API Gateway Key Property Store User Guide

API Gateway Key Property Store User Guide
 API Gateway
Version 7.5.2
4 August 2017
Key Property Store User
Guide
Copyright © 2017 Axway
All rights reserved.
This documentation describes the following Axway software:
Axway API Gateway 7.5.2
No part of this publication may be reproduced, transmitted, stored in a retrieval system, or translated into any human or computer language, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, magnetic, optical, chemical, manual, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the copyright owner, Axway.
This document, provided for informational purposes only, may be subject to significant modification. The descriptions and information in this document may not necessarily accurately represent or reflect the current or planned functions of this product. Axway may change this publication, the product described herein, or both. These changes will be incorporated in new versions of this document. Axway does not warrant that this document is error free.
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Contents
Preface
6
Who should read this document
6
How to use this document
6
Support services
7
Related documentation
8
Accessibility
9
Screen reader support
9
Support for high contrast and accessible use of colors
9
1 Introduction to KPS
10
KPS architecture
10
KPS data stores
11
KPS client applications
11
When to use a KPS
11
2 Get started with KPS
13
Example KPS table
13
Before you begin
14
Define KPS configuration with Policy Studio
14
Step 1: Define where data will be stored
14
Step 2: Define the KPS table
15
Step 3: Define a policy that accesses the table
17
Step 4: Deploy the configuration
19
Add KPS data using API Gateway Manager
20
Access KPS data from a policy
21
Enable API Gateway tracing
22
3 Configure KPS in Policy Studio
23
Configure a KPS collection
23
Configure a KPS table
24
KPS aliases
25
KPS data sources
25
KPS table structure
25
Query tables using properties and keys
26
Primary key
26
Secondary key
26
Auto-generated properties
27
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Key Property Store User Guide 3
Encrypted properties
4 Access KPS data using selectors
27
28
KPS selector syntax
28
KPS selector examples
29
5 Manage a KPS using kpsadmin
Start kpsadmin
30
30
Start in verbose mode
30
Select kpsadmin operations
30
Table operations
31
Table administration operations
31
Collection administration operations
32
Cassandra administration operations
34
General administration operations
34
Example switching data source
34
Step 1: Back up collection data using kpsadmin
34
Step 2: Create a new data source
35
Step 3: Deploy the configuration
36
Step 4: Restore collection data using kpsadmin
36
6 Configure Apache Cassandra KPS storage
Further details
7 Configure database KPS storage
Shared database storage
37
37
38
38
Step 1: Create a KPS database table
38
Step 2: Set up an external connection to the database
39
Step 3: Use the external connection in a KPS collection
39
Per-table database storage
42
Map a database table using a single key
42
How to map a database table using a composite key
47
8 Configure file-based KPS storage
50
Configure a file-based KPS collection
50
Further information
51
Appendix A: KPS FAQ
52
KPS and API Gateway
52
What is KPS used for in API Gateway?
52
What is KPS not suitable for?
52
What are the transaction semantics of KPS?
52
What is the KPS collection alias prefix for?
52
How do I change the API Gateway group passphrase?
53
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KPS storage options
53
Is Apache Cassandra storage required? Can you use file or database storage?
53
How do you switch storage for a KPS collection?
53
Why use database storage?
54
Why use file storage?
54
When can you use kpsadmin? When should you use storage-specific tools?
54
Apache Cassandra
54
Why use Cassandra as a KPS storage option?
54
What versions of Cassandra are supported by API Gateway?
54
What does all host polls marked down mean?
55
B Troubleshoot KPS error messages
All platforms
All host polls marked down
Windows only
UTF-8 characters not displaying correctly in kpsadmin
56
56
56
56
56
Further information
57
Glossary
58
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Preface
This document describes how to configure and manage the API Gateway Key Property Store (KPS). The KPS enables you to manage API Gateway data referenced from policies running on the API Gateway.
Who should read this document
The intended audience for this document is KPS administrators and policy developers. For more details on API Gateway user roles, see the API Management Concepts Guide. This document assumes that you are familiar with the following:
l Database concepts such as tables, rows, and keys
l API Gateway configuration and deployment
l API Gateway selectors
l Using command line tools l Database configuration where database storage is required
For more details on API Gateway configuration and selectors, see the API Gateway Policy Developer Guide.
How to use this document
This document should be used with the other documents in the API Gateway documentation set. Before you begin, review this document thoroughly. The following is a brief description of the contents of each chapter:
l Introduction to KPS on page 10 provides an overview of the KPS architecture and features.
l Get started with KPS on page 13 explains how to develop an example KPS table for managing simple user information.
l Configure KPS in Policy Studio on page 23 provides more detail on how to define general KPS configuration using the P olicy Studio graphical tool.
l Access KPS data using selectors on page 28 explains how to access data in policies on the API Gateway at runtime. l Manage a KPS using kpsadmin on page 30 explains how to manage a KPS, independent of data source.
l Configure Apache Cassandra KPS storage on page 37 explains how to store KPS data in an external Apache Cassandra database.
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Preface
l Configure database KPS storage on page 38 explains how to store KPS data in a relational database (for example, Oracle, MySQL, IBM DB2, or Microsoft SQL Server).
l Configure file-based KPS storage on page 50 explains how to store KPS data in a directory on the file system.
Support services
The Axway Global Support team provides worldwide 24 x 7 support for customers with active support agreements.
Email [email protected] or visit Axway Support at https://support.axway.com.
See "Troubleshoot your API Gateway installation" in the API Gateway Administrator Guide for the information that you should be prepared to provide when you contact Axway Support.
