RULE BOOK - GMT Games

RULE BOOK - GMT Games
R ULE BOOK
Table of Contents
1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0
5.0
6.0
7.0
8.0
Introduction............................................................. 2
Components and Terms.......................................... 2
Sequence of Play..................................................... 5
Movement............................................................... 5
Terrain..................................................................... 5
Stacking.................................................................. 7
Zone of Control....................................................... 7
Combat.................................................................... 7
9.0
10.0
11.0
12.0
13.0
14.0
15.0
16.0
Assaults................................................................... 11
Ranged Attacks....................................................... 11
Anti-Tank Fire........................................................ 15
Special Units........................................................... 15
Reinforcements, Replacements & Recovery.......... 18
Digging In............................................................... 19
Supply..................................................................... 19
Night Turns............................................................. 20
GMT Games, LLC • P.O. Box 1308, Hanford, CA 93232-1308
www.GMTGames.com
2
Red Winter Rule Book
1.2 Setting Up
1.0 Introduction
Red Winter is a game that simulates the fighting between Finnish
ski troops and the Soviet invaders around Tolvajärvi, Finland,
during a crucial five day period of the Winter War of 1939. The
players assume the roles of the commanders of the Soviet and
Finnish forces and attempt to win the game according to specific
victory objectives. The game was designed for two players, but
can be played solitaire in order to learn the rules or explore various “what if” situations.
The battle for Tolvajärvi presents an interesting gaming situation, giving both players an opportunity to attack and defend.
The front line is fluid, with maneuver being at least as important
as brute strength. The game will rarely devolve into a stalemate.
The Soviet player can up the stakes by committing armored units,
effectively forgoing a win based on Victory Points in a gamble
to win via his Automatic Victory Conditions. The Finnish player
will receive a favorable morale boost if he can weather the Soviet
onslaught until the final two days of the battle.
Design Note: While some designer’s notes have been incorporated directly into these rules, others have been moved to
the Playbook to conserve space. A footnote after the title of
a particular section alerts the reader that a related designer’s
note can be found in section 18.0 of the Playbook.
One player takes all Finnish units and markers, and the other
takes the Soviets. If the players cannot reach an agreement as
to who will play which side, they can use the Victory Point bid
method (17.0.2). Place all common markers beside the board
within easy reach of both players. Set aside all units and markers with an asterisk in the upper right corner; these counters
are only used with Optional Rules in the Playbook and should
not be used for your first game unless you are an experienced
wargamer. Then choose a scenario from the game rules. If you
are new to the game, it is recommended that you start with the
Tutorial Scenario (see the Getting Started card).
Units are placed on the map and Turn Track according to the
instructions for the chosen scenario. Setup information for the
Campaign Game is listed in the upper right-hand corner of each
individual unit. For shorter scenarios, see the individual listings
in the Playbook for the correct setup information.
Units with a numeric setup code are placed on the Turn Track on
the indicated game turn; they will enter the game as Reinforcements (13.1) on that turn. Setup codes beginning with a letter
refer to hex coordinates on the map. For example, Q25 refers to
the 25th hex in column Q. Setup hexes are coded on the map in
red (Soviets) and blue (Finns). If a setup code does not appear
on the front of the counter, try flipping it over; five Finnish units
begin the game on their reduced strength sides.
2.0 Components and Terms
Red Winter includes one map, two pairs of 6-sided dice, these
rules, a Playbook, one sheet of counters, a Turn Track, a Getting Started card for new players, and a pair of identical Player
Aid Cards.
1.1 Scale
Each game turn represents about 90 minutes. Each hexagon represents an area roughly 425 yards across. Units represent mostly
companies (Finnish and Soviet infantry, Soviet tanks, Soviet
heavy machine guns), with some battalions (Soviet armored cars
and off-map artillery) and platoons (Finnish engineers). Each
Soviet infantry gun counter represents a battery of six 76mm
regimental infantry guns. Each Finnish off-map artillery counter
represents a battery of four 76mm field guns. Each Soviet off-map
76mm artillery counter represents a light battalion comprising
either three batteries of four 76mm field guns, or one battery of
four 76mm field guns and two batteries of 122mm howitzers
(12 guns total). Each Soviet off-map 122mm or 152mm counter
represents a battalion comprising three batteries of that caliber
(12 howitzers total).
Glossary
Assault: (9.0) An attack during the Action Phase, as part of
movement. It is resolved using the CRT, but with a different set
of modifiers than a Combat.
AT: Anti-Tank. Refers to a type of weapon or attack aimed at
destroying armored fighting vehicles.
ATFT: Anti-Tank Fire Table located on the PAC and used to
resolve the attacks of Finnish AT guns vs. Soviet armored units.
Attack: An action with the goal of forcing the retreat or destruction of an enemy unit. There are five types of attacks: Combats,
Assaults, Ranged Attacks, Finnish Night Raids, and Anti-Tank
Fire. All attacks are voluntary.
Combat: (8.0) An attack against units in an adjacent hex, resolved by comparing total CS of each side and rolling on the CRT.
CRT: Combat Results Table located on the PAC; used to resolve
Combats, Assaults, and Finnish Night Raids.
CS: Combat Strength; a measure of a unit’s combat prowess,
as derived mainly from the total number of rifles and LMGs.
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Red Winter Rule Book
DRM: Die Roll Modifier; a number which is added to the result
of a die roll.
FF: Friction Fire (Optional Rule 20.1); a Ranged Attack which
targets a stack which is currently moving or conducting a Retreat
or Advance After Combat with the intent of halting it or forcing
a step reduction.
FNRT: Finnish Night Raid Table located on the PAC; used to
determine the success and column shift for a Finnish Night Raid
(16.4) attack.
Friendly Unit: Those units belonging to the same side (nationality) as the owning player.
HMG: Heavy machine gun; a type of MG with a tripod mount.
It is more effective than an LMG, with a longer range, but less
mobile.
Infantry: Troops armed primarily with rifles and LMGs. Refers
to infantry companies of both sides, as well as the Finnish engineer platoon and Finnish bicycle companies (but not to MG,
Mortar, or Infantry Gun units).
LMG: Light machine gun. A version of the MG which can be
hand-held or bipod mounted.
LOS: Line of Sight (10.6); an imaginary line drawn between a
spotting unit and a target unit or hex. LOS is blocked by terrain
types other than frozen lake.
Loss: (8.5) Damage to a combat unit’s cohesion. In game terms,
each loss is absorbed as either a step reduction (8.5.1) or a Retreat (8.5.2).
MA: Movement Allowance; a measure of how far a unit can
move per turn.
MG: Machine gun. A rapid fire, automatic weapon used for direct
Ranged Attacks against unarmored targets including personnel.
Morale Bonus: A modifier which provides one column shift in
favor of the side with the bonus in Combats, two column shifts
in Assaults, and a +1 DRM to Recovery. See the Turn Track to
determine which side (if any) benefits.
MPs: Movement Points; the portion of a unit’s MA required to
enter a new hex. MP cost of a given hex depends on terrain type
(see Map Key).
Phasing Player: The player who is actively taking his turn; his
opponent is the non-phasing player..
Range: The maximum distance in hexes over which the unit can
project its RAS. Adjacent units are at a range of 1.
Ranged Attack: (10.0) Attacks which generally take place at a
range of 2 or more hexes.
RAS: Ranged Attack Strength; the measure of a combat unit’s
ability to project its strength at distance. An infantry company’s
RAS is derived mainly from its total number of LMGs.
RAT: Ranged Attack Table located on the PAC; used to resolve
Ranged Attacks.
RP: Replacement Point; used to re-build a reduced infantry
company back to full strength (13.2) or Reconstitute (13.2.1) an
eliminated unit from the Dead Pool.
Step Strength: Refers to whether a two-sided unit is on its full
strength (front) or weaker, reduced strength (back) side.
Support: (10.3) Ranged Attacks in support of a Combat; classified as either offensive or defensive when originating from the
phasing or non-phasing player, respectively.
SZLT: Sub Zero Loss Table (16.3) located on the PAC.
VP: Victory Points; awarded for inflicting losses on enemy units
and/or for controlling objectives. Used to determine which player
wins a scenario.
VR: Variable Reinforcement; units which may optionally be
brought into play via special requirements or the expenditure
of VPs. Limited to Soviet armored units (12.1) and the Finnish
Provisional Company (12.8).
ZOC: Zone of Control (7.0); the six adjacent hexes surrounding
a unit into which the unit exerts its influence. eZOC refers to an
enemy ZOC.
2.1 Dice
A pair of standard 6-sided dice is required for game play.
Two dice are rolled and their results are added together to generate a number from 2 to 12 for Combats (8.0), Assaults (9.0), and
Ranged Attacks (10.0). A single die is rolled when resolving the
following game events: AT Fire (11.0), Recovery (13.3), SubZero Loss check (16.3), and Finnish Night Raids (16.4).
2.2 Counters
Most counters represent the various military formations that took
part in the fighting. These counters are referred to as “units”.
The remaining counters, called “markers”, are used for tracking
information such as the current game turn or the availability of
artillery ammunition.
Soviet army units of 139th Rifle Division have a brown background, whereas Soviet independent units or assets
are red.
Finnish regimental (JR)
units have a whitish background, Finnish bicycle
(PPP) units have a light
blue background, and Finnish detached/independent (ErP) units
have a blue-violet background.
Most units are further color-coded by formation. Units with the
same color ID box belong to the same regiment; those of the same
battalion share the same color NATO infantry symbol.
Combat units are printed with attributes which represent battlefield performance, as defined below:
© 2012 GMT Games, LLC
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Red Winter Rule Book
Setup Code
Historical Unit
Identification
Unit Size
RAS value
CS value
Platoon
Company
Range
RAS value
Unit Type
MA value
Unit-type
symbol
(infantry)
Reduced-side
indicator
stripe
Front
Back
AT fire range
• Upper left: Historical Unit Identification (also called “ID”).
This is for historical purposes, but can also be helpful during
setup.
Example: 2/1/JR16 refers to the second company of the 1st
battalion of the 16th Rifle Regiment of the Finnish Army.
• Upper right: Setup Code (see 1.2).
• A numeral indicates the unit’s game turn of entry (see
Reinforcements, 13.0).
• Lower center: RAS (10.0)
Units with their RAS displayed in a yellow box utilize
indirect Ranged Attacks (10.0b). If there is no yellow box,
the unit utilizes direct Ranged Attacks (10.0a).
• Lower center, in superscript: Range (10.1)
• Lower center, in red-boxed superscript: Range of AT Fire
(11.0). Note: only Finnish AT Guns have this attribute.
• Lower right: MA (4.1)
• An underlined letter/number combination indicates the
unit’s starting hex location on the map.
Units with their MA in an orange box are Soviet armored
units and have special movement restrictions (see12.1.3).
• A boxed numeral indicates that the Soviet unit enters at
hex X1 (see 13.1.1).
Units with two steps have a stripe indicating their reduced side.
• A numeral within a hex indicates that the unit starts within
that number of hexes of the specified hex.
• An empty hex means the unit starts stacked with any
friendly unit.
• An asterisk indicates an optional or variant unit (see
section 20 in Playbook).
• A colored circle indicates a special entry requirement (see
12.1.4 and 12.8).
2.3 Map
The map represents a bird’s-eye view of the area around Tolvajärvi, Finland. Note that the village and the lake share the same
name. The map has been overlaid with a pattern of hexagons
(“hexes”) that are used to regulate movement and troop location.
