Network Layer Functions

Network Layer Functions
78701112 CH01.fm Page 4 Wednesday, July 23, 2003 3:34 PM
Upon completion of this chapter, you will be able to perform the following tasks:
•
Describe the process in which data is transferred from an application across a
network.
•
Given a network topology, identify the roles and functions of each network device and
determine where each device best fits into the network.
•
Given a network that combines switching, routing, and remote access, select the
appropriate Cisco equipment.
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CHAPTER
1
Internetworking Concepts
Overview
The purpose of this chapter is to review basic internetworking concepts. These concepts are
used throughout this book and are fundamental in understanding the functions of Cisco
network devices.
Defining Network Components
The purpose of a data network is to help an organization increase productivity by linking
all the computers and computer networks so that people have access to the information
regardless of differences in time, location, or type of computer equipment.
Data networks have changed how we view our companies and employees. It is no longer
necessary to have everyone in the same location in order to access the information needed
to do the job. Because of this, many companies have changed their business strategy to
utilize these networks in the way they do business. It is now typical for a company to
organize the corporate internetwork in a way that allows it to optimize its resources. Figure
1-1 shows that the network is defined based on grouping employees (users) in the following
ways:
•
The main office is where everyone is connected to a LAN and where the majority of
the corporate information is located. A main office could have hundreds or thousands
of users who depend on the network to do their jobs. The main office might be a
building with many local-area networks (LANs) or might be a campus of such
buildings. Because everyone needs access to central resources and information, it is
common to see a high-speed backbone LAN as well as a centralized data center with
mainframe computers and application servers.
•
The other connections are a variety of remote access locations that need to connect to
the resources at the main offices and/or each other, including the following:
— Branch offices—These are remote locations where smaller groups of
people work. These users connect to each other via a LAN. In order to
access the main office, these users access wide-area network (WAN)
services. Although some information might be stored at the branch office, it
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6
Chapter 1: Internetworking Concepts Overview
is likely that users will have to access much of the data from the main office.
How often the main office network is accessed determines whether the
WAN connection will be a permanent or dialup connection.
— Telecommuters—These are employees who work out of their homes.
These users typically require an on-demand connection to the main office
and/or the branch office in order to access network resources.
— Mobile users—These individuals work from various locations and rely on
different services to connect to the network. While at the main or branch
offices, these users connect to the LAN. When they are out of the office,
these users usually rely on dialup services to connect to the corporate
network.
Figure 1-1
Corporate Networking Strategy
Telecommuter
Mobile Users
Internet
Branch Office
Main Office
In order to understand what types of equipment and services to deploy in your network and
when, it is important to understand business and user needs. You can then subdivide the
network into a hierarchical model that spans from the end user’s machine to the core
(backbone) of the network. Figure 1-2 shows how the different employee groups
interconnect.
To subdivide an internetwork into smaller components, Cisco uses a three-layer
hierarchical model, as described in the following section.
78701112 CH01.fm Page 7 Wednesday, July 23, 2003 3:34 PM
Mapping Business Needs to a Hierarchical Model
Figure 1-2
7
Group Interconnection
Branch Office
Floor 2
Server Farm
ISDN
Telecommuter
Floor 1
Remote
Campus
Mapping Business Needs to a Hierarchical Model
To simplify network designs, implementation, and management, Cisco uses a hierarchical
model to describe the network. Although using this model is typically associated with
designing a network, it is important to understand the model in order to know what
equipment and features are needed in your network.
Campus networks have traditionally placed basic network-level intelligence and services at
the center of the network and shared bandwidth at the user level. As businesses continue to
place more emphasis on the network as a productivity tool, distributed network services and
switching will continue to migrate to the desktop level.
User demands and network applications have forced networking professionals to use the
traffic patterns in the network as the criteria for building an internetwork. Networks cannot
be divided into subnetworks based only on the number of users. The emergence of servers
that run global applications also has a direct impact on the load across the network. A higher
78701112 CH01.fm Page 8 Wednesday, July 23, 2003 3:34 PM
8
Chapter 1: Internetworking Concepts Overview
traffic load across the entire network results in the need for more efficient routing and
switching techniques.
Traffic patterns now dictate the type of services needed by end users in networks. To
properly build an internetwork that can effectively address a user’s needs, a three-layer
hierarchical model is used to organize traffic flow (see Figure 1-3).
Figure 1-3
Three-Layer Hierarchical Network Model
Switches Traffic
to the Appropriate
Service
Core Layer
Distribution
Routing, Filtering,
Layer
and WAN Access
Access
End Station Layer
Entry Point to
the Network
The model consists of three layers:
•
•
•
Access
Distribution
Core
Each of these layers serves a function in delivering network services, as described in the
following sections.
Access Layer
The access layer of the network is the point at which end users are connected to the
network. This is why the access layer is sometimes referred to as the desktop layer. Users,
and the resources they need to access most, are locally available. Traffic to and from local
resources is confined between the resources, switches, and end users. Multiple groups of
users and their resources exist at the access layer.
In many networks, it is not possible to provide users with local access to all services, such
as database files, centralized storage, or dial-out access to the web. In these cases, user
traffic for these services is directed to the next layer in the model, the distribution layer.
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Mapping Business Needs to a Hierarchical Model
9
Distribution Layer
The distribution layer of the network (also referred to as the workgroup layer) marks the
point between the access layer and the core services of the network. It is the primary
function of this layer to perform functions such as routing, filtering, and WAN access. In a
campus environment, the distribution layer represents a multitude of functions, including
the following:
•
•
•
•
•
Serving as an aggregation point for access layer devices
Routing traffic to provide departmental or workgroup access
Segmenting the network into multiple broadcast/multicast domains
Translating between different media types, such as Token Ring and Ethernet
Providing security and filtering services
The distribution layer can be summarized as the layer that provides policy-based
connectivity, because it determines if and how packets can access the core services of the
network. The distribution layer determines the fastest way for a user request (such as file
server access) to be forwarded to the server. After the distribution layer chooses the path, it
forwards the request to the core layer. The core layer then quickly transports the request to
the appropriate service.