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Related documentation
Related documentation
The following reference documents are available on the Axway Documentation portal at http://docs.axway.com:
l API Management Concepts Guide
This guide describes how API Gateway, API Manager, and API Portal are used to publish, promote, and manage APIs in a secure and scalable environment.
l API Management Plus Concepts Guide
This guide describes how AxwayAPI Management Plus is used to create APIs from cloud applications and on-premise services, control the use of APIs, and enable self-service consumption of APIs.
l Axway Supported Platforms
Lists the different operating systems, databases, browsers, and thick client platforms supported by each Axway product.
l Axway Interoperability Matrix
Provides product version and interoperability information for Axway products.
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Accessibility
Axway strives to create accessible products and documentation for users. This documentation provides the following accessibility features:
l Screen reader support on page 9
l Support for high contrast and accessible use of colors on page 9
Screen reader support
l Alternative text is provided for images whenever necessary. l The PDF documents are tagged to provide a logical reading order.
Support for high contrast and accessible use of
colors
l The documentation can be used in high-contrast mode.
l There is sufficient contrast between the text and the background color.
l The graphics have the right level of contrast and take into account the way color-blind people perceive colors. Axway API Gateway 7.5.2
Key Property Store User Guide 9
Introduction to KPS
1
A Key Property Store (KPS) is a table of data that can be referenced from policies running on the API Gateway. Data in a KPS table is assumed to be read frequently and seldom written, and can be changed without incurring an API Gateway service outage. KPS tables are shared across an API Gateway g roup. KPS architecture
The following diagram shows a simple role-based architecture:
A KPS is typically used to store property values that are used in p olicies running on an API Gateway. KPS data is injected into policies using selectors that are first created in Policy Studio by policy developers. Selectors are evaluated and expanded dynamically at runtime. For example, a KPS table could contain authorization tokens for different users. A policy could look up the token for the current user and insert it into an HTTP request. KPS tables are organized into collections. The tables in a collection typically have some sort of relationship to one another. For example, the OAuth collection contains a set of tables that store all OAuth-related data. Every KPS table is assigned an alias so that it c an be easily referred to in a policy or a REST request. KPS c ollections and tables can be created by policy developers using P olicy Studio. KPS administrators can use the API Gateway Manager web console to view and modify KPS data at runtime. This is a business or operational role that manages dynamic policy configuration data in a KPS (for example, customer details, authorization levels, or quotas). This means that this information does not need to be configured at design time by policy developers.
For more details on API Gateway architecture, components, and roles, see the API Management Concepts Guide. Axway API Gateway 7.5.2
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1 Introduction to KPS
KPS data stores
KPS data can be stored in one of the following locations:
l External Apache Cassandra database:
Data can be distributed across multiple nodes to p rovide high availability. This is the default data store. See Configure Apache Cassandra KPS storage on page 37.
l Relational database:
Accessible to all API Gateway instances in the API Gateway group. See Configure database KPS storage on page 38
l JSON files: On the local file system (deprecated). See Configure file-based KPS storage on page 50
Note
Custom KPS data defined in Policy Studio supports Cassandra, database, and file data stores. API Manager KPS data (Client Registry and API Catalog) supports Cassandra only. File-based KPS is deprecated and will be removed in a future release.
KPS client applications
API Gateway p rovides the following client applications: l Policy Studio: Enables policy developers to create KPS collections and tables, and to configure data sources. See Configure KPS in Policy Studio on page 23.
l API Gateway Manager: Includes a visual web-based interface to enable KPS administrators to view and modify KPS data at runtime. See Get started with KPS on page 13
l kpsadmin command: Supports KPS data entry and other administrative functions. It is designed for use in a development environment. See Manage a KPS using kpsadmin on page 30
l KPS REST API: Enables remote p rogrammatic clients to read and write KPS data. See the API Gateway REST API available from Axway Support at https://support.axway.com
When to use a KPS
KPS provides a flexible data storage service that can be used to store any configuration data. Its primary function is to make this d ata available to selectors at runtime, and it is optimized for this purpose. This makes it most suitable for data with the following c haracteristics:
l Data is common to all API Gateways in an API Gateway group. KPS is not suitable for data that is specific to one particular API Gateway. Axway API Gateway 7.5.2
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1 Introduction to KPS
l The data schema is relatively simple. Each KPS table is assumed to be independent of all others, and referential integrity across tables is not supported.
l Data can change while API Gateways are running. Updating Cassandra-backed or databasebacked KPS tables does not require an API Gateway restart. Changeable data should therefore be stored in KPS instead of hard-coded into p olicies. l Queries always involve looking up a key value in a table to retrieve a single object. This is the usage model supported by selectors. Ad hoc queries that involve searching for non-key properties are not supported.
l Multi-operation transactions are not required. Each read or write to a KPS table is considered a standalone operation. Locking or rollback across multiple operations is not supported.
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2
Get started with KPS
This topic explains how to develop an example KPS table for managing simple user information. Example KPS table
The final structure of the example table is displayed in Policy Studio as follows:
This table structure is described as follows:
Column
Type
Description
age
java.lang.Integer
User age.
email
java.lang.String
User email address. This is selected in Policy Studio as a unique Primary Key, which is indexed implicitly by default.
firstName
java.lang.String
User first name.
lastName
java.lang.String
User surname.
password
java.lang.String
User password, which is selected as Encrypted in Policy Studio.
Example table data is displayed on the Settings > Key Property Stores tab in the API Gateway Manager web console:
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2 Get started with KPS
Before you begin
The following prerequisite steps apply to this example:
1. Ensure that an API Gateway and an Admin Node Manager are running. 2. Start Policy Studio, and connect to the Admin Node Manager.
For more details, see the API Gateway Installation Guide.