Hexes are defined by a letter/number coordinate system for ease
of reference. A compass printed on the map points to relative
north. See also Map Edge Boundaries (4.2).
• Lower left: CS (8.2)
Units with a CS shown in a black box have their value
doubled on the defense. If a unit’s CS is shown in
parentheses, it cannot attack. The unit contributes its
strength to a stack normally when defending.
© 2012 GMT Games, LLC
Red Winter Rule Book
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3.0 Sequence of Play
4.0 Movement
The game is played in a series of turns. The Soviet player goes
first in the Turn Sequence, unless otherwise indicated in the
scenario instructions. If playing the Campaign Game scenario
(17.1), see the special rules regarding Change of Finnish Operational Stance.
Each game turn is divided into the following phases:
During the Action Phase, the phasing player may move all, some,
or none of his units on the map.
I. First Player Reset Phase
Player One flips all his “Fired” Mortars, Infantry Guns,
and off-map Artillery to their front side and adjusts his
ammo according to the Turn Track. He spends any RPs
(13.2) that become available on the current game turn.
II. First Player Action Phase
Each unit may perform one of the following actions:
• Move (4.0) and/or Assault (9.0).
• Attempt Recovery (13.3). Reduced infantry companies only.
• Dig In (14.0). Infantry companies, engineers, or MG
units only.
During Night Turns (16.0) the following actions are also
available:
• Double Movement (16.1). Unit cannot begin phase
in an eZOC.
• Build a Bonfire (16.2) and/or attempt Recovery (13.3).
Soviet units only.
• Conduct a Night Raid (16.4). Finnish full strength
infantry companies only.
The first player may also bring Reinforcements (13.1) on
to the map at any time during his Action Phase. Players
may wish to indicate which units have taken an action by
rotating them 180 degrees.
4.1 Movement Basics
Each turn a unit may expend MPs up to its MA. Units move
from hex to adjacent hex paying the cost of terrain listed on the
Map Key for each hex entered or hexside crossed. Units move
individually, with each unit completing its movement (and any
Assaults) before moving the next unit (Exception: see 6.1). A unit
may not enter an enemy occupied hex unless that hex contains
a lone leader (Pajari).
4.1.1 Minimum Movement Rule
Units may always move one hex, regardless of terrain cost. This
does not allow a unit to enter prohibited terrain. It does allow a
unit or stack to conduct an Assault (9.0) if it began the Action
Phase adjacent to the target of the Assault.
4.2 Map Edge Boundaries
Units may move off the map edge voluntarily via a friendly supply source hex or by Retreat via any map edge hex. These units
are removed from the game. They do not count as eliminated for
victory purposes and cannot re-enter the map or be reconstituted.
4.3 Extended Movement
A unit which begins its Action Phase on a road, remains on connected road hexes at all times throughout its move, and is four
or more hexes from all enemy units at all times during its move
(including start and destination hexes), receives 2 additional MPs.
Example: A Soviet MG unit with 4 MPs can move 12 hexes along
a road, paying 0.5 per road hex, when using Extended Movement
(4 + 2 = 6 MPs).
III.First Player Combat Phase
Player One rolls for Ranged Attacks (10.0) and conducts
Combats (8.0), in any order. Player Two may roll for
defensive support (10.3). At the end of the phase, all Suppressed markers are removed.
IV. Second Player Turn
As above, except that Player Two now conducts the operations in steps I-III, in order. Replace “Player One” with
“Player Two” and vice versa.
V. Sub-Zero Loss Phase (16.3) (Night turns only)
At the conclusion of each night turn, beginning with the
Soviet player both players roll on the SZLT. Rolls are made
for all Soviet stacks which are not under Bonfires (16.2)
and all Finns under Skull markers (16.3.1). Remove all
Skull and Bonfire markers.
VI.Victory Check Phase
Players check to see if either has won according to the
Victory Conditions for the scenario. If not, advance the
Turn marker and restart the Turn Sequence.
4.4 Finnish Ski Bonus1
All Finnish infantry, machine gun, mortar, and engineer units,
as well as the Pajari leader, are equipped with skis and pay only
1 MP per frozen lake hex. Finnish AT units do not qualify for
this ski bonus.
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Red Winter Rule Book
5.0 Terrain2
Each hex contains a particular type of terrain, as shown on the
Map Key on the map. A hex is considered to consist entirely of
the terrain type which occupies the majority of the hex.
5.1 Prohibited Terrain
Soviet armored units are limited to villages and roads (see
12.1.3). All other unit types can enter any type of terrain if they
have sufficient MPs.
5.2 Terrain Types
The individual terrain types are described as follows:
5.2.1 Forest
The area around Tolvajärvi is dominated by spruce
and pine forest, with a mix of deciduous trees. Please
note that the CRT is calibrated so that attacking into
forest is the norm.
5.2.2 Suo3
Suo is a Finnish word which means “wetland.” The
type represented in these games is most similar to a
fen or mire. It is partially wooded. This time of year
it is frozen, so the going is only moderately more difficult than
crossing forest, due mainly to uneven ground.
5.2.3 Village
These hexes represent areas which have been cleared,
cultivated and settled, with small, mostly single story
buildings of stone and wood. Many such “village”
hexes contain but a single building. All village hexes are treated
the same regardless of whether the map graphic depicts a single
building or multiple buildings. Tolvajärvi village is defined as
the eight connected village hexes: G18-19, H18-21, and I17-18.
5.2.5 The Hotel6
The Hotel (hex M16) is considered a normal forest
hex for all game purposes except as follows: When
occupied by one or more defending infantry or MG
units, the defenders ignore the first loss suffered in all Combats
and Assaults for as long as they occupy the hex. Thus a 1/2 result
becomes a 1/1. Both Finns and Soviets qualify for this benefit.
Units in the Hotel still qualify for digging in (14.0).
5.2.6 The Gravel Pits7
This hex (L16) is treated as a normal forest hex for all
game purposes. It is included on the map for historical
interest only.
5.3 Roads8
Units moving from one hex to another via connecting roads pay
only ½ MP regardless of the other terrain in the hex. The road
movement cost may not be used to enter an eZOC (see 7.1). Units
always pay the terrain cost to move adjacent to the enemy. To assist players in entering Reinforcements, we have added a series of
small numbers along the roads leading away from the entry hexes.
Three visually distinct types of roads appear on the map.
These are:
•
Primary Road (narrow gray). This type of road
is still crude by modern standards (and only
about as wide as a Soviet T-26 tank!) but it is
the only road in the region capable of supporting the
Soviets’ extensive motorized supply network.
•
Main Road9 (wide gray). This is a portion of
the primary road network that is important for
Victory Conditions in some scenarios; it is
treated as a primary road in all other regards.
•
Secondary Roads/Trails10 (narrow brown). These
are barely functional as roads for vehicles in winter
conditions. They include narrow dirt roads, horse
paths, goat trails, hiking trails, and fishermen’s trails.
4
5.2.4 Frozen Lake
Units in frozen lake hexes are particularly vulnerable.
When attacking from a frozen lake hex, units have their
CS halved. Units attacking into a frozen lake hex receive
a positive column shift (see CRT and 8.3). Note that some frozen
lake hexes depict coastline, snowdrifts, or small gray islands
(Examples: H23, H24, I24, U5, R11, and V31 are all frozen lake).
This is for graphical “flair” only and has no effect on play.
5
Armored units (12.1.3) pay additional movement costs for using secondary roads/trails. All other units use all road types
interchangeably.
5.4 Bridges11
Bridges are hexside features that join two land hexes.
Otherwise, bridges are treated as roads. Units do not
pay any additional MPs to cross them, but units attacking across a bridge hexside have their CS halved.
© 2012 GMT Games, LLC
Red Winter Rule Book
6.0 Stacking
7
Additionally:
Up to five units of the same side, a maximum of three of which
may be infantry companies, may stack together in a hex, regardless of step strength. Leaders and markers never count toward
stacking limits. Units of opposing sides may never stack together
in the same hex. Players are always free to examine their opponent’s stacks.
Stacking limits are only enforced during setup, at the end of each
unit or stack’s movement (including Retreat and Advance After
Combat), and the instant of an Assault (9.0). Thus, a unit may
violate stacking limits with friendly units as it moves, advances,
or retreats. Units forced to overstack when stacking is enforced
are eliminated.
6.1 Stacks and Movement
Units that began the Action Phase stacked may move and/or
Assault together as a stack. In order to do this, all units must be
eligible to enter the terrain type of each hex entered. The MA
of the stack is equal to the MA of the slowest unit in the stack.
As the stack moves, it pays the MP cost for each hex entered
based on the highest MP cost for any unit in the stack for each
given terrain type.
A stack may not form or disperse during movement (units cannot
be “picked up” or “dropped off” along the way), but not all units
stacked together at the start of the Action Phase need to move
as part of the stack. Thus if three units began stacked, two could
opt to move/Assault together as a stack while the third moved
independently.
7.0 Zone of Control
Every combat unit exerts a ZOC into the 6 adjacent hexes, regardless of the type of terrain.
7.1 ZOC and Movement
Units must stop movement upon entering an eZOC. Units that
begin their Action Phase in an eZOC pay +1 MP to leave the
eZOC in addition to the cost of terrain entered. If the first hex
entered is also in an eZOC the unit must stop movement. Important: Units may not use road movement to enter an eZOC;
they may use it to exit an eZOC, but they still pay the +1 MP.
• Moving units must end their movement upon entering an
eZOC (7.1) but can still conduct an Assault (9.0) if they
have enough MPs remaining.
• Units which retreat into an eZOC take a step reduction to
their stack for each eZOC hex entered (8.5.2.2).
• Units performing a Multi-hex Advance After Combat must
end their advance upon entering an eZOC (8.7.1).
• Units reconstituted from the Dead Pool may not be placed
in an eZOC (13.2.1).
• Units which begin a night turn in an eZOC are not eligible
to use Double Movement (16.1).
• Soviet units which begin a night turn in an eZOC cannot
build Bonfires (16.2).
• Armored units (12.1) ignore an eZOC except for those of
enemy AT units.
7.3 Hex Control
Some scenarios call for control of a particular location for purposes of victory determination. Unless specified otherwise in
the scenario instructions, a hex is considered controlled by the
player that was the last to occupy the hex with a combat unit, or
the last to exert a ZOC into the hex. Control of a hex can change
any number of times during a game. Players may wish to use the
nationality markers provided in the counter mix to indicate hex
control (unless they are being used for Fog of War; see Optional
Rule 20.7).
The Finns begin the first day of the battle (Dec. 8) with control
of all hexes on the map, except for the Soviet supply source hex
and those hexes occupied by or adjacent to Soviet units.
8.0 Combat
Units may attack adjacent enemy units during a friendly Combat Phase. Note that the term “attack” here means to perform a
Combat between adjacent units and is not to be confused with
Ranged Attacks (10.0). Combat is never mandatory between
adjacent units. The following rules must be observed:
a)All units within a defending hex must be attacked as a
group, but any number of adjacent attacking hexes may
attack the same defending hex.
b)Only one defending hex may be attacked per attack roll.
7.2 ZOC: Other Limitations
An eZOC affects several other aspects of game play. While also
addressed in their relevant rules sections, they have been gathered
here for ease of reference.
Units in an eZOC:
• May not perform Ranged Attacks (10.0). Exception:
Adjacent Defensive Support (10.3.6).
• May not attempt Recovery (13.3).
