Netgear WPN802, WPN802v2 Owner's manual

Netgear WPN802, WPN802v2 Owner's manual
Reference Manual for the
NETGEAR RangeMax™
Wireless Access Point
WPN802
NETGEAR, Inc.
4500 Great America Parkway
Santa Clara, CA 95054 USA
202-10101-01
May 2005
© 2005 by NETGEAR, Inc. All rights reserved. May 2005.
Trademarks
NETGEAR is a trademark of Netgear, Inc.
Microsoft, Windows, and Windows NT are registered trademarks of Microsoft Corporation.
Other brand and product names are registered trademarks or trademarks of their respective holders.
Statement of Conditions
In the interest of improving internal design, operational function, and/or reliability, NETGEAR reserves the right to
make changes to the products described in this document without notice.
NETGEAR does not assume any liability that may occur due to the use or application of the product(s) or circuit
layout(s) described herein.
Federal Communications Commission (FCC) Compliance Notice: Radio Frequency Notice
This equipment has been tested and found to comply with the limits for a Class B digital device, pursuant to
part 15 of the FCC Rules. These limits are designed to provide reasonable protection against harmful interference in a
residential installation. This equipment generates, uses, and can radiate radio frequency energy and, if not installed and
used in accordance with the instructions, may cause harmful interference to radio communications. However, there is no
guarantee that interference will not occur in a particular installation. If this equipment does cause harmful interference to
radio or television reception, which can be determined by turning the equipment off and on, the user is encouraged to try
to correct the interference by one or more of the following measures:
•
Reorient or relocate the receiving antenna.
•
Increase the separation between the equipment and receiver.
•
Connect the equipment into an outlet on a circuit different from that to which the receiver is connected.
•
Consult the dealer or an experienced radio/TV technician for help.
EN 55 022 Declaration of Conformance
This is to certify that the NETGEAR RangeMax™ Wireless Access Point WPN802 is shielded against the generation of
radio interference in accordance with the application of Council Directive 89/336/EEC, Article 4a. Conformity is
declared by the application of EN 55 022 Class B (CISPR 22).
Bestätigung des Herstellers/Importeurs
Es wird hiermit bestätigt, daß das NETGEAR RangeMax™ Wireless Access Point WPN802 gemäß der im
BMPT-AmtsblVfg 243/1991 und Vfg 46/1992 aufgeführten Bestimmungen entstört ist. Das vorschriftsmäßige Betreiben
einiger Geräte (z.B. Testsender) kann jedoch gewissen Beschränkungen unterliegen. Lesen Sie dazu bitte die
Anmerkungen in der Betriebsanleitung.
Das Bundesamt für Zulassungen in der Telekommunikation wurde davon unterrichtet, daß dieses Gerät auf den Markt
gebracht wurde und es ist berechtigt, die Serie auf die Erfüllung der Vorschriften hin zu überprüfen.
Certificate of the Manufacturer/Importer
It is hereby certified that the NETGEAR RangeMax™ Wireless Access Point WPN802 has been suppressed
in accordance with the conditions set out in the BMPT-AmtsblVfg 243/1991 and Vfg 46/1992. The operation of some
equipment (for example, test transmitters) in accordance with the regulations may, however, be subject to certain
restrictions. Please refer to the notes in the operating instructions.
Federal Office for Telecommunications Approvals has been notified of the placing of this equipment on the market
and has been granted the right to test the series for compliance with the regulations.
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Voluntary Control Council for Interference (VCCI) Statement
This equipment is in the second category (information equipment to be used in a residential area or an adjacent area
thereto) and conforms to the standards set by the Voluntary Control Council for Interference by Data Processing
Equipment and Electronic Office Machines aimed at preventing radio interference in such residential areas.
When used near a radio or TV receiver, it may become the cause of radio interference.
Read instructions for correct handling.
Customer Support
Refer to the Support Information Card that shipped with your NETGEAR RangeMax™ Wireless Access Point
WPN802.
World Wide Web
NETGEAR maintains a World Wide Web home page that you can access at the universal resource locator (URL)
http://www.netgear.com. A direct connection to the Internet and a Web browser such as Internet Explorer
or Netscape are required.
Product and Publication Details
Model Number:
WPN802
Publication Date:
May 2005
Product Family:
Wireless Access Point
Product Name:
NETGEAR RangeMax™ Wireless Access Point WPN802
Home or Business Product:
Business
Language:
English
Publication Part Number:
202-10101-01
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Contents
Chapter 1
About This Manual
Audience, Scope, Conventions, and Formats ................................................................1-1
How to Use This Manual ................................................................................................1-2
How to Print this Manual .................................................................................................1-2
Chapter 2
Introduction
Key Features ..................................................................................................................2-1
RangeMax™ Multi-In, Multi-Out (MIMO) Technology ..............................................2-1
802.11g Wireless Networking ...................................................................................2-2
Autosensing Ethernet Connections with Auto Uplink ...............................................2-2
Compatible and Related NETGEAR Products .........................................................2-3
Package Contents ..........................................................................................................2-3
The Front Panel Status Lights ........................................................................................2-4
The Rear Panel ..............................................................................................................2-4
Chapter 3
Basic Installation and Configuration
Default Factory Settings .................................................................................................3-1
System Requirements ....................................................................................................3-2
Prepare to Install Your Wireless Access Point ................................................................3-2
First, Connect the Wireless Access Point to Your Computer ..........................................3-2
Then, Configure the Basic Settings ................................................................................3-4
Next, Configure the Wireless Settings ............................................................................3-6
Deploy the WPN802 and Verify Wireless Connectivity ...................................................3-7
How to Log In to the WPN802 Using Its Default IP Address ..........................................3-8
Chapter 4
Wireless Configuration
Observe Performance, Placement, and Range Guidelines ............................................4-1
Understanding Wireless Settings ...................................................................................4-2
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Understanding Advanced Wireless Settings ..................................................................4-3
Implementing Appropriate Wireless Security ..................................................................4-5
Information to Gather Before Changing Basic Wireless Settings .............................4-7
How to Set Up and Test Basic Wireless Connectivity ..............................................4-8
How to Configure WEP or WPA .....................................................................................4-9
Configuring Advanced Wireless Settings ..................................................................... 4-11
Wireless Card Access (Restricting by MAC Address) ..................................................4-12
Turning Access Control On ....................................................................................4-13
Setting up the Access Control List .........................................................................4-13
Chapter 5
Management and Information
Changing the Password .................................................................................................5-1
Upgrading the Wireless Access Point Firmware ............................................................5-2
First, Prepare for the Firmware Upgrade .................................................................5-2
Then, Upgrade the Firmware ...................................................................................5-2
Backing up Settings or Restoring Settings .....................................................................5-3
Backing up Settings .................................................................................................5-4
Restoring Settings from a Backup File .....................................................................5-4
Restoring Factory Default Settings ..........................................................................5-4
Rebooting the WPN802 Access Point ............................................................................5-5
Viewing a List of Available Wireless Stations .................................................................5-5
Viewing Statistics ............................................................................................................5-6
Chapter 6
Troubleshooting
Troubleshooting Tips ......................................................................................................6-1
No lights are lit on the access point. .......................................................................6-1
The Ethernet light is not lit. .......................................................................................6-1
The WLAN light is not lit. .........................................................................................6-1
I cannot configure the access point from a browser. ...............................................6-2
I cannot access the Internet or the LAN with a wireless capable computer. ...........6-2
When I enter a URL or IP address I get a timeout error. ..........................................6-2
Using the Reset Button to Restore Factory Default Settings ..........................................6-3
To clear all data and restore the factory default values: ....................................6-3
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Appendix A
Technical Specifications
Appendix B
Wireless Networking Basics
Wireless Networking Overview ...................................................................................... B-1
Infrastructure Mode ................................................................................................. B-1
Ad Hoc Mode (Peer-to-Peer Workgroup) ................................................................ B-2
Network Name: Extended Service Set Identification (ESSID) ................................ B-2
Authentication and WEP Data Encryption ..................................................................... B-2
802.11 Authentication .............................................................................................. B-3
Open System Authentication ................................................................................... B-3
Shared Key Authentication ...................................................................................... B-4
Overview of WEP Parameters ................................................................................ B-5
Key Size .................................................................................................................. B-6
WEP Configuration Options .................................................................................... B-7
Wireless Channels ......................................................................................................... B-7
WPA and WPA2 Wireless Security ................................................................................ B-8
How Does WPA Compare to WEP? ........................................................................ B-9
How Does WPA Compare to WPA2 (IEEE 802.11i)? ............................................ B-10
What are the Key Features of WPA and WPA2 Security? .................................... B-10
WPA/WPA2 Authentication: Enterprise-level User
Authentication via 802.1x/EAP and RADIUS .................................................. B-12
WPA/WPA2 Data Encryption Key Management ............................................. B-14
Is WPA/WPA2 Perfect? ......................................................................................... B-16
Product Support for WPA/WPA2 ........................................................................... B-16
Supporting a Mixture of WPA, WPA2, and WEP
Wireless Clients is Discouraged ..................................................................... B-16
Changes to Wireless Access Points ............................................................... B-17
Changes to Wireless Network Adapters ......................................................... B-17
Changes to Wireless Client Programs ............................................................ B-18
Glossary
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Chapter 1
About This Manual
This chapter describes the intended audience, scope, conventions, and formats of this manual.
Audience, Scope, Conventions, and Formats
This reference manual assumes that the reader has basic to intermediate computer and Internet
skills. However, basic computer network, Internet, firewall, and VPN technologies tutorial
information is provided in the Appendices and on the Netgear website.
This guide uses the following typographical conventions:
Table 1-1.
Typographical Conventions
italics
Emphasis, books, CDs, URL names
bold
User input
fixed
Screen text, file and server names, extensions, commands, IP addresses
This guide uses the following formats to highlight special messages:
Note: This format is used to highlight information of importance or special interest.
This manual is written for the WPN802 Access Point according to these specifications:
Table 1-2.
Manual Scope
Product Version
NETGEAR RangeMax™ Wireless Access Point WPN802
Manual Publication Date
May 2005
Note: Product updates are available on the NETGEAR, Inc. Web site at
http://kbserver.netgear.com/products/WPN802.asp.
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How to Use This Manual
The HTML version of this manual includes the following:
•
Buttons,
at a time
and
, for browsing forwards or backwards through the manual one page
•
A
button that displays the table of contents and an
button. Double-click on a
link in the table of contents or index to navigate directly to where the topic is described in the
manual.
•
A
product model.
•
Links to PDF versions of the full manual and individual chapters.
button to access the full NETGEAR, Inc. online knowledge base for the
How to Print this Manual
To print this manual you can choose one of the following several options, according to your needs.
•
Printing a Page in the HTML View.
Each page in the HTML version of the manual is dedicated to a major topic. Use the Print
button on the browser toolbar to print the page contents.
•
Printing a Chapter.
Use the PDF of This Chapter link at the top left of any page.
–
Click the PDF of This Chapter link at the top right of any page in the chapter you want to
print. The PDF version of the chapter you were viewing opens in a browser window.
Note: Your computer must have the free Adobe Acrobat reader installed in order to view
and print PDF files. The Acrobat reader is available on the Adobe Web site at
http://www.adobe.com.
–
Click the print icon in the upper left of the window.
Tip: If your printer supports printing two pages on a single sheet of paper, you can save
paper and printer ink by selecting this feature.
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•
Printing the Full Manual.
Use the Complete PDF Manual link at the top left of any page.
–
–
Click the Complete PDF Manual link at the top left of any page in the manual. The PDF
version of the complete manual opens in a browser window.
Click the print icon in the upper left of the window.
Tip: If your printer supports printing two pages on a single sheet of paper, you can save
paper and printer ink by selecting this feature.
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Chapter 2
Introduction
The NETGEAR RangeMax™ Wireless Access Point WPN802 provides connectivity between
Ethernet wired networks and radio-equipped wireless notebook systems, desktop systems, print
servers, and other devices.This chapter describes the features of the NETGEAR RangeMax™
Wireless Access Point WPN802.
Note: This manual provides information on the complete features as of the date of
publication. Earlier versions of this product may not have all the features presented in
this manual. Go to http://kbserver.netgear.com/products/WPN802.asp where you will
find product firmware updates for your WPN802.
Key Features
The WPN802 Access Point is easy-to-use and provides the following features:
•
RangeMax™ Multi-In, Multi-Out (MIMO) technology
•
802.11g wireless networking, with the ability to operate in 802.11g-only, 802.11b only, or
802.11b+g modes.
•
•
•
•
Easy, Web-based setup for installation and management.
Login capability.
Front panel LEDs for easy monitoring of status and activity.
Flash memory for firmware upgrades.
RangeMax™ Multi-In, Multi-Out (MIMO) Technology
Netgear’s RangeMax Multi-In, Multi-Out (MIMO) technology provides ten times more coverage
than standard 802.11g alone by eliminating “dead spots” in your area of coverage where you use
your wireless computers. Your whole house or office suite now becomes a “hot spot” without
requiring any range extenders, repeaters, or external antennas. RangeMax maintains your high
speed throughout your home, not just when you are close to your wireless access point.
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RangeMax is an advanced Smart MIMO (Multi-In, Multi-Out) technology that uses seven internal
antennas. RangeMax constantly surveys your home environment for physical barriers and
interference and adjusts the wireless signal to compensate for these performance blockers.
For example, if you carry your laptop from the family room to the bedroom, RangeMax
automatically senses the change and selects from over 100 possible antenna configurations to
deliver you the fastest, clearest connection so that everyone can enjoy consistently high-speed
connections, everywhere in your house with no drop-outs and no dead spots.
RangeMax is also 100% compatible with your existing 802.11b/g products (i.e., 802.11b, 802.11g,
Centrino, and SuperG™ wireless clients) and boosts their range and speed by up to 50%.
802.11g Wireless Networking
The WPN802 Access Point includes an 802.11g wireless access point, providing continuous,
high-speed 108 Mbps access between your wireless and Ethernet devices. The access point
provides:
•
802.11g wireless networking at up to 108 Mbps.