Define KPS configuration with Policy Studio
The main steps for configuring KPS tables in Policy Studio are as follows:
Step 1: Define where data will be stored on page 14
Step 2: Define the KPS table on page 15
Step 3: Define a policy that accesses the table on page 17
Step 4: Deploy the configuration on page 19
Step 1: Define where data will be stored
You must first create a KPS collection in which to store the KPS table configuration. Perform the following steps:
1. In the Policy Studio tree, select Environment Configuration > Key Property Stores, then select Add KPS Collection. 2. In the Add KPS Collection dialog, name the collection Samples. Axway API Gateway 7.5.2
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2 Get started with KPS
3. Select a Default data source of Cassandra for all tables in the collection. Note
Leave the Alias prefix field blank. Step 2: Define the KPS table
To create a table, perform the following steps: 1. In the Policy Studio tree, right-click the newly-created Samples collection, and select Add
Table:
2. In the dialog, enter a Name of User, and provide a Description.
3. Click Add to assign an alias of User to this table. A table must have at least one alias.
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2 Get started with KPS
4. Next define the table structure. This consists of the table columns and the data type stored in each column. Select the User table and Structure tab, and click Add: 5. Repeat to add the following columns for your table structure in the Add Property dialog: l email l password l firstName l lastName l age Note
Axway API Gateway 7.5.2
age has an Integer (numeric) Type. All the other columns are String.
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2 Get started with KPS
5. When you select the User table, you should have the following structure:
6. You want the email field to be the primary key for the table, so select Primary Key for this field.
7. You want the password field to be encrypted when stored in the data source, so select Encrypted for this field.
Step 3: Define a policy that accesses the table
To define a test policy that accesses the table, perform the following steps:
1. Add a test policy with a Set Message filter from the Conversion filter category.
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2 Get started with KPS
2. Right-click the filter and set it as the Start filter for the policy. 3. Enter a filter Content-Type of text/plain. 4. Enter the following Message Body for use in the policy:
========================
User
===
Email: ${kps.User[http.querystring.id].email}
First Name: ${kps.User[http.querystring.id].firstName}
Last Name: ${kps.User[http.querystring.id].lastName}
Age: ${kps.User[http.querystring.id].age}
========================
These settings are displayed as follows in the Set Message filter:
The message body value are specified using selectors, which are evaluated and expanded dynamically at runtime. For example, the user age is specified using the following selector string: ${kps.User[http.querystring.id].age}
The selector parts are explained as follows:
Selector part
Description
${
Indicates the start of the selector using a { bracket.
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2 Get started with KPS
Selector part
Description
kps
Specifies that selector should query a KPS table.
.User
Specifies the alias of the table to query (in this case, User).
[
Indicates the start of a table property reference using a[ bracket.
http.querystring.id
This is a dynamic query based on an HTTP query string parameter of id. The primary key value is retrieved from this parameter. The row with this key value is returned from the User table if it exists.
]
Indicates the end of a table property reference using a ] bracket.
.age
Retrieves the age column.
}
Indicates the end of the selector using a } bracket.
Note
Add a Reflect Message filter (Conversion category) to return a successful HTTP response status of 200.
5. Set up a path to this policy. In this example, the path is /kpsGetViaSelector:
Step 4: Deploy the configuration
When you are finished with your configuration changes, you must deploy them to the API Gateway. To deploy the new configuration, click Deploy in the Policy Studio toolbar:
This pushes the configuration to the API Gateway group.
Tip
If you deploy an incorrect configuration (for example, specify an incorrect primary key, property type, or name) you can use the kpsadmin command to drop the table in storage. For more details, see Manage a KPS using kpsadmin on page 30.
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2 Get started with KPS
Add KPS data using API Gateway Manager
You can use API Gateway Manager to populate the User table with data. Perform the following steps:
1. To access API Gateway Manager in your browser, go to https://localhost:8090.
2. Select the Settings > Key Property Stores tab. 3. Select the Samples > User table.
4. To enter new records, select Actions > New Entry:
5. Click Save to save a record.
For example, the table should look as follows:
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2 Get started with KPS
Access KPS data from a policy
To access KPS data from a policy, go to the following URL in your browser:
http://localhost:8080/[email protected]
This URL specifies the user ID (email) as [email protected]
You must specify an email that exists in your data. For example:
Note
If you enter an email that does not exist, you will see [invalid field] results. For example:
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2 Get started with KPS
Enable API Gateway tracing
To enable API Gateway debug tracing, perform the following steps in Policy Studio:
1. In the tree on the left, select Environment Configuration > Server Settings > General.
2. Select a Tracing level of DEBUG. 3. Click Save.
4. Click Deploy. Note
This setting enables debug tracing for the entire API Gateway, and not just for the KPS.
For more details on API Gateway tracing and logging, see the API Gateway Administrator Guide.
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3
Configure KPS in Policy
Studio
This topic describes how to define general KPS configuration in P olicy Studio. For details on data source-specific configuration, see the following topics: l Configure Apache Cassandra KPS storage on page 37
l Configure database KPS storage on page 38
l Configure file-based KPS storage on page 50
Caution
Do not edit the default KPS tables in Policy Studio unless under strict supervision from Axway Support. This includes the API Server, OAuth, or API Portal KPS tables available under Environment Configuration > Key Property Stores.
Configure a KPS collection
A KPS collection is a set of related KPS tables. To configure a KPS collection, perform the following steps:
1. In the Policy Studio tree, under Environment Configuration, right-click Key Property
Stores, and select Add Key Property Store.
2. Specify the following settings in the dialog: l Name: A collection must have a unique name in the API Gateway g roup. l Description: You can provide an optional description. l Alias prefix: You c an also specify an alias prefix, but in normal usage, you c an leave this field blank. l Default data source: A collection has a default data source where all data for all tables in the collection is stored. You can change this data source or assign a different data source to individual tables in the c ollection. 3. When the collection is created, you can specify a Cache for storage and retrieval of selector results. This will improve selector read p erformance for storage backends such as databases. For more details o n API Gateway c aching, see the API Gateway Policy Developer Guide.
Note
Axway API Gateway 7.5.2
Only local caches are supported.