• May not Dig In (14.0).
• May receive Replacements (13.2), so long as they are in
supply (15.0).
c)Each unit may conduct only one attack during its Combat
Phase.
d)Attackers stacked in the same hex may attack different
adjacent defending hexes, so long as each attacking unit
participates in only one attack.
e)Each defending hex may be attacked only once per Combat
Phase.
f) Units may attack into terrain types which they are
prohibited from entering, but may not Assault into such
terrain. Note: This really only affects Soviet armored units.
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Design Note: It helps to think of Combats in this game as
two way firefights between units armed primarily with rifles
and LMGs. Close combats involving weapons such as grenades, Molotov cocktails, and SMGs are handled as Assaults
(9.0), and long-ranged attacks from HMGs, LMGs, tanks,
mortars, infantry guns, and off-map artillery are handled as
Ranged Attacks (10.0).
8.1 Conducting Combat
Combat is performed via the following procedure:
1) Phasing player declares which hex he is attacking and
which unit or units are attacking it.
2) Phasing player declares any offensive support he wishes
to commit to the Combat (not applicable during an
Assault).
3) Non-phasing player declares any defensive support he
wishes to commit to the Combat (not applicable during
an Assault).
4) If Soviet armored units and Finnish AT gun units are
involved in the Combat (including situations where
armored units are firing in support), AT Fire (11.2) is
resolved.
5) Any declared Support is resolved by rolling on the RAT,
first by the phasing player, followed by the non-phasing
player.
6) Determine the Combat Ratio (8.2), remembering to halve
the attacker CS for attacking from a frozen lake or across
a bridge hexside (see 8.2, case #1), and halve the CS of
armored units on night turns (see 8.2, case #2).
7) Determine if any column shifts apply, and adjust the
odds column accordingly.
8) Roll two dice and consult the CRT.
9) Apply any losses called for by the CRT, defender first,
either as Retreats or step losses. Note: In an Assault the
attacker must take all losses as step reductions.
10) Attacker may Advance After Combat (8.7) if the
target hex has been cleared of defending units. After a
successful Assault the attacker must advance into the
vacated hex.
11) All Ranged Attacks and/or the Combat against a
particular hex must be resolved, and all results applied,
before the phasing player attacks another hex.
8.2 Combat Ratio
Calculate odds by totaling the CS of all attacking units involved
in the Combat and comparing this total to the total CS of defenders in the defending hex. Express these numbers as a simple
ratio, called the Combat Ratio, which is rounded in favor of the
defender to the smallest ratio which matches one of the columns
on the CRT. Ratios greater than 6:1 are resolved using the 6:1
column. Ratios less than 1:4 are resolved using the 1:4 column
(see note in 8.3 case #5).
Examples: A total CS of 10 attacking a CS of 5 yields a combat
ratio of 10 to 5, expressed more simply as 2:1. A total CS of 9
attacking 5 rounds down to a 1:1 attack. A total CS of 3 attacking
7 is not quite a 1:2 ratio, so the attacker uses the 1:3 column to
resolve the attack.
1. Frozen Lake / Bridge Penalty. If any attackers are in
frozen lake hexes or across a bridge hexside, all such
attackers have their CS halved (total the CS of all attacking
units and halve the total, rounding up any fraction). This
applies to Combats and Assaults.
Example: A Soviet unit in a forest is adjacent to a Soviet
unit in a frozen lake hex and both wish to combat the same
adjacent Finnish unit in a forest. All units of both sides
have a CS of 5. The Soviet unit in a frozen lake has its CS
halved (2.5, rounded up to 3). So we have a total CS of 8
(5+3) attacking vs. 5 defending, which rounds in favor of
the defender to a 1:1 combat.
2. Armor on Night Turn. Soviet armored units (12.1) have
their CS halved on night turns (total the CS of all armored
units in the stack and halve the total, rounding down any
fraction). This applies to Combat and Assaults.
8.3 Combat Ratio Modifiers
Determine if any of the following modifiers apply to the Combat. If
so, adjust the CRT column accordingly by applying all applicable
modifiers. These modifiers are expressed as column shifts on the
CRT, with an “L” indicating a shift to the left, and an “R” indicating
a shift to the right. Thus a modifier of “2R” means that the combat
ratio is adjusted two columns to the right (for example, from 2:1
to 4:1). All column shifts are cumulative (see 8.3.1).
Combats (only):
3. Suppression from Ranged Support. Each Suppression
marker (10.4.1) shifts the Combat ratio by one column in
favor of the firing player, to a maximum of 3L/3R.
Example: The attacker and defender each commit two
artillery units to support a Combat. Both of the attacker’s
rolls succeed, and one of the defender’s rolls succeeds.
The net result is 1R on the CRT.
4. Concentric Attack Bonus. If attackers occupy two hexes
directly opposite each other with respect to the defender,
and/or three hexes evenly spaced with one hex between
each attacking hex (see illustration), then the attacker
qualifies for a 1R column shift.
Play Note: When combined with the “Retreats and
eZOC” rules (8.5.2.2) this has a greater effect than the
1R column shift might suggest.
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Red Winter Rule Book
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9. Soviet Armor Bonus. The Soviets gain a 1R column shift
when attacking or 1L when defending whenever one or
more Soviet armored units contribute their CS to a Combat
or Assault.
10. Change of Finnish Operational Stance. The Finns
receive a 1R column shift when attacking or 1L when
defending during the turn in which the Finnish player
declares the change of stance (see 17.1 The Campaign
Game for rules regarding change of stance).
11. Bonfire Bonus. If the defending hex contains a Bonfire
marker (16.2) the attacking Finns receive a 2R column
shift.
12. Soviet Morale Collapse. (See 17.0.4)
13. Soviet Coordination Penalty. (Optional Rule 20.10)
14. Soviets in Eliminated Finnish Field Kitchen hex.
(Optional Rule 20.8)
Assaults (only):
Example of Concentric Attack: In the illustration, the three
Finnish infantry companies gain a concentric attack bonus (1R)
if they perform a Combat against the Soviet MG unit, as would
the two Soviet infantry companies vs. the Finnish MG.
Combats and Assaults:
5. Defender in Frozen Lake. Soviet units attacking into a
frozen lake hex receive a CRT shift of 3R. Finns attacking
into a frozen lake hex receive a shift of 4R.
Design Note: The Soviets wore brown and stuck out
like sore thumbs on the white backdrop of the snow
covered lakes.
Note: If all attackers and defenders are in frozen lake
hexes, cases #1 and #5 do not apply. Instead, the Combat
or Assault is shifted in the Finns’ favor by one column.
6. Pajari Leader Bonus. Finnish units stacked with Pajari
gain a one column shift in their favor on the CRT whether
attacking or defending in Combat and Assaults. Pajari
lends this bonus even if he has retreated and is attacked
subsequently in the same phase.
7. Defender in “Dug-In” Hex. If the defending hex contains
a Dug-In marker (14.0), the attacker suffers a 1L column
shift.
8. Morale Bonus. The side with
the morale bonus (as indicated
on the Turn Track) gains a 1R
column shift when attacking or
1L when defending in Combat. This shift is doubled to
two columns during an Assault.
12
Design Note: Morale plays a larger part in assault-style
combat than it does in stand-off firefights.
15. Finnish Submachine Gun (SMG) Bonus. The Finns gain
a column shift in their favor in all Assaults involving one
or more Finnish infantry units when the defending hex
is forest, suo, or town, whether attacking or defending.
Historical Note: The Finns were armed with SMGs
and hunting knives—weapons that were very useful in
close combat.
8.3.1 Netting Out Combat Modifiers
When determining which CRT column to use, add and subtract
all right and left shifts to find a final “net” column shift from
the original odds. For ratios greater than 6:1 or less than 1:4, apply all column shifts in order to determine the true ratio before
determining which CRT column to use.
Example: A 19:2 attack rounds to 9:1 odds, and if combat modifiers yield a net 2L column shift, the final odds becomes 7:1, so
the 6:1 column of the CRT is used.
8.4 Resolving Combat
To determine the results of a Combat, roll two dice (adding the
results) and cross-reference this number with the column corresponding to the final combat ratio. There are no DRMs. The
number to the left of the slash corresponds to attacker losses, the
number to the right, defender losses.
8.5 Losses
Losses can be taken as either step reductions (8.5.1) or Retreats
(8.5.2). The defender always assigns his losses first, followed by
the attacker. The owning player decides how to assign losses to
his units, in any combination of Retreats and step reductions as
he sees fit, with the following restrictions:
a) The attacking force must always take the first loss as a
step reduction.
b)In an Assault, the attacker must take all losses as step
reductions.
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If a player chooses a combination of step reductions and Retreats,
the step reductions must be distributed first. When defending in
the Hotel hex with one or more infantry or MG units, the defender
ignores the first loss (see 5.2.5).
Example of allocating losses: A defending stack containing two
Soviet infantry units (MA 5) and an AT gun unit (MA 3) suffer 3
losses as the result of a Combat. They cannot retreat all units 3
hexes in order to satisfy the losses because the AT gun unit has a
retreat limit of one hex (see 8.5.2.1). However, if the players took
the first loss as a step reduction to the AT gun (destroying it), the
remaining losses could be satisfied by retreating all units 2 hexes.
8.5.1 Step Reductions
A loss taken as a step reduction requires flipping one full strength
unit to its reduced strength side, or eliminating from play one
reduced strength unit or single step unit.
8.5.2.2 Retreats and eZOC
Units which retreat into an eZOC hex incur one step loss to the
retreating stack (not to each individual unit) upon arriving in the
eZOC hex. Formerly OOS units eliminated in this manner may
qualify to be back in supply (see 15.0) at the moment of their
elimination. The step reduction for retreating into an eZOC is
in addition to any other step reductions already incurred; it does
not satisfy a loss. The owning player chooses which unit in the
stack suffers the step reduction. A retreating unit is not required
to stop moving upon entering an eZOC; it may continue to retreat
to fulfill additional losses. If two attacking units start adjacent to
each other (i.e., not stacked) and both retreat into the same hex in
an enemy an eZOC, they are considered a stack the instant they
enter the shared hex and thus take only a single step reduction.
8.5.2 Retreats
A loss taken as a Retreat requires all involved units of the affected
side to retreat one hex. Retreats do not require the expenditure
of MPs and are expressed in hexes rather than MPs. It is not
necessary for all retreating units to retreat to the same hex. Units
cannot retreat into prohibited terrain, nor can they end a Retreat
overstacked. If these conditions cannot be met, any remaining
unfulfilled losses must be taken as step reductions.
8.5.2.3 Retreated Units
When a hex containing units that have retreated earlier in the
Combat Phase is attacked, the CS of those units is considered
to be zero. If a hex contains only these units, their CS is halved
(totaled then rounded up) rather than zero. Even in cases where
they contribute nothing to the defending hex, retreated units are
affected normally by any losses applied to their hex by subsequent
Combats, Assaults, and Night Raids. Retreated units can be targeted by Ranged Attacks, but they cannot make Ranged Attacks
themselves during the phase in which they retreated. Players
should rotate units 90 degrees as a reminder that they retreated.
For each hex of its Retreat a unit must follow these four priorities, in order:
8.6 Eliminated Units
I. Stacking: A hex that will not result in the elimination
of any unit due to overstacking.
II. Map Edge Boundary: A hex that will not result in
the unit’s removal from the game due to involuntary
movement off a map edge (see 4.2).