•
802.11g wireless networking, with the ability to operate in 802.11g-only, 802.11b-only, or
802.11g and b modes, providing backwards compatibility with 802.11b devices or dedicating
the wireless network to the higher bandwidth 802.11g devices.
•
64-bit and 128-bit WEP encryption security.
•
WEP keys can be generated manually or by passphrase.
•
WPA-PSK support. Support for Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA) data encryption which
provides strong data encryption and authentication based on a pre-shared key.
•
Wireless access can be restricted by MAC address.
•
Wireless network name broadcast can be turned off so that only devices that have the network
name (SSID) can connect.
Autosensing Ethernet Connections with Auto Uplink
The WPN802 can connect to a standard Ethernet network. The LAN interface is autosensing and
capable of full-duplex or half-duplex operation.
The wireless access point incorporates Auto UplinkTM technology. The Ethernet port automatically
senses whether the Ethernet cable plugged into the port should have a ‘normal’ connection such as
to a computer or an ‘uplink’ connection such as to a switch or hub. That port will then configure
itself to the correct configuration. This feature also eliminates the need to worry about crossover
cables, as Auto Uplink will accommodate either type of cable to make the right connection.
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Compatible and Related NETGEAR Products
NETGEAR products related to the NETGEAR RangeMax™ Wireless Access Point WPN802 are
as follows:
•
•
•
RangeMax Wireless USB 2.0 Adapter (WPN111)
RangeMax Wireless PCI Adapter (WPN311)
RangeMax Wireless PC Card (WPN511)
Package Contents
The product package should contain the following items:
•
•
•
•
•
NETGEAR RangeMax™ Wireless Access Point WPN802.
AC power adapter.
Vertical stand.
Straight through Category 5 (CAT5) Ethernet cable.
Resource CD for the NETGEAR WPN802 RangeMax™ Wireless Access Point
(240-10213-01), including:
— This manual.
— Application Notes and other helpful information.
•
•
WPN802 Quick Installation Guide.
Warranty and Support Information Card.
If any of the parts are incorrect, missing, or damaged, contact your NETGEAR dealer. Keep the
carton, including the original packing materials, in case you need to return the WPN802 for repair.
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The Front Panel Status Lights
You can use the status lights on the front panel of the WPN802 to verify connections. The table
below describes the lights on the front panel.
Table 2-1.
Label
Status Light Descriptions
Activity
Description
Power
On Green Solid
Off
Power is supplied and the WPN802 has passed its diagnostic test.
Power is not supplied to the WPN802.
Test
On
Off
The unit is performing the power on self test diagnostic.
The unit successfully completed the power on self test diagnostic.
WLAN
On
Off
The Wireless port is initialized and the wireless feature is enabled.
The wireless feature is turned off or there is a problem.
Ethernet
On (Green)
Blink (Green)
On (Amber)
Blink (Amber)
Off
The Ethernet port has detected link with a 100 Mbps device.
Data is being transmitted or received at 100 Mbps.
The Ethernet port has detected link with a 10 Mbps device.
Data is being transmitted or received at 10 Mbps.
No link is detected.
The Rear Panel
The rear panel of the WPN802 contains the items listed below.
Seven integrated
antennas inside
LEDs show which
antenna is on.
4
Power
Ethernet Port
Reset Button
Figure 2-1: WPN802 Rear Panel
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Viewed from left to right, the rear panel contains the following features:
•
•
•
AC power adapter outlet.
Ethernet 10/100 Mbps port for connecting the access point to the network.
Factory Default Reset push button for Using the Reset Button to Restore Factory Default
Settings.
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Chapter 3
Basic Installation and Configuration
This chapter explains how to install and configure and the WPN802 Access Point on your
network. The first time you configure the WPN802 Access Point it must be connected with an
Ethernet cable to a computer with a broadband Internet connection.
Default Factory Settings
The WPN802 default factory settings are shown below. After you install the WPN802 Access
Point, customize any of the settings to better meet your networking needs.
FEATURE
DEFAULT FACTORY SETTINGS
User Name (case sensitive) admin
Password (case sensitive) password
Operating Mode Access Point
Access Point Name netgearxxxxxx where xxxxxx are the last six digits of
the wireless access point’s MAC address
Built-in DHCP client DHCP client disabled
SIP Configuration IP Address: 192.168.0.231
(if DHCP server is unavailable) Subnet Mask: 255.255.255.0
Gateway: 0.0.0.0
Network Name (SSID) NETGEAR
Broadcast Network Name (SSID) Enabled
802.11b/g RF Channel 6
Mode Auto 108
AutoCell Enhanced RF Security ‘stealth’ mode Disabled
WEP/WPA Disabled
Restricting connectivity based on MAC Access Disabled
Control List
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System Requirements
Before installing the WPN802, make sure your system meets these requirements.
•
•
•
•
•
•
A 10/100 Mbps Local Area Network device such as a hub, router, or switch.
The Category 5 UTP straight through Ethernet cable with RJ-45 connector included in the
package, or one like it.
A 100-240 V, 50-60 HZ AC power source.
A Web browser for configuration such as Microsoft Internet Explorer 6.0 or above, or
Netscape Navigator 4.78 or above.
At least one computer with the TCP/IP protocol installed.
802.11b or 802.11b-compliant devices, such as the NETGEAR RangeMax Wireless PCI
Adapter (WPN311).
Prepare to Install Your Wireless Access Point
•
Observe the wireless placement and range guidelines in “Observe Performance, Placement,
and Range Guidelines” on page 4-1.
•
For Cable Modem Service: When you perform the wireless access point setup steps be sure to
use the computer you first registered with your cable ISP.
•
For DSL Service: You may need information such as the DSL login name/e-mail address and
password in order to complete the wireless access point setup.
•
Familiarize yourself with the contents of the Resource CD for the NETGEAR WPN802
RangeMax™ Wireless Access Point (240-10213-01), especially this manual and the animated
tutorials for configuring networking on PCs.
First, Connect the Wireless Access Point to Your Computer
Before installing the wireless access point, make sure that your Ethernet network is up and
working.
1. Prepare a computer with Internet access and an Ethernet adapter. If this computer is already
part of your network, record its TCP/IP configuration settings.
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2. Configure the computer with a static IP address of 192.168.0.210 and 255.255.255.0 as the
Subnet Mask.
3. Connect an Ethernet cable from the WPN802 to the computer.
Figure 3-1: WPN802 connected to a computer during configuration
4. Turn on your computer, and connect the power adapter to the WPN802. Then check the lights
on the front:
•
Power: The power light should be lit. If the power light is not lit, check the
connections and check to see if the power outlet is controlled by a wall switch that is
turned off.
•
Test: The test light blinks when the WPN802 is first turned on.
•
WLAN: The wireless light should be lit.
•
Ethernet: The Ethernet (LAN) light should be lit (amber for a 10 Mbps connection
and green for a 100 Mbps connection). If not, make sure the Ethernet cable is securely
attached at both ends.
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Then, Configure the Basic Settings
1. Connect to the WPN802 by opening your browser and entering http://192.168.0.231 in the
address field.
2. When prompted, enter admin for the user name and password for the password, both in lower
case letters. The Settings page opens.
Figure 3-2: WPN802 Settings page
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3. Click the Basic Settings link to configure the IP Settings for your network. The Basic Settings
menu appears:
Figure 3-3: Basic Settings menu
4. Configure the Basic Settings for your network.
•
Access Point Name: The unique NetBIOS name. The default Access Point Name is
located on the bottom label of the WPN802. You may modify the default name with a
unique name up to 15 characters long.
•
IP Address: By default, the Access Point is set to be a DHCP (Dynamic Host
Configuration Protocol) client disabled. The default IP address is 192.168.0.231.
•
DHCP Client: You may enable the DHCP client to let the Access Point get its TCP/IP
configuration from the DHCP server on your network.
•
IP Address: Type the IP address of your Access Point (factory default: 192.168.0.231).
•
IP Subnet Mask: The Access Point automatically calculates the subnet mask based on the
IP address that you assign. Otherwise, you can use 255.255.255.0 as the subnet mask.
•
Default Gateway Address: The Access Point will use this IP address default gateway for
any traffic beyond the local network.
•
Primary DNS Server: The Access Point will use this IP address as the primary Domain
Name Server used by stations on your LAN.
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•
Secondary DNS Server: The Access Point will use this IP address as the secondary
Domain Name Server used by stations on your LAN.
•
Time Zone: Select the appropriate local time zone for your Access Point from a list of all
available time zones. The default is GMT.
Next, Configure the Wireless Settings
After you configure the Basic Settings for the WPN802, then you need to configure the Wireless
Settings.
1. On the Settings page, click Wireless Settings. The Wireless Settings menu appears:
Figure 3-4: Wireless Settings menu
2. Enter the wireless settings. For more information, see “Understanding Wireless Settings” on
page 4-2.
3. Test the wireless connectivity. To do this, use a computer with a wireless adapter that is
configured according to the wireless settings you just set in the WPN802. With this computer,
establish a wireless connection to the WPN802.
Now that you have finished the setup steps, you are ready to deploy the WPN802 in your
network. If needed, you can now reconfigure the PC you used in step 1 back to its original
TCP/IP settings.
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Deploy the WPN802 and Verify Wireless Connectivity
When you have configured the Basic Settings and the Wireless Settings, then you can deploy the
WPN802.
1. Disconnect the WPN802 and position it where you will deploy it.
The best location is elevated, such as wall mounted or on the top of a cubicle, at the center of
your wireless coverage area, and within line of sight of all the mobile devices.
Use the plastic clips provided to place the WPN802
vertically if it is on a metal surface.
Figure 3-5: WPN802 placed in a vertical orientation
2. Connect an Ethernet cable from your WPN802 Access Point to a LAN port on your router,
switch, or hub.
WPN802
Router
Figure 3-6: WPN802 connected to a router
Note: By default, the WPN802 is set with the DHCP client disabled. If your network uses
dynamic IP addresses, you will need to change this setting.
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3. Connect the power adapter to the wireless access point and plug the power adapter in to a
power outlet. The
Power,
WLAN and
Ethernet lights should light up.
4. Using a computer with an 802.11g or 802.11b wireless adapter with the correct wireless
settings, verify connectivity by using a browser such as Netscape® or Internet Explorer to
connect to the Internet, or check for file and printer access on your network.
Note: If you are unable to connect, see Chapter 3.
5. Configure the wireless settings for each computer that will use the wireless access point.
6. Implement wireless security according to the instructions in “Understanding Wireless
Settings” on page 4-2.
How to Log In to the WPN802 Using Its Default IP Address
The WPN802 has DHCP client disabled, and the default IP address is 192.168.0.231.
Note: The computer that you use to connect to the WPN802 should be configured with an IP
address that starts with 102.168.0.x and a Subnet Mask of 255.255.255.0.
1. Connect to the WPN802 by typing http://192.168.0.231 in the address field of your browser,
and clicking Enter.
For security reasons, the access point has its own user name and password. A login window
like the one below opens:
Figure 3-7: Login window
2. Enter admin for the user name and password for the password, both in lower case letters. To
change the password, see “This page displays both wired and wireless interface network
traffic. Click Refresh to update the current statistics.” on page 5-6.
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Note: The user name and password for the access point are not the same as any user name or
password you may use to log in to your Internet connection.
The browser display the WPN802 settings home page.
Figure 3-8: WPN802 home page
When the wireless access point is connected to the Internet, click the Knowledge Base or the
Documentation link under the Web Support menu to view support information or the
documentation for the wireless access point.
If you do not click Logout, the wireless access point waits five minutes after there is no activity
before it automatically logs you out.
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Chapter 4
Wireless Configuration
This chapter describes how to configure the wireless features of your WPN802 Access Point. In
planning your wireless network, you should consider the level of security required. You should
also select the physical placement of your wireless access point in order to maximize the network
speed. For further information on wireless networking, refer to Appendix B, “Wireless
Networking Basics.
Observe Performance, Placement, and Range Guidelines
The operating distance or range of your wireless connection can vary significantly based on the
physical placement of the wireless wireless access point. The latency, data throughput
performance, and notebook power consumption of wireless adapters also vary depending on your
configuration choices.
Note: Failure to follow these guidelines can result in significant performance
degradation or inability to wirelessly connect to the wireless access point. For complete
range/performance specifications, please see Appendix A, “Technical Specifications.”
For best results, place your wireless access point:
•
•
•
•
Near the center of the area in which your computers will operate.
In an elevated location such as a high shelf where the wirelessly connected computers have
line-of-sight access (even if through walls).
Away from sources of interference, such as computers, microwaves, and 2.4 GHz cordless
phones.
Away from large metal surfaces.
The time it takes to establish a wireless connection can vary depending on both your security
settings and placement. WEP connections can take slightly longer to establish. Also, WEP and
WPA-PSK \encryption can consume more battery power on a notebook computer.
When used on a metallic surface, MIMO units must be oriented vertically to ensure proper
operation:
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Figure 4-1: Vertical orientation required on metallic surfaces
Understanding Wireless Settings
To configure the Wireless settings of your wireless access point, click the Wireless link in the main
menu of the browser interface. The Wireless Settings menu appears, as shown below.
Figure 4-2: Wireless Settings menu
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•
Country/Region: It may not be legal to operate the access point in a country/region other than
the country/region shown here. See online help for more details. To change the Country/
Region, select from the drop-down list. The region selection feature may not be available in all
countries.
•
Wireless Network Name (SSID): The default is NETGEAR. Enter a 32-character
(maximum). The characters are case sensitive.
Note: You will not get a wireless network connection unless the network SSID matches
exactly what is configured in the access point.
•
Broadcast Wireless Network Name (SSID): If enabled, the Wireless Access Point will
broadcast its SSID. If set to disable, the SSID is not broadcast.
•
Operating Mode: Select the desired wireless operating mode. The default is Auto (11g/11b).
You can change this to 11g Only, or 11b Only.
•
Channel/Frequency: Select the channel for your wireless LAN. This feature is disabled if
AutoCell is enabled. It should not be necessary to change the wireless channel unless you
notice interference problems with another nearby access point. For more information on the
wireless channel frequencies please refer to “Wireless Channels” on page B-7.