Core Layer
The core layer (also called the backbone layer) switches traffic as fast as possible to the
appropriate service. Typically, the traffic being transported is to and from services common
to all users. These services are referred to as global or enterprise services. Examples of
these services are e-mail, Internet access, and videoconferencing.
When a user needs access to enterprise services, the request is processed at the distribution
layer. The distribution layer device then forwards the user’s request to the backbone. The
backbone simply provides quick transport to the desired enterprise service. The distribution
layer device provides controlled access to the core.
To properly build a network, you must first understand how your internetwork is used, your
business needs, and your user needs. Those needs can then be mapped into a model that can
be used to build your internetwork.
One of the best ways to understand how to build an internetwork is to first understand the
way in which traffic is passed across the network. This is done through a conceptual
network framework, the most popular of which is the OSI reference model. It is described
in the following sections.
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10
Chapter 1: Internetworking Concepts Overview
OSI Reference Model Overview
The OSI reference model serves several functions for the internetworking community:
•
•
It provides a way to understand how an internetwork operates.
It serves as a guideline or framework for creating and implementing network
standards, devices, and internetworking schemes.
Here are some of the advantages of using a layered model:
•
•
•
Breaks down the complex operation of networking into simple elements.
Enables engineers to specialize design and development efforts on modular functions.
Provides the capability to define standard interfaces for “plug-and-play” compatibility
and multivendor integration.
As shown in Figure 1-4, the OSI reference model has seven layers. The four lower layers
define ways for end stations to establish connections to each other in order to exchange
data. The three upper layers define how the applications within the end stations will
communicate with each other and with the users.
Figure 1-4
OSI Reference Model
Application
Application
(Upper) Layers
Presentation
Session
Transport Layer
Network Layer
Data Link
Data Flow
Layers
Physical
The following sections break down the layers and look at how they function to provide
network connectivity.
Upper Layers
The three upper layers of the OSI reference model are often referred to as the application
layers. These layers deal with the user interface, data formatting, and application access.
Figure 1-5 shows the upper layers and provides information on their functionality with
some examples.
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OSI Reference Model Overview
Figure 1-5
11
Upper Layers
EXAMPLES
Application
Presentation
Session
• User Interface
• How data is presented
• Special processing
such as encryption
• Keeping different
applications' data separate
Telnet
HTTP
ASCII
EBCDIC
JPEG
Operating System/
Application Access
Scheduling
Transport Layer
Network Layer
Data Link
Physical
•
Application layer—This is the highest layer of the model. It is the point where
the user or application interfaces with the protocols to gain access to the network.
For example, a word processor is serviced by file transfer services at this layer.
•
Presentation layer—The presentation layer provides a variety of coding and
conversion functions that are applied to application layer data. These functions ensure
that data sent from the application layer of one system can be read by the application
layer of another system. An example of coding functions is the encryption of data after
it leaves an application. Another example is the jpeg and gif formats of images
displayed on web pages. This formatting ensures that all web browsers, regardless of
operating system, can display the images.
•
Session layer—The session layer is responsible for establishing, managing, and
terminating communications sessions between presentation layer entities.
Communication at this layer consists of service requests and responses that occur
between applications located in different devices. An example of this type of
coordination would be between a database server and a database client.
Lower Layers
The four lower layers of the OSI reference model are responsible for defining how data is
transferred across a physical wire, through internetwork devices, to the desired end station,
and finally to the application on the other side. The focus of this book is Cisco’s
implementation of these layers. Figure 1-6 summarizes the basic functions of these four
layers. We will discuss each layer in greater detail later in this chapter.
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12
Chapter 1: Internetworking Concepts Overview
Figure 1-6
Lower Layers
Application
Presentation
Session
Examples
Transport
• Reliable or unreliable delivery
• Error correction before retransmit
TCP
UDP
SPX
Network
• Provide logical addressing which
routers use for path determination
IP
IPX
Data Link
• Combines bits into bytes
and bytes into frames
• Access to media using MAC address
• Error detection not correction
802.3 / 802.2
HDLC
Physical
• Move bits between devices
• Specifies voltage, wire speed, and
pin-out cables
EIA/TIA-232
V.35
Communicating Between OSI Reference Model Layers
It is the responsibility of the protocol stack to provide communications between network
devices. A protocol stack is the set of rules that define how information travels across the
network. An example of this would be TCP/IP. The OSI reference model provides the basic
framework common to most protocol stacks.
Each layer of the model allows data to pass across the network. These layers exchange
information to provide communications between the network devices. The layers
communicate with one another using protocol data units (PDUs). These PDUs control
information that is added to the user data. The control information resides in fields called
headers and trailers. In Figure 1-7, the Media Access Control (MAC) header and frame
check sequence (FCS) at the data link layer represent a header and trailer.
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Communicating Between OSI Reference Model Layers
Figure 1-7
13
Data Encapsulation
Application
Presentation
Session
Upper Layer Data
TCP Header Upper Layer Data
IP Header
Data
LLC Header
Data
FCS
MAC Header
Data
FCS
0101110101001000010
Transport
Segment
Network
Packet
Data Link
Frame
Physical
Bits
Because a PDU includes different information as it goes up or down the layers, it is given
a name according to the information it is carrying. For example, in a TCP/IP stack (see
Figure 1-7), after a transport layer TCP header has been added to the upper-layer data, that
unit is called a segment. The segment is then passed down to the network layer, where an
IP header is added, and it becomes a packet. The packet is packaged into a Layer 2 header,
which becomes a frame. Finally, the frame is converted into bits, and the electrical signals
are transmitted across the network media.
This method of passing data down the stack and adding headers and trailers is called
encapsulation. After the data is encapsulated and passed across the network, the receiving
device removes the information added, using the messages in the header as directions on
how to pass the data up the stack to the appropriate application.
Data encapsulation is an important concept to networks. It is the function of like layers on
each device, called peer layers, to communicate critical parameters such as addressing and
control information.
Although encapsulation seems like an abstract concept, it is actually quite simple. Imagine
that you want to send a coffee mug to a friend in another city. How will the mug get there?
