that you just reconfigured. For example, ifcfg-eth0 is the
ifcfg file for eth0.
T he device is now disconnected in anaconda.
3. Open the interface configuration file in the vi editor:
vi /tmp/ifcfg-device_name
4. Verify that the interface configuration file contains the line ONBOOT =yes. If the file does not
already contain the line, add it now and save the file.
5. Exit the vi editor.
6. Move the interface configuration file back to the /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/
directory:
mv /tmp/ifcfg-device_name /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/
T he device is now reconnected in anaconda.
7. Press Ctrl+Alt+F6 to return to anaconda.
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16.10. Time Zone Configuration
Set your time zone by selecting the city closest to your computer's physical location. Click on the map to
zoom in to a particular geographical region of the world.
From here there are two ways for you to select your time zone:
Using your mouse, click on the interactive map to select a specific city (represented by a yellow dot).
A red X appears indicating your selection.
You can also scroll through the list at the bottom of the screen to select your time zone. Using your
mouse, click on a location to highlight your selection.
Figure 16.31. Configuring the T ime Z one
If Red Hat Enterprise Linux is the only operating system on your computer, select System clock uses
UT C. T he system clock is a piece of hardware on your computer system. Red Hat Enterprise Linux uses
the timezone setting to determine the offset between the local time and UT C on the system clock. T his
behavior is standard for systems that use UNIX, Linux, and similar operating systems.
Click Next to proceed.
Note
T o change your time zone configuration after you have completed the installation, use the T ime
and Date Properties T ool.
T ype the system -config-date command in a shell prompt to launch the T ime and Date
Properties T ool. If you are not root, it prompts you for the root password to continue.
T o run the T ime and Date Properties T ool as a text-based application, use the command
tim econfig.
16.11. Set the Root Password
Setting up a root account and password is one of the most important steps during your installation. T he
root account is used to install packages, upgrade RPMs, and perform most system maintenance.
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Logging in as root gives you complete control over your system.
Note
T he root user (also known as the superuser) has complete access to the entire system; for this
reason, logging in as the root user is best done only to perform system maintenance or
administration.
Figure 16.32. Root Password
Use the root account only for system administration. Create a non-root account for your general use and
use the su command to change to root only when you need to perform tasks that require superuser
authorization. T hese basic rules minimize the chances of a typo or an incorrect command doing damage
to your system.
Note
T o become root, type su - at the shell prompt in a terminal window and then press Enter. T hen,
enter the root password and press Enter.
T he installation program prompts you to set a root password[6 ] for your system. . You cannot proceed to
the next stage of the installation process without entering a root password.
T he root password must be at least six characters long; the password you type is not echoed to the
screen. You must enter the password twice; if the two passwords do not match, the installation program
asks you to enter them again.
You should make the root password something you can remember, but not something that is easy for
someone else to guess. Your name, your phone number, qwerty, password, root, 123456, and anteater
are all examples of bad passwords. Good passwords mix numerals with upper and lower case letters
and do not contain dictionary words: Aard387vark or 420BMttNT, for example. Remember that the
password is case-sensitive. If you write down your password, keep it in a secure place. However, it is
recommended that you do not write down this or any password you create.
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Choose your own password
Do not use one of the example passwords offered in this manual. Using one of these passwords
could be considered a security risk.
T o change your root password after you have completed the installation, use the Root Password T ool.
T ype the system -config-users command in a shell prompt to launch the User Manager, a powerful
user management and configuration tool. If you are not root, it prompts you for the root password to
continue.
Enter the root password into the Root Password field. Red Hat Enterprise Linux displays the
characters as asterisks for security. T ype the same password into the Confirm field to ensure it is set
correctly. After you set the root password, select Next to proceed.
16.12. Assign Storage Devices
If you selected more than one storage device on the storage devices selection screen (refer to
Section 16.8, “Storage Devices”), anaconda asks you to select which of these devices should be
available for installation of the operating system, and which should only be attached to the file system for
data storage. If you selected only one storage device, anaconda does not present you with this screen.
During installation, the devices that you identify here as being for data storage only are mounted as part
of the file system, but are not partitioned or formatted.
Figure 16.33. Assign storage devices
T he screen is split into two panes. T he left pane contains a list of devices to be used for data storage
only. T he right pane contains a list of devices that are to be available for installation of the operating
system.
Each list contains information about the devices to help you to identify them. A small drop-down menu
marked with an icon is located to the right of the column headings. T his menu allows you to select the
types of data presented on each device. Reducing or expanding the amount of information presented
might help you to identify particular devices.
Move a device from one list to the other by clicking on the device, then clicking either the button labeled
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with a left-pointing arrow to move it to the list of data storage devices or the button labeled with a rightpointing arrow to move it to the list of devices available for installation of the operating system.
T he list of devices available as installation targets also includes a radio button beside each device. Use
this radio button to specify the device that you want to use as the boot device for the system.
Important — chain loading
If any storage device contains a boot loader that will chain load the Red Hat Enterprise Linux boot
loader, include that storage device among the Install T arget Devices. Storage devices
that you identify as Install T arget Devices remain visible to anaconda during boot loader
configuration.
Storage devices that you identify as Install T arget Devices on this screen are not
automatically erased by the installation process unless you selected the Use All Space option
on the partitioning screen (refer to Section 16.15, “Disk Partitioning Setup”).
When you have finished identifying devices to be used for installation, click Next to continue.
16.13. Initializing the Hard Disk
If no readable partition tables are found on existing hard disks, the installation program asks to initialize
the hard disk. T his operation makes any existing data on the hard disk unreadable. If your system has a
brand new hard disk with no operating system installed, or you have removed all partitions on the hard
disk, click Re-initialize drive.
T he installation program presents you with a separate dialog for each disk on which it cannot read a
valid partition table. Click the Ignore all button or Re-initialize all button to apply the same
answer to all devices.
Figure 16.34 . Warning screen – initializing hard drive
Certain RAID systems or other nonstandard configurations may be unreadable to the installation
program and the prompt to initialize the hard disk may appear. T he installation program responds to the
physical disk structures it is able to detect.
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T o enable automatic initializing of hard disks for which it turns out to be necessary, use the kickstart
command clearpart --initlabel (refer to Chapter 32, Kickstart Installations)
Detach Unneeded Disks
If you have a nonstandard disk configuration that can be detached during installation and
detected and configured afterward, power off the system, detach it, and restart the installation.
16.14. Upgrading an Existing System
Red Hat does not support upgrades from earlier major versions
Red Hat does not support in-place upgrades between any major versions of Red Hat Enterprise
Linux. A major version is denoted by a whole number version change. For example, Red Hat
Enterprise Linux 5 and Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 are both major versions of Red Hat Enterprise
Linux.
In-place upgrades across major releases do not preserve all system settings, services or custom
configurations. Consequently, Red Hat strongly recommends fresh installations when upgrading
from one major version to another.
T he installation system automatically detects any existing installation of Red Hat Enterprise Linux. T he
upgrade process updates the existing system software with new versions, but does not remove any
data from users' home directories. T he existing partition structure on your hard drives does not change.
Your system configuration changes only if a package upgrade demands it. Most package upgrades do
not change system configuration, but rather install an additional configuration file for you to examine
later.
Note that the installation medium that you are using might not contain all the software packages that you
need to upgrade your computer.
16.14 .1. T he Upgrade Dialog
If your system contains a Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation, a dialog appears asking whether you
want to upgrade that installation. T o perform an upgrade of an existing system, choose the appropriate
installation from the drop-down list and select Next.
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Figure 16.35. T he Upgrade Dialog
Manually Installed Software
Software you have installed manually on your existing Red Hat Enterprise Linux system may
behave differently after an upgrade. You may need to manually reinstall or recompile this software
after an upgrade to ensure it performs correctly on the updated system.
16.14 .2. Upgrading Using the Installer
Installations are Recommended
In general, Red Hat recommends that you keep user data on a separate /hom e partition and
perform a fresh installation. For more information on partitions and how to set them up, refer to
Section 9.13, “Disk Partitioning Setup”.
If you choose to upgrade your system using the installation program, any software not provided by Red
Hat Enterprise Linux that conflicts with Red Hat Enterprise Linux software is overwritten. Before you
begin an upgrade this way, make a list of your system's current packages for later reference:
rpm -qa --qf '%{NAME} %{VERSION}-%{RELEASE} %{ARCH}\n' > ~/old-pkglist.txt
After installation, consult this list to discover which packages you may need to rebuild or retrieve from
sources other than Red Hat.
Next, make a backup of any system configuration data:
su -c 'tar czf /tmp/etc-`date +%F`.tar.gz /etc'
su -c 'mv /tmp/etc-*.tar.gz /home'
Make a complete backup of any important data before performing an upgrade. Important data may
include the contents of your entire /hom e directory as well as content from services such as an Apache,
FT P, or SQL server, or a source code management system. Although upgrades are not destructive, if
you perform one improperly there is a small possibility of data loss.
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Storing Backups
Note that the above examples store backup materials in a /hom e directory. If your /hom e
directory is not a separate partition, you should not follow these examples verbatim! Store your
backups on another device such as CD or DVD discs or an external hard disk.
For more information on completing the upgrade process later, refer to Section 35.2, “Finishing an
Upgrade”.
16.15. Disk Partitioning Setup
Warning — Back up your data
It is always a good idea to back up any data that you have on your systems. For example, if you
are upgrading or creating a dual-boot system, you should back up any data you wish to keep on
your storage devices. Mistakes do happen and can result in the loss of all your data.
Important — Installing in text mode
If you install Red Hat Enterprise Linux in text mode, you can only use the default partitioning
schemes described in this section. You cannot add or remove partitions or file systems beyond
those that the installer automatically adds or removes. If you require a customized layout at
installation time, you should perform a graphical installation over a VNC connection or a kickstart
installation.
Furthermore, advanced options such as LVM, encrypted filesystems, and resizable filesystems
are available only in graphical mode and kickstart.
Important — Booting from RAIDs
If you have a RAID card, be aware that some BIOSes do not support booting from the RAID card.
In cases such as these, the /boot/ partition must be created on a partition outside of the RAID
array, such as on a separate hard drive. An internal hard drive is necessary to use for partition
creation with problematic RAID cards.
A /boot/ partition is also necessary for software RAID setups.
If you have chosen to automatically partition your system, you should select Review and
manually edit your /boot/ partition.
Partitioning allows you to divide your hard drive into isolated sections, where each section behaves as
its own hard drive. Partitioning is particularly useful if you run multiple operating systems. If you are not
sure how you want your system to be partitioned, read Appendix A, An Introduction to Disk Partitions for
more information.
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Figure 16.36. Disk Partitioning Setup
On this screen you can choose to create the default partition layout in one of four different ways, or
choose to partition storage devices manually to create a custom layout.
T he first four options allow you to perform an automated installation without having to partition your
storage devices yourself. If you do not feel comfortable with partitioning your system, choose one of
these options and let the installation program partition the storage devices for you. Depending on the
option that you choose, you can still control what data (if any) is removed from the system.
Your options are:
Use All Space
Select this option to remove all partitions on your hard drives (this includes partitions created by
other operating systems such as Windows VFAT or NT FS partitions).
Warning
If you select this option, all data on the selected hard drives is removed by the
installation program. Do not select this option if you have information that you want to
keep on the hard drives where you are installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux.
In particular, do not select this option when you configure a system to chain load the Red
Hat Enterprise Linux boot loader from another boot loader.
Replace Existing Linux System(s)
Select this option to remove only partitions created by a previous Linux installation. T his does
not remove other partitions you may have on your hard drives (such as VFAT or FAT 32
partitions).
Shrink Current System
Select this option to resize your current data and partitions manually and install a default Red
Hat Enterprise Linux layout in the space that is freed.
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Warning
If you shrink partitions on which other operating systems are installed, you might not be
able to use those operating systems. Although this partitioning option does not destroy
data, operating systems typically require some free space in their partitions. Before you
resize a partition that holds an operating system that you might want to use again, find
out how much space you need to leave free.
Use Free Space
Select this option to retain your current data and partitions and install Red Hat Enterprise Linux
in the unused space available on the storage drives. Ensure that there is sufficient space
available on the storage drives before you select this option — refer to Section 11.5, “Do You
Have Enough Disk Space?”.
Create Custom Layout
Select this option to partition storage devices manually and create customized layouts. Refer to
Section 16.17, “ Creating a Custom Layout or Modifying the Default Layout ”
Choose your preferred partitioning method by clicking the radio button to the left of its description in the
dialog box.
Select Encrypt system to encrypt all partitions except the /boot partition. Refer to Appendix C, Disk
Encryption for information on encryption.
T o review and make any necessary changes to the partitions created by automatic partitioning, select
the Review option. After selecting Review and clicking Next to move forward, the partitions created for
you by anaconda appear. You can make modifications to these partitions if they do not meet your
needs.
Important — chain loading
T o configure the Red Hat Enterprise Linux boot loader to chain load from a different boot loader,
you must specify the boot drive manually. If you chose any of the automatic partitioning options,
you must now select the Review and m odify partitioning layout option before you
click Next or you cannot specify the correct boot drive.
Important — Mixing multipath and non-multipath devices
When you install Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 on a system with multipath and non-multipath
storage devices, the automatic partitioning layout in the installer might create volume groups that
contain a mix of multipath and non-multipath devices. T his defeats the purpose of multipath
storage.
We advise that you select only multipath or only non-multipath devices on the disk selection
screen that appears after selecting automatic partitioning. Alternatively, select custom partitioning.
Click Next once you have made your selections to proceed.
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16.16. Encrypt Partitions
If you selected the Encrypt System option, the installer prompts you for a passphrase with which to
encrypt the partitions on the system.
Partitions are encrypted using the Linux Unified Key Setup — refer to Appendix C, Disk Encryption for
more information.
Figure 16.37. Enter passphrase for encrypted partition
Choose a passphrase and type it into each of the two fields in the dialog box. You must provide this
passphrase every time that the system boots.
Warning — Do not lose this passphrase
If you lose this passphrase, any encrypted partitions and the data on them will become completely
inaccessible. T here is no way to recover a lost passphrase.
Note that if you perform a kickstart installation of Red Hat Enterprise Linux, you can save
encryption passphrases and create backup encryption passphrases during installation. Refer to
Section C.3.2, “Saving Passphrases” and Section C.3.3, “Creating and Saving Backup
Passphrases”.
16.17. Creating a Custom Layout or Modifying the Default Layout
If you chose one of the four automatic partitioning options and did not select Review, skip ahead to
Section 16.18, “Write changes to disk”.
If you chose one of the automatic partitioning options and selected Review, you can either accept the
current partition settings (click Next), or modify the setup manually in the partitioning screen.
If you chose to create a custom layout, you must tell the installation program where to install Red Hat
Enterprise Linux. T his is done by defining mount points for one or more disk partitions in which Red Hat
Enterprise Linux is installed.
If you have not yet planned how to set up your partitions, refer to Appendix A, An Introduction to Disk
Partitions and Section 16.17.5, “Recommended Partitioning Scheme”. At a bare minimum, you need an
appropriately-sized root (/) partition, a /boot/ partition, PReP boot partition, and usually a swap
partition appropriate to the amount of RAM you have on the system.
Anaconda can handle the partitioning requirements for a typical installation.
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Figure 16.38. Partitioning on IBM System p
T he partitioning screen contains two panes. T he top pane contains a graphical representation of the
hard drive, logical volume, or RAID device selected in the lower pane.
Above the graphical representation of the device, you can review the name of the drive (such as
/dev/sda or LogVol00), its size (in MB), and its model as detected by the installation program.
Using your mouse, click once to highlight a particular field in the graphical display. Double-click to edit an
existing partition or to create a partition out of existing free space.
T he lower pane contains a list of all drives, logical volumes, and RAID devices to be used during
installation, as specified earlier in the installation process — refer to Section 16.12, “ Assign Storage
Devices ”
Devices are grouped by type. Click on the small triangles to the left of each device type to view or hide
devices of that type.
Anaconda displays several details for each device listed:
Device
the name of the device, logical volume, or partition
Size (MB)
the size of the device, logical volume, or partition (in MB)
Mount Point/RAID/Volume
the mount point (location within a file system) on which a partition is to be mounted, or the name
of the RAID or logical volume group of which it is a part
T ype
the type of partition. If the partition is a standard partition, this field displays the type of file
system on the partition (for example, ext4). Otherwise, it indicates that the partition is a
physical volum e (LVM), or part of a software RAID
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Format
A check mark in this column indicates that the partition will be formatted during installation.
Beneath the lower pane are four buttons: Create, Edit, Delete, and Reset.
Select a device or partition by clicking on it in either the graphical representation in the upper pane of in
the list in the lower pane, then click one of the four buttons to carry out the following actions:
Create
create a new partition, logical volume, or software RAID
Edit
change an existing partition, logical volume, or software RAID. Note that you can only shrink
partitions with the Resize button, not enlarge partitions.
Delete
remove a partition, logical volume, or software RAID
Reset
undo all changes made in this screen
16.17.1. Create Storage
T he Create Storage dialog allows you to create new storage partitions, logical volumes, and
software RAIDs. Anaconda presents options as available or unavailable depending on the storage
already present on the system or configured to transfer to the system.
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Figure 16.39. Creating Storage
Options are grouped under Create Partition, Create Software RAID and Create LVM as
follows:
Create Partition
Refer to Section 9.15.2, “Adding Partitions” for details of the Add Partition dialog.
Standard Partition — create a standard disk partition (as described in Appendix A, An
Introduction to Disk Partitions) in unallocated space.
Create Software RAID
Refer to Section 23.15.3, “ Create Software RAID ” for more detail.
RAID Partition — create a partition in unallocated space to form part of a software RAID device.
T o form a software RAID device, two or more RAID partitions must be available on the system.
RAID Device — combine two or more RAID partitions into a software RAID device. When you
choose this option, you can specify the type of RAID device to create (the RAID level). T his option is
only available when two or more RAID partitions are available on the system.
Create LVM Logical Volume
Refer to Section 16.17.4, “ Create LVM Logical Volume ” for more detail.
LVM Physical Volum e — create a physical volume in unallocated space.
LVM Volum e Group — create a volume group from one or more physical volumes. T his option is
only available when at least one physical volume is available on the system.
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LVM Logical Volum e — create a logical volume on a volume group. T his option is only available
when at least one volume group is available on the system.
16.17.2. Adding Partitions
T o add a new partition, select the Create button. A dialog box appears (refer to Figure 16.40, “Creating
a New Partition”).
Note
You must dedicate at least one partition for this installation, and optionally more. For more
information, refer to Appendix A, An Introduction to Disk Partitions.
Figure 16.4 0. Creating a New Partition
Mount Point: Enter the partition's mount point. For example, if this partition should be the root
partition, enter /; enter /boot for the /boot partition, and so on. You can also use the pull-down
menu to choose the correct mount point for your partition. For a swap partition the mount point should
not be set — setting the filesystem type to swap is sufficient.
File System T ype: Using the pull-down menu, select the appropriate file system type for this
partition. For more information on file system types, refer to Section 16.17.2.1, “File System T ypes”.
Allowable Drives: T his field contains a list of the hard disks installed on your system. If a hard
disk's box is highlighted, then a desired partition can be created on that hard disk. If the box is not
checked, then the partition will never be created on that hard disk. By using different checkbox
settings, you can have anaconda place partitions where you need them, or let anaconda decide
where partitions should go.
Size (MB): Enter the size (in megabytes) of the partition. Note, this field starts with 200 MB; unless
changed, only a 200 MB partition will be created.
Additional Size Options: Choose whether to keep this partition at a fixed size, to allow it to
"grow" (fill up the available hard drive space) to a certain point, or to allow it to grow to fill any
remaining hard drive space available.
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If you choose Fill all space up to (MB), you must give size constraints in the field to the
right of this option. T his allows you to keep a certain amount of space free on your hard drive for
future use.
Force to be a prim ary partition: Select whether the partition you are creating should be
one of the first four partitions on the hard drive. If unselected, the partition is created as a logical
partition. Refer to Section A.1.3, “Partitions within Partitions — An Overview of Extended Partitions”,
for more information.
Encrypt: Choose whether to encrypt the partition so that the data stored on it cannot be accessed
without a passphrase, even if the storage device is connected to another system. Refer to
Appendix C, Disk Encryption for information on encryption of storage devices. If you select this option,
the installer prompts you to provide a passphrase before it writes the partition to the disk.
OK: Select OK once you are satisfied with the settings and wish to create the partition.
Cancel: Select Cancel if you do not want to create the partition.
16.17.2.1. File System T ypes
Red Hat Enterprise Linux allows you to create different partition types and file systems. T he following is
a brief description of the different partition types and file systems available, and how they can be used.
Partition types
standard partition — A standard partition can contain a file system or swap space, or it can
provide a container for software RAID or an LVM physical volume.
swap — Swap partitions are used to support virtual memory. In other words, data is written to a swap
partition when there is not enough RAM to store the data your system is processing. Refer to the
Red Hat Enterprise Linux Deployment Guide for additional information.
software RAID — Creating two or more software RAID partitions allows you to create a RAID
device. For more information regarding RAID, refer to the chapter RAID (Redundant Array of
Independent Disks) in the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Deployment Guide.
physical volum e (LVM) — Creating one or more physical volume (LVM) partitions allows you to
create an LVM logical volume. LVM can improve performance when using physical disks. For more
information regarding LVM, refer to the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Deployment Guide.
File systems
ext4 — T he ext4 file system is based on the ext3 file system and features a number of
improvements. T hese include support for larger file systems and larger files, faster and more efficient
allocation of disk space, no limit on the number of subdirectories within a directory, faster file system
checking, and more robust journaling. T he ext4 file system is selected by default and is highly
recommended.
ext3 — T he ext3 file system is based on the ext2 file system and has one main advantage —
journaling. Using a journaling file system reduces time spent recovering a file system after a crash as
there is no need to fsck [7 ] the file system.
ext2 — An ext2 file system supports standard Unix file types (regular files, directories, symbolic
links, etc). It provides the ability to assign long file names, up to 255 characters.
xfs — XFS is a highly scalable, high-performance file system that supports filesystems up to 16
exabytes (approximately 16 million terabytes), files up to 8 exabytes (approximately 8 million
terabytes) and directory structures containing tens of millions of entries. XFS supports metadata
journaling, which facilitates quicker crash recovery. T he XFS file system can also be defragmented
and resized while mounted and active.
vfat — T he VFAT file system is a Linux file system that is compatible with Microsoft Windows long
filenames on the FAT file system.
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Btrfs — Btrfs is under development as a file system capable of addressing and managing more
files, larger files, and larger volumes than the ext2, ext3, and ext4 file systems. Btrfs is designed to
make the file system tolerant of errors, and to facilitate the detection and repair of errors when they
occur. It uses checksums to ensure the validity of data and metadata, and maintains snapshots of
the file system that can be used for backup or repair.
Because Btrfs is still experimental and under development, the installation program does not offer it
by default. If you want to create a Btrfs partition on a drive, you must commence the installation
process with the boot option btrfs. Refer to Chapter 28, Boot Options for instructions.
Btrfs is still experimental
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 includes Btrfs as a technology preview to allow you to experiment
with this file system. You should not choose Btrfs for partitions that will contain valuable data
or that are essential for the operation of important systems.
16.17.3. Create Software RAID
Redundant arrays of independent disks (RAIDs) are constructed from multiple storage devices that are
arranged to provide increased performance and — in some configurations — greater fault tolerance.
Refer to the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Deployment Guide for a description of different kinds of RAIDs.
T o make a RAID device, you must first create software RAID partitions. Once you have created two or
more software RAID partitions, select RAID to join the software RAID partitions into a RAID device.
RAID Partition
Choose this option to configure a partition for software RAID. T his option is the only choice
available if your disk contains no software RAID partitions. T his is the same dialog that appears
when you add a standard partition — refer to Section 16.17.2, “Adding Partitions” for a
description of the available options. Note, however, that File System T ype must be set to
software RAID
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Figure 16.4 1. Create a software RAID partition
RAID Device
Choose this option to construct a RAID device from two or more existing software RAID
partitions. T his option is available if two or more software RAID partitions have been configured.
Figure 16.4 2. Create a RAID device
Select the file system type as for a standard partition.
Anaconda automatically suggests a name for the RAID device, but you can manually select
names from m d0 to m d15.
Click the checkboxes beside individual storage devices to include or remove them from this
RAID.
T he RAID Level corresponds to a particular type of RAID. Choose from the following options:
RAID 0 — distributes data across multiple storage devices. Level 0 RAIDs offer increased
performance over standard partitions, and can be used to pool the storage of multiple
devices into one large virtual device. Note that Level 0 RAIDS offer no redundancy and that
the failure of one device in the array destroys the entire array. RAID 0 requires at least two
RAID partitions.
RAID 1 — mirrors the data on one storage device onto one or more other storage devices.
Additional devices in the array provide increasing levels of redundancy. RAID 1 requires at
least two RAID partitions.
RAID 4 — distributes data across multiple storage devices, but uses one device in the
array to store parity information that safeguards the array in case any device within the
array fails. Because all parity information is stored on the one device, access to this device
creates a bottleneck in the performance of the array. RAID 4 requires at least three RAID
partitions.
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partitions.
RAID 5 — distributes data and parity information across multiple storage devices. Level 5
RAIDs therefore offer the performance advantages of distributing data across multiple
devices, but do not share the performance bottleneck of level 4 RAIDs because the parity
information is also distributed through the array. RAID 5 requires at least three RAID
partitions.
RAID 6 — level 6 RAIDs are similar to level 5 RAIDs, but instead of storing only one set of
parity data, they store two sets. RAID 6 requires at least four RAID partitions.
RAID 10 — level 10 RAIDs are nested RAIDs or hybrid RAIDs. Level 10 RAIDs are
constructed by distributing data over mirrored sets of storage devices. For example, a level
10 RAID constructed from four RAID partitions consists of two pairs of partitions in which
one partition mirrors the other. Data is then distributed across both pairs of storage devices,
as in a level 0 RAID. RAID 10 requires at least four RAID partitions.
16.17.4 . Create LVM Logical Volume
Important — LVM Unavailable in Text-Mode Installations
LVM initial set up is not available during text-mode installation. If you need to create an LVM
configuration from scratch, press Alt+F2 to use a different virtual console, and run the lvm
command. T o return to the text-mode installation, press Alt+F1.
Logical Volume Management (LVM) presents a simple logical view of underlying physical storage space,
such as a hard drives or LUNs. Partitions on physical storage are represented as physical volumes that
can be grouped together into volume groups. Each volume group can be divided into multiple logical
volumes, each of which is analogous to a standard disk partition. T herefore, LVM logical volumes
function as partitions that can span multiple physical disks.
T o read more about LVM, refer to the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Deployment Guide. Note, LVM is only
available in the graphical installation program.
LVM Physical Volume
Choose this option to configure a partition or device as an LVM physical volume. T his option is
the only choice available if your storage does not already contain LVM Volume Groups. T his is
the same dialog that appears when you add a standard partition — refer to Section 16.17.2,
“Adding Partitions” for a description of the available options. Note, however, that File System
T ype must be set to physical volum e (LVM)
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Figure 16.4 3. Create an LVM Physical Volume
Make LVM Volum e Group
Choose this option to create LVM volume groups from the available LVM physical volumes, or to
add existing logical volumes to a volume group.
Figure 16.4 4 . Make LVM Volume Group
T o assign one or more physical volumes to a volume group, first name the volume group. T hen
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select the physical volumes to be used in the volume group. Finally, configure logical volumes
on any volume groups using the Add, Edit and Delete options.
You may not remove a physical volume from a volume group if doing so would leave insufficient
space for that group's logical volumes. T ake for example a volume group made up of two 5 GB
LVM physical volume partitions, which contains an 8 GB logical volume. T he installer would not
allow you to remove either of the component physical volumes, since that would leave only 5 GB
in the group for an 8 GB logical volume. If you reduce the total size of any logical volumes
appropriately, you may then remove a physical volume from the volume group. In the example,
reducing the size of the logical volume to 4 GB would allow you to remove one of the 5 GB
physical volumes.
Make Logical Volum e
Choose this option to create an LVM logical volume. Select a mount point, file system type, and
size (in MB) just as if it were a standard disk partition. You can also choose a name for the
logical volume and specify the volume group to which it will belong.
Figure 16.4 5. Make Logical Volume
16.17.5. Recommended Partitioning Scheme
Unless you have a reason for doing otherwise, we recommend that you create the following partitions:
A swap partition (at least 256 MB) — swap partitions are used to support virtual memory. In other
words, data is written to a swap partition when there is not enough RAM to store the data your
system is processing.
In years past, the recommended amount of swap space increased linearly with the amount of RAM in
the system. But because the amount of memory in modern systems has increased into the hundreds
of gigabytes, it is now recognized that the amount of swap space that a system needs is a function
of the memory workload running on that system.
T he following table provides the recommended size of a swap partition depending on the amount of
RAM in your system and whether you want sufficient memory for your system to hibernate. T he
recommended swap space is established automatically during installation, but to also allow for
hibernation you will need to edit the swap space in the custom partitioning stage.
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T able 16.2. Recommended System Swap Space
Amount of RAM in the
system
Recommended swap space
Recommended swap space
if allowing for hibernation
2GB of RAM or less
2 times the amount of RAM
3 times the amount of RAM
2GB to 8GB of RAM
Equal to the amount of RAM
2 times the amount of RAM
8GB to 64GB of RAM
0.5 times the amount of RAM
1.5 times the amount of RAM
64GB of RAM or more
4GB of swap space
No extra space needed
Note that you can obtain better performance by distributing swap space over multiple storage
devices, particularly on systems with fast drives, controllers, and interfaces.
A PReP boot partition on the first partition of the hard drive — the PReP boot partition contains the
Yaboot boot loader (which allows other POWER systems to boot Red Hat Enterprise Linux). Unless
you plan to boot from a network source, you must have a PReP boot partition to boot Red Hat
Enterprise Linux.
For IBM System p users: T he PReP boot partition should be between 4-8 MB, not to exceed 10 MB.
A /boot/ partition (250 MB) — the partition mounted on /boot/ contains the operating system
kernel (which allows your system to boot Red Hat Enterprise Linux), along with files used during the
bootstrap process. Due to the limitations of most PC firmware, creating a small partition to hold these
is a good idea. For most users, a 250 MB boot partition is sufficient.
Warning
If you have a RAID card, be aware that Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 does not support setting up
hardware RAID on an IPR card. You can boot the standalone diagnostics CD prior to
installation to create a RAID array and then install to that RAID array.
A root partition (3.0 GB - 5.0 GB)
T his is where "/" (the root directory) is located. In this setup, all files (except those stored in /boot)
are on the root partition.
A 3.0 GB partition allows you to install a minimal installation, while a 5.0 GB root partition lets you
perform a full installation, choosing all package groups.
Root and /root
T he / (or root) partition is the top of the directory structure. T he /root directory/root
(sometimes pronounced "slash-root") directory is the home directory of the user account for
system administration.
Warning
T he PackageKit update software downloads updated packages to /var/cache/yum / by
default. If you partition the system manually, and create a separate /var/ partition, be sure to
create the partition large enough (3.0 GB or more) to download package updates.
16.18. Write changes to disk
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 Installation Guide
T he installer prompts you to confirm the partitioning options that you selected. Click Write changes
to disk to allow the installer to partition your hard drive and install Red Hat Enterprise Linux.
Figure 16.4 6. Writing storage configuration to disk
If you are certain that you want to proceed, click Write changes to disk.
Last chance to cancel safely
Up to this point in the installation process, the installer has made no lasting changes to your
computer. When you click Write changes to disk, the installer will allocate space on your
hard drive and start to transfer Red Hat Enterprise Linux into this space. Depending on the
partitioning option that you chose, this process might include erasing data that already exists on
your computer.
T o revise any of the choices that you made up to this point, click Go back. T o cancel installation
completely, switch off your computer.
After you click Write changes to disk, allow the installation process to complete. If the
process is interrupted (for example, by you switching off or resetting the computer, or by a power
outage) you will probably not be able to use your computer until you restart and complete the Red
Hat Enterprise Linux installation process, or install a different operating system.
16.19. Package Group Selection
Now that you have made most of the choices for your installation, you are ready to confirm the default
package selection or customize packages for your system.
T he Package Installation Defaults screen appears and details the default package set for
your Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation. T his screen varies depending on the version of Red Hat
Enterprise Linux you are installing.
Installing in text mode
If you install Red Hat Enterprise Linux in text mode, you cannot make package selections. T he
installer automatically selects packages only from the base and core groups. T hese packages
are sufficient to ensure that the system is operational at the end of the installation process, ready
to install updates and new packages. T o change the package selection, complete the installation,
then use the Add/Remove Software application to make desired changes.
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Figure 16.4 7. Package Group Selection
By default, the Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation process loads a selection of software that is
suitable for a system deployed as a basic server. Note that this installation does not include a graphical
environment. T o include a selection of software suitable for other roles, click the radio button that
corresponds to one of the following options:
Basic Server
T his option provides a basic installation of Red Hat Enterprise Linux for use on a server.
Database Server
T his option provides the MySQL and PostgreSQL databases.
Web server
T his option provides the Apache web server.
Enterprise Identity Server Base
T his option provides OpenLDAP and the System Security Services Daemon (SSSD) to
create an identity and authentication server.
Virtual Host
T his option provides the KVM and Virtual Machine Manager tools to create a host for virtual
machines.
Desktop
T his option provides the OpenOffice.org productivity suite, graphical tools such as the GIMP,
and multimedia applications.
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Software Development Workstation
T his option provides the necessary tools to compile software on your Red Hat Enterprise Linux
system.
Minimal
T his option provides only the packages essential to run Red Hat Enterprise Linux. A minimal
installation provides the basis for a single-purpose server or desktop appliance and maximizes
performance and security on such an installation.
If you choose to accept the current package list, skip ahead to Section 16.20, “Installing Packages”.
T o select a component, click on the checkbox beside it (refer to Figure 16.47, “Package Group
Selection”).
T o customize your package set further, select the Custom ize now option on the screen. Clicking Next
takes you to the Package Group Selection screen.
16.19.1. Installing from Additional Repositories
You can define additional repositories to increase the software available to your system during
installation. A repository is a network location that stores software packages along with metadata that
describes them. Many of the software packages used in Red Hat Enterprise Linux require other software
to be installed. T he installer uses the metadata to ensure that these requirements are met for every
piece of software you select for installation.
T he Red Hat Enterprise Linux repository is automatically selected for you. It contains the
complete collection of software that was released as Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6, with the various pieces
of software in their versions that were current at the time of release.
Figure 16.4 8. Adding a software repository
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T o include software from extra repositories, select Add additional software repositories and
provide the location of the repository.
T o edit an existing software repository location, select the repository in the list and then select Modify
repository.
If you change the repository information during a non-network installation, such as from a Red Hat
Enterprise Linux DVD, the installer prompts you for network configuration information.
Figure 16.4 9. Select network interface
1. Select an interface from the drop-down menu.
2. Click OK.
Anaconda activates the interface that you selected, then starts NetworkManager to allow you to
configure the interface.
Figure 16.50. Network Connections
For details of how to use NetworkManager, refer to Section 16.9, “Setting the Hostname”
If you select Add additional software repositories, the Edit repository dialog appears.
Provide a Repository nam e and the Repository URL for its location.
Once you have located a mirror, to determine the URL to use, find the directory on the mirror that
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contains a directory named repodata.
Once you provide information for an additional repository, the installer reads the package metadata over
the network. Software that is specially marked is then included in the package group selection system.
Backtracking Removes Repository Metadata
If you choose Back from the package selection screen, any extra repository data you may have
entered is lost. T his allows you to effectively cancel extra repositories. Currently there is no way
to cancel only a single repository once entered.
16.19.2. Customizing the Software Selection
Additional Language Support
Your Red Hat Enterprise Linux system automatically supports the language that you selected at
the start of the installation process. T o include support for additional languages, select the
package group for those languages from the Languages category.
Note — 64-bit applications
Users who want support for developing or running 64-bit applications are encouraged to select
the Com patibility Arch Support and Com patibility Arch Developm ent Support
packages to install architecture specific support for their systems.
Select Custom ize now to specify the software packages for your final system in more detail. T his
option causes the installation process to display an additional customization screen when you select
Next.
Figure 16.51. Package Group Details
Red Hat Enterprise Linux divides the included software into package groups. For ease of use, the
package selection screen displays these groups as categories.
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You can select package groups, which group components together according to function (for example, X
Window System and Editors), individual packages, or a combination of the two.
T o view the package groups for a category, select the category from the list on the left. T he list on the
right displays the package groups for the currently selected category.
T o specify a package group for installation, select the check box next to the group. T he box at the
bottom of the screen displays the details of the package group that is currently highlighted. None of the
packages from a group will be installed unless the check box for that group is selected.
If you select a package group, Red Hat Enterprise Linux automatically installs the base and mandatory
packages for that group. T o change which optional packages within a selected group will be installed,
select the Optional Packages button under the description of the group. T hen use the check box
next to an individual package name to change its selection.
In the package selection list on the right, you can use the context menu as a shortcut to select or deselect base and mandatory packages or all optional packages.
Figure 16.52. Package Selection List Context Menu
After you choose the desired packages, select Next to proceed. T he installer checks your selection,
and automatically adds any extra packages required to use the software you selected. When you have
finished selecting packages, click Close to save your optional package selections and return to the
main package selection screen.
T he packages that you select are not permanent. After you boot your system, use the Add/Remove
Software tool to either install new software or remove installed packages. T o run this tool, from the
main menu, select System → Administration → Add/Remove Software. T he Red Hat Enterprise
Linux software management system downloads the latest packages from network servers, rather than
using those on the installation discs.
16.19.2.1. Core Network Services
All Red Hat Enterprise Linux installations include the following network services:
centralized logging through syslog
email through SMT P (Simple Mail T ransfer Protocol)
network file sharing through NFS (Network File System)
remote access through SSH (Secure SHell)
resource advertising through mDNS (multicast DNS)
T he default installation also provides:
network file transfer through HT T P (HyperT ext T ransfer Protocol)
printing through CUPS (Common UNIX Printing System)
remote desktop access through VNC (Virtual Network Computing)
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remote desktop access through VNC (Virtual Network Computing)
Some automated processes on your Red Hat Enterprise Linux system use the email service to send
reports and messages to the system administrator. By default, the email, logging, and printing services
do not accept connections from other systems. Red Hat Enterprise Linux installs the NFS sharing,
HT T P, and VNC components without enabling those services.
You may configure your Red Hat Enterprise Linux system after installation to offer email, file sharing,
logging, printing and remote desktop access services. T he SSH service is enabled by default. You may
use NFS to access files on other systems without enabling the NFS sharing service.
16.20. Installing Packages
At this point there is nothing left for you to do until all the packages have been installed. How quickly this
happens depends on the number of packages you have selected and your computer's speed.
Depending on the available resources, you might see the following progress bar while the installer
resolves dependencies of the packages you selected for installation:
Figure 16.53. Starting installation
During installation of the selected packages and their dependencies, you see the following progress bar:
Figure 16.54 . Packages completed
16.21. Installation Complete
Congratulations! Your Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation is now complete!
T he installation program prompts you to prepare your system for reboot. Remember to remove any
installation media if it is not ejected automatically upon reboot.
After your computer's normal power-up sequence has completed, Red Hat Enterprise Linux loads and
starts. By default, the start process is hidden behind a graphical screen that displays a progress bar.
Eventually, a login: prompt or a GUI login screen (if you installed the X Window System and chose to
start X automatically) appears.
T he first time you start your Red Hat Enterprise Linux system in run level 5 (the graphical run level), the
FirstBoot tool appears, which guides you through the Red Hat Enterprise Linux configuration. Using
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this tool, you can set your system time and date, install software, register your machine with Red Hat
Network, and more. FirstBoot lets you configure your environment at the beginning, so that you can get
started using your Red Hat Enterprise Linux system quickly.
Chapter 34, Firstboot will guide you through the configuration process.
[6 ] A ro o t p as s wo rd is the ad minis trative p as s wo rd fo r yo ur Red Hat Enterp ris e Linux s ys tem. Yo u s ho uld o nly lo g in as ro o t when
need ed fo r s ys tem maintenanc e. The ro o t ac c o unt d o es no t o p erate within the res tric tio ns p lac ed o n no rmal us er ac c o unts , s o
c hang es mad e as ro o t c an have imp lic atio ns fo r yo ur entire s ys tem.
[7] The f sck ap p lic atio n is us ed to c hec k the file s ys tem fo r metad ata c o ns is tenc y and o p tio nally rep air o ne o r mo re Linux file
s ys tems .
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Chapter 17. Troubleshooting Installation on an IBM POWER
System
T his section discusses some common installation problems and their solutions.
For debugging purposes, anaconda logs installation actions into files in the /tm p directory. T hese files
include:
/tm p/anaconda.log
general anaconda messages
/tm p/program .log
all external programs run by anaconda
/tm p/storage.log
extensive storage module information
/tm p/yum .log
yum package installation messages
/tm p/syslog
hardware-related system messages
If the installation fails, the messages from these files are consolidated into /tm p/anacondatb-identifier, where identifier is a random string.
You may also find the IBM Online Alert Section for System p useful. It is located at:
http://www14.software.ibm.com/webapp/set2/sas/f/lopdiags/info/LinuxAlerts.html
All of the files above reside in the installer's ramdisk and are thus volatile. T o make a permanent copy,
copy those files to another system on the network using scp on the installation image (not the other way
round).
17.1. You are unable to boot Red Hat Enterprise Linux
17.1.1. Is Your System Displaying Signal 11 Errors?
A signal 11 error, commonly known as a segmentation fault, means that the program accessed a
memory location that was not assigned to it. A signal 11 error may be due to a bug in one of the software
programs that is installed, or faulty hardware.
If you receive a fatal signal 11 error during your installation, it is probably due to a hardware error in
memory on your system's bus. Like other operating systems, Red Hat Enterprise Linux places its own
demands on your system's hardware. Some of this hardware may not be able to meet those demands,
even if they work properly under another OS.
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Ensure that you have the latest installation updates and images. Review the online errata to see if newer
versions are available. If the latest images still fail, it may be due to a problem with your hardware.
Commonly, these errors are in your memory or CPU-cache. A possible solution for this error is turning
off the CPU-cache in the BIOS, if your system supports this. You could also try to swap your memory
around in the motherboard slots to check if the problem is either slot or memory related.
Another option is to perform a media check on your installation DVD. Anaconda, the installation
program, has the ability to test the integrity of the installation media. It works with the DVD, hard drive
ISO, and NFS ISO installation methods. Red Hat recommends that you test all installation media before
starting the installation process, and before reporting any installation-related bugs (many of the bugs
reported are actually due to improperly-burned DVDs). T o use this test, type the following command at
the boot: or yaboot: prompt:
linux mediacheck
For more information concerning signal 11 errors, refer to:
http://www.bitwizard.nl/sig11/
17.2. Trouble Beginning the Installation
17.2.1. Problems with Booting into the Graphical Installation
T here are some video cards that have trouble booting into the graphical installation program. If the
installation program does not run using its default settings, it tries to run in a lower resolution mode. If
that still fails, the installation program attempts to run in text mode.
One possible solution is to try using the resolution= boot option. Refer to Chapter 28, Boot Options
for more information.
Note
T o disable frame buffer support and allow the installation program to run in text mode, try using
the nofb boot option. T his command may be necessary for accessibility with some screen
reading hardware.
17.3. Trouble During the Installation
17.3.1. No devices found to install Red Hat Enterprise Linux Error Message
If you receive an error message stating No devices found to install Red Hat Enterprise
Linux, there is probably a SCSI controller that is not being recognized by the installation program.
Check your hardware vendor's website to determine if a driver diskette image is available that fixes your
problem. For more general information on driver diskettes, refer to Chapter 13, Updating drivers during
installation on IBM POWER systems.
You can also refer to the Red Hat Hardware Compatibility List, available online at:
http://hardware.redhat.com/hcl/
17.3.2. Saving traceback messages
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If anaconda encounters an error during the graphical installation process, it presents you with a crash
reporting dialog box:
Figure 17.1. T he Crash Reporting Dialog Box
Details
shows you the details of the error:
Figure 17.2. Details of the Crash
Save
saves details of the error locally or remotely:
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Exit
exits the installation process.
If you select Save from the main dialog, you can choose from the following options:
Figure 17.3. Select reporter
Logger
saves details of the error as a log file to the local hard drive at a specified location.
Red Hat Customer Support
submits the crash report to Customer Support for assistance.
Report uploader
uploads a compressed version of the crash report to Bugzilla or a URL of your choice.
Before submitting the report, click Preferences to specify a destination or provide authentication
details. Select the reporting method you need to configure and click Configure Event.
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Figure 17.4 . Configure reporter preferences
Logger
Specify a path and a filename for the log file. Check Append if you are adding to an existing log
file.
Figure 17.5. Specify local path for log file
Red Hat Customer Support
Enter your Red Hat Network username and password so your report reaches Customer
Support and is linked with your account. T he URL is prefilled and Verify SSL is checked by
default.
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Figure 17.6. Enter Red Hat Network authentication details
Report uploader
Specify a URL for uploading a compressed version of the crash report.
Figure 17.7. Enter URL for uploading crash report
Bugzilla
Enter your Bugzilla username and password to lodge a bug with Red Hat's bug-tracking system
using the crash report. T he URL is prefilled and Verify SSL is checked by default.
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Figure 17.8. Enter Bugzilla authentication details
Once you have entered your preferences, click OK to return to the report selection dialog. Select how you
would like to report the problem and then click Forward.
Figure 17.9. Confirm report data
You can now customize the report by checking and unchecking the issues that will be included. When
finished, click Apply.
Figure 17.10. Report in progress
T his screen displays the outcome of the report, including any errors in sending or saving the log. Click
Forward to proceed.
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Figure 17.11. Reporting done
Reporting is now complete. Click Forward to return to the report selection dialog. You can now make
another report, or click Close to exit the reporting utility and then Exit to close the installation process.
IBM System p systems
T his information does not apply to users of headless IBM System p systems.
17.3.3. T rouble with Partition T ables
If you receive an error after the Disk Partitioning Setup (Section 16.15, “Disk Partitioning Setup”)
phase of the installation saying something similar to
T he partition table on device hda was unreadable. T o create new partitions it must be
initialized, causing the loss of ALL DAT A on this drive.
you may not have a partition table on that drive or the partition table on the drive may not be
recognizable by the partitioning software used in the installation program.
No matter what type of installation you are performing, backups of the existing data on your systems
should always be made.
17.3.4 . Other Partitioning Problems for IBM™ POWER System Users
If you create partitions manually, but cannot move to the next screen, you probably have not created all
the partitions necessary for installation to proceed.
You must have the following partitions as a bare minimum:
A / (root) partition
A <swap> partition of type swap
A PReP Boot partition.
A /boot/ partition.
Refer to Section 16.17.5, “Recommended Partitioning Scheme” for more information.
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Note
When defining a partition's type as swap, do not assign it a mount point. Anaconda automatically
assigns the mount point for you.
17.4. Problems After Installation
17.4 .1. Unable to IPL from *NWSST G
If you are experiencing difficulties when trying to IPL from *NWSST G, you may not have created a PReP
Boot partition set as active.
17.4 .2. Booting into a Graphical Environment
If you have installed the X Window System but are not seeing a graphical desktop environment once you
log into your system, you can start the X Window System graphical interface using the command
startx.
Once you enter this command and press Enter, the graphical desktop environment is displayed.
Note, however, that this is just a one-time fix and does not change the log in process for future log ins.
T o set up your system so that you can log in at a graphical login screen, you must edit one file,
/etc/inittab, by changing just one number in the runlevel section. When you are finished, reboot the
computer. T he next time you log in, you are presented with a graphical login prompt.
Open a shell prompt. If you are in your user account, become root by typing the su command.
Now, type the following to edit the file with gedit.
gedit /etc/inittab
T he file /etc/inittab opens. Within the first screen, a section of the file which looks like the following
appears:
# Default runlevel. The runlevels used are:
#
0 - halt (Do NOT set initdefault to this)
#
1 - Single user mode
#
2 - Multiuser, without NFS (The same as 3, if you do not have networking)
#
3 - Full multiuser mode
#
4 - unused
#
5 - X11
#
6 - reboot (Do NOT set initdefault to this)
#
id:3:initdefault:
T o change from a console to a graphical login, you should change the number in the line
id:3:initdefault: from a 3 to a 5.
Warning
Change only the number of the default runlevel from 3 to 5.
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Your changed line should look like the following:
id:5:initdefault:
When you are satisfied with your change, save and exit the file using the Ctrl+Q keys. A window
appears and asks if you would like to save the changes. Click Save.
T he next time you log in after rebooting your system, you are presented with a graphical login prompt.
17.4 .3. Problems with the X Window System (GUI)
If you are having trouble getting X (the X Window System) to start, you may not have installed it during
your installation.
If you want X, you can either install the packages from the Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation media or
perform an upgrade.
If you elect to upgrade, select the X Window System packages, and choose GNOME, KDE, or both,
during the upgrade package selection process.
Refer to Section 35.3, “Switching to a Graphical Login” for more detail on installing a desktop
environment.
17.4 .4 . Problems with the X Server Crashing and Non-Root Users
If you are having trouble with the X server crashing when anyone logs in, you may have a full file system
(or, a lack of available hard drive space).
T o verify that this is the problem you are experiencing, run the following command:
df -h
T he df command should help you diagnose which partition is full. For additional information about df
and an explanation of the options available (such as the -h option used in this example), refer to the df
man page by typing m an df at a shell prompt.
A key indicator is 100% full or a percentage above 90% or 95% on a partition. T he /hom e/ and /tm p/
partitions can sometimes fill up quickly with user files. You can make some room on that partition by
removing old files. After you free up some disk space, try running X as the user that was unsuccessful
before.
17.4 .5. Problems When You T ry to Log In
If you did not create a user account in the firstboot screens, switch to a console by pressing
Ctrl+Alt+F2, log in as root and use the password you assigned to root.
If you cannot remember your root password, boot your system as linux single.
Once you have booted into single user mode and have access to the # prompt, you must type passwd
root, which allows you to enter a new password for root. At this point you can type shutdown -r now
to reboot the system with the new root password.
If you cannot remember your user account password, you must become root. T o become root, type su and enter your root password when prompted. T hen, type passwd <usernam e>. T his allows you to
enter a new password for the specified user account.
If the graphical login screen does not appear, check your hardware for compatibility issues. T he
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Hardware Compatibility List can be found at:
http://hardware.redhat.com/hcl/
17.4 .6. Your Printer Does Not Work
If you are not sure how to set up your printer or are having trouble getting it to work properly, try using
the Printer Configuration T ool.
T ype the system -config-printer command at a shell prompt to launch the Printer Configuration
T ool. If you are not root, it prompts you for the root password to continue.
17.4 .7. Apache HT T P Server or Sendmail stops responding during startup
If Apache HT T P Server (httpd) or Sendmail stops responding during startup, make sure the
following line is in the /etc/hosts file:
127.0.0.1
localhost.localdomain
localhost
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Part III. IBM System z Architecture - Installation and Booting
Part III. IBM System z Architecture - Installation and Booting
T his part discusses installation and booting (or initial program load, IPL) of Red Hat Enterprise Linux on
IBM System z.
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Chapter 18. Planning for Installation on System z
18.1. Pre-Installation
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 runs on System z9 or later IBM mainframe systems.
T he installation process assumes that you are familiar with the IBM System z and can set up logical
partitions (LPARs) and z/VM guest virtual machines. For additional information on System z, refer to
http://www.ibm.com/systems/z.
For installation of Red Hat Enterprise Linux on System z, Red Hat supports DASD and FCP storage
devices.
Before you install Red Hat Enterprise Linux, you must decide on the following:
Decide whether you want to run the operating system on an LPAR or as a z/VM guest operating
system.
Decide if you need swap space and if so how much. Although it is possible (and recommended) to
assign enough memory to z/VM guest virtual machine and let z/VM do the necessary swapping,
there are cases where the amount of required RAM is hard to predict. Such instances should be
examined on a case-by-case basis. Refer to Section 23.15.5, “Recommended Partitioning Scheme”.
Decide on a network configuration. Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 for IBM System z supports the
following network devices:
Real and virtual Open Systems Adapter (OSA)
Real and virtual HiperSockets
LAN channel station (LCS) for real OSA
You require the following hardware:
Disk space. Calculate how much disk space you need and allocate sufficient disk space on DASDs [8 ]
or SCSI[9 ] disks. You require at least 2 GB for a server installation, and 5 GB if you want to install all
packages. You also require disk space for any application data. After the installation, more DASD or
SCSI disk partitions may be added or deleted as necessary.
T he disk space used by the newly installed Red Hat Enterprise Linux system (the Linux instance)
must be separate from the disk space used by other operating systems you may have installed on
your system.
For more information about disks and partition configuration, refer to Section 23.15.5, “Recommended
Partitioning Scheme”.
RAM. Acquire 1 GB (recommended) for the Linux instance. With some tuning, an instance might run
with as little as 512 MB RAM.
18.2. Overview of the System z Installation Procedure
You can install Red Hat Enterprise Linux on System z interactively or in unattended mode. Installation on
System z differs from installation on other architectures in that it is typically performed over a network
and not from a local DVD. T he installation can be summarized as follows:
1. Booting (IPL) the installer
Connect with the mainframe, then perform an initial program load (IPL), or boot, from the medium
containing the installation program.
2. Installation Phase 1
Set up an initial network device. T his network device is then used to connect to the installation
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system via SSH or VNC. T his gets you a full-screen mode terminal or graphical display to continue
installation as on other architectures.
3. Installation Phase 2
Specify which language to use, and how and where the installation program and the software
packages to be installed from the repository on the Red Hat installation medium can be found.
4. Installation Phase 3
Use anaconda (the main part of the Red Hat installation program) to perform the rest of the
installation.
Figure 18.1. T he Installation Process
18.2.1. Booting (IPL) the Installer
After establishing a connection with the mainframe, you need to perform an initial program load (IPL), or
boot, from the medium containing the installation program. T his document describes the most common
methods of installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 on System z. In general, you can use any method to
boot the Linux installation system, which consists of a kernel (kernel.im g) and initial ramdisk
(initrd.im g) with at least the parameters in generic.prm . T he Linux installation system is also
called the installer in this book.
T he control point from where you can start the IPL process depends on the environment where your
Linux is to run. If your Linux is to run as a z/VM guest operating system, the control point is the control
program (CP) of the hosting z/VM. If your Linux is to run in LPAR mode, the control point is the
mainframe's Support Element (SE) or an attached IBM System z Hardware Management Console (HMC).
You can use the following boot media only if Linux is to run as a guest operating system under z/VM:
z/VM reader — refer to Section 20.1.1, “Using the z/VM Reader” for details.
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You can use the following boot media only if Linux is to run in LPAR mode:
SE or HMC through a remote FT P server — refer to Section 20.2.1, “Using an FT P Server” for details.
SE or HMC DVD — refer to Section 20.2.2, “Using the HMC or SE DVD Drive” for details
You can use the following boot media for both z/VM and LPAR:
DASD — refer to Section 20.1.2, “Using a prepared DASD” for z/VM or Section 20.2.3, “Using a
prepared DASD” for LPAR
SCSI device that is attached through an FCP channel — refer to Section 20.1.3, “Using a prepared
FCP-attached SCSI Disk” for z/VM or Section 20.2.4, “Using a prepared FCP-attached SCSI Disk” for
LPAR
FCP-attached SCSI DVD — refer to Section 20.1.4, “ Using an FCP-attached SCSI DVD Drive” for
z/VM or Section 20.2.5, “Using an FCP-attached SCSI DVD Drive” for LPAR
If you use DASD and FCP-attached SCSI devices (except SCSI DVDs) as boot media, you must have a
configured zipl boot loader. For more information, see the Chapter on zipl in Linux on System z Device
Drivers, Features, and Commands on Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.
18.2.2. Installation Phase 1
After the kernel boot, you will configure one network device. T his network device is needed to complete
the installation.
T he interface you will use in installation phase 1 is the linuxrc interface, which is line-mode and textbased. (Refer to Chapter 21, Installation Phase 1: Configuring a Network Device.)
18.2.3. Installation Phase 2
In installation phase 2, you need to specify what language to use and where phase 3 of the installation
program and the software packages to be installed from the repository on the Red Hat installation
medium can be found. On System z, the installation sources are usually transferred from the DVD to a
network server. Phase 3 of the installation program and the repository can be accessed in one of the
following ways:
Over the network using one of the FT P, HT T P, HT T PS, or NFS protocols. A separate network server
(FT P, HT T P, HT T PS, or NFS), which holds all the required installation sources, must be set up in
advance. For details on how to set up a network server, refer to Section 19.1, “Preparing for a
Network Installation”.
Hard disk (DASD or a SCSI device attached through an FCP channel). You need to set up a disk that
holds the required installation sources in advance. For details, Refer to Section 19.2, “Preparing for a
Hard Drive Installation”.
T hrough an FCP-attached SCSI DVD. T his is handled automatically if booted from FCP-attached
SCSI DVD.
T he interface you will use in installation phase 2 is the loader, which provides a full-screen text-based
interface with a blue background by default. For unattended installations in cmdline mode, the loader
offers line-mode, text-based output. (Refer to Chapter 22, Installation Phase 2: Configuring Language
and Installation Source.)
18.2.4 . Installation Phase 3
In installation phase 3 you will use anaconda in graphical, text-based, or cmdline mode:
Graphical mode
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T his can be used through a VNC client (recommended) or through an X11 server. You can use your
mouse and keyboard to navigate through the screens, click buttons, and enter text in fields.
T ext-based mode
T his interface does not offer all interface elements of the GUI and does not support all settings. Use
this for interactive installations if you cannot use a VNC client or X11 server.
cmdline mode
T his is intended for automated installations on System z. (Refer to Section 26.6, “Parameters for
kickstart installations”)
If you have a slow network connection or prefer a text-based installation, do not use X11 forwarding
when logging in over the network and do not set the display= variable in the parameter file (refer to
Section 26.4, “VNC and X11 parameters” for details). In Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 the text-based
installation has been reduced to minimize user interaction. Features like installation on FCP-attached
SCSI devices, changing partition layout, or package selection are only available with the graphical user
interface installation. Use the graphical installation whenever possible. (Refer to Chapter 23, Installation
Phase 3: Installing using anaconda.)
18.3. Graphical User Interface with X11 or VNC
T o run anaconda with the graphical user interface, use a workstation that has either an X Window
System (X11) server or VNC client installed.
You can use X11 forwarding with an SSH client or X11 directly. If the installer on your workstation fails
because the X11 server does not support required X11 extensions you might have to upgrade the X11
server or use VNC.
T o use VNC, disable X11 forwarding in your SSH client prior to connecting to the Linux installation
system on the mainframe or specify the vnc parameter in your parameter file. Using VNC is
recommended for slow or long-distance network connections. Refer to Section 28.2, “Enabling Remote
Access to the Installation System”.
T able 18.1, “Parameters and SSH login types” shows how the parameters and SSH login type controls
which anaconda user interface is used.
T able 18.1. Parameters and SSH login types
Parameter
SSH login
User interface
none
SSH without X11 forwarding
VNC or text
vnc
SSH with or without X11
forwarding
VNC
none
SSH with X11 forwarding
X11
display=IP/hostname:display SSH without X11 forwarding
X11
18.3.1. Installation using X11 forwarding
You can connect a workstation to the Linux installation system on the mainframe and display the
graphical installation program using SSH with X11 forwarding.
You require an SSH client that allows X11 forwarding. T o open the connection, first start the X server on
the workstation. T hen connect to the Linux installation system. You can enable X11 forwarding in your
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SSH client when you connect.
For example, with OpenSSH enter the following in a terminal window on your workstation:
ssh -X [email protected]
Replace linuxvm.example.com with the hostname or IP address of the system you are installing. T he
-X option (the capital letter X) enables X11 forwarding.
18.3.2. Installation using X11
T he direct connection from the X11 client to an X11 server on your local workstation requires an IP
connection from your System z to your workstation. If the network and firewalls prevent such
connections, use X11 forwarding or VNC instead.
T he graphical installation program requires the DNS and hostname to be set correctly, and the Linux
installation system must be allowed to open applications on your display. You can ensure this by setting
the parameter display=workstationname:0.0 in the parameter file, where workstationname is the
hostname of the client workstation connecting to the Linux image. Alternatively, you can set the display
environment variable and run loader manually after having logged in with SSH as user root. By default
you log in as user install. T his starts the loader automatically and does not allow overriding the
display environment variable.
T o permit X11 clients to open applications on the X11 server on your workstation, use the xauth
command. T o manage X11 authorization cookies with xauth, you must log in to the Linux installation
system using SSH as user root. For details on xauth and how to manage authorization cookies, refer
to the xauth manpage.
In contrast to setting up X11 authorizations with xauth, you can use xhost to permit the Linux
installation system to connect to the X11 server:
xhost +linuxvm
Replace linuxvm with the hostname or IP address of the Linux installation system. T his allows linuxvm
to make connections to the X11 server.
If the graphical installation does not begin automatically, verify the display= variable settings in the
parameter file. If performing an installation under z/VM, rerun the installation to load the new parameter
file on the reader.
18.3.3. Installation using VNC
Using VNC is recommended for slow or long-distance network connections. T o use VNC, disable X11
forwarding in your SSH client prior to connecting to the temporary Linux installation system. T he loader
will then provide a choice between text-mode and VNC; choose VNC here. Alternatively, provide the vnc
variable and optionally the vncpassword variable in your parameter file (refer to Section 26.4, “VNC and
X11 parameters” for details).
A message on the workstation SSH terminal prompts you to start the VNC client viewer and provides
details about the VNC display specifications. Enter the specifications from the SSH terminal into the VNC
client viewer and connect to the temporary Linux installation system to begin the installation. Refer to
Chapter 31, Installing Through VNC for details.
18.3.4 . Installation using a VNC listener
T o connect from your temporary Linux installation system to a VNC client running on your workstation in
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listening mode, use the vncconnect option in your parameter file, in addition to the options vnc and
optionally vncpassword. T he network and firewalls must allow an IP connection from your temporary
Linux installation to your workstation.
T o have the temporary Linux installation system automatically connect to a VNC client, first start the
client in listening mode. On Red Hat Enterprise Linux systems, use the -listen option to run
vncviewer as a listener. In a terminal window, enter the command:
vncviewer -listen
Refer to Chapter 31, Installing Through VNC for details.
18.3.5. Automating the Installation with Kickstart
You can allow an installation to run unattended by using Kickstart. A Kickstart file specifies settings for
an installation. Once the installation system boots, it can read a Kickstart file and carry out the
installation process without any further input from a user.
On System z, this also requires a parameter file (optionally an additional configuration file under z/VM).
T his parameter file must contain the required network options described in Section 26.3, “Installation
network parameters” and specify a kickstart file using the ks= option. T he kickstart file typically resides
on the network. T he parameter file often also contains the options cmdline and RUNKS=1 to execute the
loader without having to log in over the network with SSH (Refer to Section 26.6, “Parameters for
kickstart installations”).
For further information and details on how to set up a kickstart file, refer to Section 32.3, “Creating the
Kickstart File”.
18.3.5.1. Every Installation Produces a Kickstart File
T he Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation process automatically writes a Kickstart file that contains the
settings for the installed system. T his file is always saved as /root/anaconda-ks.cfg. You may use
this file to repeat the installation with identical settings, or modify copies to specify settings for other
systems.
[8 ] Direct Access Storage Devices (DASDs ) are hard d is ks that allo w a maximum o f three p artitio ns p er d evic e. Fo r examp le, d asd a
c an have p artitio ns d asd a1 , d asd a2 , and d asd a3.
[9 ] Us ing the SCSI-o ver-Fib re Channel d evic e d river (z fc p d evic e d river) and a s witc h, SCSI LUNs c an b e p res ented to Linux o n
Sys tem z as if they were lo c ally attac hed SCSI d rives .
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Chapter 19. Preparing for Installation
19.1. Preparing for a Network Installation
Note
Make sure no installation DVD (or any other type of DVD or CD) is in your hosting partition's drive
if you are performing a network-based installation. Having a DVD or CD in the drive might cause
unexpected errors.
Ensure that you have boot media available as described in Chapter 20, Booting (IPL) the Installer.
T he Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation medium must be available for either a network installation (via
NFS, FT P, HT T P, or HT T PS) or installation via local storage. Use the following steps if you are
performing an NFS, FT P, HT T P, or HT T PS installation.
T he NFS, FT P, HT T P, or HT T PS server to be used for installation over the network must be a separate,
network-accessible server. T he separate server can be a virtual machine, LPAR, or any other system
(such as a Linux on POWER or x86 system). It must provide the complete contents of the installation
DVD-ROM.
Note
T he public directory used to access the installation files over FT P, NFS, HT T P, or HT T PS is
mapped to local storage on the network server. For example, the local directory
/var/www/inst/rhel6 on the network server can be accessed as
http://network.server.com /inst/rhel6.
In the following examples, the directory on the installation staging server that will contain the
installation files will be specified as /location/of/disk/space. T he directory that will be made
publicly available via FT P, NFS, HT T P, or HT T PS will be specified as
/publicly_available_directory. For example, /location/of/disk/space may be a
directory you create called /var/isos. /publicly_available_directory might be
/var/www/htm l/rhel6, for an HT T P install.
In the following, you will require an ISO image. An ISO image is a file containing an exact copy of the
content of a DVD. T o create an ISO image from a DVD use the following command:
dd if=/dev/dvd of=/path_to_image/name_of_image.iso
where dvd is your DVD drive device, name_of_image is the name you give to the resulting ISO image
file, and path_to_image is the path to the location on your system where the resulting ISO image will be
stored.
T o copy the files from the installation DVD to a Linux instance, which acts as an installation staging
server, continue with either Section 19.1.1, “Preparing for FT P, HT T P, and HT T PS installation” or
Section 19.1.2, “Preparing for an NFS installation”.
19.1.1. Preparing for FT P, HT T P, and HT T PS installation
Extract the files from the ISO image of the installation DVD and place them in a directory that is shared
over FT P, HT T P, or HT T PS.
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Next, make sure that the directory is shared via FT P, HT T P, or HT T PS, and verify client access. T est to
see whether the directory is accessible from the server itself, and then from another machine on the
same subnet to which you will be installing.
19.1.2. Preparing for an NFS installation
For NFS installation it is not necessary to extract all the files from the ISO image. It is sufficient to make
the ISO image itself, the install.im g file, and optionally the product.im g file available on the
network server via NFS.
1. T ransfer the ISO image to the NFS exported directory. On a Linux system, run:
mv /path_to_image/name_of_image.iso /publicly_available_directory/
where path_to_image is the path to the ISO image file, name_of_image is the name of the ISO
image file, and publicly_available_directory is a directory that is available over NFS or that
you intend to make available over NFS.
2. Use a SHA256 checksum program to verify that the ISO image that you copied is intact. Many
SHA256 checksum programs are available for various operating systems. On a Linux system, run:
$ sha256sum name_of_image.iso
where name_of_image is the name of the ISO image file. T he SHA256 checksum program
displays a string of 64 characters called a hash. Compare this hash to the hash displayed for this
particular image on the Download Software page on the Red Hat Network (refer to Chapter 1,
Obtaining Red Hat Enterprise Linux). T he two hashes should be identical.
3. Copy the im ages/ directory from inside the ISO image to the same directory in which you stored
the ISO image file itself. Enter the following commands:
mount -t iso9660 /path_to_image/name_of_image.iso /mount_point -o loop,ro
cp -pr /mount_point/images /publicly_available_directory/
umount /mount_point
where path_to_image is the path to the ISO image file, name_of_image is the name of the ISO
image file, and mount_point is a mount point on which to mount the image while you copy files
from the image. For example:
mount -t iso9660 /var/isos/RHEL6.iso /mnt/tmp -o loop,ro
cp -pr /mnt/tmp/images /var/isos/
umount /mnt/tmp
T he ISO image file and an im ages/ directory are now present, side-by-side, in the same
directory.
4. Verify that the im ages/ directory contains at least the install.im g file, without which
installation cannot proceed. Optionally, the im ages/ directory should contain the product.im g
file, without which only the packages for a Minim al installation will be available during the
package group selection stage (refer to Section 23.17, “Package Group Selection”).
5. Ensure that an entry for the publicly available directory exists in the /etc/exports file on the
network server so that the directory is available via NFS.
T o export a directory read-only to a specific system, use:
/publicly_available_directory client.ip.address (ro)
T o export a directory read-only to all systems, use:
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 Installation Guide
239
/publicly_available_directory * (ro)
6. On the network server, start the NFS daemon (on a Red Hat Enterprise Linux system, use
/sbin/service nfs start). If NFS is already running, reload the configuration file (on a Red
Hat Enterprise Linux system use /sbin/service nfs reload).
7. Be sure to test the NFS share following the directions in the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Deployment
Guide. Refer to your NFS documentation for details on starting and stopping the NFS server.
Note
anaconda has the ability to test the integrity of the installation media. It works with the DVD, hard
drive ISO, and NFS ISO installation methods. We recommend that you test all installation media
before starting the installation process, and before reporting any installation-related bugs (many
of the bugs reported are actually due to improperly-burned DVDs). T o use this test, type the
following command at the boot: prompt:
linux mediacheck
19.2. Preparing for a Hard Drive Installation
Use this option to install Red Hat Enterprise Linux on hardware systems without a DVD drive and if you
do not want to access installation phase 3 and the package repository over a network.
19.2.1. Accessing Installation Phase 3 and the Package Repository on a Hard Drive
Note
Hard drive installations using DASD or FCP-attached SCSI storage only work from native ext2,
ext3, or ext4 partitions. If you have a file system based on devices other than native ext2, ext3, or
ext4 (particularly a file system based on RAID or LVM partitions) you will not be able to use it as a
source to perform a hard drive installation.
Hard drive installations use an ISO image of the installation DVD (a file that contains an exact copy of
the content of the DVD), and an install.im g file extracted from the ISO image. With these files
present on a hard drive, you can choose Hard drive as the installation source when you boot the
installation program.
Hard drive installations use the following files:
an ISO image of the installation DVD. An ISO image is a file that contains an exact copy of the
content of a DVD.
an install.im g file extracted from the ISO image.
optionally, a product.im g file extracted from the ISO image.
With these files present on a hard drive, you can choose Hard drive as the installation source when
you boot the installation program (refer to Section 22.4, “Installation Method”).
Ensure that you have boot media available as described in Chapter 20, Booting (IPL) the Installer.
T o prepare a DASD or FCP-attached device as an installation source, follow these steps:
24 0
Chapter 19. Preparing for Installation
1. Obtain an ISO image of the Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation DVD (refer to Chapter 1,
Obtaining Red Hat Enterprise Linux). Alternatively, if you have the DVD on physical media, you can
create an image of it with the following command on a Linux system:
dd if=/dev/dvd of=/path_to_image/name_of_image.iso
where dvd is your DVD drive device, name_of_image is the name you give to the resulting ISO
image file, and path_to_image is the path to the location on your system where the resulting ISO
image will be stored.