•
Data Rate: The available transmit data rate of the wireless network. Note that 108 Mbps
option is available when the Channel/Frequency is set to channel 6 and the operating mode
is set to 11g Only.
•
Output Power: Shows the available transmit power of the access point. The possible Tx
power options are: Full, 50%, 25%, 12.5%, and minimum. The transmit power may varies
depends on the local regulatory regulations. Note that this feature will be disabled if
AutoCell is enabled.
Understanding Advanced Wireless Settings
To configure the advanced wireless settings of your wireless access point, click the Wireless Setup
link in the Advanced section of the main menu of the browser interface. The Wireless Settings
menu appears, as shown below.
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Figure 4-3: Advanced Wireless Settings menu
•
Enable SuperG Mode: SuperG Mode may increase the overall wireless performance. The
default setting is Yes.
•
RTS Threshold: Request to Send Threshold. The packet size that is used to determine if it
should use the CSMA/CD (Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection)
mechanism or the CSMA/CA mechanism for packet transmission. With the CSMA/CD
transmission mechanism, the transmitting station sends out the actual packet as soon as it has
waited for the silence period. With the CSMA/CA transmission mechanism, the transmitting
station sends out an RTS packet to the receiving station, and waits for the receiving station to
send back a CTS (Clear to Send) packet before sending the actual packet data. The default is
2346.
•
Fragmentation Length: The maximum packet size used for fragmentation. Packets larger
than the size programmed in this field will be fragmented. The Fragment Threshold value must
be larger than the RTS Threshold value. The default is 2346
•
Beacon Interval: The interval time between 20ms and 1000ms for each beacon transmission.
The default is 100.
•
DTIM Interval: The Delivery Traffic Indication Message. Specifies the data beacon rate
between 1 and 255. The default is 1.
•
Preamble Type: A long transmit preamble may provide a more reliable connection or slightly
longer range. A short transmit preamble gives better performance. Auto will automatically
handle both long and short preamble. The default is Auto.
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Implementing Appropriate Wireless Security
Note: Indoors, computers can connect over 802.11b/g wireless networks at ranges of up
to 300 feet. Such distances can allow for others outside of your immediate area to access
your network.
Unlike wired network data, your wireless data transmissions can be received well beyond your
walls by anyone with a compatible adapter. For this reason, use the security features of your
wireless equipment. The WPN802 Access Point provides highly effective security features which
are covered in detail in this chapter. Deploy the security features appropriate to your needs.
Wireless Data
Security Options
4
Range: Up to 300 Foot Radius
/PEN%ASYBUTNOSECURITY
-!#!CCESS,IST.ODATASECURITY
7%03ECURITYBUTVULNERABLE
70!OR70!03+6ERYSTRONGSECURITY
!UTO#ELL2&hSTEALTHvMODE
Figure 4-4: WPN802 wireless data security options
There are several ways you can enhance the security of your wireless network.
•
•
•
Restrict Access Based on MAC address. You can restrict access to only trusted computers so
that unknown computers cannot wirelessly connect to the WPN802. MAC address filtering
adds an obstacle against unwanted access to your network, but the data broadcast over the
wireless link is fully exposed.
Turn Off the Broadcast of the Wireless Network Name SSID. If you disable broadcast of
the SSID, only devices that have the correct SSID can connect. This nullifies the wireless
network ‘discovery’ feature of some products such as Windows XP, but the data is still fully
exposed to a determined snoop using specialized test equipment like wireless sniffers.
WEP. Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP) data encryption provides data security. WEP Shared
Key authentication and WEP data encryption will block all but the most determined
eavesdropper.
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•
•
WPA-PSK. Wi-Fi Protected Access, Pre-Shared Key (WPA-PSK) data encryption provides
strong data security. WPA-PSK will block eavesdropping. Because this is a new standard,
wireless device driver and software availability may be limited.
AutoCell Enhanced RF Security. In addition to standard encryption and security
mechanisms such as WEP and WPA, the WG302 AutoCell Feature provides self-organizing
micro cells for an additional level of privacy for enterprises. In this mode, AutoCell shrinks
the size of coverage to the minimum to reach clients but also shrinks the size of the beacons
that access points use to announce their presence. This mode makes an enterprise wireless
LAN nearly invisible to users outside an office building. AutoCell clients such as the
NETGEAR WAG511 are highly recommended for Enhanced RF Security.
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Information to Gather Before Changing Basic Wireless Settings
Before customizing your wireless settings, print this form and record the following information. If
you are working with an existing wireless network, the person who set up or is responsible for the
network will be able to provide this information. Otherwise, you will choose the settings for your
wireless network. Either way, record the settings for your wireless network in the spaces below.
•
Wireless Network Name (SSID): ______________________________ The SSID, identifies
the wireless network. You can use up to 32 alphanumeric characters. The SSID is case
sensitive. The SSID in the wireless adapter card must match the SSID of the wireless access
point. In some configuration utilities (such as in Windows XP), the term “wireless network
name” is used instead of SSID.
•
If WEP Authentication is Used. Circle one: Open System, Shared Key, or Auto.
Note: If you select Shared Key, the other devices in the network will not connect unless they
are set to Shared Key as well and are configured with the correct key.
–
WEP Encryption key size. Choose one: 64-bit or 128-bit. Again, the encryption key size
must be the same for the wireless adapters and the wireless access point.
–
Data Encryption (WEP) Keys. There are two methods for creating WEP data encryption
keys. Whichever method you use, record the key values in the spaces below.
•
•
Passphrase method. ______________________________ These characters are case
sensitive. Enter a word or group of printable characters and click the Generate Keys
button. Not all wireless devices support the passphrase method.
Manual method. These values are not case sensitive. For 64-bit WEP, enter 10 hex
digits (any combination of 0-9 or a-f). For 128-bit WEP, enter 26 hex digits.
Key 1: ___________________________________
Key 2: ___________________________________
Key 3: ___________________________________
Key 4: ___________________________________
•
If WPA-PSK Authentication is Used.
–
Passphrase: ______________________________ These characters are case sensitive.
Enter a word or group of printable characters. When you use WPA-PSK, the other devices
in the network will not connect unless they are set to WPA-PSK as well and are configured
with the correct Passphrase.
Use the procedures described in the following sections to configure the WPN802. Store this
information in a safe place.
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How to Set Up and Test Basic Wireless Connectivity
Note: If you use a wireless computer to configure WPA settings, you will be
disconnected when you click Apply. Reconfigure your wireless adapter to match the
new settings or access the wireless access point from a wired computer to make any
further changes.
Follow the instructions below to set up and test basic wireless connectivity. Once you have
established basic wireless connectivity, you can enable security settings appropriate to your needs.
1. Log in to the WPN802 at its default LAN address of http://192.168.0.231 with its default user
name of admin and default password of password, or using whatever LAN address and
password you have set up.
2. Click Wireless Settings in the main menu of the WPN802.
Figure 4-5: Wireless Settings menu
3. Choose a suitable descriptive name for the wireless network name (SSID). In the SSID box,
enter a value of up to 32 alphanumeric characters. The default SSID is NETGEAR.
Note: The SSID is case sensitive; NETGEAR is not the same as nETgear. Also, the SSID of
any wireless access adapters must match the SSID you configure in the NETGEAR
RangeMax™ Wireless Access Point WPN802. If they do not match, you will not get a
wireless connection to the WPN802.
4. Set the Region. Select the region in which the wireless interface will operate.
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5. Set the Channel. The default channel is 11.
This field determines which operating frequency will be used. It should not be necessary to
change the wireless channel unless you notice interference problems with another nearby
wireless router or access point. Select a channel that is not being used by any other wireless
networks within several hundred feet of your wireless access point. For more information on
the wireless channel frequencies please refer to “Wireless Channels” on page B-7.
6. For initial configuration and test, leave the Wireless Card Access List set to “Everyone” and
the Encryption Strength set to “Disabled.”
7. Click Apply to save your changes.
Note: If you are configuring the WPN802 from a wireless computer and you change the
WPN802’s SSID, channel, or security settings, you will lose your wireless connection
when you click on Apply. You must then change the wireless settings of your computer
to match the WPN802’s new settings.
8. Configure and test your computers for wireless connectivity.
Program the wireless adapter of your computers to have the same SSID and channel that you
configured in the WPN802. Check that they have a wireless link and are able to obtain an IP
address by DHCP from the WPN802.
Warning: The Network Name (SSID) is case sensitive. If NETGEAR is the Network Name
(SSID) in your wireless access point, you must enter NETGEAR in your computer's wireless
settings. Typing nETgear will not work.
Once your computers have basic wireless connectivity, you can configure the advanced wireless
security functions.
How to Configure WEP or WPA
Not all wireless adapters support WPA. Furthermore, client software is also required. Windows XP
and Windows 2000 with service pack 3 do include WPA support. Nevertheless, the wireless
adapter hardware and driver must also support WPA. For instructions on configuring wireless
computers or PDAs for WPA-PSK security, consult the documentation for the product you are
using.
To configure WEP or WPA data encryption, follow these steps:
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Note: If you use a wireless computer configure WEP settings, you will be disconnected
when you click Apply. You must then either configure your wireless adapter to match
the wireless access point WEP settings or access the wireless access point from a wired
computer to make any further changes.
1. Log in to the WPN802 at its default LAN address of http://192.168.0.231 with its default user
name of admin and default password of password, or using whatever LAN address and
password you have set up.
2. Click Wireless Settings in the main menu of the WPN802.
3. From the Security Options menu, select WEP/WPA. The WEP/WPA Settings page opens.
Figure 4-6: Wireless Settings encryption menu
4. Select the Network Authentication and Data Encryption from the drop-down lists.
Please refer to “Authentication and WEP Data Encryption” on page B-2 for a full explanation
of each of these options, as defined by the IEEE 802.11 wireless communication standard.
5. Either enter a Passphrase and click Generate Keys, or manually enter the keys. The keys must
be identical on all computers and access points in your network.
•
•
Passphrase - The passphrase is case sensitive; NETGEAR is not the same as nETgear. The
four key boxes will be automatically populated with key values.
Manual - Enter ten hexadecimal digits (any combination of 0-9, a-f, or A-F). These entries
are not case sensitive; AA is the same as aa.
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Select which of the four keys will be active.
6. Enable Wireless Client Security Separator: The associated wireless clients will not be able to
communicate with each other if this feature is enabled. The default setting is Disable.
7. Click Apply to save your settings.
Configuring Advanced Wireless Settings
Click on Wireless Settings under the Advanced Heading in the Main Menu to go to the Advanced
Wireless Settings page:
Figure 4-7: Advanced Wireless Settings page
Warning: The wireless access point is already configured with the optimum settings. Do not alter
these settings unless directed by NETGEAR support. Incorrect settings may disable the wireless
access point unexpectedly.
The advanced wireless settings are explained below:
•
Enable SuperG Mode: Enable SuperG mode may increase the overall wireless performance.
Default: Disabled.
•
RTS Threshold: Request to Send Threshold. The packet size that is used to determine if it
should use the CSMA/CD (Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection)
mechanism or the CSMA/CA mechanism for packet transmission. With the CSMA/CD
transmission mechanism, the transmitting station sends out the actual packet as soon as it has
waited for the silence period. With the CSMA/CA transmission mechanism, the transmitting
station sends out an RTS packet to the receiving station, and waits for the receiving station to
send back a CTS (Clear to Send) packet before sending the actual packet data. Default: 2346.
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•
Fragmentation Length: This is the maximum packet size used for fragmentation. Packets
larger than the size programmed in this field will be fragmented. The Fragment Threshold
value must be larger than the RTS Threshold value. Default: 2346
•
Beacon Interval: The interval time between 20ms and 1000ms for each beacon transmission.
Default: 100
•
DTIM Interval: The Delivery Traffic Indication Message. Specifies the data beacon rate
between 1 and 255. Default: 1
•
Preamble Type: A long transmit preamble may provide a more reliable connection or slightly
longer range. A short transmit preamble gives better performance. Auto will automatically
handle both long and short preamble. Default: Auto.
Wireless Card Access (Restricting by MAC Address)
The Wireless Card Access Setup page displays a list of wireless computers that are allowed to
connect to the wireless access point based on their MAC addresses. These wireless computers
must also have the correct SSID and WEP settings configured on the Wireless Settings page to
access the wireless network.
From the Wireless Settings menu, click the Setup Access List button to display the Wireless
Access List screen:
Figure 4-8: Wireless Access Control List screen
By default, any wireless computer that is configured with the correct SSID will be allowed access
to your wireless network. For increased security, you can restrict access to the wireless network to
only allow specific computers based on their MAC addresses.
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Turning Access Control On
1. Click the Turn Access Control On check box to restrict wireless computers by their MAC
addresses.
2. Click Apply to save changes and return to the Wireless Settings page.
Note: If Turn Access Control On is enabled and the Access Control List is blank; then no wireless
computers can connect to your wireless network.
Setting up the Access Control List
1. On the Access Control List screen, click the Add button to go to the Access Setup menu.
This menu displays a list of currently active wireless cards and their Ethernet MAC addresses.
2. If the desired computer is in the list, click the radio button of that computer to capture its MAC
address. Or you can manually enter the MAC address of the authorized computer.
Note: The MAC address can usually be found on the bottom of the wireless device. If no
Device Name appears, you can type a descriptive name for the computer that you are adding.
3. Click the Add button.
4. Repeat these steps for each wireless computer.
5. You can use the Edit and Delete buttons as needed.
6. Make sure to click the Apply button to save changes and return to the Wireless Settings page.
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Chapter 5
Management and Information
This chapter describes how to use the management and information features of your NETGEAR
RangeMax™ Wireless Access Point WPN802. These features can be found under the
Management heading and Information heading in the main menu of the browser interface.
Changing the Password
Note: Before changing the WPN802 password, use the backup utility to save your
configuration settings. If after changing the password, you forget the new password you
assigned, you will have to reset the WPN802 back to the factory defaults to be able to log
in using the default password of password. This means you will have to restore all the
WPN802 configuration settings. If you ever have to reset the WPN802 back to the
factory defaults, you can restore your settings from the backup.
The default password for the WPN802 is password. NETGEAR recommends that you change this
password to a more secure password.