Basically, it will be transported on the road or through the air. You can’t go outside and set
the mug on the road or throw it up in the air and expect it to get there. You need a service
to pick it up and deliver it. So, you call your favorite parcel carrier and give them the mug.
But, that’s not all. You need to give the carrier some information as to where the mug is
going. So you provide the parcel carrier with an address and send the mug on its way. But
first, the mug needs to be packaged. Here’s the complete process:
Step 1 Pack the mug in a box.
Step 2 Place an address label on the box.
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14
Chapter 1: Internetworking Concepts Overview
Step 3 Give the box to a parcel carrier.
Step 4 The carrier drives it down the road.
This process is similar to the encapsulation method that protocol stacks use to send data
across networks. After the package arrives, your friend has to reverse the process. He takes
the package from the carrier, reads the label to see who it’s from, and finally opens the
box and removes the mug. The reverse of the encapsulation process is known as deencapsulation. Figure 1-8 represents the de-encapsulation process up a protocol stack.
Figure 1-8
De-Encapsulation
Application
Presentation
Session
Upper Layer Data
Transport
Network
er Upper Layer Data
TCP Head
IP Header
Data Link
Physical
TCP+Upper Layer Data
er IP+TCP+Upper Layer Data
LLC Head
er LLC Hdr+IP+TCP+Upper Layer Data
MAC Head
0101110101001000010
As networking professionals, it is our responsibility to implement networks that support the
transport of user data. In order to implement and configure devices to do this, we must
understand the processes of the lower layers of the OSI model. Understanding these
processes makes configuring and troubleshooting network devices less troublesome.
Physical Layer Functions
To fully understand the network process, we must first closely examine each of the lower
layers. Starting with the physical layer, shown in Figure 1-9, we will examine the function
of each layer.
78701112 CH01.fm Page 15 Wednesday, July 23, 2003 3:34 PM
Physical Layer Functions
Figure 1-9
15
Physical Layer
Physical
Ethernet
802.3
EIA/TIA-232
V.35
The physical layer defines the media type, connector type, and signaling type. It specifies
the electrical, mechanical, procedural, and functional requirements for activating,
maintaining, and deactivating the physical link between end systems. The physical layer
also specifies characteristics such as voltage levels, data rates, maximum transmission
distances, and physical connectors. In the analogy used earlier, the physical layer is the road
on which the mug is carried. The roadway is a physical connection between different cities
that allows us to go from one place to another. Different roads have different rules, such as
speed limits or weight limits, just as different network media have different bandwidths or
maximum transmission units (MTUs).
Physical Media and Connectors
The physical media and the connectors used to connect devices into the media are defined
by standards at the physical layer. In this book, the primary focus is on the standards that
are associated with Ethernet implementations.
The Ethernet and IEEE 802.3 (CSMA/CD) standards define a bus topology LAN that
operates at a baseband signaling rate of 10 megabits per second (Mbps). Figure 1-10 shows
three defined physical layer wiring standards, defined as follows:
•
10Base2—Known as Thinnet. Allows network segments up to 185 meters on coaxial
cable by interconnecting or chaining devices together.
•
10Base5—Known as Thicknet. Allows network segments up to 500 meters on large
coaxial cable with devices tapping into the cable to receive signals.
•
10BaseT—Carries Ethernet signals up to 100 meters on inexpensive twisted-pair
wiring back to a centralized concentrator called a hub.
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16
Chapter 1: Internetworking Concepts Overview
Figure 1-10 Defined Physical Layer 10Base Wiring Standards
10Base2—Thin Ethernet
10Base5—Thick Ethernet
Hub
10BaseT—Twisted Pair
Hosts
The 10Base5 and 10Base2 standards provide access for multiple stations on the same
segment by physically connecting each device to a common Ethernet segment. 10Base5
cables attach to the bus using a cable and an attachment unit interface (AUI). 10Base2
networks chain devices together using coaxial cable and T connectors to connect the
stations to the common bus.
Because the 10BaseT standard provides access for a single station at a time, each station
must attach to a common bus structure to interconnect all the devices. The hub becomes the
bus of the Ethernet devices and is analogous to the segment.
Collision/Broadcast Domains
Because all stations on an Ethernet segment are connected to the same physical media,
signals sent out across that wire are received by all devices. This also means that if any two
devices send out a signal at the same time, those signals will collide. The structure of
Ethernet must therefore have rules that allow only one station to access the media at a time.
There must also be a way to detect and correct errors known as collisions (when two or
more stations try to transmit at the same time).
When discussing networks, it is critical to define two important concepts:
•
Collision domain—A group of devices connected to the same physical media such
that if two devices access the media at the same time, the result is a collision of the
two signals
•
Broadcast domain—A group of devices in the network that receive one another’s
broadcast messages
These terms help you understand the basic structure of traffic patterns and help define the
needs for devices such as switches and routers.
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Physical Layer Functions
17
Most Ethernet segments today are devices interconnected with hubs. Hubs allow the
concentration of many Ethernet devices into a centralized device that connects all the
devices to the same physical bus structure in the hub. This means that all the devices
connected to the hub share the same media and, consequently, share the same collision
domain, broadcast domain, and bandwidth. The resulting physical connection is that of a
star topology as opposed to a linear topology. Figure 1-11 shows a common connection to
the hub.
Figure 1-11 Ethernet Hub
Physical
A
B
C
D
A hub does not manipulate or view the traffic that crosses that bus; it is used only to extend
the physical media by repeating the signal it receives in one port out all the other ports. This
means that a hub is a physical layer device. It is concerned only with propagation of the
physical signaling, without any regard for upper-layer functions. This does not change the
rules of Ethernet, however. Stations still share the bus of the hub, which means that
contention still occurs.
Because all devices are connected to the same physical media, a hub is a single collision
domain. If one station sends out a broadcast, the hub propagates it to all other stations, so
it is also a single broadcast domain.
The Ethernet technology used in this instance is known as carrier sense multiple access
collision detection (CSMA/CD). This means that multiple stations have access to the
media, and before one station can access that media, it must first “listen” (carrier sense) to
make sure that no other station is using the same media. If the media is in use, the station
must wait before sending out any data. If two stations both listen and hear no other traffic,
and then they both try to transmit at the same time, the result is a collision.
