An Investigation on Wireless Mobile Network and Wireless LAN (Wi-Fi)

An Investigation on Wireless Mobile Network and Wireless LAN (Wi-Fi)
International Journal of Computer Applications (0975 – 8887)
Volume 126 – No.6, September 2015
An Investigation on Wireless Mobile Network and
Wireless LAN (Wi-Fi) for Performance Evaluation
Rakesh Kumar Singh
Neeraj Tiwari
Scientist-D (IT)
G.B. Pant Institute of Himalayan Environment &
Development, Kosi-Katarmal, Almora,
Uttarakhand, India and
Ph.D. Scholar, Kumaun University, Nainital
Professor & Head
Department of Statistics,
Kumaun University, SSJ Campus,
Almora, Uttarakhand, India
ABSTRACT
The convergence of wireless mobile technologies and Internet
allows compelling possibilities for future applications due to
the new advancement, constantly growing and personalized
services in the mobile communication. 3G (third generation)
and Wi-Fi are major wireless technologies that are used by
most people today. The two most important phenomena
impacting telecommunications over the past decade have been
explosive parallel growth of both the internet and mobile
telephone services. The internet brought the benefits of data
communications to the masses with email, the web, and
ecommerce; while mobile service has enabled "follow-me
anywhere/always on" telephony. The Internet helped
accelerate the trend from voice centric to data-centric
networking. The scope of this research is to carry out
extensive study with respect to two wireless technologies that
are likely to play important roles: Third Generation mobile
(3G) wireless mobile network and Wireless Local Area
Networks (Wi-Fi). The performance will be evaluated in
different operating environment with the use of various
analytical techniques. Focus will be given on 3G wireless
mobile network as embodied by the IMT-2000 family of
standards and Wireless LAN technology embodied by the WiFi or 802.11b standard which is the most popular and widely
deployed of the Wireless LAN technologies.
cellular/mobile networks such as GPRS, UMTS, WLAN-WiFi) which provide Internet access “anywhere” and “any time”
are likely to experience dramatic growth. Nowadays, there are
three main wireless access technologies: Bluetooth, WLAN
(Wi-Fi) 802.11 and 3G Wireless networks (e.g., GSM/GPRS,
UMTS). 3G Wireless networks provides high ubiquity and
mobility to customers and mobile cellular technologies are
evolving from GPRS to UMTS. WLAN (Wi-Fi) hotspots or
networks are still spreading rapidly. Wi-Fi technologies are
currently capable of providing high capacity wireless LAN
coverage within a limited area.
2. OBJECTIVES OF THE RESEARCH
The broad objectives of the research are as follows:
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Keywords
Wireless Mobile Network, 3G, Wi-Fi, Wireless Network,
WLAN, UMTS, etc.
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1. INTRODUCTION
Wireless communications are becoming ubiquitous in homes,
offices and enterprises with the ability to provide high-speed,
high-quality information exchange between portable devices
such as computers, mobile phones, tablets, PDAs, IP phones,
etc. It brings great benefit in areas like temporary installations
in buildings where wiring is logistically difficult, or in
locations such as college campuses or airports where users are
not likely to do all of their computing in one fixed spot. With
the advancement of modern wireless technology, most people
prefer to avoid Ethernet cables to connect to computers.
Nowadays, even certain emergency services are transferring
their confidential data through a wireless network. Using
wireless network interfaces, mobile devices can be connected
to the public telephone network in the same way as wired
telecommunications, or to the Internet in the same way as
desktop computers are connected, using the Ethernet, a token
ring, or point-to-point links. With the tremendous success of
wireless telephony and messaging services, it is hardly
surprising that mobile Internet access services (e.g., via
A comparative study for services and applications
of 3G wireless mobile network offered by various
telecommunication operators in India.
Statistical analysis of 3G wireless mobile network
& Wi-Fi network data collected through primary
and secondary resources.
