Nikon | FA Film Camera FA | User's Manual | Nikon FA Film Camera FA User's Manual

Nikon
FA
INSTRUCTION MANUAL
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NOMENCLATURE
LCD illumination window 12
1
Aperture-direct-readout (ADR) window
2
Shutter speed indication illumination window
3
Neckstrap eyelet
4
Focusing screen holder release latch
5
Depth-of-field preview lever
Lens type signal pin 16
6
Handgrip
Lens release button 17
7
Handgrip attachment screw
8
Self-timer lever
9
Metering control button
Maximum aperture indexing lever 20
10
Aperture coupling lever
Reflex mirror 21
11
Lens mounting flange
3
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Meter coupling lever 13
Sync terminal 14
Lens mounting index 15
Lens release pin 18
Focal length indexing lever 19
22
Shutter speed dial locking button
23
Viewfinder eyepiece
Film sprockets 35
Film take-up spool 36
Camera back locking catch 37
24
Eyepiece shutter lever
25
Film rewind fork
26
Shutter curtains
27
Film cartridge chamber
28
Film guide pin
29
Film guide rails
30
Data back contacts
31
Motor drive shutter release coupling (for MD-12)
32
Motor drive coupling
33
Film rewind button
34
Memo holder
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Film pressure plate 38
Film roller 39
Camera back 40
Tripod/motor drive coupling socket 41
Motor drive electrical contacts (with cover) 42
Battery clip 43
4
44
Aperture/distance index
45
Focusing ring
46
Mounting ring
47
Infrared focusing index
48
Meter coupling ridge
Aperture ring 65
49
Meter coupling shoe
Aperture-direct-readout (ADR) scale 66
50
Hot-shoe contact
51
Exposure compensation index
Shooting mode selector 68
52
Exposure compensation scale
Shutter release fingerguard 69
53
Exposure compensation dial
54
Film rewind knob
55
ASA/ISO film speed index
Multiple exposure lever 72
56
ASA/ISO film speed scale
Shooting mode index 73
57
Film rewind crank
58
Camera back locking lever
59
Exposure compensation dial locking button
Film plane indicator 76
60
Ready-light contact
Shutter speed index 77
61
TTL flash auto-stop signal contact
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Depth-of-field indicators 62
Distance scale 63
Aperture scale 64
Monitor contact 67
Shutter release button 70
Frame counter 71
Film advance lever 74
Shutter speed dial 75
Accessory shoe 78
5
CONTENTS
NOMENCLATURE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 - 5
FOREWORD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
BASIC OPERATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 - 38
INSTALLING BATTERIES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
CHECKING BATTERY POWER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
MOUNTING THE LENS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 -11
Usable Lenses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Al-S Nikkor: An Updated Version of Al-Nikkor Lenses . . . . . . . . . 11
LOADING FILM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 - 15
Frame Counter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Film Advance Lever . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Memo Holder. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
SETTING FILM SPEED. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
SELECTING THE SHOOTING MODE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 - 31
Viewfinder Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
P(Programmed) Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 - 23
S (Shutter-Priority) Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 - 27
A (Aperture-Priority) Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 - 29
M (Manual) Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 - 31
HOLDING THE CAMERA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 - 33
Detachable Handgrip . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
FOCUSING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 - 35
TAKING PICTURES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
UNLOADING FILM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 - 38
TECHNICAL INFORMATION /
PHOTOGRAPHlC TECHNIQUES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 - 62
EXPOSURE METERING SYSTEM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 - 45
Metering Control Button . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
Comparison of Automatic Multi-Pattern and
Centerweighted Metering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 - 45
RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SHUTTER SPEED
AND APERTURE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 - 47
DEPTH OF FIELD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 - 49
EXPOSURE COMPENSATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 - 53
In Automatic Exposure Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 - 51
In the Manual Mode. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
Duplication Work and Photomicrography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
STOP-DOWN EXPOSURE MEASUREMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
6
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MULTIPLE EXPOSURE PHOTOGRAPHY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
UNMANNED PHOTOGRAPHY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 - 57
Self-Timer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
Eyepiece Shutter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
INFRARED PHOTOGRAPHY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
FLASH PHOTOGRAPHY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 - 61
Accessory Shoe and Sync Terminal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
Ready-Light Indication in the Viewfinder. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
Nikon FA/Speedlight Combination Chart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
CLOSE UP PHOTOGRAPHY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
Close-Up Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
ACCESSORIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 - 69
ELECTRONIC FLASH UNITS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
Speedlight SB-15 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
Speedlight SB-16B . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
Speedlight SB-18 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
MOTOR DRIVES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
Motor Drive MD-15 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
Motor Drive MD-12 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
MISCELLANEOUS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 - 69
Data Back MF-16 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
Interchangeable Focusing Screens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 - 67
Filters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
Lens Hoods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
Anti-Cold Battery Pack DB-2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
Cable Release AR-3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
Right-Angle Viewing Attachment DR-3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
Eyepiece Magnifier DG-2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
Rubber Eyecup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
Eyepiece Correction Lenses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
Camera Cases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
Neckstraps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
EV RANGE OF THE CAMERA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 - 71
What is EV? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
EV Chart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 - 71
TIPS ON CAMERA CARE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 - 73
TIPS ON BATTERY USE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
ABOUT THE LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY (LCD) . . . . . . . . . . . 74
SPECIFICATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 - 77
FOREWORD
Welcome to Nikon’s exciting world of picture-taking ease.
To put you in total control, the Nikon FA offers three automatic exposure
modes, in addition to full manual override. For fastbreaking events, the
programmed mode automatically sets both shutter speed and aperture
for correct exposure in any light. Or when action must be stopped or
blurred, such as in sports photography, shutter priority lets you choose
the shutter speed manually, then the FA automatically sets the aperture
to match. If depth of field is important, aperture. priority allows you to
select the precise aperture with the matching shutter speed set
automatically.
But possibly even more important are the FA’s two separate metering
methods. In Nikon’s revolutionary automatic multipattern metering
system, the brightness from 5 areas of the focusing screen is analyzed
by the camera’s microcomputer; this automatically ensures the correct
exposure-even in tricky lighting situations-without any exposure
compensation whatsoever.
Traditional centerweighted metering is reserved for the manual mode, but
is usable in any of the three automatic modes with the metering control
button. Other features of the FA include 1/4000sec. top shutter speed,
1/250sec. flash sync, interchangeable focusing screens, and a
comprehensive line of Nikon accessories.
Before using the camera, please read this instruction manual from cover
to cover. A few minutes invested now will pay off in years of rewarding
picture-taking experiences.
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7
BASIC OPERATION
INSTALLING BATTERIES
Remove the battery clip. 43
Use a coin to unscrew it in
counter clockwise direction
1.
Insert batteries. Wipe the battery terminals clean and insert
the batteries, making sure that the +
signs are up. Useable batteries for the
Nikon FA camera are:
• One 3V lithium battery
• Two 1.55V silver-oxide batteries
(3.1V)
• Two 1.5V alkaline-manganese
batteries (3V)
2.
8
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Reattach the battery clips. Slip
the clip back into the camera
body and screw it tightly into place.
3.
CHECKING BATTERY POWER
Pull out the film advance lever
74 to unlock the shutter release
button 70 . The lever doubles as a
shutter release button lock.
1.
Depress the shutter release
button halfway to activate the
exposure meter.
2.
Check the LCD. Confirm that the
LCD (liquid crystal display) is
shown at the upper left in the
viewfinder. This indicates that battery
installation is correct and power is
sufficient. If necessary, replace with a
new set.
With sufficient battery power, the LCD
stays on for 16sec. after you take your
finger off the button. If the batteries
are almost depleted, the LCD will turn
off immediately when you take your
finger off the button. In this case,
replace batteries as soon as possible.
With exhausted batteries, you cannot
trip the shutter unless the shutter
speed dial 75 is set at a mechanical
setting of M250 or B.
3.
• The LCD does not appear when the shutter dial
is set at M250 or B
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9
BASIC OPERATION
continued
MOUNTING THE LENS
Lenses usable with the Nikon FA are Al-S Nikkor, Nikon Series
E, Al-Nikkor, most Al-modified, and certain special lenses shown
at the right. First line up the aperture/distance index 44 on the
lens with the lens mounting index 15 on the camera body. Then
twist the lens mounting ring 46 counterclockwise until the lens
clicks into place Confirm that the aperture/distance index is
exactly at the top.
To remove: While pushing the lens release button 17 , turn the
lens mounting ring clockwise until the lens comes off
• When changing lenses with him loaded in the camera, be careful not to expose the mirror box to direct sunlight.
10
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Usable Lenses
The following lenses are usable with the Nikon FA:
Al-S Nikkor lenses
Nikon Series E lenses
Al Nikkor (including Al-modified Nikkor) lenses
Reflex Nikkor 500mm f/8
PC Nikkor 28mm f/3.5
Medical-Nikkor 120mm f/4 IF
Ref ex-Nikkor 1000mm f/11 (No.143001 or higher)
Ret ex-Nikkor 2000mm f/11 (No.200311 or higher)
PC-Nikkor 28mm f/4 (No 180901 or higher)
PC-Nikkor 35mm f/2.8 (No 851000 or lower or No. 906201
or higher)
Zoom-Nikkor 180-600mm f/8 ED (No.174167 or higher)
Zoom-Nikkor 200-600mm f/9.5 (No.300491 or higher)
Zoom-Nikkor 360-1200mm f/11 ED (No.174088 or higher)
• The last seven lenses having serial numbers not listed
above cannot be mounted on the FA as they hit the cam
era's meter coupling lever 13 However, they can be used
after modification. In addition, Al-modification of most non-AI
lenses having a meter coupling shoe 49 is available. Do not
attempt to mount older Nikkor lenses which have not been
Al-modified, as they might damage the camera. For further
information concerning lens modification, please contact
your local authorized Nlkon dealer
• The following lenses cannot be used on the FA even if they
are modified to have the Al facility:
55mm f/1.2 (No. 184711-970110)
28mm f/3.5 (No. 625611-999999)
35mm U14 (No. 385001-400000)
• If you use lenses other than those manufactured by Nikon,
proper performance may not be obtained and they may
even damage the camera.
Al-S Nikkor: An Updated Version of Al-Nikkor Lenses
In 1977, Nikon introduced Al-Nikkor lenses which feature full
aperture metering via Nikon's "Automatic Maximum Aperture
Indexing" or "Al" system. Just by mounting an Al lens on the
camera, the maximum aperture is automatically indexed into the
camera's metering system. All Al-type lenses feature a meter
coupling ridge 48 and a meter coupling shoe having two holes
(Illust. 1).
Then in 1981, Nikon modified their entire line of Al-Nikkor lenses,
so that they would be fully compatible with the upcoming
Nikon FA. These new lenses, called Al-S Nikkor, are easily
distinguishable by (a) an orange minimum aperture on both
regular aperture 64 and aperture-direct-readout (ADR) scales
66 (Illust. 2), and (b) a special notch on the bayonet mount
(Illust. 3). In addition, the Al-S symbol appears on the front cover
on the instruction manual for each lens.
Illust.1
Al-Type Lens
Lens type signal notch
When used with the Nikon FA in the programmed mode, Al-S
lenses provide either a normal or high-speed program depending
on the focal length in use; in the shutter-priority mode, they give
you uniform exposure control in any lighting situation.