For example, in Figure 1-12, both cars try to occupy the same road at the same time, and
they collide. In a network, as with cars, the resulting collision causes damage. In fact, the
damaged frames become error frames, which the stations detect as a collision, forcing both
stations to retransmit their respective frames. A backoff algorithm determines when the
stations retransmit in order to minimize the chance of another collision. The more stations
that exist on an Ethernet segment, the greater the chance that collisions will occur. These
excessive collisions are the reason that networks are segmented (broken up) into smaller
collision domains using switches and bridges.
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Chapter 1: Internetworking Concepts Overview
Figure 1-12 Ethernet Collisions
Data Link Layer Functions
Before traffic can be placed on the network, it must be given some details about where to go and
what to do when it gets there. The data link layer provides this function. The data link layer is
Layer 2 of the OSI reference model, and it differs depending on the topology. Figure 1-13 shows
the various physical topologies and some corresponding data link encapsulation methods.
Figure 1-13 Data Link Layer
Physical
Data Link
Ethernet
802.3
802.2
HDLC
EIA/TIA-232
Frame Relay
V.35
The purpose of this layer is to provide the communications between workstations at the first
logical layer above the bits on the wire. Because of this, many functions are provided by
the data link layer. The physical addressing of the end stations is done at the data link layer
to help the network devices determine whether they should pass a message up the protocol
stack. Fields also exist in this layer to tell the device which upper-layer stack to pass the
data to (such as IP, IPX, AppleTalk, and so on). The data link layer provides support for
connection-oriented and connectionless services and provides for sequencing and flow
control.
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Data Link Layer Functions
19
To provide these functions, the IEEE data link layer is defined by two sublayers:
•
Media Access Control (MAC) Sublayer (802.3)—The Media Access Control
(MAC) sublayer is responsible for how the data is transported over the physical wire.
This is the part of the data link layer that communicates downward to the physical
layer. It defines such functions as physical addressing, network topology, line
discipline, error notification, orderly delivery of frames, and optional flow control.
•
Logical Link Control (LLC) Sublayer (802.2)—The Logical Link Control sublayer
is responsible for logically identifying different protocol types and then encapsulating
them in order to be transmitted across the network. A type code or service access point
(SAP) identifier does the logical identification. The type of LLC frame used by an end
station depends on what identifier the upper-layer protocol expects. Additional LLC
options include support for connections between applications running on the LAN,
flow control to the upper layer, and sequence control bits. For some protocols, LLC
defines reliable or unreliable services for data transfer, instead of the transport layer.
(Reliable and unreliable services are discussed further in the section, “Transport
Layer Functions.”)
MAC Sublayer Frames
Figure 1-14 illustrates the frame structure for the MAC sublayer IEEE 802.3 frames.
Figure 1-14 MAC Sublayer Frame
MAC Sublayer - 802.3
# Bytes 8
6
6
2
Preamble Dest add Source add Length
0000.0C
Xx.xxxx
IEEE
Vendor
Assigned Assigned
Variable
Data
4
FCS
Ethernet II
Uses "Type" Here
and Does Not
Use 802.2.
MAC Address
Figure 1-14 shows the standard frame structure to provide an example of how control
information is used to transmit information at this layer. The definitions of the MAC
sublayer fields are as follows:
•
The IEEE 802.3 frame begins with an alternating pattern of 1s and 0s called a
preamble. The preamble tells receiving stations that a frame is coming.
•
Immediately following the preamble are the destination and source physical address
fields. These addresses are referred to as MAC layer addresses. They are unique to
each device in the internetwork. On most LAN interface cards, the MAC address is
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Chapter 1: Internetworking Concepts Overview
burned into ROM, thus explaining the term burned-in-address (BIA). When the
network interface card initializes, this address is copied into RAM to identify the
device on the network.
The MAC address is a 48-bit address expressed as 12 hexadecimal digits. The first 24
bits or 6 hexadecimal digits of the MAC address contain a manufacturer identification
or vendor code. Another name for this part of the address is the Organizationally Unique
Identifier (OUI). To ensure vendor uniqueness, the IEEE administers OUIs. The last 24
bits or 6 hexadecimal digits are administered by each vendor and often represent the
interface serial number.
The source address is always a unicast (single node) address, and the destination
address might be unicast, multicast (group of nodes), or broadcast (all nodes).
•
In IEEE 802.3 frames, the two-byte field following the source address is a length field,
which indicates the number of bytes of data that follow this field and precede the
frame check sequence (FCS) field.
•
Following the length field is the data field, which includes the LLC control
information, other upper-layer control information, and the user data.
•
Finally, following the data field is a 4-byte FCS field containing a cyclic redundancy
check (CRC) value. The CRC is created by the sending device and recalculated by the
receiving device to check for damage that might have occurred to the frame in transit.
LLC Sublayer Frames
There are two LLC frame types: Service Access Point (SAP) and Subnetwork Access Protocol
(SNAP). Which frame type your system uses depends on the applications that you have running
on your system. Some applications define themselves by a SAP ID, and others define
themselves using a type code. Figure 1-15 shows the format of the SAP and SNAP frame types.
Figure 1-15 SAP and SNAP LLC Sublayer Frames
802.2 LLC Sublayer
(SNAP)
1
1
1 or 2 3
2
Variable
Dest SAP Source SAP Ctrl OUI
Type
Data
AA
AA
03 ID
Or
1
Dest SAP
802.2 LLC Sublayer
(SAP)
1
1 or 2
Source SAP
Ctrl
Preamble Dest add Source add Length
Mac Sublayer - 802.3
Data
Variable
Data
FCS
78701112 CH01.fm Page 21 Wednesday, July 23, 2003 3:34 PM
Data Link Layer Functions
21
In the LLC header, the destination SAP (DSAP) and source SAP (SSAP) fields are 1 byte
each and act as pointers to the upper-layer protocols in a station. For example, a frame with
a SAP of 06 hex is destined for IP, and a frame with a SAP of E0 hex is destined for IPX.