Key Property Store User Guide 23
3 Configure KPS in Policy Studio
The following shows a KPS collection created in Policy Studio:
Configure a KPS table
A KPS table is a user-defined table managed by the KPS in the API Gateway. To configure a KPS table, perform the following steps:
1. Right-click a KPS collection in the Policy Studio tree, and select Add Table.
2. Specify the following settings in the dialog: l Name: A KPS table must have a unique name in the collection. l Description: You can provide an optional description. l Override the default data source with the following: You can specify a different data source than the collection if required. 3. When the table is created, if required, you can use the Override the default data source
with the following setting to specify a different data source than the collection: Axway API Gateway 7.5.2
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3 Configure KPS in Policy Studio
4. Finally, click the Structure tab, and click Add to define the structure of the data stored in the table. For details on supported types and keys, see the following:
l KPS table structure on page 25
l Query tables using properties and keys on page 26
KPS aliases
KPS tables are accessed by aliases. A table must have at least one alias. Aliases must be unique in an API Gateway g roup. You also can use the optional alias prefix for the collection to help ensure that the alias is unique. The full alias of a table is the collection alias prefix and the table alias combined. For example, samples and U
ser g ives s
amplesUser. If unspecified, the default value of the alias prefix for the c ollection is an empty string (for example, U
ser o nly). KPS data sources
A KPS collection has one active data source associated with it. All tables in the collection use this data source by default. You can c onfigure a table to use a different data source if required (see Configure a KPS table on page 24).
KPS table structure
When creating a table, you must define the structure of the data that is stored in that table. This consists of property (column) names and types. You can choose from the following types:
Type
Description
String
Java type.
Boolean
Byte
Integer
Long
Double
List
Java List of any one of the above Java types. Map
Java Map. The key can be any one of the above Java types. The value can be any one of the above Java types. Axway API Gateway 7.5.2
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3 Configure KPS in Policy Studio
Query tables using properties and keys
You can directly access records in a table by specifying certain p roperty names and values, without needing to read all the records in the table. You can use only properties of S
tring, Long, and Integer types for this purpose. These properties are known as indexable properties. Indexed properties include primary keys, secondary keys (which are indexed implicitly), and o ther properties that you explicitly select as Indexed in Policy Studio.
Primary key
You can directly access any record using its primary key. All records in the table must be accessible using unique primary keys. You must select one Primary Key per table in Policy Studio. The specified property must be an indexable property. Primary key values cannot be null. Secondary key
You can optionally access any record directly using a unique secondary key. The secondary key can be a simple key (for example, e
mail ) or a composite key (for example, a
ppId o r companyId ) . The specified properties must be indexable properties. The secondary key (and parts of a composite secondary key) cannot be null. You can specify one secondary key per table. A common use case is to specify an internal unique ID as a primary key, and an external user facing ID as a secondary key. For example, i
d for internal primary key, and email for external ID as a secondary key. Selector access
You can access records in a KPS table using an API Gateway selector. If a secondary key is defined for the table, you must specify all secondary key values in the selector. If no secondary key is defined, you must specify the primary key value instead. In Policy Studio, you can specify a secondary key or a primary key in the Use the following property name(s) for looking up a
table from a selector field.
For examples of accessing KPS tables using selectors, see the following: Axway API Gateway 7.5.2
Key Property Store User Guide 26
3 Configure KPS in Policy Studio
l Get started with KPS on page 13
l Access KPS data using selectors on page 28
l Configure database KPS storage on page 38
Auto-generated properties
In Policy Studio, you can select that String fields are Auto-generated. When a record is created, a Java java.util.UUID is assigned to the field if it is empty. Note
Values f or auto-generated fields can be supplied and modified by users. KPS o nly generates a value at creation time if no value is already p resent.
Encrypted properties
In Policy Studio, you can select that String fields are Encrypted in storage. However, fields selected as Indexed (including primary and secondary key fields) cannot be encrypted. You can enter values for encrypted fields using the API Gateway Manager or the kpsadmin c ommand. These values are forwarded to the API Gateway in the clear using the KPS REST service, and encrypted before being written to storage. Note
The KPS REST service must always run over HTTPS (the default). You must set an encryption passphrase for the API Gateway group, because this is used in the encryption process. For more details, see the API Gateway Administrator Guide.
When KPS tables are accessed using API Gateway selectors at runtime, encrypted fields are automatically decrypted. Selectors do not need to be aware that particular fields in a table are encrypted in storage. When KPS tables are read using the REST API, data is always returned in its encrypted state. Sometimes you may need to view decrypted data to help debug problems on an API Gateway. You can do this using debug mode in kpsadmin. This requires you to enter the passphrase for the API Gateway group. If the in-built KPS encryption mechanism does not suit your needs, you can encrypt and d ecrypt data outside the KPS. In this case, you should not select properties in KPS tables as encrypted in Policy Studio. Encrypted data must be string-encoded for storage (for example, base64-encoded). Selectors that access the data must decrypt it themselves (for example, using a d edicated d ecryption filter in Policy Studio). Axway API Gateway 7.5.2
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4
Access KPS data using
selectors
Data in KPS tables can be accessed using selectors that execute in policies on the API Gateway at runtime. This topic explains KPS selector syntax and provides some example selectors. KPS selector syntax
KPS selector syntax is as follows:
${kps.alias[key].property}
The parts in the selector are described as follows:
Selector part
Description
${
Indicates the start of the selector using a { bracket.
kps
Specifies that selector should query a KPS table.
.alias
Specifies the full alias of the KPS table, including the collection alias p refix if any (for example, User).
[
Indicates the start of a table property reference using a [ bracket.
key
The key value to query the table (for example, http.querystring.id). ]
Indicate the end of a table property reference using a ] bracket.
.property
The field to retrieve from the returned row (for example, age).
}
Indicate the end of the selector using a } bracket.