Nikon Series E lenses also have the same features as Al-S
Nikkors, but do not have a meter coupling shoe. Of course, older
Al-Nikkor and Al modified Nikkor lenses can be used with all
current and older Nikon cameras, including the FA Nikon's new
series of teleconverters–the TC-201, TC-301, TC-14A and
TC-14B–have been specially designed for Al-S Nikkor lenses, but
can be used with older Al-type lenses, too As soon as they are
attached, they automatically switch the FA to the high-speed
program in the programmed mode.
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Illust.2
Illust.3
Al-S Nikkor Lens
11
BASIC OPERATION
continued
LOADING FILM
Open the camera back 40 While
pushing the camera back locking
lever 58 counterclockwise, pull up the
film rewind knob 54 until the camera
back pops open.
1.
Insert the film cartridge.
Position the cartridge in the film
cartridge chamber 27 with the leader
pointing towards the takeup spool 36 ;
then push the rewind knob back down
to secure the cartridge in place. You
can use any type of 35mm film on the
market. It is advisable to handle film in
the shade to avoid direct exposure to
sunlight.
2.
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Insert the film leader in the
take. Pull the leader across the
camera and insert it into any one of
the slots in the takeup spool.
3.
Engage the film’s perforations
with the sprocket teeth. Turn
the takeup spool slightly with your
thumb, so that the first or second
perforation at the bottom edge of the
film s engaged with the small tooth at
the bottom of the slot in the takeout
spool, and the top and bottom
perforations mesh securely with the
sprockets 35
4.
Advance the film by rotating the takeup spool further with your thumb. Make
sure the perforations on both film edges are securely engaged with the
sprocket teeth. Also confirm that the film is properly seated between both film guide
rails 29 and there is no film slack Then close the camera back until it snaps shut.
2.
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13
BASIC OPERATION
Take up film slack. Fold out the
film rewind crank 57 and rotate
gently in the direction of the arrow on
the film rewind knob untill you feel a
slight resistance. Then fold the crank
back in.
6.
continued
Make blank exposure. To dispose of the first few frames exposed during film
loading, continue to alternately ad vance the film and depress the shutter release
button until the frame counter 71 reaches frame 1. While making blank exposures,
check that the rewind knob is rotating, indicating the film has been loaded correctly
and is being advanced. If the knob does not rotate, reload the film.
7.
•Do not take pictures prior to frame 1, because the meter does not function properly
and the shutter fires at a fixed speed of 1/250sec. regardless of the shutter speed dial
setting To indicate blank exposures. the LCD displays C250 when the shooting mode
selector is set at the P, S, or A position or M C250 at M.
14
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Frame Counter
The additive type frame counter is
graduated from S, two dots, 1, 2, 4—
up to 36—in even numbers with odd
numbers indicated by white dots in
between The frame counter ad"
advances a single frame by one
complete stroke of the film advance
lever. After reaching frame 36 of a
36exposure roll of film m, the counter
will not operate. however, film will be
advanced until the actual end of
the film roll. The frame counter
automatically resets to S when the
camera back is opened.
Film Advance Lever
To advance the film, wind the lever to
the right completely until it stops The
lever returns to the standoff position
as soon as you take your thumb off
the lever. A single complete stroke
advances the film one frame and
simultaneously cocks the shutter.
Memo Holder 34
To remind yourself of the type of film
and number of exposures, clip off the
end of the film carton and insert it into
the memo holder. Of course. you car
use the holder to store something else
like your name card or a handwritten
note
•If the lever becomes difficult to operate at the beginning of the roll, this
means that' the film is not winding
onto the takeup spool properly. In this
case, rewind the film immediately and
load again
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15
BASIC OPERATION
continued
SETTING FILM SPEED
To program the camera to give the correct exposure with a
particular film, you must set the camera to the correct film speed
Lift up the ASA/ISO film speed ring and rotate it in either
direction until the red index dot 55 is opposite the film speed in
use. The scale 56 on the ASA/ISO dial has settings from
ASA/ISO 12 to 4000 Two lines between each number stand for
intermediate settings, such as 64, 80, etc.
The film speed, indicated by an ASA/ISO number printed on
both the film carton and cartridge, is a numerical rating of the
film's sensitivity to a given amount of light: the higher the
number, the greater the sensitivity, and vice versa.
16
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• Make sure that the exposure compensation dial 53 is set
at 0. If not, turn the dial until the 0 click stops opposite the
red index line 51 while depressing the exposure
compensation dial locking button 59 .
SELECTING THE SHOOTING MODE
The Nikon FA offers four shooting modes: three automatic
exposure modes, including P (programmed), S (shutter-priority),
and A (aperture-priority), in addition to M (manual) mode.
Moreover, the FA utilizes an automatic multi-pattern metering
system in all three automatic modes to ensure correct exposure
even in difficult lighting situations In this system, light is
individually measured from five separate areas of the focusing
screen and then analyzed by the camera's microcomputer,
giving you the automatically corrected exposure without the
need for manual exposure compensation In the manua mode,
regular centerweighted metering is always n operation Just
center the main subject in the viewfinder to get correct
exposure. Selection of centerweighted metering is also possible
in all automatic modes by depressing the metering control
button 9 (refer to page 40 for more information). The metering
system in use also depends on which lens is mounted on the
camera (see page 18).
Each shooting mode has its own advantages as explained
below. Choose your desired mode and set the shooting mode
selector 68 to the appropriate click-stop. Intermediate settings
cannot be used According to the shooting mode you select, you
must also set the shutter speed and/or aperture which will then
be displayed in the viewfinder.
P (Programmed)
The optimum combination of shutter speed and aperture is
automatically set by the FA's microcomputer, depending upon
scene brightness, film speed, and lens focal length in use For
short lenses (less than 135mm), the FA uses a normal program
to ensure correct exposure. But with telephotos of 135mm or
longer, the camera automatically switches to a special
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highspeed program to reduce the possibility of camera shake
caused by slow shutter speeds The P mode not only greatly
simplifies operation but also lets you concentrate on picture
composition, making it desirable for fast-breaking action when
there isn't time to think.
S (Shutter Priority)
You set the shutter speed manually and the FA's
microcomputer automatically selects the matching aperture.
This mode is good for stopping fast action and required when
motion is an important factor in your pictures, such as in sports
photography
A (Aperture-Priority)
Select the lens aperture first; then the FA’s microcomputer
selects the matching shutter speed for you. This mode is
recommended when the rendition of depth must be controlled
exactly. For instance, you may want to blur out the background
in portraiture or make everything come out sharp in scenic
photography.
M (Manual)
You set both the shutter speed and aperture manually
according to the desired effect. Necessary exposure information
is shown in the viewfinder With this mode, it's possible to create
intentional over- or underexposed photos It's also good under
specie shooting situations. Time exposures at the B setting or
mechanical release at M250 are performed n the manual mode.
Flash photography with flash units other than Nikon dedicated
flash units should also be performed in this mode.
17
BASIC OPERATION
continued
Usable Shooting Modes/Metering Method Combination Chart
Shooting mode
Lens or accessory
Metering method
P
S
normal
high-speed
X
O
O
X
O
X
O
Al-modified Nikkor
O
PC-Nikkor
A
M
automatic multi-pattern
centerweighted
O O O
O O O
O
O
O
O
X
O O O
O
O
O
X
O O O
O O O
O
O
O
O
X
O O O
X
O
X
X
X
X O
X
O
Reflex-Nikkor
∆
X
∆
O O
X
O
Medical-Nikkor
X
X
X
X O
X
O
Teleconverters TC-201, TC-301, TC-14A
and TC-14B
X
O
O O O
O
O
Teleconverters TC-200, TC-300 and TC-14
O
X
O O O
X
O
Bellows, K ring
X
X
X
X
O
Al-S Nikkor
135mm or longer
105mm or shorter
Al-Nikkor
Nikon Series E
135mm or longer
100mm or shorter
O O
O = In operation or possible
X = Not possible
∆ = Because Reflex-Nikkor have a fixed aperture, the shutter speed is shifted according to the aperture, just as in the A mode.
• When using any Nikon teleconverter attached to lenses of f/1.8 or faster, no exposure compensation is required in
the P, S, or A mode, but is necessary in the M mode as explained in the teleconverter's instruction manual.
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5
1
2
3
4
Viewfinder Information
1. LCD exposure display. Appears when the exposure meter is
turned on to show you the shutter speed or aperture selected by
the camera in an automatic exposure mode or the shutter speed
you set in the manual mode. Although the shutter speed and/or
aperture is controlled steplessly in the automatic exposure
modes, intermediate shutter speeds or f-numbers appear in the
display as discrete numbers which are closest to actual shutter
speeds or f numbers.
2. ADR f-number. Appears in the A or M mode to show you the
aperture set on the lens (Al-S Nikkor, Nikon Series E, and Al
Nikkor, including Al-modified lenses).
3. Shutter speed indication. Appears only in the S mode to
show you the shutter speed set on the shutter speed dial.
4. LED exposure compensation mark. Appears when the
exposure compensation dial is not set to O to indicate exposure
compensation.
5. Flash ready-light. Lights up to indicate flash readiness of N
nikon dedicated electronic flash units
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19
BASIC OPERATION
continued
P (PROGRAMMED) MODE
1.
Set the mode selector to P.
Set the lens to it’s minimum
aperture (the largest f-number). The shutter speed dial can be
set at any position except M250 and B
2.
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Confirm that automatic multipattern metering is in operation by making sure that the metering
control button is in the normal “out”
position and the red index is not on
top (refer to page 40 for more
information).
3.
Warning Indications
If the LCD shows Hl, this means the scene is too-bright,
indicating over exposure may occur. In this case, use a neutral
density (ND) filter or change to a slower speed film
If the LCD displays Lo, this means the scene is too dark,
indicating under exposure may occur. Use an electronic flash or
change to faster film.
Look through the viewfinder and check the exposure
information. Depress the shutter release button halfway
and you will see the LCD showing the shutter speed (as a
reciprocal) selected by the camera to provide correct exposure.
Note that a slow shutter speed results in blurred images
(techniques for avoiding blurred images are explained on page
46).
4.
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If the LCD shows FEE, this means the aperture ring 65 is not
set at f/11 or a larger f-number. Reset the lens to its minimum
aperture. When using an Al-modified Nikkor lens, a Nikon
Teleconverter TC-200, TC-300, or TC-14, or a PK ring this
warning will not appear. So, be sure to set the aperture to its
minimum. However, even if the aperture is set incorrectly, you
can stil get the correct exposure (in most cases), but the
programmed aperture will be restricted to the range between the
lens maximum aperture and the actual aperture you set on the
lens.
21
BASIC OPERATION
continued
Programmed Exposure Measurement Graph
In the programmed automatic exposure mode, the FA provides
the optimum combination of aperture and shutter speed to
match the film speed in use and the brightness of the scene.
These combinations were arrived at through intensive
research and then fed into the FA's microcomputer to provide a
predetermined exposure program. Thus, when actual exposure
measurement takes place at the time of shooting, the ideal
combination on is selected, resulting in perfect exposures for
every shot.