From the perspective of these lower MAC sublayers, the SAP process provides a convenient
interface to the upper layers of the protocol stack. These SAP entries allow the physical and
data link connections to provide services for many upper-layer protocols.
In order to specify that the frame uses SNAP, the SSAP and DSAP addresses are both set
to AA hex, and the control field is set to 03 hex. In addition to the SAP fields, a SNAP
header has a type code field that allows for the inclusion of the EtherType. The EtherType
defines which upper-layer protocol receives the data.
In a SNAP frame, the first three bytes of the SNAP header after the control field are the OUI
vendor code. Following the OUI vendor code is a two-byte field containing the EtherType for
the frame. Here is where the backward compatibility with Ethernet Version II is implemented.
As with the 802.3 frame, a 4-byte FCS field follows the data field and contains a CRC value.
Data Link Layer Devices
Bridges and Layer 2 switches are devices that function at the data link layer of the protocol
stack. Figure 1-16 shows the devices typically encountered at Layer 2. Layer 2 switching
is hardware-based bridging. In a switch, frame forwarding is handled by specialized
hardware called application-specific integrated circuits (ASICs). ASIC technology allows
a silicon chip to be programmed to perform a specific function as it is built. This technology
allows functions to be performed at much higher rates of speed than that of a chip that is
programmed by software. Because of ASIC technology, switches provide scalability to
gigabit speeds with low latency.
Figure 1-16 Data Link Devices
Data Link
1
2
3
4
Or
1
2
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Chapter 1: Internetworking Concepts Overview
NOTE
Although there are Layer 3 and Layer 4 switches that perform routing, this book uses the
term switch to refer to a Layer 2 device.
When a bridge or switch receives a frame, it uses the data link information to process the frame.
In a transparent bridge environment, the bridge processes the frame by determining whether it
needs to be copied to other connected segments. A transparent bridge hears every frame that
crosses a segment and views each frame and source address field to determine on what segment
the source station resides. The transparent bridge stores this information in memory in what is
known as a forwarding table. The forwarding table lists each end station (from which the bridge
has heard a frame within a particular time period) and the segment on which it resides. When a
bridge hears a frame on the network, it views the destination address and compares it to the
forwarding table to determine whether to filter, flood, or copy the frame onto another segment.
This decision process occurs as follows:
•
If the destination device is on the same segment as the frame, the bridge blocks the
frame from going on to other segments. This process is known as filtering.
•
If the destination device is on a different segment, the bridge forwards the frame to the
appropriate segment.
•
If the destination address is unknown to the bridge, the bridge forwards the frame to all
segments except the one on which it was received. This process is known as flooding.
Because a bridge learns all the station destinations by listening to source addresses, it will
never learn the broadcast address. Therefore, all broadcasts will always be flooded to all the
segments on the bridge or switch. All segments in a bridged or switched environment are
therefore considered to be in the same broadcast domain.
NOTE
This book focuses on transparent bridging because this is the function performed by the
Catalyst 1900 series of switches. This is also the most common form of bridging/switching
in Ethernet environments. It should also be noted that there are other types of bridges, such
as source-route bridging, in which the source determines the route to be taken through the
network, and translational bridging, which allows the frame to move from a source route to
a transparent environment between Ethernet and Token Ring.
A bridged/switched network provides excellent traffic management. The purpose of the
Layer 2 device is to reduce collisions, which waste bandwidth and prevent packets from
reaching their destinations. Part A of Figure 1-17 shows how a switch reduces collisions by
giving each segment its own collision domain. Part B of Figure 1-17 shows that when two
or more packets need to get onto a segment, they are stored in memory until the segment is
available for use.
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Data Link Layer Functions
23
Figure 1-17 Bridging Reduces Collisions
A
B
Switch
Memory
Bridged/switched networks have the following characteristics:
•
•
Each segment is its own collision domain.
•
All segments must use the same data link layer implementation, such as all Ethernet
or all Token Ring. If an end station must communicate with another end station on
different media, then some device, such as a router or translational bridge, must
translate between the different media types.
All devices connected to the same bridge or switch are part of the same broadcast
domain.
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24
Chapter 1: Internetworking Concepts Overview
•
In a switched environment, there can be one device per segment, and each device can
send frames at the same time, thus allowing the primary pathway to be shared.
Network Layer Functions
The network layer defines how to transport traffic between devices that are not locally attached
in the same broadcast domain. Two pieces of information are required to achieve this:
•
•
A logical address associated with the source and destination stations.
A path through the network to reach the desired destination.
Figure 1-18 shows the location of the network layer in relation to the data link layer. The
network layer is independent of the data link and can therefore be used to connect devices
residing on different physical media. The logical addressing structure is used to provide this
connectivity.
Figure 1-18 Location of the Network Layer in the Protocol Model
Physical
Data Link
Ethernet
802.3
802.2
HDLC
EIA/TIA-232
Frame Relay
V.35
Network
IP, IPX
Logical addressing schemes are used to identify networks in an internetwork and the
location of the devices within the context of those networks. These schemes vary based on
the network layer protocol in use. This book discusses the network layer operation for the
TCP/IP and IPX (Novell) protocol stacks.
Network Layer Addresses
Network layer addresses (also called virtual or logical addresses) exist at Layer 3 of the
OSI reference model. Unlike data link layer addresses, which usually exist within a flat
address space, network layer addresses are usually hierarchical in that they define networks
first and then devices or nodes on each of those networks. In other words, network layer
addresses are like postal addresses, which describe a person’s location by providing a ZIP
code and a street address. The ZIP code defines the city and state, and the street address is
a particular location in that city. This is in contrast to the MAC layer address, which is flat
in nature. A good example of a flat address space is the U.S. Social Security numbering
system, in which each person has a single, unique Social Security number. Figure 1-19
shows a sample logical address as defined within a network layer packet.
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Network Layer Functions
25
Figure 1-19 Network Layer Logical Addressing
Network Layer End Station Packet
IP Header
Source
Address
Destination
Address
172.15.1.1
Data
Logical Address
Network Node
The logical network address consists of two portions. One part uniquely identifies each
network within the internetwork, and the other part uniquely identifies the hosts on each of
those networks. Combining both portions results in a unique network address for each
device. This unique network address has two functions:
•
The network portion identifies each network in the internetwork structure, allowing
the routers to identify paths through the network cloud. The router uses this address
to determine where to send network packets, in the same manner that the ZIP code on
a letter determines the state and city that a package should be delivered to.