Study on Wireless LAN which will be focused only
on Wi-Fi network and its comparison with 3G
wireless mobile network.
Performance evaluation for 3G wireless mobile
network and Wi-Fi network in different operating
environment through various analytical techniques
to identify success trends in India.
Pilot study for 4G wireless mobile network and its
comparison with 3G wireless mobile network
(elective objective).
3. RESEARCH QUESTIONS
The research questions have intended to exercise the user
defined node models over a range of normal operating
conditions and demonstrate the functionality of the simulation
environment. The following research questions will be
addressed in this research:
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What is the societal impact of 3G wireless mobile
network as compared to traditional wired based
network?
What is the adoption rate for the services and
applications of 3G wireless mobile network in
India?
What is the societal impact and future of Wireless
LAN (Wi-Fi)?
What is the performance of 3G wireless mobile
network and Wi-Fi under different operating
environment?
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International Journal of Computer Applications (0975 – 8887)
Volume 126 – No.6, September 2015
4. HYPOTHESIS
A hypothesis is a prediction of expected outcomes, it states
the relationships between variables that the researcher expects
to find as a result of the study or in other words a hypothesis
is an educated guess or proposition that attempts to explain a
set of facts or natural phenomenon. The following hypothesis
will be considered in this research:
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IP based 3G wireless mobile network and Wi-Fi is
better than non IP based wireless network.
3G wireless mobile network and Wi-Fi network
perform better while applications are running
individually rather than simultaneously.
Performance of wireless mobile network is better
while using IPv4 than IPv6.
Geographical coverage area of 3G wireless mobile
network is larger than Wi-Fi network.
5. METHODOLOGY
Research methodology defines the research activity,
development of research activity and measurements used to
advance the research work by implementing these measures
which assist to achieve the objectives of the research.
Quantitative and qualitative research methodologies will be
used in this research because this study is about survey on
various services and applications of 3G wireless mobile
network and Wi-Fi among different user groups and
telecommunication operators. The network performance and
comparison between 3G wireless mobile network and Wi-Fi
in different operating environment will be carried out for
ensuring quality of service. The broad methodology is as
follows:
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Approach: This is the beginning phase that includes
comprehensive literature survey for better and clean
understanding of the research work done in the past
on 3G wireless mobile network and Wi-Fi. The
basic 3G & Wi-Fi principles and methods will be
illustrated based on the available literature studies.
Data Collection: This phase consists of the steps
which lead to survey and collection of primary and
secondary data through various sources.
Data Analysis: After the collection of data is done,
the observations and findings are then analyzed with
the help of various statistical methods and tools.
Comparative Analysis: This phase consists study on
Wi-Fi network and its comparison with 3G wireless
mobile networks on various wireless network
parameters.
Performance Evaluation: Performance evaluation
will be carried out in different operating
environment for 3G wireless mobile network and
Wi-Fi network.
Communication
of
Research:
Summary,
discussions, findings and recommendations will be
completed in this phase.
Thesis: Final thesis will be prepared based on
research work.
past but in context of India, very less research work has been
done on 3G wireless mobile network and Wi-Fi.
Ahonen and Barrett (2002) provide information about the
heart of the UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunication
Services or System) innovation will be the terminal and a new
way of using the mobile phone. The mobile subscribers now
want to more personalization and entertainment in the phone
rather than the voice. The strong growth in mobile voice will
continue in mobile data. The UMTS terminal will become a
service platform which capable of multiple radio access modes
and compliant with open standards and operating systems to
enable mobile internet and mobile multimedia messaging
services.
Balachandran et al. (2002) analyzed user behavior and
network performance in public area wireless networks. They
developed a parameterized model for wireless users for use
with analytic and simulation studies and for the application of
workload analysis results to issues in wireless network
deployment such as capacity planning and potential network
optimizations.