Moreover, the FA features two different exposure programs to
match the lens focal length (applies only to Al-S Nikkor and
Nikon Series E lenses) The normal program is for lenses less
than 135mm; the high-speed program is for 135mm and longer
(including zoom lenses whose longest focal length exceeds
135mm). To minimize camera shake with telephoto lenses, the
high speed program does not go below 1/125 sec until the lens
maximum aperture is reached: then slower speeds are
progressively chosen. With all other lenses, the normal program
is in operation The h gin-speed program is also automatically
chosen by the FA when a Nikon Teleconverter TC-201, TC-301,
TC-14A, or TC-14B is attached to Al S, Nikon Series E, and
Al-Nikkor (including AI-modified) lenses; with Nikon
Teleconverters TC-200, TC-300, or TC 14, the normal program
is in operation.
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The black line represents the norma program for an Al-S or
Al-Nikkor 50mm f/1.4 lens with ASA/ISO 100 film,whereas the
green line represents the high-speed program for an Al-S Nikkor
135mm l/2 lens. For lenses with different maximum apertures
(e.g. an Al-S or Al-Nikkor 24mm f/2 8 which is indicated by a red
line or an Al-S Nikkor 200mm f/4 by a pink line), the graph is
read from that particular aperture until intersection with the
diagonal line and then downward along the same line. Solid
program lines represent automatic multi-pattern metering,
whereas solid and dotted lines centerweighted metering. In
extremely bright lighting situations such as snow scenes,
scenes at the beach etc exposure compensation of approx +2
EV is required with conventions centerweighted metering.
Taking this into consideration, automatic multi pattern
metering s pre programmed to automatically make exposure
compensation by reducing extreme brightness to EV 16-1/3.
• The following lenses cannot be used in the P or S mode
Zoom-Nikkor 50-300mm f/4 5 ED (older Al type without
orange minimum aperture on ADR sea/e)
Al modified Micro-Nikkor 105mm f/4
• When using a Nikon Teleconverfer TC 200, TC-300 or TC 14,
the shutter speed may vary by approx. one step from that
displayed in the view finder. However you will still obtain the
correct exposure.
• With a teleconverter attached, shutter speeds become slower.
Than those indicated by the normal or high-speed program line,
respectively. Similarly, with an Al modified Nikkor or PK ring
attached, shutter speeds become slower. While the actual
shutter speed will be the one indicated by the LCD and correct
exposure is assured even in these cases, be sure to check the
LCD to avoid blurred images at slower shutter speeds.
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23
BASIC OPERATION
continued
S (SHUTTER-PRIORITY) MODE
1.
Set the mode selector to S.
2.
Set the lens to it’s minimum
aperture.
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Set the shutter speed dial to
the desired shutter speed. The
numbers on the dial are reciprocals,
e.g., 4000 means 1/4000sec. The 250
engraved in red indicates the fastest
sync speed for an electronic flash
unit. Each setting has a click stop;
intermediate settings cannot be used.
Use fast shutter speed to freeze
motion or use slow speeds to produce
a deliberate blur. Note that in the S
mode, M250 and B settings cannot
be used. (to prevent accidental
missetting of the dial, a locking
mechanism is provided.)
3.
Confirm that automatic multipattern
metering
is
in
operation by making sure that the
metering control button is in the
normal “out” position and the red
index is not on top (refer to page 40
for more information)
4.
Look through the viewfinder and check the exposure information. The
shutter speed you set is shown at The upper right-hand corner. When the
shutter release button is depressed halfway, the LCD at the upper left-hand corner
shows the aperture (a number preceded by F) selected by the camera to match the
shutter speed you selected
5.
If the LCD shows the shutter speed (a number without F), this means you cannot
obtain the correct exposure at the shutter speed you selected and the camera is
overriding your choice by automatically selecting a slower or Faster speed.
With an Al-modified Nikkor lens, Nikon Teleconverter TC-200, TC-300 or TC-14, PK
ring or bellows attachment attached, the LCD shows F - -, instead of the aperture
selected by the camera. In the same way, a shutter speed will appear instead of the
F - -, if the camera automatically modifies the shutter speed you selected to obtain
correct exposure
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25
BASIC OPERATION
continued
Warning Indications
Shutter Speed/Aperture Combinations in S mode
If the LCD shows Hl, this means the scene is too bright,
indicating overexposure may occur. In this case, use a neutral
density ( ND) filter or change to a slower speed film
If the LCD displays Lo, this means the scene is too dark,
indicating underexposure may occur. In this case, use an
electronic flash or change to faster film
If the LCD shows FEE, this means you failed to set the lens to
its minimum aperture and the scene is too bright for the aperture
s U (If you failed to set the lens to its minimum aperture and FEE
does not appear, you can still get correct exposure ) In this case,
reset the lens to its minimum aperture. When using an Al modified Nikkor lens, Nikon Teleconverter TC 200, TC-300 or TC 14,
or PK ring, the FEE warning will not appear; however, the correct exposure can be obtained until Hl appears, but the operative metering range will be reduced. So, for best results, be sure
to set the aperture to its minimum.
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The graph shows the shutter speed/aperture combination in the
S mode at ASA/ISO 100. The red line represents an AI-S or
Al-Nikkor 50mm f/1.4 lens at a shutter speed of 1/125 sec, while
the black line for the same lens used at 1/30 sec The green line
represents the control when the aperture ring is set by mistake
to settings other than the minimum aperture (in this case, f/5.6).
Solid lines represent the usable metering range for the lens
when automatic multi-pattern metering is in use, solid and dotted lines show the usable metering range with
centerweighted metering
• The following lenses cannot be used in the P and S modes:
Zoom Nikkor 50-300mm f/4 5 ED (older Al-type without
orange minimum aperture on ADR scale)
Al modified Micro Nikkor 105mm f/4
• In the S mode. if an aperture of f/11 or smaller is selected the
following Al-Nikkor (including Al-modified) lenses may cause
approx one step slower shutter speeds than those indicated by
the shutter speed indication or by the LCD in the viewfinder;
however, you will still get the correct exposure In case exact
shutter speed information is desired, use the A or M mode the
lenses are:
Nikkor 24mm f/2
Nikkor 28mm f/2
Nikkor 35mm f/1.4
Nikkor 35mm f/2
Nikkor 35mm f/2.8
Nikkor 50mm f/ 1.2
Nikkor 50mm f/1.8
Nikkor 50mm f/2
Nikkor 55mrn f/ 1.2
Noct Nikkor 58mm f/12
Nikkor 105mm f/2.5 (The same thing happens with this lens
at aperture between U5 6 and f/16)
Nikkor 135mm f/2.8
Nikkor 200mm f/4
• When using a Nikon teleconverter TC 200, TC 300, or TC 14,
the shutter speed may vary by approx one step from that
displayed in the viewfinder. However, you will still obtain the
correct exposure.
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27
BASIC OPERATION
continued
A (APERTURE-PRIORITY) MODE
1.
Set the mode selector to A.
Set the lens to the desired fnumber. Although each number
on the lens aperture ring has a click
stop, you can also set the ring to intermediate settings. Note that small
apertures give greater depth of feild,
while large apertures restrict the zone
of sharp focus to the main subject.
The shutter speed dial can be set at
any position except M250 and B
2.
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Confirm that automatic multipattern metering is in operation by making sure that the metering
control button is in the normal “out”
position and the red index is not
on top (refer to page 40 for more
information).
3.
Warning Indications
If the LCD shows Hl, this means the scene is too bright and
there s no shutter speed to match the aperture you selected. In
this case, overexposure may occur. To prevent this, stop the
lens down until Hl disappears, if all else fails, attach a neutral
density (ND) filter to the lens or change to a slower speed film.
Look through the viewfinder and check the exposure
information. The aperture you set is shown through the
ADR window 1 . When the shutter speed selected by the camera to obtain correct exposure with the aperture you set. If necessary, use a wider aperture to prevent a slow shutter speed
from causing blurred images. (For additional information on
avoiding blurred images, see page 46.)
4.
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If the LCD displays Lo, the scene is too dark and there is no
shutter speed to match the aperture you selected In this case,
underexposure may occur. To prevent this, select a wider
aperture or, if necessary, attach an electronic flash. As a last
resort, change to a faster film.
29
BASIC OPERATION
continued
M (MANUAL) MODE
1.
Set the mode selector to M.
Set the lens to the desired fnumber. Although each number
on the lens aperture ring has a click
stop, you can also set the ring to intermediate settings.
2.
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Set the shutter speed dial to
the desired shutter speed. The
numbers on the dial are reciprocals,
e.g., 4000 means 1/4000sec. The 250
engraved in red indicates the fastest
sync speed for an electronic flash unit.
Each setting has a click stop.
Shutter speeds from 1 to 1/4000sec.
are electromagnetically controlled
while the FA’s shutter is mechanicall
controlled at M250 and B.
• The shuter speed dial should not
be set between click stops. Fine
adjustment of the exposure should be
performed by adjusting the aperture
ring.
3.
Center your main subject in the viewfinder and check
the exposure information. Remember that in the
manual mode, centerweighted metering is always in operation
regardless of the position of the metering control button. The
selected f-number is shown through the ADR window When the
shutter release button is depressed halfway, the LCD shows the
selected shutter speed preceded by the letter M.
4.
If the -+ indication is displayed above the M, you will get the
correct exposure with the selected combination of aperture
and shutter speed. If only - is shown, this indicates possible
underexposure: use a wider aperture or a slower shutter speed.
If only + is shown, this indicates possible overexposure: in this
case, use a smaller aperture or faster shutter speed.
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M250 and B Settings
At M250 and B, the FA's shutter is mechanically
controlled without the exposure meter being activated or
exposure information appearing in the viewfinder.
At M250, the shutter operates at a mechanical speed of
1/250sec This setting is used when the batteries are
depleted and other shutter speeds are not operable It also
can be used for flash photography.
At B, the shutter remains open for as long as the shutter
release button is depressed. B is especially useful for
making long time exposures with a cable release and
tripod.
A locking mechanism is provided between 1 and M250 on
the shutter speed dial. To set either M250 or B, depress
the locking button 22 and rotate the dial to either M250
or B.
• At these mechanical settings, you must depress the
shutter release button a little bit more than at other
settings to trip the shutter Note that with the Soft Shutter
Release AR 9 attached, you cannot release the shutter
at these settings.
31
BASIC OPERATION
continued
HOLDING THE CAMERA
Many blurred shots are caused by unsteady holding of the camera. The basic shooting posture is: Hold the camera at eye level
while looking through the viewfinder. Cradle it in your hands with
the fingers of your eft hand wrapped around the lens barrel and
your elbow propped against your body for support Grasp the
handgrip 6 , with your right hand and use your index finger to
depress the shutter release button and your thumb to wind the
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film advance lever You can look through the viewfinder with
either the right or eft eye, while the other eyes opened or closed.
It's easy to adapt this basic posture to both horizontal- and vertical-format shooting To hold the camera steady, stand with your
feet flat on the ground and slightly apart: if possible, lean on or
against something strong and stable, such as a wall, especially
when using slow shutter speeds.
Detachable Handgrip
The FA's handgrip not only allows steady shooting but also
fits comfortably in your hand. However, when shooting with a
motor drive, you should remove the grip first To do this, insert
a coin into the slot, turn the screw 7 counterclock wise until
it loosens, then slide the grip down until it separates from the
body.
