Technical Information Manual WWW.POLYFLOR.COM POLYFLOR TECHNICAL INFORMATION Technical Support At Polyflor, we realise that the performance of our products is dependent upon many factors and that the floorcovering itself is only one of those factors. Correct Index 1. Introduction 2. Preparation of subfloors subfloor preparation and dryness, the workmanship of the installer, how the product important. Our objective is to support the customer, whether it is the architect, the 3. Installation of Homogeneous and Safety vinyl sheet specifier, the contractor or the end user, by providing all the relevant information 4. Installation of Homogeneous vinyl tiles is maintained and the selection of the correct floorcovering are all equally necessary to ensure that the maximum benefit is gained from our products in use. 5. Installation of Heterogeneous vinyl sheet This manual forms part of that support, together with technically trained Sales Representatives, a knowledgeable Customer Technical Services team and an 6. Installation of Rubber sheet installation training school. 7. Installation of Rubber tiles If you have any queries regarding product selection, specification, installation, 8. Electro Static Dissipative (ESD) floorcoverings performance or maintenance of any Polyflor products, then do not hesitate to contact us. Our aim is to resolve problems prior to the installation of our products rather than have problems to resolve after they are installed. 9. Installation of vinyl Wallcoverings 10. Installation of Accessories 11. Inlaid designs and borders 12. Welding vinyl flooring Polyflor Customer Technical Services 13. Adhesives Tel: +44 (0)161 767 1912 14. Tools and Equipment Web: www. polyflor.com 15. Recommended finishes Email: [email protected] 16. Resistance to chemicals 17. Use area classifications 18. Operating service temperatures At the date of issue, the data presented is correct. However, Polyflor reserve the right to make changes which do not adversely affect performance or quality. 19. Maintenance 1 WWW.POLYFLOR.COM POLYFLOR TECHNICAL INFORMATION Introduction performance must be sustainable for the To achieve this, the tender documentation anticipated life of the product, allowing for should include the maximum amount of foreseeable actions such as general wear and information possible, such as: tear and regular maintenance. This is extremely important for the Essential Requirements as defined by the European Union for all construction products. Consideration at the initial specification stage must be given to the occupational usage of the building and the building type. Particular attention must be paid to the type and density of traffic (both pedestrian and wheeled), any 1. Full details of the subfloor construction, especially on solid subfloors and any treatments or additives. Include the expected dates for completion of each stage. 2. Full details of standard features such as welding, site formed coving or pre-formed coving. In addition, it should include other features such as pattern or border detail and requirements such as door trims, diminishing strips etc. special acoustical, electrical resistance or slip British Standard Code of Practice BS 8203 can lead to a poor installation and a dissatisfied provides detailed recommendations for the end user. installation of sheet and tile flooring on both new and existing floor constructions and is endorsed by Polyflor for the installation of Polyflor vinyl and rubber flooring. A successful installation not only depends on the skills of the floor layer but also on the planning of the project prior to installation. Consultation between all parties concerned will This technical information manual is intended eliminate problems and will ensure a successful as a guide to all parties involved in the installation, which meets the design specification, installation and maintenance of Polyflor vinyl floorcovering. It will not replace the skills of a trained floor layer and Polyflor always recommends the use of reputable flooring contractors, whose experience will prove invaluable at all stages of a project. Selecting a flooring contractor solely on price index requirements within the allotted time scale. resistance requirements, as well as reaction to 3. Reference to any tests which must be carried chemicals and staining agents, and physical out e.g. for moisture, electrical resistance, screed properties such as resistance to point and strength and flatness/level. rolling loads. 4. Drawings showing the direction of decoration Should you wish to clarify any points regarding or where sheet must be laid in a particular Polyflor contract flooring or accessories, then direction. please contact Polyflor or our appointed 5. A statement of the standard of workmanship agents. Our Technical Sales Team and required, clearly indicating items which will Customer Technical Services Department can be unacceptable at the handover inspection. provide advice on the suitability, performance 6. Full details of finishing requirements. and application of any of the Polyflor products. These may include; removal and safe disposal of 1.1.1 Project pre-planning waste, retention of flooring over a certain size, a One important consideration at the outset is construction clean, initial polish where applicable the maintenance aspects of the floorcovering and protection of the finished floor prior to to be installed. Floorcoverings with enhanced customer handover. slip characteristics have a higher surface coefficient of friction and requires different maintenance than a traditional smooth floorcovering. Colour also plays a very important part and one should remember that light colours will show soiling more easily and could require a more intensive maintenance 1.1 PRODUCT SELECTION programme than darker colours. Selection of the correct floorcovering is of paramount importance. Not only must the floorcovering meet the designer’s initial performance specification but the product Having decided upon your floorcovering, it is essential that the product, together with its accessories, are installed correctly within pre-defined time and budget constraints. By including this level of detail in the tender document, the flooring contractor is able to give an accurate costing and advise on the length of time required to complete the work at that cost. Once the tender is accepted, ideally discussions should be held to highlight any potential problems well in advance and to ascertain the services required on site when the floorcovering is installed. 2 WWW.POLYFLOR.COM POLYFLOR TECHNICAL INFORMATION must have an effective damp proof membrane Preparation of subfloors incorporated within them. It should only be and an increasing time for each millimetre considered if the perimeter edges are above this thickness. continuous with the DPC in the walls. A continuous polyethylene sheet 0.12mm (500 gauge) will provide an effective DPM for twelve months to dry sufficiently to take a floorcovering. If it is obvious at the planning should be applied over surface blinded stage that there will be insufficient drying time, hardcore to provide an even, smooth finish and then the situation should be discussed with to prevent puncturing of the membrane. Polyflor, who can offer proven alternatives to All joints should be welted and then weighed suppress the construction moisture. down until the floor is cast. countries or through our web site at the subfloor and the attention paid to the www.polyflor.com. Alternatively, discuss your be laid on subfloors which do not suffer from rising damp or hydrostatic pressure, and where (1000 gauge) should be used. All joints should the moisture level does not exceed 75% RH in be welted and then weighed down until the accordance with BS 8203. over at least a 72 hour period should be types of DPM are described in BS CP 102 considered to represent the moisture content together with their applications. Some DPMs of the subfloor. Subfloors with a relative contain volatile components, which can, if not humidity in excess of 75% will invariably cause eliminated, adversely affect the adhesion of failure of the bond between the substrate and the floorcovering. floorcovering. To remedy such situations, the 2.2 CONSTRUCTION MOISTURE requirements with your preferred supplier of Prior to laying any Polyflor vinyl and rubber practice and by the manufacturers of the smoothing compounds and adhesives. flooring, it is essential that all free water, which below is given as guidance, based on many years of experience in this field. It is important to avoid problems at the outset 2.1 NEW CONCRETE AND SCREED BASES The most common cause of failure in these types of substrate is moisture, either as construction moisture or the lack of an and as such if you are unsure of any of the effective moisture barrier on direct to earth information listed below, we recommend that subfloors. you contact the Polyflor Customer Technical Services Department either directly in the UK, index 2.1.1 Damp proof membranes (DPMs) All concrete bases, which are direct to earth, The Hygrometer is the only method of test acceptable to Polyflor, and only readings taken ground is described in BS 8102 and the various recommendations made in various codes of component parts. The information contained Polyflor vinyl and rubber flooring should only operations, polyethylene sheet twice as thick Protection of structures against water from the very much dependent upon the preparation of 2.3 MOISTURE TESTING damage by subsequent screed laying screed is applied. through your local distributor for other A base 150mm thick in monolithic construction, drying from one face only, can take up to both monolithic and bonded screeds. The DPM With unbonded screeds, where there is risk of The quality of a finished installation can be allow one month per 25mm for the first 50mm can affect adhesion, be allowed to evaporate from the base. The rate of drying is influenced by many factors including design of the base, whole floorcovering will have to be removed, the subfloor treated to resolve the moisture problem and a new floorcovering laid. In an occupied building, this can cause severe disruption to the work routine. To prevent these situations arising, Polyflor ambient temperature and humidity, concrete does not condone the practice of laying vinyl quality, amount of construction water used, and rubber floorcoverings on subfloors with surface finish attained, use of special concrete moisture content readings above 75% RH and additives and especially the thickness of the accepts no responsibility for non-performance base. Because of this variability, it is difficult to of Polyflor products in such instances. give exact drying out times but, as a guide, WWW.POLYFLOR.COM POLYFLOR TECHNICAL INFORMATION In countries outside of the UK, alternative floorcovering. The smoothing underlayment moisture measurement methods are also used. supplier will provide details on which product where the material is laid directly to ground, and firmly fixed with all loose and powdery The guidelines for the maximum acceptable within their range must be used to suit the end Polyflor recommend that the screed be uplifted grout removed from the joints. Generally the vapour emission rate of concrete using use application and subfloor construction, and relaid incorporating an effective DPM. anhydrous calcium chloride is 3lbs per 1000 together with details of which primer should square feet per 24 hour period for all the be used. Polyflor and Polysafe floorcoverings. incorporate an effective DPM. In all instances For floors that are on the first floor or above, cracks and small hollows should be patch filled Surface hardeners or curing agents should not and a cementicious smoothing compound of at 2.4 EXISTING CONCRETE AND SCREED BASES be used with power floated concrete, as these least 3mm thickness must then be applied, prior Existing concrete and sand/cement screed can also impair the adhesion of the to the installation of the vinyl floorcovering. bases as described in BS 8204, if laid directly floorcovering. The smoothing underlayment supplier will to ground, must contain an effective DPM. If one is not present or is suspect, a suitable surface DPM should be applied. 2.6 MASTIC ASPHALT UNDERLAY Mastic asphalt underlays as described in BS 8204: Part 5 should conform to BS 6925. provide details on which product within their range must be used to suit the end use application and subfloor construction, together with details of which primer should be used. In most instances, a cementicious smoothing Comprising asphaltic cement and suitable compound of at least 3mm thickness must be aggregates, the asphalt is applied in its hot 2.8 TERRAZZO applied prior to the installation of the vinyl state onto a glass fibre quilt. Normally a Terrazzo has a dense hard surface, which is floorcovering. The smoothing underlayment thickness of 15mm to 20mm is applied and the normally impervious. The floor must be sound supplier will provide details on which product asphalt brought to a finish with a wooden float. and firmly fixed and any loose or powdery within their range must be used to suit the end The resulting underlay is impervious to material removed from the joints. The surface use application and subfloor construction, moisture and, if continuous with the DPC in the should be thoroughly washed/degreased to walls, makes an excellent subfloor for Polyflor remove any surface contaminants and any be used. vinyl and rubber flooring, providing a 3mm cracks cleaned out and filled with a suitable thick surface underlayment is first applied. resin bonded cement/sand mixture. The surface The asphalt must not just be skim coated it is may also need some mechanical abrasion to Power floated concrete bases as described in BS 8204, if laid directly to ground, must contain an effective DPM. If one is not present or is suspect, a suitable surface DPM should be applied. Smooth dense concrete subfloors – important to ensure that the smoothing enable the smoothing underlayment to key to underlayment is of a type recommended for the surface. use on asphalt floors and that a suitable primer key coat is applied if so directed. In most instances, a cementicious smoothing be applied prior to the installation of the vinyl – can prove difficult to bond to, due to the mastic asphalt subfloor. floorcovering. The smoothing underlayment instances, the floor should initially be ground or shot blasted to remove the top surface and then made good. Composition floors which are composed of magnesium oxychloride cement or polyvinyl acetate/cement are highly absorbent. As such, supplier will provide details on which product within their range must be used to suit the end use application and subfloor construction, and then a cementicious smoothing compound of at least 3mm thickness must then be applied prior to the installation of the vinyl floorcovering. The smoothing underlayment supplier will provide details on which product within their range must be used to suit the end together with details of which primer should be used. 2.10 SYNTHETIC ANHYDRITE SCREEDS This type of screed can be affected by laitance and moisture in the smoothing compound, resulting in the loss of bond. As such, it may need mechanical removal and the application of a special primer. We would always recommend that you discuss this application with your adhesive and underlayment manufacturers. If a failure occurs, it is normally below the vinyl accept responsibility for failure. 2.11 EXPANSION JOINTS Expansion joints are incorporated into buildings to permit movement without cracking. It is important that these joints extend through the floorcovering. together with details of which primer should Never lay Polyflor vinyl and rubber flooring be used. over expansion joints. In most instances, a cementicious smoothing if overlaid with an impervious material, they compound of at least 3mm thickness must be can break down due to the effects of rising 2.9 QUARRY TILES/CERAMIC TILES applied prior to the installation of the vinyl moisture, as the majority of these floors do not Heavily glazed surfaces are quite common with index degreased to remove any surface contaminants compound of at least 3mm thickness must then Never apply Polyflor floorcoverings direct to a 2.7 MAGNESITE / GRANWOOD FLOORS application of a smoothing underlayment. The surface should be thoroughly washed / floorcovering and as such Polyflor will not such as those created by a power floated finish impervious nature of the surface. In such tiles will require mechanical abrasion of the surface in order to provide a key for the use application and subfloor construction, together with details of which primer should 2.5 POWER FLOATED CONCRETE these types of flooring and tiles must be sound Proprietary expansion joint covers are available which blend with the floorcovering and disguise WWW.POLYFLOR.COM POLYFLOR TECHNICAL INFORMATION with the adhesive, as recommended by the the joint. Some are made of vinyl that All chipboard should comply with EN312, be the boards should be overlaid with flooring incorporates a flexible portion and are welded grade P5 or P7 and should be free of sealants grade plywood with a minimum thickness of adhesive manufacturer. The primer will to the abutting vinyl to form an impervious or coatings which are liable to adversely affect 4mm, with the plywood laid half bonded over minimise adhesive usage and maintain the layer. Other types are a combination of adhesion of the floorcovering, if applied the chipboard joints, stapled or nailed as open time of the adhesive and prevent aluminium and PVC, which again contains a directly to it. described in Section 2.12.6. preferential absorption. flexible section. Boards must be conditioned on-site by loose 2.12.3 Plywood 2.12.6 Existing wooden floors Filling the expansion joint with sealant which is laying them individually or loose stacking them Plywood should be grade “good one side” Existing wooden floors may have received a not specifically designed for expansion joint in the temperature and humidity conditions specification CSA 0121 sanded. The boards preservative treatment that will cause poor filling or floor smoothing underlayment will which will prevail in service, for at least 3 days should be 1200mm x 2400mm and of minimum bonding, due to a chemical interaction between lead to floor failure and is not recommended by prior to fixing. Boards with a moisture content thickness 15.5mm. The boards should be laid the preservative and the adhesive. In such Polyflor. of less than 7% and greater than 18%, using an with the longer side at right angles to the joists cases, they should not be laid onto directly. electrical resistance moisture meter, should not and the shorter side must have solid bearing All loose boards should be firmly nailed to the be laid. on the joists. Fixing should be carried out at joists and any worn or broken boards replaced. 2.12.2 Chipboard floating floors 300mm centres with annular (ring-shanked) The floor should be sanded to remove high nails or lost head nails of length at least 2 1/2 spots and any hollows or cracks filled with a times the thickness of the board or divergent suitable flexible underlayment. 2.12 TIMBER SUBSTRATES New timber suspended floors should be constructed of either plywood or chipboard specifically manufactured for flooring. Spacing of the supportive joists should be in accordance with the manufacturer’s recommendations in relation to the board’s thickness. 2.12.1 Chipboard Wood chipboard incorporating a laminated foam backing, or loose laid insulation quilting or similar, and used as an underlayment for floorcoverings, should comply with the requirements of BS 7916. The chipboard must staples. For joist centres up to 450mm, 15.5mm thick plywood can be used. For joist centres of 610mm, 18mm thick plywood should be used as described in Section 2.12.6. Chipboard should have a minimum thickness of not have been coated with any type of sealer, 18mm and a density not less than 700kg/m3. which makes the surface impervious, such as 2.12.4 Wood blocks The existing wooden floors should then be overlaid with exterior grade WBP plywood of 4mm or 6mm thickness and preferred size 1200mm x 1200mm. The boards should be laid with staggered joints. The plywood should be Preferred sizes are 600mm x 2400mm and wax or polyurethane, as they will impair the Although many woodblock floors appear fixed to the existing boards using 18mm long 1200mm x 2400mm. bonding of the adhesive to the floorcovering. sound, even when overlaid with plywood, the divergent staples or 14 gauge screw nails of The chipboard should be tongued and grooved Boards must be conditioned on site, by either application of an impervious floorcovering on a 25mm length. Both types of fixing should be at or slotted loose tongue fitting. All joints should loose laying them individually or loose stacking direct to earth subfloor can cause expansion 100mm centres along the edge of each sheet, be glued for accurate location and finished them in the temperature and humidity and lifting of the base. Polyflor recommends with a fixing line 12mm from the edge and level. The board edges must be supported conditions which will prevail in service, for at that, in all cases, the woodblock floor be thereafter at 150mm centres throughout the across the joists and where necessary by the least 3 days prior to fixing. Boards with a removed and the subfloor brought up to the entire area of the sheet. Perimeter fixings must moisture content less than 7% and greater required standard to accept Polyflor vinyl and not be more than 18mm from the board edges. 