To change this, click the Change Password link. The Change Password dialog box opens.
Figure 5-1: Change Password dialog box
To change the password, first enter the old password, then enter the new password twice. You can
also restore the default password. Click Apply to save your changes.
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Upgrading the Wireless Access Point Firmware
First, Prepare for the Firmware Upgrade
Note: When uploading firmware to the wireless access point, it is important not to
interrupt the Web browser by closing the window, clicking a link, or loading a new page.
If the browser is interrupted, the upload may fail, corrupt the software, and render the
WPN802 completely inoperable.
You cannot perform the firmware upgrade from a workstation connected to the WPN802 via a
wireless link. The firmware upgrade must be preformed via a workstation connected to the
WPN802 the Ethernet LAN interface.
The software of the WPN802 Access Point is stored in FLASH memory, and can be upgraded as
new software is released by NETGEAR. Upgrade files can be downloaded from the NETGEAR
Web site. If the upgrade file is compressed (.ZIP file), you must first extract the image (.RMG) file
before sending it to the wireless access point. The upgrade file can be sent using your browser.
Note: The Web browser used to upload new firmware into the WPN802 Access Point must
support HTTP uploads, such as Microsoft Internet Explorer 6.0 or above, or Netscape Navigator
4.78 or above.
Then, Upgrade the Firmware
1. Go to the NETGEAR Web site http://www.NETGEAR.com Customer Service downloads
section to get new versions of the Access Point software.
2. Download and unzip (if the download file is a .zip file) the new software file.
3. From the main menu of the browser interface, click the Upgrade Firmware link under the
Management heading.
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The Upgrade Firmware dialog box opens:
Figure 5-2: Upgrade Firmware dialog box
4. Click the Browse button and browse to the location of the upgrade file
5. Click Upload.
In some cases, you may need to reconfigure the wireless access point after upgrading.
Backing up Settings or Restoring Settings
This page lets you back up the Access Point’s current settings and restore the factory default
settings. Once you have the Access Point working properly, you should back up the information to
have it available if something goes wrong. When you backup the settings, they are saved as a file
on your computer. You can restore the Access Point’s settings from this file.
From the main menu of the browser interface, click the Backup/Restore Settings link under the
Management heading. The Backup/Restore Settings dialog box opens:
Figure 5-3: Backup/Restore Settings dialog box
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Backing up Settings
1. On the Backup/Restore Settings dialog box, click Backup.
•
If you don’t have your browser set up to save downloaded files automatically, locate
where you want to save the file, rename it if you like, and click Backup.
•
If you have your browser set up to save downloaded files automatically, the file is saved to
the your browser’s download location on the hard disk.
2. Retrieve backed up settings from a file
Restoring Settings from a Backup File
You can restore the wireless access point’s settings from a backup file.
1. On the Backup/Restore Settings dialog box, click Browse.
2. Locate and select the previously saved backup file (by default, netgear.cfg).
3. Click Retrieve.
A window appears letting you know that the Access Point has been successfully restored to
previous settings. The Access Point will restart. This will take about one minute.
IMPORTANT! Do not try to go online, turn off the Access Point, shut down the
computer or do anything else to the Access Point until it finishes restarting. When the
Test light turns off, wait a few more seconds before doing anything with the Access Point
4. Close the message window.
Restoring Factory Default Settings
You can use the Restore feature to erase the current settings and reset the Access Point to the
original factory default settings. These settings are listed in “Default Factory Settings” on page
3-1. On the Backup/Restore Settings dialog box, click Restore.
IMPORTANT! Do not try to go online, turn off the Access Point, shut down the
computer or do anything else to the Access Point until it finishes restarting. When the
Test light turns off, wait a few more seconds before doing anything with the Access Point
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Rebooting the WPN802 Access Point
You can reboot the wireless access point from the browser interface or by using the reset button on
the rear panel.
1. From the main menu of the browser interface, click the Reboot AP link under the Management
heading.
The Reboot AP dialog box appears:
Figure 5-4: Reboot AP dialog box
2. Select Yes, and then click Apply.
Viewing a List of Available Wireless Stations
The Available Wireless Station List contains a table of all IP devices associated with the wireless
access point in the wireless network defined by the Wireless Network Name (SSID).
From the main menu of the browser interface, click the Available Wireless Stations List link under
the Information Heading. The following screen opens:
Figure 5-5: Available Wireless Station List
For each device, the table shows the Station ID, MAC address, IP Address, and Status (whether the
device is allowed to communicate with the wireless access point or not).
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Note that if the wireless access point is rebooted, the table data is lost until the wireless access
point rediscovers the devices. To force the wireless access point to look for associated devices,
click the Refresh button.
Note: A wireless network can include multiple wireless access points, all using the same network
name (SSID). This enables extending the reach of the wireless network and lets users roam from
one access point to another, providing seamless network connectivity. Under these circumstances,
be aware that only the stations associated with this access point will be presented in the Available
Station List.
Viewing Statistics
Click on the Statistics link to display usage statistics, as shown below.
Figure 5-6: Statistics screen
This page displays both wired and wireless interface network traffic. Click Refresh to update the
current statistics.
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Chapter 6
Troubleshooting
This chapter gives information about troubleshooting your NETGEAR RangeMax™ Wireless
Access Point WPN802. After each problem description, instructions are provided to help you
diagnose and solve the problem.
Troubleshooting Tips
Here are some tips for correcting simple problems you may have.
No lights are lit on the access point.
The access point has no power.
•
Make sure the power cord is connected to the access point and plugged in to a working power
outlet or power strip.
•
Make sure you are using the correct NETGEAR power adapter supplied with your access
point.
The Ethernet light is not lit.
There is a hardware connection problem.
•
Make sure the cable connectors are securely plugged in at the access point and the network
device (hub, switch, or router).
•
Make sure the connected device is turned on.
The WLAN light is not lit.
The access point’s antennas are not working.
•
If the Wireless LAN activity light stays off, disconnect the adapter from its power source and
then plug it in again.
•
Contact NETGEAR if the WLAN light remains off.
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I cannot configure the access point from a browser.
Check these items:
•
The WPN802 is properly installed, LAN connections are OK, and it is powered on. Check that
the LAN port LED is green to verify that the Ethernet connection is OK.
•
If you are using the NetBIOS name of the WPN802 to connect, ensure that your PC and the
WPN802 are on the same network segment or that there is a WINS server on your network.
•
If your computer uses a Fixed (Static) IP address, ensure that it is using an IP Address in the
range of the WPN802. The WPN802 default IP Address is 192.168.0.231 and the default
Subnet Mask is 255.255.255.0. The WPN802 default setting is for a static IP address. If the
network where you are connecting it is using DHCP, configure it accordingly. See the CROSS
REF for more details.
I cannot access the Internet or the LAN with a wireless capable
computer.
There is a configuration problem. Check these items:
•
You may not have restarted the computer with the wireless adapter to have TCP/IP changes
take effect. Restart the computer.
•
The computer with the wireless adapter may not have the correct TCP/IP settings to
communicate with the network. Restart the computer and check that TCP/IP is set up properly
for that network. The usual setting for Windows on the Network Properties is set to “Obtain an
IP address automatically.”
•
The access point’s default values may not work with your network. Check the access point
default configuration against the configuration of other devices in your network.
•
For full instructions on changing the access point’s default values, see CROSS REF.
When I enter a URL or IP address I get a timeout error.
A number of things could be causing this. Try the following troubleshooting steps.
•
Check whether other computers work. If they do, ensure that your computer’s TCP/IP settings
are correct. If using a fixed (Static) IP Address, check the Subnet Mask, Default Gateway,
DNS, and IP Addresses.
•
If the computers are configured correctly, but still not working, ensure that the WPN802 is
connected and turned on. Connect to it and check its settings. If you cannot connect to it, check
the LAN and power connections.
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•
If the WPN802 is configured correctly, check your Internet connection (DSL/Cable modem,
etc.) to make sure that it is working.
•
Try again.
•
When entering configuration settings, be sure to click the Apply button before moving to
another menu or tab, or your changes are lost.
•
Click the Refresh or Reload button in the Web browser. The changes may have occurred, but
the Web browser may be caching the old configuration.
Using the Reset Button to Restore Factory Default Settings
The reset button on the rear panel of the WPN802 has two functions:
•
•
Reboot: When pressed and released quickly, the WPN802 will reboot (restart).
Reset to Factory Defaults: This button can also be used to clear ALL data and restore ALL
settings to the factory default values. These settings are shown in “Default Factory Settings”
on page 3-1.
To clear all data and restore the factory default values:
1. Power off the WPN802 and power it back on.
2. Use something with a small point, such as a pen, to press the reset button in and hold it in for
at least five seconds.
3. Release the reset button.
The factory default configuration has now been restored, and the WPN802 is ready for use.
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Appendix A
Technical Specifications
This appendix provides technical specifications for the NETGEAR RangeMax™ Wireless Access
Point WPN802.
Network Protocol and Standards Compatibility
Data and Routing Protocols:
TCP/IP, RIP-1, RIP-2, DHCP
PPP over Ethernet (PPPoE)
Power Adapter
North America:
120V, 60 Hz, input
United Kingdom, Australia:
240V, 50 Hz, input
Europe:
230V, 50 Hz, input
Japan:
100V, 50/60 Hz, input
All regions (output):
12 V DC @ 1A output
Physical Specifications
Dimensions:
28 x 175 x 119 mm (1.1 x 6.89 x 4.68 in.)
Weight:
0.3 kg (0.66 lb)
Environmental Specifications
Operating temperature:
0° to 40° C
(32º to 104º F)
Operating humidity:
90% maximum relative humidity, noncondensing
Electromagnetic Emissions
Meets requirements of:
FCC Part 15 Class B
VCCI Class B
EN 55 022 (CISPR 22), Class B
C-Tick N10947
Interface Specifications
LAN:
10BASE-T or 100BASE-Tx, RJ-45
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WAN:
10BASE-T or 100BASE-Tx, RJ-45
Wireless
Radio Data Rates
1, 2, 5.5, 6, 9, 12, 18, 24, 36, 48, 54, and 108 Mbps
Auto Rate Sensing
Frequency
2.4-2.5Ghz
Data Encoding:
802.11b: Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS)
802.11g: Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM)
Maximum Computers Per Wireless
Network:
Limited by the amount of wireless network traffic generated by each
node. Typically 30-70 nodes.
Operating Frequency Ranges:
2.412~2.462 GHz (US) 2.457~2.462 GHz (Spain)
2.412~2.484 GHz (Japan)2.457~2.472 GHz (France)
2.412~2.472 GHz (Europe ETSI)
802.11 Security:
40-bits (also called 64-bits) and 128-bits WEP and WPA-PSK
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Appendix B
Wireless Networking Basics
This chapter provides an overview of Wireless networking.
Wireless Networking Overview
The WPN802 Access Point conforms to the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
(IEEE) 802.11b and 802.11g standards for wireless LANs (WLANs). On an 802.11b or g wireless
link, data is encoded using direct-sequence spread-spectrum (DSSS) technology and is transmitted
in the unlicensed radio spectrum at 2.5GHz. The maximum data rate for the 802.11b wireless link
is 11 Mbps, but it will automatically back down from 11 Mbps to 5.5, 2, and 1 Mbps when the
radio signal is weak or when interference is detected. The 802.11g auto rate sensing rates are 1, 2,
5.5, 6, 9, 12, 18, 24, 36, 48, 54, and 108 Mbps.
The 802.11 standard is also called Wireless Ethernet or Wi-Fi by the Wireless Ethernet
Compatibility Alliance (WECA, see http://www.wi-fi.net), an industry standard group promoting
interoperability among 802.11 devices. The 802.11 standard offers two methods for configuring a
wireless network - ad hoc and infrastructure.
Infrastructure Mode
With a wireless Access Point, you can operate the wireless LAN in the infrastructure mode. This
mode provides wireless connectivity to multiple wireless network devices within a fixed range or
area of coverage, interacting with wireless nodes via an antenna.
In the infrastructure mode, the wireless access point converts airwave data into wired Ethernet
data, acting as a bridge between the wired LAN and wireless clients. Connecting multiple Access
Points via a wired Ethernet backbone can further extend the wireless network coverage. As a
mobile computing device moves out of the range of one access point, it moves into the range of
another. As a result, wireless clients can freely roam from one Access Point domain to another and
still maintain seamless network connection.
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Ad Hoc Mode (Peer-to-Peer Workgroup)
In an ad hoc network, computers are brought together as needed; thus, there is no structure or fixed
points to the network - each node can generally communicate with any other node. There is no
Access Point involved in this configuration. This mode enables you to quickly set up a small
wireless workgroup and allows workgroup members to exchange data or share printers as
supported by Microsoft networking in the various Windows operating systems. Some vendors also
refer to ad hoc networking as peer-to-peer group networking.
In this configuration, network packets are directly sent and received by the intended transmitting
and receiving stations. As long as the stations are within range of one another, this is the easiest
and least expensive way to set up a wireless network.
Network Name: Extended Service Set Identification (ESSID)
The Extended Service Set Identification (ESSID) is one of two types of Service Set Identification
(SSID). In an ad hoc wireless network with no access points, the Basic Service Set Identification
(BSSID) is used. In an infrastructure wireless network that includes an access point, the ESSID is
used, but may still be referred to as SSID.
An SSID is a thirty-two character (maximum) alphanumeric key identifying the name of the
wireless local area network. Some vendors refer to the SSID as network name. For the wireless
devices in a network to communicate with each other, all devices must be configured with the
same SSID.
The ESSID is usually broadcast in the air from an access point. The wireless station sometimes can
be configured with the ESSID ANY. This means the wireless station will try to associate with
whichever access point has the stronger radio frequency (RF) signal, providing that both the access
point and wireless station use Open System authentication.
Authentication and WEP Data Encryption
The absence of a physical connection between nodes makes the wireless links vulnerable to
eavesdropping and information theft. To provide a certain level of security, the IEEE 802.11
standard has defined these two types of authentication methods:
•
Open System. With Open System authentication, a wireless computer can join any network
and receive any messages that are not encrypted.