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To reattach. align the grip attachment screw with the inner
hole in the handgrip, slip the grip up until it stops, then screw
clockwise until it becomes tight
33
BASIC OPERATION
continued
FOCUSING
1. Split-image rangefinder
2. Microprism collar
3. Matte field
The FA-comes equipped with Type K2 focusing screen suitable
for all-purpose photography. While looking through the
viewfinder compose your photo and turn the focusing ring 45
of the lens until the subject looks clear. For precise pinpoint
focusing on subjects with distant contours, use the central splitimage rangefinder; turn the focusing ring until the split image
becomes whole (A). For rapid focusing and for subjects with
indistinct outlines, use the microprism collar; turn the focusing
ring until the shimmering image becomes sharp (B) In close up
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or microphotography, or when using telephoto lenses with maximum apertures of approx f/4.5 or smaller, the split-image spot
and microprism collar are likely to darken. Therefore, use the
matte portion of the screen; turn the focusing ring until the
image looks sharp (C).
•Finder coverage of the FA is approx 93%; therefore the actual
image size will be slightly larger than the image seen in the
viewfinder.
(A) Split-image
focusing
Out of focus
Out of focus
Out of focus
In focus
Out of focus
In focus
(B) Microprism
focusing
(C) Matte field
focusing
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35
BASIC OPERATION
continued
TAKING PICTURES
Trip the shutter by pushing the shutter release button all the way
down; apply light but steady pressure with the ball of your index
finger to avoid camera shake which might result in blurred
Images.
The shutter re ease button is threaded in its center to accept a
standard cable release for tripping the shutter with the camera
mounted on a tripod.
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• The shutter cannot be tripped unless : a) the film advance lever
is pulled out to standard position, b) the film advance lever is
stroked completely to cock the shutter and c) the batteries are
in proper working order. To release the shutter when the
batteries are dead use a mechanical setting of M250 or B
• When using a tripod be careful not to screw it into the cameras
tripod socket 41 too tightly, as this might damage the camera
Also if the tripod has a large head, contact between the lens
barrel and the head may make it impossible to turn the lens
aperture ring In this case use the special tripod adapter
(supplied with the camera) between the tripod head and the
camera body.
UNLOADING FILM
When the film reaches the end of the roll, the
film advance lever cannot be wound any
further. In this case, rewind and unload the
film without forcing the lever using the
following procedure.
Push the film advance lever
back into place to turn off
the camera and lock the shutter
release button. This action prevents
inadvertent shutter release.
1.
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Depress the rewind button 33
on the bottom of the camera.
You don’t have to apply continuous
pressure to the button; just press it
once.
2.
37
BASIC OPERATION
Rewind the film unfolding the
film rewind crank and turning it in
the direction of the arrow. When you
feel the tension lessen, give it a few
more turns until crank turns freely,
indicating the film leader is rewound
completely back into the cartridge.
3.
continued
Open the camera back and
take out film cartridge. Avoid
unloading in direct sunlight. If there is
no shade available, turn your back to
the sun and use your own shadow to
shield the camera.
4.
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TECHNICAL INFORMATION/PHOTOGRAPHY TECHNIQUES
EXPOSURE METERING SYSTEM
The Nikon FA employs through-the-lens (TTL) full aperture
exposure metering. This means that light passing through the
lens is measured at maximum aperture, thus assuring a bright
finder image during shooting. Furthermore, to make exposure
measurement easier than ever, the Nikon FA features two types
of metering methods–automatic multi-pattern and centerweighted. In automatic multi-pattern metering, light from five separate
areas of the focusing screen is metered individually so that not
only brightness in the central area but also around the outside
is measured. This exposure data is then fed into the FA's microcomputer where it is compared with various predetermined
metering patterns stored in the memory. Only then is the
exposure determined, thus assuring the correct automatic
exposure. By just composing the picture and tripping the
shutter, you can get good results even in difficult lighting
situations where experience and complicated exposurecompensation techniques would be required with conventional
centerweighted metering. In regular centerweighted metering,
special emphasis is placed on the brightness in the 12mmdiameter central area. So, by placing the main subject in the
center of the frame, you can get the correct exposure in
most situations. Centerweighted metering is also highly
recommended when you want to create special effects, such as
high-key or low-key photographs.
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Automatic multi-pattern metering
Centerweighted-metering
39
TECHNICAL INFORMATION/PHOTOGRAPHY TECHNIQUES
Metering Control Button 9
To change from one metering method to the other, the Nikon FA
features a metering control button. In its normal "out" position,
you cannot see the red index (Fig. 1). In this position, the
automatic multi-pattern metering method is automatically
operating with the camera set at any of its automatic modes and
with an Al type Nikkor lens attached
At any time. you can change to centerweighted metering by
simply pushing in the button (Fig. 2). To lock it in position, hold
on the button as you rotate it clockwise until the red index faces
up (Fig 3) With the button at the "in" position, metering is always
centerweighted.
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continued
To return the button to the normal "out" position, rotate it
counterclockwise until the red index disappears. Confirm that
the button is in the "out" position after you remove you finger.
Regardless of the position of the button, metering is always
centerweighted when the camera is in the manual mode or
when a lens other than an Al-S Nikkor, Al-Nikkor or Nikon Series
E is used.
Outdoor backlit subject
Comparison of Automatic Multi-Pattern and
Centerweighted Metering
If you compare the automatic multi-pattern and centerweighted
metering systems, meter readings are virtually the same for
ordinary front-it subjects or scenes having little difference in
contrast between the main subject and the background.
However, with scenes containing both very bright and very dark
areas, the results are quite different. For example:
Outdoor backlit subjects
A backlit subject or a scene containing people against a bright
sky and/or clouds may lead to an underexposed shot with
centerweighted metering. But with automatic multi-pattern
metering, exposure compensation is automatically made, giving
more exposure to the darker subject to ensure the correct
overall exposure.
Automatic Multi-pattern
Centerweighted
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41
TECHNICAL INFORMATION/PHOTOGRAPHY TECHNIQUES
continued
Front-lit subject
Front-lit subject against dark background
If a brightly lit subject is positioned against a dark background,
and is not in the center, centerweighted metering places too
much emphasis on the dark center of the picture. The result is a
correctly exposed background, but an overexposed main
subject However, with automatic multi-pattern metering, the
camera automatically integrates both the dark background and
bright subject to ensure the best overall exposure
Scenes with high reflectivity
If a scene contains spectral highlights, such as the sun itself or
bright reflections from water or metallic objects, the main subject
wilI come out as a silhouette with regular centerweighted
metering. However, with automatic multi pattern metering, the
light value of the darker parts is also measured, resulting in a
well-balanced exposure. In addition, overall bright scenes, such
as snow scenes, come out correctly exposed with automatic
multi-pattern metering What happens is that extreme brightness
is uniformly reduced to EV 16-1/3, automatically making the
right amount of exposure compensation for correct exposure.
Automatic Multi-pattern
Centerweighted
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Scene containing the sun
Scene containing bright reflection
Automatic Multi-pattern
Automatic Multi-pattern
Centerweighted
Centerweighted
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43
TECHNICAL INFORMATION/PHOTOGRAPHY TECHNIQUES
continued
Sunrise
On the other hand, certain subjects are difficult for automatic
multi-pattern metering to handle. For example:
Sunrises and sunsets
Here, you should change to centerweighted metering,
especially when you want to emphasize the sun and clouds.
With automatic multi-pattern metering, the sky comes out too
light. Similarly, whenever you want to make the light source the
subject of the picture, such as when shooting neon signs at
night, you should select centerweighted metering.
Automatic Multi-pattern
Centerweighted
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Indoor backlit subject
Indoor backlit subjects
If the main subject is indoors in front of a bright window,
underexposure may occur even it the subject occupies a large
portion of the picture area because the difference in contrast
between subject and background is too great for the camera to
handle And even with centerweighted metering. the results may
not be acceptable when shooting on automatic. The best
solution is to switch to the manual mode (in which
centerweighted metering is always in operation) and make
manual exposure compensation as explained on page 52. As an
alternative use an electronic flash to obtain correct exposure for
the main subject.
Automatic Multi-pattern
Centerweighted
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45
TECHNICAL INFORMATION/PHOTOGRAPHY TECHNIQUES
continued
RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SHUTTER SPEED AND APERTURE
Shutter Speed (sec.)
Aperture (f-number)
1/4000 1/2000 1/1000 1/500 1/250
1.4
2
2.8
4
5.6
The amount of light reaching the film plane is determined by a
comb nation of shutter speed and lens aperture. A shutter speed
of 1/125sec. Iets in twice as much light as a setting of 1/250sec
and only half as much light as 1/60sec An aperture setting of
f/11 lets in twice as much light as f/16, half as much as f/8 Thus,
if the correct exposure for a particular picture-taking situation is
1/500 at f/4, then 1/250 at f/5.6 or 1/125 at f/8 will give the same
exposure.
The table above is one example showing the interrelationship
between shutter speed and aperture. Each combination
produces correct exposure but the effects of the pictures are
quite different. The best combination will depend on the results
you want. Fast shutter speeds freeze motion while slow speeds
produce a deliberate blur. Also, small apertures give greater
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1/125
1/60
1/30
8
11
16
depth of field, while large apertures restrict the zone of sharp
focus to the main subject. (Refer to page 48 for details on depth
of field.)
A good rule to follow in preventing camera shake is to select a
shutter speed which is never slower than the reciprocal of the
focal length of the lens in use For example, when using a norma
50mm lens, select a speed no slower than 1/60sec (the closest
number to 1/50). For a 200 mm super-telephoto, use no less
than 1/250 sec., and so forth.
If a slow shutter speed is necessary or the camera selects one
in the automatic exposure modes, attach the camera to a tripod
As an alternative, use an electronic f ash or change to faster film
A fast shutter speed of 1/4000sec.
stops the water in midair.
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At a slow 1/30sec.
the water comes out a blur.
47
TECHNICAL INFORMATION/PHOTOGRAPHY TECHNIQUES
continued
DEPTH OF FIELD
When you shoot at a certain aperture and focusing distance,
you will find that not only the main subject but also objects
within a certain range in front of and behind it will be sharp in the
final photograph This in focus zone'' is known as depth of field
Objects beyond this range become increasingly out of focus.
When the zone of sharpness is large, depth of field is deep:
when it is small. depth of field is shallow.The following is true of
depth of field:
1) The smaller the shooting aperture (i.e., the larger the
numerical f-number), the deeper the depth of field; the larger
the aperture, the she lower the depth of field.
2) The farther away the subject is from the lens, the deeper the
depth of field becomes; the closer to the lens, the shallower
the depth of field.
3) The longer the focal length of a lens, the shallower the depth
of field at each f/stop, the shorter the focal length, the
deeper the depth of field.
4) There is greater depth of field behind the main subject than in
front of it.
The depth of field at each aperture is indicated on the lens by a
set of color-coded lines 62 (corresponding to the colors of the fnumbers on the aperture ring 65 ) which are used in conjunction
with the distance scale 63 on the focusing ring 45 ). The range
is indicated by the distance between the lines.
When a lens with an automatic diaphragm is used, the image in
the viewfinder is viewed with the lens at maximum aperture.
However, when the depth-of-field preview lever's is pushed
down, the lens will be stopped down to the aperture set,
enabling you to examine depth of field before shooting The
image in the viewfinder darkens according to the selected
f-number, the smaller the aperture, the darker the image.
Portions of the picture that appear in focus when the lever is
pushed down-will be in the zone of sharp focus.