Robins et al. (2003) discussed current features of mobile
communication technologies. Since 2001 3G trials across the
world have shown that the main development from 2G and
2.5G to 3G is faster connection speed referring to wider
bandwidth. The main characteristics of 3G are to provide
mobile multimedia services at a transmission rate of 144kbps
at the high speed, 384kbps at the speed of walking and 2Mbps
indoors. This theoretical maximum (2Mbps) is close to the
speed of LAN connections that many households nowadays
have.
7. WHAT IS WIRELESS NETWORK?
A wireless network is any type of computer network that uses
radio or micro waves to connect network devices such as
mobile phones, Wi-Fi gadgets, laptops, tablets, etc. Wireless
networking is a method by which homes, telecommunications
networks and enterprise installations avoid the costly process
of introducing cables into a building or as a connection
between
various
equipment
locations.
Wireless
telecommunications networks are generally implemented and
administered
using
radio
communication.
This
implementation takes place at the physical layer of the OSI
reference model structure. Examples of wireless networks
include cell phone network or wireless mobile network,
wireless LAN (Wi-Fi) and terrestrial microwave networks.
6. REVIEW OF LITERATURE
The literature review provides a framework for establishing
the importance of the study. Extensive literature review has
been carried by visiting the libraries of various Universities,
Institutes, organizations and by exploring secondary
information which is available on public domain/Internet. It
has been found that number of research on 3G wireless mobile
network and Wi-Fi have been carried out in other countries in
Fig.1: Typical structure of wireless network.
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International Journal of Computer Applications (0975 – 8887)
Volume 126 – No.6, September 2015
7.1. Significances of Wireless Network
Presently, wireless network is becoming more and more
popular for accessing various data and voice services over the
wireless devices. The following are the few benefits of the
wireless network:
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Convenience: Easy access of network resources
from any location within wireless network's
coverage area or from any Wi-Fi hotspot.
Easy Setup: Installation of wireless network is very
less time taking and cost-effective because of non
requirement of string cables and wires.
Expandable: Wireless networks can easily be
expanded with existing equipment while a wired
network might require additional wiring and
network equipments.
Security: Advances in wireless networks provide
robust security protections.
Mobility: Wireless devices can be moved from one
location to another within the geographical coverage
area of wireless network for accessing network
services without any interruption.
Productivity: Wireless availability of particular
application or internet to access resource of the
business can increase the productivity of the staff
and the business organisation.
Cost Effective: Wireless networks can cost less to
operate than wired networks because it eliminate or
reduce wiring and equipment costs.
8. WIRELESS MOBILE NETWORK
A wireless mobile network or cellular network is a wireless
radio network distributed over land areas called cells. Each
cell served by at least one fixed-location transceiver known as
a cell site or base station. In a wireless mobile network each
cell characteristically uses a different set of radio frequencies
from all their immediate neighbouring cells to avoid any
interference and provide guaranteed bandwidth within each
cell. When joined together these cells provide radio coverage
over a wide geographic area. This enables a large number of
portable transceivers (e.g., mobile phones, laptops, tablets,
etc.) to communicate with each other and with fixed
transceivers and telephones anywhere in the network via base
stations, even if some of the transceivers are moving through
more than one cell during transmission.
Wireless mobile network offers a number of desirable
characteristics:
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More capacity than a single large transmitter since
the same frequency can be used for multiple links as
long as they are in different cells.
Mobile devices use less power than with a single
transmitter or satellite since the cell towers are
closer.
Larger coverage area than a single terrestrial
transmitter since additional cell towers can be added
indefinitely and are not limited by the horizon.
8.1 Mobile or Cellular Network
Generations
Wireless mobile network or cellular network generations are
given as follows with respect to technological advancements
in telecommunication technology:
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0G: Briefcase-size mobile radio telephones
1G: Analog cellular telephony
2G: Digital cellular telephony
3G: High-speed digital cellular telephony (including
data and video telephony)
4G: IP-based “anytime and anywhere” voice, data
and multimedia telephony at faster data rates than
3G (presently not deployed in India)
Major telecommunications providers have deployed voice and
data wireless mobile network over most of the inhabited land
area of the Earth. This allows mobile phones and mobile
computing devices to be connected to the public switched
telephone network (PSTN) and public Internet. Although
originally intended for cell phones, with the development of
smartphones, cellular telephone networks routinely carry data
in addition to telephone conversations.