III.eZOC: A hex not in an eZOC.
IV. Distance:
1)a hex farther away from all enemy units that
contributed their CS to the Combat.
2)a hex that is no closer to any enemy unit that
contributed their CS to the Combat
When a choice of hexes exists, the owning player chooses which
hex to enter. In cases where both attacking and defending unit(s)
retreat, the attacker retreats relative to the defender’s original hex.
Design Note: Due to the scale of the game, retreats need
not be towards a friendly supply source.
8.5.2.1 Retreat/Advance Limits
The maximum number of hexes a unit may Retreat (8.5) or Advance After Combat (8.7) is equal to its MA, minus two. Units
with a MA less than 3 cannot retreat.
Examples: A MG unit with an MA of 4 can retreat a maximum
of 2 hexes. Soviet mortars (MA 2) cannot retreat.
When a unit which was already reduced takes another step reduction, it is eliminated. Infantry companies which were in supply
(15.0) at the instant of their elimination are placed in the Dead
Pool Box on the map. These units may be eligible to be rebuilt
later via Reconstitution (13.2.1). If the eliminated unit was OOS
at the instant of elimination, or if it is a unit type other than an
infantry company, it cannot be rebuilt and is placed in the Permanently Eliminated Box.
8.7 Advance After Combat
If the defending hex is left vacant as a result of Combat, any or all
attackers may Advance After Combat (also called an “Advance”)
into the vacated hex, unless they retreated to fulfill a loss. The
Advance is not considered movement and the advancing units
ignore MP costs for terrain, though units may not advance into
prohibited terrain. Advancing is optional (Exception: Assaults,
9.0), but if the attacker wishes to Advance he must do so immediately after Combat. Units may not conduct an Assault as part of
an Advance. Mortars, AT gun units, and infantry gun units never
Advance After Combat. After a successful Assault, the attacker
must Advance into the vacated hex. (Exception: Armored units
may conduct Overruns; see 12.1.2). Under certain circumstances,
units may Advance as the result of a Ranged Attack (see 10.4.3).
Units cannot perform a second Combat, or participate in a Combat with other friendly units, following an Advance.
© 2012 GMT Games, LLC
Red Winter Rule Book
8.7.1 Multi-hex Advances
If the defender retreated more than one hex the attacking units
may advance an equal number of hexes, subject to the Advance
Limits (see 8.5.2.1). The first hex of a Multi-hex Advance must
be the original vacated hex. After entering this hex all advancing
units need not follow the same path. If an advancing unit enters
an eZOC, it must stop and advance no further. Units may only
advance as many hexes as the defenders actually retreated. If all
defending units were eliminated, the attackers may only advance
into the defenders’ hex.
Design Note: The victorious unit is busy mopping up scattered resistance and rounding up prisoners.
9.0 Assaults
Assault is a special type of combat which takes place during the
movement of a unit or stack during the Action Phase.
9.1 Criteria for Assaults13
A unit or stack may Assault all defenders in a hex by paying the cost
of the terrain in the enemy occupied hex, plus two additional MPs.
Road movement cannot be used to conduct an Assault (Exception:
Armored units). Attacking units do not actually enter the defending
hex and any penalties for attacker’s terrain (i.e. frozen lake) apply
to the hex from which the attackers “launch” the Assault.
If a unit or stack does not have enough MPs to meet the criteria
for an Assault, it may not Assault except via the “minimum
movement rule” (4.1.1). Units cannot Assault into terrain which
is prohibited to them. They can move from eZOC to eZOC and
still conduct an Assault, if they have enough MPs remaining.
Multiple units may only Assault hex if they began the Action
Phase stacked together. Multiple stacks can never Assault the
same hex at the same time, as per 4.1, although the same defending units might be Assaulted multiple times sequentially during
the same Action Phase by different assaulting stacks.
Only infantry, armored units, engineers and MG units may Assault.
AT guns, mortars, and infantry guns never Assault, though they
still lend their CS to their hex when defending against an Assault.
9.2 Resolving Assaults
Assaults are resolved as Combats (per 8.2, 8.3, and 8.4) but with
a different set of CRT modifiers and a few important differences.
Neither attacker nor defender may commit ranged fire Support
during an Assault. Assaults are resolved during the Action Phase
using the CRT, with losses allocated normally except that the
attacker must take all losses as step reductions. If the hex is vacated as a result of the Assault, either by elimination or Retreat,
the attacking units must advance into that hex, with a Multi-hex
Advance (8.7.1) permitted; otherwise they remain in their current
hex. Either way they end their movement for the turn (Exception: Armored units conducting Overruns; 12.1.2) even if they
had MPs remaining. Regardless of whether the Assault cleared
the target hex, the attackers are still eligible to attack adjacent
enemy units during the Combat Phase.
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10.0 Ranged Attacks
Units with a RAS printed on their counter may fire into nonadjacent hexes during the Combat Phase (see 10.2). This fire is
called a Ranged Attack, and it is resolved using the RAT. A unit’s
RAS is the number by which that unit modifies its dice roll when
conducting a Ranged Attack (see RAT). Ranged Attacks into
adjacent hexes are allowed in one special situation (see 10.3.6).
Design Note: Infantry rifle companies can perform Ranged
Attacks at a range of 2 hexes because of their inherent light
machine gun (LMG) squads. Nearly all units are capable of
performing Ranged Attacks, to some degree. An exception
is the Finnish engineer platoon, which is equipped with only
rifles and pistols.
Ranged Attacks cannot be combined. Each unit resolves its
Ranged Attack individually using the RAT.
Ranged Attacks always target a particular enemy-occupied hex,
not an individual unit. Units may make Ranged Attacks into
prohibited terrain (5.1).
An enemy hex can be attacked by as many Ranged Attacks as the
firing player likes, subject to range (10.1) and ammo restrictions
(12.4.1). However, each unit can make only one Ranged Attack
per Combat Phase (Exception: Optional Rule 20.1 Friction
Fire). Units cannot perform a Combat and a Ranged Attack in
the same phase. Effects of multiple Ranged Attacks vs. the same
hex are cumulative.
There are two general types of Ranged Attacks:
a) Direct: This type originates from units which must have
a LOS to the target hex. It includes MGs, armored units,
AT guns, and infantry (via their LMGs).
b) Indirect: This type originates from units which need not
have a LOS to their target but require a spotter (10.5).
Units which perform indirect Ranged Attacks have their
RAS displayed in a yellow box and include mortars,
infantry guns, and off-map artillery.
Ranged Attacks are used in two ways:
• Supporting Fire (10.3) targets an enemy hex which
will also be the target of an impending Combat during
the same Combat Phase. Supporting fire can take place
during a player’s own Combat Phase (as offensive support)
or during his opponent’s Combat Phase (as defensive
support).
• Non-Supporting Fire targets an enemy hex which will
not be involved in a Combat during the same phase.
Ranged Attacks and Combats can be performed in any order
desired during a player’s Combat Phase, so long as all of them
against a given hex are resolved before moving on to any other
hex.
Play Note: If the defending hex in question will also be the
target of a Combat, it is usually to the attacker’s advantage
to resolve any supporting fire against that hex before rolling
on the CRT, since the RAT might yield beneficial column
shifts. However, picking off a retreated unit with Ranged
Attacks at times makes good sense.
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10.1 Range
Range is defined as the number of hexes, via the shortest route,
between the firing unit and the target hex. When measuring
range, count the target hex but not the firing unit’s hex. Range
is not relevant for off-map artillery, which consist of 76mm and
larger guns. At this scale, their range is generally sufficient to
hit any hex on the map (thus the “infinity” symbol in place of
their Range value).
10.2 Ranged Attack Criteria
Normally, a unit may not conduct a Ranged Attack if it is in an
eZOC. Restated for emphasis: You cannot perform a Ranged
Attack vs. an adjacent enemy unit! For an important exception
to this rule, see 10.3.6. Note that most units are capable of both
Ranged Attacks and normal Combat.These units may never do
both during their Combat Phase. Units in a hex marked with a
Suppressed marker may not make Ranged Attacks.
10.3 Support
10.3.5 Direct Fire Support
Support from MGs, infantry, and tanks must be within range and
have a LOS to at least one enemy which will be participating
in the impending Combat. Each such unit can perform Support
only once per Combat Phase.
Design Note: Since direct fire weapons do not get flipped to a
“Fired” side after firing, these types of units can, if placed in
a good position, potentially perform a Ranged Attack twice
per turn—once during their own Combat Phase, and once
(as defensive support) during their opponent’s. And if using
the Optional Rule Friction Fire (20.1) they can potentially
fire any number of times!
10.3.6 Adjacent Defensive Support15
Units which are not in the defending hex may make a Ranged
Attack into an adjacent hex for the purpose of defensive support when:
1) the attackers are in a frozen lake hex and
14
Ranged Attacks performed in conjunction with Combat (8.0) are
termed “Support” because they can potentially shift the Combat
Ratio in the firing player’s favor. This Support is further classified
as either offensive or defensive when the firing unit belongs to
the phasing or non-phasing player, respectively. In many cases
both players will allocate Support to the same Combat.
2) the firing unit(s) is/are not in an eZOC, apart from that
originating from the target hex.
10.3.1 Support Criteria
Either type of Ranged Attack (direct or indirect) can be used as
Support (offensive or defensive). The target hex must always
contain one or more enemy units which are directly participating
in the impending Combat. Neither attacker nor defender may
allocate Support during an Assault (9.0).
10.3.2 Declaring and Resolving Support
The phasing player always allocates any Support first, announcing which units are providing the Support, followed by the nonphasing player who does the same and announces the target of the
Support (if there is more than one hex of attackers). No Support
is resolved (no dice are actually rolled) until both players have
declared all Support.
Note that the phasing player must declare whether he will Combat
a hex before seeing the results of any Support rolls against that
hex. In other words, the Combat cannot be cancelled if your
Ranged Attacks fail to yield the desired results!
Support is resolved per normal Ranged Attacks (see 10.4) with
the phasing player resolving Support first, followed by the nonphasing player.
10.3.3 Support Range
Range of supporting fire is measured from the firing unit to the
target hex (if offensive support), or from the firing unit to any
one attacker hex (if defensive support).
10.3.4 Defensive Support vs. Multiple Attacking Hexes
When the non-phasing player is allocating Support and the attackers occupy more than one hex, the non-phasing player chooses
which hex of attackers will be his target hex for purposes of
DRMs and step reductions inflicted.
Example of Adjacent Support: In the illustration, the Soviets
are performing a Combat against the Finnish infantry company,
contributing CS from all adjacent Soviet units. The Finnish MG
can perform Adjacent Defensive Support against the right-most
Soviet stack on the ice because the MG is not in an eZOC apart
from that of its target. The Finnish bicycle company cannot
perform Adjacent Defensive Support vs. the Soviet infantry on
the ice because the Finnish unit is in an eZOC of the reduced
Soviet infantry company.
10.4 Resolving Ranged Attacks
All Ranged Attacks are resolved in the same manner, with each
resolved before another is conducted. The firing player rolls two
dice and adds the firing unit’s RAS to the result, along with any
positive or negative DRMs as outlined under the RAT.
There are three possible outcomes on the RAT: “No effect”,
“Suppressed”, and “Suppressed plus # step reduction(s)”.
© 2012 GMT Games, LLC
Red Winter Rule Book
10.4.1 Suppression.
A modified roll of 14 or higher on the
RAT is a “Suppressed” result which
yields a favorable column shift on the
CRT in the impending Combat. For
offensive support this is a column shift to the right (1R) and for
defensive support it is a column shift to the left (1L).