Note that the lever should be depressed all the way.
This lever is also used for stop-down exposure measurement
(refer to page 54.)
• Certain Zoom-, Reflex-, and PC-Nikkor lenses do not have a
depth-of-field scale
• Pushing the lever automatically changes the metering method
from automatic multi-pattern to centerweighted
• Depth-of-field can be previewed only in the A and M modes
48
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Lens set at f/2
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Lens set at f/16
49
TECHNICAL INFORMATION/PHOTOGRAPHY TECHNIQUES
continued
EXPOSURE COMPENSATION
Suggested Applications for Exposure Compensation
+2 White background, snow scene
+1 White background occupying half of viewing area
-1 Spotlighted subject, black background occupying halt of viewing area
-2 Black background
In Automatic Exposure Modes
If you elect to use centerweighted metering in any of the
automatic exposure modes, you can use the exposure
compensation dial to obtain the correct exposure for the types
of picturetaking situations listed above. Also under normal
conditions, you can create special "high-key" or "low-key"
effects by intentionally over- or underexposing the shot. Note
that before using the exposure compensation dial, you must
switch to centerweighted metering. In automatic multi-pattern
metering, you cannot obtain the necessary amount of
compensation.
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The exposure compensation dial is graduated in one-third stop
increments; -1 and -2 indicate one and two stops less exposure,
whereas +1 and +2 indicate one and two stops additional
exposure. At ASA/ISO 4000, the compensation extends to only
-1; at ASA/ISO 12, up to +1.
To operate, press the locking button 59 and turn the dial until the
desired compensation value is opposite the red index 51 .As a
reminder, a red LED exposure compensation mark (+/-) appears
on the right side of the viewfinder as soon as the exposure
meter is turned on
After use, make sure you reset the dial so that 0 is opposite the
index
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51
TECHNICAL INFORMATION/PHOTOGRAPHY TECHNIQUES
In the Manual Mode
There are two situations where it is difficult to get the correct
exposure on automatic with centerweighted metering. They are
(1) a front-lit scene with the main subject off-center and (2) an
indoor backlit subject with the main subject either in the center
or off-center. Therefore, to get the correct exposure, switch to
the manual mode and follow this procedure:
1) For front-lit subjects, just center the main subject. For backlit
ones. you should move in close until it fills up the frame.
(When taking a close-up meter reading, be careful not to cast
a shadow with your own body or the camera.)
2) Depress the shutter release button halfway to turn on the
meter and adjust the shutter speed and/or aperture for
correct exposure
3) Recompose the scene as you like and take the picture.
Remember that in the manual mode, the exposure
compensation dial does not operate, so the only way to make
exposure compensation is by centering the main subject in the
viewfinder and, if necessary, taking a close-up meter reading.
52
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continued
Duplication Work and Photomicrography
In copy work, s side duplication, and photomicrography, you
must make exposure compensation with centerweighted
metering, because these types of photography represent
unusual contrast situations Some lenses automatically switch
the metering method to centerweighted. The table below shows
the relationship between specific types of photos and proper
exposure. Since this is meant to be only a guide, in practice you
should make further compensation by experimentation until you
achieve the proper results.
Subject
Method of
exposure
measurement
Photographs and
pictures with continuous gradation
Copy work
Documents and
drawings of high
contrast
Photo
micrography
Required accessories
Full-aperture or Approx. + 1 to + 2 slops ror
Micro Nikkor 55mm
stop-down
f/2.8;
black letters on white
background: approx. -1/2 to -1 Cable release
stop lor white letters on black
background.
Remarks
For high contrast subjects, use of an
18% reflectance gray card in
determining exposure is
recommended With the card, no
exposure compensation is required
regardless ot whether the
background is black or white
Micro-Nikkor 55mm
f/2.8;
Approx + t-1/2 to +2-1/2 stops Nikon Slide Copying When using Nikon Sl de Copying
Adapler PS-6, set the flood lamp
for black letters on white back- Adapter PS-6:
Nikon Bellows
30cm away from its opal plate
ground.
Focusing Attachment
0 to approx -1 /2 stop for white PB36Cable release
letters on black background
Generally, results come out better
with more exposure in photomicrography. The compensation value on
Approx. +1 stop
Microflex PFX
the eft is only a guide: determine the
compensation value by test shooting
Approx + 1 to +2 stops
Stop-down
Slide of documents
and drawings
photographed
Prepared specimen
Exposure compensation
Compensation not necessary
Slide with continuous gradation
Slide
duplication
• The exposure compensation values listed below are
reference data obtained when genera/ purpose film was
used With color reversal film or microfilm for duplication
work, it is advisable to take additional shots with + one stop
exposure compensation as these films have very small
exposure latitude.
• To avoid vibration, you can make the exposure by turning
the illumination on and off
• It is advisable to use a cable release to eliminate camera
vibration.
Stop-down
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53
TECHNICAL INFORMATION/PHOTOGRAPHY TECHNIQUES
continued
STOP-DOWN EXPOSURE MEASUREMENT
Stop-down exposure measurement must be made whenever
the aperture ring of the lens doesn't couple with the meter
coupling lever ,~ of the camera. After focusing and switching on
the meter, follow these procedures:
For Lenses with Automatic Diaphragms
In P, S, or A mode: Push the depth-of-field preview lever all the
way down, manually stop the lens down or open it up to your
desired f-number, and trip the shutter while holding the lever.
Note that, with the lever depressed. metering is automatically
switched to centerweighted
In M mode: Hold down the preview lever and turn the shutter
speed dial and/or lens aperture ring until the LCD shows -+,
indicating correct exposure on manual. Release the preview
lever and take the shot.
•If the depth-of-field /ever is pushed down in the P or S mode,
the shooting mode is automatically switched to the A mode; also
the LCD shows the shutter speed selected by the camera for the
aperture in use In the s mode, the shutter speed indication
showing the shutter speed set on the dial does not disappear.
For Lenses or Accessories Without Automatic
Diaphragms
In A mode only: P and S modes should not be used. Stop the
lens down manually until the desired shutter speed appears in
the viewfinder Then take the picture.
In M mode: Adjust the shutter speed or aperture until the -+ indication appears above M
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For Fixed-Aperture Lenses, Photomicrography, or
Astrophotography
In P, S, or A mode: No adjustment of aperture and shutter
speed is necessary; just take the picture.In M mode: Adjust the
shutter speed dial until the LCD shows -+, indicating correct
exposure on manual. If correct exposure is unobtainable, use an
ND (neutral density) filter or electronic flash unit As a last resort,
change to a faster or slower film.
MULTIPLE EXPOSURE PHOTOGRAPHY
A multiple exposure is created by taking more than one shot on
the same frame of film. Follow this procedure:
1) Take the first shot.
2) Push the multiple exposure lever 72 in the direction of
the arrow as you wind the film advance lever 74 fully. The
film and frame counter 71 will not advance; only the shutter
is cocked Although your finger will naturally slip off the lever
as the film advance lever is wound, multiple exposure
operation will have been performed correctly.
3) Take the second shot after winding the film advance lever
fully
To make three or more exposures on the same frame, just
repeat the same procedure for each additional exposure.
•In multiple exposure photography, the M is designed to reduce
film dislocation to the minimum But it may occur due to film
curling, film slack or inappropriate film winding.
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55
TECHNICAL INFORMATION/PHOTOGRAPHY TECHNIQUES
continued
UNMANNED PHOTOGRAPHY
To include yourself in your pictures, you can mount the FA on a
tripod and use the self-timer to trip the shutter. Or by attaching
a motor drive, you can control the FA from a distance with
optional remote control accessories or an intervalometer.
Self-Timer
To set the self-timer, push the self-timer lever 8 down as far as
it will go This can be done either before or after the film is
advanced. After the self-timer has been set, press the shutter
release button 70 .
Immediately the reflex mirror 21 will rise and the self-timer will
start to operate; the shutter is then released approx. 10 sec.
Iater If you want to cancel self timer operation after the lever has
been set, move it back to its original position. You can then take
pictures in the normal way. However, returning the selftimer
lever to its original position after self-timer operation has begun
will immediately trip the shutter The self-timer can be used at
any shutter speed dial setting except B
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INFRARED PHOTOGRAPHY
Eyepiece Shutter
When unmanned photography is performed with the FA in one
of its automatic exposure modes, stray light entering the
eyepiece will affect the meter reading. To prevent this, use the
eyepiece shutter Just push the lever up to close the shutter. As
a visual reminder that it is in use, the shutter blind is painted red.
To create other-worldly effects, in which vegetation comes out
light in tone and blue skies very dark, try shooting with black
and-white infrared film In black and white infrared photography,
you must use a red filter (R60) and refocus the lens to
compensate for the fact that infrared light rays focus at a point
slightly in front of visible Light For this purpose. most lenses
have an infrared focusing index 47 (a red dot or line) beside the
distance index 44 as a rule of thumb
Follow this procedure:
1) Without the red filter in place, look into the viewfinder and
focus on your subject.
2) Look at the lens and take note of the focused distance.
3) Reset the focusing ring so that the desired distance is
aligned with the infrared focusing index.
4) Attach the red filter and take the shot.
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57
TECHNICAL INFORMATION/PHOTOGRAPHY TECHNIQUES
FLASH PHOTOGRAPHY
An electronic flash unit is convenient not only for night and
dimlight shooting but also as a supplementary light to fill in the
shadows in daylight. Daylight fill-in flash is especially effective
when shooting outdoor subjects which are backlit or in motion.
With a Nikon dedicated flash, such as the SB-15 SB-16B or
SB-18, the FA offers fully automatic through-the-lens (TTL)
control of the flash exposure. This means that while the shutter
is open, a special silicon photodiode (SPD), located at the
bottom of the mirror box, reads the light reflected directly off the
film and determines the timing to cut off the flash output,
ensuring correct exposure.
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continued
The FA features an X-sync contact only, allowing electronic flash
units to be synchronized at a speed of 1/250sec or slower To
prevent mistakes, the camera also offers automatic switchover of
the shutter speed for proper synchronization with the SB-15,
SB-16B, SB-18, SB-19, etc., as shown in the table on the next page.
For creative fill-in flash effects, you can set the speed manually to
1/250sec or below and the shutter fires at the speed set with the
speed in use displayed in the viewfinder.
Flashhulbs can also be used at the following shutter speed sync
ranges.
Accessory Shoe 78 and Sync Terminal 14
The accessory shoe of the FA allows direct mounting of the
Nikon Speedlight SB-15, SB-16B, SB-18, SB-19 or other
electronic flash with an ISO-type mounting foot. Other flash
units may be mounted with a flash unit coupler (see table on
page 61). Four electrica contacts 59 60 61 67 in the shoe
provide the following: proper synchronization of the flash
unit, automatic flash output stop, identification of a TTL flash
unit, and both ready-light indication in the camera's
viewfinder (via and LED) and autoswitching to the proper
sync speed of 1/250sec. with Nikon dedicated flash units.
To use flashbulbs or an electronic flash unit without a hotshoe contact, use the camera's sync terminal. The FA's sync
terminal with a protective screw-in cover, accepts all
standard plug-in PC cords It is also threaded for use with a
Nikon screw-in PC cord.
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Shutter speed 1/4000 1/2000 1/1000 1/500 1/250 1/125 1/60
(sec.)