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•
Shared Key. With Shared Key authentication, only those PCs that possess the correct
authentication key can join the network. By default, IEEE 802.11 wireless devices operate in
an Open System network.
Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP) data encryption is used when the wireless devices are configured
to operate in Shared Key authentication mode.
802.11 Authentication
The 802.11 standard defines several services that govern how two 802.11 devices communicate.
The following events must occur before an 802.11 Station can communicate with an Ethernet
network through an access point, such as the one built in to the WPN802:
1.
Turn on the wireless station.
2.
The station listens for messages from any access points that are in range.
3.
The station finds a message from an access point that has a matching SSID.
4.
The station sends an authentication request to the access point.
5.
The access point authenticates the station.
6.
The station sends an association request to the access point.
7.
The access point associates with the station.
8.
The station can now communicate with the Ethernet network through the access point.
An access point must authenticate a station before the station can associate with the access point or
communicate with the network. The IEEE 802.11 standard defines two types of authentication:
Open System and Shared Key.
•
Open System Authentication allows any device to join the network, assuming that the device
SSID matches the access point SSID. Alternatively, the device can use the “ANY” SSID
option to associate with any available Access Point within range, regardless of its SSID.
•
Shared Key Authentication requires that the station and the access point have the same WEP
Key to authenticate. These two authentication procedures are described below.
Open System Authentication
The following steps occur when two devices use Open System Authentication:
1.
The station sends an authentication request to the access point.
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2.
The access point authenticates the station.
3.
The station associates with the access point and joins the network.
This process is illustrated below.
802.11b Authentication
Open System Steps
Access Point
1) Authentication request sent to AP
2) AP authenticates
IN TER N ET
Cable/DSL
ProSafeWirelessVPN Security Firewall
PWR
W LA N
ACT
FVM318
100
Enable
LNK/ACT
1
Client
attempting
to connect
MODEL
LO CA L
LNK
TEST
2
3
4
5
3) Client connects to network
6
7
8
Cable or
DLS modem
Figure B-1: Open system authentication
Shared Key Authentication
The following steps occur when two devices use Shared Key Authentication:
1.
The station sends an authentication request to the access point.
2.
The access point sends challenge text to the station.
3.
The station uses its configured 64-bit or 128-bit default key to encrypt the challenge text, and
sends the encrypted text to the access point.
4.
The access point decrypts the encrypted text using its configured WEP Key that corresponds
to the station’s default key. The access point compares the decrypted text with the original
challenge text. If the decrypted text matches the original challenge text, then the access point
and the station share the same WEP Key and the access point authenticates the station.
5.
The station connects to the network.
If the decrypted text does not match the original challenge text (the access point and station do not
share the same WEP Key), then the access point will refuse to authenticate the station and the
station will be unable to communicate with either the 802.11 network or Ethernet network.
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This process is illustrated below.
802.11b Authentication
Shared Key Steps
Access Point
1) Authentication
request sent to AP
IN TER N ET
2) AP sends challenge text
Cable/DSL
ProSafeWirelessVPN Security Firewall
PWR
W LA N
MODEL
LO CA L
LNK
FVM318
100
TEST
ACT
Enable
Client
3) Client encrypts
attempting
challenge text and
to connect
sends it back to AP
LNK/ACT
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Cable or
DLS modem
4) AP decrypts, and if correct,
authenticates client
5) Client connects to network
Figure B-2: Shared key authentication
Overview of WEP Parameters
Before enabling WEP on an 802.11 network, you must first consider what type of encryption you
require and the key size you want to use. Typically, there are three WEP Encryption options
available for 802.11 products:
1. Do Not Use WEP: The 802.11 network does not encrypt data. For authentication purposes, the
network uses Open System Authentication.
2. Use WEP for Encryption: A transmitting 802.11 device encrypts the data portion of every
packet it sends using a configured WEP Key. The receiving device decrypts the data using the
same WEP Key. For authentication purposes, the network uses Open System Authentication.
3. Use WEP for Authentication and Encryption: A transmitting 802.11 device encrypts the data
portion of every packet it sends using a configured WEP Key. The receiving device decrypts the
data using the same WEP Key. For authentication purposes, the wireless network uses Shared Key
Authentication.
Note: Some 802.11 access points also support Use WEP for Authentication Only (Shared Key
Authentication without data encryption).
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Key Size
The IEEE 802.11 standard supports two types of WEP encryption: 40-bit and 128-bit.
The 64-bit WEP data encryption method allows for a five-character (40-bit) input. Additionally, 24
factory-set bits are added to the forty-bit input to generate a 64-bit encryption key. The 24
factory-set bits are not user-configurable). This encryption key will be used to encrypt/decrypt all
data transmitted via the wireless interface. Some vendors refer to the 64-bit WEP data encryption
as 40-bit WEP data encryption since the user-configurable portion of the encryption key is 40 bits
wide.
The 128-bit WEP data encryption method consists of 104 user-configurable bits. Similar to the
forty-bit WEP data encryption method, the remaining 24 bits are factory set and not user
configurable. Some vendors allow passphrases to be entered instead of the cryptic hexadecimal
characters to ease encryption key entry.
128-bit encryption is stronger than 40-bit encryption, but 128-bit encryption may not be available
outside of the United States due to U.S. export regulations.
When configured for 40-bit encryption, 802.11 products typically support up to four WEP Keys.
Each 40-bit WEP Key is expressed as 5 sets of two hexadecimal digits (0-9 and A-F). For
example, “12 34 56 78 90” is a 40-bit WEP Key.
When configured for 128-bit encryption, 802.11 products typically support four WEP Keys but
some manufacturers support only one 128-bit key. The 128-bit WEP Key is expressed as 13 sets of
two hexadecimal digits (0-9 and A-F). For example, “12 34 56 78 90 AB CD EF 12 34 56 78 90”
is a 128-bit WEP Key.
Table B-1:
Encryption Key Sizes
Encryption Key Size
# of Hexadecimal Digits
Example of Hexadecimal Key Content
64-bit (24+40)
10
4C72F08AE1
128-bit (24+104)
26
4C72F08AE19D57A3FF6B260037
Note: Typically, 802.11 access points can store up to four 128-bit WEP Keys but some 802.11
client adapters can only store one. Therefore, make sure that your 802.11 access and client
adapters’ configurations match.
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WEP Configuration Options
The WEP settings must match on all 802.11 devices that are within the same wireless network as
identified by the SSID. In general, if your mobile clients will roam between access points, then all
of the 802.11 access points and all of the 802.11 client adapters on the network must have the same
WEP settings.
Note: Whatever keys you enter for an AP, you must also enter the same keys for the client adapter
in the same order. In other words, WEP key 1 on the AP must match WEP key 1 on the client
adapter, WEP key 2 on the AP must match WEP key 2 on the client adapter, and so on.
Note: The AP and the client adapters can have different default WEP Keys as long as the keys are
in the same order. In other words, the AP can use WEP key 2 as its default key to transmit while a
client adapter can use WEP key 3 as its default key to transmit. The two devices will communicate
as long as the AP’s WEP key 2 is the same as the client’s WEP key 2 and the AP’s WEP key 3 is
the same as the client’s WEP key 3.
Wireless Channels
The wireless frequencies used by 802.11b/g networks are discussed below.
IEEE 802.11b/g wireless nodes communicate with each other using radio frequency signals in the
ISM (Industrial, Scientific, and Medical) band between 2.4 GHz and 2.5 GHz. Neighboring
channels are 5 MHz apart. However, due to spread spectrum effect of the signals, a node sending
signals using a particular channel will utilize frequency spectrum 12.5 MHz above and below the
center channel frequency. As a result, two separate wireless networks using neighboring channels
(for example, channel 1 and channel 2) in the same general vicinity will interfere with each other.
Applying two channels that allow the maximum channel separation will decrease the amount of
channel cross-talk, and provide a noticeable performance increase over networks with minimal
channel separation.
The radio frequency channels used in 802.11b/g networks are listed in Table B-2:
Table B-2:
Channel
802.11b/g Radio Frequency Channels
Center Frequency
Frequency Spread
1
2412 MHz
2399.5 MHz - 2424.5 MHz
2
2417 MHz
2404.5 MHz - 2429.5 MHz
3
2422 MHz
2409.5 MHz - 2434.5 MHz
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Table B-2:
Channel
802.11b/g Radio Frequency Channels
Center Frequency
Frequency Spread
4
2427 MHz
2414.5 MHz - 2439.5 MHz
5
2432 MHz
2419.5 MHz - 2444.5 MHz
6
2437 MHz
2424.5 MHz - 2449.5 MHz
7
2442 MHz
2429.5 MHz - 2454.5 MHz
8
2447 MHz
2434.5 MHz - 2459.5 MHz
9
2452 MHz
2439.5 MHz - 2464.5 MHz
10
2457 MHz
2444.5 MHz - 2469.5 MHz
11
2462 MHz
2449.5 MHz - 2474.5 MHz
12
2467 MHz
2454.5 MHz - 2479.5 MHz
13
2472 MHz
2459.5 MHz - 2484.5 MHz
Note: The available channels supported by the wireless products in various countries are different.
For example, Channels 1 to 11 are supported in the U.S. and Canada, and Channels 1 to 13 are
supported in Europe and Australia.
The preferred channel separation between the channels in neighboring wireless networks is 25
MHz (5 channels). This means that you can apply up to three different channels within your
wireless network. There are only 11 usable wireless channels in the United States. It is
recommended that you start using channel 1 and grow to use channel 6, and 11 when necessary, as
these three channels do not overlap.
WPA and WPA2 Wireless Security
Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA and WPA2) is a specification of standards-based, interoperable
security enhancements that increase the level of data protection and access control for existing and
future wireless LAN systems.
The IEEE introduced the WEP as an optional security measure to secure 802.11b (Wi-Fi) WLANs,
but inherent weaknesses in the standard soon became obvious. In response to this situation, the
Wi-Fi Alliance announced a new security architecture in October 2002 that remedies the
shortcomings of WEP. This standard, formerly known as Safe Secure Network (SSN), is designed
to work with existing 802.11 products and offers forward compatibility with 802.11i, the new
wireless security architecture that has been defined by the IEEE.
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WPA and WPA2 offer the following benefits:
•
•
•
•
Enhanced data privacy
Robust key management
Data origin authentication
Data integrity protection
The Wi-Fi Alliance is now performing interoperability certification testing on Wi-Fi Protected
Access products. Starting August of 2003, all new Wi-Fi certified products have to support WPA.
NETGEAR is implementing WPA and WPA2 on client and access point products. The 802.11i
standard was ratified in 2004.
How Does WPA Compare to WEP?
WEP is a data encryption method and is not intended as a user authentication mechanism. WPA
user authentication is implemented using 802.1x and the Extensible Authentication Protocol
(EAP). Support for 802.1x authentication is required in WPA. In the 802.11 standard, 802.1x
authentication was optional. For details on EAP specifically, refer to IETF's RFC 2284.
With 802.11 WEP, all access points and client wireless adapters on a particular wireless LAN must
use the same encryption key. A major problem with the 802.11 standard is that the keys are
cumbersome to change. If you do not update the WEP keys often, an unauthorized person with a
sniffing tool can monitor your network for less than a day and decode the encrypted messages.
Products based on the 802.11 standard alone offer system administrators no effective method to
update the keys.
For 802.11, WEP encryption is optional. For WPA, encryption using Temporal Key Integrity
Protocol (TKIP) is required. TKIP replaces WEP with a new encryption algorithm that is stronger
than the WEP algorithm, but that uses the calculation facilities present on existing wireless devices
to perform encryption operations. TKIP provides important data encryption enhancements
including a per-packet key mixing function, a message integrity check (MIC) named Michael, an
extended initialization vector (IV) with sequencing rules, and a re-keying mechanism. Through
these enhancements, TKIP addresses all of known WEP vulnerabilities.
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How Does WPA Compare to WPA2 (IEEE 802.11i)?
WPA is forward compatible with the WPA2 security specification. WPA is a subset of WPA2 and
used certain pieces of the early 802.11i draft, such as 802.1x and TKIP. The main pieces of WPA2
that are not included in WPA are secure IBSS (Ad-Hoc mode), secure fast handoff (for specialized
802.11 VoIP phones), as well as enhanced encryption protocols, such as AES-CCMP. These
features were either not yet ready for market or required hardware upgrades to implement.
What are the Key Features of WPA and WPA2 Security?
The following security features are included in the WPA and WPA2 standard:
•
•
•
WPA and WPA2 Authentication
WPA and WPA2 Encryption Key Management
–
Temporal Key Integrity Protocol (TKIP)
–
Michael message integrity code (MIC)
–
AES support (WPA2, requires hardware support)
Support for a mixture of WPA, WPA2, and WEP wireless clients to allow a migration strategy,
but mixing WEP and WPA/WPA2 is discouraged
These features are discussed below.
WPA/WPA2 addresses most of the known WEP vulnerabilities and is primarily intended for
wireless infrastructure networks as found in the enterprise. This infrastructure includes stations,
access points, and authentication servers (typically RADIUS servers). The RADIUS server holds
(or has access to) user credentials (for example, user names and passwords) and authenticates
wireless users before they gain access to the network.
The strength of WPA/WPA2 comes from an integrated sequence of operations that encompass
802.1X/EAP authentication and sophisticated key management and encryption techniques. Its
major operations include:
•
Network security capability determination. This occurs at the 802.11 level and is
communicated through WPA information elements in Beacon, Probe Response, and (Re)
Association Requests. Information in these elements includes the authentication method
(802.1X or Pre-shared key) and the preferred cipher suite (WEP, TKIP, or AES).
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The primary information conveyed in the Beacon frames is the authentication method and the
cipher suite. Possible authentication methods include 802.1X and Pre-shared key. Pre-shared
key is an authentication method that uses a statically configured pass phrase on both the
stations and the access point. This obviates the need for an authentication server, which in
many home and small office environments will not be available nor desirable. Possible cipher
suites include: WEP, TKIP, and AES (Advanced Encryption Standard). We talk more about
TKIP and AES when addressing data privacy below.