2. T ransfer the ISO images to the DASD or SCSI device.
T he ISO files must be located on a hard drive that is activated in installation phase 1 (refer to
Chapter 21, Installation Phase 1: Configuring a Network Device) or in installation phase 2 (refer to
Chapter 22, Installation Phase 2: Configuring Language and Installation Source). T his is
automatically possible with DASDs.
For an FCP LUN, you must either boot (IPL) from the same FCP LUN or use the rescue shell
provided by the installation phase 1 menus to manually activate the FCP LUN holding the ISOs as
described in Section 25.2.1, “Dynamically activating an FCP LUN”.
3. Use a SHA256 checksum program to verify that the ISO image that you copied is intact. Many
SHA256 checksum programs are available for various operating systems. On a Linux system, run:
$ sha256sum name_of_image.iso
where name_of_image is the name of the ISO image file. T he SHA256 checksum program
displays a string of 64 characters called a hash. Compare this hash to the hash displayed for this
particular image on the Download Software page on the Red Hat Network (refer to Chapter 1,
Obtaining Red Hat Enterprise Linux). T he two hashes should be identical.
4. Copy the im ages/ directory from inside the ISO image to the same directory in which you stored
the ISO image file itself. Enter the following commands:
mount -t iso9660 /path_to_image/name_of_image.iso /mount_point -o loop,ro
cp -pr /mount_point/images /publicly_available_directory/
umount /mount_point
where path_to_image is the path to the ISO image file, name_of_image is the name of the ISO
image file, and mount_point is a mount point on which to mount the image while you copy files
from the image. For example:
mount -t iso9660 /var/isos/RHEL6.iso /mnt/tmp -o loop,ro
cp -pr /mnt/tmp/images /var/isos/
umount /mnt/tmp
T he ISO image file and an im ages/ directory are now present, side-by-side, in the same
directory.
5. Verify that the im ages/ directory contains at least the install.im g file, without which
installation cannot proceed. Optionally, the im ages/ directory should contain the product.im g
file, without which only the packages for a Minim al installation will be available during the
package group selection stage (refer to Section 23.17, “Package Group Selection”).
Important — content of the images/ directory
install.im g and product.im g must be the only files in the im ages/ directory.
6. Make the DASD or SCSI LUN accessible to the new z/VM guest virtual machine or LPAR, and then
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 Installation Guide
24 1
proceed with installation. (Refer to Chapter 20, Booting (IPL) the Installer) or alternatively with
Section 19.2.1.1, “Preparing for Booting the Installer from a Hard Drive”.
Note — Verifying ISO images
T he Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation program can test the integrity of the installation medium.
It works with the DVD, hard drive ISO, and NFS ISO installation methods. We recommend that you
test all installation media before starting the installation process, and before reporting any
installation-related bugs. T o use this test, add the mediacheck parameter to your parameter file
(refer to Section 26.7, “Miscellaneous parameters”).
19.2.1.1. Preparing for Booting the Installer from a Hard Drive
If you would like to boot (IPL) the installer from a hard drive, in addition to accessing installation phase 3
and the package repository, you can optionally install the zipl boot loader on the same (or a different)
disk. Be aware that zipl only supports one boot record per disk. If you have multiple partitions on a disk,
they all “share” the disk's one boot record.
In the following, assume the hard drive is prepared as described in Section 19.2.1, “Accessing
Installation Phase 3 and the Package Repository on a Hard Drive”, mounted under /m nt, and you do not
need to preserve an existing boot record.
T o prepare a hard drive to boot the installer, install the zipl boot loader on the hard drive by entering the
following command:
zipl -V -t /mnt/ -i /mnt/images/kernel.img -r /mnt/images/initrd.img -p
/mnt/images/generic.prm
For more details on zipl.conf, refer to the chapter on zipl in Linux on System z Device Drivers, Features,
and Commands on Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.
Warning — Accessing a previously-installed operating system
If you have an operating system installed on the disk, and you still plan to access it later on, refer
the chapter on zipl in Linux on System z Device Drivers, Features, and Commands on Red Hat
Enterprise Linux 6 for how to add a new entry in the zipl boot loader (that is, in zipl.conf).
24 2
Chapter 20. Booting (IPL) the Installer
Chapter 20. Booting (IPL) the Installer
T he steps to perform the initial boot (IPL) of the installer depend on the environment (either z/VM or
LPAR) in which Red Hat Enterprise Linux will run. For more information on booting, see the Booting Linux
chapter in Linux on System z Device Drivers, Features, and Commands on Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.
20.1. Installing under z/VM
When installing under z/VM, you can boot from:
the z/VM virtual reader
a DASD or an FCP-attached SCSI device prepared with the zipl boot loader
an FCP-attached SCSI DVD drive
Log on to the z/VM guest virtual machine chosen for the Linux installation. You can use x3270 or c3270
(from the x3270-text package in Red Hat Enterprise Linux) to log in to z/VM from other Linux systems.
Alternatively, use the 3270 terminal emulator on the IBM System z Hardware Management Console
(HMC). If you are working from a machine with a Windows operating system, Jolly Giant
(http://www.jollygiant.com/) offers an SSL-enabled 3270 emulator. A free native Windows port of c3270
called wc3270 also exists.
Note — If your 3270 connection is interrupted
If your 3270 connection is interrupted and you cannot log in again because the previous session
is still active, you can replace the old session with a new one by entering the following command
on the z/VM logon screen:
logon user here
Replace user with the name of the z/VM guest virtual machine. Depending on whether an
external security manager, for example RACF, is used, the logon command might vary.
If you are not already running CMS (single user operating system shipped with z/VM) in your guest, boot
it now by entering the command:
#cp ipl cms
Be sure not to use CMS disks such as your A disk (often device number 0191) as installation targets.
T o find out which disks are in use by CMS use the following query:
query disk
You can use the following CP (z/VM Control Program, which is the z/VM hypervisor) query commands to
find out about the device configuration of your z/VM guest virtual machine:
Query the available main memory, which is called storage in System z terminology. Your guest should
have at least 512 megabytes of main memory.
cp query virtual storage
Query available network devices of type:
osa
OSA (CHPID type OSD, real or virtual (VSWIT CH or GuestLAN type QDIO), both in QDIO
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 Installation Guide
24 3
mode)
hsi
HiperSockets (CHPID type IQD, real or virtual (GuestLAN type Hipers))
lcs
LCS (CHPID type OSE)
For example, to query all of the network device types mentioned above:
cp query virtual osa
Query available DASDs. Only those that are flagged RW for read-write mode can be used as
installation targets:
cp query virtual dasd
Query available FCP channels:
cp query virtual fcp
20.1.1. Using the z/VM Reader
Perform the following steps to boot from the z/VM reader:
1. If necessary, add the device containing the z/VM T CP/IP tools to your CMS disk list. For example:
cp link tcpmaint 592 592
acc 592 fm
Replace fm with any FILEMODE letter.
2. Execute the command:
ftp host
Where host is the hostname or IP address of the FT P server that hosts the boot images
(kernel.im g and initrd.im g).
3. Log in and execute the following commands. Use the (repl option if you are overwriting existing
kernel.im g, initrd.im g, generic.prm , or redhat.exec files:
cd /location/of/install-tree/images/
ascii
get generic.prm (repl
get redhat.exec (repl
locsite fix 80
binary
get kernel.img (repl
get initrd.img (repl
quit
4. Optionally check whether the files were transferred correctly by using the CMS command
filelist to show the received files and their format. It is important that kernel.im g and
initrd.im g have a fixed record length format denoted by F in the Format column and a record
length of 80 in the Lrecl column. For example:
24 4
Chapter 20. Booting (IPL) the Installer
VMUSER FILELIST A0 V 169 Trunc=169 Size=6 Line=1 Col=1 Alt=0
Cmd Filename Filetype Fm Format Lrecl Records Blocks Date Time
REDHAT EXEC B1 V 22 1 1 4/15/10 9:30:40
GENERIC PRM B1 V 44 1 1 4/15/10 9:30:32
INITRD IMG B1 F 80 118545 2316 4/15/10 9:30:25
KERNEL IMG B1 F 80 74541 912 4/15/10 9:30:17
Press PF3 to quit filelist and return to the CMS prompt.
5. Finally execute the REXX script redhat.exec to boot (IPL) the installer:
redhat
20.1.2. Using a prepared DASD
Boot from the prepared DASD and select the zipl boot menu entry referring to the Red Hat Enterprise
Linux installer. Use a command of the following form:
cp ipl DASD device number loadparm boot_entry_number
Replace DASD device number with the device number of the boot device, and boot_entry_number
with the zipl configuration menu for this device. For example:
cp ipl eb1c loadparm 0
20.1.3. Using a prepared FCP-attached SCSI Disk
Perform the following steps to boot from a prepared FCP-attached SCSI disk:
1. Configure the SCSI boot loader of z/VM to access the prepared SCSI disk in the FCP storage area
network. Select the prepared zipl boot menu entry referring to the Red Hat Enterprise Linux
installer. Use a command of the following form:
cp set loaddev portname WWPN lun LUN bootprog boot_entry_number
Replace WWPN with the WWPN of the storage system and LUN with the LUN of the disk. T he 16digit hexadecimal numbers must be split into two pairs of eight digits each. For example:
cp set loaddev portname 50050763 050b073d lun 40204011 00000000 bootprog
0
2. Optionally, confirm your settings with the command:
query loaddev
3. IPL the FCP device connected with the storage system containing the disk with the command:
cp ipl FCP_device
For example:
cp ipl fc00
20.1.4 . Using an FCP-attached SCSI DVD Drive
T his requires a SCSI DVD drive attached to an FCP-to-SCSI bridge which is in turn connected to an FCP
adapter in your System z. T he FCP adapter must be configured and available under z/VM.
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 Installation Guide
24 5
1. Insert your Red Hat Enterprise Linux for System z DVD into the DVD drive.
2. Configure the SCSI boot loader of z/VM to access the DVD drive in the FCP storage area network
and specify 1 for the boot entry on the Red Hat Enterprise Linux for System z DVD. Use a
command of the following form:
cp set loaddev portname WWPN lun FCP_LUN bootprog 1
Replace WWPN with the WWPN of the FCP-to-SCSI bridge and FCP_LUN with the LUN of the DVD
drive. T he 16-digit hexadecimal numbers must be split into two pairs of eight characters each. For
example:
cp set loaddev portname 20010060 eb1c0103 lun 00010000 00000000 bootprog 1
3. Optionally, confirm your settings with the command:
cp query loaddev
4. IPL on the FCP device connected with the FCP-to-SCSI bridge.
cp ipl FCP_device
For example:
cp ipl fc00
20.2. Installing in an LPAR
When installing in a logical partition (LPAR), you can boot from:
an FT P server
the DVD drive of the HMC or SE
a DASD or an FCP-attached SCSI drive prepared with the zipl boot loader
an FCP-attached SCSI DVD drive
Perform these common steps first:
1. Log in on the IBM System z Hardware Management Console (HMC) or the Support Element (SE)
as a user with sufficient privileges to install a new operating system to an LPAR. T he SYSPROG
user is recommended.
2. Select Im ages, then select the LPAR to which you wish to install. Use the arrows in the frame on
the right side to navigate to the CPC Recovery menu.
3. Double-click Operating System Messages to show the text console on which Linux boot
messages will appear and potentially user input will be required. Refer to the chapter on booting
Linux in Linux on System z Device Drivers, Features, and Commands on Red Hat Enterprise Linux
6 and the Hardware Management Console Operations Guide, order number [SC28-6857], for
details.
Continue with the procedure for your installation source.
20.2.1. Using an FT P Server
1. Double-click Load from CD-ROM, DVD, or Server.
2. In the dialog box that follows, select FT P Source, and enter the following information: Host
24 6
Chapter 20. Booting (IPL) the Installer
Computer: Hostname or IP address of the FT P server you wish to install from (for example,
ftp.redhat.com) User ID: Your user name on the FT P server (or anonymous) Password: Your
password (use your email address if you are logging in as anonymous) Account (optional): Leave
this field empty File location (optional): Directory on the FT P server holding Red Hat Enterprise
Linux for System z (for example, /rhel/s390x/)
3. Click Continue.
4. In the dialog that follows, keep the default selection of generic.ins and click Continue.
20.2.2. Using the HMC or SE DVD Drive
1. Double-click Load from CD-ROM, DVD, or Server.
2. In the dialog box that follows, select Local CD-ROM / DVD then click Continue.
3. In the dialog that follows, keep the default selection of generic.ins then click Continue.
20.2.3. Using a prepared DASD
1. Double-click Load.
2. In the dialog box that follows, select Norm al as the Load type.
3. As Load address fill in the device number of the DASD.
4. As Load param eter fill in the number corresponding the zipl boot menu entry that you prepared
for booting the Red Hat Enterprise Linux installer.
5. Click the OK button.
20.2.4 . Using a prepared FCP-attached SCSI Disk
1. Double-click Load.
2. In the dialog box that follows, select SCSI as the Load type.
3. As Load address fill in the device number of the FCP channel connected with the SCSI disk.
4. As World wide port nam e fill in the WWPN of the storage system containing the disk as a 16digit hexadecimal number.
5. As Logical unit num ber fill in the LUN of the disk as a 16-digit hexadecimal number.
6. As Boot program selector fill in the number corresponding the zipl boot menu entry that you
prepared for booting the Red Hat Enterprise Linux installer.
7. Leave the Boot record logical block address as 0 and the Operating system
specific load param eters empty.
8. Click the OK button.
20.2.5. Using an FCP-attached SCSI DVD Drive
T his requires to have a SCSI DVD drive attached to an FCP-to-SCSI bridge which is in turn connected to
an FCP adapter in your System z machine. T he FCP adapter has to be configured and available in your
LPAR.
1. Insert your Red Hat Enterprise Linux for System z DVD into the DVD drive.
2. Double-click Load.
3. In the dialog box that follows, select SCSI as the Load type.
4. As Load address fill in the device number of the FCP channel connected with the FCP-to-SCSI
bridge.
5. As World wide port nam e fill in the WWPN of the FCP-to-SCSI bridge as a 16-digit
hexadecimal number.
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 Installation Guide
6. As Logical unit num ber fill in the LUN of the DVD drive as a 16-digit hexadecimal number.
7. As Boot program selector fill in the number 1 to select the boot entry on the Red Hat
Enterprise Linux for System z DVD.
8. Leave the Boot record logical block address as 0 and the Operating system
specific load param eters empty.
9. Click the OK button.
24 7
24 8
Chapter 21. Installation Phase 1: Configuring a Network D evice
Chapter 21. Installation Phase 1: Configuring a Network Device
After the kernel boot, you will configure one network device using the linuxrc program. T his network
device is needed to complete the installation. If you are installing interactively (with the default parameter
file generic.prm ), you will be asked questions about your network. It is a good idea to have your data
ready in the form of a datasheet or similar. If you want to automate this step, supply the information for
each option in your parameter file or CMS configuration file.
As an example, let us look at how to configure an OSA network adapter under z/VM. When linuxrc
starts, you see the following message:
Starting the zSeries initrd to configure networking. Version is 1.2
Starting udev...
Network devices are sensed and listed. T he list of devices depends on the cio_ignore kernel
parameter used. If no devices are found because of cio_ignore, as in the example below, you can clear
the list of ignored devices. Note that this might take some time and result in a long list when there are
many devices, such as on an LPAR.
Scanning for available network devices...
Autodetection found 0 devices.
Note: There is a device blacklist active! (Clearing might take long)
c) clear blacklist, m) manual config, r) rescan, s) shell:
c
Clearing device blacklist...
Scanning for available network devices...
Autodetection found 14 devices.
NUM CARD CU CHPID TYPE DRIVER IF DEVICES
1 OSA (QDIO) 1731/01 00 OSD qeth eth 0.0.f500,0.0.f501,0.0.f502
2 OSA (QDIO) 1731/01 01 OSD qeth eth 0.0.f503,0.0.f504,0.0.f505
3 OSA (QDIO) 1731/01 02 OSD qeth eth 0.0.1010,0.0.1011,0.0.1012
4 HiperSockets 1731/05 03 IQD qeth hsi 0.0.1013,0.0.1014,0.0.1015
5 OSA (QDIO) 1731/01 04 OSD qeth eth 0.0.1017,0.0.1018,0.0.1019
6 CTC adapter 3088/08 12 ? ctcm ctc 0.0.1000,0.0.1001
7 escon channel 3088/1f 12 ? ctcm ctc 0.0.1002,0.0.1003
8 ficon channel 3088/1e 12 ? ctcm ctc 0.0.1004,0.0.1005
9 OSA (QDIO) 1731/01 76 OSD qeth eth 0.0.f5f0,0.0.f5f1,0.0.f5f2
10 LCS OSA 3088/60 8a OSE lcs eth 0.0.1240,0.0.1241
11 HiperSockets 1731/05 fb IQD qeth hsi 0.0.8024,0.0.8025,0.0.8026
12 HiperSockets 1731/05 fc IQD qeth hsi 0.0.8124,0.0.8125,0.0.8126
13 HiperSockets 1731/05 fd IQD qeth hsi 0.0.8224,0.0.8225,0.0.8226
14 HiperSockets 1731/05 fe IQD qeth hsi 0.0.8324,0.0.8325,0.0.8326
<num>) use config, m) manual config, r) rescan, s) shell:
Enter the number of the configuration you want to use, for example 9. Selecting from the table provides
the installer with information for the type of network device and the device addresses for its
subchannels. Alternatively, you can enter m and proceed to enter the network type (qeth), the read, write,
data channels, and the OSA port. Accept defaults by pressing Enter; under z/VM you might need to
press Enter twice.
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 Installation Guide
24 9
m
* NOTE: To enter default or empty values press enter twice. *
Network type (qeth, lcs, ctc, ? for help). Default is qeth:
qeth
Read,write,data channel (e.g. 0.0.0300,0.0.0301,0.0.0302 or ? for help).
0.0.f5f0,0.0.f5f1,0.0.f5f2
Portname (1..8 characters, or ? for help). Default is no portname:
Relative port number for OSA (0, 1, or ? for help). Default is 0:
Activating network device...
Detected: OSA card in OSD mode, Gigabit Ethernet
T hen questions pertaining to your Linux instance are displayed:
Hostname of your new Linux guest (FQDN e.g. s390.redhat.com or ? for help):
host.subdomain.domain
IPv4 address / IPv6 addr. (e.g. 10.0.0.2 / 2001:0DB8:: or ? for help)
10.0.0.42
IPv4 netmask or CIDR prefix (e.g. 255.255.255.0 or 1..32 or ? for help).
Default is 255.0.0.0:
24
IPv4 address of your default gateway or ? for help:
10.0.0.1
Trying to reach gateway 10.0.0.1...
IPv4 addresses of DNS servers (separated by colons ':' or ? for help):
10.1.2.3:10.3.2.1
Trying to reach DNS servers...
DNS search domains (separated by colons ':' or ? for help):
subdomain.domain:domain
DASD range (e.g. 200-203,205 or ? for help). Default is autoprobing:
eb1c
Activated DASDs:
0.0.eb1c(ECKD) dasda : active, blocksize: 4096, 1803060 blocks, 7043 MB
Important — you must define a DASD
T he installer requires the definition of a DASD. For a SCSI-only installation, enter none. T his
satisfies the requirement for a defined DASD parameter, while resulting in a SCSI-only
environment.
If you make a mistake, the dialog either notices the error and asks you to re-enter the parameter, or you
can go back later to restart the dialog:
250
Chapter 21. Installation Phase 1: Configuring a Network D evice
Incorrect ... (<OPTION-NAME>):
0) redo this parameter, 1) continue, 2) restart dialog, 3) halt, 4) shell
When you restart the dialog, it remembers what you entered before:
Network type
0) default is previous "qeth", 1) new value, ?) help
At the end of the configuration, you see the message Initial configuration com pleted:
Initial configuration completed.
c) continue, p) parm file/configuration, n) network state, r) restart, s)
shell
You can now check your network configuration by entering n:
n
eth0 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 02:00:00:AB:C9:81
inet addr:10.0.0.42 Bcast:10.0.0.255 Mask:255.255.255.0
UP BROADCAST RUNNING MULTICAST MTU:1492 Metric:1
RX packets:64 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
TX packets:4 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
collisions:0 txqueuelen:1000
RX bytes:3334 (3.2 KiB) TX bytes:336 (336.0 b)
lo Link encap:Local Loopback
inet addr:127.0.0.1 Mask:255.0.0.0
UP LOOPBACK RUNNING MTU:16436 Metric:1
RX packets:0 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
TX packets:0 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
collisions:0 txqueuelen:0
RX bytes:0 (0.0 b) TX bytes:0 (0.0 b)
Kernel IP routing table
Destination Gateway Genmask Flags Metric Ref Use Iface
127.0.0.1 0.0.0.0 255.255.255.255 UH 0 0 0 lo
10.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 255.255.255.0 U 0 0 0 eth0
0.0.0.0 10.0.0.1 0.0.0.0 UG 0 0 0 eth0
c) continue, p) parm file/configuration, n) network state, r) restart, s)
shell
If you want to change something, enter r to restart the dialog. T o show the parameters as specified in a
parameter or configuration file or interactively enter p. You can then copy the output from your terminal
and paste it into an editor to save it to disk on your local workstation. You can use the copy as a
template for a parameter or configuration file for future installations:
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 Installation Guide
251
p
NETTYPE=qeth
IPADDR=10.0.0.42
NETMASK=255.255.255.0
GATEWAY=10.0.0.1
HOSTNAME=host.subdomain.domain
SUBCHANNELS=0.0.f5f0,0.0.f5f1,0.0.f5f2
LAYER2=1
MACADDR=02:00:00:AB:C9:81
PORTNAME=OSAPORT
DNS=10.1.2.3:10.3.2.1
SEARCHDNS=subdomain.domain:domain
DASD=eb1c
c) continue, p) parm file/configuration, n) network state, r) restart, s)
shell
Again, to change something, restart the dialog with r. Finally, if all is in order, enter c to continue:
c
Starting sshd to allow login over the network.
Connect now to 10.0.0.42 and log in as user 'install' to start the
installation.
E.g. using: ssh -x [email protected]
For VNC or text mode, disable X11 forwarding (recommended) with 'ssh -x'.
For X11, enable X11 forwarding with 'ssh -X'.
You may log in as the root user to start an interactive shell.
T he preliminary network setup is now complete and the installer starts an SSH daemon. You can log into
your Linux instance over SSH. If you are using RUNKS=1 with kickstart and cmdline mode, linuxrc
automatically starts the loader.
21.1. A Note on Terminals
During the installation, the installation program displays messages on a line-mode terminal. T his is the
HMC Operating System Messages applet if you install under LPAR, or a 3270 terminal if you install
under z/VM.
Linuxrc provides a rescue shell on the line-mode terminal. Press the Enter key (twice under z/VM) to
start the shell. You cannot use full-screen applications such as the vi editor on the line-mode terminal.
Switch to line-mode based editors such as ed, ex, or sed to edit text files if necessary.
Be aware that long-running commands might not be interruptible with the escape sequence Ctrl+C.
Call commands with options that make them return in time voluntarily. T he shell on the 3270 terminal is
available throughout the whole installation process until the point where the system needs to reboot.
Once the shell has been provided, you may exit with an error level of zero to get a new shell instance
replacing the old one, or you may exit with an error level different from zero to force a shutdown of the
installation system.
Connect to the installed system using user root to get a root shell without automatically starting the
installer. For problem determination, you might connect with many ssh sessions.
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Chapter 22. Installation Phase 2: Configuring Language and
Installation Source
Before the graphical installation program starts, you need to configure the language and installation
source.
By default, if you are installing interactively (with the default parameter file generic.prm ) the loader
program to select language and installation source starts in text mode. In your new ssh session, the
following message is displayed:
Welcome to the anaconda install environment 1.2 for zSeries
22.1. Non-interactive Line-Mode Installation
If the cm dline option was specified as boot option in your parameter file (Section 26.6, “Parameters for
kickstart installations”) or in your kickstart file (refer to Section 32.3, “Creating the Kickstart File”, the
loader starts up with line-mode oriented text output. In this mode, all necessary information must be
provided in the kickstart file. T he installer does not allow user interaction and stops if there is
unspecified installation information.
22.2. The Text Mode Installation Program User Interface
Both the loader and later anaconda use a screen-based interface that includes most of the on-screen
widgets commonly found on graphical user interfaces. Figure 22.1, “Installation Program Widgets as
seen in URL Setup”, and Figure 22.2, “Installation Program Widgets as seen in Choose a Language”,
illustrate widgets that appear on screens during the installation process.
Figure 22.1. Installation Program Widgets as seen in URL Setup
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Figure 22.2. Installation Program Widgets as seen in Choose a Language
Here is a list of the most important widgets shown in Figure 22.1, “Installation Program Widgets as seen
in URL Setup” and Figure 22.2, “Installation Program Widgets as seen in Choose a Language”:
Window — Windows (usually referred to as dialogs in this manual) appear on your screen
throughout the installation process. At times, one window may overlay another; in these cases, you
can only interact with the window on top. When you are finished in that window, it disappears,
allowing you to continue working in the window underneath.
Checkbox — Checkboxes allow you to select or deselect a feature. T he box displays either an
asterisk (selected) or a space (unselected). When the cursor is within a checkbox, press Space to
select or deselect a feature.
T ext Input — T ext input lines are regions where you can enter information required by the installation
program. When the cursor rests on a text input line, you may enter and/or edit information on that
line.
T ext Widget — T ext widgets are regions of the screen for the display of text. At times, text widgets
may also contain other widgets, such as checkboxes. If a text widget contains more information than
can be displayed in the space reserved for it, a scroll bar appears; if you position the cursor within
the text widget, you can then use the Up and Down arrow keys to scroll through all the information
available. Your current position is shown on the scroll bar by a # character, which moves up and
down the scroll bar as you scroll.
Scroll Bar — Scroll bars appear on the side or bottom of a window to control which part of a list or
document is currently in the window's frame. T he scroll bar makes it easy to move to any part of a
file.
Button Widget — Button widgets are the primary method of interacting with the installation program.
You progress through the windows of the installation program by navigating these buttons, using the
T ab and Enter keys. Buttons can be selected when they are highlighted.
Cursor — Although not a widget, the cursor is used to select (and interact with) a particular widget.
As the cursor is moved from widget to widget, it may cause the widget to change color, or the cursor
itself may only appear positioned in or next to the widget. In Figure 22.1, “Installation Program
Widgets as seen in URL Setup”, the cursor is positioned on the OK button. Figure 22.2, “Installation
Program Widgets as seen in Choose a Language”, shows the cursor on the Edit button.
22.2.1. Using the Keyboard to Navigate
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Navigation through the installation dialogs is performed through a simple set of keystrokes. T o move the
cursor, use the Left, Right, Up, and Down arrow keys. Use T ab, and Shift-T ab to cycle forward or
backward through each widget on the screen. Along the bottom, most screens display a summary of
available cursor positioning keys.
T o "press" a button, position the cursor over the button (using T ab, for example) and press Space or
Enter. T o select an item from a list of items, move the cursor to the item you wish to select and press
Enter. T o select an item with a checkbox, move the cursor to the checkbox and press Space to select
an item. T o deselect, press Space a second time.
Pressing F12 accepts the current values and proceeds to the next dialog; it is equivalent to pressing the
OK button.
Warning
Unless a dialog box is waiting for your input, do not press any keys during the installation
process (doing so may result in unpredictable behavior).
22.3. Language Selection
Use the arrow keys on your keyboard to select a language to use during the installation process (refer
to Figure 22.3, “Language Selection”). With your selected language highlighted, press the T ab key to
move to the OK button and press the Enter key to confirm your choice. You can automate this choice in
the parameter file with the parameter lang= (refer to Section 26.5, “Loader parameters”) or with the
kickstart command lang (refer to Section 28.4, “Automating the Installation with Kickstart”).
T he language you select here will become the default language for the operating system once it is
installed. Selecting the appropriate language also helps target your time zone configuration later in the
installation. T he installation program tries to define the appropriate time zone based on what you specify
on this screen.
T o add support for additional languages, customize the installation at the package selection stage. For
more information, refer to Section 23.17.2, “ Customizing the Software Selection ”.
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Figure 22.3. Language Selection
Once you select the appropriate language, click Next to continue.
22.4. Installation Method
Use the arrow keys on your keyboard to select an installation method (refer to Figure 22.4, “Installation
Method”). With your selected method highlighted, press the T ab key to move to the OK button and press
the Enter key to confirm your choice.
Figure 22.4 . Installation Method
22.4 .1. Installing from DVD
T o install Red Hat Enterprise Linux from a DVD, place the DVD in your DVD drive and boot your system
from the DVD as described in Section 20.1.4, “ Using an FCP-attached SCSI DVD Drive” for z/VM or
Section 20.2.5, “Using an FCP-attached SCSI DVD Drive” for LPAR.
T he installation program then probes your system and attempts to identify your DVD-ROM drive. It starts
by looking for a SCSI DVD-ROM drive.
Note
T o abort the installation process at this time, reboot your machine and then eject the boot media.
You can safely cancel the installation at any point before the Write changes to disk screen.
Refer to Section 23.16, “Write changes to disk” for more information.
If the DVD drive is found and the driver loaded, the installer presents you with the option to perform a
media check on the DVD. T his takes some time, and you may opt to skip over this step. However, if you
later encounter problems with the installer, you should reboot and perform the media check before
calling for support. From the media check dialog, continue to the next stage of the installation process
(refer to Section 23.5, “Welcome to Red Hat Enterprise Linux”).
22.4 .2. Installing from a Hard Drive
T he Select Partition screen applies only if you are installing from a disk partition (that is, you
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selected Hard Drive in the Installation Method dialog). T his dialog allows you to name the disk
partition and directory from which you are installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux. If you used the repo=hd
boot option, you already specified a partition.
Figure 22.5. Selecting Partition Dialog for Hard Drive Installation
Select the partition containing the ISO files from the list of available partitions. DASD names begin with
/dev/dasd. Each individual drive has its own letter, for example /dev/dasda or /dev/sda. Each
partition on a drive is numbered, for example /dev/dasda1 or /dev/sda1.
For an FCP LUN, you would have to either boot (IPL) from the same FCP LUN or use the rescue shell
provided by the linuxrc menus to manually activate the FCP LUN holding the ISOs as described in
Section 25.2.1, “Dynamically activating an FCP LUN”.
Also specify the Directory holding im ages. Enter the full directory path from the drive that
contains the ISO image files. T he following table shows some examples of how to enter this information:
T able 22.1. Location of ISO images for different partition types
File system
Mount point
Original path to files
Directory to use
ext2, ext3, ext4
/home
/home/user1/RHEL6
/user1/RHEL6
If the ISO images are in the root (top-level) directory of a partition, enter a /. If the ISO images are
located in a subdirectory of a mounted partition, enter the name of the directory holding the ISO images
within that partition. For example, if the partition on which the ISO images is normally mounted as
/hom e/, and the images are in /hom e/new/, you would enter /new/.
Use a leading slash
An entry without a leading slash may cause the installation to fail.
Select OK to continue. Proceed with Chapter 23, Installation Phase 3: Installing using anaconda.
22.4 .3. Performing a Network Installation
T he installation program is network-aware and can use network settings for a number of functions. On
System z, installation phases 2 and 3 take over the network configuration values specified previously
either interactively or by means of a parameter or configuration file in installation phase 1. You can also
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instruct the installation program to consult additional software repositories later in the process.
If you are installing via NFS, proceed to Section 22.4.4, “Installing via NFS”.
If you are installing via Web or FT P, proceed to Section 22.4.5, “Installing via FT P, HT T P, or HT T PS”.
22.4 .4 . Installing via NFS
T he NFS dialog applies only if you selected NFS Image in the Installation Method dialog. If you
used the repo=nfs boot option, you already specified a server and path.
Figure 22.6. NFS Setup Dialog
1. Enter the domain name or IP address of your NFS server in the NFS server nam e field. For
example, if you are installing from a host named eastcoast in the domain exam ple.com , enter
eastcoast.exam ple.com .
2. Enter the name of the exported directory in the Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 directory
field:
If the NFS server is exporting a mirror of the Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation tree, enter
the directory which contains the root of the installation tree. If everything was specified
properly, a message appears indicating that the installation program for Red Hat Enterprise
Linux is running.
If the NFS server is exporting the ISO image of the Red Hat Enterprise Linux DVD, enter the
directory which contains the ISO image.
If you followed the setup described in Section 19.1.2, “Preparing for an NFS installation”, the
exported directory is the one that you specified as publicly_available_directory.
3. Specify any NFS mount options that you require in the NFS m ount options field. Refer to the
man pages for mount and nfs for a comprehensive list of options. If you do not require any mount
options, leave the field empty.
4. Proceed with Chapter 23, Installation Phase 3: Installing using anaconda.
22.4 .5. Installing via FT P, HT T P, or HT T PS
Important — you must specify the protocol
When you provide a URL to an installation source, you must explicitly specify http:// or
https:// or ftp:// as the protocol.
T he URL dialog applies only if you are installing from a FT P, HT T P, or HT T PS server (if you selected
URL in the Installation Method dialog). T his dialog prompts you for information about the FT P,
HT T P, or HT T PS server from which you are installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux. If you used the
repo=ftp or repo=http boot options, you already specified a server and path.
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Enter the name or IP address of the FT P, HT T P, or HT T PS site from which you are installing, and the
name of the directory that contains the /im ages directory for your architecture. For example:
/m irrors/redhat/rhel-6/Server/s390x/
T o install via a secure HT T PS connection, specify https:// as the protocol.
Specify the address of a proxy server, and if necessary, provide a port number, username, and
password. If everything was specified properly, a message box appears indicating that files are being
retrieved from the server.
If your FT P, HT T P, or HT T PS server requires user authentication, specify user and password as part of
the URL as follows:
{ftp|http|https}://<user>:<password>@ <hostnam e>[:<port>]/<directory>/
For example:
http://install:[email protected] nam e.exam ple.com /m irrors/redhat/rhel-6/Server/s390x/
Figure 22.7. URL Setup Dialog
Proceed with Chapter 23, Installation Phase 3: Installing using anaconda.
22.5. Verifying Media
T he DVD offers an option to verify the integrity of the media. Recording errors sometimes occur while
producing DVD media. An error in the data for package chosen in the installation program can cause the
installation to abort. T o minimize the chances of data errors affecting the installation, verify the media
before installing.
If the verification succeeds, the installation process proceeds normally. If the process fails, create a new
DVD using the ISO image you downloaded earlier.
22.6. Retrieving Phase 3 of the Installation Program
T he loader then retrieves phase 3 of the installation program from the network into its RAM disk. T his
may take some time.
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Figure 22.8. Retrieving phase 3 of the installation program
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Chapter 23. Installation Phase 3: Installing using anaconda
T his chapter describes an installation using the graphical user interface of anaconda.
23.1. The Non-interactive Line-Mode Text Installation Program
Output
If the cm dline option was specified as boot option in your parameter file (Refer to Section 26.6,
“Parameters for kickstart installations”) or in your kickstart file (refer to Chapter 32, Kickstart
Installations), anaconda starts with line-mode oriented text output. In this mode, all necessary
information must be provided in the kickstart file. T he installer will not allow user interaction and stops if
there is unspecified installation information.
23.2. The Text Mode Installation Program User Interface
While text mode installations are not explicitly documented, those using the text mode installation
program can easily follow the GUI installation instructions. However, because text mode presents you
with a simpler, more streamlined installation process, certain options that are available in graphical mode
are not also available in text mode. T hese differences are noted in the description of the installation
process in this guide, and include:
Interactively activating FCP LUNs
configuring advanced storage methods such as LVM, RAID, FCoE, zFCP, and iSCSI.
customizing the partition layout
customizing the bootloader layout
selecting packages during installation
configuring the installed system with firstboot
23.3. The Graphical Installation Program User Interface
If you have used a graphical user interface (GUI) before, you are already familiar with this process; use
your mouse to navigate the screens, click buttons, or enter text fields.
You can also navigate through the installation using the keyboard. T he T ab key allows you to move
around the screen, the Up and Down arrow keys to scroll through lists, + and - keys expand and
collapse lists, while Space and Enter selects or removes from selection a highlighted item. You can
also use the Alt+X key command combination as a way of clicking on buttons or making other screen
selections, where X is replaced with any underlined letter appearing within that screen.
23.4. Configure the Install Terminal
If you logged in with ssh and X11 forwarding, anaconda starts immediately with its graphical user
interface.
If you did not set the display= variable and do not use X11 forwarding, anaconda gives you the choice
of starting VNC or text mode.
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Figure 23.1. Choosing VNC or text mode
If you choose VNC, you will be asked for a password or you can choose to use VNC without a password.
If you use a password, make a note of the password for future reference. T he VNC server then starts.
Figure 23.2. T he VNC server starts
Now open a connection to the IP address of your z/VM guest virtual machine using a VNC client.
Authenticate to the VNC server with the previously entered password.
23.5. Welcome to Red Hat Enterprise Linux
T he Welcom e screen does not prompt you for any input.
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Click on the Next button to continue.
23.6. Storage Devices
You can install Red Hat Enterprise Linux on a large variety of storage devices. For System z, select
Specialized Storage Devices
Figure 23.3. Storage devices
Basic Storage Devices
T his option does not apply to System z.
Specialized Storage Devices
Select Specialized Storage Devices to install Red Hat Enterprise Linux on the following
storage devices:
Direct access storage devices (DASDs)
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Multipath devices such as FCP-attachable SCSI LUN with multiple paths
Storage area networks (SANs) such as FCP-attachable SCSI LUNs with a single path
Use the Specialized Storage Devices option to configure Internet Small Computer System
Interface (iSCSI) connections. You cannot use the FCoE (Fiber Channel over Ethernet) option
on System z; this option is grayed out.
23.6.1. T he Storage Devices Selection Screen
T he storage devices selection screen displays all storage devices to which anaconda has access.
Devices are grouped under the following tabs:
Basic Devices
Basic storage devices directly connected to the local system, such as hard disk drives and
solid-state drives. On System z, this contains activated DASDs.
Firmware RAID
Storage devices attached to a firmware RAID controller. T his does not apply to System z.
Multipath Devices
Storage devices accessible through more than one path, such as through multiple SCSI
controllers or Fiber Channel ports on the same system.
Important — device serial numbers must be 16 or 32 characters
T he installer only detects multipath storage devices with serial numbers that are 16 or
32 characters in length.
Other SAN Devices
Any other devices available on a storage area network (SAN) such as FCP LUNs attached over
one single path.
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Figure 23.4 . Select storage devices — Basic Devices
Figure 23.5. Select storage devices — Multipath Devices
Figure 23.6. Select storage devices — Other SAN Devices
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T he storage devices selection screen also contains a Search tab that allows you to filter storage
devices either by their World Wide Identifier (WWID) or by the port, target, or logical unit number (LUN) at
which they are accessed.
Figure 23.7. T he Storage Devices Search T ab
T he tab contains a drop-down menu to select searching by port, target, WWID, or LUN (with
corresponding text boxes for these values). Searching by WWID or LUN requires additional values in the
corresponding text box.
Each tab presents a list of devices detected by anaconda, with information about the device to help you
to identify it. A small drop-down menu marked with an icon is located to the right of the column headings.
T his menu allows you to select the types of data presented on each device. For example, the menu on
the Multipath Devices tab allows you to specify any of WWID, Capacity, Vendor, Interconnect,
and Paths to include among the details presented for each device. Reducing or expanding the amount
of information presented might help you to identify particular devices.
Figure 23.8. Selecting Columns
Each device is presented on a separate row, with a checkbox to its left. Click the checkbox to make a
device available during the installation process, or click the radio button at the left of the column
headings to select or deselect all the devices listed in a particular screen. Later in the installation
process, you can choose to install Red Hat Enterprise Linux onto any of the devices selected here, and
can choose to automatically mount any of the other devices selected here as part of the installed
system.
Note that the devices that you select here are not automatically erased by the installation process.
Selecting a device on this screen does not, in itself, place data stored on the device at risk. Note also
that any devices that you do not select here to form part of the installed system can be added to the
system after installation by modifying the /etc/fstab file.
when you have selected the storage devices to make available during installation, click Next and
proceed to Section 23.7, “Setting the Hostname”
23.6.1.1. DASD low-level formatting
Any DASDs used must be low-level formatted. T he installer detects this and lists the DASDs that need
formatting.
If any of the DASDs specified interactively in linuxrc or in a parameter or configuration file are not yet
low-level formatted, the following confirmation dialog appears:
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Figure 23.9. Unformatted DASD Devices Found
T o automatically allow low-level formatting of unformatted online DASDs specify the kickstart command
zerom br. Refer to Chapter 32, Kickstart Installations for more details.
23.6.1.2. Advanced Storage Options
From this screen you can configure an iSCSI (SCSI over T CP/IP) target or FCP LUNs. Refer to
Appendix B, ISCSI disks for an introduction to iSCSI.
Figure 23.10. Advanced Storage Options
23.6.1.2.1. Configure iSCSI parameters
T o use iSCSI storage devices for the installation, anaconda must be able to discover them as iSCSI
targets and be able to create an iSCSI session to access them. Each of these steps might require a
username and password for CHAP (Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol) authentication.
Additionally, you can configure an iSCSI target to authenticate the iSCSI initiator on the system to which
the target is attached (reverse CHAP), both for discovery and for the session. Used together, CHAP and
reverse CHAP are called mutual CHAP or two-way CHAP. Mutual CHAP provides the greatest level of
security for iSCSI connections, particularly if the username and password are different for CHAP
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authentication and reverse CHAP authentication.
Repeat the iSCSI discovery and iSCSI login steps as many times as necessary to add all required iSCSI
storage. However, you cannot change the name of the iSCSI initiator after you attempt discovery for the
first time. T o change the iSCSI initiator name, you must restart the installation.
Procedure 23.1. iSCSI discovery
Use the iSCSI Discovery Details dialog to provide anaconda with the information that it needs to
discover the iSCSI target.
Figure 23.11. T he iSCSI Discovery Details dialog
1. Enter the IP address of the iSCSI target in the T arget IP Address field.
2. Provide a name in the iSCSI Initiator Nam e field for the iSCSI initiator in iSCSI qualified
name (IQN) format.
A valid IQN contains:
the string iqn. (note the period)
a date code that specifies the year and month in which your organization's Internet domain or
subdomain name was registered, represented as four digits for the year, a dash, and two
digits for the month, followed by a period. For example, represent September 2010 as 201009.
your organization's Internet domain or subdomain name, presented in reverse order with the
top-level domain first. For example, represent the subdomain storage.exam ple.com as
com .exam ple.storage
a colon followed by a string that uniquely identifies this particular iSCSI initiator within your
domain or subdomain. For example, :diskarrays-sn-a8675309.
A complete IQN therefore resembles: iqn.2010-09.storage.exam ple.com :diskarrayssn-a8675309, and anaconda pre-populates the iSCSI Initiator Nam e field with a name in
this format to help you with the structure.
For more information on IQNs, refer to 3.2.6. iSCSI Names in RFC 3720 - Internet Small Computer
Systems Interface (iSCSI) available from http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc3720#section-3.2.6 and 1.
iSCSI Names and Addresses in RFC 3721 - Internet Small Computer Systems Interface (iSCSI)
Naming and Discovery available from http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc3721#section-1.
3. Use the drop-down menu to specify the type of authentication to use for iSCSI discovery:
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Figure 23.12. iSCSI discovery authentication
no credentials
CHAP pair
CHAP pair and a reverse pair
4. A. If you selected CHAP pair as the authentication type, provide the username and password for
the iSCSI target in the CHAP Usernam e and CHAP Password fields.
Figure 23.13. CHAP pair
B. If you selected CHAP pair and a reverse pair as the authentication type, provide the
username and password for the iSCSI target in the CHAP Usernam e and CHAP Password
field and the username and password for the iSCSI initiator in the Reverse CHAP Usernam e
and Reverse CHAP Password fields.
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Figure 23.14 . CHAP pair and a reverse pair
5. Click Start Discovery. Anaconda attempts to discover an iSCSI target based on the
information that you provided. If discovery succeeds, the iSCSI Discovered Nodes dialog
presents you with a list of all the iSCSI nodes discovered on the target.
6. Each node is presented with a checkbox beside it. Click the checkboxes to select the nodes to
use for installation.
Figure 23.15. T he iSCSI Discovered Nodes dialog
7. Click Login to initiate an iSCSI session.
Procedure 23.2. Starting an iSCSI session
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Use the iSCSI Nodes Login dialog to provide anaconda with the information that it needs to log into
the nodes on the iSCSI target and start an iSCSI session.
Figure 23.16. T he iSCSI Nodes Login dialog
1. Use the drop-down menu to specify the type of authentication to use for the iSCSI session:
Figure 23.17. iSCSI session authentication
no credentials
CHAP pair
CHAP pair and a reverse pair
Use the credentials from the discovery step
If your environment uses the same type of authentication and same username and password for
iSCSI discovery and for the iSCSI session, select Use the credentials from the discovery
step to reuse these credentials.
2. A. If you selected CHAP pair as the authentication type, provide the username and password for
the iSCSI target in the CHAP Usernam e and CHAP Password fields.
Figure 23.18. CHAP pair
B. If you selected CHAP pair and a reverse pair as the authentication type, provide the
username and password for the iSCSI target in the CHAP Usernam e and CHAP Password
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fields and the username and password for the iSCSI initiator in the Reverse CHAP
Usernam e and Reverse CHAP Password fields.
Figure 23.19. CHAP pair and a reverse pair
3. Click Login. Anaconda attempts to log into the nodes on the iSCSI target based on the
information that you provided. T he iSCSI Login Results dialog presents you with the results.
Figure 23.20. T he iSCSI Login Results dialog
4. Click OK to continue.
23.6.1.2.2. FCP Devices
FCP devices enable IBM System z to use SCSI devices rather than, or in addition to, DASD devices. FCP
devices provide a switched fabric topology that enables System z systems to use SCSI LUNs as disk
devices in addition to traditional DASD devices.
IBM System z requires that any FCP device be entered manually (either in the installation program
interactively, or specified as unique parameter entries in the parameter or CMS configuration file) for the
installation program to activate FCP LUNs. T he values entered here are unique to each site in which
they are set up.
Notes
Interactive creation of an FCP device is only possible in graphical mode. It is not possible to
interactively configure an FCP device in a text-only install.
Each value entered should be verified as correct, as any mistakes made may cause the system not
to operate properly. Use only lower-case letters in hex values.
For more information on these values, refer to the hardware documentation check with the system
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administrator who set up the network for this system.
T o configure a Fiber Channel Protocol SCSI device, select Add ZFCP LUN and click Add Drive. In the
Add FCP device dialog, fill in the details for the 16-bit device number, 64-bit World Wide Port Number
(WWPN) and 64-bit FCP LUN. Click the Add button to connect to the FCP device using this information.
Figure 23.21. Add FCP Device
T he newly added device should then be present and usable in the storage device selection screen on
the Multipath Devices tab, if you have activated more than one path to the same LUN, or on Other
SAN Devices, if you have activated only one path to the LUN.
Important — you must define a DASD
T he installer requires the definition of a DASD. For a SCSI-only installation, enter none as the
parameter interactively during phase 1 of an interactive installation, or add DASD=none in the
parameter or CMS configuration file. T his satisfies the requirement for a defined DASD parameter,
while resulting in a SCSI-only environment.
23.7. Setting the Hostname
Setup prompts you to supply a host name for this computer, either as a fully-qualified domain name
(FQDN) in the format hostname.domainname or as a short host name in the format hostname. Many
networks have a Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) service that automatically supplies
connected systems with a domain name. T o allow the DHCP service to assign the domain name to this
machine, specify the short host name only.
Valid Hostnames
You may give your system any name provided that the full hostname is unique. T he hostname
may include letters, numbers and hyphens.
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Change the default setting localhost.localdomain to a unique hostname for each of your Linux
instances.
Figure 23.22. Setting the hostname
23.7.1. Edit Network Connections
Note
T o change your network configuration after you have completed the installation, use the Network
Administration T ool.
T ype the system -config-network command in a shell prompt to launch the Network
Administration T ool. If you are not root, it prompts you for the root password to continue.
T he Network Administration T ool is now deprecated and will be replaced by
NetworkManager during the lifetime of Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.
Usually, the network connection configured earlier in installation phase 1 does not need to be modified
during the rest of the installation. You cannot add a new connection on System z because the network
subchannels need to be grouped and set online beforehand, and this is currently only done in
installation phase 1. T o change the existing network connection, click the button Configure Network.
T he Network Connections dialog appears that allows you to configure network connections for the
system, not all of which are relevant to System z.
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Figure 23.23. Network Connections
All network connections on System z are listed in the Wired tab. By default this contains the connection
configured earlier in installation phase 1 and is either eth0 (OSA, LCS), or hsi0 (HiperSockets). Note
that on System z you cannot add a new connection here. T o modify an existing connection, select a row
in the list and click the Edit button. A dialog box appears with a set of tabs appropriate to wired
connections, as described below.
T he most important tabs on System z are Wired and IPv4 Settings.
When you have finished editing network settings, click Apply to save the new configuration. If you
reconfigured a device that was already active during installation, you must restart the device to use the
new configuration — refer to Section 9.7.1.6, “Restart a network device”.
23.7.1.1. Options common to all types of connection
Certain configuration options are common to all connection types.
Specify a name for the connection in the Connection nam e name field.
Select Start autom atically to start the connection automatically when the system boots.
When NetworkManager runs on an installed system, the Available to all users option controls
whether a network configuration is available system-wide or not. During installation, ensure that
Available to all users remains selected for any network interface that you configure.
23.7.1.2. T he Wired tab
Use the Wired tab to specify or change the media access control (MAC) address for the network
adapter, and either set the maximum transmission unit (MT U, in bytes) that can pass through the
interface.
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Figure 23.24 . T he Wired tab
23.7.1.3. T he 802.1x Security tab
Use the 802.1x Security tab to configure 802.1X port-based network access control (PNAC). Select
Use 802.1X security for this connection to enable access control, then specify details of
your network. T he configuration options include:
Authentication
Choose one of the following methods of authentication:
T LS for Transport Layer Security
T unneled T LS for Tunneled Transport Layer Security, otherwise known as T T LS, or EAPT T LS
Protected EAP (PEAP) for Protected Extensible Authentication Protocol
Identity
Provide the identity of this server.
User certificate
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Browse to a personal X.509 certificate file encoded with Distinguished Encoding Rules (DER) or
Privacy Enhanced Mail (PEM).
CA certificate
Browse to a X.509 certificate authority certificate file encoded with Distinguished Encoding Rules
(DER) or Privacy Enhanced Mail (PEM).
Private key
Browse to a private key file encoded with Distinguished Encoding Rules (DER), Privacy
Enhanced Mail (PEM), or the Personal Information Exchange Syntax Standard (PKCS#12).
Private key password
T he password for the private key specified in the Private key field. Select Show password
to make the password visible as you type it.
Figure 23.25. T he 802.1x Security tab
23.7.1.4 . T he IPv4 Settings tab
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Use the IPv4 Settings tab tab to configure the IPv4 parameters for the previously selected network
connection.
T he address, netmask, gateway, DNS servers and DNS search suffix for an IPv4 connection were
configured during installation phase 1 or reflect the following parameters in the parameter file or
configuration file: IPADDR, NETMASK, GATEWAY, DNS, SEARCHDNS (Refer to Section 26.3, “Installation
network parameters”).
Use the Method drop-down menu to specify which settings the system should attempt to obtain from a
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) service running on the network. Choose from the following
options:
Autom atic (DHCP)
IPv4 parameters are configured by the DHCP service on the network.
Autom atic (DHCP) addresses only
T he IPv4 address, netmask, and gateway address are configured by the DHCP service on the
network, but DNS servers and search domains must be configured manually.
Manual
IPv4 parameters are configured manually for a static configuration.
Link-Local Only
A link-local address in the 169.254/16 range is assigned to the interface.
Shared to other com puters
T he system is configured to provide network access to other computers. T he interface is
assigned an address in the 10.42.x.1/24 range, a DHCP server and DNS server are started,
and the interface is connected to the default network connection on the system with network
address translation (NAT ).
Disabled
IPv4 is disabled for this connection.
If you selected a method that requires you to supply manual parameters, enter details of the IP address
for this interface, the netmask, and the gateway in the Addresses field. Use the Add and Delete
buttons to add or remove addresses. Enter a comma-separated list of DNS servers in the DNS
servers field, and a comma-separated list of domains in the Search dom ains field for any domains
that you want to include in name server lookups.
Optionally, enter a name for this network connection in the DHCP client ID field. T his name must be
unique on the subnet. When you assign a meaningful DHCP client ID to a connection, it is easy to
identify this connection when troubleshooting network problems.
Deselect the Require IPv4 addressing for this connection to com plete check box to
allow the system to make this connection on an IPv6-enabled network if IPv4 configuration fails but IPv6
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configuration succeeds.
Figure 23.26. T he IPv4 Settings tab
23.7.1.4 .1. Editing IPv4 routes
Red Hat Enterprise Linux configures a number of routes automatically based on the IP addresses of a
device. T o edit additional routes, click the Routes button. T he Editing IPv4 routes dialog appears.
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Figure 23.27. T he Editing IPv4 Routes dialog
Click Add to add the IP address, netmask, gateway address, and metric for a new static route.
Select Ignore autom atically obtained routes to make the interface use only the routes
specified for it here.
Select Use this connection only for resources on its network to restrict connections
only to the local network.
23.7.1.5. T he IPv6 Settings tab
Use the IPv6 Settings tab tab to configure the IPv6 parameters for the previously selected network
connection.
Use the Method drop-down menu to specify which settings the system should attempt to obtain from a
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) service running on the network. Choose from the following
options:
Ignore
IPv6 is ignored for this connection.
Autom atic
NetworkManager uses router advertisement (RA) to create an automatic, stateless
configuration.
Autom atic, addresses only
NetworkManager uses RA to create an automatic, stateless configuration, but DNS servers
and search domains are ignored and must be configured manually.
Autom atic, DHCP only
NetworkManager does not use RA, but requests information from DHCPv6 directly to create a
stateful configuration.
Manual
IPv6 parameters are configured manually for a static configuration.
Link-Local Only
A link-local address with the fe80::/10 prefix is assigned to the interface.
If you selected a method that requires you to supply manual parameters, enter details of the IP address
for this interface, the netmask, and the gateway in the Addresses field. Use the Add and Delete
buttons to add or remove addresses. Enter a comma-separated list of DNS servers in the DNS
servers field, and a comma-separated list of domains in the Search dom ains field for any domains
that you want to include in name server lookups.
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Optionally, enter a name for this network connection in the DHCP client ID field. T his name must be
unique on the subnet. When you assign a meaningful DHCP client ID to a connection, it is easy to
identify this connection when troubleshooting network problems.
Deselect the Require IPv6 addressing for this connection to com plete check box to
allow the system to make this connection on an IPv4-enabled network if IPv6 configuration fails but IPv4
configuration succeeds.
Figure 23.28. T he IPv6 Settings tab
23.7.1.5.1. Editing IPv6 routes
Red Hat Enterprise Linux configures a number of routes automatically based on the IP addresses of a
device. T o edit additional routes, click the Routes button. T he Editing IPv6 routes dialog appears.
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Figure 23.29. T he Editing IPv6 Routes dialog
Click Add to add the IP address, netmask, gateway address, and metric for a new static route.
Select Use this connection only for resources on its network to restrict connections
only to the local network.
23.7.1.6. Restart a network device
If you reconfigured a network that was already in use during installation, you must disconnect and
reconnect the device in anaconda for the changes to take effect. Anaconda uses interface
configuration (ifcfg) files to communicate with NetworkManager. A device becomes disconnected when
its ifcfg file is removed, and becomes reconnected when its ifcfg file is restored, as long as
ONBOOT =yes is set. Refer to the Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 Deployment Guide available from
https://access.redhat.com/knowledge/docs/ for more information about interface configuration files.
1. Press Ctrl+Alt+F2 to switch to virtual terminal tty2.
2. Move the interface configuration file to a temporary location:
mv /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-device_name /tmp
where device_name is the device that you just reconfigured. For example, ifcfg-eth0 is the
ifcfg file for eth0.
T he device is now disconnected in anaconda.
3. Open the interface configuration file in the vi editor:
vi /tmp/ifcfg-device_name
4. Verify that the interface configuration file contains the line ONBOOT =yes. If the file does not
already contain the line, add it now and save the file.
5. Exit the vi editor.
6. Move the interface configuration file back to the /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/
directory:
mv /tmp/ifcfg-device_name /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/
T he device is now reconnected in anaconda.
7. Press Ctrl+Alt+F6 to return to anaconda.
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23.8. Time Zone Configuration
Set your time zone by selecting the city closest to your computer's physical location. Click on the map to
zoom in to a particular geographical region of the world.
Specify a time zone even if you plan to use NT P (Network T ime Protocol) to maintain the accuracy of the
system clock.
From here there are two ways for you to select your time zone:
Using your mouse, click on the interactive map to select a specific city (represented by a yellow dot).
A red X appears indicating your selection.
You can also scroll through the list at the bottom of the screen to select your time zone. Using your
mouse, click on a location to highlight your selection.
Figure 23.30. Configuring the T ime Z one
Select System clock uses UT C. T he system clock is a piece of hardware on your computer system.
Red Hat Enterprise Linux uses the timezone setting to determine the offset between the local time and
UT C on the system clock. T his behavior is standard for systems that use UNIX, Linux, and similar
operating systems.
Click Next to proceed.
Note
T o change your time zone configuration after you have completed the installation, use the T ime
and Date Properties T ool.
T ype the system -config-date command in a shell prompt to launch the T ime and Date
Properties T ool. If you are not root, it prompts you for the root password to continue.
T o run the T ime and Date Properties T ool as a text-based application, use the command
tim econfig.
23.9. Set the Root Password
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Setting up a root account and password is one of the most important steps during your installation. T he
root account is used to install packages, upgrade RPMs, and perform most system maintenance.
Logging in as root gives you complete control over your system.
Note
T he root user (also known as the superuser) has complete access to the entire system; for this
reason, logging in as the root user is best done only to perform system maintenance or
administration.
Figure 23.31. Root Password
Use the root account only for system administration. Create a non-root account for your general use and
use the su command to change to root only when you need to perform tasks that require superuser
authorization. T hese basic rules minimize the chances of a typo or an incorrect command doing damage
to your system.
Note
T o become root, type su - at the shell prompt in a terminal window and then press Enter. T hen,
enter the root password and press Enter.
T he installation program prompts you to set a root password[10 ] for your system. . You cannot proceed
to the next stage of the installation process without entering a root password.
T he root password must be at least six characters long; the password you type is not echoed to the
screen. You must enter the password twice; if the two passwords do not match, the installation program
asks you to enter them again.
You should make the root password something you can remember, but not something that is easy for
someone else to guess. Your name, your phone number, qwerty, password, root, 123456, and anteater
are all examples of bad passwords. Good passwords mix numerals with upper and lower case letters
and do not contain dictionary words: Aard387vark or 420BMttNT, for example. Remember that the
password is case-sensitive. If you write down your password, keep it in a secure place. However, it is
recommended that you do not write down this or any password you create.
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Choose your own password
Do not use one of the example passwords offered in this manual. Using one of these passwords
could be considered a security risk.
T o change your root password after you have completed the installation, use the Root Password T ool.
T ype the system -config-users command in a shell prompt to launch the User Manager, a powerful
user management and configuration tool. If you are not root, it prompts you for the root password to
continue.
Enter the root password into the Root Password field. Red Hat Enterprise Linux displays the
characters as asterisks for security. T ype the same password into the Confirm field to ensure it is set
correctly. After you set the root password, select Next to proceed.
23.10. Assign Storage Devices
If you selected more than one storage device on the storage devices selection screen (refer to
Section 23.6, “Storage Devices”), anaconda asks you to select which of these devices should be
available for installation of the operating system, and which should only be attached to the file system for
data storage.
During installation, the devices that you identify here as being for data storage only are mounted as part
of the file system, but are not partitioned or formatted.
Figure 23.32. Assign storage devices
T he screen is split into two panes. T he left pane contains a list of devices to be used for data storage
only. T he right pane contains a list of devices that are to be available for installation of the operating
system.
Each list contains information about the devices to help you to identify them. A small drop-down menu
marked with an icon is located to the right of the column headings. T his menu allows you to select the
types of data presented on each device. Reducing or expanding the amount of information presented
might help you to identify particular devices.
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Move a device from one list to the other by clicking on the device, then clicking either the button labeled
with a left-pointing arrow to move it to the list of data storage devices or the button labeled with a rightpointing arrow to move it to the list of devices available for installation of the operating system.
T he list of devices available as installation targets also includes a radio button beside each device. On
platforms other than System z, this radio button is used to specify the device to which you want to install
the boot loader. On System z this choice does not have any effect. T he zipl boot loader will be installed
on the disk that contains the /boot directory, which is determined later on during partitioning.
When you have finished identifying devices to be used for installation, click Next to continue.
23.11. Initializing the Hard Disk
If no readable partition tables are found on existing hard disks, the installation program asks to initialize
the hard disk. T his operation makes any existing data on the hard disk unreadable. If your system has a
brand new hard disk with no operating system installed, or you have removed all partitions on the hard
disk, click Re-initialize drive.
T he installation program presents you with a separate dialog for each disk on which it cannot read a
valid partition table. Click the Ignore all button or Re-initialize all button to apply the same
answer to all devices.
Figure 23.33. Warning screen – initializing DASD
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Figure 23.34 . Warning screen – initializing FCP LUN
Certain RAID systems or other nonstandard configurations may be unreadable to the installation
program and the prompt to initialize the hard disk may appear. T he installation program responds to the
physical disk structures it is able to detect.
T o enable automatic initializing of hard disks for which it turns out to be necessary, use the kickstart
command clearpart --initlabel (refer to Chapter 32, Kickstart Installations)
Detach Unneeded Disks
If you have a nonstandard disk configuration that can be detached during installation and
detected and configured afterward, power off the system, detach it, and restart the installation.
23.12. Upgrading an Existing System
Red Hat does not support upgrades from earlier major versions
Red Hat does not support in-place upgrades between any major versions of Red Hat Enterprise
Linux. A major version is denoted by a whole number version change. For example, Red Hat
Enterprise Linux 5 and Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 are both major versions of Red Hat Enterprise
Linux.
In-place upgrades across major releases do not preserve all system settings, services or custom
configurations. Consequently, Red Hat strongly recommends fresh installations when upgrading
from one major version to another.
T he installation system automatically detects any existing installation of Red Hat Enterprise Linux. T he
upgrade process updates the existing system software with new versions, but does not remove any
data from users' home directories. T he existing partition structure on your hard drives does not change.
Your system configuration changes only if a package upgrade demands it. Most package upgrades do
not change system configuration, but rather install an additional configuration file for you to examine
later.
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Note that the installation medium that you are using might not contain all the software packages that you
need to upgrade your computer.
Manually Installed Software
Software you have installed manually on your existing Red Hat Enterprise Linux system may
behave differently after an upgrade. You may need to manually reinstall or recompile this software
after an upgrade to ensure it performs correctly on the updated system.
23.12.1. Upgrading Using the Installer
Installations are Recommended
In general, Red Hat recommends that you keep user data on a separate /hom e partition and
perform a fresh installation. For more information on partitions and how to set them up, refer to
Section 9.13, “Disk Partitioning Setup”.
If you choose to upgrade your system using the installation program, any software not provided by Red
Hat Enterprise Linux that conflicts with Red Hat Enterprise Linux software is overwritten. Before you
begin an upgrade this way, make a list of your system's current packages for later reference:
rpm -qa --qf '%{NAME} %{VERSION}-%{RELEASE} %{ARCH}\n' > ~/old-pkglist.txt
After installation, consult this list to discover which packages you may need to rebuild or retrieve from
sources other than Red Hat.
Next, make a backup of any system configuration data:
su -c 'tar czf /tmp/etc-`date +%F`.tar.gz /etc'
su -c 'mv /tmp/etc-*.tar.gz /home'
Make a complete backup of any important data before performing an upgrade. Important data may
include the contents of your entire /hom e directory as well as content from services such as an Apache,
FT P, or SQL server, or a source code management system. Although upgrades are not destructive, if
you perform one improperly there is a small possibility of data loss.
Storing Backups
Note that the above examples store backup materials in a /hom e directory. If your /hom e
directory is not a separate partition, you should not follow these examples verbatim! Store your
backups on another device such as CD or DVD discs or an external hard disk.
For more information on completing the upgrade process later, refer to Section 35.2, “Finishing an
Upgrade”.
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Warning — Back up your data
It is always a good idea to back up any data that you have on your systems. For example, if you
are upgrading or creating a dual-boot system, you should back up any data you wish to keep on
your storage devices. Mistakes do happen and can result in the loss of all your data.
Important — Installing in text mode
If you install Red Hat Enterprise Linux in text mode, you can only use the default partitioning
schemes described in this section. You cannot add or remove partitions or file systems beyond
those that the installer automatically adds or removes. If you require a customized layout at
installation time, you should perform a graphical installation over a VNC connection or a kickstart
installation.
Furthermore, advanced options such as LVM, encrypted filesystems, and resizable filesystems
are available only in graphical mode and kickstart.
Partitioning allows you to divide your storage devices into isolated sections, where each section
behaves as a separate Linux device. Partitioning is particularly useful if you run multiple operating
systems, or wish to enforce a logical or functional distinction between your storage partitions (such as a
/hom e partition that persistently contains user information).
Figure 23.35. Disk Partitioning Setup
On this screen you can choose to create the default partition layout in one of four different ways, or
choose to partition storage devices manually to create a custom layout.
T he first four options allow you to perform an automated installation without having to partition your
storage devices yourself. If you do not feel comfortable with partitioning your system, choose one of
these options and let the installation program partition the storage devices for you. Depending on the
option that you choose, you can still control what data (if any) is removed from the system.
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Automatic partitions cannot be encrypted on System z
T o encrypt partitions, you will need to select the Create Custom Layout option. Partitions
created with one of the four automated options cannot be encrypted.
Your options are:
Use All Space
Select this option to remove all partitions on your storage drives (this includes partitions
created by other operating systems such as z/VM or z/OS).
Warning
If you select this option, all data on the selected DASD and SCSI storage devices is
removed by the installation program.
Replace Existing Linux System(s)
Select this option to remove only Linux partitions (partitions created from a previous Linux
installation). T his does not remove other partitions you may have on your storage devices
(such as z/VM or z/OS partitions).
Shrink Current System
Select this option to resize your current data and partitions manually and install a default Red
Hat Enterprise Linux layout in the space that is freed.
Warning
If you shrink partitions on which other operating systems are installed, you might not be
able to use those operating systems. Although this partitioning option does not destroy
data, operating systems typically require some free space in their partitions. Before you
resize a partition that holds an operating system that you might want to use again, find
out how much space you need to leave free.
Use Free Space
Select this option to retain your current data and partitions and install Red Hat Enterprise Linux
in the unused space available on the storage drives. Ensure that there is sufficient space
available on the storage drives before you select this option — refer to Section 18.1, “PreInstallation”.
Create Custom Layout
Select this option to partition storage devices manually and create customized layouts. Refer to
Section 23.15, “ Creating a Custom Layout or Modifying the Default Layout ”
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Choose your preferred partitioning method by clicking the radio button to the left of its description in the
dialog box.
Select Encrypt system to encrypt all partitions except the /boot partition. Refer to Appendix C, Disk
Encryption for information on encryption.
T o review and make any necessary changes to the partitions created by automatic partitioning, select
the Review option. After selecting Review and clicking Next to move forward, the partitions created for
you by anaconda appear. You can make modifications to these partitions if they do not meet your
needs.
Important — Mixing multipath and non-multipath devices
When you install Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 on a system with multipath and non-multipath
storage devices, the automatic partitioning layout in the installer might create volume groups that
contain a mix of multipath and non-multipath devices. T his defeats the purpose of multipath
storage.
We advise that you select only multipath or only non-multipath devices on the disk selection
screen that appears after selecting automatic partitioning. Alternatively, select custom partitioning.
Click Next once you have made your selections to proceed.
23.14. Encrypt Partitions
If you selected the Encrypt System option, the installer prompts you for a passphrase with which to
encrypt the partitions on the system.
Partitions are encrypted using the Linux Unified Key Setup — refer to Appendix C, Disk Encryption for
more information.
Figure 23.36. Enter passphrase for encrypted partition
Choose a passphrase and type it into each of the two fields in the dialog box. You must provide this
passphrase every time that the system boots.
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Warning — Do not lose this passphrase
If you lose this passphrase, any encrypted partitions and the data on them will become completely
inaccessible. T here is no way to recover a lost passphrase.
Note that if you perform a kickstart installation of Red Hat Enterprise Linux, you can save
encryption passphrases and create backup encryption passphrases during installation. Refer to
Section C.3.2, “Saving Passphrases” and Section C.3.3, “Creating and Saving Backup
Passphrases”.
23.15. Creating a Custom Layout or Modifying the Default Layout
If you chose one of the four automatic partitioning options and did not select Review, skip ahead to
Section 23.16, “Write changes to disk”.
If you chose to create a custom layout, you must tell the installation program where to install Red Hat
Enterprise Linux. T his is done by defining mount points for one or more disk partitions in which Red Hat
Enterprise Linux is installed.
If you have not yet planned how to set up your partitions, refer to Appendix A, An Introduction to Disk
Partitions and Section 23.15.5, “Recommended Partitioning Scheme”. At a bare minimum, you need an
appropriately-sized root partition, and usually a swap partition appropriate to the amount of RAM you
have on the system.
Anaconda can handle the partitioning requirements for a typical installation.
Figure 23.37. Partitioning on System z
T he partitioning screen contains two panes. T he top pane contains a graphical representation of the
DASD, FCP LUN, or logical volume selected in the lower pane.
Above the display, you can review the Drive name (such as /dev/dasda), the Geom (which shows the
hard disk's geometry and consists of three numbers representing the number of cylinders, heads, and
sectors as reported by the hard disk), and the Model of the hard drive as detected by the installation
program.
Using your mouse, click once to highlight a particular field in the graphical display. Double-click to edit an
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existing partition or to create a partition out of existing free space.
T he lower pane contains a list of all DASDs, FCP LUNs, and logical volumes to be used during
installation, as specified earlier in the installation process — refer to Section 23.10, “ Assign Storage
Devices ”. Note that if you specified a CMSDASD in your parameter file, DASD names begin at dasdb;
dasda was assigned to the CMSDASD and this name is no longer available at this point in the
installation process.
Devices are grouped by type. Click on the small triangles to the left of each device type to view or hide
devices of that type.