You can also use a composite key, for example:
${kps.alias[key1][key2].property}
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4 Access KPS data using selectors
KPS selector examples
For an example of accessing KPS data from a selector using a primary key, see Get started with KPS on page 13. For examples of selectors that use both primary and composite keys, see Configure database KPS storage on page 38. The following table shows more examples of KPS selectors: Selector
Description
${kps.User
[http.querystring.id].firstName}
l Get row from KPS table with User alias
l Use key supplied in HTTP query string ( id)
l Return firstName field of row
${kps.User
["[email protected]"].age}
l Get row from KPS table with User alias
l Use constant key "[email protected]" with quotation marks
l Return age field of row
${kps.User
l Get row from KPS table with User alias
[http.querystring.firstName]
[http.querystring.lastName].email} l Use key supplied in HTTP query string ( firstName and lastName)
l Return email field of row
For more details on selectors, see the API Gateway Policy Developer Guide.
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Manage a KPS using
kpsadmin
5
The kpsadmin command-line tool provides KPS management functions independent of data source. This tool is especially useful for development use. Note
In production, you should use data source-specific tools and administration procedures for data backup, restore, security, optimization, monitoring, and so on.
Start kpsadmin
From a command prompt, enter kpsadmin. For example:
Windows
INSTALL_DIR\Win32\bin\kpsadmin.bat
UNIX
INSTALL_DIR/posix/bin/kpsadmin
You are prompted to enter your admin credentials to authenticate to the Admin Node Manager. These are the credentials that you supplied when installing API Gateway. For more details, see the API Gateway Installation Guide.
Start in verbose mode
To run kpsadmin in verbose mode, use the -v option. kpsadmin will then display all REST messages that are exchanged with the API Gateway. This is useful for debugging. For example:
kpsadmin -v
Select kpsadmin operations
This section describes the kpsadmin operations that are available. When you first select an operation, you must enter the following:
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5 Manage a KPS using kpsadmin
l API Gateway group to use
l KPS Admin API Gateway in that group that handles KPS requests. Note
kpsadmin requires you to specify an API Gateway in a group. This is known as the KPS Admin API Gateway, which is used for fielding KPS requests only. Any API Gateway in the group can be used. For example, you might change this if you want to check that data is available from any API Gateway in the group.
l KPS collection to use in the group
l KPS table to use in the collection
You can change this selection at any time. Table operations
The kpsadmin table operations are as follows:
Table operation
Description
Create Row
Create a row in the selected table.
Read Row
Read a row by primary key in the selected table.
Update Row
Update a row in the selected table. The row is specified by primary key.
Delete Row
Delete a row in the selected table. The row is specified by primary key.
List Rows
List all rows in the table.
Table administration operations
The kpsadmin operations for table administration are as follows:
Table
Administration
Description
Clear
Clear all rows in the table.
Backup
Back up the table data. The generated backup UUID is required when restoring the data.
Restore
Restore table data. The table must be empty before you restore.
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Table
Administration
Description
Re-encrypt
Re-encrypt encrypted data in the table. Use this option when the encryption passphrase has been changed for the API Gateway group. The table will be offline after a passphrase change.
You must use this option to re-encrypt the data. You must enter the old API Gateway passphrase to proceed. Data is re-encrypted using the current API Gateway passphrase.
Restart the API Gateway instance(s) in the group.
Re-create
Recreate a table. This is useful in development if you wish to change the table structure. This procedure involves dropping and recreating the table, so all existing data will be lost. The steps are as follows:
1. Back up (optional).
Backup the data if necessary using kpsadmin.
2. Deploy the correct configuration. First redeploy the correct configuration using Policy Studio. This may result in some KPS deployment errors. The changes you have made may no longer match the stored data structure.
3. Re-create the table with the correct configuration.
Select the Re-create option using kpsadmin.
4. Restore (optional) Restore the data using kpsadmin. If you have made key or index changes, the data should import directly. If you have made more extensive changes (for example, renaming fields or changing types), you must upgrade the data to match the new table structure.
Table Details
Display information about a table and its properties.
Collection administration operations
The kpsadmin operations for collection administration are as follows:
Collection
Administration
Description
Clear All
Clear all data in all tables in the collection.
Backup All
Back up all data in all tables in the collection.
Restore All
Restore all data in all tables in the collection.
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Collection
Administration
Description
Re-encrypt All
Re-encrypt all data in all tables in the collection.
Collection Details
Display information about all tables in the collection.
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Cassandra administration operations
The kpsadmin operations for Cassandra administration are as follows:
Cassandra
Administration
Description
Show Configuration
Show the current configuration for the KPS-storage service (in this case, Apache Cassandra).
General administration operations
The kpsadmin operations for general administration are as follows:
General
Description
Change Table
Change the currently selected table.
Change Collection
Change the currently selected collection, and select a table in that collection.
Change Group or API Gateway
Refresh the configuration, and change the currently selected API Gateway group and KPS Admin API Gateway.
Debug Mode
Enable or disable debug mode. To enable, you must enter the API Gateway group passphrase. Encrypted data in KPS tables is then shown in the clear. This can be useful for debugging issues on the API Gateway.
Example switching data source
This example shows how to switch from Cassandra storage to file storage.
Step 1: Back up collection data using kpsadmin
To copy the current data in the collection to the new data source, back up the collection data using kpsadmin option 21) Backup All.
The backup UUID is highlighted in the following example:
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Step 2: Create a new data source
To create the new data source, perform the following steps:
1. In the Policy Studio tree, select Environment Configuration > Key Property Stores > Samples.
2. Select the collection Data Sources tab. 3. Click Add > Add File at the bottom right.
4. Enter a file data source Name and Description.
5. Enter a Directory Path (for example, ${VINSTDIR/kps/samples). Tip
You can include ${VINSTDIR} or ${VDISTDIR} to indicate the API Gateway instance directory or install directory respectively. Make sure to use \ on Windows or / on UNIX. If the directory does not exist, it is automatically created.
6. Select the collection Properties tab. 7. Change the collection Default data source to use the new data source:
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Step 3: Deploy the configuration
Click the Deploy button in the Policy Studio toolbar.