•
Authentication. EAP over 802.1X is used for authentication. Mutual authentication is gained
by choosing an EAP type supporting this feature and is required by WPA. 802.1X port access
control prevents full access to the network until authentication completes. 802.1X
EAPOL-Key packets are used by WPA to distribute per-session keys to those stations
successfully authenticated.
The supplicant in the station uses the authentication and cipher suite information contained in
the information elements to decide which authentication method and cipher suite to use. For
example, if the access point is using the pre-shared key method then the supplicant need not
authenticate using full-blown 802.1X. Rather, the supplicant must simply prove to the access
point that it is in possession of the pre-shared key. If the supplicant detects that the service set
does not contain a WPA information element then it knows it must use pre-WPA 802.1X
authentication and key management in order to access the network.
•
Key management. WPA/WPA2 features a robust key generation/management system that
integrates the authentication and data privacy functions. Keys are generated after successful
authentication and through a subsequent 4-way handshake between the station and Access
Point (AP).
•
Data Privacy (Encryption). Temporal Key Integrity Protocol (TKIP) is used to wrap WEP in
sophisticated cryptographic and security techniques to overcome most of its weaknesses.
•
Data integrity. TKIP includes a message integrity code (MIC) at the end of each plaintext
message to ensure messages are not being spoofed.
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WPA/WPA2 Authentication: Enterprise-level User
Authentication via 802.1x/EAP and RADIUS
Wired Network with Optional
802.1x Port Based Network
Access Control
Wireless LAN
WPA/WPA2
enabled
wireless
client with
“supplicant”
WPA/WPA2
enabled
Access Point
using
pre-shared key
or 802.1x
TCP/IP
Ports Closed
Until
Authenticated
TCP/IP
Ports Opened
After
Authenticated
RADIUS Server
Login
Authentication
Certificate
Authority
(for
example
Win Server,
VeriSign)
Figure B-3: WPA/WPA2 Overview
IEEE 802.1x offers an effective framework for authenticating and controlling user traffic to a
protected network, as well as providing a vehicle for dynamically varying data encryption keys via
EAP from a RADIUS server, for example. This framework enables using a central authentication
server, which employs mutual authentication so that a rogue wireless user does not join the
network.
It is important to note that 802.1x does not provide the actual authentication mechanisms. When
using 802.1x, the EAP type, such as Transport Layer Security (EAP-TLS), or EAP Tunneled
Transport Layer Security (EAP-TTLS), defines how the authentication takes place.
Note: For environments with a Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service (RADIUS)
infrastructure, WPA supports Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP). For environments
without a RADIUS infrastructure, WPA supports the use of a pre-shared key.
Together, these technologies provide a framework for strong user authentication.
Windows XP implements 802.1x natively, and several NETGEAR switch and wireless access
point products support 802.1x.
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Client with a WPA/
WPA2-enabled wireless
adapter and supplicant
(Win XP, Funk,
Meetinghouse)
For example, a
WPA/WPA2-enabled
AP
For example, a
RADIUS server
Controlled Port
Figure B-4: 802.1x Authentication Sequence
The AP sends Beacon Frames with WPA/WPA2 information element to the stations in the service
set. Information elements include the required authentication method (802.1x or Pre-shared key)
and the preferred cipher suite (WEP, TKIP, or AES). Probe Responses (AP to station) and
Association Requests (station to AP) also contain WPA information elements.
1.
Initial 802.1x communications begin with an unauthenticated supplicant (client device)
attempting to connect with an authenticator (802.11 access point). The client sends an
EAP-start message. This begins a series of message exchanges to authenticate the client.
2.
The access point replies with an EAP-request identity message.
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3.
The client sends an EAP-response packet containing the identity to the authentication server.
The access point responds by enabling a port for passing only EAP packets from the client to
an authentication server located on the wired side of the access point. The access point blocks
all other traffic, such as HTTP, DHCP, and POP3 packets, until the access point can verify the
client's identity using an authentication server (for example, RADIUS).
4.
The authentication server uses a specific authentication algorithm to verify the client's identity.
This could be through the use of digital certificates or some other EAP authentication type.
5.
The authentication server will either send an accept or reject message to the access point.
6.
The access point sends an EAP-success packet (or reject packet) to the client.
7.
If the authentication server accepts the client, then the access point will transition the client's
port to an authorized state and forward additional traffic.
The important part to know at this point is that the software supporting the specific EAP type
resides on the authentication server and within the operating system or application “supplicant”
software on the client devices. The access point acts as a “pass through” for 802.1x messages,
which means that you can specify any EAP type without needing to upgrade an 802.1x-compliant
access point. As a result, you can update the EAP authentication type to such devices as token
cards (Smart Cards), Kerberos, one-time passwords, certificates, and public key authentication, or
as newer types become available and your requirements for security change.
WPA/WPA2 Data Encryption Key Management
With 802.1x, the rekeying of unicast encryption keys is optional. Additionally, 802.11 and 802.1x
provide no mechanism to change the global encryption key used for multicast and broadcast
traffic. With WPA/WPA2, rekeying of both unicast and global encryption keys is required.
For the unicast encryption key, the Temporal Key Integrity Protocol (TKIP) changes the key for
every frame, and the change is synchronized between the wireless client and the wireless access
point (AP). For the global encryption key, WPA includes a facility (the Information Element) for
the wireless AP to advertise the changed key to the connected wireless clients.
If configured to implement dynamic key exchange, the 802.1x authentication server can return
session keys to the access point along with the accept message. The access point uses the session
keys to build, sign and encrypt an EAP key message that is sent to the client immediately after
sending the success message. The client can then use contents of the key message to define
applicable encryption keys. In typical 802.1x implementations, the client can automatically change
encryption keys as often as necessary to minimize the possibility of eavesdroppers having enough
time to crack the key in current use.
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Temporal Key Integrity Protocol (TKIP)
WPA uses TKIP to provide important data encryption enhancements including a per-packet key
mixing function, a message integrity check (MIC) named Michael, an extended initialization
vector (IV) with sequencing rules, and a re-keying mechanism. TKIP also provides for the
following:
•
•
•
The verification of the security configuration after the encryption keys are determined.
The synchronized changing of the unicast encryption key for each frame.
The determination of a unique starting unicast encryption key for each preshared key
authentication.
Michael
With 802.11 and WEP, data integrity is provided by a 32-bit integrity check value (ICV) that is
appended to the 802.11 payload and encrypted with WEP. Although the ICV is encrypted, you can
use cryptanalysis to change bits in the encrypted payload and update the encrypted ICV without
being detected by the receiver.
With WPA, a method known as Michael specifies a new algorithm that calculates an 8-byte
message integrity check (MIC) using the calculation facilities available on existing wireless
devices. The MIC is placed between the data portion of the IEEE 802.11 frame and the 4-byte ICV.
The MIC field is encrypted together with the frame data and the ICV.
Michael also provides replay protection. A new frame counter in the IEEE 802.11 frame is used to
prevent replay attacks.
AES Support for WPA2
One of the encryption methods supported by WPA2 is the advanced encryption standard (AES),
although AES support will not be required initially for Wi-Fi certification. This is viewed as the
optimal choice for security conscience organizations, but the problem with AES is that it requires a
fundamental redesign of the NIC’s hardware in both the station and the access point. TKIP is a
pragmatic compromise that allows organizations to deploy better security while AES capable
equipment is being designed, manufactured, and incrementally deployed.
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Is WPA/WPA2 Perfect?
WPA/WPA2 is not without its vulnerabilities. Specifically, it is susceptible to denial of service
(DoS) attacks. If the access point receives two data packets that fail the message integrity code
(MIC) within 60 seconds of each other, then the network is under an active attack, and as a result,
the access point employs counter measures, which include disassociating each station using the
access point. This prevents an attacker from gleaning information about the encryption key and
alerts administrators, but it also causes users to lose network connectivity for 60 seconds. More
than anything else, this may just prove that no single security tactic is completely invulnerable.
WPA/WPA2 is a definite step forward in WLAN security over WEP and has to be thought of as a
single part of an end-to-end network security strategy.
Product Support for WPA/WPA2
Starting in August, 2003, NETGEAR, Inc. wireless Wi-Fi certified products will support the WPA
standard. NETGEAR, Inc. wireless products that had their Wi-Fi certification approved before
August, 2003 will have one year to add WPA so as to maintain their Wi-Fi certification.
WPA/WPA2 requires software changes to the following:
•
•
•
Wireless access points
Wireless network adapters
Wireless client programs
Supporting a Mixture of WPA, WPA2, and WEP
Wireless Clients is Discouraged
To support the gradual transition of WEP-based wireless networks to WPA/WPA2, a wireless AP
can support both WEP and WPA/WPA2 clients at the same time. During the association, the
wireless AP determines which clients use WEP and which clients use WPA/WPA2. The
disadvantage to supporting a mixture of WEP and WPA/WPA2 clients is that the global encryption
key is not dynamic. This is because WEP-based clients cannot support it. All other benefits to the
WPA clients, such as integrity, are maintained.
However, a mixed mode supporting WPA/WPA2 and non-WPA/WPA2 clients would offer
network security that is no better than that obtained with a non-WPA/WPA2 network, and thus this
mode of operation is discouraged.
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Changes to Wireless Access Points
Wireless access points must have their firmware updated to support the following:
•
•
•
•
•
The new WPA/WPA2 information element
To advertise their support of WPA/WPA2, wireless APs send the beacon frame with a new
802.11 WPA/WPA2 information element that contains the wireless AP's security configuration
(encryption algorithms and wireless security configuration information).
The WPA/WPA2 two-phase authentication
Open system, then 802.1x (EAP with RADIUS or preshared key).
TKIP
Michael
AES (WPA2)
To upgrade your wireless access points to support WPA/WPA2, obtain a WPA/WPA2 firmware
update from your wireless AP vendor and upload it to your wireless AP.
Changes to Wireless Network Adapters
Wireless networking software in the adapter, and possibly in the OS or client application, must be
updated to support the following:
•
•
•
•
•
The new WPA/WPA2 information element
Wireless clients must be able to process the WPA/WPA2 information element and respond
with a specific security configuration.
The WPA/WPA2 two-phase authentication
Open system, then 802.1x supplicant (EAP or preshared key).
TKIP
Michael
AES (WPA2)
To upgrade your wireless network adapters to support WPA/WPA2, obtain a WPA/WPA2 update
from your wireless network adapter vendor and update the wireless network adapter driver.
For Windows wireless clients, you must obtain an updated network adapter driver that supports
WPA. For wireless network adapter drivers that are compatible with Windows XP (Service Pack 1)
and Windows Server 2003, the updated network adapter driver must be able to pass the adapter's
WPA capabilities and security configuration to the Wireless Zero Configuration service.
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Microsoft has worked with many wireless vendors to embed the WPA driver update in the wireless
adapter driver. So, to update your Microsoft Windows wireless client, all you have to do is obtain
the new WPA/WPA2-compatible driver and install the driver.
Changes to Wireless Client Programs
Wireless client programs must be updated to permit the configuration of WPA/WPA2
authentication (and preshared key) and the new WPA/WPA2 encryption algorithms (TKIP and
AES).
To obtain the Microsoft WPA client program, visit the Microsoft Web site.
Note: The Microsoft WPA2 client is still in beta.
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Glossary
Use the list below to find definitions for technical terms used in this manual.
802.11 Standard
802.11, or IEEE 802.11, is a type of radio technology used for wireless local area networks (WLANs). It is a
standard that has been developed by the IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers),
http://standards.ieee.org. The IEEE is an international organization that develops standards for hundreds of
electronic and electrical technologies. The organization uses a series of numbers, like the Dewey Decimal
system in libraries, to differentiate between the various technology families.
The 802 subgroup (of the IEEE) develops standards for local and wide area networks with the 802.11 section
reviewing and creating standards for wireless local area networks.
Wi-Fi , 802.11, is composed of several standards operating in different radio frequencies: 802.11b is a
standard for wireless LANs operating in the 2.4 GHz spectrum with a bandwidth of 11 Mbps; 802.11a is a
different standard for wireless LANs, and pertains to systems operating in the 5 GHz frequency range with a
bandwidth of 54 Mbps. Another standard, 802.11g, is for WLANS operating in the 2.4 GHz frequency but
with a bandwidth of 54 Mbps.
802.11a Standard
An IEEE specification for wireless networking that operates in the 5 GHz frequency range (5.15 GHz to
5.85 GHz) with a maximum 54 Mbps data transfer rate. The 5 GHz frequency band is not as crowded as the
2.4 GHz frequency, because the 802.11a specification offers more radio channels than the 802.11b. These
additional channels can help avoid radio and microwave interference.
802.11b Standard
International standard for wireless networking that operates in the 2.4 GHz frequency range (2.4 GHz to
2.4835 GHz) and provides a throughput of up to 11 Mbps. This is a very commonly used frequency.
Microwave ovens, cordless phones, medical and scientific equipment, as well as Bluetooth devices, all work
within the 2.4 GHz frequency band.
802.11d Standard
802.11d is an IEEE standard supplementary to the Media Access Control (MAC) layer in 802.11 to promote
worldwide use of 802.11 WLANs. It will allow access points to communicate information on the
permissible radio channels with acceptable power levels for client devices. The devices will automatically
adjust based on geographic requirements.
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The purpose of 11d is to add features and restrictions to allow WLANs to operate within the rules of these
countries. Equipment manufacturers do not want to produce a wide variety of country-specific products and
users that travel do not want a bag full of country-specific WLAN PC cards. The outcome will be
country-specific firmware solutions.
802.11e Standard
802.11e is a proposed IEEE standard to define quality of service (QoS) mechanisms for wireless gear that
gives support to bandwidth-sensitive applications such as voice and video.
802.11g Standard
Similar to 802.11b, this physical layer standard provides a throughput of up to 54 Mbps. It also operates in
the 2.4 GHz frequency band but uses a different radio technology in order to boost overall bandwidth.
802.11i
This is the name of the IEEE Task Group dedicated to standardizing WLAN security. The 802.11i Security
has a frame work based on RSN (Robust Security Mechanism). RSN consists of two parts: 1) The Data
Privacy Mechanism and 2) Security Association Management.