350mm centres using annular (ring shanked) than 18%, when measured with an electrical rubber flooring. Hardboard manufactured to BS 1142 can be nails, lost head nails, divergent staples or resistance moisture meter, should not be used. 2.12.5 General used as an alternative to plywood. Preferred Floating floors are designed to allow movement All nail and screw heads must be below the sizes are 1200mm x 1200mm x 3.2mm thick. in both the vertical and horizontal planes. surface of the board and any indentation filled It should be noted that hardboard can suffer Problems can occur at the joints of the with a suitable flexible underlayment, as should from extreme dimensional change when in chipboard where movement in either plane is the joints between any boards that have been contact with water. To minimise this change, excessive. It is Polyflor’s recommendation that used to overlay the existing floor. The surface the hardboard should be wetted on the mesh should be primed using a primer compatible side and left overnight to dry, prior to fixing. use of noggins. The boards should be fixed at countersunk screws, of length at least 2 1/2 times the thickness of the board. For joist centres up to 450mm, 18mm thick chipboard can be used. For joist centres of 610mm, 22mm thick chipboard should be used. index WWW.POLYFLOR.COM POLYFLOR TECHNICAL INFORMATION 2.13.4 Existing floorcoverings 2.13.5 Access Panels Failure to wet the hardboard can result in floorcovering. The smoothing underlayment buckling due to moisture absorption from the supplier will provide details on which product Polyflor vinyl and rubber flooring should never When access is no longer required beneath a water-based adhesive. within their range must be used to suit the end be laid over existing floorcoverings and in such floor and it is proposed for access panels to be Plywood and hardboard should be treated as use application and subfloor construction, instances where this is carried out, Polyflor overlaid, provided the panels are sound and described in Section 2.12.3 prior to application together with details of which primer should accepts no responsibility for non-performance level, Polyflor would recommend that a of the floorcovering. be used. of its products. minimum 6mm WBP Plywood is installed over 2.13.2 Painted or epoxy coated floors All existing floorcoverings must be uplifted and With suspended timber at ground level, it is of Epoxy and polyurethane surface coatings as much as possible of the old adhesive vital importance to obtain good ventilation below the floor through the existence of should be removed, in order to ensure that no airbricks. Without good ventilation, the breakdown of the sub-floor occurs after application of an impervious floorcovering installation of the resilient floorcovering. could lead to dry rot in the structure beneath. Painted floors will impair the adhesion of the Most smoothing compounds are unsuitable for resilient floorcovering and should be removed applying to timber bases due to the movement prior to the application of the floorcovering. of the base. Seek advice from the smoothing Mechanical methods such as grinding or underlayment manufacturer for the correct blasting are the most suitable methods for grade of product for your specific application. removing these coatings. However, where the removed from the subfloor. Special care must be taken on very old floors, as some products – 2.13.6 Subfloors In common with the installation of any type of instances, contact Polyflor for further flooring, the subfloor should not only be in information. sound condition, but also free of any reclaimed and recycled, providing that there is no heavy contamination. Polyflor is one of two Cementicious smoothing compounds should need to be scabbled. If the epoxy coating is only be used to patch fill hollows on timber well bonded to the subfloor, it is possible to substrates. Once level, they should be overlaid funded vinyl take-back scheme. To enquire back of heterogeneous flooring. about this scheme and recycling end of life vinyl flooring (uplifted and off-cuts), email Recofloor at [email protected] A suitable 3mm thick floor smoothing underlayment should then be applied to the then be made good with a 3mm minimum whole floor. Failure to remove sufficient 2.13 OTHER SUBSTRATES coating of a suitable cementicious smoothing 2.13.1 Metal bases underlayment applied in accordance with the Metal bases are generally, but not exclusively, manufacturer’s recommendations, which may steel and can be contaminated with rust or include the application of a primer key coat. adhesive can lead to premature failure of the underlayment. be thoroughly degreased and then abraded or After uplifting existing floorcoverings laid on plywood and hardboard, used as fabricated oxidisation, oil and grease. The surface should 2.13.3 Loose lay isolating membranes Polyflor recommend that subfloors be prepared wire brushed to remove the rust or oxidisation. underlays, it is almost always necessary to replace the plywood or hardboard. in accordance with the relevant code of practice After uplifting existing floorcoverings laid on BS 8203. Any installations incorporating loose suspended chipboard or plywood subfloors, In most instances, but not where there is lay isolating membrane systems within the 4mm thick plywood should be applied to the excessive vertical or lateral flexing or marketplace, which are used to overlay subfloor as described in Section 2.12.6. movement, a cementicious smoothing contaminated subfloors, existing floor compound of at least 3mm thickness must then coverings, etc. are solely underwritten by the be applied prior to the installation of the vinyl individual membrane manufacturer. Any high spots may need to be ground off. index a permanent marker pen. Similarly, no markings should be applied to the blasting. In both instances, the surface should previously. contaminants, like oil, paint, preservative treatments or other forms of marking, such as founder members of Recofloor, the industry apply the floorcovering after grinding or with flooring grade plywood, as described A suitable smoothing compound should then be used to fill any joints and hollows. but not Polyflor – contained asbestos. In these The removed floorcoverings should be paint proves difficult to remove, the floor may the access panel and adequately fixed. 3 WWW.POLYFLOR.COM POLYFLOR TECHNICAL INFORMATION temperatures up to 27ºC should be used. Where Installation of Homogeneous and Safety vinyl sheet direct sunlight, sometimes in conjunction with underfloor heating, creates high surface temperatures on the floor, an approved epoxy or polyurethane adhesive should be used. laying towards the window. 3.2 SLABBING THE VINYL SHEET Polyflor recommends that all Polyflor vinyl sheet flooring be rolled out face upward, taking care not to damage the surface, and cut The work area should now be prepared to approximately to size. Allowance of at least receive the vinyl sheet flooring. Ensure that all 75mm should be made at the ends for other trades have completed their work and trimming in, the slabs should then be left removed all their equipment and materials. overnight for 24 hours, to condition at a Remove all debris and sweep or vacuum the minimum temperature of 18ºC. whole floor area. Check the condition of the subfloor and make good as necessary. Stone or power grind any cementicious subfloor to remove any “nibs” or ridges. Remove any surface contaminants, which may affect adhesion. Sweep or vacuum again prior to laying. If required by the contract, or if in 3.3 FITTING THE FIRST LENGTH 3.3.1 Non-foam backed products Place the first sheet in position next to the wall with the outer edge approximately 15mm from the nearest point. Adjust the lie of the sheet so that the inner edge is parallel with the axis of the room (Figure 1). doubt, check the moisture content of the subfloor and record the results and method used. Good lighting is essential. It is important to note that commencement of work is deemed by many as acceptance of the site conditions as being suitable for laying On receipt of rolls, check that colours be as described in BS 8203. A working correspond to those ordered, that quantities temperature of between 18ºC and 26ºC is are correct and that there is no damage. In required for at least 24 hours prior to, and particular, check that rolls are from one batch, during, the laying period and for 24 hours if that was requested on the order. On arrival at afterwards. Conditioning areas and laying areas site, the rolls should be safely secured in an should be of similar temperature, to prevent upright position and stored, together with the thermally induced dimensional changes. adhesive, at a minimum temperature of 18ºC floorcoverings. Figure 1 Lining up the first sheet 3.1 LAYOUT OF VINYL SHEET Depending upon the depth of the recesses, The architect may have provided a drawing either a bar scriber or a pair of scribers should showing the direction in which the material be used to trace the profile of the wall. should be laid. In this case, lay the vinyl sheet The scribers should be set to allow for the as directed. If the architect has left this to the deepest recess or rake of the wall. Holding the discretion of the flooring contractor, it is scribers vertically and square to the vinyl edge, advisable to show at the tender stage in which trace the wall profile onto the face of the sheet In installations where underfloor heating is direction the material will be laid and state that (Figure 2). With this method, all irregularities of used, this should be switched off from 48 hours your estimate is based on this. Always pay the wall will be accurately reproduced onto the Inflammable adhesives require special storage prior to installation until 48 hours afterwards. particular attention to where seams will fall, surface of the vinyl sheet. If, because of the conditions. Contact the adhesive manufacturer It should then be slowly brought back up to the avoiding such occurrences as seams in the colour or decoration, the scribed line is difficult or see current literature for details. working temperature, a maximum of 27ºC. centre of doorways. If large windows are to see, rub suitably contrasting chalk dust into Adhesives capable of withstanding installed, minimise the effect of the joints by the line to highlight it. for at least 24 hours before laying. To achieve best results, site conditions should index WWW.POLYFLOR.COM POLYFLOR TECHNICAL INFORMATION profile and cut to fit as described in preceding paragraphs. wall, fit as described for the first length D. Check that seams are without gaps and (Section 3.3.1). remove any excess adhesive. 3.5 CUTTING IN THE SEAMS E. Roll with a 68kg articulated floor roller, firstly Polyflor recommends that all Polyflor vinyl in the short direction, then in the long. In corners sheet floorcoverings are welded. Seam cutting, and other awkward areas, use a hand roller. grooving and heat welding are described in F. Repeat over the whole floor until all the sheets detail in Section 12. are adhered. Note: The seams should be cut before the G. Roll the whole area thoroughly again, between adhesive is spread. one and four hours later. 3.6 ADHERING THE VINYL SHEET 3.6.2 Adhering foam-backed vinyl sheet Prior to adhering the vinyl sheet, it is Trim the material to size ensuring that important to read and understand the adhesive approximately 150mm excess remains along manufacturer’s instructions, recommendations the length of the material at both edges of the Figure 2 Scribing the wall profile Ease the sheet away from the wall and, using a hook blade trimming knife, cut off the excess vinyl to the scribed line. Slide the sheet back against the wall and check the fit, making any minor adjustments as necessary. Repeat for the other end of the sheet. Once completed, the whole sheet – when slid back into position – should fit the wall profiles exactly. When satisfied that the fit on the first edge is correct, use a pencil to trace the opposite edge Note: If fitting to set-in coving, the same onto the subfloor (line A-B in Figure 3). principles apply but a reverse scriber must be used to trace the toe onto the sheet. It is In the centre of the room, draw a line on both the vinyl and subfloor square to the main axis lines C and D (Figure 4). Trace the end wall index the vinyl into position. The vinyl can then be Never spread more adhesive than can be laid rolled. within the open time. Polyflor does not Once this has been carried out the edges of the recommend any method of adhesive length of material can then be trimmed and application, such as rolling or spraying, which bonded. cannot guarantee the spread rate. Further advice can be obtained from Polyflor Wherever practical, start with central strips first, as these are usually easier, having fewer recesses or awkward fittings. Customer Technical Services Department. 3.6.3 Premature trafficking of newly laid floors Early trafficking may disturb the adhesive bond and weaken it, resulting in the associated length, with a maximum 25mm overlap along A. Fold back the sheet to just over half its length, problems of tracking, indentation, debonding the adjoining edges. On the opposite side, trace making sure the remaining half retains its position. etc. After the vinyl sheet has been installed, the edge along the whole length onto the B. Spread the adhesive using a notched trowel of only light foot traffic should be allowed for at subfloor. In the middle, draw a line C-D at right the correct size, as recommended by the least 24 hours. Furniture etc. should only be angles to the main axis, as previously adhesive manufacturer. Maintain the correct size returned after this time. Where liable to be described. of notch at all times, recutting as necessary as subject to heavy trafficking, the vinyl should be Using the longitudinal line as a guide, slide back work progresses. Keeping the inner edge of the vinyl on line A-B, Set the scribers to the distance now between especially the open time. 12mm overlap for final trimming in. Place the second length parallel to the first end of the room. away from both edges of the room, and place 3.6.1 Wet set adhesives 3.4 FITTING SUBSEQUENT LENGTHS slide the sheet back to clear the wall at one room. Spread the adhesive until 1 linear metre hazards and limitations of the adhesive, normal to free hand cut to the coving, allowing of the sheet (line C-D in Figure 3). Figure 3 Marking the position and safety advice. You need to know the Figure 4 Setting the scriber protected with hardboard or plywood for at least 48 hours. the sheet from the end wall and fit as described C. When the adhesive is ready to accept the in Section 3.3.1. Repeat for the opposite end. floorcovering, roll the vinyl sheet back into place, 3.6.4 Pressure-sensitive adhesives Repeat the sequence for all remaining lengths. rubbing from the centre to the edge, taking care These adhesives are designed to go completely On the final length, which abuts the opposite not to twist the roll or trap air bubbles. dry prior to laying into and are particularly well WWW.POLYFLOR.COM POLYFLOR TECHNICAL INFORMATION suited to dense subfloors where there is Note: In new buildings, it may be worthwhile B. To prevent a difficult fit, and potential weak difficulty with moisture uptake. They have the discussing installation with the main spot near doorways, cut away the back edge of advantage of very long open times but, contractor who may agree to fitting WCs, sinks the cove former on a taper for 150mm so that because they are laid into dry, have the etc. after the vinyl has been laid. there is minimal cove former near the doorway disadvantage that the adhesive ridges are not A. Dry fit the area with felt paper, leaving a gap flattened when the vinyl is rolled. To eliminate of 15mm to 20mm around obstructions and walls. this disadvantage, Polyflor recommends an (Figure 6). Heating the cove former will enable the shape to be formed but do not use a naked flame. B. Draw around the fittings using a compass set alternative method of application: at 25mm. Mark the template “This Side Up”. A. Fold back all the sheets to just over half their C. Place the vinyl sheet in a larger area with the length. face uppermost. Place the template on top B. Spread the adhesive with the correct notch trowel. Maintain the correct size of notch at all times. Then roll out the adhesive ridges with a long handled, short pile adhesive roller. ensuring the direction of decoration is correct. Figure 5 Polyethylene strip Secure the template firmly in position and, with a or trap air bubbles. (A length of wide polyethylene pair of scribers set at 25mm, mark the position of strip can be rolled out on top of the adhesive to all obstacles using the template as a guide. Note: To maintain the correct spread rate, the enable it to be walked on. This can be helpful D. Using a sharp vinyl trimming knife, cut the adhesive roller should be pre-wetted with when fitting the first length up to the line. Roll it vinyl sheet to the scribed lines and fit into adhesive. This will prevent it taking adhesive up from the far end on completion.) position. G. Fit all the other sheets, working outwards from Note: Do not use the felt paper template as an C. Wrap the roller in a polyethylene bag and the central sheet, as described previously. Take underlay. hang up when not in use. This will prevent it from extra care to ensure that seams are without gaps drying out. It also prevents flats being formed and and remove any excess adhesive as work proceeds. from the floor. avoids regular washing out and pre-wetting. 3.8 SITE FORMED COVED SKIRTINGS Polyflor fully flexible vinyl flooring, in H. Fold back the second halves of the vinyl sheets conjunction with Polyflor Ejecta cove former D. When the adhesive is completely dry and and remove the polyethylene strip which was (see also Section 9) can be used to create site ready to lay into, it will change from opaque to stuck to the edge of the adhesive. Repeat formed coved skirting. In shower areas, for clear or translucent. The adhesive will be tacky to sequence of adhering vinyl sheet as described example, the vinyl sheet can be extended up the the touch. It is worth remembering that air flow previously. wall and, when welded, will form a watertight I. Roll thoroughly in both directions using a 68kg base. Alternatively, in hospital corridors or is the most critical factor in the drying time and not temperature. Electric fans can be used to accelerate the drying time. E. Place a length of 100mm wide polyethylene strip onto the edge of the adhesive adjacent to the fold in the vinyl sheet (Figure 5). This will prevent the sheet sticking to the last 100mm of adhesive. articulated floor roller. In corners and other office complexes, a contrasting colour can be awkward areas, use a hand roller. Repeat again used for decoration or identification. after 1 – 4 hours. A. Adhere the sections of cove former using a 3.7 PATTERN TEMPLATE METHOD contact adhesive. Use a mitre-block to accurately Areas which call for a considerable amount of cut internal and external corners and only adjust fitting around obstacles, or which are too for length on straight cuts. confined to lay down a sheet for fitting by Note: The installation of Polyflor Ejecta vinyl F. Roll the central sheet back into place along the normal methods, can be dealt with by flooring accessories using contact adhesives is longitudinal line, taking care not to twist the roll templating the floor in felt paper. covered in detail in Section 10. index Figure 6 Taper towards a doorway Figure 7 CS-N capping strip WWW.POLYFLOR.COM POLYFLOR TECHNICAL INFORMATION 3.8.1 Fitting with clip-in capping strip (Type CS-N) A. Draw a line on the walls around the room to the height the coving will reach. B. Place the vinyl to the walls and then draw a line to the same height as previous. Using a straight edge and sharp knife, trim off the excess. C. Pull back the sheet from the walls. Fit the capping strip to the wall with contact adhesive so that the top of the sheet will sit inside the cap. D. Apply contact adhesive to the face of the cove 3.8.2 Fitting with sit-on capping strip (Type CS) Note: Welded external corners are prone to recommended by Polyflor. See also Section 15. A. Using a height gauge fitted with a pencil, traffic. To prevent this from occurring, and as A thin bead of mastic sealant should be run draw a line on the walls around the room to the an alternative to the traditional mitre, the joint along the underside edge of the CT strip and height the coving will reach. may be cut at an angle and taken around the the Polyflor (Figure 10). B. Apply contact adhesive to the face of the cove corner and welded (Figure 9). former and up to the pencil line on the wall. 3.9 FITTING TO CERAMIC WALL TILES Coat the back of the vinyl with contact adhesive For the junction between site formed coved and leave both to dry. skirting and ceramic wall tiles, Polyflor Ejecta C. When dry, push the vinyl into place and roll CT strip should be used. The flexible section is with a hand roller to ensure even contact. designed to accept ceramic tiles on one side D. Reduce the height gauge to allow for the and various gauges of vinyl on the other. former and up to the capping strip. Coat the thickness of the floorcovering and adhesive. The Polyflor CT strip should be adhered using a back of the vinyl with contact adhesive and leave Draw a line on the vinyl to the same height as contact adhesive as recommended by Polyflor. both to dry. previous. Using a straight edge and sharp knife, The edge between the CT strip and the ceramic E. When dry, push the vinyl into place and tuck trim off the excess. tiles should be grouted. The Polyflor should be the top edge into the capping strip (Figure 7). E. Using a piece of capping strip, mark where the fitted into the bottom edge of the CT strip and Roll with a hand roller to ensure even contact. strip overlaps the wall and vinyl sheet. Apply contact adhesive between the lines and to the back of the capping strip. When dry, push into place (Figure 8). Figure 8 CS capping strip index adhered to the wall using a contact adhesive as breaking open due to damage from wheeled Figure 9 External corners Figure 10 Fitting to ceramic tiles 4 WWW.POLYFLOR.COM POLYFLOR TECHNICAL INFORMATION Installation of Homogeneous vinyl tiles quickly and is especially important with high It is important to note that commencement of vinyl content products such as Polyflor work is deemed by many as acceptance of the Prestige PUR and Polyflor Mystique PUR. site conditions as suitable for laying To achieve best results, site conditions should floorcoverings. be as described in BS 8203. A working 4.1 LAYOUT OF VINYL TILES temperature of between 18ºC and 26ºC is Although many floor layers regard vinyl tiles as required for 24 hours prior to, and during, the being easier to lay than vinyl sheet, the layout laying period and for 24 hours afterwards. of the tiles can be critical to the success of the Conditioning areas and laying areas should be installation. The regular form of tiles, especially of similar temperature, to prevent