Anaconda displays several details for each device listed:
Device
the name of the device, logical volume, or partition
Size (MB)
the size of the device, logical volume, or partition (in MB)
Mount Point/RAID/Volume
the mount point (location within a file system) on which a partition is to be mounted, or the name
of the RAID or logical volume group of which it is a part
T ype
the type of partition. If the partition is a standard partition, this field displays the type of file
system on the partition (for example, ext4). Otherwise, it indicates that the partition is a
physical volum e (LVM), or part of a software RAID
Format
A check mark in this column indicates that the partition will be formatted during installation.
Beneath the lower pane are four buttons: Create, Edit, Delete, and Reset.
Select a device or partition by clicking on it in either the graphical representation in the upper pane of in
the list in the lower pane, then click one of the four buttons to carry out the following actions:
Create
create a new partition, logical volume, or software RAID
Edit
change an existing partition, logical volume, or software RAID. Note that you can only shrink
partitions with the Resize button, not enlarge partitions.
Delete
remove a partition, logical volume, or software RAID
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Reset
undo all changes made in this screen
Finally, note which device is associated with /boot. T he kernel files and bootloader sector will be
associated with this device. T he first DASD or SCSI LUN will be used, and the device number will be
used when re-IPLing the post-installed system.
Note — device names and types are illustrative only
T he screenshots in the following subsections of this manual sometimes show hard disk types
and device names that do not appear as such on System z. T hese screenshots are only
intended to illustrate the installation interface itself and apply equally to DASDs and FCP-attached
SCSI disks.
23.15.1. Create Storage
T he Create Storage dialog allows you to create new storage partitions, logical volumes, and
software RAIDs. Anaconda presents options as available or unavailable depending on the storage
already present on the system or configured to transfer to the system.
Figure 23.38. Creating Storage
Options are grouped under Create Partition, Create Software RAID and Create LVM as
follows:
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Create Partition
Refer to Section 23.15.2, “Adding Partitions” for details of the Add Partition dialog.
Standard Partition — create a standard disk partition (as described in Appendix A, An
Introduction to Disk Partitions) in unallocated space.
Create Software RAID
On System z, the storage subsystem uses RAID transparently, and you do not need to set it up.
Refer to Section 23.15.3, “ Create Software RAID ” for more detail.
RAID Partition — create a partition in unallocated space to form part of a software RAID device.
T o form a software RAID device, two or more RAID partitions must be available on the system.
RAID Device — combine two or more RAID partitions into a software RAID device. When you
choose this option, you can specify the type of RAID device to create (the RAID level). T his option is
only available when two or more RAID partitions are available on the system.
Create LVM Logical Volume
Refer to Section 23.15.4, “ Create LVM Logical Volume ” for more detail.
LVM Physical Volum e — create a physical volume in unallocated space.
LVM Volum e Group — create a volume group from one or more physical volumes. T his option is
only available when at least one physical volume is available on the system.
LVM Logical Volum e — create a logical volume on a volume group. T his option is only available
when at least one volume group is available on the system.
23.15.2. Adding Partitions
T o add a new partition, select the Create button. A dialog box appears (refer to Figure 23.39, “Creating
a New Partition”).
Note
You must dedicate at least one partition for this installation, and optionally more. For more
information, refer to Appendix A, An Introduction to Disk Partitions.
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Figure 23.39. Creating a New Partition
Mount Point: Enter the partition's mount point. For example, if this partition should be the root
partition, enter /; enter /boot for the /boot partition, and so on. You can also use the pull-down
menu to choose the correct mount point for your partition. For a swap partition the mount point should
not be set — setting the filesystem type to swap is sufficient.
File System T ype: Using the pull-down menu, select the appropriate file system type for this
partition. For more information on file system types, refer to Section 9.15.2.1, “File System T ypes”.
Allowable Drives: T his field contains a list of the hard disks installed on your system. If a hard
disk's box is highlighted, then a desired partition can be created on that hard disk. If the box is not
checked, then the partition will never be created on that hard disk. By using different checkbox
settings, you can have anaconda place partitions where you need them, or let anaconda decide
where partitions should go.
Size (MB): Enter the size (in megabytes) of the partition. Note, this field starts with 200 MB; unless
changed, only a 200 MB partition will be created.
Additional Size Options: Choose whether to keep this partition at a fixed size, to allow it to
"grow" (fill up the available hard drive space) to a certain point, or to allow it to grow to fill any
remaining hard drive space available.
If you choose Fill all space up to (MB), you must give size constraints in the field to the
right of this option. T his allows you to keep a certain amount of space free on your hard drive for
future use.
Force to be a prim ary partition: Select whether the partition you are creating should be
one of the first four partitions on the hard drive. If unselected, the partition is created as a logical
partition. Refer to Section A.1.3, “Partitions within Partitions — An Overview of Extended Partitions”,
for more information.
Encrypt: Choose whether to encrypt the partition so that the data stored on it cannot be accessed
without a passphrase, even if the storage device is connected to another system. Refer to
Appendix C, Disk Encryption for information on encryption of storage devices. If you select this option,
the installer prompts you to provide a passphrase before it writes the partition to the disk.
OK: Select OK once you are satisfied with the settings and wish to create the partition.
Cancel: Select Cancel if you do not want to create the partition.
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23.15.2.1. File System T ypes
Red Hat Enterprise Linux allows you to create different partition types and file systems. T he following is
a brief description of the different partition types and file systems available, and how they can be used.
Partition types
standard partition — A standard partition can contain a file system or swap space, or it can
provide a container for software RAID or an LVM physical volume.
swap — Swap partitions are used to support virtual memory. In other words, data is written to a swap
partition when there is not enough RAM to store the data your system is processing. Refer to the
Red Hat Enterprise Linux Deployment Guide for additional information.
software RAID — Creating two or more software RAID partitions allows you to create a RAID
device. For more information regarding RAID, refer to the chapter RAID (Redundant Array of
Independent Disks) in the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Deployment Guide.
physical volum e (LVM) — Creating one or more physical volume (LVM) partitions allows you to
create an LVM logical volume. LVM can improve performance when using physical disks. For more
information regarding LVM, refer to the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Deployment Guide.
File systems
ext4 — T he ext4 file system is based on the ext3 file system and features a number of
improvements. T hese include support for larger file systems and larger files, faster and more efficient
allocation of disk space, no limit on the number of subdirectories within a directory, faster file system
checking, and more robust journaling. T he ext4 file system is selected by default and is highly
recommended.
ext3 — T he ext3 file system is based on the ext2 file system and has one main advantage —
journaling. Using a journaling file system reduces time spent recovering a file system after a crash as
there is no need to fsck [11] the file system.
ext2 — An ext2 file system supports standard Unix file types (regular files, directories, symbolic
links, etc). It provides the ability to assign long file names, up to 255 characters.
xfs — XFS is a highly scalable, high-performance file system that supports filesystems up to 16
exabytes (approximately 16 million terabytes), files up to 8 exabytes (approximately 8 million
terabytes) and directory structures containing tens of millions of entries. XFS supports metadata
journaling, which facilitates quicker crash recovery. T he XFS file system can also be defragmented
and resized while mounted and active.
Important — XFS not supported on System z
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 does not support XFS on System z.
vfat — T he VFAT file system is a Linux file system that is compatible with Microsoft Windows long
filenames on the FAT file system.
Btrfs — Btrfs is under development as a file system capable of addressing and managing more
files, larger files, and larger volumes than the ext2, ext3, and ext4 file systems. Btrfs is designed to
make the file system tolerant of errors, and to facilitate the detection and repair of errors when they
occur. It uses checksums to ensure the validity of data and metadata, and maintains snapshots of
the file system that can be used for backup or repair.
Because Btrfs is still experimental and under development, the installation program does not offer it
by default. If you want to create a Btrfs partition on a drive, you must commence the installation
process with the boot option btrfs. Refer to Chapter 28, Boot Options for instructions.
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Btrfs is still experimental
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 includes Btrfs as a technology preview to allow you to experiment
with this file system. You should not choose Btrfs for partitions that will contain valuable data
or that are essential for the operation of important systems.
23.15.3. Create Software RAID
Note — Software RAIDs are unnecessary on System z
On System z, the storage subsystem uses RAID transparently. T here is no need to set up a
software RAID.
Redundant arrays of independent disks (RAIDs) are constructed from multiple storage devices that are
arranged to provide increased performance and — in some configurations — greater fault tolerance.
Refer to the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Deployment Guide for a description of different kinds of RAIDs.
T o make a RAID device, you must first create software RAID partitions. Once you have created two or
more software RAID partitions, select RAID to join the software RAID partitions into a RAID device.
RAID Partition
Choose this option to configure a partition for software RAID. T his option is the only choice
available if your disk contains no software RAID partitions. T his is the same dialog that appears
when you add a standard partition — refer to Section 23.15.2, “Adding Partitions” for a
description of the available options. Note, however, that File System T ype must be set to
software RAID
Figure 23.4 0. Create a software RAID partition
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RAID Device
Choose this option to construct a RAID device from two or more existing software RAID
partitions. T his option is available if two or more software RAID partitions have been configured.
Figure 23.4 1. Create a RAID device
Select the file system type as for a standard partition.
Anaconda automatically suggests a name for the RAID device, but you can manually select
names from m d0 to m d15.
Click the checkboxes beside individual storage devices to include or remove them from this
RAID.
T he RAID Level corresponds to a particular type of RAID. Choose from the following options:
RAID 0 — distributes data across multiple storage devices. Level 0 RAIDs offer increased
performance over standard partitions, and can be used to pool the storage of multiple
devices into one large virtual device. Note that Level 0 RAIDS offer no redundancy and that
the failure of one device in the array destroys the entire array. RAID 0 requires at least two
RAID partitions.
RAID 1 — mirrors the data on one storage device onto one or more other storage devices.
Additional devices in the array provide increasing levels of redundancy. RAID 1 requires at
least two RAID partitions.
RAID 4 — distributes data across multiple storage devices, but uses one device in the
array to store parity information that safeguards the array in case any device within the
array fails. Because all parity information is stored on the one device, access to this device
creates a bottleneck in the performance of the array. RAID 4 requires at least three RAID
partitions.
RAID 5 — distributes data and parity information across multiple storage devices. Level 5
RAIDs therefore offer the performance advantages of distributing data across multiple
devices, but do not share the performance bottleneck of level 4 RAIDs because the parity
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information is also distributed through the array. RAID 5 requires at least three RAID
partitions.
RAID 6 — level 6 RAIDs are similar to level 5 RAIDs, but instead of storing only one set of
parity data, they store two sets. RAID 6 requires at least four RAID partitions.
RAID 10 — level 10 RAIDs are nested RAIDs or hybrid RAIDs. Level 10 RAIDs are
constructed by distributing data over mirrored sets of storage devices. For example, a level
10 RAID constructed from four RAID partitions consists of two pairs of partitions in which
one partition mirrors the other. Data is then distributed across both pairs of storage devices,
as in a level 0 RAID. RAID 10 requires at least four RAID partitions.
23.15.4 . Create LVM Logical Volume
Important — LVM Unavailable in Text-Mode Installations
LVM initial set up is not available during text-mode installation. If you need to create an LVM
configuration from scratch, establish another SSH connection to the installation image with the
root user and run the lvm command.
Logical Volume Management (LVM) presents a simple logical view of underlying physical storage space,
such as a hard drives or LUNs. Partitions on physical storage are represented as physical volumes that
can be grouped together into volume groups. Each volume group can be divided into multiple logical
volumes, each of which is analogous to a standard disk partition. T herefore, LVM logical volumes
function as partitions that can span multiple physical disks.
T o read more about LVM, refer to the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Deployment Guide. Note, LVM is only
available in the graphical installation program.
LVM Physical Volume
Choose this option to configure a partition or device as an LVM physical volume. T his option is
the only choice available if your storage does not already contain LVM Volume Groups. T his is
the same dialog that appears when you add a standard partition — refer to Section 23.15.2,
“Adding Partitions” for a description of the available options. Note, however, that File System
T ype must be set to physical volum e (LVM)
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Figure 23.4 2. Create an LVM Physical Volume
Make LVM Volum e Group
Choose this option to create LVM volume groups from the available LVM physical volumes, or to
add existing logical volumes to a volume group.
Figure 23.4 3. Make LVM Volume Group
T o assign one or more physical volumes to a volume group, first name the volume group. T hen
select the physical volumes to be used in the volume group. Finally, configure logical volumes
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on any volume groups using the Add, Edit and Delete options.
You may not remove a physical volume from a volume group if doing so would leave insufficient
space for that group's logical volumes. T ake for example a volume group made up of two 5 GB
LVM physical volume partitions, which contains an 8 GB logical volume. T he installer would not
allow you to remove either of the component physical volumes, since that would leave only 5 GB
in the group for an 8 GB logical volume. If you reduce the total size of any logical volumes
appropriately, you may then remove a physical volume from the volume group. In the example,
reducing the size of the logical volume to 4 GB would allow you to remove one of the 5 GB
physical volumes.
Make Logical Volum e
Choose this option to create an LVM logical volume. Select a mount point, file system type, and
size (in MB) just as if it were a standard disk partition. You can also choose a name for the
logical volume and specify the volume group to which it will belong.
Figure 23.4 4 . Make Logical Volume
23.15.5. Recommended Partitioning Scheme
Configuring efficient swap space for Linux on System z is a complex task. It very much depends on the
specific environment and should be tuned to the actual system load.
Refer to the following resources for more information and to guide your decision:
'Chapter 7. Linux Swapping' in the IBM Redbook Linux on IBM System z: Performance Measurement
and Tuning [IBM Form Number SG24-6926-01], [ISBN 0738485586], available from
http://www.redbooks.ibm.com/abstracts/sg246926.html
Linux on System z performance in the IBM Systems Information Center at
http://publib.boulder.ibm.com/infocenter/systems/index.jsp?
topic=/liaag/lcon_Linux_on_System_z_performance.htm
Linux Performance when running under VM, available from
http://www.vm.ibm.com/perf/tips/linuxper.html
23.16. Write changes to disk
T he installer prompts you to confirm the partitioning options that you selected. Click Write changes
to disk to allow the installer to partition your hard drive and install Red Hat Enterprise Linux.
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Figure 23.4 5. Writing storage configuration to disk
If you are certain that you want to proceed, click Write changes to disk.
Last chance to cancel safely
Up to this point in the installation process, the installer has made no lasting changes to your
computer. When you click Write changes to disk, the installer will allocate space on your
hard drive and start to transfer Red Hat Enterprise Linux into this space. Depending on the
partitioning option that you chose, this process might include erasing data that already exists on
your computer.
T o revise any of the choices that you made up to this point, click Go back. T o cancel installation
completely, switch off your computer.
After you click Write changes to disk, allow the installation process to complete. If the
process is interrupted (for example, by you switching off or resetting the computer, or by a power
outage) you will probably not be able to use your computer until you restart and complete the Red
Hat Enterprise Linux installation process, or install a different operating system.
23.17. Package Group Selection
Now that you have made most of the choices for your installation, you are ready to confirm the default
package selection or customize packages for your system.
T he Package Installation Defaults screen appears and details the default package set for
your Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation. T his screen varies depending on the version of Red Hat
Enterprise Linux you are installing.
Installing in text mode
If you install Red Hat Enterprise Linux in text mode, you cannot make package selections. T he
installer automatically selects packages only from the base and core groups. T hese packages
are sufficient to ensure that the system is operational at the end of the installation process, ready
to install updates and new packages. T o change the package selection, complete the installation,
then use the Add/Remove Software application to make desired changes.
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Figure 23.4 6. Package Group Selection
By default, the Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation process loads a selection of software that is
suitable for a system deployed as a basic server. Note that this installation does not include a graphical
environment. T o include a selection of software suitable for other roles, click the radio button that
corresponds to one of the following options:
Basic Server
T his option provides a basic installation of Red Hat Enterprise Linux for use on a server.
Database Server
T his option provides the MySQL and PostgreSQL databases.
Web server
T his option provides the Apache web server.
Enterprise Identity Server Base
T his option provides OpenLDAP and the System Security Services Daemon (SSSD) to
create an identity and authentication server.
Virtual Host
T his option provides the KVM and Virtual Machine Manager tools to create a host for virtual
machines.
Desktop
T his option provides the OpenOffice.org productivity suite, graphical tools such as the GIMP,
and multimedia applications.
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Software Development Workstation
T his option provides the necessary tools to compile software on your Red Hat Enterprise Linux
system.
Minimal
T his option provides only the packages essential to run Red Hat Enterprise Linux. A minimal
installation provides the basis for a single-purpose server or desktop appliance and maximizes
performance and security on such an installation.
If you choose to accept the current package list, skip ahead to Section 23.18, “Installing Packages”.
T o select a component, click on the checkbox beside it (refer to Figure 23.46, “Package Group
Selection”).
T o customize your package set further, select the Custom ize now option on the screen. Clicking Next
takes you to the Package Group Selection screen.
23.17.1. Installing from Additional Repositories
You can define additional repositories to increase the software available to your system during
installation. A repository is a network location that stores software packages along with metadata that
describes them. Many of the software packages used in Red Hat Enterprise Linux require other software
to be installed. T he installer uses the metadata to ensure that these requirements are met for every
piece of software you select for installation.
T he Red Hat Enterprise Linux repository is automatically selected for you. It contains the
complete collection of software that was released as Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6, with the various pieces
of software in their versions that were current at the time of release.
Figure 23.4 7. Adding a software repository
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T o include software from extra repositories, select Add additional software repositories and
provide the location of the repository.
T o edit an existing software repository location, select the repository in the list and then select Modify
repository.
If you change the repository information during a non-network installation, such as from a Red Hat
Enterprise Linux DVD, the installer prompts you for network configuration information.
Figure 23.4 8. Select network interface
1. Select an interface from the drop-down menu.
2. Click OK.
Anaconda activates the interface that you selected, then starts NetworkManager to allow you to
configure the interface.
Figure 23.4 9. Network Connections
For details of how to use NetworkManager, refer to Section 23.7, “Setting the Hostname”
If you select Add additional software repositories, the Edit repository dialog appears.
Provide a Repository nam e and the Repository URL for its location.
Once you have located a mirror, to determine the URL to use, find the directory on the mirror that
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contains a directory named repodata.
Once you provide information for an additional repository, the installer reads the package metadata over
the network. Software that is specially marked is then included in the package group selection system.
Backtracking Removes Repository Metadata
If you choose Back from the package selection screen, any extra repository data you may have
entered is lost. T his allows you to effectively cancel extra repositories. Currently there is no way
to cancel only a single repository once entered.
23.17.2. Customizing the Software Selection
Additional Language Support
Your Red Hat Enterprise Linux system automatically supports the language that you selected at
the start of the installation process. T o include support for additional languages, select the
package group for those languages from the Languages category.
Note — 31-bit applications
Users of IBM System z who want support for developing or running legacy 31-bit applications are
encouraged to select the Com patibility Arch Support and Com patibility Arch
Developm ent Support packages to install architecture specific support for their systems.
Select Custom ize now to specify the software packages for your final system in more detail. T his
option causes the installation process to display an additional customization screen when you select
Next.
Figure 23.50. Package Group Details
Red Hat Enterprise Linux divides the included software into package groups. For ease of use, the
package selection screen displays these groups as categories.
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You can select package groups, which group components together according to function (for example, X
Window System and Editors), individual packages, or a combination of the two.
T o view the package groups for a category, select the category from the list on the left. T he list on the
right displays the package groups for the currently selected category.
T o specify a package group for installation, select the check box next to the group. T he box at the
bottom of the screen displays the details of the package group that is currently highlighted. None of the
packages from a group will be installed unless the check box for that group is selected.
If you select a package group, Red Hat Enterprise Linux automatically installs the base and mandatory
packages for that group. T o change which optional packages within a selected group will be installed,
select the Optional Packages button under the description of the group. T hen use the check box
next to an individual package name to change its selection.
In the package selection list on the right, you can use the context menu as a shortcut to select or deselect base and mandatory packages or all optional packages.
Figure 23.51. Package Selection List Context Menu
After you choose the desired packages, select Next to proceed. T he installer checks your selection,
and automatically adds any extra packages required to use the software you selected. When you have
finished selecting packages, click Close to save your optional package selections and return to the
main package selection screen.
T he packages that you select are not permanent. After you boot your system, use the Add/Remove
Software tool to either install new software or remove installed packages. T o run this tool, from the
main menu, select System → Administration → Add/Remove Software. T he Red Hat Enterprise
Linux software management system downloads the latest packages from network servers, rather than
using those on the installation discs.
23.17.2.1. Core Network Services
All Red Hat Enterprise Linux installations include the following network services:
centralized logging through syslog
email through SMT P (Simple Mail T ransfer Protocol)
network file sharing through NFS (Network File System)
remote access through SSH (Secure SHell)
resource advertising through mDNS (multicast DNS)
T he default installation also provides:
network file transfer through HT T P (HyperT ext T ransfer Protocol)
printing through CUPS (Common UNIX Printing System)
remote desktop access through VNC (Virtual Network Computing)
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remote desktop access through VNC (Virtual Network Computing)
Some automated processes on your Red Hat Enterprise Linux system use the email service to send
reports and messages to the system administrator. By default, the email, logging, and printing services
do not accept connections from other systems. Red Hat Enterprise Linux installs the NFS sharing,
HT T P, and VNC components without enabling those services.
You may configure your Red Hat Enterprise Linux system after installation to offer email, file sharing,
logging, printing and remote desktop access services. T he SSH service is enabled by default. You may
use NFS to access files on other systems without enabling the NFS sharing service.
23.18. Installing Packages
At this point there is nothing left for you to do until all the packages have been installed. How quickly this
happens depends on the number of packages you have selected and your computer's speed.
Depending on the available resources, you might see the following progress bar while the installer
resolves dependencies of the packages you selected for installation:
Figure 23.52. Starting installation
During installation of the selected packages and their dependencies, you see the following progress bar:
Figure 23.53. Packages completed
23.19. Installation Complete
Congratulations! Your Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation is now complete!
T he installation program prompts you to prepare your system for reboot.
T he installation program automatically reboots into the installed system.
Should the installation program not reboot, the installation program shows information from which device
to do an IPL (boot). Accept the shutdown option and after shutdown, IPL from the DASD or SCSI LUN
where the /boot partition for Red Hat Enterprise Linux has been installed.
23.19.1. IPL under z/VM
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T o IPL from a DASD, for example using the DASD device 200 on the 3270 console, issue the command:
#cp i 200
In DASD only environments where automatic partitioning (clearing data from all partitions) was used, the
first activated DASD is where the /boot partition is typically located.
Using /boot on an FCP LUN, you must provide the WWPN and LUN for the FCP-attached device from
which to IPL.
T o IPL from an FCP-attached device:
1. Provide FCP routing information to an FCP-attached device, for example, where
0x50050763050B073D is the WWPN, and 0x4 0204 00100000000 is the FCP LUN:
#cp set loaddev portname50050763 050B073D lun 40204001 00000000
2. IPL the FCP adapter, for example FC00:
#cp ipl FC00
Note
T o disconnect from the 3270 terminal without stopping the Linux running in your virtual machine,
use #cp disconnect instead of #cp logoff. When your virtual machine is re-connected
using the usual logon procedure, it might be placed in CP console function mode (CP READ). If
so, to resume execution on your virtual machine, enter the BEGIN command.
23.19.2. IPL on an LPAR
For LPAR-based installations, on the HMC, issue a load command to the LPAR, specifying the particular
DASD, or the FCP adapter, WWPN, and FCP LUN where the /boot partition is located.
23.19.3. Continuing after Reboot (re-IPL)
Following the automatic reboot or the manual IPL of the installed Red Hat Enterprise Linux operating
system, you can log on to the system via ssh. Note that the only place from which you can log in as root
is from the 3270 terminal or from other terminal devices listed in /etc/securetty.
T he first time you start your Red Hat Enterprise Linux system in a graphical environment, you can use
FirstBoot to guide you through Red Hat Enterprise Linux configuration. Using this tool, you can set your
system time and date, install software, register your machine with Red Hat Network, and more.
FirstBoot lets you configure your environment at the beginning, so that you can get started using your
Red Hat Enterprise Linux system quickly.
Chapter 34, Firstboot will guide you through the configuration process.
[10 ]A ro o t p as s wo rd is the ad minis trative p as s wo rd fo r yo ur Red Hat Enterp ris e Linux s ys tem. Yo u s ho uld o nly lo g in as ro o t when
need ed fo r s ys tem maintenanc e. The ro o t ac c o unt d o es no t o p erate within the res tric tio ns p lac ed o n no rmal us er ac c o unts , s o
c hang es mad e as ro o t c an have imp lic atio ns fo r yo ur entire s ys tem.
[11]The f sck ap p lic atio n is us ed to c hec k the file s ys tem fo r metad ata c o ns is tenc y and o p tio nally rep air o ne o r mo re Linux file
s ys tems .
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Chapter 24. Troubleshooting Installation on IBM System z
T his section discusses some common installation problems and their solutions.
For debugging purposes, anaconda logs installation actions into files in the /tm p directory. T hese files
include:
/tm p/anaconda.log
general anaconda messages
/tm p/program .log
all external programs run by anaconda
/tm p/storage.log
extensive storage module information
/tm p/yum .log
yum package installation messages
/tm p/syslog
hardware-related system messages
If the installation fails, the messages from these files are consolidated into /tm p/anacondatb-identifier, where identifier is a random string.
All of the files above reside in the installer's ramdisk and are thus volatile. T o make a permanent copy,
copy those files to another system on the network using scp on the installation image (not the other way
round).
24.1. You are unable to boot Red Hat Enterprise Linux
24 .1.1. Is Your System Displaying Signal 11 Errors?
A signal 11 error, commonly known as a segmentation fault, means that the program accessed a
memory location that was not assigned to it. A signal 11 error may be due to a bug in one of the software
programs that is installed, or faulty hardware.
Ensure that you have the latest installation updates and images from Red Hat. Review the online errata
to see if newer versions are available.
24.2. Trouble During the Installation
24 .2.1. No devices found to install Red Hat Enterprise Linux Error Message
If you receive an error message stating No devices found to install Red Hat Enterprise
Linux, then there may be an issue with your DASD devices. If you encounter this error, add the
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DASD=<disks> parameter to your parameter file or CMS configuration file (where disks is the DASD
range reserved for installation) and start the install again.
Additionally, make sure you format the DASDs using the dasdfm t command within a Linux root shell,
instead of formatting the DASDs using CMS. Anaconda automatically detects any DASD devices that
are not yet formatted and asks you whether to format the devices.
24 .2.2. Saving traceback messages
If anaconda encounters an error during the graphical installation process, it presents you with a crash
reporting dialog box:
Figure 24 .1. T he Crash Reporting Dialog Box
Details
shows you the details of the error:
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 Installation Guide
Figure 24 .2. Details of the Crash
Save
saves details of the error locally or remotely:
Exit
exits the installation process.
If you select Save from the main dialog, you can choose from the following options:
Figure 24 .3. Select reporter
Logger
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saves details of the error as a log file to the local hard drive at a specified location.
Red Hat Customer Support
submits the crash report to Customer Support for assistance.
Report uploader
uploads a compressed version of the crash report to Bugzilla or a URL of your choice.
Before submitting the report, click Preferences to specify a destination or provide authentication
details. Select the reporting method you need to configure and click Configure Event.
Figure 24 .4 . Configure reporter preferences
Logger
Specify a path and a filename for the log file. Check Append if you are adding to an existing log
file.
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 Installation Guide
Figure 24 .5. Specify local path for log file
Red Hat Customer Support
Enter your Red Hat Network username and password so your report reaches Customer
Support and is linked with your account. T he URL is prefilled and Verify SSL is checked by
default.
Figure 24 .6. Enter Red Hat Network authentication details
Report uploader
Specify a URL for uploading a compressed version of the crash report.
Figure 24 .7. Enter URL for uploading crash report
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Bugzilla
Enter your Bugzilla username and password to lodge a bug with Red Hat's bug-tracking system
using the crash report. T he URL is prefilled and Verify SSL is checked by default.
Figure 24 .8. Enter Bugzilla authentication details
Once you have entered your preferences, click OK to return to the report selection dialog. Select how you
would like to report the problem and then click Forward.
Figure 24 .9. Confirm report data
You can now customize the report by checking and unchecking the issues that will be included. When
finished, click Apply.
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317
Figure 24 .10. Report in progress
T his screen displays the outcome of the report, including any errors in sending or saving the log. Click
Forward to proceed.
Figure 24 .11. Reporting done
Reporting is now complete. Click Forward to return to the report selection dialog. You can now make
another report, or click Close to exit the reporting utility and then Exit to close the installation process.
24 .2.3. Other Partitioning Problems
If you create partitions manually, but cannot move to the next screen, you probably have not created all
the partitions necessary for installation to proceed.
You must have the following partitions as a bare minimum:
A / (root) partition
A <swap> partition of type swap
Refer to Section 23.15.5, “Recommended Partitioning Scheme” for more information.
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Note
When defining a partition's type as swap, do not assign it a mount point. Anaconda automatically
assigns the mount point for you.
24.3. Problems After Installation
24 .3.1. Remote Graphical Desktops and XDMCP
If you have installed the X Window System and would like to log in to your Red Hat Enterprise Linux
system using a graphical login manager, enable the X Display Manager Control Protocol (XDMCP). T his
protocol allows users to remotely log in to a desktop environment from any X Window System compatible
client (such as a network-connected workstation or X11 terminal). T o enable remote login using XDMCP,
edit the following line in the /etc/gdm /custom .conf file on the Red Hat Enterprise Linux system with
a text editor such as vi or nano:
Add the line Enable=true, save the file, and exit the text editor. Switch to runlevel 5 to start the X11
server:
/sbin/init 5
From the client machine, start a remote X11 session using X. For example:
X :1 -query s390vm.example.com
T he command connects to the remote X11 server via XDMCP (replace s390vm.example.com with the
hostname of the remote X11 server) and displays the remote graphical login screen on display :1 of the
X11 server system (usually accessible by using the Ctrl-Alt-F8 key combination).
You can also access remote desktop sessions using a nested X11 server, which opens the remote
desktop as a window in your current X11 session. Xnest allows users to open a remote desktop nested
within their local X11 session. For example, run Xnest using the following command, replacing
s390vm.example.com with the hostname of the remote X11 server:
Xnest :1 -query s390vm.example.com
24 .3.2. Problems When You T ry to Log In
If you did not create a user account in the firstboot screens, switch to a console by pressing
Ctrl+Alt+F2, log in as root and use the password you assigned to root.
If you cannot remember your root password, boot your system into single user mode by appending the
boot option single to the zipl boot menu or by any other means to append kernel command line
options at IPL.
Once you have booted into single user mode and have access to the # prompt, you must type passwd
root, which allows you to enter a new password for root. At this point you can type shutdown -r now
to reboot the system with the new root password.
If you cannot remember your user account password, you must become root. T o become root, type su and enter your root password when prompted. T hen, type passwd <usernam e>. T his allows you to
enter a new password for the specified user account.
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If the graphical login screen does not appear, check your hardware for compatibility issues. T he
Hardware Compatibility List can be found at:
http://hardware.redhat.com/hcl/
24 .3.3. Your Printer Does Not Work
If you are not sure how to set up your printer or are having trouble getting it to work properly, try using
the Printer Configuration T ool.
T ype the system -config-printer command at a shell prompt to launch the Printer Configuration
T ool. If you are not root, it prompts you for the root password to continue.
24 .3.4 . Apache HT T P Server or Sendmail stops responding during startup
If Apache HT T P Server (httpd) or Sendmail stops responding during startup, make sure the
following line is in the /etc/hosts file:
127.0.0.1
localhost.localdomain
localhost
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Chapter 25. Configuring an Installed Linux on System z
Instance
For more information about Linux on System z, see the publications listed in Chapter 27, IBM System z
References. Some of the most common tasks are described here.
25.1. Adding DASDs
T he following is an example of how to set a DASD online, format it, and make the change persistent.
Note
Make sure the device is attached or linked to the Linux system if running under z/VM.
CP ATTACH EB1C TO *
T o link a mini disk to which you have access, issue, for example:
CP LINK RHEL6X 4B2E 4B2E MR
DASD 4B2E LINKED R/W
See the z/VM: CP Commands and Utilities Reference, SC24-6175 for details about the
commands.
25.1.1. Dynamically setting DASDs online
T o set a DASD online, follow these steps:
1. Use the cio_ignore command to remove the DASD from the list of ignored devices and make it
visible to Linux:
# cio_ignore -r device_number
Replace device_number with the device number of the DASD. For example:
# cio_ignore -r 4b2e
2. Set the device online. Use a command of the following form:
# chccwdev -e device_number
Replace device_number with the device number of the DASD. For example:
# chccwdev -e 4b2e
As an alternative, you can set the device online using sysfs attributes:
a. Use the cd command to change to the /sys/ directory that represents that volume:
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321
# cd /sys/bus/ccw/drivers/dasd-eckd/0.0.4b2e/
# ls -l
total 0
-r--r--r-- 1 root root 4096 Aug 25 17:04 availability
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 4096 Aug 25 17:04 cmb_enable
-r--r--r-- 1 root root 4096 Aug 25 17:04 cutype
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 4096 Aug 25 17:04 detach_state
-r--r--r-- 1 root root 4096 Aug 25 17:04 devtype
-r--r--r-- 1 root root 4096 Aug 25 17:04 discipline
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 4096 Aug 25 17:04 online
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 4096 Aug 25 17:04 readonly
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 4096 Aug 25 17:04 use_diag
b. Check to see if the device is already online:
# cat online
0
c. If it is not online, run the following command to bring it online:
# echo 1 > online
# cat online
1
3. Verify which block devnode it is being accessed as:
# ls -l
total 0
-r--r--r-lrwxrwxrwx
-rw-r--r--r--r--r--rw-r--r--r--r--r--r--r--r--rw-r--r--rw-r--r--rw-r--r--
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
root
root
root
root
root
root
root
root
root
root
root
root
root
root
root
root
root
root
root
root
4096
0
4096
4096
4096
4096
4096
0
4096
4096
Aug
Aug
Aug
Aug
Aug
Aug
Aug
Aug
Aug
Aug
25
25
25
25
25
25
25
25
25
25
17:04
17:07
17:04
17:04
17:04
17:04
17:04
17:04
17:04
17:04
availability
block -> ../../../../block/dasdb
cmb_enable
cutype
detach_state
devtype
discipline
online
readonly
use_diag
As shown in this example, device 4B2E is being accessed as /dev/dasdb.
T hese instructions set a DASD online for the current session, but this is not persistent across reboots.
For instructions on how to set a DASD online persistently, refer to Section 25.1.3, “Persistently setting
DASDs online”. When you work with DASDs, use the persistent device symbolic links under
/dev/disk/by-path/.
You can find more information in the DASD Chapter in Linux on System z Device Drivers, Features, and
Commands on Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.
25.1.2. Preparing a new DASD with low-level formatting
Once the disk is online, change back to the /root directory and low-level format the device. T his is only
required once for a DASD during its entire lifetime:
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# cd
# dasdfmt -b 4096 -d cdl -p /dev/disk/by-path/ccw-0.0.4b2e
Drive Geometry: 10017 Cylinders * 15 Heads = 150255 Tracks
I am going to format the device /dev/disk/by-path/ccw-0.0.4b2e in the following
way:
Device number of device : 0x4b2e
Labelling device
: yes
Disk label
: VOL1
Disk identifier
: 0X4B2E
Extent start (trk no)
: 0
Extent end (trk no)
: 150254
Compatible Disk Layout : yes
Blocksize
: 4096
--->> ATTENTION! <<--All data of that device will be lost.
Type "yes" to continue, no will leave the disk untouched: yes
cyl
97 of 3338 |#----------------------------------------------|
2%
When the progress bar reaches the end and the format is complete, dasdfmt prints the following output:
Rereading the partition table...
Exiting...
Now, use fdasd to partition the DASD. You can create up to three partitions on a DASD. In our example
here, we create one partition spanning the whole disk:
# fdasd -a /dev/disk/by-path/ccw-0.0.4b2e
auto-creating one partition for the whole disk...
writing volume label...
writing VTOC...
checking !
wrote NATIVE!
rereading partition table...
For more information, see the chapter on DASD in Linux on System z Device Drivers, Features, and
Commands on Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.
After a (low-level formatted) DASD is online, it can be used like any other disk under Linux. For instance,
you can create file systems, LVM physical volumes, or swap space on its partitions, for example
/dev/disk/by-path/ccw-0.0.4 b2e-part1. Never use the full DASD device (dev/dasdb) for
anything but the commands dasdfm t and fdasd. If you want to use the entire DASD, create one
partition spanning the entire drive as in the fdasd example above.
T o add additional disks later without breaking existing disk entries in, for example, /etc/fstab, use the
persistent device symbolic links under /dev/disk/by-path/.
25.1.3. Persistently setting DASDs online
T he above instructions described how to activate DASDs dynamically in a running system. However,
such changes are not persistent and do not survive a reboot. Making changes to the DASD
configuration persistent in your Linux system depends on whether the DASDs belong to the root file
system. T hose DASDs required for the root file system need to be activated very early during the boot
process by the initram fs to be able to mount the root file system.
cio_ignore is handled transparently for persistent device configurations and you do not need to free
devices from the ignore list manually.
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323
25.1.3.1. DASDs that are part of the root file system
T he only file you have to modify to add DASDs that are part of the root file system is /etc/zipl.conf.
T hen run the zipl boot loader tool. T here is no need to recreate the initram fs.
T here are two boot parameters to activate DASDs early in the boot process:
rd_DASD=
rd_DASD_MOD= — only provided for compatibility with old system configurations. Refer to the dasd=
parameter description in the DASD device driver chapter in Linux on System z Device Drivers,
Features, and Commands on Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 for details.
T he rd_DASD option takes a comma-separated list as input. T he list contains a device bus ID and
optional additional parameters consisting of key-value-pairs that correspond to DASD sysfs attributes.
Below is an example zipl.conf for a system that uses physical volumes on partitions of two DASDs
for an LVM volume group vg_devel1 that contains a logical volume lv_root for the root file system.
[defaultboot]
default=linux
target=/boot/
[linux]
image=/boot/vmlinuz-2.6.32-19.el6.s390x
ramdisk=/boot/initramfs-2.6.32-19.el6.s390x.img
parameters="root=/dev/mapper/vg_devel1-lv_root
rd_DASD=0.0.0200,use_diag=0,readonly=0,erplog=0,failfast=0
rd_DASD=0.0.0207,use_diag=0,readonly=0,erplog=0,failfast=0
rd_LVM_LV=vg_devel1/lv_root rd_NO_LUKS rd_NO_MD rd_NO_DM LANG=en_US.UTF-8
SYSFONT=latarcyrheb-sun16 KEYTABLE=us cio_ignore=all,!0.0.0009"
Suppose that you would like to add another physical volume on a partition of a third DASD with device
bus ID 0.0.202b. T o do this, simply add rd_DASD=0.0.202b to the parameters line of your boot
kernel in zipl.conf:
[defaultboot]
default=linux
target=/boot/
[linux]
image=/boot/vmlinuz-2.6.32-19.el6.s390x
ramdisk=/boot/initramfs-2.6.32-19.el6.s390x.img
parameters="root=/dev/mapper/vg_devel1-lv_root
rd_DASD=0.0.0200,use_diag=0,readonly=0,erplog=0,failfast=0
rd_DASD=0.0.0207,use_diag=0,readonly=0,erplog=0,failfast=0 rd_DASD=0.0.202b
rd_LVM_LV=vg_devel1/lv_root rd_NO_LUKS rd_NO_MD rd_NO_DM LANG=en_US.UTF-8
SYSFONT=latarcyrheb-sun16 KEYTABLE=us cio_ignore=all,!0.0.0009"
Run zipl to apply the changes of /etc/zipl.conf for the next IPL:
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# zipl -V
Using config file '/etc/zipl.conf'
Target device information
Device..........................: 5e:00
Partition.......................: 5e:01
Device name.....................: dasda
DASD device number..............: 0201
Type............................: disk partition
Disk layout.....................: ECKD/compatible disk layout
Geometry - heads................: 15
Geometry - sectors..............: 12
Geometry - cylinders............: 3308
Geometry - start................: 24
File system block size..........: 4096
Physical block size.............: 4096
Device size in physical blocks..: 595416
Building bootmap in '/boot/'
Building menu 'rh-automatic-menu'
Adding #1: IPL section 'linux' (default)
kernel image......: /boot/vmlinuz-2.6.32-19.el6.s390x
kernel parmline...: 'root=/dev/mapper/vg_devel1-lv_root
rd_DASD=0.0.0200,use_diag=0,readonly=0,erplog=0,failfast=0
rd_DASD=0.0.0207,use_diag=0,readonly=0,erplog=0,failfast=0 rd_DASD=0.0.202b
rd_LVM_LV=vg_devel1/lv_root rd_NO_LUKS rd_NO_MD rd_NO_DM LANG=en_US.UTF-8
SYSFONT=latarcyrheb-sun16 KEYTABLE=us cio_ignore=all,!0.0.0009'
initial ramdisk...: /boot/initramfs-2.6.32-19.el6.s390x.img
component address:
kernel image....: 0x00010000-0x00a70fff
parmline........: 0x00001000-0x00001fff
initial ramdisk.: 0x02000000-0x022d2fff
internal loader.: 0x0000a000-0x0000afff
Preparing boot device: dasda (0201).
Preparing boot menu
Interactive prompt......: enabled
Menu timeout............: 15 seconds
Default configuration...: 'linux'
Syncing disks...
Done.
25.1.3.2. DASDs that are not part of the root file system
DASDs that are not part of the root file system, that is, data disks, are persistently configured in the file
/etc/dasd.conf. It contains one DASD per line. Each line begins with the device bus ID of a DASD.
Optionally, each line can continue with options separated by space or tab characters. Options consist of
key-value-pairs, where the key and value are separated by an equals sign.
T he key corresponds to any valid sysfs attribute a DASD may have. T he value will be written to the
key's sysfs attribute. Entries in /etc/dasd.conf are activated and configured by udev when a DASD
is added to the system. At boot time, all DASDs visible to the system get added and trigger udev.
Example content of /etc/dasd.conf:
0.0.0207
0.0.0200 use_diag=1 readonly=1
Modifications of /etc/dasd.conf only become effective after a reboot of the system or after the
dynamic addition of a new DASD by changing the system's I/O configuration (that is, the DASD is
attached under z/VM). Alternatively, you can trigger the activation of a new entry in /etc/dasd.conf
for a DASD which was previously not active, by executing the following commands:
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325
1. Use the cio_ignore command to remove the DASD from the list of ignored devices and make it
visible to Linux:
# cio_ignore -r device_number
For example:
# cio_ignore -r 021a
2. T rigger the activation by writing to the uevent attribute of the device:
echo add > /sys/bus/ccw/devices/device-bus-ID/uevent
For example:
echo add > /sys/bus/ccw/devices/0.0.021a/uevent
25.2. Adding FCP-Attached Logical Units (LUNs)
T he following is an example of how to add an FCP LUN.
Note
If running under z/VM, make sure the FCP adapter is attached to the z/VM guest virtual machine.
For multipathing in production environments there would be at least two FCP devices on two
different physical adapters (CHPIDs). For example:
CP ATTACH FC00 TO *
CP ATTACH FCD0 TO *
25.2.1. Dynamically activating an FCP LUN
Follow these steps to activate a LUN:
1. Use the cio_ignore command to remove the FCP adapter from the list of ignored devices and
make it visible to Linux:
# cio_ignore -r device_number
Replace device_number with the device number of the FCP adapter. For example:
2. T o bring the FCP adapter device online, use the following command:
# chccwdev -e fc00
3. Verify that the required WWPN was found by the automatic port scanning of the zfcp device driver:
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# ls -l /sys/bus/ccw/drivers/zfcp/0.0.fc00/
drwxr-xr-x. 3 root root
0 Apr 28 18:19 0x500507630040710b
drwxr-xr-x. 3 root root
0 Apr 28 18:19 0x50050763050b073d
drwxr-xr-x. 3 root root
0 Apr 28 18:19 0x500507630e060521
drwxr-xr-x. 3 root root
0 Apr 28 18:19 0x500507630e860521
-r--r--r--. 1 root root 4096 Apr 28 18:17 availability
-r--r--r--. 1 root root 4096 Apr 28 18:19 card_version
-rw-r--r--. 1 root root 4096 Apr 28 18:17 cmb_enable
-r--r--r--. 1 root root 4096 Apr 28 18:17 cutype
-r--r--r--. 1 root root 4096 Apr 28 18:17 devtype
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root
0 Apr 28 18:17 driver ->
../../../../bus/ccw/drivers/zfcp
-rw-r--r--. 1 root root 4096 Apr 28 18:17 failed
-r--r--r--. 1 root root 4096 Apr 28 18:19 hardware_version
drwxr-xr-x. 35 root root
0 Apr 28 18:17 host0
-r--r--r--. 1 root root 4096 Apr 28 18:17 in_recovery
-r--r--r--. 1 root root 4096 Apr 28 18:19 lic_version
-r--r--r--. 1 root root 4096 Apr 28 18:17 modalias
-rw-r--r--. 1 root root 4096 Apr 28 18:17 online
-r--r--r--. 1 root root 4096 Apr 28 18:19 peer_d_id
-r--r--r--. 1 root root 4096 Apr 28 18:19 peer_wwnn
-r--r--r--. 1 root root 4096 Apr 28 18:19 peer_wwpn
--w-------. 1 root root 4096 Apr 28 18:19 port_remove
--w-------. 1 root root 4096 Apr 28 18:19 port_rescan
drwxr-xr-x. 2 root root
0 Apr 28 18:19 power
-r--r--r--. 1 root root 4096 Apr 28 18:19 status
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root
0 Apr 28 18:17 subsystem -> ../../../../bus/ccw
-rw-r--r--. 1 root root 4096 Apr 28 18:17 uevent
4. Activate the FCP LUN by adding it to the port (WWPN) through which you would like to access the
LUN:
# echo 0x4020400100000000 >
/sys/bus/ccw/drivers/zfcp/0.0.fc00/0x50050763050b073d/unit_add
5. Find out the assigned SCSI device name:
# lszfcp -DV
/sys/devices/css0/0.0.0015/0.0.fc00/0x50050763050b073d/0x4020400100000000
/sys/bus/ccw/drivers/zfcp/0.0.fc00/host0/rport-0:021/target0:0:21/0:0:21:1089355792
For more information, refer to the chapter on SCSI-over-Fibre Channel in Linux on System z Device
Drivers, Features, and Commands on Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.
25.2.2. Persistently activating FCP LUNs
T he above instructions described how to activate FCP LUNs dynamically in a running system. However,
such changes are not persistent and do not survive a reboot. How you make the changes to the FCP
configuration persistent in your Linux system depends on whether the FCP LUNs belong to the root file
system. T hose required for the root file system need to be activated very early during the boot process
by the initram fs to be able to mount the root file system. cio_ignore is handled transparently for
persistent device configurations and you do not need to free devices from the ignore list manually.
25.2.2.1. FCP LUNs that are part of the root file system
T he only file you have to modify for adding FCP LUNs that are part of the root file system is
/etc/zipl.conf followed by a run of the zipl boot loader tool. T here is no more need to recreate the
initram fs.
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327
Red Hat Enterprise Linux provides a parameter to activate FCP LUNs early in the boot process:
rd_ZFCP=. T he value is a comma-separated list containing the device bus ID, the WWPN as 16 digit
hexadecimal number prefixed with 0x, and the FCP LUN prefixed with 0x and padded with zeroes to the
right to have 16 hexadecimal digits.
T he following example zipl.conf is for a system that uses physical volumes on partitions of two FCP
LUNs for an LVM volume group vg_devel1 that contains a logical volume lv_root for the root file
system. For simplicity, the example shows a configuration without multipathing.
[defaultboot]
default=linux
target=/boot/
[linux]
image=/boot/vmlinuz-2.6.32-19.el6.s390x
ramdisk=/boot/initramfs-2.6.32-19.el6.s390x.img
parameters="root=/dev/mapper/vg_devel1-lv_root
rd_ZFCP=0.0.fc00,0x5105074308c212e9,0x401040a000000000
rd_ZFCP=0.0.fc00,0x5105074308c212e9,0x401040a100000000
rd_LVM_LV=vg_devel1/lv_root rd_NO_LUKS rd_NO_MD rd_NO_DM LANG=en_US.UTF-8
SYSFONT=latarcyrheb-sun16 KEYTABLE=us cio_ignore=all,!0.0.0009"
T o add another physical volume on a partition of a third FCP LUN with device bus ID 0.0.fc00, WWPN
0x5105074308c212e9 and FCP LUN 0x401040a300000000, simply add
rd_ZFCP=0.0.fc00,0x5105074 308c212e9,0x4 0104 0a300000000 to the parameters line of
your boot kernel in zipl.conf, for example:
[defaultboot]
default=linux
target=/boot/
[linux]
image=/boot/vmlinuz-2.6.32-19.el6.s390x
ramdisk=/boot/initramfs-2.6.32-19.el6.s390x.img
parameters="root=/dev/mapper/vg_devel1-lv_root
rd_ZFCP=0.0.fc00,0x5105074308c212e9,0x401040a000000000
rd_ZFCP=0.0.fc00,0x5105074308c212e9,0x401040a100000000
rd_ZFCP=0.0.fc00,0x5105074308c212e9,0x401040a300000000
rd_LVM_LV=vg_devel1/lv_root rd_NO_LUKS rd_NO_MD rd_NO_DM LANG=en_US.UTF-8
SYSFONT=latarcyrheb-sun16 KEYTABLE=us cio_ignore=all,!0.0.0009"
Run zipl to apply the changes of /etc/zipl.conf for the next IPL:
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# zipl -V
Using config file '/etc/zipl.conf'
Target device information
Device..........................: 08:00
Partition.......................: 08:01
Device name.....................: sda
Device driver name..............: sd
Type............................: disk partition
Disk layout.....................: SCSI disk layout
Geometry - start................: 2048
File system block size..........: 4096
Physical block size.............: 512
Device size in physical blocks..: 10074112
Building bootmap in '/boot/'
Building menu 'rh-automatic-menu'
Adding #1: IPL section 'linux' (default)
kernel image......: /boot/vmlinuz-2.6.32-19.el6.s390x
kernel parmline...: 'root=/dev/mapper/vg_devel1-lv_root
rd_ZFCP=0.0.fc00,0x5105074308c212e9,0x401040a000000000
rd_ZFCP=0.0.fc00,0x5105074308c212e9,0x401040a100000000
rd_ZFCP=0.0.fc00,0x5105074308c212e9,0x401040a300000000
rd_LVM_LV=vg_devel1/lv_root rd_NO_LUKS rd_NO_MD rd_NO_DM LANG=en_US.UTF-8
SYSFONT=latarcyrheb-sun16 KEYTABLE=us cio_ignore=all,!0.0.0009'
initial ramdisk...: /boot/initramfs-2.6.32-19.el6.s390x.img
component address:
kernel image....: 0x00010000-0x007a21ff
parmline........: 0x00001000-0x000011ff
initial ramdisk.: 0x02000000-0x028f63ff
internal loader.: 0x0000a000-0x0000a3ff
Preparing boot device: sda.
Detected SCSI PCBIOS disk layout.
Writing SCSI master boot record.
Syncing disks...
Done.
25.2.2.2. FCP LUNs that are not part of the root file system
FCP LUNs that are not part of the root file system, such as data disks, are persistently configured in the
file /etc/zfcp.conf. It contains one FCP LUN per line. Each line contains the device bus ID of the FCP
adapter, the WWPN as 16 digit hexadecimal number prefixed with 0x, and the FCP LUN prefixed with 0x
and padded with zeroes to the right to have 16 hexadecimal digits, separated by a space or tab. Entries
in /etc/zfcp.conf are activated and configured by udev when an FCP adapter is added to the
system. At boot time, all FCP adapters visible to the system are added and trigger udev.
Example content of /etc/zfcp.conf:
0.0.fc00
0.0.fc00
0.0.fc00
0.0.fcd0
0.0.fcd0
0.0.fcd0
0x5105074308c212e9
0x5105074308c212e9
0x5105074308c212e9
0x5105074308c2aee9
0x5105074308c2aee9
0x5105074308c2aee9
0x401040a000000000
0x401040a100000000
0x401040a300000000
0x401040a000000000
0x401040a100000000
0x401040a300000000
Modifications of /etc/zfcp.conf only become effective after a reboot of the system or after the
dynamic addition of a new FCP channel by changing the system's I/O configuration (for example, a
channel is attached under z/VM). Alternatively, you can trigger the activation of a new entry in
/etc/zfcp.conf for an FCP adapter which was previously not active, by executing the following
commands:
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1. Use the cio_ignore command to remove the FCP adapter from the list of ignored devices and
make it visible to Linux:
# cio_ignore -r device_number
Replace device_number with the device number of the FCP adapter. For example:
# cio_ignore -r fcfc
2. T o trigger the uevent that activates the change, issue:
echo add > /sys/bus/ccw/devices/device-bus-ID/uevent
For example:
echo add > /sys/bus/ccw/devices/0.0.fcfc/uevent
25.3. Adding a Network Device
Network device driver modules are loaded automatically by udev.
You can add a network interface on IBM System z dynamically or persistently.
Dynamically
1. Load the device driver
2. Remove the network devices from the list of ignored devices.
3. Create the group device.
4. Configure the device.
5. Set the device online.
Persistently
1. Create a configuration script.
2. Activate the interface.
T he following sections provide basic information for each task of each IBM System z network device
driver. Section 25.3.1, “Adding a qeth Device” describes how to add a qeth device to an existing instance
of Red Hat Enterprise Linux. Section 25.3.2, “Adding an LCS Device” describes how to add an lcs device
to an existing instance of Red Hat Enterprise Linux. Section 25.3.3, “Mapping subchannels and network
device names” describes how persistent network device names work. Section 25.3.4, “Configuring a
System z Network Device for Network Root File System” describes how to configure a network device to
use with a root file system that is only accessible through the network.
25.3.1. Adding a qeth Device
T he qeth network device driver supports System z OSA-Express features in QDIO mode, HiperSockets,
z/VM guest LAN, and z/VM VSWIT CH.
Based on the type of interface being added, the qeth device driver assigns one of the base interface
names:
hsin for HiperSockets devices
ethn for Ethernet features
T he value n is an integer that uniquely identifies the device. n is 0 for the first device of that type, 1 for
the second, and so on.
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25.3.1.1. Dynamically adding a qeth device
T o add a qeth device dynamically, follow these steps:
1. Determine whether the qeth device driver modules are loaded. T he following example shows
loaded qeth modules:
# lsmod | grep qeth
qeth_l3
qeth_l2
ipv6
qeth
qdio
ccwgroup
127056 9
73008 3
492872 155ip6t_REJECT,nf_conntrack_ipv6,qeth_l3
115808 2 qeth_l3,qeth_l2
68240 1 qeth
12112 2 qeth
If the output of the lsm od command shows that the qeth modules are not loaded, run the
m odprobe command to load them:
# modprobe qeth
2. Use the cio_ignore command to remove the network channels from the list of ignored devices
and make them visible to Linux:
# cio_ignore -r read_device_bus_id,write_device_bus_id,data_device_bus_id
Replace read_device_bus_id,write_device_bus_id,data_device_bus_id with the three
device bus IDs representing a network device. For example, if the read_device_bus_id is
0.0.f500, the write_device_bus_id is 0.0.f501, and the data_device_bus_id is
0.0.f502:
# cio_ignore -r 0.0.f500,0.0.f501,0.0.f502
3. Use the znetconf command to sense and list candidate configurations for network devices:
# znetconf -u
Scanning for network devices...
Device IDs
Type
Card Type
CHPID Drv.
-----------------------------------------------------------0.0.f500,0.0.f501,0.0.f502 1731/01 OSA (QDIO)
00 qeth
0.0.f503,0.0.f504,0.0.f505 1731/01 OSA (QDIO)
01 qeth
0.0.0400,0.0.0401,0.0.0402 1731/05 HiperSockets
02 qeth
4. Select the configuration you want to work with and use znetconf to apply the configuration and to
bring the configured group device online as network device.
# znetconf -a f500
Scanning for network devices...
Successfully configured device 0.0.f500 (eth1)
5. Optionally, you can also pass arguments that are configured on the group device before it is set
online:
# znetconf -a f500 -o portname=myname
Scanning for network devices...
Successfully configured device 0.0.f500 (eth1)
Now you can continue to configure the network eth1 interface.
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Alternatively, you can use sysfs attributes to set the device online as follows:
1. Create a qeth group device:
# echo read_device_bus_id,write_device_bus_id,data_device_bus_id >
/sys/bus/ccwgroup/drivers/qeth/group
For example:
# echo 0.0.f500,0.0.f501,0.0.f502 > /sys/bus/ccwgroup/drivers/qeth/group
2. Next, verify that the qeth group device was created properly by looking for the read channel:
# ls /sys/bus/ccwgroup/drivers/qeth/0.0.f500
You may optionally set additional parameters and features, depending on the way you are setting
up your system and the features you require, such as:
portno
layer2
portname
For information on additional parameters, refer to the chapter on the qeth device driver in Linux on
System z Device Drivers, Features, and Commands on Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.
3. Bring the device online by writing 1 to the online sysfs attribute:
# echo 1 > /sys/bus/ccwgroup/drivers/qeth/0.0.f500/online
4. T hen verify the state of the device:
# cat /sys/bus/ccwgroup/drivers/qeth/0.0.f500/online
1
A return value of 1 indicates that the device is online, while a return value 0 indicates that the
device is offline.
5. Find the interface name that was assigned to the device:
# cat /sys/bus/ccwgroup/drivers/qeth/0.0.f500/if_name
eth1
Now you can continue to configure the network eth1 interface.
T he following command from the s390utils package shows the most important settings of your
qeth device:
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# lsqeth eth1
Device name
: eth1
--------------------------------------------card_type
: OSD_1000
cdev0
: 0.0.f500
cdev1
: 0.0.f501
cdev2
: 0.0.f502
chpid
: 76
online
: 1
portname
: OSAPORT
portno
: 0
state
: UP (LAN ONLINE)
priority_queueing
: always queue 0
buffer_count
: 16
layer2
: 1
isolation
: none
25.3.1.2. Dynamically removing a qeth device
T o remove a qeth device, use the znetconf tool. For example:
1. Use the znetconf command to show you all configured network devices:
znetconf -c
Device IDs
Type
Card Type
CHPID Drv. Name
State
------------------------------------------------------------------------------0.0.8036,0.0.8037,0.0.8038 1731/05 HiperSockets
FB qeth hsi1
online
0.0.f5f0,0.0.f5f1,0.0.f5f2 1731/01 OSD_1000
76 qeth eth0
online
0.0.f500,0.0.f501,0.0.f502 1731/01 GuestLAN QDIO
00 qeth eth1
online
2. Select the network device to be removed and trigger znetconf to set the device offline and
ungroup the ccw group device.
# znetconf -r f500
Remove network device 0.0.f500 (0.0.f500,0.0.f501,0.0.f502)?
Warning: this may affect network connectivity!
Do you want to continue (y/n)?y
Successfully removed device 0.0.f500 (eth1)
3. Verify the success of the removal:
znetconf -c
Device IDs
Type
Card Type
CHPID Drv. Name
State
------------------------------------------------------------------------------0.0.8036,0.0.8037,0.0.8038 1731/05 HiperSockets
FB qeth hsi1
online
0.0.f5f0,0.0.f5f1,0.0.f5f2 1731/01 OSD_1000
76 qeth eth0
online
25.3.1.3. Persistently adding a qeth device
T o make your new qeth device persistent you need to create the configuration file for your new interface.
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T he network interface configuration files are placed in /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/.
T he network configuration files use the naming convention ifcfg-device, where device is the value
found in the if_nam e file in the qeth group device that was created earlier. In this example it is eth1.
cio_ignore is handled transparently for persistent device configurations and you do not need to free
devices from the ignore list manually.
If a configuration file for another device of the same type already exists, the simplest solution is to copy it
to the new name.
# cd /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts
# cp ifcfg-eth0 ifcfg-eth1
If you do not have a similar device defined you must create one. Use this example of ifcfg-eth0 as a
template:
/etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-eth0
# IBM QETH
DEVICE=eth0
BOOTPROTO=static
IPADDR=10.12.20.136
NETMASK=255.255.255.0
ONBOOT=yes
NETTYPE=qeth
SUBCHANNELS=0.0.09a0,0.0.09a1,0.0.09a2
PORTNAME=OSAPORT
OPTIONS='layer2=1 portno=0'
MACADDR=02:00:00:23:65:1a
TYPE=Ethernet
Edit the new ifcfg-eth1 file as follows:
1. Modify the DEVICE statement to reflect the contents of the if_nam e file from your ccwgroup.
2. Modify the IPADDR statement to reflect the IP address of your new interface.
3. Modify the NETMASK statement as needed.
4. If the new interface is to be activated at boot time, then make sure ONBOOT is set to yes.
5. Make sure the SUBCHANNELS statement matches the hardware addresses for your qeth device.
6. Modify the PORTNAME statement or leave it out if it is not necessary in your environment.
7. You may add any valid sysfs attribute and its value to the OPTIONS parameter. T he Red Hat
Enterprise Linux installer currently uses this to configure the layer mode (layer2) and the relative
port number (portno) of qeth devices.
T he qeth device driver default for OSA devices is now layer 2 mode. T o continue using old ifcfg
definitions that rely on the previous default of layer 3 mode, add layer2=0 to the OPTIONS
parameter.
/etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-eth1
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# IBM QETH
DEVICE=eth1
BOOTPROTO=static
IPADDR=192.168.70.87
NETMASK=255.255.255.0
ONBOOT=yes
NETTYPE=qeth
SUBCHANNELS=0.0.0600,0.0.0601,0.0.0602
PORTNAME=OSAPORT
OPTIONS='layer2=1 portno=0'
MACADDR=02:00:00:b3:84:ef
TYPE=Ethernet
Changes to an ifcfg file only become effective after rebooting the system or after the dynamic addition
of new network device channels by changing the system's I/O configuration (for example, attaching
under z/VM). Alternatively, you can trigger the activation of a ifcfg file for network channels which were
previously not active yet, by executing the following commands:
1. Use the cio_ignore command to remove the network channels from the list of ignored devices
and make them visible to Linux:
# cio_ignore -r read_device_bus_id,write_device_bus_id,data_device_bus_id
Replace read_device_bus_id,write_device_bus_id,data_device_bus_id with the three
device bus IDs representing a network device. For example, if the read_device_bus_id is
0.0.0600, the write_device_bus_id is 0.0.0601, and the data_device_bus_id is
0.0.0602:
# cio_ignore -r 0.0.0600,0.0.0601,0.0.0602
2. T o trigger the uevent that activates the change, issue:
echo add > /sys/bus/ccw/devices/read-channel/uevent
For example:
echo add > /sys/bus/ccw/devices/0.0.0600/uevent
3. Check the status of the network device:
# lsqeth
4. Now start the new interface:
# ifup eth1
5. Check the status of the interface:
# ifconfig eth1
eth1
Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 02:00:00:00:00:01
inet addr:192.168.70.87 Bcast:192.168.70.255 Mask:255.255.255.0
inet6 addr: fe80::ff:fe00:1/64 Scope:Link
UP BROADCAST RUNNING NOARP MULTICAST MTU:1492 Metric:1
RX packets:23 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
TX packets:3 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
collisions:0 txqueuelen:1000
RX bytes:644 (644.0 b) TX bytes:264 (264.0 b)
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6. Check the routing for the new interface:
# route
Kernel IP routing table
Destination
Gateway
192.168.70.0
*
10.1.20.0
*
default
10.1.20.1
Genmask
255.255.255.0
255.255.255.0
0.0.0.0
Flags Metric Ref
U
0
0
U
0
0
UG
0
0
Use Iface
0 eth1
0 eth0
0 eth0
7. Verify your changes by using the ping command to ping the gateway or another host on the
subnet of the new device:
# ping -c 1 192.168.70.8
PING 192.168.70.8 (192.168.70.8) 56(84) bytes of data.
64 bytes from 192.168.70.8: icmp_seq=0 ttl=63 time=8.07 ms
8. If the default route information has changed, you must also update /etc/sysconfig/network
accordingly.
25.3.2. Adding an LCS Device
T he LAN channel station (LCS) device driver supports 1000Base-T Ethernet on the OSA-Express2 and
OSA-Express 3 features.
Based on the type of interface being added, the LCS driver assigns one base interface name:
ethn for OSA-Express Fast Ethernet and Gigabit Ethernet
n is 0 for the first device of that type, 1 for the second, and so on.
25.3.2.1. Dynamically adding an LCS device
1. Load the device driver:
# modprobe lcs
2. Use the cio_ignore command to remove the network channels from the list of ignored devices
and make them visible to Linux:
# cio_ignore -r read_device_bus_id,write_device_bus_id
Replace read_device_bus_id and write_device_bus_id with the two device bus IDs
representing a network device. For example:
# cio_ignore -r 0.0.09a0,0.0.09a1
3. Create the group device:
# echo read_device_bus_id,write_device_bus_id >
/sys/bus/ccwgroup/drivers/lcs/group
4. Configure the device. OSA cards can provide up to 16 ports for a single CHPID. By default, the
LCS group device uses port 0. T o use a different port, issue a command similar to the following:
# echo portno > /sys/bus/ccwgroup/drivers/lcs/device_bus_id/portno
Replace portno with the port number you want to use. For more information about configuration of
the LCS driver, refer to the chapter on LCS in Linux on System z Device Drivers, Features, and
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Commands on Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.
5. Set the device online:
# echo 1 > /sys/bus/ccwgroup/drivers/lcs/read_device_bus_id/online
6. T o find out what network device name has been assigned, enter the command:
# ls -l /sys/bus/ccwgroup/drivers/lcs/read_device_bus_ID/net/
drwxr-xr-x 4 root root 0 2010-04-22 16:54 eth1
25.3.2.2. Persistently adding an LCS device
cio_ignore is handled transparently for persistent device configurations and you do not need to free
devices from the ignore list manually.
T o add an LCS device persistently, follow these steps:
1. Create a configuration script as file in /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ with a name like
ifcfg-ethn where n is an integer starting with 0. T he file should look similar to the following:
/etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-eth0
# IBM LCS
DEVICE=eth0
BOOTPROTO=static
IPADDR=10.12.20.136
NETMASK=255.255.255.0
ONBOOT=yes
NETTYPE=lcs
SUBCHANNELS=0.0.09a0,0.0.09a1
PORTNAME=0
OPTIONS=''
TYPE=Ethernet
2. Modify the value of PORTNAME to reflect the LCS port number (portno) you would like to use. You
can add any valid lcs sysfs attribute and its value to the optional OPTIONS parameter. Refer to
Section 25.3.1.3, “Persistently adding a qeth device” for the syntax.
3. Set the DEVICE parameter as follows:
DEVICE=ethn
4. Issue an ifup command to activate the device:
# ifup ethn
Changes to an ifcfg file only become effective after rebooting the system. You can trigger the
activation of a ifcfg file for network channels by executing the following commands:
1. Use the cio_ignore command to remove the LCS device adapter from the list of ignored
devices and make it visible to Linux:
# cio_ignore -r read_device_bus_id,write_device_bus_id
Replace read_device_bus_id and write_device_bus_id with the device bus IDs of the LCS
device. For example:
# cio_ignore -r 0.0.09a0,0.0.09a1
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 Installation Guide
2. T o trigger the uevent that activates the change, issue:
echo add > /sys/bus/ccw/devices/read-channel/uevent
For example:
echo add > /sys/bus/ccw/devices/0.0.09a0/uevent
25.3.3. Mapping subchannels and network device names
T he DEVICE= option in the ifcfg file does not determine the mapping of subchannels to network
device names. Instead, the udev rules file /etc/udev/rules.d/70-persistent-net.rules
determines which network device channel gets which network device name.
When configuring a new network device on System z, the system automatically adds a new rule to that
file and assigns the next unused device name. You can then edit the values assigned to the NAME=
variable for each device.
Example content of /etc/udev/rules.d/70-persistent-net.rules:
# This file was automatically generated by the /lib/udev/write_net_rules
# program run by the persistent-net-generator.rules rules file.
#
# You can modify it,as long as you keep each rule on a single line.
# S/390 qeth device at 0.0.f5f0
SUBSYSTEM=="net", ACTION=="add", DRIVERS=="qeth", KERNELS=="0.0.f5f0",
ATTR{type}=="1", KERNEL=="eth*", NAME="eth0"
# S/390 ctcm device at 0.0.1000
SUBSYSTEM=="net", ACTION=="add", DRIVERS=="ctcm", KERNELS=="0.0.1000",
ATTR{type}=="256", KERNEL=="ctc*", NAME="ctc0"
# S/390 qeth device at 0.0.8024
SUBSYSTEM=="net", ACTION=="add", DRIVERS=="qeth", KERNELS=="0.0.8024",
ATTR{type}=="1", KERNEL=="hsi*", NAME="hsi0"
# S/390 qeth device at 0.0.8124
SUBSYSTEM=="net", ACTION=="add", DRIVERS=="qeth", KERNELS=="0.0.8124",
ATTR{type}=="1", KERNEL=="hsi*", NAME="hsi1"
# S/390 qeth device at 0.0.1017
SUBSYSTEM=="net", ACTION=="add", DRIVERS=="qeth", KERNELS=="0.0.1017",
ATTR{type}=="1", KERNEL=="eth*", NAME="eth3"
# S/390 qeth device at 0.0.8324
SUBSYSTEM=="net", ACTION=="add", DRIVERS=="qeth", KERNELS=="0.0.8324",
ATTR{type}=="1", KERNEL=="hsi*", NAME="hsi3"
# S/390 qeth device at 0.0.8224
SUBSYSTEM=="net", ACTION=="add", DRIVERS=="qeth", KERNELS=="0.0.8224",
ATTR{type}=="1", KERNEL=="hsi*", NAME="hsi2"
# S/390 qeth device at 0.0.1010
SUBSYSTEM=="net", ACTION=="add", DRIVERS=="qeth", KERNELS=="0.0.1010",
ATTR{type}=="1", KERNEL=="eth*", NAME="eth2"
# S/390 lcs device at 0.0.1240
SUBSYSTEM=="net", ACTION=="add", DRIVERS=="lcs", KERNELS=="0.0.1240",
ATTR{type}=="1", KERNEL=="eth*", NAME="eth1"
# S/390 qeth device at 0.0.1013
SUBSYSTEM=="net", ACTION=="add", DRIVERS=="qeth", KERNELS=="0.0.1013",
ATTR{type}=="1", KERNEL=="hsi*", NAME="hsi4"
25.3.4 . Configuring a System z Network Device for Network Root File System
T o add a network device that is required to access the root file system, you only have to change the
boot options. T he boot options can be in a parameter file (refer to Chapter 26, Parameter and
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Configuration Files) or part of a zipl.conf on a DASD or FCP-attached SCSI LUN prepared with the
zipl boot loader. T here is no need to recreate the initramfs.
Dracut (the mkinitrd successor that provides the functionality in the initramfs that in turn replaces
initrd) provides a boot parameter to activate network devices on System z early in the boot process:
rd_ZNET=.