Players may wish to use the provided “Suppressed” markers as a
reminder of their net results prior to resolving the CRT Combat.
Flip the marker to indicate which player benefits from the marker.
Column shifts for suppression are cumulative to a maximum of
three columns in either direction. Note that this does not limit
the number of Ranged Attacks a player may roll against the same
target hex. All suppression markers are removed at the conclusion
of the Combat Phase.
Design Note: The cumulative “Suppressed” results simulate varying degrees of disorganization and pinning down
of enemy units from incoming fire. These are conditions
from which they will quickly recover unless the situation
is exploited via good old fashioned combat.
A “Suppressed” result against an enemy hex which is not supporting a Combat prevents units in that hex from supporting
future Combats in the same phase (since units under a Suppressed
marker cannot make Ranged Attacks). Player should mark these
units “Suppressed” or else rotate them as a reminder. Note: In
the vast majority of cases, the unit will not be in a position to
support a future combat, thus no marker or rotation is necessary.
Example of RAT results: The attacking player allocates a total
of five units to offensive support. For each firing unit, he rolls
two dice and consults the RAT. Four of the rolls yield a “Suppressed” result and the other yields “No Effect.” The impending
Combat will be shifted the maximum of three columns in his
favor. If the defender rolled for defensive support and achieved
a “Suppressed” result of his own, the net result would still be
3R (4R and 1L net to 3R).
10.4.2 RAT “Step Reduction” Result
A modified roll of 17 or higher on the RAT also inflicts a step
reduction on the target hex. The step reductions are applied as
per the normal step reduction rules (8.5.1). The owning player
decides which of his units suffer step reductions from Ranged
Attacks. Units in the target hex cannot retreat in order to fulfill
a loss from a Ranged Attack.
10.4.3 Advance After Ranged Attack
If the defending hex is left vacated as a result of a Ranged Attack,
units which had previously declared Combat against that hex may
advance into it, but no further. They cannot Combat a new hex.
10.5 Spotters
In order for indirect firing units to perform a Ranged Attack a
friendly unit must be designated as the “spotter”.
Firing units utilizing a spotter which is non-adjacent to the target
hex incur a –1 DRM when rolling on the RAT.
13
Mortar and infantry gun units may spot for themselves and gain
a +1 or +2 DRM, respectively, when they do so. Self-spotting
units do not incur the –1 DRM mentioned above.
10.5.1 Qualifications for Spotting16
Any friendly unit or leader may be instantaneously designated
a spotter if it is either adjacent to the target hex or non-adjacent
with a LOS (10.6) to the target hex. Spotting is not considered
an action. Acting as a spotter does not affect a unit’s ability to
perform other functions such as Combat or Recovery. A unit
currently involved in a Combat may act as a spotter. The same
unit may spot for multiple firing units. The spotter need not be
within any given range of the firing unit, nor does it require a
LOS to the firing unit.
Any friendly unit or leader may spot for any firing unit, regardless
of formation (unless using Optional Rule 20.10 Soviet Coordination; 20.11). Alternatively, mortars or infantry guns may self-spot.
10.6 Line of Sight
LOS is an imaginary line drawn between a spotting unit and a
target unit or hex, for the purpose of the unit acting as a spotter
and/or making a Ranged Attack (10.0).
10.6.1 LOS and Blocking Terrain17
LOS is blocked by any terrain type other than frozen lake. Thus,
a unit always has a LOS to another unit within LOS range (see
10.6.2), so long as all intervening hexes are frozen lake. The
units themselves can be in any type of terrain and still maintain
LOS. Adjacent hexes are always spotted.
LOS is traced from hex center to hex center. On rare occasions,
the players may wish to use a straight edge or a piece of string
to better visualize the line between hex centers.
Roads have no bearing on LOS; the other terrain in the hex is
used for LOS determination.
Friendly units are considered blocking terrain only for direct fire
Ranged Attacks. Friendly units never block LOS for spotters or
indirect fire.
If blocking terrain lies along a hex spine between the spotter and
target hex, LOS is considered blocked only if blocking terrain
exists in a hex on both sides of the hex spine, even if the blocking hexes are at different points along the path (see illustrated
example below).
Hexes containing blocking terrain are considered to be entirely
filled with that type of terrain, regardless of the appearance of
the map graphic.
Note that LOS works in both directions; if unit A can see unit B,
then B can also see A.
10.6.2 LOS and Time of Day
Maximum LOS ranges are printed on the Turn Track.
Design Note: The dawn and morning turns have thick fog
which gradually burns off.
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Because night turn LOS is limited to 1 hex, direct Ranged Attacks
are not permitted on night turns, excepting Adjacent Defensive
Support (10.3.6).
Extended Example of LOS: In this above example, we will assume it is a day turn (LOS is 5 hexes). The Soviet MG can see
the Finnish MG, but it cannot fire on it because of the intervening friendly unit. It can also see the Finnish infantry on the
frozen lake—the intervening forest hex lies along a hex spine
and thus does not block LOS. The mortar unit cannot see any
enemies, but it could utilize another Soviet unit as a spotter. All
Finnish units are spotted except for the bicycle company and the
infantry in the village hex. The Finnish bicycle company cannot
see the Soviet infantry on the frozen lake due to intervening village hexes. The Soviet infantry on the road cannot see the Finnish infantry because of the intervening suo hex, but it can see the
adjacent engineers. The Soviet AT unit cannot see the Finns on
the frozen lake because blocking terrain lies along both sides of
the hex spine (although at different points).
Extended Example of Combat with Support: In this example
(refer to following illustration), it is the Soviet Action Phase of a
day turn. Three companies of Soviet infantry are attacking across
Hevossalmi Bridge. The far side of the bridge is defended by a
lone Finnish MG unit. The Soviet player declares the Combat,
and he commits his MG and mortar unit to offensive support.
Note that the mortar has no LOS to the target hex, but the three
Soviet infantry companies can be utilized as an adjacent spotter.
The Soviet MG has LOS to the target. The Finnish player commits
his MG on the north shore of Myllyjärvi to defensive support; it
is within range and has LOS to the attackers’ hex.
Note that the attacker must declare Support first, followed by
the defender. The attacker then resolves Support first. The Soviet
MG has a RAS of 5 and thus gains a net +5 DRM. The Soviet
player rolls a 7. As 7 + 5 = 12, the attack has no effect. The
mortar fires with a net +5 DRM and rolls a 9. This becomes a
14, which is a “Suppressed” result that will shift the Combat
1R, in the Soviets’ favor.
Now the Finns resolve their defensive support. The MG unit
across the ice has a RAS of 5 and it gains a +3 DRM for three
infantry companies in the target hex, for a net +8 DRM. The
Finnish player rolls a 9. As 9 + 8 = 17, this yields a “Suppressed
+1 step reduction” result on the RAT. The Soviet player must
immediately flip one of his infantry units to its reduced side.
The “Suppressed” portion of the result will shift the impending
Combat 1L, in the Finns’ favor.
Now we resolve the Combat. The attackers’ total CS is 13, but
this is halved to 7 (totaled, then rounded up) for attacking across
a bridge hexside. The defending unit has a CS of 3, but this is
doubled to a 6 on the defense (as denoted by CS in black box).
Odds of 7:6 round in the defender’s favor to a 1:1 Combat. In this
case, there is no net column shift for Support because the Finns’
1L for defensive support effectively cancels the Soviets’ 1R for
offensive support. The Soviet player rolls an 8 and consults the
CRT. This is a 1/1 result. Each side must take a loss.
As the attacker, the Soviet player must take his first loss as a step
reduction. He flips another infantry company to its reduced side.
As the defender, the Finnish player may choose whether he wishes
to take one step reduction or retreat all units one hex to fulfill
the loss. He opts to flip his MG to its reduced side rather than
allow the Soviets to Advance After Combat across the bridge.
11.0 Anti-Tank Fire18
AT Fire is a special type of attack made by Finnish AT guns
against Soviet armored units. It is resolved using the ATFT. It
may be resolved at any time during the Combat Phase, so long
as each AT gun unit performs AT Fire only once. However, if
the target armored unit’s hex will also be involved in a Combat
during the same phase, the AT Fire must be resolved as step 4
of the Combat procedure (see 8.1).
Design Note: Only the Finnish AT gun units are capable
of AT Fire in Red Winter. Their AT Fire Range is printed
on their counter as a red-boxed superscript following their
normal Range.
© 2012 GMT Games, LLC
Red Winter Rule Book
AT Fire may be performed against an adjacent armored unit or
when defending against an Assault which includes armored units.
It may be performed at a range of 2 hexes if the firing AT gun unit
has LOS to the target’s hex; a spotter cannot be used. Finnish AT
guns also have a RAS value on their counters, reflecting the use of
high explosive shells against personnel targets. A Finnish AT gun
unit that performs AT Fire cannot also perform a Ranged Attack
during the same phase, though it may perform AT Fire and still
contribute its CS normally in a Combat or Assault.
11.1 Resolving AT Fire
The firing player declares a target and rolls a die for each strength
step of the firing unit involved in the AT Fire.
Example: The JR16 AT gun unit has two steps at full strength,
so it rolls two dice. If reduced, it rolls only 1 die.
The firing player specifies which armored unit is being fired upon
on a roll by roll basis. A two-step unit may use its two AT Fire
rolls against the same or different targets, declaring a target prior
to each roll. Each die roll of 5 or 6 results in a step reduction to
an opposing armored unit.
11.2 AT Fire in Combats and Assaults
Whenever Soviet armored units are opposing Finnish AT gun
units in a Combat or Assault, or supporting a Combat and within
range of Finnish AT gun units, resolution of all Finnish AT Fire
precedes any Support rolls and the Combat roll (see 8.1). The
Combat or Assault is then resolved normally. Note that armored
units which have been declared for Support (10.3) rather than
taking part in the Combat directly are still legitimate targets for
AT Fire. AT Fire can be at a range of 1 or 2 hexes. In Assaults,
AT Fire is only allowed from within the defender’s hex.
11.3 AT Fire Modifiers19
AT Fire receives a +1 DRM against adjacent targets and a +2
DRM in Assaults. Note: AT shells penetrate more armor at closer
ranges. Other DRMs may apply depending on the unit types
involved (see ATFT).
12.0 Special Units
12.1 Armor20
The four armored units (also called “armor”) include three tank
companies and one armored recon battalion consisting of BA-10
armored cars. Only the Soviets have armored units. They are not
used in all scenarios. Armored units:
• may conduct Overruns (12.1.2).
• have movement restrictions or penalties in terrain types
other than village and primary road (see 12.1.3).
15
• ignore all losses from Combat and Ranged Attacks (see
12.1.1).
• are vulnerable only to Assaults (9.0), Night Raids (16.4),
and AT Fire (11.0).
• have their CS halved on night turns (see 8.2, case 2).
• have a Retreat Limit of zero in Assaults (see 12.1.1).
• provide a beneficial column shift of 1L/1R (Soviet player’s
favor) when contributing CS to any Combat or Assault.
Only one column shift is provided, regardless of the
number of armored units involved.
Historical Note: The Finns were not accustomed to
fighting armored units and the mere sound of them approaching often induced panic.
• ignore an eZOC of all units except for Finnish AT units.