thermally when laid in contrasting colours, can accentuate induced dimensional changes. In installations deviations in the building line, emphasising the where underfloor heating is used, this should need for detailed planning of the layout. be switched off from 48 hours prior to Many floor layers start in the main doorway, installation until 48 hours afterwards. It should believing that the initial impression when then be brought slowly back up to the working entering a room is most important. However, temperature, a maximum of 27ºC. Adhesives working from the centre of the room and loose capable of withstanding temperatures up to laying tiles to check the layout will make the 27ºC should be used. Where direct sunlight, final appearance correct from any viewpoint. sometimes in conjunction with underfloor This is especially important where a geometric heating, creates high surface temperatures on design is incorporated into the floor. the floor, an approved epoxy or polyurethane 4.2 MEASURING AND MARKING OUT adhesive should be used. A. Measure the room to be laid in both The work area should now be prepared to directions, including any alcoves etc. receive the vinyl tiles. Ensure all other trades This section is intended for the contract Inflammable adhesives require special storage B. Mark a chalk centreline A-B, ensuring that it is have completed their work and removed all ranges of Polyflor tiles and not the Luxury conditions. Contact the adhesive manufacturer square to the wall with the doorway. their equipment and materials. Remove all Vinyl Tile ranges, which are detailed in their or see current literature for details. debris and sweep or vacuum the whole floor C. Loose lay tiles away from the centreline A-B and own specific technical manual. Under normal conditions (outside temperature area. Check the condition of the subfloor and check that no small strips will have to be laid at On receipt of tiles, check that colours above 12ºC) the tiles should be off-loaded from make good as necessary. Stone or power grind the perimeter of the room. If small strips do result, correspond to those ordered, that quantities the pallet and stacked no more than five boxes any cementicious subfloor to remove any move the centreline in either direction, keeping it are correct and there is no obvious damage. high during the conditioning period. The stacks “nibs” or ridges. Remove any surface parallel to the line A-B, so that the perimeter tiles will only require a small piece cutting off. In particular, check that tiles are from one should be arranged to allow the air to circulate contaminants that may affect adhesion. Sweep batch, if that was requested on the order. around stack on all sides. In cold weather or vacuum again, prior to laying. If required, D. Mark a chalk centreline C-D, ensuring that it is On arrival at site, the tiles should be stored, (outside temperature below 12ºC) the boxes check moisture content of the subfloor and square to the line A-B. Check squareness with a together with the adhesive, at a minimum should be opened and the tiles spread out in record the results and method used. Good large square, trammels or geometrically. temperature of 18ºC for at least 24 hours prior the area where they are to be installed. lighting is essential. E. Loose lay tiles away from the centrelines C-D to laying. This will permit the tiles to acclimatise more index and check that no small strips will have to be WWW.POLYFLOR.COM POLYFLOR TECHNICAL INFORMATION section until the main field of tiles has been laid. decoration runs the correct way. 4.5 CUTTING THE PERIMETER TILES B. Set the bar scriber to the size of tile being laid. Three techniques are commonly used for C. Trace the profile of the wall onto the tile to be laid. Adjust centreline C-D as described for A-B. amount of fitting also tend to be cleaner, since In Figure 11, by moving the centreline C-D the tiles are laid into dry adhesive. There is an towards the door, tile 6 would only require a added benefit with this adhesive in the fact small amount to be trimmed off, as would tile 8 that once the adhesive has dried, the marking cutting perimeter tiles. The choice is mainly on the opposite wall. out on the floor can be seen through the dependent upon the runout of the wall. adhesive film. 4.5.1 Overlapping Method 4.4 ADHERING THE MAIN FIELD OF TILES The decoration of tiles on some product ranges Used when there is little or no run out of the abutting wall. is randomly distributed and in marbled styles Figure 11 Laying out vinyl tiles can be heavier on some tiles than others. A. Place the tile to be cut exactly over the last tile To prevent “heavy” and “light” areas, the tiles laid, ensuring the colour is correct and the should be unboxed and, if required, “shuffled” decoration runs the correct way. cut, ensuring the bar scriber is kept upright and square to the edge of the tile. D. Cut the tile to the scribed line, loose lay into position and check the fit. Repeat along the whole wall. Note: Both the Overlapping and Scriber Methods can be used to fit around projections such as door frames. Similarly, a template can whilst waiting for the adhesive to “go off”. be made or templating guide containing Once the adhesive is ready to accept the tiles, movable pins used for awkward shapes. place the first tile at the starting point, which is 4.6 ADHERING THE PERIMETER TILES the intersection of the two centrelines. Press Once a wall edge has been fitted and loose laid, 4.3 SPREADING THE ADHESIVE well down in the centre of the tile and then run turn all the tiles inward so as not to lose their If the subfloor is porous, it should be primed a thumb around the edge, ensuring that all air position. Spread the adhesive right up to the using a primer compatible with the adhesive, as is expelled. edges. When the adhesive has lost sufficient recommended by the adhesive manufacturer. moisture, lay the perimeter tiles. Wipe up Place the next tile in position, alternating the The amount of adhesive that can be spread at excess adhesive as work progresses. Roll well direction of marbling and colour if necessary, any one time depends upon the prevailing site and proceed down the centreline, laying two conditions, such as temperature, humidity and tiles wide i.e. one tile either side of the throughflow of air – all of which affect the open centreline. It is essential to keep the tiles time of the adhesive. exactly on the centreline. Figure 12 Measuring using an overlapping tile with a 68kg articulated roller. Use a small hand B. Place another full tile on top of the tile to be process for all four walls. Finally, the whole roller in areas that are inaccessible. Repeat the cut with its “top edge” against the wall or set-in floor should be given a second rolling, coved skirting (Figure 12). approximately one to four hours later. Adhesive manufacturers provide details of the Note: Non-directional tiles do not need open time, and their instructions should be “shuffling”, nor do they require laying in C. Scribe a line onto the tile to be cut, using the followed. Ideally, the floor area should be alternating directions. “bottom edge” of the top tile as a guide. divided into workable sections, leaving the Repeat the sequence along the centreline, at D. Cut the tile to the scribed line, loose lay into long distances can be difficult and often leads perimeter tile areas unadhered until the main right angles to the first. Then, working from the position and check the fit. Repeat along the to inaccuracies. To eliminate this problem, an body of the floor has been laid. completed centrelines, finish the section, whole wall. alternative technique is used when laying tiles in large areas: 4.7 INSTALLING TILES IN LARGE AREAS Maintaining a clearly defined straight line over As an alternative to wet set adhesive, a taking care that tile bond is maintained 4.5.2 Scriber Method pressure sensitive acrylic adhesive can be throughout. Any excess adhesive should be Used when the wall run out is quite severe or A. Establish the central starting point, as used. Although initially more expensive, half a removed as work proceeds. When a section has when the wall profile cannot be picked up using described previously, minimising small cuts on large room can be spread at one time and the been laid, except for the perimeter, it should be a straight edge. perimeter tiles. excellent “tack” of the adhesive makes it ideal thoroughly rolled in both directions with a A. Place the tile to be cut exactly over the last tile B. Lay the first pyramid of tiles from the for tiles. Installations that involve a large 68kg articulated floor roller. Repeat for each laid, ensuring the colour is correct and the centrelines, using the sequence shown in index WWW.POLYFLOR.COM POLYFLOR TECHNICAL INFORMATION Figure 13 Pyramid layout Figure 13. Ensure a close bond is maintained at all times. C. Repeat this sequence on the opposite side of the centreline shown as area 2 in Figure 14. Continue working in larger and larger pyramids, as shown in Figure 14, until only the perimeter tiles require fitting. Note: Construction of a pyramid should always start at the centre of the baseline, working in the same sequence as shown in Figure 13. D. Fit the perimeter tiles as described in Section 4.5. 4.8 WELDING OF TILES Polyflor recommend that all 608mm tile installations be heat welded, as undulations in the subfloor can cause the tiles to go out of bond, resulting in slight but unacceptable gaps. Heat welding is described in Section 12. The use of a contrasting weld rod can be used to create simple design effects. To calculate how much weld rod is required for the installation, multiply the number of square metres laid by 3.3, to give you the number of linear metres of weld rod. index Figure 14 Floor layout 5 WWW.POLYFLOR.COM POLYFLOR TECHNICAL INFORMATION the edge of the printed plank can be used in Installation of Heterogeneous vinyl sheet hours, the seam can be grooved out. This can the lengthwise direction as a guide. Once the be done either manually by using a hand seam is cut, discard the waste material and groover or mechanically using a power check the final appearance. Or grooving machine. The groove should not be deeper than 2/3rds thickness of the wear layer for the U groove and 7/8ths thickness for the Using a straight edge and utility knife, cut off V groove. the selvage of the top sheet of the wood effect designs, using the edge of the printed plank in A. Remove all dust and debris prior to welding. the lengthwise direction as the guide. Discard B. Using an appropriate vinyl weld rod, test the the waste strip. Then, using the cut edge as a weld fusion on a scrap piece of the material. Once guide, set a proprietary seam cutter to cut the you are happy with the heat settings and resultant lower sheet. Discard the waste strip and check weld, proceed to weld all the pre-grooved seams. the final appearance. C. On completion, and whilst the weld is still Once the seams have been dry cut, the vinyl warm, carry out the first trim. This should be sheets can be adhered to the substrate. Fold carried out using a cable guide and spatula knife. back all the sheets half way and apply an D. The final trim should be carried out once the adhesive approved by Polyflor, following the weld has completely cooled and should be done adhesive manufacturer’s instructions and using the spatula knife. recommendations. Note: The welding technique described will Working from the centre of the room, fold the provide a very strong mechanical weld. Should sheets back into their original position, using a rolling motion to reduce the risk of trapping air. Using a 68kg roller starting in the width This section is intended for Polyflor the final appearance of the installation and to direction, roll the floor to expel any air bubbles heterogeneous sheet vinyl ranges with ensure the decorative effect is not lost, it is and ensure good contact with the adhesive, transparent wear layer/print construction. important that care is taken to align the plank substrate and the back of the sheet vinyl. In general, the installation procedure is the decoration of each adjacent sheet. All none Repeat in the lengthwise direction. Repeat the same as that detailed in Section 3 and wood effect designs within the Stone FX and whole rolling process approximately 4 hours reference should be made to this section for Gallery FX Acoustic collections MUST be later. in-depth advice. Included below are details of reverse laid. how installation differs from homogeneous Once the adjacent sheets are aligned, the vinyl sheet, specifically in relation to alignment seam should be cut using one of the following recommended for heterogeneous vinyl sheet of adjacent sheets and welding options. methods: floorcoverings with a transparent wear 5.1 ALIGNMENT OF DECORATION Using a straight edge and keeping the utility layer/print construction. knife upright, cut through both layers to ensure 5.2.1 Hot Welding there is a tight seam. With wood effect designs, Once the adhesive is cured, normally after 24 This type of floorcovering features a print layer with a regular, repeat decoration (e.g. wood plank). With wood effect designs, to maximise index 5.2 WELDING THE SHEET There are two methods of welding that are Figure 15 Cold welding POLYFLOR TECHNICAL INFORMATION you require a much thinner line whilst at the same time providing a continuous surface, we suggest that in these instances, and using the technique described, only the wear layer be grooved out. This will result in a much narrower weld whilst still preventing ingress of dirt or moisture. 5.2.2 Cold Welding Once the seam has been accurately cut, remembering that this type of welding should not be considered as gap filling, the seam can be welded. A. Cover the seam with masking tape or similar to prevent any excess welding liquid coming into contact with the vinyl surface. B. Cut through the tape at the seam, using a utility knife with a sharp blade. Apply the welding liquid (Figure 15), as per the manufacturer’s instructions, ensuring both hands are controlling the tube. Keep fingers away from the needle applicator. C. After approximately 10 minutes and once the welding liquid has cured, the masking tape can then be removed. Note: Any proud parts of the cured welding liquid can be left, as they will be removed with the effects of maintenance and traffic. 5.3 SUBFLOORS In common with the installation of any type of flooring, the subfloor should not only be in sound condition, but also free of any contaminants, like oil, paint, preservative treatments or other forms of marking, such as a permanent marker pen. Similarly, no markings should be applied to the back of heterogeneous flooring. index WWW.POLYFLOR.COM 6 WWW.POLYFLOR.COM POLYFLOR TECHNICAL INFORMATION back up to the working temperature, a Installation of Rubber sheet maximum of 27ºC. Adhesives capable of withstanding temperatures up to 27ºC should be used. Where direct sunlight, sometimes in conjunction with underfloor heating, creates high surface temperatures on the floor, an approved epoxy or polyurethane adhesive should be used. See Polyflor recommended adhesive listings. The work area should now be prepared to receive the rubber sheet flooring. Ensure that all other trades have completed their work and removed all their equipment and materials. Remove all debris and sweep or vacuum the whole floor area. Check the condition of the subfloor and make good as necessary. advisable to show at the tender stage in which direction the material will be laid and state that your estimate is based on this. Always pay particular attention to where seams will fall, avoiding such occurrences as seams in the centre of doorways. If large windows are installed, minimise the effect of the joints by laying towards the window. 6.2 SLABBING THE RUBBER SHEET Polyflor recommends that all sheet rubber flooring be rolled out face upward, taking care not to damage the surface, and cut approximately to size. Allowance of at least 75mm should be made at the ends for trimming in. Ideally, the slabs should then be left overnight, and preferably for 24 hours, to condition at a minimum temperature of 18ºC. Stone or power grind any cementicious 6.3 FITTING THE SHEET subfloor to remove any “nibs” or ridges. Place the first sheet in position next to the wall Remove any surface contaminants, which may with the outer edge approximately 15mm from affect adhesion. Sweep or vacuum again prior the nearest point. Adjust the lie of the sheet so to laying. If required by the contract, or if in doubt, check that the inner edge is parallel with the axis of the room (Figure 16). the moisture content of the subfloor and On receipt of rolls, check that colours To achieve best results, site conditions should record the results and method used. Good correspond to those ordered, that the be as described in BS 8203. A working quantities are correct and that there is no temperature of between 18°C and 26°C is damage. In particular, check that rolls are from required for at least 24 hours prior to, and one batch, if that was requested on the order. during, the laying period and for 24 hours work is deemed by many as acceptance of the lighting is essential. On arrival at site, the rolls should be safely secured in an upright position and stored, together with the adhesive, at a minimum temperature of 18°C for at least 24 hours before laying. Inflammable adhesives require special storage conditions. Contact the adhesive manufacturer or see current literature for details. index It is important to note that commencement of afterwards. Conditioning areas and laying site conditions as being suitable for laying areas should be of similar temperature, to floorcoverings. prevent thermally induced dimensional 6.1 LAYOUT OF RUBBER SHEET changes. The architect may have provided a drawing Figure 16 Lining up the first sheet Depending upon the depth of the recesses, In installations where underfloor heating is showing the direction in which the material used, this should be switched off from should be laid. In this case, lay the rubber sheet 48 hours prior to installation until 48 hours as directed. If the architect has left this to the afterwards. It should then be slowly brought discretion of the flooring contractor, it is either a bar scriber or a pair of scribers should be used to trace the profile of the wall. The scribers should be set to allow for the deepest recess or rake of the wall. Holding the scribers vertically and square to the rubber edge, trace the wall profile onto the face of the sheet WWW.POLYFLOR.COM POLYFLOR TECHNICAL INFORMATION Keeping the inner edge of the rubber on line Using the longitudinal line as a guide, slide C. When the adhesive is ready to accept the of the wall will be accurately reproduced onto A-B, slide the sheet back to clear the wall at back the sheet from the end wall and fit as floorcovering, roll the rubber sheet back into the surface of the rubber sheet. If, because of one end of the room. described in Section 6.3. Repeat for the place, taking care not to twist the roll or trap air opposite end. Repeat the sequence for all bubbles. (Figure 17). With this method, all irregularities the colour or decoration, the scribed line is difficult to see, rub suitably contrasting chalk dust into the line to highlight it. Set the scribers to the distance now between lines C and D (Figure 19). Trace the end wall profile and cut to fit as described in preceding paragraphs. remaining lengths. On the final length, which abuts the opposite wall, fit as described for the D. Check that seams are without gaps and remove any excess adhesive. first length Section 6.3. E. Roll with a 68kg articulated floor roller, firstly 6.5 CUTTING IN THE SEAMS If welding is necessary (see section 6.10), seam in the short direction, then in the long. In corners and other awkward areas, use a hand roller. cutting, grooving and heat welding are described in detail in Section 12. F. Repeat over the whole floor until all the sheets are adhered. Note: The seams should be cut before the adhesive is spread. G. Roll the whole area thoroughly again, between one and four hours later. 6.6 ADHERING THE SHEET Figure 17 Scribing the wall profile Ease the sheet away from the wall and, using a hook blade trimming knife, cut off the excess Prior to adhering the rubber sheet, it is 6.7 PREMATURE TRAFFICKING OF NEWLY important to read and understand the adhesive LAID FLOORS manufacturer’s instructions, recommendations Early trafficking may disturb the adhesive bond and safety advice. You need to know the and weaken it, resulting in the associated hazards and limitations of the adhesive, problems of tracking, indentation, debonding especially the open time. etc. After the rubber sheet has been installed, Figure 19 Setting the scriber rubber to the scribed line. Slide the sheet back Repeat for the other end of the sheet. Once against the wall and check the fit, making any completed, the whole sheet – when slid back minor adjustments as necessary. into position – should fit the wall profiles exactly. Never spread more adhesive than can be laid only light foot traffic should be allowed for at within the open time. least 24 hours. Where liable to be subject to heavy trafficking, the rubber should be Polyflor does not recommend any method of protected with hardboard, plywood or a adhesive application, such as rolling or When satisfied that the fit on the first edge is Note: If fitting to set-in coving, the same correct, use a pencil to trace the opposite edge principles apply but a reverse scriber must be onto the subfloor (line A-B in Figure 18). used to trace the toe onto the sheet. It is spraying, which cannot guarantee the spread rate. protector, it is not left in contact with the Wherever practical, start with central strips normal to free hand cut to the coving, allowing 12mm overlap for final trimming in. 6.4 FITTING SUBSEQUENT LENGTHS Place the second length parallel to the first length, with a maximum 25mm overlap along first, as these are usually easier, having fewer recesses or awkward fittings. 