MSC: Mobile Switching Centre, BSC: Base Station
Controller, BTS: Base Transceiver Station
Fig.3: Evolution and classification of Wireless Mobile
Network.
2G (Second Generation wireless mobile network) first
introduced in 1992, is the second generation of cellular
telephone technology and the first to use digital encryption of
conversations. 2G networks were the first to offer data
services and SMS text messaging but their data transfer rates
are lower than those of their successors. The capabilities of
2G network are GSM 900 and GSM 1800.
Fig.2: Basic architecture of cellular network or wireless
mobile network.
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International Journal of Computer Applications (0975 – 8887)
Volume 126 – No.6, September 2015
3G (Third Generation wireless mobile network) networks
succeed 2G ones, offering faster data transfer rates and are the
first to enable video calls. This makes them especially suitable
for use in modern smart phones which require constant highspeed internet connection for many of their applications. The
capabilities of 3G network is UMTS 2100.
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4G (Fourth Generation wireless mobile network) is the fourth
generation of mobile phone communications standards. It is a
successor of the 3G and provides ultra-broadband internet
access for mobile devices. The high data transfer rates make
4G networks suitable for use in USB wireless modems for
laptops and even home internet access. The capabilities of 4G
network is LTE 2300.
9. THIRD GENERATION (3G)
WIRELESS MOBILE NETWORK
3G is the third generation of mobile telecommunications
technology and is based on a set of standards used for mobile
devices and mobile telecommunications use services and
networks that comply with the International Mobile
Telecommunications - 2000 (IMT-2000) specifications by the
International Telecommunication Union (ITU). 3G finds
application in wireless voice telephony, mobile Internet
access, fixed wireless Internet access, video calls, mobile TV
and other data and voice services. 3G telecommunication
networks support services that provide a data transfer rate of
at least 200 kbit/s. Later 3G releases often denoted 3.5G and
3.75G also provide mobile broadband access of several Mbit/s
to smart phones and mobile modems in laptop computers.
Several telecommunications companies market wireless
mobile Internet services as 3G, indicating that the advertised
service is provided over a 3G wireless network. Services
advertised as 3G are required to meet IMT-2000 technical
standards including standards for reliability and data transfer
rates. A new generation of cellular standards has appeared
approximately every tenth year since 1G systems were
introduced in 1981-1982. Each generation is characterized by
new frequency bands, higher data rates and non–backwardcompatible transmission technology. The first 3G network
was introduced in 1998.
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The Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
(UMTS) created and revised by the 3GPP. The
family is a full revision from GSM in terms of
encoding methods and hardware, although some
GSM sites can be retrofitted to broadcast in the
UMTS/W-CDMA format UMTS system first
offered in 2001 standardized by 3GPP. The mobile
phones are typically UMTS and GSM hybrids.
Several radio interfaces are offered sharing the same
infrastructure:
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The latest UMTS release, HSPA+ which can
provide peak data rates up to 56 Mbit/s in the
downlink in theory (28 Mbit/s in existing
services) and 22 Mbit/s in the uplink.
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W-CDMA is the most common deployment,
commonly operated on the 2,100 MHz band.
A few others use the 850, 900 and 1,900 MHz
bands.
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HSPA is an amalgamation of several upgrades
to the original W-CDMA standard and offers
speeds of 14.4 Mbit/s down and 5.76 MBit/s
up. HSPA is backward-compatible with and
uses the same frequencies as W-CDMA.