As input, this parameter takes a comma-separated list of the NETTYPE (qeth, lcs, ctc), two (lcs, ctc) or
three (qeth) device bus IDs, and optional additional parameters consisting of key-value pairs
corresponding to network device sysfs attributes. T his parameter configures and activates the System z
network hardware. T he configuration of IP addresses and other network specifics works the same as for
other platforms. Refer to the dracut documentation for more details.
cio_ignore for the network channels is handled transparently on boot.
Example boot options for a root file system accessed over the network through NFS:
root=10.16.105.196:/nfs/nfs_root cio_ignore=all,!0.0.0009
rd_ZNET=qeth,0.0.0a00,0.0.0a01,0.0.0a02,layer2=1,portno=0,portname=OSAPORT
ip=10.16.105.197:10.16.105.196:10.16.111.254:255.255.248.0:nfs‑server.subdomain.dom
ain:eth0:none rd_NO_LUKS rd_NO_LVM rd_NO_MD rd_NO_DM LANG=en_US.UTF-8
SYSFONT=latarcyrheb-sun16 KEYTABLE=us
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Chapter 26. Parameter and Configuration Files
T he IBM System z architecture can use a customized parameter file to pass boot parameters to the
kernel and the installer. T his section describes the contents of this parameter file.
You need only read this section if you intend to change the shipped parameter file. You need to change
the parameter file if you want to:
automate the user input for linuxrc or the loader (refer to Chapter 21, Installation Phase 1:
Configuring a Network Device and Chapter 22, Installation Phase 2: Configuring Language and
Installation Source).
install unattended with kickstart.
choose non-default installation settings that are not accessible through the installer's interactive
user interface, such as rescue mode.
T he parameter file can be used to set up networking non-interactively before the installation program
(loader and anaconda) starts.
T he kernel parameter file is limited to 895 characters plus an end-of-line character. T he parameter file
can be variable or fixed record format. Fixed record format increases the file size by padding each line
up to the record length. Should you encounter problems with the installer not recognizing all specified
parameters in LPAR environments, you can try to put all parameters in one single line or start and end
each line with a space character.
For more details on kernel parameters and different possibilities of specifying them, see the chapter on
booting Linux and the chapter on kernel parameters in Linux on System z Device Drivers, Features, and
Commands on Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.
T he parameter file contains kernel parameters, such as root=/dev/ram 0 or ro, and parameters for
the installation process, such as vncpassword=test or vnc.
26.1. Required parameters
T he following parameters are required and must be included in the parameter file. T hey are also
provided in the file generic.prm in directory im ages/ of the installation DVD:
root=file_system
where file_system represents the device on which the root file system can be found. For
installation purposes, it must be set to /dev/ram 0, which is the ramdisk containing the Red
Hat Enterprise Linux installation program.
ro
mounts the root file system, which is a ramdisk, read-only.
ip=off
disables automatic network configuration.
ramdisk_size=size
modifies the memory size reserved for the ramdisk to ensure that the Red Hat Enterprise Linux
installation program fits within it. For example: ram disk_size=4 0000.
34 0
Chapter 26. Parameter and Configuration Files
T he file generic.prm also contains the additional parameter cio_ignore=all,!0.0.0009. T his
setting speeds up boot and device detection on systems with many devices. T he installer transparently
handles the activation of ignored devices.
Important — adapt the cio_ignore parameter to your system
T o avoid installation problems arising from cio_ignore support not being implemented
throughout the entire stack, adapt the cio_ignore= parameter value to your system or remove
the parameter entirely from your parameter file used for booting (IPL) the installer.
When installing from an FCP-attached DVD drive, and you encounter a problem with ignored
devices, select the menu option clear blacklist in linuxrc (refer to Chapter 21, Installation
Phase 1: Configuring a Network Device) to remove the list of ignored devices.
26.2. The z/VM configuration file
T his applies only if installing under z/VM. Under z/VM, you can use a configuration file on a CMSformatted disk. T he purpose of the CMS configuration file is to save space in the parameter file by
moving the parameters that configure the initial network setup, the DASD, and the FCP specification out
of the parameter file (refer to Section 26.3, “Installation network parameters”).
Each line of the CMS configuration file contains a single variable and its associated value, in the
following shell-style syntax: variable=value .
You must also add the CMSDASD and CMSCONFFILE parameters to the parameter file. T hese parameters
point the installation program to the configuration file:
CMSDASD=cmsdasd_address
Where cmsdasd_address is the device number of a CMS-formatted disk that contains the
configuration file. T his is usually the CMS user's A disk.
For example: CMSDASD=191
CMSCONFFILE=configuration_file
Where configuration_file is the name of the configuration file. T his value must be specified
in lower case. It is specified in a Linux file name format: CMS_file_name.CMS_file_type.
T he CMS file REDHAT CONF is specified as redhat.conf. T he CMS file name and the file
type can each be from one to eight characters that follow the CMS conventions.
For example: CMSCONFFILE=redhat.conf
26.3. Installation network parameters
T he following parameters can be used to set up the preliminary network automatically and can be
defined in either the parameter file or the CMS configuration file. T he parameters in this section are the
only parameters that can also be used in a CMS configuration file. All other parameters in other sections
must be specified in the parameter file.
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 Installation Guide
34 1
NETTYPE='type'
Where type must be one of the following: qeth, lcs, or ctc. T he default is qeth.
Choose lcs for:
OSA-2 Ethernet/T oken Ring
OSA-Express Fast Ethernet in non-QDIO mode
OSA-Express High Speed T oken Ring in non-QDIO mode
Gigabit Ethernet in non-QDIO mode
Choose qeth for:
OSA-Express Fast Ethernet
Gigabit Ethernet (including 1000Base-T )
High Speed T oken Ring
HiperSockets
AT M (running Ethernet LAN emulation)
SUBCHANNELS='device_bus_IDs'
Where bus_IDs is a comma-separated list of two or three device bus IDs.
Provides required device bus IDs for the various network interfaces:
qeth:
SUBCHANNELS='read_device_bus_id,write_device_bus_id,data_device_bus_id'
lcs or ctc: SUBCHANNELS='read_device_bus_id,write_device_bus_id'
For example (a sample qeth SUBCHANNEL statement):
SUBCHANNELS='0.0.f5f0,0.0.f5f1,0.0.f5f2'
PORTNAME='osa_portname' , PORTNAME='lcs_portnumber'
T his variable supports OSA devices operating in qdio mode or in non-qdio mode.
When using qdio mode (NET T YPE='qeth'), osa_portname is the portname specified on the
OSA device when operating in qeth mode.
When using non-qdio mode (NET T YPE='lcs'), lcs_portnumber is used to pass the relative
port number as a decimal integer in the range of 0 through 15.
PORTNO='portnumber'
You can add either PORT NO='0' (to use port 0) or PORT NO='1' (to use port 1 of OSA
features with two ports per CHPID) to the CMS configuration file to avoid being prompted for the
mode.
LAYER2='value'
Where value can be 0 or 1.
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Chapter 26. Parameter and Configuration Files
Use LAYER2='0' to operate an OSA or HiperSockets device in layer 3 mode
(NET T YPE='qeth'). Use LAYER2='1' for layer 2 mode. For virtual network devices under
z/VM this setting must match the definition of the GuestLAN or VSWIT CH to which the device is
coupled.
T o use network services that operate on layer 2 (the Data Link Layer or its MAC sublayer) such
as DHCP, layer 2 mode is a good choice.
T he qeth device driver default for OSA devices is now layer 2 mode. T o continue using the
previous default of layer 3 mode, set LAYER2='0' explicitly.
VSWITCH='value'
Where value can be 0 or 1.
Specify VSWIT CH='1' when connecting to a z/VM VSWIT CH or GuestLAN, or VSWIT CH='0'
(or nothing at all) when using directly attached real OSA or directly attached real HiperSockets.
MACADDR='MAC_address'
When you specify LAYER2='1' and VSWIT CH='0', optionally use this parameter to specify
the MAC address. Linux needs six colon-separated octets and lower case hex digits. Note that
this is different from the z/VM notation, so be careful if you copy and paste information from
z/VM.
If you specify LAYER2='1' and VSWIT CH='1', you must not specify the MACADDR, because
z/VM assigns a unique MAC address to virtual network devices in layer 2 mode.
CTCPROT='value'
Where value can be 0, 1, or 3.
Specifies the CT C protocol for NET T YPE='ctc'. T he default is 0.
HOSTNAME='string'
Where string is the hostname of the newly-installed Linux instance.
IPADDR='IP'
Where IP is the IP address of the new Linux instance.
NETMASK='netmask'
Where netmask is the netmask.
T he netmask supports the syntax of a prefix integer (from 1 to 32) as specified in IPv4
classless interdomain routing (CIDR). For example, you can specify 24 instead of
255.255.255.0, or 20 instead of 255.255.24 0.0.
GATEWAY='gw'
Where gw is the gateway IP address for this network device.
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34 3
MTU='mtu'
Where mtu is the Maximum Transmission Unit (MT U) for this network device.
DNS='server1:server2:additional_server_terms:serverN'
Where 'server1:server2:additional_server_terms:serverN' is a list of DNS servers,
separated by colons. For example:
DNS='10.1.2.3:10.3.2.1'
SEARCHDNS='domain1:domain2:additional_dns_terms:domainN'
Where 'domain1:domain2:additional_dns_terms:domainN' is a list of the search domains,
separated by colons. For example:
SEARCHDNS='subdomain.domain:domain'
You only need to specify SEARCHDNS= if you specify the DNS= parameter.
DASD=
Defines the DASD or range of DASDs to configure for the installation. For a detailed description
of the syntax, refer to the dasd_m od device driver module option described in the chapter on
the DASD device driver in Linux on System z Device Drivers, Features, and Commands on Red
Hat Enterprise Linux 6.
Linuxrc supports a comma-separated list of device bus IDs or of ranges of device bus IDs with
the optional attributes ro, diag, erplog, and failfast. Optionally, you can abbreviate
device bus IDs to device numbers with leading zeros stripped. Any optional attributes should be
separated by colons and enclosed in parentheses. Optional attributes follow a device bus ID or
a range of device bus IDs.
T he only supported global option is autodetect. T his does not support the specification of
non-existent DASDs to reserve kernel device names for later addition of DASDs. Use persistent
DASD device names (for example /dev/disk/by-path/...) to enable transparent addition
of disks later. Other global options such as probeonly, nopav, or nofcx are not supported
by linuxrc.
Only specify those DASDs that you really need to install your system. All unformatted DASDs
specified here must be formatted after a confirmation later on in the installer (refer to
Section 23.6.1.1, “DASD low-level formatting”). Add any data DASDs that are not needed for the
root file system or the /boot partition after installation as described in Section 25.1.3.2,
“DASDs that are not part of the root file system”.
For FCP-only environments, specify DASD='none'.
For example:
DASD='eb1c,0.0.a000-0.0.a003,eb10-eb14(diag),0.0.ab1c(ro:diag)'
FCP_n='device_bus_ID WWPN FCP_LUN'
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Chapter 26. Parameter and Configuration Files
Where:
n is typically an integer value (for example FCP_1 or FCP_2) but could be any string with
alphabetic or numeric characters or underscores.
device_bus_ID specifies the device bus ID of the FCP device representing the host bus
adapter (HBA) (for example 0.0.fc00 for device fc00).
WWPN is the world wide port name used for routing (often in conjunction with multipathing)
and is as a 16-digit hex value (for example 0x50050763050b073d).
FCP_LUN refers to the storage logical unit identifier and is specified as a 16-digit
hexadecimal value padded with zeroes to the right (for example 0x4 0204 00100000000).
T hese variables can be used on systems with FCP devices to activate FCP LUNs such as SCSI
disks. Additional FCP LUNs can be activated during the installation interactively or by means of
a kickstart file. T here is no interactive question for FCP in linuxrc. An example value may look
similar to the following:
FCP_1='0.0.fc00 0x50050763050b073d 0x4020400100000000'
Important — values are site-specific
Each of the values used in the FCP parameters (for example FCP_1 or FCP_2) are sitespecific and are normally supplied by the FCP storage administrator.
T he installation program prompts you for any required parameters not specified in the parameter or
configuration file except for FCP_n.
26.4. VNC and X11 parameters
T he following parameters can be defined in a parameter file but do not work in a CMS configuration file.
With these parameters you control what interface will be used for anaconda.
T o use an X11 user interface without X11 forwarding, specify the following X11 parameter:
display=IP/hostname:display
Sets the hostname or IP address and the X11 display where the installer should connect to and
display its graphical user interface.
T o use a VNC server instead of an X11 user interface, specify the following VNC parameters:
vnc
Specify vnc to use the VNC graphical user interface later in the installation process.
vncpassword=
T his parameter sets the password used to connect to the VNC server. T he password
parameter is optional. If not used, the VNC server does not use a password and anybody can
connect to the VNC server.
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vncconnect=IP/hostname[:port]
When used in addition to vnc and vncpassword=, this optional parameter specifies the
hostname or IP address (and optionally, a T CP port) where a VNC client is running in listening
mode. T he installer connects to and displays its graphical user interface on this VNC client.
26.5. Loader parameters
T he following parameters can be defined in a parameter file but do not work in a CMS configuration file.
T o automate the loader screens, specify the following parameters:
lang=language
Sets the language of the installer user interface, for example, en for English or de for German.
T his automates the response to Choose a Language (refer to Section 22.3, “Language
Selection”).
repo=installation_source
Sets the installation source to access stage 2 as well as the repository with the packages to be
installed. T his automates the response to Installation Method (refer to Section 22.4,
“Installation Method”).
26.6. Parameters for kickstart installations
T he following parameters can be defined in a parameter file but do not work in a CMS configuration file.
ks=URL
References a kickstart file, which usually resides on the network for Linux installations on
System z. Replace URL with the full path including the file name of the kickstart file. T his
parameter activates automatic installation with kickstart. Refer to Section 28.4, “Automating the
Installation with Kickstart” and Section 32.10, “Starting a Kickstart Installation” for more details.]
RUNKS=value
Where value is defined as 1 if you want to run the loader automatically on the Linux console
without having to log in over the network with SSH. T o use RUNKS=1, the console must either
support full-screen or the cmdline option below should be used. T he latter applies for the
3270 terminal under z/VM or the operating system messages console for LPAR. We
recommend RUNKS=1 for fully automatic installations with kickstart. When RUNKS=1 is set,
linuxrc automatically continues in case of parameter errors and does not interrupt unattended
installations by prompting for user interaction.
Leave out the parameter or specify RUNKS=0 otherwise.
cmdline
When cmdline is specified, output on line-mode terminals (such as 3270 under z/VM or
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Chapter 26. Parameter and Configuration Files
operating system messages for LPAR) becomes readable, as the installer disables escape
terminal sequences that are only applicable to UNIX-like consoles. T his requires installation
with a kickstart file that answers all questions, since the installer does not support interactive
user input in cmdline mode.
Ensure that your kickstart file contains all required parameters before you use either the RUNKS or
cmdline options. Refer to Chapter 32, Kickstart Installations for details.
26.7. Miscellaneous parameters
T he following parameters can be defined in a parameter file but do not work in a CMS configuration file.
askmethod
Do not use an automatically detected DVD as installation source but ask for the installation
method to manually specify the installation source. T his parameter is useful if you booted from
an FCP-attached DVD but want to continue with another installation source, for example on the
network or on a local hard disk.
mediacheck
T urns on testing of an ISO-based installation source; for example, when booted from an FCPattached DVD or using repo= with an ISO on local hard disk or mounted with NFS.
nompath
Disables support for multi-pathing devices.
proxy=[protocol://][username[:password]@]host[:port]
Specify a proxy to use with installation over HT T P, HT T PS, or FT P.
rescue
Boot into a rescue system running from a ramdisk that can be used to fix and restore an
installed system.
stage2=URL
Specifies a path to an install.im g file instead of to an installation source. Otherwise, follows
the same syntax as repo=. If stage2 is specified, it takes precedence over all other methods of
finding the install.im g. Otherwise, anaconda attempts to find the install.im g first on
any existing DVD, and then from the location given by repo= or method=.
If only stage2= is given without repo= or method=, anaconda uses whatever repos the
installed system would have enabled by default for installation.
syslog=IP/hostname[:port]
Makes the installer send log messages to a remote syslog server.
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34 7
T he boot parameters described here are the most useful for installations and trouble shooting on
System z, but only a subset of those that influence the installer. Refer to Chapter 28, Boot Options for a
more complete list of installer boot parameters.
26.8. Sample parameter file and CMS configuration file
T o change the parameter file, begin by extending the shipped generic.prm file.
Example of generic.prm file:
root='/dev/ram0' ro ip='off' ramdisk_size='40000' cio_ignore='all,!0.0.0009'
CMSDASD='191' CMSCONFFILE='redhat.conf'
vnc
Example of redhat.conf file configuring a QET H network device (pointed to by CMSCONFFILE in
generic.prm ):
NETTYPE='qeth'
SUBCHANNELS='0.0.0600,0.0.0601,0.0.0602'
PORTNAME='FOOBAR'
PORTNO='0'
LAYER2='1'
MACADDR='02:00:be:3a:01:f3'
HOSTNAME='foobar.systemz.example.com'
IPADDR='192.168.17.115'
NETMASK='255.255.255.0'
GATEWAY='192.168.17.254'
DNS='192.168.17.1'
SEARCHDNS='systemz.example.com:example.com'
DASD='200-203'
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Chapter 27. IBM System z References
Chapter 27. IBM System z References
27.1. IBM System z Publications
Current versions of the Linux on System z publications can be found at
http://www.ibm.com/developerworks/linux/linux390/documentation_red_hat.html. T hey include:
IBM . 2010. Linux on System z Device Drivers, Features, and Commands on Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.
SC34-2597.
IBM . 2010. Linux on System z Using the Dump Tools on Red Hat Enterprise Linux . SC34-2607.
IBM . 2009. Linux on System z How to use FC-attached SCSI devices with Linux on System z. SC338413.
IBM . 2010. How to use Execute-in-Place Technology with Linux on z/VM. SC34-2594.
IBM . 2009. Linux on System z How to Set up a Terminal Server Environment on z/VM. SC34-2596.
IBM . 2009. Linux on System z libica Programmer’s Reference Version 2. SC34-2602.
IBM . 2008. Linux on System z How to Improve Performance with PAV. SC33-8414.
IBM . 2008. z/VM Getting Started with Linux on System z. SC24-6194.
27.2. IBM Redbooks for System z
Current versions of the Redbooks can be found at http://www.ibm.com/redbooks. T hey include:
Introductory publications
IBM Redbooks . 2007. Introduction to the New Mainframe: z/VM Basics. SG24-7316.
IBM Redbooks . 2008. z/VM and Linux on IBM System z The Virtualization Cookbook for Red Hat
Enterprise Linux 5.2. SG24-7492.
IBM Redbooks . 2009. Practical Migration to Linux on System z. SG24-7727.
Performance and high availability
IBM Redbooks . 2008. Linux on IBM System z: Performance Measurement and Tuning. SG24-6926.
IBM Redbooks . 2009. Achieving High Availability on Linux for System z with Linux-HA Release 2. SG247711.
Security
IBM Redbooks . 2010. Security for Linux on System z. SG24-7728.
IBM Redbooks . 2006. Using Cryptographic Adapters for Web Servers with Linux on IBM System z9 and
zSeries. REDP-4131.
Networking
IBM Redbooks . 2009. IBM System z Connectivity Handbook. SG24-5444.
IBM Redbooks . 2009. OSA Express Implementation Guide. SG24-5948.
IBM Redbooks . 2007. HiperSockets Implementation Guide. SG24-6816.
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 Installation Guide
34 9
IBM Redbooks . 2007. Fibre Channel Protocol for Linux and z/VM on IBM System z. SG24-7266.
27.3. Online resources
For z/VM publications, refer to http://www.ibm.com/vm/library/ .
For System z I/O connectivity information, refer to http://www.ibm.com/systems/z/connectivity/ .
For System z cryptographic coprocessor information, refer to http://www.ibm.com/security/cryptocards/ .
Brad Hinson and Mike MacIsaac. Sharing and maintaining RHEL 5.3 Linux under z/VM.
http://www.linuxvm.org/Present/misc/ro-root-RH5.pdf.
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Part IV. Advanced installation options
Part IV. Advanced installation options
T his part of the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Installation Guide covers more advanced or uncommon
methods of installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux, including:
boot options.
installing without media.
installing through VNC.
using kickstart to automate the installation process.
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Chapter 28. Boot Options
T he Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation system includes a range of functions and options for
administrators. T o use boot options, enter linux option at the boot: prompt.
T o access the boot: prompt on a system that displays a graphical boot screen, press the Esc key
while the graphical boot screen is displayed.
If you specify more than one option, separate each of the options by a single space. For example:
linux option1 option2 option3
Rescue Mode
T he Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation and rescue discs may either boot with rescue mode, or
load the installation system. For more information on rescue discs and rescue mode, refer to
Section 28.6.2, “Booting Your Computer with the Rescue Mode”.
28.1. Configuring the Installation System at the Boot Menu
You can use the boot menu to specify a number of settings for the installation system, including:
language
display resolution
interface type
Installation method
network settings
28.1.1. Specifying the Language
T o set the language for both the installation process and the final system, specify the ISO code for that
language with the lang option. Use the keym ap option to configure the correct keyboard layout.
For example, the ISO codes el_GR and gr identify the Greek language and the Greek keyboard layout:
linux lang=el_GR keymap=gr
28.1.2. Configuring the Interface
T o use a specific display resolution, enter resolution=setting as a boot option. For example, to set
the display resolution to 1024×768, enter:
linux resolution=1024x768
T o run the installation process in text mode, enter:
linux text
T o enable support for a serial console, enter serial as an additional option.
Use display=ip:0 to allow remote display forwarding. In this command, ip should be replaced with
the IP address of the system on which you want the display to appear.
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Chapter 28. Boot Options
On the system you want the display to appear on, you must execute the command xhost
+remotehostname, where remotehostname is the name of the host from which you are running the
original display. Using the command xhost +remotehostname limits access to the remote display
terminal and does not allow access from anyone or any system not specifically authorized for remote
access.
28.1.3. Updating anaconda
You can install Red Hat Enterprise Linux with a newer version of the anaconda installation program
than the one supplied on your installation media.
T he boot option
linux updates
presents you with a prompt that asks you for a disk image containing anaconda updates. You do not
need to specify this option if you are performing a network installation and have already placed the
updates image contents in rhupdates/ on the server.
T o load the anaconda updates from a network location instead, use:
linux updates=
followed by the URL for the location where the updates are stored.
28.1.4 . Specifying the Installation Method
Use the askm ethod option to display additional menus that enable you to specify the installation
method and network settings. You may also configure the installation method and network settings at the
boot: prompt itself.
T o specify the installation method from the boot: prompt, use the repo option. Refer to T able 28.1,
“Installation methods” for the supported installation methods.
T able 28.1. Installation methods
Installation method
Option format
DVD drive
repo=cdrom :device
Hard Drive
repo=hd:device/path
HT T P Server
repo=http://host/path
HT T PS Server
repo=https://host/path
FT P Server
repo=ftp://username:[email protected] host/path
NFS Server
repo=nfs:server:/path
ISO images on an NFS
Server
repo=nfsiso:server:/path
28.1.5. Specifying the Network Settings
Normally, anaconda prompts you to configure a network interface if one is needed during installation.
However, you can provide network settings with options at the boot: prompt as follows:
ip
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353
the IP address for system
netm ask
the netmask for the system
gateway
the IP address of the network gateway
dns
the IP address of the network DNS server
ksdevice
the network device to use with these settings
T his example configures the network settings for an installation system that uses the IP address
192.168.1.10 for interface eth0:
linux ip=192.168.1.10 netmask=255.255.255.0 gateway=192.168.1.1 dns=192.168.1.3
ksdevice=eth0
If you specify the network configuration and network device at the boot: prompt, these settings are
used for the installation process and the Networking Devices and Configure T CP/IP dialogs do
not appear.
28.2. Enabling Remote Access to the Installation System
You may access either graphical or text interfaces for the installation system from any other system.
Access to a text mode display requires telnet, which is installed by default on Red Hat Enterprise Linux
systems. T o remotely access the graphical display of an installation system, use client software that
supports the VNC (Virtual Network Computing) display protocol.
Installing a VNC Client on Red Hat Enterprise Linux
Red Hat Enterprise Linux includes the VNC client vncviewer. T o obtain vncviewer, install the
tigervnc package.
T he installation system supports two methods of establishing a VNC connection. You may start the
installation, and manually login to the graphical display with a VNC client on another system.
Alternatively, you may configure the installation system to automatically connect to a VNC client on the
network that is running in listening mode.
28.2.1. Enabling Remote Access with VNC
T o enable remote graphical access to the installation system, enter two options at the prompt:
linux vnc vncpassword=qwerty
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Chapter 28. Boot Options
T he vnc option enables the VNC service. T he vncpassword option sets a password for remote
access. T he example shown above sets the password as qwerty.
VNC Passwords
T he VNC password must be at least six characters long.
Specify the language, keyboard layout and network settings for the installation system with the screens
that follow. You may then access the graphical interface through a VNC client. T he installation system
displays the correct connection setting for the VNC client:
Starting VNC...
The VNC server is now running.
Please connect to computer.mydomain.com:1 to begin the install...
Starting graphical installation...
Press <enter> for a shell
You may then login to the installation system with a VNC client. T o run the vncviewer client on Red Hat
Enterprise Linux, choose Applications → Accessories → VNC Viewer, or type the command
vncviewer in a terminal window. Enter the server and display number in the VNC Server dialog. For
the example above, the VNC Server is com puter.m ydom ain.com :1.
28.2.2. Connecting the Installation System to a VNC Listener
T o have the installation system automatically connect to a VNC client, first start the client in listening
mode. On Red Hat Enterprise Linux systems, use the -listen option to run vncviewer as a listener. In
a terminal window, enter the command:
vncviewer -listen
Firewall Reconfiguration Required
By default, vncviewer uses T CP port 5500 when in listening mode. T o permit connections to this
port from other systems, choose System → Administration → Firewall. Select Other ports,
and Add. Enter 5500 in the Port(s) field, and specify tcp as the Protocol.
Once the listening client is active, start the installation system and set the VNC options at the boot:
prompt. In addition to vnc and vncpassword options, use the vncconnect option to specify the name
or IP address of the system that has the listening client. T o specify the T CP port for the listener, add a
colon and the port number to the name of the system.
For example, to connect to a VNC client on the system desktop.m ydom ain.com on the port 5500,
enter the following at the boot: prompt:
linux vnc vncpassword=qwerty vncconnect=desktop.mydomain.com:5500
28.2.3. Enabling Remote Access with ssh
T o enable remote access to a text mode installation, use the sshd=1 option at the boot: prompt:
linux sshd=1
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You can then connect to the installation system with the ssh utility. T he ssh command requires the
name or IP address of the installation system, and a password if you specified one (for example, in a
kickstart file).
28.2.4 . Enabling Remote Access with T elnet
T o enable remote access to a text mode installation, use the telnet option at the boot: prompt:
linux text telnet
You may then connect to the installation system with the telnet utility. T he telnet command requires
the name or IP address of the installation system:
telnet computer.mydomain.com
Telnet Access Requires No Password
T o ensure the security of the installation process, only use the telnet option to install systems
on networks with restricted access.
28.3. Logging to a Remote System During the Installation
By default, the installation process sends log messages to the console as they are generated. You may
specify that these messages go to a remote system that runs a syslog service.
T o configure remote logging, add the syslog option. Specify the IP address of the logging system, and
the UDP port number of the log service on that system. By default, syslog services that accept remote
messages listen on UDP port 514.
For example, to connect to a syslog service on the system 192.168.1.20, enter the following at the
boot: prompt:
linux syslog=192.168.1.20:514
28.3.1. Configuring a Log Server
Red Hat Enterprise Linux uses rsyslog to provide a syslog service. T he default configuration of
rsyslog rejects messages from remote systems.
Only Enable Remote Syslog Access on Secured Networks
T he rsyslog configuration detailed below does not make use of any of the security measures
available in rsyslog Crackers may slow or crash systems that permit access to the logging
service, by sending large quantities of false log messages. In addition, hostile users may
intercept or falsify messages sent to the logging service over the network.
T o configure a Red Hat Enterprise Linux system to accept log messages from other systems on the
network, edit the file /etc/rsyslog.conf. You must use root privileges to edit the file
/etc/rsyslog.conf. Uncomment the following lines by removing the hash preceding them:
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Chapter 28. Boot Options
$ModLoad imudp.so
$UDPServerRun 514
Restart the rsyslog service to apply the change:
su -c '/sbin/service rsyslog restart'
Enter the root password when prompted.
Firewall Reconfiguration Required
By default, the syslog service listens on UDP port 514. T o permit connections to this port from
other systems, choose System → Administration → Firewall. Select Other ports, and Add.
Enter 514 in the Port(s) field, and specify udp as the Protocol.
28.4. Automating the Installation with Kickstart
You can allow an installation to run unattended by using Kickstart. A Kickstart file specifies settings for
an installation. Once the installation system boots, it can read a Kickstart file and carry out the
installation process without any further input from a user.
Every Installation Produces a Kickstart File
T he Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation process automatically writes a Kickstart file that
contains the settings for the installed system. T his file is always saved as /root/anacondaks.cfg. You may use this file to repeat the installation with identical settings, or modify copies to
specify settings for other systems.
Important — Kickstart installations and firstboot
Firstboot does not run after a system is installed from a Kickstart file unless a desktop and the
X Window System were included in the installation and graphical login was enabled. Either specify
a user with the user option in the Kickstart file before installing additional systems from it (refer
to Section 32.4, “Kickstart Options” for details) or log into the installed system with a virtual
console as root and add users with the adduser command.
Red Hat Enterprise Linux includes a graphical application to create and modify Kickstart files by selecting
the options that you require. Use the package system -config-kickstart to install this utility. T o
load the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Kickstart editor, choose Applications → System T ools →
Kickstart.
Kickstart files list installation settings in plain text, with one option per line. T his format lets you modify
your Kickstart files with any text editor, and write scripts or applications that generate custom Kickstart
files for your systems.
T o automate the installation process with a Kickstart file, use the ks option to specify the name and
location of the file:
linux ks=location/kickstart-file.cfg
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You may use Kickstart files that are held on either removable storage, a hard drive, or a network server.
Refer to T able 28.2, “Kickstart sources” for the supported Kickstart sources.
T able 28.2. Kickstart sources
Kickstart source
Option format
DVD drive
ks=cdrom:/directory/ks.cfg
Hard Drive
ks=hd:/device/directory/ks.cfg
Other Device
ks=file:/device/directory/ks.cfg
HT T P Server
ks=http://server.mydomain.com/directory/ks.cfg
HT T PS Server
ks=https://server.mydomain.com/directory/ks.cfg
FT P Server
ks=ftp://server.mydomain.com/directory/ks.cfg
NFS Server
ks=nfs:server.mydomain.com:/directory/ks.cfg
T o obtain a Kickstart file from a script or application on a Web server, specify the URL of the application
with the ks= option. If you add the option kssendm ac, the request also sends HT T P headers to the
Web application. Your application can use these headers to identify the computer. T his line sends a
request with headers to the application http://server.mydomain.com/kickstart.cgi:
linux ks=http://server.mydomain.com/kickstart.cgi kssendmac
28.5. Enhancing Hardware Support
By default, Red Hat Enterprise Linux attempts to automatically detect and configure support for all of the
components of your computer. Red Hat Enterprise Linux supports the majority of hardware in common
use with the software drivers that are included with the operating system. T o support other devices you
may supply additional drivers during the installation process, or at a later time.
28.5.1. Overriding Automatic Hardware Detection
For some models of device automatic hardware configuration may fail, or cause instability. In these
cases, you may need to disable automatic configuration for that type of device, and take additional steps
to manually configure the device after the installation process is complete.
Check the Release Notes
Refer to the Release Notes for information on known issues with specific devices.
T o override the automatic hardware detection, use one or more of the following options:
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T able 28.3. Hardware Options
Compatibility
Option
Disable all hardware detection
noprobe
Disable graphics, keyboard, and mouse detection
headless
Disable passing keyboard and mouse information to stage 2
of the installation program
nopass
Use basic VESA driver for video
xdriver=vesa
Disable shell access on virtual console 2 during installation
noshell
Disable advanced configuration and power interface (ACPI)
acpi=off
Disable machine check exception (MCE) CPU selfdiagnosis.
nom ce
Disable non-uniform memory access on the AMD64
architecture
num a-off
Force kernel to detect a specific amount of memory, where
xxx is a value in megabytes
m em =xxxm
Enable DMA only for IDE and SAT A drives
libata.dm a=1
Disable BIOS-assisted RAID
nodm raid
Disable Firewire device detection
nofirewire
Disable parallel port detection
noparport
Disable PC Card (PCMCIA) device detection
nopcm cia
Disable all probing of network hardware
nonet
Additional Screen
T he isa option causes the system to display an additional text screen at the beginning of the
installation process. Use this screen to configure the ISA devices on your computer.
Important
Other kernel boot options have no particular meaning for anaconda and do not affect the
installation process. However, if you use these options to boot the installation system, anaconda
will preserve them in the bootloader configuration.
28.6. Using the Maintenance Boot Modes
28.6.1. Verifying boot media
You can test the integrity of an ISO-based installation source before using it to install Red Hat Enterprise
Linux. T hese sources include DVD, and ISO images stored on a hard drive or NFS server. Verifying that
the ISO images are intact before you attempt an installation helps to avoid problems that are often
encountered during installation.
Red Hat Enterprise Linux offers you two ways to test installation ISOs:
select OK at the prompt to test the media before installation when booting from the Red Hat
Enterprise Linux DVD
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359
boot Red Hat Enterprise Linux with the option m ediacheck option.
28.6.2. Booting Your Computer with the Rescue Mode
You may boot a command-line Linux system from either a rescue disc or an installation disc, without
installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux on the computer. T his enables you to use the utilities and functions
of a running Linux system to modify or repair systems that are already installed on your computer.
T he rescue disc starts the rescue mode system by default. T o load the rescue system with the
installation disc, choose Rescue installed system from the boot menu.
Specify the language, keyboard layout and network settings for the rescue system with the screens that
follow. T he final setup screen configures access to the existing system on your computer.
By default, rescue mode attaches an existing operating system to the rescue system under the directory
/m nt/sysim age/.
28.6.3. Upgrading your computer
A previous boot option, upgrade, has been superceded by a stage in the installation process where the
installation program prompts you to upgrade or reinstall earlier versions of Red Hat Enterprise Linux that
it detects on your system.
However, the installation program may not correctly detect a previous version of Red Hat Enterprise
Linux if the contents of the /etc/redhat-release file have changed. T he boot option upgradeany
relaxes the test that the installation program performs and allows you to upgrade a Red Hat Enterprise
Linux installation that the installation program has not correctly identified.
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Chapter 29. Installing Without Media
Chapter 29. Installing Without Media
Linux Required
T his procedure assumes you are already using Red Hat Enterprise Linux or another relatively
modern Linux distribution, and the GRUB boot loader. It also assumes you are a somewhat
experienced Linux user.
T his section discusses how to install Red Hat Enterprise Linux on your system without making any
additional physical media. Instead, you can use your existing GRUB boot loader to start the installation
program.
29.1. Retrieving Boot Files
T o perform an installation without media or a PXE server, your system must have two files stored locally,
a kernel and an initial RAM disk.
Copy the vm linuz and initrd.im g files from a Red Hat Enterprise Linux DVD (or DVD image) to the
/boot/ directory, renaming them to vm linuz-install and initrd.im g-install. You must have
root privileges to write files into the /boot/ directory.
29.2. Editing the GRUB Configuration
T he GRUB boot loader uses the configuration file /boot/grub/grub.conf. T o configure GRUB to
boot from the new files, add a boot stanza to /boot/grub/grub.conf that refers to them.
A minimal boot stanza looks like the following listing:
title Installation
root (hd0,0)
kernel /vmlinuz-install
initrd /initrd.img-install
You may wish to add options to the end of the kernel line of the boot stanza. T hese options set
preliminary options in Anaconda which the user normally sets interactively. For a list of available
installer boot options, refer to Chapter 28, Boot Options.
T he following options are generally useful for medialess installations:
ip=
repo=
lang=
keym ap=
ksdevice= (if installation requires an interface other than eth0)
vnc and vncpassword= for a remote installation
When you are finished, change the default option in /boot/grub/grub.conf to point to the new
first stanza you added:
default 0
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29.3. Booting to Installation
Reboot the system. GRUB boots the installation kernel and RAM disk, including any options you set.
You may now refer to the appropriate chapter in this guide for the next step. If you chose to install
remotely using VNC, refer to Section 28.2, “Enabling Remote Access to the Installation System” for
assistance in connecting to the remote system.
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Chapter 30. Setting Up an Installation Server
Chapter 30. Setting Up an Installation Server
T he following steps must be performed to prepare for a PXE installation:
1. Configure the network (NFS, FT P, HT T P, HT T PS) server to export the installation tree.
2. Configure the files on the tftp server necessary for PXE booting.
3. Configure which hosts are allowed to boot from the PXE configuration.
4. Start the tftp service.
5. Configure DHCP.
6. Boot the client, and start the installation.
30.1. Setting up the Network Server
First, configure an NFS, FT P, HT T P, or HT T PS server to export the entire installation tree for the version
and variant of Red Hat Enterprise Linux to be installed. Refer to Section 4.1, “Preparing for a Network
Installation” for detailed instructions.
30.2. PXE Boot Configuration
T he next step is to copy the files necessary to start the installation to the tftp server so they can be
found when the client requests them. T he tftp server is usually the same server as the network server
exporting the installation tree.
BIOS and EFI configuration differs for this procedure.
30.2.1. Configuring for BIOS
1. If tftp-server is not yet installed, run yum install tftp-server.
2. In the tftp-server config file at /etc/xinet.d/tftp, change the disabled parameter from yes
to no.
3. Configure your DHCP server to use the boot images packaged with SYSLINUX. (If you do not have
a DHCP server installed, refer to the DHCP Servers chapter in the Red Hat Enterprise Linux
Deployment Guide.)
A sample configuration in /etc/dhcp/dhcpd.conf might look like:
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 Installation Guide
option
option
option
option
option
space pxelinux;
pxelinux.magic code
pxelinux.configfile
pxelinux.pathprefix
pxelinux.reboottime
363
208 = string;
code 209 = text;
code 210 = text;
code 211 = unsigned integer 32;
subnet 10.0.0.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 {
option routers 10.0.0.254;
range 10.0.0.2 10.0.0.253;
class "pxeclients" {
match if substring (option vendor-class-identifier, 0, 9) =
"PXEClient";
next-server 10.0.0.1;
if option arch =
filename
} else if option
filename
} else {
filename
}
00:06 {
"pxelinux/bootia32.efi";
arch = 00:07 {
"pxelinux/bootx64.efi";
"pxelinux/pxelinux.0";
}
host example-ia32 {
hardware ethernet XX:YY:ZZ:11:22:33;
fixed-address 10.0.0.2;
}
}
4. You now need the pxelinux.0 file from the SYSLINUX package in the ISO image file. T o access
it, run the following commands as root:
mount -t iso9660 /path_to_image/name_of_image.iso /mount_point -o loop,ro
cp -pr /mount_point/Packages/syslinux-version-architecture.rpm
/publicly_available_directory
umount /mount_point
Extract the package:
rpm2cpio syslinux-version-architecture.rpm | cpio -dimv
5. Create a pxelinux directory within tftpboot and copy pxelinux.0 into it:
mkdir /var/lib/tftpboot/pxelinux
cp publicly_available_directory/usr/share/syslinux/pxelinux.0
/var/lib/tftpboot/pxelinux
6. Create a pxelinux.cfg directory within pxelinux:
mkdir /var/lib/tftpboot/pxelinux/pxelinux.cfg
7. Add a config file to this directory. T he file should either be named default or named after the IP
address. For example, if your machine's IP address is 10.0.0.1, the filename would be 0A000001.
A sample config file at /var/lib/tftpboot/pxelinux/pxelinux.cfg/default might look
like:
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Chapter 30. Setting Up an Installation Server
default vesamenu.c32
prompt 1
timeout 600
display boot.msg
label linux
menu label ^Install or upgrade an existing system
menu default
kernel vmlinuz
append initrd=initrd.img
label vesa
menu label Install system with ^basic video driver
kernel vmlinuz
append initrd=initrd.img xdriver=vesa nomodeset
label rescue
menu label ^Rescue installed system
kernel vmlinuz
append initrd=initrd.img rescue
label local
menu label Boot from ^local drive
localboot 0xffff
label memtest86
menu label ^Memory test
kernel memtest
append -
For instructions on how to specify the installation source, refer to Section 7.1.3, “Additional Boot
Options”
8. Copy the splash image into your tftp root directory:
cp /boot/grub/splash.xpm.gz /var/lib/tftpboot/pxelinux/splash.xpm.gz
9. Copy the boot images into your tftp root directory:
cp /path/to/x86_64/os/images/pxeboot/{vmlinuz,initrd.img}
/var/lib/tftpboot/pxelinux/rawhide-x86_64/
10. Reboot the system, and select the network device as your boot device when prompted.
30.2.2. Configuring for EFI
1. If tftp-server is not yet installed, run yum install tftp-server.
2. In the tftp-server config file at /etc/xinet.d/tftp, change the disabled parameter from yes
to no.
3. Create a directory path within tftpboot for the EFI boot images, and then copy them from your
boot directory:
mkdir /var/lib/tftpboot/pxelinux
mkdir /var/lib/tftpboot/pxelinux/bootx64.efi
cp /boot/efi/EFI/redhat/grub.efi /var/lib/tftpboot/pxelinux/bootx64.efi
4. Configure your DHCP server to use the EFI boot images packaged with GRUB. (If you do not have
a DHCP server installed, refer to the DHCP Servers chapter in the Red Hat Enterprise Linux
Deployment Guide.)
A sample configuration in /etc/dhcp/dhcpd.conf might look like:
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 Installation Guide
option
option
option
option
option
option
option
365
space PXE;
PXE.mtftp-ip
code 1 = ip-address;
PXE.mtftp-cport code 2 = unsigned integer 16;
PXE.mtftp-sport code 3 = unsigned integer 16;
PXE.mtftp-tmout code 4 = unsigned integer 8;
PXE.mtftp-delay code 5 = unsigned integer 8;
arch code 93 = unsigned integer 16; # RFC4578
subnet 10.0.0.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 {
option routers 10.0.0.254;
range 10.0.0.2 10.0.0.253;
class "pxeclients" {
match if substring (option vendor-class-identifier, 0, 9) =
"PXEClient";
next-server 10.0.0.1;
if option arch =
filename
} else if option
filename
} else {
filename
}
00:06 {
"pxelinux/bootia32.efi";
arch = 00:07 {
"pxelinux/bootx64.efi";
"pxelinux/pxelinux.0";
}
host example-ia32 {
hardware ethernet XX:YY:ZZ:11:22:33;
fixed-address 10.0.0.2;
}
}
5. Create a pxelinux.cfg directory within pxelinux:
mkdir /var/lib/tftpboot/pxelinux/pxelinux.cfg
6. Add a config file to this directory. T he file should either be named efidefault or named after
the IP address. For example, if your machine's IP address is 10.0.0.1, the filename would be
0A000001.
A sample config file at /var/lib/tftpboot/pxelinux/pxelinux.cfg/efidefault might
look like:
default=0
timeout=1
splashimage=(nd)/splash.xpm.gz
hiddenmenu
title RHEL
root (nd)
kernel /rawhide-x86_64/vmlinuz
initrd /rawhide-x86_64/initrd.img
For instructions on how to specify the installation source, refer to Section 7.1.3, “Additional Boot
Options”
7. Copy the splash image into your tftp root directory:
cp /boot/grub/splash.xpm.gz /var/lib/tftpboot/pxelinux/splash.xpm.gz
8. Copy the boot images into your tftp root directory:
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Chapter 30. Setting Up an Installation Server
cp /path/to/x86_64/os/images/pxeboot/{vmlinuz,initrd.img}
/var/lib/tftpboot/pxelinux/rawhide-x86_64/
9. Reboot the system, and select the network device as your boot device when prompted.
30.3. Starting the tftp Server
On the DHCP server, verify that the tftp-server package is installed with the command rpm -q
tftp-server.
tftp is an xinetd-based service; start it with the following commands:
/sbin/chkconfig --level 345 xinetd on
/sbin/chkconfig --level 345 tftp on
T hese commands configure the tftp and xinetd services to start at boot time in runlevels 3, 4, and 5.
30.4. Adding a Custom Boot Message
Optionally, modify /tftpboot/linux-install/m sgs/boot.m sg to use a custom boot message.
30.5. Performing the PXE Installation
For instructions on how to configure the network interface card with PXE support to boot from the
network, consult the documentation for the NIC. It varies slightly per card.
After the system boots the installation program, refer to the Chapter 9, Installing using anaconda.
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Chapter 31. Installing Through VNC
T he Red Hat Enterprise Linux installer (anaconda) offers you two interactive modes of operation. T he
original mode is a text-based interface. T he newer mode uses GT K+ and runs in the X Window
environment. T his chapter explains how you can use the graphical installation mode in environments
where the system lacks a proper display and input devices typically associated with a workstation. T his
scenario is typical of systems in datacenters, which are often installed in a rack environment and do not
have a display, keyboard, or mouse. Additionally, a lot of these systems even lack the ability to connect a
graphical display. Given that enterprise hardware rarely needs that ability at the physical system, this
hardware configuration is acceptable.
Even in these environments, however, the graphical installer remains the recommended method of
installation. T he text mode environment lacks a lot of capabilities found in the graphical mode. Many
users still feel that the text mode interface provides them with additional power or configuration ability not
found in the graphical version. T he opposite is true. Much less development effort is put in to the textmode environment and specific things (for example, LVM configuration, partition layout, package
selection, and bootloader configuration) are deliberately left out of the text mode environment. T he
reasons for this are:
Less screen real estate for creating user interfaces similar to those found in the graphical mode.
Difficult internationalization support.
Desire to maintain a single interactive installation code path.
Anaconda therefore includes a Virtual Network Computing (VNC) mode that allows the graphical
mode of the installer to run locally, but display on a system connected to the network. Installing in VNC
mode provides you with the full range of installation options, even in situations where the system lacks a
display or input devices.
31.1. VNC Viewer
Performing a VNC installation requires a VNC viewer running on your workstation or other terminal
computer. Locations where you might want a VNC viewer installed:
Your workstation
Laptop on a datacenter crash cart
VNC is open source software licensed under the GNU General Public License.
VNC clients are available in the repositories of most Linux distributions. Use your package manager to
search for a client for your chosen distribution. For example, on Red Hat Enterprise Linux, install the
tigervnc package:
# yum install tigervnc
Once you have verified you have a VNC viewer available, it's time to start the installation.
31.2. VNC Modes in Anaconda
Anaconda offers two modes for VNC installation. T he mode you select will depend on the network
configuration in your environment.
31.2.1. Direct Mode
Direct mode VNC in anaconda is when the client initiates a connection to the VNC server running in
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Chapter 31. Installing Through VNC
anaconda. Anaconda will tell you when to initiate this connection in the VNC viewer. Direct mode can be
activated by either of the following commands:
Specify vnc as a boot argument.
Specify the vnc command in the kickstart file used for installation.
When you activate VNC mode, anaconda will complete the first stage of the installer and then start VNC
to run the graphical installer. T he installer will display a message on the console in the following format:
Running anaconda VERSION, the PRODUCT system installer - please wait...
Anaconda will also tell you the IP address and display number to use in your VNC viewer. At this point,
you need to start the VNC viewer and connect to the target system to continue the installation. T he VNC
viewer will present anaconda to you in graphical mode.
T here are some disadvantages to direct mode, including:
Requires visual access to the system console to see the IP address and port to connect the VNC
viewer to.
Requires interactive access to the system console to complete the first stage of the installer.
If either of these disadvantages would prevent you from using direct mode VNC in anaconda, then
connect mode is probably more suited to your environment.
31.2.2. Connect Mode
Certain firewall configurations or instances where the target system is configured to obtain a dynamic IP
address may cause trouble with the direct VNC mode in anaconda. In addition, if you lack a console on
the target system to see the message that tells you the IP address to connect to, then you will not be
able to continue the installation.
T he VNC connect mode changes how VNC is started. Rather than anaconda starting up and waiting for
you to connect, the VNC connect mode allows anaconda to automatically connect to your view. You won't
need to know the IP address of the target system in this case.
T o activate the VNC connect mode, pass the vncconnect boot parameter:
boot: linux vncconnect=HOST
Replace HOST with your VNC viewer's IP address or DNS host name. Before starting the installation
process on the target system, start up your VNC viewer and have it wait for an incoming connection.
Start the installation and when your VNC viewer displays the graphical installer, you are ready to go.
31.3. Installation Using VNC
Now that you have installed a VNC viewer application and selected a VNC mode for use in anaconda,
you are ready to begin the installation.
31.3.1. Installation Example
T he easiest way to perform an installation using VNC is to connect another computer directly to the
network port on the target system. T he laptop on a datacenter crash cart usually fills this role. If you are
performing your installation this way, make sure you follow these steps:
1. Connect the laptop or other workstation to the target system using a crossover cable. If you are
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 Installation Guide
369
using regular patch cables, make sure you connect the two systems using a small hub or switch.
Most recent Ethernet interfaces will automatically detect if they need to be crossover or not, so it
may be possible to connect the two systems directly using a regular patch cable.
2. Configure the VNC viewer system to use a RFC 1918 address with no gateway. T his private
network connection will only be used for the purpose of installation. Configure the VNC viewer
system to be 192.168.100.1/24. If that address is in use, just pick something else in the RFC 1918
address space that is available to you.
3. Start the installation on the target system.
a. Booting the installation DVD.
If booting the installation DVD, make sure vnc is passed as a boot parameter. T o add the
vnc parameter, you will need a console attached to the target system that allows you to
interact with the boot process. Enter the following at the prompt:
boot: linux vnc
b. Boot over the network.
If the target system is configured with a static IP address, add the vnc command to the
kickstart file. If the target system is using DHCP, add vncconnect=HOST to the boot
arguments for the target system. HOST is the IP address or DNS host name of the VNC
viewer system. Enter the following at the prompt:
boot: linux vncconnect=HOST
4. When prompted for the network configuration on the target system, assign it an available RFC
1918 address in the same network you used for the VNC viewer system. For example,
192.168.100.2/24.
Note
T his IP address is only used during installation. You will have an opportunity to configure
the final network settings, if any, later in the installer.
5. Once the installer indicates it is starting anaconda, you will be instructed to connect to the system
using the VNC viewer. Connect to the viewer and follow the graphical installation mode
instructions found in the product documentation.
31.3.2. Kickstart Considerations
If your target system will be booting over the network, VNC is still available. Just add the vnc command
to the kickstart file for the system. You will be able to connect to the target system using your VNC
viewer and monitor the installation progress. T he address to use is the one the system is configured
with via the kickstart file.
If you are using DHCP for the target system, the reverse vncconnect method may work better for you.
Rather than adding the vnc boot parameter to the kickstart file, add the vncconnect=HOST parameter
to the list of boot arguments for the target system. For HOST , put the IP address or DNS host name of
the VNC viewer system. See the next section for more details on using the vncconnect mode.
31.3.3. Firewall Considerations
If you are performing the installation where the VNC viewer system is a workstation on a different subnet
from the target system, you may run in to network routing problems. VNC works fine so long as your
viewer system has a route to the target system and ports 5900 and 5901 are open. If your environment
has a firewall, make sure ports 5900 and 5901 are open between your workstation and the target
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Chapter 31. Installing Through VNC
system.
In addition to passing the vnc boot parameter, you may also want to pass the vncpassword parameter
in these scenarios. While the password is sent in plain text over the network, it does provide an extra
step before a viewer can connect to a system. Once the viewer connects to the target system over VNC,
no other connections are permitted. T hese limitations are usually sufficient for installation purposes.
Important
Be sure to use a temporary password for the vncpassword option. It should not be a password
you use on any systems, especially a real root password.
If you continue to have trouble, consider using the vncconnect parameter. In this mode of operation,
you start the viewer on your system first telling it to listen for an incoming connection. Pass
vncconnect=HOST at the boot prompt and the installer will attempt to connect to the specified HOST
(either a hostname or IP address).
31.4. References
T igerVNC: http://tigervnc.sourceforge.net/
RFC 1918 - Address Allocation for Private Networks: http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc1918.txt
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Chapter 32. Kickstart Installations
32.1. What are Kickstart Installations?
Many system administrators would prefer to use an automated installation method to install Red Hat
Enterprise Linux on their machines. T o answer this need, Red Hat created the kickstart installation
method. Using kickstart, a system administrator can create a single file containing the answers to all the
questions that would normally be asked during a typical installation.
Kickstart files can be kept on a single server system and read by individual computers during the
installation. T his installation method can support the use of a single kickstart file to install Red Hat
Enterprise Linux on multiple machines, making it ideal for network and system administrators.
Kickstart provides a way for users to automate a Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation.
All kickstart scriptlets and the log files of their execution are stored in the /tm p directory to assist with
debugging installation failures.
Note — /tmp/netinfo no longer used
Anaconda now configures network interfaces with NetworkManager. Consequently, kickstart
users that referenced the network settings located in /tm p/netinfo in previous versions of
Red hat Enterprise Linux must now source the ifcfg files in /etc/sysconfig/networkscripts.
32.2. How Do You Perform a Kickstart Installation?
Kickstart installations can be performed using a local DVD, a local hard drive, or via NFS, FT P, HT T P, or
HT T PS.
T o use kickstart, you must:
1. Create a kickstart file.
2. Create a boot media with the kickstart file or make the kickstart file available on the network.
3. Make the installation tree available.
4. Start the kickstart installation.
T his chapter explains these steps in detail.
32.3. Creating the Kickstart File
T he kickstart file is a simple text file, containing a list of items, each identified by a keyword. You can
create it by using the Kickstart Configurator application, or writing it from scratch. T he Red Hat
Enterprise Linux installation program also creates a sample kickstart file based on the options that you
selected during installation. It is written to the file /root/anaconda-ks.cfg. You should be able to
edit it with any text editor or word processor that can save files as ASCII text.
First, be aware of the following issues when you are creating your kickstart file:
Sections must be specified in order. Items within the sections do not have to be in a specific order
unless otherwise specified. T he section order is:
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Command section — Refer to Section 32.4, “Kickstart Options” for a list of kickstart options. You
must include the required options.
T he %packages section — Refer to Section 32.5, “Package Selection” for details.
T he %pre and %post sections — T hese two sections can be in any order and are not required.
Refer to Section 32.6, “Pre-installation Script” and Section 32.7, “Post-installation Script” for
details.
Items that are not required can be omitted.
Omitting any required item results in the installation program prompting the user for an answer to the
related item, just as the user would be prompted during a typical installation. Once the answer is
given, the installation continues unattended (unless it finds another missing item).
Lines starting with a pound (also known as hash) sign (#) are treated as comments and are ignored.
For kickstart upgrades, the following items are required:
Language
Installation method
Device specification (if device is needed to perform the installation)
Keyboard setup
T he upgrade keyword
Boot loader configuration
If any other items are specified for an upgrade, those items are ignored (note that this includes
package selection).
32.4. Kickstart Options
T he following options can be placed in a kickstart file. If you prefer to use a graphical interface for
creating your kickstart file, use the Kickstart Configurator application. Refer to Chapter 33, Kickstart
Configurator for details.
Note
If the option is followed by an equals mark (=), a value must be specified after it. In the example
commands, options in brackets ([]) are optional arguments for the command.
auth or authconfig (required)
Sets up the authentication options for the system. It is similar to the authconfig command,
which can be run after the install. By default, passwords are normally encrypted and are not
shadowed.
--enablenis — T urns on NIS support. By default, --enablenis uses whatever domain
it finds on the network. A domain should almost always be set by hand with the -nisdom ain= option.
--nisdom ain= — NIS domain name to use for NIS services.
--nisserver= — Server to use for NIS services (broadcasts by default).
--useshadow or --enableshadow — Use shadow passwords.
--enableldap — T urns on LDAP support in /etc/nsswitch.conf, allowing your
system to retrieve information about users (for example, their UIDs, home directories, and
shells) from an LDAP directory. T o use this option, you must install the nss-pam -ldapd
package. You must also specify a server and a base DN (distinguished name) with -ldapserver= and --ldapbasedn=.
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--enableldapauth — Use LDAP as an authentication method. T his enables the
pam _ldap module for authentication and changing passwords, using an LDAP directory. T o
use this option, you must have the nss-pam -ldapd package installed. You must also
specify a server and a base DN with --ldapserver= and --ldapbasedn=. If your
environment does not use TLS (T ransport Layer Security), use the --disableldaptls
switch to ensure that the resulting configuration file works.
--ldapserver= — If you specified either --enableldap or --enableldapauth, use
this option to specify the name of the LDAP server to use. T his option is set in the
/etc/ldap.conf file.
--ldapbasedn= — If you specified either --enableldap or --enableldapauth, use
this option to specify the DN in your LDAP directory tree under which user information is
stored. T his option is set in the /etc/ldap.conf file.
--enableldaptls — Use T LS (T ransport Layer Security) lookups. T his option allows
LDAP to send encrypted usernames and passwords to an LDAP server before
authentication.
--disableldaptls — Do not use T LS (T ransport Layer Security) lookups in an
environment that uses LDAP for authentication.
--enablekrb5 — Use Kerberos 5 for authenticating users. Kerberos itself does not know
about home directories, UIDs, or shells. If you enable Kerberos, you must make users'
accounts known to this workstation by enabling LDAP, NIS, or Hesiod or by using the
/usr/sbin/useradd command. If you use this option, you must have the pam _krb5
package installed.
--krb5realm = — T he Kerberos 5 realm to which your workstation belongs.
--krb5kdc= — T he KDC (or KDCs) that serve requests for the realm. If you have multiple
KDCs in your realm, separate their names with commas (,).
--krb5adm inserver= — T he KDC in your realm that is also running kadmind. T his
server handles password changing and other administrative requests. T his server must be
run on the master KDC if you have more than one KDC.
--enablehesiod — Enable Hesiod support for looking up user home directories, UIDs,
and shells. More information on setting up and using Hesiod on your network is in
/usr/share/doc/glibc-2.x.x/README.hesiod, which is included in the glibc
package. Hesiod is an extension of DNS that uses DNS records to store information about
users, groups, and various other items.
--hesiodlhs and --hesiodrhs — T he Hesiod LHS (left-hand side) and RHS (righthand side) values, set in /etc/hesiod.conf. T he Hesiod library uses these values to
search DNS for a name, similar to the way that LDAP uses a base DN.
T o look up user information for the username jim , the Hesiod library looks up
jim .passwd<LHS><RHS>, which should resolve to a T XT record that contains a string
identical to an entry for that user in the passwd file: jim :* :501:501:Jungle
Jim :/hom e/jim :/bin/bash. T o look up groups, the Hesiod library looks up
jim .group<LHS><RHS> instead.
T o look up users and groups by number, make 501.uid a CNAME for jim .passwd, and
501.gid a CNAME for jim .group. Note that the library does not place a period (.) in
front of the LHS and RHS values when performing a search. T herefore, if the LHS and RHS
values need to have a period placed in front of them, you must include the period in the
values you set for --hesiodlhs and --hesiodrhs.
--enablesm bauth — Enables authentication of users against an SMB server (typically a
Samba or Windows server). SMB authentication support does not know about home
directories, UIDs, or shells. If you enable SMB, you must make users' accounts known to the
workstation by enabling LDAP, NIS, or Hesiod or by using the /usr/sbin/useradd
command.
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--sm bservers= — T he name of the servers to use for SMB authentication. T o specify
more than one server, separate the names with commas (,).
--sm bworkgroup= — T he name of the workgroup for the SMB servers.
--enablecache — Enables the nscd service. T he nscd service caches information
about users, groups, and various other types of information. Caching is especially helpful if
you choose to distribute information about users and groups over your network using NIS,
LDAP, or Hesiod.
--passalgo — T o set up the SHA-256 hashing algorithm, run the command authconfig
--passalgo=sha256 --kickstart.
T o set up the SHA-512 hashing algorithm, run authconfig --passalgo=sha512 -kickstart.
Remove the --enablem d5 option if it is present.
autopart (optional)
Automatically create partitions — 1 GB or more root (/) partition, a swap partition, and an
appropriate boot partition for the architecture. One or more of the default partition sizes can be
redefined with the part directive.
--encrypted — Should all devices with support be encrypted by default? T his is
equivalent to checking the Encrypt checkbox on the initial partitioning screen.
--passphrase= — Provide a default system-wide passphrase for all encrypted devices.
--escrowcert=URL_of_X.509_certificate — Store data encryption keys of all
encrypted volumes as files in /root, encrypted using the X.509 certificate from the URL
specified with URL_of_X.509_certificate. T he keys are stored as a separate file for
each encrypted volume. T his option is only meaningful if --encrypted is specified.
--backuppassphrase= — Add a randomly-generated passphrase to each encrypted
volume. Store these passphrases in separate files in /root, encrypted using the X.509
certificate specified with --escrowcert. T his option is only meaningful if --escrowcert
is specified.
autostep (optional)
Similar to interactive except it goes to the next screen for you. It is used mostly for
debugging.
--autoscreenshot — T ake a screenshot at every step during installation and copy the
images over to /root/anaconda-screenshots after installation is complete. T his is
most useful for documentation.
bootloader (required)
Specifies how the boot loader should be installed. T his option is required for both installations
and upgrades.
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Important
If you select text mode for a kickstart installation, make sure that you specify choices for
the partitioning, bootloader, and package selection options. T hese steps are automated
in text mode, and anaconda cannot prompt you for missing information. If you do not
provide choices for these options, anaconda will stop the installation process.
--append= — Specifies kernel parameters. T o specify multiple parameters, separate them
with spaces. For example:
bootloader --location=mbr --append="hdd=ide-scsi ide=nodma"
--driveorder — Specify which drive is first in the BIOS boot order. For example:
bootloader --driveorder=sda,hda
--location= — Specifies where the boot record is written. Valid values are the following:
m br (the default), partition (installs the boot loader on the first sector of the partition
containing the kernel), or none (do not install the boot loader).
--password= — If using GRUB, sets the GRUB boot loader password to the one specified
with this option. T his should be used to restrict access to the GRUB shell, where arbitrary
kernel options can be passed.
--m d5pass= — If using GRUB, similar to --password= except the password should
already be encrypted.
--upgrade — Upgrade the existing boot loader configuration, preserving the old entries.
T his option is only available for upgrades.
clearpart (optional)
Removes partitions from the system, prior to creation of new partitions. By default, no partitions
are removed.
Note
If the clearpart command is used, then the --onpart command cannot be used on a
logical partition.
--all — Erases all partitions from the system.
--drives= — Specifies which drives to clear partitions from. For example, the following
clears all the partitions on the first two drives on the primary IDE controller:
clearpart --drives=hda,hdb --all
T o clear a multipath device that does not use logical volume management (LVM), use the
format disk/by-id/dm -uuid-m path-WWID, where WWID is the world-wide identifier for
the device. For example, to clear a disk with WWID
24 16CD96995134 CA5D787F00A5AA11017, use:
clearpart --drives=disk/by-id/dm-uuid-mpath2416CD96995134CA5D787F00A5AA11017
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Multipath devices that use LVM are not assembled until after anaconda has parsed the
kickstart file. T herefore, you cannot specify these devices in the format dm -uuid-m path.
Instead, to clear a multipath device that uses LVM, use the format disk/byid/scsi-WWID, where WWID is the world-wide identifier for the device. For example, to clear
a disk with WWID 58095BEC551094 7BE8C0360F604 351918, use:
clearpart --drives=disk/by-id/scsi-58095BEC5510947BE8C0360F604351918
Warning — Never specify multipath devices by device names like
mpatha
Device names like m patha are not specific to a particular disk. T he disk named
/dev/m patha during installation might not be the one that you expect it to be.
T herefore, the clearpart command could target the wrong disk.
--initlabel — Initializes the disk label to the default for your architecture (for example
m sdos for x86). It is useful so that the installation program does not ask if it should initialize
the disk label if installing to a brand new hard drive.
--linux — Erases all Linux partitions.
--none (default) — Do not remove any partitions.
cm dline (optional)
Perform the installation in a completely non-interactive command line mode. Any prompts for
interaction halts the install. T his mode is useful on IBM System z systems with the 3270
terminal under z/VM and operating system messages applet on LPAR. T he recommended use
is in conjunction with RUNKS=1 and ks=. Refer to Section 26.6, “Parameters for kickstart
installations”.
device (optional)
On most PCI systems, the installation program autoprobes for Ethernet and SCSI cards
properly. On older systems and some PCI systems, however, kickstart needs a hint to find the
proper devices. T he device command, which tells the installation program to install extra
modules, is in this format:
device <moduleName> --opts=<options>
<moduleName> — Replace with the name of the kernel module which should be installed.
--opts= — Options to pass to the kernel module. For example:
--opts="aic152x=0x340 io=11"
driverdisk (optional)
Driver diskettes can be used during kickstart installations. You must copy the driver diskettes's
contents to the root directory of a partition on the system's hard drive. T hen you must use the
driverdisk command to tell the installation program where to look for the driver disk.
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driverdisk <partition> --source=<url> --biospart=<biospart> [-type=<fstype>]
Alternatively, a network location can be specified for the driver diskette:
driverdisk --source=ftp://path/to/dd.img
driverdisk --source=http://path/to/dd.img
driverdisk --source=nfs:host:/path/to/img
<partition> — Partition containing the driver disk.
<url> — URL for the driver disk. NFS locations can be given in the form
nfs:host:/path/to/img.
<biospart> — BIOS partition containing the driver disk (for example, 82p2).
--type= — File system type (for example, vfat or ext2).
firewall (optional)
T his option corresponds to the Firewall Configuration screen in the installation
program:
firewall --enabled|--disabled [--trust=] <device> <incoming> [--port=]
--enabled or --enable — Reject incoming connections that are not in response to
outbound requests, such as DNS replies or DHCP requests. If access to services running
on this machine is needed, you can choose to allow specific services through the firewall.
--disabled or --disable — Do not configure any iptables rules.
--trust= — Listing a device here, such as eth0, allows all traffic coming from that device to
go through the firewall. T o list more than one device, use --trust eth0 --trust eth1.
Do NOT use a comma-separated format such as --trust eth0, eth1.
<incoming> — Replace with one or more of the following to allow the specified services
through the firewall.
--ssh
--telnet
--sm tp
--http
--https
--ftp
--port= — You can specify that ports be allowed through the firewall using the
port:protocol format. For example, to allow IMAP access through your firewall, specify
im ap:tcp. Numeric ports can also be specified explicitly; for example, to allow UDP packets
on port 1234 through, specify 1234 :udp. T o specify multiple ports, separate them by
commas.
firstboot (optional)
Determine whether the firstboot starts the first time the system is booted. If enabled, the
firstboot package must be installed. If not specified, this option is disabled by default.
--enable or --enabled — T he Setup Agent is started the first time the system boots.
--disable or --disabled — T he Setup Agent is not started the first time the system
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boots.
--reconfig — Enable the Setup Agent to start at boot time in reconfiguration mode.
T his mode enables the language, mouse, keyboard, root password, security level, and time
zone configuration options in addition to the default ones.
graphical (optional)
Perform the kickstart installation in graphical mode. T his is the default.
halt (optional)
Halt the system after the installation has successfully completed. T his is similar to a manual
installation, where anaconda displays a message and waits for the user to press a key before
rebooting. During a kickstart installation, if no completion method is specified, this option is used
as the default.
T he halt option is equivalent to the shutdown -h command.
For other completion methods, refer to the poweroff, reboot, and shutdown kickstart
options.
ignoredisk (optional)
Causes the installer to ignore the specified disks. T his is useful if you use autopartition and
want to be sure that some disks are ignored. For example, without ignoredisk, attempting to
deploy on a SAN-cluster the kickstart would fail, as the installer detects passive paths to the
SAN that return no partition table.
T he syntax is:
ignoredisk --drives=drive1,drive2,...
where driveN is one of sda, sdb,..., hda,... etc.
T o ignore a multipath device that does not use logical volume management (LVM), use the
format disk/by-id/dm -uuid-m path-WWID, where WWID is the world-wide identifier for the
device. For example, to ignore a disk with WWID 24 16CD96995134 CA5D787F00A5AA11017,
use:
ignoredisk --drives=disk/by-id/dm-uuid-mpath2416CD96995134CA5D787F00A5AA11017
Multipath devices that use LVM are not assembled until after anaconda has parsed the
kickstart file. T herefore, you cannot specify these devices in the format dm -uuid-m path.
Instead, to ignore a multipath device that uses LVM, use the format disk/by-id/scsi-WWID,
where WWID is the world-wide identifier for the device. For example, to ignore a disk with WWID
58095BEC551094 7BE8C0360F604 351918, use:
ignoredisk --drives=disk/by-id/scsi-58095BEC5510947BE8C0360F604351918
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Warning — Never specify multipath devices by device names like
mpatha
Device names like m patha are not specific to a particular disk. T he disk named
/dev/m patha during installation might not be the one that you expect it to be.
T herefore, the ignoredisk command could target the wrong disk.
--only-use — specifies a list of disks for the installer to use. All other disks are ignored.
For example, to use disk sda during installation and ignore all other disks:
ignoredisk --only-use=sda
T o include a multipath device that does not use LVM:
ignoredisk --only-use=disk/by-id/dm-uuid-mpath2416CD96995134CA5D787F00A5AA11017
T o include a multipath device that uses LVM:
ignoredisk --only-use=disk/by-id/scsi-58095BEC5510947BE8C0360F604351918
install (optional)
T ells the system to install a fresh system rather than upgrade an existing system. T his is the
default mode. For installation, you must specify the type of installation from cdrom ,
harddrive, nfs, or url (for FT P, HT T P, or HT T PS installations). T he install command
and the installation method command must be on separate lines.
cdrom — Install from the first optical drive on the system.
harddrive — Install from a Red Hat installation tree on a local drive, which must be either
vfat or ext2.
--biospart=
BIOS partition to install from (such as 82).
--partition=
Partition to install from (such as sdb2).
--dir=
Directory containing the variant directory of the installation tree.
For example:
harddrive --partition=hdb2 --dir=/tmp/install-tree
nfs — Install from the NFS server specified.
--server=
Server from which to install (hostname or IP).
--dir=
Directory containing the variant directory of the installation tree.
--opts=
Mount options to use for mounting the NFS export. (optional)
For example:
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nfs --server=nfsserver.example.com --dir=/tmp/install-tree
url — Install from an installation tree on a remote server via FT P, HT T P, or HT T PS.
For example:
url --url http://<server>/<dir>
or:
url --url ftp://<username>:<password>@<server>/<dir>
interactive (optional)
Perform an interactive installation, but use the information in the kickstart file to provide defaults.