6.8 PATTERN TEMPLATE METHOD Areas which call for a considerable amount of A. Fold back the sheet to just over half its length, fitting around obstacles, or which are too making sure the remaining half retains its position. confined to lay down a sheet for fitting by B. Spread the adhesive using a notched trowel of normal methods, can be dealt with by templating the floor in felt paper. the edge along the whole length onto the the correct size, as recommended by the In the centre of the room, draw a line on both subfloor. In the middle, draw a line C-D at right adhesive manufacturer. Maintain the correct size the rubber and subfloor square to the main angles to the main axis, as described previously. of notch at all times, recutting as necessary as index rubber surface as it can stain. the adjoining edges. On the opposite side, trace Figure 18 Marking the position axis of the sheet (line C-D in Figure 18). proprietary protector for at least 48 hours. Ensure that if there is any printing on the work progresses. WWW.POLYFLOR.COM POLYFLOR TECHNICAL INFORMATION Note: In new buildings, it may be worthwhile 6.10 WELDING OF RUBBER SHEET discussing installation with the main Welding of rubber sheet is not a prerequisite in contractor who may agree to fitting WCs, sinks most installations. However where there is etc. after the rubber has been laid. heavy wet cleaning or where due to hygiene A. Dry fit the area with felt paper, leaving a gap requirements a continuous smooth surface is of 15mm to 20mm around obstructions. demanded, the joints should be heat welded using the recommended weld rod. B. Draw around the fittings using a compass set at 25mm. Mark the template “This Side Up”. C. Place the rubber sheet in a larger area with the face uppermost. Place the template on top ensuring the direction of decoration is correct. Secure the template firmly in position and, with a pair of scribers set at 25mm, mark the position of all obstacles using the template as a guide. D. Using a sharp trimming knife, cut the rubber sheet to the scribed lines and fit into position. Do not use the felt paper template as an underlay. 6.9 SITE FORMED COVED SKIRTING Polyflor sheet rubber flooring, in conjunction with a rubber cove, can be used to create site formed coved skirting. In hospital corridors or office complexes etc, a contrasting colour can be used for decoration or identification. A. Adhere the sections of cove former using a contact adhesive. B. Use a mitre-block to accurately cut internal and external corners. Only adjust for length on straight cuts. C. To prevent a difficult fit, and potential weak spot near doorways, cut away the back edge of the cove former on a taper for 150mm so that there is minimal cove former near the doorway. Warming the cove former may help enable the shape to be formed but do not use a naked flame. index 7 WWW.POLYFLOR.COM POLYFLOR TECHNICAL INFORMATION afterwards. It should then be brought slowly Installation of Rubber tiles On receipt of tiles, check that colours correspond to those ordered, that quantities are correct and there is no obvious damage. In particular check that tiles are from one batch, if that was requested on the order. On arrival at site, the tiles should be stored, together with the adhesive, at a minimum temperature of 18ºC for at least 24 hours before laying. The tiles should be off-loaded back up to the working temperature, a However, working from the centre of the room maximum of 27ºC. Adhesives capable of and loose laying tiles to check the layout will withstanding temperatures up to 27ºC should make the final appearance correct from any be used. Where direct sunlight, sometimes in viewpoint. This is especially important where a conjunction with underfloor heating, creates geometric design is incorporated into the floor. high surface temperatures on the floor, an approved epoxy or polyurethane adhesive should be used. The work area should now be prepared to receive the rubber tiles. Ensure all other trades 7.2 MEASURING AND MARKING OUT A. Measure the room to be laid in both directions, including any alcoves etc. B. Mark a chalk centreline A-B ensuring that it is square to the wall with the doorway. have completed their work and removed all or see current literature for details. To achieve best results, site conditions should be as described in BS 8203. A working their equipment and materials. Remove all C. Loose lay tiles away from the centreline A-B debris and sweep or vacuum the whole floor and check that no small strips will have to be area. Check the condition of the subfloor and laid at the perimeter of the room. If small strips make good as necessary. Stone or power grind do result, move the centreline in either direction, any cementicious subfloor to remove any keeping it parallel to the line A-B, so that the “nibs” or ridges. Remove any surface perimeter tiles will only require a small piece contaminants that may affect adhesion. cutting off. Sweep or vacuum again prior to laying. D. Mark a chalk centreline C-D, ensuring that it If required, check the moisture content of the is square to the line A-B. Check squareness with a subfloor and record the results and method large square, trammels or geometrically. used. Good lighting is essential. E. Loose lay tiles away from the centreline C-D It is important to note that commencement of and check that no small strips will have to be work is deemed by many as acceptance of the laid. Adjust centreline C-D as described for A-B. site conditions as being suitable for laying In Figure 20, by moving the centreline C-D floorcoverings. temperture of between 18ºC and 26ºC is 7.1 LAYOUT OF RUBBER TILES required for 24 hours prior to, and during, the Although many floor layers regard tiles as laying period and for 24 hours afterwards. being easier to lay than sheet, the layout of the Conditioning areas and laying areas should be tiles can be critical to the success of the of similar temperature, to prevent thermally installation. The regular form of tiles, especially induced dimensional changes. when laid in contrasting colours, can from the pallet and stacked no more than five boxes high during the conditioning period. when entering a room is most important. towards the door, tile 6 would only require a small amount to be trimmed off, as would tile 8 on the opposite wall. accentuate deviations in the building line, In installations where underfloor heating is emphasising the need for detailed planning of used, this should be switched off from Inflammable adhesives require special storage conditions. Contact the adhesive manufacturer index the layout. Many floor layers start in the main 48 hours prior to installation until 48 hours doorway, believing that the initial impression Figure 20 Laying out rubber tiles WWW.POLYFLOR.COM POLYFLOR TECHNICAL INFORMATION 7.3 SPREADING THE ADHESIVE right angles to the first. Then, working from the D. Cut the tile to the scribed line, loose lay into If the subfloor is porous, it should be primed completed centrelines, finish the section taking position and check the fit. Repeat along the using a primer compatible with the adhesive, care that tile bond is maintained throughout. whole wall. as recommended by the adhesive manufacturer. Any excess adhesive should be removed as 7.5.2 Scriber Method The amount of adhesive that can be spread at work proceeds. When a section has been laid, Used when the wall run out is quite severe or any one time depends upon the prevailing site except for the perimeter, it should be thoroughly when the wall profile cannot be picked up using conditions, such as temperature, humidity and rolled in both directions with a 68kg a straight edge. throughflow of air – all of which affect the open articulated floor roller. Repeat for each section time of the adhesive. until the main field of tiles has been laid. Adhesive manufacturers provide details of the 7.5 CUTTING THE PERIMETER TILE open time, and their instructions should be Two techniques are commonly used for cutting followed. Ideally, the floor area should be perimeter tiles. The choice is mainly dependent divided into workable sections, leaving the upon the run out of the wall. perimeter tile areas unadhered until the main 7.5.1 Overlapping Method body of the floor has been laid. Used when there is little or no run out of the scribed line, loose lay into position and check the 7.4 ADHERING THE MAIN FIELD OF TILES abutting wall. fit. Repeat along the whole wall. Ensure the backs of the tiles are free from dust A. Place the tile to be cut exactly over the last tile Note: Both the overlapping and scriber prior to laying. This can be done whilst waiting laid, ensuring the colour is correct. methods can be used to fit around projections A. Place the tile to be cut exactly over the last tile laid ensuring the colour is correct. B. Set the bar scriber to the size of the tile being laid. C. Trace the profile of the wall onto the tile to be cut, ensuring the bar scriber is kept upright and square to the edge of the tile. Cut the tile to the for the adhesive to “go off”. Once the adhesive such as door frames. Similarly, a template can is ready to accept the tiles, place the first tile be made or templating guide containing at the starting point, which is the intersection movable pins used for awkward shapes. of the two centrelines. Press well down in the 7.6 ADHERING THE PERIMETER TILES centre of the tile and then run a thumb around Once a wall edge has been fitted and loose laid, the edge, ensuring all air is expelled. turn all the tiles inward so as not to lose their Place the next tile in position, alternating the position. Spread the adhesive right up to the colour if necessary, and proceed down the edges. When the adhesive has lost sufficient centreline, laying two tiles wide i.e. one tile moisture, lay the perimeter tiles. Wipe up either side of the centreline. It is essential to excess adhesive as work progresses. Roll well keep the tiles exactly on the centreline. with a 68kg articulated roller. Use a small hand roller in areas that are inaccessible. Repeat the When using “high tack” adhesives such as contact adhesive, take care not to twist or process for all four walls. Finally, the whole Figure 21 Measuring using an overlapping tile floor should be given a second rolling, distort the tile whilst laying. If the tile is stretched, its dimensional stability will B. Place another full tile on top of the tile to be cut, approximately one to four hours later. eventually return it to its original shape and with its “top edge” against the wall (Figure 21). 7.7 INSTALLING TILES IN LARGE AREAS the adhesive bond will be broken. C. Scribe a line onto the tile to be cut, using the The procedure for laying Rubber Tiles in large “bottom edge” of the top tile as a guide. areas is identical to that for laying vinyl tiles, as Repeat the sequence along the centreline at described in Section 4.7. index 8 WWW.POLYFLOR.COM POLYFLOR TECHNICAL INFORMATION Electro Static Dissipative (ESD) floorcoverings 8.1 SPECIFYING THE CORRECT PRODUCT upon the end use location, and consideration The Polyflor ESD family of products is designed should be given to such properties as point to minimise or eliminate the risk of Electro load resistance and protein content. Static Discharge (ESD) and it is essential that The underlayment should be allowed to dry the correct product be selected for the prior to the application of the floorcovering. intended application. An electrical performance specification must be identified at the outset. This will not only stipulate the maximum and minimum electrical resistance requirements of the installed floor, but will also identify the Polyflor accepts no responsibility for non-conformance due to the resistance of the installed floor being below the minimum specified, if an isolating barrier has not been used. method of test, the electrodes to be used, the method of measurement and the testing Note: Suspended timber subfloors are not environment. conductive and do not require an isolating barrier. From this information, the correct Polyflor ESD product can be identified, taking into account both the electrical performance and the method of installation. Whenever specifying a Polyflor ESD vinyl floorcovering, Polyflor strongly recommends that you discuss your requirements with our Customer Technical Services Department. They will advise on which products are best suited for the particular The Polyflor ESD family of vinyl floorcoverings Static Dissipative (SD) consists of products which are designed to These products when tested to the test methods meet specific resistance requirements. identified in our literature have a resistance to The terminology used to describe the various earth between 1 x 106 and 1 x 109 ohms. categories was changed in 1999, as the IEC brought together the various electronics industries to ensure that the same terminology is used by all parties. Antistatic 8.3 CONDUCTIVE ADHESIVES Polyflor recommends the use of Polyflor conductive adhesive for all Static Control floorcoverings and Polyflor contact adhesive for earthing strips. If alternative adhesives are used, they must be recommended by the adhesive manufacturer and approved by Polyflor. application, and where no specifıcation has Note: Access panels vary from manufacturer been identified, will advise on the specifications to manufacturer, both in design, materials used in similar installations/industries. used and electrical performance specification. 8.2 ISOLATION OF SUBFLOOR We recommend in these instances that you The electrical conductivity of a solid subfloor discuss your individual requirements with your can vary greatly, and as a result the installed panel supplier or alternatively with our Electrostatic Conductive (EC) floor may have resistances lower than the Customer Technical Services Department. These products when tested to the test methods minimum stated in the specification. 8.4 CONDUCTANCE TO EARTH identified in our literature have a resistance to Cementicious underlayments provide an Installing an earthing system is a prerequisite earth between 5 x 104 and 1 x 106 ohms. isolating barrier of known resistance beneath for ESD floors. This gives the end user the Polyflor Royal Ordnance Factory (ROF) the vinyl floorcovering. These products do not accumulate static charges These products when tested to the test methods Polyflor recommends that all solid subfloors identified in our literature have a resistance to should be covered with a cementicious above 2.0 KV and are classified as ‘Antistatic’ when tested to EN1815. For specialist application earth between zero and 5 x 104 ohms. underlayment which must be at least 3mm option to test to earth should there be a requirement at a later stage. Secondly, it improves the conductance of the installed floor to a known earth via a controlled path. where there is a requirement to dissipate the thick. The choice of underlayment is dependent charge, see Polyflor ESD product ranges. index The choice of material used for the earthing WWW.POLYFLOR.COM POLYFLOR TECHNICAL INFORMATION system can be brass, copper or stainless steel conductive adhesive contains carbon, which and should be nominally 50mm wide and results in low tack. 0.1mm thick. However, the width is only Once the adhesive has been spread, the vinyl important for the “Conductive” floorcovering. sheet is laid into it and pressed all over to standard Polyflor sheet vinyl, adhered with a non-conductive adhesive. This infill piece should then be welded to the ESD floorcovering with a standard weld rod. ensure an even transfer of adhesive. The vinyl 8.6.2 Conductive Floorcovering recommends the use of at least two sheet is then folded back and left until the Polyflor Conductive does not provide connections to earth, the second as a security Figure 23 Earth connection adhesive becomes tacky. When the adhesive is protection from a short circuit on a 240/250 tacky, the vinyl sheet should be accurately volt mains. Where this material is installed, all 8.4.3 Conductive ROF re-laid, ensuring it does not twist or trap air electrical equipment and switches must be bubbles. Seams must be without gaps and any located outside the building. No portable excess adhesive should be removed as work electrical tools should be used inside, unless proceeds. The vinyl sheet is then rolled with a earth leakage circuit breakers are fitted to the 68kg articulated floor roller in the short switchgear. When an earthing system is installed, Polyflor back-up should the first be disconnected or damaged. Connection of the earthing system to the building earth is normally carried out by a qualified electrician and not the flooring contractor. With this type of flooring, an earthing grid of the correct size strip (50mm wide, 0.1mm thick) is essential. The strips should be laid to form 600mm2 grids across the floor, the perimeter 8.4.1 Polyflor Static Dissipative (SD) strips being 150mm from the wall (Figure 24). Floorcoverings At an appropriate point the strip should be The earth strip is laid 150mm from one side of connected to a known earth. It is important the room, in the same direction as the vinyl that the layout of the grid is confirmed with the sheets are to be laid. This strip is connected to end user as there are variations in the a known earth (Figure 22). requirement for some military specifications. Figure 22 Earthing strip layout A second strip is laid at 90º to the first, 150mm from the edge and running across the full width direction fırst, then the long, and the rolling repeated between one and four hours later. (excluding access panels) must be heat welded. Polyflor ESD vinyl tiles are installed by the Ideally, the floor should be left for a minimum same method as standard vinyl tiles – the of 24 hours before welding the joints. This will single stick method. The grid layout for static prevent adhesive bubbling up into the seams control tiles is the same as for sheet vinyl, as when heat is applied. For details of heat described previously. welding, see Section 12. Note: ESD vinyl tiles must always be heat Note: Conductive welding rod is not a welded. See Section 12. requirement with Polyflor ESD floorcoverings. 8.6 SPECIAL PRECAUTIONS 8.8 TEST METHODS Special precautions must be taken with the Worldwide, there are a great many test following products: 8.6.1 Electrostatic Conductive (EC) of the room. Further strips are laid at 20 metre The basic techniques for installation of Polyflor intervals as determined by the size of the room. ESD floorcoverings are the same as described Floorcoverings door spring plates etc.) must be insulated from for standard vinyl sheet and tile in Sections 3 Floorcoverings and 4 respectively. However, there are a the EC floorcovering and free from conductive adhesive. The following method of installation A length of earth strip is adhered to the number of important differences: isolating underlayment and connected to a 8.5.1 ESD Vinyl Sheet is recommended. known earth. The strip need only extend along Polyflor ESD vinyl sheet should be installed by the floor for 150mm (Figure 23). the double drop method. This is because the index methods for electrical grade floorcoverings and, with rapid developments in the electrical and electronic industries, standards are constantly being reviewed. To ensure that the Pipes or metal projections (e.g. metal gullies, 8.4.2 Polyflor Electrostatic Conductive (EC) All Polyflor ESD floorcovering installations 8.5.2 ESD Vinyl Tiles Figure 24 Earthing strip layout 8.5 INSTALLATION METHODS 8.7 HEAT WELDING The EC floorcovering should be cut 50mm floor is tested to the latest specification, it is suggested that the architect or specifier should obtain a copy of the test method and requirements from the local office of the National Standards Authority. It should then be attached to the specification prior to the short of any pipe or metal fixture. This infill ordering of materials and installation of the area should be laid with a suitably coloured floor. If a test method is not specified, the WWW.POLYFLOR.COM POLYFLOR TECHNICAL INFORMATION and tested in accordance with the instructions laid down by Polyflor and detailed in this manual, the electrical resistance should be as follows: E A R T H T E S T R E S U LT S MINIMUM AVERAGE MAXIMUM AVERAGE Static Dissipative 1 x 10 6 ohms 1 x 10 9 ohms Electrostatic Conductive 5 x 104 ohms 1 x 106 ohms Zero ohms 5 x 104 ohms Conductive ROF The Customer Technical Services Department offers, for a fee, a finished installation testing service – to ensure that the whole installation Figure 25 Test electrode meets the specification requirements. following procedure is recommended and 8.8.4 Test Method (BS 61340 -4-1) approved by Polyflor. One electrode should be placed on the floor. 8.8.1 Test Procedure (BS 61340 -4-1) The electrical testing of the floor must be carried out with an insulation tester, operating at 100 volts D.C. The second connection should be made to the earth point, the resistance being measured between the electrode and a known earth. The electrode consists of a brass cylinder 65mm if made within 24 hours of the flooring being laid or cleaned. in diameter, weighing approximately 2.5 kg. A screw connector attaches the test lead to the top surface of the cylinder. On the underside is attached a round rubber pad – of 5mm thickness and 65 mm in diameter – which has been covered with thin metal foil (Figure 25). your testing requirements with our Customer Technical Services team, to ascertain staff availability etc. One test should be made for every 2 square metres of flooring. The test may not be reliable 8.8.2 Test Electrodes (BS 61340 -4-1) A Certificate of Conformance is issued on completion. We recommend that you discuss 8.9 STATIC CONTROL SYSTEMS In many instances, a Polyflor ESD floorcovering is sufficient to give the necessary control, but in highly static-sensitive areas, additional 8.8.5 Testing to a Grid precautions may be necessary. The procedure of always testing the same points “on a grid” is not recommended. These include: The whole floor should meet the specifıcation, Dissipative clothing and footwear not just selected points. To ensure continual Wrist and heel straps performance of the whole floor, it should be 8.8.3 Test Conditioning Special work stations periodically tested at random points. It is essential to condition the floor prior to testing. The floor should be cleaned (see Section 19.10) at least 24 hours before testing, and then conditioned for 24 hours at 40-60% RH and 20-25°C. Note: The relative humidity and temperature are only critical for Polyflor Static Dissipative floorcoverings. index Dissipative packaging and sealing 8.8.6 Test Results Polyflor ESD floorcoverings are manufactured to specific levels of conductance and are tested, prior to despatch, in laboratory conditions. On-site testing not only takes into account the floorcovering but also the adhesive, the subfloor and the environment. When installed Ionisers and humidity controllers 9 WWW.POLYFLOR.COM POLYFLOR TECHNICAL INFORMATION Installation of vinyl Wallcoverings application of the wall-cladding. manufacturer, to the prepared wall surface. Plaster and plasterboard are ideal substrates. H. When ready, and working to the vertical line Note: In order to achieve a Class ‘O’ fire rating as defined in the UK Building Regulations for vinyl to walls and ceilings, the substrate on the wall, apply the vinyl to the line, ensuring there are no ripples or run-outs. I. Roll the entire area using a flooring grade hand should be either bare plaster or plasterboard roller, from the centre outwards, to exclude air. composition. A second rolling will be necessary. 