Step 4: Restore collection data using kpsadmin
If you created a backup in step 1, perform the following steps to restore the collection data:
1. Using kpsadmin, select option 22) Restore All. 2. Enter the backup UUID noted in step 1. For example:
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Configure Apache Cassandra
KPS storage
6
Apache Cassandra provides a highly available (HA) data storage option for KPS. API Gateway can connect to an external Cassandra database cluster. You must configure three Cassandra nodes to provide a HA data service. A default single Cassandra node, non-HA system typically does not require additional configuration.
Note
Custom KPS data defined in Policy Studio supports Cassandra, database, and file data stores. However, API Manager KPS tables (Client Registry and API Catalog) support Cassandra only. Database and file data stores are not supported for API Manager. Threenode Cassandra HA with full consistency is required for API Manager.
For details on installing and configuring Apache Cassandra HA for API Gateway and API Manager, see see "Install Apache Cassandra" in the API Gateway Installation Guide.
Further details
For more details, see the Apache Cassandra and Datastax documentation:
l http://cassandra.apache.org/
l http://docs.datastax.com/
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7
Configure database
KPS storage
KPS data can be stored in a relational database. API Gateway supports the following databases: l Oracle l IBM DB2 l Microsoft SQL Server l MySQL
Note
KPS data defined in Policy Studio supports Cassandra, database, and file data stores. API Manager KPS data (Client Registry and API Catalog) supports Cassandra only.
The options for database storage are as follows:
l Shared database storage: Data for multiple KPS tables is stored in a single dedicated database table. Data is encoded in JSON before being stored. This approach is very flexible because it allows maps and lists to be stored in tables. It also minimizes administration overhead because only a single database table needs to be created and managed. This is the recommended approach. For more details, see Shared database storage on page 38.
l Per-table database storage Each KPS table is backed by a single database table. Each property in the KPS table maps to a corresponding column in the database table. This approach allows existing tables to be reused, and allows more precise tuning at database level. However, it also has significant limitations (for example, with supported data types and adding and viewing data). For more details, see Per-table database storage on page 42.
Shared database storage
For shared database storage, a single database table is used to store data for multiple KPS tables. This section describes the storage configuration steps.
Step 1: Create a KPS database table
Create a database table called kps_object by executing the appropriate SQL script for your database system. SQL scripts are available in the following location:
INSTALL_DIR/system/conf/sql/DB_NAME/kps.sql
Note
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Step 2: Set up an external connection to the
database
To access this table from the API Gateway, you must setup an external database connection from the API Gateway. For more details, see the API Gateway Policy Developer Guide. The following shows example database connection settings in Policy Studio:
Note
For MySQL, the table creation script specifies UTF-8. You must also use the correct JDBC connection URL. Update the connection URL field to specify Unicode & UTF-8. For example:
jdbc:mysql://testserver:3306/kps?useUnicode=true&characterEncoding=UTF-8
Step 3: Use the external connection in a KPS
collection
When creating a KPS collection, you can select database storage in the Default data source field. The following example shows an SQL database selected:
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Alternatively, you can add a database storage option to the collection later. On the Data Sources tab, select Add > Add Database. For an example, see Step 2: Add the database data source to the KPS collection on page 42.
For an example with file storage, see Configure file-based KPS storage on page 50.
Database storage information
The following describes how KPS data is stored in a database:
l The maximum primary key length in a KPS row is 255 characters
l The maximum KPS table name length is 255 characters
l KPS rows are JSON encoded
l Optimistic locking is used and is enforced using a version column
Increase row size
You can increase the maximum KPS row size by changing the largeValue column. For example, to support image icons in MySQL, enter the following command:
alter table kps_object modify column largevalue mediumtext;
Logging for shared table storage
Shared database storage uses Apache OpenJPA to handle the communication between KPS and the back-end database. You can use OpenJPA logging to view the SQL requests transmitted to the database and their responses. This information can be useful for debugging. You can configure OpenJPA logging using Apache log4j properties.
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Enable OpenJPA debug logging
To enable OpenJPA debug logging:
1. Edit the following file: INSTALL_DIR/apigateway/system/lib/log4j.properties
2. Add the following settings:
log4j.rootLogger=DEBUG, A1, Vordel
# OpenJPA
log4j.category.openjpa.Tool=DEBUG
log4j.category.openjpa.Runtime=DEBUG
log4j.category.openjpa.Remote=DEBUG
log4j.category.openjpa.DataCache=DEBUG
log4j.category.openjpa.MetaData=DEBUG
log4j.category.openjpa.Enhance=DEBUG
log4j.category.openjpa.Query=DEBUG
log4j.category.openjpa.jdbc.SQL=DEBUG
log4j.category.openjpa.jdbc.SQLDiag=DEBUG
log4j.category.openjpa.jdbc.JDBC=DEBUG
log4j.category.openjpa.jdbc.Schema=DEBUG
3. Restart the API Gateway. 4. Verify that debug statements are written to the log.
Disable OpenJPA debug logging
To disable OpenJPA debug logging:
1. Edit the following file: INSTALL_DIR/apigateway/system/lib/log4j.properties
2. Substitute ERROR for DEBUG in the log4j.category.openjpa settings.
3. Restart the API Gateway. 4. Verify that no debug statements are printed to the log.
For more information on Apache OpenJPA logging, see:
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7 Configure database KPS storage
Per-table database storage
You can use this option to map a KPS table to a single database table. The structure of both tables must match, so a new database table is required for each new KPS table. When the KPS table is queried, an SQL statement is executed to retrieve the correct row from the underlying database table. This SQL statement is provided by the user in Policy Studio.
However, tables that use per-table database storage have significant limitations:
l Data cannot be added through KPS, but only directly through the database
l Data cannot be viewed in kpsadmin or API Gateway Manager, but can only be read by selectors at runtime
l Tables can only contain simple data types, not maps or lists
KPS tables can be queried using simple or composite keys. This section shows examples of both.