During the installation, anaconda still prompts you at every stage. Either accept the values
from the kickstart file by clicking Next or change the values and click Next to continue. Refer
also to the autostep command.
iscsi (optional)
iscsi --ipaddr= [options].
Specifies additional iSCSI storage to be attached during installation. If you use the iscsi
parameter, you must also assign a name to the iSCSI node, using the iscsiname parameter
earlier in the kickstart file.
We recommend that wherever possible you configure iSCSI storage in the system BIOS or
firmware (iBFT for Intel systems) rather than use the iscsi parameter. Anaconda
automatically detects and uses disks configured in BIOS or firmware and no special
configuration is necessary in the kickstart file.
If you must use the iscsi parameter, ensure that networking is activated at the beginning of
the installation, and that the iscsi parameter appears in the kickstart file before you refer to
iSCSI disks with parameters such as clearpart or ignoredisk.
--port= (mandatory) — the port number (typically, --port=3260)
--user= — the username required to authenticate with the target
--password= — the password that corresponds with the username specified for the target
--reverse-user= — the username required to authenticate with the initiator from a target
that uses reverse CHAP authentication
--reverse-password= — the password that corresponds with the username specified
for the initiator
iscsinam e (optional)
Assigns a name to an iSCSI node specified by the iscsi parameter. If you use the iscsi
parameter in your kickstart file, you must specify iscsiname earlier in the kickstart file.
keyboard (required)
Sets the default keyboard type for the system. T he available keyboard types are:
be-latin1 — Belgian
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 Installation Guide
be-latin1 — Belgian
bg_bds-utf8 — Bulgarian
bg_pho-utf8 — Bulgarian (Phonetic)
br-abnt2 — Brazilian (ABNT 2)
cf — French Canadian
croat — Croatian
cz-us-qwertz — Czech
cz-lat2 — Czech (qwerty)
de — German
de-latin1 — German (latin1)
de-latin1-nodeadkeys — German (latin1 without dead keys)
dvorak — Dvorak
dk — Danish
dk-latin1 — Danish (latin1)
es — Spanish
et — Estonian
fi — Finnish
fi-latin1 — Finnish (latin1)
fr — French
fr-latin9 — French (latin9)
fr-latin1 — French (latin1)
fr-pc — French (pc)
fr_CH — Swiss French
fr_CH-latin1 — Swiss French (latin1)
gr — Greek
hu — Hungarian
hu101 — Hungarian (101 key)
is-latin1 — Icelandic
it — Italian
it-ibm — Italian (IBM)
it2 — Italian (it2)
jp106 — Japanese
ko — Korean
la-latin1 — Latin American
m k-utf — Macedonian
nl — Dutch
no — Norwegian
pl2 — Polish
pt-latin1 — Portuguese
ro — Romanian
ru — Russian
sr-cy — Serbian
sr-latin — Serbian (latin)
sv-latin1 — Swedish
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sg — Swiss German
sg-latin1 — Swiss German (latin1)
sk-qwerty — Slovak (qwerty)
slovene — Slovenian
trq — T urkish
uk — United Kingdom
ua-utf — Ukrainian
us-acentos — U.S. International
us — U.S. English
T he file /usr/lib/python2.6/sitepackages/system _config_keyboard/keyboard_m odels.py on 32-bit systems or
/usr/lib64 /python2.6/sitepackages/system _config_keyboard/keyboard_m odels.py on 64-bit systems also
contains this list and is part of the system-config-keyboard package.
lang (required)
Sets the language to use during installation and the default language to use on the installed
system. For example, to set the language to English, the kickstart file should contain the
following line:
lang en_US
T he file /usr/share/system -config-language/locale-list provides a list of the valid
language codes in the first column of each line and is part of the system -config-language
package.
Certain languages (for example, Chinese, Japanese, Korean, and Indic languages) are not
supported during text-mode installation. If you specify one of these languages with the lang
command, the installation process continues in English, but the installed system uses your
selection as its default language.
langsupport (deprecated)
T he langsupport keyword is deprecated and its use will cause an error message to be printed
to the screen and installation to halt. Instead of using the langsupport keyword, you should now
list the support package groups for all languages you want supported in the %packages
section of your kickstart file. For instance, adding support for French means you should add the
following to %packages:
@french-support
logging (optional)
T his command controls the error logging of anaconda during installation. It has no effect on the
installed system.
--host= — Send logging information to the given remote host, which must be running a
syslogd process configured to accept remote logging.
--port= — If the remote syslogd process uses a port other than the default, it may be
specified with this option.
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--level= — One of debug, info, warning, error, or critical.
Specify the minimum level of messages that appear on tty3. All messages will still be sent to
the log file regardless of this level, however.
logvol (optional)
Create a logical volume for Logical Volume Management (LVM) with the syntax:
logvol <mntpoint> --vgname=<name> --size=<size> --name=<name> <options>
T he options are as follows:
--noform at — Use an existing logical volume and do not format it.
--useexisting — Use an existing logical volume and reformat it.
--fstype= — Sets the file system type for the logical volume. Valid values are xfs, ext2,
ext3, ext4 , swap, vfat, and hfs.
--fsoptions= — Specifies a free form string of options to be used when mounting the
filesystem. T his string will be copied into the /etc/fstab file of the installed system and
should be enclosed in quotes.
--grow= — T ells the logical volume to grow to fill available space (if any), or up to the
maximum size setting.
--m axsize= — T he maximum size in megabytes when the logical volume is set to grow.
Specify an integer value here such as 500 (do not include the unit).
--recom m ended= — Determine the size of the logical volume automatically.
--percent= — Specify the amount by which to grow the logical volume, as a percentage of
the free space in the volume group after any statically-sized logical volumes are taken into
account. T his option must be used in conjunction with the --size and --grow options for
logvol.
--encrypted — Specifies that this logical volume should be encrypted, using the
passphrase provided in the --passphrase option. If you do not specify a passphrase,
anaconda uses the default, system-wide passphrase set with the autopart -passphrase command, or stops the installation and prompts you to provide a passphrase
if no default is set.
--passphrase= — Specifies the passphrase to use when encrypting this logical volume.
You must use this option together with the --encrypted option; by itself it has no effect.
--escrowcert=URL_of_X.509_certificate — Store data encryption keys of all
encrypted volumes as files in /root, encrypted using the X.509 certificate from the URL
specified with URL_of_X.509_certificate. T he keys are stored as a separate file for
each encrypted volume. T his option is only meaningful if --encrypted is specified.
--backuppassphrase= — Add a randomly-generated passphrase to each encrypted
volume. Store these passphrases in separate files in /root, encrypted using the X.509
certificate specified with --escrowcert. T his option is only meaningful if --escrowcert
is specified.
Create the partition first, create the logical volume group, and then create the logical volume. For
example:
part pv.01 --size 3000
volgroup myvg pv.01
logvol / --vgname=myvg --size=2000 --name=rootvol
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Create the partition first, create the logical volume group, and then create the logical volume to
occupy 90% of the remaining space in the volume group. For example:
part pv.01 --size 1 --grow
volgroup myvg pv.01
logvol / --vgname=myvg --size=1 --name=rootvol --grow --percent=90
m ediacheck (optional)
If given, this will force anaconda to run mediacheck on the installation media. T his command
requires that installs be attended, so it is disabled by default.
m onitor (optional)
If the monitor command is not given, anaconda will use X to automatically detect your monitor
settings. Please try this before manually configuring your monitor.
--hsync= — Specifies the horizontal sync frequency of the monitor.
--m onitor= — Use specified monitor; monitor name should be from the list of monitors in
/usr/share/hwdata/MonitorsDB from the hwdata package. T he list of monitors can also be
found on the X Configuration screen of the Kickstart Configurator. T his is ignored if --hsync
or --vsync is provided. If no monitor information is provided, the installation program tries to
probe for it automatically.
--noprobe= — Do not try to probe the monitor.
--vsync= — Specifies the vertical sync frequency of the monitor.
m ouse (deprecated)
T he mouse keyword is deprecated.
network (optional)
Configures network information for the target system and activates network devices in the
installer environment. T he device specified in the first network command is activated
automatically if network access is required during installation, for example, during a network
installation or installation over VNC. From Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.1 onwards, you can also
explicitly require device to activate in the installer environment with the --activate option.
How to manually input network settings
If you need to manually specify network settings during an otherwise-automated kickstart
installation, do not use network. Instead, boot the system with the asknetwork option
(refer to Section 32.10, “Starting a Kickstart Installation”), which will prompt anaconda to
ask you for network settings rather than use the default settings. anaconda will ask this
before fetching the kickstart file.
Once the network connection is established, you can only reconfigure network settings
with those specified in your kickstart file.
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Note
You will only be prompted for information about your network:
before fetching the kickstart file if you are using the asknetwork boot option
when the network is first accessed once the kickstart file has been fetched, if the
network was not used to fetch it and you have provided no kickstart network
commands
--activate — activate this device in the installer environment.
If you use the --activate option on a device that has already been activated (for example,
an interface you configured with boot options so that the system could retrieve the kickstart
file) the device is reactivated to use the details specified in the kickstart file.
Use the --nodefroute option to prevent the device from using the default route.
T he activate option is new in Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.1.
--bootproto= — One of dhcp, bootp, ibft, or static.
T he ibft option is new in Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.1.
T he bootproto option defaults to dhcp. bootp and dhcp are treated the same.
T he DHCP method uses a DHCP server system to obtain its networking configuration. As
you might guess, the BOOT P method is similar, requiring a BOOT P server to supply the
networking configuration. T o direct a system to use DHCP:
network --bootproto=dhcp
T o direct a machine to use BOOT P to obtain its networking configuration, use the following
line in the kickstart file:
network --bootproto=bootp
T o direct a machine to use the configuration specified in iBFT , use:
network --bootproto=ibft
T he static method requires that you specify the IP address, netmask, gateway, and
nameserver in the kickstart file. As the name implies, this information is static and is used
during and after the installation.
All static networking configuration information must be specified on one line; you cannot
wrap lines using a backslash as you can on a command line. A line that specifies static
networking in a kickstart file is therefore more complex than lines that specify DHCP,
BOOT P, or iBFT . Note that the examples on this page have line breaks in them for
presentation reasons; they would not work in an actual kickstart file.
network --bootproto=static --ip=10.0.2.15 --netmask=255.255.255.0
--gateway=10.0.2.254 --nameserver=10.0.2.1
You can also configure multiple nameservers here. T o do so, specify them as a commadelimited list in the command line.
network --bootproto=static --ip=10.0.2.15 --netmask=255.255.255.0
--gateway=10.0.2.254 --nameserver 192.168.2.1,192.168.3.1
--device= — specifies the device to be configured (and eventually activated) with the
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network command. For the first network command, --device= defaults (in order of
preference) to one of:
1. the device specified by the ksdevice boot option
2. the device activated automatically to fetch the kickstart file
3. the device selected in the Networking Devices dialog
T he behavior of any subsequent network command is unspecified if its --device option
is missing. T ake care to specify a --device option for any network command beyond the
first.
You can specify a device in one of five ways:
the device name of the interface, for example, eth0
the MAC address of the interface, for example, 00:12:34 :56:78:9a
the keyword link, which specifies the first interface with its link in the up state
the keyword bootif, which uses the MAC address that pxelinux set in the BOOTIF
variable. Set IPAPPEND 2 in your pxelinux.cfg file to have pxelinux set the BOOTIF
variable.
the keyword ibft, which uses the MAC address of the interface specified by iBFT
network --bootproto=dhcp --device=eth0
--ip= — IP address of the device.
--ipv6= — IPv6 address of the device, or auto to use automatic neighbor discovery, or
dhcp to use DHCPv6.
--gateway= — Default gateway as a single IPv4 or IPv6 address.
--nam eserver= — Primary nameserver, as an IP address. Multiple nameservers must
each be separated by a comma.
--nodefroute — Prevents the interface being set as the default route. Use this option
when you activate additional devices with the --activate= option, for example, a NIC on a
separate subnet for an iSCSI target.
T he nodefroute option is new in Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.1.
--nodns — Do not configure any DNS server.
--netm ask= — Network mask of the device.
--hostnam e= — Hostname for the installed system.
--ethtool= — Specifies additional low-level settings for the network device which will be
passed to the ethtool program.
--onboot= — Whether or not to enable the device at boot time.
--dhcpclass= — T he DHCP class.
--m tu= — T he MT U of the device.
--noipv4 — Disable IPv4 on this device.
--noipv6 — Disable IPv6 on this device.
part or partition (required for installs, ignored for upgrades)
Creates a partition on the system.
If more than one Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation exists on the system on different
partitions, the installation program prompts the user and asks which installation to upgrade.
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Warning
All partitions created are formatted as part of the installation process unless -noform at and --onpart are used.
Important
If you select text mode for a kickstart installation, make sure that you specify choices for
the partitioning, bootloader, and package selection options. T hese steps are automated
in text mode, and anaconda cannot prompt you for missing information. If you do not
provide choices for these options, anaconda will stop the installation process.
For a detailed example of part in action, refer to Section 32.4.1, “Advanced Partitioning
Example”.
<mntpointmultipath --name= --device= --rule=> — T he <mntpoint> is where the
partition is mounted and must be of one of the following forms:
/<path>
For example, /, /usr, /hom e
swap
T he partition is used as swap space.
T o determine the size of the swap partition automatically, use the --recom m ended
option:
swap --recommended
T he size assigned will be effective but not precisely calibrated for your system.
T o determine the size of the swap partition automatically but also allow extra space for
your system to hibernate, use the --hibernation option:
swap --hibernation
T he size assigned will be equivalent to the swap space assigned by --recom m ended
plus the amount of RAM on your system.
For the swap sizes assigned by these commands, refer to Section 9.15.5,
“Recommended Partitioning Scheme” for x86, AMD64, and Intel 64 Architecture and
Section 16.17.5, “Recommended Partitioning Scheme” for IBM POWER Architecture.
raid.<id>
T he partition is used for software RAID (refer to raid).
pv.<id>
T he partition is used for LVM (refer to logvol).
--size= — T he minimum partition size in megabytes. Specify an integer value here such
as 500 (do not include the unit).
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Important - --size value must be high
If the --size value is too small, the installation will fail. Set the --size value as the
minimum amount of space you require. For size recommendations, refer to
Section 9.15.5, “Recommended Partitioning Scheme”.
--grow — T ells the partition to grow to fill available space (if any), or up to the maximum
size setting.
Note
If you use --grow= without setting --m axsize= on a swap partition, Anaconda will
limit the maximum size of the swap partition. For systems that have less than 2GB of
physical memory, the imposed limit is twice the amount of physical memory. For
systems with more than 2GB, the imposed limit is the size of physical memory plus
2GB.
--m axsize= — T he maximum partition size in megabytes when the partition is set to grow.
Specify an integer value here such as 500 (do not include the unit).
--noform at — Specifies that the partition should not be formatted, for use with the -onpart command.
--onpart= or --usepart= — Specifies the device on which to place the partition. For
example:
partition /home --onpart=hda1
puts /hom e on /dev/hda1.
T he device must already exist on the system; the --onpart option will not create it.
--ondisk= or --ondrive= — Forces the partition to be created on a particular disk. For
example, --ondisk=sdb puts the partition on the second SCSI disk on the system.
T o specify a multipath device that does not use logical volume management (LVM), use the
format disk/by-id/dm -uuid-m path-WWID, where WWID is the world-wide identifier for
the device. For example, to specify a disk with WWID
24 16CD96995134 CA5D787F00A5AA11017, use:
part / --fstype=ext3 --grow --asprimary --size=100 --ondisk=disk/byid/dm-uuid-mpath-2416CD96995134CA5D787F00A5AA11017
Multipath devices that use LVM are not assembled until after anaconda has parsed the
kickstart file. T herefore, you cannot specify these devices in the format dm -uuid-m path.
Instead, to specify a multipath device that uses LVM, use the format disk/byid/scsi-WWID, where WWID is the world-wide identifier for the device. For example, to
specify a disk with WWID 58095BEC551094 7BE8C0360F604 351918, use:
part / --fstype=ext3 --grow --asprimary --size=100 --ondisk=disk/byid/scsi-58095BEC5510947BE8C0360F604351918
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Warning — Never specify multipath devices by device names like
mpatha
Device names like m patha are not specific to a particular disk. T he disk named
/dev/m patha during installation might not be the one that you expect it to be.
T herefore, the part command could target the wrong disk or partition.
--asprim ary — Forces automatic allocation of the partition as a primary partition, or the
partitioning fails.
--type= (replaced by fstype) — T his option is no longer available. Use fstype.
--fsoptions — Specifies a free form string of options to be used when mounting the
filesystem. T his string will be copied into the /etc/fstab file of the installed system and
should be enclosed in quotes.
--fsprofile — Specifies a usage type to be passed to the program that makes a
filesystem on this partition. A usage type defines a variety of tuning parameters to be used
when making a filesystem. For this option to work, the filesystem must support the concept
of usage types and there must be a configuration file that lists valid types. For ext2, ext3,
and ext4, this configuration file is /etc/m ke2fs.conf.
--fstype= — Sets the file system type for the partition. Valid values are xfs, ext2, ext3,
ext4 , swap, vfat, and hfs.
--recom m ended — Determine the size of the partition automatically.
--onbiosdisk — Forces the partition to be created on a particular disk as discovered by
the BIOS.
--encrypted — Specifies that this partition should be encrypted, using the passphrase
provided in the --passphrase option. If you do not specify a passphrase, anaconda uses
the default, system-wide passphrase set with the autopart --passphrase command, or
stops the installation and prompts you to provide a passphrase if no default is set.
--passphrase= — Specifies the passphrase to use when encrypting this partition. You
must use this option together with the --encrypted option; by itself it has no effect.
--escrowcert=URL_of_X.509_certificate — Store data encryption keys of all
encrypted partitions as files in /root, encrypted using the X.509 certificate from the URL
specified with URL_of_X.509_certificate. T he keys are stored as a separate file for
each encrypted partition. T his option is only meaningful if --encrypted is specified.
--backuppassphrase= — Add a randomly-generated passphrase to each encrypted
partition. Store these passphrases in separate files in /root, encrypted using the X.509
certificate specified with --escrowcert. T his option is only meaningful if --escrowcert
is specified.
--label= — assign a label to an individual partition.
Note
If partitioning fails for any reason, diagnostic messages appear on virtual console 3.
poweroff (optional)
Shut down and power off the system after the installation has successfully completed. Normally
during a manual installation, anaconda displays a message and waits for the user to press a
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key before rebooting. During a kickstart installation, if no completion method is specified, the
halt option is used as default.
T he poweroff option is equivalent to the shutdown -p command.
Note
T he poweroff option is highly dependent on the system hardware in use. Specifically,
certain hardware components such as the BIOS, APM (advanced power management),
and ACPI (advanced configuration and power interface) must be able to interact with the
system kernel. Contact your manufacturer for more information on you system's
APM/ACPI abilities.
For other completion methods, refer to the halt, reboot, and shutdown kickstart options.
raid (optional)
Assembles a software RAID device. T his command is of the form:
raid <mntpoint> --level=<level> --device=<mddevice> <partitions*>
<mntpoint> — Location where the RAID file system is mounted. If it is /, the RAID level
must be 1 unless a boot partition (/boot) is present. If a boot partition is present, the
/boot partition must be level 1 and the root (/) partition can be any of the available types.
T he <partitions*> (which denotes that multiple partitions can be listed) lists the RAID
identifiers to add to the RAID array.
Important — RAID metadata version on POWER
If a RAID device has been prepared and has not been reformatted during installation,
ensure that the RAID metadata version is 0.90 if you intend to put the /boot and
PReP partitions on the RAID device.
T he default Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 mdadm metadata version is not supported
for the boot device.
--level= — RAID level to use (0, 1, or 5).
--device= — Name of the RAID device to use (such as md0 or md1). RAID devices range
from md0 to md15, and each may only be used once.
--spares= — Specifies the number of spare drives allocated for the RAID array. Spare
drives are used to rebuild the array in case of drive failure.
--fsprofile — Specifies a usage type to be passed to the program that makes a
filesystem on this partition. A usage type defines a variety of tuning parameters to be used
when making a filesystem. For this option to work, the filesystem must support the concept
of usage types and there must be a configuration file that lists valid types. For ext2, ext3,
and ext4, this configuration file is /etc/m ke2fs.conf.
--fstype= — Sets the file system type for the RAID array. Valid values are xfs, ext2,
ext3, ext4 , swap, vfat, and hfs.
--fsoptions= — Specifies a free form string of options to be used when mounting the
filesystem. T his string will be copied into the /etc/fstab file of the installed system and
should be enclosed in quotes.
--noform at — Use an existing RAID device and do not format the RAID array.
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--useexisting — Use an existing RAID device and reformat it.
--encrypted — Specifies that this RAID device should be encrypted, using the
passphrase provided in the --passphrase option. If you do not specify a passphrase,
anaconda uses the default, system-wide passphrase set with the autopart -passphrase command, or stops the installation and prompts you to provide a passphrase
if no default is set.
--passphrase= — Specifies the passphrase to use when encrypting this RAID device.
You must use this option together with the --encrypted option; by itself it has no effect.
--escrowcert=URL_of_X.509_certificate — Store the data encryption key for this
device in a file in /root, encrypted using the X.509 certificate from the URL specified with
URL_of_X.509_certificate. T his option is only meaningful if --encrypted is specified.
--backuppassphrase= — Add a randomly-generated passphrase to this device. Store
the passphrase in a file in /root, encrypted using the X.509 certificate specified with -escrowcert. T his option is only meaningful if --escrowcert is specified.
T he following example shows how to create a RAID level 1 partition for /, and a RAID level 5 for
/usr, assuming there are three SCSI disks on the system. It also creates three swap partitions,
one on each drive.
part raid.01 --size=60 --ondisk=sda
part raid.02 --size=60 --ondisk=sdb
part raid.03 --size=60 --ondisk=sdc
part swap --size=128 --ondisk=sda
part swap --size=128 --ondisk=sdb
part swap --size=128 --ondisk=sdc
part raid.11 --size=1 --grow --ondisk=sda
part raid.12 --size=1 --grow --ondisk=sdb
part raid.13 --size=1 --grow --ondisk=sdc
raid / --level=1 --device=md0 raid.01 raid.02 raid.03
raid /usr --level=5 --device=md1 raid.11 raid.12 raid.13
For a detailed example of raid in action, refer to Section 32.4.1, “Advanced Partitioning
Example”.
reboot (optional)
Reboot after the installation is successfully completed (no arguments). Normally, kickstart
displays a message and waits for the user to press a key before rebooting.
T he reboot option is equivalent to the shutdown -r command.
Specify reboot to automate installation fully when installing in cmdline mode on System z.
For other completion methods, refer to the halt, poweroff, and shutdown kickstart options.
T he halt option is the default completion method if no other methods are explicitly specified in
the kickstart file.
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Note
Use of the reboot option may result in an endless installation loop, depending on the
installation media and method.
repo (optional)
Configures additional yum repositories that may be used as sources for package installation.
Multiple repo lines may be specified.
repo --name=<repoid> [--baseurl=<url>| --mirrorlist=<url>]
--nam e= — T he repo id. T his option is required.
--baseurl= — T he URL for the repository. T he variables that may be used in yum repo
config files are not supported here. You may use one of either this option or --mirrorlist, not
both.
--m irrorlist= — T he URL pointing at a list of mirrors for the repository. T he variables
that may be used in yum repo config files are not supported here. You may use one of either
this option or --baseurl, not both.
rootpw (required)
Sets the system's root password to the <password> argument.
rootpw [--iscrypted] <password>
--iscrypted — If this is present, the password argument is assumed to already be
encrypted.
selinux (optional)
Sets the state of SELinux on the installed system. SELinux defaults to enforcing in anaconda.
selinux [--disabled|--enforcing|--permissive]
--enforcing — Enables SELinux with the default targeted policy being enforced.
Note
If the selinux option is not present in the kickstart file, SELinux is enabled and set
to --enforcing by default.
--perm issive — Outputs warnings based on the SELinux policy, but does not actually
enforce the policy.
--disabled — Disables SELinux completely on the system.
For more information regarding SELinux for Red Hat Enterprise Linux, refer to the Red Hat
Enterprise Linux 6 Deployment Guide.
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services (optional)
Modifies the default set of services that will run under the default runlevel. T he list of disabled
services is processed before the list of enabled services. T herefore, if a service appears on
both lists, it is enabled.
--disabled — Disable the services given in the comma separated list.
--enabled — Enable the services given in the comma separated list.
Do not include spaces in the list of services
If you include spaces in the comma-separated list, kickstart will enable or disable only
the services up to the first space. For example:
services --disabled auditd, cups,sm artd, nfslock
will disable only the auditd service. T o disable all four services, this entry should
include no spaces between services:
services --disabled auditd,cups,sm artd,nfslock
shutdown (optional)
Shut down the system after the installation has successfully completed. During a kickstart
installation, if no completion method is specified, the halt option is used as default.
T he shutdown option is equivalent to the shutdown command.
For other completion methods, refer to the halt, poweroff, and reboot kickstart options.
skipx (optional)
If present, X is not configured on the installed system.
Package selection might configure X
If you install a display manager among your package selection options, this package will
create an X configuration, and the installed system will default to run level 5. T he effect
of the skipx option is overridden.
sshpw (optional)
During installation, you can interact with anaconda and monitor its progress over an SSH
connection. Use the sshpw command to create temporary accounts through which to log on.
Each instance of the command creates a separate account that exists only in the installation
environment. T hese accounts are not transferred to the installed system.
sshpw --username=<name> <password> [--iscrypted|--plaintext] [--lock]
--usernam e — Provides the name of the user. T his option is required.
--iscrypted — Specifies that the password is already encrypted.
--plaintext — Specifies that the password is in plain text and not encrypted.
--lock — If this is present, the new user account is locked by default. T hat is, the user will
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not be able to login from the console.
Important — You must boot with sshd=1
By default, the ssh server is not started during installation. T o make ssh available during
installation, boot the system with the kernel boot option sshd=1. Refer to Section 28.2.3,
“Enabling Remote Access with ssh” for details of how to specify this kernel option at
boot time.
Note
If you want to disable root ssh access to your hardware during installation, run:
sshpw --username=root --lock
text (optional)
Perform the kickstart installation in text mode. Kickstart installations are performed in graphical
mode by default.
Important
If you select text mode for a kickstart installation, make sure that you specify choices for
the partitioning, bootloader, and package selection options. T hese steps are automated
in text mode, and anaconda cannot prompt you for missing information. If you do not
provide choices for these options, anaconda will stop the installation process.
tim ezone (required)
Sets the system time zone to <timezone> which may be any of the time zones listed by
tim econfig.
timezone [--utc] <timezone>
--utc — If present, the system assumes the hardware clock is set to UT C (Greenwich
Mean) time.
upgrade (optional)
T ells the system to upgrade an existing system rather than install a fresh system. You must
specify one of cdrom , harddrive, nfs, or url (for FT P, HT T P, and HT T PS) as the location
of the installation tree. Refer to install for details.
user (optional)
Creates a new user on the system.
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user --name=<username> [--groups=<list>] [--homedir=<homedir>] [-password=<password>] [--iscrypted] [--shell=<shell>] [--uid=<uid>]
--nam e= — Provides the name of the user. T his option is required.
--groups= — In addition to the default group, a comma separated list of group names the
user should belong to. T he groups must exist before the user account is created.
--hom edir= — T he home directory for the user. If not provided, this defaults to
/home/<username>.
--password= — T he new user's password. If not provided, the account will be locked by
default.
--iscrypted= — Is the password provided by --password already encrypted or not?
--shell= — T he user's login shell. If not provided, this defaults to the system default.
--uid= — T he user's UID. If not provided, this defaults to the next available non-system
UID.
vnc (optional)
Allows the graphical installation to be viewed remotely via VNC. T his method is usually
preferred over text mode, as there are some size and language limitations in text installs. With
no options, this command will start a VNC server on the machine with no password and will print
out the command that needs to be run to connect a remote machine.
vnc [--host=<hostname>] [--port=<port>] [--password=<password>]
--host= — Instead of starting a VNC server on the install machine, connect to the VNC
viewer process listening on the given hostname.
--port= — Provide a port that the remote VNC viewer process is listening on. If not
provided, anaconda will use the VNC default.
--password= — Set a password which must be provided to connect to the VNC session.
T his is optional, but recommended.
volgroup (optional)
Use to create a Logical Volume Management (LVM) group with the syntax:
volgroup <name> <partition> <options>
T he options are as follows:
--noform at — Use an existing volume group and do not format it.
--useexisting — Use an existing volume group and reformat it.
--pesize= — Set the size of the physical extents.
Create the partition first, create the logical volume group, and then create the logical volume. For
example:
part pv.01 --size 3000
volgroup myvg pv.01
logvol / --vgname=myvg --size=2000 --name=rootvol
For a detailed example of volgroup in action, refer to Section 32.4.1, “Advanced Partitioning
Example”.
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winbind (optional)
Configures the system to connect to a Windows Active Directory or a Windows domain
controller. User information from the specified directory or domain controller can then be
accessed and server authentication options can be configured.
--enablewinbind — Enable winbind for user account configuration.
--disablewinbind — Disable winbind for user account configuration.
--enablewinbindauth — Enable windbindauth for authentication.
--disablewinbindauth — Disable windbindauth for authentication.
--enablewinbindoffline — Configures winbind to allow offline login.
--disablewinbindoffline — Configures winbind to prevent offline login.
--enablewinbindusedefaultdom ain — Configures winbind to assume that users with
no domain in their usernames are domain users.
--disablewinbindusedefaultdom ain — Configures winbind to assume that users
with no domain in their usernames are not domain users.
xconfig (optional)
Configures the X Window System. If you install the X Window System with a kickstart file that
does not include the xconfig command, you must provide the X configuration manually during
installation.
Do not use this command in a kickstart file that does not install the X Window System.
--driver — Specify the X driver to use for the video hardware.
--videoram = — Specifies the amount of video RAM the video card has.
--defaultdesktop= — Specify either GNOME or KDE to set the default desktop
(assumes that GNOME Desktop Environment and/or KDE Desktop Environment has been
installed through %packages).
--startxonboot — Use a graphical login on the installed system.
zerom br (optional)
If zerom br is specified any invalid partition tables found on disks are initialized. T his destroys
all of the contents of disks with invalid partition tables.
Specific to System z: If zerom br is specified, any DASD visible to the installer which is not
already low-level formatted gets automatically low-level formatted with dasdfmt. T he command
also prevents user choice during interactive installations. If zerom br is not specified and there
is at least one unformatted DASD visible to the installer, a non-interactive kickstart installation
will exit unsuccessfully. If zerom br is not specified and there is at least one unformatted DASD
visible to the installer, an interactive installation exits if the user does not agree to format all
visible and unformatted DASDs. T o circumvent this, only activate those DASDs that you will use
during installation. You can always add more DASDs after installation is complete.
Note that this command was previously specified as zerom br yes. T his form is now
deprecated; you should now simply specify zerom br in your kickstart file instead.
zfcp (optional)
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Define a Fiber channel device (IBM System z).
zfcp [--devnum =<devnum>] [--wwpn=<wwpn>] [--fcplun=<fcplun>]
%include (optional)
Use the %include /path/to/file command to include the contents of another file in the
kickstart file as though the contents were at the location of the %include command in the
kickstart file.
32.4 .1. Advanced Partitioning Example
T he following is a single, integrated example showing the clearpart, raid, part, volgroup, and
logvol kickstart options in action:
clearpart --drives=hda,hdc --initlabel
# Raid 1 IDE config
part raid.11
--size 1000
--asprimary
part raid.12
--size 1000
--asprimary
part raid.13
--size 2000
--asprimary
part raid.14
--size 8000
part raid.15
--size 16384 --grow
part raid.21
--size 1000
--asprimary
part raid.22
--size 1000
--asprimary
part raid.23
--size 2000
--asprimary
part raid.24
--size 8000
part raid.25
--size 16384 --grow
--ondrive=hda
--ondrive=hda
--ondrive=hda
--ondrive=hda
--ondrive=hda
--ondrive=hdc
--ondrive=hdc
--ondrive=hdc
--ondrive=hdc
--ondrive=hdc
# You can add --spares=x
raid /
--fstype ext3 --device md0 --level=RAID1
raid /safe
--fstype ext3 --device md1 --level=RAID1
raid swap
--fstype swap --device md2 --level=RAID1
raid /usr
--fstype ext3 --device md3 --level=RAID1
raid pv.01
--fstype ext3 --device md4 --level=RAID1
raid.11
raid.12
raid.13
raid.14
raid.15
raid.21
raid.22
raid.23
raid.24
raid.25
# LVM configuration so that we can resize /var and /usr/local later
volgroup sysvg pv.01
logvol /var
--vgname=sysvg --size=8000
--name=var
logvol /var/freespace
--vgname=sysvg --size=8000
--name=freespacetouse
logvol /usr/local
--vgname=sysvg --size=1 --grow --name=usrlocal
T his advanced example implements LVM over RAID, as well as the ability to resize various directories
for future growth.
32.5. Package Selection
Warning — do not install every available package
You can use a kickstart file to install every available package by specifying * in the %packages
section. Red Hat does not support this type of installation.
In previous releases of Red Hat Enterprise Linux, this functionality was provided by
@ Everything, but this is not included in Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.
Use the %packages command to begin a kickstart file section that lists the packages you would like to
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install (this is for installations only, as package selection during upgrades is not supported).
You can specify packages by group or by their package names. T he installation program defines several
groups that contain related packages. Refer to the variant/repodata/com ps-* .xm l file on the Red
Hat Enterprise Linux 6 Installation DVD for a list of groups. Each group has an id, user visibility value,
name, description, and package list. If the group is selected for installation, the packages marked
m andatory in the package list are always installed, the packages marked default are installed if they
are not specifically excluded elsewhere, and the packages marked optional must be specifically
included elsewhere even when the group is selected.
Specify groups, one entry to a line, starting with an @ symbol, a space, and then the full group name or
group id as given in the com ps.xm l file. For example:
%packages
@ X Window System
@ Desktop
@ Sound and Video
Note that the Core and Base groups are always selected by default, so it is not necessary to specify
them in the %packages section.
Specify individual packages by name, one entry to a line. You can use asterisks as wildcards to glob
package names in entries. For example:
sqlite
curl
aspell
docbook*
T he docbook* entry includes the packages docbook-dtds, docbook-simple, docbook-slides and others
that match the pattern represented with the wildcard.
Use a leading dash to specify packages or groups to exclude from the installation. For example:
[email protected] Graphical Internet
-autofs
-ipa*fonts
Installing a 32-bit package on a 64-bit system
T o install a 32-bit package on a 64-bit system, you will need to append the package name with
the 32-bit architecture the package was built for. For example:
glibc.i686
Using a kickstart file to install every available package by specifying * will introduce package and file
conflicts onto the installed system. Packages known to cause such problems are assigned to the
@ Conflicts (variant) group, where variant is Client, Com puteNode, Server or
Workstation. If you specify * in a kickstart file, be sure to exclude @ Conflicts (variant) or the
installation will fail:
*
[email protected] (Server)
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399
Note that Red Hat does not support the use of * in a kickstart file, even if you exclude @ Conflicts
(variant).
T he following options are available for the %packages option:
--nobase
Do not install the @Base group. Use this option to perform a minimal installation, for example,
for a single-purpose server or desktop appliance.
--resolvedeps
T he --resolvedeps option has been deprecated. Dependencies are now always resolved
automatically.
--ignoredeps
T he --ignoredeps option has been deprecated. Dependencies are resolved automatically every
time now.
--ignorem issing
Ignore the missing packages and groups instead of halting the installation to ask if the
installation should be aborted or continued. For example:
%packages --ignoremissing
32.6. Pre-installation Script
You can add commands to run on the system immediately after the ks.cfg has been parsed. T his
section must be placed towards the end of the kickstart file, after the kickstart commands described in
Section 32.4, “Kickstart Options”, and must start with the %pre command. If your kickstart file also
includes a %post section, the order of the %pre and %post sections does not matter.
You can access the network in the %pre section; however, name service has not been configured at this
point, so only IP addresses work.
Note
Note that the pre-install script is not run in the change root environment.
--interpreter /usr/bin/python
Allows you to specify a different scripting language, such as Python. Replace
/usr/bin/python with the scripting language of your choice.
32.6.1. Example
Here is an example %pre section:
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Chapter 32. Kickstart Installations
%pre
#!/bin/sh
hds=""
mymedia=""
for file in /proc/ide/h* do
mymedia=`cat $file/media`
if [ $mymedia == "disk" ] ; then
hds="$hds `basename $file`"
fi
done
set $hds
numhd=`echo $#`
drive1=`echo $hds | cut -d' ' -f1`
drive2=`echo $hds | cut -d' ' -f2`
#Write out partition scheme based on whether there are 1 or 2 hard drives
if [ $numhd == "2" ] ; then
#2 drives
echo "#partitioning scheme generated in %pre for 2 drives" > /tmp/part-include
echo "clearpart --all" >> /tmp/part-include
echo "part /boot --fstype ext3 --size 75 --ondisk hda" >> /tmp/part-include
echo "part / --fstype ext3 --size 1 --grow --ondisk hda" >> /tmp/part-include
echo "part swap --recommended --ondisk $drive1" >> /tmp/part-include
echo "part /home --fstype ext3 --size 1 --grow --ondisk hdb" >> /tmp/partinclude
else
#1 drive
echo "#partitioning scheme generated in %pre for 1 drive" > /tmp/part-include
echo "clearpart --all" >> /tmp/part-include
echo "part /boot --fstype ext3 --size 75" >> /tmp/part-include
echo "part swap --recommended" >> /tmp/part-include
echo "part / --fstype ext3 --size 2048" >> /tmp/part-include
echo "part /home --fstype ext3 --size 2048 --grow" >> /tmp/part-include
fi
T his script determines the number of hard drives in the system and writes a text file with a different
partitioning scheme depending on whether it has one or two drives. Instead of having a set of
partitioning commands in the kickstart file, include the line:
%include /tmp/part-include
T he partitioning commands selected in the script are used.
Note
T he pre-installation script section of kickstart cannot manage multiple install trees or source
media. T his information must be included for each created ks.cfg file, as the pre-installation script
occurs during the second stage of the installation process.
32.7. Post-installation Script
You have the option of adding commands to run on the system once the installation is complete. T his
section must be placed towards the end of the kickstart file, after the kickstart commands described in
Section 32.4, “Kickstart Options”, and must start with the %post command. If your kickstart file also
includes a %pre section, the order of the %pre and %post sections does not matter.
T his section is useful for functions such as installing additional software and configuring an additional
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nameserver.
Note
If you configured the network with static IP information, including a nameserver, you can access
the network and resolve IP addresses in the %post section. If you configured the network for
DHCP, the /etc/resolv.conf file has not been completed when the installation executes the
%post section. You can access the network, but you can not resolve IP addresses. T hus, if you
are using DHCP, you must specify IP addresses in the %post section.
Note
T he post-install script is run in a chroot environment; therefore, performing tasks such as copying
scripts or RPMs from the installation media do not work.
--nochroot
Allows you to specify commands that you would like to run outside of the chroot environment.
T he following example copies the file /etc/resolv.conf to the file system that was just
installed.
%post --nochroot
cp /etc/resolv.conf /mnt/sysimage/etc/resolv.conf
--interpreter /usr/bin/python
Allows you to specify a different scripting language, such as Python. Replace
/usr/bin/python with the scripting language of your choice.
--log /path/to/logfile
Logs the output of the post-install script. Note that the path of the log file must take into account
whether or not you use the --nochroot option. For example, without --nochroot:
%post --log=/root/ks-post.log
with --nochroot:
%post --nochroot --log=/mnt/sysimage/root/ks-post.log
32.7.1. Examples
Example 32.1. Register the system to a Red Hat Network Satellite and log the output:
%post --log=/root/ks-post.log
wget -O- http://proxy-or-sat.example.com/pub/bootstrap_script | /bin/bash
/usr/sbin/rhnreg_ks --activationkey=<activationkey>
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Example 32.2. Run a script named runm e from an NFS share:
mkdir /mnt/temp
mount -o nolock 10.10.0.2:/usr/new-machines /mnt/temp
openvt -s -w -- /mnt/temp/runme
umount /mnt/temp
NFS file locking is not supported while in kickstart mode, therefore -o nolock is required when
mounting an NFS mount.
Example 32.3. Running subscription-manager as a post-install script
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 has a command-line tool, subscription-manager, which registers a
system to Red Hat's hosted content service and draws down content from that service, according to
the subscriptions available to the organization. As with registering a system to a local Satellite service,
the subscription-manager tool can be run as a post-install script. T he --autosubscribe option
automatically subscribes the new system to the best-matched subscription pool available after
registering it with the entitlements service.
%post --log=/root/ks-post.log
/usr/sbin/subscription-manager register --username rhn_username --password
rhn_password --autosubscribe
32.8. Making the Kickstart File Available
A kickstart file must be placed in one of the following locations:
On removable media, such as a floppy disk, optical disk, or USB flash drive
On a hard drive
On a network
Normally a kickstart file is copied to the removable media or hard drive, or made available on the network.
T he network-based approach is most commonly used, as most kickstart installations tend to be
performed on networked computers.
Let us take a more in-depth look at where the kickstart file may be placed.
32.8.1. Creating Kickstart Boot Media
T o perform a kickstart installation using removable media, the kickstart file must be named ks.cfg and
must be located in the top-level directory of the disc.
Diskette-based booting is no longer supported in Red Hat Enterprise Linux. Installations must use CDROM or flash memory products for booting. However, the kickstart file may still reside on a diskette's toplevel directory, and must be named ks.cfg. Separate boot media will be required.
Refer to Section 2.2, “Making Minimal Boot Media” for instructions on creating boot media.
T o perform a pen-based flash memory kickstart installation, the kickstart file must be named ks.cfg
and must be located in the flash memory's top-level directory. Create the boot image first, and then copy
the ks.cfg file.
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Refer to Section 2.2, “Making Minimal Boot Media” for instructions on creating live USB media using the
rhel-variant-version-architecture-boot.iso image file that you can download from the
Software & Download Center of the Red Hat customer portal.
Note
Creation of USB flashdrives for booting is possible, but is heavily dependent on system hardware
BIOS settings. Refer to your hardware manufacturer to see if your system supports booting to
alternate devices.
32.8.2. Making the Kickstart File Available on the Network
Network installations using kickstart are quite common, because system administrators can quickly and
easily automate the installation on many networked computers. In general, the approach most commonly
used is for the administrator to have both a BOOT P/DHCP server and an NFS server on the local
network. T he BOOT P/DHCP server is used to give the client system its networking information, while the
actual files used during the installation are served by the NFS server. Often, these two servers run on
the same physical machine, but they are not required to.
Include the ks kernel boot option in the append line of a target in your pxelinux.cfg/default file to
specify the location of a kickstart file on your network. T he syntax of the ks option in a
pxelinux.cfg/default file is identical to its syntax when used at the boot prompt. Refer to
Section 32.10, “Starting a Kickstart Installation” for a description of the syntax and refer to Example 32.4,
“Using the ks option in the pxelinux.cfg/default file” for an example of an append line.
If the dhcpd.conf file on the DHCP server is configured to point to /tftpboot/pxelinux.0 on the
BOOT P server (whether on the same physical machine or not), systems configured to boot over the
network can load the kickstart file and commence installation.
Example 32.4 . Using the ks option in the pxelinux.cfg/default file
For example, if foo.ks is a kickstart file available on an NFS share at
192.168.0.200:/export/kickstart/, part of your pxelinux.cfg/default file might include:
label 1
kernel RHEL6/vmlinuz
append initrd=RHEL6/initrd.img ramdisk_size=10000
ks=nfs:192.168.0.200:/export/kickstart/foo.ks
32.9. Making the Installation Tree Available
T he kickstart installation must access an installation tree. An installation tree is a copy of the binary Red
Hat Enterprise Linux DVD with the same directory structure.
If you are performing a DVD-based installation, insert the Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation DVD into
the computer before starting the kickstart installation.
If you are performing a hard drive installation, make sure the ISO images of the binary Red Hat
Enterprise Linux DVD are on a hard drive in the computer.
If you are performing a network-based (NFS, FT P or HT T P) installation, you must make the installation
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Chapter 32. Kickstart Installations
tree or ISO image available over the network. Refer to Section 4.1, “Preparing for a Network Installation”
for details.
32.10. Starting a Kickstart Installation
Important — Kickstart installations and firstboot
Firstboot does not run after a system is installed from a Kickstart file unless a desktop and the
X Window System were included in the installation and graphical login was enabled. Either specify
a user with the user option in the Kickstart file before installing additional systems from it (refer
to Section 32.4, “Kickstart Options” for details) or log into the installed system with a virtual
console as root and add users with the adduser command.
T o begin a kickstart installation, you must boot the system from boot media you have made or the Red
Hat Enterprise Linux DVD, and enter a special boot command at the boot prompt. T he installation
program looks for a kickstart file if the ks command line argument is passed to the kernel.
DVD and local storage
T he linux ks= command also works if the ks.cfg file is located on a vfat or ext2 file system
on local storage and you boot from the Red Hat Enterprise Linux DVD.
With Driver Disk
If you need to use a driver disk with kickstart, specify the dd option as well. For example, if
installation requires a kickstart file on a local hard drive and also requires a driver disk, boot the
system with:
linux ks=hd:partition:/path/ks.cfg dd
Boot CD-ROM
If the kickstart file is on a boot CD-ROM as described in Section 32.8.1, “Creating Kickstart Boot
Media”, insert the CD-ROM into the system, boot the system, and enter the following command
at the boot: prompt (where ks.cfg is the name of the kickstart file):
linux ks=cdrom:/ks.cfg
Other options to start a kickstart installation are as follows:
askm ethod
Prompt the user to select an installation source, even if a Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation
DVD is detected on the system.
asknetwork
Prompt for network configuration in the first stage of installation regardless of installation
method.
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4 05
autostep
Make kickstart non-interactive.
debug
Start up pdb immediately.
dd
Use a driver disk.
dhcpclass=<class>
Sends a custom DHCP vendor class identifier. ISC's dhcpcd can inspect this value using
"option vendor-class-identifier".
dns=<dns>
Comma separated list of nameservers to use for a network installation.
driverdisk
Same as 'dd'.
expert
T urns on special features:
allows partitioning of removable media
prompts for a driver disk
gateway=<gw>
Gateway to use for a network installation.
graphical
Force graphical install. Required to have ftp/http use GUI.
isa
Prompt user for ISA devices configuration.
ip=<ip>
IP to use for a network installation, use 'dhcp' for DHCP.
ipv6=auto, ipv6=dhcp
IPv6 configuration for the device. Use auto to specify automatic neighbor discovery or dhcp for
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Chapter 32. Kickstart Installations
a stateful configuration with DHCPv6. You cannot specify a static IPv6 address.
keym ap=<keymap>
Keyboard layout to use. Valid layouts include:
be-latin1 — Belgian
bg_bds-utf8 — Bulgarian
bg_pho-utf8 — Bulgarian (Phonetic)
br-abnt2 — Brazilian (ABNT 2)
cf — French Canadian
croat — Croatian
cz-us-qwertz — Czech
cz-lat2 — Czech (qwerty)
de — German
de-latin1 — German (latin1)
de-latin1-nodeadkeys — German (latin1 without dead keys)
dvorak — Dvorak
dk — Danish
dk-latin1 — Danish (latin1)
es — Spanish
et — Estonian
fi — Finnish
fi-latin1 — Finnish (latin1)
fr — French
fr-latin9 — French (latin9)
fr-latin1 — French (latin1)
fr-pc — French (pc)
fr_CH — Swiss French
fr_CH-latin1 — Swiss French (latin1)
gr — Greek
hu — Hungarian
hu101 — Hungarian (101 key)
is-latin1 — Icelandic
it — Italian
it-ibm — Italian (IBM)
it2 — Italian (it2)
jp106 — Japanese
ko — Korean
la-latin1 — Latin American
m k-utf — Macedonian
nl — Dutch
no — Norwegian
pl2 — Polish
pt-latin1 — Portuguese
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ro — Romanian
ru — Russian
sr-cy — Serbian
sr-latin — Serbian (latin)
sv-latin1 — Swedish
sg — Swiss German
sg-latin1 — Swiss German (latin1)
sk-qwerty — Slovak (qwerty)
slovene — Slovenian
trq — T urkish
uk — United Kingdom
ua-utf — Ukrainian
us-acentos — U.S. International
us — U.S. English
T he file /usr/lib/python2.6/sitepackages/system _config_keyboard/keyboard_m odels.py on 32-bit systems or
/usr/lib64 /python2.6/sitepackages/system _config_keyboard/keyboard_m odels.py on 64-bit systems also
contains this list and is part of the system-config-keyboard package.
ks=nfs:<server>:/<path>
T he installation program looks for the kickstart file on the NFS server <server>, as file <path>.
T he installation program uses DHCP to configure the Ethernet card. For example, if your NFS
server is server.example.com and the kickstart file is in the NFS share /m ydir/ks.cfg, the
correct boot command would be ks=nfs:server.exam ple.com :/m ydir/ks.cfg.
ks={http|https}://<server>/<path>
T he installation program looks for the kickstart file on the HT T P or HT T PS server <server>,
as file <path>. T he installation program uses DHCP to configure the Ethernet card. For
example, if your HT T P server is server.example.com and the kickstart file is in the HT T P
directory /m ydir/ks.cfg, the correct boot command would be
ks=http://server.exam ple.com /m ydir/ks.cfg.
ks=hd:<device>:/<file>
T he installation program mounts the file system on <device> (which must be vfat or ext2), and
looks for the kickstart configuration file as <file> in that file system (for example,
ks=hd:sda3:/m ydir/ks.cfg).
ks=bd:<biosdev>:/<path>
T he installation program mounts the file system on the specified partition on the specified BIOS
device <biosdev>, and looks for the kickstart configuration file specified in <path> (for
example, ks=bd:80p3:/m ydir/ks.cfg). Note this does not work for BIOS RAID sets.
ks=file:/<file>
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Chapter 32. Kickstart Installations
T he installation program tries to read the file <file> from the file system; no mounts are done.
T his is normally used if the kickstart file is already on the initrd image.
ks=cdrom :/<path>
T he installation program looks for the kickstart file on CD-ROM, as file <path>.
ks
If ks is used alone, the installation program configures the Ethernet card to use DHCP. T he
kickstart file is read from NFS server specified by DHCP option server-name. T he name of the
kickstart file is one of the following:
If DHCP is specified and the boot file begins with a /, the boot file provided by DHCP is
looked for on the NFS server.
If DHCP is specified and the boot file begins with something other than a /, the boot file
provided by DHCP is looked for in the /kickstart directory on the NFS server.
If DHCP did not specify a boot file, then the installation program tries to read the file
/kickstart/1.2.3.4 -kickstart, where 1.2.3.4 is the numeric IP address of the
machine being installed.
ksdevice=<device>
T he installation program uses this network device to connect to the network. You can specify
the device in one of five ways:
the device name of the interface, for example, eth0
the MAC address of the interface, for example, 00:12:34 :56:78:9a
the keyword link, which specifies the first interface with its link in the up state
the keyword bootif, which uses the MAC address that pxelinux set in the BOOTIF
variable. Set IPAPPEND 2 in your pxelinux.cfg file to have pxelinux set the BOOTIF
variable.
the keyword ibft, which uses the MAC address of the interface specified by iBFT
For example, consider a system connected to an NFS server through the eth1 device. T o
perform a kickstart installation on this system using a kickstart file from the NFS server, you
would use the command ks=nfs:<server>:/<path> ksdevice=eth1 at the boot:
prompt.
kssendm ac
Adds HT T P headers to ks=http:// request that can be helpful for provisioning systems. Includes
MAC address of all nics in CGI environment variables of the form: "X-RHN-Provisioning-MAC-0:
eth0 01:23:45:67:89:ab".
lang=<lang>
Language to use for the installation. T his should be a language which is valid to be used with
the 'lang' kickstart command.
loglevel=<level>
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Set the minimum level required for messages to be logged. Values for <level> are debug, info,
warning, error, and critical. T he default value is info.
m ediacheck
Activates loader code to give user option of testing integrity of install source (if an ISO-based
method).
netm ask=<nm>
Netmask to use for a network installation.
nofallback
If GUI fails exit.
nofb
Do not load the VGA16 framebuffer required for doing text-mode installation in some languages.
nofirewire
Do not load support for firewire devices.
noipv6
Disable IPv6 networking during installation.
This option is not available during PXE installations
During installations from a PXE server, IPv6 networking might become active before
anaconda processes the Kickstart file. If so, this option will have no effect during
installation.
nom ount
Don't automatically mount any installed Linux partitions in rescue mode.
nonet
Do not auto-probe network devices.
noparport
Do not attempt to load support for parallel ports.
nopass
Do not pass information about the keyboard and mouse from anaconda stage 1 (the loader) to
stage 2 (the installer).
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Chapter 32. Kickstart Installations
nopcm cia
Ignore PCMCIA controller in system.
noprobe
Do not automatically probe for hardware; prompt the user to allow anaconda to probe for
particular categories of hardware.
noshell
Do not put a shell on tty2 during install.
repo=cdrom
Do a DVD based installation.
repo=ftp://<path>
Use <path> for an FT P installation.
repo=hd:<dev>:<path>
Use <path> on <dev> for a hard drive installation.
repo=http://<path>
Use <path> for an HT T P installation.
repo=https://<path>
Use <path> for an HT T PS installation.
repo=nfs:<path>
Use <path> for an NFS installation.
rescue
Run rescue environment.
resolution=<mode>
Run installer in mode specified, '1024x768' for example.
serial
T urns on serial console support.
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skipddc
Do not probe the Data Display Channel (DDC) of the monitor. T his option provides a
workaround if the DDC probe causes the system to stop responding.
syslog=<host>[:<port>]
Once installation is up and running, send log messages to the syslog process on <host>, and
optionally, on port <port>. Requires the remote syslog process to accept connections (the -r
option).
text
Force text mode install.
Important
If you select text mode for a kickstart installation, make sure that you specify choices for
the partitioning, bootloader, and package selection options. T hese steps are automated
in text mode, and anaconda cannot prompt you for missing information. If you do not
provide choices for these options, anaconda will stop the installation process.
updates
Prompt for storage device containing updates (bug fixes).
updates=ftp://<path>
Image containing updates over FT P.
updates=http://<path>
Image containing updates over HT T P.
updates=https://<path>
Image containing updates over HT T PS.
upgradeany
Offer to upgrade any Linux installation detected on the system, regardless of the contents or
the existence of the /etc/redhat-release file.
vnc
Enable vnc-based installation. You will need to connect to the machine using a vnc client
application.
vncconnect=<host>[:<port>]
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Chapter 32. Kickstart Installations
Connect to the vnc client named <host>, and optionally use port <port>.
Requires 'vnc' option to be specified as well.
vncpassword=<password>
Enable a password for the vnc connection. T his will prevent someone from inadvertently
connecting to the vnc-based installation.
Requires 'vnc' option to be specified as well.
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Chapter 33. Kickstart Configurator
Kickstart Configurator allows you to create or modify a kickstart file using a graphical user interface,
so that you do not have to remember the correct syntax of the file.
Kickstart Configurator is not installed by default on Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6. Run su - yum
install system -config-kickstart or use your graphical package manager to install the
software.
T o launch Kickstart Configurator, boot your system into a graphical environment, then run system config-kickstart, or click Applications → System T ools → Kickstart on the GNOME desktop or
Kickoff Application Launcher+Applications → System → Kickstart on the KDE desktop.
As you are creating a kickstart file, you can click File → Preview at any time to review your current
selections.
T o start with an existing kickstart file, select File → Open and select the existing file.
33.1. Basic Configuration
Figure 33.1. Basic Configuration
Choose the language to use during the installation and as the default language to be used after
installation from the Default Language menu.
Select the system keyboard type from the Keyboard menu.
From the T ime Z one menu, choose the time zone to use for the system. T o configure the system to use
UT C, select Use UT C clock.
Enter the desired root password for the system in the Root Password text entry box. T ype the same
password in the Confirm Password text box. T he second field is to make sure you do not mistype
the password and then realize you do not know what it is after you have completed the installation. T o
save the password as an encrypted password in the file, select Encrypt root password. If the
encryption option is selected, when the file is saved, the plain text password that you typed is encrypted
and written to the kickstart file. Do not type an already encrypted password and select to encrypt it.
Because a kickstart file is a plain text file that can be easily read, it is recommended that an encrypted
password be used.
Choosing T arget Architecture specifies which specific hardware architecture distribution is used
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Chapter 33. Kickstart Configurator
during installation.
Choosing T arget Architecture specifies which specific hardware architecture distribution is used
during installation.
Choosing Reboot system after installation reboots your system automatically after the
installation is finished.
Kickstart installations are performed in graphical mode by default. T o override this default and use text
mode instead, select the Perform installation in text m ode option.
You can perform a kickstart installation in interactive mode. T his means that the installation program
uses all the options pre-configured in the kickstart file, but it allows you to preview the options in each
screen before continuing to the next screen. T o continue to the next screen, click the Next button after
you have approved the settings or change them before continuing the installation. T o select this type of
installation, select the Perform installation in interactive m ode option.
33.2. Installation Method
Figure 33.2. Installation Method
T he Installation Method screen allows you to choose whether to perform a new installation or an
upgrade. If you choose upgrade, the Partition Inform ation and Package Selection options
are disabled. T hey are not supported for kickstart upgrades.
Choose the type of kickstart installation or upgrade from the following options:
DVD — Choose this option to install or upgrade from the Red Hat Enterprise Linux DVD.
NFS — Choose this option to install or upgrade from an NFS shared directory. In the text field for the
NFS server, enter a fully-qualified domain name or IP address. For the NFS directory, enter the name
of the NFS directory that contains the variant directory of the installation tree. For example, if the
NFS server contains the directory /m irrors/redhat/i386/Server/, enter
/m irrors/redhat/i386/ for the NFS directory.
FT P — Choose this option to install or upgrade from an FT P server. In the FT P server text field,
enter a fully-qualified domain name or IP address. For the FT P directory, enter the name of the FT P
directory that contains the variant directory. For example, if the FT P server contains the directory
/m irrors/redhat/i386/Server/, enter /m irrors/redhat/i386/Server/ for the FT P
directory. If the FT P server requires a username and password, specify them as well.
HT T P — Choose this option to install or upgrade from an HT T P server. In the text field for the HT T P
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server, enter the fully-qualified domain name or IP address. For the HT T P directory, enter the name
of the HT T P directory that contains the variant directory. For example, if the HT T P server contains
the directory /m irrors/redhat/i386/Server/, enter /m irrors/redhat/i386/Server/ for
the HT T P directory.
Hard Drive — Choose this option to install or upgrade from a hard drive. Hard drive installations
require the use of ISO images. Be sure to verify that the ISO images are intact before you start the
installation. T o verify them, use an m d5sum program as well as the linux m ediacheck boot
option as discussed in Section 28.6.1, “Verifying boot media”. Enter the hard drive partition that
contains the ISO images (for example, /dev/hda1) in the Hard Drive Partition text box. Enter
the directory that contains the ISO images in the Hard Drive Directory text box.
33.3. Boot Loader Options
Figure 33.3. Boot Loader Options
Please note that this screen will be disabled if you have specified a target architecture other than x86 /
x86_64.
GRUB is the default boot loader for Red Hat Enterprise Linux on x86 / x86_64 architectures. If you do
not want to install a boot loader, select Do not install a boot loader. If you choose not to install
a boot loader, make sure you create a boot diskette or have another way to boot your system, such as a
third-party boot loader.
You must choose where to install the boot loader (the Master Boot Record or the first sector of the
/boot partition). Install the boot loader on the MBR if you plan to use it as your boot loader.
T o pass any special parameters to the kernel to be used when the system boots, enter them in the
Kernel param eters text field. For example, if you have an IDE CD-ROM Writer, you can tell the kernel
to use the SCSI emulation driver that must be loaded before using cdrecord by configuring hdd=idescsi as a kernel parameter (where hdd is the CD-ROM device).
You can password protect the GRUB boot loader by configuring a GRUB password. Select Use GRUB
password, and enter a password in the Password field. T ype the same password in the Confirm
Password text field. T o save the password as an encrypted password in the file, select Encrypt
GRUB password. If the encryption option is selected, when the file is saved, the plain text password
that you typed is encrypted and written to the kickstart file. If the password you typed was already
encrypted, uncheck the encryption option.
If Upgrade an existing installation is selected on the Installation Method page, select
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Upgrade existing boot loader to upgrade the existing boot loader configuration, while
preserving the old entries.
33.4. Partition Information
Figure 33.4 . Partition Information
Select whether or not to clear the Master Boot Record (MBR). Choose to remove all existing partitions,
remove all existing Linux partitions, or preserve existing partitions.
T o initialize the disk label to the default for the architecture of the system (for example, m sdos for x86),
select Initialize the disk label if you are installing on a brand new hard drive.
Note
Although anaconda and kickstart support Logical Volume Management (LVM), at present
there is no mechanism for configuring this using the Kickstart Configurator.
33.4 .1. Creating Partitions
T o create a partition, click the Add button. T he Partition Options window shown in Figure 33.5,
“Creating Partitions” appears. Choose the mount point, file system type, and partition size for the new
partition. Optionally, you can also choose from the following:
In the Additional Size Options section, choose to make the partition a fixed size, up to a
chosen size, or fill the remaining space on the hard drive. If you selected swap as the file system
type, you can select to have the installation program create the swap partition with the recommended
size instead of specifying a size.
Force the partition to be created as a primary partition.
Create the partition on a specific hard drive. For example, to make the partition on the first IDE hard
disk (/dev/hda), specify hda as the drive. Do not include /dev in the drive name.
Use an existing partition. For example, to make the partition on the first partition on the first IDE hard
disk (/dev/hda1), specify hda1 as the partition. Do not include /dev in the partition name.
Format the partition as the chosen file system type.
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Figure 33.5. Creating Partitions
T o edit an existing partition, select the partition from the list and click the Edit button. T he same
Partition Options window appears as when you chose to add a partition as shown in Figure 33.5,
“Creating Partitions”, except it reflects the values for the selected partition. Modify the partition options
and click OK.
T o delete an existing partition, select the partition from the list and click the Delete button.
33.4 .1.1. Creating Software RAID Partitions
T o create a software RAID partition, use the following steps:
1. Click the RAID button.
2. Select Create a software RAID partition.
3. Configure the partitions as previously described, except select Software RAID as the file
system type. Also, you must specify a hard drive on which to make the partition or specify an
existing partition to use.
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Figure 33.6. Creating a Software RAID Partition
Repeat these steps to create as many partitions as needed for your RAID setup. All of your partitions do
not have to be RAID partitions.
After creating all the partitions needed to form a RAID device, follow these steps:
1. Click the RAID button.
2. Select Create a RAID device.
3. Select a mount point, file system type, RAID device name, RAID level, RAID members, number of
spares for the software RAID device, and whether to format the RAID device.
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Figure 33.7. Creating a Software RAID Device
4. Click OK to add the device to the list.
33.5. Network Configuration
Figure 33.8. Network Configuration
If the system to be installed via kickstart does not have an Ethernet card, do not configure one on the
Network Configuration page.
Networking is only required if you choose a networking-based installation method (NFS, FT P, or HT T P).
Networking can always be configured after installation with the Network Administration T ool
(system -config-network). Refer to the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Deployment Guide for details.
For each Ethernet card on the system, click Add Network Device and select the network device and
network type for the device. Select eth0 to configure the first Ethernet card, eth1 for the second
Ethernet card, and so on.
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Chapter 33. Kickstart Configurator
33.6. Authentication
Figure 33.9. Authentication
In the Authentication section, select whether to use shadow passwords and MD5 encryption for
user passwords. T hese options are highly recommended and chosen by default.
T he Authentication Configuration options allow you to configure the following methods of
authentication:
NIS
LDAP
Kerberos 5
Hesiod
SMB
Name Switch Cache
T hese methods are not enabled by default. T o enable one or more of these methods, click the
appropriate tab, click the checkbox next to Enable, and enter the appropriate information for the
authentication method. Refer to the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Deployment Guide for more information
about the options.
33.7. Firewall Configuration
T he Firewall Configuration window is similar to the screen in the installation program and the
Security Level Configuration T ool.
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Figure 33.10. Firewall Configuration
If Disable firewall is selected, the system allows complete access to any active services and
ports. No connections to the system are refused or denied.
Selecting Enable firewall configures the system to reject incoming connections that are not in
response to outbound requests, such as DNS replies or DHCP requests. If access to services running
on this machine is required, you can choose to allow specific services through the firewall.
Only devices configured in the Network Configuration section are listed as available T rusted
devices. Connections from any devices selected in the list are accepted by the system. For example, if
eth1 only receives connections from internal system, you might want to allow connections from it.
If a service is selected in the T rusted services list, connections for the service are accepted and
processed by the system.
In the Other ports text field, list any additional ports that should be opened for remote access. Use
the following format: port:protocol. For example, to allow IMAP access through the firewall, specify
im ap:tcp. Numeric ports can also be specified explicitly; to allow UDP packets on port 1234 through
the firewall, enter 1234 :udp. T o specify multiple ports, separate them with commas.
33.7.1. SELinux Configuration
Kickstart can set SELinux to enforcing, perm issive or disabled mode. Finer grained
configuration is not possible at this time.
33.8. Display Configuration
If you are installing the X Window System, you can configure it during the kickstart installation by
checking the Configure the X Window System option on the Display Configuration window
as shown in Figure 33.11, “X Configuration”. If this option is not chosen, the X configuration options are
disabled and the skipx option is written to the kickstart file.
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Chapter 33. Kickstart Configurator
Figure 33.11. X Configuration
Select whether to start the Setup Agent the first time the installed system boots. T he Setup Agent is
disabled by default, but the setting can be changed to enabled or enabled in reconfiguration mode.
Reconfiguration mode enables the language, mouse, keyboard, root password, security level, time zone,
and networking configuration options in addition to the default ones.
33.9. Package Selection
Figure 33.12. Package Selection
T he Package Selection window allows you to choose which package groups to install.
Package resolution is carried out automatically.
Currently, Kickstart Configurator does not allow you to select individual packages. T o install
individual packages, modify the %packages section of the kickstart file after you save it. Refer to
Section 32.5, “Package Selection” for details.
33.10. Pre-Installation Script
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Figure 33.13. Pre-Installation Script
You can add commands to run on the system immediately after the kickstart file has been parsed and
before the installation begins. If you have configured the network in the kickstart file, the network is
enabled before this section is processed. T o include a pre-installation script, type it in the text area.
Important — anaconda no longer uses busybox
T he version of anaconda in previous releases of Red Hat Enterprise Linux included a version of
busybox that provided shell commands in the pre-installation and post-installation environments.
T he version of anaconda in Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 no longer includes busybox, and uses
GNU bash commands instead.
Refer to Appendix G, Alternatives to busybox commands for more information.
T o specify a scripting language to use to execute the script, select the Use an interpreter option
and enter the interpreter in the text box beside it. For example, /usr/bin/python2.6 can be specified
for a Python script. T his option corresponds to using %pre --interpreter /usr/bin/python2.6 in
your kickstart file.
Only the most commonly used commands are available in the pre-installation environment:
arping, awk, basenam e, bash, bunzip2, bzcat, cat, chattr, chgrp, chm od, chown, chroot,
chvt, clear, cp, cpio, cut, date, dd, df, dirnam e, dm esg, du, e2fsck, e2label, echo, egrep,
eject, env, expr, false, fdisk, fgrep, find, fsck, fsck.ext2, fsck.ext3, ftp, grep, gunzip,
gzip, hdparm , head, hostnam e, hwclock, ifconfig, insm od, ip, ipcalc, kill, killall,
less, ln, load_policy, login, losetup, ls, lsattr, lsm od, lvm , m d5sum , m kdir, m ke2fs,
m kfs.ext2, m kfs.ext3, m knod, m kswap, m ktem p, m odprobe, m ore, m ount, m t, m v, nslookup,
openvt, pidof, ping, ps, pwd, readlink, rm , rm dir, rm m od, route, rpm , sed, sh, sha1sum ,
sleep, sort, swapoff, swapon, sync, tail, tar, tee, telnet, top, touch, true, tune2fs,
um ount, uniq, vconfig, vi, wc, wget, xargs, zcat.
Important
Do not include the %pre command. It is added for you.
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Chapter 33. Kickstart Configurator
Note
T he pre-installation script is run after the source media is mounted and stage 2 of the bootloader
has been loaded. For this reason it is not possible to change the source media in the preinstallation script.
33.11. Post-Installation Script
Figure 33.14 . Post-Installation Script
You can also add commands to execute on the system after the installation is completed. If the network
is properly configured in the kickstart file, the network is enabled, and the script can include commands
to access resources on the network. T o include a post-installation script, type it in the text area.
Important — anaconda no longer uses busybox
T he version of anaconda in previous releases of Red Hat Enterprise Linux included a version of
busybox that provided shell commands in the pre-installation and post-installation environments.
T he version of anaconda in Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 no longer includes busybox, and uses
GNU bash commands instead.
Refer to Appendix G, Alternatives to busybox commands for more information.
Important
Do not include the %post command. It is added for you.
For example, to change the message of the day for the newly installed system, add the following
command to the %post section:
echo "Hackers will be punished" > /etc/motd
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4 25
Note
More examples can be found in Section 32.7.1, “Examples”.
33.11.1. Chroot Environment
T o run the post-installation script outside of the chroot environment, click the checkbox next to this
option on the top of the Post-Installation window. T his is equivalent to using the --nochroot
option in the %post section.
T o make changes to the newly installed file system, within the post-installation section, but outside of the
chroot environment, you must prepend the directory name with /m nt/sysim age/.
For example, if you select Run outside of the chroot environm ent, the previous example must
be changed to the following:
echo "Hackers will be punished" > /mnt/sysimage/etc/motd
33.11.2. Use an Interpreter
T o specify a scripting language to use to execute the script, select the Use an interpreter option
and enter the interpreter in the text box beside it. For example, /usr/bin/python2.2 can be specified
for a Python script. T his option corresponds to using %post --interpreter /usr/bin/python2.2
in your kickstart file.
33.12. Saving the File
T o review the contents of the kickstart file after you have finished choosing your kickstart options, select
File => Preview from the pull-down menu.
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Chapter 33. Kickstart Configurator
Figure 33.15. Preview
T o save the kickstart file, click the Save to File button in the preview window. T o save the file without
previewing it, select File => Save File or press Ctrl+S . A dialog box appears. Select where to save
the file.
After saving the file, refer to Section 32.10, “Starting a Kickstart Installation” for information on how to
start the kickstart installation.
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Part V. After installation
T his part of the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Installation Guide covers finalizing the installation, as well as
some installation-related tasks that you might perform at some time in the future. T hese include:
using a Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation disk to rescue a damaged system.
upgrading to a new version of Red Hat Enterprise Linux.
removing Red Hat Enterprise Linux from your computer.