9.2 INSTALLATION 9.3 SUGGESTED INSTALLATION METHOD A. Prime the areas of plastered wall with a 9.3.1 External angles primer, as recommended by the adhesive A. To enable the wall-cladding to be formed manufacturer, and allow to dry completely. around external corners, it will be necessary to fit B. Mark the first vertical line on the wall using a and adhere ‘Polyflor Ejecta EFA75’ cornercap plumb line. Use only pencil for marking the wall profile to all external corners. and vinyl. B. Fit and adhere the EFA75 cornercap profile to C. Cut the Polyclad to size, allowing a small all external corners. Use a recommended contact amount for cutting in. adhesive to secure the EFA75, and press firmly. D. Apply a recommended contact adhesive C. When all the cornercap profile is fixed, apply 150mm wide at the top edge of the wall, contact adhesive to the surface and to 150mm adjacent to the ceiling and corresponding to all either side of the corner edge. Allow to become pressure points, such as external and internal touch dry before applying Polyclad. angles and coved radiuses. D. Apply contact adhesive to the corresponding E. Prior to placing the vinyl into position, and to area on the back of the Polyclad and allow to go On receipt of rolls, check that colours To achieve best results, site conditions should give extra support, it will be necessary to apply a touch dry before installing. correspond to those ordered, that quantities be as described in BS 8203. A working recommended contact adhesive to the back of are correct and that there is no damage. temperature of between 18°C and 26°C is the vinyl, approximately 150mm deep at the top In particular, check that rolls are from one required for at least 24 hours prior to, and edge, and corresponding to the pressure points, batch, if that was requested on the order. during, the laying period and for 24 hours such as external and internal angles and coved On arrival at site, the rolls should be safely afterwards. Conditioning areas and laying radiuses. Allow to become touch dry before secured in an upright position and stored, areas should be of similar temperature, to applying Polyclad. together with the adhesive, at a minimum prevent thermally induced dimensional changes. temperature of 18°C for at least 24 hours F. Roll up the vinyl with the face innermost, 9.1 PREPARATION and with the decoration running either vertically The wall surface must be smooth, sound, or horizontally, dependent on the size of roll, Inflammable adhesives require special storage clean and dry. All paint, oil, grease, excessive wall and application preference. conditions. Contact the adhesive manufacturer dust and any other contaminants liable to or see current literature for details. impair adhesion must be removed, prior to before laying. index WALL 150mm POLYCLAD G. Spread a further coat of recommended adhesive as directed by the adhesive Figure 26 EFA75 Cornercap profile WWW.POLYFLOR.COM POLYFLOR TECHNICAL INFORMATION 9.3.2 Internal angles A. To enable the wall-cladding to be formed around internal corners, it will be necessary to fit EJECTA COVE FORMER WALL and adhere ‘Polyflor Ejecta’ cove former to all internal corners. B. Fit and adhere the cove former to internal corners and at the junction of the ceiling and top 150mm of the wall. Use a recommended contact adhesive,and press firmly. First, fit the mitres in the corners, and at the junction of the ceiling and top of the wall. For ease of use, short lengths of approximately 300mm are recommended. C. When all corners are completed, fit and adhere the longer straight lengths, using the same method. When all the cove former is fixed, apply contact adhesive to the face of the cove former and 150mm either side of the corner edge. Allow to become touch dry before applying the Polyclad. D. Apply contact adhesive to the corresponding area on the back of the Polyclad and allow to go touch dry before installing. Note: Do not attempt to take large pieces of wall-cladding around corners. The walls may not be vertical or square, and can cause a runoff or possible rucking of the vinyl at the next seam. In these instances, work to 150mm around the corner. For information regarding adhesives, contact Polyflor Customer Technical Services on +44 (0)161 767 1912. index POLYCLAD Figure 27 Ejecta cover former 10 WWW.POLYFLOR.COM POLYFLOR TECHNICAL INFORMATION Installation of Accessories Always read carefully and observe the As a guide, adhesive coverage should be adhesive manufacturer’s instructions. Pay approximately 5 litres per 100 metres on particular attention to use of solvent-based 100mm high Ejecta section, dependent upon adhesives, especially regarding ventilation and the porosity of the surface and the thickness possible sources of ignition. of applied coats. 10.2 MARKING OUT 10.4 ADHERING THE ACCESSORIES Accurate marking out is essential to minimise adhesive usage and to prevent excess adhesive spoiling decorations. Marking out may be done by a variety of methods including scribers, force if good adhesion is to be assured. Set-in height gauges and section templates. All fitting work must be carried out accurately prior to afterwards is restricted. Adjustments for length should always be made on straight joints – never on mitred sections – unless the length of the wall does not permit this. When using sit-on coved skirtings around external corners, a joint can be avoided by grooving out some of the material from the back using an Exacto cutter, and then warming the coving with a hot air gun. It should be noted that the toe will be curved rather than right angled when the coved skirting is The Polyflor Ejecta ranges of flooring 10.1 PREPARATION installed. accessories are PVC extrusions designed for Ensure that all surfaces are firm, dry and free 10.3 ADHESIVE APPLICATION use with most vinyl floorcoverings, especially of dust, grease and oil. Fair faced brickwork or For use in well ventilated areas where there is the Polyflor and Polysafe ranges. The Ejecta blockwork should have a latex skim coat no risk of ignition of the organic vapours. range includes set-in coved skirtings, sit-on applied, as this provides a smooth, firm surface coved skirtings, cove former, capping strip and of known porosity which will minimise adhesive This system is based upon a solution of polychloroprene rubber in organic solvents. CT strip as well as the weld rods covered in usage and improve adhesion. Alternatively, Section 12. 4mm thick plywood can be cut into appropriate On arrival at site, the accessories should be width strips and then nailed to the blockwork A. If the surface is slightly porous, apply a checked, stored and conditioned, together with to provide a smooth surface onto which the suitable primer and leave to dry for 24 hours. the adhesive, as described for vinyl flooring. skirting can be fitted. B. Then, apply adhesive equally to the section Note: Inflammable adhesives require special All painted surfaces must be stripped back and and to the surface to which it will be attached, storage conditions. Contact the adhesive wire brushed to remove all traces of paint. index placing it accurately first time. The section should not be removed or subjected to lateral application of adhesive, as movement manufacturer or see current literature for details. When the adhesive is dry to the touch, press the section firmly against the other surface, Application is as follows: using a flat spreader. Leave until the adhesive is dry to the touch. coved skirtings are applied before the floor finish is laid and sit-on coved skirtings are applied after the floor finish is laid. 11 WWW.POLYFLOR.COM POLYFLOR TECHNICAL INFORMATION Inlaid designs and borders Polyflor Expressions inlaid motifs and border designs are manufactured under strictly controlled conditions to produce the close-fitting pieces which make up the design. To duplicate the close-fitting on site, it is important to ensure the design is correctly 11.2 WELDING – WET AREAS the material into the adhesive that the joint(s) Where motifs/designs are to be laid into wet abutting the motif are tight, and roll with a areas, either an approved epoxy resin or 68kg roller. polyurethane adhesive should be used, or the H. Turn back the other half of the length and motifs/designs welded after consideration of adhere and roll as before. the effect on the finished appearance. 11.4 INSTALLATION INSTRUCTIONS FOR 11.3 INSTALLATION INSTRUCTIONS FOR MOTIFS/DESIGNS WITHOUT A RECTANGULAR MOTIFS WITH A RECTANGULAR OUTER OUTER FRAME FRAME installation, and at least 24 hours afterwards. 11.1 WELDING – DRY AREAS Welding is not a standard requirement of possible to produce an acceptable appearance and loose lay the main area. by carefully tracing and cutting around the B. Place the Polyflor Expressions motif into outer edge. The following procedure should be position on top of the loose laid material and adopted. For intricate outlines, an outside secure with masking tape to prevent movement. rectangular frame should be incorporated. C. Trace the top and right hand side of the A. As normal practice, slab the lengths and fit rectangular edge frame with a knife and remove and loose lay the main area. the motif. Also trace a diagonal line from the B. Place the Polyflor Expressions motif into start point to the finish point, forming a triangle. position on top of the loose laid material and Cut through and remove triangle waste. secure with masking tape to prevent movement. D. Reposition the motif so that it butts up tightly C. Turn back the clear adhesive film approximately to the two newly cut edges. The two remaining 25mm away from the outside edge of the motif sides can now be traced and cut through. and carefully trace around half of the motif Note 1: By cutting in the rectangle in two shape. Remove the motif and cut a straight line stages, a tighter joint will result. from starting point to finishing point. Cut through and remove this waste half piece. Note 2: Always trace and cut through in one direction for best results. out on the most simple of designs such as E. Adhere the motif using a correctly notched squares, circles etc. trowel and approved adhesive, and roll with a 68kg roller. removed from its packaging and laid on a flat surface and conditioned, together with the rolls of vinyl or vinyl tiles and water-based adhesive, at a temperature of at least 18°C (64°F) for a minimum of 24 hours prior to and during index tape to prevent movement. E. Carefully trace around the other half of the motif and cut through. Where border designs are to be incorporated The Polyflor Expressions design should be D. Reposition the motif so that it butts up tightly to the newly cut edge and secure with masking Polyflor Expressions and should only be carried conditioned prior to laying. Where the motif is a simple outline, it is A. As normal practice, slab the lengths and fit into the floor, consideration as to whether F. Remove clear film from the face of the motif welding would affect the definition of the and remove any adhesive traces. Any minor border lines, thus affecting the finished adjustments to the motif should be made whilst appearance, should be given. the adhesive is wet. G. Fold back the main length(s) away from the motif, and adhere as above. Ensure when placing Note: Always trace and cut through in one direction for best results. F. Adhere the motif using a correctly notched trowel and approved adhesive, and roll with a 68kg roller. WWW.POLYFLOR.COM POLYFLOR TECHNICAL INFORMATION G. Remove clear film from the face of the motif adjustments to the border made whilst the and remove any adhesive traces. Any minor adhesive is wet. The border can then be rolled. adjustments to the motif should be made whilst the adhesive is still wet. H. Fold back the main length(s) away from the motif and adhere as above. Ensure when placing the material into the adhesive that the joint(s) abutting the motif are tight, and roll with a 68kg roller. I. Turn back the other half of length and adhere and roll as before. Polyflor Expressions designs are maintained in the same manner as the surrounding Polyflor vinyl floorcovering. (Full details are given in Section 19 of this manual). 11.5 INSTALLATION OF BORDERS A. Measure and mark the subfloor, using chalk lines to correspond with the required border positions. Measure the main lengths required to fit inside the border, allowing approximately 25mm overlap. B. Lay out the material so that it is overlapping the inner edge of the border chalk line. C. Snap the chalk line over the top of the material to correspond with the inner border lines. D. Using a knife and straight edge, carefully trace along the chalk lines and cut and remove the 25mm surplus. The material can now be folded back and adhered, taking care to retain a straight line around all outside edges. The area must then be rolled. E. The border pieces now require positioning up to the newly-cut straight edges, and adhering. The clear film on the face of the border design should then be removed and any minor index F. The outer margin can now be fitted and adhered to the finished border. 12 WWW.POLYFLOR.COM POLYFLOR TECHNICAL INFORMATION Welding vinyl flooring required are dependent upon preferred methods rub some chalk dust into the surface. Trim the but as a guide the following are suggested: top sheet to the scribed line. 2 metre rigid straight edge 12.4 GROOVING THE SEAMS Straight and hook bladed knives Strike a chalk line along the overlap. Using a Grooving tools – manual and powered utility knife and straight edge, double cut the Welding equipment – manual and automatic joint through both layers of material, ensuring Spatula • Trimming guide that the knife blade is held squarely to the floor. Exacto trimming tools • Under scriber Feed roller • Chalk line Wire brush • Seam cutters See also Section 14. 12.3 CUTTING IN THE SEAMS Factory edges should never be butted together but should be overlapped and cut by one of the following methods: 12.3.1 Using Seam Cutters Set the first cutter to the thickness of vinyl sheet. Using the factory edge as a guide, trim Prior to welding, some of the material must be removed from the seam, creating a groove that will accept the vinyl welding rod. Two shapes of groove can be cut: 1. A “U” shape – which leaves a semi-circular groove in the vinyl. This should extend into the vinyl for 2/3 of its thickness, up to a maximum of 2mm. 2. A “V” shape – which leaves a 60º triangular groove in the vinyl. This should extend into the vinyl for 7/8 of its thickness. off 6mm along the length. Where it is not possible to use the seam cutter against the Note: The ‘V’ shaped groove has proven wall, or in other areas of restricted access, use particularly suitable for embossed versions of a straight edge and straight bladed knife held Polysafe vinyl sheet floorcovering. squarely to the floor. The groove on Acoustic and Sports flooring should only be cut in the vinyl wear layer. It Polyflor strongly recommends that all Polyflor 12.1 HEAT WELDING Set the second cutter to the thickness of vinyl vinyl sheet and 608mm vinyl tile floorings are Heat welding of vinyl floorcoverings has been sheet. Using the edge previously cut on the should never be cut through to the PVC foam welded, this includes the internal and external used successfully for many years and employs top sheet as a guide, cut through the bottom backing. joints when the vinyl sheet is site cove formed. the technique of heating both the vinyl flooring sheet. Remove the scrap piece of material. 12.4.1 Manual Grooving Most specifications make welding mandatory, and the vinyl welding rod to a sufficient 12.3.2 Using an Under Scriber since it prevents ingress of dirt and bacteria temperature to melt and fuse them together. Prior to overlapping the vinyl sheet, trim off into seams and provides a floor surface which is impermeable to water. However, welding will only aid maintenance of high standards of hygiene if it is executed correctly. The procedure is the same for both sheet and the tile installation with the exception that the best done by striking a chalk line, then – using factory edge on the bottom sheet. This is edge of the tiles do not require cutting in prior a utility knife and straight edge – cut through to grooving. and remove the scrap piece. 12.2 CORRECT TOOLS Overlap the top sheet and then trace the Having the correct tools in good condition is a bottom edge onto the top sheet with correctly prerequisite of good heat welding. The tools set under scribers. To highlight the scribed line, The guidelines provided below should be followed carefully, since short cuts taken in welding create potential problems with seam failures. index Place the centre of the grooving tool over the centre of the seam. Bring up the straight edge to touch the side of the cutter, and align the straight edge, maintaining an even distance from the seam (Figure 28). Pulling the tool towards you, groove to the required depth. Move the straight edge as required and repeat until the whole seam is grooved. Sweep well to remove any dust and trimmings from the groove. WWW.POLYFLOR.COM POLYFLOR TECHNICAL INFORMATION Prior to commencing welding: A. Ensure the speedweld attachment is free of debris by cleaning with a wire brush. B. Pre-heat the welding gun (setting 3 - 6 on a variable setting gun), ensuring that the nozzle is pointing upwards during this pre-heat period. C. Try out the welding rod on a scrap of material E. Typically, you would start welding from the forward and trim off the top layer of welding rod edge of the room towards the centre. At this (Figure 31). This can be done whilst the weld is stage, pull the gun away from the groove and still warm. Trimming the weld speeds up the cut off the welding rod. Using a spatula knife, cooling time. trim off the excess welding rod and cut a tapering “V”, approximately 25mm long, into the existing weld (Figure 30). Commence welding as before, from the opposite end of the room. to ensure the temperature is correct and that Run out the weld into the pre-cut “V” and cut off fusion is taking place. Adjust accordingly. the excess welding rod. Figure 28 Grooving the seam Figure 30 Weld joins 12.4.2 Powered Grooving Where Ejecta set-in skirtings are used, the Set the blade to the correct depth of cut. Align vertical joints and mitres are not hot welded. the guides with the cut seam. Press the cutter See Section 10. in to the full depth of cut and then push It is important to ensure a constant rate of forward following the cut seam. Use hand tools welding. Moving slowly will “burn” the vinyl to complete grooves next to walls, skirtings etc. and moving quickly will not fuse the welding Sweep well to remove any dust and trimmings from the groove. Never use a powered grooving machine with a standard blade on Polyflor safety vinyl sheet Figure 29 Applying the weld vary and detract from the appearance. correct, you can proceed to weld the joint: aluminium oxide particles will destroy the blade. aperture. Starting as close as possible to the end If wet set adhesive has been used, it is to ensure that the adhesive has set sufficiently to prevent it bubbling up when heat is applied. If bubbling up occurs, it will adversely affect seam strength. index 12.6 TRIMMING THE WELD Prior to commencing, it is advisable to stone or D. Place the welding rod into the speedweld important, before commencing heat welding, rod. The finished width of the weld may also When you are satisfied that the temperature is floorcovering. The silicon carbide and 12.5 WELDING THE SEAMS Figure 31 Trimming off the weld top layer of the room, press the welding rod down into the groove with the speedweld attachment, the toe of which should be parallel to the vinyl surface. Pull the gun towards you whilst maintaining the hone the trimming spatula knife on one side only. This keen edge will make trimming easier and minimise the risk of “digging in”. Trimming of the weld must be carried out in two stages. Failure to follow this procedure will result in dished welds which are prone to dirt pickup. downward pressure (Figure 29). Ensure the gun is kept square to the floor. With your spare hand, A. Place the trimming guide over the welding alternately check the weld security and that the rod. Insert the spatula knife into the two lugs welding rod is feeding freely. with the honed edge uppermost. Push the knife Figure 32 Final trim after the weld has cooled POLYFLOR TECHNICAL INFORMATION B. When the remaining weld has cooled to room temperature, the excess weld should be trimmed. The spatula knife, again honed edge uppermost, is used without the trimming guide. Keep as shallow an angle as possible between blade and floor to avoid the risk of “digging in” (Figure 32). Note: Polyflor foam backed vinyl sheet flooring is liable to compression and sometimes, even after the final trim, the weld is proud of the floor. In this case, use an Exacto cutter with a large circular blade to scrape away any high spots. 