Map a database table using a single key
In this example, a KPS table is accessed using a single key property. This key is used to retrieve the correct row from the database table. This example uses the following User table and data created using a MySQL client:
CREATE TABLE User (
email VARCHAR(100),
password VARCHAR(100),
firstName VARCHAR(100),
lastName VARCHAR(100),
age INT
);
insert into User (email, password, firstName, lastName, age) values ("[email protected]", "password", "Ralph", "Jones", 30);
insert into User (email, password, firstName, lastName, age) values ("[email protected]", "blah", "Kathy", "Adams", 35);
Step 1: Set up an external connection to the database
To access a database from the API Gateway, you must set up an external database connection (see Step 2: Set up an external connection to the database on page 39). This example uses the configuration from Get started with KPS on page 13. Step 2: Add the database data source to the
KPS collection
To add a database data source, perform the following steps:
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1. On the KPS collection Data Sources tab, select Add > Add Database.
2. Specify the Database Connection in the dialog (for example, Test DB Connection):
Step 3: Map the SQL table to a KPS table
From an existing KPS collection, perform the following steps:
1. Right-click the KPS collection, and select Map SQL Table:
2. Enter an alias in the dialog (for example mapUser) :
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3. Enter a database-specific JDBC SQL query to retrieve the required data. For example:
select * from User where email = ?
4. On the Properties tab of the new KPS table, select the new database data source in Override
the default data source with the following:
Step 4: Define the KPS table structure
You must define a KPS table structure into which data will be read. You must specify the fields that you expect to read with the SQL query. In this example, all fields in the table are read using an asterisk (*) in the SQL query. This lists all fields, so the order does not matter in this case. However, the names and type must match the result returned by the SQL query.
In this SQL query, email is the primary key. You specify email as the property to use in corresponding selector queries:
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For example, you can use the following selector:
${kps.mapUser
["[email protected]"].age}
Note
This syntax uses ASCII quotation marks (").
This selector generates the following SQL query:
select * from User where email = "[email protected]"
Step 5: Define the policy and path
You can reuse the policy and path from Get started with KPS on page 13 with one change—use the mapUser KPS alias for this new table. For example:
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Step 6: Deploy and run
Click Deploy in the Policy Studio toolbar.
To run the policy in your browser, go to:
http://localhost:8080/[email protected] This URL specifies the user ID (email) as [email protected] For example, the result is as follows:
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How to map a database table using a composite
key
This section modifies the example in Map a database table using a single key on page 42. This section shows how a table with a composite secondary key can be accessed from a selector. In this version, the secondary key is {firstName, lastName}. Step 1: Modify the KPS table
You must update the database-specific JDBC SQL query in the KPS table to retrieve the required data. To modify the KPS table, perform the following steps: 1. On the Properties tab in the Query field, enter the following:
select * from User where firstName = ? and lastName = ?
For example:
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2. On the Structure tab, change the selector properties to firstName,lastName:
Step 2: Modify the policy
You must update the Set Message filter in your policy to use firstName and lastName parameters. For example:
Enter the following in the Message Body field, using a single line for each entry ( Email, First Name, Last Name, and Age):
========================
User
===
Email: ${kps.mapUser[http.querystring.firstName]
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[http.querystring.lastName].email}
First Name: ${kps.mapUser[http.querystring.firstName]
[http.querystring.lastName].firstName}
Last Name: ${kps.mapUser[http.querystring.firstName]
[http.querystring.lastName].lastName}
Age: ${kps.mapUser[http.querystring.firstName]
[http.querystring.lastName].age}
========================
Step 3: Deploy and run
Click Deploy in the Policy Studio toolbar.
To run the policy in a browser, go to the following URL: http://localhost:8080/kpsGetViaSelector?firstName=Kathy&lastName=Adams For example, the result is as follows:
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8
Configure file-based KPS
storage
You can store KPS data in a directory on the file system. Each table is stored in a single JSON file. File-based storage is specified at the KPS collection or KPS table level. Note
File-based KPS storage is deprecated and will be removed in a future release.
File-based KPS storage is most suited to single API Gateway deployments. In a multi-API Gateway scenario, file replication or a shared disk is required to ensure that all API Gateways use the same data.
KPS data defined in Policy Studio supports Cassandra, database, and file data stores. API Manager. KPS data (Client Registry and API Catalog) supports Cassandra only.
File-based KPS tables are read and cached by API Gateways when they start up. If data is modified, all API Gateways must be restarted to pick up the changes.
Configure a file-based KPS collection
You can configure a file-based KPS data source when creating a KPS collection, or add one later on the Data Source tab. For example, the following settings are available when editing file-based collection:
These settings are described as follows:
Name
Description
Name
Collection-unique data source name.
Description
Optional description.
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Name
Description
Directory
Path
The directory name where table data for the collection is stored. If the directory does not exist, it is automatically created. If this directory is not specified, the directory path defaults to ${VINSTDIR}/conf/kps.
The path can include VDISTDIR or VINSTDIR variables. These are resolved to the API Gateway instance and installation directories. For example, ${VDISTDIR}/mydata/samples. Remember to use the correct path separator (/ on UNIX and \ on Windows).
Further information
See also the following: l Configure Apache Cassandra KPS storage on page 37
l Configure database KPS storage on page 38
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Appendix A: KPS FAQ
This appendix answers the frequently asked questions on KPS and API Gateway, KPS storage, and Apache Cassandra.
KPS and API Gateway
This section includes frequently asked questions on KPS and API Gateway:
What is KPS used for in API Gateway?
In addition to use with your API Gateway policies, KPS is used as an option for OAuth token storage, Client Application Registry, and API Manager. If you do not wish to use these features, or do not wish to use an external Apache Cassandra service as a storage mechanism for these features, see Configure Apache Cassandra KPS storage on page 37 for details on how to disable Cassandra storage.