The Data Privacy Mechanism supports two proposed schemes: TKIP and AES. TKIP (Temporal Key
Integrity) is a short-term solution that defines software patches to WEP to provide a minimally adequate
level of data privacy. AES or AES-OCB (Advanced Encryption Standard and Offset Codebook) is a robust
data privacy scheme and is a longer-term solution.
Security Association Management is addressed by a) RSN Negotiation Procedures, b) IEEE 802.1x
Authentication and c) IEEE 802.1x Key management.
The standards are being defined to naturally co-exist with pre-RSN networks that are currently deployed.
802.11n Standard
A recently formed (Oct 2003) IEEE official task group referred to as: 802.11n or "TGn" for the 100 Mbps
wireless physical layer standard protocol. Current published ratification date is December 2005. As of
February 2004, no draft specification has been written - It is expected to use both the 2.4 and 5GHz
frequencies.
AES (Advanced Encryption Standard)
A symmetric 128-bit block data encryption technique developed by Belgian cryptographers Joan Daemen
and Vincent Rijmen. The U.S government adopted the algorithm as its encryption technique in October
2000, replacing the DES encryption it used. AES works at multiple network layers simultaneously. The
National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) of the U.S. Department of Commerce selected the
algorithm, called Rijndael (pronounced Rhine Dahl or Rain Doll), out of a group of five algorithms under
consideration, including one called MARS from a large research team at IBM. AES is expected to replace
WEP as a WLAN encryption method in 2003.
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Access Point (AP)
A wireless LAN transceiver or "base station" that can connect a wired LAN to one or many wireless devices.
Access points can also bridge to each other.
There are various types of access points, also referred to as base stations, used in both wireless and wired
networks. These include bridges, hubs, switches, routers and gateways. The differences between them are
not always precise, because certain capabilities associated with one can also be added to another. For
example, a router can do bridging, and a hub may also be a switch. But they are all involved in making sure
data is transferred from one location to another.
A bridge connects devices that all use the same kind of protocol. A router can connect networks that use
differing protocols. It also reads the addresses included in the packets and routes them to the appropriate
computer station, working with any other routers in the network to choose the best path to send the packets
on. A wireless hub or access point adds a few capabilities such as roaming and provides a network
connection to a variety of clients, but it does not allocate bandwidth. A switch is a hub that has extra
intelligence: It can read the address of a packet and send it to the appropriate computer station. A wireless
gateway is an access point that provides additional capabilities such as NAT routing, DHCP, firewalls,
security, etc.
Ad-Hoc mode
A client setting that provides independent peer-to-peer connectivity in a wireless LAN. An alternative set-up
is one where PCs communicate with each other through an AP. See access point and Infrastructure mode.
Bandwidth
The amount of transmission capacity that is available on a network at any point in time. Available bandwidth
depends on several variables such as the rate of data transmission speed between networked devices,
network overhead, number of users, and the type of device used to connect PCs to a network. It is similar to
a pipeline in that capacity is determined by size: the wider the pipe, the more water can flow through it; the
more bandwidth a network provides, the more data can flow through it. Standard 802.11b provides a
bandwidth of 11 Mbps; 802.11a and 802.11g provide a bandwidth of 54 Mbps.
Bits per second (bps)
A measure of data transmission speed over communication lines based on the number of bits that can be sent
or received per second. Bits per second—bps—is often confused with bytes per second—Bps. While "bits"
is a measure of transmission speed, "bytes" is a measure of storage capability. 8 bits make a byte, so if a
wireless network is operating at a bandwidth of 11 megabits per second (11 Mbps or 11 Mbits/sec), it is
sending data at 1.375 megabytes per second (1.375 Mbps).
Bluetooth Wireless Technology
A technology specification for linking portable computers, personal digital assistants (PDAs) and mobile
phones for short-range transmission of voice and data across a global radio frequency band without the need
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for cables or wires. Bluetooth is a frequency-hopping technology in the 2.4 GHz frequency spectrum, with a
range of 30 feet and up to 11Mbps raw data throughput.
Bridge
A product that connects a local area network (LAN) to another local area network that uses the same
protocol (for example, wireless, Ethernet or token ring). Wireless bridges are commonly used to link
buildings in campuses.
Client or Client devices
Any computer connected to a network that requests services (files, print capability) from another member of
the network. Clients are end users. Wi-Fi client devices include PC Cards that slide into laptop computers,
mini-PCI modules embedded in laptop computers and mobile computing devices, as well as USB and PCI/
ISA bus Wi-Fi radios. Client devices usually communicate with hub devices like access points and
gateways.
Collision avoidance
A network node characteristic for proactively detecting that it can transmit a signal without risking a
collision, thereby ensuring a more reliable connection.
Crossover cable
A special cable used for networking two computers without the use of a hub. Crossover cables may also be
required for connecting a cable or DSL modem to a wireless gateway or access point. Instead of the signals
transferring in parallel paths from one set of plugs to another, the signals "crossover." If an eight-wire cable
was being used, for instance, the signal would start on pin one at one end of the cable and end up on pin
eight at the other end. They "cross-over" from one side to the other.
CSMA/CA (Carrier Sense Multiple Action/Collision Avoidance)
CSMA/CA is the principle medium access method employed by IEEE 802.11 WLANs. It is a "listen before
talk": method of minimizing (but not eliminating) collisions caused by simultaneous transmission by
multiple radios. IEEE 802.11 states collision avoidance method rather than collision detection must be used,
because the standard employs half duplex radios—radios capable of transmission or reception—but not both
simultaneously.
Unlike conventional wired Ethernet nodes, a WLAN station cannot detect a collision while transmitting. If a
collision occurs, the transmitting station will not receive an ACKnowledge packet from the intended receive
station. For this reason, ACK packets have a higher priority than all other network traffic. After completion
of a data transmission, the receive station will begin transmission of the ACK packet before any other node
can begin transmitting a new data packet. All other stations must wait a longer pseudo randomized period of
time before transmitting. If an ACK packet is not received, the transmitting station will wait for a subsequent
opportunity to retry transmission
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CSMA/CD (Carrier Sense Multiple Action/Collision Detection)
A method of managing traffic and reducing noise on an Ethernet network. A network device transmits data
after detecting that a channel is available. However, if two devices transmit data simultaneously, the sending
devices detect a collision and retransmit after a random time delay.
DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol)
A utility that enables a server to dynamically assign IP addresses from a predefined list and limit their time
of use so that they can be reassigned. Without DHCP, an IT Manager would have to manually enter in all the
IP addresses of all the computers on the network. When DHCP is used, whenever a computer logs onto the
network, it automatically gets an IP address assigned to it.
Diversity: antenna
A type of antenna system that uses two antennas to maximize reception and transmission quality and reduce
interference
DNS (Domain Name System)
A program that translates URLs to IP addresses by accessing a database maintained on a collection of
Internet servers. The program works behind the scenes to facilitate surfing the Web with alpha versus
numeric addresses. A DNS server converts a name like mywebsite.com to a series of numbers like
107.22.55.26. Every website has its own specific IP address on the Internet.
Encryption Key
An alphanumeric (letters and/or numbers) series that enables data to be encrypted and then decrypted so it
can be safely shared among members of a network. WEP uses an encryption key that automatically encrypts
outgoing wireless data. On the receiving side, the same encryption key enables the computer to
automatically decrypt the information so it can be read.
Enhanced Data Encryption through TKIP
To improve data encryption, Wi-Fi Protected Access utilizes its Temporal Key Integrity Protocol (TKIP).
TKIP provides important data encryption enhancements including a per-packet key mixing function, a
message integrity check (MIC) named Michael, an extended initialization vector (IV) with sequencing rules,
and a re-keying mechanism. Through these enhancements, TKIP addresses all WEP known vulnerabilities.
Enterprise-level User Authentication via 802.1x and EAP
WEP has almost no user authentication mechanism. To strengthen user authentication, Wi-Fi Protected
Access implements 802.1x and the Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP). Together, these
implementations provide a framework for strong user authentication. This framework utilizes a central
authentication server, such as RADIUS, to authenticate each user on the network before they join it, and also
employs "mutual authentication" so that the wireless user doesn’t accidentally join a rogue network that
might steal its network credentials.
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ESSID (more commonly referred to as SSID – Short Set Identifier)
The identifying name of an 802.11 wireless network. When you specify your correct ESSID in your client
setup you ensure that you connect to your wireless network rather than another network in range. (See
SSID.) The ESSID can be called by different terms, such as Network Name, Preferred Network, SSID or
Wireless LAN Service Area.
Ethernet
International standard networking technology for wired implementations. Basic 10BaseT networks offer a
bandwidth of about 10 Mbps. Fast Ethernet (100 Mbps) and Gigabit Ethernet (1000 Mbps) are becoming
popular.
Firewall
A system that secures a network and prevents access by unauthorized users. Firewalls can be software,
hardware or a combination of both. Firewalls can prevent unrestricted access into a network, as well as
restrict data from flowing out of a network.
Gateway
In the wireless world, a gateway is an access point with additional software capabilities such as providing
NAT and DHCP. Gateways may also provide VPN support, roaming, firewalls, various levels of security,
etc.
Hot Spot (also referred to as Public Access Location)
A place where you can access Wi-Fi service. This can be for free or for a fee. HotSpots can be inside a coffee
shop, airport lounge, train station, convention center, hotel or any other public meeting area. Corporations
and campuses are also implementing HotSpots to provide wireless Internet access to their visitors and
guests. In some parts of the world, HotSpots are known as CoolSpots.
Hub
A multiport device used to connect PCs to a network via Ethernet cabling or via Wi-Fi. Wired hubs can have
numerous ports and can transmit data at speeds ranging from 10 Mbps to multigigabyte speeds per second.
A hub transmits packets it receives to all the connected ports. A small wired hub may only connect 4
computers; a large hub can connect 48 or more. Wireless hubs can connect hundreds.
HZ (‘hertz”)
The international unit for measuring frequency, equivalent to the older unit of cycles per second. One
megahertz (MHz) is one million hertz. One gigahertz (GHz) is one billion hertz. The standard US electrical
power frequency is 60 Hz, the AM broadcast radio frequency band is 535—1605 kHz, the FM broadcast
radio frequency band is 88—108 MHz, and wireless 802.11b LANs operate at 2.4 GHz.
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IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers)
A membership organization (www.ieee.org) that includes engineers, scientists and students in electronics
and allied fields. It has more than 300,000 members and is involved with setting standards for computers and
communications.
IEEE 802.11
A set of specifications for LANs from The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE). Most
wired networks conform to 802.3, the specification for CSMA/CD based Ethernet networks or 802.5, the
specification for token ring networks. 802.11 defines the standard for wireless LANs encompassing three
incompatible (non-interoperable) technologies: Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum (FHSS), Direct
Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS) and Infrared. WECA’s (Wireless Ethernet Compatibility Alliance – now
Wi-Fi Alliance) focus is on 802.11b, an 11 Mbps high-rate DSSS standard for wireless networks.
Infrastructure mode
A client setting providing connectivity to an access point (AP). As compared to Ad-Hoc mode, whereby PCs
communicate directly with each other, clients set in Infrastructure Mode all pass data through a central AP.
The AP not only mediates wireless network traffic in the immediate neighborhood, but also provides
communication with the wired network. See Ad-Hoc and AP.
IP (Internet Protocol) address
A 32-bit number that identifies each sender or receiver of information that is sent across the Internet. An IP
address has two parts: an identifier of a particular network on the Internet and an identifier of the particular
device (which can be a server or a workstation) within that network.
ISO Network Model
A network model developed by the International Standards Organization (ISO) that consists of seven
different levels, or layers. By standardizing these layers, and the interfaces in between, different portions of
a given protocol can be modified or changed as technologies advance or systems requirements are altered.
The seven layers are:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Physical
Data Link
Network
Transport
Session
Presentation
Application
The IEEE 802.11 Standard encompasses the physical layer (PHY) and the lower portion of the data link
layer. The lower portion of the data link layer is often referred to as the Medium Access Controller (MAC)
sublayer.
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MAC (Media Access Control)
Every wireless 802.11 device has its own specific MAC address hard-coded into it. This unique identifier
can be used to provide security for wireless networks. When a network uses a MAC table, only the 802.11
radios that have had their MAC addresses added to that network's MAC table will be able to get onto the
network.
Mesh Networks
Also called mesh topology, mesh is a network topology in which devices are connected with many
redundant interconnections between network nodes. In a full mesh topology every node has a connection to
every other node in the network. Mesh networks may be wired or wireless.
In a wireless mesh example, each of the spheres below represent a mesh router. Corporate servers and
printers may be shared by attaching to each mesh router. For wireless access to the mesh, an access point
must be attached to any one of the mesh routers.
Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO)
MIMO refers to radio links with multiple antennas at the transmitter and the receiver side to improve the
performance of the wireless link.
NAT (Network Address Translation)
A network capability that enables a houseful of computers to dynamically share a single incoming IP
address from a dial-up, cable or xDSL connection. NAT takes the single incoming IP address and creates
new IP address for each client computer on the network.
Network name
Identifies the wireless network for all the shared components. During the installation process for most
wireless networks, you need to enter the network name or SSID. Different network names are used when
setting up your individual computer, wired network or workgroup.
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NIC (Network Interface Card)
A type of PC adapter card that either works without wires (Wi-Fi) or attaches to a network cable to provide
two-way communication between the computer and network devices such as a hub or switch. Most office
wired NICs operate at 10 Mbps (Ethernet), 100 Mbps (Fast Ethernet) or 10/100 Mbps dual speed.
High-speed Gigabit and 10 Gigabit NIC cards are also available. See PC Card.
PC card (also called PCMCIA)
A removable, credit-card-sized memory or I/O (input/output) device that fits into a Type 2 PCMCIA
standard slot, PC Cards are used primarily in PCs, portable computers, PDAs and laptops. PC Card
peripherals include Wi-Fi cards, memory cards, modems, NICs, hard drives, etc.
PCI adapter
A high-performance I/O computer bus used internally on most computers. Other bus types include ISA and
AGP. PCIs and other computer buses enable the addition of internal cards that provide services and features
not supported by the motherboard or other connectors.