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HSPA+, a further revision and upgrade of
HSPA, can provide theoretical peak data rates
up to 168 Mbit/s in the downlink and
22 Mbit/s in the uplink, using a combination
of air interface improvements as well as multicarrier HSPA and MIMO. Technically though,
MIMO and DC-HSPA can be used without the
"+" enhancements of HSPA+
CDMA2000 system first offered in 2002
standardized by 3GPP2, sharing infrastructure with
the IS-95 2G standard. The mobile phones are
typically CDMA2000 and IS-95 hybrids. The latest
release EVDO Rev B offers peak rates of 14.7
Mbit/s downstream. The CDMA2000 system, or IS2000, including CDMA2000 1x and CDMA2000
High Rate Packet Data standardized by 3GPP2
(differing from the 3GPP), evolving from the
original IS-95 CDMA system.
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CDMA2000 1x Rev. E has an increased
voice capacity (in excess of three times)
compared to Rev. 0 EVDO Rev. B offers
downstream peak rates of 14.7 Mbit/s
while Rev. C enhanced existing and new
terminal user experience.
9.2. Basically 3G is designed to deliver
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MSC: Mobile Switching Centre, GMSC: Gateway Mobile
Switching Centre, SGSN: Service GPRS Support Node,
GGSN: Gateway GPRS Support Node, IMS: IP Multimedia
Subsystem
Fig.4: Basic architecture of 3G wireless mobile network.
9.1 Third generation (3G) standards
The following standards are typically branded 3G wireless
mobile network:
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High speed e-mail and Internet access
A wide range of market focused applications
Long term market driven creativity, an innovative
value chain and real user benefits, driving genuine
market demand
Advanced, lightweight, easy-to-use terminals with
intuitive interfaces
Instant real-time multimedia communications
Global mobility and roaming
A wide range of vendors and operators offering
choice, competition and affordability
Applications of 3G are:
 High speed voice and data services
 Global Positioning System (GPS)
 Location-based services
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 Mobile TV
 Mobile Telephony
 Telemedicine
 Video Conferencing/Calling
 Video on demand
 Mobile Internet, browsing the web from
mobile
 E-mail services
 Messaging services - short message service
(SMS) and multimedia message service (MMS).
 Mobile e-commerce
 Online gaming
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10. WIRELESS LAN (Wi-Fi)
A wireless local area network (WLAN) or Wi-Fi is a wireless
computer network that links two or more devices using a
wireless distribution method (often spread-spectrum or
OFDM radio) within a limited area such as a home, school,
computer laboratory or office building. This gives users the
ability to move around within a local coverage area and still
be connected to the network and can provide a connection to
the wider Internet. Most modern WLANs are based on IEEE
802.11 standards, marketed under the Wi-Fi brand name.
The wireless LAN (Wi-Fi) works in three basic
configurations: peer-to-peer, bridge and wireless distribution
system. Peer-to-peer configuration is where each computer in
the network can act as a client or server for the other
computers in the network. This allows them shared access to
files (such as audio, video, data, etc.) and peripherals without
needing a central server. A bridge configuration is used to
connect networks. This is done by use of a wireless Ethernet
bridge providing the connection for devices to a wireless
network. The wireless distribution system enables the wireless
inter-connection of the access points within a network. This
allows a wireless network to be expanded through the use of
multiple access points linked together. Generally, a Wi-Fi
signal can reach up to 500 feet indoors and approximately
1000 feet outdoors. Wi-Fi operates in the unlicensed 2.4 GHz
or 5.8 GHz ISM Band. Wi-Fi transmissions are essentially
FM transmission, in that the frequency is changed to transmit
data. Typically, the WLANs are implemented as part of a
private network.
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10.2. Wi-Fi IEEE Standards
The 802.11 standard is defined through several specifications
of WLAN (Wi-Fi). It defines an over-the-air interface
between a wireless client and a base station or between two
wireless clients. There are several specifications in the 802.11
family:
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802.11: This pertains to wireless LANs and
provides 1 or 2 Mbps transmission in the 2.4-GHz
band using either frequency-hopping spread
spectrum (FHSS) or direct-sequence spread
spectrum (DSSS).