What is KPS not suitable for?
KPS is not suitable for complicated data models, ad hoc queries, or where full ACID transaction support is required. KPS does not enforce referential integrity.
What are the transaction semantics of KPS?
Individual KPS operations are atomic (A), isolated (I), and durable (D). Consistency (C) depends on the data storage mechanism chosen and the number of API Gateways in a group. With file storage, data is consistent in a single API Gateway. With supported database storage, data is consistent. Cassandra storage allows consistency levels to be set per KPS table. KPS does not provide transactions across multiple operations. You cannot issue a set of KPS operations and roll them back.
What is the KPS collection alias prefix for?
This provides an optional namespace for a KPS collection to help ensure that tables in the collection have a unique alias. In most cases, you can leave this prefix empty. Axway API Gateway 7.5.2
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How do I change the API Gateway group
passphrase?
To change the group passphrase, perform the following steps:
1. Change the group passphrase in Policy Studio. For details, see the API Gateway Administrator Guide. 2. In kpsadmin, select the Collection Administration, Re-encrypt All option to reencrypt the data in each collection. 3. You will be asked to enter the old API Gateway passphrase. This passphrase is used to decrypt the data. The data is then re-encrypted with the current API Gateway passphrase.
4. Restart the API Gateway instance(s) in the group.
For more details, see Manage a KPS using kpsadmin on page 30. KPS storage options
This section includes frequently asked questions on KPS storage mechanisms:
Is Apache Cassandra storage required? Can
you use file or database storage?
Apache Cassandra is the default out-of-the-box storage, but is not a requirement. You can switch to database or file storage. For more details, see How do you switch storage for a KPS collection? on page 53.
Note
KPS data defined in Policy Studio supports Cassandra, database, and file data stores. API Manager KPS data (Client Registry and API Catalog) supports Cassandra only. File-based KPS storage is deprecated and will be removed in a future release.
How do you switch storage for a KPS collection?
The general steps to switch storage for a KPS collection are as follows:
1. Back up the data for a collection using kpsadmin. 2. Add and configure a new data source (file, database, or Cassandra) using Policy Studio. 3. Deploy the configuration in Policy Studio. 4. Restore the data using kpsadmin. For more details, see the example in Manage a KPS using kpsadmin on page 30. Axway API Gateway 7.5.2
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Appendix A: KPS FAQ
Why use database storage?
You may already have a relational database system and expertise that you wish to use. For more details, see Configure database KPS storage on page 38.
Why use file storage?
Note
File-based KPS storage is deprecated and will be removed in a future release.
File storage is very easy to use. Data is written to very simple JSON encoded files. File storage is suitable for single API Gateway use in development and production. If you have more than one API Gateway sharing the files, you must restart these API Gateways after a KPS update. It is only suitable here for rarely changing, read-mostly data. For more details, see Configure file-based KPS storage on page 50.
When can you use kpsadmin? When should you
use storage-specific tools?
You can use kpsadmin anytime. However, it is especially useful for development use. In production, you should use storage-specific tools and procedures (for example, for data backup). For more details on kpsadmin, see Manage a KPS using kpsadmin on page 30. Apache Cassandra
This section includes frequently asked questions on the Apache Cassandra database:
Why use Cassandra as a KPS storage option?
Cassandra is a key-value store. Cassandra has a non-restrictive Apache 2.0 license. It provides high availability, and has an active community.
What versions of Cassandra are supported by
API Gateway?
For details on supported Cassandra versions, see "Install Apache Cassandra" in the API Gateway Installation Guide.
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Appendix A: KPS FAQ
What does all host polls marked down mean?
This means that the client cannot connect to the Cassandra server. For details on how to resolve this issue, see Troubleshoot KPS error messages on page 56.
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B
Troubleshoot KPS error
messages
This appendix describes KPS error messages, and explains how to resolve them.
All platforms
This section explains how to troubleshoot KPS errors on all platforms:
All host polls marked down
This error means that the API Gateway client cannot connect to the Cassandra server.
To resolve this issue, perform the following steps:
l Check that all ports and addresses are correct in cassandra.yaml to verify that the endpoints are what you expect.
l Enable Cassandra debug logging.
l Contact your network administrator
For more details on Cassandra configuration, see "Install Apache Cassandra" in the API Gateway Installation Guide.
Windows only
This section explains how to troubleshoot KPS errors on Windows only:
UTF-8 characters not displaying correctly in
kpsadmin
This is a known limitation of the Windows command console. To view UTF-8 data correctly, run kpsadmin in a Cygwin console instead. For more details on kpsadmin, see Manage a KPS using kpsadmin on page 30.
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Further information
This topic shows where to find more details on KPS-related information:
Feature
Documentation
KPS REST API
The KPS REST API is documented in the API Gateway REST API available from Axway Support at https://support.axway.com.
Apache Cassandra
For details on how to install and configure Apache Cassandra, see the API Gateway Installation Guide.
For details on Cassandra version 2.2.5, see the following:
l http://cassandra.apache.org/
l https://docs.datastax.com/en/cassandra/2.2/
API Gateway
database
connections
For details on how to configure database connections, see the API Gateway Policy Developer Guide. API Gateway
caches
For details on how to configure local caches, see the API Gateway Policy Developer Guide.
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Glossary
Apache Cassandra
An open source distributed database, designed to provide high availability by distributing data across multiple servers.
KPS
Key Property Store. Data management component in the API Gateway.
KPS alias
An alternative name for a KPS table that is unique in an API Gateway group.
KPS collection
A collection of related KPS tables.
KPS table
A user defined table that is managed by the KPS in the API Gateway.
Selector
A special syntax that enables API Gateway configuration settings to be evaluated and expanded at runtime based on metadata values (for example, from a KPS, message attribute, or environment variable).
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