Play Note: While the final rule is fairly simple, it does have
a few ramifications that may not be immediately apparent. In
situations where no Finnish AT gun unit is present: Armored
units can move out of a hex adjacent to the enemy without
paying the normal +1 MP, they can use road movement to
move adjacent to the enemy, they can perform a Multi-hex
Advance After Combat even when the initial hex of their
advance brings them adjacent to the enemy, and they can
perform Adjacent Defensive Support even when adjacent to
enemy hexes apart from the target hex.
12.1.1 Armor and Losses21
Armored units only suffer step reductions from Assaults (9.0),
Night Raids (16.4), and AT Fire (11.0). When a mixed stack of
armored and non-armored units suffers losses, the losses cannot
be assigned to the armored units and simply be ignored; they
can, however, be assigned to the armored units and taken as step
reductions to those units.
Play Note: The Finnish player will note that his infantry,
MG, and engineer units do not have AT ratings. These units
will need to Assault Soviet armor to destroy it.
Armor Losses in Combat. When involved in a Combat (8.0),
armored units ignore all losses (Retreats and step reductions);
although they may voluntarily retreat in response to losses, they
are not required to do so. If a loss as the result of a Combat is
taken as a Retreat by a mixed stack of armored and non-armored
units, any armored units in the stack may retreat as well, but they
are not required to do so.
Armor Losses in Assaults. Armored units have a Retreat Limit
of zero in Assaults; that is, they cannot retreat to satisfy losses
when defending against an Assault. Step reductions taken in Assaults are distributed between armored and non-armored units
as the owning player sees fit.
Example: The Finns Assault a Soviet stack consisting of three
infantry companies and a 2-step tank company. The CRT yields
a 0/4 result. If the Soviet player wishes to retreat, he must first
assign 2 step reductions to the tanks (eliminating them) so that he
can then retreat the infantry units 2 hexes to absorb the remaining
losses. Alternatively, he could preserve the tanks by assigning
all 4 losses to the infantry (and not retreating).
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Armor and Ranged Attacks. Armored units never suffer step
reductions from Ranged Attacks. Column shifts for successful
Support apply normally.
12.1.2 Overruns
Armored units may use the road movement cost
when assaulting a target hex which lies along a road
(as an exception to 9.1). Thus it costs 2.5 MPs per
Assault on a primary road, and 4 MPs on a secondary road / trail (6 MPs for armored cars; see 12.1.3). Following
a successful Assault in which the target hex is vacated of defenders, either by elimination or Retreat, armored units may continue to move and/or Assault with any MPs remaining to them.
Players may wish to use the provided “MPs Remaining” marker
on the Information Track. Reminder: Advance After Combat,
including Multi-hex Advance, does not expend MPs and thus
would not cost the armored units any MPs.
12.1.3 Armor and the Road Network22
Armored units may utilize road movement and/or Extended
Movement (4.3) like any other unit, but they may pay additional
MPs for using roads other than primary roads (see below). Their
MA is shown in an orange box as a reminder.
To reflect Soviet military doctrine and the difficult terrain, no
armored unit may leave the road network (the series of all connected road hexes on the map), except to enter a village hex.
Additionally:
• Tanks pay 1 MP per hex to use secondary roads/trails.
• Armored cars (the BA-10 unit) pay 2 MPs per hex to use
secondary roads/trails
12.1.4 Armor Commitment23
Unless specified otherwise in the scenario-specific instructions,
the following rules apply in all scenarios which include any or
all of the final four days (Dec. 9-12) of the battle:
The four Soviet armored units are Variable Reinforcements (VRs).
At the start of his Action Phase during turn 6, and every Action
Phase thereafter, the Soviet player must decide whether he wishes
to enter some, none, or all of his armored units. He yields a certain
number of VPs to the Finnish player for each armored unit which
enters as a reinforcement. The cost per unit varies with the turn
of entry and is printed on the Turn Track. The VP cost is added
to the Finnish VP total, not subtracted from the Soviet VP total.
Example: The Soviet player waits until game turn 30 and then
commits all four armored units. The Finnish player is awarded
8 VPs (2 VPs per unit).
12.2 Anti-Tank (AT) Units24
These units represent AT
guns and their supporting
crews. They are mainly
horse-drawn (Finns) or
tractor-towed (Soviets). AT units are capable of Combat and
direct fire Ranged Attacks as well as AT Fire. The Soviet AT units
have their CS doubled on the defense, as indicated by a CS
value in a black box.
12.3 Pajari25
The Finnish leader, Lt. Col. Pajari, is treated as a
normal infantry unit in most regards. He qualifies for
Finnish Ski Bonus (4.4), Extended Movement (4.3),
and Double Movement on night turns (16.1). He is
not considered a combat unit and does not count towards stacking
limits, nor does he exert a ZOC when alone in a hex. Pajari cannot
Dig In (14.0), although he may occupy a Dug-In hex normally.
Pajari has an assumed CS of zero, but units stacked with him
gain a favorable one-column shift on the CRT in Combats and
Assaults. Pajari lends this bonus even if he has retreated and is
attacked subsequently in the same phase. Pajari may act as a
spotter for indirect Ranged Attacks.
Pajari Retreats and Advances After Combat just like any normal
unit (including Multi-hex Advance) when stacked with units
which do so.
Pajari grants a +2 DRM when participating in Night Raids (16.4).
Friendly units attempting Recovery (13.3) gain a +1 DRM to their
die roll when stacked with Pajari. Pajari can move into a hex and
still provide this bonus, but he cannot move or participate in a
Night Raid after he is used to provide this bonus.
12.3.1 Pajari and Losses
Pajari has one step and cannot be rebuilt if eliminated. He cannot be voluntarily eliminated to satisfy a loss or mandatory step
reduction, nor does he suffer a step reduction for retreating into an
eZOC (but see below). If at any time an enemy unit enters Pajari’s
hex while he is alone in the hex, the Finnish player may pick up
the leader and place him with the nearest friendly combat unit. If
more than one unit is equidistant, the Finnish player may choose.
When alone in a hex, Pajari cannot be attacked via Combat,
Assault, or Ranged Attack. He can be eliminated only by being
forced to retreat into an eZOC or when all units in his hex are
eliminated while OOS. When either event occurs, the Finnish
player rolls a die. On a roll of 1, Pajari is captured (or killed) and
removed from the game. On any other result he is placed with
the nearest friendly combat unit, as above.
Step reductions mandated by the SZLT (16.3) affect Pajari only
if using Optional Rule ‘Pajari’s Heart Condition’ (20.6).
12.4 Artillery26
Note: The Soviet infantry gun units are
not treated as artillery under these
rules (see 12.5). Artillery units are
special units that are held off-board.
Their counters are placed in front of the owning player as they
become available as reinforcements on the Turn Track. Their
only function is to perform indirect fire Ranged Attacks which
can strike enemy units anywhere on the map, provided they have
a spotter with a LOS to the target hex.
Each artillery unit is flipped to its “Fired” side after
making a Ranged Attack (whether during the
player’s own Combat Phase or as defensive support
during his opponent’s Combat Phase) and cannot
fire again until after the owning player’s Reset Phase.
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12.4.1 Ammo
Ammo refers specifically to 76mm offmap artillery ammo, which is tracked
by both players using their corresponding Ammo markers on the Information
Track. When a player is out of ammo, his 76mm off-map artillery
cannot fire. Each Ranged Attack from a 76mm off-map artillery
unit expends one point of ammo. Mortars and infantry guns do
not track ammo. The larger caliber artillery of the Soviet 354th
Regiment do not track ammo (see 12.4.2).
Ammo allocations are specified in each scenario. Generally,
the players will look to the Turn Track to see when more ammo
becomes available. Ammo becomes available for use at the start
of its scheduled turn, during the Reset Phase.
12.4.2 Soviet 354th Artillery Regiment27
These three off-map artillery
units make indirect Ranged
Attacks as described in
12.4, above. However, after
making a Ranged Attack, flip the artillery unit over and roll one
die. Place the unit on the Turn Track this number of turns in the
future. It will become available to fire again on the indicated turn.
12.5 Mortars and Infantry Guns28
Mortars and infantry guns
are single-step units that
may perform indirect
Ranged Attacks. Unlike
off-map artillery (12.4), these units have a limited range and their
unit counters are placed on the map.
Each mortar or infantry gun unit is flipped to its “Fired” side
after making a Ranged Attack and cannot fire again until after the
owning player’s Reset Phase. Mortars and infantry guns receive
a +1 or +2 DRM, respectively, when they self-spot.
12.5.1 Mortars and Infantry Guns in Combat
Mortars never perform Combat or add to the CS of an attacking
stack. They contribute their meager CS normally when defending.
Their CS is shown in parentheses as a reminder.
Mortars and infantry guns never Advance After Combat, even if
stacked with attacking units. They may retreat when their stack
suffers a loss, if allowed by the Retreat Limit (8.5.2.1).
12.6 Finnish Engineer Platoon29
This unit is treated as a normal infantry unit in all
respects except that it may Dig In (14.0) in a single
turn and it may do so even in an eZOC so long as it
is stacked with one or more friendly units (see 14.2.1).
Example: A 122mm artillery unit fires on game turn 9. The Soviet
player rolls a 4 and places it on the Turn Track on turn 13, when
it will become available to fire again.
If the die roll indicates that an artillery unit would be placed on
the Turn Track after the final turn of the game, that unit cannot
fire again and it is removed from the game.
12.4.3 Soviet Artillery Park
The Soviet artillery is parked off-map east of hex X28. The instant
a Finnish full strength infantry unit enters X28, the Finnish player
may voluntarily remove his unit permanently from the game and
two events are triggered:
a)All Soviet 354th Artillery Regiment units are removed
from the game. If this event occurs prior to their entry on
turn 9, they never enter the game.
b)The Soviet player loses half his 76mm ammo (rounded
down) and removes one off-map 76mm artillery battalion
(one unit counter). The remaining 76mm artillery
battalions are unavailable for the next 4 turns. Place them
on the Turn Track 5 turns ahead of the current game turn.
Design Note: The remaining battalions have been limbered and pressed into a hasty retreat.
While event “a” can be triggered only once, “b” can occur any
number of times, up to once per game turn, if additional Finnish
infantry units enter hex X28. Voluntarily removed Finnish infantry companies are not considered eliminated for VP purposes.
Many scenarios also award VPs to the Finnish player for triggering the Soviet Artillery Park event. Finnish Night Raids (16.4)
do not trigger the event.
12.4.4 Finnish Artillery Park
The instant a Soviet infantry unit enters the Finnish supply source
hex, all Finnish artillery batteries are removed from the game.
12.7 Finnish Bicycle Battalion30
These three infantry units
(denoted by a bicycle
symbol on the counter)
are special in name only.
They are treated as regular infantry companies for all purposes,
including Reinforcements, Replacements, Reconstitution, and
Recovery.
12.8 Finnish Provisional Company31
The Finnish unit Prov/TF-P is a VR; it does not
enter play as per the normal reinforcement rules.
Instead, it is placed beside the Turn Track and can
enter play at the Finnish player’s discretion at any
time during the Campaign Game after the following conditions
have been met:
• It is day two (Dec. 9) or later.
• One or more Soviet units have moved into or west of hex
column letter I at any point in the game.
• Pajari is within 4 hexes of Lutikkamökki (hex E13).