1/30-1 M250
B
Speedlight
M, FP and MF
Flashbulbs
Synchronized
Cannot be use
• The use of other manufacturers' flash units, even with the same
ISO-type mounting foot, may cause abnormalities to the IC
circuitry. Units having a high voltage synchro circuit may also
affect shutter speed precision.
• When using a special electronic flash unit that has provision for
time lag, adjust the shutter speed down to 1/125 sec. or slower
according to the time lag.
59
TECHNICAL INFORMATION/PHOTOGRAPHY TECHNIQUES
continued
Relationship Between Camera’s Meter,
Ready-Light Indication and Shutter Speed
Camera’s exposure meter
Shooting Shutter
Mode
speed
Selector dial
setting
P,S,A*
M
Ready-Light Indication in the Viewfinder
When the Nikon FA is used with Nikon Speedlights SB-15, SB16B, SB 18, SB 19, etc, the FA's ready-light LED in the viewfinder lights up when the flash is recycled. This way, you're easily
informed of flash reediness without having to take your eye
away from the viewfinder. Depending on which Nikon flash unit
is attached, the same LED blinks to warn of insufficient flash
output. incorrect setting of the flash unit or incorrect setting of
the FA. The more detailed information, refer to the flash unit’s
instruction manual.
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P,S,A,M
*
On
Off
Ready-light
LCD
indication
Actual
shutter
speed
(sec.)
light up
250
1/40001/500sec
light up
1/2501sec
All
except
M250
and B
M250, B
Readylight
Actual
shutter
speed
1/250
Does not
light up
-
M250**
1/250
Does not
light up
light up
as set
as set
Does not
light up
-
-
-
-
light up
as set
-
Because automatic exposure modes are cancelled as
soon as the flash unit is turned on, you should determine
the proper aperture beforehand.
** + and/or - indication on M disappears as soon as the flash
unit is turned on.
Nikon FA/Speedlight Combination Chart
Speedlight
Connection
Camera’s
ready light
indication
Shutter speed
automatically
switched to
1/250sec.
Usable flash modes
SB-19
direct
provided
yes
auto
SB-18
direct
provided
yes
TTL, manual
auto, manual, MD
SB-17
via AS-6 coupler
provided
yes
SB-16A
via AS-6 coupler
provided
yes
auto, manual, MD
SB-16B
direct
provided
yes
TTL, manual, auto, MD
SB-15
direct
provided
yes
TTL, manual, auto, MD
via SC-11 sync cord
not provided
no
auto, manual
via SC-13 sensor cord
provided
yes
auto, manual
SB-12
via AS-6 coupler
provided
yes
manual
SB-10
direct
provided
yes
auto, manual
SB-11/14
SB-7E
SB-6
SB-E
via AS-2 coupler
not provided
no
auto, manual
via SC-6 sync cord
not provided
no
manual
via AS-2 with SC-9
extention cord
(w/SU-1)
not provided
no
auto, manual
direct
provided
yes
auto
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61
TECHNICAL INFORMATION/PHOTOGRAPHY TECHNIQUES
continued
CLOSE-UP PHOTOGRAPHY
For shooting subjects which are located closer than the closest
possible focusing distance of the lens, Nikon offers a wide
variety of close up equipment as shown below.
In close up photography, depth of field is usually quite shallow.
Thus, you should stop the lens down as much as possible when
photographing a subject having great depth
To focus in close-up photography, use the matte portion of the
screen. Or replace the standard Type K2 focusing screen with
the Type B2 or E2 screen. (For details about interchangeable
focusing screens, refer to page 66.)
To measure the exact distance between the subject and film
plane, use the film plane indicator ^~r which indicates the exact
position of the film plane inside the camera. The distance
between the film plane and the lens mounting flange is exactly
46.5 mm.
Close-Up Equipment
• Close-Up Attachment Lenses Nos. 0, 1, 2, 3T, 4T, 5T, 6T.
These lenses screw into the front of the lens just like filters to
magnify the image Exposure metering can still be done at full
aperture without compensation.
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• Auto Extension Rings PK-11, PK-12, PK-13. These fit
between the lens and camera body. Used singly or in
combination, exposure determination is done at full aperture
with all Al-type lenses.
• Bellows Attachment PB-6. The PB-6 is also attached
between the lens and camera body. Exposure is determined
by the stop-down method with centerweighted metering. The
beauty of this accessory is that you can change
magnifications continuously by extending the bellows.
• Micro-Nikkor 55mm f/2.8, 105mm f/2.8, 200mm f/4 IF
lenses. These specially designed lenses for close-up
photography offer continuous focusing from infinity down to
1/2X lifesize.
ACCESSORIES
ELECTRONIC FLASH UNITS
Designed to complement the versatility of the FA, Nikon has
three electronic flash units which mount directly to the camera's
accessory shoe and feature automatic TTL (through-the-lens)
control of the flash exposure Also, with the camera in one of the
automatic exposure modes (P, S and A). or manually set at
1/500sec. or faster, the proper synchronization speed of 1/250
sec is automatically set.
Speedlight SB-15
Features special tilting flashtube module for bounce flash or
shooting close-ups Guide number of 25 (ASA/ISO 100 and
meters) or 41 (ASA/ ISO 25 and feet).
Speedlight SB-16B
Most versatile direct-mounting flash from Nikon. Truly creative
bounce flash possible with two flash heads: main head has
zoom settings for 28, 35, 50, and 85 mm lenses and tilts back
90° and rotates 270°: smaller secondary head faces straight
ahead to provide a catchlight in the eyes Special MD (motor
drive) setting allows shooting of 8 consecutive frames at 4
frames per second Powerful guide number of 32 (ASA/ISO 100
and meters) or 52 (ASA/ISO 25 and feet).
Speedlight SB-18
Lightweight and easy to operate Choice of TTL or manual
control Guide number of 20 (ASA/ISO 100 and meters) or 33
(ASA/ ISO 25 and feet).
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63
ACCESSORIES
continued
MOTOR DRIVES
Motor Drive MD-15
The use of the Motor Drive MD-15 with the FA enables automatic film advance when the unit's trigger button is pressed. In
addition to single frame shooting, continuous firing at the
maximum rate of 3.2 frames per second is possible (at 1/125
sec or faster). The MD-15 is very convenient when shooting
fast-moving subjects since the photographer does not have to
wind film manually or take his eye off the subject.
To attach, remove the FA's handgrip and engage the tripod
socket of the camera with the mounting screw of the motor
drive.
With the MD-15 attached, the FA is powered by batteries inside
the motor drive.
Motor Drive MD-12
The FA also accepts the Motor Drive MD-12 for approx. 2.7
frames per second shooting (at 1/125sec or faster). Compared
with the MD-15, it takes slightly longer for the shutter to be
released after you depress the MD-12's trigger button.
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MISCELLANEOUS
Data Back MF-16
To keep track of when photos were taken, the FA accepts the
slim, lightweight Data Back MF-16. This back attaches in place
of the FA's regular camera back with no sync cord required.
Three imprinting modes are provided: year/month/day (up to the
year 2100), day/hour/minute, or picture counting (up to 2000):
each mode is displayed on the data back in clear LCD
numerals and printed by LED's, on the photo in unobtrusive red
numerals. Serving as a handy clock, a quartz timer with alarm is
incorporated
• The Nikon FA a/so accepts Data Back MF 12. In this case, use
the cord provided with the data back to connect the socket
contact of the MF-12 to the sync terminal of the camera.
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65
ACCESSORIES
continued
Interchangeable Focusing Screens
Three different types of focusing screens are usable with lhe
Nikon FA. The Type K2 screen comes with the camera as a
standard accessory. Two optional focusing screens, Type B2
(matte/Fresnei with focusing spot) and Type E2 (matte/Fresnel
with focusing spot and etched grid lines) are also available for
the FA to match your particular requirements.
To change focusing screens, follow this procedure:
1. Remove the lens from the camera body.
2. Slip the small tip of the special tweezers (that come with the
optional screens) under the focusing screen release latch 4 at
the top front of the mirror box casting and put outward to
spring open the holder.
3. Take the screen out by grasping the small tab with the
tweezers.
4. Carefully position another screen in place with the flat side
facing down and the side with the tab facing up.
5. Then push the front edge of the holder upward with the
tweezers until it clicks into position.
• To avoid getting smudges or fingerpants on the screen's
optical/ surface. do not handle the screen with your fingers.
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Focusing Screen Selection Guide
Type
Name/style
Features
Suitable for general photography
Has microprism collar around the
central split-image rangefinder spot.
Split-image rangefinder/ With PC-Nikkor or lensed haveing a
maximum aperature slower than
microprism system
f/4.5, the split-image rangefinder or
microprism collar is dim. In this
case, focus on the surroundirg
matte area.
Matte system
Horizontal and vertical
line etched system
Works well for general photography.
close-up photography and duplication work. Especially useful for people who prefer to focus on the
matte focusing spot at the center of
the screen, or when it is inconvenient to use the split-image
rangefinder for focusing, as is the
case with telephoto lenses.
Caution: Type K2/B2/E2 focusing screens have a
notched tab. The Type K/B/E screens cannot be used in
the M.
Extremely useful in pictorial composition. Consists of Type B matte
field with etched horizontal and vertical lines. Also useful with PCNikkor lenses.
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67
ACCESSORIES
continued
Filter
Filter factor
Screw-in-type (mm)
Drop -in Bayonet
designatype
mount
Daylight Tungsten 39 52 62 72 95 122 160 (Series IX) type
tion
light
Type
Filters
Nikon filters allow you to balance the light to match your film or
to create interesting artistic effects. Nikon filters are divided into
the screw-in, drop-in, and bayonet type. With the Nikon FA, the
filter factor can be ignored except in the case of the R60. When
using the R60 in tungsten lighting, set the aperture one f/stop
wider than the figure indicated by the exposure meter.
• For lens protection, the L39 or L37C is recommended.
• When shooting a backlit subject or if there's a bright light
source in the frame, a ghost image is likely to result from the
use of a filter. In this case, you should take the picture with
out a filter.
Lens Hoods
Recommended to prevent extraneous light from striking the
lens. Nikon's lens hoods come in four styles: screw-in, slip-on,
snap-on, and collapsible-rubber.
For Both Color and
Black & White Film
Skylight
Ultraviolet
Ultraviolet
Light
Yellow Medium
Deep
For Black & White
Orange
Film
Red
Light
Green
Deep
Soft filters
For Black & White
Film
Polarizing
Neutral
Density
Light
Deep
Light
Blue Medium
Deep
Amber
For Color Film
L1BC
1
L37C
1
L39
1
Y44
1.5 (1/2)
1
Y48
1.7 (2/3) 1.2 (1/3)
Y52
2 (1)
1.4 (1/2)
052 3.5 (15/6) 2 (1)
R60
8 (3)
5 (21/3)
X0
2 (1)
1.7 (2/3)
X1
5 (1/2) 3.5 (15/6)
No.1
1
No.2
1
Polar
2 - 4 (1 - 2)
ND2X
2 (1)
ND4X
4 (2)
ND8X
8 (3)
ND400X
400 (8.3)
A2
1.2 (1/3)
A12
2 (1)
B2
1.2 (1/3)
B8
1.6 (2/3)
B12
2.2 (11/6)
( ) indicates increase in f/stop
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Anti-Cold Battery Pack DB-2
In cold weather, use the Anti-Cold Battery Pack DB-2, which
accepts two AA-type batteries, as an alternative power supply to
the batteries inside the camera body Simply connect the DB-2
to the camera body, then slip the assembly inside your pocket
or coat to keep it warm. This assures that the camera's metering system will function even in very cold temperatures.