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802.11a: This is an extension to 802.11 that pertains
to wireless LANs and goes as fast as 54 Mbps in the
5-GHz band. 802.11a employs the orthogonal
frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) encoding
scheme as opposed to either FHSS or DSSS.
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802.11b: The 802.11 high rate Wi-Fi is an extension
to 802.11 that pertains to wireless LANs and yields
a connection as fast as 11 Mbps transmission in the
2.4 GHz band. The 802.11b specification uses only
DSSS. Note that 802.11b was actually an
amendment to the original 802.11 standard added in
1999 to permit wireless functionality to be
analogous to hard-wired Ethernet connections.
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802.11g: This pertains to wireless LANs and
provides 20+ Mbps in the 2.4 GHz band.
Fig.5: Basic architecture of wireless LAN (Wi-Fi).
10.1. Architectural components of wireless
LAN (Wi-Fi)
The main architectural components of a wireless network are
the wireless router (access point), Wi-Fi cards, safeguards and
wireless clients. The typical components of wireless LAN
(Wi-Fi) are as follows:
Stations: All components that can connect into a
wireless medium in a network are referred to as
stations. All stations are equipped with wireless
network interface controllers (WNICs). Wireless
stations fall into one of two categories: wireless
access points and clients. Access points (APs),
normally wireless routers, are base stations for the
wireless network. Wireless clients can be mobile
devices such as laptops, personal digital assistants,
IP phones and other smartphones, or fixed devices
such as desktops and workstations that are equipped
with a wireless network interface.
Basic Service Set: The basic service set (BSS) is a
set of all stations that can communicate with each
other. Every BSS has an identification (ID) called
the BSSID, which is the MAC address of the access
point servicing the BSS. There are two types of
BSS: Independent BSS (also referred to as IBSS)
and infrastructure BSS. An independent BSS (IBSS)
is an ad hoc network that contains no access points,
which means they cannot connect to any other basic
service set.
Extended Service Set: An extended service set
(ESS) is a set of connected BSSs. Access points in
an ESS are connected by a distribution system. Each
ESS has an ID called the SSID which is a 32-byte
(maximum) character string.
Distribution System: A distribution system (DS)
connects access points in an extended service set.
The concept of a DS can be used to increase
network coverage through roaming between cells.
DS can be wired or wireless. Current wireless
distribution systems are mostly based on WDS or
MESH protocols, though other systems are in use.
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10.3. Features Of Wireless LAN (Wi-Fi)
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Internet Access: A Wi-Fi enabled device such as a
personal computer, video game console,
Smartphone or digital audio player can connect to
the Internet when within range of a wireless
network connected to the Internet. The coverage of
one or more interconnected access points called
hotspots.
Operational Advantages: Wi-Fi allows the
deployment of local area networks (LANs) without
wires for client devices, typically reducing the costs
of network deployment and expansion. The current
version of Wi-Fi Protected Access encryption
(WPA2) as of 2010 is considered secure, provided
users employ a strong passphrase. New protocols
for quality-of-service (WMM) make Wi-Fi more
suitable for latency-sensitive applications (such as
voice and video) and power saving mechanisms
(WMM Power Save) improve battery operation.
11. DIFFERENCES BETWEEN 3G AND
Wi-Fi
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3G vs. Wi-Fi - Functioning: As mentioned above,
3G is a service that is completely provided by the
service provider whereas Wi-Fi access can be
controlled by a Wi-Fi router located in a specific
range from the access point. For availing the Wi-Fi
facility, user needs to visit a hotspot which provides
a Wi-Fi zone. Today, most malls, cafes, and major
streets have Wi-Fi routers for quick Internet access.
For availing 3G, you need to get in touch with your
service provider.