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Chapter 34. Firstboot
Chapter 34. Firstboot
Important — Firstboot is not available after text-mode installation
Firstboot is only available on systems after a graphical installation or after a kickstart installation
where a desktop and the X window system were installed and graphical login was enabled. If you
performed a text-mode installation or a kickstart installation that did not include a desktop and the
X window system, the firstboot configuration tool does not appear.
Firstboot launches the first time that you start a new Red Hat Enterprise Linux system. Use firstboot
to configure the system for use before you log in.
Figure 34 .1. Firstboot welcome screen
Click Forward to start firstboot.
34.1. License Information
T his screen displays the overall licensing terms for Red Hat Enterprise Linux.
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4 29
Figure 34 .2. Firstboot license screen
If you agree to the terms of the license, select Yes, I agree to the License Agreem ent and
click Forward.
34.2. Setting up software updates
Red Hat describes the products and packages on a Red Hat Enterprise Linux system as software
content. Associate your system with a content server to update existing content or to install new content.
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 can use Certificate-based Red Hat Network, RHN Classic, or a local content
server such as Satellite or System Engine to obtain content.
T hese content delivery options — Red Hat Network, Red Hat Network Classic, and Satellite — are
mutually exclusive. Each connects with different content and subscription services at Red Hat, and each
has its own set of management tools.
34 .2.1. Content delivery and subscriptions
A system can only download or receive updates for content that it is allowed, or entitled, to access. An
organization buys a subscription, which is a contract that allows them to use a defined list of products in
a defined amount, such as buying a subscription to Red Hat Enterprise Linux for Physical Servers (the
product) which is good for 100 servers (the quantity). When it runs firstboot, the system can be
associated with the organization's subscriptions so that the product subscriptions can be allocated to
that machine. When a system is associated with the subscription, it is also associated with the content
server which delivers the subscribed content.
34 .2.1.1. Subscription and content configuration paths
T he content delivery server and the subscription assignments are made in the Set Up Software
Updates screens. T here are four choices:
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Chapter 34. Firstboot
Certificate-based Red Hat Network, which focuses on product-driven subscriptions and content
delivery
RHN Classic, which uses channel-driven access to content (this is provided as a migration path for
older Red Hat Enterprise Linux systems)
Satellite or Proxy content delivery, which uses a channel-based system similar to RHN Classic
Register later
Figure 34 .3. Subscription and content Firstboot paths
Red Hat Enterprise Linux has two conceptual steps that define how the machine will access packages
and content:
It must be registered, which identifies the machine to the Red Hat Subscription Service in Certificatebased Red Hat Network and adds it to the organization's software inventory for subscription
management.
It must be subscribed to an available subscription, which means that the system has the right to
install in any available packages and configure a path for receiving updates.
T hese concepts are described in more detail in the Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 Deployment Guide.
T he Satellite and proxy configuration paths are different from Red Hat Network-based configurations
and are unique to the environment. Because every installation is different, local Satellites go through
guided manual configuration.
34 .2.1.1.1. Choosing between Red Hat Network and RHN Classic
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4 31
Beginning with Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.1, subscriptions are defined by available and installed
products. However, in older versions of Red Hat Enterprise Linux, subscriptions were defined by channel
access. T hese are two different and mutually exclusive approaches to content and subscription access.
Certificate-based Red Hat Network is integrated closely with the Customer Portal and performs two
important management tasks: subscription management and content delivery and updates. T his option
registers a system with the Red Hat Subscription Service and provides a robust set of tools for both
locally and globally assigning subscriptions, verifying software subscription status, and viewing installed
products.
Red Hat Network Classic uses the traditional channel subscription model. Red Hat Network Classic is
provided for legacy support for environments with Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4, Red Hat Enterprise
Linux 5.6 and earlier, Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.0, and Satellite systems. We do not recommend Red
Hat Network Classic for systems that run Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.1 and later.
A system cannot be managed both by Certificate-based Red Hat Network (and the Subscription
Manager tools) and RHN Classic (and the rhn_* tools). If a system was previously managed by RHN
Classic, there is no direct, supported migration path from RHN Classic to Certificate-based Red Hat
Network. If you upgrade to Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.1 or later and want to use the new Certificatebased Red Hat Network, either:
Update the system using a boot ISO rather than yum .
Manually remove the system from RHN Classic and delete the host record, then register the system
to Certificate-based Red Hat Network using the Red Hat Subscription Manager tools.
34 .2.2. Set Up Software Updates
T he first step is to select whether to register the system immediately with a subscription and content
service. T o register the system, select Yes, I'd like to register now, and click Forward.
Figure 34 .4 . Set Up Software Updates
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Chapter 34. Firstboot
34 .2.3. Choose Server
Use the Choose Server screen to choose whether to receive updates directly from Certificate-based
Red Hat Network, RHN Classic, or a local content server. Click Advanced Network Configuration
to configure a proxy server if necessary.
Red Hat Network
Select the Red Hat Network option to manage subscriptions, view systems and
subscriptions, and receive content through Red Hat's hosted subscription and content service.
Certificate-based Red Hat Network is integrated with the Red Hat Customer Portal.
T his option is the default. We recommend it for organizations whose systems run Red Hat
Enterprise Linux 6.1 or later and that do not run a local Satellite.
RHN Classic Mode
Select the Red Hat Network option and the RHN Classic Mode checkbox to use
the legacy systems-management features of Red Hat Network.
We recommend this option only for systems that run versions of Red Hat Enterprise
Linux 4, versions of Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5 older than version 5.7, or Red Hat
Enterprise Linux 6.0.
A local Satellite or proxy
Use this option in environments with access to a local mirror of the Red Hat Network content.
Certificate-based Red Hat Network uses the current content delivery network and provides fine-grained,
system-level control over subscription assignments. Red Hat Network Classic is provided for
compatibility with legacy environments that use the older, channel-based subscription service. Refer to
Section 34.2.1.1.1, “Choosing between Red Hat Network and RHN Classic” for an overview of the
differences between Certificate-based Red Hat Network and Red Hat Network Classic. For more detail,
refer to the Products and Subscriptions chapter in the Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 Deployment Guide.
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 Installation Guide
4 33
Figure 34 .5. Choose Server
34 .2.4 . Using Certificate-based Red Hat Network (Recommended)
T he recommended process for new Red Hat Enterprise Linux systems is to register with the Red Hat
Subscription Service. Even if a system is not registered at firstboot, it can be registered with the Red Hat
Subscription Service later using the Red Hat Subscription Manager tools.
Important — only version 6.1 and later
T his option is only available for configuring version 6.1 and later of Red Hat Enterprise Linux.
Note
More information about the Red Hat Subscription Manager tools can be found in the Product
Subscriptions and Entitlements chapter of the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Deployment Guide.
34 .2.4 .1. Entitlement Platform Registration
T he login screen requires the information to connect to the Subscription Service. T he configuration
options are:
a username and password to log into Red Hat Subscription Service; this account must already exist
in the Customer Service Portal.
an identifier (usually the hostname or fully qualified domain name) of the machine in order to register
the machine to the subscription service.
a checkbox to set whether to automatically subscribe the machine to any matching and available
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Chapter 34. Firstboot
subscriptions. Leave the checkbox unchecked if you plan to subscribe the machine to products
manually.
the name of the organization (group) within the Subscription Service to join the system to. T his is
only used in a multi-organization environment.
If you have lost your login or password, recover them from
https://www.redhat.com/wapps/sso/rhn/lostPassword.html.
Figure 34 .6. Entitlement Platform Registration
When you submit the user credentials, the Subscription Manager automatically scans for any
organizations configured for that customer account.
Figure 34 .7. Organization Scan
IT environments that use Red Hat's hosted service have only a single organization, so no further
configuration is necessary. IT environments that use a local subscription service like Subscription Asset
Manager might have multiple organizations configured. If any organizations are detected, Subscription
Manager prompts you to select the one to join. Multi-organization environments are described in the Red
Hat Enterprise Linux 6 Deployment Guide.
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4 35
Hat Enterprise Linux 6 Deployment Guide.
Figure 34 .8. Organization Selection
If you do not register the system to the Red Hat Subscription Service during the firstboot process, you
can use the Red Hat Subscription Manager GUI or its command-line equivalent, subscriptionm anager register, to register the system later.
34 .2.4 .2. Adding subscriptions (optional)
Usually, the entitlements available to an organization are already in the inventory of the Red Hat
Subscription Service by the time a system runs the firstboot process. In certain situations, you can
upload the X.509 subscription certificate directly to add new product subscriptions rather than polling the
Red Hat Subscription Service. For example, if a consumer is off the network and is unable to connect to
the subscription service, you can manually load the subscription certificates on the machine.
1. Download the subscription certificates for the consumer from the Customer Portal.
2. In the T ools area, click the Add Subscriptions button.
3. Click the file folder icon at the right of the field to navigate to the .pem file of the product certificate.
4. Click the Im port Certificate button.
Figure 34 .9. Provide a Subscription Certificate
T he subscriptions defined in the certificate will then be available to the system to subscribe to.
34 .2.4 .3. Selecting subscriptions
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Chapter 34. Firstboot
T he All Available Subscriptions tab lists all of the available product subscriptions which match
the architecture of the server.
1. Set the filters to use to search for available subscriptions. Subscriptions can be filtered by their
active date and by their name. T he checkboxes provide more fine-grained filtering:
m atch m y hardware shows only subscriptions which match the system architecture.
cover software not yet installed shows subscriptions which contain new,
uninstalled products.
have no overlap with existing subscriptions excludes subscriptions with
duplicate products. If a system is already subscribed to an entitlement for a specific product or
if multiple entitlements supply the same product, the Red Hat Subscription Service normally
filters the subscriptions and shows only the best fit.
2. Select the available entitlements. T o select multiple subscriptions, use the Ctrl key.
Figure 34 .10. Selecting subscriptions
3. Optionally, set the quantity for a subscription. Some products have a count on them, such as the
number of sockets or the number of virtual guests. T o cover the count, use multiple quantities of a
subscription. For example, to cover a four-socket machine, use two two-socket subscriptions.
Using multiple quantities of subscriptions is called stacking.
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4 37
Figure 34 .11. Setting Quantities
Stacking is described in the Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 Deployment Guide.
4. Click the Subscribe button.
Important — do not over-subscribe
A single subscription might contain multiple products, such as Red Hat Enterprise Linux servers,
add-ons for virtualization or provisioning, and applications like Red Hat Directory Server. Be sure
not to over-subscribe the machine when selecting subscriptions from the list; select the
subscription that best matches what will be installed and used on the system.
34 .2.5. Using RHN Classic
For IT environments which require legacy Satellite or RHN Classic features, configuration can be done
using the RHN Classic content services. T he differences are explained in more detail in Section 34.2.1,
“Content delivery and subscriptions”; as a summary, RHN Classic is the only content delivery network
which works with Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4, Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5.6 and earlier, Red Hat
Enterprise Linux 6.0, and Satellite 5 environments. It also offers systems management (such as
configuration management) tools not available in Certificate-based Red Hat Network. However, RHN
Classic does not provide subscription management tools and is not tightly integrated with the Customer
Portal. We strongly encourage you to use Certificate-based Red Hat Network. RHN Classic is provided
for legacy systems.
34 .2.5.1. Red Hat Login
Provide the user account name and password for the local Satellite service. For local Satellite and Proxy
systems, the organization administrator will hold any user account information.
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Figure 34 .12. Red Hat Login
34 .2.5.2. Create Profile
Give this system a unique, identifiable name. T his makes it easier to identify the system when managing
it in RHN Classic.
T he profile also defines information about the system hardware and a list of the packages installed on
the system, and this information is submitted to RHN Classic. Click the View Hardware Profile or
View Package Profile buttons to see the information that will be sent. Deselect the hardware
profile or package profile checkboxes to keep the profile information from being sent to RHN Classic.
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Figure 34 .13. Create Profile
34 .2.5.3. Review Subscription
Based on the profiles configured in Section 34.2.5.2, “Create Profile”, all of the subscriptions for the
system are gathered and listed on the Review Subscription screen. Review this information, then
click Forward.
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Figure 34 .14 . Review Subscription
34 .2.5.4 . Finish Updates Setup
T he Finish Updates Setup screen confirms the content update configuration for this system. Click
Forward to create a user account, as described in Section 34.3, “Create User”.
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Figure 34 .15. Finish Updates Setup
34.3. Create User
Create a user account for yourself with this screen. Always use this account to log in to your Red Hat
Enterprise Linux system, rather than using the root account.
Figure 34 .16. Firstboot create user screen
Enter a user name and your full name, and then enter your chosen password. T ype your password once
more in the Confirm Password box to ensure that it is correct.
T o configure Red Hat Enterprise Linux to use network services for authentication of user information,
click Use Network Login. Refer to Section 34.3.1, “Authentication Configuration” for further details.
Important — Create at least one user account
If you do not create at least one user account in this step, you will not be able to log in to the Red
Hat Enterprise Linux graphical environment. If you skipped this step during installation, refer to
Section 10.4.2, “Booting into a Graphical Environment”.
Note — Creating Extra User Accounts
T o add additional user accounts to your system after the installation is complete, choose System
→ Administration → Users & Groups.
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34 .3.1. Authentication Configuration
If you clicked Use Network Login on the Create User screen, you must now specify how users are
to be authenticated on the system. Use the drop-down menu to select from the following types of user
database:
Local accounts only (for use when the user database on the network is not accessible)
LDAP (Lightweight Directory Access Protocol)
NIS (Network Information Service)
Winbind (for use with Microsoft Active Directory)
Figure 34 .17. Firstboot Authentication Configuration screen
When you select the type of user database appropriate for your network, you must provide additional
details relevant to that database type. For example, if you select LDAP, you must specify the base
distinguished name for LDAP searches, and the address of the LDAP server. You must also select an
Authentication Method relevant to the type of user database that you chose, for example, a
Kerberos password, LDAP password, or NIS password.
T he Advanced Options tab lets you enable other authentication mechanisms, including fingerprint
readers, smart cards, and local access control in /etc/security/access.conf.
For more information, refer to Authentication Configuration in the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Deployment
Guide.
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 Installation Guide
Figure 34 .18. Firstboot authentication Advanced Options screen
34.4. Date and Time
Use this screen to adjust the date and time of the system clock. T o change these settings after
installation, click System → Administration → Date & T ime.
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Chapter 34. Firstboot
Figure 34 .19. Firstboot date and time screen
Click the Synchronize date and tim e over the network checkbox to configure your system to
use Network Time Protocol (NT P) servers to maintain the accuracy of the clock. NT P provides time
synchronization service to computers on the same network. Many public NT P servers are available on
the Internet.
34.5. Kdump
Use this screen to select whether or not to use Kdump on this system. Kdump is a kernel crash
dumping mechanism. In the event of a system crash, Kdump will capture information from your system
that can be invaluable in determining the cause of the crash.
Note that if you select this option, you will need to reserve memory for Kdump and that this memory will
not be available for any other purpose.
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 Installation Guide
Figure 34 .20. Kdump screen
If you do not want to use Kdump on this system, click Finish. If you want to use Kdump, select the
Enable kdum p option, then select an amount of memory to reserve for Kdump and click Finish.
Figure 34 .21. Kdump enabled
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Chapter 35. Your Next Steps
35.1. Updating Your System
Red Hat releases updated software packages for Red Hat Enterprise Linux throughout the support
period of each version. Updated packages add new features, improve reliability, resolve bugs, or remove
security vulnerabilities. T o ensure the security of your system, update regularly, and as soon as
possible after Red Hat issues a security announcement.
35.1.1. Driver update rpm packages
Occasionally, when a new piece of hardware is not yet supported in the kernel that you have installed,
Red Hat or a hardware vendor might make a driver update available. Although you can install driver
updates during the installation process (refer to Chapter 6, Updating drivers during installation on Intel
and AMD systems for Intel and AMD systems and Chapter 13, Updating drivers during installation on IBM
POWER systems for IBM POWER systems) we recommend that you do this only for devices that are
essential to carry out the installation. In all other cases, complete the installation first, and then add
support for the device with a driver update rpm package as described in this section.
Do not install a driver update rpm unless you are certain that your system requires it. Installing a driver
update on a system for which it was not intended can cause system difficulties.
T o see a list of driver updates already installed on your system, click System → Administration →
Add/Remove Software on your desktop, and enter the root password if prompted for it. Click the
Search tab, enter the word km od- (notice the final -) and click Search.
Figure 35.1. Listing installed Driver Update RPM packages
Alternatively, you can use the command line, as follows:
$ rpm -qa | egrep ^kmod-
Note the - on the end of km od. T his will list all installed packages that begin with km od-, which should
include all driver updates that are currently installed on your system. Additional drivers provided by thirdparty update software are not listed in this output. Contact the third-party vendor for details.
T o install a new driver update rpm package:
1. Download the driver update rpm package from the location specified by Red Hat or your hardware
vendor. T he package file name will begin with km od (short for kernel module) and have a form
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Chapter 35. Your Next Steps
similar to this example:
km od-foo-1.05-2.el6.i686
In the example, the driver update rpm package supplies a driver update named foo with version
number 1.05-2 for Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6, on i686 systems.
Driver update rpm packages are signed packages, and like all other software packages, they are
automatically validated at install time. T o perform this step manually, type the following at a
command line:
$ rpm --checksig -v filename.rpm
where filename.rpm is the driver update rpm package file name. T his verifies the package
against using the standard Red Hat GPG package signing key that is already installed on any Red
Hat Enterprise Linux 6 system. If you need this key for verification purposes on another system,
you can can obtain it from: https://access.redhat.com/security/team/key/
2. Locate and double-click the file that you downloaded. T he system might prompt you for the root
password, after which it will present the following Installing Packages box:
Figure 35.2. T he installing packages box
Click Apply to complete the package installation.
Alternatively, you can install a driver update manually on the command line:
$ rpm -ivh kmod-foo-1.05-2.el6.i686
3. Whether you used a graphical install, or a command line install, reboot your system to ensure your
system is using the new driver.
If Red Hat ships a kernel errata update before the next release of Red Hat Enterprise Linux, your system
will continue to use the driver updates that you have installed. T here is no need to re-install driver
updates following an errata update. Generally, when Red Hat releases a new version of Red Hat
Enterprise Linux, all driver updates for the previous version are incorporated in the new version.
However, if it was not possible to include a particular driver, you will need to perform another driver
update when you install the new version of Red Hat Enterprise Linux. In this case, Red Hat or your
hardware party vendor will inform you of the location of the update.
35.2. Finishing an Upgrade
System Updates Recommended
Once you have rebooted your system after performing an upgrade, you should also perform a
manual system update. Consult Section 35.1, “Updating Your System” for more information.
If you chose to upgrade your system from a previous release rather than perform a fresh installation,
you may want to examine the differences in the package set. Section 9.12.2, “ Upgrading Using the
Installer ”, Section 16.14.2, “ Upgrading Using the Installer ”, or Section 23.12.1, “ Upgrading Using the
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Installer ” (depending on your system architecture) advised you to create a package listing for your
original system. You can now use that listing to determine how to bring your new system close to the
original system state.
Most software repository configurations are stored in packages that end with the term release. Check
the old package list for the repositories that were installed:
awk '{print $1}' ~/old-pkglist.txt | grep 'release$'
If necessary, retrieve and install these packages from their original sources on the Internet. Follow the
instructions at the originating site to install the repository configuration packages for use by yum and
other software management tools on your Red Hat Enterprise Linux system.
T hen run the following commands to make a list of other missing software packages:
awk '{print $1}' ~/old-pkglist.txt | sort | uniq > ~/old-pkgnames.txt
rpm -qa --qf '%{NAME}\n' | sort | uniq > ~/new-pkgnames.txt
diff -u ~/old-pkgnames.txt ~/new-pkgnames.txt | grep '^-' | sed 's/^-//' >
/tmp/pkgs-to-install.txt
Now use the file /tm p/pkgs-to-install.txt with the yum command to restore most or all of your old
software:
su -c 'yum install `cat /tmp/pkgs-to-install.txt`'
Missing Software
Due to changes in package complements between Red Hat Enterprise Linux releases, it is
possible this method may not restore all the software on your system. You can use the routines
above to again compare the software on your system, and remedy any problems you find.
35.3. Switching to a Graphical Login
Important — Access to Software Repositories Might Be Required
T o switch to a graphical environment, you might need to install extra software from a repository.
You can access Red Hat Enterprise Linux repositories with your Red Hat Network subscription
through the Internet or use a Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation DVD as a repository. Refer to
Section 35.3.1, “Enabling Access to Software Repositories from the Command Line”.
Important — This section does not apply to System z
T o use a graphical user interface on System z, use vncserver instead.
If you installed using a text login and wish to switch to a graphical login, follow this procedure.
1. If you are not already root, switch users to the root account:
su -
Provide the administrator password when prompted.
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2. If you have not already done so, install the X Window System and a graphical desktop
environment. For example, to install the GNOME desktop environment, use this command:
yum groupinstall "X Window System" Desktop
T o install the KDE desktop environment, use:
yum groupinstall "X Window System" "KDE Desktop"
T his step may take some time as your Red Hat Enterprise Linux system downloads and installs
additional software. You may be asked to provide the installation media depending on your original
installation source.
3. Run the following command to edit the /etc/inittab file:
vi /etc/inittab
4. Press the I key to enter insert mode.
5. Find the line that includes the text initdefault. Change the numeral 3 to 5.
6. T ype :wq and press the Enter key to save the file and exit the vi text editor.
Reboot the system using the reboot command. Your system will restart and present a graphical login.
If you encounter any problems with the graphical login, refer to Chapter 10, Troubleshooting Installation
on an Intel or AMD System.
35.3.1. Enabling Access to Software Repositories from the Command Line
T he usual way to install new software on a Red Hat Enterprise Linux system is through a software
repository. You can access Red Hat Enterprise Linux repositories through the Internet with your Red Hat
Network subscription, or use a Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation DVD as a repository. T he software
that you access through online repositories is more up-to-date than what is available on an installation
DVD. Furthermore, configuring a Red Hat Enterprise Linux system to access online repositories is
generally easier than configuring the system to use an installation DVD as a repository, as long as you
have an existing, wired network connection available.
35.3.1.1. Enabling Access to Software Repositories T hrough the Internet
If you supplied your Red Hat Network subscription number during the installation process, your system
is already configured to access Red Hat Enterprise Linux repositories through the Internet. T herefore, all
you must do is ensure that the system can access the Internet. If you have an existing, wired network
connection available, this process is straightforward:
1. If you are not already root, switch users to the root account:
su -
2. Ensure that the system is plugged into your network. Note that your network might be as small as
two devices — a computer and an external modem/router.
3. Run system -config-network. T he network configuration tool starts and displays the Select
Action screen.
4. Select Device configuration and press Enter. T he network configuration tool displays the
Select A Device screen with a list of network interfaces present on your system. T he first
interface is named eth0 by default.
5. Select a network interface to configure and press Enter. T he network configuration tool takes
you to the Network Configuration screen.
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6. You can manually configure a static IP, gateway, and DNS servers on this screen or leave these
fields blank to accept the default values. When you have chosen a configuration, select OK, and
press Enter. T he network configuration tool takes you back to the Select A Device screen.
7. Select Save and press Enter. T he network configuration tool takes you back to the Select
Action screen.
8. Select Save& Quit and press Enter. T he network configuration tool saves your settings and
exits.
9. Run ifup interface, where interface is the network interface that you configured with the
network configuration tool. For example, run ifup eth0 to start eth0.
Configuration of dial-up or wireless Internet connections is more complicated and beyond the scope of
this guide.
35.3.1.2. Using a Red Hat Enterprise Linux Installation DVD as a Software Repository
T o use a Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation DVD as a software repository, either in the form of a
physical disc, or in the form of an ISO image file.
1. If you are using a physical DVD, insert the disc into your computer.
2. If you are not already root, switch users to the root account:
su -
3. Create a mount point for the repository:
mkdir -p /path/to/repo
where /path/to/repo is a location for the repository, for example, /m nt/repo
4. Mount the DVD on the mount point that you just created. If you are using a physical disc, you need
to know the device name of your DVD drive. You can find the names of any CD or DVD drives on
your system with the command cat /proc/sys/dev/cdrom /info. T he first CD or DVD drive
on the system is typically named sr0. When you know the device name, mount the DVD:
mount -r -t iso9660 /dev/device_name /path/to/repo
For example: m ount -r -t iso9660 /dev/sr0 /m nt/repo
If you are using an ISO image file of a disc, mount the image file like this:
mount -r -t iso9660 -o loop /path/to/image/file.iso /path/to/repo
For example: m ount -r -o loop /hom e/root/Downloads/RHEL6-Server-i386DVD.iso /m nt/repo
Note that you can only mount an image file if the storage device that holds the image file is itself
mounted. For example, if the image file is stored on a hard drive that is not mounted automatically
when the system boots, you must mount the hard drive before you mount an image file stored on
that hard drive. Consider a hard drive named /dev/sdb that is not automatically mounted at boot
time and which has an image file stored in a directory named Downloads on its first partition:
mkdir /mnt/temp
mount /dev/sdb1 /mnt/temp
mkdir /mnt/repo
mount -r -t iso9660 -o loop mount -r -o loop /mnt/temp/Downloads/RHEL6Server-i386-DVD.iso /mnt/repo
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If you are not sure whether a storage device is mounted, run the m ount command to obtain a list
of current mounts. If you are not sure of the device name or partition number of a storage device,
run fdisk -l and try to identify it in the output.
5. Create a new repo file in the /etc/yum .repos.d/ directory. T he name of the file is not
important, as long as it ends in .repo. For example, dvd.repo is an obvious choice.
a. Choose a name for the repo file and open it as a new file with the vi text editor. For example:
vi /etc/yum.repos.d/dvd.repo
b. Press the I key to enter insert mode.
c. Supply the details of the repository. For example:
[dvd]
baseurl=file:///mnt/repo/Server
enabled=1
gpgcheck=1
gpgkey=file:///etc/pki/rpm-gpg/RPM-GPG-KEY-redhat-release
T he name of the repository is specified in square brackets — in this example, [dvd]. T he
name is not important, but you should choose something that is meaningful and
recognizable.
T he line that specifies the baseurl should contain the path to the mount point that you
created previously, suffixed with /Server for a Red Hat Enterprise Linux server installation
DVD, or with /Client for a Red Hat Enterprise Linux client installation DVD.
d. Press the Esc key to exit insert mode.
e. T ype :wq and press the Enter key to save the file and exit the vi text editor.
f. After installing or upgrading software from the DVD, delete the repo file that you created.
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Chapter 36. Basic System Recovery
When things go wrong, there are ways to fix problems. However, these methods require that you
understand the system well. T his chapter describes how to boot into rescue mode, single-user mode,
and emergency mode, where you can use your own knowledge to repair the system.
36.1. Rescue Mode
36.1.1. Common Problems
You might need to boot into one of these recovery modes for any of the following reasons:
You are unable to boot normally into Red Hat Enterprise Linux (runlevel 3 or 5).
You are having hardware or software problems, and you want to get a few important files off of your
system's hard drive.
You forgot the root password.
36.1.1.1. Unable to Boot into Red Hat Enterprise Linux
T his problem is often caused by the installation of another operating system after you have installed
Red Hat Enterprise Linux. Some other operating systems assume that you have no other operating
system(s) on your computer. T hey overwrite the Master Boot Record (MBR) that originally contained the
GRUB boot loader. If the boot loader is overwritten in this manner, you cannot boot Red Hat Enterprise
Linux unless you can get into rescue mode and reconfigure the boot loader.
Another common problem occurs when using a partitioning tool to resize a partition or create a new
partition from free space after installation, and it changes the order of your partitions. If the partition
number of your / partition changes, the boot loader might not be able to find it to mount the partition. T o
fix this problem, boot in rescue mode and modify the /boot/grub/grub.conf file.
For instructions on how to reinstall the GRUB boot loader from a rescue environment, refer to
Section 36.1.2.1, “Reinstalling the Boot Loader”.
36.1.1.2. Hardware/Software Problems
T his category includes a wide variety of different situations. T wo examples include failing hard drives
and specifying an invalid root device or kernel in the boot loader configuration file. If either of these
occur, you might not be able to reboot into Red Hat Enterprise Linux. However, if you boot into one of the
system recovery modes, you might be able to resolve the problem or at least get copies of your most
important files.
36.1.1.3. Root Password
What can you do if you forget your root password? T o reset it to a different password, boot into rescue
mode or single-user mode, and use the passwd command to reset the root password.
36.1.2. Booting into Rescue Mode
Rescue mode provides the ability to boot a small Red Hat Enterprise Linux environment entirely from CDROM, or some other boot method, instead of the system's hard drive.
As the name implies, rescue mode is provided to rescue you from something. During normal operation,
your Red Hat Enterprise Linux system uses files located on your system's hard drive to do everything —
run programs, store your files, and more.
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However, there may be times when you are unable to get Red Hat Enterprise Linux running completely
enough to access files on your system's hard drive. Using rescue mode, you can access the files stored
on your system's hard drive, even if you cannot actually run Red Hat Enterprise Linux from that hard
drive.
T o boot into rescue mode, you must be able to boot the system using one of the following methods [12 ]:
By booting the system from a boot CD-ROM or DVD.
By booting the system from other installation boot media, such as USB flash devices.
By booting the system from the Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation DVD.
Once you have booted using one of the described methods, add the keyword rescue as a kernel
parameter. For example, for an x86 system, type the following command at the installation boot prompt:
linux rescue
If your system requires a third-party driver provided on a driver disc to boot, load the driver with the
additional option dd:
linux rescue dd
For more information on using a driver disc at boot time, refer to Section 6.3.3, “Use a boot option to
specify a driver update disk” for x86 systems or Section 13.3.3, “Use a boot option to specify a driver
update disk” for POWER systems.
If a driver that is part of the Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 distribution prevents the system from booting,
blacklist that driver with the rdblacklist option. For example, to boot into rescue mode without the
foobar driver, run:
linux rescue rdblacklist=foobar
You are prompted to answer a few basic questions, including which language to use. It also prompts you
to select where a valid rescue image is located. Select from Local CD-ROM, Hard Drive, NFS
im age, FT P, or HT T P. T he location selected must contain a valid installation tree, and the installation
tree must be for the same version of Red Hat Enterprise Linux as the Red Hat Enterprise Linux disk from
which you booted. If you used a boot CD-ROM or other media to start rescue mode, the installation tree
must be from the same tree from which the media was created. For more information about how to setup
an installation tree on a hard drive, NFS server, FT P server, or HT T P server, refer to the earlier section
of this guide.
If you select a rescue image that does not require a network connection, you are asked whether or not
you want to establish a network connection. A network connection is useful if you need to backup files to
a different computer or install some RPM packages from a shared network location, for example.
T he following message is displayed:
T he rescue environment will now attempt to find your Linux installation and mount it under
the directory /mnt/sysimage. You can then make any changes required to your system. If
you want to proceed with this step choose 'Continue'. You can also choose to mount your
file systems read-only instead of read-write by choosing 'Read-only'. If for some reason this
process fails you can choose 'Skip' and this step will be skipped and you will go directly to a
command shell.
If you select Continue, it attempts to mount your file system under the directory /m nt/sysim age/. If it
fails to mount a partition, it notifies you. If you select Read-Only, it attempts to mount your file system
under the directory /m nt/sysim age/, but in read-only mode. If you select Skip, your file system is not
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mounted. Choose Skip if you think your file system is corrupted.
Once you have your system in rescue mode, a prompt appears on VC (virtual console) 1 and VC 2 (use
the Ctrl-Alt-F1 key combination to access VC 1 and Ctrl-Alt-F2 to access VC 2):
sh-3.00b#
If you selected Continue to mount your partitions automatically and they were mounted successfully,
you are in single-user mode.
Even if your file system is mounted, the default root partition while in rescue mode is a temporary root
partition, not the root partition of the file system used during normal user mode (runlevel 3 or 5). If you
selected to mount your file system and it mounted successfully, you can change the root partition of the
rescue mode environment to the root partition of your file system by executing the following command:
chroot /mnt/sysimage
T his is useful if you need to run commands such as rpm that require your root partition to be mounted
as /. T o exit the chroot environment, type exit to return to the prompt.
If you selected Skip, you can still try to mount a partition or LVM2 logical volume manually inside rescue
mode by creating a directory such as /foo, and typing the following command:
mount -t ext4 /dev/mapper/VolGroup00-LogVol02 /foo
In the above command, /foo is a directory that you have created and /dev/mapper/VolGroup00LogVol02 is the LVM2 logical volume you want to mount. If the partition is of type ext2 or ext3 replace
ext4 with ext2 or ext3 respectively.
If you do not know the names of all physical partitions, use the following command to list them:
fdisk -l
If you do not know the names of all LVM2 physical volumes, volume groups, or logical volumes, use the
following commands to list them:
pvdisplay
vgdisplay
lvdisplay
From the prompt, you can run many useful commands, such as:
ssh, scp, and ping if the network is started
dum p and restore for users with tape drives
parted and fdisk for managing partitions
rpm for installing or upgrading software
vi for editing text files
36.1.2.1. Reinstalling the Boot Loader
In many cases, the GRUB boot loader can mistakenly be deleted, corrupted, or replaced by other
operating systems.
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T he following steps detail the process on how GRUB is reinstalled on the master boot record:
Boot the system from an installation boot medium.
T ype linux rescue at the installation boot prompt to enter the rescue environment.
T ype chroot /m nt/sysim age to mount the root partition.
T ype /sbin/grub-install bootpart to reinstall the GRUB boot loader, where bootpart is the
boot partition (typically, /dev/sda).
Review the /boot/grub/grub.conf file, as additional entries may be needed for GRUB to control
additional operating systems.
Reboot the system.
36.1.3. Booting into Single-User Mode
One of the advantages of single-user mode is that you do not need a boot CD-ROM; however, it does
not give you the option to mount the file systems as read-only or not mount them at all.
If your system boots, but does not allow you to log in when it has completed booting, try single-user
mode.
In single-user mode, your computer boots to runlevel 1. Your local file systems are mounted, but your
network is not activated. You have a usable system maintenance shell. Unlike rescue mode, single-user
mode automatically tries to mount your file system. Do not use single-user mode if your file system
cannot be mounted successfully. You cannot use single-user mode if the runlevel 1 configuration on
your system is corrupted.
On an x86 system using GRUB, use the following steps to boot into single-user mode:
1. At the GRUB splash screen at boot time, press any key to enter the GRUB interactive menu.
2. Select Red Hat Enterprise Linux with the version of the kernel that you wish to boot and
type a to append the line.
3. Go to the end of the line and type single as a separate word (press the Spacebar and then
type single). Press Enter to exit edit mode.
36.1.4 . Booting into Emergency Mode
In emergency mode, you are booted into the most minimal environment possible. T he root file system is
mounted read-only and almost nothing is set up. T he main advantage of emergency mode over singleuser mode is that the init files are not loaded. If init is corrupted or not working, you can still mount
file systems to recover data that could be lost during a re-installation.
T o boot into emergency mode, use the same method as described for single-user mode in
Section 36.1.3, “Booting into Single-User Mode” with one exception, replace the keyword single with
the keyword em ergency.
36.2. Rescue Mode on POWER Systems
You can use the installation disks in rescue mode, in case your system does not boot. Rescue mode
gives you access to the disk partitions on your system so you can make any changes necessary to
rescue your installation.
After the Language Selection screen (Section 15.2, “Language Selection”), the installation program
attempts to mount the disk partitions on your system. It then presents you with a shell prompt where you
can make the changes you need. T hese changes may include storing the kernel and command line into
the IPL source, as described in the Installation Complete section (Section 16.21, “Installation Complete”).
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When your changes are complete, you can exit the shell using exit 0. T his causes a reboot from the C
side. T o reboot from the A or B side or from *NWSST G, you should vary off the system instead of exiting
the shell.
36.2.1. Special Considerations for Accessing the SCSI Utilities from Rescue Mode
If your system uses Native DASD disks, you may need access to the SCSI utilities from rescue mode.
T hese utilities are located on the driver disc CD. T he driver disc CD cannot be mounted from rescue
mode unless special steps are taken. T hese steps are described below.
If you have a second CD-ROM drive assigned to your Linux system, you can mount the driver disc CD in
the second drive.
If you have only one CD-ROM drive, you must set up an NFS boot, using the following steps:
1. Boot from the CD-ROM with the linux rescue askm ethod command. T his allows you to
manually select NFS as the source of your rescue media instead of defaulting to the CD-ROM
drive.
2. Copy the first installation disc onto a file system of another Linux system.
3. Make this copy of the installation disc available through NFS or FT P.
4. Vary off or power down the system you need to rescue. Set its IPL parameters as instructed for
booting the Installation discs in rescue mode, except that the IPL source should point to the copy
of boot.im g on your IFS (from step 1, above).
5. Make sure the installation disc is not in your DVD drive.
6. IPL the Linux system.
7. Follow the prompts as described in Section 36.2, “Rescue Mode on POWER Systems”. An
additional prompt for the installation source appears. Select NFS or FT P (as appropriate) and
complete the following network configuration screen.
8. When the Linux system has booted into rescue mode, the CD-ROM drive is available for use and
you can mount the driver media to access the SCSI utilities.
36.3. Using rescue mode to fix or work around driver problems
A malfunctioning or missing driver can prevent a system from booting normally. Rescue mode provides
an environment in which you can add, remove, or replace a driver even when the system fails to boot.
Wherever possible, we recommend that you use the RPM package manager to remove malfunctioning
drivers or to add updated or missing drivers. If you cannot remove a malfunctioning driver for some
reason, you can instead blacklist the driver so that it does not load at boot time.
Note that when you install a driver from a driver disc, the driver disc updates all initramfs images on the
system to use this driver. If a problem with a driver prevents a system from booting, you cannot rely on
booting the system from another initramfs image.
36.3.1. Using RPM to add, remove, or replace a driver
In rescue mode, you can use RPM to install, remove, or update packages from the installed system,
even though you did not boot the installed system. T o remove a malfunctioning driver:
1. Boot the system into rescue mode with the linux rescue command at the boot prompt, or the
linux rescue dd command if you need to load a third-party driver from a driver disc. Follow the
instructions in Section 36.1.2, “Booting into Rescue Mode” and do not choose to mount the
installed system as read only.
2. Change the root directory to /m nt/sysim age/:
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Chapter 36. Basic System Recovery
chroot /mnt/sysimage/
3. Use the rpm -e command to remove the driver package. For example, to remove the kmodfoobar driver package, run:
rpm -e kmod-foobar
4. Exit the chroot environment:
exit
Installing a driver is a similar process, but the RPM package that contains the driver must be available on
the system.
1. Boot the system into rescue mode with the linux rescue command at the boot prompt, or the
linux rescue dd command if you need to load a third-party driver from a driver disc. Follow the
instructions in Section 36.1.2, “Booting into Rescue Mode” and do not choose to mount the
installed system as read only.
2. Make the RPM package that contains the driver available. For example, mount a CD or USB flash
drive and copy the RPM package to a location of your choice under /m nt/sysim age/, for
example: /m nt/sysim age/root/drivers/.
3. Change the root directory to /m nt/sysim age/:
chroot /mnt/sysimage/
4. Use the rpm -ivh command to install the driver package. For example, to install the kmod-foobar
driver package from /root/drivers/, run:
rpm -ivh /root/drivers/kmod-foobar-1.2.04.17.el6.i686
Note that /root/drivers/ in this chroot environment is /m nt/sysim age/root/drivers/ in
the original rescue environment.
When you have finished removing and installing drivers, reboot the system.
36.3.2. Blacklisting a driver
As described in Section 36.1.2, “Booting into Rescue Mode”, the rdblacklist kernel option blacklists a
driver at boot time. T o continue to blacklist the driver on subsequent boots, add the rdblacklist
option to the line in /boot/grub/grub.conf that describes your kernel. T o blacklist the driver when
the root device is mounted, add a blacklist entry in a file under /etc/m odprobe.d/.
1. Boot the system into rescue mode with the command linux rescue
rdblacklist=name_of_driver, where name_of_driver is the driver that you need to blacklist.
Follow the instructions in Section 36.1.2, “Booting into Rescue Mode” and do not choose to mount
the installed system as read only.
2. Open the /m nt/sysim age/boot/grub/grub.conf file with the vi text editor:
vi /mnt/sysimage/boot/grub/grub.conf
3. Identify the default kernel used to boot the system. Each kernel is specified in the grub.conf file
with a group of lines that begins title. T he default kernel is specified by the default parameter
near the start of the file. A value of 0 refers to the kernel described in the first group of lines, a
value of 1 refers to the kernel described in the second group, and higher values refer to
subsequent kernels in turn.
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4 59
4. Edit the kernel line of the group to include the option rdblacklist=name_of_driver, where
name_of_driver is the driver that you need to blacklist. For example, to blacklist the driver named
foobar:
kernel /vmlinuz-2.6.32-71.18-2.el6.i686 ro root=/dev/sda1 rhgb quiet
rdblacklist=foobar
5. Save the file and exit vi.
6. Create a new file under /etc/m odprobe.d/ that contains the command blacklist
name_of_driver. Give the file a descriptive name that will help you find it in future, and use the
filename extension .conf. For example, to continue to blacklist the driver foobar when the root
device is mounted, run:
echo "blacklist foobar" >> /mnt/sysimage/etc/modprobe.d/blacklistfoobar.conf
7. Reboot the system. You no longer need to supply rdblacklist manually as a kernel option until
you next update the default kernel. If you update the default kernel before the problem with the
driver has been fixed, you must edit grub.conf again to ensure that the faulty driver is not
loaded at boot time.
[12]Refer to the earlier s ec tio ns o f this g uid e fo r mo re d etails .
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Chapter 37. Upgrading Your Current System
Chapter 37. Upgrading Your Current System
Red Hat does not support upgrades from earlier major versions
Red Hat does not support in-place upgrades between any major versions of Red Hat Enterprise
Linux. A major version is denoted by a whole number version change. For example, Red Hat
Enterprise Linux 5 and Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 are both major versions of Red Hat Enterprise
Linux.
In-place upgrades across major releases do not preserve all system settings, services or custom
configurations. Consequently, Red Hat strongly recommends fresh installations when upgrading
from one major version to another.
Although upgrading from Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5 is technically possible, you are more likely to have a
consistent experience by backing up your data and then installing this release of Red Hat Enterprise
Linux 6 over your previous Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation.
Upgrading your system installs updated versions of the packages which are currently installed on your
system.
T he upgrade process preserves existing configuration files by renaming them with an .rpm save
extension (for example, sendm ail.cf.rpm save). T he upgrade process also creates a log of its
actions in /root/upgrade.log.
However, note the following limitations before you choose to upgrade your system:
Individual package configuration files may or may not work after performing an upgrade due to
changes in various configuration file formats or layouts.
If you have one of Red Hat's layered products (such as the Cluster Suite) installed, it may need to be
manually upgraded after the Red Hat Enterprise Linux upgrade has been completed.
T hird party or ISV applications may not work correctly following the upgrade.
Procedure 37.1. Upgrading Your System
1. Bring your system up to date using RHN.
2. Back up any important data on the system.
3. Reboot the system from a Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 installation DVD or minimal boot media.
4. Press the Esc key during the first 60 seconds to access the boot: prompt.
5. Enter the kernel option linux upgradeany at the boot: prompt.
6. Proceed with a normal installation as described in Chapter 9, Installing using anaconda for the x86
architecture, Chapter 16, Installing using anaconda for the POWER architecture, and Chapter 23,
Installation Phase 3: Installing using anaconda for IBM System z until you reach a dialog that
notifies you that At least one existing installation has been detected on your
system .
7. Follow the instructions in Section 9.12, “ Upgrading an Existing System ” for the x86 architecture,
Section 16.14, “ Upgrading an Existing System ” for the POWER architecture, and Section 23.12, “
Upgrading an Existing System ” for System z as though you were updating between minor
versions.
Some upgraded packages may require the installation of other packages for proper operation. If you
choose to customize your packages to upgrade, you may be required to resolve dependency problems.
Otherwise, the upgrade procedure takes care of these dependencies, but it may need to install
additional packages which are not on your system.
Depending on how you have partitioned your system, the upgrade program may prompt you to add an
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 Installation Guide
4 61
additional swap file. If the upgrade program does not detect a swap file that equals twice your RAM, it
asks you if you would like to add a new swap file. Refer to the recommendations in Section 9.15.5,
“Recommended Partitioning Scheme” for x86 systems, Section 16.17.5, “Recommended Partitioning
Scheme” for POWER systems, or the resources for System z listed in Section 23.15.5, “Recommended
Partitioning Scheme” to determine whether you should add swap space.
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Chapter 38. D eregistering from Red Hat Network Entitlement Platforms
Chapter 38. Deregistering from Red Hat Network Entitlement
Platforms
If you have registered with a Red Hat Network Entitlement platform (see Section 34.2.3, “Choose
Server”) but selected the wrong platform or otherwise need to delete your registration, choose from the
following:
For an RHN Classic registration on the machine, delete the file /etc/sysconfig/rhn/system id
For an RHN Classic or Satellite registration on the server, locate the system in the System s tab and
delete the profile.
For an RHN Certificate-Based registration on the machine, run the command subscriptionm anager unregister.
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Chapter 39. Removing Red Hat Enterprise Linux from x86based systems
These instructions may destroy data!
If you have data from Red Hat Enterprise Linux that you want to keep, back it up before you
proceed. Write your data to CD, DVD, external hard disk, or other storage device.
As a precaution, also back up data from any other operating systems that are installed on the
same computer. Mistakes do happen and can result in the loss of all your data.
If you back up data from Red Hat Enterprise Linux to be used later in another operating system,
make sure that the storage medium or device is readable by that other operating system. For
example, without extra third-party software, Microsoft Windows cannot read an external hard drive
that you have formatted with Red Hat Enterprise Linux to use the ext2, ext3, or ext4 file system.
T o uninstall Red Hat Enterprise Linux from your x86-based system, you must remove the Red Hat
Enterprise Linux boot loader information from your master boot record (MBR) and remove any partitions
that contain the operating system. T he method for removing Red Hat Enterprise Linux from your
computer varies, depending on whether Red Hat Enterprise Linux is the only operating system installed
on the computer, or whether the computer is configured to dual-boot Red Hat Enterprise Linux and
another operating system.
T hese instructions cannot cover every possible computer configuration. If your computer is configured to
boot three or more operating systems, or has a highly-customized partition scheme, use the following
sections as a general guide to partition removal with the various tools described. In these situations, you
will also need to learn to configure your chosen bootloader. See Appendix E, The GRUB Boot Loader for
a general introduction to the subject, but detailed instructions are beyond the scope of this document.
Legacy versions of Microsoft operating systems
Fdisk, the disk partitioning tool provided with MS-DOS and Microsoft Windows, is unable to
remove the file systems used by Red Hat Enterprise Linux. MS-DOS and versions of Windows
prior to Windows XP (except for Windows 2000) have no other means of removing or modifying
partitions. Refer to Section 39.3, “Replacing Red Hat Enterprise Linux with MS-DOS or legacy
versions of Microsoft Windows” for alternative removal methods for use with MS-DOS and these
versions of Windows.
39.1. Red Hat Enterprise Linux is the only operating system on the
computer
If Red Hat Enterprise Linux is the only operating system on your computer, use the installation media for
the replacement operating system to remove Red Hat Enterprise Linux. Examples of installation media
include the Windows XP installation CD, Windows Vista installation DVD, or the installation CD, CDs, or
DVD of another Linux distribution.
Note that some manufacturers of factory-built computers pre-installed with Microsoft Windows do not
supply the Windows installation CD or DVD with the computer. T he manufacturer may instead have
supplied their own "system restore disk", or have included software with the computer that allowed you
to create your own "system restore disk" when you first started the computer. In some cases, the
system restore software is stored on a separate partition on the system's hard drive. If you cannot
identify the installation media for an operating system that was pre-installed on your computer, consult
the documentation supplied with the machine, or contact the manufacturer.
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Chapter 39. Removing Red Hat Enterprise Linux from x86-based systems
When you have located the installation media for your chosen operating system:
1. Back up any data that you want to keep.
2. Shut down the computer.
3. Boot your computer with the installation disk for the replacement operating system.
4. Follow the prompts presented during the installation process. Windows, OS X, and most Linux
installation disks allow you to manually partition your hard drive during the installation process, or
will offer you the option to remove all partitions and start with a fresh partition scheme. At this
point, remove any existing partitions that the installation software detects or allow the installer to
remove the partitions automatically. "System restore" media for computers pre-installed with
Microsoft Windows might create a default partition layout automatically without input from you.
Warning
If your computer has system restore software stored on a partition on a hard drive, take
care when removing partitions while installing an operating system from other media. Under
these circumstances, you could destroy the partition holding the system restore software.
39.2. Your computer dual-boots Red Hat Enterprise Linux and
another operating system
If your computer is configured to dual-boot Red Hat Enterprise Linux and another operating system,
removing Red Hat Enterprise Linux without removing the partitions containing the other operating system
and its data is more complicated. Specific instructions for a number of operating systems are set out
below. T o keep neither Red Hat Enterprise Linux nor the other operating system, follow the steps
described for a computer with only Red Hat Enterprise Linux installed: Section 39.1, “Red Hat Enterprise
Linux is the only operating system on the computer”
39.2.1. Your computer dual-boots Red Hat Enterprise Linux and a Microsoft Windows
operating system
39.2.1.1. Windows 2000, Windows Server 2000, Windows XP, and Windows Server 2003
Warning
Once you commence this process, your computer may be left in an unbootable state until you
complete the entire set of instructions. Carefully read the steps below before beginning the
removal process. Consider opening these instructions on another computer or printing them so
that you have access to them at all times during the process.
T his procedure relies on the Windows Recovery Console that loads from the Windows
installation disk, so you will not be able to complete the procedure without access to this disk. If
you start this procedure and do not complete it, you could leave your computer in a condition
where you cannot boot it. T he "system restore disk" supplied with some factory-built computers
that are sold with Windows pre-installed on them might not include the Windows Recovery
Console.
During the process outlined in these instructions, the Windows Recovery Console will prompt
you for the Administrator password for your Windows system. Do not follow these instructions
unless you know the Administrator password for your system or are certain that an Administrator
password has never been created, even by the computer manufacturer.
1. Remove the Red Hat Enterprise Linux partitions
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 Installation Guide
4 65
a. Boot your computer into your Microsoft Windows environment.
b. Click Start>Run..., type diskm gm t.m sc and press Enter. T he Disk Management
tool opens.
T he tool displays a graphical representation of your disk, with bars representing each
partition. T he first partition is usually labeled NT FS and corresponds to your C: drive. At
least two Red Hat Enterprise Linux partitions will be visible. Windows will not display a file
system type for these partitions, but may allocate drive letters to some of them.
c. Right-click on one of the Red Hat Enterprise Linux partitions, then click Delete
Partition and click Yes to confirm the deletion. Repeat this process for the other Red
Hat Enterprise Linux partitions on your system. As you delete partitions, Windows labels the
space on the hard drive previously occupied by those partitions as unallocated.
2. Enable Windows to use the space on your hard drive vacated by Red Hat Enterprise Linux
(optional)
Note
T his step is not required to remove Red Hat Enterprise Linux from your computer. However,
if you skip this step, you will leave part of your hard drive's storage capacity unusable by
Windows. Depending on your configuration, this might be a significant portion of the
storage capacity of the drive.
Decide whether to extend an existing Windows partition to use the extra space, or create a new
Windows partition in that space. If you create new a Windows partition, Windows will allocate a
new drive letter to it and will interact with it as if it is a separate hard drive.
Extending an existing Windows partition
Note
T he diskpart tool used in this step is installed as part of the Windows XP and Windows
2003 operating systems. If you are performing this step on a computer running Windows
2000 or Windows Server 2000, you can download a version of diskpart for your operating
system from the Microsoft website.
a. Click Start>Run..., type diskpart and press Enter. A command window appears.
b. T ype list volum e and press Enter. Diskpart displays a list of the partitions on your
system with a volume number, its drive letter, volume label, filesystem type, and size. Identify
the Windows partition that you would like to use to occupy the space vacated on your hard
drive by Red Hat Enterprise Linux and take note of its volume number (for example, your
Windows C: drive might be "Volume 0").
c. T ype select volum e N (where N is the volume number for the Windows partition that you
want to extend) and press Enter. Now type extend and press Enter. Diskpart now
extends your chosen partition to fill the remaining space on your hard drive. It will notify you
when the operation is complete.
Adding a new Windows partition
a. In the Disk Managem ent window, right-click on disk space that Windows labels as
unallocated and select New Partition from the menu. T he New Partition Wizard
starts.
b. Follow the prompts presented by the New Partition Wizard. If you accept the default
options, the tool will create a new partition that fills all available space on the hard drive,
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Chapter 39. Removing Red Hat Enterprise Linux from x86-based systems
assigns it the next available drive letter, and formats it with the NT FS file system.
3. Restore the Windows bootloader
a. Insert the Windows installation disk and restart your computer. As your computer starts, the
following message will appear on the screen for a few seconds:
Press any key to boot from CD
Press any key while the message is still showing and the Windows installation software will
load.
b. When the Welcom e to Setup screen appears, you can start the Windows Recovery
Console. T he procedure is slightly different on different versions of Windows:
On Windows 2000 and Windows Server 2000, press the R key, then the C key.
On Windows XP and Windows Server 2003, press the R key.
c. T he Windows Recovery Console scans your hard drives for Windows installations, and
assigns a number to each one. It displays a list of Windows installations and prompts you to
select one. T ype the number corresponding to the Windows installation that you want to
restore.
d. T he Windows Recovery Console prompts you for the Administrator password for your
Windows installation. T ype the Administrator password and press the Enter key. If there is
no administrator password for this system, press only the Enter key.
e. At the prompt, type the command fixm br and press the Enter. T he fixmbr tool now
restores the Master Boot Record for the system.
f. When the prompt reappears, type exit and press the Enter key.
g. Your computer will restart and boot your Windows operating system.
39.2.1.2. Windows Vista and Windows Server 2008
Warning
Once you commence this process, your computer may be left in an unbootable state until you
complete the entire set of instructions. Carefully read the steps below before beginning the
removal process. Consider opening these instructions on another computer or printing them so
that you have access to them at all times during the process.
T his procedure relies on the Windows Recovery Environment that loads from the Windows
installation disk and you will not be able to complete the procedure without access to this disk. If
you start this procedure and do not complete it, you could leave your computer in a condition
where you cannot boot it. T he "system restore disk" supplied with some factory-built computers
that are sold with Windows pre-installed on them might not include the Windows Recovery
Environment.
1. Remove the Red Hat Enterprise Linux partitions
a. Boot your computer into your Microsoft Windows environment.
b. Click Start then type diskm gm t.m sc into the Start Search box and press Enter.
T he Disk Management tool opens.
T he tool displays a graphical representation of your disk, with bars representing each
partition. T he first partition is usually labeled NT FS and corresponds to your C: drive. At
least two Red Hat Enterprise Linux partitions will be visible. Windows will not display a file
system type for these partitions, but may allocate drive letters to some of them.
c. Right-click on one of the Red Hat Enterprise Linux partitions, then click Delete
Partition and click Yes to confirm the deletion. Repeat this process for the other Red
Hat Enterprise Linux partitions on your system. As you delete partitions, Windows labels the
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 Installation Guide
4 67
space on the hard drive previously occupied by those partitions as unallocated.
2. Enable Windows to use the space on your hard drive vacated by Red Hat Enterprise Linux
(optional)
Note
T his step is not required to remove Red Hat Enterprise Linux from your computer. However,
if you skip this step, you will leave part of your hard drive's storage capacity unusable by
Windows. Depending on your configuration, this might be a significant portion of the
storage capacity of the drive.
Decide whether to extend an existing Windows partition to use the extra space, or create a new
Windows partition in that space. If you create new a Windows partition, Windows will allocate a
new drive letter to it and will interact with it as if it is a separate hard drive.
Extending an existing Windows partition
a. In the Disk Management window, right-click on the Windows partition that you want to
extend and select Extend Volum e from the menu. T he Extend Volume Wizard opens.
b. Follow the prompts presented by the Extend Volume Wizard. If you accept the defaults
that it offers you, the tool will extend the selected volume to fill all available space on the
hard drive.
Adding a new Windows partition
a. In the Disk Managem ent window, right-click on disk space that Windows labels as
unallocated and select New Sim ple Volum e from the menu. T he New Simple
Volume Wizard starts.
b. Follow the prompts presented by the New Simple Volume Wizard. If you accept the
default options, the tool will create a new partition that fills all available space on the hard
drive, assigns it the next available drive letter, and formats it with the NT FS file system.
3. Restore the Windows bootloader
a. Insert the Windows installation disk and restart your computer. As your computer starts, the
following message will appear on the screen for a few seconds:
Press any key to boot from CD or DVD
Press any key while the message is still showing and the Windows installation software will
load.
b. In the Install Windows dialog, select a language, time and currency format, and
keyboard type. Click Next
c. Click Repair your com puter.
d. T he Windows Recovery Environment (WRE) shows you the Windows installations that it
can detect on your system. Select the installation that you want to restore, then click Next.
e. Click Com m and prom pt. A command window will open.
f. T ype bootrec /fixm br and press Enter.
g. When the prompt reappears, close the command window, then click Restart.
h. Your computer will restart and boot your Windows operating system.
39.2.2. Your computer dual-boots Red Hat Enterprise Linux and a different Linux distribution
Because of the differences between the many different Linux distributions, these instructions are a
general guide only. Specific details vary according to the configuration of your particular system and the
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Chapter 39. Removing Red Hat Enterprise Linux from x86-based systems
Linux distribution that dual-boots with Red Hat Enterprise Linux.
1. Procedure 39.1. Remove Red Hat Enterprise Linux partitions
a. Boot your Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation.
b. As root or with sudo, run mount. Note the partitions that are mounted. In particular, note the
partition that is mounted as the root of the filesystem. T he output of m ount on a system
where the root of the filesystem is on a standard partition such as /dev/sda2 might
resemble:
/dev/sda2 on / type ext4 (rw)
proc on /proc type proc (rw)
sysfs on /sys type sysfs (rw)
devpts on /dev/pts type devpts (rw,gid=5,mode=620)
tmpfs on /dev/shm type tmpfs
(rw,rootcontext="system_u:object_r:tmpfs_t:s0")
/dev/sda1 on /boot type ext4 (rw)
none on /proc/sys/fs/binfmt_misc type binfmt_misc (rw)
sunrpc on /var/lib/nfs/rpc_pipefs type rpc_pipefs (rw)
T he output of m ount on a system where the root of the filesystem is on a logical volume
might resemble:
/dev/mapper/VolGroup00-LogVol00 on / type ext4 (rw)
proc on /proc type proc (rw)
sysfs on /sys type sysfs (rw)
devpts on /dev/pts type devpts (rw,gid=5,mode=620)
tmpfs on /dev/shm type tmpfs
(rw,rootcontext="system_u:object_r:tmpfs_t:s0")
/dev/sda1 on /boot type ext4 (rw)
none on /proc/sys/fs/binfmt_misc type binfmt_misc (rw)
sunrpc on /var/lib/nfs/rpc_pipefs type rpc_pipefs (rw)
c. Ensure that any data on this system that you still require is backed up to another system or
storage location.
d. Shut down the system and boot the Linux distribution that you want to keep on the system.
e. As root or with sudo, run mount. If any of the partitions that you previously noted as used
for Red Hat Enterprise Linux are mounted, review the contents of these partitions. If you no
longer require the contents of these partitions, unmount them with the um ount command.
f. Remove any unwanted and unnecessary partitions, for example, with fdisk for standard
partitions, or lvremove and vgremove to remove logical volumes and volume groups.
2. Remove Red Hat Enterprise Linux entries from your bootloader
Example only
T hese instructions assume that your system uses the GRUB bootloader. If you use a
different bootloader (such as LILO) consult the documentation for that software to identify
and remove Red Hat Enterprise Linux entries from its list of boot targets and to ensure that
your default operating system is correctly specified.
a. At the command line, type su - and press Enter. When the system prompts you for the
root password, type the password and press Enter.
b. T ype gedit /boot/grub/grub.conf and press Enter. T his opens the grub.conf
file in the gedit text editor.
c. A typical Red Hat Enterprise Linux entry in the grub.conf file consists of four lines:
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 Installation Guide
4 69
Example 39.1. Example Red Hat Enterprise Linux entry in grub.conf
title Red Hat Enterprise Linux (2.6.32.130.el6.i686)
root (hd0,1)
kernel /vmlinuz-2.6.32.130.el6.i686 ro root=UUID=04a07c13-e6bf-6d5a-b207002689545705 rhgb quiet
initrd /initrd-2.6.32.130.el6.i686.img
Depending on the configuration of your system, there may be multiple Red Hat Enterprise
Linux entries in grub.conf, each corresponding to a different version of the Linux kernel.
Delete each of the Red Hat Enterprise Linux entries from the file.
d. Grub.conf contains a line that specifies the default operating system to boot, in the format
default=N where N is a number equal to or greater than 0. If N is set to 0, GRUB will boot
the first operating system in the list. If N is set to 1, it will boot the second operating system,
and so forth.
Identify the entry for the operating system that you want GRUB to boot by default and note
its place in the order within the list.
Make sure that the default= line contains the number one below the number of your
chosen default operating system in the list.
Save the updated grub.conf file and close gedit
3. Make space available to your operating system
Note
T his step is not required to remove Red Hat Enterprise Linux from your computer. However,
if you skip this step, you will leave part of your hard drive's storage capacity unusable by
your other Linux operating system. Depending on your configuration, this might be a
significant portion of the storage capacity of the drive.
Note
T o carry out this step, you require live media for a Linux distribution, for example, the
Fedora Live CD or the Knoppix DVD.
T he method to make the space freed by removing the Red Hat Enterprise Linux partitions
available to your other Linux operating system differs, depending on whether your chosen
operating system is installed on disk partitions configured to use Logical Volume Management
(LVM) or not.
If you do not use LVM
a. Boot your computer from Linux live media, and install parted if it is not already present.
b. As root or with sudo, run parted disk, where disk is the device name of the disk that
contains a partition that you want to resize, for example, /dev/sda.
c. At the (parted) prompt, enter print. T he parted tool displays information about the
partitions on your system, including their partition numbers, their sizes, and their
positions on the disk.
d. At the (parted) prompt, enter resize number start end, where number is the
partition number, start is the location on the disk at which the partition begins, and end
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Chapter 39. Removing Red Hat Enterprise Linux from x86-based systems
is the location on the disk at which you want the partition to end. Use the start position
that you previously obtained with the print command, and refer to the parted
documentation for different ways to specify the end parameter.
e. When parted finishes resizing the partition, enter quit at the (parted) prompt.
f. Run e2fsck partition, where partition is the partition that you just resized. For
example, if you just resized /dev/sda3, enter e2fsck /dev/sda3.
Linux now checks the file system of the newly-resized partition.
g. When the file system check finishes, type resize2fs partition at a command line
and press Enter, where partition is the partition that you just resized. For example, if
you just resized /dev/sda3, type resize2fs /dev/sda3.
Linux now resizes your file system to fill the newly-resized partition.
h. Restart your computer. T he extra space is now available to your Linux installation.
If you use LVM
a. Boot your computer from Linux live media and install fdisk and lvm2 if they are not
already present.
b. Create a new partition in the free space on the disk
a. As root or with sudo, run fdisk disk, where disk is the device name of the disk
where you want to create new space, for example, /dev/sda.
b. At the prompt Com m and (m for help): , enter n to create a new partition.
Refer to the fdisk documentation for options.
c. Change the partition type identifier
a. At the prompt Com m and (m for help): , enter t to change a partition type.
b. At the prompt Partition num ber (1-4 ): , type the number of the partition
that you just created. For example, if you just created partition /dev/sda3, type
the number 3 and press Enter. T his identifies the partition whose type fdisk will
change.
c. At the prompt Hex code (type L to list codes): , enter 8e to create a
Linux LVM partition.
d. At the prompt Com m and (m for help): , enter w to write the changes to disk
and exit fdisk.
d. Expand the volume group
a. At the command prompt, type lvm and press Enter to start the lvm2 tool.
b. At the lvm > prompt, type pvcreate partition and press Enter, where
partition is the partition that you recently created. For example, pvcreate
/dev/sda3. T his creates /dev/sda3 as a physical volume in LVM.
c. At the lvm > prompt, type vgextend VolumeGroup partition and press
Enter, where VolumeGroup is the LVM volume group on which Linux is installed
and partition is the partition that you recently created. For example, if Linux is
installed on /dev/Volum eGroup00, you would type vgextend
/dev/Volum eGroup00 /dev/sda3 to extend that volume group to include the
physical volume at /dev/sda3.
d. At the lvm > prompt, type lvextend -l +100%FREE LogVol and press
Enter, where LogVol is the logical volume that contains your Linux filesystem.
For example, to extend LogVol00 to fill the newly-available space in its volume
group, VolGroup00, type lvextend -l +100%FREE
/dev/VolGroup00/LogVol00.
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e. At the lvm > prompt, type exit and press Enter to exit lvm2
e. T ype e2fsck LogVol at the command line and press Enter, where LogVol is the
logical volume that you just resized. For example, if you just resized
/dev/Volum eGroup00/LogVol00, you would type
e2fsck /dev/Volum eGroup00/LogVol00.
Linux now checks the file system of the newly-resized logical volume.
f. When the file system check finishes, type resize2fs LogVol at a command line and
press Enter, where LogVol is the partition that you just resized. For example, if you
just resized /dev/Volum eGroup00/LogVol00, you would type
resize2fs /dev/Volum eGroup00/LogVol00.
Linux now resizes your file system to fill the newly-resized logical volume.
g. Restart your computer. T he extra space is now available to your Linux installation.
39.3. Replacing Red Hat Enterprise Linux with MS-DOS or legacy
versions of Microsoft Windows
In DOS and Windows, use the Windows fdisk utility to create a new MBR with the undocumented flag
/m br. T his ONLY rewrites the MBR to boot the primary DOS partition. T he command should look like the
following:
fdisk /mbr
If you need to remove Linux from a hard drive and have attempted to do this with the default DOS
(Windows) fdisk, you will experience the Partitions exist but they do not exist problem. T he best way to
remove non-DOS partitions is with a tool that understands partitions other than DOS.
T o begin, insert the Red Hat Enterprise Linux DVD and boot your system. When the boot prompt
appears, type: linux rescue. T his starts the rescue mode program.
You are prompted for your keyboard and language requirements. Enter these values as you would
during the installation of Red Hat Enterprise Linux.
Next, a screen appears telling you that the program attempts to find a Red Hat Enterprise Linux install to
rescue. Select Skip on this screen.
After selecting Skip, you are given a command prompt where you can access the partitions you would
like to remove.
First, type the command list-harddrives. T his command lists all hard drives on your system that
are recognizable by the installation program, as well as their sizes in megabytes.
Warning
Be careful to remove only the necessary Red Hat Enterprise Linux partitions. Removing other
partitions could result in data loss or a corrupted system environment.
T o remove partitions, use the partitioning utility parted. Start parted, where /dev/hda is the device
on which to remove the partition:
parted /dev/hda
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Chapter 39. Removing Red Hat Enterprise Linux from x86-based systems
Using the print command, view the current partition table to determine the minor number of the
partition to remove:
print
T he print command also displays the partition's type (such as linux-swap, ext2, ext3, ext4 and so on).
Knowing the type of the partition helps you in determining whether to remove the partition.
Remove the partition with the command rm . For example, to remove the partition with minor number 3:
rm 3
Important
T he changes start taking place as soon as you press [Enter], so review the command before
committing to it.
After removing the partition, use the print command to confirm that it is removed from the partition
table.
Once you have removed the Linux partitions and made all of the changes you need to make, type quit
to quit parted.
After quitting parted, type exit at the boot prompt to exit rescue mode and reboot your system,
instead of continuing with the installation. T he system should reboot automatically. If it does not, you can
reboot your computer using Control+Alt+Delete .
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Chapter 40. Removing Red Hat Enterprise Linux from IBM
System z
If you want to delete the existing operating system data, first, if any Linux disks contain sensitive data,
ensure that you destroy the data according to your security policy. T o proceed you can consider these
options:
Overwrite the disks with a new installation.
Start a new installation and use the partitioning dialog (refer to Section 23.13, “Disk Partitioning
Setup”) to format the partitions where Linux was installed. After the Write changes to disk
dialog described in Section 23.16, “Write changes to disk”, exit the installer.
Make the DASD or SCSI disk where Linux was installed visible from another system, then delete the
data. However, this might require special privileges. Ask your system administrator for advice. You
can use Linux commands such as dasdfm t (DASD only), parted, m ke2fs or dd. For more details
about the commands, refer to the respective man pages.
40.1. Running a Different Operating System on your z/VM Guest or
LPAR
If you want to boot from a DASD or SCSI disk different from where the currently installed system resides
under a z/VM guest virtual machine or an LPAR, shut down the Red Hat Enterprise Linux installed and
use the desired disk, where another Linux instance is installed, to boot from. T his leaves the contents of
the installed system unchanged.
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Part VI. Technical appendixes
Part VI. Technical appendixes
T he appendixes in this section do not contain instructions that tell you how to install Red Hat Enterprise
Linux. Instead, they provide technical background that you might find helpful to understand the options
that Red Hat Enterprise Linux offers you at various points in the installation process.
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An Introduction to Disk Partitions
Note
T his appendix is not necessarily applicable to non-x86-based architectures. However, the
general concepts mentioned here may apply.
T his appendix is not necessarily applicable to non-x86-based architectures. However, the general
concepts mentioned here may apply.
If you are reasonably comfortable with disk partitions, you could skip ahead to Section A.1.4, “Making
Room For Red Hat Enterprise Linux”, for more information on the process of freeing up disk space to
prepare for a Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation. T his section also discusses the partition naming
scheme used by Linux systems, sharing disk space with other operating systems, and related topics.
A.1. Hard Disk Basic Concepts
Hard disks perform a very simple function — they store data and reliably retrieve it on command.
When discussing issues such as disk partitioning, it is important to know a bit about the underlying
hardware. Unfortunately, it is easy to become bogged down in details. T herefore, this appendix uses a
simplified diagram of a disk drive to help explain what is really happening when a disk drive is
partitioned. Figure A.1, “An Unused Disk Drive”, shows a brand-new, unused disk drive.
Figure A.1. An Unused Disk Drive
Not much to look at, is it? But if we are talking about disk drives on a basic level, it is adequate. Say that
we would like to store some data on this drive. As things stand now, it will not work. T here is something
we need to do first.
A.1.1. It is Not What You Write, it is How You Write It
Experienced computer users probably got this one on the first try. We need to format the drive.
Formatting (usually known as "making a file system") writes information to the drive, creating order out of
the empty space in an unformatted drive.
Figure A.2. Disk Drive with a File System
As Figure A.2, “Disk Drive with a File System”, implies, the order imposed by a file system involves some
trade-offs:
A small percentage of the drive's available space is used to store file system-related data and can
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An Introduction to D isk Partitions
be considered as overhead.