To create the Provisional unit, the Finnish player simply places it
with or adjacent to Pajari during the Finnish Action Phase. Both
Pajari and the unit must be in supply and not in an eZOC at the
instant of the unit’s creation. Both have their full allotment of
MPs available on the turn of creation. The unit is created at its
full step strength. Once in play, it is subject to all normal rules
which govern infantry companies, including Replacements,
Recovery, and Reconstitution.
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13.0 Reinforcements,
Replacements and Recovery
Throughout the game the players will have opportunities to
strengthen and improve their forces via three methods: Reinforcements, Replacements, and Recovery.
13.1 Reinforcements
Reinforcements enter the map via a friendly supply source hex
(15.4) at any time during the Action Phase of that player’s turn,
paying the movement cost for the entry hex and benefiting from
road movement, if applicable. Reinforcements may enter the
map in an eZOC, but then must stop movement as per normal
rules. Reinforcements have their full MA available and may
use Extended Movement (4.3) or Assault on their turn of entry.
13.1.1 Special Reinforcements
Finnish Turn 4 Infantry32
The two Finnish infantry companies that enter
the game on turn 4 (5 and 6/2/JR16) have their
MPs reduced by 2 on their turn of entry; thereafter, they move with their normal MA. As a
reminder, a “–2 MP” is printed on their counter near their
entry code.
Soviet 718th Regiment
Soviet units of the 718th Rifle Regiment (green
ID boxes) enter the game via hex X1 instead of
a supply source hex, as denoted on their counters
by a boxed turn entry code. These are the only
units which may enter via this hex. Also note that X1 is not
a supply source hex, so these units may or may not be in
supply upon entering.
33
13.1.2 Voluntary Delay of Reinforcements.
Reinforcements may be voluntarily delayed to enter on a later
turn, as the owning player desires.
13.1.3 Involuntary Delay of Reinforcements.
If a reinforcement’s specified entry hex is occupied by an enemy
unit, the unit instead enters at any hex along the same map edge
that is within 3 hexes of the specified entry hex, and its entry is
delayed by 1 turn.
13.1.4 Reinforcement Entry on Night Turns
Units which are scheduled to enter the game on night turns are
allowed to use road movement (5.3), Extended Movement (4.3),
and Double Movement (16.1) if otherwise eligible.
13.2 Replacements
RPs become available as indicated on the Turn Track. They must be
spent on the turn they become available or they are lost. A reduced
infantry company may take a RP during its own Reset Phase. For
each RP expended, a player may flip one such unit back to its full
strength side (see also Reconstitution, 13.2.1). A unit must be in
supply to take a RP. An eZOC has no effect on a unit’s ability to
take a RP, other than the “in supply” requirement already noted.
RPs can only be used to replenish lost infantry steps.
13.2.1 Reconstitution
During a friendly Reset Phase, 2 RPs may be spent to bring back
a previously destroyed infantry company at its reduced strength
status, or at full strength for 3 RPs.
Reconstituted units are placed in any hex which is within 10
hexes of a friendly supply source hex, 4 or more hexes from all
enemy units, and which would place them in supply. Units placed
directly on a friendly supply source hex need not be 4 or more
hexes distant from all enemies. Alternatively, reconstituted units
may be placed on any future game turn on the Turn Track, at
which time they will enter the game as a normal reinforcement.
13.3 Recovery
Design Note: Recovery simulates rallying and a return to
a coherent structure and, to a lesser extent, an incoming
“trickle” of new troops to replace losses.
Reduced infantry companies may attempt to recover to their full
strength during their Action Phase. Each such unit rolls a die and
consults the Recovery Table, with a successful check allowing
the unit to immediately flip back to its full strength side. DRMs
may apply to the roll; see Recovery Table.
A unit which attempts Recovery:
• cannot be in an eZOC.
• cannot perform any other action during that Action Phase
(Exception: build a Bonfire, 16.2).
• need not be in supply, although OOS units receive a –1
DRM on the Recovery Table.
• must be a reduced infantry company; other unit types
cannot perform Recovery
Design Note: Recovery and Replacements achieve the
same results, but the former requires a die roll and cannot
be performed in eZOC.
14.0 Digging In34
Units may improve upon the natural
defensive potential of a hex via a two
turn process called “digging in”.
Design Note: Due to the short time scale and the frozen
ground the improvements represented, and their effects,
are fairly minor.
14.1 Requirements for Digging In
An infantry, engineer or MG unit may dig in during its Action
Phase instead of performing another action. A unit may not dig
in if it is in an eZOC (Exceptions: Engineer units (14.2.1), Night
turns (14.5)). Units may dig in in all terrain types except frozen
lake. A unit which is digging in may perform Ranged Attacks
(since this does not take place during its own Action Phase).
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The number of hexes which each player may dig in is limited by
the number of Dug-In markers in the counter mix. Either player
may voluntarily remove his Dug-In markers at any time. These
markers are color-coded red for Soviets and white for Finns.
14.2 Procedure for Digging In
Place a “Digging In” marker atop the unit. On a following turn
the marker may be flipped to “Dug-In” if the requirements are
still met, by taking another digging in action. Note that a unit need
not remove a Digging In marker just because an enemy moves
adjacent, even though it cannot continue digging in while the
enemy remains adjacent. See also Night Turns (16.0).
14.2.1 Engineers and Digging In
Engineers allow a hex to obtain Dug-In status in a
single game turn. If an engineer begins its Action
Phase in the hex and does not take any other action
during the phase, skip the “Digging In” step and
place a “Dug-In” marker instead. Engineers can dig in even in
an eZOC so long as they are stacked with another friendly unit
(Pajari does not count).
14.3 Effects of Being Dug-In
15.0 Supply
All combat units on the map are always considered to be in one
of two possible supply states: in supply, or out of supply (OOS).
Within the scope of this game, supply status never affects combat
operations or movement. Units never suffer step reductions or
combat penalties for being OOS.
15.1 Checking Supply Status
Supply is checked at 4 instances during the game:
When attacking a hex marked with a
Dug-In marker, the attacker suffers a
1L column shift. This penalty is applicable in both normal Combats and
Assaults. Ranged Attacks against Dug-In units are at a –1 DRM
(if indirect fire) or –2 DRM (if direct fire). Note that once a
Dug-In marker is placed, any and all unit types gain the benefit for being in the hex. Friendly units which move into the
hex are placed under the Dug-In marker and also receive the
benefits. There are no effects for being in a hex with a “Digging
In” marker.
Example: An infantry unit spends two turns to place a Dug-In
marker in a hex. During that time, a friendly AT unit enters the
hex. On the turn following the placement of the Dug-In marker
the infantry unit leaves the hex. The AT unit remains in the hex,
as does the Dug-In marker.
14.4 Removal of Dug-In Markers
If there are no units of the owning side in the marked hex, whether
they moved out of the hex voluntarily or by a Retreat, or were
eliminated, the Dug-In or Digging In marker is instantly removed
from the hex. This means that an attacking unit that advances
into a previously Dug-In hex does not gain the benefits.
14.5 Digging In on Night Turns
Units may become Dug-In in a single night turn (without placing “Digging In” markers first) and they may do this even in an
eZOC.
1)Receiving Replacements. A unit must be in supply at
that instant in order to receive a RP.
2)Attempting Recovery. A unit receives a –1 DRM if OOS
at the instant it attempts Recovery.
3)Elimination of a unit. A unit which is OOS at the instant
of its elimination is placed in the Permanently Eliminated
Box and not eligible for Reconstitution.
Design Note: The surrounded units have been captured
or utterly annihilated.
4)Victory Determination. In some scenarios, a unit must
occupy an objective hex while also being in supply at that
instant to qualify for VPs (see scenario specific rules).
15.2 Soviet Supply Paths35
A Soviet unit is in supply if it can trace a path of no more than
four hexes to a road hex, then along a path of contiguous road
hexes back to a friendly supply source (15.4). At no point may
either path enter a hex occupied by an enemy unit or eZOC,
though friendly units negate eZOC in a hex for purposes of tracing supply. The supply path can be of any length so long as the
other requirements are met.
15.3 Finnish Supply Paths
A Finnish unit is in supply if it can trace a path of any number
of contiguous hexes of any terrain type, free of enemy units and
eZOC, back to a friendly supply source. Friendly units negate
an eZOC in a hex for purposes of tracing supply.
15.4 Supply Sources
The supply source symbols for each side
are printed on the map, as explained on the
Map Key. The Soviet supply source (hex
X28) is red while the Finnish supply source hex (A13) is blue.
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16.0 Night Turns34
16.2 Bonfires37
“Let your plans be dark and impenetrable as night, and when
you move, fall like a thunderbolt.”
~ Sun Tzu
Each night turn represents a period of 15 hours, as opposed to
90 minutes for daytime turns. Units may perform movement,
Assaults, and Combats on night turns, though by doing so they
may incur additional step reductions on the SZLT (see 16.3). The
following special rules apply during night turns:
• Recovery attempts receive a favorable +1 DRM.
• Ranged Attacks incur a –2 DRM.
• LOS range is reduced to one hex.
• Units may become Dug-In in a single turn and they may
do this even in an eZOC (14.6).
• Units may qualify for Double Movement (16.1).
• Soviet armored units have their CS halved (8.3, case 2).
• Soviet units may build Bonfires (16.2).
• Finnish infantry companies may be eligible to conduct
Night Raids (16.4).
Design Note: During the battle for Tolvajärvi, considerable
action took place during the dark hours. Thus I felt it was
necessary to craft a special set of rules to cover night turns.
16.1 Double Movement on Night Turns
A unit which does not begin its Action Phase in an eZOC has
its MA doubled for the night turn, and this bonus may be used
in combination with road movement and Extended Movement
(4.3), or to perform an Assault (9.0).
Design Note: This is not to infer that units can move further
at night—quite the opposite is true. Remember that a night
turn represents a period of time which is ten times longer than
a normal turn. The Double Movement during a single turn
makes it easier to maneuver through gaps in the enemy’s line
or outflank his positions. Thus players will want to position
their units very carefully prior to night turns.
Units utilizing Extended Movement (4.3) plus Double Movement
have their MA doubled and then receive the 2 additional MPs.
Thus, a unit with a MA of 5 could utilize Extended Movement
plus Double Movement for a total of 12 MPs (24 road hexes).
Retreat and Advance Limits are never doubled on night turns.
Only Soviet units may build Bonfires and only during a night turn Action Phase. A unit that builds a
Bonfire may also attempt Recovery (13.3) as part
of its Action Phase. The unit must be 4 or more
hexes from all enemy units and not in a frozen lake hex. Units
under a Bonfire can do nothing during their Combat Phase.
Place a Bonfire marker upon the building unit’s hex. Bonfires
are removed at the conclusion of the Sub-Zero Loss Phase or at
the instant all Soviet units under the Bonfire retreat out of the
hex or are eliminated
Bonfires may never move. Any number may be built; the counter
mix is not a limit. Where multiple units in the same hex build a
Bonfire, place a single marker with all building units beneath the
marker. Units which enter a pre-existing Bonfire hex, whether
by movement or Retreat, are placed atop the Bonfire marker and
do not benefit from its effects. A hex may contain both units atop
and under a Bonfire marker.
16.2.1 Effects of Bonfires
Soviet units under a Bonfire marker are not required to roll for
step reductions on the Sub-Zero Loss Table (SZLT) (16.3).
16.3 Sub-Zero Loss Table (SZLT)36
Design Note: The SZLT simulates the effects of the extreme
cold which led to desertion, poor morale, frostbite, hypothermia, and even death.