Peer-to-peer network (also called Ad-Hoc in WLANs)
A wireless or wired computer network that has no server or central hub or router. All the networked PCs are
equally able to act as a network server or client, and each client computer can talk to all the other wireless
computers without having to go through an access point or hub. However, since there is no central base
station to monitor traffic or provide Internet access, the various signals can collide with each other, reducing
overall performance.
PHY
The lowest layer within the OSI Network Model. It deals primarily with transmission of the raw bit stream
over the PHYsical transport medium. In the case of wireless LANs, the transport medium is free space. The
PHY defines parameters such as data rates, modulation method, signaling parameters, transmitter/receiver
synchronization, etc. Within an actual radio implementation, the PHY corresponds to the radio front end and
baseband signal processing sections.
Plug and Play
A computer system feature that provides for automatic configuration of add-ons and peripheral devices such
as wireless PC Cards, printers, scanners and multimedia devices.
Proxy server
Used in larger companies and organizations to improve network operations and security, a proxy server is
able to prevent direct communication between two or more networks. The proxy server forwards allowable
data requests to remote servers and/or responds to data requests directly from stored remote server data
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Range
The distance away from your access point that your wireless network can reach. Most Wi-Fi systems will
provide a range of a hundred feet or more. Depending on the environment and the type of antenna used,
Wi-Fi signals can have a range of up to mile
Residential gateway
A wireless device that connects multiple PCs, peripherals and the Internet on a home network. Most Wi-Fi
residential gateways provide DHCP and NAT as well.
RJ-45
Standard connectors used in Ethernet networks. Even though they look very similar to standard RJ-11
telephone connectors, RJ-45 connectors can have up to eight wires, whereas telephone connectors have only
four.
Roaming
Moving seamlessly from one AP coverage area to another with your laptop or desktop with no loss in
connectivity.
Rogue Access Point
"Rogue AP" is a term used to describe an unauthorized access point that is connected on the main home or
corporate network or operating in a stand-alone mode (in a parking lot or in a neighbor's building). Rogue
APs, by definition, are not under the management of network administrators and do not conform to network
security policies and may present a severe security risk. Ideally, it is best to have some type of WLAN
system that does not allow rogue access points to easily be added to an existing WLAN.
Router
A device that forwards data packets from one local area network (LAN) or wide area network (WAN) to
another. Based on routing tables and routing protocols, routers can read the network address in each
transmitted frame and make a decision on how to send it via the most efficient route based on traffic load,
line costs, speed, bad connections, etc.
Satellite broadband
A wireless high-speed Internet connection provided by satellites. Some satellite broadband connections are
two-way—up and down. Others are one-way, with the satellite providing a high-speed downlink and then
using a dial-up telephone connection or other land-based system for the uplink to the Internet.
Server
A computer that provides its resources to other computers and devices on a network. These include print
servers, Internet servers and data servers. A server can also be combined with a hub or router.
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Site survey
The process whereby a wireless network installer inspects a location prior to putting in a wireless network.
Site surveys are used to identify the radio- and client-use properties of a facility so that access points can be
optimally placed.
SSID (also called ESSID)
A 32-character unique identifier attached to the header of packets sent over a WLAN that acts as a password
when a mobile device tries to connect to the BSS. (Also called ESSID.) The SSID differentiates one WLAN
from another, so all access points and all devices attempting to connect to a specific WLAN must use the
same SSID.
A device will not be permitted to join the BSS unless it can provide the unique SSID. Because an SSID can
be sniffed in plain text from a packet, it does not supply any security to the network. An SSID is also
referred to as a Network Name because essentially it is a name that identifies a wireless network.
SSL (Secure Sockets Layer)
Commonly used encryption scheme used by many online retail and banking sites to protect the financial
integrity of transactions. When an SSL session begins, the server sends its public key to the browser. The
browser then sends a randomly generated secret key back to the server in order to have a secret key
exchange for that session.
Subnetwork or Subnet
Found in larger networks, these smaller networks are used to simplify addressing between numerous
computers. Subnets connect to the central network through a router, hub or gateway. Each individual
wireless LAN will probably use the same subnet for all the local computers it talks to.
Switch
A type of hub that efficiently controls the way multiple devices use the same network so that each can
operate at optimal performance. A switch acts as a networks traffic cop: rather than transmitting all the
packets it receives to all ports as a hub does, a switch transmits packets to only the receiving port.
TCP (Transmission Control Protocol)
A protocol used along with the Internet Protocol (IP) to send data in the form of individual units (called
packets) between computers over the Internet. While IP takes care of handling the actual delivery of the
data, TCP takes care of keeping track of the packets that a message is divided into for efficient routing
through the Internet.
For example, when a web page is downloaded from a web server, the TCP program layer in that server
divides the file into packets, numbers the packets, and then forwards them individually to the IP program
layer. Although each packet has the same destination IP address, it may get routed differently through the
network. At the other end, TCP reassembles the individual packets and waits until they have all arrived to
forward them as a single file.
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TCP/IP
The underlying technology behind the Internet and communications between computers in a network. The
first part, TCP, is the transport part, which matches the size of the messages on either end and guarantees that
the correct message has been received. The IP part is the user's computer address on a network. Every
computer in a TCP/IP network has its own IP address that is either dynamically assigned at startup or
permanently assigned. All TCP/IP messages contain the address of the destination network as well as the
address of the destination station. This enables TCP/IP messages to be transmitted to multiple networks
(subnets) within an organization or worldwide.
TKIP
A security feature that is a WEP enhancement: Temporal Key Integrity Protocol and Message Integrity
Check (MIC) is a modification of WEP to defend against known attacks (WEP+ four patches for key
mixing, message integrity, rekeying, initialization vector protection)
USB (Universal Serial Bus)
A high-speed bidirectional serial connection between a PC and a peripheral that transmits data at the rate of
12 megabits per second. The new USB 2.0 specification provides a data rate of up to 480 Mbps, compared to
standard USB at only 12 Mbps. 1394, FireWire and iLink all provide a bandwidth of up to 400 Mbps.
VoIP (Voice over IP)
Voice transmission using Internet Protocol to create digital packets distributed over the Internet. VoIP can be
less expensive than voice transmission using standard analog packets over POTS (Plain Old Telephone
Service).
VPN (Virtual Private Network)
A type of technology designed to increase the security of information transferred over the Internet. VPN can
work with either wired or wireless networks, as well as with dial-up connections over POTS. VPN creates a
private encrypted tunnel from the end user's computer, through the local wireless network, through the
Internet, all the way to the corporate servers and database.
War Chalking
The act of making chalk marks on outdoor surfaces (walls, sidewalks, buildings, sign posts, trees) to indicate
the existence of an open wireless network connection, usually offering an Internet connection so that others
can benefit from the free wireless access. The open connections typically come from the access points of
wireless networks located within buildings to serve enterprises. The chalk symbols indicate the type of
access point that is available at that specific spot.
There are three basic designs that are currently used: a pair of back-to-back semicircles, which denotes an
open node; a closed circle, which denotes a closed node; a closed circle with a “W” inside, which denotes a
node equipped with WEP. Warchalkers also draw identifiers above the symbols to indicate the password that
can be used to access the node, which can easily be obtained with sniffer software.
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As a recent development, the debate over the legality of warchalking is still going on.
The practice stems from the U.S. Depression-era culture of wandering hobos who would make marks
outside of homes to indicate to other wanderers whether the home was receptive to drifters or was
inhospitable.
War Driving
War driving is the act of locating and possibly exploiting connections to wireless local area networks while
driving around a city or elsewhere. To do war driving, you need a vehicle, a computer (which can be a
laptop), a wireless Ethernet card set to work in promiscuous mode, and some kind of an antenna which can
be mounted on top of or positioned inside the car. Because a wireless LAN may have a range that extends
beyond an office building, an outside user may be able to intrude into the network, obtain a free Internet
connection, and possibly gain access to company records and other resources.
Some people have made a sport out of war driving, in part to demonstrate the ease with which wireless
LANs can be compromised. With an omnidirectional antenna and a geophysical positioning system (GPS),
the war driver can systematically map the locations of 802.11b wireless access points.
WEP (Wired Equivalent Privacy)
Basic wireless security provided by Wi-Fi. In some instances, WEP may be all a home or small-business
user needs to protect wireless data. WEP is available in 40-bit (also called 64-bit), or in 108-bit (also called
128-bit) encryption modes. As 108-bit encryption provides a longer algorithm that takes longer to decode, it
can provide better security than basic 40-bit (64-bit) encryption.
Wi-Fi (Wireless Fidelity)
Another name for IEEE 802.11b. Products certified as Wi-Fi are interoperable with each other even if they
are from different manufacturers. A user with a Wi-Fi product can use any brand of access point with any
other brand of client hardware that is built to the Wi-Fi standard.
Wi-Fi Alliance (formerly WECA – Wireless Ethernet Compatibility Alliance)
The Wi-Fi Alliance is a nonprofit international association formed in 1999 to certify interoperability of
wireless Local Area Network products based on IEEE 802.11 specification. Currently the Wi-Fi Alliance
has 193 member companies from around the world, and 509 products have received Wi-Fi certification since
certification began in March of 2000. The goal of the Wi-Fi Alliance's members is to enhance the user
experience through product interoperability (www.weca.net).
Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA)
WPA is a security technology for wireless networks that improves on the authentication and encryption
features of WEP (Wired Equivalent Privacy). In fact, WPA was developed by the networking industry in
response to the shortcomings of WEP.
One of the key technologies behind WPA is the Temporal Key Integrity Protocol (TKIP). TKIP addresses
the encryption weaknesses of WEP. Another key component of WPA is built-in authentication that WEP
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does not offer. With this feature, WPA provides roughly comparable security to VPN tunneling with WEP,
with the benefit of easier administration and use. This is similar to 802.1x support and requires a RADIUS
server in order to implement. The Wi-Fi Alliance will call this, 'WPA-Enterprise.'
One variation of WPA is called WPA Pre Shared Key or WPA-PSK for short - this provides an
authentication alternative to an expensive RADIUS server. WPA-PSK is a simplified but still powerful form
of WPA most suitable for home Wi-Fi networking. To use WPA-PSK, a person sets a static key or
"passphrase" as with WEP. But, using TKIP, WPA-PSK automatically changes the keys at a preset time
interval, making it much more difficult for hackers to find and exploit them. The Wi-Fi Alliance will call
this, 'WPA-Personal.'
Wi-Fi Protected Access and IEEE 802.11i Comparison
Wi-Fi Protected Access will be forward-compatible with the IEEE 802.11i security specification currently
under development by the IEEE. Wi-Fi Protected Access is a subset of the current 802.11i draft, taking
certain pieces of the 802.11i draft that are ready to bring to market today, such as its implementation of
802.1x and TKIP. These features can also be enabled on most existing Wi-Fi CERTIFIED products as a
software upgrade. The main pieces of the 802.11i draft that are not included in Wi-Fi Protected Access are
secure IBSS, secure fast handoff, secure de-authentication and disassociation, as well as enhanced
encryption protocols such as AES-CCMP. These features are either not yet ready for market or will require
hardware upgrades to implement.
Wi-Fi Protected Access for the Enterprise
Wi-Fi Protected Access effectively addresses the WLAN security requirements for the enterprise and
provides a strong encryption and authentication solution prior to the ratification of the IEEE 802.11i
standard. In an enterprise with IT resources, Wi-Fi Protected Access should be used in conjunction with an
authentication server such as RADIUS to provide centralized access control and management. With this
implementation in place, the need for add-on solutions such as VPNs may be eliminated, at least for the
express purpose of securing the wireless link in a network.
Wi-Fi Protected Access for Home/SOHO
In a home or Small Office/ Home Office (SOHO) environment, where there are no central authentication
servers or EAP framework, Wi-Fi Protected Access runs in a special home mode. This mode, also called
Pre-Shared Key (PSK), allows the use of manually-entered keys or passwords and is designed to be easy to
set up for the home user. All the home user needs to do is enter a password (also called a master key) in their
access point or home wireless gateway and each PC that is on the Wi-Fi wireless network. Wi-Fi Protected
Access takes over automatically from that point. First, the password allows only devices with a matching
password to join the network, which keeps out eavesdroppers and other unauthorized users. Second, the
password automatically kicks off the TKIP encryption process, described above.
Wi-Fi Protected Access for Public Access
The intrinsic encryption and authentication schemes defined in Wi-Fi Protected Access may also prove
useful for Wireless Internet Service Providers (WISPs) offering Wi-Fi public access in "hot spots" where
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secure transmission and authentication is particularly important to users unknown to each other. The
authentication capability defined in the specification enables a secure access control mechanism for the
service providers and for mobile users not utilizing VPN connections.
Wi-Fi Protected Access in "Mixed Mode" Deployment
In a large network with many clients, a likely scenario is that access points will be upgraded before all the
Wi-Fi clients. Some access points may operate in a "mixed mode", which supports both clients running
Wi-Fi Protected Access and clients running original WEP security. While useful for transition, the net effect
of supporting both types of client devices is that security will operate at the less secure level (WEP),
common to all the devices. Therefore, organizations will benefit by accelerating the move to Wi-Fi Protected
Access for all Wi-Fi clients and access points.
WiMAX
An IEEE 802.16 Task Group that provides a specification for fixed broadband wireless access systems
employing a point-to-multipoint (PMP) architecture. Task Group 1 of IEEE 802.16 developed a
point-to-multipoint broadband wireless access standard for systems in the frequency range 10-66 GHz. The
standard covers both the Media Access Control (MAC) and the physical (PHY) layers.
Wireless Multimedia (WMM)
WMM (Wireless Multimedia) is a subset of the 802.11e standard. WMM allows wireless traffic to have a
range of priorities, depending on the kind of data. Time-dependent information, like video, audio, or voice
will have a higher priority than normal traffic. For WMM to function correctly, wireless clients must also
support WMM.
Wireless Networking
Wireless Networking refers to the infrastructure enabling the transmission of wireless signals. A network
ties things together and enables resource sharing.
WLAN (Wireless LAN)
Also referred to as LAN. A type of local-area network that uses wireless or high-frequency radio waves
rather than wires to communicate between nodes.
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