12.7 GLAZING THE WELD Should a glazed finish be required this can be achieved with the speedweld attachment removed but still on the same heat setting, play the gun nozzle over the trimmed weld. Repeat over the whole length of the weld, keeping the gun moving constantly to prevent burning. index WWW.POLYFLOR.COM 13 WWW.POLYFLOR.COM POLYFLOR TECHNICAL INFORMATION 72 hour period, as described in BS 8203. Adhesives the adhesive manufacturer should be assessed must, in all cases, be followed. Only adhesives and precautions taken as directed in the recommended by the Polyflor Technical Control Of Substances Hazardous To Health would not prove satisfactory. Correct handling The Health And Safety At Work Act 1974 should be observed and, if applicable, The Highly index This will remove any adhesive ridges prior to together with the majority of the adhesive, and the adhesive setting, whilst maintaining the the resulting surface should be free from dust, correct adhesive spread rate on the substrate. Polyflor does not recommend any method of adhesive application, such as spraying, which smoothing underlayment, at least 3mm thick, instructions of the adhesive manufacturer of adhesives is recommended at all times. adhesive roller immediately after spreading. floorcoverings should be completely removed, cannot guarantee the spread rate. Gases Regulations. Any hazards indicated by warranties regarding the approved adhesives, provide sufficient porosity. Existing In most instances, it is beneficial to apply a guidance. The recommendations and or assume that other manufacturers’ adhesives Acrylic pressure-sensitive adhesives should be rolled with a previously wetted, short pile contamination that may hinder adhesion. Flammable Liquid And Liquefied Petroleum Department and are approved as suitable, Smooth, dense surfaces such as power floated concrete should be mechanically treated to grease, paint, plaster or any other The following information is provided for should be used. Polyflor does not make any to suit the adhesive and the application. to smooth out any local irregularities, nullify 13.4 OPEN TIME OF ADHESIVES the effects of any adhesive residue and provide Open times, as recommended by the relevant a surface of known porosity. manufacturer must be observed at all times. To achieve a sound bond between the Do not spread more adhesive than can be laid floorcovering material and the substrate, into during the open time of the adhesive. it is essential that these recommendations are Unlike wet set adhesives, pressure-sensitive followed. adhesives must have all the moisture 13.2 PRIMING THE SUBFLOOR evaporated from them prior to the application On porous sand/cement, concrete and all of the floorcovering. The colour changes from timber subfloors, it is essential that a primer be opaque to translucent, which provides a used. The use of a primer ensures an even positive indication of when the adhesive is porosity, minimises the amount of adhesive ready to be laid into. Good ventilation and air used and provides a longer open time of the flow will help speed up the drying time on adhesive. The primer used should be these adhesives. It may be necessary to use an compatible with the subfloor and the adhesive, electric fan(s) to speed up the drying time. and be as recommended by the adhesive 13.5 REMOVING EXCESS ADHESIVE manufacturer. As good working practice, excess adhesive legislation. 13.3 APPLICATION OF ADHESIVE should be removed as work progresses. It is strongly recommended that all adhesives Wet, water-based adhesives are easily removed 13.1 INITIAL PREPARATION are conditioned at a minimum temperature of with a clean, damp cloth. Dried water-based Prior to the application of the floorcovering, it should be ensured that the substrate is sound, dry and free from dust. The relative humidity of solid, cementicious subfloors should be at a maximum of 75% relative humidity when measured over at least a 18°C for at least 24 hours prior to, and then adhesives and solvent-based adhesives should during, the laying period. The adhesive must be be removed with a minimum amount of solvent applied using a notched trowel of the correct cleanser, as recommended by the adhesive size notch, which must be maintained during manufacturer. Excessive use of these cleansers the adhesive application stage. The adhesive can cause discolouration and softening of the manufacturer provides details of the notch size vinyl surface. WWW.POLYFLOR.COM POLYFLOR TECHNICAL INFORMATION 13.6 ROLLING THE FLOOR conditions and the in-use conditions all affect Once the floorcovering has been laid, the the selection. material should be rolled immediately with a 68kg articulated floor roller, working initially in the widthways direction, if it is sheet material. This rolling ensures good contact between the substrate, adhesive and floorcovering, expels any trapped air, and flattens the adhesive ridges to prevent shadow through once the floor becomes trafficked. The floorcovering should be rolled again, one to four hours later, to ensure the contact between the materials is maintained. 13.7 PROTECTION FROM RADIATED HEAT SOURCES The Polysafe range of floorcoverings is often used in situations where excessive heat causes problems with the floorcovering and the adhesive. It is impractical to give specific details, as equipment such as ovens and kilns vary in design and height above the flooring material. Where the conditions may cause a problem, we would recommend the use of metal oven trays that deflect the heat away from the floor, and an adhesive suitable for these conditions, such as an epoxy or polyurethane. If you are unsure, we recommend that you discuss the application with our Customer Technical Services team. 13.8 APPROVED ADHESIVES There are many different types of adhesive available in the marketplace, and the suitability for use with the range of Polyflor products depends upon a number of factors. The formulation of the adhesive, the formulation of the floorcovering, the site index The Technical Department of Polyflor checks the compatibility between the adhesive and the floorcoverings. The current list of approved adhesives for the full range of Polyflor products is available, on request, from the Customer Technical Services Department of Polyflor, their distributors or approved agents. 14 WWW.POLYFLOR.COM POLYFLOR TECHNICAL INFORMATION 14.3 HEAT WELDING Tools and Equipment Grooving tools Hot welding gun Spatula trimming knife Speedweld nozzle Trimming guide Oilstone 14.4 PREPARATION Long handled broom Hand brush Dust pan Hygrometer Screeding trowel Grind stone Electric drill (slow speed) and rotary paddle 14.5 MISCELLANEOUS Claw hammer Screwdriver Hacksaw Handsaw Electric drill Various twist drills Powered groover Mastic gun 14.6 SAFETY EQUIPMENT Knee pads Safety goggles Face mask Circuit breaker 14.7 OPTIONAL EQUIPMENT The following equipment is not essential but As in all trades, a skilled floor layer should have at his disposal a basic set of tools that should 14.1 MARKING OUT & FITTING larger installations. Rule Chalk line and chalk Powered stripper be clean and in good condition. Bar or long scriber Transformer Recess scriber Tape Measure Automatic welding machine The specific choice of tools is dependent upon the individual floor layer’s preferences, the size will greatly assist the floor layer, especially on Dividers or short scribers Straight edge of installation and the amount of preparation Pencil and compass required. Various trimming knives The following tools should be considered as 14.2 INSTALLATION Powered groover Floor grinder Vacuum cleaner Extension lead Pencils 14.8 SPECIALIST TOOLS In addition to the basic tools, there is a range part of the basic kit for the operations Adhesive trowels Triangular file 68kg articulated roller Hand roller of specialist tools which are designed for indicated. specific tasks such as coving, feature work, walls and repairs. Some of the more common tools are listed, together with a brief description of their usage. index Hot air welding gun WWW.POLYFLOR.COM POLYFLOR TECHNICAL INFORMATION Heat gun Feed Roller Spatula trimming knife and cable cutting slide Adhesive trowel Hydro weld trimmer Spiked roller Hand Groover Recess scriber Knife Box Scriber Exacto tool Straight edge index Hand roller Cold weld tape cutter 15 WWW.POLYFLOR.COM POLYFLOR TECHNICAL INFORMATION Recommended finishes beams, columns and walls (to make leak watertight security which is essential where detection easier). Obviously, they should be hygiene and safety are of primary importance. close to the main spillage sources, when direct outlets from spillage sources are not possible. The floor gradient into the drain depends on These clamping rings ensure that the Polysafe floorcovering is held securely in position and they prevent the ingress of water that could the process, traffic volume and the surface adversely affect the adhesion at this critical texture of the floorcovering. The drains used point. should be built to permit examination, cleaning and repair without these operations causing damage to the floor. 15.1.2 Drainage channels and gulleys Again, only drainage channels and gulleys which incorporate vinyl clamping and locking systems into their design should be considered. 15.2 CONSTRUCTION JOINT COVERS Correct treatment at expansion joints is also essential if the floor is going to last and perform in a safe and hygienic manner. We recommend that expansion joints are covered using either a PVC expansion joint cover, or a cover with a PVC insert, so that the flooring can be thermally welded to the cover (Figure 35). Figure 33 Stainless steel drain prior to fitting vinyl clamping ring There are no short cuts to optimum They make up only a small proportion of the performance with the installation of any total floor, yet they often make up most of an flooring. That is why an overview should be architect’s snag list. taken of each project so that the finishing details are considered right from the start of the project. It also means that all parties are aware of their individual areas of responsibility. There is no question that the final details A Polyflor installation must focus on these important details and also take into account all Figure 35 Expansion joint cover aspects of the location. We believe that the On no account must the Polyflor or Polysafe floor must not only look good, but also perform be taken straight over the expansion joint. well, so that it is impermeable, hygienic and Figure 34 Drain with clamping ring in place contribute so much to an impressive finish for the floor. These include relatively minor details such as awkward corners, internal or external mitres, the junction where different floorcoverings meet and finishing details around drains and other accessories. index safe. 15.1 DRAINAGE The location of drains is important. As far as possible, they should be away from sources of vibration (to reduce movement) and from 15.1.1 Shower Drains This will lead to failure. 15.3 EDGE TRIMS Only drains which have been specifically In many of the areas where Polyflor is installed, designed for use with sheet vinyl floorings other types of floorcovering will also be used. should be considered. Most of these drains The junction between the Polyflor flooring and have clamping rings, which ensure the WWW.POLYFLOR.COM POLYFLOR TECHNICAL INFORMATION these other types of floorcovering is a clamped into place. Both these solutions result coved skirting is used which can be welded to 15.7 SIT-ON SKIRTINGS potential weak point, if not treated properly. in a watertight, hygienic and safe joint. the Polyflor vinyl flooring. Sit-on skirting (Figure 39) generally tend only 15.6 SKIRTINGS AND OTHER FINISHES 15.6.1 Site coving Correct installation minimises problems such as water leakage and trip hazard. 15.3.1 Polyflor or Polysafe with ceramic or quarry floor tiles In installations where the edge of the vinyl comes into contact with ceramic or quarry Polyflor supplies a wide range of PVC profiles For the junction between site-coved Polyflor which are ideal for use with the Polyflor range vinyl flooring and ceramic wall tiles, Polyflor of products. In most installations, we would Ejecta CT strip (Figure 36 and 37) provides the recommend that the Polyflor vinyl flooring is ideal solution. either site-coved up the wall, or a “set in” The flexible section is designed to accept ceramic wall tiles on one side and the various achieved at the junction. Aluminium edge trims gauges of Polyflor on the other. floor; it is not welded. If requested suitable the skirting. 15.6.2 Set-in coved skirtings They facilitate installation and the PVC insert Where it is impractical or where it is not cost allows for a welded joint between the edge trim effective to use the site-coved method of and the Polyflor floorcovering. installation, the Polyflor Ejecta set-in skirting 15.4 POLYFLOR WITH CARPET (Figure 38) is a viable alternative. Very similar It is important that the junction between to the sit-on type skirting in appearance, Polyflor and carpet is clearly visible and that the set in skirting has a 50mm toe which is any trip hazard is minimised by using edging adhered to the subfloor and allows the main strips. A variety of edging strips are available field of sheet vinyl to be welded to it. for this junction. The relevant manufacturers room. The sit-on skirting is adhered to the walls and the toe of the skirting sits on top of the mastic sealant can be used beneath the toe of tiles, it is important that a watertight joint is with PVC inserts are ideal for this purpose. to be used in conjunction with tiled floors to provide a finish around the perimeter of the Figure 36 Polyflor Ejecta CT Strip can supply further advice on installation and use of these types of trims. 15.4.1 Bevelled and diminishing strips Bevelled or diminishing strips should be used at all exposed edges of Polyflor vinyl floorings Figure 39 Sit-on coved skirting to minimise trip hazards. 15.8 MASTIC SEALANT FINISH The bevelled strip should be butted tightly to When specified suitable silicon mastics can be the exposed edge of the Polyflor vinyl flooring. used as a finish around the perimeter of a The bevelled strip should be fixed using a room. This is provided a water tight finish is contact adhesive and the joint may be not required and all parties are in agreement thermally welded. as to this type of finish. 15.5 ACCESS AND MANHOLE COVERS It is important that access covers are used which facilitate either the welding of the Figure 38 Set-in coved skirting Polyflor vinyl flooring to the cover and frame or where the Polyflor vinyl flooring can be index Figure 37 Polyflor Ejecta CT Strip 16 WWW.POLYFLOR.COM POLYFLOR TECHNICAL INFORMATION Resistance to chemicals request. These charts show the resistance to a where spillage is infrequent. Occasional, range of specific chemicals by shade for each accidental spillages, which are removed Polyflor product, and will prove helpful in immediately, do not normally damage the selecting colours which are least affected by flooring. A comprehensive guide to chemical specific chemicals. effects and staining by product shade is Note: Polyflor test for resistance to chemicals available on request. is evaluated over a 24 hour contact period at 16.3 REACTION TO RUBBER a room temperature of 21ºC, followed by Antioxidants used in the manufacture of rinsing with cold water. Polyflor believes this rubber can cause staining. Non-rubber traffic simulates the worst situation where spillages mats are recommended, as are tyre trays for are not removed immediately and are only car showrooms, etc. Using black or dark brown cleaned by normal maintenance. Some stains floorcoverings will not prevent staining but will can be removed by abrading with a nylon pad disguise it. Lighter coloured rubber can also be during maintenance. A metallised emulsion specified for appliance feet, trolley wheels etc. floor polish can be used as a sacrificial layer 16.4 ALCO-BASED HAND GELS for protecting the floor against staining. Polyflor homogeneous PUR, heterogeneous 16.2 POLYFLOR RUBBER FLOORCOVERINGS PUR and Polysafe safety flooring ranges are Polyflor Rubber floorcoverings have average compatible for use with the most commonly resistance to mild and dilute acids, alkalis, soaps used alco-based hand gels. and detergents. Prolonged exposure to petrol, Some alco-based hand gels contain a high oils, greases and fats will cause softening and concentration of ethanol and to discuss their swelling. Polyflor Rubber floorcoverings are compatibility with other Polyflor floorcoverings, unsuitable for garage workshops or food contact Customer Technical Services. preparation areas, but are suitable for areas ORGANIC LIQUIDS EFFECT ACTION Aldehydes Esters Halogenated hydrocarbons Ketones Flooring attack occurs after several minutes. Wipe up immediately. Alcohols Ethers Glycols Hydrocarbons (aromatic & aliphatic) Petroleum spirit Vegetable oil After several days, plasticiser extraction occurs, with associated problems of shrinkage and embrittlement. Wipe up immediately. selected to minimise the staining effect. AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS EFFECT ACTION into contact with Polyflor vinyl flooring. The following tables summarise the general Mild acids and alkalis No effect. However, if this should happen, the effect can chemical resistance of Polyflor vinyl flooring Strong alkalis Dilute and remove. be minimised by removing the spillage (see footnote for brief description of test Will strip polish and may cause discolouration in some shades. procedure). Where specific chemicals are used Strong acids immediately and leaving any solvent residue to Prolonged contact can cause discolouration. Dilute and remove immediately. Dyes (indicators) Contact can cause discolouration. Dilute and remove immediately. 16.1 POLYFLOR VINYL FLOORING use in all areas where most chemicals are used Polyflor and Polysafe vinyl floorcoverings show and there is only risk of accidental spillage. an above average resistance to mild and dilute However, some chemicals contain very strong acids, alkalis, soaps and detergents. Petrol and dyes, which, even after a short period of strong acids are not harmful, provided any contact, will stain the vinyl flooring. In areas spillage is cleaned off immediately. where these types of chemicals are used, it is Ketones, chlorinated solvents, acetone and similar solvents should not be allowed to come evaporate, prior to allowing any foot traffic. suggested that an appropriate dark colour be – for instance in a photographic laboratory – a set of chemical resistance charts is available on Polyflor vinyl floorcoverings are suitable for index 17 WWW.POLYFLOR.COM POLYFLOR TECHNICAL INFORMATION Use area classifications CLASS 21 22 23 31 32 33 34 Selecting a floorcovering that will satisfy the So in order to help the end user and/or the actual or expected service requirements is building designer make an informed choice, the essential if a product is to perform up to the majority of Polyflor products now show the end user’s expectations. With so much product European use area classifications and the information now available, it is hardly surprising Agrément ratings. The Use Area Classifications that selection can sometimes be difficult. 41 42 43 can only be claimed if the products meet the SYMBOL A B D E F G H I J K LEVEL OF USE DESCRIPTION domestic areas considered for residential use Moderate Areas with low or intermittent use General Areas with medium use Heavy Areas with intense use commercial areas considered for public and commercial use Moderate Areas with low or intermittent use General Areas with medium traffic Heavy Areas with heavy traffic Very Heavy Areas with intense use industrial areas considered for light industrial use Moderate Areas where work is mainly sedentary with occasional use of light vehicles General Areas where work is mainly standing and/or with vehicular traffic Heavy Other light industrial areas Use area classification table Polyflor vinyl floorcoverings, for example, are manufactured in a range of thicknesses, with differing levels of filler and constructions, to suit a variety of applications. In addition, some vinyl floorings have specialist features such as acoustical, static control or slip-resisting properties. These are the variables from just one manufacturer! index requirements of the performance criteria that products. A general guide to both systems varies and some applications may require a follows: higher rated product. assessment bodies and only after an 17.1 EUROPEAN CLASSIFICATION EN 685 The European system has three specific use independent assessment of the product, both This European Norm describes the various categories, with sub-divisions based on type in laboratory conditions and on-site use. levels of use area, the relevant icons and typical and intensity of traffic (see the above chart.) have been laid down. The Agrément rating is awarded by one of the national Agrément A basic understanding of both systems is useful when making decisions on suitability of applications. These typical applications may Individual EN product specifications detail the vary from country to country as room usage performance and physical criteria that a WWW.POLYFLOR.COM POLYFLOR TECHNICAL INFORMATION product must meet to achieve the classification useful. The revision, carried out in conjunction – and products can meet the criteria of all with the European floorcovering manufacturers, local national body that can provide this These groups were chosen with reference to three groups. When a higher classification made the overall scheme simpler. As all vinyl information. the already well established Agrément system, number is claimed, the product will meet all the floorcoverings achieved a C2 rating when requirements of the lower classes in that tested, it was felt unnecessary to include this group. and the new system concentrated on the U, P and E ratings. The individual EN product specifications allow for products of different filler levels and 17.3 EUROPEAN NORMS European Norms – or “EN”s – are aimed at harmonising industry standards throughout the European Union and EFTA countries, and The new scheme was termed the GWS system, abrasion resistance and define minimum overall their overseas agents for the address of the with G being the general classification ranging and wear layer thickness for each classification. from 1 to 5 and being a combination of the Homogeneous products, being 100% wear previous U and P ratings. W indicates that the layer, are classified using the minimum wear product can tolerate wet cleaning but not layer thickness and the overall thickness. standing water. WS indicates the product can Compared to an heterogeneous product of the tolerate standing water by having the joints same classification which would give a typical welded. The W and S replace the previous life expectancy of 10 years, a ‘P’ abrasion group E rating. have now replaced the old British Standards relating to floorcoverings. The standards are: The ratings are expressed as T,P, M and F. and relate to the idea of a notional 10-year life expectancy in a given use area. The initials come from the French: Transparent, Pas or Peu chargé, Moyen chargé and Fortement chargé, and basically relate to the amount of filler (chargé) used in a formulation. EN 649 defines the performance criteria which products must meet in order to claim Use Area EN 649 covering homogeneous and Classification under EN 685, as discussed in heterogeneous vinyls, and replacing BS 3261A. EN 650 covering jute or polyester backed vinyls. homogenous product has twice as much useful G1 is equivalent to U2 P2 The Agrément system, which originated in G3 is equivalent to U3 P2 France, has been in use for many years. G4 is equivalent to U3 P3 heterogeneous vinyls on PVC foam, EN 652 covering vinyl flooring with a cork based backing. EN 653 covering expanded PVC flooring such as cushion vinyls. The ratings were based on four key physical G5 is equivalent to U4 P3 properties. The results which the product EN 651 covering homogeneous and and replacing BS 5085. G2 is equivalent to U2+P2 17.2 AGRÉMENT SYSTEM EN 654 covering semi-flexible PVC tiles, achieved against a test criteria in each No W rating is equivalent to E1 category gave it the overall rating. (The higher W rating is equivalent to E2 and replacing BS 3260. EN 655 for PVC tiles with a base of agglomerated cork and a PVC the number, the better the performance.) WS rating is equivalent to E3 wear layer. The overall performance was then quoted as a The Agrément bodies produce a comprehensive The relevant ENs which apply to Polyflor vinyl UPEC rating and this system is still recognised listing of typical use areas, which are too floorcoverings are 649, 651 and 654. today in France. In 1987, the scheme for numerous to list here, together with the floorcoverings was revised, but still retained product rating required. Contact Polyflor or the basic concepts that made the scheme so PROPERTY Wear Penetration Water resistance Chemical resistance index In addition to the vinyl specification, specifications for rubber flooring have now been published. They are: A comparison of both ratings is as follows: life and as such the life expectancy would be 20 years in a class 34/43 use area. Section 17.1. Under EN 649, products are given an abrasion group rating. There are two test methods (FRENCH TERM) SY M B O L RANGE (Unsure) U 1-4 (Poinçonnements) P 1-4 (Eau) E 1-3 (Chimique) C 1-3 accepted for abrasion which have an established correlation; EN 660 Parts 1 and 2. Either can be used to establish the abrasion category. EN 1817 Homogeneous and heterogeneous rubber flooring. EN 1816 Homogeneous and heterogeneous rubber flooring with foam backing. EN 12199 Homogeneous and heterogeneous relief rubber flooring. 