A file system splits the remaining space into small, consistently-sized segments. For Linux, these
segments are known as blocks. [13 ]
Given that file systems make things like directories and files possible, these trade-offs are usually seen
as a small price to pay.
It is also worth noting that there is no single, universal file system. As Figure A.3, “Disk Drive with a
Different File System”, shows, a disk drive may have one of many different file systems written on it. As
you might guess, different file systems tend to be incompatible; that is, an operating system that
supports one file system (or a handful of related file system types) may not support another. T his last
statement is not a hard-and-fast rule, however. For example, Red Hat Enterprise Linux supports a wide
variety of file systems (including many commonly used by other operating systems), making data
interchange between different file systems easy.
Figure A.3. Disk Drive with a Different File System
Of course, writing a file system to disk is only the beginning. T he goal of this process is to actually store
and retrieve data. Let us take a look at our drive after some files have been written to it.
Figure A.4 . Disk Drive with Data Written to It
As Figure A.4, “Disk Drive with Data Written to It”, shows, some of the previously-empty blocks are now
holding data. However, by just looking at this picture, we cannot determine exactly how many files reside
on this drive. T here may only be one file or many, as all files use at least one block and some files use
multiple blocks. Another important point to note is that the used blocks do not have to form a contiguous
region; used and unused blocks may be interspersed. T his is known as fragmentation. Fragmentation
can play a part when attempting to resize an existing partition.
As with most computer-related technologies, disk drives changed over time after their introduction. In
particular, they got bigger. Not larger in physical size, but bigger in their capacity to store information.
And, this additional capacity drove a fundamental change in the way disk drives were used.
A.1.2. Partitions: T urning One Drive Into Many
As disk drive capacities soared, some people began to wonder if having all of that formatted space in
one big chunk was such a great idea. T his line of thinking was driven by several issues, some
philosophical, some technical. On the philosophical side, above a certain size, it seemed that the
additional space provided by a larger drive created more clutter. On the technical side, some file systems
were never designed to support anything above a certain capacity. Or the file systems could support
larger drives with a greater capacity, but the overhead imposed by the file system to track files became
excessive.
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T he solution to this problem was to divide disks into partitions. Each partition can be accessed as if it
was a separate disk. T his is done through the addition of a partition table.
Note
While the diagrams in this chapter show the partition table as being separate from the actual disk
drive, this is not entirely accurate. In reality, the partition table is stored at the very start of the
disk, before any file system or user data. But for clarity, they are separate in our diagrams.
Figure A.5. Disk Drive with Partition T able
As Figure A.5, “Disk Drive with Partition T able” shows, the partition table is divided into four sections or
four primary partitions. A primary partition is a partition on a hard drive that can contain only one logical
drive (or section). Each section can hold the information necessary to define a single partition, meaning
that the partition table can define no more than four partitions.
Each partition table entry contains several important characteristics of the partition:
T he points on the disk where the partition starts and ends
Whether the partition is "active"
T he partition's type
Let us take a closer look at each of these characteristics. T he starting and ending points actually define
the partition's size and location on the disk. T he "active" flag is used by some operating systems' boot
loaders. In other words, the operating system in the partition that is marked "active" is booted.
T he partition's type can be a bit confusing. T he type is a number that identifies the partition's anticipated
usage. If that statement sounds a bit vague, that is because the meaning of the partition type is a bit
vague. Some operating systems use the partition type to denote a specific file system type, to flag the
partition as being associated with a particular operating system, to indicate that the partition contains a
bootable operating system, or some combination of the three.
By this point, you might be wondering how all this additional complexity is normally used. Refer to
Figure A.6, “Disk Drive With Single Partition”, for an example.
Figure A.6. Disk Drive With Single Partition
In many cases, there is only a single partition spanning the entire disk, essentially duplicating the
method used before partitions. T he partition table has only one entry used, and it points to the start of
the partition.
We have labeled this partition as being of the "DOS" type. Although it is only one of several possible
partition types listed in T able A.1, “Partition T ypes”, it is adequate for the purposes of this discussion.
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An Introduction to D isk Partitions
partition types listed in T able A.1, “Partition T ypes”, it is adequate for the purposes of this discussion.
T able A.1, “Partition T ypes”, contains a listing of some popular (and obscure) partition types, along with
their hexadecimal numeric values.
T able A.1. Partition T ypes
Partition T ype
Value
Partition T ype
Value
Empty
00
Novell Netware 386
65
DOS 12-bit FAT
01
PIC/IX
75
XENIX root
02
Old MINIX
80
XENIX usr
03
Linux/MINUX
81
DOS 16-bit <=32M
04
Linux swap
82
Extended
05
Linux native
83
DOS 16-bit >=32
06
Linux extended
85
OS/2 HPFS
07
Amoeba
93
AIX
08
Amoeba BBT
94
AIX bootable
09
BSD/386
a5
OS/2 Boot Manager
0a
OpenBSD
a6
Win95 FAT 32
0b
NEXT ST EP
a7
Win95 FAT 32 (LBA)
0c
BSDI fs
b7
Win95 FAT 16 (LBA)
0e
BSDI swap
b8
Win95 Extended (LBA)
0f
Syrinx
c7
Venix 80286
40
CP/M
db
Novell
51
DOS access
e1
PReP Boot
41
DOS R/O
e3
GNU HURD
63
DOS secondary
f2
Novell Netware 286
64
BBT
ff
A.1.3. Partitions within Partitions — An Overview of Extended Partitions
Of course, over time it became obvious that four partitions would not be enough. As disk drives
continued to grow, it became more and more likely that a person could configure four reasonably-sized
partitions and still have disk space left over. T here needed to be some way of creating more partitions.
Enter the extended partition. As you may have noticed in T able A.1, “Partition T ypes”, there is an
"Extended" partition type. It is this partition type that is at the heart of extended partitions.
When a partition is created and its type is set to "Extended," an extended partition table is created. In
essence, the extended partition is like a disk drive in its own right — it has a partition table that points to
one or more partitions (now called logical partitions, as opposed to the four primary partitions) contained
entirely within the extended partition itself. Figure A.7, “Disk Drive With Extended Partition”, shows a disk
drive with one primary partition and one extended partition containing two logical partitions (along with
some unpartitioned free space).
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Figure A.7. Disk Drive With Extended Partition
As this figure implies, there is a difference between primary and logical partitions — there can only be
four primary partitions, but there is no fixed limit to the number of logical partitions that can exist.
However, due to the way in which partitions are accessed in Linux, you should avoid defining more than
12 logical partitions on a single disk drive.
Now that we have discussed partitions in general, let us review how to use this knowledge to install Red
Hat Enterprise Linux.
A.1.4 . Making Room For Red Hat Enterprise Linux
T he following list presents some possible scenarios you may face when attempting to repartition your
hard disk:
Unpartitioned free space is available
An unused partition is available
Free space in an actively used partition is available
Let us look at each scenario in order.
Note
Keep in mind that the following illustrations are simplified in the interest of clarity and do not
reflect the exact partition layout that you encounter when actually installing Red Hat Enterprise
Linux.
A.1.4 .1. Using Unpartitioned Free Space
In this situation, the partitions already defined do not span the entire hard disk, leaving unallocated
space that is not part of any defined partition. Figure A.8, “Disk Drive with Unpartitioned Free Space”,
shows what this might look like.
Figure A.8. Disk Drive with Unpartitioned Free Space
In Figure A.8, “Disk Drive with Unpartitioned Free Space”, 1 represents an undefined partition with
unallocated space and 2 represents a defined partition with allocated space.
If you think about it, an unused hard disk also falls into this category. T he only difference is that all the
space is not part of any defined partition.
In any case, you can create the necessary partitions from the unused space. Unfortunately, this
scenario, although very simple, is not very likely (unless you have just purchased a new disk just for Red
Hat Enterprise Linux). Most pre-installed operating systems are configured to take up all available space
on a disk drive (refer to Section A.1.4.3, “Using Free Space from an Active Partition”).
Next, we will discuss a slightly more common situation.
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An Introduction to D isk Partitions
A.1.4 .2. Using Space from an Unused Partition
In this case, maybe you have one or more partitions that you do not use any longer. Perhaps you have
dabbled with another operating system in the past, and the partition(s) you dedicated to it never seem to
be used anymore. Figure A.9, “Disk Drive With an Unused Partition”, illustrates such a situation.
Figure A.9. Disk Drive With an Unused Partition
In Figure A.9, “Disk Drive With an Unused Partition”, 1 represents an unused partition and 2 represents
reallocating an unused partition for Linux.
If you find yourself in this situation, you can use the space allocated to the unused partition. You first
must delete the partition and then create the appropriate Linux partition(s) in its place. You can delete
the unused partition and manually create new partitions during the installation process.
A.1.4 .3. Using Free Space from an Active Partition
T his is the most common situation. It is also, unfortunately, the hardest to handle. T he main problem is
that, even if you have enough free space, it is presently allocated to a partition that is already in use. If
you purchased a computer with pre-installed software, the hard disk most likely has one massive
partition holding the operating system and data.
Aside from adding a new hard drive to your system, you have two choices:
Destructive Repartitioning
Basically, you delete the single large partition and create several smaller ones. As you might
imagine, any data you had in the original partition is destroyed. T his means that making a
complete backup is necessary. For your own sake, make two backups, use verification (if
available in your backup software), and try to read data from your backup before you delete the
partition.
Warning
If there was an operating system of some type installed on that partition, it needs to be
reinstalled as well. Be aware that some computers sold with pre-installed operating
systems may not include the CD-ROM media to reinstall the original operating system.
T he best time to notice if this applies to your system is before you destroy your original
partition and its operating system installation.
After creating a smaller partition for your existing operating system, you can reinstall any
software, restore your data, and start your Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation. Figure A.10,
“Disk Drive Being Destructively Repartitioned” shows this being done.
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Figure A.10. Disk Drive Being Destructively Repartitioned
In Figure A.10, “Disk Drive Being Destructively Repartitioned”, 1 represents before and 2
represents after.
Warning
As Figure A.10, “Disk Drive Being Destructively Repartitioned”, shows, any data present
in the original partition is lost without proper backup!
Non-Destructive Repartitioning
Here, you run a program that does the seemingly impossible: it makes a big partition smaller
without losing any of the files stored in that partition. Many people have found this method to be
reliable and trouble-free. What software should you use to perform this feat? T here are several
disk management software products on the market. Do some research to find the one that is
best for your situation.
While the process of non-destructive repartitioning is rather straightforward, there are a number
of steps involved:
Compress and backup existing data
Resize the existing partition
Create new partition(s)
Next we will look at each step in a bit more detail.
A.1.4 .3.1. Compress existing data
As Figure A.11, “Disk Drive Being Compressed”, shows, the first step is to compress the data in your
existing partition. T he reason for doing this is to rearrange the data such that it maximizes the available
free space at the "end" of the partition.
Figure A.11. Disk Drive Being Compressed
In Figure A.11, “Disk Drive Being Compressed”, 1 represents before and 2 represents after.
T his step is crucial. Without it, the location of your data could prevent the partition from being resized to
the extent desired. Note also that, for one reason or another, some data cannot be moved. If this is the
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An Introduction to D isk Partitions
case (and it severely restricts the size of your new partition(s)), you may be forced to destructively
repartition your disk.
A.1.4 .3.2. Resize the existing partition
Figure A.12, “Disk Drive with Partition Resized”, shows the actual resizing process. While the actual
result of the resizing operation varies depending on the software used, in most cases the newly freed
space is used to create an unformatted partition of the same type as the original partition.
Figure A.12. Disk Drive with Partition Resized
In Figure A.12, “Disk Drive with Partition Resized”, 1 represents before and 2 represents after.
It is important to understand what the resizing software you use does with the newly freed space, so
that you can take the appropriate steps. In the case we have illustrated, it would be best to delete the
new DOS partition and create the appropriate Linux partition(s).
A.1.4 .3.3. Create new partition(s)
As the previous step implied, it may or may not be necessary to create new partitions. However, unless
your resizing software is Linux-aware, it is likely that you must delete the partition that was created
during the resizing process. Figure A.13, “Disk Drive with Final Partition Configuration”, shows this being
done.
Figure A.13. Disk Drive with Final Partition Configuration
In Figure A.13, “Disk Drive with Final Partition Configuration”, 1 represents before and 2 represents after.
Note
T he following information is specific to x86-based computers only.
As a convenience to our customers, we provide the parted utility. T his is a freely available program
that can resize partitions.
If you decide to repartition your hard drive with parted, it is important that you be familiar with disk
storage and that you perform a backup of your computer data. You should make two copies of all the
important data on your computer. T hese copies should be to removable media (such as tape, CD-ROM,
or diskettes), and you should make sure they are readable before proceeding.
Should you decide to use parted, be aware that after parted runs you are left with two partitions: the
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one you resized, and the one parted created out of the newly freed space. If your goal is to use that
space to install Red Hat Enterprise Linux, you should delete the newly created partition, either by using
the partitioning utility under your current operating system or while setting up partitions during
installation.
A.1.5. Partition Naming Scheme
Linux refers to disk partitions using a combination of letters and numbers which may be confusing,
particularly if you are used to the "C drive" way of referring to hard disks and their partitions. In the
DOS/Windows world, partitions are named using the following method:
Each partition's type is checked to determine if it can be read by DOS/Windows.
If the partition's type is compatible, it is assigned a "drive letter." T he drive letters start with a "C" and
move on to the following letters, depending on the number of partitions to be labeled.
T he drive letter can then be used to refer to that partition as well as the file system contained on that
partition.
Red Hat Enterprise Linux uses a naming scheme that is more flexible and conveys more information
than the approach used by other operating systems. T he naming scheme is file-based, with file names
in the form of /dev/xxyN.
Here is how to decipher the partition naming scheme:
/dev/
T his is the name of the directory in which all device files reside. Since partitions reside on hard
disks, and hard disks are devices, the files representing all possible partitions reside in /dev/.
xx
T he first two letters of the partition name indicate the type of device on which the partition
resides, usually either hd (for IDE disks) or sd (for SCSI disks).
y
T his letter indicates which device the partition is on. For example, /dev/hda (the first IDE hard
disk) or /dev/sdb (the second SCSI disk).
N
T he final number denotes the partition. T he first four (primary or extended) partitions are
numbered 1 through 4 . Logical partitions start at 5. So, for example, /dev/hda3 is the third
primary or extended partition on the first IDE hard disk, and /dev/sdb6 is the second logical
partition on the second SCSI hard disk.
Note
T here is no part of this naming convention that is based on partition type; unlike DOS/Windows,
all partitions can be identified under Red Hat Enterprise Linux. Of course, this does not mean that
Red Hat Enterprise Linux can access data on every type of partition, but in many cases it is
possible to access data on a partition dedicated to another operating system.
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Keep this information in mind; it makes things easier to understand when you are setting up the
partitions Red Hat Enterprise Linux requires.
A.1.6. Disk Partitions and Other Operating Systems
If your Red Hat Enterprise Linux partitions are sharing a hard disk with partitions used by other
operating systems, most of the time you will have no problems. However, there are certain combinations
of Linux and other operating systems that require extra care.
A.1.7. Disk Partitions and Mount Points
One area that many people new to Linux find confusing is the matter of how partitions are used and
accessed by the Linux operating system. In DOS/Windows, it is relatively simple: Each partition gets a
"drive letter." You then use the correct drive letter to refer to files and directories on its corresponding
partition.
T his is entirely different from how Linux deals with partitions and, for that matter, with disk storage in
general. T he main difference is that each partition is used to form part of the storage necessary to
support a single set of files and directories. T his is done by associating a partition with a directory
through a process known as mounting. Mounting a partition makes its storage available starting at the
specified directory (known as a mount point).
For example, if partition /dev/hda5 is mounted on /usr/, that would mean that all files and directories
under /usr/ physically reside on /dev/hda5. So the file /usr/share/doc/FAQ/txt/Linux-FAQ
would be stored on /dev/hda5, while the file /etc/gdm /custom .conf would not.
Continuing our example, it is also possible that one or more directories below /usr/ would be mount
points for other partitions. For instance, a partition (say, /dev/hda7) could be mounted on
/usr/local/, meaning that /usr/local/m an/whatis would then reside on /dev/hda7 rather than
/dev/hda5.
A.1.8. How Many Partitions?
At this point in the process of preparing to install Red Hat Enterprise Linux, you must give some
consideration to the number and size of the partitions to be used by your new operating system. T he
question of "how many partitions" continues to spark debate within the Linux community and, without any
end to the debate in sight, it is safe to say that there are probably as many partition layouts as there are
people debating the issue.
Keeping this in mind, we recommend that, unless you have a reason for doing otherwise, you should at
least create the following partitions: swap, /boot/, and / (root).
For more information, refer to Section 9.15.5, “Recommended Partitioning Scheme”.
[13]Blo c ks really are c o ns is tently s iz ed , unlike o ur illus tratio ns . Keep in mind , als o , that an averag e d is k d rive c o ntains tho us and s o f
b lo c ks . But fo r the p urp o s es o f this d is c us s io n, p leas e ig no re thes e mino r d is c rep anc ies .
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ISCSI disks
Internet Small Computer System Interface (iSCSI) is a protocol that allows computers to communicate
with storage devices by SCSI requests and responses carried over T CP/IP. Because iSCSI is based on
the standard SCSI protocols, it uses some terminology from SCSI. T he device on the SCSI bus to which
requests get sent (and which answers these requests) is known as the target and the device issuing
requests is known as the initiator. In other words, an iSCSI disk is a target and the iSCSI software
equivalent of a SCSI controller or SCSI Host Bus Adapter (HBA) is called an initiator. T his appendix only
covers Linux as an iSCSI initiator: how Linux uses iSCSI disks, but not how Linux hosts iSCSI disks.
Linux has a software iSCSI initiator in the kernel that takes the place and form of a SCSI HBA driver and
therefore allows Linux to use iSCSI disks. However, as iSCSI is a fully network-based protocol, iSCSI
initiator support needs more than just the ability to send SCSI packets over the network. Before Linux
can use an iSCSI target, Linux must find the target on the network and make a connection to it. In some
cases, Linux must send authentication information to gain access to the target. Linux must also detect
any failure of the network connection and must establish a new connection, including logging in again if
necessary.
T he discovery, connection, and logging in is handled in userspace by the iscsiadm utility, and the error
handling is also handled in userspace by iscsid.
Both iscsiadm and iscsid are part of the iscsi-initiator-utils package under Red Hat Enterprise Linux.
B.1. iSCSI disks in anaconda
Anaconda can discover (and then log in to) iSCSI disks in two ways:
1. When anaconda starts, it checks if the BIOS or add-on boot ROMs of the system support iSCSI
Boot Firmware Table (iBFT ), a BIOS extension for systems which can boot from iSCSI. If the BIOS
supports iBFT , anaconda will read the iSCSI target information for the configured boot disk from
the BIOS and log in to this target, making it available as an installation target.
2. If you select the Specialized Storage Devices option during installation, the storage
device selection screen presents you with an Add Advanced T arget button. If you click this
button, you can add iSCSI target information like the discovery IP address. Anaconda probes the
given IP address and logs in to any targets that it finds. See Section 9.6.1.1, “ Advanced Storage
Options ” for the details that you can specify for iSCSI targets.
While anaconda uses iscsiadm to find and log into iSCSI targets, iscsiadm automatically stores any
information about these targets in the iscsiadm iSCSI database. Anaconda then copies this database to
the installed system and marks any iSCSI targets not used for / so that the system will automatically log
in to them when it starts. If / is placed on an iSCSI target, initrd will log into this target and anaconda
does not include this target in start up scripts to avoid multiple attempts to log into the same target.
If / is placed on an iSCSI target, anaconda sets NetworkManager to ignore any network interfaces
that were active during the installation process. T hese interfaces will also be configured by initrd when
the system starts. If NetworkManager were to reconfigure these interfaces, the system would lose its
connection to /.
B.2. iSCSI disks during start up
ISCSI-related events might occur at a number of points while the system starts:
1. T he init script in the initrd will log in to iSCSI targets used for / (if any). T his is done using the
iscsistart utility (which can do this without requiring iscsid to run).
2. When the root filesystem has been mounted and the various service initscripts get run, the iscsid
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2. When the root filesystem has been mounted and the various service initscripts get run, the iscsid
initscript will get called. T his script will then start iscsid if any iSCSI targets are used for /, or if
any targets in the iSCSI database are marked to be logged in to automatically.
3. After the classic network service script has been run (or would have been run if enabled) the iscsi
initscript will run. If the network is accessible, this will log in to any targets in the iSCSI database
which are marked to be logged in to automatically. If the network is not accessible, this script will
exit quietly.
4. When using NetworkManager to access the network (instead of the classic network service
script), NetworkManager will call the iscsi initscript. See:
/etc/NetworkManager/dispatcher.d/04 -iscsi
Important
Because NetworkManager is installed in /usr, you cannot use it to configure network
access if /usr is on network-attached storage such as an iSCSI target.
If iscsid is not needed as the system starts, it will not start automatically. If you start iscsiadm,
iscsiadm will start iscsid in turn.
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Disk Encryption
C.1. What is block device encryption?
Block device encryption protects the data on a block device by encrypting it. T o access the device's
decrypted contents, a user must provide a passphrase or key as authentication. T his provides
additional security beyond existing OS security mechanisms in that it protects the device's contents
even if it has been physically removed from the system.
C.2. Encrypting block devices using dm-crypt/LUKS
Linux Unified Key Setup (LUKS) is a specification for block device encryption. It establishes an on-disk
format for the data, as well as a passphrase/key management policy.
LUKS uses the kernel device mapper subsystem via the dm -crypt module. T his arrangement provides
a low-level mapping that handles encryption and decryption of the device's data. User-level operations,
such as creating and accessing encrypted devices, are accomplished through the use of the
cryptsetup utility.
C.2.1. Overview of LUKS
What LUKS does:
LUKS encrypts entire block devices
LUKS is thereby well-suited for protecting the contents of mobile devices such as:
Removable storage media
Laptop disk drives
T he underlying contents of the encrypted block device are arbitrary.
T his makes it useful for encrypting swap devices.
T his can also be useful with certain databases that use specially formatted block devices for
data storage.
LUKS uses the existing device mapper kernel subsystem.
T his is the same subsystem used by LVM, so it is well tested.
LUKS provides passphrase strengthening.
T his protects against dictionary attacks.
LUKS devices contain multiple key slots.
T his allows users to add backup keys/passphrases.
What LUKS does not do:
LUKS is not well-suited for applications requiring many (more than eight) users to have distinct
access keys to the same device.
LUKS is not well-suited for applications requiring file-level encryption.
More detailed information about LUKS is available from the project website at
http://code.google.com/p/cryptsetup/.
C.2.2. How will I access the encrypted devices after installation? (System Startup)
During system startup you will be presented with a passphrase prompt. After the correct passphrase
has been provided the system will continue to boot normally. If you used different passphrases for
multiple encrypted devices you may need to enter more than one passphrase during the startup.
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Tip
Consider using the same passphrase for all encrypted block devices in a given system. T his will
simplify system startup and you will have fewer passphrases to remember. Just make sure you
choose a good passphrase!
C.2.3. Choosing a Good Passphrase
While dm-crypt/LUKS supports both keys and passphrases, the anaconda installer only supports the
use of passphrases for creating and accessing encrypted block devices during installation.
LUKS does provide passphrase strengthening but it is still a good idea to choose a good (meaning
"difficult to guess") passphrase. Note the use of the term "passphrase", as opposed to the term
"password". T his is intentional. Providing a phrase containing multiple words to increase the security of
your data is important.
C.3. Creating Encrypted Block Devices in Anaconda
You can create encrypted devices during system installation. T his allows you to easily configure a
system with encrypted partitions.
T o enable block device encryption, check the "Encrypt System" checkbox when selecting automatic
partitioning or the "Encrypt" checkbox when creating an individual partition, software RAID array, or
logical volume. After you finish partitioning, you will be prompted for an encryption passphrase. T his
passphrase will be required to access the encrypted devices. If you have pre-existing LUKS devices and
provided correct passphrases for them earlier in the install process the passphrase entry dialog will
also contain a checkbox. Checking this checkbox indicates that you would like the new passphrase to be
added to an available slot in each of the pre-existing encrypted block devices.
Tip
Checking the "Encrypt System" checkbox on the "Automatic Partitioning" screen and then
choosing "Create custom layout" does not cause any block devices to be encrypted
automatically.
Tip
You can use kickstart to set a separate passphrase for each new encrypted block device.
C.3.1. What Kinds of Block Devices Can Be Encrypted?
Most types of block devices can be encrypted using LUKS. From anaconda you can encrypt partitions,
LVM physical volumes, LVM logical volumes, and software RAID arrays.
C.3.2. Saving Passphrases
If you use a kickstart file during installation, you can automatically save the passphrases used during
installation to an encrypted file (an escrow packet) on the local file system. T o use this feature, you must
have an X.509 certificate available at a location that anaconda can access. T o specify the URL of this
certificate, add the --escrowcert parameter to any of the autopart, logvol, part or raid
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commands. During installation, the encryption keys for the specified devices are saved in files in /root,
encrypted with the certificate.
You can save escrow packets during installation only with the use of a kickstart file — refer to
Chapter 32, Kickstart Installations for more detail. You cannot save an escrow packet during an
interactive installation, although you can create one on an installed system with the volume_key tool.
T he volume_key tool also allows you to use the information stored in an escrow packet to restore
access to an encrypted volume. Refer to the volume_key manpage for more information.
C.3.3. Creating and Saving Backup Passphrases
If you use a kickstart file during installation, anaconda can add a randomly generated backup
passphrase to each block device on the system and save each passphrase to an encrypted file on the
local file system. Specify the URL of this certificate with the --escrowcert parameter as described in
Section C.3.2, “Saving Passphrases”, followed by the --backuppassphrase parameter for each of the
kickstart commands that relate to the devices for which you want to create backup passphrases.
Note that this feature is available only while performing a kickstart installation. Refer to Chapter 32,
Kickstart Installations for more detail.
C.4 . Creating Encrypted Block Devices on the Installed System After
Installation
Encrypted block devices can be created and configured after installation.
C.4 .1. Create the block devices
Create the block devices you want to encrypt by using parted, pvcreate, lvcreate and m dadm .
C.4 .2. Optional: Fill the device with random data
Filling <device> (eg: /dev/sda3) with random data before encrypting it greatly increases the strength of
the encryption. T he downside is that it can take a very long time.
Warning
T he commands below will destroy any existing data on the device.
T he best way, which provides high quality random data but takes a long time (several minutes per
gigabyte on most systems):
dd if=/dev/urandom of=<device>
Fastest way, which provides lower quality random data:
badblocks -c 10240 -s -w -t random -v <device>
C.4 .3. Format the device as a dm-crypt/LUKS encrypted device
Warning
T he command below will destroy any existing data on the device.
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D isk Encryption
cryptsetup luksFormat <device>
Tip
For more information, read the cryptsetup(8) man page.
After supplying the passphrase twice the device will be formatted for use. T o verify, use the following
command:
cryptsetup isLuks <device> && echo Success
T o see a summary of the encryption information for the device, use the following command:
cryptsetup luksDump <device>
C.4 .4 . Create a mapping to allow access to the device's decrypted contents
T o access the device's decrypted contents, a mapping must be established using the kernel devicem apper.
It is useful to choose a meaningful name for this mapping. LUKS provides a UUID (Universally Unique
Identifier) for each device. T his, unlike the device name (eg: /dev/sda3), is guaranteed to remain
constant as long as the LUKS header remains intact. T o find a LUKS device's UUID, run the following
command:
cryptsetup luksUUID <device>
An example of a reliable, informative and unique mapping name would be luks-<uuid>, where <uuid>
is replaced with the device's LUKS UUID (eg: luks-50ec957a-5b5a-4 7ee-85e6-f8085bbc97a8).
T his naming convention might seem unwieldy but is it not necessary to type it often.
cryptsetup luksOpen <device> <name>
T here should now be a device node, /dev/m apper/<nam e>, which represents the decrypted device.
T his block device can be read from and written to like any other unencrypted block device.
T o see some information about the mapped device, use the following command:
dmsetup info <name>
Tip
For more information, read the dm setup(8) man page.
C.4 .5. Create filesystems on the mapped device, or continue to build complex storage
structures using the mapped device
Use the mapped device node (/dev/m apper/<nam e>) as any other block device. T o create an ext2
filesystem on the mapped device, use the following command:
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T o mount this filesystem on /m nt/test, use the following command:
Important
T he directory /m nt/test must exist before executing this command.
mount /dev/mapper/<name> /mnt/test
C.4 .6. Add the mapping information to /etc/crypttab
In order for the system to set up a mapping for the device, an entry must be present in the
/etc/crypttab file. If the file doesn't exist, create it and change the owner and group to root
(root:root) and change the mode to 074 4 . Add a line to the file with the following format:
<name>
<device>
none
T he <device> field should be given in the form "UUID=<luks_uuid>", where <luks_uuid> is the LUKS
uuid as given by the command cryptsetup luksUUID <device>. T his ensures the correct device
will be identified and used even if the device node (eg: /dev/sda5) changes.
Tip
For details on the format of the /etc/crypttab file, read the crypttab(5) man page.
C.4 .7. Add an entry to /etc/fstab
Add an entry to /etc/fstab. T his is only necessary if you want to establish a persistent association
between the device and a mountpoint. Use the decrypted device, /dev/m apper/<nam e> in the
/etc/fstab file.
In many cases it is desirable to list devices in /etc/fstab by UUID or by a filesystem label. T he main
purpose of this is to provide a constant identifier in the event that the device name (eg: /dev/sda4 )
changes. LUKS device names in the form of /dev/m apper/luks-<luks_uuid> are based only on the
device's LUKS UUID, and are therefore guaranteed to remain constant. T his fact makes them suitable for
use in /etc/fstab.
Title
For details on the format of the /etc/fstab file, read the fstab(5) man page.
C.5. Common Post-Installation T asks
T he following sections are about common post-installation tasks.
C.5.1. Set a randomly generated key as an additional way to access an encrypted block
device
T hese sections are about generating keys and adding keys.
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D isk Encryption
C.5.1.1. Generate a key
T his will generate a 256-bit key in the file $HOME/keyfile.
dd if=/dev/urandom of=$HOME/keyfile bs=32 count=1
chmod 600 $HOME/keyfile
C.5.1.2. Add the key to an available keyslot on the encrypted device
cryptsetup luksAddKey <device> ~/keyfile
C.5.2. Add a new passphrase to an existing device
cryptsetup luksAddKey <device>
After being prompted for any one of the existing passphrases for authentication, you will be prompted to
enter the new passphrase.
C.5.3. Remove a passphrase or key from a device
cryptsetup luksRemoveKey <device>
You will be prompted for the passphrase you wish to remove and then for any one of the remaining
passphrases for authentication.
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Understanding LVM
LVM (Logical Volume Management) partitions provide a number of advantages over standard partitions.
LVM partitions are formatted as physical volumes. One or more physical volumes are combined to form a
volume group. Each volume group's total storage is then divided into one or more logical volumes. T he
logical volumes function much like standard partitions. T hey have a file system type, such as ext4 , and
a mount point.
The /boot Partition and LVM
On most architectures, the boot loader cannot read LVM volumes. You must make a standard,
non-LVM disk partition for your /boot partition.
However, on System z, the zipl boot loader supports /boot on LVM logical volumes with linear
mapping.
T o understand LVM better, imagine the physical volume as a pile of blocks. A block is simply a storage
unit used to store data. Several piles of blocks can be combined to make a much larger pile, just as
physical volumes are combined to make a volume group. T he resulting pile can be subdivided into
several smaller piles of arbitrary size, just as a volume group is allocated to several logical volumes.
An administrator may grow or shrink logical volumes without destroying data, unlike standard disk
partitions. If the physical volumes in a volume group are on separate drives or RAID arrays then
administrators may also spread a logical volume across the storage devices.
You may lose data if you shrink a logical volume to a smaller capacity than the data on the volume
requires. T o ensure maximum flexibility, create logical volumes to meet your current needs, and leave
excess storage capacity unallocated. You may safely grow logical volumes to use unallocated space, as
your needs dictate.
LVM and the Default Partition Layout
By default, the installation process creates / and swap partitions within LVM volumes, with a
separate /boot partition.
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The GRUB Boot Loader
The GRUB Boot Loader
When a computer running Linux is turned on, the operating system is loaded into memory by a special
program called a boot loader. A boot loader usually exists on the system's primary hard drive (or other
media device) and has the sole responsibility of loading the Linux kernel with its required files or (in
some cases) other operating systems into memory.
E.1. Boot Loaders and System Architecture
Each architecture capable of running Red Hat Enterprise Linux uses a different boot loader. T he
following table lists the boot loaders available for each architecture:
T able E.1. Boot Loaders by Architecture
Architecture
Boot Loaders
AMD® AMD64
GRUB
IBM® eServer™ System p™
yaboot
IBM® System z®
z/IPL
x86
GRUB
T his appendix discusses commands and configuration options for the GRUB boot loader included with
Red Hat Enterprise Linux for the x86 architecture.
Important — Supported file systems
T he GRUB bootloader in Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 supports only the ext2, ext3, and ext4
(recommended) file systems. You cannot use any other file system for /boot, such as Btrfs, XFS,
or VFAT .
E.2. GRUB
T he GNU GRand Unified Boot loader (GRUB) is a program which enables the selection of the installed
operating system or kernel to be loaded at system boot time. It also allows the user to pass arguments
to the kernel.
E.2.1. GRUB and the boot process on BIOS-based x86 systems
T his section describes the specific role GRUB plays when booting a BIOS-based x86 system. For a look
at the overall boot process, refer to Section F.2, “A Detailed Look at the Boot Process”.
GRUB loads itself into memory in the following stages:
1. The Stage 1 or primary boot loader is read into memory by the BIOS from the MBR [14 ]. T he
primary boot loader exists on less than 512 bytes of disk space within the MBR and is capable of
loading either the Stage 1.5 or Stage 2 boot loader.
BIOS cannot read partition tables or file systems. It initializes the hardware, reads the MBR, then
depends entirely on the stage 1 bootloader to continue the boot process.
2. The Stage 1.5 boot loader is read into memory by the Stage 1 boot loader, if necessary. Some
hardware requires an intermediate step to get to the Stage 2 boot loader. T his is sometimes true
when the /boot/ partition is above the 1024 cylinder head of the hard drive or when using LBA
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mode. T he Stage 1.5 boot loader is found either on the /boot/ partition or on a small part of the
MBR and the /boot/ partition.
3. The Stage 2 or secondary boot loader is read into memory. T he secondary boot loader displays
the GRUB menu and command environment. T his interface allows the user to select which kernel
or operating system to boot, pass arguments to the kernel, or look at system parameters.
4. The secondary boot loader reads the operating system or kernel as well as the contents of
/boot/sysroot/ into memory. Once GRUB determines which operating system or kernel to start,
it loads it into memory and transfers control of the machine to that operating system.
T he method used to boot Linux is called direct loading because the boot loader loads the operating
system directly. T here is no intermediary between the boot loader and the kernel.
T he boot process used by other operating systems may differ. For example, the Microsoft® Windows®
operating system, as well as other operating systems, are loaded using chain loading. Under this
method, the MBR points to the first sector of the partition holding the operating system, where it finds the
files necessary to actually boot that operating system.
GRUB supports both direct and chain loading boot methods, allowing it to boot almost any operating
system.
Warning
During installation, Microsoft's DOS and Windows installation programs completely overwrite the
MBR, destroying any existing boot loaders. If creating a dual-boot system, it is best to install the
Microsoft operating system first.
E.2.2. GRUB and the boot process on UEFI-based x86 systems
T his section describes the specific role GRUB plays when booting a UEFI-based x86 system. For a look
at the overall boot process, refer to Section F.2, “A Detailed Look at the Boot Process”.
GRUB loads itself into memory in the following stages:
1. T he UEFI-based platform reads the partition table on the system storage and mounts the EFI
System Partition (ESP), a VFAT partition labeled with a particular globally unique identifier (GUID).
T he ESP contains EFI applications such as bootloaders and utility software, stored in directories
specific to software vendors. Viewed from within the Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 file system, the
ESP is /boot/efi/, and EFI software provided by Red Hat is stored in
/boot/efi/EFI/redhat/.
2. T he /boot/efi/EFI/redhat/ directory contains grub.efi, a version of GRUB compiled for the
EFI firmware architecture as an EFI application. In the simplest case, the EFI boot manager selects
grub.efi as the default bootloader and reads it into memory.
If the ESP contains other EFI applications, the EFI boot manager might prompt you to select an
application to run, rather than load grub.efi automatically.
3. GRUB determines which operating system or kernel to start, loads it into memory, and transfers
control of the machine to that operating system.
Because each vendor maintains its own directory of applications in the ESP, chain loading is not
normally necessary on UEFI-based systems. T he EFI boot manager can load any of the operating
system bootloaders that are present in the ESP.
E.2.3. Features of GRUB
GRUB contains several features that make it preferable to other boot loaders available for the x86
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The GRUB Boot Loader
architecture. Below is a partial list of some of the more important features:
GRUB provides a true command-based, pre-OS environment on x86 machines. T his feature affords
the user maximum flexibility in loading operating systems with specified options or gathering
information about the system. For years, many non-x86 architectures have employed pre-OS
environments that allow system booting from a command line.
GRUB supports Logical Block Addressing (LBA) mode. LBA places the addressing conversion used
to find files in the hard drive's firmware, and is used on many IDE and all SCSI hard devices. Before
LBA, boot loaders could encounter the 1024-cylinder BIOS limitation, where the BIOS could not find a
file after the 1024 cylinder head of the disk. LBA support allows GRUB to boot operating systems
from partitions beyond the 1024-cylinder limit, so long as the system BIOS supports LBA mode. Most
modern BIOS revisions support LBA mode.
GRUB can read ext2 partitions. T his functionality allows GRUB to access its configuration file,
/boot/grub/grub.conf, every time the system boots, eliminating the need for the user to write a
new version of the first stage boot loader to the MBR when configuration changes are made. T he
only time a user needs to reinstall GRUB on the MBR is if the physical location of the /boot/
partition is moved on the disk. For details on installing GRUB to the MBR, refer to Section E.3,
“Installing GRUB”.
E.3. Installing GRUB
If GRUB was not installed during the installation process, it can be installed afterward. Once installed, it
automatically becomes the default boot loader.
Before installing GRUB, make sure to use the latest GRUB package available or use the GRUB package
from the installation DVD. For instructions on installing packages, refer to the chapter titled Package
Management with RPM in the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Deployment Guide.
Once the GRUB package is installed, open a root shell prompt and run the command /sbin/grubinstall <location>, where <location> is the location that the GRUB Stage 1 boot loader should be
installed. For example, the following command installs GRUB to the MBR of the master IDE device on the
primary IDE bus:
/sbin/grub-install /dev/hda
T he next time the system boots, the GRUB graphical boot loader menu appears before the kernel loads
into memory.
Important — GRUB and RAID
GRUB cannot construct a software RAID. T herefore, the /boot directory must reside on a single,
specific disk partition. T he /boot directory cannot be striped across multiple disks, as in a level
0 RAID. T o use a level 0 RAID on your system, place /boot on a separate partition outside the
RAID.
Similarly, because the /boot directory must reside on a single, specific disk partition, GRUB
cannot boot the system if the disk holding that partition fails or is removed from the system. T his
is true even if the disk is mirrored in a level 1 RAID. T he following Red Hat Knowledgebase article
describes how to make the system bootable from another disk in the mirrored set:
http://kbase.redhat.com/faq/docs/DOC-7095
Note that these issues apply only to RAID that is implemented in software, where the individual
disks that make up the array are still visible as individual disks on the system. T hese issues do
not apply to hardware RAID where multiple disks are represented as a single device.
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E.4 . GRUB T erminology
One of the most important things to understand before using GRUB is how the program refers to
devices, such as hard drives and partitions. T his information is particularly important when configuring
GRUB to boot multiple operating systems.
E.4 .1. Device Names
When referring to a specific device with GRUB, do so using the following format (note that the
parentheses and comma are very important syntactically):
(<type-of-device><bios-device-number>,<partition-number>)
T he <type-of-device> specifies the type of device from which GRUB boots. T he two most common
options are hd for a hard disk or fd for a 3.5 diskette. A lesser used device type is also available called
nd for a network disk. Instructions on configuring GRUB to boot over the network are available online at
http://www.gnu.org/software/grub/manual/.
T he <bios-device-number> is the BIOS device number. T he primary IDE hard drive is numbered 0 and
a secondary IDE hard drive is numbered 1. T his syntax is roughly equivalent to that used for devices by
the kernel. For example, the a in hda for the kernel is analogous to the 0 in hd0 for GRUB, the b in hdb
is analogous to the 1 in hd1, and so on.
T he <partition-number> specifies the number of a partition on a device. Like the <bios-devicenumber>, most types of partitions are numbered starting at 0. However, BSD partitions are specified
using letters, with a corresponding to 0, b corresponding to 1, and so on.
Note
T he numbering system for devices under GRUB always begins with 0, not 1. Failing to make this
distinction is one of the most common mistakes made by new users.
T o give an example, if a system has more than one hard drive, GRUB refers to the first hard drive as
(hd0) and the second as (hd1). Likewise, GRUB refers to the first partition on the first drive as
(hd0,0) and the third partition on the second hard drive as (hd1,2).
In general the following rules apply when naming devices and partitions under GRUB:
It does not matter if system hard drives are IDE or SCSI, all hard drives begin with the letters hd. T he
letters fd are used to specify 3.5 diskettes.
T o specify an entire device without respect to partitions, leave off the comma and the partition
number. T his is important when telling GRUB to configure the MBR for a particular disk. For example,
(hd0) specifies the MBR on the first device and (hd3) specifies the MBR on the fourth device.
If a system has multiple drive devices, it is very important to know how the drive boot order is set in
the BIOS. T his is a simple task if a system has only IDE or SCSI drives, but if there is a mix of
devices, it becomes critical that the type of drive with the boot partition be accessed first.
E.4 .2. File Names and Blocklists
When typing commands to GRUB that reference a file, such as a menu list, it is necessary to specify an
absolute file path immediately after the device and partition numbers.
T he following illustrates the structure of such a command:
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The GRUB Boot Loader
(<device-type><device-number>,<partition-number>)</path/to/file>
In this example, replace <device-type> with hd, fd, or nd. Replace <device-number> with the integer
for the device. Replace </path/to/file> with an absolute path relative to the top-level of the device.
It is also possible to specify files to GRUB that do not actually appear in the file system, such as a chain
loader that appears in the first few blocks of a partition. T o load such files, provide a blocklist that
specifies block by block where the file is located in the partition. Since a file is often comprised of several
different sets of blocks, blocklists use a special syntax. Each block containing the file is specified by an
offset number of blocks, followed by the number of blocks from that offset point. Block offsets are listed
sequentially in a comma-delimited list.
T he following is a sample blocklist:
0+50,100+25,200+1
T his sample blocklist specifies a file that starts at the first block on the partition and uses blocks 0
through 49, 100 through 124, and 200.
Knowing how to write blocklists is useful when using GRUB to load operating systems which require
chain loading. It is possible to leave off the offset number of blocks if starting at block 0. As an example,
the chain loading file in the first partition of the first hard drive would have the following name:
(hd0,0)+1
T he following shows the chainloader command with a similar blocklist designation at the GRUB
command line after setting the correct device and partition as root:
chainloader +1
E.4 .3. T he Root File System and GRUB
T he use of the term root file system has a different meaning in regard to GRUB. It is important to
remember that GRUB's root file system has nothing to do with the Linux root file system.
T he GRUB root file system is the top level of the specified device. For example, the image file
(hd0,0)/grub/splash.xpm .gz is located within the /grub/ directory at the top-level (or root) of the
(hd0,0) partition (which is actually the /boot/ partition for the system).
Next, the kernel command is executed with the location of the kernel file as an option. Once the Linux
kernel boots, it sets up the root file system that Linux users are familiar with. T he original GRUB root file
system and its mounts are forgotten; they only existed to boot the kernel file.
Refer to the root and kernel commands in Section E.6, “GRUB Commands” for more information.
E.5. GRUB Interfaces
GRUB features three interfaces which provide different levels of functionality. Each of these interfaces
allows users to boot the Linux kernel or another operating system.
T he interfaces are as follows:
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Note
T he following GRUB interfaces can only be accessed by pressing any key within the three
seconds of the GRUB menu bypass screen.
Menu Interface
T his is the default interface shown when GRUB is configured by the installation program. A
menu of operating systems or preconfigured kernels are displayed as a list, ordered by name.
Use the arrow keys to select an operating system or kernel version and press the Enter key
to boot it. If you do nothing on this screen, then after the time out period expires GRUB will load
the default option.
Press the e key to enter the entry editor interface or the c key to load a command line interface.
Refer to Section E.7, “GRUB Menu Configuration File” for more information on configuring this
interface.
Menu Entry Editor Interface
T o access the menu entry editor, press the e key from the boot loader menu. T he GRUB
commands for that entry are displayed here, and users may alter these command lines before
booting the operating system by adding a command line (o inserts a new line after the current
line and O inserts a new line before it), editing one (e), or deleting one (d).
After all changes are made, the b key executes the commands and boots the operating system.
T he Esc key discards any changes and reloads the standard menu interface. T he c key loads
the command line interface.
Note
For information about changing runlevels using the GRUB menu entry editor, refer to
Section E.8, “Changing Runlevels at Boot T ime”.
Command Line Interface
T he command line interface is the most basic GRUB interface, but it is also the one that grants
the most control. T he command line makes it possible to type any relevant GRUB commands
followed by the Enter key to execute them. T his interface features some advanced shell-like
features, including T ab key completion based on context, and Ctrl key combinations when
typing commands, such as Ctrl+a to move to the beginning of a line and Ctrl+e to move to
the end of a line. In addition, the arrow, Hom e, End, and Delete keys work as they do in the
bash shell.
Refer to Section E.6, “GRUB Commands” for a list of common commands.
E.5.1. Interfaces Load Order
When GRUB loads its second stage boot loader, it first searches for its configuration file. Once found,
the menu interface bypass screen is displayed. If a key is pressed within three seconds, GRUB builds a
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The GRUB Boot Loader
menu list and displays the menu interface. If no key is pressed, the default kernel entry in the GRUB
menu is used.
If the configuration file cannot be found, or if the configuration file is unreadable, GRUB loads the
command line interface, allowing the user to type commands to complete the boot process.
If the configuration file is not valid, GRUB prints out the error and asks for input. T his helps the user see
precisely where the problem occurred. Pressing any key reloads the menu interface, where it is then
possible to edit the menu option and correct the problem based on the error reported by GRUB. If the
correction fails, GRUB reports an error and reloads the menu interface.
E.6. GRUB Commands
GRUB allows a number of useful commands in its command line interface. Some of the commands
accept options after their name; these options should be separated from the command and other options
on that line by space characters.
T he following is a list of useful commands:
boot — Boots the operating system or chain loader that was last loaded.
chainloader </path/to/file> — Loads the specified file as a chain loader. If the file is located
on the first sector of the specified partition, use the blocklist notation, +1, instead of the file name.
T he following is an example chainloader command:
chainloader +1
displaym em — Displays the current use of memory, based on information from the BIOS. T his is
useful to determine how much RAM a system has prior to booting it.
initrd </path/to/initrd> — Enables users to specify an initial RAM disk to use when booting.
An initrd is necessary when the kernel needs certain modules in order to boot properly, such as
when the root partition is formatted with the ext3 or ext4 file system.
T he following is an example initrd command:
initrd /initrd-2.6.8-1.523.img
install <stage-1> <install-disk> <stage-2> p config-file — Installs GRUB to the
system MBR.
<stage-1> — Signifies a device, partition, and file where the first boot loader image can be found,
such as (hd0,0)/grub/stage1.
<install-disk> — Specifies the disk where the stage 1 boot loader should be installed, such
as (hd0).
<stage-2> — Passes the stage 2 boot loader location to the stage 1 boot loader, such as
(hd0,0)/grub/stage2.
p <config-file> — T his option tells the install command to look for the menu configuration
file specified by <config-file>, such as (hd0,0)/grub/grub.conf.
Warning
T he install command overwrites any information already located on the MBR.
kernel </path/to/kernel> <option-1> <option-N> ... — Specifies the kernel file to load when
booting the operating system. Replace </path/to/kernel> with an absolute path from the partition
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specified by the root command. Replace <option-1> with options for the Linux kernel, such as
root=/dev/VolGroup00/LogVol00 to specify the device on which the root partition for the
system is located. Multiple options can be passed to the kernel in a space separated list.
T he following is an example kernel command:
kernel /vmlinuz-2.6.8-1.523 ro root=/dev/VolGroup00/LogVol00
T he option in the previous example specifies that the root file system for Linux is located on the
hda5 partition.
root (<device-type><device-number>,<partition>) — Configures the root partition for
GRUB, such as (hd0,0), and mounts the partition.
T he following is an example root command:
root (hd0,0)
rootnoverify (<device-type><device-number>,<partition>) — Configures the root
partition for GRUB, just like the root command, but does not mount the partition.
Other commands are also available; type help --all for a full list of commands. For a description of all
GRUB commands, refer to the documentation available online at
http://www.gnu.org/software/grub/manual/.
E.7. GRUB Menu Configuration File
T he configuration file (/boot/grub/grub.conf), which is used to create the list of operating systems
to boot in GRUB's menu interface, essentially allows the user to select a pre-set group of commands to
execute. T he commands given in Section E.6, “GRUB Commands” can be used, as well as some special
commands that are only available in the configuration file.
E.7.1. Configuration File Structure
T he GRUB menu interface configuration file is /boot/grub/grub.conf. T he commands to set the
global preferences for the menu interface are placed at the top of the file, followed by stanzas for each
operating kernel or operating system listed in the menu.
T he following is a very basic GRUB menu configuration file designed to boot either Red Hat Enterprise
Linux or Microsoft Windows Vista:
default=0
timeout=10
splashimage=(hd0,0)/grub/splash.xpm.gz
hiddenmenu
title Red Hat Enterprise Linux Server (2.6.32.130.el6.i686)
root (hd0,0)
kernel /boot/vmlinuz-2.6.32.130.el6.i686 ro root=LABEL=/1 rhgb quiet
initrd /boot/initrd-2.6.32.130.el6.i686.img
# section to load Windows
title Windows
rootnoverify (hd0,0)
chainloader +1
T his file configures GRUB to build a menu with Red Hat Enterprise Linux as the default operating system
and sets it to autoboot after 10 seconds. T wo sections are given, one for each operating system entry,
with commands specific to the system disk partition table.
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The GRUB Boot Loader
Note
Note that the default is specified as an integer. T his refers to the first title line in the GRUB
configuration file. For the Windows section to be set as the default in the previous example,
change the default=0 to default=1.
Configuring a GRUB menu configuration file to boot multiple operating systems is beyond the scope of
this chapter. Consult Section E.9, “Additional Resources” for a list of additional resources.
E.7.2. Configuration File Directives
T he following are directives commonly used in the GRUB menu configuration file:
chainloader </path/to/file> — Loads the specified file as a chain loader. Replace
</path/to/file> with the absolute path to the chain loader. If the file is located on the first sector
of the specified partition, use the blocklist notation, +1.
color <normal-color> <selected-color> — Allows specific colors to be used in the menu,
where two colors are configured as the foreground and background. Use simple color names such
as red/black. For example:
color red/black green/blue
default=<integer> — Replace <integer> with the default entry title number to be loaded if the
menu interface times out.
fallback=<integer> — Replace <integer> with the entry title number to try if the first attempt
fails.
hiddenm enu — Prevents the GRUB menu interface from being displayed, loading the default
entry when the tim eout period expires. T he user can see the standard GRUB menu by pressing
the Esc key.
initrd </path/to/initrd> — Enables users to specify an initial RAM disk to use when booting.
Replace </path/to/initrd> with the absolute path to the initial RAM disk.
kernel </path/to/kernel> <option-1> <option-N> — Specifies the kernel file to load when
booting the operating system. Replace </path/to/kernel> with an absolute path from the partition
specified by the root directive. Multiple options can be passed to the kernel when it is loaded.
T hese options include:
rhgb (Red Hat graphical boot) — displays an animation during the boot process, rather than
lines of text.
quiet — suppresses all but the most important messages in the part of the boot sequence
before the Red Hat graphical boot animation begins.
password=<password> — Prevents a user who does not know the password from editing the
entries for this menu option.
Optionally, it is possible to specify an alternate menu configuration file after the
password=<password> directive. In this case, GRUB restarts the second stage boot loader and
uses the specified alternate configuration file to build the menu. If an alternate menu configuration file
is left out of the command, a user who knows the password is allowed to edit the current
configuration file.
For more information about securing GRUB, refer to the chapter titled Workstation Security in the Red
Hat Enterprise Linux Security Guide.
m ap — Swaps the numbers assigned to two hard drives. For example:
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503
map (hd0) (hd3)
map (hd3) (hd0)
assigns the number 0 to the fourth hard drive, and the number 3 to the first hard drive. T his option is
especially useful if you configure your system with an option to boot a Windows operating system,
because the Windows boot loader must find the Windows installation on the first hard drive.
For example, if your Windows installation is on the fourth hard drive, the following entry in
grub.conf will allow the Windows boot loader to load Windows correctly:
title Windows
map (hd0) (hd3)
map (hd3) (hd0)
rootnoverify (hd3,0)
chainloader +1
root (<device-type><device-number>,<partition>) — Configures the root partition for
GRUB, such as (hd0,0), and mounts the partition.
rootnoverify (<device-type><device-number>,<partition>) — Configures the root
partition for GRUB, just like the root command, but does not mount the partition.
tim eout=<integer> — Specifies the interval, in seconds, that GRUB waits before loading the entry
designated in the default command.
splashim age=<path-to-image> — Specifies the location of the splash screen image to be used
when GRUB boots.
title group-title — Specifies a title to be used with a particular group of commands used to
load a kernel or operating system.
T o add human-readable comments to the menu configuration file, begin the line with the hash mark
character (#).
E.8. Changing Runlevels at Boot T ime
Under Red Hat Enterprise Linux, it is possible to change the default runlevel at boot time.
T o change the runlevel of a single boot session, use the following instructions:
When the GRUB menu bypass screen appears at boot time, press any key to enter the GRUB menu
(within the first three seconds).
Press the a key to append to the kernel command.
Add <space><runlevel> at the end of the boot options line to boot to the desired runlevel. For
example, the following entry would initiate a boot process into runlevel 3:
grub append> ro root=/dev/VolGroup00/LogVol00 rhgb quiet 3
E.9. Additional Resources
T his chapter is only intended as an introduction to GRUB. Consult the following resources to discover
more about how GRUB works.
E.9.1. Installed Documentation
/usr/share/doc/grub-<version-number>/ — T his directory contains good information about
using and configuring GRUB, where <version-number> corresponds to the version of the GRUB
package installed.
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The GRUB Boot Loader
info grub — T he GRUB info page contains a tutorial, a user reference manual, a programmer
reference manual, and a FAQ document about GRUB and its usage.
E.9.2. Useful Websites
http://www.gnu.org/software/grub/ — T he home page of the GNU GRUB project. T his site contains
information concerning the state of GRUB development and an FAQ.
http://kbase.redhat.com/faq/docs/DOC-6864 — Details booting operating systems other than Linux.
[14]Fo r mo re o n the s ys tem BIO S and the MBR, refer to Sec tio n F.2.1.1, “ BIO S-b as ed x8 6 s ys tems ” .
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Boot Process, Init, and Shutdown
An important and powerful aspect of Red Hat Enterprise Linux is the open, user-configurable method it
uses for starting the operating system. Users are free to configure many aspects of the boot process,
including specifying the programs launched at boot-time. Similarly, system shutdown gracefully
terminates processes in an organized and configurable way, although customization of this process is
rarely required.
Understanding how the boot and shutdown processes work not only allows customization, but also
makes it easier to troubleshoot problems related to starting or shutting down the system.
F.1. T he Boot Process
Below are the basic stages of the boot process:
1. T he system loads and runs a boot loader. T he specifics of this process depend on the system
architecture. For example:
BIOS-based x86 systems run a first-stage boot loader from the MBR of the primary hard disk
that, in turn, loads an additional boot loader, GRUB.
UEFI-based x86 systems mount an EFI System Partition that contains a version of the GRUB
boot loader. T he EFI boot manager loads and runs GRUB as an EFI application.
POWER systems mount a PPC PReP partition that contains the Yaboot boot loader. T he
System Management Services (SMS) boot manager loads and runs yaboot.
IBM System z runs the z/IPL boot loader from a DASD or FCP-connected device that you
specify when you IPL the partition that contains Red Hat Enterprise Linux.
2. T he boot loader loads the kernel into memory, which in turn loads any necessary modules and
mounts the root partition read-only.
3. T he kernel transfers control of the boot process to the /sbin/init program.
4. T he /sbin/init program loads all services and user-space tools, and mounts all partitions
listed in /etc/fstab.
5. T he user is presented with a login screen for the freshly booted Linux system.
Because configuration of the boot process is more common than the customization of the shutdown
process, the remainder of this chapter discusses in detail how the boot process works and how it can
be customized to suite specific needs.
F.2. A Detailed Look at the Boot Process
T he beginning of the boot process varies depending on the hardware platform being used. However,
once the kernel is found and loaded by the boot loader, the default boot process is identical across all
architectures. T his chapter focuses primarily on the x86 architecture.
F.2.1. T he firmware interface
F.2.1.1. BIOS-based x86 systems
T he Basic Input/Output System (BIOS) is a firmware interface that controls not only the first step of the
boot process, but also provides the lowest level interface to peripheral devices. On x86 systems
equipped with BIOS, the program is written into read-only, permanent memory and is always available for
use. When the system boots, the processor looks at the end of system memory for the BIOS program,
and runs it.
Once loaded, the BIOS tests the system, looks for and checks peripherals, and then locates a valid
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Boot Process, Init, and Shutdown
device with which to boot the system. Usually, it checks any optical drives or USB storage devices
present for bootable media, then, failing that, looks to the system's hard drives. In most cases, the order
of the drives searched while booting is controlled with a setting in the BIOS, and it looks on the master
IDE on the primary IDE bus or for a SAT A device with a boot flag set. T he BIOS then loads into memory
whatever program is residing in the first sector of this device, called the Master Boot Record (MBR). T he
MBR is only 512 bytes in size and contains machine code instructions for booting the machine, called a
boot loader, along with the partition table. Once the BIOS finds and loads the boot loader program into
memory, it yields control of the boot process to it.
T his first-stage boot loader is a small machine code binary on the MBR. Its sole job is to locate the
second stage boot loader (GRUB) and load the first part of it into memory.
F.2.1.2. UEFI-based x86 systems
T he Unified Extensible Firmware Interface (UEFI) is designed, like BIOS, to control the boot process
(through boot services) and to provide an interface between system firmware and an operating system
(through runtime services). Unlike BIOS, it features its own architecture, independent of the CPU, and its
own device drivers. UEFI can mount partitions and read certain file systems.
When an x86 computer equipped with UEFI boots, the interface searches the system storage for a
partition labeled with a specific globally unique identifier (GUID) that marks it as the EFI System Partition
(ESP). T his partition contains applications compiled for the EFI architecture, which might include
bootloaders for operating systems and utility software. UEFI systems include an EFI boot manager that
can boot the system from a default configuration, or prompt a user to choose an operating system to
boot. When a bootloader is selected, manually or automatically, UEFI reads it into memory and yields
control of the boot process to it.
F.2.2. T he Boot Loader
F.2.2.1. T he GRUB boot loader for x86 systems
T he system loads GRUB into memory, as directed by either a first-stage bootloader in the case of
systems equipped with BIOS, or read directly from an EFI System Partition in the case of systems
equipped with UEFI.
GRUB has the advantage of being able to read ext2, ext3, and ext4 [15 ] partitions and load its
configuration file — /boot/grub/grub.conf (for BIOS) or /boot/efi/EFI/redhat/grub.conf
(for UEFI) — at boot time. Refer to Section E.7, “GRUB Menu Configuration File” for information on how to
edit this file.
Important — Supported file systems
T he GRUB bootloader in Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 supports ext2, ext3, and ext4 file systems. It
does not support other file systems such as VFAT , Btrfs or XFS. Furthermore, GRUB does not
support LVM.
Once the second stage boot loader is in memory, it presents the user with a graphical screen showing
the different operating systems or kernels it has been configured to boot (when you update the kernel,
the boot loader configuration file is updated automatically). On this screen a user can use the arrow
keys to choose which operating system or kernel they wish to boot and press Enter. If no key is
pressed, the boot loader loads the default selection after a configurable period of time has passed.
Once the second stage boot loader has determined which kernel to boot, it locates the corresponding
kernel binary in the /boot/ directory. T he kernel binary is named using the following format —
/boot/vm linuz-<kernel-version> file (where <kernel-version> corresponds to the kernel
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507
version specified in the boot loader's settings).
For instructions on using the boot loader to supply command line arguments to the kernel, refer to
Appendix E, The GRUB Boot Loader. For information on changing the runlevel at the boot loader prompt,
refer Section E.8, “Changing Runlevels at Boot T ime”.
T he boot loader then places one or more appropriate initramfs images into memory. T he initram fs is
used by the kernel to load drivers and modules necessary to boot the system. T his is particularly
important if SCSI hard drives are present or if the systems use the ext3 or ext4 file system.
Once the kernel and the initram fs image(s) are loaded into memory, the boot loader hands control of
the boot process to the kernel.
For a more detailed overview of the GRUB boot loader, refer to Appendix E, The GRUB Boot Loader.
F.2.2.2. Boot Loaders for Other Architectures
Once the kernel loads and hands off the boot process to the init command, the same sequence of
events occurs on every architecture. So the main difference between each architecture's boot process is
in the application used to find and load the kernel.
For example, the IBM eServer pSeries architecture uses yaboot, and the IBM System z systems use the
z/IPL boot loader.
Consult the sections of this guide specific to these platforms for information on configuring their boot
loaders.
F.2.3. T he Kernel
When the kernel is loaded, it immediately initializes and configures the computer's memory and
configures the various hardware attached to the system, including all processors, I/O subsystems, and
storage devices. It then looks for the compressed initram fs image(s) in a predetermined location in
memory, decompresses it directly to /sysroot/, and loads all necessary drivers. Next, it initializes
virtual devices related to the file system, such as LVM or software RAID, before completing the
initram fs processes and freeing up all the memory the disk image once occupied.
T he kernel then creates a root device, mounts the root partition read-only, and frees any unused
memory.
At this point, the kernel is loaded into memory and operational. However, since there are no user
applications that allow meaningful input to the system, not much can be done with the system.
T o set up the user environment, the kernel executes the /sbin/init program.
F.2.4 . T he /sbin/init Program
T he /sbin/init program (also called init) coordinates the rest of the boot process and configures
the environment for the user.
When the init command starts, it becomes the parent or grandparent of all of the processes that start
up automatically on the system. First, it runs the /etc/rc.d/rc.sysinit script, which sets the
environment path, starts swap, checks the file systems, and executes all other steps required for system
initialization. For example, most systems use a clock, so rc.sysinit reads the
/etc/sysconfig/clock configuration file to initialize the hardware clock. Another example is if there
are special serial port processes which must be initialized, rc.sysinit executes the
/etc/rc.serial file.
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Boot Process, Init, and Shutdown
T he init command then processes the jobs in the /etc/event.d directory, which describe how the
system should be set up in each SysV init runlevel. Runlevels are a state, or mode, defined by the
services listed in the SysV /etc/rc.d/rc<x>.d/ directory, where <x> is the number of the runlevel.
For more information on SysV init runlevels, refer to Section F.4, “SysV Init Runlevels”.
Next, the init command sets the source function library, /etc/rc.d/init.d/functions, for the
system, which configures how to start, kill, and determine the PID of a program.
T he init program starts all of the background processes by looking in the appropriate rc directory for
the runlevel specified as the default in /etc/inittab. T he rc directories are numbered to correspond
to the runlevel they represent. For instance, /etc/rc.d/rc5.d/ is the directory for runlevel 5.
When booting to runlevel 5, the init program looks in the /etc/rc.d/rc5.d/ directory to determine
which processes to start and stop.
Below is an example listing of the /etc/rc.d/rc5.d/ directory:
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 Installation Guide
K05innd -> ../init.d/innd
K05saslauthd -> ../init.d/saslauthd
K10dc_server -> ../init.d/dc_server
K10psacct -> ../init.d/psacct
K10radiusd -> ../init.d/radiusd
K12dc_client -> ../init.d/dc_client
K12FreeWnn -> ../init.d/FreeWnn
K12mailman -> ../init.d/mailman
K12mysqld -> ../init.d/mysqld
K15httpd -> ../init.d/httpd
K20netdump-server -> ../init.d/netdump-server
K20rstatd -> ../init.d/rstatd
K20rusersd -> ../init.d/rusersd
K20rwhod -> ../init.d/rwhod
K24irda -> ../init.d/irda
K25squid -> ../init.d/squid
K28amd -> ../init.d/amd
K30spamassassin -> ../init.d/spamassassin
K34dhcrelay -> ../init.d/dhcrelay
K34yppasswdd -> ../init.d/yppasswdd
K35dhcpd -> ../init.d/dhcpd
K35smb -> ../init.d/smb
K35vncserver -> ../init.d/vncserver
K36lisa -> ../init.d/lisa
K45arpwatch -> ../init.d/arpwatch
K45named -> ../init.d/named
K46radvd -> ../init.d/radvd
K50netdump -> ../init.d/netdump
K50snmpd -> ../init.d/snmpd
K50snmptrapd -> ../init.d/snmptrapd
K50tux -> ../init.d/tux
K50vsftpd -> ../init.d/vsftpd
K54dovecot -> ../init.d/dovecot
K61ldap -> ../init.d/ldap
K65kadmin -> ../init.d/kadmin
K65kprop -> ../init.d/kprop
K65krb524 -> ../init.d/krb524
K65krb5kdc -> ../init.d/krb5kdc
K70aep1000 -> ../init.d/aep1000
K70bcm5820 -> ../init.d/bcm5820
K74ypserv -> ../init.d/ypserv
K74ypxfrd -> ../init.d/ypxfrd
K85mdmpd -> ../init.d/mdmpd
K89netplugd -> ../init.d/netplugd
K99microcode_ctl -> ../init.d/microcode_ctl
S04readahead_early -> ../init.d/readahead_early
S05kudzu -> ../init.d/kudzu
S06cpuspeed -> ../init.d/cpuspeed
S08ip6tables -> ../init.d/ip6tables
S08iptables -> ../init.d/iptables
S09isdn -> ../init.d/isdn
S10network -> ../init.d/network
S12syslog -> ../init.d/syslog
S13irqbalance -> ../init.d/irqbalance
S13portmap -> ../init.d/portmap
S15mdmonitor -> ../init.d/mdmonitor
S15zebra -> ../init.d/zebra
S16bgpd -> ../init.d/bgpd
S16ospf6d -> ../init.d/ospf6d
S16ospfd -> ../init.d/ospfd
S16ripd -> ../init.d/ripd
S16ripngd -> ../init.d/ripngd
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Boot Process, Init, and Shutdown
S20random -> ../init.d/random
S24pcmcia -> ../init.d/pcmcia
S25netfs -> ../init.d/netfs
S26apmd -> ../init.d/apmd
S27ypbind -> ../init.d/ypbind
S28autofs -> ../init.d/autofs
S40smartd -> ../init.d/smartd
S44acpid -> ../init.d/acpid
S54hpoj -> ../init.d/hpoj
S55cups -> ../init.d/cups
S55sshd -> ../init.d/sshd
S56rawdevices -> ../init.d/rawdevices
S56xinetd -> ../init.d/xinetd
S58ntpd -> ../init.d/ntpd
S75postgresql -> ../init.d/postgresql
S80sendmail -> ../init.d/sendmail
S85gpm -> ../init.d/gpm
S87iiim -> ../init.d/iiim
S90canna -> ../init.d/canna
S90crond -> ../init.d/crond
S90xfs -> ../init.d/xfs
S95atd -> ../init.d/atd
S96readahead -> ../init.d/readahead
S97messagebus -> ../init.d/messagebus
S97rhnsd -> ../init.d/rhnsd
S99local -> ../rc.local
As illustrated in this listing, none of the scripts that actually start and stop the services are located in the
/etc/rc.d/rc5.d/ directory. Rather, all of the files in /etc/rc.d/rc5.d/ are symbolic links pointing
to scripts located in the /etc/rc.d/init.d/ directory. Symbolic links are used in each of the rc
directories so that the runlevels can be reconfigured by creating, modifying, and deleting the symbolic
links without affecting the actual scripts they reference.
T he name of each symbolic link begins with either a K or an S. T he K links are processes that are killed
on that runlevel, while those beginning with an S are started.
T he init command first stops all of the K symbolic links in the directory by issuing the
/etc/rc.d/init.d/<command> stop command, where <command> is the process to be killed. It then
starts all of the S symbolic links by issuing /etc/rc.d/init.d/<command> start.
Note
After the system is finished booting, it is possible to log in as root and execute these same
scripts to start and stop services. For instance, the command /etc/rc.d/init.d/httpd
stop stops the Apache HT T P Server.
Each of the symbolic links are numbered to dictate start order. T he order in which the services are
started or stopped can be altered by changing this number. T he lower the number, the earlier it is
started. Symbolic links with the same number are started alphabetically.
Note
One of the last things the init program executes is the /etc/rc.d/rc.local file. T his file is
useful for system customization. Refer to Section F.3, “Running Additional Programs at Boot
T ime” for more information about using the rc.local file.
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 Installation Guide
511
After the init command has progressed through the appropriate rc directory for the runlevel, Upstart
forks an /sbin/m ingetty process for each virtual console (login prompt) allocated to the runlevel by
the job definition in the /etc/event.d directory. Runlevels 2 through 5 have all six virtual consoles,
while runlevel 1 (single user mode) has one, and runlevels 0 and 6 have none. T he /sbin/m ingetty
process opens communication pathways to tty devices [16 ], sets their modes, prints the login prompt,
accepts the user's username and password, and initiates the login process.
In runlevel 5, Upstart runs a script called /etc/X11/prefdm . T he prefdm script executes the
preferred X display manager[17 ] — gdm , kdm , or xdm , depending on the contents of the
/etc/sysconfig/desktop file.
Once finished, the system operates on runlevel 5 and displays a login screen.
F.2.5. Job definitions
Previously, the sysvinit package provided the init daemon for the default configuration. When the system
started, this init daemon ran the /etc/inittab script to start system processes defined for each
runlevel. T he default configuration now uses an event-driven init daemon provided by the Upstart
package. Whenever particular events occur, the init daemon processes jobs stored in the
/etc/event.d directory. T he init daemon recognizes the start of the system as such an event.
Each job typically specifies a program, and the events that trigger init to run or to stop the program.
Some jobs are constructed as tasks, which perform actions and then terminate until another event
triggers the job again. Other jobs are constructed as services, which init keeps running until another
event (or the user) stops it.