•
The host portion identifies a particular device or a device’s port on the network in the
same manner that a street address on a letter identifies a location within that city.
There are many network layer protocols, and they all share the function of identifying
networks and hosts throughout the internetwork structure. Most of these protocols have
different schemes for accomplishing this task. TCP/IP is a common protocol that is used in
routed networks. An IP address has the following components to identify networks and
hosts:
•
A 32-bit address, divided into four 8-bit sections called octets. This address identifies
a specific network and a specific host on that network by subdividing the bits into
network and host portions.
•
A 32-bit subnet mask that is also divided into four 8-bit octets. The subnet mask is
used to determine which bits represent the network and which represent the host. The
bit pattern for a subnet mask is a string of recursive 1s followed by the remaining bits,
which are 0. Figure 1-20 shows that the boundary between the 1s and the 0s marks the
boundary for the network and host portions of the address, the two components
necessary to define an IP address on an end device.
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26
Chapter 1: Internetworking Concepts Overview
Figure 1-20 IP Address Components
Address
Mask
172.16.122.204 255.255.0.0
172
16
122
204
Binary Address 10101100 00010000 01111010 11001100
255
255
0
0
Binary Mask 11111111 11111111 00000000 00000000
Network
NOTE
Host
IP addresses are represented by taking the 8-bit octets and converting them to decimal and
then separating the octets with dots or periods. This format is known as dotted decimal and
is done to simplify addressing for those of us who count in Base10.
Router Operation at the Network Layer
Routers operate at the network layer by tracking and recording the different networks and
choosing the best path to those networks. The routers place this information in a routing
table, which includes the following items (see Figure 1-21):
•
Network addresses—Represent known networks to the router. A network address is
protocol-specific. If a router supports more than one protocol, it will have a unique
table for each protocol.
•
Interface—Refers to the interface used by the router to reach a given network. This
is the interface that will be used to forward packets destined for the listed network.
•
Metric—Refers to the cost or distance to the target network. This is a value that helps
the router choose the best path to a given network. This metric changes depending on
how the router chooses paths. Common metrics include the number of networks that
must be crossed to get to a destination (also known as hops), the time it takes to cross
all the interfaces to a given network (also known as delay), or a value associated with
the speed of a link (also known as bandwidth).
78701112 CH01.fm Page 27 Wednesday, July 23, 2003 3:34 PM
Network Layer Functions
27
Figure 1-21 Routing Tables
1.1
1.2
1.0
1.3
EO
4.0
2.1
2.2
SO
SO
Routing Table
NET INT Metric
0
EO
1
0
SO
2
1
SO
4
4.3
EO
4.1
4.2
Routing Table
NET INT Metric
1
SO
1
0
SO
2
0
EO
4
Because routers function at the network layer of the OSI model, they are used to separate
segments into unique collision and broadcast domains. Each segment is referred to as a
network and must be identified by a network address to be reached by end stations. In
addition to identifying each segment as a network, each station on that network must also
be uniquely identified by the logical address. This addressing structure allows for
hierarchical network configuration (that is, a station is not known merely by a host
identifier) but is defined by the network it is on as well as a host identifier. In order for
routers to operate on a network, it is required that each interface be configured on the unique
network it represents. The router must also have a host address on that network. The router
uses the interface’s configuration information to determine the network portion of the
address to build a routing table.
In addition to identifying networks and providing connectivity, routers also provide other
functions:
•
•
Routers do not forward Layer 2 broadcast or multicast frames.
•
Routers strip Layer 2 frames and forward packets based on Layer 3 destination
addresses.
•
Routers map a single Layer 3 logical address to a single network device; therefore,
routers can limit or secure network traffic based on identifiable attributes within each
packet. These options, controlled via access lists, can be applied to inbound or
outbound packets.
•
Routers can be configured to perform both bridging and routing functions.
Routers attempt to determine the optimal path through a routed network based on
routing algorithms.
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28
Chapter 1: Internetworking Concepts Overview
•
Routers provide connectivity between different virtual LANs (VLANs) in a switched
environment.
•
Routers can be used to deploy quality of service parameters for specified types of
network traffic.
In addition to the benefits in the campus, routers can be used to connect remote locations
to the main office using WAN services, as illustrated in Figure 1-22.
Figure 1-22 Routers Connect Remote Locations to the Main Office
Modem or
ISDN TA
Telecommuter
Mobile User
Branch Office
Main Office
Internet
Routers support a variety of physical layer connectivity standards that allow you to build
WANs. In addition, they can provide the security and access controls that are needed when
interconnecting remote locations.
Transport Layer Functions
In order to connect two devices in the fabric of the network, a connection or session must
be established. The transport layer defines the end-to-end station establishment guidelines
between two end stations. A session constitutes a logical connection between the peer
transport layers in source and destination end stations. Figure 1-23 shows the relationship
of some transport layer protocols to their respective network layer protocols. Different
transport layer functions are provided by these protocols.
78701112 CH01.fm Page 29 Wednesday, July 23, 2003 3:34 PM
Transport Layer Functions
29
Figure 1-23 Transport Layer Protocols
Network Transport
TCP
IP
UDP
IPX
SPX
Specifically, the transport layer defines the following functions:
•
Allows end stations to assemble and disassemble multiple upper-layer segments into
the same transport layer data stream. This is accomplished by assigning upper-layer
application identifiers. Within the TCP/IP protocol suite, these identifiers are known
as port numbers. The OSI reference model refers to these identifiers as Service Access
Points (SAPs). The transport layer uses these port numbers to identify application
layer entities such as FTP and Telnet. An example of a port number is 23, which
identifies the Telnet application. Data with a transport port number of 23 would be
destined for the Telnet application.
•
Allows applications to request reliable data transport between communicating end
systems. Reliable transport uses a connection-oriented relationship between the
communicating end systems to accomplish the following:
— Ensure that segments delivered will be acknowledged back to the sender.