18 WWW.POLYFLOR.COM POLYFLOR TECHNICAL INFORMATION temperature caused by short-term contact with Operating service temperature hot water and steam. Long-term or regular bond strength, which is normally three days. contact should be avoided. Where there is a To ensure the best results, shade all windows, possibility of regular contact with liquid gases, turn off any underfloor heating, provide which are extremely cold, the constant background heating at 18°C and select an expansion and contraction of the vinyl may epoxy or polyurethane grade adhesive. cause premature failure. In these instances, Condition the tiles correctly prior to it can be beneficial to have a second piece of installation. Polyflor will not accept vinyl loose laid on top of the floor, to protect it. responsibility for any expansion or shrinkage Should this become damaged, it can be easily problems, which may result from changes in and economically replaced. temperature during the period when the 18.1 UNDERFLOOR HEATING All the Polyflor and Polysafe vinyl product ranges can be installed over underfloor heating. In installations where underfloor heating is used, this should be switched off from 48 hours prior to installation until 48 hours afterwards. It should then be slowly brought back up to the working temperature, a maximum of 27°C. Adhesives capable of withstanding temperatures up to 27°C should be used. Please note: It is recommended that underfloor heating systems are commissioned The full range of Polyflor and Polysafe sheet It is important that the materials be prior to the flooring being installed to ensure vinyl floorcoverings can be used under a wide conditioned and installed at normal room the heating system is operating correctly. range of service temperatures. temperatures: 18°C (65°F). The material should The above installation procedure should then be fully adhered to the substrate, taking care to be followed. Maximum upper temperature 60°C (140°F) ensure that there are no unsupported voids Minimum lower temperature -20°C (-4°F) beneath the vinyl. In these types of installation, Use in such extreme conditions is dependent and where site coving is specifıed, then a pencil upon the correct selection of adhesive. cove should be used, and not one with a cove Guidance should be sought from the adhesive former. All joints should be hot welded 24 manufacturer for approval of the adhesive at hours after installation and before the the expected temperatures. Typically, an installation is taken to the service temperature. approved two-part epoxy or polyurethane adhesive should be used in the main field, and a contact adhesive for vertical applications. index period and until the adhesive reaches its full 18.2 AREAS SUBJECTED TO PROLONGED SUNLIGHT Large, sun-facing windows (especially where under-floor heating is in use) and conservatories can experience problems due to high daytime temperatures and low night-time temperatures. In these instances, it is necessary Both Polyflor and Polysafe ranges can to ensure that an even day and night withstand occasional sudden changes in temperature is maintained during the laying adhesive is reaching full bond strength. All Polyflor floor coverings are designed for internal usage only. We cannot guarantee the performance of any of our floor coverings in external environments. 19 WWW.POLYFLOR.COM POLYFLOR TECHNICAL INFORMATION Maintenance To others, it is someone who comes in three approach is the best solution for all types of evenings a week to dust and mop the floors. floorcoverings. In each case, the requirement for cleanliness and gloss can be completely different. It is this variability in what is considered normal that makes it impracticable in this manual to These include floor location, type and quantity of traffic, and the existence or otherwise of dirt specific end user locations. The instructions barriers. Armed with this information, a given are intended to be used as a guide. solution which gives real savings without They are based on general experience using affecting the floor’s appearance, hygiene or established methods and cleaning materials. cleanliness can be developed. Polyflor recommends that the instructions become established, the frequency is tailored to suit. 19.1.3 Tailored Maintenance Reducing maintenance costs is not difficult; what takes much more skill is reducing these costs without cutting the effectiveness of the maintenance system. By tailoring a maintenance programme, real savings can be made without compromising standards of appearance, hygiene and cleanliness. which, if left uncontrolled, would shorten the 19.1.1 Why is floorcare necessary? life of a floorcovering, causing premature Floorcoverings are selected for many reasons replacement. Regular and well planned including their colour, design and sometimes maintenance keeps the floorcovering in specialist properties such as static control or pristine condition and can enhance the original slip resistance. Without regular maintenance, dust and soiling would soon build up, making We begin by looking at the many variables which have a part to play in maintenance. give precise maintenance instructions to suit are followed initially and, as traffic patterns 19.1 INTRODUCTION TO MAINTENANCE 19.1.4 The Polyflor in-depth approach 19.2 POINTS TO CONSIDER Before establishing a maintenance programme, there are some points which should be considered, as they can affect the method and frequency – and hence the cost – of maintenance. 19.2.1 Dirt Barrier Systems Evidence from a wide range of studies indicates that up to 80% of all dirt, grit and moisture is carried into a building by the people using it. One of the easiest ways to reduce maintenance costs must therefore be to reduce the amount of dirt, grit and moisture they bring in. Not only A tailored maintenance programme is simple to would this cut the cost of its removal, but it apply, with the effort (and thus the cost), would also cause less abrasive action on the concentrated where each location demands. floorcovering, which in turn would ensure a This produces definite savings and considerable longer useful life. With less moisture, there return on a floorcovering investment. would also be less potential for slipping. appearance. Maintenance can also reduce wear Certain Polyflor ranges benefit from enhanced Unfortunately, notices asking people to and ultimately improve the life expectancy of formulations in relation to maintenance. thoroughly wipe their feet rarely work. What is needed is an effective “passive” dirt barrier the colour and design indistinguishable and the the floorcovering. The PUR or Supratec PUR families provide long specialist properties practically useless. Dirt 19.1.2 What is maintenance? and soiling can also harbour bacteria, making Maintenance means many things to many the floorcovering a health hazard e.g. in people. To some, it is an army of operatives hospitals or food processing areas. Dust and using modern powered machines working to a grit underfoot can also act as an abrasive, comprehensive maintenance programme. index term maintenance benefits. The PU family system. At first, these systems can seem facilitates a reduction in the intensity of the expensive but the savings they provide over construction clean and provides the foundation the long term are substantial. for the ongoing maintenance regime. In our experience, a tailored maintenance An effective dirt barrier system has both scraping and absorbing qualities and is WWW.POLYFLOR.COM POLYFLOR TECHNICAL INFORMATION standards of appearance, hygiene and from that where soft soled trainers or pumps are Smooth products without PUR or PU both feet during normal walking – hence cleanliness. The first part of this process is to used in the school sports hall. “passive”. Dirt barrier systems should be break down areas to be cleaned into a series of TYPE OF CLEANING EQUIPMENT Polysafe products with Supratec PUR enhanced formulation considered early in the specification stage. independent locations. Each location should Manual methods can be time consuming in large They should not be an afterthought, when then be assessed before a particular areas and may be incompatible with the there are rarely sufficient funds or space to do maintenance regime is employed. frequency requirement. However, large machines This should provide a clear indication as to used in confined spaces can take longer than where the effort and therefore the cost should manual methods. The general maintenance procedures are listed COLOUR OF FLOORCOVERING in the subsequent pages. We also provide hard sufficiently large to perform these actions on the job properly. 19.2.2 The Ideal Dirt Barrier best be applied. These assessments should be reviewed periodically, to ensure that standards are to the level expected by the client and that cost Polysafe products without Supratec PUR ESD ranges where no polish should be applied Rubber floorcoverings In general, light colours show soiling more easily, copies (on request) or electronic copies dark colours show loss of gloss more easily. (through the web site) of individual floorcare Mid range colours will give a balance between procedures, to guide the end user or the two extremes. maintenance staff. PREVAILING WEATHER 19.5 STANDARD SMOOTH VINYLS WITH PUR In icy conditions, grit and salt are sometimes The Polyflor PUR family of products savings are being achieved wherever this is Figure 40 An exterior scraper mat at least two paces wide, set into a matwell. The choice of materials is varied. Clearance should be sufficient to allow grit and debris to fall below. Also allowances must be made for the wearers of various types of shoes e.g. stiletto heels. possible. 19.3.1 Points to consider used outside building entrances. In dry incorporates a polyurethane reinforcement, The assessment should consider the following conditions, dust and sand can also be found which protects the floorcovering by resisting points: outside buildings. In both instances, soiling and soiling and scuffing. Combined with the superior LOCATION abrasion can be accelerated if effective measures closed surface finish, this enhanced protection Position of the location in the building. Entrance are not taken to prevent them being trafficked areas and receptions will require more intensive, into the building. allows the use of a polish-free maintenance regime. This protection ensures that the frequent cleaning than upper floor, low 19.3.2 The Assessment should establish the intensity of the maintenance and overall circulation corridors. following: cleaning costs are significantly reduced. SOILING 1. The type of cleaning needed The following maintenance instructions are Type of soiling which is likely to be found in the 2. The frequency of cleaning designed to maximise the benefits of the PUR, particles. This can also be set into a matwell. Again, the location. Dirt and grit from an outside car park 3. The cleaning products and equipment needed choice of materials is wide and often the barrier will be a will require a different treatment from chemical composite of several materials. spillage in a laboratory. Figure 41 An interior grade combination scraper/ moisture mat of two to three metres in length. This will remove the majority of moisture and any fine abrasive Note: To maintain the effectiveness of dirt barrier systems, they must be cleaned regularly, otherwise they can actually increase the soil intake by creating a “soil reservoir” at the entrance to the building. 19.3 ASSESSING THE LOCATION As mentioned earlier, by tailoring the savings can be made without compromising index your floorcovering. 5. The time to be allocated CLIENT EXPECTATIONS The expectation of the client for that particular location plays an important part. Obviously, if a high shine is required, the maintenance regime must be able to provide this. TRAFFIC Traffic types, density and frequency in the given maintenance programme, real and achievable 4. The level of labour required resulting in lower maintenance costs, without compromising the long-term appearance of location. The type of footwear used by children in school corridors provides a different situation 19.4 INDIVIDUAL PRODUCT MAINTENANCE PROCEDURES 19.5.1 Initial construction clean A. Remove all loose debris. As the Polyflor product portfolio has developed, B. Ensure that all traces of adhesive are removed the maintenance procedures have become from the surface of the floorcovering. specific to generic types which are: Smooth products with PUR (polyurethane reinforcement) Smooth products with PU (polyurethane surface treatment) C. Mop sweep or vacuum to remove dust and grit. D. Damp mop with a neutral detergent. E. If required, dry buff with a 1000 rpm plus rotary machine fitted with a suitable clean pad. WWW.POLYFLOR.COM POLYFLOR TECHNICAL INFORMATION 19.5.2 Routine maintenance 5. These maintenance instructions are intended The following recommendations are provided for the PUR family of floorcoverings, which have as a guideline, and the frequency can be a polyurethane reinforcement. changed to optimise the appearance. For other Polyflor products, reference should be made to the relevant section or to their specific DAILY Mop sweep or vacuum to remove dust and loose dirt. If required, spot mop to remove stubborn marks, with a neutral cleanser. WEEKLY Assess the appearance of the floor. Undertake the following as required: Light scuffing – dry buff with a 1000 rpm plus rotary machine fitted with a suitable clean pad. floorcare sheets. E. If required, dry buff with a 1000 rpm plus rotary machine fitted with a suitable clean pad. However where there is no mechanical means of maintaining the floor, an emulsion floor polish should be applied. Details of the procedure to be used can be found under the Standard Vinyl with Heavier scuffing – spray clean using a floor 7. Regular cleaning is more beneficial to the maintainer and 1000 rpm plus rotary machine floorcovering and more cost-effective than fitted with a suitable clean pad. occasional heavy cleaning. 19.5.3 Periodic Maintenance 19.6 STANDARD SMOOTH VINYL WITH PU The following recommendations are provided changed to optimise the appearance. has dirt build–up, machine scrub with a scrubber dryer (approx. 165 rpm) fitted with a suitable clean pad, using a neutral or alkaline detergent, as appropriate. Polyflor smooth vinyl ‘PU’ floorcoverings incorporate a polyurethane surface treatment, which protects the floorcovering by resisting soiling and scuffing. This protection facilitates a reduction in the intensity of the construction clean and provides the foundation for the B. Rinse thoroughly and allow to dry. ongoing maintenance regime. This easier C. Dry buff to restore finish. cleanability offers maintenance cost savings 19.5.4 Additional Information: when compared with non-treated materials. 1. The maintenance regime requires the The following maintenance instructions are installation of an effective barrier matting system. designed to minimise the cost factor, without 2. Cleaners and detergents should be diluted as DAILY 3. Always follow the Health and Safety guidance dirt. If required, spot clean to remove stubborn marks with a neutral cleanser. If required, dry buff to restore finish. WEEKLY/MONTHLY Assess the appearance of the floor. If required, scrub with a scrubber dryer fitted with suitable pads, and using neutral cleanser (pH 7 to 9). provided. 4. Fit protective feet to table and chair legs, to prevent scratching. index 19.6.3 Application of a floor dressing In order to minimise costs, subsequent polish applications may be applied only to traffic paths. Periodically – generally every six months – assess the appearance of the floor. If there is an unacceptable build-up of polish, this should be stripped and reapplied, as per the instructions above. 19.6.4 Additional Information: 1. The maintenance regime requires the installation provide initial protection for the floorcovering. of an effective barrier matting system. However, an application of a metallised polish 2. Cleaners and detergents should be diluted as may be required eventually to provide extra per the manufacturers’ instructions. protection. The level and intensity of traffic and soiling will determine how soon the polish will 3. These maintenance instructions are intended have to be applied. For polish free maintenance, for the Polyflor ‘PU’ family, which incorporates a see the Polyflor PUR range of products. polyurethane surface treatment. For other For polish application, please follow details of Polyflor products, reference should be made to the procedure below. the relevant section or to their specific floorcare sheets. your floorcovering. with wringer and bucket, the first coat should be applied thinly and evenly across the floor, to A. Remove all loose debris. assessments for the particular location. The Polyurethane surface treatment will compromising the long-term appearance of 19.6.1 Initial construction clean scuffing and removal of black heel marking. Mop sweep or vacuum to remove dust and loose A. Using an applicator and tray, or Kentucky mop per the manufacturers’ instructions. Two to three thin coats are usually sufficient to provide excellent resistance to abrasion, However, be guided by your own periodic If required, dry buff to restore finish. A. Assess the appearance of the floor. If the floor at right angles, and the final coat should be 19.6.2 Routine maintenance regime will be sufficient to ensure your floorcovering retains the optimum appearance. should be applied at right angles to the direction of the first. Subsequent coats should be applied applied right up to the skirting. as a guideline, and the frequencies can be 6. In most instances, the above maintenance PU section. or D. Damp mop with a neutral detergent. 4. For further guidance, contact Polyflor Customer Technical Services. within 200mm of the skirtings. It should then be 5. Always follow the Health and Safety guidance left to dry. This normally takes approximately provided. B. Ensure that all traces of adhesive are removed thirty minutes, depending on the ambient 6. Regular cleaning is more beneficial to the from the surface of the floorcovering. conditions and the thickness of the coating. floorcovering and more cost-effective than C. Mop sweep or vacuum to remove dust and grit. B. When the first coat is dry, a second coat occasional heavy cleaning. WWW.POLYFLOR.COM POLYFLOR TECHNICAL INFORMATION 19.7 STANDARD SMOOTH VINYL RANGES the first 2–3 applications, to enable a protective cleaned after use. Failure to do so will result in a the environment, without compromising such WITHOUT PU OR PUR film to be developed as quickly as possible and, shiny, dirty floor. key elements as hygiene and underfoot safety. thereafter, in accordance with the manufacturer’s or instructions. Using a neutral or germicidal cleanser, diluted to Polysafe PUR is designed to resist soiling, Note: To provide adequate protection in high the manufacturer’s instructions, mop the floor which ensures that – even after transportation, traffic areas, it can be more effective to apply and allow to dry completely. Using a 500 to installation and the period prior to handover – an emulsion polish, rather than spray clean/ 2000 rpm rotary machine, buff the floor to the the intensity of construction clean can be polish. Where a high shine finish is undesirable, desired level of shine. significantly reduced. This will have a beneficial a matt finish polish should be used. Note: When high speed burnishing, it is impact on the initial costs. important that the machine is kept constantly A. Remove all loose debris. 