Rubber Eyecup
Attached to the finder eyepiece, this eyecup excludes stray light
and helps prevent eye fatigue.
Cable Release AR-3
The screw-type AR-3 makes for vibration-free shutter release.
Eyepiece Correction Lenses
Accessory lenses that screw onto the viewfinder eyepiece ''s: to
enable near- and farsighted photographers to take pictures without having to wear eyeglasses. Nine models are available, offering a choice of the following diopters: -5, 4, -3, -2, 0, +0.5, +1,
+2 and +3.
Right-Angle Viewing Attachment DR-3
Screws onto the viewfinder eyepiece to provide a viewfinder
image at a 90° angle to the camera's optical axis. Very helpful
for close-up photography, duplication work, and photomicrography.
Camera Case
The CF-30, a semi-soft case, accommodates the FA mounted
with a 50mm f/1.4 lens or smaller. The CF-28A, a front flap, is
also available for use with all lenses up to the Nikkor 35 70mm
f/3 5 or 35-105mm f/3.5 4.5.
Eyepiece Magnifier DG-2
Attached to the viewfinder eyepiece, this accessory enlarges
the image at the center of the viewfinder to assure ever precise
focusing in close-up photography, duplication work, and telephotography.
Neckstraps
Available are the leather neckstrap AN-1 (black), webbed nylon
neckstraps AN-4Y (yellow) and AN-4B (black), and wider
webbed nylon neckstraps AN-6Y (yellow) and AN-6W (winered).
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69
EV RANGE OF THE CAMERA
What is EV?
Exposure value (EV) is a number representing the available
combinations of shutter speed and aperture that give the same
exposure effect when the scene brightness and ASA/ISO
remain the same.
At ASA/ISO 100, the combination of a one-second shutter
speed and an aperture of f/1 4 is defined as EV 1. If the
aperture is stopped down by one full f/stop or the shutter' speed
is one step faster. the EV increases by one; if the aperture is
opened up by one full f/stop or the shutter speed is one
step slower, EV decreases by one Using ASA/ISO 100 as an
example, 1 sec. at f/2 represents EV 2,1 sec. at f/5.6 represents
EV 5, while 1/125sec. at f/5.6 represents EV 12. As the
exposure is the same.1/30sec. at f/11 and 1/1000sec. at f/2 are
also EV 12.
70
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EV Chart
The Nikon FA's meter can only be used within the meter's EV
range. The chart shows the relationship between the shutter
speed, f/stop, and film speed Careful attention to this chart will
assure precise exposure, automatically, over the entire usable
range of the FA Depending on film speed, EV range determines
the following: in the P mode, the usable combinations of
aperture and shutter speed, in the S mode, the usable apertures
to match the shutter speed set on the dial: and in the A mode,
the possible shutter speeds to match the aperture set on the
lens. With ASA/ISO 100 film and a 50mm f/1 4 lens, the usable
EV range is 1 to 20 As you can see from the chart, any shutter
speed from 1 to 1/4000sec. can be used within this range
However, when using ASA/ISO 200 film, the EV range is
reduced to 2 to 20, whereas with ASA/ISO 400 film, it becomes
3 to 20. Therefore, with ASA/ISO 200 film, the slowest usable
shutter speed is 1/2sec., whereas 1/4sec. is the slowest speed
usable with ASA/ISO 400 film. This information is reflected in the
LCD inside the camera's viewfinder. For example, with ASA/ISO
200, if you set the mode selector to P or A,1 will never appear,
but as the light gets dim, Lo appears immediately after 2
Likewise, with ASA/ISO 200 in the S mode, if you set 1 sec. on
the shutter speed dial, 1 will not appear, but in its place either a
faster shutter speed is displayed (if the shutter speed is shifted
to a higher one when the scene is bright) or Lo appears (when
the scene is too dark). With ASA/ISO 400 film, 1 and 2 never
appear, indicating that 1 and 112sec. are unusable shutter
speeds.
EV chart with 50mm f/1.4 lens
ASA/ISO 12
ASA/ISO 25
ASA/ISO 50
ASA/ISO 100
ASA/ISO 200
ASA/ISO 400
ASA/ISO 800
ASA/ISO 1600
ASA/ISO 3200, 4000
EV
f/
1.4
2
2.8
4
5.8
8
11
16
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
1
1/2
1/4
1/8
1/15
1/30
1/60 1/125 1/250 1/500 1/1000 1/2000 1/4000
1
1/2
1/4
1/8
1/15
1/30
1/60 1/125 1/250 1/500 1/1000 1/2000 1/4000
1
1/2
1/4
1/8
1/15
1/30
1/60 1/125 1/250 1/500 1/1000 1/2000 1/4000
1
1/2
1/4
1/8
1/15
1/30
1/60 1/125 1/250 1/500 1/1000 1/2000 1/4000
1
1/2
1/4
1/8
1/15
1/30
1/60 1/125 1/250 1/500 1/1000 1/2000 1/4000
1
1/2
1/4
1/8
1/15
1/30
1/60 1/125 1/250 1/500 1/1000 1/2000 1/4000
1
1/2
1/4
1/8
1/15
1/30
1/60 1/125 1/250 1/500 1/1000 1/2000 1/4000
1
1/2
1/4
1/8
1/15
1/30
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10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
(shutter speed)
1/60 1/125 1/250 1/500 1/1000 1/2000 1/4000
71
TIPS ON CAMERA CARE
Although the PA is a tough
and durable camera bear in
mind that it is a precision
optical instrument and that
careless or rough handling
may damage it. Observe the
following tips and the FA will
always work as perfectly as
the day you bought it.
• Before using the camera, it
is a good practice to check it
thoroughly first.
• Never touch the reflex mirror
or the focusing screen, to prevent them from becoming
scratched. Remove dust with
a blower brush.
• Do not touch the shutter
curtains 26
• Generally the camera does
not need lubrication.
• If the camera body is
exposed to rain or mist, wipe
moisture gently with a soft
cloth and dry the camera.
After using the camera near
salt water wipe it with a cloth
moistened with pure water to
remove possible traces of salt.
• If the inside of the camera
body accidentally gets wet, its
internal precision parts may
get rusty. Take the camera
right away to thc nearest
authorized Nikon dealer for a
checkup, which may require
repair payment.
72
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Caution
Please note that the use of a spray gun type blower to clean the lens may
cause possible damage to the glass (especially when ED glass is used
for the front lens element) by suddenly lowering the temperature on the
lens surface. To avoid damage hold the blower upright, keep its nozzle
more than 50cm away from the lens surface and move the nozzle around
so that the stream of air its not concentrated in one spot.
• Clean metalic parts with a
blower brush or with a soft dry
cloth.
• When not using the camera
for a long time, take out the
batteries and store the camera away from high temperature hih humidity, naphthalene, or camphor.
• Clean glass surfaces such as
the lens or the finder eyepiece
with a blower brush; avoid using
lens tissue as mucn as possible.
Gently wipe dirt, smudges, or
fingerprints with soft cotton
moistened with a small amount
of absolute alcohol, using a spiral motion from center to periphery. Make sure you leave no
wiping traces.
• In a humid environment, it is
best to store the camera in a
vinyi bag with a desiccant to
keep away dust, moisture and
salt.
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• Note that storing leather
cases in a vinyi bag may
cause the leather to
deteriorate, so exercise
due care.
73
TIPS ON BATTERY USE
ABOUT THE LIQUID CRYSTAL
DISPLAY (LCD)
•
To keep the LCD in top working order, note the following:
•
Keep batteries away from infants and small children, In case
a battery is accidentally swallowed, call a doctor immediately
as the material inside the batteries may be fatal.
Battery power falls off in extremely cold temperatures and this
may cause the camera to cease to operate. In this situation,
use new batteries and protect the camera body from the cold.
Note that battery power will be recovered as soon as the
temperature becomes normal.
•
When not using the camera for a long period of time, take the
batteries out and store them in a cool (below 20°C), dry place.
Should the batteries be left in the battery chamber for a long
period of time, insufficient contact may occur due to battery
contamination. Thus, it is good practice to periodically clean
the batteries and the contact section in the battery chamber
with a soft cloth. If the battery chamber is stained by a
leaking battery, remove the batteries at once and clean the
chamber.
•
Never mix new and old batteries or batteries of different
makes.
•
Always check battery power before every shooting session. It
is a good idea to have spare batteries on hand during a
lengthy shooting assignment.
•
Never disassemble batteries or dispose of them by burning.
74
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•
At high temperatures (over approx. 60°C); the whole surface
turns black so that the exposure information cannot be
read. However, this situation will return to normal when the
temperature drops.
•
Avoid storing the camera in excessively hot places, such as
in a car parked in direct sunlight or inside the trunk. You may
shorten the LCD's life by doing so.
•
When the temperature goes below freezing, the response
time decreases as the liquid crystal becomes more viscose.
SPECIFICATIONS
Type of camera
Picture format
Lens mount
Lenses
Viewfiner
Focusing screen
Exposure metering
35mm single-lens reflex
24mm X 36mm (standard 35 mm film
format)
Nikon bayonet mount
More than 60 Nikkor and Nikon Series
E lenses available
Fixed eyelevel pentaprism type; 0.8X
magnification with 50mm lens set at
infinity; 93°/0 frame coverage; eye
piece shutter provided
Matte/Fresnel focusing screen with
central split-image rangefinder spot
and microprism collar (Nikon Type K2
screen); two other types of screens
available optionally (Type B2 and E2)
TTL full-aperture exposure
measurement; employs two silicon
photo diodes (SPD's) with automatic
multi-pattern and centerweighted
metering methods; selection of
metering method via metering control
button
Automatic multi-pattern metering:
Light is individually measured from five
separate areas of focusing screen,
providing correct automatic exposure,
even in difficult lighting situations
Centerweighted metering: Major
portion of meter's sensitivity
concentrated in 12mm dia. center spot
of focusing screen
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Exposure meter
switch
Meter turned on when shutter release
button is depressed halfway; meter
stays on for approx. 16 sec. after
finger is lifted off button
Metering range
EV1 to EV20 at ASA/ISO 100 with f/1.4
lens
Exposure control range Automatic multi-pattern metering:
EV1 to EV16-1/3 at ASA/ISO 100 with
50mmf/1.4 lens.
Centerweighted metering: EV1 to
EV20 at ASA/ISO 100 with 50mmf/1.4
lens.
Exposure control
Three automatic exposure modes: P
(programmed), S (shutter-priority) and
A (aperture-priority); M (manual)
exposure mode also provided
P mode: Shutter speed and aperture
are both set automatically and
steplessly; normal program operative
with all Al-type lenses. high-speed
program operative with Al S Nikkor and
Nikon Series E lens of 135mm or
longer
S mode: Shutter speed set manually
while aperture is set automatically and
steplessly; shutter speed automatically
corrected for correct exposure in case
shutter speed you set is improper.
A mode: Aperture set manually while
shutter speed is set automatically and
steplessly
75
SPECIFICATIONS
Exposure
information
continued
M mode: Both aperture and
shutter speed set manually.