— Provide for retransmission of any segments that are not acknowledged.
— Put segments back into their correct sequence order at the receiving station.
— Provide congestion avoidance and control.
At the transport layer, data can be transmitted reliably or unreliably. For IP, the TCP
protocol is reliable or connection-oriented, and UDP is unreliable or connectionless. A
good analogy to connection-oriented versus connectionless is a phone call versus a post
card. With a phone call, you establish a dialogue that lets you know how well you are
communicating. A post card offers no real-time feedback.
In order for a connection-oriented transport layer protocol to provide these functions
reliably, a connection must be established between the end stations, data is transmitted, and
then the session is disconnected.
Like a phone call, in order to communicate with a connection-oriented service, you must
first establish the connection. To do this within the TCP/IP protocol suite, the sending and
receiving stations perform an operation known as a three-way handshake (see Figure 1-24).
A three-way handshake is accomplished by the sending and receiving of synchronization
and acknowledgment packets. With a phone call, this would be like each party saying
“hello” to indicate that they were ready to talk.
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30
Chapter 1: Internetworking Concepts Overview
Figure 1-24 The Three-Way Handshake
Sender
Receiver
Synchronize
Acknowledge, Synchronize
Acknowledge
Connection Established
Data Transfer
(Send Segments)
After the synchronization has occurred, the transfer of information begins. During the
transfer, the two end stations continue to communicate with their network layer PDUs
(headers) to verify that the data is received correctly. If the receiving station does not
acknowledge a packet within a predefined amount of time, the sender retransmits the
package. This ensures reliable delivery of all traffic. After the data transfer is complete, the
session is disconnected, like saying “good-bye” during a telephone conversation.
OSI Lower Layer Review
Now that we have defined and discussed the lower four layers of the OSI model and defined
the concepts of collision and broadcast domains, let’s review what we have learned.
Each device shown in Figure 1-25 operates at a different layer of the OSI model:
•
At Layer 1 (the physical layer) is the hub. The hub retransmits our packets and acts as
a concentration device for our other network devices. The hub forms a single segment,
providing one collision domain and one broadcast domain.
•
The switch and the bridge are Layer 2 devices. These devices divide our network into
separate segments, providing fewer users per segment. Each segment is a single
collision domain, so in the figure, the bridge and switch each support four collision
domains. Broadcast traffic, however, propagates across all segments, so only one
broadcast domain is associated with each device.
78701112 CH01.fm Page 31 Wednesday, July 23, 2003 3:34 PM
OSI Lower Layer Review
•
31
At Layer 3 (the network layer), the router provides paths to all the networks
throughout the internetwork. The router segments the network into separate collision
domains and broadcast domains. In Figure 1-25, we see that there are four collision
domains and four broadcast domains.
Figure 1-25 Network Device Functions
Bridge
Hub
Collision Domains: 1
Broadcast Domains: 1
Collision Domains: 4
Broadcast Domains: 1
Router
Switch
Collision Domains: 4
Broadcast Domains: 4
Collision Domains: 4
Broadcast Domains: 1
78701112 CH01.fm Page 32 Wednesday, July 23, 2003 3:34 PM
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Chapter 1: Internetworking Concepts Overview
Selecting Cisco Products
Earlier in this chapter, we discussed the hierarchical model used to design and implement
networks. Figure 1-26 reviews the structure of this model, shown earlier in Figure 1-3. Given
a particular function of networking and what we have discussed about the service performed
at each layer, you should be able to match Cisco products to your internetworking needs.
Figure 1-26 The Three-Layer Hierarchical Network Model
Switches Traffic
to the Appropriate
Service
Core Layer
Distribution
Routing, Filtering,
Layer
and WAN Access
Access
End Station Layer
Entry Point to
the Network
The following list summarizes the factors for selecting networking devices:
•
•
•
•
•
•
Device provides desired functionality and features
Device has required capacity and performance
Device is easy to install and offers centralized management
Device provides network resiliency
Device provides investment protection in existing infrastructure
Device provides migration path for change and growth
The most important task is to understand the needs and then identify the device functions
and features that meet those needs. In order to accomplish this, obtain information about
where in the internetworking hierarchy the device needs to operate, and then consider
factors such as ease of installation, capacity requirements, and so forth.
78701112 CH01.fm Page 33 Wednesday, July 23, 2003 3:34 PM
Selecting Cisco Products
33
Other factors, such as remote access, also play a role in product selection. When supporting
remote access requirements, you must first determine the kind of WAN services that meet
your needs. Then, you will be able to select the appropriate device.
The type and number of required WAN connections will significantly affect your choice of
devices. The most important factor in choosing WAN services is the availability of the
service. It is also important to know what your bandwidth requirements are and how much
the service will cost. Figure 1-27 shows a graph relating cost to usage for some common
WAN services. As you can see, depending on the usage, it might be more cost-effective to
get a service that provides a fixed rate.
Figure 1-27 WAN Cost Versus Usage
Modem/ISDN
Cost per
Month
Leased Line, T1
Frame Relay
0
Usage
It is also important to choose a service that can be supported by your product.
When determining WAN service bandwidth requirements, you must look at the type of
traffic that needs to cross the WAN service. Figure 1-28 gives you an idea of WAN
technology as it maps to a given application.
Figure 1-28 Application Bandwidth Requirements
kbps
1544
128
64
Leased Line,
Frame Relay,
XDSL
56
ISDN,
Frame Relay
19.2
New Modem
Video, Multimedia
Voice
Web Browsing
E-Mail, File Transfer
9.6
Old Modem
4.8
Telnet
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34
Chapter 1: Internetworking Concepts Overview
After you have chosen the type of network device you need, you can select a particular
product. Cisco Systems offers a large variety of networking products, including hubs,
switches, and routers.
Cisco Hub Products
Figure 1-29 shows the selection issues for hubs, along with a sampling of the Cisco hub
product line. This figure represents the low-end to high-end line. The cost of these products
also increases along this line.