At the conclusion of each night turn, units that underwent certain
activities during the night turn must roll on the SZLT to see if
they suffer step reductions due to attrition. All Soviet stacks not
beneath a Bonfire marker, as well as all Finnish stacks marked
with Skull markers must roll on the SZLT. Important: This is
done for each stack, not each individual unit. Note that the definition of “stack” here can include a single unit alone in a hex.
The SZLT does not apply to off-map artillery.
Units on frozen lake receive a –1 DRM on the SZLT. Finnish
units always receive a +1 DRM when rolling on the SZLT.
Design Note: The Finns had portable camp stoves as well
as weather-appropriate clothing.
When applying step reductions due to the SZLT, the owning
player may apply the reductions to any units in the afflicted
stack as he sees fit.
16.3.1 Skull Markers
During their night turns, Finnish units or stacks are
marked with “Skull” markers for conducting a Combat, Assault, or Night Raid. At the conclusion of the
night turn, each stack (and the definition of stack here
can include a single unit) must roll on the SZLT for possible step
reductions. If two or more stacks or units under Skull markers
come to occupy the same hex at the end of their turn, the newly
created stack receives a single Skull marker and rolls only once.
Finnish units never receive Skull markers for being attacked during the Soviet player’s night turn Combat Phase; they only receive
them for actions voluntarily performed during their own night turn.
© 2012 GMT Games, LLC
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Red Winter Rule Book
16.4 Finnish Night Raids
On night turns, full strength Finnish infantry units
that take no other action may be eligible to conduct
a special action called a Night Raid during their
Action Phase. This allows them to utilize triple their
normal MA, perform an attack using the CRT (possibly at a
beneficial column shift), and return to their starting position, all
as a single action. This gives the Finns considerably more flexibility on night turns than the Soviets. However, there is a chance
a raiding party will become lost en route to its target hex, and
the raid will not take place.
The raiding units must be able to trace a path free of enemy units
and eZOC to the target hex (but without actually moving the
raiding units). The target hex cannot be more than 18 MPs from
any of the raiding units, nor can it be the Hotel hex (M16). When
calculating this, do not include the cost to enter the target’s hex
and do not pay +2 MPs for conducting an Assault. Simply total
the terrain cost of all intervening hexes between the raiding units
and their target. Raiding units are eligible to use road movement
(5.3) when tracing their route.
Questions about the rules? Please feel free to contact me via
Consimworld, Boardgamegeek, or my personal email at
To conduct a Night Raid, the Finnish player follows these steps:
[email protected]
1.Designate the raiding units.
2.Designate the target hex.
3.Roll on the FNRT, applying any applicable DRMs as
indicated beneath the table. The result shows whether the
raiding party successfully located its target or became lost
en route. If the former, then the FNRT also shows how
many columns the base odds of the attack are shifted on
the CRT.
4.If an attack was indicated in step #3, it now takes place.
Calculate the Combat Ratio normally. If the final hex of
the raiding Finns’ path is frozen lake, or across a bridge
hexside from the target, the Finns halve their CS normally
(see CRT modifiers). Apply the column shift as indicated
in step #3 and resolve the attack on the CRT with no other
modifiers. Support is not allowed. Results are applied
immediately and all losses on both sides must be taken
as step reductions.
5.Regardless of the results obtained in steps #3 & #4, the
raiding units remain in their original hexes (their counters
were never actually moved) and each unit is marked with
a Skull marker. Alternatively, mark the stack with the
special Night Raid marker, denoting that each unit in the
stack must individually check for a step reduction on the
SZLT.
A successful Night Raid will necessitate two die rolls—one to
locate the target and determine the CRT column shift, and a
second roll to resolve the attack.
16.4.1 Criteria for Night Raids
The Finnish player may only conduct one Night Raid per night
turn.
39
Up to three full strength Finnish infantry units, with or without the
leader Pajari, may together conduct the Night Raid if they begin
their Action Phase either stacked with one another or positioned
such that every participating unit is adjacent to every other participating unit and if none are in an eZOC. The target hex must
be at least 4 hexes from all Finnish units at the start of the phase.
Finnish units that perform a Night Raid can perform no other
action during their Action Phase, regardless of whether the raid
actually culminated in an attack roll or the raiding party became
lost en route. Dug-In Finns which conduct a Night Raid do not
lose their Dug-In status.
Credits
Game Design and Development: Mark Mokszycki
Art Director: Rodger MacGowan
Box Art & Packaging: Rodger MacGowan
Map: Mark Mahaffey
Counters, Manuals & Player Aid Card: Charles Kibler
Research: Vesa Teräs, Juuso Marttila, Mark Mokszycki,
Ethan McKinney, Matti Nummila
Lead Proofer: Ralph Shelton
Proofing: Hans Korting, Ian Thompson, Keith Mageau,
Todd Pytel, Andrew Carlstrom, Richard Crowe Jr., Rachael
Mokszycki, Ethan McKinney, Vincent Lefavrais, John Holme
Lead Playtesters: Keith Mageau, Eric Edwards, Mark
Mokszycki
Playtesters: Igor Kwiatkowski, Vesa Teräs, Juuso Marttila,
John Holme, Kevin Sharp
Production Coordination: Tony Curtis
Producers: Tony Curtis, Rodger MacGowan, Andy Lewis,
Gene Billingsley and Mark Simonitch
A special “thank you” goes out to Michael Evans for all
his hard work on the original playtest artwork and promo
sketches, and for enduring my countless changes and revisions. Without Mike, I might never have gotten this game
off the ground.
© 2012 GMT Games, LLC
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Red Winter Rule Book
© 2012 GMT Games, LLC
Red Winter Rule Book
23
INDEX
Adjacent Defensive Support............................................. 10.3.6
Infantry Guns....................................................................... 12.5
Advance After Combat ......................................................... 8.7
Line of Sight (LOS)............................................................. 10.6
Ammo............................................................................... 12.4.1
Map Edge Boundaries................................................ 4.2, 17.0.1
Anti-Tank Fire...................................................................... 11.0
Minimum Movement.......................................................... 4.1.1
Anti-Tank Units................................................................... 12.2
Morale Bonus.....................................................................8.3(8)
Armor (and Armored Cars).......................................8.3(9), 12.1
Mortars................................................................................. 12.5
Armor Commitment................................................... 12.1.4
Night Raids........................................(See Finnish Night Raids)
Armor and Off-road Movement.................................... 20.9
Night Turns.......................................................................... 16.0
Armor on Night Turns................................................8.2(2)
Optional Rules and Variants................................................. 20.0
Artillery................................................................................ 12.4
Overruns............................................................................ 12.1.2
Artillery Park............................12.4.3 (Soviet) 12.4.4 (Finnish)
Pajari................................................................8.3(6), 12.3, 12.8
Assaults.................................................................................. 9.0
Pajari’s Heart Condition............................................... 20.6
Prohibited Terrain.................................................................. 5.1
Bonfires
Marker........................................................................... 16.2
Range................................................................................... 10.1
Bonus........................................................................8.3(11)
Ranged Attacks.................................................................... 10.0
Bridges........................................................................5.4, 8.2(1)
Reconstitution................................................................... 13.2.1
Campaign Game................................................................... 17.1
Recovery.............................................................................. 13.3
Captured Soviet LMGs........................................................ 20.4
Replacements....................................................................... 13.2
Change of Operational Stance................................8.3(10), 17.1
Retreats............................................................................... 8.5.2
Combat................................................................................... 8.0
Roads..................................................................................... 5.3
Concentric Attack Bonus...................................................8.3(4)
Skull Markers.................................................................... 16.3.1
Control (Hex)......................................................................... 7.3
Soviet 354th Artillery Regiment....................................... 12.4.2
Digging In............................................................................ 14.0
Soviet Armor Bonus...........................................................8.3(9)
“Dug In” Bonus..........................................................8.3(7)
Soviet Coordination........................................................... 20.10
Direct Fire Support........................................................... 10.3.5
Soviet Morale Collapse..................................................... 17.0.4
Double Movement............................................................... 16.1
Spotters................................................................................ 10.5
Engineer Platoon.................................................................. 12.6
Stacking.................................................................................. 6.0
Extended Movement.............................................................. 4.3
Step Reductions.................................................................. 8.5.1
Finnish Field Kitchens......................................................... 20.8
Sub Zero Loss Table............................................................ 16.3
Finnish Night Raids............................................................. 16.4
Suo (Wetlands).................................................................... 5.2.2
Finnish Ski Bonus.................................................................. 4.4
Supply.................................................................................. 15.0
Finnish Submachine Gun Bonus......................................8.3(15)
Soviet Supply Paths...................................................... 15.2
Fog of War........................................................................... 20.7
Finnish Supply Paths.................................................... 15.3
Forest.................................................................................. 5.2.1
Supply Sources............................................................. 15.4
Friction Fire......................................................................... 20.1
Support/Supporting Fire...................................................... 10.3
Friendly Fire......................................................................... 20.3
Suppression............................................................8.3(3), 10.4.1
Frozen Lakes....................................................................... 5.2.4
Tanks........................................................................ (see Armor)
Attack Penalty.............................................................8.2(1)
Tolvajärvi Village Hexes..................................................... 5.2.3
Defending in...............................................................8.3(5)
Unit Designation and Order of Appearance......................... 24.0
Getting Lost in the Woods................................................... 20.5
Victory Point Bid Method................................................. 17.0.2
Gravel Pits........................................................................... 5.2.6
Villages............................................................................... 5.2.3
Hotel Hex............................................................................ 5.2.5
Zone of Control...................................................................... 7.0
© 2012 GMT Games, LLC
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Red Winter Rule Book
Sequence of Play
I. First Player Reset Phase
Player One flips all his “Fired” Mortars, Infantry Guns, and off-map Artillery to
their front side and adjusts his ammo according to the Turn Track. He spends any
RPs (13.2) that become available on the current game turn.
II. First Player Action Phase
Each unit may perform one of the following actions:
• Move (4.0) and/or Assault (9.0).
• Attempt Recovery (13.3). Reduced infantry companies only.
• Dig In (14.0). Infantry companies, engineers, or MG units only.
During Night Turns (16.0) the following actions are also available:
• Double Movement (16.1). Unit cannot begin phase in an eZOC.
• Build a Bonfire (16.2) and/or attempt Recovery (13.3). Soviet units only.
• Conduct a Night Raid (16.4). Finnish full strength infantry companies only.
The first player may also bring Reinforcements (13.1) on to the map at any time
during his Action Phase. Players may wish to indicate which units have taken an
action by rotating them 180 degrees.
III.First Player Combat Phase
Player One rolls for Ranged Attacks (10.0) and conducts Combats (8.0), in any
order. Player Two may roll for defensive support (10.3). At the end of the phase,
all Suppressed markers are removed.
IV. Second Player Turn
As above, except that Player Two now conducts the operations in steps I-III, in
order. Replace “Player One” with “Player Two” and vice versa.
V. Sub-Zero Loss Phase (16.3) (Night turns only)
At the conclusion of each night turn, beginning with the Soviet player both players
roll on the SZLT. Rolls are made for all Soviet stacks which are not under Bonfires
(16.2) and all Finns under Skull markers (16.3.1). Remove all Skull and Bonfire
markers.
VI.Victory Check Phase
Players check to see if either has won according to the Victory Conditions for the
scenario. If not, advance the Turn marker and restart the Turn Sequence.
GMT Games, LLC • P.O. Box 1308, Hanford, CA 93232-1308
© 2012 GMT Games, LLC
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