19.7.1 Initial construction clean A. Sweep, mop sweep or dry vacuum the floor, to remove dust, grit and debris. B. For light soiling, damp mop the floor with a neutral cleanser diluted to the manufacturer’s instructions. or For heavy soiling, apply a solution of alkaline cleanser, diluted to the manufacturer’s instructions, to the floor and leave for sufficient 19.7.3 Routine maintenance The frequency of each of the operations is moving. This avoids excessive heat build-up on dependent upon the type and intensity of traffic. the floor. As an additional precaution, we advise that a spray of clean water is used, time to react with the soiling. Using a 165 to A. Sweep, mop sweep or dry vacuum the floor, to 350 rpm rotary machine fitted with a scrubbing remove dust and loose dirt. pad, machine scrub the floor and then pick up the slurry with a wet vacuum. Rinse the floor thoroughly with clean warm water, pick up with a wet vacuum and leave to dry thoroughly. 19.7.2 Application of a floor dressing A. Ensure that there is a good key between the floor dressing and the surface of the flooring, scrubbing the floor if required. B. Either of the following methods can be used: 19.7.4 Removal of a floor dressing B. Spot mop frequently. Stubborn black marks An unsightly build-up of polish should be can be removed by using the centre disc of a avoided. The polish should be removed Apply two or three thin coats of emulsion polish in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions, with either a proprietary polish applicator or Kentucky mop wrung out to prevent over-application of polish. The polish should be applied up to 150mm from the edges of the room, and subsequent coats should be applied at 90º to the previous one. The final coat should be applied right up to the edges of the room. or SPRAY CLEAN/POLISH. The floor maintainer should be used undiluted for index B. Remove surface dust and grit by sweeping or vacuuming. C. Apply a solution of neutral cleanser (or alkaline cleanser, dependent upon the level of soiling), diluted to the manufacturer’s instructions, with a spray over the section to be cleaned. Leave for sufficient time to react with the soiling. scrubbing pad and a small amount of undiluted regularly - the interval between application and alkaline cleanser. Place the disc under the sole of removal depends on the wear conditions and D. Pick up the solution with a clean microfibre the shoe and rub – this gives greater pressure. the number of polish layers (normally six mop, using a continuous side-to-side motion. Rinse the area well with clean warm water and months in heavy traffic areas.) Follow the When the mop head becomes loaded, it will start manufacturer’s instructions. streaking the floor. At this point, the dirty mop leave to dry. C. Depending upon the end user requirement 19.7.5 Additional Information and the equipment available, one of the following methods should be used: EMULSION POLISH. to help lubricate the pad. 19.8.1 Construction clean Using floor maintainer, diluted to the head should be removed and placed into a laundry bag and a clean mop head fitted. 1. Always follow the Health and Safety guidance The cycle should then be repeated until the provided. whole floor is completed. manufacturer’s instructions, mop the floor and 2. Regular cleaning is more beneficial to the E. The dirty mop heads should then be laundered leave to dry. If a shine is required, the floor floorcovering and more cost-effective than in preparation for reuse. should be buffed with a 500 to 2000 rpm rotary occasional heavy cleaning. machine fitted with a suitable pad. 19.8 POLYSAFE RANGES WITH PUR it may be necessary to use a Doodle bug or or The following maintenance instructions are similar tool fitted with a suitable pad to Using floor maintainer, diluted to the designed to minimise the cost factor, while remove the scuff marks manufacturer’s instructions, spray a fine mist ensuring that your floorcovering retains the onto the floor. Using a 165 to 500 rpm rotary optimum appearance and performance. machine and suitable spray cleaning pad, buff The exclusive Polysafe PUR system reduces the floor to the desired shine. The dirt is picked the intensity of cleaning and the use of up in the pad, which should be thoroughly chemicals, which helps minimise the effect on Note: If the floor has been heavily scuffed, 19.8.2 Daily maintenance A. Remove surface dust and grit by sweeping or vacuuming. B. Apply a solution of neutral cleanser (or alkaline cleanser, dependent upon the level of grease or WWW.POLYFLOR.COM POLYFLOR TECHNICAL INFORMATION oily contaminates), diluted to the manufacturer’s 3. Always follow the Health and Safety guidance vacuum or mop and bucket system. C. Apply a solution of neutral or alkaline cleanser, instructions, with a spray over the section to be provided. Dilution rates above the manufacturer’s diluted to the manufacturer’s instructions, to the cleaned. Leave for sufficient time to react with 4. Regular cleaning is more beneficial to the minimum recommendations may be necessary floor and leave for sufficient time to react with floorcovering and more cost-effective than for very heavy soiling. the soiling. Using a 165 rpm rotary machine occasional heavy cleaning. For Polysafe Hydro, the scrubbing pad should the soiling. C. Pick up the solution with a clean microfibre mop, using a continuous side-to-side motion. When the mop head becomes loaded, it will start streaking the floor. At this point, the dirty mop head should be removed and placed into a laundry bag and a clean mop head fitted. 5. Cleaners and detergents should be diluted as be replaced with a rotary scrubbing brush or a per the manufacturers’ instructions. cylindrical type scrubbing machine. For recommended products, see the Polyflor 19.9.2 Ongoing maintenance Approved Maintenance Products sheet located For ongoing maintenance, the frequency of within the Technical section of www.polyflor.com each of the operations is dependent upon the 6. Polysafe safety flooring ranges are compatible type and intensity of traffic as well as the for use with the most commonly used alco-based appearance expectations and should be hand gels and are suitable for steam cleaning on adjusted to suit. a periodic basis. 19.9.3 Standard surface finish All the above methods of maintenance can be A. Sweep, mop sweep or dry vacuum the floor, to The cycle should then be repeated until the whole floor is completed. D. The dirty mop heads should then be laundered, in preparation for reuse. E. Where detergent residue remains on the floor surface, the area should be rinsed completely with clean, warm water, picked up with a wet vacuum and left to dry thoroughly. F. In areas subject to heavy soiling, machine scrubbing should be undertaken on a periodic basis, after neutral or alkaline cleanser has been fitted with a bristle brush, cylindrical machine or deck scrubber, scrub the floor and pick up the slurry with a wet vacuum. Rinse thoroughly with clean, warm water, pick up with a wet vacuum and allow to dry thoroughly. 19.9.5 Additional Information 1. A floor dressing should not be applied to Polysafe floorcoverings, as this may impair the slip resistance. If in doubt, consult our Customer Technical Services staff. applied to Polysafe PUR and Polysafe remove dust and loose dirt. Supratec PUR products - the 3rd generation B. Spot mop regularly. Stubborn black marks can 2. Always follow the Health and Safety guidance provided. 3. Regular cleaning is more beneficial to the floorcovering and more cost-effective than maintenance enhancement available on be removed by using the centre disc of a scrubbing flagship Polysafe ranges. pad and a small amount of undiluted alkaline 19.9 POLYSAFE RANGES WITHOUT PUR cleanser. Place the disc under the sole of the shoe 4. Cleaners and detergents should be diluted as per the manufacturers’ instructions. applied to the floor, diluted to the manufacturers’ 19.9.1 Construction clean and rub – this gives greater pressure. Rinse the instructions. A. Sweep, mop sweep or dry vacuum the floor to area well with clean warm water and leave to dry. occasional heavy cleaning. For recommended products, see the Polyflor Approved Maintenance Products sheet located remove dust, grit and debris. C. Apply a solution of neutral or alkaline cleanser, 1. This maintenance procedure has been designed B. Apply a solution of alkaline cleanser, diluted to diluted to the manufacturer’s instructions, to the the manufacturer’s instructions, to the floor and floor and leave for sufficient time to react with 5. Polysafe safety flooring ranges are compatible to optimise the benefits of the Polysafe PUR system – the latest in proven cleaning technology. leave for sufficient time to react with the soiling. the soiling. Using a 165 rpm rotary machine fitted for use with the most commonly used alco-based The maximum benefits are derived from this C. Using a 165 rpm rotary machine fitted with a system by carrying out this quick and simple rotary scrubbing brush or, if necessary, procedure on a daily basis, and by using clean a scrubbing pad, machine scrub the floor and 19.8.3 Additional Information equipment each time, to maximise dirt pick-up and eliminate streaking. then pick up the slurry with a wet vacuum. D. Rinse the floor thoroughly with clean warm 2. A floor dressing or maintainer containing water, pick up with a wet vacuum and leave to polish should not be applied to Polysafe ranges dry thoroughly. with PUR, as this may impair the slip resistance. For small areas, where there is no suitable If in doubt, consult our Customer Technical scrubbing machine available, a deck scrubber Services staff. should be used in conjunction with a wet index within the Technical section of www.polyflor.com with a rotary scrubbing brush or, if necessary, a hand gels and are suitable for steam cleaning on scrubbing pad, machine scrub the floor and then a periodic basis. pick up the slurry with a wet vacuum. Rinse 19.10 THE ESD FAMILY thoroughly with clean, warm water, pick up with The ESD family of vinyl floorcoverings are a wet vacuum and leave to dry thoroughly. designed to prevent damage to processes, 19.9.4 Polysafe Hydro with embossed surface equipment or people by conducting static finish charges away at a rate that prevents damage. A. Sweep, mop sweep or dry vacuum to remove In order to ensure the ESD features work dust and loose dirt. effectively, it is important that the instructions B. Spot scrub regularly with a deck scrubber. below are followed. Failure to do so could render the ESD system ineffective. WWW.POLYFLOR.COM POLYFLOR TECHNICAL INFORMATION 19.10.1 Construction clean A. Sweep, mop sweep or dry vacuum, to remove 2. Always follow the Health and Safety guidance applied right up to the edges of the room. A. Sweep, mop sweep or dry vacuum the floor, to dust and loose dirt. provided. 19.11.3 Routine maintenance remove dust, grit and debris. B. Spot mop frequently. Stubborn black marks 3. Regular cleaning is more beneficial to the For ongoing maintenance, the frequency of B. For light soiling, damp mop the floor with a can be removed by using the centre disc of a floorcovering and more cost-effective than each of the operations should be adjusted to neutral cleanser, diluted to the manufacturer’s scrubbing pad and a small amount of undiluted occasional heavy cleaning. suit the appearance expectations and the type instructions. alkaline cleanser. Place the disc under the sole of 19.11 RUBBER FLOORCOVERINGS and intensity of traffic. or the shoe and rub – this gives greater pressure. 19.11.1 Construction clean A. Sweep or dry vacuum daily, to remove dust For heavy soiling, apply a solution of alkaline Rinse the area well with clean warm water and After installation, wait 48 hours before and loose dirt. cleanser, diluted to the manufacturer’s allow to dry. proceeding with the construction/intensive instructions, to the floor and leave for sufficient B. Spot mop frequently. Rinse the area with clean C. Depending upon the end user requirement clean. time to react with the soiling. Using a 165 to warm water and allow to dry. and the equipment available, one of the 350 rpm rotary machine fitted with a scrubbing A. Sweep or dry vacuum the floor to remove dust, following methods should be used: C. As required (normally at least once per week) grit and debris. mop the floor using a floor maintainer, diluted as Using an alkaline or germicidal cleanser, diluted B. Apply a solution of alkaline cleanser, diluted as per the manufacturer’s instructions, and leave to pad, machine scrub the floor and then pick up the slurry with a wet vacuum. Rinse the floor thoroughly with clean warm water, pick up with a wet vacuum and leave to dry thoroughly. to the manufacturer’s instructions, spray a fine per the manufacturer’s instructions, to the floor dry. If a shine is required, the floor should be mist onto the floor. Using a 165 to 500 rpm and leave for at least 5 minutes (or longer if buffed with a low-speed machine, typically rotary machine and suitable spray cleaning pad, 19.10.2 Application of a Floor Dressing manufacturer recommends) to react before 150/500 rpm, fitted with suitable fibre or nylon buff the floor to the desired shine. The dirt is Normal, commercially available polishes should proceeding. brushes. picked up in the pad, which should be thoroughly not be applied to Polyflor ESD products, as C. Using a 150/175 rpm rotary machine fitted Regular buffing of the floorcovering will cleaned after use. Failure to do so will result in a they will inhibit the conductive properties. with fibre or nylon brushes, machine scrub the enhance its appearance. shiny, dirty floor. floor and then pick up the slurry with a mop or 19.11.4 Removal of a floor dressing Polishes described as ’antistatic‘ are classified by a different standard from that of the or Using an alkaline or germicidal cleanser, diluted floorcovering, and should be treated as a to the manufacturer’s instructions, mop the floor standard polish in static control terms. and allow to dry completely. Using a 500 to wet vacuum. The floor should then be rinsed with An unsightly build-up of polish should be clean water and allowed to dry. avoided. The polish should be removed 19.11.2 Application of a floor dressing regularly; the interval between application and removal depends on the wear conditions and Consequently, they should not be applied. 2000 rpm rotary machine, buff the floor to the A. Prior to the application of a floor dressing, ensure that the floor is completely stripped, clean the number of polish layers. (Normally, six Conductive polishes which are approved by desired level of shine. Polyflor can be applied in strict accordance NOTE : When high speed burnishing, it is and free from any contaminants. This will ensure months in heavy traffic areas.) with the manufacturer’s instructions. Prior to important that the machine is kept constantly that there is a good key between the dressing A. Apply a solution of emulsion polish stripper, application of a floor dressing, ensure that the moving. This avoids excessive heat build-up on and the surface of the floor. diluted to the manufacturer’s instructions, to the floor and leave for approximately 15 minutes. floor is thoroughly scrubbed. This will ensure the floor. As an additional precaution, we B. Apply two or three thin coats of emulsion that there is a good key between the dressing advise that a spray of clean water is used to polish, in accordance with the manufacturer’s B. Machine scrub with a 150/175 rpm machine and the surface of the flooring. Always discuss help lubricate the pad. instructions, with either a proprietary polish fitted with a scrubbing brush, and then remove with our Technical Services staff before 19.10.4 Additional Information applicator or Kentucky mop wrung out to prevent slurry with a wet vacuum. Thoroughly rinse the over-application of polish. The polish should be floor with clean warm water, pick up with a wet applied up to 150mm from the edges of the vacuum and allow to dry completely. The cycle of applying a conductive polish. 1. Always ensure mops and pads are kept 19.10.3 Regular maintenance especially for the static control areas, to prevent The frequency of each of the operations is a possible transfer of polish. dependent upon the type and intensity of traffic. index room, and subsequent coats should be applied at polish application and routine maintenance 90° to the previous one. The final coat should be should then be repeated. WWW.POLYFLOR.COM POLYFLOR TECHNICAL INFORMATION 19.12.3 Rubber Tyres etc of scuffing. Shrinkage of the vinyl can also occur complaints arise from a general comment that 1. Always follow the Health and Safety guidance Antioxidants used in the manufacture of rubber in the long term. the floor is not as clean as expected. The most provided. can cause staining. Non-rubber traffic mats are 7. Never apply a floor dressing which cannot common reason is usually that the maintenance recommended, as are tyre trays for car easily be removed – such as polyurethane or method being applied is not compatible with showrooms. Using black or dark brown acrylic sealers – unless approved by Polyflor. 19.11.5 Additional Information 2. Regular cleaning is more beneficial to the floorcovering and more cost-effective than occasional heavy cleaning. floorcoverings will not prevent staining but will disguise it. Lighter coloured rubber can also be 3. Polyflor homogeneous PUR and Polysafe periodic basis. 19.12 TIPS, HINTS AND PROBLEM SOLVING 8. Never deviate from the manufacturer’s 9. Always take precautions to prevent dark 19.12.4 Scratches rubber from coming into contact with the Prevention is the first step to protecting vinyl flooring. If this cannot be avoided, select darker flooring from scratches: colours of floorcovering. programme is to provide cost savings without 1. Use mats at external doorways to reduce the 10. Never use black nylon carborundum abrasive any compromise in cleanliness and hygiene. trafficking of grit, dust and water into the building. pads on the flooring. The main objective of the tailored maintenance their causes and our recommended actions. recommended dilution rates. specified for appliance feet, trolley wheels etc. ranges are suitable for steam cleaning on a the type and level of traffic found. The table below contains more specific problems with 19.13 HEALTH AND SAFETY When using cleaning machines, polishes and chemicals, always follow the health and safety advice given by the relevant manufacturers. When maintaining floors, wherever possible cordon off the area. This is much safer and will ensure that the job can be completed quicker. Bearing this in mind, the most important tip is 2. Furniture can cause scratches to a vinyl floor, 11. Only use water based floor maintenance to regularly assess the various locations and be therefore appropriate protection (felt pads, etc.) products. flexible about the maintenance employed in should be attached to the feet of tables and chair them. If the floor in a particular location needs legs etc. more attention, then ensure that it gets it 3. Keeping pets nails well clipped will reduce the sooner rather than later. If some areas seem likelihood of scratching from pets. COMMON PROBLEM over-maintained (with polish build-up, perhaps, 19.12.5 Points to Note Powdering of polish/ Breakdown of polish due to either excessive use Strip off polish, thoroughly rinse in the non-trafficked areas), then pull back the 1. Regular light maintenance is more cost excess of white dust. of alkaline cleansers, inadequate rinsing, use of and when dry, re-apply. maintenance level, but always monitor the effective than periodic heavy maintenance and situation to ensure that it remains within more beneficial to the floorcovering. control. In addition, there are certain precautions which can be taken. 19.12.1 Asphalt and Tarmacadam Where asphalt or tarmacadam is present Always use warning signs to advise that cleaning is in progress, especially in heavily 19.12.6 Problem Solving trafficked areas and where wet cleaning It is our experience that most floorcare methods are used. POSSIBLE CAUSE RECOMMENDED ACTION bleaches or other harsh chemicals. Poor gloss, streaks Polish could be applied to a dirty floor. Strip off polish, thoroughly rinse or patchy finish. Polish could have been applied with dirty and when dry, re-apply. 2. Always sweep, mop sweep or dry vacuum the equipment. A residue of alkaline cleanser floor regularly. is on the floor. 3. Always use clean equipment – dirty equipment Polished floor Incorrect polish type applied. Application of too If polish is identified as the only redistributes the dirt. is slippery. much or too little polish. Polish build up. problem, strip off and re-apply. Surface contaminants such as water or dust Ensure daily maintenance to remove immediately outside an entrance and there is not a sufficient dirt barrier system in place, 4. Do not mix cleaning products from different are not being removed. Cross trafficking dust and other surface contaminants. of wax from other areas. If cross trafficking is a problem, use non-rubber traffic mats at least two paces manufacturers –they may not be compatible. wide. Staining of the floor may occur if traffic 5. Always remove any spillage immediately. mats are not used. Always remove excess water. It is not only 19.12.2 Gravel Paths and Roadways use walk off mats. Polish may not be dry. There may be a Strip off polish and re-apply. detergent build up. Ensure adequate rinsing after dangerous but, on unwelded tile floors, the water Traffic mats should also be considered when can attack the adhesive and break the bond. gravel paths or roadways are immediately 6. Do not use products containing pine gel or outside an entrance. Mats must always be phenolic acid on Polyflor vinyl flooring. These can cleaned frequently. soften the vinyl surface and increase the possibility index Sticky floors. use of detergent to avoid build up. Fading colour. Equipment contaminated with bleach or Ensure all cleaning equipment bleach based products used. is clean before use. We strongly advise that a reputable professional maintenance company is used to provide chemicals and equipment. Always ask for help and advice sooner rather than later. A problem solved sooner is a problem solved cheaper.