3G vs. Wi-Fi - Range and Signal: The 3G
technology scores well over Wi-Fi with regards to
range and signal. Since it depends on the mobile
service provider, user receives signal reception as
long as user is in the network range. In case of WiFi, user will be able to receive reception as long as
user is within the range of the router situated in the
hotspot. Therefore, while traveling, using 3G access
is more appropriate. However, 3G signals may drop
if user is traveling away from metropolitan cities.
3G vs. Wi-Fi - Speed: When it comes to the speed
of both these technologies, Wi-Fi is faster as
compared to 3G. The maximum speed of the 'N'
standard of the latest Wi-Fi technology is reported
to be 600 mbps. The data transfer speeds in 3G
technology differs according to the kind of device
and also whether it is stationary or in motion. The
maximum speed on 3G networks is considered to be
about 2.05 mbps. However, if the reception is to be
initiated on a cell phone in a moving vehicle, the
speed can drop down to 128 kbps.
3G vs. Wi-Fi - Cost: The cost of 3G access depends
on the plan chosen from service provider. When it is
regarding availing Wi-Fi facilities, user might have
to pay the owners of the hotspots. Wi-Fi at some
hotspots is free, while others may charge a certain
amount. Users of the Wi-Fi facility at hotels and
cafes can either pay using a credit card on a
payment page hosted by the appropriate authorities,
or can pay in cash for getting the network access
code. Some hotspots are even code free and user can
directly access the web without the access
password. 3G consumes more battery than Wi-Fi
access.
12. WIRELESS NETWORK ATTACKS
The wireless networks consist of four basic components: The
transmission of data using radio frequencies; Access points
that provide a connection to the organizational network and/or
the Client devices (laptops, PDAs, etc.); and Users. Each of
these components provides an avenue for attack that can result
in the compromise of one or more of the three fundamental
security objectives of confidentiality, integrity, and
availability.
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Accidental Association: Unauthorized access to
company wireless and wired networks can come
from a number of different methods and intents.
One of these methods is referred to as “accidental
association”. When a user turns on a computer and
it latches on to a wireless access point from a
neighboring company’s overlapping network, the
user may not even know that this has occurred.
However, it is a security breach in that proprietary
company information is exposed and now there
could exist a link from one company to the other.
This is especially true if the laptop is also hooked to
a wired network.
Malicious Association: Malicious associations are
when wireless devices can be actively made by
crackers to connect to a company network through
their cracking laptop instead of a company access
point (AP). These types of laptops are known as
“soft APs” and are created when a cracker runs
some software that makes his/her wireless network
card look like a legitimate access point.
Ad-hoc Networks: Ad-hoc networks can pose a
security threat. Ad-hoc networks are defined as
peer-to-peer networks between wireless computers
that do not have an access point in between them.
While these types of networks usually have little
protection, encryption methods can be used to
provide security.
Non-Traditional
Networks:
Non-traditional
networks such as personal network Bluetooth
devices are not safe from cracking and should be
regarded as a security risk. Even barcode readers,
handheld PDAs, and wireless printers and copiers
should be secured. These nontraditional networks
can be easily overlooked by IT personnel who have
narrowly focused on laptops and access points.
Identity Theft (MAC Spoofing): Identity theft (or
MAC spoofing) occurs when a cracker is able to
listen in on network traffic and identify the MAC
address of a computer with network privileges.
Most wireless systems allow some kind of MAC
filtering to only allow authorized computers with
specific MAC IDs to gain access and utilize the
network. However, a number of programs exist that
have network “sniffing” capabilities. Combine these
programs with other software that allow a computer
to pretend it has any MAC address that the cracker
desires and the cracker can easily get around that
hurdle.