For example, the /etc/events.d/tty2 job is a service to maintain a virtual terminal on tty2 from the
time that the system starts until the system shuts down, or another event (such as a change in runlevel)
stops the job. T he job is constructed so that init will restart the virtual terminal if it stops unexpectedly
during that time:
# tty2 - getty
#
# This service maintains a getty on tty2 from the point the system is
# started until it is shut down again.
start
start
start
start
on
on
on
on
stopped
stopped
stopped
started
rc2
rc3
rc4
prefdm
stop on runlevel 0
stop on runlevel 1
stop on runlevel 6
respawn
exec /sbin/mingetty tty2
F.3. Running Additional Programs at Boot T ime
T he /etc/rc.d/rc.local script is executed by the init command at boot time or when changing
runlevels. Adding commands to the bottom of this script is an easy way to perform necessary tasks like
starting special services or initialize devices without writing complex initialization scripts in the
/etc/rc.d/init.d/ directory and creating symbolic links.
T he /etc/rc.serial script is used if serial ports must be setup at boot time. T his script runs
512
Boot Process, Init, and Shutdown
setserial commands to configure the system's serial ports. Refer to the setserial man page for
more information.
F.4 . SysV Init Runlevels
T he SysV init runlevel system provides a standard process for controlling which programs init
launches or halts when initializing a runlevel. SysV init was chosen because it is easier to use and more
flexible than the traditional BSD-style init process.
T he configuration files for SysV init are located in the /etc/rc.d/ directory. Within this directory, are
the rc, rc.local, rc.sysinit, and, optionally, the rc.serial scripts as well as the following
directories:
init.d/ rc0.d/ rc1.d/ rc2.d/ rc3.d/ rc4.d/ rc5.d/ rc6.d/
T he init.d/ directory contains the scripts used by the /sbin/init command when controlling
services. Each of the numbered directories represent the six runlevels configured by default under Red
Hat Enterprise Linux.
F.4 .1. Runlevels
T he idea behind SysV init runlevels revolves around the idea that different systems can be used in
different ways. For example, a server runs more efficiently without the drag on system resources created
by the X Window System. Or there may be times when a system administrator may need to operate the
system at a lower runlevel to perform diagnostic tasks, like fixing disk corruption in runlevel 1.
T he characteristics of a given runlevel determine which services are halted and started by init. For
instance, runlevel 1 (single user mode) halts any network services, while runlevel 3 starts these
services. By assigning specific services to be halted or started on a given runlevel, init can quickly
change the mode of the machine without the user manually stopping and starting services.
T he following runlevels are defined by default under Red Hat Enterprise Linux:
0 — Halt
1 — Single-user text mode
2 — Not used (user-definable)
3 — Full multi-user text mode
4 — Not used (user-definable)
5 — Full multi-user graphical mode (with an X-based login screen)
6 — Reboot
In general, users operate Red Hat Enterprise Linux at runlevel 3 or runlevel 5 — both full multi-user
modes. Users sometimes customize runlevels 2 and 4 to meet specific needs, since they are not used.
T he default runlevel for the system is listed in /etc/inittab. T o find out the default runlevel for a
system, look for the line similar to the following near the bottom of /etc/inittab:
id:5:initdefault:
T he default runlevel listed in this example is five, as the number after the first colon indicates. T o change
it, edit /etc/inittab as root.
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 Installation Guide
513
Warning
Be very careful when editing /etc/inittab. Simple typos can cause the system to become
unbootable. If this happens, either use a boot CD or DVD, enter single-user mode, or enter
rescue mode to boot the computer and repair the file.
For more information on single-user and rescue mode, refer to Chapter 36, Basic System
Recovery.
It is possible to change the default runlevel at boot time by modifying the arguments passed by the boot
loader to the kernel. For information on changing the runlevel at boot time, refer to Section E.8, “Changing
Runlevels at Boot T ime”.
F.4 .2. Runlevel Utilities
One of the best ways to configure runlevels is to use an initscript utility. T hese tools are designed to
simplify the task of maintaining files in the SysV init directory hierarchy and relieves system
administrators from having to directly manipulate the numerous symbolic links in the subdirectories of
/etc/rc.d/.
Red Hat Enterprise Linux provides three such utilities:
/sbin/chkconfig — T he /sbin/chkconfig utility is a simple command line tool for maintaining
the /etc/rc.d/init.d/ directory hierarchy.
/usr/sbin/ntsysv — T he ncurses-based /sbin/ntsysv utility provides an interactive text-based
interface, which some find easier to use than chkconfig.
Services Configuration T ool — T he graphical Services Configuration T ool (system config-services) program is a flexible utility for configuring runlevels.
Refer to the chapter titled Services and Daemons in the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Deployment Guide for
more information regarding these tools.
F.5. Shutting Down
T o shut down Red Hat Enterprise Linux, the root user may issue the /sbin/shutdown command. T he
shutdown man page has a complete list of options, but the two most common uses are:
/sbin/shutdown -h now
and
/sbin/shutdown -r now
After shutting everything down, the -h option halts the machine, and the -r option reboots.
PAM console users can use the reboot and halt commands to shut down the system while in
runlevels 1 through 5. For more information about PAM console users, refer to the Red Hat Enterprise
Linux Deployment Guide.
If the computer does not power itself down, be careful not to turn off the computer until a message
appears indicating that the system is halted.
Failure to wait for this message can mean that not all the hard drive partitions are unmounted, which can
lead to file system corruption.
514
Boot Process, Init, and Shutdown
[15]G RUB read s ext3 and ext4 file s ys tems as ext2, d is reg ard ing the jo urnal file.
[16 ]Refer to the Red Hat Enterp ris e Linux Dep lo yment G uid e fo r mo re info rmatio n ab o ut tty d evic es .
[17]Refer to the Red Hat Enterp ris e Linux Dep lo yment G uid e fo r mo re info rmatio n ab o ut d is p lay manag ers .
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 Installation Guide
515
Alternatives to busybox commands
Unlike previous releases of Red Hat Enterprise Linux, Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 does not include a
version of busybox to provide shell commands in the pre-installation and post-installation environments.
T able G.1, “Alternatives to busybox commands” contains a list of busybox commands, equivalent ways
to implement the same functionality in bash, and the availability of these alternatives in the %pre and
%post environments. T he table also indicates the exact path to the command, although you do not
generally need to specify the path because the PAT H environment variable is set in the installation
environment.
If a command is only available in %post, the command is running on the target system and its availability
therefore depends on whether the package that provides the command is installed. Every command that
appears in the "New command or alternative" column of T able G.1, “Alternatives to busybox commands”
is available for Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6, although not every command is available on every installed
system.
Where a command is listed as unavailable, you might be able to create equivalent functionality with a
Python script. T he Python language is available to %pre and %post script authors, complete with a set
of Python modules ready for use. T herefore, if a particular command is not available to you in the
installation environment, we recommend that you use Python as the script language.
516
Alternatives to busybox commands
T able G.1. Alternatives to busybox commands
Busybox command
%pre
%post
New command or alternative
addgroup
no
yes
/usr/sbin/groupadd
adduser
no
yes
/usr/sbin/useradd
adjtim ex
no
no
none
ar
no
yes
/usr/bin/ar
arping
yes
yes
/sbin/arping or
/usr/sbin/arping
ash
yes
yes
/bin/bash
awk
yes
yes
/sbin/awk, /sbin/gawk, or
/usr/bin/gawk [a ]
basenam e
yes
yes
/bin/bash [b ],
/usr/bin/basenam e
bbconfig
no
no
none — this command is a specific
to Busybox
bunzip2
yes
yes
/usr/bin/bunzip2,
/usr/bin/bzip2 -d
busybox
no
no
none
bzcat
yes
yes
/usr/bin/bzcat,
/usr/bin/bzip2 -dc
cal
no
yes
/usr/bin/cal
cat
yes
yes
/usr/bin/cat
catv
no
no
cat -vET or cat -A
chattr
yes
yes
/usr/bin/chattr
chgrp
yes
yes
/usr/bin/chgrp
chm od
yes
yes
/usr/bin/chm od
chown
yes
yes
/usr/bin/chown
chroot
yes
yes
/usr/sbin/chroot
chvt
yes
yes
/usr/bin/chvt
cksum
no
yes
/usr/bin/cksum
clear
yes
yes
/usr/bin/clear
cm p
no
yes
/usr/bin/cm p
com m
no
yes
/usr/bin/com m
cp
yes
yes
/usr/bin/cp
cpio
yes
yes
/usr/bin/cpio
crond
no
no
none — no daemons available to
scriptlets
crontab
no
yes
/usr/bin/crontab
cut
yes
yes
/usr/bin/cut
date
yes
yes
/usr/bin/date
dc
no
yes
/usr/bin/dc
dd
yes
yes
/usr/bin/dd
deallocvt
no
yes
/usr/bin/deallocvt
delgroup
no
yes
/usr/sbin/groupdel
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 Installation Guide
deluser
no
yes
/usr/sbin/userdel
devfsd
no
no
none — Red Hat Enterprise Linux
does not use devfs
df
yes
yes
/usr/bin/df
diff
no
yes
/usr/bin/diff
dirnam e
yes
yes
/bin/bash [c ],
/usr/bin/dirnam e
dm esg
yes
yes
/usr/bin/dm esg
dnsd
no
no
none — no daemons available to
scriptlets
dos2unix
no
no
sed 's/.$//'
dpkg
no
no
none — no support for Debian
packages
dpkg-deb
no
no
none — no support for Debian
packages
du
yes
yes
/usr/bin/du
dum pkm ap
no
no
none
dum pleases
no
no
none
e2fsck
yes
yes
/usr/sbin/e2fsck
e2label
yes
yes
/usr/sbin/e2label
echo
yes
yes
/usr/bin/echo
ed
no
no
/sbin/sed, /usr/bin/sed
egrep
yes
yes
/sbin/egrep, /usr/bin/egrep
eject
yes
yes
/usr/bin/eject
env
yes
yes
/usr/bin/env
ether-wake
no
no
none
expr
yes
yes
/usr/bin/expr
fakeidentd
no
no
none — no daemons available to
scriptlets
false
yes
yes
/usr/bin/false
fbset
no
yes
/usr/sbin/fbset
fdflush
no
no
none
fdform at
no
yes
/usr/bin/fdform at
fdisk
yes
yes
/usr/sbin/fdisk
fgrep
yes
yes
/sbin/fgrep, /usr/bin/fgrep
find
yes
yes
/usr/bin/find
findfs
no
no
none
fold
no
yes
/usr/bin/fold
free
no
yes
/usr/bin/free
freeram disk
no
no
none
fsck
yes
yes
/usr/sbin/fsck
fsck.ext2
yes
yes
/usr/sbin/fsck.ext2,
/usr/sbin/e2fsck
fsck.ext3
yes
yes
/usr/sbin/fsck.ext3,
/usr/sbin/e2fsck
517
518
Alternatives to busybox commands
fsck.m inix
no
no
none — no support for the Minix file
system
ftpget
yes
yes
/usr/bin/ftp or Python ftplib
module
ftpput
yes
yes
/usr/bin/ftp or Python ftplib
module
fuser
no
yes
/sbin/fuser
getopt
no
yes
/usr/bin/getopt
getty
no
no
none
grep
yes
yes
/sbin/grep, /usr/bin/grep
gunzip
yes
yes
/usr/bin/gunzip,
/usr/bin/gzip -d
gzip
yes
yes
/usr/bin/gzip
hdparm
yes
yes
/usr/sbin/hdparm
head
yes
yes
/usr/bin/head
hexdum p
no
yes
/usr/bin/hexdum p
hostid
no
yes
/usr/bin/hostid or Python
hostnam e
yes
yes
/sbin/hostnam e,
/usr/bin/hostnam e
httpd
no
no
none — no daemons available to
scriptlets
hush
no
no
none
hwclock
yes
yes
/usr/sbin/hwclock
id
no
yes
/usr/bin/id or Python
ifconfig
yes
yes
/sbin/ifconfig,
/usr/sbin/ifconfig
ifdown
no
no
ifconfig device down
ifup
no
no
ifconfig device up
inetd
no
no
none — no daemons available to
scriptlets
insm od
yes
yes
/sbin/insm od,
/usr/sbin/insm od
install
no
yes
/usr/bin/install or
m kdir/cp/chm od/chown/chgrp
ip
yes
yes
/sbin/ip, /usr/sbin/ip
ipaddr
no
no
ifconfig or ip
ipcalc
yes
yes
/sbin/ipcalc,
/usr/bin/ipcalc
ipcrm
no
yes
/usr/bin/ipcrm
ipcs
no
yes
/usr/bin/ipcs
iplink
no
no
ip
iproute
no
no
ip
iptunnel
no
yes
/sbin/iptunnel
kill
yes
yes
/sbin/kill, /usr/bin/kill
killall
yes
yes
/usr/bin/killall
lash
no
no
none
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 Installation Guide
last
no
yes
/usr/bin/last
length
no
no
Python or bash
less
yes
yes
/usr/bin/less
linux32
no
no
none
linux64
no
no
none
ln
yes
yes
/sbin/ln, /usr/bin/ln
load_policy
yes
yes
/sbin/load_policy,
/usr/sbin/load_policy
loadfont
no
no
none
loadkm ap
no
no
none
login
yes
yes
/usr/bin/login
lognam e
no
yes
/usr/bin/lognam e
losetup
yes
yes
/usr/bin/losetup
ls
yes
yes
/usr/bin/ls
lsattr
yes
yes
/usr/bin/lsattr
lsm od
yes
yes
/usr/bin/lsm od
lzm acat
no
yes
/usr/bin/lzm adec
m akedevs
no
no
/usr/bin/m knod
m d5sum
yes
yes
/usr/bin/m d5sum
m dev
no
no
none
m esg
no
yes
/usr/bin/m esg
m kdir
yes
yes
/sbin/m kdir, /usr/bin/m kdir
m ke2fs
yes
yes
/usr/sbin/m ke2fs
m kfifo
no
yes
/usr/bin/m kfifo
m kfs.ext2
yes
yes
/usr/sbin/m kfs.ext2
m kfs.ext3
yes
yes
/usr/sbin/m kfs.ext3
m kfs.m inix
no
no
none — no support for Minix
filesystem
m knod
yes
yes
/usr/bin/m knod
m kswap
yes
yes
/usr/sbin/m kswap
m ktem p
yes
yes
/usr/bin/m ktem p
m odprobe
yes
yes
/sbin/m odprobe,
/usr/sbin/m odprobe
m ore
yes
yes
/usr/bin/m ore
m ount
yes
yes
/sbin/m ount, /usr/bin/m ount
m ountpoint
no
no
Look at the output of the mount
command
m sh
no
no
none
mt
yes
yes
/usr/bin/m t
mv
yes
yes
/usr/bin/m v
nam eif
no
no
none
nc
no
yes
/usr/bin/nc
netstat
no
yes
/bin/netstat
nice
no
yes
/bin/nice
519
520
Alternatives to busybox commands
nohup
no
yes
/usr/bin/nohup
nslookup
yes
yes
/usr/bin/nslookup
od
no
yes
/usr/bin/od
openvt
yes
yes
/usr/bin/openvt
passwd
no
yes
/usr/bin/passwd
patch
no
yes
/usr/bin/patch
pidof
yes
yes
/usr/sbin/pidof
ping
yes
yes
/usr/bin/ping
ping6
no
yes
/bin/ping6
pipe_progress
no
no
none
pivot_root
no
yes
/sbin/pivot_root
printenv
no
yes
/usr/bin/printenv
printf
no
yes
/usr/bin/printf
ps
yes
yes
/usr/bin/ps
pwd
yes
yes
/usr/bin/pwd
rdate
no
yes
/usr/bin/rdate
readlink
yes
yes
/sbin/readlink,
/usr/bin/readlink
readprofile
no
yes
/usr/sbin/readprofile
realpath
no
no
Python os.path.realpath()
renice
no
yes
/usr/bin/renice
reset
no
yes
/usr/bin/reset
rm
yes
yes
/sbin/rm , /usr/bin/rm
rm dir
yes
yes
/sbin/rm dir, /usr/bin/rm dir
rm m od
yes
yes
/sbin/rm m od, /usr/bin/rm m od
route
yes
yes
/sbin/route, /usr/sbin/route
rpm
yes
yes
/usr/bin/rpm
rpm 2cpio
no
yes
/usr/bin/rpm 2cpio
run-parts
no
no
none
runlevel
no
no
none
rx
no
no
none
sed
yes
yes
/sbin/sed, /usr/bin/sed
seq
no
yes
/usr/bin/seq
setarch
no
yes
/usr/bin/setarch
setconsole
no
no
none
setkeycodes
no
yes
/usr/bin/setkeycodes
setlogcons
no
no
none
setsid
no
yes
/usr/bin/setsid
sh
yes
yes
/sbin/sh, /usr/bin/sh
sha1sum
yes
yes
/usr/bin/sha1sum
sleep
yes
yes
/sbin/sleep, /usr/bin/sleep
sort
yes
yes
/usr/bin/sort
start-stopdaem on
no
no
none
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 Installation Guide
stat
no
yes
/usr/bin/stat or Python
os.stat()
strings
no
yes
/usr/bin/strings
stty
no
yes
/bin/stty
su
no
yes
/bin/su
sulogin
no
yes
/sbin/sulogin
sum
no
yes
/usr/bin/sum
swapoff
yes
yes
/usr/sbin/swapoff
swapon
yes
yes
/usr/sbin/swapon
switch_root
no
yes
/sbin/switch_root
sync
yes
yes
/usr/bin/sync
sysctl
no
yes
/sbin/sysctl
tail
yes
yes
/usr/bin/tail
tar
yes
yes
/usr/bin/tar
tee
yes
yes
/usr/bin/tee
telnet
yes
yes
/usr/bin/telnet
telnetd
no
no
none — no daemons available to
scriptlets
test
no
yes
/usr/bin/test or [ in bash
tftp
no
yes
/usr/bin/tftp
tim e
no
yes
/usr/bin/tim e or Python
top
yes
yes
/usr/bin/top
touch
yes
yes
/sbin/touch, /usr/bin/touch
tr
no
yes
/usr/bin/tr or Python
traceroute
no
yes
/bin/traceroute
true
yes
yes
/usr/bin/true
tty
no
yes
/usr/bin/tty
tune2fs
yes
yes
/usr/sbin/tune2fs
udhcpc
no
no
/sbin/dhclient
udhcpd
no
no
none — no daemons available to
scriptlets
um ount
yes
yes
/sbin/um ount,
/usr/bin/um ount
unam e
no
yes
/bin/unam e or Python
os.unam e()
uncom press
no
no
none
uniq
yes
yes
/usr/bin/uniq
unix2dos
no
no
sed 's/$//'
unlzm a
no
yes
/usr/bin/unlzm a
unzip
no
yes
/usr/bin/unzip
uptim e
no
yes
/usr/bin/uptim e or Python
reading /proc/uptim e
usleep
no
yes
/bin/usleep or Python
uudecode
no
yes
/usr/bin/uudecode or Python
uuencode
no
yes
/usr/bin/uuencode or Python
521
522
Alternatives to busybox commands
vconfig
yes
yes
/usr/sbin/vconfig
vi
yes
yes
/usr/bin/vi
vlock
no
no
none
watch
no
yes
/usr/bin/watch
watchdog
no
no
none
wc
yes
yes
/usr/bin/wc
wget
yes
yes
/sbin/wget, /usr/bin/wget
which
no
yes
/usr/bin/which
who
no
yes
/usr/bin/who
whoam i
no
yes
/usr/bin/whoam i
xargs
yes
yes
/usr/bin/xargs
yes
no
yes
/usr/bin/yes
zcat
yes
yes
/usr/bin/zcat
zcip
no
no
NetworkManager should take
care of this
[a] Red Hat Enterp ris e Linux 6 s hip s with G NU awk rather than the b us yb o x awk in the ins tallatio n enviro nment.
[b ] G NU b as h c an p ro vid e b as ename func tio nality us ing s tring manip ulatio n. If var= "/usr/b i n /co m m an d ", then ech o $ {var##* /}
g ives co m m an d .
[c ] G NU b as h c an p ro vid e d irname func tio nality us ing s tring manip ulatio n. If var= "/usr/b i n /co m m an d ", then ech o $ {var%/* }
g ives /usr/b i n .
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 Installation Guide
523
Other Technical Documentation
T o learn more about anaconda, the Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation program, visit the project Web
page: http://www.fedoraproject.org/wiki/Anaconda.
Both anaconda and Red Hat Enterprise Linux systems use a common set of software components. For
detailed information on key technologies, refer to the Web sites listed below:
Boot Loader
Red Hat Enterprise Linux uses the GRUB boot loader. Refer to
http://www.gnu.org/software/grub/ for more information.
Disk Partitioning
Red Hat Enterprise Linux uses parted to partition disks. Refer to
http://www.gnu.org/software/parted/ for more information.
Storage Management
Logical Volume Management (LVM) provides administrators with a range of facilities to manage
storage. By default, the Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation process formats drives as LVM
volumes. Refer to http://www.tldp.org/HOWT O/LVM-HOWT O/ for more information.
Audio Support
T he Linux kernel used by Red Hat Enterprise Linux incorporates PulseAudio audio server. For
more information about PulseAudio, refer to the project documentation:
http://www.pulseaudio.org/wiki/Documentation.
Graphics System
Both the installation system and Red Hat Enterprise Linux use the Xorg suite to provide
graphical capabilities. Components of Xorg manage the display, keyboard and mouse for the
desktop environments that users interact with. Refer to http://www.x.org/ for more information.
Remote Displays
Red Hat Enterprise Linux and anaconda include VNC (Virtual Network Computing) software to
enable remote access to graphical displays. For more information about VNC, refer to the
documentation on the RealVNC Web site: http://www.realvnc.com/support/documentation.html.
Command-line Interface
By default, Red Hat Enterprise Linux uses the GNU bash shell to provide a command-line
interface. T he GNU Core Utilities complete the command-line environment. Refer to
http://www.gnu.org/software/bash/bash.html for more information on bash. T o learn more about
the GNU Core Utilities, refer to http://www.gnu.org/software/coreutils/.
Remote System Access
Red Hat Enterprise Linux incorporates the OpenSSH suite to provide remote access to the
system. T he SSH service enables a number of functions, which include access to the
524
Other Technical D ocumentation
command-line from other systems, remote command execution, and network file transfers.
During the installation process anaconda may use the scp feature of OpenSSH to transfer
crash reports to remote systems. Refer to the OpenSSH Web site for more information:
http://www.openssh.com/.
Access Control
SELinux provides Mandatory Access Control (MAC) capabilities that supplement the standard
Linux security features. Refer to the SELinux Project Pages for more information:
http://www.nsa.gov/research/selinux/index.shtml.
Firewall
T he Linux kernel used by Red Hat Enterprise Linux incorporates the netfilter framework to
provide firewall features. T he Netfilter project website provides documentation for both
netfilter, and the iptables administration facilities:
http://netfilter.org/documentation/index.html.
Software Installation
Red Hat Enterprise Linux uses yum to manage the RPM packages that make up the system.
Refer to http://yum.baseurl.org/ for more information.
Virtualization
Virtualization provides the capability to simultaneously run multiple operating systems on the
same computer. Red Hat Enterprise Linux also includes tools to install and manage the
secondary systems on a Red Hat Enterprise Linux host. You may select virtualization support
during the installation process, or at any time thereafter. Refer to the Red Hat Enterprise Linux
Virtualization Guide available from
https://access.redhat.com/knowledge/docs/Red_Hat_Enterprise_Linux/ for more information.
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 Installation Guide
Revision History
Note that revision numbers relate to the edition of this manual, not to version numbers of Red Hat
Enterprise Linux.
Revision 1.0-84
Rebuild for Publican 3.0
2012-07-18
Anthony T owns
Revision 1.0-83
Version for 6.3 GA release
Mon Jun 18 2012
Jack Reed
Revision 1.0-81
Wed May 23 2012
Jack Reed
Removed PXE driver and booting sections for POWER - BZ #822752
Revision 1.0-79
Fri May 11 2012
Jack Reed
Clarified instructions for driver update installation - BZ #820482
Revision 1.0-75
T ue Mar 27 2012
Jack Reed
Modified Choose Server figure in Setting up software updates - BZ #806928
Revision 1.0-74
T hu Mar 22 2012
Clarified minimal boot media procedure for BIOS - BZ #804476
Jack Reed
Revision 1.0-73
T ue Mar 20 2012
Jack Reed
Moved USB installation source via dd procedure into minimal boot media section - BZ #804476
Revision 1.0-71
Mon Mar 12 2012
Jack Reed
Added BIOS instructions to PXE boot configuration - BZ #759982
Revision 1.0-69
T ue Mar 06 2012
Jack Reed
Added references to HT T PS support throughout - BZ #732402
Documented new procedure for saving traceback messages - BZ #759488
Revision 1.0-68
T hu Feb 16 2012
Jack Reed
Updated kdump screenshots, corrected checkbox terminology - BZ #757986
Updated IBM resource links - BZ #752679
Clarified minimum x86 processor requirements - BZ #657975
Corrected Language Selection placement for POWER installation - BZ #757976
Revision 1.0-67
Mon Feb 13 2012
Clarified activation of xinetd service - BZ #786500
Added Language Selection section - BZ #757976
Corrected option for device kickstart directive - BZ #755972
Corrected cio_ignore formatting - BZ #752680
Jack Reed
Revision 1.0-66
Wed Feb 01 2012
Jack Reed
Updated Contract Selection image - BZ #724032
Corrected Real VNC URL - BZ #752682
Linked to Recommended Partitioning Scheme in Partitioning Problems sections - BZ #752678
Improved command formatting - BZ #752678
Added Deployment Guide reference to RHN section - BZ #752683
Added references to HT T PS as installation source - BZ #732402
525
526
Revision History
Updated commands in USB installation source section - BZ #757979
Revision 1.0-64
T hu Dec 08 2011
Jack Reed
Corrected references to Deployment Guide chapters - BZ #759476, BZ #759463
Deleted reference to network config in firstboot kickstart option - BZ #743307
Re-alphabetised kickstart options - BZ #755951
Clarified lack of support for third-party bootloaders - BZ #752677
Added links to firstboot at end of Installation Complete sections - BZ #752677
Clarified 32-bit package installation for kickstart file - BZ #742405
Corrected formatting of firewall kickstart option - BZ #745285
Revision 1.0-60
T ue Nov 29 2011
Updated PXE Boot Configuration section - BZ #734609
Jack Reed
Revision 1.0-59
T hu Nov 17 2011
Jack Reed
Upgraded repository metadata admonition to warning - BZ #752677
Corrected minor typing errors - BZ #752675, BZ #752676
Corrected command line directory name in USB creation procedure - BZ #752673
Updated network config and firstboot screenshots - BZ #752675, BZ #752677, BZ #752681
Revision 1.0-58
T hu Nov 10 2011
Jack Reed
Corrected output formatting in DHCP server config - BZ #747222
Added information on non-Red Hat repositories after upgrading - BZ #748678
Added --label to part or partition kickstart option - BZ #752277
Added reference to network boot options in text mode - BZ #749067
Removed redundant reference to sysroot in appendix F.2.2 - BZ #750700
Added home partition to Recommended Partitioning Scheme - BZ #747049
Winbind - added kickstart option and reference to Deployment Guide chapter in firstboot authentication
config section - BZ #738237
Explained how to install 32-bit packages on 64-bit systems during kickstart - BZ #742405
Revision 1.0-57
T ue Oct 25 2011
Corrected root ssh access note - BZ #741535
Jack Reed
Revision 1.0-55
T ue Oct 18 2011
Rüdiger Landmann
Updated how to specify multipath devices in kickstart files - BZ #638471
Revision 1.0-54
Wed Oct 5 2011
Jack Reed
Added missing admonition regarding im ages/ folder for NFS installations to section 4.1.2- BZ #677331
Added admonition that automatic partitions cannot be encrypted in System z - BZ #742820
Revision 1.0-53
Wed Oct 5 2011
Jack Reed
Added admonition about root account to sshpw kickstart option - BZ #741535
Updated name of initial RAM disk folder for POWER booting - BZ #742819
Changed ignoredisk kickstart commands for multipath devices - BZ #638471
Revision 1.0-51
Fri Sep 23 2011
Corrected typo in opening line of Chapter 38
Jack Reed
Revision 1.0-50
T hur Sep 22 2011
Further edits to network kickstart option - BZ #721210
Jack Reed
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 Installation Guide
Revision 1.0-4 9
Mon Sep 19 2011
Jack Reed
Moved admonitions regarding im ages/ folder for NFS installations. plus other edits - BZ #677331
Revision 1.0-4 8
T hu Sep 15 2011
Jack Reed
Corrected minor errors in 9.14.3, 10.1.2, 17.1.1, 24.1.1, 25.2.2.2
Added lvm to list of pre-installation environment commands - BZ #737691
Updated kickstart media information - BZ #661135
Added admonitions about manual network settings to kickstart options - BZ #721210
Revision 1.0-4 7
Fri Sep 2 2011
Jack Reed
Clarified reason /usr should not be on a separate file system - BZ #679302, BZ #735156
Revision 1.0-4 6
Fri Sep 2 2011
Jack Reed
Added remaining quotation marks to values in 26.3 - BZ #729961
Revised filenames and other details in Chapter 1 - BZ #661135
Omitted obsolete @ Everything function from 32.5 - BZ #679440
Clarified auto versus manual swap file configuration - BZ #718235
Revision 1.0-4 5
Mon Aug 29 2011
Jack Reed
Changes and additions to auth or auth-config - BZ #708848
Added admonition regarding minimum --size value for partition directories - BZ #702292
Expanded rhel6 acronym in RAID kickstart option- BZ #704147
Added warnings about partitioning 64-bit x86 systems automatically - BZ #702299
Single quoted all CMSCONFFILE examples in 26.3 and 26.8 - BZ #729691
Moved admonitions regarding im ages/ folder to previous step - BZ #677331
Added chapter 38 on deregistering from RHN entitlement platforms - BZ #604872
Revision 1.0-4 4
T ue Aug 23 2011
Jack Reed
Added admonition to RAID kickstart option - BZ #704147
Added admonition regarding im ages/ folder to installation prep - BZ #677331
Revision 1.0-4 3
Mon Aug 15 2011
Jack Reed
Changed starting sizes for growable partitions — BZ #680812
Edited server source for ks kickstart option — BZ #653655
Corrected subscription-manager name — BZ #711691
Corrected nss-pam-ldapd name and described disableldaptls switch — BZ #682862, BZ #729248
Single quoted CMSCONFFILE example — BZ #729691
Removed ext4 warning for adding partitions-s390 — BZ #680433
Added asknetwork option to beginning Kickstart installation options — BZ #727612
Added admonition to skipx in kickstart guide — BZ #723832
Broadened GNOME reference to Desktop overall — BZ #692967
Unchecked RHN update box in firstboot — BZ #729167
Removed wrong default value for network layer mode — BZ #664024
Added step to USB flash drive installation procedure — BZ #702382
Revision 1.0-4 2
Fri Aug 12 2011
Updated Entitlements information per [email protected]
Rüdiger Landmann
Revision 1.0-4 1
Build for 6.1 GA
Rüdiger Landmann
T hu May 19 2011
Revision 1.0-4 0
Mon May 16 2011
T ypos and general language fixes — BZ #696868
Rüdiger Landmann
527
528
Revision History
Revision 1.0-39
T ue May 10 2011
Generalise boot process in appendix F — BZ #580356
Rüdiger Landmann
Revision 1.0-38
T ue May 10 2011
Include greater detail about UEFI — BZ #580356
Rüdiger Landmann
Revision 1.0-37
Mon May 9 2011
Rüdiger Landmann
Major updates and clarifications to networking during installation — BZ #679104
Revision 1.0-36
Fri May 6 2011
Update iSCSI procedures — BZ #681838
Clarify blacklisting — BZ #659795
Rüdiger Landmann
Revision 1.0-35
Wed Apr 20 2011
Clarify NFS installation instructions — BZ #682729
Rüdiger Landmann
Revision 1.0-34
T ue Apr 19 2011
Rüdiger Landmann
Remove Xen reference, update driver update RPM screenshots — BZ #659795
Revision 1.0-33
Mon Apr 18 2011
Rüdiger Landmann
Correct outdated URL — BZ #696861
Replace references to joe with vi — BZ #696863
Rewrite instructions for removing Red Hat Enterprise Linux partitions — BZ #696865
Remove references to Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 — BZ #696866
Remove references to Fedora — BZ #696867
Revision 1.0-32
Fri Apr 15 2011
Rüdiger Landmann
Remove redundant note about Release Notes document — BZ #682683
Remove more references to installation keys — BZ #682711
Revision 1.0-31
Fri Apr 15 2011
Rüdiger Landmann
Correct sshd option — BZ #681861
Fix some typos — BZ #681905
Update message during SSH login for System z installation — BZ #682208
Correct list of variants — BZ #682683
Correct name of efidisk.img — BZ #682683
Remove reference to installation key — BZ #682711
Remove reference to Release Notes button — BZ #682750
Document that /tmp/syslog is now available on System z — BZ #683067
Revision 1.0-30
T ue Apr 12 2011
Update screenshot to show current default — BZ #659795
Rüdiger Landmann
Revision 1.0-29
T hu Apr 7 2011
Small textual improvements — BZ #659795
Rüdiger Landmann
Revision 1.0-28
T hu Apr 7 2011
Generalize example drivers — BZ #659795
Rüdiger Landmann
Revision 1.0-27
Wed Apr 6 2011
Rüdiger Landmann
Adding, removing, or replacing drivers in rescue mode — BZ #659795
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 Installation Guide
Revision 1.0-26
Mon Apr 4 2011
Rüdiger Landmann
T ypos and missing textobject tag in entitlements section — BZ #629637
Revision 1.0-25
T hu Mar 31 2011
Rüdiger Landmann
Clarify location of images/ directory for NFS and hard drive installations — BZ #653568
Revision 1.0-24
T ue Mar 22 2011
Correct repo options for PPC64 and System z — BZ #639196
Rüdiger Landmann
Revision 1.0-23
T ue Mar 22 2011
Update package selection and repo options — BZ #639196
Update crash reporting — BZ #639197
Rüdiger Landmann
Revision 1.0-22
T ue Mar 22 2011
Changes in wording to firstboot chapter
Rüdiger Landmann
Revision 1.0-21
Mon Mar 21 2011
Changes in wording to firstboot chapter
Rüdiger Landmann
Revision 1.0-20
Mon Mar 21 2011
Update entitlements — BZ #629637
Deon Lackey
Revision 1.0-19
Mon Mar 21 2011
Rüdiger Landmann
Correction about setting up RAID on IPR on POWER — BZ #683624
Correction about using a kickstart file in a PXE environment — BZ #680178
Revision 1.0-16
Mon Mar 7 2011
Deon Lackey
Include example in Kickstart instructions to set up entitlements — BZ #629637
Revision 1.0-14
Fri Feb 11 2011
Correction about boot.iso and UEFI — BZ #661135
Rüdiger Landmann
Revision 1.0-13
Fri Feb 11 2011
Correct RHN update and update screenshot — BZ #661135
Rüdiger Landmann
Revision 1.0-12
Mon Feb 7 2011
Rüdiger Landmann
Correct location of backup block device passphrases — BZ #657249
Remove multipath command from Kickstart — BZ #642918
Revision 1.0-11
Mon Feb 7 2011
Rüdiger Landmann
Remove warning about a false error that was caused a bug which is now fixed — BZ #614540
Add warning about serial numbers of multipath devices to Kickstart chapter — BZ #612177
Correct desktop installation instructions — BZ #657249
Revision 1.0-10
Mon Jan 10 2011
Correct boot screen description — BZ #654320
Correct IBM System p boot screen — BZ #644289
Correct description of DVD boot sequence — BZ #654320
Rüdiger Landmann
Revision 1.0-9
Fri Dec 24 2010
Describe sshd=1 boot option — BZ #661261
Rüdiger Landmann
529
530
Index
Correct and expand description of logvol --percent option — BZ #661531
Fixed various typos — BZ #640167
Revision 1.0-8
T hu Dec 23 2010
Rüdiger Landmann
Include RAID screenshots more specific to System z — BZ #639193
Note that anaconda can only shrink partitions, not enlarge them — BZ #642881
Note System z cannot use ext4 for /boot — BZ #642881
Expand documentation of multipath kickstart command — BZ #642918
Add -H newc argument to find in instructions to prepare an initial RAM disk driver update —
BZ #644285
Document that POWER systems should boot over the network with yaboot, not the PPC64.img file —
BZ #644288
Remove deprecated RAID Clone option — BZ #644290
Correct name of anaconda dump file — BZ #644294
Remove deprecated --depth option — BZ #652329
Fix various typos — BZ #653143, BZ #657013, BZ #662874
Remove deprecated nousb and nousbstorage options — BZ #653143, BZ #657013
Revision 1.0-7
Wed Dec 22 2010
Rüdiger Landmann
Add warning about serial numbers of multipath devices — BZ #612177
Add warning about mixing multipath and non-multipath devices — BZ #628405
Clarify information about escrow packets — BZ #638332
Remove obsolete --bytes-per-inode option — BZ #638347
Document ignoring multipath disks in kickstart — BZ #638471
FCoE not available for System z — BZ #639190
Updated image for Unformatted DASD Devices Found — BZ #639191
Fixed various typos — BZ #640167
Revision 1.0-4
Wed Oct 27 2010
Rüdiger Landmann
remove inaccurate information about PXE installations — BZ #643669
Revision 1.0-2
Wed Oct 27 2010
Rüdiger Landmann
remove inaccurate information about PXE installations — BZ #643669
Revision 1.0-1
T hu Oct 7 2010
remove "nostorage" option
Rüdiger Landmann
Revision 1.0-0
Version for GA release
Rüdiger Landmann
Wed Aug 25 2010
Index
Symbols
/boot/ partition
- recommended partitioning, Recommended Partitioning Scheme, Recommended
Partitioning Scheme
/root/install.log
- install log file location, Installing Packages
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 Installation Guide
531
/var/ partition
- recommended partitioning, Recommended Partitioning Scheme, Recommended
Partitioning Scheme
A
adding partitions, Adding Partitions, Adding Partitions, Adding Partitions
- file system type, File System T ypes, File System T ypes, File System T ypes
anacdump.txt, T roubleshooting Installation on an Intel or AMD System, T roubleshooting
Installation on an IBM POWER System, T roubleshooting Installation on IBM System z
Anaconda, Other T echnical Documentation
anaconda.log, T roubleshooting Installation on an Intel or AMD System, T roubleshooting
Installation on an IBM POWER System, T roubleshooting Installation on IBM System z
array (see RAID)
automatic partitioning, Disk Partitioning Setup, Disk Partitioning Setup, Disk
Partitioning Setup
B
Basic Input/Output System (see BIOS)
BIOS
- definition of, BIOS-based x86 systems
- (see also boot process)
BIOS (Basic Input/Output System), Booting the Installer
boot loader, Upgrading Boot Loader Configuration , x86, AMD64 , and Intel 64 Boot
Loader Configuration
- (see also GRUB)
- configuration, x86, AMD64, and Intel 64 Boot Loader Configuration
- GRUB, x86, AMD64, and Intel 64 Boot Loader Configuration
- installing on boot partition, Advanced Boot Loader Configuration
- MBR, Advanced Boot Loader Configuration
- password, x86, AMD64, and Intel 64 Boot Loader Configuration
- upgrading, Upgrading Boot Loader Configuration
boot loader password, x86, AMD64 , and Intel 64 Boot Loader Configuration
boot loaders, GRUB
- (see also GRUB)
- definition of, T he GRUB Boot Loader
- types of
- GRUB, Boot Loaders and System Architecture
- yaboot, Boot Loaders and System Architecture
- z/IPL, Boot Loaders and System Architecture
532
Index
boot options, Additional Boot Options
- from network, Additional Boot Options
- mediacheck, Additional Boot Options
- serial mode, Additional Boot Options
- UT F-8, Additional Boot Options
- text mode, Additional Boot Options
boot process, Boot Process, Init, and Shutdown, A Detailed Look at the Boot Process
- (see also boot loaders)
- chain loading, GRUB and the boot process on BIOS-based x86 systems, GRUB and the
boot process on UEFI-based x86 systems
- direct loading, GRUB and the boot process on BIOS-based x86 systems, GRUB and the
boot process on UEFI-based x86 systems
- for x86, A Detailed Look at the Boot Process
- stages of, T he Boot Process, A Detailed Look at the Boot Process
- /sbin/init command, T he /sbin/init Program
- boot loader, T he GRUB boot loader for x86 systems
- EFI shell, UEFI-based x86 systems
- kernel, T he Kernel
booting
- emergency mode, Booting into Emergency Mode
- installation program
- x86, AMD64 and Intel 64, Booting the Installation Program on x86, AMD64, and
Intel 64 Systems
- rescue mode, Booting into Rescue Mode
- single-user mode, Booting into Single-User Mode
booting the installation program
- IBM System p , Booting the Installer
C
canceling the installation, Installing from DVD, Installing from DVD
CD/DVD media
- booting, Booting the Installer, Booting the Installer
- making, Making Media
- (see also ISO images)
Chain loading, T he Storage Devices Selection Screen , Assign Storage Devices , Disk
Partitioning Setup, Advanced Boot Loader Configuration, T he Storage Devices
Selection Screen , Assign Storage Devices , Disk Partitioning Setup
chkconfig , Runlevel Utilities
- (see also services)
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 Installation Guide
533
clock, T ime Z one Configuration, T ime Z one Configuration, T ime Z one Configuration
CMS configuration files, Parameter and Configuration Files
- sample CMS configuration file, Sample parameter file and CMS configuration file
configuration
- clock, T ime Z one Configuration, T ime Z one Configuration, T ime Z one Configuration
- GRUB, x86, AMD64, and Intel 64 Boot Loader Configuration
- hardware, System Specifications List
- time, T ime Z one Configuration, T ime Z one Configuration, T ime Z one Configuration
- time zone, T ime Z one Configuration, T ime Z one Configuration, T ime Z one Configuration
configuration files
- CMS configuration files, Parameter and Configuration Files
- the z/VM configuration file, T he z/VM configuration file
consoles, virtual, A Note about Virtual Consoles, A Note about Linux Virtual Consoles
Content delivery, Content delivery and subscriptions
content service, Choose Server
D
DASD installation, Installing from a Hard Drive
deregister, Deregistering from Red Hat Network Entitlement Platforms
DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol), Setting the Hostname, Setting the
Hostname, Setting the Hostname
Disk Partitioner
- adding partitions, Adding Partitions, Adding Partitions, Adding Partitions
disk partitioning, Disk Partitioning Setup, Disk Partitioning Setup, Disk Partitioning
Setup
disk space, Do You Have Enough Disk Space?, Do You Have Enough Disk Space?
documentation
- other manuals, Where to Find Other Manuals
driver diskette, Starting the Installation Program
drivers
- adding
- rescue mode, Using rescue mode to fix or work around driver problems
- removing
- rescue mode, Using rescue mode to fix or work around driver problems
- replacing
- rescue mode, Using rescue mode to fix or work around driver problems
534
Index
DVD
-
AT API, Installing from DVD, Installing from DVD
IDE, Installing from DVD, Installing from DVD
installation from, Installing from DVD, Installing from DVD
SCSI, Installing from DVD, Installing from DVD, Installing from DVD
DVD media
- downloading, Obtaining Red Hat Enterprise Linux
- (see also ISO images)
E
EFI shell, UEFI-based x86 systems
- (see also boot process)
emergency mode, Booting into Emergency Mode
Encryption
- Backup passphrases
- Creating backup passphrases, Creating and Saving Backup Passphrases
- Saving backup passphrases, Creating and Saving Backup Passphrases
- Passphrases
- Saving passphrases, Saving Passphrases
entitlement platform, Deregistering from Red Hat Network Entitlement Platforms
entitlements
- with kickstart, Examples
ext2 (see file systems)
ext3 (see file systems)
ext4 (see file systems)
extended partitions, Partitions within Partitions — An Overview of Extended Partitions
Extensible Firmware Interface shell (see EFI shell)
F
FCoE
- installation, Advanced Storage Options , Advanced Storage Options , Advanced Storage
Options
FCP devices, FCP Devices
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 Installation Guide
535
feedback
- contact information for this manual, We Need Feedback!
file system
- formats, overview of, It is Not What You Write, it is How You Write It
file system types, File System T ypes, File System T ypes, File System T ypes
file systems
- ext2, Installing from a Hard Drive, Installing from a Hard Drive, Installing from a Hard Drive
- ext3, Installing from a Hard Drive, Installing from a Hard Drive, Installing from a Hard Drive
- ext4, Installing from a Hard Drive, Installing from a Hard Drive, Installing from a Hard Drive
- vfat, Installing from a Hard Drive, Installing from a Hard Drive, Installing from a Hard Drive
firewall
- documentation, Other T echnical Documentation
Firstboot , Firstboot
- content service, Choose Server
- RHN Classic, Using RHN Classic
- assigned subscription, Review Subscription
- assigned subscriptions, Review Subscription
- hardware profile, Create Profile
- software profile, Create Profile
- RHN setup, Using Certificate-based Red Hat Network (Recommended)
- subscriptions, Setting up software updates
- selecting subscriptions, Selecting subscriptions
- uploading product certificates (optional), Adding subscriptions (optional)
- users, Create User
- via Kickstart, Kickstart Options
FT P
- installation, Preparing for a Network Installation, Installing via FT P, HT T P, or HT T PS,
Preparing for a Network Installation, Installing via FT P, HT T P, or HT T PS, Preparing for a
Network Installation, Installing via FT P, HT T P, or HT T PS
G
GRUB, x86, AMD64 , and Intel 64 Boot Loader Configuration, Boot Loaders and System
Architecture, T he GRUB boot loader for x86 systems
- (see also boot loaders)
- additional resources, Additional Resources
- installed documentation, Installed Documentation
- useful websites, Useful Websites
- alternatives to, Alternative Boot Loaders
- boot process, GRUB and the boot process on BIOS-based x86 systems, GRUB and the
536
Index
boot process on UEFI-based x86 systems
- Changing Runlevels at Boot T ime, Changing Runlevels at Boot T ime
- changing runlevels with, GRUB Interfaces
- commands, GRUB Commands
- configuration, x86, AMD64, and Intel 64 Boot Loader Configuration
- configuration file
- /boot/grub/grub.conf , Configuration File Structure
- structure, Configuration File Structure
-
definition of, GRUB
documentation, Other T echnical Documentation
features, Features of GRUB
installing, Installing GRUB
interfaces, GRUB Interfaces
- command line, GRUB Interfaces
- menu, GRUB Interfaces
- menu entry editor, GRUB Interfaces
- order of, Interfaces Load Order
- menu configuration file, GRUB Menu Configuration File
- directives, Configuration File Directives
- role in boot process, T he GRUB boot loader for x86 systems
- terminology, GRUB T erminology
- devices, Device Names
- files, File Names and Blocklists
- root file system, T he Root File System and GRUB
grub.conf , Configuration File Structure
- (see also GRUB)
H
halt, Shutting Down
- (see also shutdown)
Hard disk
- initializing, Initializing the Hard Disk, Initializing the Hard Disk, Initializing the Hard Disk
hard disk
- basic concepts, Hard Disk Basic Concepts
- extended partitions, Partitions within Partitions — An Overview of Extended Partitions
- file system formats, It is Not What You Write, it is How You Write It
- partition introduction, Partitions: T urning One Drive Into Many
- partition types, Partitions: T urning One Drive Into Many
- partitioning of, An Introduction to Disk Partitions
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 Installation Guide
hard drive installation, Installing from a Hard Drive, Installing from a Hard Drive,
Installing from a Hard Drive
- preparing for, Preparing for a Hard Drive Installation, Preparing for a Hard Drive
Installation, Preparing for a Hard Drive Installation
hardware
- compatibility, Is Your Hardware Compatible?
- configuration, System Specifications List
- support, Supported Installation Hardware, Supported Installation Hardware
hardware preparation, eServer System p, Preparation for IBM eServer System p
hardware profile, Create Profile
help
- getting help, Do You Need Help?
HMC vterm, Using the HMC vterm
hostname, Setting the Hostname, Setting the Hostname, Setting the Hostname
HT T P
- installation, Preparing for a Network Installation, Installing via FT P, HT T P, or HT T PS,
Preparing for a Network Installation, Installing via FT P, HT T P, or HT T PS, Preparing for a
Network Installation, Installing via FT P, HT T P, or HT T PS
I
init command, T he /sbin/init Program
- (see also boot process)
- configuration files
- /etc/inittab , SysV Init Runlevels
- role in boot process, T he /sbin/init Program
- (see also boot process)
- runlevels
- directories for, SysV Init Runlevels
- runlevels accessed by, Runlevels
- SysV init
- definition of, SysV Init Runlevels
install log file
- /root/install.log , Installing Packages
installation
- aborting, Installing from DVD, Installing from DVD
- disk space, Do You Have Enough Disk Space?, Do You Have Enough Disk Space?
537
538
Index
- DVD, Installing from DVD, Installing from DVD
- from network, Additional Boot Options
- FT P, Preparing for a Network Installation, Installing via FT P, HT T P, or HT T PS, Preparing
for a Network Installation, Installing via FT P, HT T P, or HT T PS, Preparing for a Network
Installation, Installing via FT P, HT T P, or HT T PS
- GUI, Installing using anaconda, Installing using anaconda, Installation Phase 3: Installing
using anaconda
- hard drive, Preparing for a Hard Drive Installation, Installing from a Hard Drive, Preparing
for a Hard Drive Installation, Installing from a Hard Drive, Preparing for a Hard Drive
Installation, Installing from a Hard Drive
- HT T P, Preparing for a Network Installation, Installing via FT P, HT T P, or HT T PS,
Preparing for a Network Installation, Installing via FT P, HT T P, or HT T PS, Preparing for a
Network Installation, Installing via FT P, HT T P, or HT T PS
- keyboard navigation, Using the Keyboard to Navigate, Using the Keyboard to Navigate,
Using the Keyboard to Navigate
- kickstart (see kickstart installations)
- mediacheck, Additional Boot Options
- method
- DVD, Selecting an Installation Method
- hard drive, Selecting an Installation Method
- NFS image, Selecting an Installation Method
- selecting, Selecting an Installation Method
- URL, Selecting an Installation Method
- network, Preparing for a Network Installation, Preparing for a Network Installation,
Preparing for a Network Installation
- NFS, Preparing for a Network Installation, Installing via NFS, Preparing for a Network
Installation, Installing via NFS, Preparing for a Network Installation, Installing via NFS
- server information, Installing via NFS, Installing via NFS, Installing via NFS
- partitioning, Creating a Custom Layout or Modifying the Default Layout , Creating a
Custom Layout or Modifying the Default Layout , Creating a Custom Layout or Modifying the
Default Layout
- program
- graphical user interface, T he Graphical Installation Program User Interface, T he
Graphical Installation Program User Interface, T he Graphical Installation Program
User Interface
- starting, Starting the Installation Program
- text mode user interface, T he T ext Mode Installation Program User Interface,
T he T ext Mode Installation Program User Interface, T he T ext Mode Installation
Program User Interface
- virtual consoles, A Note about Virtual Consoles, A Note about Linux Virtual
Consoles
- serial mode, Additional Boot Options
- UT F-8, Additional Boot Options
- starting, Installing from DVD, Installing from DVD
- text mode, Additional Boot Options
installation method
- selecting, Installation Method, Installation Method, Installation Method
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 Installation Guide
installation program
- x86, AMD64 and Intel 64
- booting, Booting the Installation Program on x86, AMD64, and Intel 64 Systems
installing packages, Package Group Selection, Package Group Selection, Package
Group Selection
introduction, Introduction
IPL NWSST G, Unable to IPL from *NWSST G
IPv4 , Setting the Hostname, Setting the Hostname, Setting the Hostname
iscsi
- installation, Advanced Storage Options , Advanced Storage Options , Advanced Storage
Options
ISO images
- downloading, Obtaining Red Hat Enterprise Linux
K
kdump, Kdump
kernel
- role in boot process, T he Kernel
kernel options, Kernel Options
keyboard
- configuration, Keyboard Configuration, Keyboard Configuration
- navigating the installation program using, Using the Keyboard to Navigate, Using the
Keyboard to Navigate, Using the Keyboard to Navigate
keymap
- selecting language, Language Selection, Language Selection
- selecting type of keyboard, Keyboard Configuration, Keyboard Configuration
Kickstart, Automating the Installation with Kickstart, Automating the Installation with
Kickstart
kickstart
- entitlements, Examples
- how the file is found, Starting a Kickstart Installation
- parameters for System z parameter files, Parameters for kickstart installations
Kickstart Configurator , Kickstart Configurator
- %post script, Post-Installation Script
- %pre script, Pre-Installation Script
- authentication options, Authentication
539
54 0
Index
-
basic options, Basic Configuration
boot loader, Boot Loader Options
boot loader options, Boot Loader Options
Display configuration, Display Configuration
firewall configuration, Firewall Configuration
installation method selection, Installation Method
interactive, Basic Configuration
keyboard, Basic Configuration
language, Basic Configuration
network configuration, Network Configuration
package selection, Package Selection
partitioning, Partition Information
- software RAID, Creating Software RAID Partitions
- preview, Kickstart Configurator
- reboot, Basic Configuration
- root password, Basic Configuration
- encrypt, Basic Configuration
-
saving, Saving the File
SELinux configuration, SELinux Configuration
text mode installation, Basic Configuration
time zone, Basic Configuration
kickstart file
- %include , Kickstart Options
- %post, Post-installation Script
- %pre, Pre-installation Script
- auth , Kickstart Options
- authconfig , Kickstart Options
- autopart , Kickstart Options
- autostep , Kickstart Options
- bootloader , Kickstart Options
- CD-ROM-based, Creating Kickstart Boot Media
- clearpart , Kickstart Options
- cmdline , Kickstart Options
- creating, Kickstart Options
- device , Kickstart Options
- diskette-based, Creating Kickstart Boot Media
- driverdisk , Kickstart Options
- firewall , Kickstart Options
- firstboot , Kickstart Options
- flash-based, Creating Kickstart Boot Media
- format of, Creating the Kickstart File
- graphical , Kickstart Options
- halt , Kickstart Options
- ignoredisk , Kickstart Options
- include contents of another file, Kickstart Options
- install , Kickstart Options
- installation methods, Kickstart Options
- interactive , Kickstart Options
- iscsi , Kickstart Options
- iscsiname , Kickstart Options
- keyboard, Kickstart Options
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 Installation Guide
54 1
keyboard, Kickstart Options
- lang , Kickstart Options
- langsupport , Kickstart Options
- logging , Kickstart Options
- logvol , Kickstart Options
- mediacheck , Kickstart Options
- mouse , Kickstart Options
- network , Kickstart Options
- network-based, Making the Kickstart File Available on the Network, Making the Installation
T ree Available
- options, Kickstart Options
- partitioning examples, Advanced Partitioning Example
-
package selection specification, Package Selection
part , Kickstart Options
partition , Kickstart Options
post-installation configuration, Post-installation Script
poweroff , Kickstart Options
pre-installation configuration, Pre-installation Script
raid , Kickstart Options
reboot , Kickstart Options
rootpw , Kickstart Options
selinux , Kickstart Options
services , Kickstart Options
shutdown , Kickstart Options
skipx , Kickstart Options
sshpw , Kickstart Options
text , Kickstart Options
timezone , Kickstart Options
upgrade , Kickstart Options
user , Kickstart Options
vnc , Kickstart Options
volgroup , Kickstart Options
what it looks like, Creating the Kickstart File
winbind , Kickstart Options
xconfig , Kickstart Options
zerombr , Kickstart Options
zfcp , Kickstart Options
kickstart installations, Kickstart Installations
- CD-ROM-based, Creating Kickstart Boot Media
- diskette-based, Creating Kickstart Boot Media
- file format, Creating the Kickstart File
- file locations, Making the Kickstart File Available
- flash-based, Creating Kickstart Boot Media
- installation tree, Making the Installation T ree Available
- LVM, Kickstart Options
- network-based, Making the Kickstart File Available on the Network, Making the Installation
T ree Available
- starting, Starting a Kickstart Installation
- from a boot CD-ROM, Starting a Kickstart Installation
54 2
Index
L
language
- configuration, Language Selection, Language Selection
- selecting, Language Selection, Language Selection, Language Selection
log files, T roubleshooting Installation on an Intel or AMD System, T roubleshooting
Installation on an IBM POWER System, T roubleshooting Installation on IBM System z
- kickstart installations, What are Kickstart Installations?
LVM
-
documentation, Other T echnical Documentation
logical volume, Understanding LVM
physical volume, Understanding LVM
understanding, Understanding LVM
volume group, Understanding LVM
with kickstart, Kickstart Options
M
manuals, Where to Find Other Manuals
master boot record, x86, AMD64 , and Intel 64 Boot Loader Configuration
Master Boot Record, Unable to Boot into Red Hat Enterprise Linux (see MBR)
- reinstalling, Reinstalling the Boot Loader
MBR
- definition of, A Detailed Look at the Boot Process, BIOS-based x86 systems
- (see also boot loaders)
- (see also boot process)
- installing boot loader on, Advanced Boot Loader Configuration
modem, Setting the Hostname, Setting the Hostname, Setting the Hostname
mount points
- partitions and, Disk Partitions and Mount Points
Multipath devices
- Mixing with non-multipath devices, Disk Partitioning Setup, Disk Partitioning Setup, Disk
Partitioning Setup
N
network
- installations
- FT P, Installing via FT P, HT T P, or HT T PS, Installing via FT P, HT T P, or HT T PS,
Installing via FT P, HT T P, or HT T PS
- HT T P, Installing via FT P, HT T P, or HT T PS, Installing via FT P, HT T P, or HT T PS,
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 Installation Guide
54 3
Installing via FT P, HT T P, or HT T PS
- NFS, Installing via NFS, Installing via NFS, Installing via NFS
network installation
- performing, Performing a Network Installation, Performing a Network Installation,
Performing a Network Installation
- preparing for, Preparing for a Network Installation, Preparing for a Network Installation,
Preparing for a Network Installation
NFS
- installation, Preparing for a Network Installation, Installing via NFS, Preparing for a
Network Installation, Installing via NFS, Preparing for a Network Installation, Installing via
NFS
NFS (Network File System)
- install from, Performing a Network Installation, Performing a Network Installation
NT P (Network T ime Protocol), T ime Z one Configuration, T ime Z one Configuration, Date
and T ime
ntsysv , Runlevel Utilities
- (see also services)
O
OpenSSH, Other T echnical Documentation
- (see also SSH)
OS/2 boot manager, Advanced Boot Loader Configuration
OS/4 00, Boot Loaders and System Architecture
- (see also boot loaders)
P
package groups, Customizing the Software Selection , Customizing the Software
Selection , Customizing the Software Selection
packages
- groups, Package Group Selection, Package Group Selection, Package Group Selection
- selecting, Package Group Selection, Package Group Selection, Package Group
Selection
- installing, Package Group Selection, Package Group Selection, Package Group Selection
- selecting, Package Group Selection, Package Group Selection, Package Group Selection
parameter files, Parameter and Configuration Files
54 4
Index
-
installation network parameters, Installation network parameters
kickstart parameters, Parameters for kickstart installations
loader parameters, Loader parameters
required parameters, Required parameters
sample parameter file, Sample parameter file and CMS configuration file
VNC parameters, VNC and X11 parameters
X11 parameters, VNC and X11 parameters
parm files (see parameter files)
parted partitioning utility, Create new partition(s)
partition
- extended, Partitions within Partitions — An Overview of Extended Partitions
partitioning, Creating a Custom Layout or Modifying the Default Layout , Creating a
Custom Layout or Modifying the Default Layout , Creating a Custom Layout or Modifying
the Default Layout
- automatic, Disk Partitioning Setup, Disk Partitioning Setup, Disk Partitioning Setup
- basic concepts, An Introduction to Disk Partitions
- creating new, Adding Partitions, Adding Partitions, Adding Partitions
- file system type, File System T ypes, File System T ypes, File System T ypes
-
destructive, Using Free Space from an Active Partition
extended partitions, Partitions within Partitions — An Overview of Extended Partitions
how many partitions, Partitions: T urning One Drive Into Many, How Many Partitions?
introduction to, Partitions: T urning One Drive Into Many
making room for partitions, Making Room For Red Hat Enterprise Linux
mount points and, Disk Partitions and Mount Points
naming partitions, Partition Naming Scheme
non-destructive, Using Free Space from an Active Partition
numbering partitions, Partition Naming Scheme
other operating systems, Disk Partitions and Other Operating Systems
primary partitions, Partitions: T urning One Drive Into Many
recommended, Recommended Partitioning Scheme, Recommended Partitioning Scheme
types of partitions, Partitions: T urning One Drive Into Many
using free space, Using Unpartitioned Free Space
using in-use partition, Using Free Space from an Active Partition
using unused partition, Using Space from an Unused Partition
Partitioning , Creating a Custom Layout or Modifying the Default Layout , Creating a
Custom Layout or Modifying the Default Layout , Creating a Custom Layout or Modifying
the Default Layout
- adding partitions
- file system type, File System T ypes, File System T ypes, File System T ypes
Passphrases
- Block device encryption passphrases
- Creating backup block device encryption passphrases, Creating and Saving
Backup Passphrases
- Saving backup block device encryption passphrases, Creating and Saving
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 Installation Guide
54 5
Backup Passphrases
- Saving block device encryption passphrases, Saving Passphrases
password
- boot loader, x86, AMD64, and Intel 64 Boot Loader Configuration
- setting root, Set the Root Password, Set the Root Password, Set the Root Password
Planning for Installation
- System z, Pre-Installation
POWER systems rescue mode, Rescue Mode on POWER Systems
- accessing SCSI utilities, Special Considerations for Accessing the SCSI Utilities from
Rescue Mode
program.log, T roubleshooting Installation on an Intel or AMD System, T roubleshooting
Installation on an IBM POWER System, T roubleshooting Installation on IBM System z
programs
- running at boot time, Running Additional Programs at Boot T ime
PulseAudio, Other T echnical Documentation
PXE (Pre-boot eXecution Environment), Booting from the Network using PXE
PXE installations
- boot message, custom, Adding a Custom Boot Message
- configuration, PXE Boot Configuration
- overview, Setting Up an Installation Server
- performing, Performing the PXE Installation
- setting up the network server, Setting up the Network Server
R
RAID
- hardware, RAID and Other Disk Devices , RAID and Other Disk Devices
- kickstart installations, Kickstart Options
- Kickstart Configurator, Creating Software RAID Partitions
- software, RAID and Other Disk Devices , RAID and Other Disk Devices
- system unbootable after disk failure, Installing GRUB
- trouble booting from drive attached to RAID card, Are You Unable to Boot With Your RAID
Card?
rc.local
- modifying, Running Additional Programs at Boot T ime
rc.serial , Running Additional Programs at Boot T ime
- (see also setserial command)
54 6
Index
re-installation, Upgrading Your Current System
Red Hat Subscription Service, Entitlement Platform Registration
registration
- with Firstboot, Set Up Software Updates
- with kickstart, Examples
removing
- Red Hat Enterprise Linux
- from IBM System z, Removing Red Hat Enterprise Linux from IBM System z
- from x86-based systems, Removing Red Hat Enterprise Linux from x86-based
systems
rescue discs, Booting Your Computer with the Rescue Mode
rescue mode, Rescue Mode, Booting Your Computer with the Rescue Mode
- definition of, Booting into Rescue Mode
- utilities available, Booting into Rescue Mode
rescue mode, POWER systems, Rescue Mode on POWER Systems
- accessing SCSI utilities, Special Considerations for Accessing the SCSI Utilities from
Rescue Mode
RHN setup
- Red Hat Subscription Service, Entitlement Platform Registration
root / partition
- recommended partitioning, Recommended Partitioning Scheme, Recommended
Partitioning Scheme
root password, Set the Root Password, Set the Root Password, Set the Root Password
runlevel 1, Booting into Single-User Mode
runlevels (see init command)
- changing with GRUB, GRUB Interfaces
- configuration of, Runlevel Utilities
- (see also services)
S
scp, Other T echnical Documentation
- (see also SSH)
screenshots
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 Installation Guide
54 7
- during installation, Screenshots during installation
selecting
- packages, Package Group Selection, Package Group Selection, Package Group Selection
SELinux
- documentation, Other T echnical Documentation
serial console, Configuring the Interface
serial ports (see setserial command)
services
- configuring with chkconfig , Runlevel Utilities
- configuring with ntsysv , Runlevel Utilities
- configuring with Services Configuration T ool , Runlevel Utilities
Services Configuration T ool , Runlevel Utilities
- (see also services)
setserial command
- configuring, Running Additional Programs at Boot T ime
shutdown, Shutting Down
- (see also halt)
single-user mode, Booting into Single-User Mode
software profile, Create Profile
ssh
- starting ssh at boot time, Enabling Remote Access with ssh
SSH (Secure SHell)
- documentation, Other T echnical Documentation
starting
- installation, Starting the Installation Program, Installing from DVD, Installing from DVD
steps
-
booting with CD-ROM or DVD, Choose a boot method
disk space, Do You Have Enough Disk Space?, Do You Have Enough Disk Space?
eServer System p hardware preparation, Preparation for IBM eServer System p
hardware compatibility, Is Your Hardware Compatible?
installing from DVD, Choose a boot method
supported hardware, Supported Installation Hardware, Supported Installation Hardware
storage devices
54 8
Index
- basic storage devices, Storage Devices, Storage Devices, Storage Devices
- specialized storage devices, Storage Devices, Storage Devices, Storage Devices
storage.log, T roubleshooting Installation on an Intel or AMD System, T roubleshooting
Installation on an IBM POWER System, T roubleshooting Installation on IBM System z
subscription
- with kickstart, Examples
subscriptions
- with firstboot, Setting up software updates
Subscriptions, Content delivery and subscriptions
swap file
- upgrade, Upgrading Your Current System
swap partition
- recommended partitioning, Recommended Partitioning Scheme, Recommended
Partitioning Scheme
syslog, T roubleshooting Installation on an Intel or AMD System, T roubleshooting
Installation on an IBM POWER System, T roubleshooting Installation on IBM System z,
Logging to a Remote System During the Installation
system recovery, Basic System Recovery
- adding drivers, Using rescue mode to fix or work around driver problems
- common problems, Common Problems
- forgetting the root password, Root Password
- hardware/software problems, Hardware/Software Problems
- reinstalling the boot loader, Reinstalling the Boot Loader
- unable to boot into Red Hat Enterprise Linux, Unable to Boot into Red Hat
Enterprise Linux
- removing drivers, Using rescue mode to fix or work around driver problems
- replacing drivers, Using rescue mode to fix or work around driver problems
system-config-kickstart (see Kickstart Configurator )
SysV init (see init command)
T
T CP/IP configuration, Performing a Network Installation, Performing a Network
Installation, Performing a Network Installation
T elnet, Enabling Remote Access with T elnet
text interface, Configuring the Interface
tftp , Starting the tftp Server
time zone
- configuration, T ime Z one Configuration, T ime Z one Configuration, T ime Z one
Configuration
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 Installation Guide
54 9
traceback messages
- saving traceback messages without removable media, Saving traceback messages,
Saving traceback messages, Saving traceback messages
troubleshooting, T roubleshooting Installation on an Intel or AMD System,
T roubleshooting Installation on an IBM POWER System, T roubleshooting Installation on
IBM System z
- after the installation, Problems After Installation, Problems After Installation, Problems
After Installation
- Apache HT T P Server stops responding during startup, Apache HT T P Server or
Sendmail stops responding during startup, Apache HT T P Server or Sendmail
stops responding during startup, Apache HT T P Server or Sendmail stops
responding during startup
- booting into a graphical environment, Booting into a Graphical Environment,
Booting into a Graphical Environment
- booting into GNOME or KDE, Booting into a Graphical Environment, Booting into a
Graphical Environment
- booting into the X Window System, Booting into a Graphical Environment, Booting
into a Graphical Environment
- graphical GRUB screen, T rouble With the Graphical GRUB Screen on an x86based System?
- graphical login, Remote Graphical Desktops and XDMCP
- logging in, Problems When You T ry to Log In, Problems When You T ry to Log In,
Problems When You T ry to Log In
- printers, Your Printer Does Not Work, Your Printer Does Not Work, Your Printer
Does Not Work
- RAM not recognized, Is Your RAM Not Being Recognized?
- Sendmail stops responding during startup, Apache HT T P Server or Sendmail
stops responding during startup, Apache HT T P Server or Sendmail stops
responding during startup, Apache HT T P Server or Sendmail stops responding
during startup
- X (X Window System), Problems with the X Window System (GUI), Problems with
the X Window System (GUI)
- X server crashes, Problems with the X Server Crashing and Non-Root Users,
Problems with the X Server Crashing and Non-Root Users
- beginning the installation, T rouble Beginning the Installation, T rouble Beginning the
Installation
- frame buffer, disabling, Problems with Booting into the Graphical Installation,
Problems with Booting into the Graphical Installation
- GUI installation method unavailable, Problems with Booting into the Graphical
Installation, Problems with Booting into the Graphical Installation
- booting, You are unable to boot Red Hat Enterprise Linux, You are unable to boot Red Hat
Enterprise Linux, You are unable to boot Red Hat Enterprise Linux
- RAID cards, Are You Unable to Boot With Your RAID Card?
- signal 11 error, Is Your System Displaying Signal 11 Errors?, Is Your System
Displaying Signal 11 Errors?, Is Your System Displaying Signal 11 Errors?
- during the installation, T rouble During the Installation, T rouble During the Installation,
T rouble During the Installation
550
Index
- completing partitions, Other Partitioning Problems, Other Partitioning Problems
for IBM™ POWER System Users , Other Partitioning Problems
- No devices found to install Red Hat Enterprise Linux error message, No devices
found to install Red Hat Enterprise Linux Error Message, No devices found to
install Red Hat Enterprise Linux Error Message, No devices found to install Red
Hat Enterprise Linux Error Message
- partition tables, T rouble with Partition T ables, T rouble with Partition T ables
- saving traceback messages without removable media, Saving traceback
messages, Saving traceback messages, Saving traceback messages
- using remaining hard drive space, Using Remaining Space
- DVD failure
- DVD verification, Additional Boot Options
U
UEFI (Unified Extensible Firmware Interface), Booting the Installer
uninstalling
- from IBM System z, Removing Red Hat Enterprise Linux from IBM System z
- from x86-based systems, Removing Red Hat Enterprise Linux from x86-based systems
upgrade, Upgrading Your Current System
- adding a swap file, Upgrading Your Current System
USB flash media
- downloading, Obtaining Red Hat Enterprise Linux
- making, Making Media
USB media
- booting, Booting the Installer, Booting the Installer
user interface, graphical
- installation program, T he Graphical Installation Program User Interface, T he Graphical
Installation Program User Interface, T he Graphical Installation Program User Interface
u