P mode: Viewfinder LCD shows
discrete shutter speed closest to
automatically selected speed; LCD
also shows HI or Lo indication to warn
of over- or underexposure or FEE to
warn of aperture missetting.
S mode: LCD shows discrete
f-number closest to automatically
selected aperture or discrete shutter
speed closest to automatically selected
speed when manually set shutter
speed is improper; LCD also shows HI
or Lo to warn of over or under
exposure or FEE to warn of aperture
missetting; manually set shutter speed
always shown via shutter speed
indication.
A mode: LCD shows discrete shutter
speed closest to automatically selected
speed; LCD also shows HI or Lo to
warn of over- or underexposure;
manually set aperture always shown
via ADR window.
M mode: LCD shows manually set
shutter speed preceded by M; -+
indicates correct exposure with + or indicating over or underexposure;
manually set aperture always shown
via ADR window.
76
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Exposure
compensation
Film speed range
Shutter
Shutter speeds
Film advance lever
Automatic film
advance
Frame counter
Film rewind
Self timer
Eyepiece shutter
±2 EV compensation (in onethird increments) possible via dial; red
LED exposure compensation mark
visible in viewfinder when meter is on.
ASA/ISO 12 to 4000
Electromagnetically controlled vertical
travel, metal focal plane shutter with
titanium curtains.
Stepless speed f rom 1 to 1/4000 sec.
in automatic exposure modes (except
S mode); ceramic-oscillator-controlled
discrete speeds from 1 to 1/4000 sec.
in S and M modes; mechanically
controlled, 1/250 sec. at M250 setting
and long exposure at B setting
available.
Wound in single stroke with 30°
stand-off angle and 135° winding
angle; doubles as shutter release
button lock
Possible with optional Motor Drive
MD-15 or MD-12
Additive type, self-resetting: for blank
exposures before frame 1, shutter fires
at 1/250 sec at any shutter speed dial
setting except B
Via folding crank and rewind button in
baseplate
10 sec. delayed exposure
Prevents stray light from entering
viewfinder during unmanned operation
Depth-of-field
preview lever
Reflex mirror
Multiple exposures
Camera back
Data back contacts
Handgrip
Accessory shoe
Sync terminal
Flash
synchronization
Provides visual verification of depth of
field; with lever depressed, center
weighted metering only available
Automatic instant-return type
Possible via lever
Hinged interchangeable type with
memo holder; interchangeable with
Data Back MF-16 or MF-12
Two contacts are provided for the Data
Back MF-16
Detachable type provides comfortable
shooting; must be detached when
attaching motor drive
Standard ISO-type contains hot-shoe
contact, ready-light contact. TTL flash
auto-stop signal contact and monitor
contact; accepts Nikon SB-15, SB-16B
or SB-18 for TTL direct flash output
control using camera's SPD metering
cell.
Threaded type provided for off-camera
or multiple flash photography
Speeds of 1/250 sec or slower with
electronic f ash: with Nikon dedicated
flash unit, flash sync automatically set
to 1/250 sec when camera is set at
any automatic exposure mode or when
shutter speed die s set at 1/500 or
higher in manual mode; at slower
speed on manual, shutter fires at
speed set
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Flash ready-light
Batteries
Dimensions
Weight (body only)
Viewfinder LED lights up when Nikon
dedicated flash unit is completely
recycled; blinks to warn of insufficient
light output or improper shutter speed
dial or film speed setting
One 3V lithium battery, two 1.55V
silver-oxide batteries or two 1.5V
alkaline-manganese batteries
Approx, 142.5mm (W) x 92mm (H) x
64.5rnm (D)
Approx 625 g
77
Nikon
NIPPON KOGAKU K.K.
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Nikon FA, 1983-1989
Modern Classic SLRs Series :
Nikon FA - Specifications
Type of camera
Picture format
Lens mount
Lenses
Viewfiner
35mm single-lens reflex
24mm X 36mm (standard 35 mm film format)
Nikon bayonet mount, Maximum aperture index that works with Automatic with AI-S
and AI Nikkor lenses
Standard lenses during its official availablity: AI-S Nikkor 50mm F1.2, 50mm F1.4,
50mm F1.8 and with options of more than 60 Nikkor and Nikon Series E lenses
available.
Fixed eyelevel pentaprism type; 0.8X magnification with 50mm lens set at infinity; 93°
frame coverage; eyepiece shutter provided, Finder diopter: Minus 1+-0.5 dpt
Viewfinder information:
A: Ready-light LED
B: LCD panel; 7-segments, 4-digit
C: ADR aperture f-number in use
D: Shutter Speed in set
E) Exposure compensation mark - will light up when exposure
compensation in use
Focusing screen
Exposure metering
Interchangeable matte/fresnel focusing screen with central split-image rangefinder spot
and microprism collar (Nikon Type K2) as standard; two other types of screens
available optionally (Type B2 and E2). How to change focusing screens: By pulling the
focusing screen, release latch at the top front of the mirror hox. A special tweezers is
provided for screens change.
TTL full-aperture exposure measurement; employs two silicon photo diodes (SPD's)
with automatic multi-pattern and centerweighted metering methods; selection of
metering method via metering control button
Automatic multi-pattern metering: Light is individually measured from five
separate areas of focusing screen, providing correct automatic exposure, even in
difficult lighting situations
Centerweighted metering: Major portion of meter's sensitivity concentrated in
12mm dia. center spot of focusing screen
Exposure meter switch Meter turned on when shutter release button is depressed halfway; meter stays on for
approx. 16 sec. after finger is lifted off button
EV1 to EV20 at ASA/ISO 100 with f/1.4 lens
Metering range
Automatic multi-pattern metering: EV1 to EV16-1/3 at ASA/ISO 100 with
Exposure control
50mmf/1.4 lens.
range
Exposure control
Centerweighted metering: EV1 to EV20 at ASA/ISO 100 with 50mmf/1.4 lens.
Three automatic exposure modes: P (programmed), S (shutter-priority) and A
(aperture-priority); M (manual) exposure mode also provided, exposure mode selected
via Mode Changeover knob.
P mode: 'P' mode: With minimum aperture setting of the lens, the the FA
automatically selects the optimum combination of shutter speed and lens aperture
settings for correct exposure by the pre-arranged program of its microcomputer. Also,
the FA's micro-computer activates the High-Speed program automatically via Focal
Length (Fmm) signal when a Nikkor, Nikon Series E or any of the AF Nikkor lenses
of 135mm or longer are used. Note: High-Speed program operable lenses are Al-S
Nikkor, Nikon Series E, AF Nikkor lenses and 'newer' teleconverters for Shutter
speed AI-S type.
S mode: Shutter speed set manually while aperture is set automatically and steplessly;
shutter speed automatically corrected for correct exposure in case shutter speed you set
is improper.
A mode: Aperture set manually while shutter speed is set automatically and steplessly
M mode: Both aperture and shutter speed set manually.
Exposure information P mode: Viewfinder LCD shows discrete shutter speed closest to automatically
selected speed; LCD also shows HI or Lo indication to warn of over- or
underexposure or FEE to warn of aperture missetting.
S mode: LCD shows discrete f-number closest to automatically selected aperture or
discrete shutter speed closest to automatcally selected speed when manually set shutter
speed is improper; LCD also shows HI or Lo to warn of overor underexposure or
FEE to warn of aperture missetting; manually set shutter speed always shown via
shutter speed indication.
A mode: LCD shows discrete shutter speed closest to automatically selected speed;
LCD also shows HI or Lo to warn of over- or underexposure; manually set aperture
always shown via ADR window.
Exposure
compensation
Film speed range
Shutter
Shutter speeds
Shutter Release:
Power Switch:
Film advance lever
Automatic film
advance
Frame counter
M mode: LCD shows manually set shutter speed preceded by M; -+ indicates correct
exposure with + or - indicating over or underexposure; manually set aperture always
shown via ADR window.
±2 EV compensation (in one-third increments) possible via dial; red LED exposure
compensation mark visible in viewfinder when meter is on.
ASA/ISO 12 to 4000
Electromagnetically controlled vertical travel, metal focal plane shutter with titanium
curtains.
Stepless speed from 1 to 1/4000 sec. in automatic exposure modes (except S mode);
ceramic-oscillator-controlled discrete speeds from 1 to 1/4000 sec. in S and M modes;
mechanically controlled, 1/250 sec. at M250 setting and long exposure at B setting
available.
At 1-1/4000 sec dial settings, depressing shutter release button halfway turns power
switch on and further depressing turns magnetic release switch on and to release
shutter. At 'M' 1/250 sec and 'B' settings, shutter releases mechanically.
Power switch is turned on when shutter release button is depressed halfway; it remains
on for approx 16 sec. after finder is lifted off the button. By setting shutter dial to
M250 and B, power switch turns off.
Wound in single stroke with 30° stand-off angle and 135° winding angle; doubles as
shutter release button lock
Possible with optional Motor Drive MD-15 or MD-12
Additive type, self resetting until the frame counter reaches '1'. Shutter fires at 1/250
sec at any shutter speed except 'B'; LCD in the viewfinder displays 'C 250' on P, S
and A modes, while 'MC 250' on M mode.
Via folding crank and rewind button in baseplate
Film rewind
Self timer: 8 - 14 sec delayed exposure; mechanical type: can be cancellable after
Self timer
setting.
Prevents stray light from entering viewfinder during unmanned operation
Eyepiece shutter
Depth-of-field preview Provides visual verification of depth of field; with lever depressed, centerweighted
metering only available (i.e. P and S modes changed into full-aperture center-weighted
lever
metering on A mode; A and M modes changed into stopped-down center weighted
metering.)
Shutter Speed Ring
Release by depressing the Shutter Dial Lock release button at the back, just below the
Shutter speed dial.
Lock:
Automatic instant-return type
Reflex mirror
Possible via lever
Multiple exposures
Hinged interchangeable type with memo holder; interchangeable with Data Back MF-16
Camera back
or MF-12
Two contacts are provided for the Data Back MF-16 (Earlier MF-12 is not operative
Data back contacts
thru these contacts, you MUST use the cable supplied to plug into the PC terminal).
Detachable type provides comfortable shooting; must be detached when attaching motor
Handgrip
drive
Standard ISO-type contains hot-shoe contact, ready-light contact. TTL flash auto-stop
Accessory shoe
signal contact and monitor contact; accepts Nikon SB-15, SB-16B or SB-18 or any
dedicated Nikon flash units for TTL direct flash output control using camera's SPD
metering cell.
Threaded type provided for off-camera or multiple flash photography
Sync terminal
Flash synchronization Speeds of 1/250 sec or slower with electronic f ash: with Nikon dedicated flash unit,
flash sync automat cal y set to 1/250 sec when camera is set at any automatic exposure
mode or when shutter speed die s set at 1/500 or higher in manual mode; at slower
speed on manual, shutter fires at speed set
Viewfinder LED lights up when Nikon dedicated flash unit is completely recycled;
Flash ready-light
blinks to warn of insufficient light output or improper shulter speed dial or film speed
setting
One 3V lithium battery, two 1.55V s Iver oxide batteries or two 1.5V
Batteries
alkaline-manganese batteries. Battery power is supply by MD-15 automatically when
mounted.
Approx, 142.5mm (W) x 92mm (H) x 64.5rnm (D)
Dimensions
Approx 625 g
Weight (body only)
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