Man-in-the-Middle Attacks: A man-in-the-middle
attacker entices computers to log into a computer
which is set up as a soft AP (Access Point). Once
this is done, the hacker connects to a real access
point through another wireless card offering a
steady flow of traffic through the transparent
hacking computer to the real network. The hacker
can then sniff the traffic. One type of man-in-the-
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middle attack relies on security faults in challenge
and handshake protocols to execute a “deauthentication attack”. This attack forces AP
connected computers to drop their connections and
reconnect with the cracker’s soft AP. Man-in-themiddle attacks are enhanced by software such as
LANjack and AirJack, which automate multiple
steps of the process. What once required some skill
can now be done by script kiddies. Hotspots are
particularly vulnerable to any attack since there is
little to no security on these networks.
Denial of Service: A Denial-of-Service attack
(DoS) occurs when an attacker continually
bombards a targeted AP (Access Point) or network
with bogus requests, premature successful
connection messages, failure messages, and/or other
commands. These cause legitimate users to not be
able to get on the network and may even cause the
network to crash. These attacks rely on the abuse of
protocols such as the Extensible Authentication
Protocol (EAP).
Network Injection: In a network injection attack, a
cracker can make use of access points that are
exposed to non-filtered network traffic, specifically
broadcasting network traffic such as “Spanning
Tree”. The cracker injects bogus networking reconfiguration commands that affect routers,
switches, and intelligent hubs. A whole network can
be brought down in this manner and require
rebooting or even reprogramming of all intelligent
networking devices.
Caffe Latte Attack: The Caffe Latte attack is
another way to defeat WEP. It is not necessary for
the attacker to be in the area of the network using
this exploit. By using a process that targets the
Windows wireless stack, it is possible to obtain the
WEP key from a remote client. By sending a flood
of encrypted ARP requests, the assailant takes
advantage of the shared key authentication and the
message modification flaws in 802.11 WEP. The
attacker uses the ARP responses to obtain the WEP
key in less than 6 minutes.
Interference: Compared to wired systems, wireless
networks are frequently subject to electromagnetic
interference. This can be caused by other networks
or other types of equipment that generate radio
waves that are within or close to the radio bands
used for communication. Interference can degrade
the signal or cause the system to fail.
Absorption and Reflection: Some materials cause
absorption of electromagnetic waves, preventing it
from reaching the receiver, in other cases,
particularly with metallic or conductive materials
reflection occurs. This can cause dead zones where
no reception is available. Aluminum foiled thermal
isolation in modern homes can easily reduce indoor
mobile signals by 10 dB frequently leading to
complaints about bad reception of long distance
rural cell signals.
Multipath Fading: In multipath fading two or more
different routes taken by the signal due to
reflections can cause the signal to cancel out at
certain locations and to be stronger in other places.
Hidden Node Problem: The hidden node problem
occurs in some types of network when a node is
visible from a wireless access point (AP) but not
from other nodes communicating with that AP. This
leads to difficulties in media access control.
Shared Resource Problem: The wireless spectrum is a limited
resource and shared by all nodes in the range of its
transmitters. Bandwidth allocation becomes complex with
multiple participating users. Often users are not aware that
advertised numbers (e.g., for IEEE 802.11 equipment or LTE
networks) are not their capacity but shared with all other users
and thus the individual user rate is far lower.
13. CONCLUSION
The 3G and Wi-Fi are both using the wireless technology and
protocols for delivering the internet service to the end user.
The main difference between 3G and Wi-Fi is that 3G is the
technology which covers large geographical location and
provides service over UMTS and HSPA networks while WiFi is suitable for small geographical locations which provide
internet service through the Wi-Fi hotspots over wireless
access points. Performance of the 3G and Wi-Fi is changing
dynamically at different-different operating environment like
large user environment, less user environment, near to base
station or access point or long distance from base station or
access point. The wireless performance of both the
technologies are noticeable but completely depends upon
operating environment.
14. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
We would like to acknowledge Prof. H.S. Dhami, Vice
Chancellor, Kumaun University, Nainital, Uttarakhand, India
and Dr. P.P. Dhayni, Director, G.B. Pant Institute of
Himalayan Environment & Development, Kosi-Katarmal,
Almora, Uttarakhand, India for providing adequate resources
and continuous support in this research.
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