Figure 1-29 Cisco Hub Product Line
Cisco Fast
Hub 400
Cisco Fast
Hub 300
Cisco Fast
Hub 200
Cisco Fast
Hub 100
Cisco 1528 Micro
Hub 10/100
Cisco 1500
Micro Hub
Criteria used in selecting hubs includes the media speed needed, the number of ports
needed, ease of installation, and the need for remote management. The Micro Hub series
represents the low-end hub with low-speed fixed-port densities. FastHub 100 and 200
represent the mid-level solution, offering higher-speed connectivity and some
management. The FastHub 300 and 400 series offer the most flexibility with modular ports
and manageability; however, they are 100 Mbps-only devices.
Before implementing hubs, assess which workstations need 10 Mbps and which higher-end
stations need 100 Mbps. Lower-end hubs offer only 10 Mbps, whereas mid-range hubs
offer both. The mid-range devices provide growth and migration potential.
78701112 CH01.fm Page 35 Wednesday, July 23, 2003 3:34 PM
Selecting Cisco Products
35
The scope of consolidated connections refers to the issue of how many hub ports your users
will require. Hubs allow for a variety of port densities, and you can stack hubs to get
multiples of the hub densities.
Most hubs are simple to plug in and operate. For most hubs, there is no management or
console port. If you want to be able to manage the hub, select from the higher-end hub
series.
Catalyst Switch Products
Figure 1-30 shows a sampling of the Cisco switch product line. The figure represents the
low-end to high-end selection of some of the switch products and shows where in the
network these products can be used.
Figure 1-30 Cisco Switch Product Line
Catalyst
8500 Series
Catalyst
5000 Series
Catalyst
2900 Series
Catalyst
3000 Series
Wiring
Closet/Backbone
Solutions
Catalyst
2900 Series XL
Catalyst
1900/2820 Series
Cisco 1548 Micro
Switch 10/100
Desktop/Workgroup
Solutions
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36
Chapter 1: Internetworking Concepts Overview
Here are the key selection issues when selecting switch products:
•
•
•
•
•
Media speed requirements
The need for interswitch communication (trunking)
The need for broadcast segmentation (VLANs)
Port density needs
The need for configuration interface consistency
Because one of the major advantages of switches is the variety of link speeds that are
offered, one of the key issues to consider is whether 10 or 100 Mbps access is required.
Other consideration factors for switches are the number of ports, the need for further
segmentation using VLANs, and different media and topology connections and enterprise
functionality, such as interswitched links for trunking. Many of these functions are
discussed later in this book. Finally, you might want all the network devices to have a
consistent user configuration interface. Cisco switch products have a variety of user
interfaces, including command line, menu, and web. These interfaces could play a role in
product selection.
Cisco Router Products
Figure 1-31 shows a sampling of the Cisco router product line. The figure represents the
low-end to high-end selection of some of the router products and shows where in the
network these products may be used.
Here are the key selection issues when selecting router products:
•
•
•
•
Scale of the routing features needed
Port density/variety requirements
Capacity and performance
Common user interface
78701112 CH01.fm Page 37 Wednesday, July 23, 2003 3:34 PM
Selecting Cisco Products
37
Figure 1-31 Cisco Router Product Line
Cisco 12000
GSR Series
Cisco 7000
Series
Cisco 4000
Series
AS 5000
Series
Cisco 3600
Series
Cisco 2600
Series
Branch Office Solutions
Cisco 2500
Series
Small Office Solutions
Cisco 1600/1700
Series
Cisco 700/800
Series
Home Office Solutions
A key criterion in router selection is knowing what router service features are needed.
Different routers in the Cisco product line incorporate different feature sets. You will learn
about many advanced router features later in this book.
Port densities and interface speeds generally increase as you move to the upper end of the
various Cisco router families. For example, the 12000 series is the first in a product class of
gigabit switch routers (GSRs). The 12000 GSR initially supports an IP backbone link at
OC-12 (622 Mbps) and can scale to handle links at OC-48 (2.4 Gbps). In contrast, the 800
78701112 CH01.fm Page 38 Wednesday, July 23, 2003 3:34 PM
38
Chapter 1: Internetworking Concepts Overview
series router is designed to handle 10 Mbps Ethernet connections to the SOHO network and
128 kbps ISDN services to the Internet or corporate office.
If your network requires WAN links, the router selection issues involve which router
provides the necessary type and number of links in a cost-effective manner. A typical
production network will have several LAN switches interconnected to the WAN by a router.
Please note that the products listed in these sections reflect a snapshot of Cisco’s offerings.
Cisco’s product lines are continuously evolving in response to customer needs and other
technology migration issues. For the current Cisco offerings, consult Cisco Connection
Online (www.cisco.com) or your dealer/distributor.
NOTE
Cisco offers a product selection tool at the web site http://www.cisco.com/pcgi-bin/front.x/
corona/prodtool/select.pl. This tool is categorized into three groups—hubs, routers, and
switches. It is an interactive JavaScript application used to help you select Cisco products.
Summary
In this chapter, we introduced some basic concepts of internetworking. These concepts
include the ability to describe (using the OSI reference model) the process in which data is
transferred from an application across the network. You learned the roles of each network
device that will be discussed in this book and saw how each fits into the hierarchy of
network design. You learned at which layer of the OSI model each of these devices
functions. Finally, you learned how to use this information to select products based on the
needs of your network.
Review Questions
1 Which three functions are defined by the Cisco hierarchical model?
2 What is one advantage of the OSI reference model?
3 Describe the data encapsulation process.
4 Define a collision domain, and give an example of a device that combines all devices
in a single collision domain.
5 Define a broadcast domain, and give an example of a device that separates each
segment into different broadcast domains and provides connectivity between the
segments.
6 At which layer of the OSI model does a bridge or switch operate?
78701112 CH01.fm Page 39 Wednesday, July 23, 2003 3:34 PM
Review Questions
39
7 How many broadcast domains are associated with a bridge or switch (assuming no
VLANs)?
8 Which OSI layer defines an address that consists of a network portion and a node
portion?
9 Which OSI layer defines a flat address space?
10 Which process establishes a connection between two end stations using a reliable
TCP/IP transport layer protocol?
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